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Industry Wage Survey:
Grain Mill Products, September 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor StatiffkjQpO' 1
1979
Bulletin 2026




00 .




Industry Wage Survey:
Grain Mill Products, September 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
June 1979
Bulletin 2026

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Stock number 029—001—02317—1




Preface

This four-part bulletin summarizes the results of a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of wages and supple­
mentary benefits in four grain mill industries in Sep­
tember 1977. Information is provided separately for:
Flour and other grain mill products (part I); rice mill­
ing (part II); blended and prepared flour (part III); and
wet corn milling (part IV).
The study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations. The analysis was pre­
pared in the Division of Occupational Wage Structures.
Fieldwork for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s




Assistant Regional Commissioners for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program
of industry wage studies, as well as the addresses of the
Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this
bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without the permission of the
Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics and cite Industry Wage Survey: Grain Mill
Products, September 1977, Bulletin 2026.

Contents

Page
Introduction. The grain mill products industries
Earnings and benefits.............................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics..........................................................................................................................................................
Products and processes......................................................................................................................................................
Productivity........................................................................................................................................................................
Employment and mill size.................................................................................................................................................
L ocation..............................................................................................................................................................................
Union contract status.........................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage paym ent.................................................................................................................................................

1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

Text tables:
1. Average hourly earnings in grain milling industries by
selected characteristics, September 1977 .................................................................................................................
2. Changes in productivity and related measures in all manufacturing
and grain mill products industries, 1967-76 ...........................................................................................................

1
2

Part I. Flour and other grain mill products................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings.........................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earn ings............................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions............................................................................................
Scheduled weekly h o u rs....................................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices.............................................................................................................................................
Paid h o lid ay s.................
Paid vacations......................................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans...........................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits.......................................................................................................................................................

4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

Reference tables:
1. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics....................................................................................................
2. Earnings distribution.......................................................................................................................................................
Occupational averages:
3. All establishments............................................................................................................................................................
4. By size of co m m unity....................................................................................................................................................
5. By size of establishment..................................................................................................................................................
6. By union contract status..................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
7. Method of wage paym ent....................
8. Scheduled weekly h o u rs.................................................................................
9. Shift differential provisions.............................................................................................................................................
10. Shift differential practices...............................................................................................................................................
11. Paid holidays . . '...............................................................................................................................................................
12. Paid vacations....................................................................................................................................................................
13. Health, insurance, and retirement plans........................................................................................................................
14. Other selected benefits....................................................................................................................................................

13
13
14
15
16
17
19
20

Part II. Rice m illing....................................................................................................................................................................
E arnings...................................................................................................................................................................................

21
21




IV

6
7
8
10
11
12

Contents—Continued
Page
Part II. Rice milling—
Continued
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions............................................................................................
Scheduled weekly h ours....................................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices............................................................................................................................................
Paid h o lid ay s......................................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations............................................................. . .....................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans..........................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits......................................................................................................................................................
Reference tables:
15. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics..............................................................................................
16. Earnings distribution.................................................................................................................................................
Occupational averages:
17. All establishments......................................................................................................................................................
18. By selected characteristics..........................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
19. Shift differential provisions and practices................................................................................................................
20. Paid h olidays..............................................................................................................................................................
21. Paid vacations..............................................................................................................................................................
22. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...................................................................................................................
23. Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................................
Part III. Blended and prepared flo u r..........................................................................................................................................
E arnings...................................................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions............................................................................................
Scheduled weekly h o u rs....................................................................................................................................................
Shift differential provisions and practices.........................................................................................
Paid h olidays......................................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations......................................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans...........................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits.......................................................................................................................................................
Reference tables:
24. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics ............................................................................................
Occupational averages:
25. All establishments......................................................................................................................................................
26. By size of co m m unity...............................................................................................................................................
27. By size of establishment............................................................................................................................................
28. By union contract status............................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
29. Method of wage paym ent..........................................................................................................................................
30. Scheduled weekly hours............................................................................................................................................
31. Shift differential provisions.......................................................................................................................................
32. Shift differential practices.........................................................................................................................................
33. Paid h o lid ay s..............................................................................................................................................................
34. Paid vacations..............................................................................................................................................................
35. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...................................................................................................................
36. Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................................
Part IV. Wet corn m illin g ...........................................................................................................................................................
E arnings...................................................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions............................................................................................
Scheduled weekly hours and shift w ork..........................................................................................................................
Paid holidays and vacations...............................................................................................................................................




v

21
21
21
21
21
21
22

23
23
24
24
25
25
26
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
29

30
31
32
32
33
34
34
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
39
39
39
39

Contents—Continued
Page
Part III. Wet corn milling—
Continued
Health, insurance, and retirement plans..........................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits......................................................................................................................................................
Reference tables:
37. Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics..............................................................................................
38. Earnings distribution.................................................................................................................................................
Occupational averages:
39. All establishments......................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
40. Method of wage paym ent..........................................................................................................................................
41. Shift differential provisions.......................................................................................................................................
42. Shift differential practices..........................................................................................................................................
43. Paid ho lid ays..............................................................................................................................................................
44. Paid vacations..............................................................................................................................................................
45. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...................................................................................................................
46. Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................................
Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey............................................................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions.................................................................................................................................................




VI

39
39

40
40
41
42
42
43
43
44
45
45

46
50

Introduction. The Grain Mill
Products Industries

As part of its regular Industry Wage Survey pro­
gram, the Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted occu­
pational wage studies in the grain mill products indus­
tries during late 1977. In order to represent this sector
better, the Bureau expanded its industrial coverage,
which previously included only flour milling, to include
rice milling, blended and prepared flours, and wet com
milling.' This doubled the production workers covered
by the 1977 survey (25,000) compared to earlier flour
milling surveys.2 The entire grain mill products indus­
try,3 ^however, employed about 100,000 production

workers in 1977-nearly 1 in every 10 workers in food
products manufacturing.4
Earnings and benefits

Wet com milling registered the highest pay levels
among the four industries. (See text table 1.) At $6.87
per hour, earnings in wet com mills were 12 percent
higher than in blended flour mills, 24 percent higher
than in flour mills, and 78 percent higher than in rice
mills. Wet com milling establishments have several
characteristics traditionally associated with high pay
levels-a location in the North Central States and a large,
mostly unionized work force. Rice mill workers, in con­
trast, were concentrated in the Southwest, one of the
lowest paying regions, and only one-third of them were
unionized.
Paid holidays and vacations were granted to nearly
all grain milling workers. Outside of rice milling, 10 or
11 holidays a year were typical; in rice mills, 8 days or
less were the rule. Most grain milling workers (except
in rice mills) were eligible to receive at least 4 weeks’
vacation pay after qualifying periods of service (usual­
ly 15 years). Although limited to under 4 weeks’ vaca­
tion, rice mill workers were usually eligible for at least
2 or 3 weeks’ vacation sooner than their grain mill
counterparts; e.g., 2 weeks or more after 1 year rather
than 2 years. A large majority of workers in all four
industries studied were covered by health, insurance,
and pension plans financed at least in part by their
employers.

Text table 1.
Average hourly earnings1 in grain milling industries
by selected characteristics, September 1977
Characteristic

All production workers. . . .

Flour
milling

Rice
milling

Blended
flour
milling

Wet
corn
milling

$5.52

$3.85

$6.14

$6.87

5.65
4.99

4.61
2.98

6.41
3.53

6.87
6.85

5.14
5.90

3.78
3.89

4.85
6.38

4.61
6.97

5.90

4.48

6.65

—

4.04

3.54

3.72

—

5.87
5.47
5.15

3.94
4.07
3.56

5.86
6.02
5.39

6.50
6.10
6.16

6.23
6.95
5.16
5.84
5.52

5.11
—
3.49
3.85
2.89

7.42
—
5.12
5.89

6.97
7.80
6.56
6.76
6.96

Size of community
Metropolitan areas2................
Nonmetropolitan areas. . . .
''Size of establishment
Fewer than 100 workers3 . .
100 workers or more .
. Labor-management
contract status
Majority o f ‘workers covered.
N o n e o r m in o r it y o f w o rk e r s

covered................................
Selected occupations
Forklift operators...................
Janitors......................................
Laborers, material handling .
Mechanics, general maintenance...................................
Millwrights................................
Packers......................................
Processors4 .............................
Receivers5 ................ ...............

’ See appendix A for scope and method o f survey and for defini­
tions o f terms and regions used in this report. For ease o f reading,
establishments in the industry “flour and other grain mill products”
will be called flour mills and those in the industry “blended and pre­
pared flours,” blended flour mills.
2Three previous BLS summaries o f this industry are mentioned in
this report. See Industry Wage Survey: Flour and Other Grain M ill
Products: M ay 1972, Bulletin 1803 (1973); February 1967, Bulletin 1576
(1967); and November 1961, Bulletin 1337 (1962).
3Grain mill industries excluded from the 1977 wage survey were
“cereal breakfast foods,” “dog, cat, and other pet food,” and “pre­
pared feeds and feed ingredients for animals and fowls, not elsewhere
classified.”
4Employment estimates for grain milling as a whole are available
monthly from the Bureau’s Employment and Earnings series.

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
2Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget through Feb. 1974.
3 Includes data for establishments employing 20 workers or
more.
4 Includes a variety of jobs relating to the operation of processing
equipment.
5 1 of 3 separate elevator operator jobs surveyed.
NOTE: Dashes Indicate that no data were reported or that data
did not meet publication criteria.




1

with other ingredients, such as shortening, buttermilk
solids, phosphates, salts, soda, and sugar, to produce
self-rising or other premixed flour.
Wet corn mills primarily mill corn or sorghum grain
(milo) by the wet process and produce starch, syrup,
oil, sugar, and byproducts such as gluten feed and meal.
(Establishments chiefly manufacturing starch from oth­
er vegetable sources-e.g., potatoes or wheat-are also
within the scope of the survey.)
Corn kernels are transformed by multistep processes
into basic feeds, starches, oils, and other products.
Cleaned corn is sent to steep tanks for soaking in warm
water. (The steepwater is drawn off and processed for
feed and medicinal purposes.) The softened kernels go
to degerminating mills where separators remove oil­
laden germs and extract the oil. The remaining slurry
of starch, gluten, and hulls is ground finely, passed
through reels, and shaken to remove the hulls. Starch
and gluten are then separated in centrifuges. The starch
is washed, dried, and prepared for shipment as starch
and dextrin, or converted into syrup, dextrose, and
maltodextrins. Hulls, fibre, and gluten are used as ele­
ments of feed products.
Mills whose principal product is wet and dry syrups
accounted for nearly three-fourths of the industry’s pro­
duction workers; those chiefly making dry starch em­
ployed the remainder.

Industry characteristics

Products and processes. The production of grain mill
prdducts involves highly mechanized operations. Ma­
chines are used to clean raw materials, move them
through the mill, process grain (grind, sift, cook, dry,
hull, polish, etc.), combine the milled products, and
package the final products.
Flour mills are primarily engaged in milling flour or
meal from grain, except rice. The products of flour mills
may be sold plain or in the form of prepared mixes or
doughs.
Wheat flour is produced by a continuous grinding
and sifting process that separates and breaks down the
major portion of the kernel-the endosperm-from the
bran and inner wheat germ. Typically, the milling proc­
ess is completed within 30 minutes. The milled grains
may be “enriched” or “blended” for specific quality
flours.
Mills producing wheat flour as their primary prod­
ucts accounted for three-fourths of the production
workers covered by the survey. One-eighth were em­
ployed in mills chiefly making prepared flour and less
than one-tenth, in cornmeal mills.
Rice mills chiefly clean and polish rice and make rice
flour and meal. Other important products of this indus­
try include brown and milled rice, rice polish, and rice
bran. Polished or white rice is the final product of mills
employing four-fifths of the workers.
After cleaning, and sometimes steam cooking, the
rice kernel is shelled to remove the husk. The shelled
kernels are then pearled or scoured to remove the bran
layer. Rice for domestic consumption is polished fur­
ther to a measured degree of whiteness.
The bran is useful in animal feeds, but the husk has
virtually no recoverable food value. Rice is generally
enriched to replace the nutrients lost in scouring the
bran.
Flour mixes and doughs made from purchased flour
are the primary products of mills in the blended and
prepared flour industry. Mills producing blended flour
employed three-fifths of the workers and those pro­
ducing mixes or doughs, the remainder. A major proc­
ess of these mills is the mixing and blending of flour

Text table 2.

Productivity. For the grain mill products industry as a
whole, productivity gains were well above the average
productivity rise in manufacturing industries between
the midsixties and midseventies.5The strong output ad­
vance, spurred by growth in population and per capita
food consumption and rising real income, was a major
factor. High rates of capital expenditure and the already
high ratio of capital per employee in grain milling were
also significant in the productivity advance.
Text table 2 compares productivity gains for all man­
ufacturing, all grain mill products, and selected grain
5 The Bureau’s Office o f Productivity and Technology has recently
expanded its coverage o f grain mill products and now publishes pro­
ductivity measures for the four industries covered by this occupa­
tional wage survey. See Productivity Indexes for Selected Industries,
1978 Edition, Bulletin 2002 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1978).

Changes in productivity and related measures in all manufacturing and grain mill products industries, 1967-76

[In percent]
Measure

Output per production worker h o u r ...................
O u tp u t.........................................................................
Production worker hours.........................................

All
manu­
facturing1

All grain
mill
products2

23
19
-3

32
35
2

1 Productivity measures for "all manufacturing" are for all persons
rather than production workers.




2

Flour

23
-1
-19

Rice

Blended
flour

Wet
corn

6
12
6

14
23
8

63
32
-1 9

*AII grain mill products Includes industries in addition to those
shown separately.

milling industries, for the period 1967-76. It shows that
gains for wet corn milling were much larger than for
the other three industries studied.

(nine-tenths) in the Southwest-split about evenly be­
tween large and small communities. Milling activity is
often near the source of raw materials; e.g., the Corn
Belt of the Midwest and the rice growing areas of cer­
tain southwestern States.

Employment and mill size. Flour mills employed the
largest proportion of the industries’ production work
force-just over two-fifths; wet corn employed onefourth of the work force; blended flour, one-fifth; and
rice, one-tenth. Wet corn mills had, on average, the
largest work force among the four-5 times that of the
average flour mill. Large mills (those with at least 100
workers) employed a majority of each industry’s pro­
duction workers, although only a minority of the mills
in all but the wet corn industry were of this size. The
tabulation that follows highlights employment differ­
ences among the industries.
F lo u r
N u m b er o f p ro d u c tio n
w o rk e rs ........................ 1 0 ,5 5 0
193
N u m b er o f m i l l s ............
A verage m ill s i z e ............
55
P ercen t o f large m ills
23
(a t least 100 w ork ers)
P ercen t o f p ro d u c tio n
w o rk ers in large m ills
51

Union contract status. Mills having labor-management
agreements covering at least a majority of their pro­
duction workers employed virtually all workers in wet
corn mills, four-fifths in flour and blended flour mills,
and one-third in rice mills. Virtually all unionized work­
ers in rice and blended flour mills and slightly over
seven-tenths in flour and wet corn mills were in met­
ropolitan areas. The major union in flour and blended
flour milling is the American Federation of Grain Mil­
lers (AFL-CIO). No union predominated in the other
two types of mills.

W et
corn

R ic e

B le n d e d
flo u r

2 ,6 4 2
40
66

5,1 0 7
45
115

6 ,3 3 7
22
288

25

42

73

64

85

96

Method o f wage payment. Virtually all workers in grain
mills were paid time rates, typically under formal pay
systems providing a single rate for specific occupations
(tables 7, 29, and 40). Range-of-rate systems covered
three-tenths of the workers in rice and wet corn mills
and one-tenth or less in flour and blended flour mills.
Some regional deviations from the national pattern
of single-rate systems were noted in flour and wet corn
mills. In the former industry, significant proportions of
workers in the largely nonunion Border States and
Southeast region were paid on the basis of their indi­
vidual qualifications. In the latter industry, seven-tenths
of the workers in the Middle West were on rate-range
systems.

Location. Employment in flour, blended flour, and wet
corn mills was concentrated in metropolitan areas of
the Great Lakes and Middle West regions. The rice
milling work force was overwhelmingly concentrated




3

Part I. Flour and Other Grain
Mill Products

or more in four regions: Pacific (32 percent), Middle
Atlantic (24 percent), Great Lakes (9 percent), and
Mountain States (7 percent).

Average hourly earnings

Hourly pay levels for the 10,550 production and re­
lated workers in flour mills averaged $5.52 an hour in
September 1977 (table l),6 up 57 percent since a similar
survey in May 1972. During that period, the Hourly
Earnings Index for all manufacturing workers increased
by 51 percent.
Regionally, September 1977 hourly averages ranged
from $3.95 in the Border States to $6.80 in the Pacific.
In the Middle Atlantic, Great Lakes, Middle West, and
Mountain regions, averages were between $5.68 and
$5.95, whereas in the Southeast and Southwest, they
fell within the $4.17 to $4.20 range.
Nationwide, workers in mills with 100 workers or
more averaged $5.90 an hour, 15 percent more than
those in smaller mills. Pay differences between such
mills in the three regions permitting comparisons were
less than 10 percent in the Great Lakes and Middle
West, and 32 percent in the Southeast.
Workers employed in metropolitan areas averaged
$5.65 an hour compared with $4.99 for those in plants
located in smaller communities. In the two regions per­
mitting comparisons, the difference in favor of larger
communities was $1.07 in the Southeast and 26 cents
in the Great Lakes.
Average earnings by union contract status for work­
ers in flour mills could be compared only nationwide
and in the Southeast region. The national average for
workers in unionized mills was $5.90 an hour compared
with $4.04 for nonunion workers; in the Southeast, un­
ionized workers earned $5.01 an hour compared with
$3.60 for nonunion workers.
Survey results do not indicate the exact influence of
any one characteristic on wage levels. The interrela­
tionship of charateristics such as unionization, size of
establishment, and size of community is evident from
the discussion of industry characteristics.
Individual earnings of 90 percent of the production
workers fell between $3.20 and $7.40 an hour; exclud­
ing the upper and lower fourths of the scale, the mid­
dle 50 percent of workers in the earnings array were
between $4.78 and $6.38 an hour (table 2). In only three
regions was a concentration of workers below $3 an
hour-11 percent in the Border States, 15 percent in the
Southwest, and 19 percent in the Southeast. At the up­
per end of the array, a number of workers earned $7



Occupational earnings

Workers in the occupations selected to represent the
wage structure, skills, and manufacturing operations in
the industry constituted just over half of the produc­
tion workers studied (table 3). Among those occupa­
tions, average hourly earnings were highest for mill­
wrights ($6.95) and lowest for feed packers ($5.01).
As a group, the almost 1,400 workers in the numer­
ically important processing occupations averaged $5.84
hourly in September 1977. Averages for the four proc­
essing classifications studied separately fell within a nar­
row range-from $5.76 for blenders to $6.04 for bolters.
Packers, also numerically important, averaged $5.16.
Flour packers outnumbered feed packers by more than
3 to 1; the former also had a 4-percent earnings advan­
tage over feed packers. Laborers, the second largest
group, were reported at the same pay level as the over­
all average for packers.
Occupational earnings data are presented (table 3)
separately for five regions-the Middle Atlantic,
Southeast, Great Lakes, Middle West, and Pacific. With
few exceptions, pay averages in the Southeast were be­
low comparable national levels, while those in the four
other regions were above. The Pacific region had the

6 The straight-time average hourly earnings in this section differ in
concept from the gross average hourly earnings published in the Bu­
reau’s monthly Em ploym entandEarnings series ($6.25 in Sept. 1977).
Unlike the latter, the estimates presented here exclude premium pay
for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Average earnings were calculated by summing individual hourly
earnings and dividing by the number of individuals; in the monthly
series, the sum o f the employee-hour totals reported by establish­
ments in the industry was divided into the reported payroll totals.
The estimate o f the number o f flour mill production workers is in­
tended only as a general guide to the size and composition o f the la­
bor force included in the survey. It differs from that published in the
Bureau’s monthly series (19,700 in Sept. 1977) in part because o f the
exclusion o f establishments employing fewer than 20 workers. Also,
the advance planning necessary to make the survey requires the use
o f lists o f establishments assembled considerably in advance o f data
collection. Thus, establishments new to the industry are omitted, as
are establishments originally classified in the flour milling industry,
but found to be in other industries at the time o f the survey.

