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Industry Wage Survey:
Meat Products,
March 1974
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1976
Bulletin 1896




Industry W age Survey:
M eat Products,
March 1974
Parti: Meatpacking
Part II: Prepared Meat Products
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1976
Bulletin 1896

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Preface
This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of wages and
supplementary benefits in the meat products industries in March 1974.
Part I-Meatpacking-includes data for establishments primarily engaged in slaughtering animals,
except poultry and small game, for meat to be sold or to be used on the same premises in canning
and curing, and in making sausages and other meats.
Part II—Prepared Meat Products—includes data for establishments primarily engaged in
manufacturing sausages, cured meats, canned and frozen meats, and other prepared meats from
purchased carcasses and other materials.
Summary tabulations providing data on earnings and supplementary benefits of production
workers were issued in July 1975. Copies are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington, D.C. 20212, or any of its regional offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations, Division of
Occupational Wage Structures. Sandra King prepared the analysis in Part I; Harry B. Williams
prepared the analysis in Part IT. Field work for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Associate
Assistant Regional Directors for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies, as well as the
addresses of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this bulletin.
The Bureau has introduced new job titles to eliminate those that denote sex stereotypes. For
purposes of this bulletin, however, old titles have been retained where they refer specifically to jobs
for which survey data were collected under earlier definitions.




m

Contents

Part I. Meatpacking
S u m m a ry ..............................* .................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Industry characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................................1
Employment .......................................................................................................................................................................................1
Location ..............................................................................................................................................................................................1
Processes ..............................................................................................................................................................................................1
Type of co m p a n y ...............................................................................................................................................................................2
Size of establishm ent........................................................................................................................................................................2
Unionization ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Method of wage p a y m en t................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Average hourly earnings...............................................................................................................................................................................3
Occupational earnings...................................................................................................................................................................................4
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ......................................................................................................... 6
Minimum job rates ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Work schedules and overtime provisions ...................................................................................................................................6
Shift differential provisions and practices...................................................................................................................................6
Rest or relief time ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Clothes-changing time and work clothing provisions .............................................................................................................6
Paid h o lid a y s ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Paid vacations...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Health, insurance, and retirement p la n s.......................................................................................................................................6
Cost-of-living pay adjustment provisions ...................................................................................................................................7
Other selected b e n e fits ....................................................................................................................................................................7
Text tables:
1. Percent o f production workers in plants classified by primary type of animal slaughtered, by region . . . 2
2. Percent o f production workers in plants classified by primary and secondary type of animalslaughtered,
by r e g io n .........................
2
3. Percent of workers in meatpacking plants having collective bargaining agreements covering a majority
of their workers, by region and type of company ......................................................................................................3
4. Job averages in union and nonunion plants, Southeast region ................................................................................5
Reference tables:
1. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics................

.8

Earnings distribution:
2. All companies .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
3. Multiplant com panies...........................................................................................................................................................10
4. Single-plant com p a n ies.......................................................................................................................................................11
Occupational earnings:
5. All companies . . . .




..........................

. . 12

Contents— Continued

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Multiplant com panies.......................................................................................................................................................... 18
Single-plant co m p a n ies......................................................................................................................................................22
By size of community, all com panies............................................................................................................................ 28
By size of plant, all co m p a n ies....................................................................................................................................... 30
By method of wage payment, multiplant com p a n ies...............................................................................................32
Of incentive workers, multiplant companies ..............................................................................................................34
Earned and guaranteed rates of incentive workers, multiplant companies .......................................................35
Guaranteed rates of incentive workers, multiplant companies .............................................................................36

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
14. Method of wage payment and rate structure characteristics ................................................................................ 37
15. Labor-grade pay s y s te m s .................................................................................................................................................. 38
16. Minimum job r a t e s ............................................................................................................................................................. 39
17. Scheduled weekly hours .................................................................................................................................................. 41
18. Overtime premium p a y ......................................................................................................................................................42
19. Clothes-changing time ......................................................................................................................................................43
20. Clothes-changing time included as scheduled weekly h o u rs....................................................................................44
21. Work clothing p rovision s....................................................................................................................................................45
22. Shift differential provisions...............................................................................................................................................46
23. Shift differential practices ...............................................................................................................................................48
24. Paid h o lid a y s..................
50
25. Paid vacations .....................................................................................................................................................................51
26. Health, insurance, and retirement plans ..................................................................................................................... 57
27. Other selected b e n e fits ...................................................................................................................................................... 59
Part II: Prepared meat products
S u m m a ry ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Industry characteristics.............................................................................................................................................................................60
Employment ....................................................................................................................................................................................60
Location ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Type of co m p a n y .............................................................................................................................................................................60
Size of establishm ent.....................................................................................................................................................................60
Unionization ....................................................................................................................................................................................61
Method of wage p a y m en t..............................................................................................................................................................61
Average hourly earnings............................................................................................................................................................................ 61
Occupational earnings................................................................................................................................................................................62
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ...................................................................................................... 63
Minimum job rates .........................................................................................................................................................................63
Work schedules and overtime provisions ................................................................................................................................63
Shift differential provisions and practices................................................................................................................................63
Rest or relief time ........................................................................................................................................................................ 63
Clothes-changing time and work clothing provisions ..........................................................................................................63
Paid h o lid a y s ................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Paid vacations................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Health, insurance, and retirement p la n s................................................................................................................................... 64
Cost-of-living pay adjustment provisions ................................................................................................................................64
Technological severance pay and moving a llo w a n ces..........................................................................................................64
Jury-duty and funeral leave pay ...............................................................................................................................................64




Contents— Continued
Text tables:
5. Percent of workers in prepared meat products plants having collective bargaining agreements covering
a majority of their workers, by region and type of company ......................................................................61
6. Occupational pay relationships in prepared meat products manufacturing for selected occupations, by
r e g io n .............................................................................................................................................................................62
Reference tables:
28. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics . . . .
Earnings distribution:
29. All companies .............................................................................
30. Multiplant com panies..................................................................
31. Single-plant co m p a n ies..............................................................
Occupational earnings:
32. All companies .............................................................................
33. Multiplant com panies..................................................................
34. Single-plant com p a n ies..............................................................
35. By size of plant, all co m p a n ies................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
36. Method of wage payment and rate structure characteristics
37. Labor-grade pay s y s te m s ...........................................................
38. Minimum job r a t e s ......................................................................
39. Scheduled weekly hours ..........................................................
40. Overtime premium pay ...............................................................
41. Clothes-changing time ............................................ ... . . . .
42. Work clothing p rovision s..........................................................
43. Shift differential provisions.......................................................
44. Shift differential practices .......................................................
45. Paid holidays .................................................................................
46. Paid vacations .................................................................. ... . .
47. Health, insurance, and retirement plans . ...................
48. Other selected benefits ...............................................................

65

66

67

68

69
72
75
78
80
81
82
83
83
84
84
85

86

87

88

91
92

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of s u r v e y ........................................................................................................................................93
B. Occupational descriptions ............................................................................................................................................98




Part I.

Meatpacking

Summary

Industry characteristics

Straight-time hourly earnings of production and
related workers in meatpacking plants averaged $4.64 in
March 1974.1 This was 41 percent above the $3.30
average recorded in January 1969, the date of a similar
Bureau survey.2 Men, seven-eighths of the production
work force in March 1974, averaged $4.71, compared
with $4.16 for women who were usually employed in
meat preparation.
Among the regions studied,3 hourly earnings ranged
from $3.21 in the Southeast to $5.42 in the Pacific.
Workers in the Middle West, slightly more than one-third
of the 118,319 production workers studied, averaged
$5.17, while those in the Great Lakes (one-fifth of the
work force) averaged $5.16. Within regions, averages
varied by type of company (multi- or single-plant),
community and establishment size, degree of unioniza­
tion, and occupation.
Earnings data were developed for a number of jobs
representative of the various activities of production
workers in the industry.4 Among these occupations,
hourly averages ranged from $6.34 for open style ham
boners to $3.56 for smokers processing sausages in
addition to other products.
Nearly all establishments visited provided paid holi­
days, usually from 8 to 10 days annually, and paid
vacations. Typical vacation provisions amounted to 1
week’s pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks’ after 3 years,
and 3 weeks’ after 10 years. Employers also financed at
least part of the cost of life, hospitalization, surgical, and
medical (both basic and major) insurance for most
workers. Retirement pension benefits were also wide­
spread in the industry.

Employment. Meatpacking establishments within the

1See appendix A for scope and method of survey. Wage data
contained in this bulletin exclude premium pay for overtime and
for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 See Industry Wage Survey: Meat Products, January 1969,
Bull. 1677 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1970).
3For definitions of regions, see appendix A, table A-l,
footnote 1.
4 See appendix B for job descriptions.




scope of the Bureau’s survey employed 118,319 produc­
tion and related workers in March 1974, a decline of
approximately 10,000 workers, or 8 percent, since
January 1969. Employment changes varied among the
regions, ranging from declines of 17-18 percent in the
Middle Atlantic, Border States, and Southeast to a
30-percent increase in the Mountain States. Establish­
ments in the Middle West, the largest region in terms of
industry employment, cut back their work force by 15
percent, on average, over the 1969-74 period (48,446 to
41,085), while in the Great Lakes, the second largest
region, employment remained virtually the same (24,968
to 24,902).

Location. The Middle West region accounted for slightly

more than one-third of the work force in March 1974,
compared with one-fifth for the Great Lakes States. The
Southeast and Southwest regions each accounted for
about one-tenth o f the workers. None of the remaining
regions studied contained more than 7 percent of the
industry’s work force.

Processes. Meatpacking operations include many distinct

types of work. Major functions include animal handling,
slaughtering, dressing, cutting, curing and smoking,
preparing sausages and other meats, packing and ship­
ping, cleaning, and plant maintenance. Operations in
some plants were limited to one animal species, while%
others included two or more. Workers in large plants
typically perform highly specialized tasks; as many as
200 distinct operations may be found in these large
plants, particularly in those processing two or more
animal species. This degree of specialization obviously is
not possible in smaller plants where individual workers
regularly may be required to perform several different
types of work.
Plants that did slaughtering and some processing
operations as well (e.g., smoking, curing, and canning)
accounted for three-fourths of the industry’s work force

in March 1974. The proportion of workers in plants
performing only slaughtering operations ranged from
three-fifths in the Mountain region and slightly less than
one-half each in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific States to
one-fourth in the Middle West and one-eighth or less in
the remaining regions. Establishments with at least 500
workers employed three-fifths of the work force of
slaughtering and processing plants, compared with about
one-seventh for those solely engaged in slaughtering.
Establishments primarily slaughtering hogs accounted
for 56 percent for the industry’s production workers;
nearly all remaining workers were in plants primarily
slaughtering cattle. (Less than 2 percent were in plants
primarily slaughtering either sheep, lambs, calves, or
horses.) Among the regions, the proportion of workers
in plants primarily slaughtering hogs ranged from less
than 10 percent in the Southwest and Mountain States
to 83 percent in the Border States. (See text table 1.)
Slightly more than half the workers were in plants
slaughtering only one type of animal. Text table 2
indicates that among plants slaughtering more than one
species, cattle and hog slaughtering frequently occurred
in the same establishment.

in the Middle West, approximately three-fifths in the
Southeast and Southwest, and nearly one-half in the
Great Lakes region. Single-plant companies employed
between three-fifths and seven-eighths of the workers in
the remaining regions. The average employment size for
single-plant companies (89 workers) was much smaller
than that for establishments operated by multiplant
companies (484 workers).

Size o f establishment. Workers in the industry were

about equally divided between plants employing 20 to
499 workers and those with 500 workers or more. The
larger establishments accounted for approximately
seven-tenths of the work force in the Middle West
region, two-thirds in the Border States, and slightly more
than half in the Great Lakes. The smaller plants
employed about seven-tenths or more of the workers in
each of the remaining regions. Establishments with fewe r
than 20 workers were excluded from the survey.

Text table 2.

Percent of production workers in plants

classified by primary and secondary type of animal
slaughtered, by region

Type of company. Units of multiplant companies5

employed nearly three-fifths of the industry’s workers.
Such plants accounted for seven-eighths of the work force

Secondary type of
animal slaughtered
Region and
primary type
of animal
slaughtered

5 For purposes of the survey, a single physical location, or
plant, was considered an establishment. Establishments were
further classified as single plant or multiplant depending on
whether or not they were part of a company operating two
establishments or more in the meatpacking and/or prepared meat United States:
H ogs..............
products industries.
C a t tle ............
Multiplants were classified in either meatpacking or prepared
Atlantic:
meat products according to guidelines in the 1967 Standard MiddleHogs . ............
Industrial Classification Manual.
C a ttle ............
Text table 1. Percent of production workers in plants
classified by primary type of animal slaughtered,
by region
Primary type of animal slaughtered

Hogs

Cattle

Sheep, lambs,
calves, or
horses

56

42

2

Region

United States
Middle A t la n t ic ......................
Border States..........................
Southeast.................................
S o u th w e s t...............................
Great L ak e s .............................
Middle W e s t.............................
M o u n ta in .................................
P a c ific ......................................




57
83
74
6
65
69
9
18

33
17
26
90
32
31
86
81

10
_
—

4
3
_

5
1

Border States:
H o gs..............
C a ttle ............
Southeast:
H o gs..............
C a ttle ............
Southwest:
H ogs..............
C a ttle ............
Great Lakes:
H ogs..............
C a ttle ............
Middle West:
H ogs..............
Hattlp
Mountain:
H ogs..............
C a ttle ............
Pacific:
H ogs..............
C a ttle ............

No
secondary
animal
slaughtered

Hogs

100
100

47
59

—

51

29

—

100
100

86
24

—
13

11

100
100

69
45

40

31

100
100

52
36

64

42

100
100

-

100

59

35

100
100

40
53

44

100
100

41
91

9

100
100

35
49

20

65 —
—
31

100
100

74
45

37

26
-

Total

-

-

-

-

Cattle

Sheep,
lambs,
calves,
or
horses

1
12
4
63

-

—

15

—

—

5
—

—

6

59
—

1
3

59

—

—

17

Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100.

Unionization. Plants operating under labor-management
agreements employed slightly more than four-fifths of
the production workers in the industry. Regionally, the
proportion ranged from slightly less than one-half in the
Southeast to more than nine-tenths in the Great Lakes,
Mountain, and Pacific regions. As indicated in text table
3, the percent of production workers in plants with
collective bargaining agreements was usually greater in
establishments of multiplant companies than in single­
plant companies. The Amalgamated Meat Cutters and
Butcher Workmen of North America was the major
union in the industry.
The degree of unionization was greater in metro­
politan than in nonmetropolitan areas (nine-tenths com­
pared with about two-thirds) and greater in plants with
500 employees or more than in smaller establishments
(nine-tenths compared with three-fourths).
Method o f wage payment. Time-rated workers, usually

under formal systems providing a single rate for a
specified job, constituted nearly four-fifths of the
industry’s production work force. (See table 14.) Among
time-rated plans, formal systems with ranges of rates for
specified jobs applied to one-tenth of the workers and
informal systems with rates set on an individual basis to
nearly one-tenth. Regionally, individual rates were more
prevalent in the Middle Atlantic and Southeast than in
the other regions. Time-rates applied to seven-tenths of
the workers in multiplant companies and to slightly
more than nine-tenths in single-plant companies. Three
precent of the workers were paid according to a method
of payment referred to as “stint work”. Under this
method, workers receive a fixed daily rate, regardless of
the actual time taken to complete their assigned work.
Incentive-paid workers accounted for nearly threetenths of the workers in the Border States, Great Lakes,
and Middle West regions, nearly one-tenth in the Middle
Atlantic States, and less than 5 percent in the remaining
regions. Most of these workers were under group bonus
plans.
A system of “wage brackets” or labor grades was used
by plants employing nearly two-thirds of the production
workers in the industry. Under this system, a common
rate applies to all occupations covered by the same labor
grade. For time-rated workers, this rate becomes the
straight-time hourly rate; for incentive-paid workers, it is
the guaranteed rate and, in most instances, the rate on
which incentive wages are based. As indicated in table
15, wage bracket systems were more prevalent among
multiplant companies (where about four-fifths of the
workers were covered by such arrangements) than
among single-plant companies (one-third of the workers
covered). The total number of established wage brackets




Text table 3. Percent of production workers in
meatpacking plants having collective bargaining
agreements covering a majority of their workers, by
region and type of company

Region

Multiplant Single-plant
All
companies companies companies

United States . . .

80-84

90-94

70-74

Middle A tla n tic ...................
Border States .....................
Southeast ............................
Southwest.............................
Great Lakes..........................
Middle West ........................
Mountain ............................
P acific....................................

85-89
80-84
45-49
60-64
90-94
85-89
90-94
95+

95+
95+
60-64
95+
95+
90-94
80-84
95+

80-84
70-74
15-19
20-24
90-94
60-64
95+
95+

within a system varied among plants but most com­
monly ranged from 22 to 25. The full range of these
brackets, which in the case of multiplant companies
relate to all company operations, was not always used by
individual plants. This was true of the plants having the
four most prevalent wage bracket systems, as indicated
in the tabulation below, which distributes these plants
by the highest wage bracket used.
Most of the workers were in plants which maintained
a 5-cent-an-hour increment between successive wage
brackets—unchanged from the 1969 survey.
Highest wage bracket
established

Highest wage bracket
used

22

23

24

25

Total number of plants . . .

20

10

18

12

Under 2 1 ............................................... .
2 1 ........................................................... .
2 2 ........................................................... .
2 3 ........................................................... .
2 4 ...........................................................
2 5 ...........................................................

4
2
14

_

_

—

—

6
4

—
—

5
9
4

—

'

1
—

1
1
5
4

"

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers covered by the survey averaged $4.64 an hour in
March 1974.6 (See table 1.) Workers in the Great Lakes
and Middle West regions, nearly three-fifths of the
industry’s work force, averaged $5.16 and $5.17 an
hour, respectively. Other regional averages ranged from
$3.21 in the Southeast to $5.42 in the Pacific States.
The level of earnings for production workers in March
1974 was 41 percent above the $3.30 average recorded
in January 1969. During the 1969—74 period, the
annual rate of increase in average earnings was 6.8
percent; it amounted to 6.5 percent for multiplant
companies and 7.7 percent for single-plant companies.

The 41-percent rise for meatpacking workers outpaced
the 36-percent increase registered for all manufacturing
workers over the same period,7 but fell behind the
60-percent increase in the price index computed for the
product of these meatpacking plants.8
Much of the earnings increase was due to general
wage and cost-of-living adjustments. Collective bargain­
ing agreements with major meatpacking companies
typically provided for wage adjustments, based on
movements in the BLS Consumer Price Index, effective
in January and July, and a general wage increase in the
fall of each year.
Men made up seven-eighths of the industry’s work
force in March 1974. They averaged $4.71 an h o u r-13
percent more than the $4.16 recorded for women. The
earnings advantage for men ranged from 5 percent in the
Great Lakes and Middle West to 30 percent in the
Mountain region. (See table 1 for earnings levels.)
Differences in pay for men and women may be the result
of several factors, including variations in the distribution
of the sexes among jobs with disparate pay levels. For
example, women were rarely employed in the compara­
tively high-wage dressing or cutting occupations. The
differences in averages between sexes in the same job
and location may also reflect minor variations in duties.

Job descriptions used in wage surveys usually are more
generalized than those used in individual establishments,
Production workers in multiplant companies averaged
$4.96 an hour, compared with $4.19 for those in single
plants. Multiplant employees averaged more per hour
than their single-plant counterparts in all regions where
comparisons were possible, except for the Mountain
States where they averaged 4 percent less ($4.40
compared with $4.56).
Workers in metropolitan areas averaged $4.91, com­
pared with $4.05 for workers in smaller communities.
This relationship of higher earnings levels for metropoli­
tan area workers held in all regions permitting compari­
son. Earnings advantages ranged from 8 to 15 percent.
Earnings of workers in plants with 500 employees or
more averaged $5.15 an hour, 25 percent more than the
$4.13 average for workers employed in smaller plants,,
Workers in larger plants held the wage advantage in each
of the regions where comparisons could be made. Such
advantages ranged from 13 percent in the Southeast to
28 percent in the Border States.
Workers in plants operating under labor-management
agreements covering a majority of their employees
averaged $4.95 an hour, while those in plants without
such coverage averaged $3.09 an hour. In the four
regions where earnings of union and nonunion workers
6 Straight-time average hourly earnings of production workerscould be compared, union workers held a consistent
in this bulletin differ in concept from the gross average hourly wage advantage. The earnings edge ranged from 31
earnings published in the Bureau’s monthly hours and earnings percent in the Southeast to 60 percent in the Southwest.
series ($5 an hour in March 1974). Unlike the latter, the estimate
Survey results do not isolate and measure the exact
presented here excludes premium pay for overtime and for work
on weekends, holidays and late shifts. Average earnings are influence of any one characteristic as a determinant of
calculated by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing wage levels. The interrelationship of characteristics such
by the number of individuals; in the monthly series, the sum of
as type of company, unionization, size of establishment,
the hours reported by establishments in the industry is divided and size of community is included in the discussion of
into the reported payroll totals.
industry characteristics.
The estimate of the number of production workers within
Earnings of more than nine-tenths of the production
the scope of the study is intended only as a general guide to the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. It workers ranged from $2 to $7 an hour. (See table 2.) In
differs from those published in the monthly series (140,200 in the earnings array, the middle half of the workers’
March 1974) in part by the exclusion of establishments earnings fell between $3.75 and $5.27 an hour. The
employing fewer than 20 workers. The advance planning
necessary to make the survey required the use of lists of proportions of workers at higher wage levels, that is,
establishments assembled considerably in advance of data collec­ earning more than $7 an hour, were about 8 percent in
tion. Thus, establishments new to the industry are omitted, as the Great Lakes, 7 percent in the Middle West, and 3
are establishments originally classified in the meatpacking
percent or less in the remaining regions. Fewer than 5
industry, but found to be in other industries at the time of the
percent of the workers in each region earned less than $2
survey. Also omitted are meatpacking establishments classified
an hour in March 1974.
incorrectly in other industries at the time the lists were

compiled.
7U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings',
table C-l. Gross hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonagricultural payrolls, 1947 to date,
July 1969 and July 1974 issues.
8 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wholesale Prices and Price
Indexes monthly press releases, table 6 (May 1969) and table 11
(April 1974), “Price indexes for the output of selected SIC
industries.”




Occupational earnings

The occupations for which wage data are presented in
table 5 were selected to represent the full spectrum of
activities performed by production workers in this
industry. These jobs accounted for slightly more than

one-third of the 118,319 production and related workers
within the scope of the March 1974 survey. Average
hourly earnings ranged from $6.34 for open style ham
boners to $3.56 for smokers who process sausages as
well as other products. Hourly earnings above $6 were
also reported for maintenance machinists ($6.21) and
ham chisel boners ($6.01). The 4,535 truckdrivers, the
largest occupational group studied, averaged $4.66; this
compared with $4.97 for beef boners, $4.37 for night
cleaners, and $4.21 for shipping packers, three other
numerically important jobs studied. At the lower end of
the wage structure, averages below $4 an hour were
recorded for beef washers ($3.81) and sausage stuffers
using artificial casings without casing sizer ($3.82), as
well as for smokers ($3.56), noted above.
Occupational averages were generally highest in the
Pacific and lowest in the Southeast and Southwest
regions, among the 21 occupations shown for all eight
regions. The interregional spread in average earnings
exhibited no direct relationship to skill level and varied
by occupation. For example, truckdrivers in the Pacific
averaged 104 percent more than their counterparts in
the Southwest ($6.23 and $3.05, respectively). The
corresponding spread was 48 percent for stationary
engineers ($6.33 and $4.29) and 78 percent for beef
washers ($5.13 and $2.89).
Occupational pay relationships within regions varied
across the country. For example, beef boners averaged
42 percent more than floorsmen in the Southeast ($4.38
compared with $3,09); 11 percent more in the Mountain
region ($4,78 compared with $4.32); and 2 percent
more in the Great Lakes ($5.40 and $5.29).
Job averages were usually higher in multiplant compa­
nies than in single-plant companies. (See tables 6 and 7.)
Nationwide, the wage advantage for multiplant workers
usually averaged 10 to 30 percent above corresponding
averages in single plants. This relationship generally held
in all regions where comparisons were possible.
Occupational averages were generally higher in metro­
politan areas than in smaller communities (table 8) and
higher in plants with 500 workers or more than in
smaller plants (table 9). Where comparisons were possi­
ble in multiplant companies, incentive-paid workers
averaged more per hour than their counterparts who
were paid time rates (table 10). The incentive pay
advantage for these workers typically ranged from 20 to
40 percent. (Also see tables 11 and 12 for earned and
guaranteed rates of incentive-paid workers in multiplant
companies.)
Union and nonunion job averages were compared in
the Southeast region, where the largest concentration of
nonunion workers was employed. (See text table 4.)
There, union workers typically averaged from 10 to 40




percent more than their nonunion counterparts.
In nearly all instances, incentive workers had a formal
guaranteed rate of pay, determined according to their
job. Their actual straight-time earnings were usually
substantially in excess of this rate. As indicated in table
12, however, differences between earned and guaranteed
rates varied considerably among individuals in the same
occupational classification. For example, one-eighth of
the sausage stuffers (using a combination of natural and
artificial casings) earned only about 5 percent more than
their guaranteed rate; another one-eighth averaged 50
percent or more above the guaranteed amount. Nation­
wide, the average earned rate exceeded the average
guaranteed rate by 10 to 30 percent for about threefourths of the jobs presented in table 12. (See table 13
for the distribution of incentive-paid workers in multi­
plant companies by guaranteed rates.)
Earnings of individual workers varied widely within
the same job, region, and type of company, as indicated
by the middle range of earnings provided in tables 5
through 7. In a number of instances, the spread in the
middle range of earnings exceeded $2 an hour for
workers in the same occupation, region, and company
type. Thus, a number of workers in comparatively low
paying jobs earned as much as or more than some
workers in jobs with significantly higher hourly averages.
Text table 4.

Job averages in union and nonunion

plants, Southeast region
Occupation

Union

Nonunion

Belly trim m e rs .............................................
Boners, beef, entire carcass........................
Boners, ham, open style b o n in g ..............
Casing-peeler operators...............................
Checkers.........................................................
Cleaners, n ig h t .............................................
Hangers, bellies.............................................
Headers, h o g ..................................................
Janitors ............................... .........................
Loin pullers ..................................................

$4.18
4.22
3.79
3.06
4.17
3.37
3.22
4.03
3.39
4.00

$2.53
4.00
3.31
2.70
3.01
2.77
2.99
2.94
2.52
2.83

Maintenance workers, general utility . . .
Mechanics, autom otive...............................
Mixer operators ...........................................
Packers, s h ip p in g ........................................
Pumpers, ham artery .................................
Sausage makers.............................................
Shavers...........................................................
Slicing machine operators..........................
Smokers-combination of sausages and
other products........................................
Stowers .........................................................

4.03
5.16
3.34
3.35
2.90
3.20
4.14
3.75

3.38
3.13
2.81
2.46
2.83
2.93
2.87
3.01

3.25
3.15

2.76
2.98

Stuffers, fra n k fu rte rs .................................
Trimmers of trim m ings...............................
Truckdrivers other than semi or
trailer .......................................................

3.63
3.51

2.63
2.75

3.52

2.04

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provi­
sions

Information was also obtained for production work­
ers on minimum job rates, work schedules, overtime
provisions, shift differential provisions and practices, and
the incidence of selected supplementary benefits includ­
ing paid holidays and vacations; health, insurance and
retirement plans; clothes-changing time and clothing
allowances; cost-of-living provisions; paid funeral and
jury-duty leave; technological severance pay; and moving
allowances.

Minimum job rates. Information on minimum job rates

was limited to formally established rates for experienced
production workers in unskilled time-rated occupations
(except watchmen). Nearly nine-tenths of the 300 plants
included in the survey had an established minimum rate
policy. (See table 16.) All 97 multiplant companies
visited had an established minimum, with nearly onefourth having minimum rates between $2 and $3 an
hour, and about half, between $4.50 and $5. Among the
170 single plants with established minimums, one-third
reported such rates between $2 and $3 an hour while
nearly one-fourth had rates between $4.50 and $5. In
both groups, minimum rates over $5 an hour applied to
less than 3 percent of the workers.

Work schedules and overtime provisions. Work schedules
of 40 hours per week were in effect in plants employing
two-thirds of the production workers at the time of the
survey (table 17). Most of the remaining workers were in
plants with longer weekly schedules. Work schedules
exceeding 40 hours were slightly more prevalent in
multiplant than in single-plant companies. Exceptions to
this pattern were particularly noted in the Middle
Atlantic and Southwest regions.
Virtually all production workers were in plants
paying time and one-half the regular rate for work in
excess of 8 hours daily and 40 hours weekly (table 18).
Shift differential provisions and practices. Plants with

formal provisions for second-shift work employed more
than nine-tenths of the multiplant workers and nearly
two-thirds of the single-plant employees. Seven-eighths of
the workers in multiplant companies and slightly more
than half in single plants were in establishments with
formal third- or other late-shift provisions (table 22).
In March 1974, however, slightly less than one-fifth
of the multiplant workers, and less than one-tenth of
those in single plants, were actually employed on late
shifts. In both types of plants, workers on late shifts
typically received a cents-per-hour differential over day




rates. The most common differential in both types of
companies was 14 cents an hour for second- and thirdor other late-shift work.

Rest or relief time. Formal provisions for paid daily rest

or relief time, applying to a majority of the production
workers in a plant, were provided by nearly all establish­
ments (table 27). The total amount of rest time provided
during a day was most commonly 20 to 30 minutes.

Clothes-changing time and work clothing provisions.

Establishments with formal provisions for clotheschanging time accounted for nearly four-fifths of the
workers in multiplant companies and nearly three-fifths
in single plants (table 19). The typical provision in
multiplant companies was 12 minutes added to hours
worked per day. In single-plant companies, workers
commonly received time added to hours worked or a
fixed cents-per-hour addition to regular rates.
More than four-fifths of the production workers were
in plants which provided work clothing (other than
boots or gloves) or gave monetary allowances for such
apparel articles (table 21). Multiplant companies most
commonly gave monetary allowances; single-plant com­
panies usually provided work clothing.

Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions covered virtually

all production workers in the survey (table 24). Nearly
two-thirds of the multiplant workers received 10 days
annually, while workers in single-plant companies typi­
cally received 8, 9, or 10 days. Holiday provisions were
generally less liberal in the Southeast and Southwest
(especially for single-plant companies) than in the other
regions.

Paid vacations. Virtually all production workers were in

establishments providing paid vacations after qualifying
periods of service (table 25). Common provisions in both
single- and multiplant companies were 1 week of
vacation after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years,
and 3 weeks after 10 years. In multiplant companies,
most workers also received 4 weeks of vacation pay after
15 years of service and 5 weeks after 20 years. At least 4
weeks of vacation were typically provided workers in
single-plant companies after 20 years of service, and
nearly half received at least 5 weeks after 25 years.

Healthy insurancef and retirement plans. Life, hospital­

ization, surgical, basic medical, and major medical
insurance, for which employers paid at least part of the
cost, were provided by virtually all multiplant companies
and by plants employing approximately nine-tenths of
the employees in single-plant companies (table 26).

These health benefits usually were financed entirely by
the employer and covered both employees and their
dependents. In addition, approximately four-fifths of
the workers in single-plant companies were covered by
accidental death and dismemberment insurance, and
sickness and accident insurance or sick leave; two-fifths
of the multiplant workers were covered by accidental
death and dismemberment insurance while slightly more
than nine-tenths had some form of salary continuation
during disability.
Pension plans, providing regular payments for the
remainder of the retiree’s life (in addition to Federal
social security), were reported for nearly four-fifths of
the work force in multiplant companies and seven-tenths
of the workers in single plants. Most of the pension plans
were financed wholly by the employers. Retirement
severance pay plans were rarely provided.

Cost-of-living pay adjustment provisions. Provisions for
periodic cost-of-living pay adjustments covered threefourths of the multiplant workers and slightly more than
half the workers in single-plant companies. Most plans
were based on the BLS Consumer Price Index (CPI)




(1967=100) with a 6-month review period, a 1-cent-perhour adjustment for every 0.4 percentage point change
in the CPI, and pay adjustments granted in January and
July.

Other selected benefits. Slightly more than nine-tenths

of the workers in multiplant companies were in plants
with formal provisions for jury-duty pay and pay during
absences to attend funerals of relatives (table 27).
Proportions of workers in single-plant companies enti­
tled to these benefits were seven-tenths and threefourths, respectively.
Severance pay provisions for employees permanently
separated from the company because of technological
change or force reduction were recorded in plants
employing slightly less than half of the multiplant
workers, compared with about one-tenth of the single­
plant employees.
Moving allowances for eligible workers separated
from one plant as a result of force reduction and
transferring to another company-owned plant were
reported by multiplant companies employing slightly
less than one-half of the workers.

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs , U nited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
Ite m

S o uth w est
G re a t L ak es
P a c ific
S o u th ea st
M ou ntain
2
M iddle W est
U nited S ta te s 1 M iddle A tlan tic B o rd e r S ta te s
W o rk e rs E a rn in g s W o rk ers E a rn in g s W o rk e rs E a rn in g s W o rk e r s E a rn in g s W o rk e rs E a rn in g s W o rk e rs E a rn in g s W o rk e r s E a rn in g s W o rk e rs E arn in g s W o rk e r s Ea rn in g s

A ll p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs -------------------------------------- 1 1 8,319 $ 4 . 64
M e n ------ ~ ------- ' --------- - — ----------- 102,812
4. 71
4. 16
W om en ------------------------------------------------------------ 15,507
T y p e of c o m p a n y :3
M u ltip la n t --------- ----- - ~ — ----------------- 69,352
4. 96
S in g le -p la n t ----------------------------------------------------- 48,967
4. 19
S ize of c o m m u n ity :4
4, 91
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------- --------------- - 80,519
N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s — - — — ~ — 3 7,800 : 4. 05

5, 618
5, 087
531

$ 4. 29
4. 34
3. 87

6, 595
5, 236
1, 359

$ 3 -7 1
3- 82
3 • 32

13,5 3 0
10, 503
3, 027

$ 3. 21
3. 35
2. 73

10, 740
9, 691
1, 049

$ 3 . 50
3. 57
2. 85

24,902
21,558
3,344

$ 5 . 16
5. 19
4. 94

41,085
35,647
5, 438

$ 5. 17
5 .2 1
4. 97

1, 606
4, 012

4. 73
4. 12

3, 877

3. 83

8, 600
4, 930

3. 58
2. 58

6, 113
4, 62 7

4. 18
2. 59

11,989
12,913

5. 67
4. 68

35,322
5,763

5. 32
4. 26

5, 504
-

4. 32
-

3, 570
-

4, 34

5, 664
7, 866

3 .4 4
3. 05

6, 807
3, 933

3.6 1
3. 31

20,295
4,607

5. 23
4. 86

26,481
14,604

5. 42
4. 72

S ize of e s ta b lis h m e n t:
----- — — ----- '
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re --------------- --------- -----

59,780
58,539

4. 13
5. 15

3, 955
1, 663

4. 11
4„ 73

2, 319
4, 276

3. 15
4. 02

9, 117
4, 413

3 .0 9
3. 48

8. 510
2, 230

3. 31
4. 22

11,649
13,253

4. 55
5. 69

11,336
29,749

L a b o r-m a n a g e m e n t c o n tr a c ts :
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith —
M a jo rity of w o rk e rs c o v e re d --------------M in o rity of w o rk e rs c o v e re d - ----- ------

98,555
19,764

4. 95
3. 09

4, 962
-

4. 43
"

5, 571
1, 024

3. 90
2. 69

6, 471
7, 059

3. 67
2. 80

6, 926
3, 814

4. 04 2 3 ,235
2. 52
“

5. 2 8
"

3 6,350
4,735

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E n g lan d re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
3 F o r d e fin itio n of ty p e of co m p an y , s e e a p p en d ix A.




i

7, 097 . $ 4 . 52
4. 58
6, 743
354
3. 53

7, 909
7, 585
-

$5. 42
5. 43
-

1, 788
5, 309

4. 40
4. 56

1, 010
6, 899

5. 2 8
5. 44

3, 626
3, 471

4. 76
4. 2 8

7, 909
-

5. 42
-

4. 50 5 ,6 1 3
5 .4 3 !
-

4. 41
"

6, 438
-

5. 51
-

5. 34
3 .9 1

4. 62

7, 909

5 .4 2

6, 573

4
T he te r m " m e tro p o lita n a r e a s " u se d in th is stu d y r e f e r s to the S ta n d ard M e tro p o lita n
S ta tis tic a l A re a s a s d efin e d by the U. S. O ffice of M a n ag e m e n t and B u d g et th ro u g h N o v em b er 1972.
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do no t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .

United States 2
All
Women
M en
w orkers
100.0
T otal ------------------100.0
100.0
U nder $ 1 .80 ----------------0.3
0.2
0 .6
$ 1. 80 and under $ 1. 85 .3
.1
1.1
$1. 85 and under $1. 90 .2
(*)
(3)
$1. 90 and under $1. 95 .2
.2
.3
.1
$1. 95 and under $2. 00 .2
(3)
$2. 00 and under $2. 10 1.3
3 .0
1. 1
.5
$2. 10 and under $2. 20 .6
1.4
$2. 20 and under $2. 30 1.8
.7
.9
$2. 30 and under $2. 40 2 .3
1.1
.9
$2 .40 and under $2. 50 ~
1.0
•8
2.1
1.5
$2. 50 and under $2. 60 1.6
2 .6
3 .5
$2. 60 and under $2. 70 1.4
1.1
$2. 70 and under $2. 80 1.4
1.3
2.1
$2. 80 and under $2. 90 1.0
2 .4
1. 1
$2. 90 and under $3. 00 1.7
1.5
3 .0
$3. 00 and under $3. 10 2 .2
3 .8
1.9
1.5
$3. 10 and under $3. 20 1.5
1.6
$3. 20 and under $3, 30 1.6
1.0
1.7
$3. 30 and under $3. 40 1.0
1.6
1.7
$3. 40 and under $3. 50 1.4
1.0
1.4
1.6
$3. 50 and under $3. 60 1.7
1.1
$3. 60 and under $3. 70 1.6
1.4
2 .8
1.5
$3. 70 and under $3. 80 1.6
2 .3
$3. 80 and under $3. 90 1.0
1.1
1.1
$3. 90 and under $4. 00 2 .2
2 .5
2.2
$4. 00 and under $ 4 .10 1.7
1.6
2 .2
$4. 10 and under $4. 20 1.8
1.8
1.7
$4 .20 and under $4. 30 2 .0
1.7
2 .0
$4. 30 and under $4. 40 1.6
1.6
1.3
2 .0
$4 .40 and under $4. 50 2.1
1.4
$4. 50 and under $4. 60 2 .0
1.3
2. 1
$4. 60 and under $4. 70 2 .0
2 .2
.7
$4. 70 and under $4. 80 ~
3. 8
4 .0
2 .7
$4. 80 and under $4. 90 4 .8
4 .4
4 .9
$4. 90 and under $5. 00 8.5
12.3
7 .9
$5. 00 and under $5. 10 7.6
7.8
6.3
$5. 10 and under $ 5 .2 0 5.5
6 .0
2 .4
$5. 20 and under $5. 30 3 .8
4 .0
2 .2
$5. 30 and under $5. 40 2 .7
3 .0
.8
$ 5 .40 and under $5. 50 2.1
1.9
.8
•$5. 50 and under $5 .60 1.6
1.7
1.1
$5. 60 and under $5. 70 1.3
1.3
1.3
$5. 70 and under $5. 80 1.4
1.6
.4
$>. 80 and under $5. 90 1.6
1.7
.7
$5. 90 and under $6. 00 1.5
1.5
1.4
$6.00 and under $6 .10 1.5
.8
1. 6
$6. 10 and under $6. 20 .6
.6
.3
$6. 20 and under $6. 30 1.0
.9
1.1
$6. 30 and under $6 .4 0 .8
.7
1.2
$6 .40 and under $6. 50 .5
.6
$6. 30 and under .$6,60 .6
.6
$6. bO and under $6, 70 .7
.6
.7 !
$6, 70 and under $6. 80 .5
.5
.6
$6. 80 and under $6. 90 .6
.5
$6. 90 and under $7. 00 .3
.1
.
$7. 00 and o v e r --------------4 .6 ;
9
2 .4
15,507
N um ber of w o r k e r s -------n r,. * 102,812
$4.71
d*». 64
A ' - . t -s.ge hourly e a rn in g s5
$4.16
1 K xclv.de s prem ium pay for
and for work on w eekends, holidays, and
iare shii s.
*
2 Xi.cludes, .data fo.t* the New : tgland region in addition to those shown separately.




H ourly earnings

*

M iddle
A tlantic
100.0
0 .7
_
.1
.1
.5
.8
.4
.5
.7
l.l
.8
1.3
.9
.3
2 .0
1.1
4.1
3. 1
2 .4
1.6
3.1
2 .0
.9
3 .8
4 .7
1.9
2 .7
4 .0
4 .4
10.2
7.6
4.3
9 .8
3 .5
4. 1
1.6
1.3
.5
.6
.4
.1
.1
1.3
-

2. 2
,v-

.1
-

2 .5
5,61„
$4.29

B order
States

South­
e ast

South­
w est

100.0
100.0
100.0
0.3
0 .7
0 .9
.5
1.5
.5
.3
.1
<3)
.4
1.0
.4
.3
.3
9 .5
.9
2 .9
2 .4
1.7
2 .2
2 .4
3.1
3 .0
4 .1
3 .0
3. 1
3 .4
4 .6
2.1
4 .0
6 .0
5.0
5.0
6 .7
1.9
2 .7
5. 7
3 .4
4 .6
4 .1
2 .3
3.1
7.2
5.3
2 .4
4 .5
7 .6
4 .0
5 .7
2 .9
1.4
4 .4
2.2
5.1
3 .5
1 .0
2 .7
2 .4
4 .9
2 .3
1.4
3 .0
3 .0
2 .7
.6
2 .4
1.0
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.5
1.0
2 .2
1.0
1.4
1.2
4 .2
.5
.9
3 .7
.2
.8
.4
3 .6
.3
1.7
5 .0
.1
.7
.6
2 .6
1.6
2 .2
1.1
3 .4
10.3
1.4
4 .7
3. 1
3.2
2 .0
2 .7
4 .2
2 .0
1.2
3 .6
2 .2
1.2
2 .7
3.1
.8
1.6
.2
.3
.7
.4
1.5
.1
.5
.3
.1
.5
.1
.1
.2
.5
.1
.2
.3
•2
.1
(3)
.1
(3)
0
.1
0
(3)
.9
.1
(3)
.1
.1
.5
.3
.2
6,595
13,530
10,740
$3.71
$3.21
$3.50
3 L ess than 0,05 percent,
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s
(* )

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

G reat
Lakes

M iddle
W est

100.0
0. 1
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
.1
.1
.2
.3
.2
.2
.1
.2
.7
.4
1.0
.5
.7
2.1
1.1
1.0
.8
1.7
.8
1.8
1.6
.8
1.3
1.6
2 .6
2.2
6.3
10.0
10.2
6 .8
5.2
3 .3
2. 7
2 .4
1.5
2. 1
1. 8
2. 5
1.5
1.0
2 .0
1.4
1.0
1.3
1.9
1.2
.9
.5
8. 1
24,902
$5.16

100.0
(3)
(3)
(3)
0.1
(3)
.2
.1
(3>
.1
.2
.1
.2
.2
.6
.3
.5
.6
.8
1.0
2.1
2 .7
1.3
3 .2
2 .9
2 .8
3.3
2 .6
1.9
1.7
1.2
1.7
3 .8
13.4
10.7
7.3
3 .8
3 .5
2.2
2. 1
1.4
2.1
2 .0
1.2
1. 1
.8
.9
.7
.5
.6
.5
.6
.6
.6
6 .9
41,085
$5.17

M ountain
100.0
.
(*)
.
0 .2
.1
.1
2.2
.2
1.0
.5
2 .6
1.3
.8
1.9
1.8
2 .9
2.1
.6
1.5
.7
.6
.6
3 .8
1.1
.6
1.8
2.3
4 .4
3 .5
2 .6
5.9
8.2
12.0
8.0
5.0
3 .8
3 .9
3 .5
2.2
1.1
.4
1.3
.2
.8
1.2
.4
.3
.
_
_
.1
7,097
$4. 52

Pacific
100.0
.
_
ft
(3)
_
_
0.2
_
.1
.1
.1
_
_
-

.2
_
_
.9
,1
.1
.3
(3)
.4
.1
.1
15.7
1.6
3.7
8.4
10. 1
8.9
6.3
2 .5
2 .0
5.4
2.1
5.5
6.6
9.2
.3
2.2
.3
1.0
.1
(3)
2 .4
.2
3.1
7,909
$5.42

of individual item s m ay not equal 100.

H o u rly e a rn in g s

T o ta l

U nited S ta te s 2
M en
W om en
100. 0
100. 0
(3)
-

100. 0
T o ta l ---------------------U n d e r $1. 8 0 ---------------------(3)
$ 1 . 80 and u n d e r $ 1 , 85
$ 1 . 85 and u n d e r $ 1. 90 —
$ 1. 90 and u n d e r $ 1. 95 —
:
$ 1 . 95 and u n d e r $ 2 . 00
(3)
(3 )
$ 2 . 00 and u n d e r $ 2 . 10
(3)
(3)
(?)
0. 1
$ 2 . 10 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 20 —
(3)
(3)
0. 1
0. 1
.3
$ 2 . 20 and u n d e r $ 2 . 30 —
.4
.2
1. 1
$ 2 . 30 and u n d e r $ 2 . 40 —
.5
1. 0
.6
$ 2 .4 0 and u n d e r $ 2 .5 0 —
.7
.7
1. 0
$ 2 . 50 and u n d e r $ 2 . 60 —
3. 4
1. 1
1. 5
$ 2 . 60 and u n d e r $ 2 . 70 —
2. 1
1, 1
.9
$ 2 . 70 and u n d e r $ 2 . 80
1 .4
1. 1
2 .9
$ 2. 80 and u n d e r $ 2 . 90 —
3 .6
1. 6
1 .9
$ 2 . 90 and u n d e r $ 3 . 00
4. 1
1. 8
1. 4
$ 3 , 00 and u n d e r $ 3 . 10 —
1. 7
1. 6
1. 8
$ 3 . 10 and u n d e r $ 3 . 20 ~
1. 4
.3
1. 2
$ 3 . 20 and u n d e r $ 3 . 30 —
.5
1. 8
1. 6
$ 3 . 30 and u n d e r $ 3 . 40
.8
$3 . 40 and u n d e r $ 3 . 50
.8
.9
.7
.6
$ 3 . 50 and u n d e r $ 3 . 60 —
.6
3. 7
1. 3
.8
$ 3 . 60 and u n d e r $ 3 . 70 —
1. 3
1. 1
2 .9
$ 3 . 70 and u n d e r $ 3 , 80 —
$ 3 , 80 and u n d e r $ 3 , 90 —
.9
.9
.9
2. 8
2. 0
1. 8
$ 3 . 90 and u n d e r $ 4 . 00
3. 1
$ 4 . 00 and u n d e r $ 4 . 10 —
1. 5
1. 2
1.2
$ 4 , 10 and u n d e r $ 4 . 20 —
1. 8
1. 9
.9
$ 4 . 20 and u n d e r $ 4 . 30
1. 7
1 .9
1. 5
$ 4 , 30 and u n d e r $ 4 . 40
1. 0
1. 4
2. 1
1 .4
2. 0
$ 4 .4 0 and u n d e r $ 4 . 50 —
1. 0
$ 4 . 50 and u n d e r $ 4 . 60
1. 9
1. 8
.8
$ 4 . 60 and u n d e r $ 4 . 70 —
1. 2
1. 3
2. 5
2. 3
2. 2
$ 4 . 70 and u n d e r $ 4 . 80
4. 1
4. 7
4. 6
$ 4 . 80 and u n d e r $ 4 . 90 —
16. 0
10. 8
$ 4 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 00 -•
9. 9
10. 8
8. 1
10. 4
$ 5 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 10
7. 7
3 .4
7. 1
$ 5 . 10 and u n d e r $ 5 .2 0
4. 1
2. 8
$ 5 . 20 and u n d e r $ 5 . 30 —
3 .9
1 .0
3. 3
$ 5 . 30 an d u n d e r $ 5 .4 0
2. 9
2. 1
2. 3
$ 5 .4 0 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 50
1. 1
1. 8
$ 5 . 50 and u n d e r $ 5 . 60
1. 6
1. 7
1. 3
$ 5 . 60 and u n d e r $ 5 . 70
1. 4
1. 9
.5
2. 0
$ 5 . 70 and u n d e r $ 5 . 80 —
1. 8
1. 7
1. 1
1. 6
$ 5 . 80 and u n d e r $ 5 . 90
1. 2
1. 6
$ 5 . 90 and u n d e r $ 6 . 00
1. 5
.7
1 .4
1. 3
$ 6 . 00 and u n d e r $ 6 . 10 —
.2
.8
.9
$ 6 . 10 and u n d e r $ 6 . 20
1. 4
1. 1
$ 6 .2 0 and u n d e r $ 6 .3 0
1. 2
1. 6
1. o
.9
$ 6 . 30 and u n d e r $ 6. 40
.1
.7
.8
$ 6 . 40 and u n d e r $ 6 . 50
.6
.9
.9
$ 6 . 50 and u n d e r $ 6. 60
1. 0
1. 1
$ 6 . 60 and u n d e r $ 6 . 70 1. 1
.8
.9
.8
$ 6 . 70 and u n d e r $ 6 . 80 —
. 5
. 6
. 9
$ 6 . 80 and u n d e r $ 6 . 90
. 5
. 5
. 1
$ 6 . 90 and u n d e r $ 7 . 00
3 .4
7. 4
6. 8
$ 7 . 00 and o v e r ---------------10,316
69,352
59,036
N u m b e r of w o r k e r s -------$ 4 . 55
$5. 03
$ 4 . 96
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and
la te s h ifts.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .



M iddle
A tla n tic

S o uth ­
east

S o uth ­
w e st

G re a t
Lakes

M id d le
W est

100. 0
-

100. 0
-

100. 0
-

100. 0
0. 1

100. 0
-

:
_
_
0. 2
.8
.8
.1
.4
.1
2. 9
.4
.1
_
_
8 .4
2 .6
2. 5
2 .2
8 .4
9 ,2
1 2 .4
5. 5
2. 3
12. 3
3. 8
8 .9
2. 5
1. 2
.4
.1
.1
_
.1
_
4. 1
2. 9
.1

_
_
-

_

(3)
0. 7
.8
2. 9
2. 5
7. 2
5. 6
5 .0
9 .4
1 0 .4
5. 0
5. 5
5. 2
2. 0
.6
3. 6
1. 1
1. 7
1. 5
1. 3
1. 3
.3
.6
.2
1. o
1. 7
5. 3
4. 9
4. 3
1. 8
1 .9
1 .2
.5
.2
.8
.8
.3
.3
.1
(3)
(3)
-

(3)
_
(3)
_
.

:
0. 1
(3)
.1
.1
1. 7
1. 4
1. 7
1. 8
4. 9
2. 2
8. 3
2. 0
5. 8
2. 1
2. 9
1. 0
2. 3
1. 8
3. 5
1. 3
.8
1. 2
.4
8. 7
4 .4
3. 6
2 .4
5. 6
7. 4
6. 2
4. 7
2. 7
1. 3
2. 6
.4
.2
.8
.4
.3
.2
.1
.1
_
_
-

1
4. 4
.3
. 6
8,600
6,113
1,606
$3 . 58
$ 4 . 18
$ 4. 73
3 L e ss th an 0. 05 p e rc e n t.

P a c ific

100. 0

100. 0
-

;

:

:
.
(3)
.1
.1
.1
_
.1
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
_
_
(3)
.4
(3)
(3)
1. 5
.2
.2
.8
.8
1. 0
1. 1
5. 5
11. 2
1 4 .2
8. 9
5. 1
3. 5
2 .2
2. 0
2. 1
2. 8
2. 0
3. 3
1. 7
1. 2
2. 7
2. 1
1. 5
2. 0
3. 0
1. 9
1. 0
. 7
12. 5
11,989
$5 . 67

M o u ntain

_
(3)
<3)
0. 1
_
.2
(3)
.2
.1
.1
.4
.4
.4
1. 6
2. 2
1. o
2. 8
2. 7
2. 6
3. 5
2. 4
1. 8
1. 7
.5
1. 1
3. 5
14. 2
12. 2
8. 0
4 .2
3 .9
2. 5
2. 4
1. 7
2. 1
2. 2
1. 4
1. 1
.9
1. 0
.9
.6
.8
.6
.7
. 7
. 7
8. 0
35,322
$ 5 . 32

_
0. 2
8. 6
.7
_
1 .3
1. 3
3. 2
1. 5
.7
2. 6
6. 0
6. 0
1. 9
.
.4
_
-

0 .3
.3
.4
_
.4
.4
.4
_
_

-

_
.2
_
_
.4
_
.2
.8
_
12. 7
17. 6
1 8 .4
10. 0
4 .9
8. 5
1. 0
1. 6
1. 4
2. 6
12. 2
.7
2. 2
1. 7
.9
-

-

-

-

_
4 .4
1 5 .3
10. 6
10. 2
7 .4
4. 6
4 .4
2. 0
.2
.5
2. 6
.5
1 .3
1. 4
-

_
-

-

-

-

1,788
$ 4. 40

1,010
$5 . 28

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n din g, su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n o t e q u al 100.

U nited S ta te s 2
A ll
M en
W om en
w o rk e rs
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
0. 6
0. 5
1. 8
.7
3. 4
.3
.1
.5
.1
.4
.4
.9
.1
.1
.6
3. 2
2. 5
8. 9
1 .4
3. 8
1. 1
4. 8
1. 9
1. 6
2. 0
4. 8
1. 7
4. 3
1. 6
1. 3
5. 7
2. 5
2. 9
1. 4
3. 5
1. 2
2. 0
1. 9
1. 9
.7
.8
1. 3
1. 3
1. 8
1. 3
2. 6
3. 3
2. 6
.7
1. 5
1. 4
2. 1
2. 1
2. 4
1. 6
1. 6
1. 8
2. 2
2. 3
1. 3
3. 1
3. 3
1. 7
2. 2
2. 3
1. 1
2. 0
1. 9
1. 2
1. 3
1. 3
1. 0
2. 7
2. 6
1. 9
2. 1
.5
1. 9
2. 6
1. 7
1. 6
2. 3
2. 2
3. 1
2. 0
1. 8
1. 8
2. 0
1. 9
1. 4
2. 3
2. 4
1. 7
3. 4
3. 1
.6
6. 0
6. 3
3. 0
5. 1
5. 1
4. 9
5. 2
5. 2
5. 1
3. 8
3. 7
2. 7
.5
3. 6
3. 2
3. 6
3. 9
.9
2. 3
2. 5
.4
1. 7
.2
1. 9
1. 5
1. 6
.1
.1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 0
.2
.9
1. 7
1. 5
.1
1. 5
1. 4
1. 8
1. 8
.8
1. 9
.3
.3
.5
.7
.6
.3
.5
.5
.3
.3
.3
.2
.1
.1
.3
.1
.1
.3
.1
.1
(3)
.1
.6
.6
.1
.1
.1
.5
1 .4
1. 5
48,967
43,776
5,191
$ 4 . 28
$3. 40
$ 4. 19
fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, and

H o u rly e a rn in g s
T o ta l ---------------------------U n d er $ 1. 80 -----------------------$ 1 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 1 . 85 ------$ 1. 85 an d u n d e r $ 1. 90 ------$ 1. 90 an d u n d e r $ 1. 95 ------$ 1 . 95 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 00 ------$2. 00 and u n d e r $ 2 . 10 ------$2 . 10 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 20 ------$ 2 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 30 ------$2 . 30 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 40 ------$ 2. 40 and u n d e r $ 2 . 50 ------$2 . 50 an d u n d e r $2 . 60 ------$ 2 . 60 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 70 ------$ 2 . 70 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 80 ------$ 2. 80 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 90 ------$ 2 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 00 ------$3 . 00 and u n d e r $ 3 . 10 ------$ 3 . 10 an d u n d e r $3 . 20 ------$ 3 ,2 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 .3 0 ------$ 3. 30 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 40 ------$ 3 . 40 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 50 ------$ 3 . 50 and u n d e r $ 3 . 60 ------$ 3. 60 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 70 ------$ 3. 70 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 80 ------$ 3 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 90 ------$ 3. 90 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 00 ------$ 4. 00 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 10 ------$ 4 . 10 an d u n d e r $4 . 20 ------$ 4 . 20 an d u n d e r $4 . 30 ------$4 . 30 an d u n d e r $4. 40 ------$ 4 .4 0 an d u n d e r $4 . 50 ------$4 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 60 ------$ 4 . 60 an d u n d e r $4 . 70 ------$ 4 . 70 an d u n d e r $4 . 80 ------$ 4 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 90 ------$ 4 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 00 ------$ 5 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 10 ------$5 . 10 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 20 ------$ 5 .2 0 an d unde r $ 5 .3 0 ------$ 5 .3 0 and u n d e r $ 5 .4 0 ------$ 5. 40 an d unde r $ 5 .5 0 ------$ 5 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 60 -----$ 5 . 60 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 70 -----$ 5. 70 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 80 ------$ 5 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 90 -----$ 5 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 0 0 ------$ 6 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 10 -----$ 6 . 10 an d u n d e r $ 6 .2 0 -----$ 6 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 30 -----$ 6 . 30 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 40 -----$ 6. 40 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 50 ------$ 6 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 60 ------$ 6 . 60 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 70 ------$ 6 . 70 an d u n d e r $ 6. 80 ------$6 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 90 -- —
$ 6 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 7. 00 ------$7 . 00 an d o v e r ------------------N u m b e r of w o rk e rs --------------A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 ----

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p ay
la te s h ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r the New E ng lan d re g io n in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




M iddle
A tla n tic
100. 0
1. 0
.
.1
.1
.7
1. 1
.6
.8
1. 1
1. 6
1. 1
1. 5
.9
.4
2. 8
1. 6
4. 7
4. 4
3. 5
2. 3
4. 5
2. 9
1. 2
1. 7
5. 6
1. 6
3. 0
2. 0
2. 2
9 .2
8. 5
5. 2
8. 6
3. 3
1. 9
1. 2
1 .4
.5
.8
.5
.1
.2
_
_
1. 8
_
.1
1. 6
4, 012
$4. 12

B o rd e r
S ta te s
100. 0
0. 5
.9
.2
.7
.4
1. 5
2 .4
3. 7
6. 6
3. 1
2. 9
1. 7
1. 4
.7
1. 1
.9
1. 4
.6
.4
5. 2
2. 0
4. 1
2. 7
1. 2
1 .4
2. 1
6. 0
6. 3
5. 2
2. 9
.6
2. 2
7. 0
5. 6
2. 0
3. 4
1. 4
3. 8
.1
.6
.2
.1
.1
.1
_
_
1. 5
.2
.1
.7
3,877
$3 . 83
3 L e ss th an

S o u th ­
east

S o uth ­
w e st

G re a t
L ak es

100. 0
100. 0
2. 4
1 .6
4. 2
1 .3
.9
(3)
.8
2 .9
.9
(3)
7. 9
21. 9
6. 5
5. 0
7. 4
7. 0
6. 8
7. 1
7. 5
4. 8
12. 2
9 .3
6. 0
2. 6
5. 8
5. 7
2. 4
2. 9
3 .4
5. 7
2. 8
7. 6
2. 4
2. 1
2 .4
2. 6
4. 9
.4
3. 9
2. 7
2. 8
3. 1
.2
1. 2
.7
.8
.1
1. 2
.1
.5
.4
1. 2
.1
.2
.1
.3
.1
.2
.2
(3)
.1
.2
.1
.2
.1
(3)
_
(3)
.1
(3)
_
.1
.1
.1
_
.1
.1
_
.1
_
_
_
.1
_
_
_
_
(3)
(3)
_
_
4,930
4,627
$2 . 58
$2 . 59
0. 05 p e rc e n t.

