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INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY




Flour and Other Grain
Mill Products
N O V EM BER 1961

B u lletin N o. 1 3 3 7
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

73
W/*jy
i

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY

Flour and Other Grain
Mill Products
NOVEMBER 1961

B u lle tin N o. 1 3 3 7
O ctober 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.



Price 30 cents




This bulletin sum m arizes wages and supplemen­
tary practices in the flour and other grain m ill products
industry in November 1961.
Separate relea ses for Buffalo, Kansas
Minneapolis—
St. Paul were issued within a few
the payroll period to which the data relate.
these releases are available from the Bureau
Statistics, Washington 25, D. C. , or from any
gional o ffice s.

City, and
months of
Copies of
of Labor
of its r e ­

This bulletin was prepared by F red L. Bauer of
the Bureau's D ivision of Wages and Industrial Relations.
F ield work for the survey was directed by the Assistant
Regional D irectors for Wages and Industrial Relations.




m




Contents
Page

Industry characteristics --------------------------------Average hourly earnings ___________________________________________________________
Occupational earnings ___-_________________________________________________________
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ---------------------------Scheduled weekly hours and shiftpractices -----------------------------------------------------Paid holidays ____________________________________________________________________
Paid vacations ___________________________________________________________________
Health, insurance, and pension plans --------------------------------------------------------------Other benefits ____________________________________________________________________

1
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5

Tables:
Average hourly earnings:
1.

B y s e le c t e d c h a r a c t e r is t ic s

_____________________________________________

6

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7

A ll esta b lish m en ts _______________________________________________________
By s iz e o f esta b lish m en t ________________________________________________
B y s iz e o f com m u n ity ___________________________________________________

8
9
10

E arn in gs d istrib u tion :
2.

A ll e sta b lish m e n ts

O ccu pa tion a l a v e r a g e s :
3.
4.
5.

O ccu pation al ea rn in gs:
6.
7.
8.

B uffalo ____________________________________________________________________
K ansas C ity _______________________________________________ — ------------------M in n ea polis—
St. Paul -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11
12
13

E sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p plem en tary wage p ro v is io n s :
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Scheduled w eek ly h ou rs _________________________________________________
Shift d iffe re n tia l p r o v is io n s _____________________________________________
Shift d iffe re n tia l p r a c t ic e s _____________________________________________
P a id h olid a ys ____________________________________________________________
P a id v a ca tio n s ___________________________________________________________
H ealth, in su ra n ce , and p en sion plans _________________________________
P aid fu n era l le a v e , ju r y -d u ty le a v e , and te ch n o lo g ica l
se v e r a n c e pay __________________________________________________________

14
15
16
17
18
20
21

A pp en dixes:
A.
B.

Scope and m eth od o f su rv e y _______________________________________________
O ccu pation al d e s c rip tio n s __________________________________________________




23
27




Industry W age Survey—
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, November 1961
Sum m ary
S tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs o f p rod u ction and re la te d w o rk e rs in the
flo u r and oth er g ra in m ill p rod u cts in d u stry a v e ra g e d $ 2 .2 2 in N ovem b er 1961,
a cc o r d in g to a su rv e y con d u cted by the B ureau o f L a b or S t a t is t ic s .1 E arnings
o f a ll but about 3 p e rce n t o f the 1 5 ,9 8 4 p ro d u ction w o r k e rs c o v e r e d by the study
w e re w ithin a range o f $ 1 . 15 to $ 3 an hour, with the m id d le half earning b e ­
tw een $ 2 and $ 2 .5 3 .
A p p ro x im a te ly a tenth o f the w o rk e rs ea rn ed le s s than
$ 1 .5 0 , and a fou rth ea rn ed le s s than $ 2 an hour.
R eg ion a lly , a v era g e hourlyearn in gs ran ged fr o m $ 1 .3 6 in the B o r d e r States to $ 2. 59 in the M iddle A tla n tic. 2
A m ong the 15 occu p a tio n s s e le c te d fo r sep a ra te study, nationw ide av era g e
earn in gs ran ged fr o m $ 2 .0 1 an hour fo r m en fe e d p a ck e rs to $ 3 .2 4 fo r head
flo u r m ille r s .
M a teria l handling la b o r e r s and flo u r p a ck e rs , tog eth er accounting
fo r sligh tly m o r e than a fou rth o f the total p rod u ction w o rk e r em ploym en t, a v ­
era g e d $ 2 .0 9 and $ 2 .0 8 an hour, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
In form a tion was a lso d e v e lo p ed on h ours o f w ork , shift d iffe re n tia ls ,
and s e le c te d su p plem en ta ry b e n e fits, such as paid holid ays and v a ca tion s, ju r y
duty and fu n era l le a v e pay, and v a rio u s types o f in su ra n ce and re tire m e n t plans
fo r p ro d u ctio n and o ffic e w o r k e r s .
Industry C h a r a c te r is tic s
E m ploym en t in the flo u r m illin g in d u stry was a p p rox im a tely a th ird
lo w e r in N ovem b er 1961 than in January 1948 when a s im ila r study was c o n ­
d u c t e d .3
Wheat flo u r p rod u ction during this p e r io d has rem a in ed re la tiv e ly
s t a b le .4 A num ber o f te c h n o lo g ic a l changes in tro d u ce d sin ce 1948 have c o n t r ib ­
uted to a substantial in c r e a s e in the output p er m a n -h ou r w ork ed. 5 F o r e x ­
a m p le, m any m ills have in sta lle d a ir con v eyin g sy ste m s w hich, u sed in c o n ­
ju n ction with au tom atic equipm ent, m ake it p o s s ib le to p r o c e s s the g ra in with
a m in im u m o f m anual handling. In som e o f the la r g e r fir m s , the fin ish ed p r o d ­
uct is a u tom a tica lly loa d ed into tanks and c a r s , g re a tly red u cin g the num ber o f
flo u r p a ck e rs and oth er m a te r ia l handling jo b s in the in d u stry .
A lthough total d o m e s tic flo u r con su m p tion has rem a in ed a p p rox im a tely
the sam e o v e r the past s e v e r a l y e a r s , p er cap ita con su m p tion o f wheat flo u r in
the United States has d e clin e d stea d ily fr o m an annual peak o f a p p rox im a tely