4

highest averages with pay levels commonly at least 15
percent above the next highest region.
Occupational averages were usually higher in flour
mills with 100 workers or more than in smaller mills,
higher in metropolitan areas than in smaller communi­
ties, and higher in union mills than in nonunion mills
(tables 4-6).

try (table 12). Typical provisions were 1 week of va­
cation pay after 1 year of service, at least 2 weeks af­
ter 2 years, 3 weeks or more after 10 years, at least 4
weeks after 15 years, and 5 or more weeks after 20
years of service. Vacation provisions were usually most
liberal in the Great Lakes, Middle West, and Pacific
and least liberal in the Border States and Southeast.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Life, hospital­
ization, basic medical, major medical, and surgical in­
surance, for which the employer paid at least part of
the cost, were available to nearly all production work­
ers (table 13). Four-fifths of the workers were provid­
ed sickness and accident insurance, and seven-tenths
were covered by accidental death and dismemberment
policies. The incidence of health and insurance plans
varied little by region, with few exceptions. The meth­
od of financing health and insurance plans, on the oth­
er hand, did vary by region. For example, the propor­
tion of employees covered by hospitalization, surgical,
and medical insurance plans paid for entirely by the
employer ranged from all workers in the Middle West
region to just under two-thirds in the Southwest.
Retirement pension plans (other than Federal social
security), providing regular payments for the remain­
der of the retiree’s life, were available to seven-eighths
of the work force. These plans, usually financed whol­
ly by the employer, applied to about two-fifths in the
Border States, to nearly three-fifths in the Southeast
and Southwest, and to nine-tenths or more in the oth­
er five regions studied separately. Retirement severance
pay plans were rarely found.

Data also were obtained on work schedules, shift
work, and selected supplementary benefits, such as paid
holidays, vacations, and health, insurance, and retire­
ment plans.
Scheduled weekly hours. Work schedules of 40 hours
a week were in effect in mills employing approximate­
ly one-half of the workers in September 1977 (table 8).
One-fourth of the workers were scheduled to work 48
hours or more per week, while most of the remainder
had weekly schedules between 40 to 48 hours. Among
regions, the proportion of the work force with 40-hour
schedules ranged from two-fifths in the Great Lakes to
nearly four-fifths in the Southwest. Only in the Great
Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions were schedules of
less than 40 hours found.
Shift provisions and practices. Flour mills employing
over nine-tenths of the workers had formal provisions
for late shifts; usually, a cents- per-hour premium over
day-shift rates was provided (table 9). At the time of
the survey, one-sixth of the production workers staffed
second shifts and slightly over one-tenth, third or oth­
er late shifts (table 10). The most common hourly dif­
ferential was 12 cents for the second shift and 20 cents
for the third shift.

Other selected benefits. Pay for jury duty and for at­
tendance at funerals of specified relatives was available
to almost nine-tenths of the production workers (table
14). A large majority of the workers in all regions stud­
ied, except the Border States and Southeast, were cov­
ered by both these benefits. Severance pay for workers
who lose their jobs due to technological change or mill
closings was available to slightly more than two-fifths
of the workers nationwide. Regionally, severance pay
coverage varied from none in mills in the Border States
and Southeast to nearly 90 percent in the Mountain
States.

Paid holidays. Almost all mills within the survey pro­
vided paid holidays (table 11). Flour mills granting 10
or 11 days accounted for nearly two-thirds of the pro­
duction workers nationwide, and for a large majority
of workers in the regions outside the South. In the Bor­
der States and Southeast, 6 days or less were provided,
while in the Southwest, 8 to 10 days were common.
Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying periods
of service, were provided to all workers in the indus­




5

Table 1. Four and other grain mill products: Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics
(N um ber and average
S e p t e m b e r 1977)

straight-tim e

e a r n i n g s 1 of p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s
U nited

S tates

by s e le c te d

characteristics,

M iddle A tlantic

B order

U nited

States

States and

selected

Southeast

regions,
S outhw est

C haracteristics
W orkers

ALL PRODUCTI ON

Earnings

W orkers

Earnings

WORKERS^..................................

10,550

* 5 .52

1 , 2 38

$5.98

S I Z E OF E S T A B L I S H M E N T :
2 0 - 9 9 WORKERS.......................................................
1 0 0 WORKERS OR MORE.....................................

5,210
5 , 340

5.14
5.90

534

4.81
*

S I Z E OF COMMUNI TY: 3
METROPOLI TAN A R E A S ........................................
NONMETROPOLI TAN A R E A S...............................

t ,2 6 9
3.3U9

5.65
4.99

LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONT RACT S:
E ST AB LI SH ME NT S W I T H MA JORI TY OF WORKERS C O V E R E D . . .
NONE OR MI NO RI TY OF W O R K E R S . . .

8,402
2 ,148

5 .9 0
4 .0 a

WORKE RS!..................................

338

Earnings

$3.95

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

6 .51
“

-

_

~

“

1,0 0 8

G reat
ALL PRO DU CT IO N

W orkers

Lakes

M iddle

W est

3 ,176

$5.83

2,476

$5.68

S I Z E OF E S T A B L I S H M E N T :
2 0 - 9 9 WORKERS.......................................................
1 0 0 WORKERS OR MORE.....................................

1,59 1
1,585

5.59
6 .0 7

1,090
1,386

5.48
5.83

S I Z E OF C O MMU NI T Y: 3
METROPOLI TAN A R E A S ........................................
N ON HE I RO PO L IT A N AREAS...............................

1,924
1.252

5.93
5 . o7

1,596

5.90

LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONT RACT S:
E S T A B L I SH M EN T S W I T H MAJORI TY OF WORKERS C O V E R E D . . .
NONE OR M I NO RI T Y OF W O R K E R S . . .

W orkers

Earnings

W orkers

E arnings

$ U . 17

7 5o

SU.20

3 .6 8
4.86

270
*

4.39

569
656

4.74
3.67

-

-

-

•

494
731

5.01
3 .6 0

560

1 ,225

721
504

!

M ountain

476

Pacific

$ 5 .9 5

_
-

W.59

825

$6.80

_
-

_

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

-

6 . 80
-

-

1
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y 1974.
holidays, and late shifts.
N O T E : D ashes indicate that no data w e r e re p o rte d o r th a t data
V irtu a lly all w o rk e rs w e re m en.
did n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .
3 S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s a s d e f i n e d b y t h e U . S.




6

Table 2. Flour and other grain mill products: Earnings distribution
(P e rc e n t distrib u tio n of p roduction w o rk e rs by

straight-tim e

h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1, U n i t e d

U nited
States

M iddle

B order

NUNBEP OF i i O E K i j S . ' ........................................
AVER ftOx, HOUr-.LY c E E N i b u S .........................

13,550
£5.52

1 , 27b
$5.96

33o
£3.S 5

100.0

100.0

A verage

hourly e a r n in g s 1

States

and

selected

r e g i o n s , S e p t e m b e r 1 97 7)
M iddle
M ountain
___ W e s t ____

Southw est

G reat

1,2 2 5
$ 4 . 17

7 56
$ 4.20

3 ,176
£ 5 .83

2,4 7 6
$5 . cb

476
$5.95

825
$ 6.80

10b. C

100.0

100.0

100.0

S outheast

1 3 J.0

130.0

0.9
•

2 .0
2.4

1.2

0.6

2.4
1.8
1.8
3.3
1.2

2. 1
3. 2
3.6
2.4
3. 1

.3
2.2
3.0
5.6
2.2

4.3
.5

11.2
£.9
4.4
4.1
.6

4. 1
1.7
1. 3
2.0
8.9

1.1
.6
.5
.3
.2

3.4
. 7
.6
.5
.2

4.4
1.5
2.7
3.0

1.0
1.3
.7
2 .2
1.3

2.3
.5
.5
.2

£ 4 . 6 0 ....................
£ 4 . 7 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 6 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 9 0 ...............................
u n d e r $ 5 . 0 0 ...............................

2.0
2. 1
3.4
2 .0
3 .0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 . 1 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 2 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 3 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 4 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 5 0 ...............................

$5.50
$ 5.60
$ 5 .70
$ 5.80
$5.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$6.00
$6.20
$6.40
$6 .6 0
$6.80

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UND&R
UNDER
UND*R
UNDER

$7.00
$ 7.20
$7.40
$ 7 .60
$7.80

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

T OT AL ................................................................

100.0

£2.30
$ 2.40

AND UNDER £ 2 . 4 0 ...............................
AND U Nbr.R i Z . b d ...............................

0.6
.3

-

$2.50
$ 2.60
1 2 .70
£ 2 .80
£2.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNbr.ii
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 . 6 0 . . . ..................
$ ^.7 o .. . . . . . . . . .
. 2 . 8 0 ...............................
£ 2 . 9 0 . . . ......................
£ 8 . 0 0 ...............................

.4
.0
.7
.8
.6

-

£3.00
£3.10
£3.20
$ 3.30
£ 3.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
0 NDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

£ 3 . 1 0 ...............................
$ 3 . 2 0 ...............................
£ 3 . 3 0 ...............................
$ 3 . 4 0 ...............................
£ 3 . 5 0 ...............................

1.8
.7
.7
.5
1.3

£ 3 .50
£ 3 .60
£3.70
$ 3.80
$3.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDr.5
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 . 6 0 ...............................
£ 3 . 7 0 ...............................
$ 3 . 8 0 ...............................
£ 3 . 9 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 0 0 ...............................

$4.00
$4.10
$ 4.20
£ 4.30
£ 4.40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNiyEfi
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 . 1 0 ...............................
£ 4 . 2 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 3 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 4 0 ...............................
$ 4 . 5 0 ...............................

£4.50
£4.60
$4.70
$4.80
$4.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$5.00
$ 5.10
$ 5 .20
$5.30
$ 5.40

P acific

~

1.3
"

”

. 1

-

. 2
.8
*

-

5.2
1.5
4.8
1.2
1.6

.4
-

b.2
-

3.9
2.8
2.5
.3
.6

1.1
.8
.5
.7
.8

.2

1.2
.9
2.4
3.6
8.9

2 .0
1.5
.7
.7
1.0

. 1
.3
3.4
11.4
.7

I. 1

1.6
1. 3
6. 1
3.3
1. 3

£.9
4.4
.3
3.0

2.0
3.8
3.7
1.7
7 .5

1.6
1.4
2 .2
3 .6
2.7

1.3
. 3
.6
.4
.2

-

$ 5 . 6 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 7 0 ...............................
$ 5 . d 0 ...............................
$ 5 . 9 0 ...............................
$ 6 . 0 0 ...............................

2.6
3.4
4.1
4 .9
2 .7

$ 6 . 2 0 ...............................
$ 6 . 4 0 ...............................
$ 6 . 6 0 ...............................
$ 6 . 6 0 ...............................
$ 7 . 0 0 ...............................

UNDER $ 7 . 2 0 ...............................
UNDX.B $ 7 . 4 0 ...............................
UNDER $ 7 . 6 0 ...............................
UNDER $ 7 . 8 0 ...............................
O VER....................................................

*

"

•

"

.2
2 .5

-

. 4

-

- 6
.3

~

2. 1

-

~

.4
1.5
1.0

.3
4.2
3.3
2.4

~
2. 7
.2
“

16.5
4.1
9 .5
1.9
7.5

.4
3.3
4. 1
.6
3. 1

. i
.8
.4
4.5
1.8

1. 1
.2

5.3
6.2

.9
i . i
5. 1
5. 1
4. 1

2.2
.4
.5
1.3
.7

2.0
. 5
2.6
£• 3
2.6

2.5
3.8
3.1
1.8
4.1

“
4 .2

2. 1
1. 8
.4

_
.6
.9

2.9
2.7
3.3
.6
. 4

.7
1.5
1.7
.8
. 1

2.0
5. 1
7.9
2. 5
4.8

5.9
2.7
4.8
15.1
2.8

3 .6
1.3
5 .5
8 .0

3 .5
.6

7 .9
7.6
7.0
5.6
2.8

10. 1
4. 4
11. 3
11. 7
3.8

.6
-

1.1
1.4
. 1
-

1.3
-

*

*

8.0
10.8
9. 8
4.4
3.0

13.2
£.0
3.5
4.0
1.9

17.6
2 0.6
£ .0
9 .7
1.9

1.3
10.4
19.4
18.4
11.4

4 .0
1.8
2.0
.6
1.0

11.0
2.7
7.3
1. 0
2.3

.
.9
-

4 .8
2.3
1. 1
.6
. 1

.7
.7
~
.2
1.7

3 .4
.8
2.7
.2
.2

11.6
6.5
7 .6
2.2
4.0

.
-

1

NOTE:

1 E x cludes p re m iu m pay for o v e rtim e and for w o rk on w eekends,
holidays, and la te shifts.




• J

7

.5

~

~

-

~
-

D a sh e s indicate that no d a ta w e r e re p o rte d .

-

2.5

Table 3. Flour and other grain mill products: Occupational averages—all establishments
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ,
S e p t e m b e r 1 97 7)____________________________________ ^
U nited State
D e p artm en t and occupation

U nited S tates and se le c te d re g io n s,
_____________________________________________
M iddle A tlantic

H ourly e arn in g s1
M edian

w orkers

165
336
10U

$ 5 .8 6
5.52
5.69

$ 6.13
5.41
5.91

1.3 9 3
275
200
550
128

5.88
5.76
6.04
5 .9 2
5.87

1,169
280
889

H ourly e a rn in g s1

Number

M ean

Number
of
w orkers

M iddle ra n g e

M ean

M edian

M iddle

range

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
C LE A N E R S , BULK.............................................................
R E C E I V E R S ............................................................................
WEI GHERS................................................................................

*5.8 2 8 .9 3 4 .8 9 -

*6.53
6.45
6.51

9
47
14

*6.99
5.63
6 .2 0

* 6.85

*8.93-

$ 6 .4 8
“

6.08
5 . 68
6.15
6 • C1
5.87

5 .0 2 4 .9 1 5 .5 0 5 .025 .0 9 -

6 .68
6.73
6.74
6.83
6.71

178
41
12
88
*

6 .3 4
6.33
6.95
5.98
“

6.81
6.94
6 .1 5
*

5 .6 1 4 .7 2 5 .6 1 -

7.14
7 .0 2

5 . 16
5.0 1
5.21

5.36
8.62
5.81

4 .4 0 4.494 .40-

6 .1 5
6.01
6.25

159
102

5.86
5.81

5.31
6.46

8 .0 0 4.7 5 -

6.74

1,198
392
357
35

5 . 15
5.88
5.86
6.10

5.88
6 . Cl
6.C 1
6.16

8 .335 .3 1 5 .0 5 5 .8 9 -

6.01
6 .6 7
6.69
6.67

55
52
-

6.59
6 .60

6.77
6 .7 7

6. 586 .5 8 -

7.13
7 .1 3

103
440
258
306
77

6.62
6.23
6.95
5.68
6.52

6 .5 2
6.16
7 .0 5
5 .8 7
6 .6 0

6 .2 6 5.5 6 6 .2 7 5 .1 5 5 .9 6 -

7.23
6.99
7.53
6.38
7.05

11
72
28
-

7 .57
7.23
6.29

7.53
6.83

~
7 .016 .3 8 ~

801

5 .87

5.71

5 .2 2 -

6.04

96

5.94

6 .08

6 .0 4 -

6.62

PROCESSING
P RO CE SSO RS. 3.................................. ...................................
BL EN DE RS.........................................................................
B O L T E R S ............................................................................
M I L L E R S , FLOUR ( SECOND H I L L E R ) . . .
ROLL T E N D E R S .............................................................

7.06

PACKI NG
PA CK ERS..................................................................................
F E E D .....................................................................................
F L O U R..................................................................................

6.78

MATERI AL MOVEMENT
L A B OR ER S, MATERI AL HANDLI NG......................
T R U CK E RS , POWER..........................................................
F 0 R K L I F 1 .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ........................................
MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ....................................................................
ME CH A NI C S, GENERAL U I I L I I I .........................
M I LL WR I GH T S.......................................................................
O I L E R S ......................................................................................
S HE ET -ME TA L WORKERS..............................................

7 .5 3
6.79

S E R V I C E AND CU ST OD IA L
JA N ITO R S,

POR T E RS , A N D

CL EA NE RS.............

Southeast

G reat Lakes

ELEVATOR O PERATORS
C L E A NE RS , BULK.............................................................
R E C E I V E R S ............................................................................
W EI GH ERS ...............................................................................

41
6

$4.49
4.02

132

8

4 .6 6
3 .9 3
4 .9 6
4.72
4 .6 8

1 71
40
1 31

3 .8 6
3 .8 2
3.87

3.80
3 .8 5
3.40

3 .0 0 2 .7 5 3. 00-

4.91
4.91
4.91

3.38
4 .4 4
4.42
-

4.60
4.60
-

3.50-

5.45

$ 5 . 18

%3 . 5 8 -

$ 5.33

3 .9 3 -

5.29

91
105
32

$5.98
5.67
5.80

*6.01
5.37
6.16

*5 .7 9 8 .9 3 8 .7 5 -

* 6 .53
6.60
6.35

362
60
44
163
42

6.11
6.40
6.08
6 .1 7
5.96

6 .4 7
6.73
6.27
6.47
6.70

5 .3 8 6 .4 4 5 .8 0 5. 134 .9 1 -

6.73
6.73
6.58
7.02
6.71

251
61
190

5.55
5.15
5 .6 7

5 .4 4
4.77
5.98

4.7 7 4 .7 7 8 .7 7 -

6.25
5.41
6.32

277
73
62
11

5.57
6.14
6.15
6.09

5.73
6.17
6 . 17
-

8.7 0 5 .3 1 5 .0 5 “

6 . 14
7.57
7.57

52
160
68
102
32

6.83
6 .2 9
6.65
5 .9 2
6.81

6.S7
6 .3 0
6.64
6 .0 4
6.50

6 .5 2 5 .9 8 6 .2 5 5 .7 6 6 .5 8 -

7.23
6.90
7.05
6.38
7.05

287

5 .6 8

5.71

5 .2 4 -

6.24

P RO C E S S I N G
P RO C E S S O E S . 3. . . ............. ................................................
E L E N L E R S .........................................................................
B O L T E R S ............................................................................
H I L L E R S , FLOUR ( SECOND M I L L E R ) . . .
ROLL T E N D E R S .............................................................

_

4.86
5 . 29
8.97

5.58

PACKING
P ACK ERS ..................................................................................
F E E D .....................................................................................
F LO UR ..................................................................................
MATERIAL MOVEMENT
L A BO RE RS , MATERI AL B AN D LI N 3......................
T P U C KE RS , POWER..........................................................
F O R K L I F T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ........................................

25

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ...................................................................
M ECH AN ICS , GENERAL U T I L I T Y .........................
MI L LW RI GH TS ......................................................................
O I L E R S .....................................................................................
SHE ET -ME TAL WORKERS.............................................

5.39
5 .1 2
5.95
4.37

5 .73

-

6.03

-

-

S E R V I C E AND CU ST OD IA L
JA N I T O R S ,

P O R T ER S, A N D CL E AN E RS.............

57

4.18

4.49

See footnotes a t end of ta b le .




8

3.20-

8.75

Table 3. Continued —Flour and other grain mill products: Occupational averages — all establishments
(N um ber and a v e ra g e
S e p t e m b e r 1977)

stra ig h t-tim e earning s 1 of produ ctio n w o rk e rs
________________________

in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s ,

U nited S tates

and se lected

M iddle W est
D e p a rtm e n t and occupation

Number
of
w orkers

regions,

P acific

H ourly e a rn in g s 1
M ean

M edian

M iddle

range

$ 5 .7 3
5.58

$5 . 5 4
5 .5 8

$4.995. 15-

$5.80
5.87

Number
of
w orkers

H ourly e a rn in g s1
M ean

M edian

M iddle

16
25

$ 6.80
6.74

$6.73
6. 88

$ 6 .6 6 6 .6 6 -

$6.88
6 .9 5

range

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
C L E A N ER S, BULK.................................. ..
R E C E I V E R S ................................................. .
W E I G H E R S . . .................................................

77
23

PROCESSING
PRO CE SSO RS. 3.......................................................................
BL E ND ERS ..........................................................................
B O L T E R S ............................................................................
H I L L E R S , FLOUR ( SECOND M I L L E R ) . . .
PO LL T E ND E R S .............................................................