100. 0
0. 3
.1
.1
(3)
.1
_
.2
.1
.4
.5
.5
.4
.1
.4
1. 5
.9
2. 2
1. 1
1. 7
4. 9
2. 5
2. 4
1. 4
4. 0
1 .9
2. 2
3. 5
1. 6
2. 1
2. 7
4. 8
3. 8
7. 4
8. 4
4. 6
4. 0
5 .4
2. 9
3 .4
2. 9
.6
1. 2
1. 5
1. 5
1 .3
.7
1. o
.5
.4
.4
.3
.2
.7
.3
2. 2
12,913
$4 . 68

M iddle
W est

M o u ntain

100. 0
0 .3
.2
.1
_
.8
.1
1. 1
.5
.1
.9
1. 2
.8
.4
1. 3
2. 6
1. 8
2. 9
1. 9
3. 0
4. 8
4. 6
5. 5
3. 2
5. 3
4. 0
3. 6
2. 2
3. 4
2. 3
1. 9
4. 7
5. 5
5. 5
9. 0
2. 2
3. 0
1. 3
1. 3
.7
.4
.1
2. 3
.9
.2
.9
_
.1
_
.1
_
_
.1
_
.9
5,763
$4 . 26

100. 0
0. 1
_
.3
.1
_
_
(3)
1. 4
.2
3. 0
.6
.6
2. 3
1. 5
1. 8
.8
.2
1. 9
1. o
.7
.8
5. 0
1. 5
.8
2. 4
3. 0
5. 9
4. 7
3. 5
7. 8
9. 5
10. 8
7. 1
3. 3
2. 6
3. 7
3. 2
2. 3
1. 5
.4
.8
(3)
.6
1. 1
.5
.4
-

100. 0
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
.1
5,309
$4 . 56

(3)
2. 7
.2
3. 6
6,899
$5. 44

_

P a c ific

_
_
_
_

0. 1
.1

_
_
_

_
_
_

.2
_

_

1. 0
.1
.1

_

.3
(3)
.3
.1
.1
17. 9
1. 8
2. 4
7. 1
8. 8
8. 7
6. 5
1. 6
2. 2
5 .9
2. 2
6. 3
7. 2
8. 8
.2
2. 2
.1
1. 1

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n o t eq u al 100.

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n i f e ----------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n if e -------F lo o rs m e n 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e -----------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n if e -------H ide p u lle rs , m a c h i n e ---------- -------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f 3 ------------------------------------------------------------P n e u tm a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e -b o lt p i s t o l ---------R u m p e rs 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n i f e ----------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , s tr a ig h t k n if e -------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife ------S h a c k le rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f --------------------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w ---------------------------------------------------------------O t h e r -----------------------------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f --------------------------------------------------------------B e e f cu ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------------------C h u c k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------L o in s, rib s , o r r o u n d s -----------------------------------------S h an k s o r b r i s k e t s -------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ---------------------------------------------------------B r e a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts -----------------------B r e a k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u t s ---------------------------------------H a n d le rs , b e e f c u ts fo r b o n e r s ---------------------------------P o r k d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , h o g -------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , h o g --------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b ack, p o r k 3-------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w ---------------------------------------------------------------E le c tr ic sh o c k in g d e v ic e ----------------------------------------P o r k c u ttin g :
B e lly tr i m m e r s -------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m ---- -----------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b o n in g ----------------------------------------------------C h ise l b o n i n g ----------------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h i n e ---------------------------------------------Skin o n l y ------------------------------------------------------------------Skin an d d e f a t ----------------------------------------------------------L o in p u l l e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of tr i m m in g s ---------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------S h e e p and c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , la m b an d s h e e p ---------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , sh e e p an d c a l v e s --------------------------------------S tic k e r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , an d c an n in g :
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t -----------------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e llie s ----------------------------G re e n h a m s --------------------------------------------------------------B e l l i e s -----------------------------------------------------------------------




N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
616
37 2
147
962
530
268
462
483
468
546
307
94
112
328
609
446
163
570
3, 244
314
600
225
2, 105
735
854
310
212
317
295
179
852
196
178
144
134
438
1,702
1, 261
406
299
119
180
292
739
455
284
263
122
78
360
193
167
138
312
122
142

U nited S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e
M ean
$ 4 .2 7
4. 19
4. 48
4 .8 8
5. 14
4 .2 8
4 .8 1
4 .2 4
4 .2 1
4 .7 2
4 . 93
4 .7 9
4 .2 2
4 . 34
4 . 95
4 . 67
5 .7 1
3 .8 1
4. 97
5 .4 9
5. 52
5. 00
4 .7 4
4 .7 8
5. 07
4 . 64
4 .8 0
4. 68
5. 02
4 . 36
4 .7 0
4 .8 0
4 .8 0
4 .2 6
4 .2 7
5. 03
6 .2 5
6. 34
6 .0 1
4 . 98
4 .8 7
5. 05
5. 13
4 .9 3
4. 99
4 .8 3
4 .8 7
4. 11
4 .3 1
4 . 16
4. 33
3. 96
4 .4 5
5. 10
5. 14
5 .4 6

$4. 00
3 .9 1
4 .2 5
5 .2 9
5 .6 6
4 . 00
5 .0 5
4 . 40
4 .3 6
5. 12
5. 17
5. 56
3. 74
4 .5 0
5. 05
4 .7 6
6 .2 0
4 . 00
4 .8 2
5 .3 9
5 .2 5
4 . 59
4 . 82
4. 35
5 .0 9
4 .8 6
5 .1 7
5. 07
5 .2 9
4 . 98
5. 06
5 .2 9
5 .2 9
4 .4 1
4 .4 1
5. 11
5 .8 6
5. 68
5 .8 6
5. 01
5.0 1
5 .0 6
5 .3 0
4 . 96
4 . 96
4 . 96
S. 36
4 .2 5
4 .7 5
4 .6 7
4. 91
3 .8 5
5 .1 1
5 .0 6
5 .0 6
5 .0 6

$3. 30—$5. 36
3 .3 0 - 5. 18
3. 4 5 - 5 .6 1
3 .8 9 - 5 .8 6
4 . 1 0 - 5 .9 0
3 . 5 0 - 5 .2 0
4 .2 1 - 5 .6 9
3 .2 9 - 5 .0 6
3. 2 5 - 5 .0 1
3 .6 4 - 5 .6 6
4 .3 1 - 5 .6 6
3 . 3 5 - 5 .8 5
3. 4 0 - 5 .4 5
3. 5 0 - 5. 04
3 .7 9 - 5. 96
3 .7 0 - 5 .8 6
3. 9 1 - 7 .0 8
2. 7 5 - 4 .8 1
4 . 0 7 - 5. 51
4 .2 6 - 6 .8 0
4 . 0 7 - 5 .7 1
3 .9 1 - 5.4 1
4 .2 1 - 5 .4 1
4. 0 8 - 5. 31
4 .2 5 - 5 .8 6
4 .2 1 - 5 .2 7
3. 9 9 - 5 .3 1
3. 6 0 - 5 .2 6
4 .4 0 - 5. 53
3 .4 0 - 5. 11
3 .9 4 - 5. 11
3 .7 7 - 5 .4 6
3 .9 5 - 5 .4 6
3. 1 8 - 5. 11
3 .2 3 - 5 .1 1
4 .4 1 - 5. 94
5. 0 3 - 8 .2 6
4 .9 4 - 8 .3 0
5 .2 1 - 7 .3 1
4 .4 1 - 5 .2 1
4 .3 3 - 5. 19
4 .6 1 - 5. 55
4 . 4 8 - 5. 57
4 . 6 0 - 5 .2 6
4 .6 0 - 5 .2 6
4 . 5 5 - 5 .2 3
4. 113. 3 2 3. 112 .9 7 3. 1 3 2 .8 3 3. 3 5 4. 7 9 4 .8 4 4. 9 1 -

6. 00
4 .9 4
5. 11
5 .0 1
5. 12
5 .0 1
5. 16
5. 30
5 .6 2
5 .7 1

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
65
19
55
25
23
23
29
23
99
31
59
342
_
342
_
66
15
21
19
9
42
10
10
8
8
20
68
50
15
9
19
_
-

*

_

60
27
11
-

12
-

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$3. 45—$4. 35
3 .6 5 - 4 . 46
3 .9 1 - 4 .4 0
2 .0 0 - 4 .7 5
3 .2 2 - 3 .8 7
3. 2 2 - 3 .8 7
3. 6 4 - 4 . 00
3. 3 2 - 3 .6 5
3 .9 1 - 7. 08
3 .8 7 - 4 . 01
2 .7 4 - 4 . 00
3 .8 5 - 4 .8 2
3 .8 5 - 4 .8 2
_
4 . 6 7 - 4 .7 5
4. 8 0 - 5. 06
4. 6 0 - 5. 09
4 .7 8 - 5 .0 9
3. 6 6 - 4 .7 0
4 .8 0 - 5. 16
4. 4 8 - 5 .2 1
4 .2 5 - 5.2 1
4. 3 8 - 4 .8 8
4 . 4 5 - 4 .8 5

$3. 87
4 . 00
4 . 06
3 . 50
3 .6 0
3. 60
4 .0 1
3 .6 9
5. 16
4 . 03
3 .2 3
4 .4 6
4 .4 6
_
4 . 66
4 .8 4
4 . 74
4 .8 6
4 .5 1
4 .3 8
5 .0 5
5. 05
4 .4 6
4 . 46
4. 82
4 . 82
4 .6 1
4 . 63
4 .6 3
4 . 66

$ 3 .9 1
4 . 00
4 .0 0
3. 34
3 . 65
3. 65
3 . 64
3 . 64
4. 01
4 . 01
2 .7 4
4 .8 2
4 .8 2
_
4 . 67
4 .9 0
4 . 60
4. 90
4 .7 0
4 .8 0
4 .7 0
4 .6 5
4. 65
4 .8 5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

3 .5 1
4 . 38
4 . 49

3. 32
4 . 67

_

-

4 . 43
-

_

-

-

3. 3 2 - 3. 32
3. 5 0 - 4. 92

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

~

_

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
42
18
14
14
20
20
11
6
18
124
122
25
40
13
16
36
17
20
35
15
10
14
14
21
69
58
23
18
16
28
18
10
_
-

"
28
16
12
16
15
8

B o rd e r S ta te s
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$ 3. 46
4 .4 0
3 .4 1
3 .4 1
4 .2 3
3 .7 4
4 .4 6
3 .6 3
3. 61
4. 36
4. 35
4 . 93
5. 09
2. 87
3 .8 3
3. 77
4 . 07
3 . 94
3 .7 2
3 .8 4
3 .8 6
3. 32
3. 32
4 . 38
4 . 15
4 . 11
3 .7 8
3 .4 5
3. 87
3 .8 1
4. 17
3. 15
_
-

"
3 .6 6
3. 75
3. 54
3 .4 6
3. 98
3. 59

$ 3 . 90
5 .2 0
4 .2 0
3 .9 0
3 .4 0
4. 63
4. 63
4 . 34
4 .8 5
3. 72
3 .7 2
4. 15
3 .6 8 .
3. 60
3 .7 7
4. 68
3 .7 1
3 .7 1
3 .41
3.4 1
3. 65
3 .6 6
4 .8 3
.
-

4. 18
4. 18
-

3. 44
4. 32
-

"

$2. 79 ~ $3. 90
2. 6 2 - 5 .2 0
2 .7 9 - 5 .4 5
2. 5 8 - 4 .2 9
2. 6 7 - 4 .8 5
4. 1 1 - 5 .2 3
4. 1 1 - 5 .2 3
4. 3 4 - 4. 63
4. 2 4 - 5. 23
3. 4 8 - 4. 19
2 .7 8 - 4 .8 9
3. 5 8 - 5. 02
2 .5 8 - 4. 98
3. 3 1 - 3 .6 5
3. 6 3 - 3 .8 5
3 .8 5 - 5. 10
3 .7 1 - 5.21
3. 7 1 - 5.21
3. 10- 4. 79
2. 7 9 - 3 .41
2 .7 9 - 4. 94
2. 5 4 - 4 .8 4
3. 5 6 - 4 .8 5
-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .8 3 - 4. 32
2 .8 3 - 4. 18
2. 48“ 4. 32
3. 3 9 - 4 .7 6
~

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3------------------------------------------------------------------------O n - t h e - r a i l d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e -----------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n if e -------F lo o r m e n 3---------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e - r a i l d re s s in g , p o w e r k n i f e ---------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife --------H id e p u lle r s , m a c h in e -------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , b e e f 3-------------------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e -b o lt p i s t o l ----------R u m p e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------O n - t h e - r a i l d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife ------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , s tr a ig h t k n if e -------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n if e -------S h a c k le rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b e e f ------------------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w ---------------------------------------------------------------O t h e r ------------------------------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f --------------------------------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f ----------------------------------------------------------------C h u c k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------Loins, r ib s , o r r o u n d s ------------------------------------------S h an k s o r b r i s k e t s --------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s --------------------------------------------------------B r e a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts -------------------------B r e a k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u ts ---------------------------------------H a n d le rs , bee-f c u ts fo r b o n e r s ---------------------------------P o rk d r e s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , h o g -------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------------S h ac k le r s , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs ------------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b a c k , p o r k --------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w ---------------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------------E l e c tr ic sh o c k in g d e v i c e --------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly tr i m m e r s ------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m ----------------------------------------------------------------O pen s ty le b o n in g ---------------------------------------------------C h is e l b o n in g -----------------------------------------------------------H a m s k in n e rs , m a c h i n e ---------------------------------------------S kin o n l y -----------------------------------------------------------------S kin an d d e f a t --------------------------------------------------------L o in p u l l e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s o f t r i m m in g s ---------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------S h e e p an d c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , la m b a n d s h e e p ---------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , sh e e p a n d c a lv e s --------------------------------------S t i c k e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , a n d can nin g:
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a to r s --------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------- ------------------------------------------ .
C o o k s, w ater- r e t o r t -----------------------------------------------------G ra d e s , g re e n h a m s a n d b e lli e s ------------------------------- G re e n h a m s ------------------------------------------------------------B e l l i e s ----------------------------------------------------------------------




N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
49
23
-

60
19
32
39
37
57
27
21
-

19
48
41
43
170
21
24
25
100
48
59
17
27
60
46
34
131
35
35
33
28
83
178
156
-

37
17
20
44
68
40
"
79
31
48
20
29
15
11

S o u th e a st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
M ean

M ed ian

M iddle ra n g e

-$3. 16
3 .2 1

$3. 10
3. 39

$2. 90—$3. 40
2 .9 0 - 3 .4 0

-

-

3. 09
3 .2 6
-

3 .8 8
3 .4 1
3 .4 3
3. 60
4 . 06
3 .0 9
3. 07
• 3 .4 7
3. 46
2 .9 2
4 . 38
3. 14
5. 14
5. 90
4 . 08
3. 59
3. 59
3 .2 7
3 .2 5
3. 15
3 .4 8
3. 14
3. 33
3. 36
3. 36
3 .2 5
3. 30
3 .3 7
3 .6 0
3 .4 3
-

3. 56
3 .8 5
3. 32
3. 63
3 .0 9
3 .3 5
2 .9 3
2. 76
3. 03
2 . 90
3 .9 0
3 .7 5
4. 33

-

3 . 00
3 .3 1
3 .3 3
2 .8 0
3. 50
2 .6 0
5 .2 4
5 .3 1
3. 50
3 .2 5
3 .3 5
3. 11
2 .8 6
3 .0 3
3 .0 9
2 .8 1
3 .2 2
3. 09
3. 09
3. 09
3. 06

2 .7 5 2. 9 0 3. 0 8 3 ,0 6 3 ,2 3 2 .9 0 3. 1 3 2 .8 0 3. 0 0 3. 1 0 3 .1 0 2 .6 0 3 .2 4 2. 6 0 3. 3 5 3 .3 5 3. 1 5 3 .0 8 3. 1 5 2 .3 0 2 .5 5 2 .2 0 2. 7 5 2. 5 3 2 .6 4 2. 522. 5 2 2 .7 5 2 .7 5 -

3 .2 2
3 .3 5
3 .2 5

2 .0 0 - 4 .9 1
2 .8 0 - 4. 05
2 .7 0 - 3 .8 5

2 .9 0
2 .9 0
3 .3 0
3 .3 5
3 .3 5
3 .3 5
3. 50
3. 10
-

-

3 .0 9
3 .0 5
3 .3 5
3. 35
2 .7 5
3 . 16
-

2 . 90
2 .9 0
2 .8 5
2 . 55
3 .3 5
3. 09

-

2 .3 8 2. 302 .3 8 2. 972 .7 0 2 .7 1 -

3 .2 5
2 . 99
5. 52
3 .3 6
3 .3 6
3 .8 0
5 .0 7
3. 10
3. 10
3 .3 6
3 .3 5
3 .0 0
5.2 1
3. 35
6. 10
6 .2 1
4 .6 6
3 .9 0
3 .5 3
3 .8 0
3 .6 1
3 .6 9
4 .0 0
3 .2 8
3 .8 5
3 .4 1
3 .4 1
3 .3 0
3 .4 7

3. 95
4 . 96
3 .9 5
4 . 96
3 .3 1
4 .7 6

"

2 .7 4 2 .4 0 2 .7 9 2 .0 5 2 .9 0 2. 4 5 "

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
101
68
21
95
42
39
38
82
82
85
43
21
49
60
60
106
354
-

85

S o uth w est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e
$ 3 .2 4
3. 2 0
3. 51
3 .7 2
4. 18
3. 67
3. 68
3. 18
3. 18
3 .7 8
3. 98
3. 13
3. 00
3. 77
3. 77
-

2 .8 9
4. 14
_

230
68
58
42
12
11
11
9
41
11
11
8
8

3 .8 9
_
4 .3 4
4 . 50
3 .7 4
3 .7 3
3. 37
3 .2 2
3. 36
2. 74
2 . 92
3. 68
3. 68
3 .0 6
3. 06

18
57
37
20
15
7
8
13
27
27

3 .8 5
3 .7 9
3 .7 7
3 .8 4
3 .2 1
2 .8 8
3. 50
3 .3 6
3. 38
3. 38

_

-

20
3 .0 9
3. 13
3 .0 9
3 .3 5
4 .7 6 :
4 . 76

18
13
-

21
"

3 .0 9
2. 68
3 .6 5
3 .6 5
2. 55

$2. 75—$3. 76
2 .6 9 - 3 .5 5
3. 1 3 - 3. 95
2. 6 6 - 4 . 33
3 .5 0 - 5 .3 9
2 .6 1 - 4 .8 7
2. 7 6 - 4 .8 5
2 .4 8 - 3 .8 5
2 .4 8 - 3 .8 5
3. 0 0 - 5. 12
3 . 5 0 - 5. 12
3 .0 9 - 3 .0 9
2 .2 5 - 3 .5 0
2 . 9 4 - 3 . 97
2 .9 4 - 3 .9 7
2 .2 5 - 3 .2 5

80
31
29
141
71
39
113
111
105
54
30
_
_
21
102
88
14
77

4. 10

3. 2 1 - 4 . 90

594
81
32
36
445
120
112
61
73
84
47
251
48
46
38
38
115
673
558
112
93
36
57
83
194
116
78

$3. 10
2. 90
3. 13
3. 50
3 .8 0
2 .8 1
3. 11
2 . 90
2. 90
3. 54
3 .8 0
-

_

3. 90
4. 90
4. 76
3 .7 5
3. 97

_
-

2 .3 0
-

"
3 .9 5
3. 50
4 . 00
3 .3 6
2 . 97
-

2. 75
2 .7 5
“

-

3 .3 4
2 .9 7
2 . 90
-

3 .2 0
-

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

2 .8 1
2 .6 3
-

3 .0 0
-

3 .4 5 2. 943 .7 0 3 .4 5 3. 1 5 -

_

4 . 15
5. 08
4 .7 6
3 .9 7
4 .6 8

-

2 .3 0 - 3 .0 4
-

~
2. 973 .3 6 2 .9 7 3. 3 b 2 .7 4 -

4 . 93
4 .0 0
5 .0 3
3. 55
3 .3 1

-

2 .7 4 - 4 . 10
2 .7 4 - 4 . 10
2. 5 0 - 5. 11
2. 5 0 - 2 . 97
-

3 .0 0 - 3 .0 0
-

G re a t L ak es
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

99

$ 4 .7 9
5 .0 6
4 . 36
5 .2 9
5. 50
4 .4 8
5. 44
4 . 69
4 .6 5
4 .9 0
5 .4 0
_
_
4 .8 9
4 . 72
4 .8 1
4 .2 1
4 .0 3
5. 40
7. 12
7 .7 0
5.2 2
4 . 94
4 .5 9
5. 52
5. 18
5 .2 2
5. 36
4 . 92
5 .0 6
5 .1 5
5. 15
4 .8 9
4 .8 9
5 .2 1
6. 67
6. 99
5. 17
5. 17
4 . 96
5 .2 9
5. 48
5. 04
5 .3 5
4 . 59
3. 31

97
56
41
21
81
30
32

4 . 54
4 .8 5
4 . 12
5. 68
5. 42
5. 51
5. 92

$ 4 .9 6
5. 18
3 .6 0
5. 18
5. 18
4. 10
5 .3 6
4 .9 0
4 .9 0
5. 17
5. 17
_
_
4 .4 6
4 .7 6
4. 96
_
4 .3 1
5.2 7
7. 04
7. 16
3 .0 0
5. 16
3 .7 9
5. 13
5. 01
4. 99
5 .2 9
4. 99
4 .9 1
5 .2 9
5 .2 9
4 .9 5
4. 95
5. 14
6 .4 9
8. 09
5 .2 4
5 .0 1
5 .01
5 .01
5.21
4 .9 4
4 .9 6
4 .7 6
4. 11
-

5.0 1
5 .0 1
3. 90
5 .2 4
4 .9 3
5. 03
5. 06

$3. 91—$5. 18
4 .2 5 - 5. 18
3 .4 5 - 6 .0 9
4. 3 3 - 5. 94
5. 1 8- 5. 96
3 .8 9 - 5 .3 3
5. 0 5 - 5. 96
4 .2 4 - 5 .4 3
4 .0 2 - 5 .4 3
3. 9 1 - 5. 51
5. 1 7 - 5. 58
_
_

4 .4 1 3 .7 9 4 .0 9 3 .2 7 4 .2 5 6. 5 7 5. 1 8 2 .8 0 4 .2 5 3. 3 6 4 .7 9 4. 4 1 4 .4 0 4 .6 1 4 .4 1 4 .4 1 4 .8 1 4 .8 1 4. 4 0 4. 4 0 4 .6 1 5. 0 9 5 .0 9 4 .3 5 4 .8 1 4 .4 1 4 .8 4 4 .9 4 4. 3 1 4 .3 1 4 .2 4 -

5 .0 6
5 .9 5
5 .9 6
4 .9 9
5 .9 5
7 .2 9
1.0 9
7 .6 0
5. 51
5. 12
6. 56
5. 38
5 .2 6
5.9 2
5 .0 9
5. 11
5 .4 6
5 .4 6
5. 11
5. 11
5 .2 6
8. 30
8 .3 3
5 .8 6
5. 13
5 .0 3
5 .9 7
5 .3 1
5 .2 1
6 .8 7
4 . 96

1 .9 8 - 4. 11
-

3. 5 5 4. 6 2 2 .6 0 5. 1 1 4 .8 4 4 .8 4 4. 9 1 -

5. 12
5. 12
5.01
6 .8 5
6 .4 0
6 .4 0
7. 04

M iddle W est
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e r s 3 ---O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g , flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife F lo o rs m e n 3-------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r kn ife
C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife H ide p u lle rs , m a c h in e -----------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , b e e f 3 ---------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e -b o lt p is to l —
R um per
O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n i f e -------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , s tr a ig h t k n if e -----------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t kn ife S h a c k le rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b e e f ------------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w -------------------------------------------------------O t h e r ----------------------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f ------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f -------------------------------------C h u ck s ------------------------------------------L o in s, r ib s , o r r o u n d s ----------------S h an k s o r b r i s k e t s ------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s -------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts B r e a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u ts --------------H a n d le rs , b e e f c u ts fo r b o n e r s --------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs E v is c e r a to r s , hog H e a d e rs , h o g ---------S h a c k le rs , h o g -----S h a v e rs ------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o r k 3
P o w e r s a w -------------S tu n n e rs, h o g -------------E le c tr ic sh o c k in g d e v ic e P o r k c u ttin g :
B e lly t r i m m e r s ---------------------B o n e rs , h a m -------------------------O pen sty le b oning C h is e l boning
H a m s k in n e rs , m a c h in e —
S kin o n ly ---------------------Skin an d d e f a t ------------L o in p u l l e r s --------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s
M e n --------- ---------------S h ee p an d c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , la m b arid s h e e p ----------------------S h a c k le rs , sh e e p an d c a l v e s --------------S tic k e rs -------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , an d can n in g :
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a to r s ----------------------M en ---------------------------------------------W o m e n ------- -------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t ---------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e llie s
G re e n h a m s -----------------------------B e l l i e s ---------------------------------------




N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
120
106
10
173
129
33
114
98
96
100
81
_
14
78
118
104
14
144
837
121
273
109
334
322
198
44
75
84
94
33
307
65
60
34
34
124
568
361
195
88
35
53
97
311
146
165
13
13
58
21
37
46
145
58
76

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$5. 00
5. 10
4. 90
4. 96
5. 19
4. 08
4. 54
4. 37
4 34
4. 79
4. 88
4. 61
4. 53
4. 89
4. 94
4, 52
4. 24
5.i 28
5.i 49
6., 14
4.■ 96
4. 62
4. 94
4. 86
4. 75
5. 43
5. 57
5.■ 69
4.. 86
5.. 31
5. 53
5.,66
4. 98
4.,98
5. 97
7. 40
7. 63
6. 95
6. 03
5. 69
6. 25
5. 95
5. 63
5. 87
5. 42
5. 46
4. 97
5. 01
5. 17
4. 92
5. 32
5. 56
5. 60
5. 70

$5. 12
5. 36
5. 15
5 .2 9
3. 79
4. 33
4. 39
4. 38
4 .8 7
4. 94
_
4 .4 3
5. 10
5. 10
_
4 .3 7
4. 54
4. 71
4 .7 1
4. 59
4. 50
4. 18
4. 76
4. 60
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5. 36
5. 11
5. 11
5 .4 6
5 .4 6
5. 11
5. 11

$4. 53-;$5. 71
4. 5 3 - 5. 71
4. 1 0 - 5. 74
5. 1 1 - 5. 74
3. 5 3 - 4. 00
3. 7 1 - 5. 10
4. 0 9 - 4 .8 9
4. 0 9 - 4 .8 7
4. 1 0 - 5 .4 7
4. 4 1 - 5 .4 9
_
_
_
4. 1 3 - 4 .8 9
4. 1 0 - 5. 74
4. 5 0 - 5 .7 5
_
4. 0 5 - 4 .7 7
4. 0 7 - 5. 36
4. 5 4 - 5. 96
4. 0 7 - 6. 90
4. 0 7 - 4 . 71
4. 0 4 - 4. 94
4. 0 8 - 5 .4 1
4. 0 6 - 4. 93
4. 1 8 - 4 .8 6

5 .8 0
7 .5 9
8 .2 7
7. 31
5. 17
5. 11
5. 65
5. 57
5. 16
5 .2 6
5. 06

6 .3 9
8. 36
8. 55
7. 54
7. 36
5. 73
7 .3 7
6 .2 1
5. 90
6. 50
5. 51

_
_

5.0 1
5. 01
5. 01
5. 16
5. 09
5. 11
5. 14

5 .2 6 5 .2 6 5. 3 6 5. 0 3 5. 0 6 5 .4 6 5 .4 6 5. 0 9 5. 0 9 5. 1 3 5. 5 9 5. 3 6 5. 9 8 5. 1 1 5. 0 4 5. 1 1 5. 3 1 5. 0 1 5. 0 7 4. 9 6 _
-

5. 0 1 5. 0 1 4 .7 3 5. 1 6 5. 0 6 5. 0 6 5. 0 6 -

5 .3 9
5. 65
5. 76
5. 11
5. 11
5 .4 6
5 .4 7
5. 11
5. 11

_
_

5. 01
5 .2 1
5. 01
5 .2 1
5 .7 1
5 .7 9
5. 78

N u m b er
of
w orke r s
81
74
113
92
21
51
41
41
65
51
8
32
56
56
_
51
52 9
55
_
313
85
101
20
_
10
-

_

25
19
_
_
_
_
-

M ountain
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M edian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
00
3. 95
_
4. 32
4. 39
4. 02
4. 95
4 .4 4
4. 44
4. 80
4 .8 5
_
3. 70
4. 46
4. 91
4. 91
_
3 .8 7
4. 78
4. 56
_
_
4 .8 5
4. 99
5.2 1
3. 60

p.

.

_
_
_
4. 08
_
_
_

4 . 66
4 . 56
_
-

_
_
_

$3. 30
3. 30
4. 35
3. 65
4 .3 5
5. 42
4. 57
4. 57
4 .8 2
4. 82
_
_
4. 94
4 .8 2
4 .8 2
_
3 .8 5
5. 36
5 .3 9
_
5 .0 3
5 .2 9
5. 37
3 .2 0
_
_
_
_
_

4 .8 6
4 .8 6
_
_

$3. 3 0 -$ 4 . 81
3. 3 0 - 4. 35
3. 3 0 - 5 .2 6
3. 3 0 - 5. 49
3. 0 8 - 4. 81
4. 5 0 - 5. 74
4. 0 3 - 5. 06
4. 0 3 - 5. 06
4. 3 1 - 5. 51
4 . 3 1 - 5. 51
_
_
_
4. 1 6 - 5.0 1
4 .2 1 - 5. 96
4 .2 1 - 5. 96
_
_
3. 0 8 - 4. 90
4. 5 0 - 5. 39
3. 1 0- 5. 39
_
_
_
4. 5 0 - 5. 51
4. 7 0 - 5 .2 9
5. 2 6 - 5. 37
3 .2 0 - 4. 51
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_

4. 7 5 - 5 .41
3 .7 8 - 5. 61
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

_
_

-

-

_
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

7
14
_

“

5. 07

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

4. 26

.

_
_
_
_

_
_

_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

"

-

P a c ific
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

$5. 67
5 .7 4
5 .7 5
5 .8 7
5. 94
5. 98
5. 44
5.21
5.2 1
5 .8 5
5 .8 7
5.82
5 .8 7
5 .3 5
5 .9 5
5. 95
5. 96
5. 13
5 .8 3
6. 00
6. 04
5 .7 9
5. 69
5. 90
5 .4 5
_
5. 62
5 .2 3
5 .6 3
5. 90
"

78
10
44
287
162
41
89
75
70
136
66
47
23
86
77
60
17
70
289
47
15
214
44
209
69
_
30
25
35
10
-

_

64
-

38
22
8
14
18
-

49
21
23

_
_

_

'

$5. 61
-

5. 61
5. 90
5. 90
6. 01
5. 31
5. 11
5. 06
5 .8 6
5 .8 6
5. 61
6. 00
5 .2 5
5 .8 6
5 .8 6
5 .8 3
5 .2 4
5.7 1
-

5. 71
6. 44
5. 66
5 .8 6
6. 05
5 .41
_
5. 68
5 .2 5
6. 05
_

_

5. 1 6 5 .2 1 5. 1 4 -

_

6. 05
5 .2 5
6. 05
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

5. 55
5. 72
5. 18
5. 18
5. 18
5 .7 8

5.4 1
6. 05
5 .2 1

5. 1 6 - 6. 05
5 .4 1 - 6. 05
5. 1 3 - 5.21

6. 05

5. 46— 6. 05

5 .8 3
5. 53
5. 46

6. 00
5.2 5
5 .2 5

5. 3 6 - 6. 05
5. 1 1 - 6. 05
5. 0 8 - 6. 00

-

_
_

_
-

-

_

.

_

_

_

-

_
-

_

14

4. 99
_

-

-

-

"

_

$5. 60—$5. 68
5 .6 1 - 6. 00
5 .8 6 - 6. 01
5 .8 6 - 5. 90
5 .8 6 - 6. 05
5 .3 1 - 5. 76
5. 0 1 - 5. 31
5. 0 1 - 5.41
5. 5 6 - 6. 04
5 .8 6 - 6. 04
5. 5 6 - 6. 05
5. 6 3 - 6. 00
5. 0 1 - 5. 77
5 .8 6 - 6. 05
5. 8 6 - 6. 02
5 .8 3 - 6 .2 0
4 .8 6 - 5 .2 4
5. 6 6 - 5. 90
5. 7 1 - 6. 44
5 .7 1 - 6. 44
5 .6 6 - 5. 90
5 .3 1 - 5. 94
5 .8 6 - 6. 05
5. 3 7 - 5. 54

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x
w o rk e rs
C u rin g , sm o k in g , cooking, an d cannings—C o n tin ued
H a n g e rs, b e l l i e s ---------M ix e rs o p e r a t o r s --------P ic k le m a k e r s -------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r t e r y p u m p in g )-----S aug ag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r)----------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ---------------M e n --------------------------------------------W om en -------------------------------------S m o k e rs ---------------------------------------------S a u g a g e sO th e r th a n s a u g a g e s C o m b in a tio n o f s a u g a g e s an d o th e r p ro d u c ts S p ice w e ig h e rs an d m i x e r s ---------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , fra n k f u r te r s ■
M e n --------------------S tu ffe rs , sa u g ag e M e n ------------N a tu ra l c a s in g s A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s iz e r
A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a sin g s iz e r ---------C o m b in a tio n o f n a tu r a l an d a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y --------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i l e r -----------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ---M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )---M illw r ig h ts -------------------------------------------------W e ld e rs, h an d C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ----------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t---------------------------J a n ito r s ---------------------------------------M en W om en -L u g g e rs ---------B e e f, h a n d B eef, m a c h in e ----------------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , h a n d -----------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , m a c h i n e ----------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ---------------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W om en S to w e rs, c a r an d tru c k
T r u c k d r iv e r s -----------------S e m i-o r t r a i l e r -------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r
C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ----------F o r k l i f t ----------------------O th e r th a n fo rk lift -




249
249
119
278
267
377
637
378
259
672
206
226
240
149
106
43
273
191
82
683
481
202
114
93
122
354
42 9
585
187
469
2, 409
433
200
311
839
3, 977
664
591
73
1, 990
1, 119
247
458
166
2, 911
1, 951
960
858
4, 535
842
2, 714
979
1, 502
906
596

U n ited S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
$4. 51
4. 17
4. 86
4 .4 0
4. 00
4. 80
4. 69
5. 03
4. 18
4 .2 5
4 . 57
4 . 70
3. 56
4. 16
4. 31
3 .8 1
4 . 19
4 . 54
3 .3 9
4. 55
5. 12
3. 17
4 .6 6
4 . 03
3 .8 2
4. 90
5. 70
5 .2 9
5. 06
6 .2 1
4. 85
4. 98
5. 70
5. 58
4. 63
4. 37
4. 13
4 .2 1
3 .4 8
4. 47
4. 51
4. 66
4. 16
4 .8 4
4 .2 1
4 .4 3
3. 75
4 . 00
4 .6 6
5. 01
4 .2 3
5. 52
4 . 91
4. 71
5 .2 2

$4. 76
4 .4 0
5. 11
4. 99
4. 15
5.2 1
4. 98
5. 06
4. 63
4. 44
5. 01
5. 19
3. 33
4. 40
4 .7 5
3 .2 4
4 .7 5
4. 96
2. 82
4. 89
5. 16
2 .7 5
5. 08
4 .8 5
3. 64
5. 05
5. 76
5 .4 9
5 .2 9
6. 41
5. 06
5. 36
5 .7 1
5.8 1
5. 03
4 .7 1
4 .7 4
4 .8 4
2. 96
4 .8 2
4. 67
5. 03
4 .2 4
5. 11
4. 67
4. 76
3. 66
3. 97
5. 01
5. 48
4. 09
5 .4 5
5. 01
5. 11
5. 01

$3. 2 0—$5. 11
3. 0 8 - 5. 06
3. 5 4 - 5 .2 1
3. 1 7 - 5. 11
2. 8 7 - 5. 05
3. 5 8 - 5. 93
3. 6 0 - 5. 52
4. 6 8 - 5 .8 4
2. 7 4 - 5. 00
3. 0 2 - 5 .2 1
3. 4 0 - 5 .2 6
3. 7 9 - 5 .2 6
2. 8 1 - 4. 30
3. 1 6 - 5. 01
3. 1 8 - 5. 01
3. 0 9 - 4 .7 8
2. 8 7 - 5. 16
3. 5 5 - 5. 16
2. 5 5 - 4 . 60
3. 2 6 - 5. 26
4. 1 0 - 5. 93
2. 3 0 - 4 . 11
2. 8 0 - 5 .9 3
2. 5 0 - 5. 16
2. 5 0 - 4 . 10
4. 0 0 - 5 .2 7
5. 2 9 - 6. 18
4. 7 3 - 6. 01
4. 8 3 - 5. 71
5. 8 1 - 6 .7 9
4. 0 0 - 5. 71
4. 3 4 - 5. 71
5. 7 1 - 5 .8 3
5. 1 6 - 5 .8 1
3. 9 5 - 5. 16
3. 4 5 - 4 . 96
3. 5 0 - 4. 86
3. 5 6 - 4 .8 6
2. 4 9 - 4 . 86
3. 9 0 - 5. 13
4.. 0 7 - 5. 16
4., 5 3 - 5. 31
3., 1 0 - 5. 10
4. 9 1 - 5. 11
3., 4 0 - 4. 96
3., 6 3 - 5. 01
2., 5 0 - 4. 94
2. 88— 5. 01
3,, 4 0 - 5 .6 6
4., 1 8 - 5. 97
3., 0 5 - 5. 51
4,, 9 7 - 6 .4 1
4,, 7 7 - 5. 16
4., 4 5 - 5. 16
4.. 9 1 - 5. 11

w o rk e rs
29
12
-

23
-

-

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
$ 4 .2 3
4. 27
4 . 57
_
-

33
15
8
7
7
34
23
11
_

4 . 63
_
4. 60
3. 97
3. 97
3 .9 7
_
4. 72
4 .8 3
4. 49
_

14
39
102
_
_
14
198
_
87
41
20
_
225
123
43
479
217
217
"

5. 17
4. 7 5
4. 66
_
_
4 .4 3
3. 86
_
4. 31
3. 74
5. 21

_

4 .2 6
4. 08
_
4. 19
5. 06
5. 71
4. 53
_
"

$4. 11
_
4 .8 8
_
-

5. 00
_
4. 92
-

_
5. 00
5. 09
_
_
-

_

$3. 6 4 -:$5. 00
_
_
_
_
_
4. 0 0 - 4. 98
_
_
_
3. 5 8 - 5. 16
_
_
3 .2 5 - 5. 56
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4. 1 6 - 5. 11
4. 6 0 - 5. 13
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

5. 09
_
4. 88
_
_
-

3. 9 3 4. 1 3 _
_
-

4. 50
_
4. 55
3. 66
4. 92

3. 1 8 _
3 .6 6 3. 2 0 4. 7 7 -

4. 67
4. 10
_
4. 39
5. 00
6. 05
4. 61
-

3. 5 0 3. 5 0 _
3. 5 5 4. 0 9 5. 1 0 4. 0 8 _
"

_

_

-

_

_

_

5 .2 3
_
5. 10
_
_
_
4. 53
_
_
_
4. 67
4. 08
6. 04

_

4 .8 3
4. 67
_
4 .8 3
6. 05
6. 36
4. 86
_
_

OI
w o rk e rs
25
7
17
14
23
70
25
45
55
_
_
41
18
19
8
_
63
14
49
_
_
_
46
28
42
27
140
_
_
95
218
34
20
_
48
46
-

_

108
56
312
166
141
105
105

B o rd e r S ta te s
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ran g e
$3.42
4. 00
3 .6 9
2. 95
3 .8 0
3. 57
3. 68
3. 51
3. 65
_
_
3 .2 5
3 .6 9
4 . 01
4. 53
_
3 .3 8
4. 36
3. 11
_
_
_
3. 34
4. 73
4. 60
_
5. 18
3 .8 8
_
_
4 .4 5
3 .2 6
2 .8 7
3. 14
_
4. 07
4. 09
-

_

3 .2 9
4. 31
_
_
4. 37
3. 97
4. 77
3. 63
3. 63

$3. 08
_
3. 73
_
3. 32
2. 74
3. 60
2 .7 4
2 .9 1
_
_
2 .9 1
3. 18
_
_
3. 73
_
_
3 .2 8
_
2 .3 5
_
_
_
3. 28
5. 13
4 .2 0
_
5 .2 9
3 .7 2
_
_
5. 08
2 .8 3
2 .4 9
2 .4 9
_
3 .4 0
3. 40
-

_

2 .8 1
4 .7 0
_
_
4. 93
3. 68
4. 93
2. 65
2. 65
-

$2. 48—$4. 76
_
_
2. 7 0 - 4. 83
_
_
3. 3 2 - 4. 93
2. 7 4 - 4. 75
2. 7 4 - 4 .7 7
2. 7 4 - 4 .7 5
2. 9 1 - 5. 08
_
_
_
_
2. 9 1 - 3. 73
3. 1 8 - 4 .2 9
_
_
_
_
3 .2 2 - 4. 75
_
_
_
_
2. 3 0 - 4. 39
_
_
2. 3 0 - 4. 36
_
_
_
.
_
_
2. 30 4. 36
4 .2 0 - 5.2 7
4. 2 0 - 5. 32
_
_
5 r l3 — 5 .2 9
3. 6 2 - 4. 38
_
_
_
_
3 .4 5 - 5. 10
2. 8 3 - 4. 07
2. 4 9 - 2 .4 9
2 .2 0 - 4. 09
_
_
3. 1 3 - 6. 10
2. 5 8 - 6. 10
-

.

2. 1 0 4. 4 4 _
.
3. 6 0 2. 5 0 4. 9 3 2. 6 5 2. 6 5 "

.

4. 70
4 .8 5
_
_
5. 01
6. 36
5. 01
4. 75
4. 75
-

(N u m b e r an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a n in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in se le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s a n d s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , an d c a n n in g — C o n tin u ed
P ic k le m a k e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ---------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r te r y p u m p in g )--------------------------------S aug ag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r)--------------------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------S a u g a g e s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u g a g e s -------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of sa u g a g e s an d o th e r p r o d u c t s ------S p ice w e ig h e rs and m i x e r s -----------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s --------------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u g a g e ----------------------------------------------------------M en ----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s in g s ---------------------------------------------------------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s i z e r ----------------------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a s in g s i z e r -----------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu r a l an d a r ti f ic ia l c a s in g s ------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -------------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y --------------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i l e r -----------------------------------------M a c h in ists m a in te n a n c e ------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u tility ------------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) -----------------------M illw r ig h ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------W e ld e rs, h a n d ----------------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n ts:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ---------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t--------------------------------------------------------------J a n i t o r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------- —
M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------■
W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs 3 ------------ — ------------------------------------------------------- B eef, h a n d -----------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, m a c h in e ----------------------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , h a n d ------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , m a c h in e ------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g -------- -- - — — -- — - M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r an d t r u c k ------------------------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------S e m i - o r t r a i l e r -------------------------------------------------- j—
O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r -----------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of t y p e s -----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r------------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift ---------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n f o r k li f t-----------------------------------------------------




S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

M ean

M e d ia n

M iddle ra n g e

64
47
15
40
68
67
116
64
52
153
52
38
63
41
28
13
79
31
48
133
30
103
21
62
20
14
37
16

$3. 10
3. 10
3. 00
3. 07
2 .8 4
2 .9 9
3. 31
3. 68
2 .8 6
3. 05
3 .0 4
3 .2 2
2 .9 5
2. 90
2 .8 6
2 . 98
3. 10
3 .0 5
3. 13
2 .8 2
3 .6 3
2. 58
2 .7 9
2. 98
2 .8 8
4 .7 6
4 .7 9
3 .7 1

$3. 11
2 .8 7
2 .8 0
2. 90
2 .8 1
3. 00
3. 17
3 .9 0
2 . 50
2 .9 4
3 .0 2
2. 97
2 .8 5
2 .8 5
2 . 55
2 .8 2
3. 00
2 .7 9
2 . 50
3 .2 4
2 . 50
2. 50
2 . 50
2. 84

$2. 75—$3. 23
2 .6 4 - 3 .2 5
2 .2 7 - 3 .4 3
2. 7 0 - 3 .2 2
2 . 3 0 - 3 .2 9
2. 5 0 - 3 .3 3
2. 5 0 - 3. 95
2. 9 7 - 3. 95
2. 3 8 - 3. 17
2 . 6 4 - 3. 33
2. 5 0 - 3. 35
2. 8 5 - 3 .3 5
2. 5 8 - 3. 31
2 . 5 5 - 3 .2 2
2 .4 0 - 3 .2 2
2 .4 0 - 3. 33
2. 3 0 - 3. 41
2 . 4 8 - 2 .8 7
2 .2 5 - 3 .0 5
2. 5 0 - 3 .8 2
2 .2 5 - 2. 80
2 .4 0 - 3 .2 4
2 .2 5 - 3. 11
2. 7 5 - 3. 04
3 .6 9 - 5. 57
2 .8 0 - 3. 90
3 .2 0 - 4. 10
3. 1 5 - 5. 66
2. 7 2 - 4. 86
2 .6 0 - 3 .2 9
2. 5 0 - 3 .0 9
2 . 5 0 - 3 .2 8
2 . 6 0 - 2 .9 6
2. 6 4 - 4 . 05
3 .2 0 - 3 .6 5
2 . 6 4 - 5. 06

-

-

2 58
101
8

3. 76
4. 56
3. 94

189
465
93
77
16
146
17
106

3. 58
3. 15
2 .9 0
2. 93
2 .7 6
3. 61
3. 58
3. 75
_
2 .8 4
3 .2 5
2 . 55
3 .0 5
3 .2 6
3. 98
3. 18
3. 74
3 .3 9

263
106
157
179
792
54
690
97
72
■

5. 57
3 .3 0
3. 48
5 .4 6
3 .4 0
2 .9 1
2 . 52
2 .5 2
2 .6 0
3. 65
3 .6 5
3 .8 3
2 . 55
2 .9 1
2 . 38
3 .0 9
3. 17
3 .2 0
3. 17
3 .3 6
3. 35
"

2. 3 0 2. 5 8 2. 142. 6 5 2 .7 1 3. 2 0 2 .7 1 2 .8 7 2. 78-

3. 00
3 .2 8
2 . 55
3 .2 0
3 .4 9
5. 54
3 .4 9
4 .7 7
3. 36
~

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
19
24
14
42
28
29
44
11
33
66
12
17
37
8
26
18
31
25
6
10
6
9
35
60
15
241
34
17
78
328
58
53
2 52
98
43
107
421
283
138
79
454
97
341
91
71
"

South we st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean

M ed ian

M iddle ra n g e

$ 3 .2 6
3. 11
3. 13
3. 04
2 .7 5
3. 54
4 .0 0
2 .8 3
4. 39
3 .2 0
4 . 07
3. 32
2 .8 6
3 .9 0
3. 04
3 .2 9
3. 30
3. 61
2. 00
2. 67
3. 59
4 . 35

$ 2 .9 4
2 .9 5
2 .8 1
2 .7 3
3. 00
4. 63

$2. 68-:$3.60
2 .5 0 - 3. 10
2. 5 0 - 3. 16
2. 5 0 - 2. 89
2 . 9 4 - 4. 10
2 .9 0 - 4. 71

4 .8 7
4 .2 9
4. 94
3. 87
4 .2 1
5. 08
3 .9 3
3 .3 1
3 .8 0
3. 97
3 .6 5
3. 15
4 . 57
3 .7 8
3 .2 9
3 .4 9
2 .8 7
2. 99
3 .0 5
2. 77
3. 12
4 .2 7
4. 50
"

-

4 .6 3
2 .8 3
2 . 50
2 .8 1
2. 53
2 .9 6
3. 00
3. 16
5. 17
4 .2 5
5. 08
3 .8 0
3 .9 8
5 .8 1
3. 90
3. 00
3 .8 3
4 . 17
3. 34
3. 12
4. 67
3. 36
3. 15
3. 15
2 . 94
2. 94
3. 00
2 .3 5
3 .0 0
4 .7 8
5. 11

-

4. 6 3 2. 5 1 2. 5 0 2. 6 0 2. 3 6 2. 3 6 2. 3 8 2. 9 4 4. 1 6 3 .7 6 5. 0 8 2 .9 6 3 .4 9 4 .2 0 -

-

2 .8 1 2. 3 0 2 .9 6 3. 1 2 2 .7 6 2 .4 5 4. 6 72 .8 5 -

4. 96
3. 36
4 .8 8
3. 00
2. 97
4. 58
4. 34
4 .8 3
5. 48
5 .3 5
5. 34
5.2 1
5.2 1
5 .8 1
5. 07
4 .4 0
4 .8 6
4 . 86
5. 01
3 .3 5
5. 13
5. 11

2. 5 0 2. 6 6 2 .3 5 2 .2 0 2. 5 0 2 .2 4 2. 7 5 3. 16_
4 .6 3 "

4. 35
4. 49
3. 15
3. 15
3 .4 7
3. 56
3 .4 7
5. 11
5. 11
~

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
59
71
35
43
81
66
162
52
158
40
53
65
33
29
65
57
8
221
199
22
23
29
137
98
105
73
520
107
46
38
117

780
121
115
6
269
200
29
424
353
71
97
926
143
592
191
261
145
“

G re a t L a k e s
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
$5. 13
4 .7 1
5 .7 5
5. 13
4 .8 6
5. 57
5 .2 9
4. 51
4 .8 9
5. 15
5. 33
4 .3 7
5. 00
5. 00
5. 16
5. 28
4 . 37
5. 22
5 .2 5
4 . 91
5 .8 5
5 .2 9
5. 37
6. 12
5. 76
5. 02
5. 10
5. 44
5. 70
6 .2 8
5 .4 0
4 .8 9
4 . 14
4 .1 3
4 . 32
4 . 94
4 .9 3
4 .9 1
4 .2 7
4 .2 5
4 .3 5
4 . 64
5 .0 3
4 .7 7
5. 02
5. 26
5. 49
5 .0 6
"

$ 4 .7 6
4 .8 1
5. 14
5. 06
5 .0 5
5 .2 6
5. 36
4 .8 4
5. 01
5. 16
5. 19
4. 30
4. 94
4. 94
5. 11
5. 11
5. 11
5. 11
5. 04
6. 35
5. 16
5. 16
6. 71
5 .7 0
5 .2 6
5 .2 9
5. 46
5 .71
6. 52
4. 91
4 . 91
4 .7 1
4 .7 1
4 .8 4
4 .8 2
4 .9 1
4. 74
4 . 74
5. 03
4 .8 1
5 .3 9
5. 15
5 .2 9
5 .4 5
5. 16
5. 16

$4. 71—$5. 21
4 .0 3 - 5 .0 6
4. 9 4 - 5. 76
4 .8 1 - 5. 18
4 .8 6 - 5 .0 5
4. 9 9 - 6. 13
4 .9 8 - 6 .0 0
3 .3 1 - 5. 15
4. 1 5 - 5.2 8
4 .6 8 - 6 .5 5
5. 1 4 - 5. 46
3. 7 9 - 4. 96
4 .4 0 - 5 .0 5
4. 4 0 - 5. 05
4 .9 6 - 5.2 8
4 .9 6 - 5 .28
4. 1 0 - 6. 09
4. 1 0 - 6. 12
4. 7 6 - 5. 16
5. 5 3 - 6. 58
5. 0 1 - 5. 16
4 .8 9 - 6 .0 9
5 .4 9 - 6 .8 2
5. 4 9 - 6. 12
4. 1 0 - 5 .7 3
4 .7 5 - 5 .5 5
5 .3 6 - 5 .71
5 .4 4 - 5.8 8
5 .8 1 - 6 .7 9
4 .6 0 - 5 .82
4 .6 2 - 5 .0 3
3. 5 2 - 4. 86
3. 5 2 - 4. 86
4 .8 2 - 5 .0 3
4 .6 0 - 5 .3 6
4 .8 4 - 4 .9 6
3. 5 0 3. 5 0 3 .6 3 3. 9 1 5. 0 4 3. 6 9 5 .0 4 5 .2 7 4 .8 1 4 .8 1 -

4. 97
4 .9 6
5 .0 8
5. 18
5. 54
5. 54
5 .5 4
5 .9 5
6 .0 2
5. 16
“

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x

N um ber

M iddle W est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1

M o u ntain

w o rk e rs
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , an d can n in g —C o n tin ued
H a n g e rs, b e llie s -----------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s -----------------------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e r s --------------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e -------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r t e r y p u m p in g )--------------------------------S aug ag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r)------------------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------S a u g a g e s -------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u g a g e s -----------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u g a g e s an d o th e r p ro d u c ts ------S p ice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e r s -----------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s -------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u g a g e --------------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s in g s -------------------------------------------------------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s i z e r --------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a sin g s i z e r ---------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu r a l an d a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s -----M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y ------------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tin n a r y b o i l e r ---------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e -------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u tility ----------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )-----------------------M illw rig h ts -----------------------------------------------------------------W e ld e rs, h a n d --------------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ---------------------------------- ---------------------J a n ito r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, h a n d ---------------------------------------------------------------B eef, m a c h in e ------------------------- ;------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g co m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , h a n d -----------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f
an d o th e r m e a ts , m a c h in e ----------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g -------------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r an d t r u c k ----------------------------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------S e m i- o r t r a i l e r ----------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ----------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r----------------------------------------------------------F o r k l i f t --------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n f o r k l i f t --------------------------------------------------

M ean

M ed ian

M id d le ]r an g e

64
40
40
77
22
63
189
138
51
159
68
79
12
26
19
7
49
47
132
121
11
10
12
14
96 .

$ 5 .6 4
5 .3 1
5 .4 8
5. 31
4 .9 0
5. 56
5. 68
5. 59
5. 94
5 .2 3
5 .3 1
5. 18
5. 10
5. 07
5 .2 4
4 .6 1
5 .2 5
5 .2 6
5 .7 3
5 .8 2
4 .8 3
6 .2 5
5 .4 0
6 .7 0
5. 58

$5. 06
5. 09
5 .2 1
5. 06
4 .6 0
5 .2 6
5 .2 2
5 .3 9
5. 01
5 .2 1
5 .2 1
5 .2 1
5 .0 1
5 .0 1
5. 16
5. 16
5. 16
5 .2 0
_
_
5. 16
5 .7 6
5 .8 5
5 .6 1
5 .9 1
5. 14
5 .7 1
5. 71
5 .8 1
5. 16
4. 91
4 .8 6
4. 86
4. 86
4 .7 2
4. 53
4 .8 5
5. 11

$ 4 .9 8 5 .0 1 5. 1 9 5. 0 6 4. 0 4 5. 1 2 5 .0 1 5 .0 1 4. 9 9 5 .1 9 5 .2 0 5. 1 9 4. 9 7 5 .0 1 5 .0 6 5 .0 6 5. 1 6 5. 1 6 _
_
5. 1 6 -

209
219
59
175
656
57
115
198
259
1, 257
312
287
25
793
497
114
86
96
1, 066
690
376
254
539
108
278
153
903
474
429

5 .8 6
5. 57
5. 59
6. 07
5. 07
5 .6 6
5 .9 4
5. 66
5. 16
4 .9 5
4 . 70
4 . 68
4 .8 7
4 .6 5
4 . 52
4 .7 5
4 .7 4
5. 15
4 .8 3
4 . 92
4 .6 5
5 .0 9
5. 16
5 .0 9
5. 02
5 .4 6
5 .0 9
5. 08
5. 11

5. 11
4 . 96
4 . 96
4 .9 4
5 .0 3
5 .3 1
5 .4 1
5 .3 1
5 .2 0
5. 06
5. 11
5 .0 1

5 .7 6 5. 0 9 5 .4 6 5 .8 1 4 .4 3 5 .4 8 5 .7 1 5 .8 1 5. 1 0 4 .3 7 4 .8 6 4 .8 4 4 .8 6 4 .2 4 4. 1 2 4. 5 3 4 .2 4 5. 1 1 3 .9 1 3. 9 1 3 .7 9 5 .0 1 4. 5 4 4 .3 0 4 .3 0 4 .9 7 4. 9 6 5 .0 6 4. 91-

6. 68
5 .3 2
5 .2 1
5. 11
4 .8 8
5 .7 3
6 .2 4
6 .0 3
6 .7 4
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5 .0 1
5. 16
5 .2 3
5 .2 3
6 .3 5
6. 47
_
6. 04
6. 06
6 .0 1
5 .8 6
6 .4 5
5 .7 1
5 .8 1
5 .9 1
5 .8 1
5 .2 1
5 .0 1
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
4 . 91
5. 12
4 .9 4
5 .3 1
5 .3 1
5. 11
5 .0 1
5. 11
4 .9 6
5. 11
5 .8 3
5 .7 0
5 .8 3
6. 19
5. 16
5. 16
5 .0 1

1
E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e an d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, an d la te sh ifts,
M ed ian an d m id d le ra n g e s a r e n o t p ro v id e d fo r o cc u p a tio n s w ith fe w e r th an 15 w o rk e rs .




N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
6
11
19
15
31
_
24
18
_
_
9
14
9
15
15
_
6
_
18
56
_
237
17
24
26
366
22
16
211
101
58

P a c ific

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle :r an g e
$ 4 .4 9
4 . 04
4 .2 3
4 . 04
3 .9 5
3. 62
3 .9 9
_
_
3 .0 4
3 .7 5
3. 32
3 .6 6
3 .6 6
_
_
3. 17
_
5 .4 6
5 .2 0
_
_
5 .2 0
4 .2 0

-

5 .2 4

_
_
_
$4 .3 1
4. 13
5 .0 1
_
2 .8 3
3. 99
_
_
_
_
_
4 . 13
4 . 13
_
_
_
_
5 .7 9
4. 92
_
_
5. 19
4 . 16

-

5 .8 1
5.2 1
4 .7 9
3. 10
4 . 32
_
5. 02
4 .8 2
5. 46

49

4 .9 9
4 . 37
3 .4 9
3 .9 6
_
4. 73
4 .6 7
4 . 81
4 .7 5

109
56

3. 40
4 .4 0

2 .8 5
4 . 54

80
220
7
153
60
25
23

4 . 08
4 .3 6
3 .8 2
4 . 17
4 . 92
4 . 67
4 . 64

4 . 79
4 .2 5
_
4 .2 1
5 .4 0
5 .0 7
5. 07

_

-

"

_

_

_

4 .9 6

_

_

"

_
_
_
$ 3 .3 3 3. 1 8 2 .4 5 _
2 .4 5 2 .9 8 _
_
_
_
_
_
2 .7 0 2. 7 0 _
_
_
_
5. 1 6 4. 77_
_
4 .6 6 3. 1 0 _
4 .2 0 5. 0 3 3 .7 5 2 .4 9 3. 0 0 -

_

_
_
_
5 .4 5
4. 63
5. 11
_
5. 12
5 .2 6
_
_
_
_
_
4 .3 1
4 .3 1
_
_
_
_
6. 18
6 .2 3
_
_
6. 11
5. 00

_

6. 18
5 .3 6
4. 92
4. 32
4. 46

_

4 . 0 3 - 5 .4 6
3. 5 0 - 5 .4 7
3 .2 0 - 5 .4 6
4 . 0 3 - 5. 02

.