1 See appendix A fo r sc o p e and m ethod o f su rv ey .
2 F o r defin ition o f re g io n s and a re a s u se d in this re p o r t, see footn otes
1 and 2, appendix A ta b le.
3 W age S tru ctu re: G rain M illin g, 1948.
BLS S e rie s 2, No. 65.
4 C u rren t In du strial R e p o rts , M a rch 28', 1962.
S e rie s M 20A (61)—13, U. S.
D epartm en t o f C o m m e r c e , B ureau o f the C en su s.
5 Output p er p ro d u ctio n w o rk e r m a n -h ou r in c re a s e d 44 p e rcen t betw een
1947 and 1958.
See Indexes o f Output P e r M an-H our fo r S elected In d u strie s,
1939 and 1947—60, B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tis tics .




1

2

225 pounds r e a ch e d
1961 was estim a te d
u sed by b a k e rs has
fa m ily con su m p tion

at the turn o f the cen tu ry . 6 P e r cap ita con su m p tion fo r
to be 118 p o u n d s .7 D uring this p e rio d , the quantity o f flo u r
b een in c re a s in g a lm o st con tin u ou sly , w h erea s flo u r u sed fo r
has d e clin e d ste a d ily .

F o u r -fifth s o f the p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs within s co p e o f the su rv ey w ere
e m p lo y e d by m ills p r im a r ily en gaged in the p rod u ction o f wheat flo u r; the r e ­
m a in d er w e re in m ills m an u factu rin g c o r n m e a l, p re p a re d flo u r m ix e s , and oth er
g ra in m ill p ro d u cts.
Wheat flo u r is p ro d u ce d b y grinding the e n d o sp e rm w hich con stitu tes a p ­
p r o x im a te ly fo u r -fift h s o f the wheat b e r r y .
The ou ter co a t o f bran and the inner
wheat g e r m a re sep a ra ted fr o m the e n d osp erm by grinding and siftin g .
A fte r
bein g cle a n e d and te m p e re d by adding w ater, the w hole g ra in is p a s se d through
two types o f r o l le r s .
The b re a k r o lls c ru sh the g ra in into p a r tic le s o f bran and
e n d o s p e rm and a sm a ll am ount o f flo u r.
The flo u r sifts into b in s, and the p a r ­
t ic le s o f e n d o sp e rm a re sent to the red u ction r o l ls .
A fte r pa ssin g through the
r e d u ctio n r o lls , the p rod u ct is then b olted (s ifte d ).
S ev era l sets o f red u ction
r o lls a r e u sed; a fte r ea ch grin d in g, the resu ltin g m a te ria l is b o lte d .
T y p ica lly ,
the co m p le te m illin g p r o c e s s r e q u ir e s le s s than 30 m in u tes.
In te r m s o f em p loy m en t, flo u r m ills a re c o m p a r a tiv e ly sm a ll.
Only
9 o f the 235 m ills w ithin sco p e o f the study em p loy ed as m any as 400 w o r k e rs ,
and none e m p loy ed as m any as 1, 000.
The m ed ian num ber o f w o rk e rs e m ­
p lo y e d was 130.
W om en as a grou p accou n ted fo r le s s than 4 p e rce n t o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
E sta b lish m e n ts w ithin sco p e o f the study w ere lo c a te d in a ll s e ctio n s o f
the co u n try with the e x ce p tio n o f New England.
H ow ev er, th ree-ten th s o f the
in d u s tr y 's p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs w e re in the G reat L ak es re g io n and a fifth w ere
in the M idw est.
The M iddle A tlan tic and P a c ific , ranking th ird and fou rth , r e ­
s p e c tiv e ly , ea ch a cco u n te d fo r a p p rox im a tely a tenth o f the w o r k e r s .
N e a rly tw o -th ir d s o f the p ro d u ction w o rk e rs w ere in m e tro p o lita n a r e a s ,
in clu d in g B u ffalo, K ansas C ity, and M in nea polis—
St. Paul fo r w hich sep arate
data a re p re s e n te d . R e g io n a lly , the p ro p o rtio n o f w o rk e rs in m e tro p o lita n a re a s
ran ged fr o m a ll in the M iddle A tlan tic and P a c ific re g io n s to slig h tly le s s than
h alf in the B o r d e r , Southeast, and Southwest re g io n s .
E sta b lish m en ts with c o lle c t iv e bargain in g a g re e m e n ts c o v e rin g a m a jo r ity
o f th eir p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs e m p lo y ed n e a rly fo u r -fifth s o f the in d u s try 's w ork
fo rce .
N in e-ten th s o r m o r e o f the w o rk e rs in the M iddle A tla n tic, M ountain,
and P a c ific re g io n s w e re in m ills with such co n tra ct c o v e r a g e .
P ro p o rtio n s in
the rem a in in g r e g io n s w e re n e a rly n in e-ten th s in the G reat L a k es, th re e -fo u rth s
in the M idw est, tw o -th ir d s in the Southwest, and sligh tly m o r e than a fifth in