357
83
01
135
38

6.0 1
5.91
6.39
6 .06
5.89

6 04
5 .84
6 10
6 13
5 86

5 .725 .7 2 6 .0 8 5 .6 3 5. 37-

6.33
6.19
7.28
6 .4 3
6.56

100
16
28
88

7.13
6.84
6.98
7.39

7 . 18
6.82
6 .8 8
7.48

6 .8 3 6 . 556 .7 4 7. 22-

7 .4 8
7 . 14
7 . 15
7.58

26 9
80
18S

5 .58
5. <44
5.64

5 70
5 77
5 70

5 .0 6 4.8 25 .1 5 -

6.08
6.01
6.08

1 08
15
93

6.59
6.63
6.58

6.65
6.55
6.65

6 .5 4 6 .4 1 6 .5 4 -

6.69
6 .8 9
6 .89

392
102
86

5.23
5.95
5.86

5 50
6. 01
6 01

4 .3 0 6 .0 0 6 .0 0 -

5 .87
6.16
6.01

1 00
67
67

6.83
6.78
6.78

6 .5 2
6 .6 9
6.69

6. 296 .6 5 6.65-

6.53
7 . 16
7 . 16

20
105
88
93
32

6.13
5.92
6.94
5.5U
6.30

6.
5.
6.
5.
6.

19
96
68
69
26

5.7 8 5 .6 0 6 .2 6 5. 155 .3 6 -

6.81
6.27
7.80
5.87
6.68

47
15
27

7.52
7.44
6 .6 3

7.53
7 . 54
6.70

7 .2 2 7. 226.52-

8.00
7.63
6.70

237

5 .38

5 . 50

8 .8 7 -

5.87

52

6.36

6.85

6 .3 6 -

6 .5 3

PACKI NG
PACKERS,
FEED..
FLOUR.
MATERI AL MOVEMENT
L AB OR ER S, MATERI AL HANDLING,
T R U CK E RS , POWER.................................. .
F O R K L I F T ................................................. ..
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ..................
MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ......................................................
M E C HA N I CS , GENERAL U T I L I T Y . . . . .
M I L LW R I GH T S.........................................................
O I L E R S ...................................................................... .
S H EE T- ME TA L WORKERS................................
S E R V I C E AND C U S TO D I AL
JA N I T O R S ,

PORTERS,AND

CLEANERS.

1 E x cludes p re m iu m pay for o v e rtim e and for w o rk on w eek ­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
See appendix A for definitions of
m e a n s , m e d ia n s, and m iddle ra n g e s .
M edians and m iddle ra n g e s
w e r e n o t c o m p u t e d f o r o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e g i o n s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .




_____

3
In c lu d e s d a ta f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e
shown s e p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D ashes indicate th a t no data w e r e
did n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

9

re p o r te d o r that data

Table 4. Flour and other grain products: Occupational averages by size of community
(N um ber and a v e ra g e
S e p t e m b e r 1977)

straig h t-tim e

e a rn in g s 1 of p roduction w o rk e rs
U nited

D ep artm en t and occupation

in s e l e c t e d

Earnings

U nited

States

and

W orkers

selected

regions,

Southeast

Nonm etropolitan
areas

M etropolitan
areas
W orkers

occupations,

S tate s 2

Earnings

M etropolitan
areas
W orkers

Nonm etropolitan
areas

E arnings

W orkers

E arnings

E 1 E V AT 0 B OPERATORS
C LE A N E R S , BULK.............................................................
R E C E I f B B S .............................................................................
WE IGHE RS................................................................................

104
212
70

$6.05
5.57
5.78

52
S3
20

$5.29
5 . 12
5.01

22
*

$ 9 .96

19
6

$3.92
4.02

849
159
155
350
93

5.98
5.87
6 .0 6
6 .0 7
5.83

405
83
33
1 71
18

5.22
5.15
5 .66
5.99
9.76

56
17
33

5.05
5.04
5.12

76
12
29

9.37
3.81
—
4.26

703
162
591

5.27
5.10
5.32

366
97
269

9.66
4.66
4.66

76
13
63

9.55
9.51
9.55

95
27
68

3.31
3 .49
3 .2 9

665
265
240
25

5.91
6 .1 0
6.08
6.26

929
74
67
7

4 .4 9
4.56
4.48
5.39

37
11
11

9.36
4.85
4 .8 5
“

99
16
14

3.02
4.16
9.09

92
295
105
207
39

6.90
6.37
7 .0 5
5.79
6 .3 5

50
130
€5
75
33

6 . 18
5 .6 9
6 .5 3
5.33
6.56

26
T
9
-

5.61
5.11
“

-

19
-

4.22
•
•

502

5.53

215

5.07

34

9.79

23

3 .2 8

PROCESSING
PR OC ES SO RS , 2
3.............................................. ...
1
BL E ND ERS ..........................................................................
H I L L E R S , FLOOR ( SECOND H I L L E R ) . . .
ROLL T E N D E R S .............................................................

*

*

P ACKI NG
P A C K ER S..................................................................................
F LO OR ...................................................................................
MATERIAL HOVEHENT
L AB O R E R S , HAT ERI AL H ANDL ING......................
T R O CK E RS , POWER...........................................................
F O R K L I F T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ........................................
MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ....................................................................
ME CH A NI C S, GENERAL U T I L I T Y ..........................
M I L LW R I GH T S......................................................................
O I L E R S ......................................................................................
S H EE T -M E TA L WORKERS..............................................
S E R V I C E AND C OS TO DI AL
JANITORS,

PORTERS,AND

C LE AN ERS.............

M iddle W e st

G reat Lakes
M etropolitan
areas
W orkers

N onm etroplitan
areas

Earnings

W orkers

E arnings

M etroplitan
areas
W orkers

Earnings

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
C LE A N E R S , BOLK..............................................................
R E C E I V E R S ............................................................................
W EI GH ERS ................................................................................

54
85
29

_

$6 .1 6
5.63
5.89

37
20

$5.72
5.86
-

91
21

$ 5 .9 9
5.55

273
38
12 1
39

6.14
6.02
6.11
5 .99

89
42
*

6.02
6.33
*

295
37
38
83
35

6.18
6 .1 6
6.41
6.32
5.89

169
92
127

5.64
5.22
5.78

82
63

5.35
5.95

151
41
110

5.88
5.77
5.92

173
95
39
-

5.69
6.73
6.77

109
28
23
*

5.38
5 .21
5 . 11
*

236
91
75
-

5.95
6.1 1
6.09
-

20
123
65
*

7.40
6 .33
5.97

32
37

6.47
5.82

10
50
61
26

6 .1 1
6.03
5.76
6.30

184

5.63

175

5.92

PROCESSING
P RO CE SS ORS . ?......................................................................
BL E ND E RS.........................................................................
B O L T E R S ............................................................................
H I L L E R S , PLOOB ( SECOND M I L L E R ) . . .
ROLL T E N D E R S .............................................................
PACKI NG
P ACK ERS ..................................................................................
F E E D .....................................................................................
F L O O R ..................................................................................
MATERI AL MOVEMENT
L AB OB EB S. MATERI AL B A N D U N G ......................
T RU CK E RS , POWER..........................................................
F O R K L I F T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O B K L I E T ........................................

-

MAI NTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ....................................................................
ME CH A NI C S, GENERAL O T I L I T I ..........................
MI L LW RI G HT S.......................................................................
O I L E R S .....................................................................................
S H EE T -M E TA L WORKERS..............................................

-

_

S E R V I C E AND C US TO DI AL
JANITORS,

ends,

P OR T E R S , A N D CL E AN ERS.............

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p ay for o v e r tim e and for w o rk on w e e k ­
h o lid ay s, and la te sh ifts.
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e g i o n s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d i t i o n to




those

103

5.64

shown sep arately .

N O T E : D a sh e s in d icate th a t no d a ta w e r e
does not m e e t publication c rite ria .

10

r e p o r te d o r that data

Table 5. Flour and other grain mill products: Occupational averages by size of establishment
(N um ber and average

straight-tim e

e a r n in g s 1 of p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s

in s e l e c t e d

United S ta te s2
D e p a rtm e n t and occupation

L e s s than
100 w o r k e r s
W ork­ E a rn ­
ers
ings

o ccupations,

M id d le A l t a n t i c

1 00 w o r k e r s
or m ore
W ork­ E a rn ­
ers
ings

L e s s than
100 w o r k e r s
W ork­ E arn ers
mgs

U nited

States

and

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
W ork- E a r n ­
ers
ings

selected
G reat

Southeast

L e s s than
100 w o r k e r s
W ork- E a rn ­
ers
ings

regions,

Septem ber

Lakes

1977)

M iddle W est

TOO w o r k e r s
or m ore
W ork- E a rn ­
ings

L e s s than
1 00 w o r k e r s
W ork- E a r n ­
ers
ings

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
CL E AN E RS , B UL K .............................................................
R E C E I V E R S ............................................................................
WE IG HE RS............................... ................................................

110
177
49

$5.80
5 .2 3
5.44

55
159
55

$5.98
5 .84
5 .91

110
1 77
49

$5 .8 0
5 .2 3
5.44

-

_

22
*

$4.19
-

69
66
22

$5.97
5.97
5.53

22
39
10

$6.03
6 .0 2
6.41

6
50
14

$ 5.73
5 .8 9
5.85

825
177
97
390
38

5.59
5 .9 7
5.86
5 .7 9
9.90

568
98
103
160
50

6.19
6.28
6.22
6.25
6.28

825
1 77
97
390
38

5.59
5.97
5.86
5.79
9.90

67
8
9
48
~

4.31
3.26
9 .2 9
9.53
-

292
20
132
*

6.04
5.65
6.16
*

120
~
24
31
27

6 .2 7
6.44
6 . 18
6.31

167
43
29
55
29

6.19
5.99
6.59
6.26
6 .1 2

619
179
990

4.78
4.74
4.80

555
1 06
449

5.57
5.95
5.60

619
179
440

9.78
9.79
9.80

109
21
83

3.20
2.96
3.27

151
42
109

5.31
4.93
5.46

100
19
81

5.90
5.65
5 .9 6

155
34
121

5 .7 0
5.35
5 .7 9

577
152
197
-

4.82
5.93
5 .91
-

617
290
210
30

5 .4 7
6.17
6.18
6 .0 8

577
152
1 97
*

4.82
5 .9 3
5.91
*

98
6
6

3 . 18
3 .5 9
3.59
-

119
-

5 .21

163
59
47
7

5 .8 3
6.59
6.62
5.97

195
51
35
*

5.29
6 .1 7
6 .0 5

42
222
44
163
6

6.52
5.89
6.89
5.73
6.70

61
218
219
193
71

6 .6 9
6.57
6 .9 7
5.62
6 .5 1

92
222
44
163
6

6.52
5.89
6.84
5.73
6.70

22
9

5.09

7.05
6.85
6.65
5 .8 7
6.82

20
51
75
46
32

6 .1 3
6.01
6 .9 7
5.62
6.30

346

5.21

955

5.67

346

5.21

29

5.73

116

5.35

PROCESSING
PBOCE S S O B S . 3. ...................................................................
BLENDERS..........................................................................
B O L T ER S............................................................................
H I L L E R S , FLOUR (SECOND H I L L E R ) . . .
ROLL T E ND E RS.............................................................

-

PACKI NG
P ACK ERS ................................................................ ..................
F E ED ......................................................................................
FLOUR..................................................................................
MATERIAL HOVEHENT
L A BO RE RS , MATERI AL HAND LI NG......................
T RU CK ERS , POWER..........................................................
F O R K L I F T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ........................................

~

-

*

HAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ....................................................................
M ECH AN ICS , GENERAL U T I L I T Y .........................
MI L LW RI G HT S......................................................................
O I L E R S .....................................................................................
SHE ET -ME TA L WORKERS..............................................

_

3 .86
-

32
93
63
-

5 .99
-

20
67
68
39
26

3.90

107

5.47

180

-

6 .69
5 .89
-

S E R V I C E AND C US TO DI AL
JA N I T O R S ,

P O R T E R S , A N D C LE AN ERS.............

__________

1 E x cludes p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and for w o rk on w eekends,
h olidays, and late shifts.
2 In clu d es d a ta fo r re g io n s in addition to th o s e shown.
3 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e




show n se p a ra te ly .
N O T E : D ashes indicate that
did n o t m e e t p u b licatio n c r i t e r i a .

11

no

data w e re

re p o r te d o r th a t data

Table 6. Flour and other grain mill products: Occupational averages by union contract status
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , U n i t e d S t a t e s
S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 7) _______________________________ ( ___________________________________________ ______________________ ___________________
_
U nited
D ep artm en t and occupation

M ajority

S tates2

M iddle A tlantic

and

selected

Southeast

G reat Lake 8

c o v ered None or m in o rity M ajority co v ered None o r m in o rity M a jo rity
covered
covered

W o rk e rs E arnings W ork ers

regions,

co v ered ^one o r m in o rity
covered

W arnin gs W o r k e r s E a r n i n g s W o r k e r s E a r n i n g s W o r k e r s E a r n i n g s W o r k e r s E a r n i n g s

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
C L E A N E R S , BULK..............................................................
F E C E I V E R S .............................................................................
W EI GH ERS...............................................................................

_

149
293
91

$ 6.08
5.76
5.89

16
43
13

$ 3 .8 0
3.87
4.26

149
293
91

$ 6 .0 8
5.76
5 .8 5

1.173
233
186
441
119

6.13
6.14
6 . 16
6.26
6.02

220
42
14
1C9
9

4.25
3.64
4.54
4 . 56
3.86

1,173
233
1 86
4 41
1 19

6.13
6 .1 4
6 . 16
6 .2 6
6.02

17
20
8

4.98
5.29
4.68

860
182
678

5.65
5 .5 7
5.68

3C9
211

3.78
3.97
3.69

860
182
678

5.65
5 .5 7
5.68

59
16
-

899
344
311
33

5.60
6 . 14
6.14
6 . 16

295
46
46

3.78
4 . 04
4.01

899
344
311
33

5.60
6.14
6.14
6.18

10
14
14

95
392
252
286
76

6.77
6.37
6.96
5.81
6.54

8
48
6
20

95
392
252
286
76

6.77
6.37
6.96
5.81
6.54

18
6
6
-

5.51
6.25
5.29
-

739

5 .6 2

62

739

5 .6 2

29

4.81

21

-

87
105
26

$6.05
5.67
5.96

20

$3.95
*

58
8
42

4.24
3.26
4.44

342
59
44
162
4 1

6 .1 7
6 .4 0
6.08
6 .1 7
5.96

4.85
4.58
*

112
24
88

3.34
3.31
3.35

215
49
166

5.70
5.29
5.83

5.08
4.87
4 .87
*

126
11
-

3.25
3.86
“

219
61
50
11

5.73
6.42
6.49
6 .0 9

48
155
68
102
32

6.96
6.30
6.65
5 .9 2
6.81

287

5.64

$5.01
*

PROCESSING
P R O C E S S O R S ? .......................................................................
BL E ND E RS ..........................................................................
B O L T E R S ............................................................................
H I L L E R S , FLOUR ( SECOND H I L L E R ) . . .
PO L L T E ND E RS ..............................................................

_
-

-

PACKI NG
P AC KE RS ...................................................................................
F E E D ......................................................................................
F L O U R...................................................................................
MATERI AL

se

MOVEMENT

LA BO RE RS, MATERI AL H ANDL ING......................
T R U CK E RS , FOWER..........................................................
F O R K L I F T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T .......................................

-

-

MAI NTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ...................................................................
ME CH A NI C S, GENERAL U T I L I T Y .........................
MI L L W R I G HT S ......................................................................
O I L E R S .....................................................................................
S H EE T- ME TA L WORKERS..............................................

4.82
5.03
6.42
3.83
-

_

22
-

8
-

_

4.80
3.68
*

S E R V I C E AND CUST OD IA L
JANITORS,

ends,

PORTERS,AND

C LE AN ERS.............

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p ay for o v e rtim e and for w o r k on w e e k ­
holidays and late shifts.
2 In clu d es data fo r re g io n s in addition to th o se show n s e p a r ­

ately.
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s




3.76

show n

28

separately.

N O T E : D a sh e s in d icate th a t no d a ta w a s
did not m e e t p ublication c r ite r ia .

in a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e

12

3.52

reported

o r th at data

Table 7. Flour and other grain mill products: Method of wage payment
(Percent of production workers by method of wage payment,1 United Statfes and selected regions, September 1977)

Method of
wage payment

United
States2

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

All workers............................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Time-rated workers..................................
Formal plans..........................................
Single ra te ...........................................
Range of rates....................................
Individual ra te s ......................................

99
91
85
7
8

100
92
84
7
8

100
49
12
37
51

100
56
47
9
44

100
93
74
19
7

99
99
92
8
~

100
100
100

100
98
98

100
100
100

1 For definition of method of wage payment, see appendix A.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.

-

-

_

“

2

-

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 8. Flour and other grain mill products: Scheduled weekly hours
(Percent of production workers by scheduled weekly hours,1 United States and selected regions, September 1977)
Is
Weekly hours
All workers............................................
Under 40 ho u rs........................................
40 h ours...................................................
41 to 43 hours .........................................
44 hours...................................................
45 to less than 48 hours ........................
48 hours....................................................
48 hours or m ore.....................................

United
States2
100
5
52
2
7
9
17
7

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

100

100

100

100

100

100

8
54
8
29

_
51
23
26
”

_
42
13
8
20
12
4

_
78

12
39

_
62

-

-

-

-

16
14
12
6

-

'

1 Data relate to the predominant schedule for full-time day-shift workers in each
establishment.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




Southeast

-

7
15

_
22
16

Mountain

Pacific

100

100

55
_
_
27
16
2

61

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

19
20
-

Table 9. Flour and other grain mill products: Shift differential provisions
(Percent of production workers by shift differential provisions,’ United States and selected regions, September 1977)

United
States1
2

Shift differential

Middle
Atlantic

96.5
88.4
88.0
10.7
56.3
1.2
1.7
10.5
.6
1.2
1.0
4.1
.6
.5

94.3
87.7
87.3
6.8
1.6
1.4
13.0
2.7
3.0
2.4
42.3
1.0
6.5
1.9
2.6
2.0
.5

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

92.3
92.3
92.3
8.5
71.4
2.7
4.8
5.0
-

76.6
37.9
37.9
12.1
25.7
-

84.7
52.2
52.2
6.5
12.0
8.8
24.9
-

100.0
92.3
92.3
47.0
25.4
17.3
2.6
-

100.0
91.4
91.4
10.5
63.3
2.3
2.6
12.8
-

87.3
87.3
87.3
8.5
11.0
4.8
46.2
2.7
14.2
”

65.4
37.9
37.9
12.1
25.7
”

79.0
52.2
52.2
6.5
3.6
20.8
7.0
14.3
■
,yr “

92.3
92.3
92.3
18.5
42.3

100.0
91.4
91.4
5.8
5.3
4.7
12.8
4.4

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

100.0
100.0
100.0
8.2
71.1
20.7
-

100.0
100.0
89.9
2.1
75.2
12.6
10.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
57.9
14.2
15.5
12.4
-

100.0
100.0
100.0
8.2
13.8

97.9
97.9
87.8
87.8
10.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
- 9.6

Second shift
Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions...........................
With shift differential..............................
Uniform cents per hour ......................
Under 12 ce n ts ................................
12 ce n ts............................................
13 ce n ts............................................
14 ce n ts............................................
15 ce n ts............................................
16 ce n ts............................................
18 ce n ts............................................
19 ce n ts............................................
20 ce n ts............................................
25 ce n ts............................................
Other formal paid differential.............
Third or other late shift
Workers in establishments with thirdor other late-shift provisions..................
With shift differential.............................
Uniform cents per hour ......................
Under 12 ce n ts................................
12 ce n ts............................................
14 ce n ts............................................
15 ce n ts............................................
16 ce n ts............................................
17 ce n ts............................................
18 ce n ts............................................
20 ce n ts............................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents ..........
25 ce n ts............................................
30 ce n ts............................................
Over 30 and under 35 cents ..........
Over 35 ce n ts ..................................
Other formal paid differential.............

1 Refers to policies of establishments currently operating late shifts or having
provisions covering late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




** it irj’i S w Kicjsk
k

ot-aisKte

-

17.3
7.0
2.6
4.5
“

-

40.8
2.3
8.2
2.6
4.6
: w, .