2. 353. 5 0 _
2. 7 3 4. 00_
3 .9 2 4. 31 4. 5 4 4. 5 4 -

_

4 . 54
5. 19
_
4 . 92
4 .7 8
_
4. 51
5 .4 5
5. 11
5. 14

_

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle :r an g e

21
_
_
_
_
_
14
14
_
25
_
_
_
15
15
_
14
14
I
_
_
_
_

$5. 17
_
_
_
_
_
5. 02
5. 02
_
5 .2 6
_
_
_
5. 01
5 .0 1
_
5. 08
5. 08
I
_
_
_
_

$5. 15
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5 .2 6
_
_
5. 01
5 .0 1
_
_
-

-

13
19
_
_
241
41

6. 17
6 .3 3
_
_
6. 19
5 .4 6

_

_

61
335
12
12
_
134
115
-

_

_

_
_
_
_

$5. 0 1 _
_
.
_
_

_

5.3 1
_
_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
5 .2 6 - 5 .2 6
_
_
_
_
_
_
4. 7 6 - 5. 30
4 .7 6 - 5 .3 0
_
_
_
_
I
I
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_

_

6. 02
5 .8 0

_
6. 0 2 _
_
5 .8 6 4. 5 7 -

5. 31
4 .8 6
4 .8 7
4 .8 7

~
5.2 1
4. 91

5. 1 6- 5. 36
4 .7 6 - 5 .0 0

5. 30
5. 33
-

5. 16
5. 16
-

5. 1 6 - 5 .3 6
5. 1 6 - 5 .4 1
-

_

_

_

_

6 .2 8

_
_
_

_

_
_
_

-

_

6 .6 0
_
_
6. 51
5 .8 8

-

_
_
_

291
280

5. 05
5 .0 6

5. 11
5. 11

5. 0 1 - 5. 15
5. 0 1 - 5. 15

777
211
267

6 .2 3
5 .7 3
5 .8 0

5. 97
5 .8 0
5 .6 6

5. 6 6 - 7 .2 0
5. 4 8 - 5. 97
5. 6 6 - 5 .8 6

11

5. 10

_
_

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_
~

_
_

_
_

_
.
_
"

_
_
_
“

2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E n g lan d re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w o rk e rs in c la s s ific a tio n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p arately *

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U nited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x

B e e f d r e s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d r e s s in g , p o w e r k n ife --------------------------F lo o r s m e n 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d r e s s in g , p o w e r k n ife --------------------------H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e --------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , b e e f 3 --------------------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic , h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e -b o lt p i s t o l -----------R u m p e rs 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife --------------------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f -------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b e e f 3 -------------------------------------------------------------P o w e r saw -----------------------------------------------------------------W a s h e r s , b e e f ---------------------------------------------------------------B eef c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------------------C h u ck s -----------------------------------------------------------------------L io n s , r ib s , o r ro u n d s --------------------------------------------S h an k s o r b r is k e ts ----------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ----------------------------------------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts ---------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u ts ----------------------------------------H a n d le rs , b e e f c u ts fo r b o n e rs -----------------------------------P o rk d r e s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs -----------------------------------------------------------------E v i s c e r a to r s , h o g ----------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog -----------------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , hog ---------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b a c k , p o r k 3 --------------------------------------------------P o w e r saw -----------------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , hog -----------------------------------------------------------------E le c tr ic sh o ck in g d e v ic e ---------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly tr i m m e r s -------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m ---------------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b oning ----------------------------------------------------C h ise l boning -------------------------------------------------------------M achin e boning ---------------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e ------------------------------------------------S kin only -------------------------------------------------------------------Skin and d e fa t ------------------------------------------------------------L io n p u lle r s -------------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s ----------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and c a n n in g :
C a s in g -p e e le r o p e ra to rs -----------------------------------------------M en ----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e to r t -----------------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s and b e llie s -------------------------------G re e n h a m s -----------------------------------------------------------------B e llie s -----------------------------------------------------------------------H a n g e rs , b e llie s ------------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs -------------------------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------P u m p e rs p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ------------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m (a r te r y p u m p in g ) -------------------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) ------------------------------------------




N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs
198
169
255
213
160
126
121
154
113
95
220
131
162
1, 184
166
374
137
507
408
280
128
120
160
184
80
512
116
113
81
78
255
1 ,2 0 8
933
247
28
187
70
117
175
500
274
226
183
90
93
78
213
93
110
160
132
83
160
52
165

U nited S ta te s 2
A v erag e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e
$4. 17
4 .1 6
4 .7 3
4 .7 9
4 .8 2
4 .4 3
4 .3 6
4 .7 3
4 .8 9
4 .4 2
5 .6 4
4 .9 7
4 . 16
5 .2 6
5 .61
5. 85
5 .3 4
4 .6 8
5.0 2
4 .9 5
4 .4 1
5.3 2
5 .2 6
5 .2 8
4 .5 7
5 .02
5.2 2
5.21
4 .4 7
4 . 52
5 .4 5
6 .8 6
6 .9 8
6.51
5 .8 0
5 .3 6
5 .3 3
5 .3 8
5 .5 2
5 .2 7
5 .4 9
5 .0 0
4 .4 2
4 .5 1
4 .3 3
5.27
5 .4 9
5 .4 3
5 .7 0
4 .7 5
4 . 68
5 .4 3
4 .7 4
3 .7 2
4 .9 6

$ 3 .5 5
3 .3 9
5. 11
5. 11
4 .7 2
4 .4 8
4 .4 3
4 .9 9
4 .9 9
4 .4 3
5 .9 6
5 .1 1
4 .3 0
4 .7 1
4 .7 1
4 .7 1
4 . 59
4 . 89
4 .3 5
4 .9 3
4 .4 6
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5 .3 6
5 .0 1
5 .0 9
5 .4 6
5 .4 6
4 .9 6
5.0 1
5 .2 6
7 .5 4
8 .2 2
6 .8 9
5 .4 1
5. 11
5 .0 6
5 .1 1
5.3 1
5 .0 6
5 .0 9
5 .0 2
4 .9 6
5 .0 1
4 .9 2
5. 16
5 .0 9
5 .0 9
5. 10
5 .0 0
5 .0 4
5 .2 1
5 .0 6
3 .2 2
5 .2 6

$3. 30—$5. 04
3 .3 0 - 5 .0 4
3 .3 0 - 5 .7 0
3 .3 5 - 5 .6 6
4 .2 1 - 5.7 1
3 .9 1 - 5 .0 6
3 .8 5 - 5 .0 6
3 .8 0 - 5 .4 7
4 .4 1 - 5 .4 6
4 .0 9 - 5.0 1
4 .6 6 — 7 .0 8
4 .0 4 - 5 .9 6
3 .8 2 - 4 .9 1
4 .0 7 - 5.4 1
4 .0 7 - 7 .3 2
4 .0 7 - 6 .6 3
4 .0 7 - 5.4 1
4 . 1 7 - 5 .0 8
4 .0 8 - 5 .4 1
4 .0 5 - 5 .2 6
3 .2 0 - 4 .8 6
5 .2 6— 5 .3 9
4 .9 1 - 5 .31
5 .0 6 — 5 .7 6
4 .4 1 - 5 .11
4 .9 6 - 5 .1 1
5 .1 6 — 5 .4 6
5 .1 6 — 5 .4 6
3 .2 3 - 5.1 1
3 .8 0 - 5 .1 1
5 .0 3 - 5 .9 8
5 .3 6 — 8 .3 3
5. 1 6 - 8 .4 6 1
5 .5 1 - 7 .4 3
3 .9 3 - 7 .8 2
5 .0 1 - 5 .71
5 .0 1 - 5 .4 6
5 .0 1 - 6.2 1
5 .2 6 — 5 .9 9
4 .9 6 — 5 .7 7
4 .9 6 - 6 .2 0
4 .9 6 — 5 .2 6
2 .9 6 - 5 .01
3 .1 3 - 5 .01
2 .9 6 — 5.0 1
5 .1 1 - 5 .21
5 .0 6 - 5 .7 8
5 .0 6 — 5 .8 0
5 .0 k - 5.8 1
3 .2 0 - 5 .5 2
4 .1 2 - 5. 16
5 .0 3 - 5 .2 5
4 .7 3 - 5 .1 1
2 .9 2 - 3 .7 5
3 .3 6 — 5 .4 9

N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs
9
10
21
14
13
21
14
11
10
88
24
25
29
19
26
17
10
27
28
21
80
20
20
24
21
46
124
104
22
9
13
31
49
22
56
18
38
20
9
9
45
28
7
29
30
38

S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e
$3. 53
-

3 .8 7
4 .3 3
3 .9 4
3 .9 9
4 .4 5
4 .3 0
4 .4 1
3 .4 3
5 .2 6
5. 14
5 .9 0
5 .3 3
4 . 14
4 . 07
3 .2 7
4 . 18
3 .9 8
3 .9 5
3 .5 5
3 . 78
3 .8 2
3 .8 2
3 .4 5
3 .4 9
4 . 16
3 . 85
3 .6 2
4 .2 3
4 .9 7
3 .7 1
3 .9 7
3 .2 6
3 .9 1
3 .0 8
2 .9 3
3 .1 5
4 .4 1
4 . 61
4 . 54
3 .2 5
3 .3 4
3 . 54
3 . 14
3 .3 6
3 .2 8

-

$ 3 .3 0
4 .9 2
-

-

5 .1 7
5 .2 4
5 .3 1
5 .2 2
3 .3 5
3 .6 3
3 .1 1
3 .8 3
3 .3 5
3 .0 9
3 .2 7
3 .2 6
3 .2 6
3 .1 2
3 .0 9
4 .9 1
3 .6 5
3 .3 6
3 .6 5
3 .3 5
2 .8 7
3 .9 9
2 .9 4
2 .9 1
2 .9 6
3 .9 2
-

3 .1 1
3 .1 4
2 .9 2
3 .4 9
3 . 14

-

-

-

$ 3 .3 0 —$5. 52
3 .4 4 - 5 .2 7
3 .3 5 - 6 .1 3
3 .3 5 - 6 .1 0
3 .3 5 - 6 .2 1
3 .6 5 - 6 .9 5
3 .2 5 - 5.3 1
3 .2 5 - 5 .0 7
2 .3 0 - 3 .8 0
3 .2 9 - 4 .9 1
3 .0 8 - 5 .0 6
2 .8 1 - 4 .6 1
3 .1 5 - 4 .7 6
3 .0 3 - 5 .1 1
3 .0 3 - 5.1 1
3 .0 4 - 3 .9 5
3 .0 4 r- 3 .9 5
3 .2 2 - 4 .9 1
3 . 1 4 - 4 .0 5
2 .9 8 - 4 .0 5
3 .0 9 — 4 .9 7
_
3 .0 5 — 4 .9 6
2 .7 5 - 3 .2 3
3 .0 7 - 4 .7 6
2 .8 2 - 3 .1 0
2 .8 8 - 3 .1 3
2 .8 2 - 3 .0 9
2 .9 3 - 4 .7 6
-

2 .8 0 2 .8 7 2 .7 0 2 .9 2 3 .0 0 -

3 .2 2
3 .2 9
3 .1 6
3 .7 5
3 .6 1

N um ber
of
W o rk e rs

M iddle W est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

69
66
102
90
77
56
54
58
50
58
77
67
84

$ 5 .0 8
5 .0 5
5 .0 4
5 .0 1
4 . 63
4 . 52
4 .4 7
4 .8 9
4 .9 4
4 . 56
4 .9 3
5 .0 6
4 .4 1

$ 5 .0 4
5 .0 4
5. 15
5 .1 5
4 .5 6
4 .3 7
4 .3 5
4 .8 3
4 .8 3
4 .3 6
5. 10
5. 10
4 .3 5

646
107
247
95
197
291
167
44
66
76
85
26
286
58
58
28
28
115
540
343
185
86
33
53
93
309
146
163
46
19
27
46
133
57
73
54
37
36
70
50

5. 53
5.6 1
6 .3 4
. 5. 11
4 .6 6
4 .9 3
4 .9 9
4 .7 5
5 .6 0
5 .7 3
5 .8 4
5. 17
5 .4 2
5 .7 1
5.7 1
5 .2 8
5 .2 8
6 .0 6
7 .4 8
7 .7 6
6 .9 3
6 .0 5
5 .7 4
6 .2 5
6.0 1
5. 64
5 .8 7
5 .4 3
5 .2 7
5 .3 2
5 .2 3
5 .3 2
5 .6 7
5. 61
5 .7 3
5 .9 0
5 .3 8
5 .6 2
5 .4 3
5. 82

4 .5 4
4 .7 1
4 .7 1
4 . 59
4 .5 0
4 . 18
4 .9 3
4 .6 0
5.3 1
5 .2 6
5 .3 6
5. 11
5. 11
5 .4 6
5 .4 6
5. 11
5. 11

$4. 53—$5. 71
4 .5 3 - 5.7 1
4 .1 9 - 5 .5 7
4 .1 0 - 5 .2 9
4 .2 1 - 4 .7 5
4 .2 3 - 5 .0 6
4 .2 3 - 4 .9 5
4 .4 1 - 5 .5 6
4 .4 3 - 5 .5 4
4 .2 3 - 5.01
4 .6 1 - 5 .9 6
4 . 66— 5 .9 6
4 .1 3 - 4 .9 1
4 .1 7 - 5 .5 4
4 .5 4 - 6 .97
4 .2 7 - 8 .3 4
4 .0 7 - 4 .7 1
4 .1 7 - 4 .9 7
4 .0 8 - 5.41
4 . 1 7 - 5 .1 9
4 .1 8 - 4 .8 6
5. 2 6— 5.41
5 .2 6 - 5 .6 5
5 .3 6 — 6. 13
5. 1 1 - 5.11
5 .0 6— 5.1 7
5 .4 6 - 5 .4 8
5 .4 6 — 5 .4 8
5 .1 1 - 5.2 7
5 .1 1 - 5.27

5 .9 3
7 .6 1
8 .3 0
7 .3 1
5 .2 2
5. 16
5 .6 5
5 .5 7
5 .2 5
5 .2 6
5 .0 6
5 .0 1
5.0 1
5 .0 1
5. 16
5. 11
5. 11
5 .1 6
5 .4 0
5. 11
5.2 1
5 .0 6
5 .3 1

5 .2 k - 6.4 3
5 .9 7 - 8 .3 8
5 .6 8 - 8 .5 5
5 .9 5 - 7 .5 6
5 .1 1 - 7 .3 6
5 .0 6 - 5 .7 6
5 .1 1 - 7 .3 7
5 .3 1 - 6.21
5 .0 1 - 5.9 1
5 .0 7 - 6 .5 0
4 .9 6 — 5.51
5 .0 1 — 5 .21
5 .0 1 - 5.52
5 .0 1 - 5 .01
5 .1 6 - 5.21
5. 06— 5 .7 8
5 .0 6 - 5 .8 0
5 .0 6 — 5 .7 8
5 .0 6 - 6 .6 8
5 .0 1 - 5 .3 7
5 .2 1 - 5.21
5 .0 k - 5 .1 6
5 .2 6 - 6 .1 4

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U nited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and sex

B eef d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs -------------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d r e s s in g , p o w e r k n ife -------------------------F lo o rs m e n 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife ------------------------H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e --------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f 3 ------------------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic , h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e -b o lt p is to l ----------R u m p e rs 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------O n -th e -ra il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife -------------------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f ------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f 3 ------------------------------------------------------------P ow e r s a w -----------------------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f --------------------------------------------------------------B eef c u ttin g :
B o n e rs, b e e f ----------------------------------------------------------------C h u ck s --------------- --------------- —
L io n s, r ib s , o r r o u n d s -------------------------------------------S h an k s o r b r is k e ts --------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ----------------------------------------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts --------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u ts -----------------------------------------H a n d le rs , b e e f c u ts fo r b o n e rs ----------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B elly o p e n e rs ----------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog -----------------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , hog ---------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o r k 3 ------------------------------------------------P o w e r saw ---------------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , h o g -----------------------------------------------------------------E le c tr ic sh o ck in g d e v ic e -----------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B elly tr i m m e r s -------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m -----------------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le boning ---------------------------------------------------C h ise l b oning ------------------------------------------------------------M achin e boning -------------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e -----------------------------------------------Skin o n ly --------------------------------------------------------------------S kin and d e f a t------------------------------------------------------------L ion p u lle rs -------------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s ----------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ----------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and c an n in g :
C a sin g -p e e le r o p e ra to rs ----------------------------------------------M en ---------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t ------------------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e l l i e s -------------------------------G re e n h a m s ---------------------------------------------------------------B e llie s -----------------------------------------------------------------------H a n g e rs, b e llie s -----------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs -----------------------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e --------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m (a r te r y p u m p in g ) -------------------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) -------------------------------------------




N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs

S o uth w est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

58
46
24
25
32
32
43
21
18
29
29
36
233
187
58
31
32
6
13
-

$3.42
4 . 51
4. 80
4 .2 7
3 .9 9
3 .9 9
4 .4 4
4 .7 2
3 .7 0
4 .4 3
4 .4 3
3 .6 9
4 .3 0
4 .4 7
4 .7 0
4 .0 8
4 .0 1

10
36
7
6
14
14

4 .6 5
4 .2 5
3 .7 3
3 .7 5
3 .7 3
3 .7 3

-

6
7
-

11
8
7
11
14

3 .7 6
4 .1 1
-

-

3 .6 9
3 .8 5
-

3 .8 0
3 .8 4
3 .8 2
3 .9 2
4 .2 0

$3. 13
_
5.0 2
5. 39
4 . 85
4 . 58
4 . 58
5. 12
5. 12
3 .6 2
3 .9 7
3 .9 7
3 . 82
4 .9 0
4 .9 0
4 .7 6
3 .9 7
4 .5 8
4 .0 0
“

$ 2 .9 0 -$ 3 .5 5
_
2 .9 5 - 5 .7 4
3. 9 0 - 5. 63
3 .3 5 - 5 .0 3
2 .9 0 - 4 .7 6
2 .9 0 - 4 .7 6
3 .0 9 - 5 .4 4
4 .0 2 - 5 .3 3
2 .6 8 — 4 .5 4
3 .7 0 - 5 .3 9
3 .7 0 - 5 .3 9
2 .6 1 - 4 . 58
3 .4 5 - 4 .9 0
2 .9 4 - 5 .0 8
4 . 6 8 - 5. 14
3 .9 0 - 4 .7 3
3 .1 5 - 4 . 68
3 .3 6— 5 .0 3
-

-

"

N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs

G re a t L a k e s
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs

11
7
7
14
-

$6.62
5 .8 5
5. 18

-

-

17
10
10
20
19
9
12
12
15

7 .3 7
-

-

-

88
25
21
-

24
36
51
14
96
22
20
17
17
57
48
17
31
36
108
74
34
38
27
11
14
36
15
21
29
36
24
26
45

5 .7 4
5 .7 6
5 .3 9
5 .0 6
5 .2 5
5 .5 0
5. 52
4 .8 2
4 .8 2
5 .7 0
5 .3 0
5.0 1
5 .4 6
5 .9 5
5 .4 9
5 .7 8
4 . 84
5 .4 5
5 .3 6
5 .7 0
6 .0 9
6 .0 4
5 .7 2
6 .2 6
5 .7 9
5 .2 5
6 .4 4
5 .4 6
5 .9 6

$ 5 .2 9
5 .2 6
5 .3 6
5 .0 6
5 .4 6
5 .4 6
4 .9 4
4 .9 4
5 .2 6
5 .01
5 .0 1
5.0 1
5 .3 1
4 .9 6
4 .9 6
4 .9 6
5 .01
5 .0 1
5 .2 8
5 .2 8
5 .0 6
5.2 1
5 .0 6
5.2 1
5 .0 6
5 .4 9

$5. 26—$5. 64
4 .9 1 - 5 .5 0
4 .4 0 - 6 .1 3
4 .9 6 - 5. 11
5 .2 4 - 5 .6 8
5 .3 9 - 5 .7 3
4 .4 0 - 5.1 1
4 .4 0 - 5.1 1
5 .2 6— 6 .3 9
5 .0 1 - 5.1 1
5 .0 1 - 5.0 1
5 .0 1 - 5 .7 7
5 .3 1 - 6 .0 0
4 .9 6 - 6 .3 9
4 .9 6 - 7 .0 5
4 .1 1 - 5 .2 3
5 .0 1 - 5 .9 2
5 .0 1 - 5 .8 3
4 .9 9 - 6 .6 1
4 .9 6 - 6 .4 7
5 .0 1 - 8 .6 3
5 .0 1 - 7 .1 1
5 .0 1 - 5 .6 3
5 .1 1 - 6 .5 3
5 .0 6 - 5 .4 7
5 .2 1 - 6 .9 9

-

“

M ountain
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e
$ 5 .4 5
4 .4 5
4 .4 5
4 .6 8
4 .7 8
3 .8 1
5. 16
5. 16
3 . 61
3 .7 0
3 .9 3
5 .3 5
-

$5.71
5 .3 6
5 .3 6
2 .9 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_
_
“

“

3 .2 0
2 .8 0
5.41
-

_
-

$5. 71—$5. 86
3 .2 0 - 5.51
3 .2 0 - 5.51
2 .9 0 - 4 .9 4
3. 10- 5. 19
2 .8 0 - 5 .3 6
5 .2 6 - 5.41
-

_
-

-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
"

(N u m b er an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in se le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U nited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x

C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and ca n n in g — C o n tin u ed
S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s -------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------S a u s a g e s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s ------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r p r o d u c t s --------S p ice w e ig h e rs and m ix e r s ------------------------------------------ '
M e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k u r te r s ----------------------------------------------------M en ----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e -----------------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s i n g s ---------------------------------------------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith c a s in g s i z e r ----------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a sin g s iz e r -----------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r ti f ic ia l c a s i n g s ------M en ------------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------------------E n g in e e r s , s ta t io n a r y -----------------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i l e r -------------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e ---------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u tility ,
------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) ----------------------M illw rig h ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------W e ld e rs , h an d ---------------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , l o a d i n g ---------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t -------------------------------------------------------------J a n ito rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, h an d ---------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, m a c h i n e _________ — --------------—----------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n o f b e e f and
o th e r m e a ts , h a n d -------------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n o f b e e f and
o th e r m e a ts , m a c h i n e -------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ---------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and tr u c k -------------------------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------S e m i- o r t r a i l e r --------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s -----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ---------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift ---------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n fo rk lift ----------------------------------------------------




N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs
479
330
149
369
128
151
90
80
51
29
140
104
36
344
284
60
28
58
66
192
154
38
348
372
141
352
1,1 5 4
269
182
270
566
2 ,2 5 8
469
414
55
969
407
192
262
108
I, 671
529
1 ,3 8 8
361
780
247
1,353
782
571

U nited S ta te s 2
A v erag e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M id d le ra n g e
$ 4 .9 9
5. 16
4 .6 1
4 .6 5
5 .0 8
4 .9 5
3 .5 2
4 .4 7
4 .8 3
3 .8 4
4 .7 7
5 .0 8
3 .9 0
5 .2 0
5 .5 0
3 .7 8
5 .6 3
4 .7 8
4 .6 5
5 .4 5
5 .8 2
3 .9 5
5 .8 5
5 .2 8
5 .2 8
6 .0 9
4 .9 4
4 .9 7
5 .7 3
5. 66
4 .9 1
4 .6 8
4 .4 6
4 . 56
3 .7 0
4 .6 8
4 .6 0
4 .8 1
4 .5 2
5 .1 6
4 .5 9
4 .3 1
4 .6 7
5 .2 4
4 .2 2
5 .2 8
5 .0 0
4 .8 1
5 .2 5

$ 5 .0 1
5. 16
4 .8 4
5 .2 1
5 .2 1
5 .2 1
2 .9 6
4 .8 6
5 .0 1
3 . 18
5. 16
5. 16
3 .2 2
5. 16
5. 16
3 .2 8
6 .3 4
5 .1 0
4 .1 0
5 .1 6
5 .2 6
3 .2 8
5 .7 6
5 .4 9
5 .6 1
5 .9 1
5 .1 7
5 .4 6
5 .7 1
5 .8 1
5 .1 6
4 .9 1
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
2 .9 6
4 .9 6
4 .5 3
5. 13
5 .0 1
5 .1 1
4 .9 1
4 .8 3
5 .0 3
5 .4 1
3 .9 2
5 .9 5
5 .0 6
5 .1 1
5 .0 1

S o u th e a st
N um ber
of
W o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$ 3 .9 0
3 .9 5
2 .9 5
3 .0 5
3 .0 6
2 .9 7
3 .3 0
3 .1 6
3 .2 4
3 .2 4
2 .8 8
3 .0 5
3 .2 4
3 .0 4
3 .2 1
2 .9 0
5 .5 7
3 .3 0
3 .7 2
5 .5 1
-

$ 2 .9 3 —$ 3 .9 5
3 .2 2 - 3 .9 5
2 .3 8 - 3 .1 7
2 .9 0 - 3 .3 5
3 .0 2 - 3 .3 5
2 .8 5 - 3 .3 3
2 .9 4 - 3 .6 8
2 .8 6 - 3 .3 2

9
32
16
180
83
-

$ 3 .6 7
3 .8 6
3 .2 0
3 .3 1
3 .3 2
3 .2 3
3 .3 8
3 .2 5
3 .5 1
2 .9 8
3 .6 3
3 .2 7
3 .9 1
3 .4 5
4 .0 7
3 .0 2
3 .1 6
4 . 13
2 .9 0
2 .8 7
5 .2 7
4 .9 3
3 .7 1
4 .0 4
4 .7 7
-

126
347
53
42
11
114
13
_

4 .0 2
3 .3 7
3 .3 0
3 .3 9
2 .9 5
3 .8 6
3 .8 5
-

4 .0 0
2 .9 6
2 .9 6
2 .9 6
_
3 .8 5
-

3 .1 5 - 4 .9 7
2 .8 3 - 3 .9 5
2 .5 2 - 4 .5 1
2 .5 2 - 4 .5 1
2 .6 4 — 5 .1 0
-

96
86
112
514
42
424
83
59
-

3 .7 9
3 .6 0
3 .2 3
3 .5 6
4 .4 3
3 .4 7
3 .9 8
3 .6 5
“

3 .8 5
2 .9 2
3 .1 4
3 .3 5
4 .8 8
3 .3 5

2 .6 4 - 5 .1 0

$4. 63—$5. 84
4 .8 1 - 5.9 1
2 .8 1 - 5.0 1
3 .3 3 - 5 .2 6
5 .0 1 - 5 .3 1
5 .0 5 - 5 .2 6
2 .9 1 - 3 .8 3
3 .2 1 - 5 .0 1
4 .4 0 - 5 .0 3
3 .1 8 - 5 .0 1
3 .3 0 - 5 .2 5
4 .8 5 - 5 .2 6
2 .8 2 - 5 .2 4
4 .1 0 - 6 .1 7
5 .0 4 - 6 .3 7
3 .0 4 - 5.0 1
5 .3 3 - 6 .4 2
4 .8 7 - 5 .2 1
3 .9 5 - 5 .1 6
5 .0 4 - 6 .7 9
5 .1 6 - 6 .8 3
3 . 04r- 5 .0 4

76
54
22
89
24
31
34
18
9
9
43
19
24
52
21
31
11
21
16
13

5 .6 7 - 6 .4 4
4 .3 2 - 6 .0 1
4 .9 4 - 5 .8 6
5 .8 1 - 6 .6 8
3 .9 7 - 5 .8 1
4 .3 4 - 5 .7 1
5 .7 1 - 5 .8 8
5 .7 6 - 5 .8 1
4 .4 2 - 5.2 1
3 .9 7 - 5.0 1
4 .4 0 - 4 .8 6
4 .5 9 - 4 .8 6
2 .4 9 — 4 .8 6
4 .1 7 - 5 .3 1
4 .1 2 - 4 .9 8
4 .5 3 - 5 .3 1
3 .8 5 - 5 .1 1
5 .1 1 - 5 .2 1
3 .7 9 - 5 .0 1
3 .0 9 - 5 .1 1
3 .3 5 - 5 .8 3
4 .9 2 — 6 .0 5
3 .3 0 - 5 .2 6
5 .2 1 - 6 .1 0
4 .9 1 - 5 .1 6
4 .7 7 - 5 .1 6
4 .9 1 - 5 .1 1

-

3 .3 6
3 .3 6
*

-

2 .8 2 2 .8 2 2 .8 2 2 .8 0 3 .0 5 2 .8 0 3 .1 1 2 .7 5 3 .7 7 2 .8 0 3 .3 4 3 .1 5 -

-

2 .7 6 3 .0 9 3 .1 7 3 .2 0 3 .1 7 3 .3 5 2 .8 7 -

3 .7 5
3 .7 5
5 .3 2
3 .2 4
5 .2 0
3 .1 1
3 .9 5
3 .0 4

5 .8 7
3 .9 0
4 .5 0
5 .6 6

4 .7 7
3 .2 0
3 .8 5
5 .5 4
3 .5 3
4 .7 7
4 .8 6

N um ber
of
W o rk e rs

M iddle W est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

39
38
110
106
10
12
14
74
73
-

$ 5 .7 6
5 .6 6
6 .0 6
5 .4 5
5 .6 4
5 .3 3
5 .3 4
5 .4 2
5 .7 2
5 .7 3
5 .9 7
6 .0 0
6 .2 5
5 .4 0
6 .7 0
5 .8 8
5 .8 9
-

192
185
57
173
502
50
115
190

5 .9 1
5 .5 8
5 .6 3
6 .0 7
5 .2 3
5 .7 3
5 .9 4
5 .6 5

220
1,0 9 9
269
246
23
524
281
91
56
96
947
205
318
98
141
79
878
453
425

5 .3 0
5 .0 8
4 .7 8
4 .7 7
4 .8 9
4 .8 3
4 .6 0
4 .9 3
5 .2 4
5. 15
4 .8 8
5 .3 2
5 .4 5
5 .0 8
5 .4 0
6 .0 1
5 .1 2
5 .1 1
5 .1 2

176
129
47
125
51
68
20
16
—

$ 5 .4 4
5 .4 7
5 .0 1
5 .2 1
5 .2 6
5.2 1
5 .0 1
5 .0 1
5 .2 1
5 .1 9
5 .2 1
5 .2 1
5. 16
5 .1 6
5 .7 6
6 .0 1
5 .6 1
5 .9 1
5 .2 6
5.7 1
5.7 1
5 .8 1
5 .1 6
4 .9 6
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
4 .9 4
4 .5 3
5 .1 6
5 .3 1
5 .1 1
4 .9 6
5 .0 6
5 .5 1
5 .4 1
5 .4 9
6 .1 9
5 .0 6
5. 11
5 .0 1

$5. 01—$ 6 .3 4
5 .0 6 - 6 .0 7
4 .9 9 - 6 .8 6
5 .2 1 - 5.3 1
5 .2 1 - 6 .0 0
5 .2 1 - 5 .2 7
5 .0 1 - 5. 16
5 .0 1 - 5 .1 6
5 .1 6 - 5 .9 8
5 .1 6 - 6 .1 5
5 .1 k - 6 .7 5
5 .1 6 - 6 .7 9
5 .1 6 - 6 .8 2
5 .1 k - 6 .8 3
5 .7 6 - 6 .0 6
5 .1 8 - 6.0 1
5 .5 6 - 5 .8 6
5 .8 1 - 6 .4 8
4 .7 3 - 5.8 1
5 .6 6 - 5 .81
5 .7 1 - 5.9 1
5 .8 1 - 5.8 1
5 .1 6 4 .8 9 4 .8 6 4 .8 6 4 .8 6 4 .5 3 4 .1 7 4 .5 3 5 .1 1 5 .1 1 3 .9 1 5 .0 1 5 .3 1 4 .2 5 5 .2 6 5 .8 9 4 .9 6 5 .0 6 4 .9 1 -

5 .2 6
5.0 1
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
4 .9 1
5.3 1
4 .9 4
5 .31
5 .3 6
5 .1 1
5 .11
5 .1 6
5 .8 9
5 .7 0
5 .7 8
6 .1 9
5 .1 6
5 .1 6
5 .0 1

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and sex

C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , an d c a n n in g s— C ontinued
S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------W o m en ------------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s -------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r p r o d u c t s -------S p ice w e ig h e rs and m ix e r s -----------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en —--------------------------------------------------------------S ta ffe rs , f r a n k f u r te r s -------------------------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------- --------------------S tu ffe rs , sa u sa g es-----------------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s i n g s --------------------------------------------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s i z e r -----------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a s in g s i z e r -----------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu r a l an d a r tif ic ia l c a s i n g s ------M en ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m en ----------------------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -------------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a r y --------------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o ile r
------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e ---------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ------------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e ( m a in te n a n c e ) -----------------------M illw rig h ts --------------------------------------------------------------------W e ld e rs , h an d ---------------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r i a l m o v e m e n t;
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g -------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t --------------------------------------------------------------J a n i t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ----------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs -------------------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, h an d ----------------------------------------------------------------B e e f, m a c h in e ----------------------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f and
o th e r m e a ts , h an d -------------------------------------------------O th e r p ro d u c ts in c lu d in g c o m b in a tio n of b e e f and
o th e r m e a ts , m a c h in e
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ----------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r an d tr u c k -----------------------------------------------T r u c k d riv e rs ----------------------------------------------------------------S e m i- o r t r a i l e r ------------------------- -----------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ------------------------------ ------C o m b in a tio n o f t y p e s -----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r3-----------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift --------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n f o r k l i f t ----------------------------------------------------

N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs

S o uth w est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

34
7
31
10
16
6
12
12
_
_
_
_
9
9

$ 4 .4 2
3 .0 2
3 .8 6
4 .3 4
3 .1 7
4 .2 8
4 .4 4
4 .4 4
_
_
_
_
4 .3 5
4 .3 5
_

$ 4 .6 3
3 .3 6
2 .8 1
_
-

27
45

5 .1 8
4 .3 7

5 .1 7
3 .8 0

5 .1 7 - 5 .4 8
3 .7 6 - 5 .3 5

138
21

4 .4 8
4 .6 6

3 .9 6
4 .5 5

3 .8 0 - 5 .2 1
3 .9 6 - 5 .4 3

-

-

-

-

41
171
44
44

4 .4 3
4 .1 9
4 .2 5
4 .2 5

131
26
43

4 .4 7
4 .1 8
4 .5 7
4 .5 3

-

62
-

231
25
131
28
87
-

77
57

-

-

3 .9 3
4 .0 8
3 .8 7
3 .9 3
3 .9 5
-

4 .5 4
4 .9 3

_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
-

-

5 .0 7
4 .4 0
4 .4 0
4 .4 0
-

4 .9 8
3 .9 2
4 .6 7
5 .0 1
-

3 .7 0
3 .9 7
3 .9 2
3 .9 7
3 .9 2
5 .0 1
5 .1 1
"

$4. 63—$ 4 .9 6
2 .8 1 — 4 .8 8
2 .8 1 - 3 .4 8
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
-

-

3 .9 5 3 .1 5 3 .5 0 3 .5 0 _
3 .3 6 3 .2 5 4 .6 7 3 .3 6 -

3. 153 .1 5 3 .0 5 3 .5 6 2 .7 9 4 .6 3 4 .7 8 -

4 .6 3
5 .11
4 .8 6
3 .9 7
5 .0 3
5 .1 1
5.1 1

1
E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts .
M ed ian and m id d le ra n g e s a r e n o t show n fo r o c c u p a tio n s w ith few er th a n 15 w o r k e r s .
2 2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean

16
53
23
20
10
18
16
30
29
129
117
12
_
27
_
61
_
_

$ 5.39
5 .7 0
5 .8 7
5 .7 9
5 .1 4
5 .2 4
5 .2 5
5. 64
5 .6 5
5 .5 5
5 .6 0
5. 10
_
5 .3 3
_
6. 16
_

_
45
37
104
29
31

_
6 .0 0
5 .7 0
5 .4 8
5. 54
5 .8 3

-

5 .1 6
4 .9 1
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
5 .1 1
4 .9 8
5 .1 3
5 .1 1

M ountain

G re a t L a k e s
N um ber
of
W o rk e rs

77
357
57
54
-

40
-

-

5 .8 0
5 .4 8
4 .9 3
4 .9 3
5 .2 8

$5.03
5 .2 1
5 .4 3
5 .2 1
4 .9 2
4 .8 6
5 .1 6
5 .1 6
5 .1 6
5 .1 6
_
_
5 .1 6
_
5 .9 4
_
_
_
6 .0 1
5 .7 3
5 .7 8
5 .5 0
5 .8 8
-

5 .3 8
5 .0 3
4 .8 6
4 .8 6
5. 14

$4. 84—$ 6 .0 9
5 .1 6 - 6 .5 5
5 .1 6 - 6 .5 9
5 .1 6 - 6 .2 7
4 .4 0 - 5 .1 2
4 .4 0 - 5 .0 1
5 .0 6 - 6 .0 6
5 .0 6 - 6 .0 6
5 .0 1 - 6 .4 2
4 .9 1 - 6 .6 2
_
_
_
_
5 .0 1 - 5 .2 5
_
_
5 .1 6 - 6 .9 2
_
_
_
_
_
5 .7 5 - 6 .2 6
5 .6 1 - 5 .8 6
5 .1 2 - 5 .8 6
5 .4 6 - 5.71
5 .7 1 - 5 .9 8
-

4 .9 1 4 .9 1 4. 864 .8 6 _
4 .9 5 -

171
63
147
27
_
60
214
118

7 .0 4
6 .2 7
5 .0 3
5.0 1
-

5 .3 6

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M e am
M edian M iddle ra n g e

19
_
_
-

$ 3 .8 3
_
_
-

$5.01
_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

4 .8 9
5 .0 9
5 .6 2
5 .2 7
_
6 .0 0
5 .6 9
5. 18
"

5 .0 1
5 .1 1
5 .5 1
5 .1 8
_
6 .0 1
5 .1 6
5 .1 6
~

-

4 .7 6 4 .8 1 5 .2 6 5 .1 5 _
5 .9 5 5 .0 7 4 .8 1 “

$ 2 .4 5 —$5. 11
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_

_

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

76
-

-

9
_

57
10
6
_

5. 14
-

-

4 .8 9
.

4 .3 4
3 .4 6
4 .2 1
_
4 .4 6
4 .8 1

5 .9 9
_

_
_
_

-

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

3 .3 0 - 6 .01
_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_

.
_

_

4 .9 1

3 .2 0 - 5.01

4 .9 6
5 .4 6

3 .4 5 - 5 .4 6
_
_
3 .2 0 - 5 .4 6

_
_

-

99
58

-

-

-

-

N u m b er
of
W o rk e rs

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

5 .0 8
5 .3 0
5 .9 5
5 .1 8
_
6 .0 1
6 .2 7
5 .1 6
"

11
9
-

5. 13
5. 15

_

“

3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w o rk e rs in c la s s ific a tio n s in a d d itio n s to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly ,
N O TE: D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .

_

_
_
_

-

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r
k n ife ------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife •
F lo o r sm e n 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r
k n if e -------C o n v e n tio n a l d r e s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n ife H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e -------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f 3 -----------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e b o lt p is to l —
R u m p e rs 3------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e ----------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f3 -------------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w ---------------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f --------------------------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs, b e e f3 ---------------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ---------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts -----------------B re a k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u t s ---------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s ----------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , h o g --------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog ---------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , hog --------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o rk 3 -----------------------------------------P o w e r saw ---------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, h o g 3---------------------------------------------------------E le c tir c sh o ck in g d e v ic e ---------------------------------P o rk cu ttin g :
B e lly t r i m m e r s -------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m 3 ---------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b o n in g ---------------------------------------------C h ise l b o n in g -----------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e ---------------------------------------- —
L o in p u lle rs ------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of t r i m m in g s ---------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------%
W om en ----------------------------------------------------------S h eep and c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , an d la m b s h e e p --------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , sh e e p and c a l v e s -------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , and can n in g :
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e to r t ---------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s and b e llie s ---------------------M ix e r o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ------------------P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y p u m p in g )--------------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (ch o p p e r) -----------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs -----------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------




N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs

U n ited S ta te s2
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

418
2 03
129
707
3 17
237
3 02
357
347
3 92
194
233
389
315
408

$ 4 .3 1
4. 22
4. 59
4. 93
5 .3 8
4. 29
4. 80
4. 17
4. 16
4. 72
4. 96
4 .3 1
4. 56
4. 55
3. 68

2 ,0 6 0
1 ,598
327
574
92
157
111
99
340
80
65
63
56
183
494
328
159
112
117
239
181
58

4. 81
4. 76
4 .4 9
5. 12
4. 12
4. 10
4. 57
4. 19
4. 24
4. 19
4. 07
3. 98
3. 92

$ 4 .2 0
4 .2 5
4 .4 6
5 .3 6
5 .8 6
4. 10
5. 08
4 .3 2
4 .3 0
5. 17
5. 17
4 .7 5
4 .2 1
4 .3 1
3 .4 5
4. 85
4. 82
4 .3 4
5.3 1
4. 10
4 .4 1
4. 81
4 .4 1
4 .4 1
4. 08
4, 19
3. 68
-

4 .4 4
4. 76
4. 53
5. 24
4 .3 4
4. 55
4. 22
4. 24
4. 15

5. 09
_
4. 63
4. 85
4. 60
4. 60
4 .3 1

191
117
177
103
74
60
99
117
118
215
2 12
158
48
110

4. 72
3. 99
3. 89
4. 17
3 .4 9
3 .4 0
4. 27
3. 60
3. 94
4. 06
4. 67
3. 77
4. 14
3. 60

4. 50
3. 66
3. 90
4. 62
3 .4 1
2. 97
4. 75
3 .4 8
3 .8 1
4. 60
5. 00
3. 60
4. 65
3 .3 5

.

$ 3.4 0 -$ 5 . 49
3 .4 2 - 5. 18
3 .5 0 - 5. 61
3 .9 9 - 5. 90
5. 1 8- 5. 90
3. 5 3 - 5. 20
4 .3 5— 5 .4 4
3 .2 2 - 5. 01
3 .2 2 - 5. 01
3. 6 4 - 5. 85
4 .2 2 - 5. 86
3 .3 2 - 5. 11
3 .7 0 - 5. 86
3. 65— 5. 86
2. 6 0 - 4. 81
4. 12- 5. 51
4 .2 5 - 5. 51
3 .5 0 - 5. 29
4 . 6 4 - 5. 96
3 .4 0 - 4. 86
2. 8 4 - 5. 11
3 .5 0 - 5 .2 9
3 .3 6 - 5. 21
3 .4 0 - 4. 91
3 .3 2 - 5. 17
3. 0 0 - 4. 95
2. 84— 5. 01
"
_
_
3. 8 5 - 5 .2 9
_
_ '
-

-

N um be r
of
w o rk e rs
63
19
_
22
23
23
22
59
54
296
296
_
60
11
_
_
6
7
7
6
6
14
44
44
-

3 .4 6 - 5. 08
3. 6 0 - 5. 21
3. 5 0 - 4. 70
3. 5 4 - 4. 70
3. 65— 4. 76

13
17
-

4 . 1 1 - 6. 05
3 .3 2 - 4. 86
2. 9 7 - 5. 03
3 .2 1 - 5. 25
2. 5 0 - 3. 96
2 .4 9 - 4. 34
3 .3 5 — 4. 91
2. 7 8 - 4. 20
3 .0 2 - 5. 11
2. 8 4 - 5. 05
3. 5 8 - 5. 93
2. 50— 4. 91
3. 1 3 - 4. 98
2. 5 0 - 4. 76

60
12
6
10
22
10
_
19
-

_

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
$ 3 . 83
4. 00
3. 22
3. 60
3. 60
3. 63
3. 94
3. 12
4 .4 0
4 .4 0
4. 66
4. 67
4. 28
4. 94
4 . 94
4. 25
4. 25
4. 61
4. 42
4 .4 2
4 .4 6
4. 54
~

_

3. 51
3 .8 1
4. 35
4. 3 1
3. 95
4. 06
4 .4 5
-

M ed ian
$ 3. 91
4. 00
3. 34
3. 65
3. 65
3. 64
3. 91
2. 74
4. 82
4. 82
4. 75
-

_

B o rd e r S ta te s

M id d le ra n g e
$ 3 .3 5 -$ 4 . 35
3. 6 5 - 4 .4 6
2. 0 0 - 4. 50
3. 2 2 - 3. 87
3 .2 2 - 3. 87
3. 64
3 .3 2 3 .9 1 - 4. 01
2. 74— 3. 85
3 .8 5 - 4. 82
3. 8 5 - 4. 82
4 . 6 7 - 4. 75

_

-

_

_

-

_

4. 60
4. 60
4. 85
-

3. 65— 4. 70
3. 65— 4. 70
4 .4 0 - 4. 85
-

3 .3 2

3 .3 2 - 3. 32

4. 00
4. 88
“

3. 5 2 3. 8 3 ~

_

_

_

_

_

4. 11
4. 88
"

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

42
18
-

$ 3 .4 6
4 .4 0
-

14
14
20
20
11
6
18
123
122
24
36
10
30
11
12
23
10
9
9
11
25
14
13
10
17
9
-

3 .4 1
3 .4 1
4. 23
3. 74
4 .4 6
3. 63
3. 61
4 .3 5
4. 35
4. 92
5. 07
3. 72
3. 75
4. 03
3. 24
3. 93
3. 79
3. 20
3. 20

_

"
16
10
15
9
17
14
25
21

$ 3. 90
5. 20
4. 20
3. 90
3 .4 0
4. 63
4. 63
4 .3 4
4 .4 7

_

3. 72
3. 65
"

_

4 . 18
4 . 06
3. 83
3. 81
3. 68
3 .4 4
3. 78
"

3. 85
2. 54
"

3. 80
4. 30
3 .3 5
3. 76
3. 36
3. 98
4. 01
4 . 00

"
4. 18
2. 65
2 .4 8
.
4 . 23
4 .2 3

_

_

$2. 7 9—$3. 90
2. 6 2 - 5. 20
5. 45
2. 79—
2. 58— 4. 29
2, 6 7 - 4. 85
4. 0 9 - 5. 23
4. 11- 5. 23
4. 3 4 - 4. 63
4 . 2 4 - 5. 23
_
_
2. 5 8 - 4. 88
3. 6 0 - 4. 86
"
“
_
3. 8 5 - 5. 21
2. 54— 4. 63
"
_
"
3 .3 3 - 4. 18
2 .4 8 - 4. 32
2 .4 8 - 4. 76
3. 6 0 - 4. 75
3. 6 0 - 4. 75

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and sex
B eef d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife ------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t knife
O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w er k n ife---------------C o n v e n tio n a l d re s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t knife
H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e --------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f3 ---------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e b o lt p isto l -R um p e r s 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e -------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f ---------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f3 ------------------------------------------------------P o w e r s a w -------------------------------------------------------W a s h e r s , b e e f ------------------------------------------------------B eef c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f3 -------------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u t s ---------------B re a k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u ts -----------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s -------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , hog -----------------------------------------------H e a d e r s , hog --------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , h o g ------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs -----------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o rk 3 ------------------------------------------P o w e r ---------------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , h o g 3 ------------------------------------------------------E le c tr ic sh o ck in g d e v i c e ------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly tr im m e r s ---------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m --------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b o n in g -------------------------------------------C h ise l b o nin g --------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e -------------------------------------L o in p u lle rs ----------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of t r i m m in g s -------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------S heep and c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , and la m b sh e e p -----------------------------------S h a c k le rs , sh e e p and c a l v e s -----------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and can n in g :
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs -----------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t -------------------------------------------G ra d e rs , g re e n h a m s , an d b e l l i e s ----------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s --------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e -----------------P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r te r y p u m ping) ---------------------S au sag e m a k e r s (c h o p p e r) --------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs ---------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------




N um be r
of
w o rk e rs
40
-

S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$ 3 . 08
_
_

$ 3 . 00
-

-

$2. 90—$3. 40
_

_
_

_
_

_

50
12
11
25
24
36
11
17
34
30
33
82
71
29
33
17
33
18
13
51
15
15
9
7
37
54
52
15
13
19
18
“
-

2. 94
2. 91
_
3. 00
3. 11
3. 13
3. 11
3. 13
2. 96
3. 12
3. 12
2. 77
3 .4 4
3. 57
3 .2 3
3. 22
2. 71
2 .4 7
2. 76
2 .4 8
2. 62
2. 74
2. 74
2. 72
2. 74
2 .3 8
3. 04
3. 06

2. 90

2. 59
2. 83
2. 65
2. 67
"
-

2. 30
2. 60
2. 60
-

2. 0 0 2. 5 0 2. 5 0 2 .3 0 1. 9 0 1. 9 0 "
-

23
13
10

2. 56
2. 54
2. 58
2. 75
2. 75
2. 91
2 .4 4
2. 62
2. 63
2. 67
2. 61

2 .4 0

2 .3 0 - 2. 90

-

9
19
11
38
29
40
10
30

-

_

_
_

3 .2 5
3. 30
3. 10
_
3. 00
3. 15
3. 10
2. 80
3 .4 0
3 .4 0
3. 10
3. 35
2. 55
2. 20
2. 55
2. 54
2. 50
2. 50
-

2. 00
2. 60
2. 72
-

-

-

2. 50
-

2. 30
2. 50
2. 50
2. 50

2. 7 5 - 2. 90
_
_

2. 9 0 - 3. 35
2. 9 0 - 3. 35
2. 9 0 - 3 .4 0
_
_
3. 0 0 - 3. 10
2. 95— 3. 35
2. 8 0 - 3. 35
2. 60— 3. 00
2. 95— 3. 85
3. 15- 3. 96
3. 0 0 - 3 .4 0
3. 0 0 - 3 .3 5
2. 5 0 2. 2 0 2 .4 5 2. 2 5 2. 5 0 2. 5 0 -

-

2. 90
2. 50
2. 94
-

3. 08
3. 2 0
3. 20
-

2. 55
3 .4 4
3. 51
2. 97
3. 35
3. 35
"
-

2. 5 0 - 3. 00
2. 19- 2. 64
2 .3 5 - 2. 85
2 .3 0 - 2. 96
_
_
2 .3 0 - 2. 80

S o u th w est
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
43
22

$ 3 . 00
2. 61

49
18
17
13
50
50
42
22
31
31
31
70
121
43
27

2. 99
3. 35
3. 00
2. 54
2. 66
2. 66
3. 12
3. 27
2. 59
3. 15
3. 15
2 .4 8
3. 83
3. 77
3. 34
2. 97

-

6

-

6
6
28
9
9
6
6
8
21
17
-

8
10
13
13
12
8
-

16
24
15
10
_
6

G re a t L ak es

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e
M ean

-

-

2. 95
2. 77
2. 37
3. 28
3. 28
2. 60
2. 60
2. 85
3. 01
2. 89
2. 75
2. 98
3. 01
3. 01
-

$ 2 . 50
2 .4 8
2. 76
3. 50
2 .4 0
2. 50
2. 50
3. 00
3. 50
2 .4 5
3. 25
3. 25
2 .3 5
3. 85
3 .2 5
3 .4 5

-

2. 2 0 2. 2 0 2 .4 9 2. 5 0 2. 2 5 2. 7 2 2. 7 2 2. 173. 1 0 2. 8 0 3 .4 5 -

_

_

-

-

2 .3 0
-

"

_

2. 97
2. 97
-

-

2. 60
2. 57

_

2. 75
2. 70
2. 93
2. 58
2. 64

2. 90

-

$ 2 .4 0 -$ 3 .
2 .4 0 - 2.
2 .4 0 - 3.
2. 96— 3.
2. 3 5 - 3.

-

2. 60
2. 94
_

”

80
50
75
80
75

$ 4 . 67

$ 4 . 87
3. 60
5. 18
5. 18
4. 10
5. 18
4. 72
4. 86
5. 17
4 .4 6
4. 60
4. 76
4. 14
5. 16
5. 16
3. 50
4. 96
4 .4 1
4 .4 1
5. 21
4. 99
4. 84
4. 81
4. 81
5. 01
5. 01
4. 61
5. 09
5. 09
5. 21
4. 81
5. 04
4 .3 1
4. 31
4. 52
4. 11

3 .4 5 - 6. 09
4. 10- 5. 81
4. 8 7 - 5. 36
3. 8 9 - 5. 33
5. 0 5 - 5. 96
3. 96— 5 .3 8
3. 7 9 - 5 .4 3
3 .7 1 - 5. 51
_
_
4 .4 1 - 5. 06
3. 7 0 - 5. 90
3. 9 1 - 5. 90
2. 5 0 - 4. 76
4. 2 5 - 5. 72
4 .2 5 - 5. 51
3. 2 4 - 3. 90
4. 6 4 - 6. 37
4. 10- 4. 99
4. 19- 5. 24
4. 6 1 - 5. 34
4. 2 1 - 5. 01
4. 2 1 - 5. 00
4. 6 1 - 5 .2 9
4. 6 1 - 5 .2 9
4. 2 1 - 5. 34
4. 2 1 - 5. 34

3. 90
4. 62
3. 55
_
4. 84
4. 00
4. 81
5. 05
4. 99
4. 98
_
4. 76

3. 10- 4. 81
3 .4 0 - 5. 12
2. 5 3 - 3. 90
_
4. 7 9 - 4. 93
3 .4 8 - 4. 81
4. 7 4 - 4. 94
4. 8 6 - 5. 05
4. 44— 5. 06
3 .3 1 — 5. 13
_
2. 6 0 - 5. 13

-

-

-

-

99
59
29
30
7
45
35
17
81
21
47
_
36

3. 95
4. 39
3. 54
4. 88
4 . 93
4. 16
4. 62
4. 86
4. 73
4 . 30
_
4. 12

_
-

-

-

_

_

_
-

_
..