the B o r d e r and the Southeast r e g io n s . A g reem en t c o v e ra g e in m e tro p o lita n and
n on m etrop olita n a re a s am ounted to 86 and 63 p e rce n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
S im ila rly ,
su ch c o v e r a g e was su bstan tially h igher (87 p ercen t) in esta b lish m en ts em p loyin g
100 o r m o r e than in s m a lle r e sta b lish m en ts (65 p e rce n t).
The A m e r ic a n F e d ­
e ra tio n o f G rain M ille r s (A F L —
CIO) was the m a jo r union in the in d u stry .
V irtu a lly a ll o f the w o r k e rs in the in du stry w ere paid on a t im e -r a te
b a s is . Slightly m o r e than fo u r -fift h s o f the w o rk e rs w ere in m ills with f o r m a l­
iz e d w age p o lic ie s p rov id in g sin g le ra tes fo r e sta b lish ed occu p a tion a l c l a s s i f i c a ­
tion s; m o s t o f the re m a in d e r (la r g e ly in the B o rd e r and Southeast re g io n s ) w e re
in m ills in w hich pay ra te s w e re d e term in ed in re la tio n to the q u a lifica tion s of
the in dividu al e m p lo y e e .
6
7

The N orth w estern M i ll e r , M in n ea p olis, M inn. , August 7, 1961, p.
P r e lim in a r y estim a te b y the U. S. D epartm ent o f A g ricu ltu re .




23.

3

A v e ra g e H ou rly E arn in gs
P ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in the flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g in d u stry a v e ra g e d
$ 2 .2 2 an hour in N ov em b er 1961, e x c lu s iv e o f p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and
fo r w ork on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s, and late shifts (table 1).
M en, accou n ting fo r
96 p e rce n t o f the w o r k e r s , a v e ra g e d $ 2 .2 3 an hour, c o m p a r e d with $ 1 .9 1 fo r
w om en .
R e g io n a lly , a v e ra g e earn in gs ranged fr o m $ 1 .3 6 an hour in the B o r d e r
States to $ 2 .5 9 in the M iddle A tla n tic.
A v e ra g e s in the G reat L akes and the
M iddle W est, to g eth er a ccou n tin g fo r slig h tly m o r e than h alf o f the w o rk e rs
c o v e r e d by the study, w e re $ 2 .2 8 and $ 2 .2 6 , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
W ork ers in the
Southeast a v e ra g e d $ 1 .3 8 an h ou r, c o m p a re d with $ 1 .9 6 in the Southwest.
N ationw ide, w o r k e r s in m e tro p o lita n a re a s a v e ra g e d $2. 38 an hour, c o m ­
p a red with $ 1. 93 fo r th ose e m p lo y e d in s m a lle r co m m u n itie s .
M etrop olita n a re a s
a ccou n te d fo r a ll o f the em p loy m en t in the M iddle A tlan tic and P a c ific — the two
highest paying r e g io n s .
In e a ch o f the rem a in in g re g io n s , with the ex cep tion
o f the B o r d e r States (w h ere id e n tica l a v e ra g e s w ere r e c o r d e d ), highest a v e ra g e s
w e re e a rn ed by w o r k e rs in m e tro p o lita n a re a s — b y am ounts ranging fr o m 16 to
46 cen ts an h ou r.
A v e ra g e h o u rly earnings o f w o rk e rs in the th ree m e t r o ­
politan a r e a s stu died se p a ra te ly w ere B u ffalo, $ 2 .7 5 ; K ansas C ity, $ 2 .4 3 ; and
M in n ea polis—
St. P au l, $ 2 .6 0 .
On the a v e r a g e , w o r k e r s in m ills with 100 o r m o r e e m p lo y e e s earn ed
$ 2 . 3 9 an h ou r, co m p a r e d with $ 1 . 9 7 fo r w o rk e rs in s m a lle r m ills .
In each o f
the re g io n s fo r w h ich both a v e r a g e s a re re p o rte d , ex cep t the P a c ific , highest
a v era g e h ou rly earn in gs w e re r e c o r d e d fo r w o rk e rs in the la r g e r m ills .
In
the P a c ific re g io n , n e a r ly id e n tica l a v e ra g e s w ere r e c o r d e d fo r the two e s ta b ­
lish m en t s iz e g ro u p s. H ow ev er, in M in neapolis—
St. Paul w o r k e rs in the s m a lle r
m ills had a sligh t w age advantage.
E arnings o f 97 p e rce n t o f the p rod u ction w o rk e rs ran ged fr o m $ 1 . 1 5 to
$ 3 an hour (table 2).
In the earn in gs a r r a y , the m id d le h alf o f the w o rk e rs
fe ll betw een $ 2 and $ 2 . 53 an hour; a p p ro x im a te ly a tenth o f the w o rk e rs earn ed
le s s than $ 1 . 5 0 .
T w o -fifth s o f the w o r k e rs in the B o rd e r and Southeast re g io n s
and n e a r ly a tenth in the Southw est earn ed betw een $ 1 . 1 5 and $ 1 . 2 0 an hour,
A s in d ica ted in the fo llo w in g tabulation, th ese w ere the on ly re g io n s in w hich
substan tial p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s ea rn ed le s s than $ 1.25:

Percent o f workers with average hourly
_________ earnings of less than-*-_______
$1.25
Middle Atlantic --------Border — ------------------ •
............. Southeast -----------------Southwest — ------ — — ..................
Great L a k e s ---------------- ..................
Middle West -------------- ..................
Mountain — ---------------P a c i f i c -----------------------

50.7
10.2

1.0
.1

$1.50

$1.75

$2.00

0 .3
7 1 .6
69.5
16.9
4 .0
.5

5 .4
9 0 .4
7 9 .9
29.3
12.4
3 .7

8 .6
96.2
94.6
43.5
24.9
11.0

.9

1. 1

1 .4

-

_

_

O ccu pation al E arn in gs
The 15 occu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n s fo r w hich data a re p re se n te d in table
3 a ccou n ted fo r n e a r ly th r e e -fifth s o f the p rod u ction and re la te d w o rk e rs within




4

the sco p e o f the su rv e y . A ll o f the w o rk e rs in th ese jo b s w e re m en,
N ation ­
w ide, a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs fo r m en in th ese jo b s ran ged fr o m $ 2 . 0 1 fo r
fe e d p a ck e rs to $ 3 . 2 4 fo r head flo u r m ille r s .
M a teria l handling la b o r e r s and
flo u r p a c k e r s , who tog eth er a cco u n ted fo r sligh tly m o r e than a fou rth o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s , a v e ra g e d $ 2 . 0 9 and $ 2 . 0 8 an hou r, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
M ill­
w righ ts a v e ra g e d $ 2 . 8 8 an h ou r, c o m p a re d with $ 2 . 4 9 fo r fo r k lift -t r u c k o p ­
e r a to r s and $ 2 . 4 3 fo r se co n d flo u r m ille r s .
A v e ra g e s fo r the re m a in d e r o f
the jo b s ran ged fr o m $ 2 . 1 0 to $ 2 . 3 8 .
O ccu pation al a v e r a g e s w e re g e n e ra lly h igh est in the M iddle A tlan tic
r e g io n and lo w e st in the B o r d e r States.
In form ation on occu p a tion a l earn in gs
w e re a ls o tabulated by s iz e o f esta b lish m en t (table 4) and by com m u n ity s iz e
(table 5).
In m o st o f the re g io n s w h ere co m p a ris o n s w e re p o s s ib le , o c c u p a ­
tion al earn in gs w e re g e n e r a lly high er in m ills em p loyin g 100 o r m o r e w o rk e rs
than in the s m a lle r m ills .
In the P a c ific re g io n , h ow ev er, a v e ra g e s fo r the
s m a lle r m ills equaled o r e x ce e d e d the a v e ra g e s fo r the la r g e r m ills in 4 of
the 8 jo b s fo r w hich c o m p a r is o n s cou ld be m ade.
In m o st o f the r e g io n s , o c ­
cu pation al a v e ra g e s w e re c o n siste n tly h igh er in m etro p o lita n a re a s than in the
s m a lle r co m m u n itie s .
E arn in gs o f in dividu als p e r fo rm in g s im ila r task s within the sam e la b o r
m a rk et w e re u su a lly grou p ed within co m p a ra tiv e ly c lo s e lim its (ta b les 6, 7, and 8).
Thus, v ir tu a lly a ll o f the m en ja n ito rs in B uffalo ea rn ed betw een $ 2 . 5 0 and
$ 2 . 60 an hour and a ll o f the flo u r p a ck e rs earn ed betw een $ 2 . 7 0 and $ 2 . 9 0 an
h ou r.
S im ila r co n ce n tra tio n s a re apparent fo r the oth er two lo c a l a re a s fo r
w h ich sep a ra te data a re p ro v id e d .
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and Supplem entary Wage P r o v is io n s
Data w e re a ls o obtained on w ork sch ed u les and su p p lem en tary b e n e fits,
in clu din g paid h olid a ys and v a ca tio n s; re tire m e n t plans; life , s ick n e s s and a c c i ­
dent, h o sp ita liza tio n , s u r g ic a l, and m e d ic a l in su ra n ce; and paid ju ry —
duty and
fu n era l le a v e fo r p ro d u ctio n and o ffic e w o r k e r s . 8
Scheduled W eekly H ours and Shift P r a c t i c e s . A w ork sch ed u le o f 40 hours
a w eek was in e ffe c t in m ills em ployin g n ea rly th r e e -fifth s of the p rod u ction
w o r k e rs in N ovem b er 1961; an additional fifth o f th ese w o rk e rs w ere sch ed u led
to w ork 48 h ou rs (table 9).
W eekly w ork sch ed u les of 48 h ours o r m o r e a p ­
p lie d to a fou rth o r m o r e o f the p rod u ction w o rk e rs in a ll e x ce p t the M ountain
and P a c ific r e g io n s .
N e a rly n in e-ten th s o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs w ere sch ed u led