-

7.4
60.5
10.1
“

-

62.5
12.4
15.5
-

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals,

■

Table 10. Flour and other grain mill products: Shift differential practices
(Percent of production workers employed on late shifts by amount of pay differential, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Shift differential

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

17.1
16.3
16.3
2.0
11.1
.2
.2
1.8
.1
.1
.3
.5
.1

16.0
16.0
16.0
.9
13.6
.3
1.1
-

11.5
5.9
5.9
2.4
3.6
-

12.0
7.8
7.8
1.7
1.2
4.8
-

18.1
17.6
17.6
8.6
6.1
2.6
.3
-

18.3
18.1
18.1
2.5
13.5
.2
.3
1.6
-

19.5
19.5
19.5
2.0
14.6
2.9
-

n 11.5
11.1
11.1
.9
.1
.2
1.6
.3
.2
.2
6.2
.1
.5
.2
.2
.4
I2
)

14.6
14.6
14.6
1.4
-

7.1
3.6
3.6
-

6.0
4.5
4.5
-

9.5
9.5
9.5
3.2
-

12.3
12.3
12.3
-

-

-

12.8
12.5
12.5
1.7
.4
.6
1.5
.2
6.4
.2
.6
.3
.5

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

17.2
17.2
15.8
.6
12.2
_
2.9
_
_
_
_
1.5

15.9
15.9
15.9

12.2
12.2
11.8
-

10.4
10.4
10.4
-

Second shift
Workers employed on second shift .......
Receiving differential ............................
Uniform cents per hour ......................
Under 12 ce n ts................................
12 ce n ts............................................
13 ce n ts............................................
14 ce n ts............................................
15 ce n ts............................................
16 ce n ts............................................
18 ce n ts............................................
19 ce n ts............................................
20 ce n ts............................................
25 ce n ts............................................
Other formal paid differential.............

-

-

'

_

8.2

_
_

3.0

_

1.3
3.3

_
_
-

Third or other late shift
Workers employed on third
or other late s h ift....................................
Receiving differential ............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
Under 12 ce n ts................................
12 ce n ts............................................
14 ce n ts............................................
15 ce n ts...........................................
16 ce n ts............................................
17 ce n ts............................................
18 ce n ts............................................
20 ce n ts...........................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents ..........
25 ce n ts...........................................
30 ce n ts...........................................
Over 30 and under 35 cents ..........
Over 35 ce n ts ..................................
Other formal paid differential.............

-

.9
1.1
8.1
.2
-

-

-

-

-

2.2
1.3
2.1
.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

”

”

2.7
“

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




3.6
-

.3
-

1.9
1.8
.5

.4
“

-

“

-

3.0
.6
7.6

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_

.8

_
_
_

11.8

1.1
-

7.3

_
_
-

-

-

_
1.5
.8

_
_
.4

-

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 11. Flour and other grain mill products: Paid holidays
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Number of
paid holidays
All workers............................................
Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays...........................
3 days .....................................................
5 days .....................................................
6 days .....................................................
7 days.....................................................
7 days plus 1 half days.........................
8 d a ys.....................................................
9 days .....................................................
10 days ...................................................
10 days plus 2 half days.......................
11 days...................................................
12 days plus 1 half d a y.........................

United
States'

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
1
4
9
1
(1
2
)
6
12
22

100
-

89
“
51
12
26
“

100
19
7
10
39
11
14

100
9
13
34
44

100
8
9
8
27
47
“

100
2
10
88
“

100
-

16
11
3
65
5

98
6
21
25
6
4
22
14
-

{*)

43
1

"

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




Southwest

—

-

23
-

77
“

'

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 12. Flour and other grain mill products: Paid vacations
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Vacation policy
All workers............................................

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain
/

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
92
8

100
89
11

100
88
12

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
92
8

100
82
18

100
100
-

100
100
-

2
60
34
2
3

11
89

4
71
12
14

-

-

-

100

96
4

31
65

-

-

-

3

_
26
72
2
_

80
15
5

-

58
33
_
9

23
5
37
34

24
-

-

68
8

-

51
16
33
-

39
11
45
4

21
8
10
60

10
_
48
42

_
_
28
72

8
1
50
41

24
68
8

61
39
-

31
4
53
12

11
84
4

23
77

_
_
58
42

_
_
28
72

6
1
49
41
3

11
81
8

44
42

11
84
4

_
_
23
77

_
_

28
72

-

14

-

-

-

_
_
51
42
7

_
_

-

24
4
60
12

62
23
16

Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations........................
Length-of-time payment.......................
Percentage payment.............................
Amount of vacation pay2
A fter 1 year o f service:
Under 1 w e e k........................................
1 w e e k...................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...................
2 w eeks.................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
A fter 2 years of service:
1 w e e k...................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...................
2 weeks .................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
After 3 years of service:
1 w e e k...................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...................
2 weeks .................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
After 5 years of service:
1 w e e k ...................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...................
2 weeks .................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
3 weeks .................................................
After 10 years of service:
1 w e e k...................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...................
2 weeks .................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
3 weeks .................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks...................
After 15 years of service:
1 w e e k...................................................
2 weeks .................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
3 weeks .................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks.............. ....
4 weeks .................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks...................
See footnotes at end of table.




4
2
8
1
44
40
4
7
1
15
9
32
31

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

_

_

_

_
77
23
-

_
_
77
23

-

44

24

-

-

_

_

_

11
13
8
68

-

-

-

-

_

_

16

-

8

2

_

-

-

-

_

39

-

-

20
4
40
12

11
25
59
4

23
77

50
42

26
72

-

44
4

19
8
5
-

68
“

-

-

51
-

24
17
4
29
12
14
“

-

-

_

_

15

-

8

2

-

-

-

_

60

8
21
15
56

10
4
40
38

10

-

21
4

_

16
72

_
77
23

_
_
_
_

_

77
23

Table 12. Flour and other grain mill products: Paid vacations—Continued
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Vacation policy

United
States'

Middle
Atlantic

4
6
2
6
2
18
8
23
29
2

-

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

44
4

24
17

-

-

15

-

-

-

-

-

26
26
-

13
4
30
12
-

43
20
18
4
-

-

-

4
17
19
6
54
-

_
23
4
27
32
7

44
4
14

24
17

-

-

-

_

8
19
5

15

-

8

2

-

-

-

_

24

-

-

-

-

-

-

68

38

13
4
25
12
5
-

38
18
4

12
21
11
52

-

-

-

"

-

4

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

-

_

8
_

_

_
_
_
_
_

Amount of vacation pay2—Continued
A fter 20 years of service:
1 w e e k ............................. ......................
2 weeks ..................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks...................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 w eeks...................
4 weeks ..................................................
Over 4 and under 5 w eeks...................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 5 and under 6 w eeks...................
6 weeks ..................................................
A fter 25 years of service:3
1 w e e k....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
Over 2 and under 3 w eeks...................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 w eeks...................
4 w eeks...................... ...........................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks...................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks...................
6 weeks ..................................................
Over 6 and under 7 w eeks...................

4
6
2
4
0
15
9
28
28
2
1

8
19
5
68
-

-

-

”

-

“

4

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings, were converted to an
equivalent time basis. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not
necessarily reflect individual establishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes indicated at 10 years may include changes that occurred between 5 and 10




_
18
4
32
32
7
-

2

10
16
72

12

_

65
23

_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
10

_

_

16
72

77
23

-

-

_

years.
3 Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.
4 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 13. Flour and other grain mill products: Health, insurance, and retirement benefits
(Percent of production workers with specified health, insurance, and retirement plans,' United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Type of plan
All workers............................................

United
States2

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

97
88

92
92

71
31

90
77

100
66

100
91

100
100

100
98

100
88

70
62

81
81

71
31

49
45

67
32

66
57

74
74

63
61

95
83

87
80
74

92
87
87

71
43
31

63
57
49

79
69
51

100
100
91

83
83
83

98
61
61

81
57
44

8

13

40

6

10

9

2

6
15
14
100
90
100
90
99
89
96
86
87
87
83
2
(5
)

25
25
100
92
100
92
100
92
100
92
92
92
87
14

100
88
100
88
94
82
94
82
38
38
38

25
25
99
83
96
80
90
77
90
74
58
58
46

16
16
100 f
64
100
64
100
64
90
54
57
57
57

-

-

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance........................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance ..................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ..........................
Sickness and accident insurance ......
Noncontributory plans......................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period) .............................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)..............................
Long-term disability insurance..............
Noncontributory plans........................
Hospitalization insurance......................
Noncontributory plans........................
Surgical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Medical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans........................
Major medical insurance.......................
Noncontributory plans........................
Retirement plans4..................................
Pensions.............................................
Noncontributory plans......................
Severance p a y ....................................
No plans................................................

8
8
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
98

37
27
27
,oi 100
98
100
98
100
98
100
98
98
98
98

61
20
8
100
88
100
88
100
88
100
88
100
100
77

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

“

1

”

“

“

-

-

' Includes those plans for which the employer pays at least part of the cost and
excludes legally required plans such as workers’ compensation and social security:
however, plans required by State temporary disability laws are included if the
employer contributes more than is legally required or the employees receive benefits
in excess of legal requirements. “ Noncontributory plans” include only those plans
financed entirely by the employer.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




11
11
-s; 100 -j
91
100 ~
91
100
91
92
83
92
92
92

5

-

3 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness and accident insurance and
sick leave shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers covered by pension plans and severance pay
shown separately.
5 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 14. Flour and other grain mill products: Other selected benefits
(Percent of production workers in establishments providing funeral leave pay, jury-duty leave, and technological severance pay,1 United States and selected regions,
September 1977)

Type of benefit

United
States2

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Southwest

Great Lakes

56
56

53
49

"

"

82
82
23

91
91
48

Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral le a ve .............................................
Jury-duty leave ...........................................
Technological severance p a y ...................
1 For definition of items, see appendix A.




88
87
44

92
92
65

100
100
48

88
88
88

Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.

100
100
64

Part II. Rice Milling

Men in rice mills averaged $3.91 an hour compared
to $3.43 for women, who made up one-eighth of the
work force. Part of the difference is attributable to the
way workers were distributed among occupations with
disparate pay levels. Nearly half the women, for exam­
ple, were rice packers, with a $3.07 average, while near­
ly all of the higher paid maintenance workers and cook­
ers and driers were men.

Earnings

Straight-time earnings of about 2,600 production and
related workers ip rice mills averaged $3.85 an hour in
September 1977 (table 15). Individual earnings in the
industry were widely dispersed-the middle 50 percent
of the workers had earnings between $2.75 and $3.86
(table 16). The index of dispersion-34-was the highest
of the four industries studied and one of the highest
among the industries in the Industry Wage Survey pro­
gram .7The primary explanation for the broad range of
earnings appears to be wide differences in pay levels
among establishments; hourly mill averages, for exam­
ple, ranged from $2.54 to $7.68. Within establishments,
in contrast, the 25 rice mills visited had an average in­
dex of dispersion of only 12.
Location in metropolitan areas and unionization seem
to be associated with higher pay levels in the industrya pattern usually found in BLS wage surveys. The hour­
ly differential for mills in metropolitan areas over those
in smaller communities was $1.63 and for union mills
over nonunion mills, 94 cents. But for mills in metro­
politan areas, an anomaly occurs-workers in nonunion
mills enjoyed a 38-cent advantage over their union coun­
terparts. For nonunion mills, the wage advantage of
metropolitan areas over smaller communities widened
to $2.17. Survey averages do not isolate the independ­
ent influence of wage-determining characteristics,
which are often found in combination.
The occupations studied accounted for three-fifths of
the rice milling work force. Job averages ranged from
$2.89 for receivers to $6.41 for maintenance electricians
(table 17). Except for electricians and general utility
mechanics ($5.11), job averages did not exceed $4.40
an hour.
Workers in processing occupations, the largest group,
averaged $3.85 an hour; within this category, cookers
and driers averaged $4.40; polishers and separators,
$3.49; and hullers and pearlers, $3.46. Averages for two
other populous classifications were $3.54 an hour for
rice packers and $3.56 for material-handling laborers.
Rates of pay were widely dispersed for some jobs,
and concentrated in narrow bands for others. For ex­
ample, the dispersion index was 99 for janitors and 74
for cookers and driers, contrasted with 7 for polishers
and separators and 10 for bulk cleaners. The substan­
tial difference in pay levels among establishments ex­
plains to a large extent the dispersed earnings.



Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Scheduled weekly hours. Nearly four-fifths of the in­
dustry’s production workers were in mills scheduling a
40-hour workweek. Most of the remaining workers were
on longer work schedules.
Shift provisions and practices. Most rice mill workers
were employed in establishments that had provisions
for late shifts but usually not for premium pay for such
work (table 19). Where premiums for shift work were
stipulated, typical differentials over day-shift rates were
12.5 cents for the second shift and 22.5 cents for the
third shift. At the time of the survey, slightly over onefifth of the production workers were employed on sec­
ond shifts and one-tenth on third or other late shifts.
One-fourth of the second-shift workers and one-half of
the third-shift workers received premium pay.
Paid holidays. Paid holidays were provided to 95 per­
cent of the rice mill work force (table 20). Provisions
varied widely among establishments-the majority of the
workers were granted anywhere from 4 to 10 days a
year.
Paid vacations. Approximately four-fifths of the work­
ers were provided paid vacations after qualifying peri­
ods of service (table 21). Typical vacations were 2
weeks’ pay after 1 year of service and at least 3 weeks
after 12 years. After longer periods of service, 4 weeks
or more were available to about one-fifth of the workers.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. At least sev­
en-eighths of the production workers were provided
7 The index o f dispersion was computed by dividing the difference
between the first and third quartiles (middle range) by the median.
Indexes o f dispersion in the other grain milling branches in this re­
port were 28 in flour mills, 30 in blended flour mills, and 13 in wet
corn mills.

21

tirely by the employer. One-eighth of the workers were
also covered by retirement severance pay plans.

life, hospitalization, surgical, basic medical, and major
medical insurance (table 22). For a majority of work­
ers with these benefits, the employer and employee
shared the cost. Two-thirds of the workers had acci­
dental death and dismemberment policies, and about
half were under pay-continuation plans covering short­
term illness or disability.
Slightly over seven-tenths of the workers were cov­
ered by retirement pension plans, usually financed en­




Other selected benefits. Time off with pay to attend fu­
nerals of specified relatives was provided by rice mills
employing three-tenths of the workers. Similar arrange­
ments for jury-duty service applied to six-tenths of the
work force (table 23). Technological severance pay was
not provided by the mills visited.

22

Table 15. Rice milling: Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 of p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s b y s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,

U nited S tates,

S e p t e m b e r 1977)
U nited States

United S tates
C haracteristic

C haracteristic
W orkers

W orke rs

E arnings
SIZE

351

3.78
3 .8 9

S I Z E OF E S T A B L I S H S E N T ?

days,

1 Excludes p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e fo r w o rk on w eekends, ho liand late shifts.
2 V ir tu a lly a ll w o r k e r s w e r e l o c a te d in the S o u th w e s t r e g io n .

Table 16.

days,

1,408
1,239

$ 9.61
2.98

878
1,7 6 4

4.48
3.59

3.93

960
1,6 8 2

OF COMMUNITY: 3

LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONT RACT S:
E ST A BL I SH ME N TS W I T H M J J O B I T Y OF NORKERS C O V E R E D . . .
NONE OB t l l l i G B I T I OF HOBKEBS. . .
;‘i

3 S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a a s d e f i n e d b y t h e U. S. O f f i c e of M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y 1974 .
N O T E : D a s h e s in d icate th a t no d a ta w e r e r e p o r t e d o r that d a ta did not
m e e t publication c rite ria .

Rice milling: Earnings distribution

1 E xcludes p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e a n d fo r w o rk on w eekends,
and late shifts.
2 V i r t u a l l y a l l w o r k e r s w e r e l o c a t e d i n th e S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n .




E arnings

holi-

NOTE:

23

D ashes indicate th at no data w e re reported.

Table 17. Rice milling: Occupational averages—all establishments
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 of p r o d u c t i o n

S e p t e m b e r 1977)

N um ber

M ean

M edian

U nited S ta te s2

of

H ourly e a rn in g s1

D e p a rtm e n t and occu p atio n

H ourly e a rn in g s 1

of
w orke rs

United S tates,

U nited S ta te s2

Number
D e p a rtm e n t and occupation

w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ,

w o r k e rs

M id ra nge

ELEVATOR OPERATORS

M ean

M edian

M idrange

PACKI NG- Con ti nue d
. 333
176
157

HEN......................................................................
WE IGHE RS................................................................
HEN......................................................................

115
90
37

2.89
3.42
3.45

2 .6 0
3.01
2.75

2 .5 0 2 .752 .7 5 -

3.16
3.69
4 .2 5

S3.59
3.96
3 .0 7

S3.00
3.33
2.60

$ 2 .5 0 2 .7 5 2 .5 0 -

*3.52
4.25
3.35

337
278
83
82
81
80

3.56
3.98
3.94
3.94
3 .9 9
3 .9 9

3.25
3 .2 5
3.35
3.35
3.35
3 .3 3

2 .9 5 2 .7 5 2 .9 3 2 .8 9 2 .8 5 2 .8 5 -

3.5C
3.5C
3.85
3.85
3.85
3.85

27
27
69
69

6.91
6.41
5 .1 1
5.11

6.50
6.50
5 . CO
5.00

5 .5 0 5 .5 0 4 .0 0 9.00-

7.61
7.68
5.75
5.75

60
37
23

9 .0 7
9.96
3.96

3.50
5.20
2.30

2 .3 0 2 .5 0 2.30-

5.77
5 . 7:
5.31

HATERI AL H0VEHEN1
L A BO RE RS , H AT E RI AL HANDLING................
HEN...............................................................................
T R UC KE RS , POWER....................................................

PROCESSING

3.35
COOKERS AND D R I E R S ............................
HEN......................................................................
HULLERS AND P E A R L E R S ......................

7<t
71
197

9.90
9.39
3.46

3.77
3.73
3.20

3 .203 .2 2 2 .7 5 -

6.00
6.00
3.89

P O L I S H E R S AND S E PA RA T OR S--------

85
81

3.99
3 . 98

3.45

3 .2 5 3 .00-

3.50
3 .50

MAINTENANCE

H EN ...............................................................................
HEN...............................................................................

PACKI NG
SERV ICE
P ACK ERS...................................................................
HEN.......................................................................

367
210

3 .4 9
3.80

3.00
3.25

2 .5 0 2 .7 5 -

3.52
3.85

HEN.......................................................................

39

2.96

2.50

2 .5 0 -

AND C UST OD IA L

3.19

JA N I T O R S ,

P O R I R E S ANC C L E A N E R S . . . .

2 V ir t u a l l y a l l w o r k e r s w e r e l o c a t e d in th e S o u th w e s t r e g io n .
3 Includes data f o r w o r k e r s in c la s s ific a tio n s in ad d itio n to those
shown separately.

1
E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i ­
d a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s . S e e a p p e n d i x A f o r d e f i n i t i o n of m e a n s , m e d i a n , a n d
m iddle ra n g es. M edians and m iddle ra n g e s w ere not com puted fo r o c c u p a ­
t i o n s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .

Table 18. Rice milling: Occupational averages by selected characteritics
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 of p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s i n s e l e c t e d

occupations,

U nited States,

S e p t e m b e r 1977)

United S tates2
D e p artm en t and occupation

M etropolitan
areas
Earn­
W ork­
ings
ers

N o n m e t r o p o l i t a n L e s s t h a n 1UU
areas
w orkers
W ork­
W ork­
E arn­
Earn­
ers
ings
ers
ings

1 00 w o r k e r s o r
m ore
W ork­
Earn­
ers
ings

U nion
W orkers

Nonunion

E arn­
ings

W orkers

Earn­
ings

ELEVATOR OPERATORS
C LE A N E R S , BU LK .......................................................... .. ...........................
R E C E I V E R S ....................................................................................................... ..
W EI GH ERS ...........................................................................................................