"

2. 6 0 - 3. 50
2. 60— 3. 00

-

_
-

69
29
122
52
39
102
104
100
51
18
97
83
70
537
434
92
98
37
37
33
33
155
26
26
21
21
58
274
164
107
45
47
86
42
44

_

3. 00
3. 00
3. 70
3. 80
2. 86
3. 55
3. 55
2. 55
4 .4 0
4. 84
3. 75

-

-

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

4 .3 6
5. 11
5. 14
4 .4 8
5. 32
4. 61
4. 62
4. 85
_
4. 67
4. 64
4. 71
3. 92
5. 06
4. 90
3. 82
5. 26
4. 82
4. 69
5 .3 1
4. 86
4. 94
4. 86
4. 86
4. 94
4. 94
4. 74
5. 10
5. 11
5. 11
5. 03
5. 12
4 .4 9
4. 58
4 .4 0
3 .3 1

2. 2 4 - 2. 30
-

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

-

-

_

_
_

"

“

2 .4 9 - 3. 00
2. 5 0 - 2. 89
2. 5 8 - 3. 00

-

$3. 8 4 -$ 5. 18
-

_

4. 16— 5 /1 4
4. 9 4 - 5. 86
4. 9 4 - 5. 09
4. 25— 5. 86
4 .4 1 — 5. 52
4. 31— 5. 21
4 .2 1- 4. 76
3. 8 0 - 4. 94
4. 3 1 - 4. 76
1. 9 8 - 4. 11

(N u m b e r an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 o f p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs

D e p a rtm e n t, o b c u p a tio n , an d s e x
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e ----------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d r e s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n i f e ------F lo o r sm e n 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n if e ----------------------C o n v e n tio n a l d r e s s in g flo o r, s tr a ig h t k n if e ------H ide p u lle r s , m a c h i n e ------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , b e e f3 -------------------------------------------------------------P n e u m a tic h a m m e r o r c a p tiv e b o lt p i s t o l ---------R u m p e rs 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------O n - th e - r a il d r e s s in g , p o w e r k n if e ----------------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f ------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b e e f3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------—
------—------- ----------P o w e r saw ________ —
W a s h e rs , b e e f ----------------------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f3 ----------------------------------------------------------------E n tir e c a r c a s s --------------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , f a b ric a te d b e e f c u t s -----------------------B r e a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u t s ---------------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s, h o g --------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog -----------------------------------------------------------------S h a c k le r s , h o g --------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b a c k , p o rk 3 -------------------------------------------------P o w e r saw --------------------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs , h o g 3 --------------------------------------------------------------E le c tr ic sh o ck in g d e v i c e ---------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly t r i m m e r s -------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m 3-----------------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b oning ---------------------------------------------------(3b is 0 I b o nin g — ---------------- — ------- ——-—........... ............
H am s k in n e rs , m a c h i n e ---------------------------------------------L o in p u l l e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of tr i m m in g s ---------------------------------------------M en — ------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------S h eep and c a lf d re s s in g :
F a c e r s , la m b an d sh e e p — -— - — —
S h a c k le rs , sh e e p and c a lv e s --------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , an d c a n n in g :
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs --------------------------------------------M en ----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t ----------------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s and b e l l i e s ----------------------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s ----------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e -------------------------P u m p e r , h a m ( a r t e r y p u m ping) --------------------------- —
S a u sag e m a k e rs ( c h o p p e r ) -----------------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s -------------------------------------------M en ----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------




N um be r
of
w o rk e rs
51
40
71
39
30
37
42
42
42
31
20
41
37
60

M id d le W est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean

9
8
9
7
21
7
28
18
-

$ 4 . 89
5. 18
4 . 83
5. 62
3. 89
4 .3 5
4 . 1-8
4. 18
4 .6 6
4 . 80
4 .4 3
4. 81
4 .7 1
4. 00
4 .4 6
4. 55
5. 06
4 . 16
4. 17
4 . 09
4. 23
3 .7 2
3. 88
4 . 07
5. 84
5. 08
-

12
10
12
7
19
13
13
“

4. 02
4 .0 7
4 .3 9
4. 06
4 .4 2
4. 57
4. 61
"

191
137
31
31

$ 5 .4 9
5 .4 9
5. 37
5. 74
3 .7 9
3 .9 1
4 .4 7
4 .4 7
4. 90
5. 12
4. 75
5. 12
4. 90
4 .3 7
4. 59
4. 90
4. 32
4. 00
3. 94
5. 90
4. 59
4 .3 3
"

$4. 06—$5. 49
5. 1 2- 5. 55
3. 7 9 - 5. 74
5 .3 7 - 5. 74
3. 5 3 - 4 . 00
3. 6 6 - 5. 49
3. 6 1 - 4 . 87
3. 6 1 - 4. 87
4 . 0 0 - 5 .2 5
4. 0 6 - 5. 37
3. 9 2 - 4 . 87
3. 7 5 - 5. 74
3. 7 5 - 5. 55
3. 1 9 - 4. 70
3 .9 1 - 4. 90
3. 9 0 - 4. 90
3. 8 5 - 6. 05
4 . 0 0 - 4. 65
3 .4 0 - 3. 94
4. 5 9 - 7. 21
4. 1 9 - 4. 59
3. 9 4 ■

N um be r
of
w o rk e rs
34
27
47
29
18
34
31
31
45
32
23
44
44
36
441
288
81
80
-

M o u ntain
e
A v e ra g e h o u rly 1 a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e
$4. 3 5 -$ 5 . 03
4 .3 5 - 5. 34
4. 3 5 - 5. 96
5. 0 3 - 6. 02
4 .3 5 - 4 . 81
4 .4 5 - 5 .4 2
4 .0 3 - 4. 93
4. 0 3 - 4. 93
4. 3 1 - 5 .5 9
4 .3 1 - 5 .4 9
4 .4 5 - 4. 98
4. 2 1 - 5. 89
4 .2 1 - 5. 89
3 .3 5 - 4. 88
4 . 6 2 - 5. 51
4 . 5 0 - 5. 51
4 . 7 0 - 5 .2 9
5. 2 9 - 5. 37

$ 4 . 78
4. 83
5. 00
5 .4 8
4. 22
4. 70
4 .4 3
4 .4 3
4. 86
4 . 90
4. 71
4. 84
4 . 84
3. 97

$ 4 . 81
4 . 82
4 . 82
5. 89
4. 35
4. 65
4 .4 2
4 .4 2
4 . 82
4. 82
4. 94
4. 81
4 . 81
3. 85

4 . 99
4 . 93
4 . 98
5. 17

5 .3 9
5. 03
5 .2 9
5 .3 7

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4. 88
“

16
13
“

4 . 54
4. 07
"

4. 31
“

4. 19■

5 .4 5
-

P a c ific
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
76
44
279
155
41
83
68
63
132
64
82
72
55
67
264
202
42
204

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
$ 5 . 65
5. 75
5. 87
5. 92
5. 98
5 .4 2
5. 22
5. 22
5. 86
5. 87
5 .3 4
5. 94
5. 93
5. 13
5. 86
5. 80
5. 71
5. 90

$ 5 . 61
5. 61
5. 90
5. 90
6. 01
5 .3 1
5. 01
5. 01
5 .8 6
5. 86
5. 25
5. 86
5. 86
5 .2 4
5 .7 1 5. 66
5. 86
6. 05

-

-

-

35
21

5. 76
5. 53

6. 05
5 .2 5

■

“

■

$5. 6 0-$5. 61
5. 6 1 - 6. 00
5. 8 6 - 5 .9 6
5. 8 6 - 5. 90
5. 8 6 - 6. 05
5 .3 1 - 5 ,4 4
5. 0 1 - 5 .4 4
5. 0 1 - 5 .4 4
5 .5 9 - 6. 04
5. 8 6 - 6. 04
5. 0 1 - 5. 52
5. 8 6 - 6. 02
5. 8 6 - 6. 01
4. 8 3 - 5 .2 4
5. 6 6 - 5. 90
5. 6 6 - 5. 90
5 .3 1 - 5. 94
5. 86— 6. 05
-

-

5 .3 6 — 6. 05
5. 11- 6. 05
“

*

(N u m b e r an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 o f p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ite d S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U n ited S ta te s 2
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs

C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , an d can nin g —C ontinued
S m o k e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------303
78
S a u s a g e s -------------------------------------------------------------------150
C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s and o th e r p ro d u c ts
S p ice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e r s --------------------------------------69
133
S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s -------------------------------------------------87
M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------46
W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e 3 -------------------------------------------------------339
197
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------142
162
C o m b in a tio n o f n a tu ra l an d a r ti f ic ia l c a sin g s —
M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
81
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y ---------------------------------------------------213
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o ile r --------------------------------------46
M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ---------------------- 1, 255
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e , m a in te n a n c e ---------------------174
C u sto d ia l a n d m a te r i a l m o v e m e n t:
273
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g -------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n i g h t ------------------------------------------------------------ 1,7 1 9
J a n ito r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------195
D u g g e rs3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,021
B e e f, h a n d -------------------------------------------------------------712
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g -------------------------------------------------------- 1 ,2 4 0
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------------------905
335
W om en
-----------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs , c a r an d t r u c k ---------------------------------------------329
T ru c k d r i v e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------- 3, 147
S e m i o r t r a i l e r —----------------------------------------------------481
O th e r th a n s e m i o r t r a i l e r ----------------------------------- 1, 934
732
C o m b in a tio n o f ty p e s -------------------------------------- -----T r u c k e r s , p o w e r3 --------------------------------------------------------149
124
F o rk lift
- — ------ - -




A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M e d ian M id d le ra n g e

$3. 78
3. 73
3 .5 9
3. 81
3. 58
3. 89
2 .9 9
3. 89
4 . 58
2. 92
4 .2 4
5. 05
5 .2 9
4 .3 9
4 . 77
5. 00

$ 3 .7 3
3 .7 5
3 .4 9
4. 05
3 .4 1
3. 90
2. 63
3 .9 5
4 .4 4
2 .4 0
4 .2 7
5 .2 7
5 .5 2
4. 13
4. 95
5 .3 6

$2. 80—$4. 94
2 .8 6 - 4 .3 6
2. 6 1 - 4 .3 8
2 .5 5 - 4 .7 6
2 . 5 0 - 4. 96
2. 9 4 - 4 . 96
2 .4 0 - 3. 25
2 .4 0 - 4. 96
3. 8 3 - 5. 93
2 .2 5 - 3 .5 4
3 .7 3 - 4. 93
4 . 0 8 - 5 .7 7
4 .7 7 - 5. 85
3 .7 0 - 5. 24
4 .0 0 - 5. 55
4 . 5 0 - 5. 64

21
8
7
7
_
19
13
_
_

$4. 15
3. 97
3 .9 7
3. 97
4 .4 3
4. 60
-

$ 4 .2 0
-

25
72
-

4 . 54
4 . 54
-

4. 07
3 .9 6
3 .3 4
4 .2 8
4 .4 6
3. 70
4 . 06
2 .7 2
3. 52
4 . 65
4 . 85
4 . 24
5. 60
4 . 17
4 . 08

4 .2 8
4. 50
3. 52
4. 60
4 . 82
3. 50
4 .5 0
2 .4 0
3 .2 5
5. 00
5 .4 8
4 .0 9
5 .3 9
4 . 69
4 . 74

3 .3 0 - 5. 03
3. 1 5- 4. 79
2 . 5 0 - 4 . 34
3 .4 0 - 5. 03
3. 66— 5. 16
2. 5 5 - 4 . 81
3 .2 8 - 4 . 88
2 . 1 4 - 2 .9 4
2. 6 5 - 4 . 20
3 .4 2 - 5. 66
3 .2 5 - 5. 90
3. 0 0 - 5. 54
4 . 9 3 - 7 .2 0
3. 6 5 - 4 .7 5
3. 6 3 - 4 .7 5

7
126
71
31
128
99
307
95
167

4 . 06
3. 67
4 . 14
3 .4 9
3 .8 9
3 .9 9
_
4 . 67
5. 61
4. 19

4 .2 0
4 . 85
_
3 .4 5
_
4. 55
3 .6 6
3. 65
3. 50
_

_
-

“

_
-

-

_
4 . 16
-

-

4 . 61
6 .3 6
4 . 09

_

-

■

$3. 25—$5. 11
4 . 0 0 - 5. 06
3. 6 5 3. 8 0 -

5 .3 7
5. 05
-

3. 1 5 - 4. 62
3. 66— 4. 55
3. 2 0 - 3. 66
3. 5 0 - 4 . 67
3. 5 0 - 4. 67
-

-

3. 8 3 - 5. 42
5. 1 0 - 6 .3 6
3. 6 0 - 4 . 61

_
-

■

_
-

B o rd e r S ta te s
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

26
21
9
7
_
53
41
38
12
13
90
18

$ 3 . 73
3. 58
3 .9 9
4 .4 4
_
3 .3 4
3. 07
3 .3 5
5. 08
5. 06
3. 97
4 . 93

$ 3 . 73
_
3. 73
_
_
_
2 .3 5
_
2 .3 0
3. 04
_
_
4 .3 0
5. 18

45
117
14
45
43
82
_
_
46
282

4. 70
3. 33
3. 10
3. 93
3. 94
3. 00
_
_
3. 80
4 .2 8
_
3 .9 7

5. 08
3 .4 0
_
3 .4 0
3 .4 0
2 .3 5

5. 0 0 2 .3 0 _
2 .3 0 2. 3 0 2. 1 0 -

4. 14
3. 73

2. 9 0 - 4. 14
3. 6 0 - 5. 01
_
_
2. 5 0 - 6 .3 6

_
_

166
-

~

_
_

-

_
_

_
_
_

3. 68
"

$2. 65—$ 4 .3 8
_
_
2 .5 9 - 5. 08
_
_
_
_
_
_
2 .3 0 - 4. 39
_
_
2 .3 0 - 4. 36
2. 3 0 - 4 .3 9
_
_
_
2. 7 9 - 4. 98
3. 9 6 - 6. 14

_

_
_
“

5. 10
4. 70
_
4. 70
4 . 70
4. 70

_
_

_
_
-

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and c an nin g —C o n tin ued
S m o k e r s 3----- - ---------- — — - - - — -------------S a u sa g e s -------------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s and o th e r p r o d u c t s ----S pice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e r s ---------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , fra n k f u r te r s -------------------------------------------------n _______ _——
W om en ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu r a l an d a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s —
M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
E l e c tr ic ia n s , m a in t e n a n c e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E n g in e e r, s ta tio n a r y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :-----------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o ile r --------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ----------------------------------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------J a n ito r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B eef, h a n d ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------M en - - - - - .....................................................
............. - W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------—
S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.----------------------S em i o r t r a i l e r --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n se m i o r t r a i l e r -------------------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of t y p e s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




N u m b er
of
w o rk e r s

S o u th ea st
A v erag e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$ 2 .6 8
2. 80
2 .4 6
2. 62
2 .4 7
2. 70
2 .3 5
2 .4 1
2. 61
2 .3 9

$ 2 . 58
2. 65
2. 50
2. 55
2 .4 5
2 .4 5
2 .4 0
_
2. 33

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

64
28
29
23
36
12
24
81
9
72
-

$ 2 .4 0 -$ 2 . 96
2 .4 0 - 3 .4 0
2 .2 0 - 2. 68
2 .4 0 - 2. 80
2. 1 5 - 2. 75
_
1 . 9 1 - 2. 70
2. 25— 2. 50
_
2 .2 5 - 2. 50

78
18

3. 11
3. 56

3. 10
3. 53

2. 5 0 - 3 .4 7
3 .2 0 - 3. 65

63
118
40
32
177
51
126
67
278
2 66
14
13

2. 71
2 .4 9
2 .3 8
2 .7 4
_
2 .4 6
2. 76
2 .3 4
2 .7 4
2. 71

2 .4 5
2. 50
2. 50
2. 65
_
2. 50
2. 65
2 .3 0
2. 65
2. 65
2. 65

2. 2 0 2 .2 0 2. 152 .4 4 -

_

2. 73
_
2. 26
2 .2 3

_

-

3. 35
2. 60
2. 50
3. 30
_

2. 14— 2. 55
2. 5 0 - 3. 28
2. 0 0 - 2. 55
2. 5 0 - 2. 75
2 .4 0 - 2. 96
_
_
2 .4 0 - 2. 98
_
-

-

-

-

S o uth w est
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e
M ean
$ 2 . 55
2. 60
2. 50

19
13
6

$ 2 . 62
2. 62
2. 53
2. 57
2. 57
2. 84
2. 00

-

-

35
21
20
12
_

8
15
103
13

3. 81
4. 07
3. 05
3 .4 8

37
157
14
121
72
190
108
82
54
323
69
254
14
14

3 .3 7
2 .3 5
2 .4 0
2. 77
2. 78
2. 52
2 .4 7
2. 58
2 .4 9
2. 72
2. 30
2. 84
2. 73
2. 73

-

$2. 5 0 -$ 2 . 85
2 .2 5 — 2. 94
2. 3 5 - 2. 65
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .4 0
-

4. 30
2. 96
-

3 .3 0
2 .3 0
2. 75
2. 68
2. 50
2. 50
2 .4 0
2. 35
2. 75
2. 24
2. 88
-

-

■

2. 1 0 - 2. 97

3. 3 8 - 4. 50
2. 7 1 - 3. 20
-

2. 5 2 2. 0 0 2 .4 2 2 .3 9 2. 3 5 2 .3 0 2. 3 5 2. 2 0 2. 3 5 2. 1 22. 6 0 -

-

~

-

3. 50
2. 65
3. 12
3. 12
2. 75
2. 75
2. 94
2. 94
3. 00
2. 35
3. 12
-

“

N um be r
of
w o rk e r s
105
17
55
15
35
28
7
92
82
10
76
18
60
36
416
78
40
423
64
229
180
253
218
35
34
779
116
532
131
47
27

G re a t L a k e s
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
$ 4 .4 8
4. 18
4. 23
4. 70
4 . 76
4. 89
4. 22
4. 75
4. 76
4. 68
4 . 73
4. 75
5. 58
4 .3 2
5. 00
5 .3 9
4. 63
4 .4 0
3 .4 3
4. 88
4. 85
3. 85
3. 86
3. 77
3. 79
4. 92
4. 65
4. 98
4. 92
4. 59
4. 52

$ 4 . 89
3. 75
4. 15
5. 05
4 . 96
4. 96
-

$3. 75—$5. 14
3. 15- 4. 99
3 .4 9 - 4. 96
4. 3 9 - 5. 05
4. 89— 5. 11
4. 89— 5. 11
-

-

4. 91
4. 93
4. 93

3. 76— 5 .4 8
3. 8 5 - 5. 89
3. 8 5 - 5. 27

4 .4 8
5. 54
4. 10
5. 21
5 .3 7

4. 0 8 5 .4 9 3. 7 0 4. 6 0 5. 3 4 -

4. 84
4 . 64
3. 52
4. 82
4. 60
3. 63
3. 73
3. 63
3. 75
5 .2 9
5. 14
5 .2 9
5 .3 9
4. 69
4. 74

4. 6 0 - 4. 89
4. 0 8 - 4. 93
2. 5 0 - 4. 62
4. 6 0 - 5. 03
4. 6 0 - 4. 84
3. 2 4 - 4. 74
3 .3 5— 4. 74
2. 60 — 5. 03
3. 2 4 - 3. 91
4. 2 5 - 5. 54
3. 2 5 - 5. 54
4. 8 8 - 5. 54
3. 9 0 - 5 .4 5
4. 6 9 - 4. 74
4 .4 6 - 4. 84

5. 49
5. 70
5. 26
5. 51
5. 62

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
M ountain

M id d le W est
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d sex
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and c an nin g —C ontinued
S m o k e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------S a u sa g e s -------------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s and o th e r p r o d u c ts -----S pice w e ig h e rs an d m i x e r s -----------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s --------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e 3 --------------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu r a l and a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s ---M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e ------------------------------------------E n g in e e r, s ta tio n a r y ---------------------------------------------------F ire m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o ile r ---------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u tility ---------------------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g --------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t ------------------------------------------------------------J a n ito r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs 3--------------------------------------------------------------------------B eef, h a n d ----------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g --------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k ---------------------------------------------T r u c k d riv e rs ----------------------------------------------------------------S em i o r t r a i l e r --------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i o r t r a i l e r ------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ---------------------------------------------T r u c k e r, p o w e r3 -----------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift - - - ------ - - - - - -

N u m b er
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e

34
17
6
10
9
22
15
22

$ 4 .4 3
4 . 34
4. 20
3 .4 3
3 .2 6
4. 58
4. 54
4 . 58

17
34

5. 28
5. 50
4. 56
5. 19
4. 3 1
4. 02
4. 19
4 . 32
4 .4 2
4. 39
4 . 39
4 . 11
4. 73
5. 13
4 . 62
4 . 87
4 . 36
4 . 28

-

154
7
39
158
43
269
216
119
115
-

49
221
10
137
74
25
21

$ 4 .3 1
4. 18
4 .4 4
4 .4 4
4 .4 4
5. 80
5. 72
4. 55
4. 28
4. 50
4 .3 4
4 .3 5
4. 35
4. 60
4. 79
3. 72
4. 97
4 .3 0
4. 97
4 .4 0
4. 05

$3. 95—$5. 18
4. 0 6 - 4. 44
4 .4 4 - 4. 85
4 .4 4 - 4. 85
4 .4 4 - 4. 85
4. 8 0 - 5. 81
5. 0 0 - 5. 84
4. 0 0 - 5. 14
4. 0 2 3. 3 0 3 .7 1 3. 5 8 4. 0 0 4. 2 4 4. 2 4 3 .7 2 4. 123. 5 0 4. 9 7 4. 0 5 3. 8 5 -

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts
M e d ian s an d m id d le ra n g e s a r e n o t show n fo r o cc u p a tio n s w ith few er th a n 15 w o rk e rs .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .




4. 58
4. 68
4. 68
5. 10
5. 12
4. 88
4. 88
4. 75
5. 50
6. 04
4. 97
4. 78
4. 75

Num be r
w o rk e rs

8
8
-

$ 3 . 73
3. 68
3. 89
3. 89
-

"
_
-

14
49
161
10
309
12
112
77
32
32
61
212
149
60
14
14

5. 88
5 .4 7
5. 24
4. 96
4 .3 7
3. 52
4. 97
5. 12
4. 02
4. 02
4 .4 3
4. 38
4. 17
4. 92
4. 31
4 .3 1

$5 . 24
5. 06
4 . 60
5. 02
5. 47
4. 12
4. 12
4. 88
4 . 25
4 .2 1
5 .4 0
“

8
-

10

P a c ific

A v e ra g e h o u rly ie a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean
_
-

-

-

_
-

_
$4 . 77-:$6. 23
4. 7 5 - 6. 18
4. 0 0 - 4. 84
4. 8 2 - 5 .4 7
4. 8 2 - 5 .4 7
3. 5 0 - 4 .3 6
3. 5 0 - 4 .3 6
4 .4 9 - 4 . 92
4 . 0 0 - 4. 75
3. 9 2 - 4. 51
4 .3 1 - 5 .4 5
_
_
“
-

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
-

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ran g e
_
-

_
-

-

-

_

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

175
23
35
281
96
89
259
248
_
709
171
253
_
_
-

$ 6 .2 6
5. 86
5 .4 1
4. 84
5. 18
5. 19
5. 05
5. 06
_
6. 24
5. 70
5. 76
_
_
“

_

$5. 88
5. 80
5 .3 6
4. 91
5. 16
5. 16
5. 11
5. 11
_
_
5. 90
5. 80
5. 66
_
_
"

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
I
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
$5. 76— 81
$6.
5. 8 0 - 5. 88
5. 3 6 - 5 .3 6
4. 76— 5. 00
_
_
5. lb - 5. 36
5. 16- 5. 36
5. 0 1 - 5. 15
5. 0 1 - 5. 15
_
_
_
_
5. 66— 7 .2 0
5. 48— 5. 92
5. 6 6 - 5. 84
_
_
_
_
"

3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w o rk e rs in c la s s ific a tio n s in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .

O c c u p a tio n and s iz e of c o m m u n ity
B eef d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r knife
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------------------------------F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w er knife
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f, p n e u m a tic h a m m e r
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------R u m p e rs , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r knife
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f, p o w e r saw
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------W a s h e rs , b eef
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------B eef c u ttin g :
B o n e rs, b e e f, e n tir e c a r c a s s
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u ts
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , hog
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , hog
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s --------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o rk , p o w er saw
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B elly tr i m m e r s
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------B o n e rs, h a m , o p en s ty le boning
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d e fa t
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------L o in p u lle rs
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------------------------------------


U n ited S ta te s 2
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

S o u th ea st
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

$4 . 80
3. 68
5. 38
4. 55

21
18

189
118
323
123

4. 91
4. 56
4. 40
3. 81
5. 17
4. 54
4. 73
4. 52

17
15
21
16
12
15
30
11

390
180

3. 96
3. 50

1, 570
535
672
182
139
73

170
202
376
154
322
140
316
152

S o uth w est
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

$3. 23

15
53

3. 28
3. 66
4. 12

G re a t L a k e s
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M iddle W est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

26
16
24
14
50
32

$3. 59
3. 10
3. 85
4. 71
3. 20
4. 50
3. 15
3. 22

31
51
103
10
86
19

$5. 06
5. 21
5. 38
6. 12
4. 77
4. 15

51
55
72
57
38
76
45
51
41
40
47
57
72
72

$5.
4.
5.
4.
5.
4.
4.
3.
5.
4.
5.
4.

70
54
58
70
11
26
75
98
33
43
48
49
4. 57
3. 91

29
14
42
18

3. 89
4. 16
3. 47
4. 48

7
82
6

29
14

3. 37
3. 52
3. 66
4. 39
3. 30
3. 91
2. 89
2. 99

67
39

2. 92
2. 84

61
16

6. 11
4. 73
5. 89
4. 20
3. 39

4. 87
4. 35
5. 20
4. 59

50
50
45
"

4. 08
4. 08
3. 66
-

128
52
-

4. 23
"
3. 78

371
74
85
27

5. 09
4. 18
5. 82
4. 58

176
158
117
81

4. 67
4. 55
4. 98
4. 68

5. 00
4. 41
5. 10
3. 99
5. 19
4. 66

8
19
12
48
16
30
10
24
33
98
13
22

3. 84
3. 00
3. 93
2. 95

10
9
9
7
29
9
"

3. 44
3. 27
3. 45

46
15
55
18
67
17
37
10
198
53
36
10

5. 12
5. 39
5. 21
5. 24
5. 25
5. 82
4. 88
5. 08
4. 87
5. 77
5. 14
5. 18

45
30
48
36
53
41
13
20
166
141
36
24

5. 59
5. 18
5. 79
5. 28
5. 80
5. 53
5. 18
4. 65
5. 44
5. 16
5. 67
5. 64

86
29

5. 20
5. 24

6. 04
5. 88

52

5. 70
5. 46
4. 39
5. 39
5. 70
5. 10
"

74
50
276
85
35
18
57
40
205
106

199
118
197
98
116
63
528
324
112
66

4. 69
3. 75
4. 88
4. 42
5. 06
4. 36

289
149
974
28 7
125
55

5. 31
4. 48
6. 80
4. 79
5. 45
4. 12

190
102

5. 29
4. 84

507
232

5. 10
4. 56

24
59
55
101
8
12
22
22
22
46

3. 80
3. 32
3. 73
2. 90
3. 87
3. 14
3. 75
3. 13
3. 87
3. 16
3. 88
3. 19
3. 68
3. 07
3. 81
3. 45
3. 04
3. 11

16
35
6
7
21

2. 81
3. 18
“
3. 83
"
3. 95
3. 81
3. 75
3. 68
3. 56

_

_

48
9
60
23
137
"

_

_

7. 90
6. 75
6. 59
5. 58
6. 02
5. 86
5. 77
5. 38

O c c u p a tio n and s iz e of co m m u n ity
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and can nin g:
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a ch in e
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r)
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------S m o k e rs, s a u sa g e
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------S tu ffe rs , fr a n k f u r te r s
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a ry
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u tility
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C le a n e rs , nig h t
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------J a n ito rs
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a re a s ---------------------T ru c k d r iv e r o th e r th a n se m i o r tr a i le r
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ---------------------T r u c k e r , p o w e r, fo rk lift
M e tro p o lita n a r e a s -----------------------------N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ----------------------

U nited S ta te s 1
2
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s
260
100
183
95
275
102
155

173
100

$4. 45
3. 41
4. 75
3. 73
5. 17
3. 79
4. 74
4. 05
4. 65
3. 40

307
122

5. 93
5. 12

51

373
212
1, 511
898

5.
5.
5.
4.

2, 599
1, 378
427
237
1 ,9 4 3
968
47 3
385
1 ,8 3 0
884
561
345

4. 60
3. 94
4. 35
3. 75
4. 34
3. 94
4. 38
3. 54
4. 73
3. 21
4. 94
4.. 34

39
10
08
46

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p ay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek e n d s, h o lid a y s, and
la te s h ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




S o u th ea st
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s
25
54
20
20

S o uth w est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

G re a t L a k e s
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

$3. 31
2. 75
3. 30
2. 85
3. 25
2. 89
3. 02
3. 07
3. 86
2. 65

14
20
"
29
12
22

$3. 10
3. 54
3. 54
4. 07

7
7
24
"
129
129

4. 84
4. 68

20
15

4. 99
4. 70

4. 41

36
24
108
133

4.
4.
3.
4.

25
36
39
26

89
16
437
83

193
272
35
58
122
141

3. 34
3. 01
2. 93
2. 89
3. 02
2. 68
2. 96
3. 07
3. 35
3. 12
3. 52
3. 21

188
140

3. 36
3. 24
3. 78
3. 84
3. 22
3. 38

58 5
195

19
48
35
17
29
50

39
140
182
508
43
29

4. 11
3. 41

40
18
236
185
45
34
285
56

.

22

3. 13

3. 28
2. 61
3. 24
2. 51

_

4. 14

M iddle
N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs

W est
A v erag e
h o u rly
e a rn in g s

79
18
28
15
53
13
30
10
51
14

$4. 56
4. 47
4. 84
5. 67
5. 61
5. 40
5. 39
4. 42
5. 17
5. 15

48
10
56
21
40
23
52
16
33
16

$5. 06
4. 76

87
11

6. 28
4. 91
5. 77
5. 68
5. 18
4. 67

149
60

6. 04
5. 40

119
100
289
367

5. 61
5. 52
5. 22
4. 96

5.
4.
4.
4.

04
47
05
48

821
436
220
92

4. 39
3. 92
4. 46
4. 95
5. 28
3. 30
5. 22
4. 82

667
399
185
69
201
77
304
170

97
24
310
114
62
35
515
77
87
58

5. 53
4. 72
5. 87
5. 03
5. 47
4. 80
5. 71
4. 30

5. 04
4. 77
4. 79
4. 48
4. 71
5. 02
5. 02
5. 28
5. 44
3. 92
5. 17
4. 92

N O TE: D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do not m e e t p u blic a tio n
c r ite r ia .




O c c u p a tio n an d s iz e of p la n t
B e e f d re s s in g :
B a c k e rs , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r knife
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------H ide p u lle r s , m a c h in e
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------S tu n n e rs, b e e f, p n e u m a tic h a m m e r
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------R u m p e rs , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k nife
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------S h a c k le rs , b e e f
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------S p litte rs , b e e f, p o w e r saw
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f, e n tir e c a r c a s s
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , p r im a l c u ts
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , hog
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------S h a c k le rs , hog
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------S h a v e rs
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o rk , p o w e r saw
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly tr im m e r s
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------------------H a m s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d e fat
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -------------------------------------

U nited S ta te s 2
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s
328
44
457
73
396
66
425
43
262
45
2 88
40
391
55
500
70

$4.. 01
5,. 54
5., 08
5., 54
4., 75
5. 16
4. 15
4. 76
4., 89
5. 18
4. 26
4. 93
4. 57
5. 40
3. 71
4. 51

G re a t L a k e s
N um ber
A ve ra g e
h o u rly
of
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M id d le W est
A v e ra g e
N um ber
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s
$ 4. 84
5. 71
5. 19
5. 19
4. 2 8
5, 35

79
9
64
13

4. 66
5. 36
4. 67
6. 05
3. 83
5. 01

74
32
90
39
86
28
77
19
58
23
53
25
74
30
102
42

4. 69
5. 55
4. 06
4. 66

384
61
87
25

4. 84
5. 53
5. 17
6. 75

221
113
34
164

4. 51
4. 81
4. 25
4. 98

40
21
46
27

21
54
24
60
30
64
13
20

5. 07
5. 56
5. 13
5. 75

79
228
13
47

51
96
17
95
10
_
14
7

$ 5 . 14
5. 34
6. 04
4. 61
5. 12

_

1, 846
259
602
2 52

4. 67
5. 20

1 14
98
183
134

4. 25
5. 43

161
134
117
62
466
3 86
93
85

4. 61
5. 50
4. 05
4. 96
4. 32
5. 17
4. 26
5. 38

33
14
168
83
30
16

4. 80
5. 92
4. 62
6. 24
4. 97
5. 91
4. 71
5 .4 2
4. 83
5. 53
4. 88
5. 64

245
193

4. 61
5. 55

62
53

4. 75
5. 75

38
86

91
89

4. 37
5. 74

33
24

4. 77
6. 02

11
42

5. 02
5. 19

4. 12
5. 46

49
35

4. 20
4. 88
4. 65
5 .4 6
4. 30
5. 01

5. 29
5. 87
4. 50
5. 09
5. 00
5. 42
5. 50
5. 70
5. 79
6. 06
5. 68
6. 40




(N u m b e r an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U nited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
O ccu p a tio n and siz e of p la n t
P o r k c u ttin g — C ontinued
L o in p u lle r s
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs 500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
T r im m e r s of trim m in g s
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ---------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , cooking, an d canning:
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a ch in e
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
S a u sag e m a k e rs c h o p p e r
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
S m o k e rs, sa u sa g e
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re S tu ffe rs , f ra n k fu rte rs
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
E n g in e e rs , sta tio n a ry
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
F ire m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o ile r
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------------ :-----500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e ra l u tility
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------------------500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo ad in g
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ---------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t
2 0 -4 9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------- -i 2
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
J a n ito r s
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re
T r u c k d r iv e r s , o th e r th an s e m i- o r tr a ile r
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re ~
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, fo rk lift
2 0 -4 9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------------------ v
500 w o rk e rs o r m o re

U n ited S ta te s 2
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s
157
135
349
390
189
171
146
132
236
141
93
113
144
129
321
264
72
115
1 ,6 8 5
724
409
430
1, 982
I, 995
291
373
- 1 ,5 5 5
1 ,3 5 6
378
480
1, 831
883
239
667

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e a n d f o r w o rk on w eek e n d s,
h o lid a y s , an d la te sh ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

G re a t L ak es
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M id d le W est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

$ 4 . 63
5 .7 1
4. 35
5 .4 5

50
33
101
93

$5 . 14
5. 99
4. 44
5. 70

28
69
81
230

$ 5 . 65
6. 08
5 .2 4
5. 77

3. 65
4. 72

51
46
21
22
25
41

3. 73
5. 44

10
48

3. 87
5. 25

4. 70
5. 54
4. 60
6. 16
4. 18
5. 80

9
68
11
52
14
54
8
41

4. 29
5. 44
4. 48
5. 79
4. 16
5. 61

87
132
16
43

3. 91
4. 95
4. 42
5. 43
3. 76
5. 24
3. 28
5. 21
5. 08
5. 534. 63
5. 32
4 . 74
5. 10
4. 18
5. 07
3. 85
4. 88
3. 57
4. 57
3. 70
4. 79
3. 40
4. 48
3 .9 7
4. 78
4 .3 0
4. 86

16
24
20
45
60
45
39
34
363
157
39
78
332
448
72
49
262
162
36
61
327
265
46
99

4. 49
5 .4 6

3. 07
5. 68

5. 75
5. 76
4. 36
5. 76
4. 96
5. 42

399
257

5. 18
5. 82
5 .2 8
5. 71
4. 96
5 .2 5

4. 65
5. 77

64
195

4. 60
5. 34

4. 29
5. 34

303
954
74
238
188
878
78
176
100
178

4. 23
5. 17
4. 27
4. 83
4. 57
4. 88
4. 58
5 .3 2
4. 07
5. 55
4. 64
5. 17

3. 58
4. 95
3. 92
4. 82
3. 65
5. 22
4. 64
5. 49
4. 56
5 .2 9

83
391

N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t
p u b lic a tio n c r it e r ia .




O c c u p a tio n an d m e th o d of w age p ay m en t
B eef d r e s s in g :
F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w er k nife
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ------------------------------------------------------------W a sh e rs, b e e f
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------B eef c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , b e e f, lo in s , r ib s , o r ro u n d s
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs, b e e f, e n tir e c a r c a s s
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , f a b ric a te d b eef cu ts
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------P o rk d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , hog
T im e ---------------------------------------------------- ---------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs
P o rk c u ttin g :
B e lly tr i m m e r s
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e --------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h a m , o p e n s ty le boning
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs, h a m , c h is e l boning
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d efat
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------L o in p u lle rs
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and can nin g:
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , b e llie s (p o rk )
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------H a n g e rs , b e llie s
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs
T im e --------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ----------------------------------------------------------------

U nited S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e
N u m b er
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs
190
23
134
28

G re a t L a k e s
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

$ 4. 56
6. 66
4. 05
4. 66

87
68

4. 25 9- 27
4. 47
7. 02
4. 47
8. 08

70
50
105
55

4. 96
5. 82

14

$5. 18

4. 79
6. 16
4. 81
6. 03
4. 70
5. 70

27
32
19
70
26

4. 99
4. 88
6. 25
4. 94
6. 07

172
83
293
640
84
163

4. 95
6. 48
4. 62
8. 06

49
64
"

5. 58
5. 43

5. 07
7. 25

-

71
46
103
72

4. 71
6. 42
4. 85
6. 47

9
25
11

273
227

4. 56
6. 12

77
-

110
73

4. 30
4. 60

23

66
44
105
55

4. 91
6. 87

13
15
21
15

349
163

90
42

4. 09
6. 01
4. 41
5. 26

"

_

_

_
_

6. 60
5. 24
7. 55
4. 85
"
5. 01
5. 02
4. 92
4. 85
5. 81

$4. 91
4. 40
-

153
94
183
14

255
119
464
43
346
62

113
71

M id d le W est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

4. 52
9- 31
4. 50
6. 73

_

32
34
38
38
41
44
164
122
47
68
79
264

_

144
24
29
38
55
121
188
24
22
39
34
22
32
21
"

_

5. 28
5. 89
5. 26
6. 19
5. 35
6. 30
5. 08
5. 86
5. 16
6. 69
5. 19
8. 53

_

7. 34
5. 12
7. 19
5. 32
6. 49
5. 03
6. 03
5. 04
5. 52
5. 07
6. 49
5. 04
6. 49
5. 05
-




(N u m b e r an d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U nited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
O c c u p a tio n and m eth o d of w age pay m ent
C u rin g , sm o k in g , cooking, and c an n in g :—C ontinued
P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a ch in e
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------S a u sa g e m a k e rs (ch o pp er)
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------S m o k e rs, sa u sa g e
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ----------------------—------------------------ --------S tu ffe rs , f ra n k fu rte rs
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe r, s a u s a g e :
C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r tif ic ia l c a sin g s
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in ten a n c e
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------Inc e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in ten a n c e
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l and m a te ria l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo ad in g
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ----------------------—— —— --------------- -------C le a n e rs , n ight
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e —---------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g
T i m e ------------------------------------------------------------------ In c e n tiv e -------------------------—------------------------------—
S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k
T im e —------------------------------—-------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, fo rk lift
T im e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e -----------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, o th e r th a n fo rk lift
T i m e -------------------------------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e ---------------------------------------------------- --------

U n ited S ta te s 1
2
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

G re a t L a k e s
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M iddle W est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

122
38
105
60

$ 4. 49
5. 54

19

$5. 06

48
22

4. 39
5. 96

20

4. 96
_

246
233
97
31
84
56

4. 43
5. 58
4. 70
6. 26
4. 60
5. 03

30

4. 94
_

9
-

5. 26
-

18
12

5. 15
6. 37

29
21
72
104
38
13
26
13

$5 . 06
6. 25
5. 26
6. 60
5. 11
6. 22
5. 33
6. 54
5. 15
6. 86

104
88

4. 73
6. 30

27
-

5. 12
_

34
40

5. 16
6. 49

259
89
202

5. 51
6. 84
5. 72

28

5. 71

155
_

5. 68
_

123

5. 84

466
100

4. 74
5. 67
4. 36
5. 85
4. 34
6. 05
4. 30
4. 33
4. 67
6. 17
4. 88
6. 46

36
-

4. 83
-

190
30

5. 14
6. 37

209
-

4. 90
-

166
-

4. 87
-

846
253
742
205

45
18
100

4. 82
5. 77
4. 96

4. 65
6. 53
4. 48
6. 33
5. 04
6. 23
4. 98
6. 10
4. 96

1 ,7 7 7
481
1 ,4 3 3
238
386
143
708
74
439
132

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

-

-

-

-

-

11

~

-

-

-

4. 90
”

156
49
397
56
378

N O TE: D a sh es in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do not m eet
p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .




(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 and a v e ra g e g u a ra n te e d h o u rly r a t e s 13 in c e n tiv e -p a id w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c cu p atio n ,
2
U n ited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)

O cc u p a tio n

B e e f d r e s s in g :
F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r k n ife —
S p litte rs , b e e f, o th e r (in c lu d in g c le a v e r and
c o m b in a tio n c le a v e r an d p o w e r s a w ) ----------------W a s h e rs , b e e f -------------------------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , lo in s, r ib s , o r r o u n d s --------------------------B o n e rs , e n tir e c a r c a s s ----------------------------------------B r e a k -u p m en , f a b ric a te d b e e f c u t s -------------------P o rk d r e s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e r s ---------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , h o g --------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , h o g ---------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs --------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte rs , b a c k , p o w e r s a w -----------------------------------P o r k c u ttin g :
B e lly t r i m m e r s -----------------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h am , op en sty le b o n i n g -------------------------B o n e rs , h a m , c h is e l b o n i n g ---------------------------------H a m s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d e f a t --------------L o in p u lle r s -----------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s --------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , an d canning:
C a sin g p e e le r o p e ra to rs ---------------------------------------G r a d e r s , b e llie s ( p o r k ) ----------------------------------------H a n g e rs, b e llie s ----------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs ----------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e --------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) -----------------------------------S lic in g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------S m o k e rs:
S a u s a g e s -----------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs, fra n k f u r te r s ------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs, sa u sa g e , c o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l
and a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s ----------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in t e n a n c e -----------------------------------W e ld e rs , h a n d ------— ---------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , l o a d i n g --------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n i g h t ------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g --------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and t r u c k -----------------— — ----------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, f o r k l i f t -----------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, o th e r th an f o r k l i f t -----------------

U n ited S ta te s 2
Ave ra g e
N u m b er
s tr a ig h t-tim e
g u a ra n ­
of
u
teed
w o rk e rs 4 e aH o inrlys 1
rn g
ra te 2
23

$6. 66

$ 5 . 51

39
28

7. 09
4 .6 6

119
35
62
50
55
71
163
39
83
640
163
46
72
227
73
44
55
42
38
60
233
31
56
88

9. 27
7. 15
8. 08
5. 82
6. 16
6. 03
5. 70
5. 59
6 .4 8
8. 06
7 .2 5
6. 42
6 .4 7
6. 12
4. 60
6. 87
6. 01
5. 26
5. 54
5. 96
5. 58
6. 26
5. 03

3. 08
4. 15
5. 37
4. 93
5. 18
5. 08
5. 01
5. 11
4. 91
5. 03
5. 14
5. 18
5 .2 9
4. 72
5. 20
5. 01
4. 09
5. 10
4. 61
4. 60
4. 53
4. 77
4. 69
5. 18
4. 19

6. 30
6. 84
6. 76
5. 67
5. 85
6. 05
4. 33
6. 17
6. 46

4. 88
6. 05
5. 89
4. 63
4. 59
5. 08
3. 78
5. 13
5. 05

G re a t L a k e s
A v e ra g e
N um ber
s tr a ig h t-tim e
g u a ra n ­
of
Ho
w o rk e rs 4 e a rn u rlys 1
te e d
in g
ra te 2

89
45
100
481
238
143
74
132

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek e n d s,
h o lid a y s, an d la te s h ifts .
2 In c lu d e s o n ly fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d r a te s ; fo r p u rp o s e s of th is study,
the F e d e r a l m in im u m w ag e w a s not c o n sid e re d a s a fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d ra te .
3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

i

_
"

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

12

6. 37

5. 13

94
14
34
38
44
122
29
68
264
144
29
55
188
22
34
32
_
22
21
104
13
13

-

40

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_
-

19
26
-

-

_
_

$ 6 .2 5
6. 07
-

_

_

_
_

_
_

9
11
-

_
-

15

_

6. 60
7. 55
-

_

_

5. 81

_

_

-

-

M id d le W est
A v e ra g e
N um ber
s tr a ig h t-tim e
of
g u a ra n ­
Ho
w o rk e rs 4 e a rn u rlys 1
teed
in g
ra te 2

_
_

_
_

$5. 19
5. 02
-

_
_
_

5. 09
5. 32
-

_

_

5. 02
_

_

.

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

18

5. 77

5. 06

“

_

-

_

_

_

30
253
205
49
56
-

_

_

$ 9 . 31
6. 73
5. 89
6. 19
6 .3 0
5. 86
5. 97
6 .6 8
8. 53
7. 34
7. 19
6 .4 9
6. 03
5. 52
6 .4 9
6 .4 9
_
6 .2 5
6. 60
6. 22
6 .5 4
6. 86

$ 5 .3 8
5. 10
5 .3 1
5. 30
5 .3 9
5. 11
5. 46
5. 28
5 .2 9
5. 32
5. 16
5. 36
5. 05
5. 02
5. 12
4. 97
_
5. 06
5. 30
5. 06
5 .2 4
5. 15

6. 49

5. 13

_

6. 37
6. 53
6. 33
6 .2 3
6. 10

_

5. 16
4. 97
5 .2 3
5. 12
5. 14
~

4
In c lu d e s only th o se w o rk e rs p a id on an in c e n tiv e b a s is an d p ro v id e d
fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d ra te s .
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t
p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .

Table 12. Meatpacking: Occupational earnings, earned and guaranteed rates of incentive workers, multiplant companies
(D is trib u tio n of in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s 1 in se le c te d o cc u p a tio n s by p e rc e n t d iffe re n c e b e tw een s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 2 and th e ir g u a ra n te e d ra te , U n ited S ta te s, M a rc h 1974)
-----------ITuim b e r o:£ w o rk e rs w ith a v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
A v e ra g e
ex ce ed in g th e ir g u a ra n te e d r a te by sp e c ifie d p e rc e n ts
h o u rly
N u m b er
15
25
5
10
20
35
30
40
45
L ess
50
of
O c c u p atio n
G u a ra n te e d th a n
w o rk e rs E a r n in g s 2
or
ra te
35
15
25
30
10
20
35
40
45
50
m o re
B e e f d re s s in g :
F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w er
_
_
_
_
_
k n ife ------------------------------------------------------------------23
$ 5 .5 1
1
1
$ 6 .6 6
5
7
9
S p litte r s , b e e f, o th e r (in clu d in g c le a v e r
_
_
and c o m b in a tio n c le a v e r and p o w er saw) ------3. 08
1
7. 09
39
38
W a s h e rs , b e e f ----------------------------------------------------28
4. 66
4. 15
3
2
17
6
B e e f c u ttin g :
_
_
5. 37
B o n e rs , lo in s , r ib s , o r ro u n d s ------------------------6
3
6
7
8
4
1
9. 27
7
119
77
1
1
35
4. 93
3
2
3
2
7. 15
B o n e rs , e n tir e c a r c a s s ------------------------------------1
4
5
2
11
62
5. 18
B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f cu ts ----------------8. 08
3
3
12
14
30
"
~
P o rk d re s s in g :
26
_
5. 82
5 .0 8
1
B e lly o p e n e rs -----------------------------------------------------50
8
4
2
1
8
_
_
55
6. 16
5 .0 1
6
4
E v is c e r a to r s , hog ----------------------------------------------20
10
1
2
3
9
_
_
_
4
71
6 .0 3
5. 11
7
18
H e a d e rs , h o g -------------------------------------------------------8
8
1
6
19
_
163
5. 70
2
S h a v e rs ----------------------------------------------------------------10
22
16
11
1
79
6
4 .9 1
1
15
5 .0 3
18
3
3
S p litte rs , b a c k , p o w e rsa w -------------------------------6
1
6
1
39
5 .5 9
1
P o rk c u ttin g :
5. 14
_
83
6 .4 8
3
3
8
23
2
B e lly tr i m m e r s ---------------------------------------------------19
3
13
9
640
5. 18
B o n e rs , h a m , o pen sty le b o n in g ----------------------8. 06
8
6
4
8
42
4
6
2
26
25
509
163
7. 25
B o n e rs , h a m c h is e l bo nin g -------------------------------3
7
2
13
7
15
12
5 .2 9
76
9
8
11
_
_
_
46
6 .4 2
4. 72
3
15
1
3
4
H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d e f a t ----------4
15
]
_
72
5 .2 0
14
4
6. 47
10
10
6
4
L o in p u lle r s --------------------------------------------------------2
2
9
11
227
6. 12
5 .0 1
17
22
T r im m e r s of tr i m m in g s ------------------------------------15
11
69
16
26
13
9
3
26
C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and canning:
_
_
_
_
C a sin g p e e le r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------73
4. 60
4. 09
10
10
4
10
29
1
9
G r a d e r s , b e llie s (p o rk ) ------------------------------------_
_
1
44
6. 87
5. 10
8
10
3
2
4
3
13
_
_
H a n g e rs, b e llie s ------------------------------------------------55
6. 01
4 .6 1
5
10
4
1
6
12
6
9
2
_
_
_
_
M ix e r o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------------42
4. 60
5. 26
10
8
6
8
2
7
1
_
_
_
P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ----------------38
5. 54
4 .5 3
14
6
3
2
1
4
1
7
_
_
_
S a u s a g e m a k e rs (ch o p p er) -------------------------------60
4 . 77
5 .9 6
4
8
11
15
2
8
3
9
1
S lic in g m a c h in e o p e ra to rs -------------------------------233
5. 58
4. 69
66
16
28
18
10
34
38
10
3
9
S m o k e rs:
.
_
_
_
S a u s a g e s --------------------------------------------------------31
6 .2 6
5. 18
4
1
6
15
1
3
1
_
*
_
_
S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r te r s ---------------------------------------56
5 .0 3
21
5
4. 19
11
4
7
3
5
S tu ffe rs , s a u sa g e , c o m b in a tio n of
n a tu r a l and a r tif ic ia l c a s i n g s -------------------------88
6. 30
4. 88
11
4
6
13
4
21
8
3
6
11
1
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
_
_
_
_
6 .0 5
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e ------------------------------6. 84
2
3
72
89
2
1
9
45
W e ld e rs , h and ----------------------------------------------------6 .7 6
5. 89
3
28
2
10
1
1
C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v em en t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ----------------------------------------------100
5 .6 7
4. 63
8
7
6
6
1
39
3
6
12
9
3
C le a n e rs , n ig h t -------------------------------------------------481
5. 85
4. 59
37
105
20
41
48
66
47
24
49
35
9
P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g ----------------------------------------------238
6 .0 5
5 .0 8
88
28
15
13
10
7
5
5
6
52
9
_
_
_
1
S to w e rs , c a r and tru c k ------------------------------------143
4. 33
3. 78
6
22
92
9
12
74
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, fo rk lift -------------------------------6. 17
5. 13
12
14
7
2
5
4
15
4
9
2
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, o th e r th a n fo rk lift — ----------132
5 .0 5
6 .4 6
5
16
12
19
16
15
9
4
19
17
1 L im ite d to in c e n tiv e w o rk e rs in p la n ts having fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d r a te s : F o r
th e p u rp o s e of th is stu d y , th e F e d e ra l M in im u m W age w a s no t c o n s id e re d a s a fo rm a l
g u a ra n te e d r a te .




2 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, and
la te s h ifts .
3 In c lu d e s w o rk e rs w h o se e a rn e d r a te s did n o t e x c ee d th e ir g u a ra n te ed ra te s .

(D is trib u tio n of in c e n tiv e -p a id w o r k e r s 1 in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in m u ltip la n t co m p a n ie s by fo rm a lly g u a ra n te e d r a te s of p ay , U n ited S ta te s, M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t an d o c c u p a tio n
B e e f d re s s in g :
F lo o rs m e n , o n - th e - r a il d re s s in g , p o w e r knife"---S p litte rs , b e e f, o th e r (in c lu d in g c le a v e r and
c o m b in a tio n c le a v e r an d p o w e r saw ) ------------------W a s h e rs , b e e f ----------------------------------------------------------B e e f c u ttin g :
B o n e rs , lo in s , r ib s , o r ro u n d s ----------------------------B o n e rs , e n tir e c a r c a s s -------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts ----------------------P o r k d re s s in g :
B e lly o p e n e rs ------------------------------------------------------------E v is c e r a to r s , hog ----------------------------------------------------H e a d e rs , hog ------------------------------------------------------------S h a v e rs ----------------------------------------------------------------------S p litte r s , b a c k , p o w e rsa w -------------------------------------P o r k c u ttin g :
B e lly tr i m m e r s ---------------------------------------------------------B o n e rs, h a m , open sty le bo nin g ----------------------------B o n e rs , h a m , c h is e l b o nin g -----------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e , sk in and d e fa t --------------L o in p u lle r s --------------------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s -----------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , and can nin g:
C a sin g p e e le r o p e ra to rs -----------------------------------------G ra d e rs , b e llie s (p o rk ) -------------------------------------------H a n g e rs, b e llie s -------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s ------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ----------------------S a u sa g e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) ---------------------------------------S lic in g m a c h in e o p e r a to r s -------------------------------------S m o k e rs:
S a u s a g e s ---------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r te r s ---------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , sa u s a g e , c o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l
an d a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s --------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t:
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------------W e ld e rs , h an d ----------------------------------------------------------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t:
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ----------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t --------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g ----------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k -------------------------------------------T r u c k e rs , p o w e r, fo rk lift --------------------------------------T r u c k e rs , p o w e r, o th e r th a n fo rk lift -------------------- 1

N u m b e r of w o rk e rs w ith g u a ra n te e d h o u rly ra te s of—
N u m b e r A v e ra g e
3 .0
g u a ra n te e d U nder $ and 0 $ 3 . 10 $ 3 . 20 $ 3 . 30 $ 3. 4C $ 3. 50 $ 3. 60 $ 3. 70 $ 3. 80 $ 3. 90 $ 4 . 00 $ 4 . 20 $ 4 . 40 $ 4 . 6o $ 4 . 80 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 . 20 $ 5 . 40 $ 5 . 60 $ 5. 80 $ 6 . 00
of
and
ra te
w o rk e r s
$ 3 .0 0 u n d er
$ 3 . 10 $ 3. 20 $ 3 . 30 $ 3. 40 $ 3 . 50 $ 3 . 60 $ 3. 70 $ 3. 80 $ 3 . 90 $ 4 . 00 $ 4 . 20 $ 4. 40 $ 4 . 60 $ 4 . 80 $ 5 . 00 $ 5 . 20 $ 5 . 40 $ 5 . 60 $ 5 . 80 $ 6 . 00 o v e r
23

3. 08
4. 15

119
35
62

1

$ 5 .5 1

39
28

_

38

5. 37
4. 93
5. 18

_
1

-

50
55
71
163
39

5. 08
5. 01
5. 11
4. 91
5. 03

4
4
4
12
6

2
2
.

_

_

-

-

83
640
163
46
72
227

5. 14
5. 18
5. 29
4. 72
5. 20
5. 01

4
30
8
4
4

6

_

_

_

4. 09
5. 10
4. 61
4. 60
4. 53
4. 77
4. 69
5. 18
4. 19
4. 88

26
8
8
8
12
32

89
45

4. 63
4. 59
5 .0 8
3. 78
5. 13
5. 05

_

-

10
1
-

1

1

-

3

_

6
80
8
76

_

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

6

2

2

5

3

"

4

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

6

8
9

72
6
37

39
20
7

_
2

-

-

2
3
7
17
1

3
128
1

41
40
31
2
2

3
6
24
1
26

_
_
3

_
-

_
“

3
11
7
2
19

7
80
21
31
3
177

68
434
72
7
33
24

1
75
63
30

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_

5
1
27
10
_
5
12
4
1

32
42
15
21
29
8
176
2
27
74

3
_
29
25
6

_
_
_
6
1

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
-

_
-

_
_
_
.
_
.
-

-

-

-

-

-

3

22
8

6

42

2 89
-

_

_

_
_
_

.
_
_

_
18

-

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

3
_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

-

10
_

1

2
-

-

10
_

2
_

4
_

1 L im ite d to in c e n tiv e w o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d r a te s ; F o r p u rp o s e s of
th is stu d y , T he F e d e ra l M in im u m W age w a s n o t c o n sid e re d as a fo rm a l g u a ra n te e d r a te .




6

6. 05
5. 89

100
481
238
143
74
132

1

4

73
44
55
42
38
60
233
31
56
88

_

-

2
-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

10
-

_

_

5

1
5
_

5

6

5
18
11
11

A ll w o rk e rs w e re a t $ 6 .0 0 to $ 6 .2 0 ,

-

134
70
4
1

65
249
118
63
74
102

6
_
_
_
.

18

_
3
_
_

_

-

_

.
-

_
_

-

Table 14. Meatpacking: Method of wage payment and rate structure characteristics

M ethod o f w ag e p a y m e n t1

U nited M iddle B o rd e r S o uth ­ S outh­ G re a t
east
w e st
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s
2
Lakes
A ll c o m p a n ie s

A ll w o r k e r s --------------------

100

T im e - r a te d w o r k e r s -------------F o rm a l p la n -----------------------S in g le r a t e --------------------R an g e o f r a te s —-----------In d iv id u a l r a t e s ----------------In c e n tiv e w o r k e r s -------------------In d iv id u a l p ie c e w o rk --------G ro u p p ie c e w o r k ---------------In d iv id u a l b o n u s ----------------G ro u p b o n u s -----------------------S tin t w o r k --------------------------------

79
71
60
10
8
18
1
3
4
10
3

100
92
67
46
20
25

100
72
57
52
5
15

8
1
2
_
5
( 3)

28
1
25
1
2
-

100
91
67
54
13
24
4
1
( 3)
3
5

100
97
85
45
40
13
2
1
1
( 3)

100

M iddle M ountain P a c ific U nited M iddle B o rd e r S outh­ S o uth ­ G re a t
W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S ta te s
east
w e st
L akes
M u lti p la n t c o m p a n ie s

69
64
58
7
5

100
67
65
63
1
3

28
1
2
8
17
3

28
2
2
7
16
5

100
100
96
64
32
4

“

100
100
100
96
4
( 3)
•
_
-

100
69
68
60
8
1
27
1
4
6
16
4

100
78
78
66
12
22
1
2
19
"

•
§
-c
«
e

8
E
o o
c
■oQ ~
fl

=
« 3
O a
9

100
87
85
72
13
2
6
1
1
_
5
7

100
97
94
59
36
2
3
2
2
_
-

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

100
51
51
45
6
-

100
65
64
64
_
1

44
( 3)
12
31
5

31
2
2
8
19
4

100
100
100
59
41
.
«.
-

100
100
100
100
.
_
-

_
“

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs -----------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

T im e - r a te w o r k e r s -----F o rm a l p la n ------------S in g le r a t e ----------R an g e of r a t e s ---In d iv id u a l r a t e s ------In c e n tiv e w o r k e r s -------In d iv id u a l p ie c e w o rk
G ro u p p ie c e w o r k -----In d iv id u a l b o nu s ------G ro u p b o n u s ------------S tin t w o rk — —----------------

94
75
60
15
19
5
1
1
1
1
2

97
62
38
24
35
3
1
2

95
70
70
25
5
1
1
3
-

99
36
21
15
63
1
1
( 3)

98
72
26
46
27
1
1

100
100
95
5
( 3)

_
.
_

_
_

1

83
72
62
10
11
6
( 3)
2
( 3)
3
11

100
95
66
29
5

-

87
77
69
8
10
12
1
4
5
3
1

1 F o r d e fin itio n of m e th o d of w ag e p ay m en t p la n s, se e app en d ix A .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e New E n g lan d re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




_

( 3)

_

3 L e s s th an 0 .5 p e rc e n t.
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n din g, su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls

_

-

-

(N u m b e r of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g fo rm a l ra te s tr u c tu r e s w ith la b o r g ra d e s , U nited S ta te s, M a rc h 1974)

L a b o r g ra d e

T o ta l
num b e r
of
w o rk e rs1

3 or 4
N u m b e r of la b o r g ra d e s in the sy s te m :
2

3
5 ---------------------------------------------6 ---------------------------------------------7 --------------------------------------------------------8 ---------------------------------------------9
10 ---------------------------------------------13 ---------------------------------------------15 ---------------------------------------------1 6 ---------------------------------------------1 7 ---------------------------------------------1 8 ---------------------------------------------19-----------------------------------------------

4 ---------------------------------------------------------

2 1 --------------------------------------------------------22
2 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 4 ------------------------------------------------------2 5 -------------------------------------------------------

2 6 --------------------------------------------2 7 --------------------------------------------------------29 ---------------------------------------------------------

3 0 ---------------------------------------------31

100
577
291
879
2, 808
2, 307
636
4, 941
1, 649
146
851
1, 233
476
774
690
297
721
7, 547
6, 439
6, 532
13, 933
11, 691
2, 936
426
3, 733
2, 856

N um ber
of
N u m b er of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
w o rk e rs T o ta l
jin p la n ts num b e r h av in g u n ifo rm c e n ts - p e r - h o u r
in c re m e n ts of—
h av in g
of
nonu n ifo rm w o rk e rs 1
in c r e 5
3 or 4
O ver 5
O v e r 5 m e n ts
4 l/2
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

N u m b er of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
h av in g u n ifo rm c e n ts -p e r-h o u r
in c re m e n ts of—

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
732
495
_
_
_
1, 856
'

5
4 V2
A ll corp p an ies
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
166
_
_
366
_
-

900
310
_
1, 091
_
_
_
_
-

-

_
104
.
696
_
533
507
476
774
324
297
493
6, 647
6, 129
5, 800
12, 347
11, 691
2, 936
426
1, 877
2, 856

100
_
532
785
_
342
317
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
"

100
477
291
291
879
879
364
2, 276
1, 522 1, 989
_
532
4, 599 4 ,3 2 7
636 1, 332
146
146
318
264
560
560
_
476
_
774
_
324
228
228
- 6, 227
_ 5, 348
_ 3, 322
_ 10, 082
- 11,691
- 2, 936
_
426
- 3, 645
‘ 2, 700

1 L im ite d to w o rk e rs in p la n ts h a v in g r a te s tr u c tu r e s in c o rp o ra tin g la b o r g ra d e s (w age
b ra c k e ts ).




_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
732
_
1, 856
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
696
_
_
_
264
_
_
_
476
_
774
_
324
900 5, 327
_ 5, 348
_ 2, 590
_ 10, 082
- 11, 691
- 2, 936
_
426
- 1, 789
- 2, 700

_
785
_
_
_
_

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

N um ber
of
N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
w o rk e rs T o ta l
In p la n ts n u m b e r h av in g u n ifo rm c e n ts - p e r - h o u r
h av in g
in c re m e n ts of—
of
n o nu n ifo rm w o rk e rs 1
in c r e m e n ts
5
3 or 4
O ver 5
4V2
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
_
291
879
364
1, 204
_
4, 327
636
146
_
560
228
_
_
_
-

100
577
2 ,4 4 4
318
636
614
317
_
587
673
_
366
297
493
1, 320
1, 091
3, 210
3, 851
_
88
156

-

_
_
_
_
495
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
166
366
310
_
1, 091
_
-

_
104
_
269
507
_
297
493
1, 320
781
3, 210
2, 265
_
88
156

100
532
342
317
-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
■

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs
in p la n ts
h av in g
nonu n ifo rm
in c r e m e n ts

100
477
1, 912
318
532
272
_
318
_
-

_
_
_
-

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
P la n ts s tu d i e d P la n ts h a v in g an e s t a b li s h e d m i n i m u m -------U n d e r $ 2. 0 0 -----$ 2 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 1 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 2 0 ----------------------------$ 2 . 2 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 3 0 ----------------------------$ 2 . 3 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 4 0 —
$ 2 . 4 0 an d u n d e r $ 2. 5 0 ...............................
$ 2 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 2. 6 0 — - $ 2 . 6 0 an d u n d e r $ 2. 7 0 ............
$ 2 . 7 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 8 0 - $ 2 . 8 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2. 9 0 $ 2 .9 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 —
$ 3 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3. 1 0 ----------------------------$ 3 . 1 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 2 0 - $ 3 . 2 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 3 0 —
$ 3 . 3 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 4 0
$ 3 . 4 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 5 0
- $ 3 . 5 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 6 0 - - - $ 3 . 6 0 and u n d e r $ 3 . 7 0 ----------------------------$ 3 . 7 0 and u n d e r $ 3 .8 0 - - $ 3 . 8 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 9 0
$ 3 .9 0 an d u n d e r $ 4. 00 $ 4 . 0 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 1 0 $ 4 . 10 an d u n d e r $ 4. 2 0 ----------------------------$ 4 .2 0 and under $ 4 . 3 0 $ 4 . 3 0 and u n d e r $ 4 . 4 0
...............
$ 4 . 4 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 5 0
$ 4 . 5 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 6 0 $ 4 . 6 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 7 0 $ 4 . 7 0 an d u n d e r $ 4. 8 0 ----------------------------$ 4 . 8 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 9 0 --------------------------------------------------$ 4 . 9 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5. 0 0 --------------------------------------------------$ 5 . 0 0 an d o v e r P l a n ts h a v in g no e s ta b li s h e d m i n i m u m -------See fo o tn o te s a t end of ta b le .