to w ork 40 h ou rs a w eek.
N ea rly th re e -te n th s o f the p rod u ction w o rk e rs in the in d u stry w ere e m ­
p loy ed on late shifts at the tim e o f the study (table 11).
The wage d iffe re n tia ls
paid th ese w o r k e rs v a r ie d g re a tly , but m o st co m m o n ly am ounted to 10 cen ts above
f i r s t - s h if t ra te s fo r s e c o n d -s h ift w ork and 12 cents an hour fo r th ir d -s h ift w ork .
P a id H o lid a y s.
P a id h olid ays w ere p rov id ed n e a rly a ll p rod u ction and
o ffic e w o r k e r s (table 12).
The m a jo r ity o f the p rod u ction w o rk e rs in 5 o f the
8 r e g io n s fo r w hich sep a ra te data a re p rov id ed r e c e iv e d 8 days annually.
Typ­
ic a lly , p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in the B o r d e r , Southeast, and Southwest re g io n s r e ­
c e iv e d fe w e r than 8 paid h olid a ys a y e a r .
H oliday p r o v is io n s fo r o ffic e w o rk e rs
w e re g e n e r a lly s im ila r to th ose fo r p rod u ction w o r k e rs .

8 Data fo r o ffic e w o r k e rs su m m a riz e d in this re p o r t ex clu d e e m p lo y e e s o f
sep a ra te ce n tr a l o f f ic e s .




5

P a id V a c a tio n s . P a id v a ca tion s a fte r qu alifyin g p e rio d s o f s e r v ic e w ere
p rov id e d by m ills em p loyin g v ir tu a lly a ll o f the p rod u ction and o ffic e w o rk e rs
(table 13).
A m a jo r ity o f the in d u s tr y 's p rod u ction w o rk e rs w ere e lig ib le fo r
1 w e e k 's v a ca tio n pay a fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e , 2 w eek s' a fte r 2 y e a r s , 3 w eek s'
a fte r 10 y e a r s , and 4 w eek s' a fte r 20 o r m o r e y e a r s .
R eg io n a lly , v a ca tion p r o ­
v is io n s fo r p rod u ction w o r k e rs w e re m o s t lib e r a l in the M ountain and P a c ific
re g io n s and le a s t lib e r a l in the B o r d e r and Southeast.
O ffice w o r k e r s ty p ic a lly r e c e iv e d 2 w eeks o f v a ca tion pay a fter 1 y ea r
o f s e r v ic e and 3 w eeks a fte r 10 y e a r s .
H alf o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs w e re in
m ills p rov id in g 4 o r m o r e w eek s o f v a ca tion pay a fter 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e .
Health, In su ra n ce, and P e n sio n P la n s .
L ife , s ick n e ss and a ccid e n t,
h osp ita liza tio n , su r g ic a l, and m e d ic a l in su ra n ce plans, fo r w hich e m p lo y e rs
paid at le a s t part o f the c o s t , w e re a v a ila b le to a la r g e m a jo r ity o f the p r o ­
du ction and o ffic e w o r k e rs (table 14). A ccid e n ta l death and d ism e m b e rm e n t in ­
su ran ce was p ro v id e d by m ills em p loy in g half o f the o ffic e w o rk e rs and tw o -fifth s
o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
P e n sio n plans p rov id in g re g u la r paym ents fo r the re m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life upon re tir e m e n t (oth er than ben efits av a ila b le under F e d e r a l
O ld -A g e , S u r v iv o r s, and D isa b ility In su rance) w ere p ro v id e d by m ills em ployin g
n e a rly se v e n -te n th s o f the p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs and th r e e -fo u r th s o f the o ffic e
w ork ers.
O ther B e n e fits .
P r o v is io n s fo r fu ll o r p a rtia l paym ent fo r tim e lo s t
as a r e su lt o f attending fu n era ls o f c e rta in fa m ily m e m b e rs ap p lied to fu lly
th re e -fo u r th s o f the p rod u ction w o r k e rs and n e a rly half o f the o ffic e w o r k e rs
c o v e r e d by the study (table 15).
A p p ro x im a te ly sev en -ten th s o f the p rod u ction and o ffic e w o rk e rs w ere
em p loy ed by m ills with p r o v is io n s fo r at le a s t p a rtia l paym ent fo r tim e lo s t
while se rv in g as ju r o r s .
T w o -fifth s o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs and n e a rly a sixth o f the o ffic e
w o rk e rs w e re in m ills w ith p r o v is io n s fo r se v e ra n ce pay to w o rk e rs sep a ra ted
fr o m em p loy m en t b e c a u se o f te c h n o lo g ic a l changes o r c lo s in g o f the m ill.