29
31
16

$3.92
3.37
4 .2 2

66
29

$2.71
2.88

_
99
22

$ 2 .8 1
2.86

22
73
18

$9.07
2.94
9 . 10

18
-

210
45
58
99

9.61
4.97
9.1 1
3.69

202
29
69
36

3.07
3.51
3.09
3.21

208
26
96
30

3.72
3.49
2 .9 3
3 .0 2

204
98
51
55

3.99
4.89
4 .4 7
3.79

127
-

9 .86
-

27
33

4 .28
3.65

142
137

9.70
9 .7 0

225

2.72
2.66
2.73

1 69
22
142

3.47
2.99
3.55

203

3.51

1S6

191

3 .5 9

102
•
97

238
99
97

3 .8 8
9 .6 0
4.63

99
34
39

2.81
2.98
2.98

62
27
27

2.89
9.13
4.13

275
56
59

3.73
3.89
3.84

139
39
32

25
45

6.61
5.69

_
24

4.03

24

9.66

22
45

6 .3 7
5.36

19
31

51

4 .3 7

9

2.41

19

2.31

-

$ 3.47
-

c
99
28

$4.65
2 .7 5
3.17

285
99
120
52

3 .4 0
9.56
3.28
3.38

4.50

26 5

9.99

236

3 .1 0
2.66
3 . 16

3.35
4.35
9.38

203
99
99

3.71
3.65
3.65

6.33
5.84

38

4.52

52

4.16

-

PROCESSING
PRO CE SSO RS. 2
3............................................................................
1
COOKERS AND D R I E R S ......................................................................
HULLERS AND P E A R L E R S........................................ ......................
P O L I S H E R S AND S E PA RA T OR S...................... ...
,.|
PACKI NG
P ACK ERS ..............................................................................................................
BRAN................................................................................................................
R I C E ................................................................................................................
H ATERI AL

29

-

-

25

HOVEHENT

L A B OR ER S, HAT ERI AL H ANDLI NG..........................• • • • • • • •
T R U CK E RS , POWER......................................................................................
F O R K L I F T ....................................................................................................
HAI NTENANCE
E L E C T R I C I A N S ...............................................................................................
H E C H A N I C S . GENERAL O T I I I T T ............................... ....................

_

_

_

S E R V I C E AND C UST OD IA L
JA N I T O R S ,

P OR T E R S , A N D C LE AN ERS............. ...

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r ti m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i ­
d a y s, an d la te sh ifts .

-

-

shown se p arately .

2 V irtu a lly all w o r k e r s w e r e lo cated in the S outhw est region.
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e




-

N O T E : D a sh e s indicate that no d a ta w e r e re p o r te d o r th a t d a ta did n o t
m e e t publication c rite ria .

24

Table 19. Rice milling: Shift differential provisions and practices
(Percent of production workers by shift differential provisions,1 and percent employed on late shifts by amount of
differential, United States, September 1977)

Item

Item

United States

Shift provisions

Shift practices

Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions............................
With shift differential ..............................
Uniform cents per hour........................
5 cents ...............................................
12.5 cents ..........................................
17 cents .............................................

90.7
20.1
20.1
2.1
11.7
6.4

Workers employed on second s h ift.........
Receiving differential..............................
Uniform cents per hour........................
5 cents ...............................................
12.5 ce n ts ..........................................
17 cents .............................................

Workers in establishments with thirdor other late-shift provisions....................
With shift differential ..............................
Uniform cents per hour........................
22 cents .............................................
22.5 c e n ts..........................................

62.5
20.1
20.1
6.4
11.7

Workers employed on third
or other late s h ift.....................................
Receiving differential..............................
Uniform cents per hour........................
22 cents ..........................................
22.5 cents ..........................................

1 Refers to policies of establishments currently
operating late shifts or having provisions covering late
shifts.




United States

22.2
4.7
4.7
3.9
.8

9.8
4.6
4.6
8
3.9

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals,

Table 20. Rice milling: Paid holidays
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for
paid holidays, United States, September 1977)

Number of
paid holidays

United States
100

Workers in establishments
4 days ......................................................
7 days ......................................................

95
7
13
11
13
15
19
18

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

25

Table 21. Rice milling: Paid vacations
(Percent of production workers in establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods
of service, United States, September 1977)

Vacation policy
All workers ............................................
Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations..........................
Length-of-time payment.........................
Amount of vacation pay1
After 1 year of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
After 2 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
After 3 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
After 5 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
After 10 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................

Vacation policy

United States
100

Amount of vacation pay1
—Continued
After 12 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................
After 15 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks .......................................
4 weeks ..................................................
After 20 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks .....................................
4 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
After 30 years of service:2
1 week .........................................
2 weeks ..............................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ...........................
5 weeks .............................
6 weeks .............................................

82
82

29
53
12
69
5
77
5
43
34
5
30
35
12

1
Vacation payments, such as percent of annual
earnings, were converted to an equivalent time basis.
Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not
necessarily reflect individual establishment provisions
for progression. For example, changes indicated at 10
years may include changes that occurred between 5




United States

26

5
23
42
12
5
18
40
18
5
18
38
8
12
5
18
38
2
7
12

and 10 years.
2
Vacation provisions were virtually the same after
longer periods of service.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

Table 22. Rice milling: Health, insurance and retirement plans
(Percent of production workers in establishments with specified health, insurance, and retirement plans,' United
States, September 1977)

Type of plan

Type of plan

United States

All workers ....................................

United States

100
Workers in establishments providing:

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance...........
Noncontributory plans..................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both2 ...................
Sickness and accident insurance
Noncontributory plans ..............
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period).......................
Long-term disability insurance.......
Noncontributory plans.................

Hospitalization insurance........................
Noncontributory p la n s..........................
Surgical insurance..................................
Noncontributory p la n s..........................
Medical insurance...................................
Noncontributory p la n s..........................
Major medical insurance.........................
Noncontributory p la n s..........................
Retirement plans3 ...................................
Pensions ...............................................
Noncontributory p la n s .......................
Severance p a y .....................................
No plans ..................................................

88
43
66
21
49
16
16
42
14
12

' Includes those plans for which the employer
pays at least part of the cost and excludes legally
required plans such as workers' compensation and
social security; however, plans required by State
temporary disability laws are included if the employer
contributes more than is legally required or the
employees receive benefits in excess of legal
requirements. “ Noncontributory plans” include only
those plans financed entirely by the employer.




2 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness
and accident insurance and sick leave shown
separately.
3 Unduplicated total of workers covered by
pension plans and severance pay shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

Table 23. Rice milling: Other selected benefits
(Percent of production workers in establishments
providing funeral leave pay and jury-duty leave,’ United
States, September 1977)

Type of benefit

United States

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral leave .............................................
Jury-duty leave ..........................................
1 For definition of items, see appendix A.

27

97
44
94
41
94
41
93
40
72
72
59
12
3

29
60

Part III. Blended and
Prepared Flour

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Earnings

The almost 5,200 production and related workers in
blended flour mills averaged $6.14 an hour in Septem­
ber 1977 (table 24). Among the major regions, average
earnings ranged from $4.57 in the Middle West to $6.93
in the Great Lakes, which accounted for nearly threefifths of the industry’s work force. Most Great Lakes
workers were in mills with characteristics typically as­
sociated with higher pay levels-large unionized work
forces and metropolitan area locations.
Earnings in the industry were widely dispersed - the
middle 50 percent of the workers in the earnings array
earned between $5.30 and $7.26 an hour. The relative­
ly high index of dispersion8 for blended flour mills-30resulted primarily from differences in pay levels among
establishments; mean earnings of individual mills, for
example, ranged from approximately $3 an hour to about
$7.50.
As in the other grain mills, there were substantial
differences in nationwide average earnings in favor of
workers in large establishments over those in mills with
20 to 9J) employees, union mills over nonunion mills,
and metropolitan areas over workers in smaller com­
munities. Occupational averages by these characteris­
tics are presented, where possible, in tables 26-28. Due
to the interrelationships of these characteristics and the
relatively small industry under study, the exact influ­
ence of any one characteristic was not measured.
Among the occupations selected for separate study,
hourly pay levels typically ranged between $5 and $6
outside the maintenance area and nearly $7.50 in that
department (table 25). The highest industry averages
were reported for maintenance electricians ($7.45) and
general utility mechanics ($7.42) and the lowest aver­
age, for power truckers (other than forklift)-$4.33. As
a group, workers in processing jobs averaged $5.89; 4
in every 5 were machine tenders who mixed and blend­
ed flour ($6.07 per hour).
Men in blended flour mills averaged $6.27 an hour
compared with $5.80 for women; women were onefourth of the production work force. Part of the pay
spread between the sexes reflects differences in occu­
pational staffing. For packers and janitors, though, pay
levels for women exceeded those for men, both nation­
wide and in most of the regions.



Scheduled weekly hours. Blended flour mills employ­
ing slightly over nine-tenths of the workers had week­
ly work schedules of 40 hours at the time of the survey
(table 30). The remaining workers were on longer work
schedules.
Shift differential provisions and practices. Provisions for
second shifts covered almost all workers, and provi­
sions for third or late shifts covered nine-tenths of the
production work force (table 31). At the time of the
survey, one-fourth of the workers actually were work­
ing on second shifts; they typically received 12 cents
per hour in addition to day-shift rates (table 32). Third
or other late-shift workers, about one-eighth of the pro­
duction workers, were usually provided a 20-cent
premium.
Paid holidays. All workers were in mills that provid­
ed paid holidays (table 33). Two-thirds of the workers
were granted 11 days a year and one-tenth, 9 days. Most
of the remaining workers were provided from 5 to 8
days. Provisions were most liberal in the Great Lakes
region.
Paid vacations. All workers were eligible for paid va­
cations, after qualifying periods of service (table 34).
Three-fifths were in mills that provided at least 1 week
of vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks or more
after 2 years, at least 3 weeks after 10 years, 4 weeks
or more after 15 years, and at least 5 weeks after 20
years. Great Lakes workers usually were eligible for a
few days more vacation than workers in other regions.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Hospitalizati­
on, surgical, basic medical, and major medical insur­
ance plans covered all workers in the industry (table
35). Employers typically paid the entire cost of finan­
cing these benefits. Approximately three-tenths of the
workers also were covered under long-term disability
plans and by accidental death and dismemberment
insurance.
Retirement pension plans, usually financed entirely
by employers, were found in mills employing slightly

28

over nine-tenths of the workers. One-eighth of the work­
ers were also covered by retirement severance pay plans.
Where there were regional differences, worker cov­
erage was usually highest in the Great Lakes region.
Other selected benefits. Pay for time off to attend fu­
nerals applied to approximately nine-tenths of the work




29

force; jury-duty pay applied to about eight-tenths (ta­
ble 36). About seven-tenths of the workers were in mills
that provided severance pay for workers permanently
laid off due to technological change or economic fac­
tors. The Great Lakes region had the highest propor­
tion of workers covered by these benefits.

Table 24. Blended and prepared flour: Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics
'■
> irjo*
.
vhc
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s b y s e le c te d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e l e c t e d r e g io n s ,
S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 7 )____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________
U n ite d
C h a ra c te ris tic s

S ta te s 2

S o u th w e s t

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

H o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean

M e d ia n

ALL PRODUCTION W O RK ERS.. . . . . . . . . . . .
MEN......................................................................................
W om en. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 , 187
3 , 842
1 ,3 4 5

$ 6 . 14
6 . 27
5 . dO

$ 6 .4 9
6 .5 6
6 .2 3

$ 5 .3 0 5 .9 5 5 .0 6-

$ 7 . 26
7 .4 5
7 .0 1

995
397
198

S I Z E OF E S T A B L ISH M E N T :
2 0 - 9 9 SO fiK ERS........................................................
1 0 0 U 0 B K E S 5 ............................ .................................

789
9 ,3 9 8

9 . 85
6 . 38

4 .5 0
6 .5 0

3 .5 0 5 .6 8 -

6 .1 0
7 . 27

S I Z E OF COMMUNITY:
METBOPOLOTAN A REAS.........................................
NONMEXROPOLITAN A R a A S ................................

9 ,6 5 9
466

6 . 41
3 . 53

6 .5 7
3 .4 0

5 .6 8 3 .0 0 -

7 .2 7
3 . 79

LABOR-MAN ASEHENT CO N TRA CTS:
E S T A B L ISH M E N TS W ITH M A JO RITY OF WORKERS COVERED___
NONE O a M IN O R ITY OF W O R K E R S ...

4 ,2 9 5
892

6 . 65
3 . 72

6 .7 0
3 .4 6

6 .0 4 3 .0 0 -

7 . 28
3 .9 7

M id d le r a n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

H o u rly
M ean

3 ,0 1 5
2 ,2 4 9
766

S I Z E OF E S T A B L ISH M E N T :
2 0 - 9 9 mO u K E R S ............................ ...........................
1 0 0 WORKERS OR MORE.................................. ..

2 ,8 7 7

6 . 97

S I Z E o f COMMUNITY:
M ETROPOLITAN A REA S........................................
NONM ETROPOLITAN AREAS...............................

3 , 015
-

6 .9 3

2 ,8 2 8

7 . 12

RAB O R -tlA N A O iiaR NX CONTRACTS:
E S T A B L IS H M E N TS W ITH M AJO RITY OF WORKERS C O V E R E D .. .
NONE ON M IN O RITY OP SO RK ERS. . .

-

$ 6 . 93
7 . 03
6 .6 1
-

$ 7 .0 6
7 .2 0
7 .0 1

$ 9 .9 2
5 .9 5
9 .5 2

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

$ 6 .1 8
6 .2 8
6 .0 4

M id d le W e s t

$ 7 .6 0
7 .7 4
7 . 20

205

7 .0 6

6 .4 9 -

7 .6 3

7 . 06

6 .4 9 -

7 .6 0
“

7 . 65

-

7 . 12

$ 9 .3 9 4 .4 9 4 .3 9 -

'

$ 6 .4 9 6 .4 9 6 .3 7 -

-

M id d le r a n g e

$ 5 .1 2
5 .2 0
9 .9 2

G re a t L akes

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS.....................................
Mc.N......................................................................................
WOMEN................................................................................

e a rn in g s 1

M e d ia n

6. 53-

632

$ 9 .5 7
3 .9 0

$ 9 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 .2 5

$ 3 .1 9 2 .6 5 -

$ 5 .7 0
5 .9 5

-

P a c ific

IL L

PRODUCTION

WORKERS.

S e n ...

284
245

$ 5 . 45
5 -4 9

$ 5 -6 9
5 .6 9

$ 3 .5 0 3 .5 0 -

$ 6 .7 3
6 .8 3

WOMEN
S I Z E OF E S T A B L IS H M E N T :
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K ERS.....................................................
1 0 0 WORKERS OB HQ he . .......... ..........................
S I Z E OF COMMUNITY:
M ETRO PO LITA N A REAS........................................
NONMETROPOLITAN AREAS...............................
LABOR-MANAJfiM x.NT CO N TR A C TS:
EST A B L ISH M E N TS W IT tiM A J O R I I I OF WORKERS COVERED. . .
NONE OR M IN O R ITY OF WORKERS. . .

1
E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e a n d f o r w o rk o n w e e k ­
3 S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s a s d e fin e d b y th e U .S .
e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
S ee a p p e n d ix A f o r d e fin itio n s o f
O ffic e o f M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t th r o u g h F e b r u a r y 1974.
m e a n s , m e d ia n s , a n d m id d le r a n g e s .
M e d ia n s a n d m id d le r a n g e s w e r e
n o t c o m p u t e d f o r o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .
.
N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t no d a ta w e r e r e p o r te d o r th a t d a ta
d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .




30

Table 25. Blended and prepared flour: Occupational averages— all establishments
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e
S e p te m b e r 1977)

s tra ig h t-tim e

h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s ,
______________________________________

U n ite d S ta te s

U n ite d S ta te s 2
D e p a r tm e n t a n d o c c u p a tio n

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

S o u th w e s t

H o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean

an d r e g io n s ,

N um ber

M e d ia n

w o rk e rs

M id d le r a n g e

H o u rly
M ean

M e d ia n

e a rn in g s 1
M id d le

ra n g e

P R O C E S SIN G
PR O C E SSO R S.........................................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
MACHINE T E N D E R S , F IX IN G AND
BLEN D IN G .......................................................................
H EN .....................................................................................
BOMEN................................................................................
PANELBOARD O P E R A TO R S, M IXING AND
B L E N D IN G ......................................................................
HEN......................................................................................

577
506
71

* 5 .8 9
6 .0 2
5 .0 1

* 6 .1 6
6 .3 7
5 .2 8

* 4 .9 2 5 .4 2 4 .3 6 -

* 6 .7 3
6 .8 7
5 .4 5

74
60

4 57
4 20
37

6 .0 7
6 .0 9
5 .7 9

6 .4 3
6 .5 3
5 .4 5

5 .4 5 5 .4 5 5 .4 5 -

6 .8 9
6 .9 1
6 .5 8

21
21

5 .8 8
5 .8 8

6 .3 5
6 .5 5

5 .5 7 5 .5 7 -

475
194
281
282
57
225
193
137
56

5 .1 2
4 .8 3
5 .3 2
5 .3 0
5 .1 5
5 .3 4
4 .8 6
4 .7 0
5 .2 6

5 .6 8
5 .0 0
5 .6 8
5 .6 8
5 .5 7
5 .6 8
5 .0 5
4 .6 5
5 .7 0

250
2^a
218
211
7
195
188
7
23
23

5 .3 9
5 .3 6
5 .7 0
5 .7 2
5 . 17
5 .8 6
5 .8 9
5 .1 7
4 .3 3
4 .3 3

5 .6 8
5 .6 8
5 .3 6
5 .6 0

18
18
316
316

278
244
34

* 5 .3 1
5 .4 6
-

* 4 .9 2
4 .9 2
-

_
_
_

-

-

-

_
_
-

6 .4 5
6 .4 5

_

-

-

-

_

-

-

*

-

-

4 .3 6 3 .6 5 4 .3 9 4 .3 6 3 .6 7 4. 393 .6 5 3 .6 5 4 .9 1 -

6 .0 4
5 .8 0
6 .2 1
6 .2 1
6 .7 0
6 .2 1
5 .7 0
5 .7 0
5 .7 0

99

4 .5 3
-

77
9S

4 .7 7
4 .5 3
-

77

4 .7 7
-

5 .5 2
5 .5 2

3 .5 2 3 .5 2 4 .7 7 4 .7 7 4 .8 0 4 .8 1 —
2 .8 0 2 .8 0 -

7 .0 1
7 .0 1
7 .2 6
7 .2 6
7 .2 6
7 .2 6
5 .5 2
5 .5 2

7 .4 5
7 .4 5
7 .4 2
7 .4 2

7 .4 7
7 .4 7
7 .4 0
7 .4 0

7 .0 0 7 .0 0 6 .7 0 6 .7 0 -

7 .9 5
7 .9 5
8 .7 0
8 .7 0

36
36

6 .0 2
5 .9 9
6 .2 4

6 .7 8
6 .4 6
6 .9 2

5 .2 0 5 .2 0 5 .9 1 -

6 .9 2
6 .9 2
6 .9 2

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

* 4 .6 1 4 .7 7 -

$ 6 .3 7
6 .4 3
-

PACKING
PA C K ER S..................................................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
WOMEN................................................................................
DOUGHS...............................................................................
HEN......................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................
PLOUR M IX E S................................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................

_
-

4 .3 9
4 .3 9
4 .3 9
4 .3 9
-

3 .9 2 3 .6 7 -

6 .0 4
6 .0 4
6 .0 4
-

3 .9 2 _

6 .0 4
_
_

3 .6 7 -

-

-

-

-

MATERIAL HOVEHENT
LA B O R E R S, M ATERIAL HANDLING.......................
HEN.....................................................................................
T R U C K E R S, POWER..........................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................
F O R K L IF T .........................................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................
OTHER THAN P O R K L IF T ........................................
H EN.....................................................................................

-

5 .9 3
5 . S4

_
29
29
.
29
29
_
_
-

-

4 .9 7
4 .9 7
4 .9 7
4 .9 7
-

_
4 .7 7 4 .7 7 -

-

4 .8 2
4 .8 2
-

4 .7 7 4 .7 7 —
-

-

4 .8 2
4 .8 2
4 .8 2
4 .8 2
-

4 .8 2
4 .8 2
-

-

_

-

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ....................................................................
HEN.....................................................................................
M E C H A N IC S, GENERAL U T IL IT Y .........................
HEN.....................................................................................