United M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 2 A tlantic State s
3 00
2 67
11
22
2
9
6
4
14
6
9
5
3
9
5
8
5
5
5
3
5
2
5
6
10
7
5
5
3
8
22
36
15
7
33

28
25
2
3
1
3
“
1
1
3
2
1
_
1
-

_
-

44
35
5
4
4
1
3
4
2
1
2
1
2
-

39
31

47
43

1
12
2
2

_

1

_

_

_
_

_

1
3
1
3
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
"
1
3
1

15
14
3
1
1
1
1

_
1
-

_

1
1

1
1
2
1
“
1
1

3

-

-

3

South­ S outh­ G r e a t
east
Lakes
west
All com pan ies

-

_

1

_

-

_
-

"
1

1
1

-

1
-

_

1
1

-

9

3
1
1

_

1
1
-

1

-

_
1

_
_

1
1

-

3
8

_

1
1
3
5
8
2
4

M id d le M ountain P a c ific
W e st
64
58
1
-

_

_
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
1
2
1
4
3
2
1

_

U n ited M iddle B o r d e r South­ S outh­ G r e a t
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S tate s e a s t
w e st ! Lake s
M u ltip lan t c o m p a n ie s

28
28

31
31

97
97

4
4

17

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
1
1

1
-

2
2
2
1
2
4
1
3
3
2

"

1
1
1

_

1
2
2
3
-

_

_

1
-

_

-

_

1

_
_

_
_

1
1
1
1
1

1

_
_

1

_

_

-

-

4
18
3

1
5
4

6

-

12
1
8
5

-

-

2
1
1
2
2
2
1
4

l

5
3
2
2

17

_
_

1
-

_

"

_

-

1

_
-

1
1
-

_

_
m

•
•c

o
«
a
33
a
0
•
c
c
c
■oo
0
a

3
1
1
2
1
"
1
_
_

1
1

-

1
-

_

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W e st

13
13

13
13

34
34

7
7

4
4

1
1
-

-

-

_
-

_
_
_
_
-

1
1

_
_
_

_
_
1
_
_
_

_
_
-

1
-

_
_
_
1
-

_
_
_
-

_
1
_
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_
1

_

1

-

_

"
_
_
_

_

_

_

_
_

l

_

1

1

1
1

_

_
2
-

1
2
1
1
1

_

3
2
_

-

1
2
4
32
6
2

-

-

"
-

1
1
-

3
"
-

1
3
5
"
1

18
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_

-

"

_
_
_
_

_
_

-

-

_

_
_
_

_
_

_

"

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
_
_

5
-

-

_
_
_

3
1
-

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
P la n ts s tu d ie d -------------------------------------------P la n ts h a v in g an e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m ---------U n d e r $ 2. 0 0 -------------------------------------------------$ 2 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 1 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .1 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 2 0 ------ ------------------- —
$ 2 .2 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 3 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .3 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 .4 0 —---------------------------$ 2 .4 0 .and u n d e r $ 2 . 5 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 2 . 6 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .6 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 7 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .7 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 8 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .8 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 9 0 ------------------------------$ 2 .9 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 — — — ------------------$ 3 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 1 0 ------------------------------$ 3 .1 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 2 0 ------------------------------$ 3 .2 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 3 0 ------------------------------$ 3 .3 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 .4 0 —---------- ■ ..............
$ 3 .4 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 5 0 ------------------------------$ 3 .5 0 and
$ 3 .6 0 an d
$ 3 .7 0 an d
$ 3 .8 0 an d
$ 3 .9 0 an d
$ 4 .0 0 an d
$ 4 . 10 an d
$ 4 .2 0 an d
$ 4 .3 0 and
$ 4 .4 0 and
$ 4 .5 0 and
$ 4 .7 0 an d
$ 4 .8 0 an d
$ 4 .9 0 an d
$ 5 .0 0 an d
P la n ts h a v in g

u n d e r $ 3 . 6 0 -------— ------------------u n d e r $ 3 . 7 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 3 . 8 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 3 . 9 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 0 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 1 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 2 0 ------—— — _________
u n d e r $ 4 . 3 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 4 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 5 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 6 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 8 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 9 0 ------------------------------u n d e r $ 5 . 0 0 ------------------------------o v e r --------------------------------------------no e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m ----------

U n ited
S ta te s 2
2 03
170
11
20
7
5
2
10
5
6
2
1
7
4
8
5
4
3
1
3
1
1
5
5
4
3
3
2
6
18
4
9
5
33

M iddle
A tla n tic
24
21
2
3
1
3
"
1
1
3
1
"
1
1
"

_

-

1
1
-

1
1
3

B o rd e r
S tates
11
10
3
_
-

1
_
1
_
1
1

_

-

-

_

26
18
1
11
•1
2

1
1
_
2
-

2
1
-

_
-

"

_

-

2
1

-

_

S outh­
w e st
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

27
18
5
4
3
2

1
"

1 M in im u m jo b r a t e s r e f e r to the lo w e s t r a t e s fo rm a ll y e s ta b lis h e d fo r e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s
in u n s k ille d t i m e - r a t e o c c u p a tio n s . R a te s fo r w a tc h m e n and sp e c ia l r a te s for h an dic ap p e d and
s u p e r a n n u a te d w o r k e r s w e r e e x c lu d ed .




S outh­
east

_

9

_
-

_

-

-

_
-

_

8

G re a t
L akes

M id d le
W est

34

30
24

21
21

27
27

1
"
3
1
2
1
2
2
2

1
2
1
1

-

_
1
_
1
-

1
1
1
“
1
2
1
1
2
2
3
"
1
4

1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1

_

4
-

1
_
4

6

-

12
1
5
4

-

-

30

-

2
1
1

_

M o u ntain

1
1
1
-

P a c ific

_

1
2
2
3
-

-

-

-

1
1
1
1
1

_

1

-

1
1

_

2 In cludes d a ta fo r the New E n gland re g io n in ad d ition to th o se shown s e p a r a te ly ,

W eek ly h o u rs
A ll w o rk e rs --------------------------------U n d er 35 h o u rs -------------------------------------35 and u n d e r 3 ?V2 h o u rs -----------------------3 7 V2 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 3 7 V2 an d u n d e r 40 h o u rs ------------40 h o u rs -------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 and u n d e r 45 h o u rs ----------------45 h o u rs
O v e r 45 and u n d e r 50 h o u rs ----------------50 h o u rs -------------------------------------------------O v e r 50 h o u r s -----------------------------------------

U nited M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s
2
100
(3)
2
1
2
67
12
5
6
3
2

100
„
83
2
12
1
1

South - S o uth ­ G re a t
east
w e st
L akes
A ll c o m p a n ie s

100

100

100

100

67
31
3
“

O
76
4
8
6
4
2

13
60
9
5
1
5
8

2
3
63
26
1
4
1

M iddle M o u ntain P a c ific U nited M iddle B o rd e r S o u th ­ South - G re a t
W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S tate s
east
w e st L a k e s
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
100
1
6
57
15
5
14
2
1

100
-

88
4
_

7

100

100

2
_
98

3
1
3
57
19
7
8
(3)
1

_

-

100

100

100

-

_
_
32
_
68

-

_
_
78
6
6
10

_
100
_

_
_
_

-

_
_

-

-

_

100

100

22
_
_
61
13
4

4
6
_
36
51

_
_

-

_
_

2

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est
100
-

_
7
56
17
5
14
_
1

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs ----------------U n d er 35 h o u rs ----------------------35 and u n d e r 37V2 h o u r s -------3 7 V2 h o u r s -------------------------------O v e r 3 7 V2 and u n d e r 40 h o u rs
40 h o u rs ---------------------------------O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 45 h o u rs 45 h o u rs ---------------------------------O v e r 45 and u n d e r 50 h o u rs —
50 h o u rs ---------------------------------O v e r 50 h o u r s ------------------------1 D a ta r e la te to the p re d o m in a n t w o rk sc h ed u le of fu ll-tim e d a y -s h ift w o rk e rs in e a c h e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r the N ew E ngland re g io n in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




3 L e ss th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n din g, su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n o t eq u al 100.

100

100

_
_
_
84
_
16

_
_
_
100

_

_

_
_
_
_
-

Ite m
D aily o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
^ h o u r " 311 ^ h o u rs
M o re 1 th an ° h o u r -

U nited
B o rd e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s

South­ S outh­ G re a t
e a st
w est
Lakes
A ll c o m p a n ie s

1

M id d le M ountain P a c ific
W est

O
97
l
2

96
2
2

100

96
4

100

99

94

3
97

100
(2)

98
2

100

100

100

100

100

100

6

U n ited M id d le B o rd e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

•

1
o
c S
o

98
2

96
1
3

100

e

98
2

100

100

II
2 I

W eek ly o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
—
40 h o u r s ------------------------ — — -------------------------O t h e r ------------------------------------------------------------------------

S outh­ S outh­ G re a t
east
w est
L akes
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

93
7

100

100

93
7

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
D a ily o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:




NO TE:

95
3
2

100

100

100

99

100

4
96

99
1

W eek ly o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
O th
! In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
a L e s s th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

1

1
99
( 2)
1

a ^

98
2

100

100

100

100

100

100

B e c a u se o f ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al 100.

98
2

98
2

Ite m
A ll w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v is io n s fo r
c lo th e s-c h a n g in g t i m e -------------------------------------T im e ad d ed to h o u r s w o rk e d :
L e s s th a n 12 m i n u t e s ----------------------------12 m i n u t e s ------------ ;-----------------------------------M o re th a n 12 m in u te s ----------------------------M o n e ta ry a llo w a n c e -tim e and o n e -h a lf
th e h o u rly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
L e s s th a n 8 m in u te s -------------------------------8 m in u te s --------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 8 m in u te s a d ay —---------------F ix e d c e n ts - p e r - h o u r a d d itio n to the
re g u la r h o u rly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
C lo th e s-c h a n g in g t i m e ---------------------------C lo th e s-c h a n g in g tim e and
c lo th in g a llo w a n c e ---------------------------------O th e r p r o v is io n s ------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith o u t p ro v is io n s
fo r c lo th e s -c h a n g in g t i m e -----------------------------

U n ited M iddle B o rd e r
S tate s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s

S outh­ S o uth ­ G re a t
Lakes
east
w est
A ll c o m p a n ie s

M id d le M o untain P a c ific
W est

U n ited M id d le B o rd e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s

S outh­ S o uth ­ G re a t
east
w est
Lakes
M u litp la n t co m p a n ie s

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1 00

100

100

100

1 00

100

100

100

70

72

60

23

52

81

85

44

89

78

100

31

33

63

98

87

84

100

9
44
5

54
3
13

3
29

15
7
-

22

4
47

2

6
19
5

46
“

64
3

8

87
13

31
-

23

10

20

-

43
-

3
78
2

81
4

18
65
-

100

-

-

12

25
3

6

1
2

2

-

12

-

-

_

1

4

6

-

-

-

-

15

72
5

2

_
-

-

-

-

_
4

(2)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

1

_
-

-

1
1

-

37

(1

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

~
-

"

-

-

-

3

-

12

2

-

-

22

"

69

67

37

2

13

16

-

100

100

100

100

100

W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v is io n s fo r
c lo th e s -c h a n g in g t i m e ---------------------------------------

58

61

80

6

37

66

71

31

87

T im e ad d ed to h o u rs w o rk e d :
L e s s th a n 12 m i n u t e s ------------------------------M o re th a n 12 m in u te s -------------------------------

11

16
8

41
4
13

5
28

2

24

5

14

1

20

-

8

10

9

7

38
-

2
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

3

"

-

3

7

-

“

5

14

-

-

-

-

25

10

-

43

-

1

-

2

3

"
-

4

1

-

6

2

14

-

30

28

40

77

48

19

15

56

11

M o n e ta ry a llo w a n c e -tim e and o n e -h a lf
th e h o u rly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
L e s s th a n 8 m i n u t e s -------------------------------M o re th a n 8 m in u te s a d a y ---------------------------F ix e d c e n ts - p e r - h o u r a d d itio n to the
r e g u la r h o u rly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
C lo th e s-c h a n g in g t i m e -----------------------------------------C lo th e s-c h a n g in g tim e and
clo th in g a llo w a n c e .
................................
e r p ro v is io n s
W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith o u t p ro v is io n s
fo r c lo th e s-c h a n g in g t i m e -----------------------------------------




_
-

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

A11 ___1___

In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E ng lan d re g io n in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

-

1

-

"

4
42
NO TE:

21

“

7
39

94

12

"

3

20

2

1Q
* 7

63

34

29

B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al to ta ls .

"

69

13

(P e rc e n t o f p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs by a m o u n t of c lo th e s-c h a n g in g tim e in clu d ed a s sc h e d u led w eek ly h o u rs and a s h o u rs a fte r o v e rtim e w as p aid , 1 U nited S ta te s , M a rc h 1974)
H o u rs

S c h ed u led w eek ly h o u rs
A m ount of clo th e s_________ changing tim e

A ll w o rk e rs ---------------30 an d u n d e r 39 h o u rs -------30 an d u n d e r 39 h o u rs -------30 an d u n d e r 39 h o u rs -------40 h o u r s --------------------------------40 h o u rs --------------------------------40 h o u r s --------------------------------40 h o u r s --------------------------------O v e r 40 and u n d e r 45 h o u rs
O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 45 h o u rs
O v e r 40 and u n d e r 45 h o u rs
O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 45 h o u rs
50 h o u rs ------------------------------50 h o u rs -------------------------------50 h o u rs ------------------------------O v e r 50 h o u rs ---------------------O v e r 50 h o u r s ----------------------O v e r 50 h o u rs ---------------------O v e r 50 h o u r s ----------------------

P e rc e n t of
w o rk e rs
100

1 h o u r ------------------L e s s th a n 1 h o u r N o n e ---------------------M o re th a n 1 h o u r 1 h o u r ------------------L e s s th a n 1 h o u r —
N o n e ---------------------M o re th a n 1 h o u r ■
1 h o u r ------------------L e s s th a n 1 h o u r N one -------------------1 h o u r ------------------L e s s th a n 1 h o u r N o n e ---------------------M o re th a n 1 h o u r 1 h o u r ------------------L e s s th a n 1 h o u r N o n e ----------------------

4
4
30
7
21
3
13
1
9
(2 )

1

1

(2 )

O v e rtim e tim e p o lic y
D aily o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
L e ss th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------9 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------9 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------D ouble tim e :
8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------T rip le tim e :
8 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------O th e r:
L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------No p re m iu m p ay:
L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s --------------------------------L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s ---------------------------------

O v e rtim e h o u rs
A m ount of c lo th e s _______________ ch ang ing tim e

12 m in u te s -----------------------------------------------None ----------------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 12 m in u te s -----------------------------12 m in u te s -----------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 12 m in u te s -----------------------------None ----------------------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 12 m in u te s -----------------------------None ----------------------------------------------------------N one ----------------------------------------------------------




5
47
7
19

(2 )
1

(2 )

2

None ----------------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 12 m in u te s -----------------------------12 m in u te s -----------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 12 m in u te s -----------------------------None -----------------------------------------------------------

W eekly o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
40 h o u rs------------------------------------------------- M o re th a n 1 h o u r ---------------------------1 h o u r -----------------------------------------------40 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------ L e s s th a n 1 h o u r -----------------------------40 h o u rs ------------------------------------------------ N o n e -------------------------------------------------D ouble tim e :
40 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------ N o n e -------------------------------------------------O th e r:
L e s s th a n 40 h o u r s -----------------------------No p re m iu m pay:
L e s s th a n 40 h o u r s ------------------------------ 1 h o u r -----------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 40 h o u r s ------------------------------ N o n e -------------------------------------------------1 D a ta on sc h e d u le d w eek ly h o u rs and o v e rtim e p re m iu m pay p ro v id e d in ta b le s 17 and 18,
r e s p e c tiv e ly , in c lu d e c lo th e s -c h a n g in g tim e sin c e su ch tim e is c o n sid e re d by m o st p la n ts as
w o rk in g tim e and p aid fo r a c c o rd in g ly . T h is ta b u la tio n in c lu d e s th e e x ten t of c lo th e s-c h a n g in g
tim e in th e p re v io u s ta b u la tio n s .

P e rc e n t of
w o rk e rs

2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t,
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not e q u al 100.

(2 )

1
1
3
14

7
47
9
33
(2 )
(2 )

2
1

I te m 1
A ll w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g :
W ork c lo th i n g ---------------------------------------------------M o n e ta ry a llo w an c e p e r w e e k -----------------------U n d e r $ 0. 50
$ 0 .5 0 an d u n d e r $ 0 . 7 5 ----------------------------$ 0 .7 5 an d u n d e r $ 1 . 0 0 ----------------------------$ 1 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 1 .5 0 ----------- —--------------$ 1 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2. 0 0 ----------------------------$ 2 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 5 0 ----------------------------$ 2 .5 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 ----------------------------C o m b in a tio n of c lo th in g an d m o n e ta ry
a llo w a n c e ----------- —
-------------------------- -— —
---------O th e r p r o v i s i o n s ----------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g no w o rk
c lo th in g p r o v i s i o n s ----------------------------------------------

U nited M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S ta te s

S outh­ S o uth - 1 G re a t
east
w est | L akes
A ll c o m p a n ie s

U n ited M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S ta te s

S outh­ S outh­ G re a t
east
w e st
L akes
M u ltip la n t co m p a n ie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

35
30
(3)
9
13
5
1
1
1
17
2
15

95
_
-

76
9
9
_
_
-

45
8
2
6
-

41
19
5
11
3
-

-

-

33
25
1
6
7
7
1
2
2

14
53
17
25
8
1
2

43
21
11
5
5
-

34
50
2
7
25
3
1
12

-

-

20
38
11
19
6
(3)
2

74
_
_
-

37
6
_
6
-

20
24
4
20
_
-

3
29
10
12
_
3
4

13
55
15
29
9
_
_
2

35
56
_
18
19
19
_
-

_
40
_
14
_
26
_
_
_

3
14

8
-

100
_
-

10
-

4
5

13
-

27
-

5

4

39

26

14

24
2
8

26
-

22
-

53
-

59

8

“

"

34

15

27
2
3

9
-

18

6
6
45

100

100

46
9
9

38
52
6
29
1
14

M iddle M ou ntain P a c ific
W est

27
2
13

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

"

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
M l " ’o r l'c r ~
W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g :
M o n e ta ry a llo w an c e p e r w e e k -------------------------U n d e r $ 0 50
$ 0 .5 0 an d u n d e r $ 0 . 7 5 -----------------------------$ 0. 75 an d u n d e r $ 1. 0 0 -----------------------------$ 1 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 1 .5 0 -----------------------------$ 1 .5 0 an d u n d e r $ 2. 0 0 -----------------------------$ 2 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 5 0 -----------------------------$ 2 .5 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 -----------------------------C o m b in a tio n of c lo th in g an d m o n e ta ry
W o rk e rs in p la n ts h a v in g no w o rk
1 L im ite d to p la n ts h a v in g fo rm a l p ro v isio n s fo r p ro te c tiv e g a rm e n ts (o th e r th an b o o ts and
g lo v e s) su c h a s a p ro n s , s m o c k s , and o v e ra lls .
In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E n g lan d re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .




100

100

100

100

100

100

100

56
22
1
8
5
4
1
3

93
-

76
16
16

59
11
5
6

68
15
7

61
24
2
2
13
_
5

31
26
_
1
4

_

_
_

2

12

13

38

-

_
-

_
_

2
2
17

_
_

-

_

8

_
_

2
7

8

28

17

3 L e s s th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al to ta ls .

_
_
_
_
_

_

1o
25

y

Ite m
S econd sh ift
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g
p ro v is io n s fo r se c o n d s h if t--------W ith s h ift d iffe re n tia l ------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ----5 c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts ---------------------------c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts --------------------------c e n ts -------------------------c e n ts --------------------------14 c e n ts -------------------------15 c e n ts -------------------------c e n ts -------------------------2 5 c e n ts -------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e ---------15 p e rc e n t ---------------------O th e r -----------------------------------W ith no sh ift d iffe re n tia l -------T h ird sh ift

6
8
9
10
11
12
20

W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g
p ro v is io n s fo r th ir d s h i f t -----------W ith s h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ------c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts ----------------------------c e n ts --------------------------c e n ts ---------------------------c e n ts -------------------------14 c e n ts ------------------------—
1 5 c e n ts ---------------------------c e n ts ---------------------------2 5 c e n ts -------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e -----------p e rc e n t ---------------------O th e r ------------------------------------W ith no s h ift d if f e r e n t i a l ---------

6
8
9
10
11
12

20

20




U n ited M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S ta te s

81
78
78
a
(3)
2
1
17
1
2
50
2
3
(3)
(3)
(3)

H

(3)
(?
( 3)
2

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

67
67
67
3
_
56
9

88
76
76
37
12
27
-

61
59
59
2
_
6
4
26
4
_
14
2

52
45
44
1
3
21
_
18
-

84
79
79
_
8
5
1
_
65
-

93
92
92
(3)
18
_
73
.1

78
78
78
16
15
47
-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

1
7

5

"
_
_
1
1

_
_
-

92
92

69
69
69
_
_
12
1
42
14

_

3

74
72
71
(3)
1
(3)
13
1
1
50
3
(3)
2

South­ S outh- G re a t
Lakes
east
w e st
A ll c o m p a n ie s

59
57
57
3
_
_
50
5
“

_

_

12

3

79
73
73
_
_
_
37
9
27
-

33
29
29
6
2
8
4
7
2
“

_

_

_

41
30
30
_
_
_
16
14
-

_

_

83
80
80
_
„
_
6
1
73
-

-

-

_

91
(3)
_
15
73
3
"

_

-

_

1
2

6

3

11

3

-

96
96
95
24
_
16
17
37
1
1
1
-

91
91
90
_
_
24
11
17
4
34
1
1

U nited M iddle B o rd e r
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic S ta te s

S outh­ S outh­ G re a t
east
w est
Lakes
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

100
100
100
87
13

:
_
_
2

:
_
_
-

88
85
85
1
16
1
66
1
-

87
87
87
_
_
_
87
-

_

_

3

-

•
o
c
o
0
o
33
CL
0
0
E
o
o
•o
0
0
Q

79
78
78
9
40
7
22
-

82
69
69
38
32
-

98
95
95
5
3
87
-

100
100
100
20
_
79
-

82
82
82
16
_
65
-

:
_
_

:
_
_

_
_

:
_
_
-

1

13

_
_
2

43
38
38
_
9
_
10
7
12
-

72
53
53
_
_
_
28
25
-

98
95
95
_
_
3
92
"

100
100
100
_
_
_
18
_
79
3
-

59
59
59
_
_
_
59
-

_

_

_

_

-

94
93
93
2
22
1
67
1

-

-

_
5

_

20

2

86
86
86
_
86
_
_
-

86
86
86
_
_
_
86
_
-

( P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs b y s h ift d iffe re n tia l p ro v is io n s , U nited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
B o rd e r
-------- M ia a ie--------U nited
S o uth ­
Ite m
S ta te s
A tla n tic
east
S tate s 1
2
S econ d sh ift
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g
p ro v is io n s fo r se c o n d sh ift ---------------------------W ith sh ift d iffe re n tia l ---------------------------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ---------------------------5 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------6 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------8 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------11 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------14 c e n t s ---------- -------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------20 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------2 5 c e n t s ----------— ----------------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e --------------------------------15 p e r c e n t --------------------------------------------O th e r ----------------------------------------------------------W ith no s h ift d iffe re n tia l ----------------------------T h ird s h ift
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g
p ro v is io n s fo r th ir d s h i f t --------------------------------W ith s h ift d if f e r e n t i a l ----------------------------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r -------------------------6 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------8 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------11 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------14 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------2 5 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e --------------------------------20 p e r c e n t --------------------------------------------O t h e r ----------------------------------------------------------W ith no s h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------s h ifts .

63
58
57
1
(3)
3
2
9
1
4
26
4
6
(3)

--------- M IHdle--------W e st

M o u ntain

P a c ific

77
77

98
98
96
_
_
28
_
_
6
19
43
1
2
2
-

84
63

30
25

13
13

72
64

54
4
_
_
_

63
_
_
15
_
21
28
_
20

25
6
_
11
4
_
_
_
4
-

10
3
_
8
_
_
_
_
-

64
11
6
2
_
44
-

52
48
42
1
_
4
_
_
32
5
_
-

8

_
5
4

14
14
14
6
4
_
4

43
43

-

70
66
66
_
8
2
56
-

_
5

-

_
4

43
7
-

55
53
52
(3)
1
9
1
1
27
6
6

48
45
45
4
_
_
35
7
-

69
59
59
_
_
_
15
16
28
"
-

o
(3)
1

_
4

11

_

_

1 R e fe rs to p o lic ie s of p la n ts e ith e r o p e ra tin g la te sh ifts o r h av in g p ro v is io n s c o v e rin g la te
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E n g lan d re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




G re a t
L akes

54
54

0
(3)
1
5

2

S outh­
w e st
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

_

_

_

-

_

77
_
_
16
_
21
41
_
-

38
1
_
_
_
_
_
32
5

73
73
73
_
_
_
16
_
2
36
19

-

-

39
2
2
-

-

-

_
-

92
92
91
_
_
28
_
_
_
19

3 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al to ta ls .
d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r e it e r ia .

D ash es in ­

S h ift d iffe re n tia l
S econd s h ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on se c o n d sh ift ■
R e c e iv in g s h ift d iffe re n tia l -------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r hour
5 c e n ts ---------------------8 c e n t s ---------------------9 c e n t s ---------------------10 c e n t s --------------------12 c e n ts ------------------14 c e n ts ------------------15 c e n t s ------------------20 c e n t s -----------------O t h e r ------------------------------R e c e iv in g no s h ift d iffe re n tia l T h ird sh ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on th ir d s h i f t -----R e c e iv in g sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l ----------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r
8 c e n t s -----------------------9 c e n ts ----------------------10 c e n t s -------------------12 c e n ts -------------------14 c e n ts --------------------15 c e n ts --------------------20 c e n ts -------------------2 5 c e n t s --------------------O th e r -------------------------------R e c e iv in g no sh ift d iffe re n tia l •
See fo o tn o te s a t end of ta b le .




U n ite d M iddle b o r d e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s

South­ S o uth ­ G re a t
w e st L a k e s
e a st
A ll c o m p a n ie s

M iddle M o untain P a c ific U n ited "M iddle ' B o rd e r
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s
W e st

S outh­ S outh­ G re a t M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est
w e st L ake s
e a st
M u ltip la n t co m p anies5

13

6

13

8

8

15

17

4

9

18

8

11

14

23

19

9

11

12

6

8

17

4

9

18

8

14
2
_
(2)
12

17

4
_
(2)
3

9
1
_
2
4
1

18

8
-

11
11

13
13
10

23
23
1

19

6
_

8
7
(2)
_
6

14

12

13
13
_
6
2
5

9
9
2

11
11
-

(2)

(2)

3
3
3

2

(2)

2
2

(2)
(2)

0

(!)
(2)
3
(2)
8
Q
(!)
(2)

_
_

5
(2)

-

(2)
1
5

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2
-

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(2)
2
2
2
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0
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(2)
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!z!
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()
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4

1
1
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(2)
(2)
'
(2)

4
4

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2
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(2)

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3

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1
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(2)

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(2)

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7
-

(2)
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(2)

_
_
22
-

_
15
-

5
5
5

2
2
2

_
8
-

_
_
11
-

1

2

1
1

2
2

-

-

1

7
1

(2)
7
7
7

-

£
«
u
c
o
«
o
jo
a
a
®
•
E

19
4

7
7
7

_

o
c
o
a
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2
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( P e r c e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs em p lo y e d on la te sh ifts by am o u n t of pay d iffe re n tia l* U nited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
B o rd e r
U nited
M iddle
South­
S o uth ­
G re a t
S h ift d iffe re n tia l
A tla n tic
east
S ta te s
S ta te s 1
w e st
L akes
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
S econ d sh ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on se c o n d s h i f t ----------------------R e c e iv in g sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l ------------------------------

6
5

5
5

U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r --------------------- — —
5 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------------8 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts ---------------------------------------------------10 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------14 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------15 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------20 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------------------------R e c e iv in g no s h ift d if f e r e n t i a l -------------------T h ird s h ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on th ir d s h i f t ---------------------------R e c e iv in g s h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------------

5
(2)
1
(2)
1
(2)
2
1
0
(2)

5
_
_
_
_
5
_
_
-

U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r -------------------------------8 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------- —
12 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------------14 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------1 5 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------20 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------25 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------O t h e r ----------------------------------------------------------------

2
_
(2)
(2)
(2)
1
1
(2)
(2)
(2)

R e c e iv in g no sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l ---------------------

(2)

9
9
_
_
_
(2)
3
5
_
-

2
2
2
_
_
2
(2)
_

(2)
2
2

2
2
2
_
_
_
_
2
_
_
(2)

In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e re g io n s in ad d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .
L e s s th a n 0 .5 p e r c e n t.




10

1
1
0
(2)
_
_
_
_
(2)
-

4
4
4
_
_
1
3
_
_
-

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
_
_
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

7
6
6
_
3
_
1
3
_
_
-

1
1
_
_
(2)
1
_
_
_
(2)

k iid d le
W e st

M o u ntain

7
6

2
2

6
_
_
_
2
_
3
1
_
(2)
(2)

2
_
_
_
_
_
2
_
_
-

P a c ific

9
9
9
_
_
_
1
_
1
5
2
-

7
7
7
_

(2)
(2)
(2)
_
_
_
(2)
_
_
(2)

-

-

-

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls,

1
_
_
5
(2)
2
-

N u m b e r of p a id h o lid a y s

U nited M iddle B o rd e r S o uth ­ S o u th ­ G re a t
east
w est
Lakes
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s
A ll c o m p a n ie s
100

W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g p a id h o lid a y s -----t> ildll ucty y
1 day
2 < ay s
J drayb
-> d ay s
6 d a y s p lu s 2 o r 3 h a lf d ay s - —
6 d ay s p lu s 1, 2, o r 3 h a lf d a y s ~
— ~
7 d ay s --------7 d ay s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d ay s ~ — ~
8 days
—
~ —
8 d a y s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d ay s —
9 days - 9 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s - — “
10 d ay s —
- ~
—
11 d a y s —
_ — — ” --12 d ay s —
—
—
—
----W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g no p a id
h o lid a y s —
" " —
—
“

99

()
/2\
u
()
6

~

i
8
1
14
2
14
/Z\
( )
45
1
1

100
100
_

4

"
“
4
23
46
3
1
9
10

100
100

100
94

100
94

~
"
“
2
“
4
"
"
19
42
16
5

~
2
3

“
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19
"
7
21

13

17

"

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7

100
100

100
100

1

100
100
"
~
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2
‘
4
“
"
4
22

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4
"
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5
3
8
6
24

20
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1
"
2
36

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"

2
68
"

48
1

10
“
"
4
20
36
31
~

~
~

“

”
52
48

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

“
2
“
“
~
1
34

~

“
-

3

1
“

~

~

(2_)
“
2
4
1
8
13
6
"
64

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~
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87

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£ £

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a» 2Q.
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13
20
12
29
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26
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M iddle M ountain P a c ific
W est

63
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“
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21
76
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3
20
“

75

100
100

100
100

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77

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100
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100

6

6

1

100
100

7

2

M iddle M o u ntain P a c ific U nited M id d le B o rd e r S o u th ­ S o u th ­ G re a t
W est
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s e a s t
L akes
w e st
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
a i i w o rtce rs
W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g p a id h o lid a y s - _ _
_
6 h a lf d ay s —
"
— - —
1 d ay - - - - - - —
_
—
2 days - —
~
~
— "
3 d ay s ~
~ ---------- _
4 days
~ - ~ —
— —
— _ —
_
5 days
—
_ _ _
6 days
~
_ —
6 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day —
_ _ _ —
— _
6 d a y s p lu s 2 o r 3 h a lf d a y s ------6 d a y s p lu s 1, 2, o r 3 h a lf d a y s ~
7 days ~
— - —
7 d a y s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d ay s ~
8 days —
8 d ay s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d ay s 9 days - - - - - - 9 d ay s p lu s 2 h a lf d ay s
10 d ay s —
11 d a y s
12 d ay s
W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g no p a id h o lid a y s ~

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly ,
2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.




"

- -

100
97
1
1

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—
-

-

—

b
9
1

9
15
5
n

2
3

100
100
"
"
~

6
"
"
6
32
30
4
1
12
9

100
100
■
”
■
■
3
6
“
~
28
23
28
8

5
_
"

100

100

83

86
12
“
3
15
22
17
8

6

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9
37
1b
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"
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9
6
"
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100
100
2
1
■
■
5

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3

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~
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17

14

l

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II
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21

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100
100
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7
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■
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“
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2
19
“
“
11
31
12
24

6
21
41
25

44

"

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“

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■
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56

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al to ta ls . D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do not m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r it e r ia .




V a c a tio n p o lic y

U nited
S ta te s 1

M iddle
A tla n tic

B o rd e r
S tate s

S outh­
east

A ll w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------------M ethod of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s ------------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t----------------------------------------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t ---------------------------------------------F la t- s u m p a y m e n t-------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p aid v a c a tio n s -------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

98
76
20
2
(3)
2

100
91
9
"

100
92
2
6

(3)

4
(3)
2
88
8
0
(3)
1
68
7
20
2
(3)
13
3
76
6
(?)
(3)
5
2
81
7
4
(3)
3
2
12
2
73
6
(3)
(3)

A m o u n t of v a c atio n p a y 2
A fte r 6 m o n th s of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s of se rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s ----------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w eek s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s ----------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s ----------------------------------A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------- ■-----O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w eek s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s ----------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 6 an d u n d e r 7 w eek s -----------------------------------

G re a t
L akes

M iddle
W est

M o u ntain

P a c ific

100

100

100

100

100

97
79
18
“

99
99
“

99
85
14
"

97
56
35
6

100
98
2
■

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63
37
“

-

3

1

1

3

“

4
-

-

11
-

3
-

-

7
-

87
13
69
13
18
5
82
13

2
98
-

8
66
21
2
-

1
89
6
(3)
-

2
80
18
51
49
-

8
54
18
14
4
34
12
38
13

-

-

-

2
84
13
73
12
12
3
6
80
13
-

98
2
78
21
2
2
97
2
_
-

1
82
13
4
-

3
97
-

12
5
59
21
-

1
11
73
13
2
”

(3)
2
11
_
87

10
5
35
15
25
6

-

"

-

"

S outh­
w est
A ll c o m p a n ie s

-

97
2
77
3
17
2
38
3
55
_
1
2
20
3
71
3
2
14
27
57
_
-

2

3
83
13
1
-

68
4
23
2
3
2
88
4
-

1
2
8
_
76
13

1
2
89
4
1
4
7
_
82
4

-

-

_

"

-

"

2
92
2
5
2
_
10
_
87
2

100
53
47
1
-

99
_
_
_
_
64
_
36
_
_
1
_
95
_

4
-




V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll w o rk e rs -----------------------------------------------------M eth o d of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s ----------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t--------------------------------------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t --------------------------------------------F la t-s u m p a y m e n t------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p a id v a c a tio n s ----------------------------------A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2
A fte r 6 m o n th s o f s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------O v er 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------- --------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -------------------------------A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s -------------------------------4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 6 and u n d e r 7 w e e k s --------------------------------

B o rd e r
S tate s

M iddle
W est

M o u ntain

P a c ific

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
81
19

100
94
6
“

100
100
"

-

~

~

96
53
36
7
4

8
7
60
33
7
46
28
14
6
11
20
48
21
1
7
59
33
1
7
23
24
36
9
"

96
4
70
26
4
11
85
4

5
87
8
81
3
11
5
5
87
8
5
87
8
5
87
8
-

9
2
90
4
67
3
24
2
2
3
90
2
-

94
6
94
6
94
6
-

2
3
90
2
4
5
85
2
-

74
6
19
18
75
6
-

G re a t
S outh­
S outh­
Lakes
east
w e st
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

U n ited
S ta te s 1

M iddle
A tla n tic

100

100

_

100

100

98
70
25
4

100
87
13
-

-

100
84
16
-

56
44
14
44
41
_
56
44
-

-

56
44

-

2

5
3
86
9
(3)
1
67
6
21
3
(3)
7
4
81
6
( 3)
2
2
85
8
1
(3)
(3)
4
7
3
79
5
(3)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
56
44
“

"

96
4
11
85
4

~

“

100
14
86
100
77
23
100
-




U n ited
S tate s 1

M iddle
A tla n tic

B o rd e r
S tate s

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

M ethod of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g p a id v a c atio n s -----------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t----------------------------------------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t------------------------------------------------F la t- s u m p a y m e n t--------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p a id v a c a t io n s ---- --------------------------------

98
84
14

100
93
7
"

100
91

92
72
20
-

98
98

2

(3)

8

3
(3)
1
91
6
1

5
_
_
100
_
_

V acatio n p o lic y

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2
A fte r 6 m o n th s of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w eek s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s -----------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s of se rv ic e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w eek s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s -----------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a r s of se rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w eek s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w eek s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w eek s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w eek s -----------------------------------A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w eek s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s - — ----------- - ------- ------- — — -----O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w eek s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s -----------------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 6 and u n d e r 7 w eek s ------------------------------------

-

-

"
9
"
_
_
100
_
_
70
_
30
-

1
71
7
19
(3)

91
_
9
_

21
1
70
6
(3)

7
93
_
_
_

34

8
1
76
6
7
-

2
_
92
_
5

6
(3)
20
64
7
1
“

2
.
15
_
80
3
"

_
100
_
_
_

-

66
_

_

18
_
82
.

S outh­
S outh­
G re a t
Lakes
east
w e st
Single -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

M iddle
W est

M o u ntain

P a c ific

100

100

100

100

98
89
9
-

100
75
25

100
100
.

100
57
43
"

2

2

-

"

17
_

6
-

9
76
7
9
70
_
14
_

98
85
7
6
_

_
_
81
17
_
_
66
20
12
_

_
_
_
86
13
1
_
_
75
11
12
2

_
_
_
100
_
_
_
_
72
_
28
_

72
_
20
_
_
_

73
7
15
_
3
_

8
73
17
_
_

9
1
74
16
_

2
_
98
_
_
_

1
_
99

32
2
58
_
_

46
7
37
_
8

1
_
78
17
2
-

_
_
83
16
1
_
_

2
_
98
_
_

_
_
62
_
38
_

2
_
7

_
_
1
_

-

-

-

25
2
57
_
8

31
_
47
_
20

_

_

“

-

1
_
15
_
65
17
_

“

21
_

59
20
_

_

91
.
_

"

_
_
100
_
_
_
59
_
41
_

_

95
_
5
“




V a c a tio n p o lic y
A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2—C ontinued
A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w e e k s -------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :4
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 an d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------5 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------------------------6 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------See fo o tn o te s a t end of tab le ,

U n ited
S ta te s 1

3
( 3)
9
2
25
2
53
4
(3)
3
( 3)
7
2
16
2
16
1
48
4
(3)
3
(3)
7
(3)
16
3
12
1
21
5
31
(3)

M iddle
A tla n tic

B o rd e r
S ta te s

1
3
31
64
-

(3)
2
11
60
27
-

1
3
15
38
42
1
3
_
15
_
25
34
13
9

S outh­
east

S outh­
w est
A ll c o m p a n ie s

14
21
29
34
2

(3)
2
11
9
39
39
-

10
1
22
12
29
7
10
6
10
18
8
26
7
15
6
6
-

14
16
27
7
34
2

(3)
2
11
9
_
39
16
_
23
”

10
18
26
15
11
7
6
4
"

14
16
27
7
11
22
2

G re a t
L akes

1
6
21
3
57
11
1
3
2
7
18
3
53
11
1
3
2
7
6
34
13
34
”

M id d le
W est

6
2
19
1
64
3
5
1
17
3
7
1
60
2
5
18
2
7
2
6
2
54
“

M o u ntain

2
6
43
48
2
2
6
24
49
18
2
2
6
23
37
20
2
12
“

P a c ific

1
99
1
99
1
91
8
**




V acatio n p o licy

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2—C ontinued
A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w eek s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 an d u n d e r 4 w eek s ----------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s ----------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ----------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w eek s ----------------------------------5 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 6 w eek s ----------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :4
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w eek s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w eek s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 an d u n d e r 4 w eek s ----------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------------------------5 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 6 w e e k s -----------------------------------6 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------S ee fo o tn o te s a t end of ta b le .

U n ited
S ta te s 1

Q

0
7
4
17
3
63
3
(3)
(3)
(3)
5
3
13
3
11
1
58
3
(3)
Q

(3)
5
1
14
4
9
9
5
51
(3)

M iddle
A tla n tic

B o rd e r
S ta te s

S outh­
G re a t
S outh­
w e st
L ak e s
east
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

_
_
13
87
_
_
_
_
57
_
43
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
16
20
27
12
16
9
_

_
_
_
13
_
43
44
_
“

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
"

1
_
10
_
26
24
14
_
10
9
6
-

1
_
10
12
26
12
20
10
9
_

11
_
26
_
59
_
4
_
_
11
_
13
_
13
_
59
_
4
_
_
11
_
13
_
13
_
20
39
4

5
_
3
7
80
5
_
_
_
5
3
_
3
7
77
5
_
_
_
5
3
_
3
_
15

8

66
-

M iddle
W est

_
5
3
15
_
71
2
_
_
_
4
2
15
3
5
_
66
2
_
_
_
4
_
16
3
5
_
3
2
63
-

M o u ntain

18
_
16
59
6
_
_
_
18
_
16
_
_
59
6
_
_
18
16
12
6
47

P a c ific

_
_
_
_
_
100
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
100
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
37
_
63
"




V a c a tio n p o licy
A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 1 ontinued
2—C
A fte r 15 y e a rs o f s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------- ------------------------------------------------------ —----O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------------------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------------------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------------------------5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 and u n d e r 6 w e e k s ----------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e :4
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------------------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------------------------5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 and u n d e r 6 w e e k s -----------------------------------w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 7 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------

6

U nited
S ta te s 1

M iddle
A tla n tic

6
( 3)
12
35
1
38
6
-

2
5
38
55
-

18
54
28
-

6
10
20
1
23
1
32
5
-

2
5
21
_
31
41
-

18
15
18
49
-

6
10

2
5
21
30
30
12
“

{south­
G re a t
S outh­
Lakes
w est
east
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

B o rd e r
S tate s

18
15
18
28
21
“

-

19
16
2
37
5
4
“

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in ad d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su c h as p e rc e n t of an n u a l e a rn in g s , w e re co n ­
n e c te d to an e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s is . P e rio d s of s e rv ic e w e re ch o sen a r b i­
tr a r i l y an d do n o t n e c e s s a r ily r e f le c t the in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t p ro v isio n s

25
2
31
34
25
34
27
6
25
34
27
6
-

-

-

31
33
33
31
21
46
31
21
46
“

1
7
37
36
17
1
5
11
32
31
17
1
5
11
9
51
17
3
"

M iddle
W est

11
49
7
21
13
11
33
7
16
6
21
7
11
27
21
13
21
7
“

M o u n tain

2
2
52
44
2
2
27
66
4
2
2
25
49
23
“

P a c ific

1
99
1
99
1
99
-

fo r p ro g re s s io n . F o r e x a m p le , c h an g es in p ro p o rtio n s in d ic a te d a t 10 y e a rs
m ay in c lu d e ch an g es in p ro v is io n s o c c u rin g b e tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
V a c a tio n p ro v is io n s w e re v irtu a lly th e sa m e a f te r lo n g e r p e rio d s
of s e rv ic e .

3
4

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith sp e c ifie d h e a lth , in s u ra n c e , and re tir e m e n t p la n s, U n ite d S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U nited M iddle B o rd e r S outh­ S outh­ G re a t M id d le M o u ntian P a c ific U n ited M id d le S outh­ S outh­ G re a t M iddle M ountain P a c ific
T ype of p la n 1
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
east
w est
L a k e s W est
S ta te s 2 A tlan tic S tate s
w est
A ll c o m p a n ie s
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs -------------------------------------------------------------L ife in s u ra n c e --------------------------------------------------------------------N on c o n tr ib u to r y --------------------------------------------------------------A c c id e n ta l d e a th an d d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------------------------S ic k n ess an d a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r sic k
le a v e o r b o th 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e ss an d a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e -------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------------------S ick le a v e (fu ll p a y , no w a itin g p e rio d ) -----------------S ick le a v e (p a rtia l p a y o r w a itin g p erio d ) -------------L o n g -te rm d is a b ility --------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------------H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u ra n c e ------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly -------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir d e p en d e n ts --------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts -------------------------------S u rg ic a l in s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ---------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------.C o v erin g e m p lo y e e s an d th e ir d e p e n d e n ts ---------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts -------------------------------M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s an d th e ir d e p e n d e n ts ---------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts -----------------------------M a jo r m e d ic a l in s u ra n c e ------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir d e p en d e n ts --------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p e n d e n ts -------------------------------R e tire m e n t p la n s 4 -------------------------------------------------------------P e n s io n p la n s -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------------------------S e v e ra n c e p ay ---------------------------------------------------------------No p la n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------See fo o tn o te s a t th e end of ta b le ,




100
94
78
57
47
88
60
48
14
34
5
4
98
7
7
91
77
4
98
7
7
91
77
4
98
8
7
90
76
5
94
7
7
87
74
5
77
75
72
3
1

100
100
87

100

100

92
57

92
57

85
73
90
81
68
19
11
8
8
100
100
97

72
37
89
89
54
28
11
93
41
41
52
34

68
44
76
70
51
9
8
1
1
95
17
14
78
36

10
93
41
41
52
34

19
95
17
14
78
36

10
93
41
41
52
34

19
94
19
16
76
32

10
87
35
35
52
34
10
84
84
84
1

21
90
19
16
72
28
21
53
53
53
5

-

100
-

100
97
98
98
97
-

98
98
97
83
79
66
5
(5)

100
80
63
40
34
78
40
30
16
40
4
4
92
13
12
79
56
4
92
13
12
79
56 •
4
92
13
12
79
56
4
88
13
12
74
56
4
55
55
55
3

100
99
85
57
53
99
60
57
42
8
8
99
4
4
95
89
99
4
4
95
89
98
4
4
94
89
92
4
4
88
84
93
92
91
4
"

100
94
82

100
95
86

100
94
92

100

40
32
85
54
38
6
49
4
(5)
100
3
3
97
87

82
78
93
75
72
9
40
13
13
100
1
1
99
92

91
90
100
56
56
91
7
10
10
100
1
1
99
99

3
100
3
3
97
87

2
100
1
1
99
92

39
28
92
55
39
10
53
7
5
100
4
4
96
84
4
100
4
4
96
84

3
100
3
3
97
87

2
98
1
1
97
90

3
98
3
3
95
85
3
75
71
65
4
“

2
93
1
1
91
84
2
78
78
78
~

-

100
1
1
99
99
100
1
1
99
99
100
1
1
99
99
100
100
100
2
"

100
100
56

100
100
54

100
87
74

100
100
80

100
96
85

100
100
82

100
100
100

74
44

27
25
98
52
43
10
68
7
7
100

17
17
100
23
23
77
11
11
100
100
100
100
100
100

53
53
100
100
100
18
59
28
28
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4
99
4
4
95
83
4
80
78
75
2

100
100
100
100
100
56
-

33
27
88
51
34
6
56
5
(5)
100
2
2
98
89
3
100
2
2
98
89
3
100
2
2
98
89
3
100
2
2
98
89
3
79
75
70
4
“

77
77
100
86
86
77
23
37
37
100
100
100
100
100
100

4
100
4
4
96
84

100
56
100
87
43
13
28
28
28
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

-

100
100
100
100
100
100
“

97
76

91
87
61
10
13
100
5
3
95
44

-

22
99
5
3
95
44

100
91
100
100
91
100
100
91

22
93
4
3
89
38
22
60
60
59
'

100
100
91
63
63
63
-

22
100
4
3
95
44

-

100
100
100
-

100
100
100
97
97
97
~

100
100
100
82
82
82
“

100
100
100
-

T ype o f p la n 1

U n ited
S ta te s 1
2

M iddle
A tla n tic

A ll w o rk e rs -------------------------------------------L ife i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -----------------------------------------A c c id e n ta l d e a th and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e --------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -----------------------------------------S ic k n e ss an d a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r sic k
le a v e o r b o th 3 -----------------------------------------------S ic k n e ss and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e -------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------S ick le a v e (fu ll p ay , no w a itin g p e r io d ) S ick le a v e (p a r tia l p a y o r w a itin g
p e r io d ) ---------------------------------------------------------L o n g -te rm d is a b ility ---------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u ra n c e -------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly --------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ---------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts -------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts --------------S u rg ic a l in s u ra n c e -------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ---------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ---------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts -------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts --------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly --------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p en d e n ts ------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p e n d e n ts ---------------M a jo r m e d ic a l in s u ra n c e -------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ---------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ---------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p en d e n ts -------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ---------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s;
c o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts --------------R e tire m e n t p la n s 4 ---------------------------------------------P e n s io n p la n s ----------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry ---------------------------------------S e v e ra n c e p ay -----------------------------------------------No p la n s --------------------------------------------------------------

100

100
100
100

90
79
81
73
82
68
62
20
8
3
3
96
12
11
84
67
5
96
12
11
84
67
5
94
12
11
82
66
5
87
11
11
76
61
5
73
71
69
4
2

79
79
86
78
78
22
4

_

100
_

"
100
96

_

100

-

100
96

_

98

-

98
96

_

98
-

"
98
96
_

77
70
70
7
(5)

B o rd e r
S tate s
100
86
79
70
63
82
82
74

_
_
_

89
22
22
67
40
16
89
22
22
67
40
16
89
22
22
67
40
16
78
11
11
67
40
16
73
73
73
-

1 In c lu d e s only th o se p la n s fo r w h ic h the e m p lo y e r p ay s a t le a s t p a rt of the c o st and e x ­
c lu d e s le g a lly re q u ire d p la n s su c h a s w o r k e r s 's c o m p e n sa tio n and so c ia l se c u rity ; h o w e v e r, p la n s
re q u ire d by th e S tate te m p o ra ry d is a b ility in s u ra n c e la w s a re in clu d e d if th e e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s
m o re th an is le g a lly r e q u ire d o f if th e e m p lo y e e s re c e iv e b e n e fits ex c ee d in g le g a l re q u ire m e n ts .
2 In c lu d e s d ata fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .




S outhS outh­
east
w est
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
100
77
62
58
44
48
40
32
8

_

4
4
86
37
32
49
21
13
86
37
32

49
21
13
86
43
38
43
10
18
86
43
38
43
10
18
42
42
42
14

G re a t
L akes

M id d le
W est

100
72
48

100
97
90

100
84
68

100
94
87

58
45
53
24
14
25
4

94
87
97
95
88
10
4
4
99
8
8

83
68
72
69
60
9
6

92
86
90
66
62
5

_

82
31
28
51
9
8
82
31
28
51
9
8
82
31
28
51
9
8
72
31
28
41
9
8
45
45
45
_
8

91
79

_

99
8
8
91
79

_

96
8
8
88
79

_

85
8
8
77
69
_

88
86
85
8

-

100
7
7
93
74
7
100
7
7
93
74

M o u ntain

33
8
8
100
2
2
98
89
3
100
2
2

P a c ific
100
93
91
93
91
100
52
52
93
5
6
6
100
1
1
99
99
_

100
1
1

7
100
7
7

98
89
3
98
2
2

100
1
1

93
74

96
87

99
99

7
88
7
7
81
62
7
48
48
36

3
90
2
2
88
79
3
77
77
77

-

-

_

_

99
99

_

_

100
1
1
99
99
_

100
100
100
2
-

3 U n d u p lic a te d to ta l of w o rk e rs re c e iv in g sic k le a v e o r sic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n c e
show n s e p a ra te ly .
4 U n d u p lic a te d to ta l of w o rk e rs c o v e re d by p e n sio n s o r r e tir e m e n t s e v e ra n c e pay show n
s e p a ra te ly .
5 L e s s th a n 0 .5 p e rc e n t.

Ite m
W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v is io n s fo r:
C o s t-o f-liv in g p a y a d j u s t m e n t s -----T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e ra n c e p a y 1 -------2
M oving e x p e n se a l l o w a n c e -------------J u ry du ty p a y ------------------------------------F u n e ra l le a v e p a y --------------------------—
R e s t o r re lie f tim e ( d a il y ) --------------10 o r 12 m i n u t e s ------------------------15 m i n u t e s -----------------------------------20 m i n u t e s -----------------------------------O v e r 20 an d u n d e r 30 m in u te s —
30 m i n u t e s -----------------------------------O v e r 30 m i n u t e s --------------------------No re lie f t i m e -----------------------------

U nited M iddle B o rd e r S o u th ­ S o uth ­ G re a t
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S ta te s
east
w e st
Lakes
A ll c o m p a n ie s
67
31
28
83
85
97
1
14
31
11
41
(3)
3

46
-

9
48
93
94
7
64
3
15
5
6

39
10
10
83
90
100

17
16
17
57
52
97

-

2
23
2
69
~
3

38
28
34
-

"

-

37
28
30
67
66
94
1
8
21
7
58
5

82
24
17
90
91
99
22
41
11
25
-

1

M iddle M o u ntain P a c ific U nited M id d le B o rd e r South - South - G re a t
W est
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic S tate s
east
w e st
Lakes
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
82
51
50
95
93
96
2
22
31
9
32
4

82
16
16
81
84
100
1
20
13
66

100
37
12
100
100
100

-

-

-

5
4
33
58

76
45
46
94
92
98
1
15
35
11
36
2

73
_
_

86
100
100

.
_

87
_
13
_

-

26
26
26
99
100
100
_

26
68
5

26
24
24
69
67
100
_

28

_

72

-

_

"

"

63
50
53
89
89
93
-

13
27
13
40
_
7

97
28
28
97
96
100
_
5
58
11
26
_

-

M iddle M ountain P a c ifi
W est

87
58
58
99
95
97
2
25
31
10
29
_
3

82
65
65
100
100
100

54
10
_
72
83
85

_
_

31

100
59
86
100
100
100

_
_

_

69

14
86

_

_

-

-

81

75
79
100
2
16
17
65

100
33
1
100
100
100
5
5
36
54

:

-

S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v is io n s fo r:
C o s t-o f-liv in g p a y a d j u s t m e n t s -----T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e ra n c e p a y 2 -------M oving e x p e n se a llo w a n c e --------------J u ry du ty p a y -----------------------------------F u n e ra l le a v e p a y ----------------------------R e s t o r r e lie f tim e ( d a il y ) --------------10 o r 12 m in u te s ------------------------1 5 m in u te s ------------------------------- —
20 m i n u t e s --------------- --------------------O v e r 20 an d u n d e r 30 m in u te s —
30 m i n u t e s ----------------------------------O v e r 30 m in u te s ---- --------------------No r e lie f t i m e --------------------------- —
1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r th e N ew E ngland re g io n in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 P a y to e m p lo y e e s p e rm a n e n tly s e p a ra te d fro m the co m p any b e c a u s e of a te c h n o lo g ic a l
c h an g e o r c lo sin g of th e p la n t.




54
11
3
69
76
96
/3\;
v
12
24
11
48
1
4

35

_

12
32
90
91
10
55
4
15

9

45
55

_

5
37
26
91
7
15
6
63

39
36
96
2
13
81

68
20
7
83
86
99
37
26
10
2-5

:

9

2

1

49

_
-

71
84
100

_

4
_

-

_

28
6
50
15

3 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay no t eq u al to ta ls.

_
_

Part II.

Prepared Meat Products

Summary

Straight-time earnings of the 46,950 production
workers in sausage and other prepared meat products
plants averaged $4.38 an hour in March 1974.9 Men,
composing about three-fourths of the industry’s work
force, held a 19-percent average wage advantage over
women ($4.56 to $3.84). Most of the differences in
average pay between men and women were attributable
to differences in the distribution of the sexes among
establishments and jobs with disparate pay levels.
Regionally,10 the highest average was recorded in the
Pacific States—$5.06 an hour-and the lowest in the
Southeast—$3.43 an hour. Averages in prepared meat
products plants ranged from $5.88 an hour for station­
ary engineers to $3.80 for labeling-machine operators.11
Shipping packers (the most heavily populated job
studied separately) averaged $4.33 an hour.
Nine-tenths or more of the plant workers were
employed in establishments which provided paid holi­
days and vacations, and covered at least part of the cost
of life insurance and various health insurance benefits.
Retirement plans applied to approximately four-fifths of
the workers.

since the January 1969 survey when 44,003 workers
were employed. Among the regions where comparisons
could be made, increases in production and related
workers between 1969 and 1974 varied considerably.
For example, employment rose 112 percent in the
Southeast, 8 percent in the Great Lakes region, and 2
percent in the Middle Atlantic region; employment
declined 2 percent in the Pacific region. The Southeast
region accounted for slightly over nine-tenths of the net
employment increase between 1969 and 1974.

Location. The Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions

accounted for 30 and 24 percent of the work force,
respectively. The remaining regions each accounted for
less than 15 percent—Pacific (13 percent), Southeast (11
percent), and Middle West (8 percent)—of the 46,945
production workers in the prepared meat products
industry.
About seven-eighths of the industry’s production work
force was located in metropolitan areas. Such areas
included over nine-tenths of the workers in Middle
Atlantic and Pacific regions, seven-eighths in the Great
Lakes region, four-fifths in the Southeast, and about
three-fifths in the Middle West.

The industry includes establishments primarily en­
gaged in the manufacture of sausages, cured meats,
smoked meats, canned meats, frozen meats, and other
prepared meats and meat specialities from purchased
carcasses and other materials. Sausage kitchens and other
prepared meat plants operated by packing houses as
separate establishments are also included.

Type of company. Multiplant companies12 employed
slightly more than one-third of the workers in this
industry, compared with three-fifths in plants primarily
engaged in slaughtering. Proportions of workers in
single-plant companies ranged from about seven-eighths in
the Pacific States to one-third in the Southeast. The
average production work force of multiplant companies
(142) was more than 3 times that for single-plant
companies (38).

Employment The 900 establishments covered by the

Size of establishment. As a group, multiplant and

9 See footnote 1 in Part I of this report.
10For definitions of regions, see appendix A, table A-l,
footnote 1.
11 See appendix B for job descriptions.

12 Includes companies operating 2 plants or more, where at
least one is in the prepared meat products industry (SIC 2013),
and the remainder in either the meatpacking or prepared meat
products industries, or in both industries.

Industry characteristics

March 1974 survey employed 46,945 production and
related workers. Nationwide, employment in the pre­
pared meat products industry increased by 7 percent




single-plant companies employing 100 workers or more
and single-plant firms with 10 t o -99 workers each
accounted for about three-tenths of total production

worker employment; multiplant companies employing
10-99 workers made up the remainder of the industry’s
work force. Establishments with fewer than 10 workers
were excluded from the survey.

Unionization. Approximately four-fifths of the 46,945
production and related workers were employed in
prepared meat products plants having labor-management
contracts covering a majority of such employees. The
proportion of workers in these plants ranged from about
nine-tenths in three regions—Great Lakes, Middle Atlan­
tic, and Pacific—to slightly more than three-fourths in
the Middle West and three-fifths in the Southeast. Text
table 5 shows the proportions of employees in multi­
plant and single-plant companies with collective bargain­
ing agreements.
As was the case for meatpacking companies, the
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of
North America (AFL-CIO) was the major union for
plant employees in the prepared meat products industry.
The National Brotherhood of Packinghouse Workers
(Ind.) also had collective bargaining agreements with
some establishments in the industry.
Method o f wage payment. Over nine-tenths of the plant

workers were paid on a time-rated basis, usually under
formal plans that provided a single rate for a specified
occupation (table 36). Formal systems with ranges of
rates for specified jobs applied to about one-Fifth of the
workers, while informal systems, which based rates
primarily on the qualifications of individual workers,
applied to one-eighth of the employees. Among regions,
individual rates were more prevalent in the Middle
Atlantic and Southeast than in other regions. “Stint
work”, for which the employees are paid a fixed daily
rate for a predetermined amount of work, regardless of
the actual amount of time required to do the work, was
rarely found in prepared meat product plants.
Text table 5. Percent of production workers in
prepared meat products plants having collective
bargaining agreements covering a majority of their
workers by region and type of company

Region

All
Multiplant Single-plant
companies companies companies

United States1 . .

80-84

90-94

75-79

Middle A tla n tic ...................
Southeast ............................
Great Lakes..........................
Middle West ........................
Pacific....................................

90-94
60-64
90-94
75-79
90-94

95+
85-89
95+
75-79
95+

85-89
15-19
80-84
75-79
85-89

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown
separately.