Table 1. Average Hourly Earnings: By Selected Characteristics
(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h ou rly ea rn in gs 1 of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts by s e le c t e d c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ,
United S tates, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
M idd le A tla n tic
Southw est

S outheast

B o r d e r States

United States
B u ffa lo

T o t a l1
2
Item
A v e ra g e
h ou rly
ea rn in gs

N um ber
of
w ork ers

N um ber
of
w o rk e r s

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
ea rn in g s

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

N um ber
of
w ork ers

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
ea rn in g s

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
ea rn in g s

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s _________________________
M en ____________________ ________________________
W om en

1 5 ,9 8 4
15, 398
586

$ 2.22
2.23
1.91

1 ,8 3 4
1 ,8 1 5
19

$ 2.59
2.59
2.08

1, 366
1, 353
13

$ 2.75
2.76
2.41

554
547
7

$ 1.36
1.36
1.29

1, 131
1, 106
25

$ 1.38
1.38
1.19

1, 377
1, 330
47

$ 1.96
1.97
1.73

S iz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t:
20— w o r k e r s _______ „ _______
99
____ ____
100 or m o r e w o r k e r s ________ ________ _______

6 , 575
9, 409

1.97
2.39

568
1, 266

2.21
2.75

_
1, 266

.
2.75

391

1.34
-

812
319

1.26
1.66

476
901

1.71
2.09

S iz e o f co m m u n ity :
M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s 3 __ ____ ___ —
N o n m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s ______________________

10, 320
5, 664

2.38
1.93

1, 834

2.59

1, 366

2.75

266
288

1.36
1.36

517
614

1.49
1.28

628
749

2.08
1.86

'

M idd le W est

G rea t L akes
M inneapoli 8—
St. Paul

T otal

M ountain
R e s t of r e g io n

N u m ber A v e ra g e N um ber A v e ra g e N u m ber
of
h ou rly
of
h ou rly
of
w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s

K an sas C ity

T otal

P a c ifi c

R e s t of’ r e g io n

A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N um ber
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
of
of
h o u r ly
ea rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s

A v e ra g e
h ou rly
ea rn in gs

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s _________________________
M en __________ _____________________ ___ _____ __
W om en __________ - __________ ___ _____________

5, 025
4 ,6 9 8
327

$ 2.28
2.31
1.91

730
723
7

$ 2.60
2.60
2.21

4, 295
3, 975
320

$ 2.23
2.26
1.90

3, 364
3, 296
68

$ 2.26
2 .27
1.96

598
581
17

$ 2.43
2.43
2.36

2, 766
2, 715
51

$ 2.22
2.23
1.83

1 ,0 2 0
1, 018
-

$ 2.36
2.3 7
-

1 ,6 7 9
1 ,5 8 8
91

$ 2.54
2.56
2.15

S ize o f e s ta b lis h m e n t:
20— w o r k e r s ______________________ _________
99
100 o r m o r e w o r k e r s ___ ________ ________

1 ,4 7 4
3, 551

1.93
2.43

218
512

2.65
2.58

1, 256
3, 039

1.81
2.40

1, 726
1 ,6 3 8

2.18
2.34

125
-

2.46
-

1,6 0 1
1, 165

2.16
2 .30

595
425

2.33
2.41

533
1, 146

2.55
2.54

S iz e of co m m u n ity :
M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s 3 _________________________
N o n m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s _______
_________

2 ,9 7 3
2, 052

2.47
2.01

730

2.60

2, 243
2, 052

2.43
2.01

1, 706
1 ,6 5 8

2.37
2.15

598

2.43

1, 108
1 ,6 5 8

2 .33
2.15

717
303

2.41
2.25

1 ,6 7 9

2.54

*

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and late sh ifts.
2 In clu d es data fo r oth er a r e a s in a d d ition to B u ffa lo. F o r d efin ition s of r e g io n s (o r a r e a s ) show n in this o r su b seq u en t t a b le s, se e fo o tn o te s 1 and 2, a ppen dix A table.
3 T he t e r m " m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a " a s u s e d in this study r e f e r s to the Standard M e tr o p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a s , as d efin ed b y the U. S. B u reau o f the Budget.
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a te no data r e p o r t e d or data that do not m eet p u b lica tion c r it e r ia .