_

-

6 .0 9
6 .0 9

_

_
-

-

6 .7 0
6 .7 0

-

5 .4 5 5 .4 5 -

6 .7 0
6 .7 0

S E R V IC E AND C USTODIAL
J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , AND C L E A N E R S . .. .
HEN.....................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................

_

M id d le W e s t

G reat L akes
P R O C E S SIN G
PR O C E S S O R S .........................................................................
H EN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
HACHINE T E N D E R S , M IXING AND
B LEN D IN G .......................................................................
H EN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
PANELBOARD O P E R A T O R S, MIXING AND
B LEN D IN G .......................................................................
HE N.....................................................................................

227
220
-

* 6 .8 9
6 .8 9

1 6 .6 8
6 .6 9

* 6 .5 3 6 .5 3 -

* 7 .5 3
7 .5 3

165
125
-

* 4 .9 3
5 .0 2

* 5 .4 5
5 .4 5
-

S 4 .3 6 4 .3 6 -

* 5 .6 3
6 .0 6
“

192
185
-

6 .9 9
7 .0 0
-

6 .7 3
6 .7 3
-

6 .5 7 6 .5 7 *

7 . 53
7 .6 0
-

121
101

5 .0 4
4 . 96

5 .4 5
5 .4 5
-

4 .5 0 3 .6 5 -

5 .6 3
5 .6 3

-

“

~

~

*

PACKING
PA CK ERS..................................................................................
H EN .....................................................................................
WOMEN...............................................................................
DOUGHS...............................................................................
MEN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
FLOUR H U E S ................................................................
H EN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................

113
40
-

_
-

5 .8 2
5 .2 7
~

6 .2 1
5 .2 5
-

-

5 .2 7 4 .8 0 ~

4 .3 6
3 .4 3
4 .3 6
5 .7 0
3 .3 0
*

3 .5 0 3 .0 0 4 .3 6 -

5 .8 7
5 .8 7
4 . 38
4 .3 8
4 .7 5
4 .7 5
-

6 .1 3
6 .1 3
4 .5 0
4 .5 0
5 .3 0
5 .3 0
“

5 .8 8 5 .8 8 3 .2 9 3 .2 9 -

46
46

6 . 18
6 . 18

—
6 .7 6
6 .7 6

6 .0 0 6 .0 0 -

~
6 .8 2
6 .8 2

60
56

4 .9 4
4 .9 9

4 .5 0
4 .5 0

4 .3 6 4 .3 6 -

5 .8 6
5 .9 5

6 .2 8
5 .7 5
~

101
34
67
68
32

7 .4 5
7 .4 5
7 .4 5
7 .4 5
*

34
34
52
52
42
42
-

4 .5 1
4 . 02
4 . 76
4 .6 0
3 .9 9

*
3 .2 0 2 .9 9 ■

5 .7 0
4 .5 0
5 .7 0
“
*
5 .7 0
4 .8 0
"

MATERIAL HOVEHENT
LA B O R E R S, M ATERIAL HANDLING......................
MEN.....................................................................................
T R U C K ER S, POWER..........................................................
MEN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
F O R K L IF T .........................................................................
H EN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L IF T ........................................
HEN.....................................................................................

_
86
84
74
72
-

6 .8 4
6 .8 3
7 .0 4
7 .0 3
-

7 .2 6
7 .2 6
7 .2 6
7 .2 6
*

-

6 .0
5 .9
7 .2
7 .2
. “
*

4766-

~

3 .5 5 3 .5 5 •

6 .1 3
6 . 13
5 .3 0
5 .3 0
*
5 .3 0
5 .3 0
~

"

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ...................................................................
H EN.....................................................................................
H E C H A H IC S , 56K E E A L O T I I I T X ..........................
HEN.....................................................................................

9
9
188
188

7 .7 8
7 .7 8
8 .1 2
8 .1 2

8 .6 3
8 .6 3

-

— —
6 .9 1 6 .9 1 -

8 .7 9
8 .7 9

168
144
24

6 .6 4
6 .6 0
6 .8 8

6 .9 2
6 .9 2
6 .9 2

6 .9 2 6 .9 2 6 .9 2 -

7 .0 6
7 .0 6
7 .0 5

-

S E B V IC E AND CU STO D IA L
J A N I T O B S , P O R T E R S , AND C L E A N E R S .. . .
HEN.....................................................................................
WOHEN...............................................................................




'

3 I n c ld u e s d a ta f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e
sh o w n s e p a r a te ly .

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e a n d fo r w o rk o n w e e k ­
e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
S e e a p p e n d ix A f o r d e f in itio n s o f
m e a n s , m e d ia n s , a n d m id d le r a n g e s .
M e d ia n s a n d m id d le r a n g e s
w e r e n o t c o m p u t e d f o r o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t n o d a ta w e r e
d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

31

re p o rte d

o r th a t d a ta

Table 26. Blended and prepared flour*.
Occupational averages by size of community
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in
s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d G r e a t L a k e s , S e p t e m b e r 19 7 7 )__________
U n i t e d S t a t e s 13
2

G re a t

L akes

M e tro p o lita n a r e a s
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

D e p a rtm e n t a n d o c c u p a tio n

M e tro p o lita n a r e a s
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

E a rn in g s

PR O C E SSIN G
P R O C E S S O R S ... ................................................................
MACHINE T EN D ER S, S IZ IN G AND
B L E N D IN G ....................................................................
PANELBOARD O PE R A T O R S, S IZ IN G AND
B L E N D IN G ......................................................................

508

$ 6 . 14

227

$ 6 .8 9

401

6 .3 6

1S2

6 .9 9

20

5 .8 2

-

395
281
114

5 .3 1
5 .3 1
5 .3 2

113
—

193
177
165

5 .8 9
6 .0 9
6 .1 3

£6
74

6 .8 4
7 .0 4

17
303

7 .6 2
7 .5 3

9
168

7 .7 8
8 .1 2

260

6 .1 1

168

6 .6 4

-

PACKING
PA CK ERS..................................................................................
DOUGHS................................................................................
FLOOR S I Z E S ................................................................

5 .8 2
-

-

MATERIAL MOVEMENT
C

LA B O R ER S, MATERIAL HANDLING......................
TR U C K E R S, POWER..........................................................
F O R K L IF T ................... ......................................................

_

_

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ...................................................................
M EC H A N IC S, GENERAL U T I 1 I 1 I .........................
S E R V IC E AND CU STO D IA L
J A N IT O R S ,

PO RTERS,

AND C L E A N E R S . .. .

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e
a n d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te
s h ifts .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n
to G r e a t L a k e s .

N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t n o d a ta
w e r e r e p o r te d o r th a t d a ta d id n o t m e e t
p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

Table 27. Blended and prepared flour:
Occupational averages by size of establishment
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 o f p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s
U n ite d S ta te s a n d G r e a t L a k e s , S e p te m b e r 1977)
U n ite d
D e p a r tm e n t a n d o c c u p a tio n

L e s s th a n 100 w o r k e r s
W o rk ers

E a rn in g s

in

s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s ,
_____________

S ta te s 2

G re a t

100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e
W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

L akes

L e s s th a n 100 w o r k e r s
W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

PR O C E S S IN G
PR O C E SSO R S.........................................................................
MACHINE T E N D E R S, R U IN G AND
B L E N D IN G ......................................................................

91

* 5 . 17

466

$ 6 .0 3

202

$ 6 .9 6

57

5 .0 2

4 GO

6 .2 2

186

7 .0 1

154
113

4 .6 6
5 .0 7

321
241
£0

5 .3 4
5 .6 0
4 .5 7

-

-

-

-

75
36
36
*

4 .4 3
£ .4 4
5 .4 4
-

175
162
159
23

5 .8 0
5 .7 5
5 .9 6
4 .3 3

83
71
-

-

23

5 .9 3

15
2S3

7 .2 4
7 .5 3

182

8 .1 6

39

4 .8 3

239

6 .2 1

160

6 .7 3

PACKING
PA C K ER S..................................................................................
DOUGHS................................................................................
FLOUR M IZ E S ................................................................
MATERIAL

_

MOVEMENT

L A BO RERS, MATERIAL BA N D U N G ............. ...
T R U C K E R S, P O W E R ..* * ..............................................
F O R K L IF T .........................................................................
OTHER THAN F O R K L IF T .......................................

_

_
6 .8 7
7 .0 7
*

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ....................................................................
M E C H A N IC S, GENERAL U 1 I L I T I ..........................

_

S E R V IC E AND CUSTODIAL
J A N IT O R S ,

PO RTERS,

AND C L E A N E R S .. . .

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e a n d fo r
w o rk o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h ifts .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r o t h e r r e g i o n s i n a d d i t i o n to
G reat L ak es.
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in




a d d itio n to th o s e

show n se p a ra te ly .

N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t n o d a ta w e r e r e ­
p o r te d o r th a t d a ta d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

32

Table 28. Blended and prepared flour: Occupational averages by union
contract status
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 o f p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s
U n ite d S ta te s a n d G r e a t L a k e s , S e p te m b e r 1977)

in s e le c te d

o c c u p a tio n s ,

U n ite d S ta te s 2
D e p a r tm e n t an d o c c u p a tio n

M a jo rity c o v e re d
W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

G re a t

N one o r n in o rity
cove r e d

L akes

M a jo rity c o v e re d

W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

P R O C E S S IN G
P R O C E SSO R S.........................................................................
MACHINE TEN D ER S, MIXING AND
B L EN D IN G ......................................................................
PANELEOABD O E E E A T C B S, B IX IN G ANE
B L E N D IN G ......................................................................

483

$ 6 .2 2

94

$ 4 .1 9

206

$ 6 .9 9

385

6 .4 5

72

4 .0 0

183

7 .0 6

7

5 .9 4

*

360
276
84

5 .4 1
5 .3 3
5 .6 7

162
166
154

~

“

115
6
109

4 .2 2
3 .8 6
4 .2 4

-

6 .3 9
6 .2 9
6 .3 4

88
52
41

3 .5 4
3 .8 1
4 .0 5

83
71

6 .9 4
7 .1 7

16
294

7 .6 1
7 .6 2

22

4 .7 2

9
184

7 .7 8
8 . 16

253

6 .2 6

25

3 .5 7

165

6 .7 1

PACKING
PA C K ERS..................................................................................
DOUGHS...............................................................................
FLOUR M IX E S................................................................

—

M ATERIAL MOVEMENT
L A B O R ER S, M ATERIAL HANDLING......................
T R U C K ER S, POWER..........................................................
F O R K L IF T .........................................................................
MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ...................................................................
M E C H A N IC S, GENERAL U T IL IT Y .........................
S E R V IC E
J A N IT O R S ,

-

AND CUSTODIAL

PO RTERS,

AND C L E A N E R S .. . .

------------------ 4 1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e a n d fo r
w o rk o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h ifts .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r o t h e r r e g i o n s i n a d d i t i o n to
G reat L ak es.
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w o r k e r s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in




a d d itio n to th o s e

show n s e p a r a te ly .

N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t n o d a ta w e r e * r e ­
p o r te d o r th a t d a ta d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

33

Table 29. Blended and prepared flour: Method of wage payment
(Percent of production workers by method of wage payment,1 United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Method of
wage payment

United
States1
2

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

All workers............................................

100

100

100

100

100

Time-rated workers..................................
Formal plans..........................................
Single ra te ...........................................
Range of rates....................................
Individual ra te s ......................................

99
94
84
10
6

100
100
85
15
“

99
97
93
3
3

100
71
59
12
29

100
100
86
14

1 For definition of method of wage payment, see
appendix A.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those
shown separately.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

u>
-t*.




Table 30. Blended and prepared flour: Scheduled weekly hours
(Percent of production workers by scheduled weekly hours,1 United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Weekly hours

United
States2

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

All workers............................................

100

100

100

100

100

40 hours...................................................
Over 40 hours..........................................

92
8

96
4

97
3

66
34

100
-

1 Data relate to the predominant schedule for fulltime day-shift workers in each establishment.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those
shown separately.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal 100.

Table 31. Blended and prepared flour: Shift differential provisions
(Percent of production workers by shift differential provisions,' United States and selected regions, September
1977)

Shift differential

United
States2

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

Second shift

CO

C1
J




Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions...........................
With shift differential..............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
10 cents............................................
12 cents............................................
12.5 cents.........................................
13 cents............................................
15 cents............................................
17 cents............................................
20 cents............................................
25 cents............................................
Uniform percentage ............................
Other formal paid differential.............

96.9
90.1
84.9
8.5
60.9
3.4
2.3
6.1
.5
2.4
.8
2.0
3.3

89.1
78.6
78.6
31.7
46.9

89.5
85.3
80.5
4.5
3.4
7.0
2.3
60.9
.5
1.8
2.0
2.9

-

100.0
97.2
93.8
3.3
85.8
-

-

-

-

-

3.0
1.8
3.4
-

74.5
74.5
74.5
27.7

97.2
97.2
93.8
3.3

100.0
66.3
62.8
7.0
8.7
28.2
19.0

100.0
100.0
47.9
_
-

3.5

_
_
9.5
23.9
14.4
52.1

96.5
62.8
62.8

76.1
76.1
23.9

-

Third or other late shift
Workers in establishments with thirdor other late-shift provisions..................
With shift differential..............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
10 cents............................................
12.5 cents.........................................
15 cents............................................
17 cents............................................
20 cents............................................
22 cents............................................
25 cents............................................
Uniform percentage ............................
Other formal paid differential.............

’ Refers to policies of establishments currently
operating late shifts or having provisions covering
late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those

-

-

-

3.0

-

-

46.9

85.8

-

28.2
7.0
19.0
8.7

-

-

-

-

1.8
3.4
*

-

-

-

_
-

9.5
14.4
-

52.1

shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

Table 32. Blended and prepared flour: Shift differential practices
(Percent of production workers employed on late shifts by amount of pay differential, United States and selected
regions, September 1977)

Shift differential

United
States'

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

Second shift
Workers employed on second shift ........
Receiving differential ............................
Uniform cents per hour ......................
10 cents............................................
12 ce n ts............................................
12.5 cents.........................................
13 ce n ts............................................
15 ce n ts............................................
17 ce n ts............................................
20 cents............................................
25 cents............................................
Uniform percentage ...........................
Other formal paid differential.............

26.5
24.3
23.3
2.0
18.0
1.3
.6
1.0
.1
.3
.1
.9

32.1
27.5
27.5
11.3
16.2
-

28.0
27.3
27.2
.9
25.0
.8
.4
.1
-

27.7
17.2
16.8

.5

1.8
16.2

14.0
12.8
12.7
.6
.3

8.7
8.7
8.7
4.2
4.4
”

18.3
18.3
18.2
.3

17.4
7.3
7.3

.4
.4
.4

-

.9
11.1
4.7
-

18.0
18.0
1.8
-

-

Third or other late shift
Workers employed on third
or other late s h ift....................................
Receiving differential ............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
10 ce n ts............................................
12.5 cents.........................................
15 ce n ts............................................
17 ce n ts............................................
20 ce n ts............................................
22 ce n ts............................................
25 ce n ts............................................
Uniform percentage ...........................
Other formal paid differential.............

-

.6
11.3
0
-

.1
—

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those
shown separately.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.

-

17.9
.1
”

-

-

2.5
4.7
”

-

-

.4
”

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

Table 33. Blended and prepared flour: Paid holidays
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States and selected regions,
September 1977)1
2

Number of
paid holidays

United
States'

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

All workers............................................

100

100

100

100

100

Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays...........................
5 days ....................................................
6 days ....................................................
6 days plus 2 half days.........................
7 days....................................................
7 days plus 2 half days.........................
8 days ....................................................
9 days ....................................................
10 days ..................................................
11 days ..................................................
12 days ..................................................

100
2
5
2
3
1
7
10
2
67
O

100
11
9
2
28
47
4

100
3
3
94

100
37
7
28
9
19
“

100
38
14
38
10
“

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those
shown separately.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.




NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

36

Table 34. Blended and prepared flour: Paid vacations
(Percent of production workers in establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United
States and selected regions, September 1977)

Vacation policy

United States1

Southwest

Great Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

All workers .............................................

100

100

100

100

100

Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations ..........................
Length-of-time payment..........................

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

34
61
4

49
47
4

5
89
6

97
-

100
-

10
29
61

21
32
47

11
89

44
56
-

100

(1
3
2
)
33
62
5

2
51
47
-

8
89
3

100
-

52
48

(3
)
3
36
61

2
51
47

11
89

3
97

100

Amount of vacation pay2
After 1 year of service:
1 week ....................................................
Over 1 and under 2 w eeks....................
2 weeks ...................................................
After 2 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ...................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ....................
After 5 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
Over 2 and under 3 w eeks....................
3 weeks ..................................................
After 10 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ....................
After 15 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................
Over 4 and under 5 w eeks....................
After 20 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ....................
After 25 years of service:4
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 5 and under 6 w eeks....................

-

-

(3
)
3
18
18
61

2

-

-

-

-

-

24
28
47

6
5
89

3
62
35
-

38
62
_

(3
)
3
18
14
4
61

2
20
32
47

6
3
2
89

3
62
16
19
_

_
_
38
62
_
_

0
3
18
11
7
61

2
20
4
28
47

6
3
2
89

3
62
16
19
-

_
_
38
52
10
-

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown
separately.
2 Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings,
were converted to an equivalent time basis. Periods of service
were chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes indicated at 10 years may include changes that




-

-

occurred between 5 and 10 years.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
4 Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer
periods of service.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal totals.

37

Table 35. Blended and prepared flour: Health, insurance, and retirement benefits
(Percent of production workers with specified health, insurance, and retirement plans,1 United States and selected
regions, September 1977)

Type of plan
All workers............................................

United
States1
2

Southwest

Great Lakes Middle West

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100

94
89

100
87

100
93

97
97

76
76

29
26

24
11

14
11

97
97

76
76

91
86
83

71
71
57

100
100
97

97
90
90

62
_

6

-

6

7

24

-

38
-

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance........................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance..................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ...........................
Sickness and accident insurance ......
Noncontributory plans......................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period) .............................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)..............................
Long-term disability insurance..............
Noncontributory plans.........................
Hospitalization insurance......................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Surgical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Medical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Major medical insurance.......................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Retirement plans4 ..................................
Pensions..............................................
Noncontributory plans......................
Severance p a y ....................................

13
100
87
100
87
100
87
100
87
89
89
76
“

15
32
30
100
93
100
93
100
93
100
93
93
93
92
12

1 Includes those plans for which the employer
pays at least part of the cost and excludes legally
required plans such as workers’ compensation and
social security; however, plans required by State
temporary disability laws are included if the employer
contributes more than is legally required or the
employees receive benefits in excess of legal
requirements. “ Noncontributory plans” include only
those plans financed entirely by the employer.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those

21
49
49
100
97
100
97
100
97
100
97
97
97
97
20

-

-

-

100
97
100
97
100
97
100
97
90
90
90
”

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
62
62
62

shown separately.
3 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness
and accident insurance and sick leave shown
separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers covered by
pension plans and severance pay shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal totals.

Table 36. Blended and prepared flour: Other selected benefits
(Percent of production workers in establishments providing funeral leave pay, jury-duty leave, and technological
severance pay,1 United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Type of benefit

United
States2

Southwest

Great Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

97
35
28

38
24
”

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral leave.............................................
Jury-duty leave ..........................................
Technological severance p a y...................

94
84
47

92
82
68

1 For definition of items, see appendix A.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




38

100
100
94

Part IV. Wet Corn Milling

Earnings

Straight-time earnings of the over 6,300 production
and related workers in wet corn mills averaged $6.87
in September 1977 (table 37). The averages in the two
principal regions, accounting for seven-eighths of the
work force, were $7.10 in the Middle West and $6.88
in the Great Lakes.
Earnings of individual workers fell within compara­
tively narrow limits-the middle 50 percent earned be­
tween $6.49 and $7.40 an hour (table 38). The index of
dispersion- 13-was lowest by far of the four industries
studied. Few other industries studied in the Bureau’s
occupational wage survey program have so little earn­
ings dispersion. 9
Average earnings for workers in metropolitan and
nonmetropolitan areas, for workers in mills with under
100 employees, and for those in larger mills are also
presented in table 37. Based on a limited number of
comparisons, workers in the larger-size mills averaged
substantially more than those in the 20 to 99 size group,
whereas little pay differences existed between metro­
politan areas and smaller communities.
Hourly averages among occupations selected for sep­
arate study ranged from $7.80 for millwrights to just
over $6 for janitors and dry starch panelboard opera­
tors (table 39). As a group, workers in processing oc­
cupations averaged $6.76; among the seven job classi­
fications shown separately in this category, averages
were between $6.86 and $7.22 for five jobs, $6 for dry
starch panelboard operators, and $6.55 for dry starch
machine tenders.