On a nationwide basis, 6 percent of the production
workers were under incentive pay plans in March 1974.
The proportion of workers on such plans among the
regions ranged from 13 percent in the Great Lakes to 6
percent or less in each of the remaining regions.
A system of “wage brackets” or labor grades was in
effect among plants employing nearly one-third of the
production workers in the prepared meat products
industry. As noted in the meatpacking industry, a
common rate applies to all occupations covered by the
same labor grade. For time-rated workers, this rate
becomes the straight-time hourly rate; for incentive paid
workers, it is the guaranteed rate and, in most cases, the
rate on which incentive wages are based. Table 37
illustrates that wage bracket systems were more preva­
lent in multiplant companies than in single-plant com­
panies. The total number of established labor grades in
the system varied widely by plant; 21 grades were most
common in multiplant companies and 24 in single
plants.
Average hourly earnings

Straight-time earnings of the 46,945 production and
related workers averaged $4.38 an hour in March 1974
(table 28). Hourly averages among the regions shown
separately were: Pacific ($5.06), Great Lakes and Middle
Atlantic ($4.61), Middle West ($3.80) and Southeast
($3.43).
The level of earnings in March 1974 ($4.38) was 42
percent above the average recorded in the Bureau’s
January 1969 survey ($3.08). During this period, the
annual rate of increase in average earnings was 7 percent;
it amounted to 6.1 percent in multiplant companies and
7.7 percent in single-plant companies. The annual rate of
increase also varied by region: 7 percent in the Great
Lakes, 6.8 percent in the Pacific, 8.3 in the Middle
Atlantic, and 8.5 in the Southeast.
Men, making up three-fourths of the work force,
averaged $4.56 an hour—19 percent above the $3.84
average for women. Regionally, hourly wage advantages
for men ranged from 6 percent in the Pacific to 36
percent in the Middle West. Most of the differences in
average pay between men and women were attributable
to differences in the distribution of the sexes among
establishments and jobs with disparate pay levels.
Nationwide, hourly earnings of employees in multi­
plant companies within the scope of the March 1974
survey averaged $4.65—10 percent more than the $4.22
average for employees in single-plant companies. Among
those regions permitting comparisons, hourly averages in
multiplant companies were highest in the Middle Atlan­
tic ($5.08), followed by the Great Lakes ($4.99), Middle

West ($4.33), and Southeast ($3.87). In single plants,
averages were: Pacific ($5.04), Middle Atlantic ($4.48),
Great Lakes ($4.23), Middle West ($3.55), and South­
east ($2.61).
Workers in metropolitan areas averaged $4.48 an
hour, compared with $3.64 for those in nonmetropoli­
tan areas. This nationwide pattern held in two of the
three regions permitting comparisons. In the Middle
West and Southeast, production workers in larger com­
munities held about a 45-percent wage advantage over
smaller communities; in contrast, workers in nonmetro­
politan areas of the Great Lakes region held a 14-percent
wage advantage over those in metropolitan areas.
Employee earnings in plants employing 100 workers
or more averaged $4.56 an hour—12 percent more than
those in smaller establishments employing 10-99 workers
($4.07 an hour). Differences among the two establish­
ment-size groups varied considerably. In the Southeast,
for example, workers in larger plants averaged 44
percent, or $1.21 an hour more than those in smaller
plants. Wage advantages for workers in larger plants were
12 percent in the Middle Atlantic region, 5 percent in
the Great Lakes region, and 4 percent in the Pacific
States. Only in the Middle West did workers in smaller
establishments ($3.89) average more than those in larger
ones-($3.77).
Establishments having labor-management contracts
covering a majority of their production workers averaged
$4.67 an hour, compared with $3.01 in plants with none
or a minority covered by such agreements. Hourly rates
for union establishments in the Middle Atlantic and
Southeast regions exceeded those for nonunion firms by
about 50 percent.
The comparisons of production-worker averages do
not, of course, isolate the influence of each factor as a
determinant of wages. The interrelationship of some of
the variables has been suggested in the discussion of
industry characteristics.
Individual earnings of 96 percent of the production
workers fell within a range of $2 to $6 an hour in March
1974 (table 29). Earnings of the middle half of the
workers within this range were between $3.47 and $5.10
an hour. Three percent of all men and 14 percent of all
women earned below $2.50 an hour. Above $5.50 an
hour, the corresponding proportions were 15 and 4
percent. Regionally, the proportions of workers at the
lower and upper ends of the earnings array varied widely
by sex.
Occupational earnings

The survey also developed earnings data for a number
of individual occupations selected to represent various




skills of production and related workers in sausage and
other prepared meat products plants. (See tables 32-34.)
Nationwide, pay levels in this industry were usually
highest among maintenance and powerplant employees,
and lowest for custodial and material movement employ­
ees. The average for stationary engineers—the highest
paid job studied—exceeded the average for janitors (one
of the lowest paid jobs) by slightly over 50 percent. (See
text table 6.) Hourly wages for those two jobs were
$5.88 and $3.88 respectively. In addition to stationary
engineers, averages for workers equaled or exceeded $5
an hour in the following occupations: Maintenance
electricians ($5.45), maintenance workers, general utility
($5.33), maintenance machinists ($5.32), ham boners
($5.29), beef boners ($5.09), and automotive (main­
tenance) mechanics ($5.00).
Text table 6. Occupational pay relationships in
prepared meat products manufacturing for selected
occupations by regions
[Janitors' average hourly rate= 100]

Occupation

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Southeast

Middle
West

Beef boners......................
Break-up men, fabricated
beef cuts ...................
Break-up men, primal
cuts .............................

131

122

105

128

123

114

101

—

122

-

—

118

Belly trimmers ..............
Ham boners.....................
Ham skinners, machine .

128
136
121

—
130
-

91
—
-

119
131
112

Cooks, water retort . . . .
Labeling-machine
o pe ra to rs ...................
Mixer operators..............
Pumpers, ham (artery
p u m p in g )...................
Sausage makers
(ch o pp er)...................
Slicing-machine
o p erators...................
Smokers ..........................
Stuffers, sausage............
Stuffers, frankfurters . .
Electricians,
maintenance..............
Machinists,
maintenance..............
Maintenance workers,
general u tility ............
Mechanics, automotive
(maintenance) ..........
Stationary engineers . . .

110

123

89

98

98
117

—
119

—
120

85
110

122

121

—

111

127

121

105

122

115
123
116
125

102
121
111
126

95
110
114
103

106
113
110
114

140

142

140

129

137

128

137

131

137

125

129
152

117
139

130

145

Cleaners, night ...............
Janitors.............................
Luggers.............................
Tru ckd rivers...................

110
100
111
124

107
100
114
121

103
100
83
96

102
100
104
124

126

1Includes data for workers in regions not shown separately.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported, or data not
meeting publication criteria.

Shipping packers—the most heavily populated job
studied—averaged $4.33 an hour. Other numerically
important jobs and their hourly averages in prepared
meat products plants were: Truckdrivers ($4.82), sau­
sage stuffers ($4.52), slicing-machine operators ($4.45),
and night cleaners ($4.26).
Averages for janitors and labeling-machine opera­
tors—the two lowest paid jobs studied—were $3.88 and
$3.80 an hour respectively.
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provi­
sions

Information was obtained separately for multiplant
and single-plant companies, and for all companies
combined, on minimum job rates, weekly work sched­
ules, overtime pay practices, shift differential provisions
and practices, rest or relief time, clothes-changing time
and work clothing provisions, and the incidence of
selected supplementary benefits, including paid holidays,
paid vacations, and health, insurance, and retirement
plans.

Minimum job rates. Minimum rates of pay for experi­

enced workers in unskilled time-rated occupations (ex­
cept watchmen) were determined by formally estab­
lished policies in 212 of the 255 plants visited (table 38).
They were set at $4 or more in 89 plants, were between
$3 and $4 in 53 plants, and were less than $3 in 70
plants.

Work schedules and overtime provisions. Work schedules
of 40 hours a week were in effect in establishments
employing 85 percent of the production workers (table
39); most of the remaining work force had weekly work
schedules of more than 40 hours. Weekly work schedules
of more than 40 hours were somewhat more prevalent in
single plants than in multiplant companies.
'Daily overtime pay provisions, virtually always time
and one-half the regular rate after 8 hours, were in effect
for nearly all production workers in both multiplant and
single-plant companies in March 1974 (table 40). Weekly
overtime provisions of time and one-half after 40 hours
applied to virtually all workers in the industry.
Shift differential provisions and practices. Nationwide,

establishments employing two-thirds or more of the
production workers had provisions for late-shift opera­
tions, usually with extra pay above day-shift rates (table
43). Regionally, the proportions of workers actually
employed on second shifts were: Southeast (16 percent),
Great Lakes (14 percent), Middle West (13 percent),
Pacific (11 percent), and Middle Atlantic (9 percent).




The proportion of workers actually employed on third
shifts did not exceed 5 percent in any region.
In multiplant companies, workers on second and
third shifts constituted 21 and 4 percent, respectively, of
the work force (table 44). The corresponding propor­
tions of workers in single-unit companies were 7 and 2
percent. For both types of companies, a large majority
of the workers on late shifts received a cents-per-hour
differential over day rates. The most common differen­
tial was 14 cents an hour for second- and third- or other
late-shift work.

Rest or relief time. Provisions for daily rest or relief time

were in effect in establishments covering over ninetenths of the plant workers in the industry (table 48).
This plan, also known as “spellout” time, most com­
monly provided 20 or 30 minutes daily.

Clothes-changing time and work clothing provisions.

Establishments having formal provisions for clotheschanging time employed slightly less than half of the
production workers in the prepared meat products
industry (table 41). Provisions for clothes-changing time
applied to slightly over one-half of the workers in the
Great Lakes and Pacific regions, compared with twofifths in the Middle Atlantic, one-fifth in the Middle
West, and less than one-tenth in the Southeast. The most
common provision for employees in multiplant com­
panies was 12 minutes each working day; in single
plants, less than 12 minutes was most common.
Nine-tenths of the work force was concentrated in
plants which provided work clothing (other than boots
and gloves) or gave monetary allowances for such
apparel articles (table 42). The percentage of workers
covered by monetary allowances for work clothing was
higher in single plants (11 percent) than in multiplant
companies (9 percent).

Paid holidays. Paid holidays—most commonly 8 to 10

days annually-were extended to nearly all employees in
the prepared meat products industry in March 1974
(table 45). Such provisions were slightly more liberal in
multiplant companies than in single plants. In the
Southeast, for example, three-fifths of the workers in
multiplant companies were granted 9 days annually,
compared with single plants, where four-fifths of the
workers received 5 or 6 days.

Paid vacations. Nearly all of the workers in each region

were employed in establishments providing paid vaca­
tions after qualifying periods of service (table 46). In
March 1974, typical provisions for these employees were
1 week of vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks

after 3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and 4 weeks or
more after 20 years.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Nine-tenths or

more of the production workers were in establishments
providing life, hospitalization, surgical, medical, and
major medical insurance (table 47). Employers usually
paid the entire cost of these benefits and, in some
instances, provided for the extension of coverage to
employees’ dependents. Provisions for sickness and
accident insurance or sick leave or both were available to
a large majority of the workers. Approximately threefourths of the workers were provided accidental death
and dismemberment insurance in addition to basic life
insurance. Plans providing long-term disability coverage,
however, were rarely found in the industry.
Retirement pension plans (other than social security)
were available to slightly over four-fifths of the produc­
tion workers and typically were financed entirely by the
employers. Retirement severance pay plans applied to
less than one-tenth of the work force, nationwide; in the
Middle Atlantic region, however, such provisions applied
to one-fourth of the workers.

Cost-of-living pay adjustment provisions. Provisions for
periodic cost-of-living pay adjustments were reported by




plants employing approximately four-fifths of the work­
ers in multiplant companies and nearly one-half in single
plants (table 48). Virtually all provisions were based on
the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index
(CPI). Most provisions included a 6-month review period
with a 1-cent-per-hour adjustment for a 0.4 percentage
point movement in the CPI (1967=100), effective in
January and July.

Technological severance pay and moving allowances.

Establishments having formal plans for lump-sum pay­
ments to eligible employees permanently separated from
employment because of technological change or force
reduction employed 32 percent of the workers in
multiplant companies and 6 percent of the workers in
single plants.
Moving expense allowances for eligible workers sepa­
rated from one plant as a result of force reduction and
transferring to another company-owned plant applied to
about one-fifth of the workers in multiplant companies.

Jury-duty and funeral leave pay. Formal provisions for
jury-duty and funeral leave pay each covered nine-tenths
or more of the workers in multiplant companies and at
least seven-tenths in single plants.

(N u m b e r ab d a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs , U nited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
U nited S ta te s 1
2
W o rk e rs
E a rn in g s

Ite m
A ll p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs ----- “
M en —----- — ------ --------------o m en - —
-

~ ------ — -

T y p e of co m p a n y : 3
M u ltip la n t —
— - -- —
S in g le -p la n t ~ ----- S ize of c o m m u n ity : 4
----M e tro p o lita n a r e a s * N o n m e tro p o lita n a r e a s
*
S ize of e s ta b lis h m e n t:
10-99 w o rk e rs _
_ _
100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -----------------------------------L a b o r-m a n a g e m e n t c o n tra c ts :
E s ta b lis h m e n t w ith —
M a jo rity of w o rk e rs c o v e re d
N one o r m in o rity of w o rk e rs c o v e re d —
1
2
3
4

M iddle A tla n tic
E a rn in g s
W o rk e rs

46, 945
35, 106
11, 839

$4. 38
4. 56
3. 84

1 1, 213
9, 095
2, 118

$ 4 , 61
4. 77
3. 95

5, 073
3, 565
1, 508

$ 3. 43
3. 63
2. 96

14, 147
9, 706
4, 441

$4. 61
4. 84
4. 11

3, 785
2, 683
1, 102

$ 3 .8 0
4. 12
3. 03

6, 185
5, 028
1, 157

$ 5. 06
5, 12
4. 82

17, 241
29, 704

4. 65
4. 22

2, 567
8, 646

5. 08
4. 48

3, 318
1, 755

3. 87
2. 61

7, 019
7, 128

4. 99
4. 23

1, 213
2, 572

4. 33
3. 55

5, 270

5. 04

41, 116
5, 829

4. 48
3. 64

10, 976
-

4. 64
~

4, 061
1, 012

3. 66
2. 52

1 2 ,3 5 4
1, 793

4. 53
5. 15

2, 365
1, 420

4. 30
2. 97

5, 790
-

5. 18
-

17, 861
29, 084

4. 07
4. 56

5, 098
6, 115

4. 34
4. 84

2, 022
3, 051

2. 70
3. 91

3, 940
10, 207

4. 45
4. 67

966
2, 819

3. 89
3. 77

2, 476
3, 709

4. 93
5. 14

3 8, 594
8, 351

4. 67
3. 01

10, 167
1, 046

4. 76
3. 18

3, 236
1, 837

3. 89
2. 63

12, 902
-

4. 73

2, 905
-

4. 14
-

5, 578
-

5. 28

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts .
In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .
F o r d e fin itio n of type of co m p an y , se e ap p en d ix A.
T h e te r m " m e tr o p o lita n a r e a " u se d in th is stu d y r e f e r s to the S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta ­




S o u th ea st
W o rk e rs
E a rn in g s

G re a t L a k e s
W o rk e rs
E a rn in g s

M iddle W est
W o rk e rs
E a rn in g s

P a c ific
W o rk e rs
E a rn in g s

tis tic a l A re a s a s d e fin ed b y the U. S. O ffice of M an g e m e n t and B u d g et th ro u g h N o v em b er 1972,
N O TE: D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do no t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .




Tabia

29,

Prepared meat omducis; -earnings distribution, all companies

H o u rly e a rn in g s
T o ta l —------------ -—
U n d e r $ 1 .8 0 —-------------$ 1. 80 and u n d e r $ 1 .8 5
$ .1 .8 5 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 0 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 5
$ 1 .9 5 and u n d e r $ 2 . 00
$ 2 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 10
$ 2 . 10 and u n d e r $ 2 . 20
$ 2 . 20 and u n d e r $ 2 . 30
$ 2 . 30 and u n d e r $ 2 . 40
$ 2 . 40 and u n d e r $ 2. 50
$ 2 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 60
$2 . 60 and u n d e r $ 2 . 70
$ 2. 70 and u n d e r $2. 80
$ 2 . 80 and u n d e r $2 90
$ 2 . 90 an d u n d e r $ 3. 00
$ 3 . 00 and u n d e r $ 3 . 10
$ 3. 10 and u n d e r $ 3. 20
$ 3 . 20 and u n d e r $ 3 . 30
$ 3 . 30 and u n d e r $ 3 . 40
$ 3 . 40 and u n d e r $ 3 . 50
$ 3 . 50 and u n d e r $ 3 . 60 $ 3 . 60 and u n d e r $ 3 . 70 $ 3 .7 0 and u n d e r $ 3 .8 0 $ 3 .8 0 and u n d e r $ 3 .9 0 $ 3. 90 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 00 $ 4 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 10 $ 4 . 10 and u n d e r $ 4 . 20 $ 4 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 30 $ 4 . 30 and u n d e r $ 4 . 40 $ 4. 40 and u n d e r $ 4 . 50 $ 4 . 50 and u n d e r $ 4 . 60 $ 4 . 60 and u n d e r $ 4 . 70 $ 4 . 70 and u n d e r $ 4 .8 0 $ 4 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 90 $ 4 . 90 and u n d e r $ 5. 00 $ 5 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 10 $ 5 . 10 and u n d e r $ 5 . 20 $ 5 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 30 $ 5 . 30 an d u n d e r $ 5 . 40 $ 5 . 40 and u n d e r $ 5 . 50 $ 5 . 50 and u n d e r $ 5 . 60 $ 5 . 60 and u n d e r $ 5 . 70 $ 5. 70 and u n d e r $ 5 . 80 $ 5 .8 0 and u n d e r $ 5 .9 0 $ 5 . 90 and u n d e r $ 6 . 00 $ 6 . 00 and u n d e r $ 6 . 10 $ 6 . 10 and u n d e r $ 6 . 20 $ 6 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 30 $ 6 . 30 an d u n d e r $ 6 -4 0 $ 6 . 40 and u n d e r $ 6 . 50 $ 6 . 50 an d o v e r --------------N u m b e r of w o r k e r s - -------A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1

A ll
w o rk e rs
100. 0
0- 3
.1
.2
( 3)
1. 0
.8
1 .8
.8
1- 0
1. 4
1 .8
2. 1
1. 9
.9
2. 7
2. 7
2. 3
2. 2
1. 2
1. 3
2. 1
1. 6
1. 3
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 0
1. 5
3- 0
2. 6
3. 7
3. 9
5. 4
8. 8
6. 3
4. 4
3. 5
2. 9
2. 4
1. 5
2. 2
•9
-9
2. 5
.4
.4
.4
.5
.2
1 .8
46, 945
$4. 38

U nited S ta te s 2
M en
100. 0
0. 2
.1
( 3)
(3)
(3)
.7
.4
•9
.6
.5
1. 1
1 .0
2. 0
1. 2
.8
2. 7
1. 3
2. 2
2. 2
1. 1
1. 5
2. 3
1 .6
1. 4
1. 9
2. 2
1 .6
2. 2
1 .9
2. 8
2. 6
3. 8
3 .9
5. 7
7. 9
7. 0
5. 5
4. 3
3. 4
3. 1
1. 9
2. 9
1. 2
1. 1
2 .9
.4
.5
.6
.7
.2
2. 1
35, 106
$ 4. 56

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

W om en
100. 0
0. 6
.3
.2
.8
(3)
2. 1
2. 0
4. 3
1. 5
2. 4
2. 3
4. 0
2. 7
4. 1
1. 1
2. 7
6. 7
2. 5
2. 5
1. 3
•9
1 .6
1. 5
1. 0
2. 5
1. 7
3. 9
1. 4
.4
3. 6
2. 3
3. 5
4. 1
4. 3
11. 2
4. 1
1. 3
1. 1
1. 2
.3
.4
.2
.1
.2
1. 2
.3
.2
(3)
(3)
.1
1. 1
1 1 ,8 3 9
$ 3 . 84

M iddle
A tla n tic

S o u th ea st

G re a t
Lakes

M iddle
W e st

P a c ific

100. 0
0. 4

100. 0
1. 2
1. 1
.6
.6
,1
4. 7
2. 5
6. 0
2. 8
3. 6
4. 9
5. 7
6. 7
1- 9
.7
3. 9
2. 5
3. 1
I. 5
•9
.7
.4
•9
1. 2
1. 1
2. 5
1. 2
-7
1. 3
11. 9
8. 6
9- 1
2. 3
.1
.1
.4
.1
.4
1 .8

100. 0

100. 0
0. 5

100. 0

1
.6
.6
.9
.5
1. 3
1. 2
1. 4
.6
.2
1. 5
1. 5
1. 2
1 .0
1. 2
1 8
1 .9
1. 4
1. 4
•9
2. 4
2. 7
2. 6
2. 5
1. 5
1. 1
5. 7
7. 8
5. 6
8. 1
7. 1
5. 1
3. 3
2. 8
3. 5
2. 5
6. 1
1 .9
1. 1
•9
.7
.3
-3
1. 4
.1
.8
11, 213
$ 4 . 61

_
_

.1
-

-

(3)
-

-

.2
5, 073
$3 . 43

:
_
_
0.1
.2
1.1

.6
.7
.3
2. 0
-7
2. 6
4. 7
2. 6
2. 3
.8
1. 1
1. 2
1. 5
1. 1
3. 8
1. 5
3. 4
2. 6
1. 2
3. 7
3. 7
3. 2
4. 2
7. 7
8. 3
6. 5
6. 2
4. 5
2. 9
2. 2
.6
1. 2
.4
1. 3
.8
.5
.6
■9
.4
.4
3. 6
14, 147
$ 4 . 61

:
-

1. 4
4. 0
10. 5
3. 0
1. 0
.5
1. 1
2. 9
3. 0
2. 5
.3
.4
5. 3
10. 6
3. 1
1. 7
6. 0
3. 3
1. 7
1. 2
3. 3
1. 6
5. 7
.2
.2
.8
1. 2
4. 2
.6
1. 2
6. 3
3. 2
3. 3
.4
1. 9
.4
.3
(3)
.4
.2
.3
.1
,3
_

3, 785
$ 3 . 80

:
0,1
.5
.3
.1
.1
.2
1.3
2.2
.7
.4
1.9
.3

.8
.1
.2
1. 1
.6
.5
(3)
.3
.1
(3)
2. 1
1. 0
.1
.8
.5
5. 4
20. 4
9- 5
3. 6
5. 9
7. 7
3. 1
4. 5
1. 3
2. 2
1. 4
14. 7
.2
.3
.3
.3
(3)

3. 4
6, 185
$ 5 . 06

3 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e rc e n t.
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not eq u al




( P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs by s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s , 1 U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
H o u rly e a rn in g s
T o ta l ------- -----------------------------------------------------------U n d e r $ 1 .8 0 ----- — --------------------------------- ---------------$ 1 .8 0 an d u n d e r $ 1 .8 5 -----------------------------------------------$ 1 .8 5 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 0 —--------------------------------------------$ 1 .9 0 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 5 ------------------------------- ---------------$ 1 . 95 and u n d e r $ 2 . 00 -----------------------------------------------$ 2 . 00 and u n d e r $2 . 10 --------------------------------------------—
$ 2 . 10 and u n d e r $ 2. 20 -----------------------------------------------$ 2 . 20 and u n d e r $ 2. 30 ---------------------- ------------------------$ 2 . 30 and u n d e r $ 2 . 4 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 2 . 40 and u n d e r $ 2 . 50 -----------------------------—-------- ------$ 2 . 50 and u n d e r $ 2. 60 -----------------------------------------------$ 2 . 60 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 7 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 2. 70 and u n d e r $ 2 .8 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 2 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 9 0 ----------------*
------------------------------$ 2 . 90 and u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 ---------------— ------—-------------------$ 3 . 00 and u n d e r $ 3 . 1 0 -------------- ------------- -------------------$ 3 . 10 and u n d e r $ 3 . 2 0 ----------------------------------------------$ 3 . 20 and u n d e r $ 3 . 30 ----------------- -----------------------------$ 3 . 30 and u n d e r $ 3 . 4 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 3 . 40 and u n d e r $3 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 3 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 6 0 --------------------------- -------------------$ 3. 60 and u n d e r $ 3. 7 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 3. 70 and u n d e r $ 3. 8 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 3. 80 and u n d e r $ 3. 9 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 3 .9 0 and u n d e r $ 4 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 1 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 10 and u n d e r $4 . 20 ----------------- -------- ---------------------$ 4 . 20 and u n d e r $ 4 . 30 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 30 and u n d e r $ 4. 40 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 40 and u n d e r $4 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 50 and u n d e r $4 . 60 -----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 60 and u n d e r $4 . 7 0 ----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 70 and u n d e r $4 . 80 ------------------------- ---------------------$ 4 . 80 and u n d e r $ 4 . 90 ----------------------------------------------$ 4 . 90 and u n d e r $5 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 00 and u n d e r $ 5. 1 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 10 and u n d e r $5. 2 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 20 and u n d e r $ 5 . 3 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 30 and u n d e r $ 5 . 4 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 40 and u n d e r $ 5 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 50 and u n d e r $ 5 .6 0 ------------------- ----------------------------$ 5. 60 and u n d e r $ 5 .7 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5. 70 and u n d e r $ 5 . 8 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 80 and u n d e r $ 5 . 9 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 . 90 and u n d e r $ 6 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 1 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 . 10 and u n d e r $ 6 . 2 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 . 20 and u n d e r $ 6 . 30 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 .3 0 and u n d e r $ 6 . 40 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 . 40 and u n d e r $ 6. 50 -----------------------------------------------$ 6 . 50 and o v e r -------------------------------------------------------------N u m b e r of w o rk e rs -----------------------------------------------------A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s ----------------------------------------------

T o ta l
100. 0
(3)
0. 1
_
_
1. 1
.6
1. 0
.2
1. 5
.7
1. 5
1. 4
1. 1
.8
1. 5
2. 6
1. 5
1. 0
.7
.8
2. 1
1. 3
1. 0
2. 0
1 .7
1. 2
.7
.6
5. 3
2. 8
3. 6
2. 7
6. 7
11. 2
9. 1
6. 5
4. 7
2 .9
2 .9
1 .0
2. 1
1. 0
1. 4
1. 2
.8
.7
.4
.7
.3
3. 4
17, 241
$ 4 . 65

U n ited S ta te s 2
M en
100. 0
(3)
_
_
_
0. 6
.1
.6
.1
.5
.6
.7
1. 1
.4
.9
1 .9
.7
1. 5
1. 1
.9
.8
2. 2
1. 0
1 .0
2. 2
2. 1
1. 1
.7
•9
4. 6
3. 5
4. 3
2. 0
6. 2
9. 3
9 .5
8. 4
6. 0
3. 4
3, 8
1. 2
2. 7
1. 3
1. 7
1. 2
.8
.8
.5
.0
.4
3. 7
12, 450
$ 4 . 81

1

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

W om en
100. 0
(3)
0. 3
_
_
2. 3
1.8
2. 1
.5
4. 1
1. 2
3. 7
2. 3
2. 8
.4
.3
7. 6
1. 5
.8
.1
•9
1 .9
2. 1
1. 1
1. 4
.9
1. 3
.5
.1
7. 1
1. 0
1. 8
4 .6
7. 8
16. 0
7 .8
1. 6
1. 2
1. 4
.6
.5
.5
.2
.4
.9
.8
.5
.1
.1
.2
2. 8
4, 791
$ 4 . 22

M iddle
A tla n tic
100. 0
(3 )
_
_
_
-

_

_
_
_
0. 4
3. 6
.3
.4
.7
.
.4
.6
•9
.2
.2
.1
.2
.4
1. 4
1. 7
.3
.5
.2
(3)
3. 4
4. 8
18. 6
10. 0
11. 1
5. 1
5. 1
4. 2
3. 2
6. 2
3. 6
1 .8
2. 0
1. 6
.8
.9
2. 7
.6
1 .9
2, 567
$ 5 . 08

S o u th ea st
100. 0
0. 2

_

_
_
4. 3
.3
4. 5
.8
2. 3
2. 6
3 .9
3. 3
.7
.7
3. 5
2. 7
3. 2
1. 6
.9
.6
.4
.8
1. 5
1. 6
2. 3
1. 4
.9
1. 7
18. 3
13. 1
14. 0
3. 6
.2
.1
.4
_
.2
.5
2. 7
_
.2
.2
3, 318
$ 3 .8 7

G re a t
Lakes
100. 0
-

_
_
_
_
_
_

2. 3
_
.3
1. 6
.5
1. 3
4. 5
.1
.4
.5
.8
.3
1. 1
.3
2. 5
1 .7
•9
.5
.2
3. 1
.1
2. 0
3. 1
10. 6
11. 7
10. 7
8. 1
6. 7
3. 7
3. 0
.7
2. 3
•9
2. 2
1. 7
1. 0
•9
.4
. 7.5
6. 0
7, 019
$ 4 .9 9

M iddle
W est
100. 0
_
_
_
-

_

6. 9
_
_
_
_
.3
_
3. 0
.3
.3
9- 5
_
1. 6
10. 2
4. 3
3 .9
2. 3
3. 0
3. 0
.3
.3
.7
1. 6
.7
1. 3
.1
3. 7
20. 1
10. 2
2 .8
1. 2
1. 5
1. 3
1. 1
.1
1. 2
.8
1 .0
.4
•9
1, 213
$ 4 . 33

3 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not eq u al




U nited S ta te s 2
M en
100.0

0. 4
.2
.1
( 3)
(3)
.7
.5
1. 1
•9
.4
1. 4
1. 2
2. 4
1. 6
.7
3. 1
1 .6
2. 6
2. 7
1. 3
1 .9
2. 3
2. 0
1. 6
1. 7
2. 3
1. 8
3. 0
2. 4
1. 9
2. 2
3. 5
4. 9
5. 4
7. 2
5. 6
3. 9
3. 4
3. 4
2. 7
2. 3
3. 0
1. 1
.8
3. 8
.3
.4
.6
.5
.1
1. 2
22, 656
$4. 42

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
h o lid a y s, an d la te s h ifts .
~ In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

W om en
100. 0
1. 1
.3
.4
1 .4
(3)
1 .9
2. 1
5. 8
2. 2
1. 3
3. 0
4. 2
3. 0
5. 0
1. 6
4. 3
6. 1
3. 2
3. 6
2. 1
•9
1. 4
1. 0
1. 0
3. 2
2. 2
5. 6
2. 0
.6
1. 2
3. 2
4. 7
3. 8
1 .9
8. 0
1. 6
1. 1
1. 1
1. 1
.4
_
_
.1
1. 3
_
.
7, 048
$3. 59

M iddle
A tla n tic

S o u th ea st

G re a t
Lakes

M iddle
W est

P a c ific

100. 0
0. 6
_
.1
.8
.8
_
1. 1
.6
1. 6
.5
1 .8
.7
.1
2. 0
1. 8
1 .4
1. 0
1. 6
2. 3
2. 5
1 .9
1.8
1. 1
3. 0
3. 1
2. 8
3. 2
1.8
1. 4
7. 4
9. 1
5. 8
5. 0
6. 3
3. 4
2. 8
2. 1
3. 3
2. 2
6. 1
1. 4
.9
.6
.4
.2
.1
1. 0

100. 0
3. 2
3. 2
1. 7
1 .6
.2
5. 6
6. 5
8. 9
6. 7
5. 9

100. 0

100. 0
_
_
0. 1
.6
.3
.1
.2
.2
1. 5
2. 6
.8
.5
2. 2
.4
•9
(3)
.1
.2
1. 3
.7
(3)
(3 )
.3
_
( 3)
2. 0
.1
.8
.6
5. 4
17. 5
9- 3
3. 8
5. 7
8. 7
2. 8
5. 1
1. 5
2. 3
1 .4
16. 9
.1
.3
(3)
.3

.5
8, 646
$4 . 48

.3
1, 755
$2 . 61

100. 0
_
_
_
_
0. 2
.3
1. 2
1. 1
.6
2. 4
•9
3. 9
5. 0
4. 9
4. 0
1. 1
1. 3
2. 1
1 .8
1 .8
5. 0
1. 3
5. 7
4. 6
2. 1
4. 3
7. 2
4. 4
5. 1
4. 9
5. 1
2. 4
4. 4
2. 4
2. 2
1. 4
.5
.2
(3)
.4
.2
.2
1 .4
.1
.2
1. 2
7, 128
$ 4 . 23

9. 2
9.0
13. 3
4. 0
.7
4. 5
1 .9
3. 0
1. 3
•9
■9
.2
1. 2
.6
.2
3. 0
.7
.2
.5
.2
_
.5
-

_
_
.
_
.1
_
-

0

T o ta l --------------------------------------------------------U n d er $ 1 .8 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 1 .8 0 and u n d e r $ 1 . 8 5 -----------------------------------$ 1 .8 5 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 0 -----------------------------------$ 1 .9 0 and u n d e r $ 1 .9 5 -----------------------------------$ 1 .9 5 and u n d e r $ 2. 00 -----------------------------------$ 2 . 00 and u n d e r $ 2 . 10 -----------------------------------$2 . 10 and u n d e r $ 2 . 20 -----------------------------------$ 2 . 20 and u n d e r $ 2 . 30 -----------------------------------$ 2 . 30 and u n d e r $ 2 . 4 0 -----------------------------------$2 . 40 and u n d e r $ 2 . 50 -----------------------------------$2 . 50 and u n d e r $ 2 . 6 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 . 60 an d u n d e r $2 . 70 -----------------------------------$ 2. 70 and u n d e r $ 2 . 80 -----------------------------------$ 2 . 80 and u n d e r $ 2 . 90 -----------------------------------$ 2 .9 0 and u n d e r $ 3 .0 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 . 00 and u n d e r $ 3 . 10 -----------------------------------$ 3. 10 and u n d e r $ 3. 20 -----------------------------------$ 3. 20 and u n d e r $ 3. 30 -----------------------------------$ 3. 30 and u n d e r $ 3. 40 -----------------------------------$3- 40 and u n d e r $ 3 . 50 -----------------------------------$ 3. 50 and u n d e r $ 3. 60 ----------------------------- ------$3 . 60 an d u n d e r $3. 70 -----------------------------------$ 3 .7 0 and u n d e r $ 3 .8 0 -----------------------------------$3 . 80 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 90 -----------------------------------$ 3. 90 and u n d e r $ 4 . 00 ----------------- -----------------$ 4. 00 and u n d e r $ 4 . 1 0 -----------------------------------$ 4. 10 and u n d e r $ 4. 20 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 20 an d u n d e r $ 4 . 30 -----------------------------------$ 4. 30 and u n d e r $ 4 . 40 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 40 and u n d e r $ 4 . 50 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 50 and u n d e r $ 4 . 60 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 60 and u n d e r $ 4 . 70 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 70 and u n d e r $ 4 . 80 -----------------------------------$4 . 80 and u n d e r $ 4 . 90 -----------------------------------$4 . 90 and u n d e r $ 5 . 00 -----------------------------------$5 . 00 and u n d e r $ 5 . 10 -----------------------------------$ 5 .1 0 and u n d e r $ 5. 2 0 -----------------------------------$ 5 . 20 and u n d e r $ 5 . 30 -----------------------------------$ 5 . 30 and u n d e r $ 5 . 40 ------------ -----------------------$ 5 . 40 and u n d e r $ 5 . 5 0 -----------------------------------$ 5 . 50 and u n d e r $ 5 . 60 -----------------------------------$ 5 . 60 and u n d e r $ 5 . 70 -----------------------------------$ 5 .7 0 an d u n d e r $ 5 .8 0 -----------------------------------$ 5. 80 and u n d e r $ 5 .9 0 -----------------------------------$ 5 . 90 and u n d e r $ 6 . 0 0 -----------------------------------$ 6 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 6 . 10 -----------------------------------$ 6 . 10 and u n d e r $ 6 . 20 -----------------------------------$ 6 . 20 and u n d e r $ 6 . 3 0 --------------------- --------------$6 . 30 and u n d e r $ 6 . 40 -----------------------------------$ 6 . 40 and u n d e r $ 6. 5 0 -----------------------------------$ 6. 50 and o v e r ------------------------------------------------N u m b e r of w o rk e rs ------------------------------------------A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 --------------------------------

A ll
w o rk e rs
100. 0
0. 5
.2
.1
.3
(3)
1. 0
.9
2. 2
1. 2
.6
1 .8
1 .9
2. 6
2. 4
■9
3. 4
2. 7
2. 7
2. 9
1. 5
1. 7
2. 1
1. 7
1 .4
2. 1
2. 3
2. 7
2. 8
2. 0
1. 7
2. 4
3. 8
4. 6
4. 6
7. 3
4. 6
3. 2
2. 9
2. 9
2. 1
1 .8
2. 3
•9
.6
3. 2
.2
.3
.5
.4
.1
.9
29, 704
$4. 22

00

H o u rly e a rn in g s

_
_
2. 0
2. 7
15. 2
4. 4
1 .4
.7
1. 5
4. 1
4. 4
2. 3
.2
.4
3. 4
15. 5
4. 5
1 .8
4. 1
2. 9
.6
.7
3. 4
1. 0
8. 1
.1
.4
1. 4
5. 6
.8
_
_
3. 5
_
2. 1
_
_
_
(3)
.
2, 272
$3 . 55

2. 3
5, 270
$ 5 . 04

3 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not e q u al

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s , U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U nited S ta te s 2
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d sex
B e e f cu ttin g

N u m b er
w o rk e rs
1, 790
112
238
711
729
287
97

B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts --------------B re a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u ts ----------------------------P o rk c u ttin g
173
B e lly tr i m m e r s --------------------------------------------------918
B o n e rs , h am -------------------------------------------------------726
O pen sty le b o n in g ------------------------------------186
C h ise l b o n in g ---------------------------------------------151
H am s k in n e rs , m a c h in e ------------------------------------83
Skin o n ly -----------------------------------------------------68
Skin and d e fa t ------------------------------------------22
L o in p u lle rs ---------------------------------------------------------143
T r im m e r s of t r i m m in g s ------------------------------------106
M en -------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and can nin g
437
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------158
279
W o m en --------------------------------------------------219
C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t — ------ — — ------- —
49
G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e l l i e s -------------------125
H a n g e rs , b e l l i e s -------------------------------------------------186
L a b e lin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------99
87
W o m e n ___________________________________
M ix e r o p e ra to rs -------------------------------------------------284
P ic k le m a k e r s - — — ---------- ------- - —
109
P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ---------------234
P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y p um ping) --------------------341
S a u sag e m a k e rs ( c h o p p e r ) --------------------------------606
S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------- 1, 080
M en -------------------------------------------------------442
W o m e n ---------------------------------------------------638
S m o k e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------978
S a u s a g e s ----------------------------------------------------------306
O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s -------------------------------------228
C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r
p ro d u c ts - - ----------------------- — ------- — —
444
S p ice w e ig h e rs and m ix e r s -----------------------------139
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------89
W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------50
S ta ffe rs , fr a n k f u r te r s ----------------------------------------523
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------417
W om e n ----------------------------------------------------106
S ta ffe rs , s a u s a g e s --------------------------------------------- 1, 206
M en -------------------------------------------------------896
W om en --------------------------------------------------310
202
N a tu ra l c a s in g s ---------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------131
W o m e n ---------------------------------------------------71
150
A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith c a s in g s i z e r ----------M en ---- ------- — — - — —
129
21
W om en --------------------------------------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith o u t c a s in g s i z e r ---109
M en -------------------------------------------------------98
C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r ti f ic ia l
c a sin g s ----------------------------------------------------------745
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------538
W o m e n --------------------------------------------------207




A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

M iddle A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

$5. 09
5. 81
5. 52
5. 07
4. 86
4. 78
4. 74

$ 5 . 15
5. 81
5. 02
5. 15
5. 15
4 .4 5
4 . 88

$4. 7 7 -$
5. 1 4 4. 85—
4. 774. 0 0 3. 75—
4. 6 3 -

5. 69
6. 02
6. 22
5. 23
5. 91
6 .2 3
5. 20

527
87
336
70
69

$4. 98

$4. 85
4. 85
5. 15
4 . 71
4 .4 5
-

$4. 7 7 -$ 5. 23

5. 00
5. 04
4 . 28
4. 66

4. 98
5. 29
5. 24
5. 52
4. 70
5. 03
4. 29
4. 61
4. 07
4. 37

5. 65
5. 22
5. 19
5 .4 6
4. 95
5. 05
4. 09
4. 25
4. 05
4 . 70

4. 3 8 5. 0 4 4. 8 8 5. 0 b 4. 0 7 4. 953. 5 0 3. 153. 2 5 3. 2 7 -

5. 69
5. 62
5. 62
5. 66
5. 24
5. 62
4 . 95
5. 31
5. 01
5. 11

_
445
326
119

.
5 .2 9
5. 24
5 .4 4

_
5.4 2
5 .4 0
5. 62
-

_
_
5. 0 5 - 5. 63
5. 0 5 - 5. 63
5. 0 5 - 5. 66
-

13

3 .5 0
4. 04
4. 69

4 . 36
4 . 70

3 .2 5 - 4. 72
4. 7 0 - 4 . 84

4. 53
4. 55
4. 52
4. 26
4. 72
4. 23
3. 80
3. 66
3. 96
4. 54
4. 77
4. 91
4. 75
4. 93
4. 45
4. 93
4. 11
4. 78
5. 00
4 .3 5
4. 85
4. 35
4. 59
3. 93
4. 85
5. 08
3. 91
4. 52
4. 78
3. 80
4. 77
4. 88
4. 56
4. 75
4. 96
3 .4 8
4. 76
4. 89
4. 38
4. 68
3. 58

4. 76
4. 90
4. 73
4. 28
4. 52
4. 60
3 .4 7
3 .3 1
3. 65
4. 66
4. 94
5. 06
5. 01
5. 11
4. 82
5. 00
4 .4 3
5. 02
5. 02
4. 72
5. 16
4. 75
4. 95
4. 10
5. 11
5. 26
3 .4 5
4. 76
4. 95
3. 79
4. 66
4. 85
4. 65
5. 08
5. 11
2. 75
5. 08
5. 08

4 .4 6 - 4 . 91
4 .2 0 - 5. 10
4 .4 6 - 4. 90
3. 6 2 - 5. 13
4. 0 9 - 5. 06
3. 86— 4 . 98
3 .2 9 — 4 . 66
2 .7 0 — 4 . 60
3 .3 1- 4.’ 66
3. 9 8 - 5. 22
4. 5 5 - 5. 21
4 . 5 4 - 5. 37
4 . 3 5 - 5. 30
4 . 2 5 - 5. 78
4. 06— 5. 01
4. 6 3 - 5. 22
3 .3 1- 4. 97
4. 3 0 - 5 .4 3
4. 8 5 - 5 .4 3
3. 0 0 - 5. 24
4. 2 5 - 5. 60
3. 6 7 - 5. 00
4. 5 7 - 5. 05
2. 8 0 - 4 . 86
4 .4 7 - 5. 50
4. 8 8 - 5. 50
3. 2 5 - 4 . 76
3. 9 8 - 5. 16
4. 2 2 - 5. 28
2. 7 5 - 4 . 56
4 .4 6 — 5 .2 1
4. 4 9 - 5 .4 6
4 .3 1- 4 . 65
4 .4 6— 5 .4 6
4. 5 6 - 5 .4 6
2 .4 0 - 4 . 76
4. 15—'-- 5. 16
4. 76— 5. 16
3. 7 5 - 5. 16
4. 15- 5. 19
2. 7 0 - 4 .4 3

100
23
77
40
26
39
-

4 . 63
4 . 03
4. 81
5. 01
4 . 87
4 . 81

4 . 71
4. 74
4 . 71
4 . 85
4 .3 2
4 . 96

4 .7 1 2. 50—
4. 714. 6 5 3. 9 6 3. 8 8 -

4 .4 6
4. 81
3. 00

-

56
32

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

70
40
78
194
170
153
50
103
330
49
109
172
15
9
_
175
141
34
332
245
87
69

4 . 85
4. 90
4. 78
4 . 94
4. 94
4 . 15
4. 24
4 . 11
4 . 93
5. 35
4 . 53
5. 06
4 . 37
4 .4 7
_
5. 15
5. 40
4. 13
4. 54
4. 72
4. 02
4. 84

24
20

4. 90
4 . 68

_
_

_
_
_

223
167
56

_

_
_

_
_
_

4 . 35
4 . 66
3 .4 4

5. 02
4. 94
4 . 82
5. 00
5 .3 6
4. 10
4 .3 0
4 . 10
5. 18
5. 21
4 . 60
5. 62
4. 71
_

-

4. 8 4 4. 773 .7 0 3. 7 5 -

_

-

I
4. 1 5 4. 744. 014. 6 5 4 .4 1 3. 5 0 3. 8 4 3 .4 0 4. 3 0 5. 0 0 4. 3 0 -

-

4. 85
5. 23
4. 71
5. 78

_

_
_

5 .3 1
5 .3 1

4 .4 1 - 5 .3 6
3. 6 2 - 5. 32

_
_

4. 15
4 .4 6
3. 60

_
_
_

18
_
_
_
_

3. 20
_
_
_
_
-

3. 13

_
_

-

"
21
_
16
_
47
145
55
90
54
16
15
23
17
16
_
25
19
91
48
43

4. 9 5 5. 3 5 3 .4 5 4. 124. 1 5 2. 8 8 4. 65_
_

$3. 85

"
5. 49
5. 17
5. 62
5. 53
5. 62
4. 82
4 . 74
4. 98
5. 69
5. 97
5 .2 1

5. 50
5. 50
3 .4 5
4 . 65
4 . 85
4 .4 2
4 . 85
_
_

$3. 68
3. 54
"

31

-

5 .5 9
5. 62
4 . 76
5. 20
5. 38
4. 65
4. 85
_
_

_
_
_

4 . 0 8 - 5. 37
4. l b - 5. 38
2 .3 0 - 4 . 08

S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

176
14
"

4. 86
4 . 86
4. 74
5. 52
5. 91
5 .4 9

4. 44— 5. 69
3. 9 1 - 4 . 79
_
_

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

9
30
_
38
-

_
_

_

28
_
10
_
_

_

-

_
-

-

3. 84
3. 12
3. 10
_
3. 11
-

"
4. 19
_
4. 18
_

3. 69
3. 32
4 .3 3
2. 70
3. 86
3. 79
3. 56
4. 10
4 . 15
4. 24

_

3 .5 9
3. 93
_
4. 00
4. 42
3. 53

_
_
_

3. 70
_
2. 84
_

_
_

"

-

-

$3. 12-$
-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

4. 00
_
_
_
-

-

2. 75— 3 .4 4
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

4 . 16

3. 0 6 - 4. 56
”
2. 7 0 - 3. 19
_
2. 2 0 - 4. 31

_

2. 70
_
2 .4 3
_

4. 66
_
4 .4 6
_

4. 06
2. 70
4. 56
2 .4 5
4 .4 6
3. 98
2. 85
4. 76
4. 66
4 . 66
_
3 .3 0
4. 16
_
4 .4 6
4. 56
4. 16

_
_
_

4 .4 6

_
_
_
_

_

"

_

-

_

4. 5 6 - 4. 66
_
4 .3 6— 4. 60
2 .4 0 — 4. 66
2 .4 5 - 4. 56
4. 5 6 - 4. 69
2 .3 0 - 2. 65
2. 8 5 - 4 . 76
3. 12- 4. 54
2. 8 5 - 4. 76
3 .4 0 - 4. 81
3. 2 4 - 4. 75
4. 2 4 - 4. 75
2. 6 5 3. 3 0 _
3. 3 4 4 .4 6 ^
2 .4 0 _
_
_

4. 56
4. 56
4. 61
4. 77
4. 56

2. 60— 4. 56

_

_
_
_

_

_

_

_
_

-

"

G re a t L ak es
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B eef c u ttin g
B o n e rs , b e e f -------------------------------------------------C h u ck s --------------------------------------------------L o in s , r ib s , o r r o u n d s ---------------------S h anks o r b r is k e ts ----------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u t s -------B re a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u t s -----------------------P o rk c u ttin g
B e lly tr i m m e r s --------------------------------------------B o n e rs , h am ------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b o n in g -------------------------------C h ise l boning -------------------------------------H am s k in n e rs , m a c h i n e ------------------------------Skin only ---------------------------------------------Skin and d e fa t ------------------------------------L o in p u lle r s --------------------------------------------------T r im m e r s of trim m in g s ----------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and can n in g
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs -----------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t ------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s and b e l l i e s ------------H a n g e rs , b e llie s ------------------------------------------L a b e lin g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W om en -------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs -------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e rs ----------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ---------P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y p u m ping) -------------S a u sag e m a k e r s (c h o p p e r) -------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs -------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m en -------------------------------------------S m o k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------S a u s a g e s ---------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s ------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r
p r o d u c t s --------------------------------------------------S p ice w e ig h e rs and m i x e r s ------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k fu rte rs ---------------------------------M en --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e ------------------------------------------M en --------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a sin g s
M en ------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------A rtific a l c a sin g s w ith c a s in g s iz e r ----M en --------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------A r tific ia l c a sin g s w ith o u t c a s in g s iz e r
M en -------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r tif ic a l
c a s in g s ---------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------


N um ber
w o rk e rs

M iddle W est

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean Me dian
M iddle ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M edian
M iddle ra n g e

590

$ 5. 55

$ 5. 20

$ 5. 1 2 -$ 5 .4 3

135

$ 4. 83

$ 5. 01

$ 4 .7 2 - -$ 5 .4 0

236
204
_
51

5. 23
5. 27
, 5. 15

5. 20
5 .3 6
_
5. 20

5. 1 2 - 5. 20
5. 1 5- 5. 36
_
4. 6 3 - 5. 20

18

5. 06

5. 16

5. 0 1 - 5. 31

23
261
244
17
44
18
26

5. 17
5. 68
5. 72
5. 10
4. 86
4. 90
4. 84

4. 92
5. 19
5. 19
5. 27
4 . 95
4. 95
4. 92

3. 26—
5. 1 8 5. 1 8 4. 7 8 4. 9 2 4. 9 5 4. 9 2 -

_
_

_
_

_
_

164
139
58

4. 73
4. 70
4. 28

4. 80
4 . 80
4 . 25

69
42
27
82
17
24
80
144
280
76
204
250
133
34

3 .7 1
3. 87
3 .4 7
4. 78
4. 90
4. 87
4. 80
5 .3 1
4. 62
5. 21
4 .4 0
4. 91
5. 04
4 .4 3

3. 31
3 .3 1
3 .3 1
5. 01
4. 92
4. 69
5. 08
5. 11
4 .4 3
4. 92
4 .4 3
5. 02
5. 02
4. 72

83
33
19
14
112
106
_
260
223
37

4. 88
4. 51
4. 78
4. 14
4 . 98
4. 97
_
4. 82
4. 93
4. 11

_
_

_
_

7. 05
5. 27
5. 22
5 .2 7
5. 01
5. 00
5 .2 2

5. 02
4 . 95
4. 96
_
5. 07
5. 00
»
4. 92
5. 10
4. 05

4. 7 3 _
4. 4 6 3 .4 1 I
3 .3 1 3. 3 1 3. 2 2 4. 3 0 4. 6 5 4. 6 9 4. 6 1 4. 8 0 4 .4 3 4 .4 3 4. 1 94. 85—
5. 0 2 3. 5 9 4. 5 0 4 .2 1 4. 9 5 _
4. 8 0 4 .8 0 _
4 .4 3 4 .7 9 3. 7 9 -

5. 17
4 . 96
5 .0 7
_
5. 11
5. 11
_
5. 16
5. 16
4 .4 3

19
19
38
31

"
4. 95
4. 95
4. 73
4. 94

4. 82
4. 82
5. 11
5. 11

4. 5 9 4. 5 9 3 .8 8 5. 0 0 -

191
161
30

4. 77
4. 88
4. 19

4. 80
5. 00
4 .4 3

-

_

-

_

-

_
_
_
5. 21
_

_
_
:

_
_
-

30
16
_
57

3. 54
3. 87
_
4. 15
I
3. 54

-

:

_
_
_
5 .4 1
_
_
_
-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
4. 8 0 - 5 .4 1
_
_
_
_
-

-

-

_
_
-

-

3. 39
3. 39
_
4. 28
I
3 .4 7

2. 9 9 - 3. 58
3. 3 9 - 4. 49
_
_
3. 6 2 - 4 . 58
I
3 .4 7 - 3. 65

5. 22
5. 22
5. 11
5. 11

20
20
_
71
66
16
13
14
12
15
15

3. 91
4. 53
3. 84
_
3 .4 2
4. 19
3. 98
4. 24
_
_
3. 69
3. 69
_
4. 32
4. 35
_
4. 53
4. 60
4. 27
4 .4 0
4. 00
4. 00

_
4. 59
3. 56
_
3. 56
4. 07
3. 52
4. 25
_
_
_
3 .4 8
3 .4 8
_
4 .4 9
4 .4 9
4 .4 9
I
3. 83
3. 83

4 .4 3 - 5. 16
4. 5 1 - 5. 16
4. 0 5 - 4 .4 3

26
26
“

4 .4 0
4 .4 0
"

4. 59
4. 59
“

_
4. 59
4. 37
4. 12
4 . 59
4. 58
4. 59
_
_
_
3. 83
3. 83
_
4. 59
4. 59
_
_
4 .4 9 - 4. 59
_
I
"
3. 5 8 - 4 . 59
3. 5 8 - 4. 59
3. 3 0 - 5. 16
3 .3 0 - 5. 16
“
“

_

4. 90
_
4. 82
5. 16
I
4. 20
4. 20
3 .4 0
5. 22
5. 00
5. 06
5. 11
5. 19
4. 94
5. 60
4 . 78
5. 21
5. 27
4. 77

_
_
_
42
_

_

_
_
_

20

20
9
_
11
24
48
_
36
47
17
"
23
_
_

_
_

4 .4 1
3. 98

_

_
_
4. 25
_
_

_
_
3. 9 8 _
_

_
4. 25—
2. 8 5 _
2. 8 5 3. 8 3 3 .3 0 3. 8 4 _
_
_
3. 3 0 3. 3 0 _
3. 8 3 3. 8 3 -

_
_
5. 11
_
_

N um ber
w o rk e rs

P a c ific
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

280
216
17

5. 82
5. 78
5 .4 3
"

5. 93
5. 93
5 .4 1
“

13
65
36
29
-

5 .4 1
6. 00
5. 63
6 .4 6
■

5. 75
5. 75
5 .4 6
“
“

-

5. 10
5. 09
5. 13

68
51
17
12
20
16
37
18
45
15
139
356
202
154
176
76
"
75
28
18
10
128
95
33
256
169
44
36
51
51

5. 08
5. 04
5. 04
5. 16
5 .4 8
5. 63
5. 10
5. 59
5. 06
5. 17
4 . 93
5 .4 6
5 .3 5
“
5. 59
4. 75
4 . 62
4. 99
5. 17
5. 56
4. 07
4. 90
5 .4 2
5 .4 8
5 .4 0
5. 52
5. 52

134
55

“
4 .4 3
5. 50

_

'

_

"

_

-

5. 9 3 - 5. 97
5. 9 1 - 5. 97
5 .4 1 - 5. 55
"

_

_

5 .4 1 - 5. 75
5. 7 5 - 5. 75
5. 3 1 - 8. 10
~
“
~

-

-

5. 15
5. 17
5. 11
"

5. 0 9 - 5. 26
5. 1 0 - 5. 28
5. 0(j — 5. 17
"

5. 05
5. 06
5. 25
5. 31
5. 37
5. 30
5 .9 3
5. 01
5. 07
4. 97
5 .4 6
5. 50

5. 0 5 5. 0 4 5. 1 1 5. 2 4 5. 3 7 4. 5 5 5. 5 5 «*. 9 7 5. 0 1 4. 975 .4 3 5 .4 3 "
5 .4 3 4. 8 8 3. 6 7 5. 2 5 5 .2 9 3 .2 5 3. 6 7 5. 0 8 -

_

5. 50
4 . 91
4. 99
5 .4 3
5. 50
3. 67
5 .4 6
5. 50
5. 57
5. 57
5. 57
5. 57

_

5. 31
5. 50
“

_

-

5 .4 9 5. 3 7 5. 2 1 5. 2 1 -

_

_

5. 06
5. 06
5. 31
5. 93
5. 93
5. 72
5 .9 3
5 .3 3
5 .3 3
4. 97
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 11
5. 11
5. 93
5. 93
4 .4 7
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 66
5. 93
5. 93

_

3. 0 0 - 5. 93
5. 3 1 - 5. 93
“

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x

N u m b er
w o rk e rs

M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t
83
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------193
E n g in e e rs , s t a t i o n a r y -----—-----------------------------94
M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ----------- 1, 360
94
M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )----------C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t
404
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g -------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t-------- ----------------------------------------- 1,911
312
J a n ito r s -------------------------------------------------------------252
M e n ------------------------------------------------------60
W o m e n -------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs --------------------------------------------------------------244
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g -------------------------------------------- 3 ,0 8 2
M en ------------------------------------------------------ 1,562
W om en ------------------------------------------------ 1 ,520
421
S to w e rs, c a r and t r u c k ---------------------------------T r u c k d riv e rs ------------------------------------------------------ 2 ,2 9 8
334
S em i o r t r a i l e r ------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ---------------------- 1,527
437
C o m b in a tio n of t y p e s ---------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ----------------------------------------------529
433
F o rk lift ------------- ------ - - - 96
O th e r th an fo rk lift --------------------------------------

U n ite d S tate s 2
A v erag e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M edian
M id d le ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

s h ifts .

$ 5. 56
5. 81
5. 62
5 .4 6
5.4 2

$ 4. 8 3 -$
5 .4 4 4. 904. 7 0 4 .0 0 -

6. 01
6 .3 1
5. 68
5. 93
5 .5 7

21
57
29
264
31

$ 5. 80
5. 67
5. 24
5. 33
4. 79

$ 5. 96
5. 76
5. 62
5. 66
4. 81

$ 5. 3 1 -$
4. 9 3 4. 8 2 4. 6 5 4. 0 0 -

6. 10
6. 08
5. 67
5. 83
5. 66

10
24
212
-

$ 4. 89
4. 56
4. 79
-

_
$ 4. 88
5 .3 6
-

4. 77
4. 26
3. 88
4. 06
3. 09
4 .3 1
4. 33
4 .4 1
4. 24
4 . 05
4. 82
5. 37
4. 56
5. 28
4. 51
4 .4 4
4. 83

5. 07
4. 69
4. 06
4 .4 3
2. 90
4. 63
4. 60
4. 60
4. 60
4 .4 6
5. 16
5. 36
4. 79
5.4 2
4. 96
4. 85
5. 06

4 .3 8 3 .3 7 2 .9 2 3 .3 4 2 .2 2 3. 96—
3 .4 3 3 .9 2 3. 1 23 .2 0 4. 004 .9 8 3 .6 9 5 .2 8 3 .6 9 3 .4 7 4 .9 5 -

5 .2 7
4 .9 6
4 .8 8
4 .9 1
3 .6 3
4 .9 4
4 .9 6
4 .9 7
4. 96
4 .9 9
5. 66
6. 00
5 .4 8
5 .9 3
5 .1 1
5 .1 6
5 .1 1

94
316
70
54

4. 84
4. 36
4. 08
4. 59
4 . 64
3. 94
4. 50
3 .3 2
3. 67
4. 94
5. 76
4. 77
4. 92
4. 61
4. 56
“

5. 11
4. 64
4. 92
4 . 96

4 .3 3 3 .7 0 3 .4 8 3 .8 3 3. 5 0 3 .1 2 3 .9 8 1 .9 5 2 .6 3 4 .0 5 5. 16—
4 .0 3 4 .0 0 4 .3 6—
4. 1 2 -

5 .2 5
4 .9 6
4 .9 8
4 .9 8

15
211
54
47
7
39
296
217
77
220

4. 01
3. 59
3. 50
3. 57
3 .0 6
2. 92
3. 98
3 .8 1
3 .4 9
3 .3 5
_
3 .4 1
2. 87
3. 82
3. 92
“

4 . 13
3. 96
3 .3 0
3 .4 5
_
2. 70
4 .4 6
_
4 .4 6
3. 10
3. 00
_
3. 00
2. 83
4. 51
4. 56
"

-

27
650
343
3 07
82
846
127
567
152
83
72
"

-

5. 16
4. 50
4. 64
3. 12
3 .3 5
5. 16
5 .4 5
5. 04
5. 33
4. 96
4. 85

_

5. 16
4 .8 1
4 .8 6
4 .7 1
4 .8 1
5 .4 5
6 .3 6
5 .4 3
5 .4 5
5 .0 8
5. 10

-

179
36
88
82

M id d le W est

36
70
54
352
-

$5. 59
6. 32
5 .4 9
5 .4 4
-

$5. 67
6. 01
5. 68
5. 67
-

$4. 8 3 -$
5 .4 8 5 .0 5 5. 1 2 -

6. 01
7 .2 4
5 .6 8
5. 86

_
114
-

$4. 80
-

_
_
_
$4. 76
-

98
594
75
58
17
13 1
706
269
437
111
394
109
206
197
149
48

4. 83
4 .4 2
4. 35
4 .4 2
4. 09
4 . 51
4 . 88
4 .4 3
5. 16
4 .4 4
5 .3 8
5. 04
5 .4 5
4. 94
4. 85
5. 21

4. 77
4. 85
4. 43
4. 64
3. 79
4. 63
4. 96
3. 97
4. 96
4 .4 6
5 .4 8
4. 98
5 .4 8
5. 06
5. 11
5. 06

4 .7 7 3 .4 7 3 .9 1 4 .0 1 3 .1 5 4. 6 3 3 .9 0 3 .9 0 4 .8 6 4 .0 5 4. 9 8 4. 5 7 5 .2 9 4 .9 9 4 .9 8 5 .0 6 -

5 .1 6
4 .9 6
4 .8 8
4 .8 8
5 .0 1
4 . 87
5 .0 1
4 .9 8
5 .0 1
4 .9 5
5. 93
5. 02
5 .9 3
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5 .1 1

47
153
52
40
12
22
432
165
14
45
22
59
51
8

4. 09
3. 83
3. 50
3. 76
2. 63
4. 71
4 . 09
3. 54
3. 88
5 .4 0
4. 95
4. 05
4. 11
3. 67

3 .3 4
3. 68
3. 34
3. 39
_
5 .3 1
4. 22
_
3. 13
_
6 .2 9
_
5. 12
3 .4 7
3 .4 7
-

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, and la te
M e d ia n s an d m id d le ra n g e s a r e not show n fo r o ccu p atio n s w ith few er th a n 15 w o rk e rs .