Table 2. Earnings Distribution: All Establishments
(P e r c e n t d istr ib u tio n o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts b y a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , 1
U nited S ta te s , s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
United States

M idd le A tlan tic

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1
T o ta l

U n der $ 1 . 1 5
$ 1 . 1 5 and u n d er $ 1 .2 0
$ 1. 20 and u n d er $ 1 .2 5
$ 1. 25
$ 1 .3 0
$ 1 .3 5
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .4 5

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

1. 50
1 .6 0
1. 70
1 .8 0
1. 90

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
und er

$ 1 .6 0
$ 1 .7 0
$ 1 .8 0
$ 1 .9 0
$ 2 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$

2 . 00
2. 10
2. 20
2. 30
2. 40

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

2 . 10
_ .... . . .
2 . 20 _________________________
2. 30
_ . ..... .
2 .4 0
2. 50 _________________________

$
$
$
$
$

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

2.
2.
2.
2.
3.

$
$
$
$
$

3. 00
3. 10
3. 20
3. 30
3. 4 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
und er
Under

$
$
$
$
$

3. 10 _
3. 20 __
__
_ .
3. 30 _________________________
3 .4 0
_ _ . ............
_
„
3. 50
__
___

$ 3. 50 and o v e r _
T ota l

__

1. 30
1. 35
1 .4 0
1 .4 5
1. 50

__ ______
.. _ ........
___

..
_ __

_

1

_ _
.......
____

. _
_ .....

_
. _
_

_ _
_

60
70
.... .
80
_
. _ _
90
_
0 0 ____

_

_

_
_

.........

0 .3
5 .2
1 .4

W om en

T o t a l2

B u ffa lo

_

_

-

1 0 .4
.3

.
_
_
_

S outh­
ea st

S outh­
w est

0. 2
41. 5
9 .0

4 .2
39. 2
1 3 .4

9. 3
.9

7. 9
1 .9
1. 3
1. 1
.5

.3
4. 5
.7

.
2.
.
.
.

T o ta l

(3 )
1. 0

1. 1
1. 0
.4
.6
.3

1.0
1. 1
.3
.6
.2

2 .9
.9
2 .7
.9
.3

-

-

6. 9
6. 9
4. 2
2 .0
.9

2 .7
2 .7
2. 1
2. 5
4 .8

2 .7
2. 5
2 .0
2 .5
3 .9

1. 2
5. 5
4 .4
4 .4
27. 1

.3
3 .9
1 .7
2. 1
.3

_
_
0. 1
. 1
-

11. 2
5. 1
5. 1
1. 6
1 .6

5 .8
2 .8
3 .6
8. 5
4 .4

4 .7
6 .3
2 .7
7 .7
5. 2

2 .8
3 .8
3 .6
2. 1
8 .6

3
1
9
1
5

3. 1
9 .4
13. 0
13. 1
8. 5

7 .0
.9
8. 0
13. 7
8 .9

_
6. 2
4 .9
3 .2
1 .7

.
. 1
.2
.8

1.
.
.
.
'

1 .8
1 .7
.9
.4
-

7 .9
7 .8
22. 8
7. 0
6 .4

4. 1
8 .7
10. 1
1 4 .0
7. 1

9 .9
3. 7
7. 2
3 .2
1. 5

10.3
3 .9
7 .4
3. 3
1.6

. 5
-

24. 0
7. 3
2 1 .8
8 .4
3. 3

2 9 .8
9 .8
2 9 .2
11. 3
4. 5

_
_
.4
-

.5
_
_
_

1.
1.
1.
.
.

7 .7
4. 2
9 .4
4 .8
2 .6

.8
.3
.8
.2
. 1

.8
.3
.8
.2
.1

3 .4
1 .0
5 .6
.2
-

4 .6
1. 3
7. 5
.2
-

_

_

.2
.
_

. 1

-

-

3.
9.
12.
13.
8.

_
_
_
_

1
5
5
7

-

_

5
5
2
1
1

.
e1
. 1
. 1
.

M id d le W est
R est o f
re g io n

(J)
1. 2

_

T o ta l

0. 1

-

.
_
0. 3
_

1. 2

M inne a p o lis —
St. P a u l

.
.
.
.
.

3
1
2
1
3

5
2
1
3
1

K an sas
C ity

_

R est o f
re g io n

. 1
. l
. l
. 1

.7

3. 3
4 .4
4. 1
2 .4
9 .9

2. 6
.4
.3
1. 5
5. 7

1. 0
10. 8
1 5 .2
8 .8

4. 8
10. 1
9. 9
1 3 .8
6 .8

5. 1
19. 2
2 3 .4
19. 2
9 .8

24.
12.
5.
1.
12.