Paid holidays and vacations. All workers were granted
paid holidays; two-thirds received 10 days annually,
one-fourth, 9 days, and the remainder, 8 days (table 43).
Paid vacations, after qualifying periods of service,
were provided to all workers (table 44). For most work­
ers, the vacation policy was 1 week’s pay after 1 year
of service, 2 weeks after 2 years, 3 weeks after 10 years,
4 weeks after 15 years, 5 weeks after 20 years, and 6
weeks after 25 years.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. All workers in
wet corn mills had hospitalization, surgical, basic med­
ical, and major medical insurance which was usually
financed jointly by employers and employees (table 45).
At least nine-tenths of the workers also had life and
sickness and accident policies, usually paid entirely by
the employer. Seven-tenths of the workers were cov­
ered by accidental death and dismemberment insurance
and four-tenths by long-term disability insurance.
Retirement pension plans, in addition to social secu­
rity, applied to all workers. A large majority in the
Great Lakes had plans entirely financed by their em­
ployers; the majority in the Middle West, in contrast,
contributed to the funding of their plans.
Other selected benefits. Approximately nine-tenths of
the workers had funeral leave and jury-duty pay plans
in their mills (table 46). Severance pay for permanent­
ly laid-off workers was available in mills employing
two-fifths of the work force; these plans were mostly
found in the Great Lakes region.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Scheduled weekly hours and shift work. Work sched­
ules of 40 hours a week were found in virtually all wet
corn mills visited in September 1977.
Nearly all production workers were in mills with for­
mal provisions for late shifts (table 41). About onefourth of the workers were actually employed on sec­
ond shifts in September 1977, and one-fifth were em­




ployed on third or other late shifts (table 42). Shift dif­
ferentials, almost always uniform cents-per-hour pay­
ments above day-shift rates, were typically 12, 15, or
18 cents for second-shift work and 18 or 30 cents for
third shifts.

8See footnote 7.
9Industries with low dispersion factors include motor vehicles, cig­
arettes, coal mining, and petroleum refining; all are highly unionized
and have predominantly single-rate pay systems.

39

Table 37. W et corn milling: Average hourly earnings by selected characteristics
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e e a r n in g s 1 o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s b y s e le c te d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p t e m b e r 19 7 7 )___________________ _____________________________ ________
U n ite d
C h a ra c te ris tic s

G re a t L ak es

E a rn in g s

W o rk ers

M id d le W e s t

E a rn in g s

WORKERS.....................................

6 .3 3 7

S 6 .8 7

3 ,2 2 9

S I Z E OF L S IA 3 L IS H M L N T :
2 0 - 9 9 WORKERS........................................................
1 0 0 HOHK.XS OR MORr......................................

267
6 , 070

4 .6 1
6 . 97

3 ,2 0 0

S I Z E OP C O H d U N IX Y :4
flETR O PO LITA N AU LA S........................................
N D N dL IR O P L IT A N AULAS...................................

4 ,3 7 1
1 ,9 6 6

6 . 87
6 . 85

-

-

~

W o rk e rs

~

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e a n d f o r
w o rk o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta fo r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e
sh o w n s e p a r a te ly . ^
?*
3 V irtu a lly a ll w o rk e rs w e re m e n .




g
o

ALL PRODUCTION

S ta te s 2

W o rk e rs

E a rn in g s

2 ,3 6 2

2 ,3 1 6

6 .8 9

$ 7 .1 0

7 .1 4

-

-

'

4 S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s a s d e fin e d b y th e U . S . O ffic e o f M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t
th ro u g h F e b r u a r y 1974.
N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t n o d a ta w e r e r e p o r te d
o r th a t d a ta d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

Table 38. W et corn milling: Earnings distribution
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s b y s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1,
U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1977)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------— T T -ii-'j------ ----- G r e a it------— rMr i d d l e
_____
r ra rr—
U n ite d
H o u rly e a r n in g s 1
L akes
S ta te s 2
W est
NUHBEB O f WORKERS............................................
AVERAGE HOURLY EA RN IN G S ......................

6 ,3 3 7
$ 6 .8 7

3 ,2 2 9
$ 6 . 88

2 .3 6 2
$ 7 . 10

T O T A L ..---------- ------------------ ----------------

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

UNDER $ 5 . 0 0 ................... ..........................................

3 .3

-

0 .7

_
0. 1
-2
.2

i* )
-

.

3 5 .0 0
$ 5 .1 0
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 . 30
$ 5 .4 0

AliO
ANO
A lio
AND
AMD

UNDl.fi
UNDER
UNDoR
UM0t.il
UNooR

$ 5 . 1 0 ................................
$ 5 . 2 0 ................................
$ 5 . 3 0 ...................... ...
$ 5 . 4 0 . ............................
$ 5 . 5 0 ............. .................

$ 5 .5 0
$ 5 . oO
$ 5 .7 0
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5 .5 0

AMD
AMD
«MO
AMD
AMO

UNDi.fi
UNDER
UNDER
UMOOR
UNDiR

$ 5 . 6 0 . . ..........................
$ 5 . 7 0 ................................
$ 5 . 8 0 ................................
$ 5 . 9 0 ...............................
$ 6 . 0 0 ................................

.1
.7
.4
2 .0
2 .9

.6
. 2
3 .8
5 .6

$ 6 .0 0
$ 0 .2 0
$ 6 .4 0
$ 6 .o 0
$ 6 .3 0

AMO
AMO
AND
AND
AND

0 MOOR
UNDER
UNDER
JN D i.ii
UNDER

$ 6 . 2 0 ................................
$ 6 . 4 0 ....... ........................
$ 6 . 6 0 ................................
i b . b u ................................
$ 7 . 0 0 ...............................

2 .0
8 .2
1 4 .2
9 .4
1 1 .1

2 .8
1 5 .5
12. 5
6 -2
1 2 .4

.
1 7 .7
1 2 .8
1 0 .7

$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .4 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .8 0

AMO
AMO
AND
AMD
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UMOfeR
UNDUE
UNDt.fi

$ 7 . 2 0 ................................
$ 7 . 4 0 ................................
$ 7 . 6 0 .............................
$ 7 . 8 0 ................................
$ 6 . 0 0 ................................

1 2 .1
9 .0
9 .6
1 .3
1 .5

8 .2
1 1 .0
8 .0
1 .2
1. 3

1 9 .4
9 .0
1 2 .4
1 .1
1 .6

$ 8 .0 0
3 8 .2 0
$ 8 .4 0
$ 8 .o 0
$ 8 .8 0

ANO
AND
AMD
AND
AND

UNDER
U H o tfi
UNDER
UNDe e
UNDtR

$ 8 . 2 0 . . .......................
3 8 . 4 0 ....... ........................
$ 8 . 6 0 ................................
$ 8 . 6 0 . . . .......................
$ 9 . 0 0 ...............................

7 .1
3 .3
.5
.1
*

3 .8
6. 1
. 1
. 1

1 1 .7
.5
1 .2

3 9 .0 0

AND UNDER $ 9 . 2 0 ................................

-

-

.1
.1
. 1
.1
-9

a d d itio n to th o s e

1 E x c lu d e s p re m iu m
p a y fo r
o v e rtim e a n d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
h o lid a y s a n d la te s h if ts .
i I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e g i o n s in

_

1 -0
(* )
<*)

-

sh o w n s e p a r a te ly .

N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te n o d a ta
re p o rte d .

40

Table 39. W et corn milling: Occupational averages—all establishments
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e

s tr a ig n t- tim e h o u rly

e a rn in g s * o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s

in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s ,

U n ite d S ta te s

D e p a rtm e n t a n d o c c u p a tio n

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

an d s e le c te d r e g io n s ,

G reat L akes

U n ite d S ta te s 2
H o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M id d le

ra n g e

N um ber
of
w o rk ers

H o u rly

e a rn in g s 1

M ean

M e d ia n

M id d le

ra n g e

$ 6 .9 3

5 6 .8 5

$6. 45-

$ 7 .2 0
_

M ean

M e d ia n

43
24

S 6 .9 6
6 .9 3

* 7 .1 1
7 .0 2

1 ,4 6 0
226
27 4
185
188
53
40

6 .7 6
6 .8 6
6 .5 5
7 .0 2
6 .9 6
6 .0 5
7 .2 2

6 .8 4
6 .8 3
6 . 96
7 .1 3
7 .0 1
6 .5 4
7 .0 0

6 .4
6 .4
6 .3
6 .7
6 .6
4 .6
6 .5

9958985-

7 .2 7
7 .3 2
7 .4 4
7 .3 2
7 .2 2
6 .5 4
7 .6 9

150
54
78
10
25

_
7 .0 3
6 .9 8
6 .8 6
7 .3 7
7 .2 4

73

6 .9 8

7 .0 1

6 .0 3 -

7 .2 2

16

245
39
34
128
34

6 .5 6
6 .8 4
6 .6 6
6 .3 2
6 .9 4

6 . 77
6 .8 4
6 .7 0
6 .5 4
7 .0 7

6 .5 3
6 .7 2
6 .2 3
6 .2 3
6 .7 9

-

7 .0 1
6 .9 6
7 .0 1
6 .8 6
7 .0 7

57
_
-

187
199
194

6 .1 6
6 .5 1
6 .5 0

6 .5 9
6 .5 4
6 .5 4

5 .9 7 6 .3 7 6 .3 7 -

6 .8 0
6 .8 9
6 .8 9

135
182
131
62
70

7 .7 6
6 .9 7
7 .8 0
6 .9 0
7 .7 6

8 .0 5
7 .2 6
8 .0 5
7 . 13
7 .5 1

7 .4 9 6 .6 7 7 .4 9 6. 797 .4 0 -

8 .0 8
7 .6 7
8 .0 5
7 . 17
8 .1 3

89
297

6 .2 3
6 . 10

6 .5 5
6 .4 3

6 .0 5 5 .8 1 -

6 .8 8
6 .4 3

ELEVATOfi O PE R A T IO N S
a EC EX VERS............. ...............................................................
MBIGHER3 ............................... „ ............................................

* 6 .5 9 6 .7 0 -

5 7 .3 2
7 . 12

26

-

-

-

P R O C E S SIN G
PR O C E S S O R S.................. ......................................................
CONVERTER OPERA TO RS.........................................
SA C H IN E TENDERS* DRY STA R C H ................
MACHINE T E N D E R S , H IL L IN G .........................
MACHINE T E N D E R S, SYRUP R E F I N I N G ..
PANELBOARD O PE R A T O R S, DRY STARCH.
PANELBOARD O PE R A T O R S, H I L L I N G . . . .
PANELBOARD O P E R A T O R S, SYRUP
R E F I N I N G ......................................................................

_

_

7 .4 8
7 .4 4
7 .1 1

7 .6 9

_
0 .5 9 6 .5 0 6 .4 9 6 .5 5 -

7 .7 0

8 -0 1

7 .6 1 -

8 .2 1

6 .5 8
~
0 .6 5
-

6 .6 0

6 .2 3 6 .2 3 -

6 .8 4
7 .2 7
-

93
72
70

6 .2 0
6 .6 7
6 .6 6

5 .9 7
6 .7 0
6 .7 0

5 .9 7 6 .2 3 6 .2 3 -

6 .3 2
7 .2 0
7 .2 0

57

7 .7 8

7 .8 4

7. 407 .4 0 6 .7 0 -

8 .0 8
7 .8 4
7 .1 6

-

7 .3 1
7 .2 0
6 .9 7
-

-

-

7 .7 0

PA C K IN G
PA C K ER S..................................................................................
DRY SY R U P.......................................................................
F E E D ......................... .. .................... ....................................
STA RCH ...............................................................................
SYRU P..................................................................................

30

-

6 .6 0
-

M ATERIAL MOVEMENT
L A B O R E R S, M ATERIAL HANDLING......................
T R U C K E R S, POWER............. .............................................
F O R K L IF T .........................................................................
MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R IC IA N S ....................................................................
M EC H A N IC S, GENERAL U T IL I T Y .........................
M IL L W R IG H T S......................................................................
O I L E R S ............................... .......................... - .......................
S H E E T -M E T A L WORKERS...............................................

-

56
25
-

-

7 .6 2
6 . do
"

-

7 .4 0
6 .7 9
-

S E R V IC E AND C U STO D IA L
G U A R D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................
J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , AND C L E A N E R S . .. .

_

_

_

_

-

M id d le W e s t

ELEVATOR O PER A TIO N S
R E C E I V E R S . . . . .................. .............................................
W E I G H E R S ................................................................ ........

15
”

S 6 .9 5
~

* 7 . 11
-

* 6 .7 8 -

* 7 .3 2
-

7 .1 4
7 .3 2
7 .0 0
7 . 17
7 .0 9
-

7 .1 3
7 .4 2
7 .0 1
7 . 13
7 .1 3
-

7 .0 1 7 .2 5 6 .9 6 7. 05 6 .9 0 -

7 .3 2
7 .4 2
7 .1 3
7 .3 2
7 .3 2
-

P R O C E S SIN G
P R O C E S S O R S .....................................................................
CONVERTER O PE R A T O R S........................................
MACHINE T E N D E R S , DRY S T A R C H ................
MACHINE T E N D E R S , M IL L IN G .........................
MACHINE T E N D E R S , SYRUP R E F I N I N G . . '
PANELBOARD O P E R A T O R S, DRY STA R C H .
PANELBOARD O P E R A T O R S, H I L L I N G . . . .
PANELBOARD O P E R A T O R S, SY R U P.............
R E F I N I N G ......................................................................

493
94
73
115
84
~

*

-

-

PA CK ING
PA C K E R S...................................................................................
DRY SY R U P...................................................................... ...
F E E D . . ............. ..................................................................
STARCH...............................................................................
SYRUP...................................................................................

160
27
19
78
28

6 .7 8
6 .8 2
6 .9 7
6 . 57
7 .1 1

6 .8 6
6 .7 7
7 .0 1
6 .6 2
7 .0 7

6. 646 .6 8 7 .0 1 6 .5 4 7 .0 2 -

67
108
105

6 . 70
6 .6 2
6 .6 2

6 .7 7
6 .5 4
6 .5 4

.6 6 6 .5 4 6. 54-

2
1

7 .9 1

_
8 .0 5

-

_

7 .0 2
6 .9 6
7 .0 2
6 .8 6
7 .0 7

M ATERIAL MOVEMENT
LA B O R E R S, M ATERIAL H A N D L IN G .. . . . . . .
T R U C K ER S, P O W E R . . . . ...............................................
F O R K L IF T .......................................................

6

6 .7 8
6 .7 8
6 .7 8

MAINTENANCE
E L E C T R I C ! A N S .................................................................
M E C H A N IC S, GENERAL U T I L I T Y .........................
M ILLW R IG H TS......................................................................
O IL E R S ......................................................................................
SH EET-M ETA L WORKERS...............................................
S E R V IC E

-

_
7 .5 1 -

_
- 8 . 13

AND CU STO D IA L

GUARDS......................................................................................
J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , AND C L E A N E R S . .. .

1 E x c lu d e s
e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
m e a n s , m e d ia n s ,
n o t c o m p u te d f o r

-

_

_

"

p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e a n d f o r w o rk o n w e e k ­
and la te s h ifts .
S e e a p p e n d ix A f o r d e fin itio n s o f
a n d m id d le r a n g e s .
M e d ia n s a n d m id d le r a n g e s w e r e
o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .




2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e
N O T E : D a s h e s in d ic a te th a t no d a ta w e r e
d id n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

41

sh o w n s e p a ra te ly .

re p o rte d

o r th a t d a ta




Table 40. Wet corn milling: Method of wage payment
(Percent of production workers by method of wage payment,1 United States and
selected regions, September 1977)

Method of
wage payment

United
States2

Great Lakes

Middle West

All workers .............................................

100

100

100

Time-rated workers ...................................
Formal p la n s...........................................
Single rate ............................................
Range of rate s.....................................

100
99
70
30

100
99
99
1

100
100
28
72

1
2

For definition of method of wage payment, see appendix A.
Includes data for regions in addition to those separately.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

Table 41. Wet corn milling: Shift differential provisions
(Percent of production workers by shift differential provisions,1 United States and
selected regions, September 1977)

United
States2

Shift differential

Great Lakes Middle West

Second shift
Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions...........................
With shift differential..............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
Under 12 ce n ts ................................
12 cents............................................
14 cents............................................
15 cents............................................
18 cents............................................
20 cents............................................

99.3
97.9
97.9
3.0
25.2
2.7
32.1
27.5
7.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
.9
49.4
29.0
20.7
-

42.2
45.6
10.3

99.3
97.9
97.9
2.5
.5
26.8
5.3
2.7
7.7
2.1
21.3
12.0
17.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

98.1
98.1
98.1
14.2
38.3

-

98.1
98.1
98.1
-

Third or other late shift
Workers in establishments with thirdor other late-shift provisions..................
With shift differential..............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
15 cents............................................
16 cents............................................
18 cents............................................
20 cents............................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents ...........
25 cents............................................
Over 25 and under 30 cents ..........
30 cents............................................
35 cents............................................
Over 35 ce n ts ..................................

-

.9
49.4
15.2
4.0
13.9
16.7
“

-

45.6

1 Refers to policies of establishments currently operating late shifts or having
provisions covering late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

42




Table 42. Wet corn milling: Shift differential practices
(Percent of production workers employed on late shifts by amount of pay differential,
United States and selected regions, September 1977)

United
States1

Shift differential

Great Lakes Middle West

Second shift
Workers employed on second shift ........
Receiving differential .............................
Uniform cents per hour ......................
Under 12 ce n ts................................
12 cents............................................
14 cents............................................
15 cents............................................
18 cents............................................
20 cents............................................

23.1
22.8
22.8
.6
7.1
.5
7.0
6.5
1.1

23.4
23.4
23.4
.2
13.9

20.3
20.1
20.1
.5
0
5.8
1.3
.5
1.2
.3
4.1
1.6
4.7

19.0
19.0
19.0
.1
10.8
_
2.3
.5
2.8
2.5
-

-

5.8
3.4
-

24.1
24.1
24.1
_
_
_
9.3
12.7
2.2

Third or other late shift
Workers employed on third
or other late sh ift....................................
Receiving differential .............................
Uniform cents per h o u r......................
15 cents............................................
16 cents............................................
18 cents............................................
20 cents............................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents ..........
25 cents............................................
Over 25 and under 30 cents ...........
30 cents............................................
35 cents............................................
Over 35 ce n ts..................................

23.5
23.5
23.5
_
_
_
3.6
_
_
_
7.2
_

12.7

' Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 43. Wet corn milling: Paid holidays
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States
and selected regions, September 1977)

United
States’

Number of
paid holidays

Great Lakes Middle West

All workers............................................

100

100

100

Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays...........................
8 days .....................................................
9 days .....................................................
10 days ...................................................

100
7
25
68

100
14
17
69

100
29
71

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

43

Table 44. Wet corn milling: Paid vacations
(Percent of production workers with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Vacation policy
All workers.............................................

United
States'
100

Great Lakes Middle West
100

100
98
2

100
96
4

100
100

Amount of vacation pay2
After 1 year of service:
88
8
1

100

92
7
1

86
14

72
7
18
3

67
14
15
4

74
14
2

After 2 years of service:
98
2
84

_

14
2

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings, were converted to
an equivalent time basis. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not
necessarily reflect individual establishment provisions for progression. For
example, changes indicated at 10 years may include changes that occurred




Great Lakes Middle West

Amount of vacation pay2

Workers in establishments

After 5 years of service:
2 weeks ..................................................

United
States’

100

Method of payment

-tk

Vacation policy

After 10 years of service:
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks...................
5 weeks ..................................................
6 weeks ..................................................
After 15 years of service:
3 weeks ..................................................
4 weeks ..................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks...................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 7 weeks ........................................
After 20 years of service:
3 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks...................
Over 7 weeks ........................................
After 25 years of service:3
3 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
6 weeks ..................................................
Over 6 and under 7 weeks...................
Over 7 weeks ........................................