S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

$ 5 .4 5
5. 88
5. 32
5. 33
5. 00

G re a t L a k e s
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------E n g in e e rs , s t a t i o n a r y -------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ----------M e c h a n ic s, a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )----------C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , l o a d in g -------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t -----------------------------------------------J a n ito r s --------------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------L u g g e rs ------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g --------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and tru c k ---------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s ---------- - - —
- -----S em i o r t r a i l e r - —
— — ------- — —
O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ---------------------C o m b in a tio n of t y p e s ---------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ----------------------------------------------F o rk lift - - - - ---- - O th e r th a n fo rk lift —
-------- — -------

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs

_
$ 3. 5 4 -$ 5. 31
_
3 .9 0 - 5 .4 6
3 .2 5 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 _
2 .3 0 3 .4 0 _
2 .8 0 2 .5 0 2 .4 5 _
2 .4 0 2 .5 0 3 .0 0 3 .0 0 -

4 .6 6
4 .5 6
4 .5 6
4 .5 6
2 .7 0
4 .6 0
4 .6 0
4 .6 0
4 .7 2
4 .7 2
3 .0 6
4 .5 6
4 .5 6

P a c ific
_
_
$3. 8 2 -$ 5 .4 0
3 .2 7 3 .3 7 2 .9 0 3 .3 4 _
4 .1 3 3 .3 9 _
2 .9 0 _
3 .9 7 _
3 .7 7 3 .4 7 3 .4 7 "

5 .2 6
4 .6 4
4 .7 2
4 .7 2
5 .3 1
4 .7 2
3 .4 3
6 .4 4
6 .2 9
5 .1 2
5 .1 8

6
263
-

$5. 90
6. 27
-

_
$6. 70
-

91
388
18
18
_
_
579
435
144
40
378
44
211
123
41
28
13

5. 18
4 . 79
4. 91
4. 91
_

5 .3 2
5. 01
4 . 91
4 . 91
_

4 .9 5 4 .9 1 4 .9 1 4 .9 1 -

5 .5 0
5 .2 3
4. 95
4 .9 5

4. 61
4 . 54
4. 83
5. 38
5. 68
5. 90
5 .4 4
6. 03
5. 25
5 .2 4
5 .2 5

4. 97
4. 97
4. 97
5 .4 3
5. 78
5. 83
5. 66
5. 93
5. 21
5. 21

4 .3 1 4 .3 1 4 .9 1 5 .2 1 5 .6 6 5. 8 3 5 .5 5 5 .9 3 5 .2 1 5 .2 1 -

5 .2 4
5 .2 4
5 .2 4
5 .5 0
5 .9 3
5. 92
5 .7 7
6 .3 9
5 .3 1
5 .3 1

_

_

2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

_
_
_
$5. 9 2 -$ 6. 76
-

_

U nited S ta te s
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
w o rk e rs
B o n e rs , b e e f 3

B e e f c u ttin g

P o rk c u ttin g
B o n e rs , h a m 3 --------------------O pen sty le bo nin g —
H a m , s k in n e rs , m a c h in e C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and can nin g
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs
M en --------------------

■vl

10

C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t -----------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e llie s H a n g e rs , b e l l i e s -----------------------------L a b e lin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ----------M ix e r o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------P ic k le m a k e r s
P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e -------P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y pu m p in g ) ------------S a u sag e m a k e rs ( c h o p p e r ) ------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------W o m en
S m o k e rs
S a u s a g e s ---------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s --------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r
p ro d u c ts S p ice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e r s M en ------------------------S tu ffe rs , f ra n k fu rte rs
M en --------------, s a u sa g e ■
M e n --------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s iz e r ------A r tif ic ia l c a sin g s w ith o u t c a s in g s iz e r —
M en
C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r tif ic ia l
c a s in g s ------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e ---------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a ry --------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y --------




A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

w o rk e rs

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

S o u th ea st
OX
w o rk e rs

4 62

$ 5. 06

$ 5 . 20

$4. 8 8 -$ 5 .3 5

34

$ 5 . 14

$ 5 .3 6

$4 . 7 5 -$ 5 .3 6

-

200
180
25

6. 04
5. 93
4. 82

5 .3 1
5 .3 1
5. 01

5. 2 2 - 6. 62
4. 8 8 - 5. 85
5. 0 1 - 5. 22

48
45
“

5. 57
5. 57
“

5. 36
5. 27

5. 2 6 - 5. 62
5. 2 6 - 5. 62
“
"

”

146
61
85
59
11
55
63
125
35
75
54
126
439
167
272
276
115
52

4. 90
4. 90
4. 90
4. 25
4 .3 6
4 .2 0
4. 76
5. 00
4. 69
5. 01
5. 11
4. 56
4. 92
4 .4 3
5. 02
5. 02
5 .2 3
5. 02
4. 82
4. 91
3. 98
5. 11
5. 11
4 .4 7
5. 09
5. 16
4 .4 3
5. 16
5. 11
5. 11
4. 81
5. 16
4 .4 3

4. 46 —
4. 5 6 4 .4 3 3. 7 9 _
2. 2 0 4. 1 9 3. 9 8 4 .2 5 4 .4 4 3 .3 8 4. 8 9 4 .4 3 4. 5 6—
2. 7 0 4. 8 1 5. 0 2 4. 76—
4. 76—
3. 9 8 4. 66—
2. 7 0 4. 7 5 4. 8 8 4 .3 5 4 .4 3 4. 5 6—
3. 9 8 4. 5 6—
4. 7 6 4. 9 2 4 .4 3 4 .4 3 3. 9 8 -

4 . 91
4. 90
4. 91
5. 16
_
4. 98
5. 01
5. 21
5. 21
5. 30
5. 11
5. 22
5. 01
5. 16
4 . 98
5 .2 1
5. 17
5. 59
5. 18
5. 01
5. 06
4. 86
5. 22
5. 22
5. 08
5. 16
5. 21
4 . 56
5. 36
5. 16
5. 21
5. 16
5. 16
4 .4 3

15
11
12
21
7
23
17
9
35
_
33
53
19
25

5. 24
5 .2 9
5. 13
5. 78
5. 28
5. 51
5. 10
5. 55
5 .2 9
_
5 .2 9
5. 33
5. 64
5. 15
5. 35
5. 36
5. 31
5. 23
5 .4 5
5. 51
“
4 . 91
"

5. 11
5 .4 6
5. 62
5. 13
5. 16
5. 16
5. 21
5. 92
5. 18
5. 31
5. 31
5. 30
5. 36
“
5. 11
"

5. 0 1 5. 2 1 5. 1 9 5. 0 1 4. 9 84. 9 85. 1 8 5. 2 1 5. 1 6 5. 16—
5. 1 4 5. 1 6 5. 3 1 -

138
93
45

4. 70
4. 72
4. 68
4 .4 1
4. 69
3. 82
4 .3 2
4. 63
4. 72
4. 76
4 .4 7
4. 99
4 .4 2
5. 04
4. 04
4. 90
4. 95
5. 02
4. 78
4 .4 5
4. 70
3. 86
4. 90
4. 95
4. 65
4. 78
4. 93
4. 37
4. 97
4. 88
5. 00
4. 60
4. 84
4. 08

60
112
40
762

5. 61
5. 92
5. 63
5 .4 1

5. 67
6. 06
5. 68
5. 66

4. 8 3 5. 7 6 5. 6 7 5. 0 9 -

6. 04
6. 31
5. 68
5. 86

15
25

5. 93
6. 21
_
5. 50

6. 01
6. 06
5. 76

5. 96— 6. 11
5. 7 6 - 6. 51
5. 6 6 - 5. 81

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

109
57
40
17
136
112
24
318
233
85
57
71
64

_

-

13
9
53
35
18
15
17
“

_

112

_

5. 14
5. 91
5. 62
5. 13
5 .4 2
5 .4 1
5. 26
5. 97
5. 25
5 .4 7
5 .3 6
5. 95
5 .4 0
-

36
16
25
129
48
81
34
“
15
14
14
14
45
-

4 .4 6 — 5. 16
-

-

'

-

-

"

_

$ 3 . 14
4. 18
4 . 59
3 .4 1
4. 57
2. 73
4 .4 6
“
4. 35
4 .4 6
4. 27
4. 27
4 .4 8
"
-

-

_

_

"
$ 2 . 20
4 .4 6
4. 66
2. 70
4. 56
2. 65
4. 76
“
4. 66
4. 56
~
-

_
$2. 2 0 -$
4 .3 6—
4. 3 6 2 .4 5 4. 5 62. 3 0 4. 5 4 -

_
“
“
4. 36
4. 60
4 . 89
4 . 56
4 . 69
2. 65
4. 79
-

4. 5 7 - 4. 75
4 .4 6 - 4. 81
“
“
-

"
10
24
"

4. 89
4. 56
"

4 . 88
“

3. 5 4 - 5 .3 1
"
"

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in se le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
G re a t L a k e s
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B e e f, c u ttin g
B o n e rs , b e e f 3 -----------------------------------------------------P o rk cu ttin g
O pen sty le b o n in g -------------------------------------H a m s k in n e rs , m a c h i n e ------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , an d can nin g
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e t o r t ------------------------------------------G r a d e r s , g re e n h a m s an d b e l l i e s -------------------H a n g e rs , b e l l i e s -------------------------------------------------L a b e lin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------M ix e r o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e r s -----------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ----------------P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y p um ping) --------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) --------------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------S m o k er s ---------------------------------------------------------------S a u s a g e s ----------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s a u s a g e s -------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r
S p ice w e ig h e rs and m i x e r s -------------------------------M en -------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s ----------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e ------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W om en --------------------------------------------------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w ith c a sin g s i z e r ----------A r tif ic ia l c a s in g s w tih o u t c a sin g s i z e r -----M e n ---------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l an d a r tif ic ia l
c a s in g s ----------------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e rp la n t
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s t a t i o n a r y ----------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------------M a in te n a n c e , w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y -----------




M id d le W est

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M id d le ra n g e
M ed ian

N u m b er
w o rk e rs

N u m b er
w o rk e rs

M ean

223

$5. 57

$5. 20

83
83
18

6. 98
6. 98
4 . 74

5 .3 1
5 .3 1
5. 22

5. 2 2 - 9. 60
5 .2 2 - 9. 60
4 .3 0 — 5. 22

"

78
55
20
20
37
10
66
194
62
132
13

4 . 81
4 . 76
4 . 29
4 . 64
4. 70
5. 02
5. 16
4 . 76
5 .3 9
4 .4 7
4. 60

4 . 90
4. 90
4 . 25
4 . 91
4 . 85
5. 11
4 .4 3
4. 92
4 .4 3
-

4. 824 .4 3 3. 79—
4. 2 0 4. 145. 114 .4 3 4. 4 3 4 .4 3 -

4. 90
4. 90
5. 16
5. 01
5. 21
5. 15
5. 01
5. 71
4. 92
-

15
21
-

19
13
6
59
53
122
94
35
28

4. 51
4. 71
4. 08
5. 08
5. 08
4. 88
5. 10
4 . 73
4. 96
4 . 80
5. 04
“

4. 96
5. 11
5. 11
5. 11
5. 16
5. 11
5. 11
5. 16
5. 16
-

4. 2 1 5. 1 1 5. 1 1 4 .4 3 5. 1 1 3. 7 9 5. 06—
4 .4 3 4. 79-

5. 07
5. 11
5. 11
5. 16
5. 21
5. 11
5. 11
5. 16
5. 16
-

_
19
19
-

5. 64
6 .3 6
5. 66
5. 62

5. 67
6. 11
5. 68
5. 71

4. 8 3 5. 8 1 5. 67—
5 .4 1 -

6. 01
7. 35
5. 68
5. 86

63

68
47

33
36
39
253

M ean

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian
M iddle ra n g e

$ 5 . 1 8-$ 5 .3 2

$ 4 .4 4
4 .4 5
_

$ 3 .9 8
5. 01
_

$3. 9 8 -$ 5. 11
3 .5 6 - 5 .1 8
_

4 . 74
4. 74
-

5. 16
5. 16
-

_
3 .8 3 - 5 .1 6
3 .8 3 - 5 .1 6
-

5. 03

5. 37

4 .5 3 - 5 .8 6

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in se le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , l o a d in g -----------------------------------------------147
838
C le a n e rs , n ig h t ---------------------------------------------------164
J a n i t o r s -----------------------------------------------------------------136
M e n ----------------------------------------------------------28
W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------102
L u g g e rs ------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ------------------------------------------------ 1, 272
—------------------—------------------—
•------------357
915
W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------S to w e rs , c a r an d tru c k -------------------------------------182
T r u c k d r i v e r s ---------------------------------------------------------591
S e m i- o r t r a i l e r --------------------------------------------76
O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r ------------------------350
165
C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r -------------------------------------------------361
2 85
F o rk lift —
- - - - 76
O th e r th a n f o r k li f t--------------------------------------------

U nited S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M iddle ra n g e
M ean M ed ian
$ 4 . 86
4 .4 6
4 . 21
4 .3 1
3. 75
4 .3 9
4. 69
4. 77
4. 66
4. 16
5. 16
5. 68
4. 85
5. 58
4 . 72
4 . 69
4 . 85

$ 5 . 16
4. 8 6
4. 64
4. 69
3. 63
4. 93
4. 86
4. 94
4. 84
4. 60
5 .4 1
6 . 05
5. 04
5 .4 2
5. 01
5. 01
5. 06

$4. 8 6 - $
3. 9 3 3. 6 3 3. 9 1 2. 863. 96—
4. 2 6 4. 6 0 3. 7 8 3 .4 3 4. 7 2 5 .3 64. 0 3 5 .4 1 4. 5 6 —
4. 5 6 4. 9 6 -

5 .2 6
4 . 96
4. 91
4. 91
4. 88
5 .2 6
4 . 96
5. 01
4 . 96
5. 01
5. 93
6 .3 6
5. 64
6 . 00
5. 16
5 .2 3
5. 11

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
_
79
26
24
65
12
_
_
142
30
67
24
“

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M id d le ra n g e
M ean M ed ian
_
$ 5 . 09
4 . 75
4 . 87
5 .2 6
4 . 66
_
5. 55
6 .3 1
5 .3 0
5. 14

-

s h ifts .

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p ay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s an d la te
M e d ia n s and m id d le ra n g e s a r e n o t show n fo r o cc u p a tio n s w ith few er than 15 w o rk e rs,
2 In c lu d e s d ata fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




_
_
$ 4 . 9 1 - $ 5 . 07
4 . 9 2 - 4 . 96
4 . 9 2 - 4 . 97
4 . 8 6 - 5. 36
5. 1 9 - 5. 64
6 .3 6 - 6 .3 6
5. 1 2 - 5. 54
5. 0 9 - 5. 11
“
”

12

158
33
30
249
173
74
99
91
75
69
“

S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean

M ed ian

M id d le ra n g e

$ 4 . 11
4. 00
3. 76
3. 75
4. 28
4. 18
3. 51
4 .3 8
4 .3 7
3. 97
4. 10
“

$ 4 .5 2
4 .3 6
4. 3 6
4. 60
4 .4 6
3. 00
4 . 72
"
4 . 72
4. 56
4 . 56
“

$ 3 .2 5 - $
2 .4 9 2. 5 3 4 .2 6 4 .2 6 2. 5 0 4 . 66 —
4. 7 2 3. 0 0 3. 17-

39
370
64
52
12

49
530
135
395
39
168
28
75
187
140
47

$5. 14
4 . 63
4 . 50
4 . 50
4 .4 9
4 .3 0
5 .2 5
5. 19
5 .2 7
4 . 71
5. 55
5. 30
5. 64
5. 02
4 . 95
5. 22

$5 . 16
4 . 88
4 . 88
4 . 88
4 . 93
4 . 96
4 . 98
4 .9 6
4 . 86
5. 93
6 .0 5
6 . 05
5. 11
5. 11
5. 06

4 . 59
4 . 60
4 . 59
4 . 60
4 . 60
4 . 60
4 . 79
4. 79
4 . 56
4 . 56

M id d le W est

G re a t L a k e s

C u sto d ia l an d m a te r i a l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , l o a d in g ------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t-----------------------------------------------------J a n i t o r s ------------------------------------------------------------------M en ---------------------------------------- ----------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs ------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ------------------------------------------------M en --------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r an d t r u c k ---------------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s ---------------------------------------------------------S e m i- o r t r a i l e r ---------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i- o r t r a i l e r -------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r -------------------------------------------------F o r k l i f t -------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n f o r k l i f t ------------------------------------------

_
$ 4 .9 4
4. 95
4 . 95
4 . 86
5. 42
6 .3 6
5. 12
5. 11
“

N um be r
of
w o rk e rs

$5. 1 6 -$
4. 844 .4 3 4 .4 3 3. 9 6 4. 964 . 96*4. 964 .4 6 5 ..4 1—
3 . 63—
5. 9 3 4 .9 9 4. 9 85. 0 6 -

5. 16
5. 14
5. 01
4 .8 8
5 .2 6
5. 01
5. 01
5 .3 0
5. 01
6 . 05
6 . 12
6 . 05
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
5. 11

33

66
10

-

21

175
50
125
-

25
"

$ 4 .3 6
3. 86
3. 2 6
-

4 . 75
3. 86
4 . 51
3. 60
-

4. 89
-

$5. 26
3. 68
-

5. 31
3 .4 3
4. 96
3. 13
5. 18
-

-

$ 3 .27-J$ 5. 26
3. 68 - 4. 67
4. 1 3 - 5. 31
2. 9 0 - 5. 01
3 .4 3 - 5. 01
2. 9 0 - 4 . 96
5. 1 1- 5. 23
“
~

3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w o rk e rs in c la s s ific a tio n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta r e p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r it e r ia .

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs
D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and sex

Num.be r
of
w o rk e rs

s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)

U n ited S ta te s 2
Av eraige h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

N um be r
of
w o rk e rs

M id d le A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M id d le ra n g e

B eef c u ttin g
B o n e rs , b e e f -----------------------------------------------------------------------C h u ck s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------L o in s, r ib s , o r r o u n d s -------------------------------------------------S hanks o r b r i s k e t s ---------------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ---------------------------------------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u t s --------------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u ts -----------------------------------------------

1 ,328
95
209
549
475
207
59

$5. 10
5 .7 9
5. 53
5. 00
4 . 89
5. 01
5. 00

$5. 15
5. 81
5. 56
5. 12
5 .3 6
5. 78
4. 69

$4. 77—$5. 81
5. 1 6 - 6 . 02
4. 8 5 - 6 . 22
4. 7 7 - 5. 23
4 .4 8 - 5. 93
3 .7 5 - 6 .2 3
4. 6 3 - 5. 20

493
87
3 14
58
65
"

$4. 97
5. 00
5. 02
4. 19
4. 62

$4 . 85
_
4. 85
5. 15
4 .4 8
4. 00

$4. 77—$5. 23
_
4. 8 4 - 4. 85
4 .7 7 - 5.2 3
3 .6 0 - 4. 71
3. 7 5 - 5. 78
"

P o rk c u ttin g
B o n e r s , h a m 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------O pen sty le b o n in g ----------------------------------------------------------C h ise l b o n in g -------------------------------------------------------------------

718
54 6
166

5. 08
5. 02
5. 34

5. 19
5. 19
5 .3 1

5 .0 4 - 5. 62
4. 8 3 - 5. 62
5. 0 5 - 5. 66

397
281
116

5. 26
5. 19
5 .4 4

4 . 54
5 .4 0
5. 62

5. 0 5 - 5. 63
5. 0 5 - 5. 63
5. 0 5 - 5. 66

C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and canning
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e r a t o r -----------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e to r t ----------------------------------------------------------H a n g e rs , b e l l i e s ----------------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s ------------------------------------------------------------------P ic k le m a k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------— ------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e --------------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r te r y p u m p in g )-------------------------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) -----------------------------------------------S lic ing m a c h in e -------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------S a u s a g e s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th an s a u s a g e s ------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s an d o th e r p r o d u c t s -----------S p ice w e ig h e rs and m i x e r s -----------------------------------------------M en —7- -----------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s -------------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , sa u sa g e 3 --------------------------------------------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------:--------------------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s in g s --------------------------------------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------A rtific ia l c a s in g s w ith c a s in g s i z e r ---------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of n a tu ra l and a r ti f ic ia l c a s in g s -----------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------

291
97
194
160
70
159
74
159
2 87
480
641
275
366
702
679
23
191
176
335
82
49
387
305
888
663
225
150
106
93
78
445
162

4 .4 5
4 .4 4
4 .4 5
4 . 20
4 . 55
4 .4 7
4 . 80
4 . 98
4 . 81
4. 91
4 .4 6
4 . 86
4 . 17
4 . 73
4 . 70
5. 81
5. 02
4 . 15
4 . 88
4 .2 9
4 . 50
4 . 83
5. 13
4 .4 3
4 . 72
3. 58
4 .7 1
4 . 82
4 . 62
5. 01
4 . 65
3 .4 5

4. 73
4. 86
4. 73
4 . 53
4 . 92
4 .4 3
4. 94
5 .2 9
4. 95
5. 10
4. 95
5. 05
4. 63
4 .9 9
4 . 98
5. 93
5 .3 8
4 .3 0
5. 31
4. 68
4. 95
5. 26
5 .4 3
4 . 65
4. 85
3. 00
4. 85
4 .4 9
4. 68
5. 08
4 . 80
3. 00

4 .4 6 - 4. 92
3 .4 1 - 5. 17
4 .4 6 - 4. 80
3 .4 1 - 5. 13
3. 88 - 5. 17
3. 9 5 - 5 .2 4
4. 5 5 - 5. 22
4 .7 9 - 5 .3 7
4. 5 9 - 5 .4 9
4. 2 0 - 5. 80
3. 9 5 - 5. 05
4. 74— 5 .3 3
3. 3 5 - 4. 97
4. 1 5 - 5. 59
4. 0 7 - 5. 57
5. 9 3 - 5. 93
4 .4 9 - 5. 66
3. 0 0 - 4. 95
4. lb - 5. 69
3. 6 7 - 5. 00
3. 6 7 - 5. 00
4 .3 2 - 5 .5 7
4. 8 6 — 5 .5 9
3. 6 7 - 5. 19
4. 1 5- 5. 31
2. 7 0 - 4. 65
4 .3 9 - 5 .0 8
4 .4 9 - 5. 08
3. 6 7 - 5. 93
4. 5 9 - 5. 93
4. 1 2- 5 .3 1
2. 7 0 - 4. 08

85
19
66
30
27
49
33
55
177
161
118
48
70
277
277
40
90
147

4. 52
3. 81
4 . 72
4 . 84
4. 67
4 .4 5
4. 82
4 .4 7
4. 93
4 . 91
3. 82
4. 20
3. 56
4. 85
4. 85
5. 38
4. 30
5. 05
4. 03
4. 11
5. 14
5 .4 0
4 . 39
4. 64
3. 64
4. 75
-

4. 71
4. 74
4. 71
4. 84
4. 69
4 .4 2
4 . 94
4 . 50
4. 95
5. 11
3. 87
4. 30
3. 70
4 . 99
4. 99
5. 66
4. 30
5. 69
5. 50
5. 50
4 .4 2
4 . 85
4. 08
4. 85

4. 7 1 - 4. 74
2. 5 0 - 4. 82
4. 7 1 - 4. 74
4. 6 5 - 4. 85
3. 88 - 5 .5 3
3. 9 b - 5. 14
4. 5 7 - 4 .9 4
3. 88 - 4 .8 3
4. 6 5 - 5. 53
4. 2 5 - 5. 62
3 .4 0 - 4. 63
3. 8 0 - 4 .7 4
2. 66 — 4. 10
4. 1 6- 5. 69
4. l b - 5. 69
4 . 9 9 - 5 .9 7
4. 0 5 - 4. 95
4. 1 6 - 5. 69
4. 9 5 - 5 .5 9
5 .3 8 - 5. 62
4 . 1 2- 4 . 92
4. 1 5 - 5 .3 8
2 .3 0 - 4. 65
4. 6 5 - 4. 85

M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t
E le c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -----------------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y -------------------------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u til ity -----------------------------

23
81
54
598

5. 50
5. 82
5. 09
5 .2 3

5. 00
5 .4 7
5. 05
5 .2 0

4 .2 4 4. 9 3 4. 9 0 4 .4 0 -




5 .3 8
7. 10
5. 62
6 . 00

10
6

162
132
279
210
69
64
_
-

150
47

6

32
29
152

-

_

-

-

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
79
_
_
_
47
14
_

_
-

S o u th ea st
A v e r a ge h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ra n g e
$3. 21
_
_
_
2. 73
3. 54
-

_
_

-

_

_

-

-

_
_
_
_
_
-

22

16
9

20
20

8
_
11
_

22

19
_
_
-

4. 64
3. 17

4. 22
3 .4 5

4 . 1 3 - 5. 38
2 .3 0 - 4 . 08

-

5 .4 5
5 .2 6
5 .2 4
5. 21

4. 93
5. 62
5. 20

4. 9 3 - 5 .3 4
4. 8 2 - 5. 67
4. 1 5 - 5. 97

_
29

_
_
_
_
2. 67
2. 55
_
2 .4 2
2. 84
2. 84
2 . 81
_
2. 74
_
2. 51
2 .3 5
_
.
_
_
4. 12

$ 3 .2 5
_
_
_
2 .4 0
_
_

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2 .4 0
2 . 60
_
_
2. 85
2. 85
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2 .4 0
_
2 .3 5
_
_
_
_

_

$ 2 .4 0 —$4. 00
_
2. 2 0 - 3. 25
’
_

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
2 .4 0 2 .4 0 _
_
2. 5 5 2. 5 5 _
_
_
_
_
_
2. 28_
2 .2 3 -

_

_

2. 99
2 .9 9

2 . 60

2 .4 0

_
_

_

_

_

3. 55

3. 00
2 .7 5

_

_

_
3. 0 0 - 5 .0 5

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , and se x
B eef cu ttin g
B o n e rs, b e e f -------------- ------------ ------------ ---------------- C h u c k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------L o in s, r ib s , o r ro u n d s -------------------------------------------------S h anks o r b r is k e ts ---------------------------------------------------------E n tire c a r c a s s ---------------------------------------------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u t s ---------------------------------B rea k -u p m e n , p rim a l c u t s ------------------------------------------------P o rk c u ttin g
O pen sty le b o n in g -----------------------------------------------------------C h ise l b oning ------------------------------------------------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o king , and can nin g
C a sin g -p e e le r o p e ra to r ------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e to r t -----------------------------------------------------------H a n g e rs, b e l l i e s ------------------------------------------------------------------M ix e r o p e ra to rs - --------------- - - — -----------------------------P ic k le m a k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e ---------------------------------P u m p e r s , h a m ( a r t e r y p u m p in g )------------ -----------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r) -------------------------------------------------S lic in g m a c h in e -------------------------------------:-----------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------S m o k e r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------S a u s a g e s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th an s a u s a g e s ------------------------------------------------------C o m b in atio n of s a u s a g e s and o th e r p ro d u c ts ------------S p ice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e rs ------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k f u r t e r s ---------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------N a tu ra l c a s in g s --------------------------------------------------------------M en -------- ------------------------- ------- ------------------------A rtific ia l c a sin g s w ith c a sin g s i z e r ----------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------C o m b in atio n of n a tu ra l and a r tif ic ia l c a s i n g s -----------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t
E le c tric ia n s , m a in te n a n c e -------------------------------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta t io n a r y ---------------------------------------------------------M a c h in is ts , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------------------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs , g e n e r a l u tility -------------------------------




N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs
_
_

_

_
_
_

G re a t L a k e s
A v erag e h o u rly esarn in g s i
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

Num.be r
of
w o rk e rs

M iddle W est
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e

367
_
_

$ 5. 53
_
_

$5. 12—$5. 56
_
_
_
_

_
51

_
_
5. 15

_
_
_
_
_

5. 20

4. 6 3 - 5. 20

_

_

$ 5. 36

_
_

_
_

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs
234
_
_

_
_

P a c ific
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
$ 5 . 95
_
_
5. 94

$ 5 . 93
_
_
5.93

-

-

$5. 93—$5. 97
_
_
_
_
_
_
5. 9 3 - 5. 97

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
"

_
"

_
'

_
"

_
“

178
161
17

5. 07
5. 07
5. 10

5. 19
5. 19
5. 27

4. 9 7 - 5. 19
4. 9 7 - 5. 19
4. 7 8 - 5. 27

45
“

5. 61
"

5. 75
"

5 .3 1- 5. 75
“

_

_

_

86

4. 66
_
4. 66
4. 28
_
4. 84
_
5. 03
4. 80
5 .4 4
4. 29
4 .4 3
4. 27
4. 81
4. 81
5. 02
4. 77
4. 51
4. 86
4. 86
4. 76
4. 81
-

4. 73
4. 73
4. 71
_
5. 07
_
5. 05
4. 80
4. 19
4. 19
4. 85
4. 85
5. 27
4. 50
4. 80
4. 80
4. 80
4. 80
-

4. 4 6 - 4. 80
4 .4 6 - 4. 80
3. 34— 5. 11
4 .4 3 - 5. 24
_
4. 3 5 - 5. 08
4. 8 0 - 6 . 58
4. 19- 4. 63
4. 1<9- 4. 63
4. 5 0 - 5. 24
4. 5 0 - 5. 24
4. 8 5 - 5. 38
4. 4 2 - 5. 17
4. 7 4 - 4. 92
4. 7 4 - 4. 92
4. 5 1 - 5. 10
4. 5 9 - 5. 10
-

63
50
13
-

5. 09
5. 08
5. 14
5. 07
5. 14
5. 50
5. 60
5. 57
5. 59
5. 06
5. 17
4. 93
5 .4 6
5 .4 1
5. 81
5. 35
5. 59
4. 71
4. 53
5. 21
5. 62
4. 86
5 .4 0
5 .4 8
5 .4 0
5. 53
5. 53
5. 50
"

5. 17
5. 17
5. 25
5. 31
5. 37
5. 93
4. 99
5. 07
4. 97
5. 50
5.4 3
5. 93
5. 50
5. 50
4. 88
5. 50
5. 57
5. 31
5. 50
5. 57
5. 57
5. 93
5. 93
5. 50
“

5. 105. 104. 8 3 5. 2 4 5. 3 7 5. 5 6 4. 9 7 5. 0 5 4. 9 7 5 .4 3 5 .4 3 5. 9 3 5. 4 3 5 .4 3 4. 2 7 5 .2 8 5 .4 3 3. 6 7 5. 0 8 5. 5 0 5. 105. 155. 155.3 1-

5. 28
5. 24
5. 50
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 33
5. 33
4. 97
5. 93
5. 57
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 13
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
5. 84
5. 93
5. 93
5. 93
-

5. 90
6 . 16

-

5. 9 1 -

•
6 . 76

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
"

_
_

-

16

_

_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

$ 4 .2 0

$ 4 .2 3

-

-

-

_

_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

-

"

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

$ 3 .7 5 —$ 4 .7 5

_
84
38
_
45
_
11

67
78
86
14
72
115
115
_
54
40
14
53
53
138
129
-

-

-

-

-

114
-

4. 82
-

4. 80

5. 5 8 -

5. 10
-

34
99

6 . 27

-

5 .4 8
5. 05

5 .4 7 5. 0 0 -

7. 24
5. 20

4. 96

170
-

10

28
16
42
11
135
340
189
151
167
144
23
70
75
23
14
103
78
243
156
42
34
45
45
54
6
182

_

6 . 53

-

-

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)

D e p a rtm e n t, o c c u p a tio n , an d se x
C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g ------------------------------------------ -------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t ------------------------------------------------------------J a n ito rs ------------------------------------------------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g --------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and t r u c k -----------------------------------------------T r u c k d riv e rs ------------------------------------------------------------------S em i o r t r a i l e r -------------------------------------------------------O th e r th an s e m i o r t r a i l e r ------------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ----------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift ---------------------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n fo rk lift ---------------------------------------------------

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs
257
1,073
148
116
142
1 ,810
1,205
605
239
1,707
258
1, 177
272
168
148
20

U n ited S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M id d le ra n g e
$4. 72
4. 10
3. 50
3. 78
-

4. 25
4. 07
4 .3 1
3. 60
3. 97
4. 70
5. 28
4 .4 8
5. 10
4. 06
3 .9 6
4. 76

$4. 77
4 .4 6
3. 34
3. 50
4. 63
4. 28
4. 50
3 .3 9
3. 94
5. 04
5. 16
4. 63
5 .4 5
3. 57
3 .4 7
4. 95

$4. 2 2 -$ 5 . 32
3. 2 0 - 5. 00
2. 6 0 - 4 .7 2
3. 0 0 - 4. 72
4. 3 1 - 4. 63
3. 13- 4. 86
3. 9 0 - 4. 95
2. 5 0 - 4. 86
2. 9 5 - 4. 95
3. 78— 5. 60
4. 9 8 - 5. 83
3. 5 0 - 5. 48
4. 0 0 - 5. 93
3 .3 6 — 4. 95
3 .2 5 — 4. 85
4. 0 9 - 5. 35

N um be r
of
w o rk e r s

M iddle A tla n tic
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ed ian M iddle ra n g e
M ean

71
237
44
30

$4. 71
4. 12
3. 69
4. 36

$4. 89
4. 3 1
3. 78
4. 98

$4. 10-$5. 25
3. 1 2 - 4. 81
2. 5 4 - 4. 98
3. 7 8 - 5. 00

585
331
254
76
704
97
500
107
48
48
"

3. 80
4. 50
2. 89
3. 54
4. 28
5. 59
4. 70
4. 70
4. 26
4. 26
“

4. 12
4. 64
3. 00
3. 35
5. 16
5 .4 5
4. 82
5. 16
4. 74
4. 74
-

3. 0 0 - 4 .7 5
3. 9 8 - 4 .8 6
1. 9 0 - 3. 35
2. 6 3 - 3. 71
4. 0 3 - 5. 43
5. 16— 6. 36
4. 0 3 - 5 .4 3
3. 6 8 - 5 .4 5
3. 5 2 - 4. 85
3. 5 2 - 4. 85
“

-

-

_
44
_

_
$2. 27
_

_
$2. 00
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

39
35
-

-

2. 82
2. 88
-

~

_
3. 00
3. 00
-

“

_
$ 2 .0 0 —$2. 19
_
_
2. 5 0 - 3. 13
2. 5 0 - 3. 13
-

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p ay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts,
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .
M e d ia n s an d m id d le ra n g e s a r e n o t show n fo r o c c u p a tio n s w ith few er th a n 15 w o rk e rs .




-

_
53
21
17
_
47
44
12 1
_
88
_
_
_
“

B o rd e r S tates
A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean
M edian M iddle ran g e
_
$2. 38
3. 10
3. 24
_
2. 38
2. 33
_
2. 50
_
2 .4 1
_
"

M iddle W est

G re a t L a k e s
C u sto d ia l an d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , lo ad in g --------------------------------------------------------C le a n e rs , n ig h t ------------------------------------------------------------J a n ito rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------L u g g e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g ---------------------------------------------------------M en ---------------------------------------------------------------------W om en ------------------------------------------------------------------S to w e rs, c a r and t r u c k -----------------------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s ------------------------------------------------------------------S em i o r t r a i l e r --------------------------------------------------------O th e r th a n s e m i o r t r a i l e r ----------------------------------C o m b in a tio n of ty p e s ----------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ----------------------------------------------------------F o rk lift - - - - - - - ~ ------ - - - —
O th e r th a n fo rk lift --------------------------------------------------

-

Num.be r
of
w o rk e rs

_
224
11
82
176
134
42
72
226
81
131
-

“

_
$4. 07
3 .4 4
4. 63
3. 78
3. 65
4. 18
4. 29
5. 26
4. 94
5. 34
-

_
$ 4 .4 6
_
_
4. 63
3. 90
3. 90
4. 21
4 .4 6
5. 29
4. 98
5 .4 8
-

-

-

"

“

_
$2 .3 0
2. 70
3. 00
_
_
2. 50
2. 18
_
2. 50
_
2 .4 0
_
_
_
"

_
$2. 2 5 -$ 2 . 50
2. 6 0 - 3. 30
2. 7 0 - 3. 30
_
_
1. 8 5 - 2. 80
_
1. 85— 2. 80
_
2. 3 0 - 2. 75
_
2. 0 0 - 2. 70
_
_
_
-

P a c ific
_
$3. 2 5 -$ 4 . 77
-

4. 6 3 3. 0 0 3. 0 0 4. 2 1 3. 9 4 4 .9 8 4. 9 8 5 .2 9 -

4. 63
4. 21
3. 97
4. 50
4 .4 6
5 .4 8
4. 98
5 .4 8

82
316
7
7
_
_
499
3 84
1J5
_
342
44
189
109
29
-

“

$5. 20
4. 77
4 . 89
4. 89
_
_
4 . 58
4 .4 8
4. 88
_
5. 68
5. 90
5 .4 5
5. 99
5. 26
_
-

$ 5.40
5. 04
_
_
_
_
5. 00
4. 98
5. 06
_
5 .7 8
5. 83
5. 66
5. 93
5. 21
_
-

$5. 2 6 -$ 5 . 50
4. 9 5 - 5. 23
_
_
_
_
4. 3 1 - 5. 24
3. 5 2 - 5 .33
4. 95— 5. 24
_
5. 66— 5. 93
5 .8 3 - 5.9 2
5. 5 5 - 5. 79
5 .9 3 - 6.3 9
5 .2 1 - 5 .3 5
_

3 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w o rk e rs in c la s s ific a tio n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r ite r ia .

O c c u p a tio n and s iz e of p la n t
B e e f c u ttin g
B o n e rs , b e e f, sh a n k s o r b r is k e ts :
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e --------------------------B o n e rs , b e e f, e n tir e c a r c a s s :
10 -9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------B re a k -u p m e n , fa b ric a te d b e e f c u ts:
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e --------------------------P o rk c u ttin g
B o n e rs , h a m , op en sty le b o nin g:
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re -----------------------B o n e rs , h a m , c h is e l bo nin g:
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re -------------------------C u rin g , sm o k in g , co o k in g , and can n in g
C a s in g - p e e le r o p e ra to rs :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e --------------------------C o o k s, w a te r r e to r t:
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------L a b e lin g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs :
10-99 w o r k e r s - —-----------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------M ix e r o p e r a to r s :
10-99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re -------------------------P ic k le m a k e rs :
10-99 w o rk e rs -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e --------------------------P u m p e r s , p ic k le -in je c tio n m a c h in e :
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------P u m p e r s , h am ( a r te r y p u m p in g ):
10-99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------S a u sag e m a k e rs (c h o p p e r):
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------S lic in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------S m o k e rs, s a u sa g e :
1 0 -99 w o rk e rs -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re ------------------------S m o k e rs, c o m b in a tio n of s a u s a g e s and
o th e r p ro d u c ts :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e -------------------------S pice w e ig h e rs an d m ix e rs :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re -------------------------S tu ffe rs , f r a n k fu rte rs :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o re -------------------------See

i o o t l iu t i




U n ite d S ta te s 2
A v e ra g e
N um ber
of
h o u rly
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

M iddle A tla n tic
A v e ra g e
N u m b er
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

S o u th ea st
A v e ra g e
N um be r
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

189
98

$5. 06
5. 09
4. 78
5. 03
5. 08
4. 20

54
47

$ 4 .4 6
"
4. 95

281
445

4. 88
5 .4 7

135
191

5. 33
5. 18

19
167

4. 95
5. 59

119

5 .4 4

194
243

4. 38
4. 65

64
36

4. 60
4. 68

84
135

4. 32
4. 22

28

5. 16

-

90
96
115
169
30
79
106
128
147
194

29
41
14
26
48
30
74
120

4. 69
4. 96
4. 34
5. 21

-

332
274
378
7 02

3. 71
3. 88
4. 24
4. 74
4. 55
4. 86
5. 17
4. 70
4. 67
4. 82
4. 86
5. 02
4. 00
4. 69

122
48
110
43

109
197

4. 89
5. 05

21
28

4. 85
5. 18
3. 75
5. 19
5. 23
5 .4 4

183
261

4. 61
5. 02

72
100

50
89
261
2 62

3.
4.
4.
4.

9
105
70

385
326
511
218

97
57
73
97

_

_

_

_

“

_

G re a t L a k e s
A v e ra g e
N um ber
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

210

_

_

$5. 16
-

_

M iddle W est
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

_

_

~
175
41

-

-

-

109

5. 20

98
146
17

4 . 91
6 .2 6
5. 10

98
27
31

4. 74
4. 07
4. 47

"

21

-

39
43

4. 65
4 . 67
4 . 87

15

4 .4 4

"

10

5. 08

9

3. 98

16

4. 18

3. 93

2. 54
4. 54

4. 70

10

20
27

49

40
104

88

3. 85

16

3. 79

5. 01
5. 11

8
-

2. 81

4 . 50

16

4. 24

5. 18
5. 11

18

3. 89

_

_
_

4.
4.
4.
4.

89
60
96
93

_

14

$ 3 . 54

_

_

-

-

"

"

-

-

_

_

‘
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

_
_

_

_

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_
_

_

_

_

21

_

$3. 81

_

25

3. 35

-

-

-

_
.

_

P a c ific
N um ber
A v e ra g e
h o u rly
of
e a rn in g s
w o rk e rs

_
_
_

_

-

_
$ 5. 75
5. 92
-

-

-

29

6 .4 6

29
39

5. 06
5. 13

“
13
24

■
4 . 74
5 .3 9

-

-

-

-

14
20
25
■
95
44
128
228

5. 37
5. 91
5 .4 1
“
5. 59
5. 58
5. 10
5. 04
4 . 99
5. 61

11

3. 91

5. 96
5. 06

17

4 . 68

2 68

4 . 61

32

4 . 34

39

5. 08
"

_
"

_
"

32
44

32
51

"

48

5 .4 5

11
22

4. 55
5. 09
4 .4 7
4. 53

_

13
15

4 .4 0
5. 06

28
84

4. 89
5. 01

_

81
47

4. 98
5. 50

_

_

_
_

_

-

"

_

12

_

_

3. 95

_

_

U N um ber and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly ■ e a rn in g s 1 of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs by s iz e of p la n t in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s, U n ite d S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
O c c u p a tio n an d s iz e o f p la n t
C u rin g , sm o k in g , c o o k in g , and c an n in g
S tu ffe rs, s a u s a g e , a r ti f ic ia l c a s in g s
w ith c a sin g s iz e r :
10-99 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e , a r ti f ic ia l c a s in g s
w ith o u t c a sin g s iz e r :
1 0 -99 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------S tu ffe rs , s a u s a g e , c o m b in a tio n of
n a tu ra l an d a r tif ic ia l c a s in g s :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------M a in te n a c e and p o w e rp la n t
E l e c tr ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------E n g in e e rs , s ta tio n a r y :
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------M a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s , g e n e r a l u tility :
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )
1 0 -99 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------C u sto d ia l and m a te r i a l m o v e m e n t
C h e c k e rs , lo a d in g :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------C le a n e rs j n ig h t:
10 -9 9 w o rk e rs -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------J a n ito r s :
1 0 -9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------P a ek e r s , s h ip p in g :
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------S to w e rs , c a r an d tru c k :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s , s e m i- o r tr a i l e r :
1 0 -99 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s , o th e r th a n s e m i- o r
tr a i l e r :
1 0 -9 9 w o rk e rs --------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s , c o m b in a tio n of ty p e s:
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r, fo rk lift:
1 0 -9 9 w o rk e rs ------------------------------------100 w o rk e rs o r m o r e ------------------------T ru ck ers, pow er, other than forklift:
1 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------100 w o rk e r o r m o r e ---------------------------s h ifts .

1

U nited S ta te s 2
N u m b er
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M id d le A tla n tic
TNu m b e r
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

S o u th e a st
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

M id d le W est
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

36
114

$ 3 .9 6
5. 01

18

$ 4 . 76

24

$ 3 . 90

13

$ 5 . 11

10

14
95

4 . 10
4 . 86

-

-

-

-

7
31

4 . 85
4 . 70

440
305

3. 93
5. 03

162
61

4. 02
5. 23

-

-

85
106

8
75

5 .4 6
5 .4 5
6 .3 7
5 .7 9
5. 05
5 .4 2
3. 82
5 .2 0

19
54

5. 91
5. 65

10
20

4 . 89
4. 77

86
178

32
-

29

5 .4 6
5 .2 8
4 . 84

4 .2 0
4 . 96

80

4 . 98

3. 86
4 .3 9
3 .4 1
4 . 12
3. 86
4 . 61

69
247
38
32

3. 62
4 . 57
3. 64
4 . 61

369
281
46
38
89

3. 56
4 .4 5

369
198
65
87
-

4 .4 6
5 .3 5
4 . 81
4 .9 9
4 . 57
“

29
164
322
1 ,0 3 8
14
80

99
305
473
1,4 3 8
109
203
1, 155
1,9 2 7
132
289
129
205

3 .4 0
4 .3 5

914
613
200
237

4 . 15
5. 18

77
356
10

3. 74
4 . 59
3 .4 4
4 .9 9

86

5 .2 9
5 .4 2

5. 09
5 .4 4

-

64
-

-

4 . 39
5 .6 6
5. 80

P a c ific
N um be r
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

$ 4 . 14
-

48

$ 5. 64

15

4 . 00

-

-

4 . 63
4 . 89

-

-

64

5. 67

33
55

5. 61
6. 04

-

-

_
-

3. 94
-

69
283
-

5. 13
5. 51
-

96
-

10

4 .3 5

88

4 . 92

32
179
26
28
64
232
38

2 .4 8
3 .7 9
2 .9 1
4 . 05

90
504
11
64

4 .4 7
4 .4 1
3 .4 4
4 . 50

2 .4 7
4 .3 9
4 . 50

209
497
100

4 .0 0
5 .2 5
4 .3 9
4 . 96
5. 09

-

-

94
85
_
“

E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p ay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, an d la te




G re a t L a k e s
N um ber
A v e ra g e
of
h o u rly
w o rk e rs
e a rn in g s

-

-

-

2. 52
4 .3 8
-

"

49
60
51
155
124
44

4 .9 8
5. 60
4 . 93
5 .2 5

-

4 . 73
-

61
202
“

5 .8 4
6 .3 9
-

31
60

4. 71
5 .4 2

120
268
18

4. 37
4. 97
4. 91
4. 64
4. 60
5. 98

39
47
106
38
220
14
-

4 .2 6
4 . 13
3 .6 9
_
3 .0 5
3 .7 7

16
-

_
5 .3 9
-

118
93
35

5 .2 0
5. 75
5. 98
6. 14

51
-

4 . 11
3 . 67

27

5. 23

-

5 .2 5

8

-

3. 88
-

-

185
394
20

88

13

2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D a sh e s in d ic a te no d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r it e r ia .

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs by m e th o d of w age p a y m e n t and ra te s tr u c tu r e c h a r a c te r is tic s , U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
M ethod of w ag e p a y m e n t1
L a k e s W est
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
2
L a k e s W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
A ll c o m p an ies
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------T im e -ra te d w o rk e rs -------------------------------------------F o rm a l p la n --------------------------------------------------S in g le r a te ------------------------------------------------R an g e of r a te s -----------------------------------------In d iv id u a l r a te s --------------------------------------------In c e n tiv e w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------In d iv id u a l p ie c e w o rk ------------------------------------G ro u p p ie c e w o rk -------------------------------------------In d iv id u a l b o n u s --------------------------------------------G ro u p b o n u s --------------------------------------------------S tin t w o rk -------------------------------------------------

100
94
80
59
21
13
6
2
1
1
3
( 3)

100
94
76
38
38
18
6
3
2
1
(3)
■

100
98
72
39
34
26
2
2

-

( 3)

1 F o r d e fin itio n of m e th o d of w ag e p a y m e n t p la n s, se e ap p en d ix A.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .




100
87
84
72
12
3
13
2
(3)
2
8

100
100
97
83
13
3
( 3)
( 3)

-

100
99
98
90
7
1
1
( 3)
1

-

~

100
90
88
69
19
3
10
2
2
1
5
"

100
93
88
57
32
4
7
1
3
1
2
"

100
98
97
54
43
1
2
2
( 3)
( )
( 3)
“

100
83
83
79
3
“
17
3
1
1
12

~

3 L e s s th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

100
100
100
100

-

( 3)
( 3)

"

.2

S •
E z
♦* o

O o
c c

"O
5
Q

®
o
^

3

U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
S in g le - p lan t c o m p a n ie s
100
96
76
54
22
20
4
2
1
1
1
( 3)

100
95
72
33
40
22
5
4
1
( 3)
"

100
99
26
11
16
72

.
_
1

100
92
85
64
21
7
8
1
2
5
“

100
100
95
76
19
5
( 3)
( 3)

■

100
100
99
91
7
1
_

.
-

L a b o r g ra d e

5
4Vz
A ll c o m p a n ie s

} or 4

N u m b e r of la b o r g ra d e s in the sy s te m :
4 ---------------------------------------------------------6

-

7 -

8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
32

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'
-

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs T o ta l
N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
in p la n ts n u m b e r h av in g u n ifo rm c e n ts - p e r - h o u r
in c re m e n ts of—
h av in g
of
nonu n ifo rm w o r k e r s 1
in c r e 5
O v e r 5 m e n ts
3 or 4
O ver 5
4Vz
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s

N u m b er of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
T o ta l
n ifo c e
n u m b er hav in g uin c rerme n tsn ts -p e r-h o u r
m
of—
of
w o rk e rs1

473
194
1, 014
843
114
226
693
66
344
198
748
197
1, 108
477
802
1, 623
681
956
2, 198
72 8
3 84
218
442
366

-

62
.
_
.
_
_
.
.
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

235

_

226

_
_
_

234
477
_
947

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

"

530

194
_
114
_
182
66
118
748
197
874
3 84
676
555
956
2, 198
198
384
218
_
366

473
-

952
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

"

_

843

_

226
276

_
_

198

_

418

_

126

_
_

442

1 L im ite d to w o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g ra te s tr u c tu r e s in c o rp o ra tin g la b o r g ra d e s (w age
b ra c k e ts ).




-

952
114
226
-

748
446
_
802
1 ,4 7 3
555
956
434
332
3 84
218
32
366

_
_
_
-

134

_
_

-

_
_
-

947

_

“

_
_

114

_
_
_
-

748
_
446
_
3 84
526
555
956
434
198
3 84
218
_

336

952

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs T o ta l
N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in p la n ts
in p la n ts num b e r h av in g u n ifo rm c e n ts -p e r-h o u r
h av in g
in c re m e n ts of—
of
nonu n ifo rm w o r k e r s 1
in c r e m e n ts
3 or 4
5
O v er 5
4Vz

N u m b er
of
w o rk e rs
in p la n ts
h av in g
n o nu n ifo rm
in c r e m e n ts

S in g le -p la n t co m p a n ie s
-

226
_
_
_
_

418

_
_
_

32
-

473
194
62
843

_
_

693
66
344
198
_
197
662
477
_
150
126
_
1, 764
396

_
_

410

-

62
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

235

_

226

_
_
-

234
477

194

_

_
_
_

182
66
118

_
_

197

_
_

1, 764

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_

"

"

-

396

150

_
_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_

_

"

473

_
_
_
_

843

276

_
_
_

198

_
_

_
_

_

126

_
_
_
_
_

410
-

Table 38. Prepaid meat products: Minimum job rates
(N u m b e r of p la n ts stu d ie d by m in im u m h o u rly jo b r a te s fo r p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in u n sk ille d ti m e - r a te d o c c u p a tio n s, e x c e p t w a tc h m e n , U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
M in im u m r a te s
P la n ts s tu d ie d ------------------------------------------------P la n ts h av in g an e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m --------------U n d e r $ 2. 0 0 -------------------------------------------------------$ 2 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 1 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .1 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 2 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .2 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 3 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .3 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 4 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .4 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 5 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 2 . 6 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .6 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 7 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .7 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 8 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .8 0 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 9 0 -----------------------------------$ 2 .9 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 .0 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 1 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 .1 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 2 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 .2 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 3 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 .3 0 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 4 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 .4 0 and u n d e r $ 3 . 5 0 ------------------------------------

U n ite d M id d le S outh­ G re a t
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
Lakes
A ll co m p a n ie s
255
212
10
11
4
11
2
5

u n d e r $ 4 . 1 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 2 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 3 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 4 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 5 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 6 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 7 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 8 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 4 . 9 0 -----------------------------------u n d e r $ 5 .0 0 -----------------------------------o v e r -------------------------------------------------no e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m ---------------

6
4
6
7
4
11
5
5
9
2
7
1
4
3
6
5
2
4
4
2
5
10
8
22
24
3
33

P la n ts n o t e m p lo y in g w o rk e rs in th is
c a t e g o r y ---------------- — ---------------------------------------------

10

$ 3 .5 0
$ 3 .6 0
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3 .9 0

an d
and
an d
and
an d

$ 4 .0 0 an d
$ 4 .1 0 and
$ 4 .2 0 an d
$ 4 .3 0 an d
$ 4 .4 0 an d
$ 4 .5 0 an d
$ 4 .6 0 an d
$ 4 .7 0 an d
$ 4 .8 0 an d
$ 4 .9 0 an d
$ 5 .0 0 an d
P la n ts h a v in g

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 . 6 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 . 7 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 . 8 0 -----------------------------------$ 3 . 9 0 -----------------------------------$ 4 . 0 0 ------------------------------------

60
52
1
3
_
3
_
3
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
5
5
4
2

36
27
5
5
1
4
1
3
1
1
_
_
1
1
_
1
-

_

2
1
-

4

9

4

"

53
45

M id d le P a c ific
W e st
17
16

_
_
_
1
2

_
1
_

2
_
_
3
"
5
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

39
33

_
1
1
1
_
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
"

2
1
3
1
1
2
2
8
1

_

1
1
_
_
_
1
_
1
2
_
_
_
1
_
_
1
-

_

_
2

6

1

2

■

4

1
2

1 M in im u m jo b r a te s r e f e r to th e lo w e st r a te s fo rm a lly e s ta b lis h e d fo r e x p e rie n c e d w o rk e r s in u n s k ille d ti m e - r a te d o c c u p a tio n s. R a te s fo r w a tc h m e n and s p e c ia l r a te s fo r h a n d ic ap p e d
and su p e ra n n u a te d w o rk e rs w e re e x c lu d ed .




_

1
2
17
3
2

-

-

U n ite d M id d le S o uth ­ G re a t M id d le P a c ific
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t _ L a k e s W e st
M u ltip la n t co m p anie' s
67
64
2
2
1
1
_
4
2
_
1
2
2
3
1
2
“
4
_
1
2
1

_

1
1
3
3
3
15
7

11

12

9
_
_
_
_
1
_
_
_
1
_
_
_
1
-

12

-

_

1
"

_
-

2

2
3
"
1

1

1

2
1
1
_
2
_
_
_
_
1
1
_
-

_

1
“

_

_
2
1
-

"
“

U n ite d M id d le S o uth - G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic __e a s t__ L a k e s W est
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

19

6

188

19
_
_
_
_
2
1
_
_
1
1
_
1
1
-

6

148
8

_

34

10

28

_
1
"
1
_
_
3
4
2
1
_
1

_

1
1
1
2
1
3
.
1
1

_
1
2
1
_
_
-

1
1
_
_
1
_
1
2
_
_
_
1
_
_
_

_

_
_

1
1
_
1

1
2

5
1
4
3
2
2
7
5
7
17

2
_
1
2
1
1
5
3
1
2

-

3
31

3

"
9

"

9

3

“

-

-

_

n

26

3
1
3
1
5

_
_
"
_
_
1
_
1
_
_
1
.
-

2
1
8
-

34

15
5
3
_
3
1
1

9
2
4
7
2

-

1

_
_
"

24

1
3
_
3
_
"
2
1
1
1
1
2
_
2
4
1

-

_

49
43

_
_
-

_

-

£

|
O

c
o
«
u
Z
3
a
«
■*
2
E
♦j
c
■o
*
•
Q

9
3
10
2
1
4
4
5
7
2

l

1
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_
-

"

_

_
_
_
_

2 In clu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly ,

_

1
_
1
6
2

-

1
_
"
_
1
1
_
_
1
2
-

_

_
-

..

_
_
1
-

_

1
2
14
-

1

3
2

“

4

( P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs by sc h e d u le w eek ly h o u rs o f d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s 1, U n ited S ta te s an d se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U n ited M id d le.. S o uth ­ C rreat M iddle"" P a c ific U n ite d M id d le " S o uth ­ G re a t M id d le
W eek ly h o u rs
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t L a k e s
W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t L a k e s W est
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------U n d er 3 5 h o u rs -------------------------------------------------35 and u n d e r 3 7V2 ---------------------------------------------3 7 V2 h o u rs ----------------------------------------------------------O v er 3 7 V2 and u n d e r 40 h o u r s -----------------------40 h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 45 h o u rs ------------------------45 h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 45 and u n d e r 50 h o u r s ---------------------------50 h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 50 h o u rs ----------------------------------------------------

100
1
1
1
(3)
85
3
3
4
1
1

100
_
2
86
6
3
2

100
1
2
84
4
5
-

-

-

3

100
1
2
3
1
76
2
(3)
12
2

100

100

100

_
_

_
-

0
(3)
3

5

-

100
2
-

-

87
13
-

-

100
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

83
1
12

_

85
10

-

“

"

100

1 D ata r e la te to th e p re d o m in a n t w o rk sch ed u le of fu ll-tim e d a y -s h ift w o rk e rs in e a c h e s ta b lis h m e n t.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

91
7
-

100

_

-

-

“

S 1
E ‘z

100
-

(3)
6
69
25

_

“

100

P a c ific

+* 0
0 t-

£
•§
•
9
Q

-

§
?
.§
£
a

U n ited M id d le S outh­ G re a t M iddle
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t L a k e s W est
S in g le -p la n t co m p a n ie s
100
1
1
(3)
1
86
5
4

100

.
1
87
8
4

7
71
13

_

-

-

-

.

-

1
2

-

“

100

100
3
4
_
2
83
3
1

100

100
_
_
_
100
_
_

_

_
_
_
81
..
19
_

_

-

.

_

4

9

“

P a c ific

“

“

3 L e s s th an 0 .5 p e rc e n t,
NOTE:

B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al 100.

Table 40. Prepared meat products: Overtime premium pay
( P e r c e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v isio n s fo r d aily o r w e e k ly o v e rtim e by r a te o f p ay and h o u rs a fte r
w h ic h e ffe c tiv e , U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h 1974)
U n ited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M id d le P a c ific U n ite d M id d le S o u th ­ G re a t M id d le P a c ific
Ite m
Lakes
S tate s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L akes
W e st
S ta te s 1 A tlan tic e a s t
W e st
A ll c o m p a n ie s
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
D a ily o v e rtim e
T im e an d o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
L e s s th a n 8 h o u r s ----------------------------------------8 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 8 h o u r s ---------------------------------------O th e r---------------------------------------------------------------------W eek ly o v e rtim e
T im e and o n e -h a lf e ffe c tiv e a fte r:
40 h o u rs — ------—--------------------------------------------O th e r................................ ........................ ................................




(*)
97
1
2

96
2
2

-

96
4

1
99

-

-

-

94
6

98
-

2

-

96
1
3

100
-

-

93
7
-

_
100
-

_
93
7

S i
E €
**

2

0

§

0 £
*0 «

3 £
• jo
s.

U n ited M id d le South - G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L akes
W e st
S in g le -p la n t co m p a n ie s

1
98
(*)
1

95
3
2

-

_
100
_
"

1
99
_
-

_
100
_
-

_
98
_
2

99
1

98
2

100
-

100
-

100
-

98
2

0

100
(*)

98
2

100
“

100
“

100
“

98
2

100
”

100
■

100
“

100
"

100
"

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al 100.

( P e r c e n t o f p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith c lo th e s-c h a n g in g tim e p ro v is io n s , U n ite d S ta te s and s e le c te d re g io n s , M a rc h
U n ite d M iddle S outh­ G re a t M id d le P a c ific U n ited M iddle S outh­
Ite m
L ake s W e st
S tate s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
M u ltip la n t
A ll c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v is io n s fo r
c lo th e s -c h a n g in g t i m e ----------------------------------------T im e a d d ed to h o u rs w o rk e d :
L e s s th a n 12 m i n u t e s --------------------------------12 m in u te s — ------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 12 m in u te s --------------------------------M o n e ta ry a llo w a n c e -tim e an d o n e -h a lf
th e h o u r ly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
L e s s th a n 8 m in u te s -----------------------------------8 m in u te s ------------------------------------------------------M o re th a n 8 m in u te s a d a y ----------------------F ix e d c e n ts - p e r - h o u r a d d itio n to the
r e g u la r h o u rly r a te o r e a rn in g s :
C lo th e s-c h a n g in g t i m e --------------------------------C lo th e s-c h a n g in g tim e and
c lo th in g a llo w a n c e ------------------------------------O th e r p r o v i s i o n s -----------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith o u t p ro v is io n s
fo r c lo th e s -c h a n g in g t i m e -----------------------------------

1974)
G re a t M id d le P a c ific
L a k e s W e st
c o m p a n ie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

46

40

8

58

19

53

56

49

7

77

59

13
19
4

27
7
2

4
1
4

6
36
5

_
8
5

2
15
-

9
32
2

21
14

2
_
5

4
56
"

26
15

1

_
-

_

_
1

_
-

-

-

5

-

-

4

"
3

-

"
9

"
6

54

60

92

42

81

-

_
-

.
-

-

-

37

2

-

10

14

-

"
17

44

51

93

23

•
*C

w

o
«
o
3
3
•
•
E
o
g
■oo
•
«

18

47

100

-

"
-

41

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

_
-

-

NO TE:

-

-

U n ited M id d le S outh­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

"

100

100

100

100

100

40

37

10

40

"

48

16
11
6

28
5
3

8
2
-

7
17
11

_
-

2
10
-

_
-

-

1

-

"

_
3

6

-

-

-

-

36

"

-

100

-

-

"
(1
2)

-

-

"
1

60

63

90

60

a

~
52

B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

Table 42. Prepared meat products: Work clothing provisions
( P e r c e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith w o rk c lo th ing p ro v isio n s, 1 U nited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
U n ited Middle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific U nited M id d le South - G re a t " m a a ie P a c ific
Ite m
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es W est
L a k e s W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
A ll c o m p a n ie s
M u lti p la n t c o m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g :
W o rk c lo th in g —
-- — -- ------- — — M o n e ta ry a llo w a n c e -p e r w e e k -------------------$ 0, 50 an d unde r $ 0. 7 5--------------------------$ 0, 75 an d u n d e r $ 1, 0 0 --------------------------$ 1. 00 an d u n d e r $ 2 . 0 0 --------------------------$ 2 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 --------------------------C o m b in a tio n of clo th in g an d m o n e ta ry
a llo w a n c e ----------------------------------------------------O th e r p r o v is io n s -----------------------------------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g no w o rk clo th in g
p ro v is io n s --------------------------------------------------------

74
10
1
2
6
1
5
1

93
-

56
7
7
(3)
19
1
16

75
13
5
3
5
3

53
8
8
1
6
32

53
31
3
26
2
3
"
14

66
9
4
3
2

72
_

49
4
4

69
14
9
5
-

66
16
16

13
1
10

28

29
”
18

6
“
11

18

10

6
"
1

10

1 L im ite d to p la n ts h a v in g fo rm a l p ro v is io n s fo r p ro te c tiv e g a rm e n ts (o th e r th a n b o a ts o r
g lo v es) su c h a s a p ro n s , s m o c k s, an d o v e r a lls ,
2 In c lu d e s d ata fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .



_

'

_

_

_

U n ite d ' T T i'ja ie " S o u th ­ G re a t Middle P a c ific
L a k e s W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
S in g le -p lan t co m p a n ie s
100

I
E
«g
o
•o
5
c
°

i
•u
e
5«
£t
x
a

100

100

100

100

100

79
11

99
“
1

70
14
_
13
1
2

81
9
9
"
10

47
4
_
4
2
"
47

48
36

_

1
9
1

(3)
(3)
11

13

3 L e s s th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t,
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

_

4
30
2
16

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs b y sh ift d iffe re n tia l p ro v isio n s, 1 U nited S ta te s an d s e le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t "S K aare P a c ific U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle
S h ift d iffe re n tia l
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak e s W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
Lakes
W est P a c ific
A ll c o m p a n ie s
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
S econ d s h ift
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g p ro v isio n s
fo r se c o n d s h if t------------------------------------------------W ith s h ift d if f e r e n tia l-----------------------------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r --------------------------5 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------6 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------8 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------11 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------I 2 V2 c e n ts---------------------------------------------14 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------1 5 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------—
17 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------2 0 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------2 5 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------30 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------U n ifo rm p e r c e n t a g e --------------------------------10 p e r c e n t--------------------------------------------W ith no s h ift d if f e r e n tia l------------------------------

77
71

66
55

62
59

71
(3)
1
( 3)
2
13
( 3)
7
1
30
4
4
4
2
2

59
12
23
24
-

1
1

53
1
2
(3)
6
27
5
2
4
8
2
2

6

11

3

T h ird s h ift
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g p ro v isio n s
fo r th ir d s h i f t --------------------------------------------------W ith s h ift d if f e r e n t i a l ---------------------------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r -------------------------5 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------6 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------8 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------11 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------14 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------17 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------18 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------2 0 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------2 5 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------30 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------

61
(3)
1
(3)
1
10
(3 )
6
27
6
4
1
(3 )
4
1

U n ifo rm p e r c e n ta g e --------------------------------10 p e r c e n t ------------ ------------------------------W ith no s h ift d if f e r e n tia l------------------------------

1
1
3

s h ifts .

-

_

89
86
86
-

97
84
84
1
12
-

3
14
1
3
52
14
-

12
29
5
14
10
-

-

-

_
2

91
91
91
27
4
9
9
15
26
-

_
"
13

"
_
"

92
88
88
8
10
59
4
4
2
1
_
3

82
74
74
_
_
64
-

10
_

81
81
81
_
9
35
36
_

8

100
97
97
_
_
_
6
_
6
75
10
_
_
_
"
3

100
100
100
_
_
_
_
19
_
15
44
22
_
_
_
-

U n ited M id d le S o u th ­ tir e a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es
W est
S ingle - planlt com paniLes

68
61

ft
r

0
c
0

a
0

60
1
2
1
3
15
1
6
2
13
4
4
6
1
2
1
1
7

61
49
47
1
_
2
_
1
_
7
_
15
6
_
2
5
7
3
3
12

27
18
18
_
_
_
18
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

78
76
76
_
_
_
6
21
2
_
29
17
_
-

18
33
_
_
_
5
_
_
_
-

9

1

19

51
42

22
18

76
76

39
1
2
_
_
_
7
15
6
_
_
_
3
3

18
_
_
_
7
_
_
12
_
_
_
_
-

62
56
56
_
_
10
2
26
_
17
_
_
-

18
18
36
.
_
5
_
_
_
-

4

6

92
92
92
_
_
_
31
4
11
4
11
31
-

a
65
62

56
47
45
1
2
-

6
27
5
3
2
2
2
9

45
43
43
-

8
-

19
12
4
"
_
1

79
76
76
_
-

8
1
-

50
-

14
3
_
3

78
78
78
12
12
24
5
14
10
_
"
-

91
91

78
76

91
_
_
_
27

76
_

74
64
64
_

-

-

-

-

9
29
_
1
25
_

-

_

-

-

6
7
53
4
4
2
-

_
1

64
_
_
_
10

57
57
57
_
_
_
_
9
29
19
_
_
_
_
_
-

97
97
97
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
75
10
6
_
_
_
-

81
81
81
_
_
_
_
_
_
15
44
22
_
_
_
_
.
-

0
0

E
0
c

0
•0
0
0
Q

58
53
52
( 3)
2
1
2
11
1
5
12
8
4
_
(3 )
6
1
1
1
5

3
3
9

1 R e fe rs to p o lic ie s o f p la n ts e ith e r o p e ra tin g la te sh ifts o r h aving p ro v isio n s c o v e rin g la te

3 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y no t e q u al to ta ls .




96
76
76
2
18

76

92
92
92

31
_
4
27
2
29

-

-

-

-

S hift d iffe re n tia l
S econ d sh ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on se c o n d s h ift ----R e c e iv in g sh ift d if f e r e n t ia l-------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r --------------5 c e n ts -------------------------------------8 c e n t s ----------------------:---------------9 c e n t s -------------------------------------10 c e n t s ------------------------------------12 c e n t s ------------------------------------14 c e n ts ------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------------------------------17 c e n t s ------------------------------------20 c e n t s ------------------------------------25 c e n ts ------------------------------------30 c e n t s ------------------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e --------------------10 p e rc e n t -------------------------------R e c e iv in g no sh ift d if f e r e n tia l---------T h ird s h ift
W o rk e rs e m p lo y e d on th ir d sh ift R e c e iv in g s h ift d if f e r e n t ia l----U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ----5 c e n ts ----------------------------10 c e n ts --------------------------12 c e n t s --------------------------14 c e n t s --------------------------15 c e n ts --------------------------17 c e n t s --------------------------18 c e n t s --------------------------30 c e n t s --------------------------R e c e iv in g no sh ift d iffe re n tia l-




U n ited M iddle South - G re a t
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es
A ll co m p a n ie s
12
11
11
(!)

2
(!)
(2)
i
2
6
1
(2)
0
(!)
(2)

9
9
9
(2)
(2)

_
1
6
1
(j
(2)

1

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

i

1

2
2
2

3
2
2

(2)
(2)

(2)

(2)
1
(2)

16
16
16
_
_
(2)

11
5
"

14
14
14
_
_
1
3
1
9

_
-

1

"

-

_
(2)

_
_

(2)

1
_
-

3
3
3
_

(2)
(2)

1
1
1
_

1

1
_
-

(!)
(2)
(2)

(2)

-

(2)

1

(2)

2
_

M id d le
W est

13
9
9
5
_
1
1
(2)
2
_
-

_

U nited M iddle
G
id d le
P a c ific S ta te s 1 A tla n tic Seoausth ­ L areeast MW est
t
k
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
11
11
11
_
_
3
1
2
3

21
20
20
_
_
1
4
13
1

23
20
20
_
_
_
18

2
-

(2)

_

_

_
2
_

4
1
1
1
_
1

(!)
(2)

i

5
5
5
_
2
_
(2)
2
-

4
4
4
_
(2)

-

-

-

2
1
1
-

-

-

-

-

(2)
1

(2)

24
24
24
_
_
_
17
7
-

3
4
4
4
_
_
4
_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
1
_
_
_
1
_
-

-

-

-

-

21

1
-

7
7
7
_
_
_
_
2
1
3
_
-

-

"

_

_

21
21
_
_
2
2
16

_

1
_
3
_
1
-

7
6
6
(2)
1
■
•
o

c
o

•
o
3
a

♦•»
0

E
o
c

1
5
5
5

U nited M iddle
G a
iddle
P a c ific S ta te s 1 A tla n tic Seoausth ­ L are e st MW est
k
t
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

2
2
2

_

_
2
1
-

o
n
m

a
O

6
6
5
(2)
_

(2)
(2)

(2)

1
1
1
(2)
(2)
(!)
(2)

(2)

_
1
2
1
(*>
(2)

1

(2)

(2)
H

i

(2)

2

2
1
1

1
1
(2)
(2)

1
(**
25
)
2
0
1
(2)

_
_

_
(2)

_
-

7
7
7
_

_

1
3
_
1

_

1
_
_

1

(2)

_
-

(2)
(2)

1
1

l

9
9
7
_
2
_
_
_
1
_
-

_

9
9
9
_
_
_
4
1
1
1
2
_

6

_

3
3
3

_

3

-

_
_
_
_

(2)

-

(2)

(2)

(2)

_

(2)

(2)

-

(2)

15

P a c ific

_
_

(2)
(!)
(2)

(2)

(2)
(2)
-

-

(2)

(2)

-

-

-

-

-

(2)

1

(2)

-

-

-

_
_

1

_

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n o t e q u a l to ta ls,

N u m b e r of p a id h o lid a y s
A ll w o rk e rs W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g p aid h o lid a y s -------3 days
4 d ay s
5 d ay s
6 d ay s
6 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s --------------7 d ay s -------------------------------------------7 d ay s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d a y s -----7 d a y s p lu s 1, 2, o r 3 h alf d ay s
8 d a y s -------------------------------------------8 d a y s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d a y s ------9 d a y s -------------------------------------------9 d a y s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d a y s ——
10 d ay s >
10 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d ay s •
11 d a y s —-------------------------12 d ay s --------------------------13 d a y s ----------------------------O v e r 1 3 d ay s ----------------W o rk e rs in p la n ts p ro v id in g no p aid h o lid a y s -

U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t
Lakes
S ta te s1 A tlan tic e a s t
A ll c o m p a n ie s
100
99
(*
2)
1
1
3
6
(2)
8
1
11
3
23
4
29
1
2
2
3
2

100
100

(2)

-

-

6
5
(2)
7
13
4
32
-

4
10
12
8

100
99
2
3
13
22
12
7
1
40
-

-

-

1

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.




100
100
1
3
(2)
2
1
10
5
33
10
28
3
4

M iddle P a c ific
W est
100
100
_
_

99
4

-

-

-

24
5
33
11
12
-

14

-

-

-

-

-

100

-

9

(2)
3
23
-

57
2
-

1

U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
M u ltip lan t c o m p a n ie s
100
100
2
3
6
3
-

100
100
_
-

~
-

6
25
8
40
2
3
3

13
64
5
18

-

-

-

-

-

100
100
_
_
12
16
9
2
60
-

-

_

100
100
_
_
_
-

"

-

3
26
17
42
5
6

-

-

-

-

100
100
_
_
-

100

_
-

19
15

-

22

_

44

_
-

-

U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es W est
S in g le -p la n t c o m p an ies

©
e
E
o
c
o
'O
<0
a
a

m

®
u
o
3
3
Q.

99
1
1
4
9
(2)
9
1
13
5
22
2
23
2
2
2
5
3
(2)

100
100
_
_
_
8
6
1
9
_
13
5
22
7
16
9
-

100
98
5
9
39
41
4
_
_
_
_

-

_
_
_
_

2

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not e q u al to ta ls .

100
100
_
2
_
5
1
3
3
16
9
39
4
15
3

100
100
_
_
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

_
_

_
-

27
_

38
17
17
_

_
_
_
-

100
99
_
_
5
8
1
3
_
27
_
52
-

2

V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll w o rk e rs '

U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a st
L akes
A ll co m p anies
100

100

100

100

M iddle
W est

P a c ific

100

M ethod o f p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s -------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t -----------------------------------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t -------------------------------------------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p aid v a c a tio n s -----------------------------------

99
87
12
1

A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 1
2
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------

92
4
3

93
7

97
3

88
12
-

76
6
7

A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------2 w eek s ---------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------

62
3
32
2

58
(3)
42

68
32

-

-

60
8
28
5

43
41
6

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------2 w eek s ---------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------




100
100
-

11
(3)
82
4
(3)

7
(3)
92

2
(3 )
84
4
8

1
(3)
95
4
4

-

99
99
1
1

35
64
-

13
3
82
1

100
79
21

5
(3)
81
12
1
-

85
-

3

U nited M Tdaie S o uth ­ G re a t
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
Lakes
A ll cornLpanies

M iddle
W est

100

89
84
6
11

13
70
6
-

-

84
12
-

V a c a tio n p o licy

A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 2—C o n tin ued
A fte r 10 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ----------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ---------------------------------------------------------------100
O v er 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s --------------------------------63
4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------37
A fte r 15 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------100
O v er 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------5 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 20 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------------58
2 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------(3)
41
O v er 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------5 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 and u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------------------------(3)
6 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------(3)
97
2 A fte r 25 y e a rs of s e r v ic e :3
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s ----------------------------------------------------------------(3)
O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------57
5 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------6
O v er 5 and u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------------------------43
6 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------

2
12
79
4
2

7
90
3

2
6
28
(3)
58
4
1

5
13
80
2

2
5
16
( 3)
23
1
49
2
2
2
5
16
16
1
44
2
14

-

-

-

5
8
-

19
67
-

-

5
8
13
58
15

13
17
69
'
13
12
41
33
-

13
12
21
34
-

19
-

13
12
20
26
28
-

"

-

7
78
12
2
-

1
31
(3)
53
12
2
-

1
13
-

24
2
48
5
7
-

1
13
10
2
45
5
24

-

30
53
6
-

6
44
34
6
-

-

6
32
-

37
8
6
-

-

6
32
37
-

6
8

P a c ific

(3)
2
91
7
( 3)
1
7
-

91
-

(3)
1
6
8
85
-

(3)
1
6
8
77
7

V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll w o rk e rs
M ethod of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s -----------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t --------------------------------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t ----------------------------------------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p a id v a c a tio n s -------------------------------A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 1
2
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------A fte r 3 y e a rs of s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------




U nited
S ta te s 1
100

100

85
15

S o u th ­
M iddle
G re a t
Lakes
A tlan tic
e a st
M u ltip lan t c o m p a n ie s
100

100
100

100

100
100

100

100

73
27

_

M iddle
W est
100

100

82
18
_

88
10

100

2

-

96
4

21

79
-

60
18
22

58
5
33
5

73
27
-

59
41
-

39
12
40
9

28
54
18

5
85
11
89

10
1

-

100

-

-

100
-

-

17
83
98
2

79
21
79
21

"

82
18
82
18

V a c a tio n p o lic y

U nited
S ta te s 1

M iddle
S o uth ­
G re a t
A tla n tic
e a st
L ak es
M u ltip la n t co m p an ies

M iddle
W est

A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 2—C o n tin ued
A fte r 10 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------- -—
2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v er 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s -----------------------------4 w eeks ------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 15 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ---------------- -------------—-----------------------------2 we eks ------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v er 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s -----------------------------4 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w eek s -----------------------------5 w eeks ----------------------------------------------------- -——
A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------—
2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ---------------- -------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w eek s -----------------------------4 w eek s ----------------- ------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w eek s -----------------------------5 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v er 5 and u n d e r 6 w eek s -----------------------------6 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 25 y e a rs of s e r v ic e :3
1 w eek -------------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v er 4 and u n d e r 5 w eek s -----------------------------5 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O v er 5 and u n d e r 6 w eek s ----------------------------—
6 w eek s -------------------------------------------------------------

-

8

83
10

-

3
23
64

"

100

-

100

(3)

-

3
-

-

10

11
21

56
5
5
3

11

17
_
35
5
29

12

-

88

12
38
50

16
84
_
-

12

45
43
_
12
15
45
29
12
15
31
43
-

-

_
79

34
48
18
-

_
_

_
_
56
_
26
18
_

_

_
34
_
22
_
26
18
_

21

12

66
21
1

8
_

7
_
64
9
12

_

8

3
_
40
9
39

_
34
22
_
_
18
26

V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll w o rk e rs --------------------------------------------------M ethod of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t------------------------------------r e r c e n td g e p a y m e n t — —-----------— —
——— - —
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p ro v id in g no p a id v a c a tio n s ----------------------------------A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 2
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------2 w eek s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
U v c r i an a u n a e r c w e c K s — ----------— ---------2 w e e k s -----------------*------ ---------------- ----------------------------—
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 W66K ” ————
-------- —------------- --- — — —
L yver i an a u n d e r c. w e e K S — —---------- ---------— —
2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------- ----------------- — - -------- ------- ------- —
A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------£ w eek s — ------------- — — ---------- ----------------- — - — O v er 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------5 w e e k s - - - — ------------— --------- ----------------------- — -------

U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t M iddle
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a st
L akes
W est
Sin g le -p la n t c o m p an ies
100

100

100

1 00

1 00

99

100
100

98
96

100

2

85
15

84
84

-

2

-

88
10
1

94

1

3
65

1

32
-

16
1
81

1

l

4
1

81

1
12

91
9

98

53
1
46
-

84

9
1

90

69
29

-

-

1

94
5

-

14
-

38
10
50
-

96
4

16

84

-

-

80
4
16
-

49
35
-

10
1

19
65

84
3
3
-

91
4
5

-

-

84
-

P a c ific

A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 1 o n tin ued
2—C
A fte r 10 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------100
j w e e K S ■" - j ■
•
65
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------35
-r W 66KS — ------------------ —------- ------- —---------------- —
- A fte r 15 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------O v er 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------100
O v er 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------------------------------5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 20 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
(3)
jj w e e K s
. ........ ..
49
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------

P a c ific

100

1

99

u v c r d ana u n a er o w cgks
D WG6KS "
. . ... .

..................
- ... .

....

A fte r 25 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
1 W6 6K “
——“ —---- — ——-------------- — ---------- -— ---- —
2 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
rt weeKs ■ ...
"
......
.—
..........
....
O v er 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------------------------------0 W6GKS "
■
^
49
O v e r i5 _and u n d e r 6 w e e k s ----------------------------------------/
51
D WGGKS
. . .

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts su c h a s p e rc e n t of an n u a l e a rn in g s w e re c o n v e rte d to an e q u iv a le n t
tim e b a s is . P e rio d s of s e rv ic e w e re a r b it r a r ily ch o sen and do not re fle c t the in d iv id u a l e s ta b ­
lish m e n t p ro v isio n s fo r p ro g re s s io n . F o r e x a m p le , ch an g es in p ro p o rtio n s in d ic a te d at 10 y e a rs
m ay in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p ro v is io n s b e tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a rs .




U nited M iddle S o uth ­ ' ' 'G T e 'a l M iddle
L ak es
W est
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
Sin g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s

V a c a tio n p o licy

-

3
15
76
1
4

9
87
4

3
7
32
(3)
55

7
17
73

1
1

3
7
19
( 3)
24
1
45

-

-

-

2
-

7

10
-

21

-

61

38
18
41
-

38
12
34
14
-

38
12
34
14
-

1

3
7
18
15
1
50
4

-

-

1
2

14
78
4
4

29
56

3
50
1
41
3

-

9
38
37

-

2
8
90

-

-

-

9
30

2

3
18
41
4
33

-

-

89
9

1

1
2

44
-

8
6
84

9
30
44

8
6

-

2

7
14
64
4
10

38
12
30
18
-

3
18
17
4
51
8

3 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
4 V acatio n p ro v isio n s w e re v irtu a lly th e sa m e a fte r lo n g e r p e rio d s of se rv ic e N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay not e q u a l to ta ls .

-

1
2
-

79
5

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith sp e c ifie d h e a lth , in su ra n c e , and r e tir e m e n t p la n s, U nited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
U nited M iddle S o uth ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific U nited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
Lakes
W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es
W est
S ta te s 2 A tla n tic e a s t
L ak es
W est
T y p e of p la n 1
A ll c o m p a n ie s
M u ltip la n t c o m p a n ie s
S ingle -p lan t co m p a n ie s
A ll w o rk e rs

-

—

—

_ - _ ------

L ife in s u r a n c e -------------------- -------------------- —
N o n c o n trib u to ry --------------------------------------------A c c id e n ta l d e a th and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e -------- ----------- - -------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry — ----S ic k n e ss and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r sic k
le a v e o r b o th 3 ------ — — ----- — — -------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e ------ - - ~
------—
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y -----S ick le a v e (F u ll p ay , no w a itin g p e r i o d ) ---S ick le a v e ( P a r ti a l p ay o r w a itin g
p e rio d ) -------------- ~
------L o n g -te rm d is a b ility ------— ----N o n c o n trib u to ry - —
---------- -------H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u ra n c e ---------- - —
----C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s only — —
—
N o n c o n trib u to ry - -------- ------- --- - -------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p en d e n ts ------- - — - -------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry -----N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s:
C o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts ------------S u rg ic a l in s u ra n c e
- ----— -----C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s on ly
— - — —
N o n c o n trib u to ry — — -----C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p en d e n ts
— - ----- - —
N o n c o n trib u to ry -------- -----------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s:
C o n trib u to ry fo r d e p e n d e n ts — M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e ---------------------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s only ~ --------- ----------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------- — — ----------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p en d e n ts - - ------— N o n c o n tr ib u to r y ----- - ----- -------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s:
C o n trib u to ry fo r d e p e n d e n ts --------------M a jo r m e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e ---------------- -- ----------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s only - - — ---------N o n c o n trib u to ry — ----- ------- — —
C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ---------- -------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry — — — - - -------- N o n c o n trib u to ry fo r e m p lo y e e s:
C o n trib u to ry fo r d e p en d e n ts ------------R e tire m e n ts p la n s 5 -----— - ------- P e n s io n p la n s - -- ------------------ — ------N o n c o n trib u to ry --------- — — — ---S e v e ra n c e p a y — — — - ------- ------No p la n s — - — --------------------------- -----

100
95
84
74
66
88
68
60
24
13
5
5

98
4
4
94
80
2
98
4
4
94
80
2
97
4
4

93
80
2
95
4
4
90
76
1
82
82
80
8
1

100
97
94
73
73
90
64
64
36
10
8
8
99
2
2
97
90
(4)
99
2
2
97
90
(4)
98
2
2
96
90
(4)
94
2
2
92
85
(4)
89
89
87
25
(4)

100
96
54
61
21
77
43
21
10
29
4
2
95
3
3
92
48
2
95
3
3
92
48
2
93
3
3
90
46
2
91
3
3
88
44
2
62
62
59
3

100

97
97
88
(4)
10
1
1
99
-

100
75
65
64
60
58
45
40
11
24
97
-

99
92
99
-

97
70
97
-

99
92
99
-

97
70
97
-

99
92
95
1
-

97
70
97
-

93
84
89
89
89

97
70
58
58
58
3

97
88
75
70

6

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

93
90
85
82

98
82

100
86
46
46
93
80
80
23
14
_
_
100
_

98
69
52
23
81
38
26
_

100
87
56
53
100
100
83
_

75
57
41
41
75
35
19
_

93
85

97
96
81
81

92
25

89
60
59
40

74
69
74
69
50
50
50
16

43
2
_
100
_
_

20
_
_
100
_
_

75
_
_
100
_
_

69
53
13
29
4
7
7
86
9
9

95
89
93
87
95
95
92
1
3
3
97

92
88
87
83
90
46
42
82
4

96

99

100
100
100
_
-

100
67
_
100
_
_

100
97
_
100
_
_

100
78
_
100
_
_

97
88

96
67

97

96

93
88
4
99

100
100
_
100
_

100
67
_
98
_
_

100
97
_
100
_
_

100
78
_
100
_
_

97
88

96
67

97

96

100
100
_
92
-

98
65
_
94
_
_

100
97
_
100
_
_

100
78
_
100
_
_

97
88

96
67

89
3

96

92
92
_
73
73
73
19
"

94
60
_
78
78
78
_

100
91
_
97
97
97
_

100
78
_
57
57
57

86
77

96
67

82
82
81
12

58
58
58
4

91
45
42
76
10
99
4
4
94
90
4
99
4
4
94
90
4
99
4
4
94
90
4
99
4
4
94
90
4
95
95
91
-

1 In c lu d e s on ly th o se p la n s fo r w hich the e m p lo y e r p ay s at le a s t p a r t of the c o st and e x ­
c lu d e s le g a lly r e q u ire d p la n s su c h a s w o rk e rs ' c o m p e n sa tio n and s o c ia l s e c u rity ; h o w e v er, p la n s
re q u ire d b y the S ta te te m p o ra ry d is a b ility in su ra n c e law s a re in clu d ed if the e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s
m o re th a n is le g a lly re q u ire d o r if the e m p lo y e e s re c e iv e b e n efits e x c ee d in g le g a l re q u ire m e n ts .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in ad d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .




P a c ific

59
50
93
75
63
11
26
3
2
100
3
3
97
85
1
100
3
3
97
85
1
100
3
3
96
84
1
98
3
3
94
80
_
85
85
85
3
"

_

"

0
o
c
o

5

33
e
I
o
c
■oo
a
a

Q

82
75
85
63
58
32
6
6
6
97
4
4
93
77
2
97
4
4
93
77
2
96
4
4
92
77
2
93
5
4
88
73
2
81
81
77
11
1

9
10
10
99
3
3
96
87
1
99
3
3
96
87
1
98
3
3
95
87
1
94
2
2
92
83
1
93
93
91
27
(4)

79
18

77
12
7
86
9
9
77
12
7
84
9
9
75
12
7
86
9
9
77
12
7
31
31
24
8

5
5

5
5

93
88
4
99
5
5
93
88
4
99
5
5
93
88
4
94
94
90
-

3 U n d u p licated to ta l of w o rk e rs re c e iv in g sic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n c e show n
s e p a ra te ly .
4 L e ss th an 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
U n d u p licated to ta l of w o rk e rs c o v e re d b y p e n sio n s o r re tire m e n t s e v e ra n c e pay show n
s e p a ra te ly .

(P e r c e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in p la n ts h av in g fo rm a l p ro v isio n s fo r sp e c ifie d b e n e fits, U n ited S ta te s and se le c te d re g io n s, M a rc h 1974)
U nited M iddle S outh­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific U n ited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
Ite m
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
L akes W est
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
M u ltip la n t c o m p an i es
A ll co m p anies
W o rk e rs in p la n ts w ith p ro v isio n s fo r:
C o s t-o f-liv in g p ay a d ju s tm e n ts ------------------T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e ra n c e p a y 2----------------------M oving e x p en se a llo w a n c e --------------------------J u ry duty p a y ------------------------------------------------F u n e ra l le a v e p ay ----------------------------------------R e s t o r r e lie f tim e (d a ily )--------------------------10 o r 12 m in u te s ------------------------------------15 m in u te s ------------------------------------------------20 m in u te s ------------------------------------------------O v e r 20 an d u n d e r 30 m in u te s -------------30 m in u te s ------------------------------------------------O v er 30 m in u te s -------------------------------------No r e lie f tim e ------------------------------------------

59
16
8
80
85
93
1
16
27
9
37
3
7

58
23
9
70
85
96
8
52
2
28
5
4

43
3
74
74
93
2
4
50
3
31
3
7

75
20
8
84
91
92
o
37
13
4
31
6
8

25
14
14
84
71
92
6
5
15
67
8

85
14
5
92
89
88
7
5
31
46
12

1 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r re g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a ra te ly .
2 P a y to e m p lo y e e s p e rm a n e n tly s e p a ra te d fro m th e com pany b e c au se of a te c h n o lo g ic a l
ch a n g e o r c lo sin g of th e p la n t.




78
32
22
95
98
91
16
27
6
36
6
9

96
61
38
91
100
86
8
35
10
27
6
14

65
4
93
92
92
5
57
4
26
8

87
37
16
100
100
94
29
16
5
32
12
6

59
44
44
100
100
85
85
15

♦ - .2

• -z
E 2
+> °

2 c
c o

■2 %
« 1
m 3
o l

U n ited M iddle S o u th ­ G re a t M iddle P a c ific
S ta te s 1 A tla n tic e a s t
L a k e s W est
S in g le -p la n t c o m p a n ie s
49
6
( 3)
71
78
95
1
16
26
11
38
2
5

47
11
( 3)
63
80
99
8
57
28
5
1

2

-

39
38
94
6
38
41
9
6

63
2
68
83
90
1
45
10
3
30
10

3 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n din g, su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n o t e q u al to ta ls .

9

-

76
58
96

-

9
7
21
58
4

86
12
2
91
87
92
8
1
36
47
8

Appendix A.

Scope and Method of Survey

Scope of survey

Establishment definition

Part I of the survey—Meatpacking—includes data for
establishments primarily engaged in slaughtering—for
their own account or on a contract basis for the
trade—cattle, hogs, sheep, lambs, calves, horses, and
other animals for meat to be sold or to be used on the
same premises in canning and curing, and making
sausages, lard, and other products (industry 2011 as
defined in the 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual, U.S. Office of Management and
Budget.
Part II of the survey—Prepared Meat Products—
includes data for establishments primarily engaged in
manufacturing sausages, cured meats, smoked meats,
canned meats, frozen meats, meat specialties, and other
prepared meats from purchased carcasses and other
materials (industry 2013).
Separate auxiliary units such as central offices were
excluded from both parts of the survey. Establishments
primarily engaged in slaughtering and processing poultry
and small game were also excluded.
The establishments studied were selected from meat­
packing plants employing 20 workers or more and from
prepared meat products plants employing 10 workers or
more at the time of reference of the data used in
compiling the universe lists. Table A-l shows the number
of establishments and workers estimated to be within
the scope of the survey, as well as the number actually
studied by the Bureau.

An establishment, for purposes of this study, is
defined as a single physical location where industrial
operations are performed. An establishment is not
necessarily identical with the company, which may
consist of one or more establishments. The terms
“establishment” and “plant” have been used inter­
changeably in this bulletin.

Method of study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff to a representative sample of establishments
within the scope of the survey. To obtain appropriate
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments was studied. In combining
the data, however, all establishments were given an
appropriate weight. All estimates are presented, there­
fore, as relating to all establishments in the industry,
excluding only those below the minimum size at the
time of reference of the universe data.




Employment

Estimates of the number of workers within the scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the industry’s labor force, rather
than as precise measures of employment.
Production workers

The term “production workers,” as used in this
bulletin, includes working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice activities. Adminis­
trative, executive, professional, and technical personnel
and force-account construction employees, who were
utilized as a separate work force on the firm’s own
properties, were excluded.

Occupations selected for study

Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of
interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix B for these job
descriptions.) The criteria for selection of the occupa­
tions were: number of workers in the occupation;
usefulness of the data in collective bargaining; and
appropriate representation of the entire job scale in the
industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners, be­
ginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, tempo­
rary, and probationary workers were not reported in the
data for selected occupations but were included in the
data for all production workers.

Table A-1. Estimated number of establishments and workers within scope of meat products survey and number
studied, March 1974
Number of
2
establishments

Region1 and type of
employing unit

Within
scope
of
study

Workers in establishments

Within scope
of study
Studied
T o ta l3

Studied

Produc­
tion
workers

Total

Number of
2
establishments

Within
scope
of
study

Meatpacking

Workers in establishments

Within scope
of study
Studied
study

Studied

Produc­
tion
workers

T o ta l3

Total

Prepared meat products

All companies
United States4 . . . . . Q. . .

858

300

145,591

118,439

95,234

900

255

62,776

46,980

33,486

Middle A tla n tic ............ .. 0 . . .
Border States . . . . . .................
Southeast. . . ., ...................... □
Southw est...................
Great Lakes . . . . ...................
Middle W est...............................
M ountain....................................
P a c ific........................................

801
45
129
118
177
141
65
87

28
15
44
39
47
64
28
31

7,013
8,254
17,017
13,623
31,148
49,581
8,534
9,322

5,616
6,629
13,542
10,797
24,900
41,074
7,097
7,941

4,304
5,309
10,374
7,171
18,165
39,029
5,484
4,994

245
-

60
-

15,019
-

11,220
-

106
214
60
107

36
53
17

6,900
-

5,074
-

6,990
3,510
-

18,204
5,082
-

14,156
3,785
-

10,451
3,113
-

39

8,101

6,185

4,221

United States4 ...................

121

67

22,713

17,247

16,556

176

97

85,199

69,358

64,569

Middle Atlantic . ................. . ..
Southeast . . . . 0. . .................
Southwest .................................
Great Lakes . ............ ................
Middle W est.......................... . .
M ountain...................................
P a c ific ................... ....................

5
31
35
20
60
11
6

4
17
13
13
34
7
4

2,065
10,505
7,819
15,227

1,942
6,921
4,789
10,881
35,111
1,742
1,001

20
24
-

11
12
-

3,365
4,274
-

2,567
3,319
-

2,867
2,421
-

42,651
2,224
1,224

1,604
8,610
6,122
11,989
35,311
1,788
1,010

30
10

19
6

8,644
1,634

7,019
1,213

-

-

-

-

6,648
1,200
-

-

-

-

-

United States4 ...................

682

203

60,392

49,081

30,665

779

188

40,063

29,733

16,930

Middle Atlantic . . . . . . . . . . .
Border States . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Southeast ............ ....................
Southwest . ............ ................ ..
Great Lakes .................
Middle W est...............................
M ountain...................................
Pacific .........................................

75
39
98
83
157
81
54
81

24
11
27

4,948
5,016
6,512
5,084
15,921
6,930
6,310
8,098

4,012
3,911
4,932
4,675
12,911
5,763
5,309
6,931

2,362
3,250
3,453
2,382
7,284
3,918
3,742
3,993

225
82
184
50
97

49
24
-

11,654
-

8,653
-

4,123
-

2,626
-

1,755
-

1,089
-

34
11
-

9,560
3,448
-

7,137
2,572
-

3,803
1,913
.

34

6,534

5,270

2,982

Multiplant companies

Single-plant companies

26
34
30
21
27

The regions used in this study include: M id d le A tla n tic —
New Jersey, New Y o rk , and Pennsylvania; B o rd e r S ta te s —
Delaware, D istrict of Colum bia, K entucky, Maryland, Virginia,
and West Virginia; S o u th e a st — Alabam a, Florida, Georgia,
Mississippi, N orth Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee,
S o u th w e s t — Arkansas, Louisiana, O klahom a, and Texas; G reat
L a k e s — Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; M iddle
W est — Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
D akota, and South Dakota; M o u n ta in — A rizona, Colorado,




Idaho,

M ontana, New M exico, Utah, and W yoming; and
C alifornia, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
Includes meatpacking plants em ploying 2 0 workers or
more at the tim e of reference of the universe data.
Includes executive, professional, and other workers ex­
cluded from the production w orker category shown separately.
4
Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown
separately. Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the study.

P acific —

Workers in the meat products industry are employed
under a variety of occupational wage rate situations.
Workers spending all of their time at one survey job were
classified in that category. Many workers, however,
performed two or more distinct tasks during the payroll
period scheduled and were paid a number of different
ways. Following are illustrations of such workers and the
methods used to classify them:
a. Workers receiving different rates for each job were
classified according to the job accounting for the
greatest number of hours worked, and the corre­
sponding rate was reported;
b. Workers receiving the rate of the highest rated job
were classified according to that job, even though
it may have required less than half of the worker’s
time during the payroll period;
c. Workers receiving the same rate for each job were
classified according to the job accounting for the
greatest number of hours; and
d. Workers paid a combination rate to reflect differ­
ences in job skills and responsibilities were not
classified in any of the selected occupations as it
was not possible to relate the rate to any one job.
Wage data

Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the worker’s regular pay.
Nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses", were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or category of workers, such as production
workers, were calculated by weighting each rate (or
hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving the
rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of individuals.
The hourly earnings of salaried workers were obtained
by dividing straight-time salary by normal (or standard)
hours to which the salary corresponded.
The median designates position; that is, one-half of
the employees surveyed received more than this rate and
one-half received less. The middle range is defined by
two rates of pay: one-fourth of the employees earned
less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earned
more than the higher rate.
Type of company

Companies were classified as either multiplant or
single-plant companies. Multiplant companies, for pur­
poses of the survey, included those operating two plants




or more in either the meatpacking or prepared meat
products industries or in a combination of the two
industries.
Size of community

Companies were classified according to their location
in either metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas. The
term “metropolitan area,” as used in this bulletin, refers
to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined
by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through
November 1972.
Except in New England, a Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area is defined as a county or group of
contiguous counties which contains at least one city of
50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties contiguous to the
one containing such a city are included in the Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area if, according to certain
criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character
and are socially and economically integrated with the
central city. In New England, the city and town are
administratively more important than the county and
they are the units used in defining Standard Metropoli­
tan Statistical Areas.
Labor-management agreements

Separate wage data are presented, where possible, for
establishments that had (1) a majority of the production
workers covered by labor-management contracts, or
(2) none or a minority of the production workers
covered by labor-management contracts.
Method of wage payment

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to the
number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily
by the qualifications of the individual worker. A single
rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to all
experienced workers in the same job classification.
Learners, apprentices, or probationary workers may be
paid according to rate schedules which start below the
single rate and permit the workers to achieve the full job
rate over a period of time. An experienced worker
occasionally may be paid above or below the single rate
for special reasons, but such payments are exceptions.
Range-of-rate plans are those in which the minimum,
maximum, or both of these rates paid experienced

workers for the same job are specified. Specific rates of
individual workers within the range may be determined
by merit, length of service, or a combination of these.
Incentive workers are classified under piecework or
bonus plans. Piecework is work for which a predeter­
mined rate is paid for each unit of output. Production
bonuses are for production in excess of a quota or for
completion of a task in less than standard time. Stint
work (task work, or sunshine bonus) provides a fixed
daily rate for a predetermined amount of work regard­
less of the actual amount of time required to complete
the work. The worker may leave the plant whenever his
daily work is completed.
Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on
the day shift.
Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having
formal provisions covering late-shift work. Shift prac­
tices relate to workers employed on late shifts at the
time of the survey.
Minimum job rates

Minimum job rates refer to the lowest formal rate
established for experienced unskilled time-rated workers
(except watchmen) after any learning or probationary
period of no longer than 1 year. Special rates for
handicapped and superannuated workers were excluded.
Supplementary wage provisions

Supplementary benefits in an establishment were
considered applicable to all production workers if they
applied to half or more of such workers in the
establishment. Similarly, if fewer than half of the
workers were covered, the benefit was considered
nonexistent in the establishment. Because of length-ofservice and other eligibility requirements, the proportion
of workers receiving the benefits may be smaller than
estimated.

Overtime premium pay. Data for “daily overtime” refer

to work in excess of a specified number of hours a day,
regardless of the number of hours worked on previous




days of the pay period. “Weekly overtime” refers to
work in excess of a specified number of hours per week
regardless of the day on which it is performed, the
number of hours per day, or number of days worked.

Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day
and half-day holidays provided annually.

Paid vacations. The summaries of vacation plans are

limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion of the employer or supervisor. Payments not
on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the
equivalent of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for
which data are presented represent the most common
practices, but they do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example,
the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of
service may include changes which occurred between 5
and 10 years.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are pres­

ented for health, insurance, pension, and retirement
severance plans for which the employer pays all or a part
of the cost, excluding programs required by law, such as
workers’ compensation and social security. Among the
plans included are those underwritten by a commercial
insurance company and those paid directly by the
employer from his current operating funds or from a
fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life
insurance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to
that type of insurance under which predetermined cash
payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly
or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least a part of the cost.
However, in New York and New Jersey, where tempo­
rary disability insurance laws require employer contribu­
tions,1 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required or (2) provides the
employees with benefits which exceed the requirements
of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sep­
arate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which
provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans

^ h e temporary disability insurance laws in California and
Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.

providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for com­
plete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such plans
may be underwritten by a commercial insurance com­
pany or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a form
of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical insurance, includes plans designed to
cover employees for sickness or injury involving an
expense which exceeds the normal coverage of hospital­
ization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the remainder
of the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately for
retirement severance pay (one payment or several over a
specified period of time) made to employees on retire­
ment. Establishments providing both retirement sever­
ance payments and retirement pensions to employees
were considered as having both retirement pensions and
retirement severance plans; however, establishments hav­
ing optional plans providing employees a choice of either
retirement severance payments or pensions were consid­
ered as having only retirement pension benefits.

Clothing allowance. Data relate to formal provisions for




protective garments such as aprons, smocks, and overalls,
but not including boots and gloves.

Cost-of-living pay adjustments. Provisions for cost-ofliving pay adjustments relate to formal plans whereby
wage rates are adjusted periodically, in keeping with
changes in the Consumer Price Index or on some other
basis.
Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal
provisions for severance pay to workers permanently
separated from the company because of a technological
change or plant closing.
Moving expenses. Data relate to formal provisions for

moving allowances to employees who are separated from
one plant as a result of force reduction and who transfer
to another plant operated by the company in accordance
with established eligibility requirements.

Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral

and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which provide
at least partial payment for time lost as a result of
attending funerals of specified family members or
serving as a juror.

Appendix B.

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety
of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from
area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job
content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of
occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job
descriptions, the Bureau’s field staff is instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
Beef Dressing
Backers

Stunner, beef

Removes hides from loins and backs of beef carcasses.
Grasps hide with one hand and while pulling downward
on it cuts tissue between hide and flesh (fell) with power
or hand skinning knife. For wage study purposes,
backers are classified according to the type of dressing
floor and knife, as follows:
Backer, on-the-rail dressing, power knife
Backer, on-the-rail dressing, straight knife
Backer, conventional dressing floor, power knife
Backer, conventional dressing floor, straight knife

Stuns beef preparatory to slaughtering. For wage
study purposes, stunners are classified as follows:
Stunner—Pneumatic hammer or captive-bolt pistol
Stunner, other

Floorsman

Removes hide from belly, upper legs, and side of beef
carcasses, using a power or hand skinning knife. For
wage study purposes, floorsmen are classified according
to the type of dressing floor and knife, as follows:
Floorsman, on-the-rail dressing, power knife
Floorsman, on-the-rail dressing, straight knife
Floorsman, conventional dressing floor, power knife
Floorsman, conventional dressing floor, straight knife
Hide puller, machine

Tends a machine that pulls hide from rump, back,
loins, belly, and sides of beef carcasses. Assists in the
machine pulling operation as necessary, using a power or
hand knife.




Rumper

Removes hide from the hind legs and rump of beef
carcasses, using a power or hand skinning knife. For
wage study purposes, rumpers are classified according to
the type of dressing floor and knife, as follows:
Rumper, on-the-rail dressing, power knife
Rumper, on-the-rail dressing, straight knife
Rumper, conventional dressing floor, power knife
Rumper, conventional dressing floor, straight knife
Shackler

Attaches one end of a shackling chain to the hind legs
of animals to be slaughtered and attaches the other end
to a hoist which lifts the shackled animal into position
for the sticking operation.
For wage study purposes, shacklers are classified
according to animal species, as follows:
Shackler, beef
Shackler, hog
Shackler, sheep and calf

Splitter, back

Splits or separates the carcasses of beef or pork in
half, using a power saw and/or cleaver. For wage study
purposes, splitters are classified according to animal
species and method of splitting, as follows:
Splitter, back, beef, power saw
Splitter, back, beef, other (including cleaver and
combination cleaver and power saw)
Splitter, back, pork, power saw
Splitter, back, pork, other (including cleaver and
combination cleaver and power saw)
Washer, beef

Washes and cleans beef carcasses with water sprayed
under pressure from a hose or from a hose equipped
with a brush.
Beef Cutting

Boner, beef

Cuts bone from chuck and other standard cuts of
beef, using a boning knife and/or saw, to prepare them
for marketing as boneless cuts. Workers in this classifica­
tion may or may not be required to remove the bones,
but “bone pullers” (i.e., those who remove bones after
they are separated from the meat by others) are
excluded. Also excluded are workers trimming out cuts

for sausage. For wage study purposes, beef boners are
classified according to the type of meat cuts, as follows:
Boner, beef, chucks
Boner, beef, loins, ribs, or rounds
Boner, beef, shanks or briskets
Boner, beef, entire carcass
Break-up man, fabricated beef cuts

Using knife and/or saw (hand or power), converts

primal beef cuts into special fabricated beef cuts by

sawing, cutting, boning, or trimming, as required for
restaurants, institutions, or retailers.
Break-up man, primal cuts

Using knife and/or saw (hand or power), divides
forequarters and hindquarters into marketable cuts, e.g.,
rounds, loins, ribs, plates, briskets, and chucks. Includes
such heavy breaking operations as: Marking and ribbing
beef; sawing backbone and rib from forequarter; knifing
loin from round; sawing loin from round; and sawing
chuck into arm and blade. Workers classified in the job
may perform one or a combination of such tasks.
Handler, beef cuts for boners

Lift cuts of beef to or from truck or conveyor for
boning in cooler or cutting room. Does not include
lugger (beef) or stower.

Pork Dressing
Belly opener

Header, hog

Slits open body cavity of hogs preparatory to removal
of viscera. Cuts down through center of belly from aitch
bone to brisket, pulls pizzle cord, and cuts pig bag from
viscera.

Separates head from backbone and leaves head
suspended to carcass by strip below chin.
Shackler, hog

Eviscerator, hog

Removes viscera from opened hog carcasses. Reaches
inside body cavity and pulls internal organs with one
hand while cutting connecting tissues which hold them
in place. Lifts complete viscera (liver, heart, lungs,
stomach, spleen, pancreas, bladder, intestines, and fat
coverings) from the body cavity.




See Shackler under Beef Dressing.
Shaver

Shaves or scrapes off the remaining hair from all or
part of the hog carcass after the singeing, scraping, or
dehairing operation.

Stunner, hog

Splitter, back, pork

See Splitter, Back, under Beef Dressing.

Stuns hogs preparatory to slaughtering. For wage
study purposes, hog stunners are classified as follows:
Stunner, electric shocking device
Stunner, other
Pork Cutting

Belly trimmer

Ham skinner, machine

Trims pork bellies to prepare them for curing,
smoking, and sale as bacon. Removes fat-back and
boot-jack. Cuts through teat line and removes seeds, and
bevels edges.

Positions ham against revolving roll and knife blade to
remove skin and/or fat (not including collar) prior to
smoking. For wage study purposes, ham skinners are
classified according to the type of operation performed,
as follows:
Ham skinner, machine, skin only
Ham skinner, machine, skin and defat

Boner, ham

Cuts bones from fresh or cured hams to prepare them
for cooking. For wage study purposes, ham boners are
classified as follows:
Open style boning—using hand knife, splits ham face
lengthwise and removes body bone.
Chisel boning—removes body bone from ham, with­
out splitting the face, using chisel and hand knife.
Machine boning—removes body bone from ham,
without splitting ham face, using machine which
twists bone free.

Loin puller

Separates the loin from the fat-back on a pork side
with a drawknife.
Trimmer of trimmings

Trims pork scraps, trimmed from hams, shoulders,,
bellies, and other pork cuts, by cutting the lean meat
from the fat and by removing the hog skins or rinds.

Sheep and Calf Dressing
Facer, lamb and sheep

Skinner, cold calves

Slits pelts of lamb and sheep carcasses from crotch to
breast and then skins the hide as far as the middle of the
sides, using a knife.

Removes entire skin from chilled calf carcass. For
wage study purposes, calf skinners are classified accord­
ing to the type of knife used, as follows:
Skinner, cold calves—power knife
Skinner, cold calves-straight knife

Shackler, sheep and calves

See Shackler under Beef Dressing.
Skin puller, machine

Pulls skin from back, loin and belly of calf carcasses
with a mechanical skinner. Assists in removal of skin
using a power or hand knife.




Sticker

Uses a sticking knife to sever the jugular vein or ari
artery of sheep or calves, to bleed animal after stunning.

C4. sheep or calves preparatory to slaughtering. For
,
,
i
Stuns, u
, purposes, sheep and calf stunners are
A
,
wage study
.

1

Stunner,’ electric shocking device
„
&
Stunner, other

Curing, Smoking, Cooking, and Canning
Casing-peeler operator

whether container is vacuumed properly.

Operates machine that removes artificial covering
from frankfurters, to produce skinless variety. May peel
remaining fragments of covering, using knife.

Labeling-machine operator

Cook, water retort

Tends a water retort that cooks meat products in
sealed containers. Work involves most of the following :
Loading products in retort cooker; closing and sealing
retort; opening steam valves; attending retort temper­
ature and pressure controls during cooking cycle; filling
retort with water to chill product and checking temper­
ature and pressure reduction closely for proper chilling;
and opening retort and unloading product upon comple­
tion of chilling cycle.
Grader, green hams and bellies

Grades and sorts, according to size and quality, hams
and bellies to be cured. For wage study purposes, graders
are classified according to product, as follows:
Grader, green hams
Grader, bellies (pork)
Grader, combination green hams and bellies
Hanger, bellies

Inserts comb hanger in belly and hangs on tree or
truck for smoking.
Inspector, cans and jars

After removal of cans and/or jars from water cook
retort, visually inspects them for defective sealing or
poor quality of product. Work involves: Examining cans
for proper sealing of cover or seams, dented “leakers,”
or rust accumulation; and/or examining jars for defective
cover capping or poor quality of product. May tap cover
of cans or jars with fingers or a mallet to determine



Sets up and tends a machine used for gluing labels or
label wrappers to jars, tins, or cans. Work involves most
o f the following : Adjusting feed hopper to accom­
modate labels of different sizes: changing labelapplicator plate for labels of different sizes; regulating
stroke of feeding mechanism, pressure of applicator
tools, and position of feeder guide according to size and
shape of container being labeled; filling glue reservoir
and label hopper as necessary; removing jammed or
twisted labels from machine; and examing containers to
see that they are properly labeled.
Mixer operator

Loads and operates machine that mixes batches of
ground meats and seasonings in preparation for making
sausages.

Pickle maker

Prepares pickle solution according to formula for use
in curing meats. Weighs ingredients and dumps them into
mixing vats; admits water and stirs contents.
Pumper, pickle-injection machine

Tends machine that automatically injects (pumps)
meat with curing solution. Adjusts and starts machine;
places meat on conveyor that pulls it under machine
injection needle which forces curing solution into meat.
Pumper, ham (artery pumping)

Injects curing solution into hams by inserting needle
into arteries and pulling handle of pump to force curing
solution into meat.

machine.

Sausage maker (chopper)

Tends machine that grinds meat and other ingredients
to make sausage. Weighs meat into machine; adds
ingredients, and controls temperature and texture of
product.
Slicing-machine operator

Tends machine that automatically slices meat prod­
ucts.

Stuffer, frankfurters

Operates or tends machine that automatically stuffs
casings with meat emulsion to make frankfurters. Work
involves most of the following: Loading stuffer with
meat batter; placing casings on feed rack of stuffer; and
adjusting controls for proper feeding of casings and
injection of batter. May also unload frankfurters from
end of machine. This type of machine may or may not
link frankfurters.

Smoker
Stuffer, sausage

Tends one or more smoke houses or smoke ovens
used in curing meat according to specifications. Regu­
lates air, heat, and humidity. For wage study purposes,
smokers are classified according to products, as follows:
Smoker, sausages
Smoker, other than sausages
Smoker, combination of sausages and other products
Spice weigher and mixer

Weighs and mixes seasonings such as salt, pepper, and
sage, and other nonmeat ingredients such as eggs,
pimentos, and pickles, according to formula, by hand or

Stuffs natural and/or artificial casings with meat
emulsion to make sausage (excluding frankfurters).
Places casing on stuffing horn, adjusts air pressure and
machine to obtain proper filling of casing. For wage
study purposes, sausage stuffers are classified according
to type of casing and whether a casing sizer is used, as
follows:
Stuffer, sausage, natural casings
Stuffer, sausage, artificial casings with a casing sizer
Stuffer, sausage, artificial casings without a casing
sizer
Stuffer, sausage, combination of natural and artificial
casings

Maintenance and Power Plant
Electrician, maintenance

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such
as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment
for the generating, distribution, or utilization of electric
energy in an establishment. Work involves most of the
following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heat­
ing units, conduit systems, or other transmission equip­
ment; working from blueprints, drawings, layout, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in
the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or
electrical equipment; using a variety of electrician’s
handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.



Engineer, stationary

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the
operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechan­
ical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which
employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or airconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors,
generators, motors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating
equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; keeping a record of operation
of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers

in establishments employing more than one engineer are
excluded.
Fireman, stationary boiler

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment
in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds

Fireman, stationary boiler—Continued

fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker,
gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety valves. May
clean, oil, or assist in repairing boiler room equipment.
Machinist, maintenance

wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body
bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic
requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
Millwright

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making
repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated
in an establishment. Work involves most of the follow­
ing: Interpreting written instructions and specifications;
planning and laying out of work; using a variety of
machinist’s handtools and precision measuring instru­
ments; setting up the operating standard machine tools;
shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating o dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge
of the working properties of the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for the work; fitting and assembling parts into
mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work
normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and
dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment
when changes in the plant layout are required. Work
involves most of the following : Planning and laying out
of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifica­
tions; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making
standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength
of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing
of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good order
power transmission equipment such as drives and speed
reducers. In general, the millwright’s work normally
requires a rounded training and experience in the trade
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Maintenance worker, general utility

Fuses (weld) metal objects by means of an oxyacetylene torch or arcwelding apparatus to repair broken or
cracked metal objects. Work requires most of the
following: Planning and laying out of work from

Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment, and/or
structure of an establishment (usually a small plant
where specialization in maintenance work is impractical)
in repair. Duties involve the performance of operations
and the use of tools and equipment of several trades,
rather than specialization in one trade or one type of
maintenance work only. Work involves a combination of
the following: Planning and laying-out of work relating
to repair of buildings, machines, mechanical and/or
electrical equipment; repairing electrical and/or mechani­
cal equipment; installing, alining, and balancing new
equipment; repairing buildings, floors, stairs as well as
making and repairing bins, cribs, and partitions.
Mechanic, automotive (maintenance)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors
of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow­
ing: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; disassembling equipment and perform­
ing repairs that involve the use of such hand tools as
wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in
disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or
defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves;
reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the
vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining



Welder, hand

drawings, blueprints, or other written specifications;
knowledge of welding properties of a variety of metals
and alloys; welding high pressure vessels or other objects
involving critical safety and load requirements; working
from a variety of positions.
Custodial and Material Movement

Checker, loading

Supervises the loading of products into trucks or
freight cars for shipment. Checks shipping labels on each
package, records weights and the number of packages on
each order, and checks discrepancies.
Cleaner, night

Cleans floors, tables, chutes, and equipment after the
completion of the processing operations. Disassembles
and reassembles apparatus and equipment where neces­
sary. (Exclude workers who clean up during regular
operations or during rest periods, and janitors.)

Janitor

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory
working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office,
apartment house, or commercial or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweep­
ing, mopping and/or scrubbing and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equip­
ment, furniture, or fixtures, polishing metal fixtures or
trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms.

container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or
crates are excluded.
Stower, car and truck

Loads mixed products into cars or trucks for offplant shipment, stowing in piles in stop order arrange­
ment and separating product by size and kind. Exclude

workers loading cars with a single product and Lugger.

Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Truckdriver
Lugger

Carries, or uses forklift or similar machine to move
beef and/or other meat products from loading dock into
railroad car or truck. For wage study purposes, luggers
are classified as follows:
Lugger, beef, hand
Lugger, beef, machine
Lugger, other products, including combination of
beef and other meats, hand
Lugger, other products, including combination of
beef and other meats, machine
Packer, shipping

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by
placing them in shipping containers, the specific opera­
tions performed being dependent upon the type, size,
and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve
one or more of the following: Knowledge of various
items of stock in order to verify content; selection of
appropriate type and size of container; inserting en­
closures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing con­
tainer; applying labels or entering identifying data on




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to
transport materials, merchandise, equipment, or men
between various types of establishments such as: Man­
ufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale
and retail establishments, or between retail establish­
ments and customers’ houses or places of business. May
also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make
minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good
working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified
by size of equipment, as follows:
Truckdriver, semi- or trailer
Truckdriver, other than semi- or trailer
Truckdriver, combination of types
Trucker, power

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric
powered truck or tractor to transport goods and
materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing
plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, power truckers are classi
fled by type of truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

A Looseleaf Directory and Factbook
on Union and Employee Association
Membership and Structure from the
Bureau of Labor Statistics

New, loose-leaf format ensures upto-date information on listed unions
and associations. Subscribers
receive the basic volume and three
complete revisions of the listing
section during the two-year interval
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Directory lists names, addresses of:
National and international unions
State labor organizations
Professional and public employee
associations,
their officers and key officials, pub­
lications, information about their
conventions, membership, and
number of locals.

Directory of
National
Unions and
Em ployee
Associations

1973

Factbook section of the publication
includes a report on developments
in the labor movement, 1971-73, and
facts about the structure of the labor
movement. Information about the
level, trend, and composition of
membership is supplied by the par­
ticipating organizations. Extensive
statistical appendixes.
I-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, Please enter my subscription to the Directory of National Unions and Employee Associations, 1973, Catalog
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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago , III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New Y ork, N .Y . 10036
Phone: (212) 971-5405

Reaion III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404) 526-5418




Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Regions V II and V III*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas C ity, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X * *
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102