90
7
2
1

82
14
4
-

2

7
83
7
2
1

-

82
14
4

14
84

7
85
7
1

86
14

7
35
51
7
1

98

2
14
84
2
14
54
32
14
-

84
2

between 5 and 10 years.
3 Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 45. Wet corn milling: Health, insurance, and retirement
benefits
(Percent of production workers with specified health, insurance, and retirement
plans,’ United States and selected regions, September 1977)

United
States2

Type of plan
All workers............................................

Great Lakes Middle West

100

100

100

92
64

83
83

100
36

69
46

68
68

67
22

96
92
71

100
100
100

91
89
33

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance........................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance ..................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ...........................
Sickness and accident insurance ......
Noncontributory plans......................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period) ..............................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period) ...............................
Long-term disability insurance..............
Noncontributory plans.........................
Hospitalization insurance......................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Surgical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Medical insurance.................................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Major medical insurance.......................
Noncontributory plans.........................
Retirement plans4..................................
Pensions..............................................
Noncontributory plans......................

9
4
40
26
100
41
100
41
100
41
100
41
100
100
72

-

14

-

2
21
2
100
16
100
16
100
16
100
16
100
100
45

64
50
100
54
100
54
100
54
100
54
100
100
86

1 Includes those plans for which the employer pays at least part of the cost
and excludes legally required plans such as workers’ compensation and social
security; however, plans required by State temporary disability laws are included if
the employer contributes more than is legally required or the employees receive
benefits in excess of legal requirements. “ Noncontributory plans” include only
those plans financed entirely by the employer.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness and accident insurance and
sick leave shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers covered by pension plans and severance pay
shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 46. Wet corn milling: Other selected benefits
(Percent of production workers with provisions for funeral leave , jury duty , and
technological severance pay, ' United States and selected regions, September 1977)

United
States2

Type of benefit

Great Lakes Middle West

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
92
90
40

Funeral leave............................................
Jury-duty leave.........................................
Technological severance pay .................

83
83
65

’ For definition of items, see appendix A.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.

45

100
100
19

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

performed. An establishment is not necessarily identical
with a company, which may consist of one establish­
ment or more.

Scope of survey

The survey included establishments engaged primari­
ly in the following manufacturing activities as defined
in the 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion Manual (SIC) prepared by the U.S. Office of
Management and Budget:

Employment

Estimates of the number of workers within the scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the industry’s labor force, rather
than as precise measures of employment.

1. Milling flour or meal from grain, except rice (SIC
2041). The products of the flour and other grain mill
products industry may be sold plain or in the form of
prepared mixes or doughs for specific purposes.
2. Cleaning and polishing rice, and in manufacturing
rice flour or meal (SIC 2044). Other important products
of the rice milling industry include brown rice, milled
rice (including polished rice), rice polish, and rice bran.
3. Preparing blended flours and flour mixes or
doughs from purchased flour (SIC 2045).
4. Milling corn or sorgum grain (milo) by the wet
process method, and producing starch, syrup, oil,
sugar, and byproducts, such as gluten feed and meal
(SIC 2046). Also included in the wet corn milling
industry are establishments primarily manufacturing
starch from other vegetable sources (potatoes, wheat,
etc.).

Production workers

The terms “production workers” and “production
and related workers,” used interchangeably in this
bulletin, include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice activities. Admin­
istrative, executive, professional, and technical person­
nel, and force-account construction employees, who
are used as a separate work force on the firm’s own
properties, are excluded.
Occupational classification

Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of
interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix B for these descrip­
tions.) The criteria for selection of the occupations
were: The number of workers in the occupation; the
usefulness of the data in collective bargaining; and
appropriate representation of the entire job scale in the
industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners,
beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, tempo­
rary, and probationary workers were not reported in
the data for selected occupations but were included in
the data for all production workers.

Separate auxiliary units such as central offices were
excluded.
Establishments studied were selected from those
employing 20 workers or more at the time of reference
of the data used in compiling the universe lists. Table
A-l shows the number of establishments and workers
estimated to be within the scope of the survey, as well
as the number actually studied.
Method of study

Wage data

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff to a representative sample of establishments
within the scope of the survey. To obtain appropriate
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments was studied. All
estimates are presented, therefore, as relating to all
establishments in the industry, excluding only those
below the minimum size at the time of reference of the
universe data.

Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the workers’ regular pay.
Nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or category of workers, such as production
workers, were calculated by weighting each rate (or
hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving

Establishment definition

An establishment is defined for this study as a single
physical location where manufacturing operations are



46

Table A-1. Estimated number of establishments and employees within scope of survey and number studied, grain
mill products, September 1977

Number of establishments2
Region’

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within scope of
Actually studied
study

Total3

Production
workers

Actually studied

Flour and other grain mill products:
United States4.................................................................
Middle Atlantic.............................................................
Border States...............................................................
Southeast....................................................................
Southwest ...................................................................
Great Lakes.................................................................
Middle W est.................................................................
Mountain......................................................................
Pacific ..........................................................................

193
25
14
30
15
48
37
11
13

102
11
7
20
12
20
14
9
9

14,539
1,612
450
1,723
1,120
4,602
3,147
633
1,252

10,550
1,278
338
1,225
756
3,176
2,476
476
825

9,683
1,088
226
1,422
1,002
2,758
1,565
570
1,052

Rice milling:
United States..................................................................

40

25

3,590

2,642

2,742

Blended and prepared flour:
United States4.................................................................
Southwest ...................................................................
Great Lakes.................................................................
Middle W e st.................................................................
Pacific..........................................................................

45
8
12
7
7

36
6
10
6
5

6,851
671
3,846
898
419

5,187
495
3,015
632
284

6,432
651
3,742
788
293

Wet corn milling:
United States4.................................................................
Great Lakes ................................................................
Middle W est.................................................................

22
6
9

17
6
6

10,089
4,875
4,220

6,337
3,229
2,362

8,417
4,875
2,671

The regions used in this study include Middle A tla n tic New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Border States—
Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia,
and West Virginia; Southeast—Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee;
Southwest—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; Great
Lakes—Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and
Wisconsin; Middle West—Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, North Da­
kota, and South Dakota; Mountain—Arizona, Colorado, Idaho,

Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific—
California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
2 Includes only those establishments with 20 workers or
more at the time of reference of the universe data.
3 Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers
in addition to the production worker category shown sep­
arately.
4 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown sep­
arately. Alaska and Hawaii were not Included In the study.

according to certain criteria, they are essentially metro­
politan in character and are socially and economically
integrated with the central city. In New England,
where the city and town are administratively more
important than the county, they are the units used in
defining Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of
individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers
were obtained by dividing straight-time salaries by the
normal (or standard) hours to which the salaries
correspond.
The median designates position; that is, one-half of
the employees surveyed received more than this rate
and one-half received less. The middle range is defined
by two rates of pay such that one-fourth of the
employees earned less than the lower of these rates and
one-fourth earned more than the higher rate.

Labor-management agreements

Separate wage data are presented, where possible,
for establishments that had (1) a majority of the
production workers covered by labor-management
contracts, and (2) none or a minority of the production
workers covered by labor-management contracts.

Size of community

Tabulations by size of community pertain to metro­
politan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metro­
politan areas,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through
February 1974. Except in New England, a Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area is defined as a county or
group of contiguous counties which contains at least
one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties
contiguous to the one containing such a city are
included in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area if,



Method of wage payment

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primari­
ly by the qualifications of the individual worker. A
single rate structure is one in which the same rate is
paid to all experienced workers in the same job
47

classification. Learners, apprentices, or probationary
workers may be paid according to rate schedules which
start below the single rate and permit the workers to
achieve the full job rate over a period of time. An
experienced worker occasionally may be paid above or
below the single rate for special reasons, but such
payments are exceptions. Range-of-rate plans are those
in which the minimum, maximum, or both of these rates
paid experienced workers for the same job are speci­
fied. Specific rates of individual workers within the
range may be determined by merit, length of service, or
a combination of these. Incentive workers are classified
under piecework or bonus plans. Piecework is work for
which a predetermined rate is paid for each unit of
output. Production bonuses are for production in excess
of a quota or for completion of a task in less than
standard time.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are presen­
ted for health, insurance, pension, and retirement
severance plans for which the employer pays all or a
part of the cost, excluding programs required by law
such as workers’ compensation and social security.
Among plans included are those underwritten by a
commercial insurance company and those paid directly
by
the employer
from his
current
op­
erating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that
type of insurance under which predetermined cash
payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly
or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least a part of the cost.
However, in New York and New Jersey, where
temporary disability insurance laws require employer
contributions,1 plans are included only if the employer
(1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2)
provides the employees with benefits which exceed the
requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sepa­
rate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which
provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide pay­
ments to totally disabled employees upon the expiration
of sick leave, sickness and accident insurance, or both,
or after a specified period of disability (typically 6
months). Payments are made until the end of disability,
a maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits.
Payments may be full or partial, but are almost always
reduced by social security, workers’ compensation, and
private pension benefits payable to the disabled em­
ployee.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commercial insurance
company or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a
form of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes
plans designed to cover employees for sickness or
injury involving an expense which exceeds the normal
coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the remain­
der of the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately
for retirement severance pay (one payment or several
over a specified period of time) made to employees on

Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on
the day shift.
Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having
formal provisions covering late-shift work. Practices
relate to workers employed on late shifts at the time of
the survey.
Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions

Supplementary benefits in an establishment were
considered applicable to all production workers if they
applied to half or more of such workers in the
establishment. Similarly, if fewer than half of the
workers were covered, the benefit was considered
nonexistent in the establishment. Because of length-ofservice and other eligibility requirements, the propor­
tion of workers receiving the benefits may be smaller
than estimated.
Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day
and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summaries of vacation plans are
limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion of the employer or supervisor. Payments not
on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the
equivalent of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for
which data are presented represent the most common
practices, but they do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of service
may include changes which occurred between 5 and 10
years.



‘The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do
not require employer contributions.

48

retirement. Establishments providing both retirement
severance payments and retirement pensions to em­
ployees were considered as having both retirement
pensions and retirement severance plans; however,
establishments having optional plans providing employ­
ees a choice of either retirement severance payments or
pensions were considered as having only retirement
pension benefits.

and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which
provide at least partial payment for time lost as a result
of attending funerals of specified family members or
serving as a juror.
Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal plans
providing for payments to employees permanently
separated from the company because of a technological
change or plant closing.

Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral




49

Appendix B. Occupational
Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage survey is to
assist its field representatives in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are
employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from estab­
lishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupa­
tional wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job
description may differ significantly from those used in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field
representatives are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners,
beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

grinding mills for further processing; adjusts feed slides so
machine can take in only as much grain as it will sift.

Elevator operations
Cleaner, bulk

Miller, flour

Tends one or more separating, aspirating, scouring, wash­
ing, or tempering machines to remove foreign materials,
such as dirt, stones, sticks, or metal fragments from bulk
inputs prior to processing. May also repair such machinery.

(Second miller)
Performs any or all necessary cleaning, grinding, bolting
(sifting), and packing jobs in a grain mill. Starts machinery
and examines grain at various stages of manufacture to de­
termine degree of fineness. Inspects various mills for proper
operation and makes any necessary adjustments

Receiver

(Elevator operator)
Controls conveyor or elevator systems which transfer
bulk inputs from vehicles to stockpiles or to cleaning or
weighing processes. May also repair, clean, or adjust such
machinery. May initiate cleaning process or weigh or tally
deliveries.

Roll tender

Regulates flow of grain between various grinding rollers
of a rolling mill. Work includes: Moving rollers together so
that grain passing between them will be crushed; starts
feeder roll which moves grain out of supply hopper of mill
and causes it to fall between rotating grinding rolls.

Weigher

Weighs deliveries received through conveyor system,
usually using beam scale. Records weights, descriptions, and
source of bulk deliveries. May assist or be assisted by re­
ceiver in duties.

Processing—rice milling
Cooker and drier

Tends steam pressure cooker for parboiling or cooking
rice prior to removal of hulls and/or tends heating or
drying machines to prepare moist or parboiled rice for hul­
ling. (Also includes freezedry operators in instant or quickcook operations.) May also repair such machinery.

Processing—flour and other grain mill products
Blender

Blends milled grains into prescribed proportions for spe­
cific quality flours. May tend enriching machines to pro­
duce patent or other flours.

Huller and pearler

Tends any of various machines which separate the hull
from the rice and/or any of the various machines for the
removal of the cuticle and bran layers from the separate
rice kernels. May also repair such machinery.

Bolter

(Sifter; purifier operator)
Sifts ground grain in the sifting and aspirating machines
to remove the broken kernels and lumps to be returned to



50

Polisher and separator

Tends any of various machines for the buffing or polish­
ing of white rice and/or any of various sorting machines for
the removal and collection of resulting byproducts, such as
brokens, bran, and rice polish. May also repair such machin­
ery.
Processing—blended and prepared flour
Machine tender, mixing and blending

Tends one or more areas, conveyors, or mixing vats.
Adjusts or sets up machines, independently or under the
direction of panelboard operator, to facilitate continuous
process flow.

the continuous flow of syrups through purification and
concentration operations.
Panelboard operator, dry starch

Operates a panelboard to monitor and control some or
all of the blending, filtering, dewatering, or drying opera­
tions in the production of dry starch at a corn processing
plant. Observes dials, meters, lights, and gauges for indica­
tions of overloads, malfunctions, or system blockages.
Notifies specific area or machine tenders involved of ob­
served deficiencies or maladjustments. Notifies maintenance
personnel of equipment malfunctions or failures.
Panelboard operator, milling

Panelboard operator, mixing and blending

Operates a panelboard to monitor and control some or
all of the mixing, blending, and conveying operations in­
volved in the manufacture of flour mixes or doughs. Ob­
serves dials, meters, lights, and gauges for indications of
overloads, malfunctions, or system blockages. Notifies spe­
cific area or machine tenders involved of observed de­
ficiencies or maladjustments. Notifies maintenance person­
nel of equipment malfunctions or failures.
Processing—
wet corn milling
Converter operator

Operates converter that changes starch into glucose or
corn syrup and tests product to verify purity. Turns valves
to admit steam, water, and starch into converter. Monitors
cooking of starch, treating with acid or enzymes; makes
titration tests and routes syrup to refining or storage areas
when conversion is complete.

Operates a panelboard to monitor and control some or
all of the steeping, degerminating, grinding, separating, and
fiber washing operations of a corn processing plant. Ob­
serves dials, meters, lights, and gauges for indications of
overloads, malfunctions, or system blockages. Notifies spe­
cific area or machine tenders involved of observed defi­
ciencies or maladjustments. Notifies maintenance personnel
of equipment malfunctions or failures.
Panelboard operator, syrup refining

Operates a panelboard to monitor and control some or
all of the filtering, purifying, cooling, or concentrating
operations in the production of corn syrup and syrup solids.
Observes dials, meters, lights, and gauges for indications of
overloads, malfunctions, or system blockages. Notifies spe­
cific area or machine tenders involved of observed defi­
ciencies or maladjustments. Notifies maintenance person­
nel of equipment malfunctions or failures.
Packing

Machine tender, dry starch

Packer

Tends one or more of the following machines or areas:
Blending tank, filter, dewatering press, and drier. Observes,
adjusts, or sets up machines, independently or under the
direction of panelboard operator, to facilitate continuous
flow of starch through treating, purifying, and drying op­
erations.

Tends a machine that packs and weighs finished pro­
ducts or materials; places empty sack, bag, or other con­
tainer over discharge nozzle or spout of packing machine;
starts flow of product or material into container; and shuts
off or stops flow of product or material when specified
weight or amount has entered the container (machine may
do this automatically). May seal or close containers by hand
or machine. May make adjustments and minor repairs.
For wage study purposes, packers in flour and other
grain mill products are classified as follows:
Packer, feed
Packer, flour
For wage study purposes, packers in rice milling are clas­
sified as follows:
Packer, bran
Packer, rice
For wage study purposes, packers in blended and pre­
pared flour are classified as follows:
Packer, doughs
Packer, flour mixes

Machine tender, milling

Tends one or more of the following machines or areas:
Steep tanks, degerminators, grinders, fiber washers, or centrifrigers. Observes, digests, or sets up machines, inde­
pendently or under the direction of panelboard operator, to
facilitate continuous flow of corn kernels through the ini­
tial milling operations.
Machine tender, syrup refining

Tends one or more of the following machines or areas:
Filters (charcoal or other), coolers, driers, or evaporators.
Observes, adjusts, or sets up machines, independently or
under the direction of panelboard operator, to facilitate



51

For wage study purposes, packers are classified as fol­
lows:
Packer, dry syrup
Packer, feed
Packer, germ
Packer, starch
Packer, syrup

Mechanic, general utility

Performs the work of two or more maintenance trades
rather than specializing in only one trade or one type of
maintenance work. Typically, the work of a general me­
chanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
The classification includes workers who regularly per­
form two or more types of skilled maintenance work within
a section or department of a large establishment, such as
pipefitting, millwrighting, welding, machining, machine and
equipment repairing, and carpentry, among others. It also
includes workers that maintain and repair machines, me­
chanical and electrical equipment, and/or the structure of a
small establishment where specialization in maintenance
work is impractical. It does not, however, include workers
who only make minor repairs or adjustments.

Material movement
Laborer, material handling

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver;
trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or ware­
house helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing
plant, or other establishment whose duties involve one or
more o f the following: Loading and unloading various ma­
terials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or
other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
materials or merchandise in proper storage location; or
transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car,
or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload
ships, are excluded.

Millwright

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and disman­
tles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes
in the plant layout are required. Work involves most o f the
following: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting
blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity;
aligning and balancing of equipment; 'selecting standard
tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and
maintaining in good order power transmission equipment,
such as drives and speed reducers. In general, a millwright
normally must have rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

Trucker, power

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electricpowered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials
in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establish­
ment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type
of truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

Oiler

Maintenance

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wear­
ing surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
May also clean surface of, or around, machines.

Electrician

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions, such as
the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for
the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy
in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equip­
ment, such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit
systems, or other transmission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; lo­
cating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or
equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and
using a variety of electrician’s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the main­
tenance electrician requires rounded training and experi­
ence usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.



Sheet-metal worker

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the
sheet-metal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards,
grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes,
ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves
most o f the following-. Planning and laying out all types of
sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or
other specifications; setting up and operating all available
types of sheet-metal working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting,
and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as re­
quired. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal
worker requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.
52

Service and custodial
Guard

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where neces­
sary. Includes gate tenders who are stationed at gate and
check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
Janitor, porter, and cleaner

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)




53

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory work­
ing areas and washrooms, or premises of an office or other
establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the follow­
ing: Sweeping, mopping, or scrubbing, and polishing
floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting
equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms.
Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Industry Wage Studies

The most recent reports providing occupational wage data
for industries included in the Bureau’s program of industry
wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies are for sale
from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or from any of its

regional sales offices, and from the regional offices of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics shown on the inside back cover.
Copies that are out of stock are available for reference pur­
poses at leading public, college, or university libraries, or at
the Bureau’s Washington or regional offices.

Manufacturing
Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. Bulletin
1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1976
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and Solid Fiber Boxes, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Grain Mill Products, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2026
Hosiery, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1987
Industrial Chemicals, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1978
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1978. BLS Bulletin 2022
Meat Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1962
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
"Paints and Varnishes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1973
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2008
Semiconductors, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2021
Shipbuilding and Repairing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1968
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1694
Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942

Manufacturing-Continued
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1967
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2007
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930




Nonmanufacturing
Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking and Life Insurance, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1988
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1976-81. BLS Bulletin 1999
Communications, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1991
Computer and Data Processing services, March 1978. BLS
Bulletin 2028
Contract Cleaning Services, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2009
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Department Stores, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2006
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 1968-69.
BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 16451
Metal Mining, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2017
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1964
Oil and Gas Extraction, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2014
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1712
1 Bulletin out o f stock

54
☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1979

0 - 2 8 1 - 4 1 2 (1 0 4 )

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston. Mass 02203
Phone (617) 223-6761

Region IV

1371 Peachtree Street. NE
Atlanta. Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418
Region V

Region II

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York. N Y 10036
Phone (212)3 99-5 40 5
Region III

3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago, III 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions VII and V III*

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816)374-2481
Regions IX and X **

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region VI

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
"Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102