5
5
9
5
5

4.
2.
10.
5.
1.

8
8
0
3
0

7. 0
1 .8
2. 2
. 5

2. 9
.4
.4
1. 0
. 1

.
.
.
.
.

1
2
1
2
1

. 1
. 1
.2
. l
.2

_
_
-

-

0. 1
.4

-

. l

_
_
_
_
10. 2
3 8 .8
25. 1
16. 6
2. 0
7. 0

0. 5

. i
, i
. 1

-

-

3. 2
. 5
.4
1. 8
7 .0

-

. 1

6. 1
2 3 .4
26. 2
14. 9
6. 5
4. 9
1 .8
1. 2
.6

-

-

P a c ific

0. 1

.3
2. 5
.2
. 1
.4

M oun­
tain

. i
1
.2
.2
.3

#4

.4

12. 6
28. 0
30. 0
1 5 .0

.4
. l
3. 5
17. 0
2 3 .9

5.
.
5.
1.
.

26. 1
9. 6
7. 9
4. 6
2 .7

6
6
0
6
2

.5
. 2
.3

1.
.
.
.
.

5
2
2
2
1

.6

.......

.

.6

.3

.4

. 5

. 1

1 .2

1 .4

1. 2

. 1

.3

.3

.8

1 0 0 .0

. . . . ____

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1

3

-

_

0. 3
5. 3
1. 3

Men

G rea t L a k es
B order
States

100.0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 5 ,9 84
$ 2 . 22

15,3 98
$ 2. 23

586
$ 1 .9 1

1 ,8 3 4
$ 2. 59

1 ,3 6 6
$2. 75

554
$ 1 .3 6

1, 131
$ 1. 38

1 ,3 7 7
$ 1. 96

5, 025
$ 2 .2 8

730
$ 2 .6 0

4 ,2 9 5
$ 2 .2 3

3 ,3 6 4
$ 2 .2 6

598
$ 2 .4 3

2, 766
$ 2 . 22

1 ,0 2 0
$2. 36

1 ,6 7 9
$2. 54

(3)

E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts.
In clu d es data fo r o th e r a r e a s in a ddition to B u ffa lo.
L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g , su m s o f in dividu a l ite m s m ay not eq u al 100.




1

Table 3. Occupational Averages:

o
o

All Establishments

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e st r a ig h t -t im e h ou rly ea rn in gs 1 o f m e n in s e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n o cc u p a tio n s in flo u r and o th er g ra in m illin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
United S tates, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
G re a t L ak es

M idd le A tlantic
B o r d e r States

U nited States

O ccu p a tio n

B o l t e r s --------------—------------------------------------C le a n e r s , g ra in -------------------------------------G ra in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s -----------------------G r in d in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , f e e d -----J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ---------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h andling --------------M i ll e r s , flo u r (h ea d) -----------------------------M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m i l l e r ) -------------M illw rig h ts — -----------------------------------------O i l e r s --------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d -----------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ----------------------------------------R o ll t e n d e r s ------------------- — ---------------------S m utter s
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) — -----------------

S outheast

Southw est

M in n ea p olis—
R est of
St. P au l
N u m b er A v era g e N um ber A v e ra g e N um ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m b er A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N u m ber
h o u r ly
of
of
h ou rly
of
h o u r ly
h ou rly
h o u r ly
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
of
of
h ou rly
of
of
w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w ork ers ea rn in gs w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s
T o ta l2

247
94
443
78
1, 214
2, 694
128
658
236
487
625
1, 534
172
232
311

$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

38
10
28
12
18
09
24
43
88
21
01
08
30
37
49

18
116
-

146
277
10
61
52
57
134
19
18
18

$ 2 . 94
2. 71
2. 44
2. 45
3. 24
3. 20
2. 43
2. 18
2. 61
2 .9 2
2 .8 3
2. 73

B u ffa lo

18
-

100
124
219
13
61
28
15
116
19
18
18

$ 2 .9 4
2. 79
2. 52
2. 59
3. 18
3. 20
2 .6 3
2. 73
2. 74
2 .9 2
2. 83
2. 73

T ota l

-

33
20
106
6
25
.
6
44
101
'

$ 1. 31
1. 35
1. 32
2. 22
1. 68
1. 47
1. 27
1. 27
-

19
12
29
31
155
38
6
17
53
175
7
21

$ 1 .6 5
1. 50
1. 60
1. 36
1. 35
1. 81
2. 13
1. 56
1. 28
1. 36
1. 67
1. 46

29
33
27
12
80
265
7
40
34
63
184
16
24
13

$ 2 . 13
1 .9 2
1 .9 6
1. 46
1. 88
1. 87
2. 49
2. 09
1 .9 6
1. 86
1. 90
2. 23
2. 24
2. 17

66
104
7
436
768
49
211
92
159
134
326
85
79

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

36
23
32
19
07
52
53
78
22
04
15
21
28

15
13
82
81
31
21
21
12
59
17
25
-

$ 2. 65
-

2. 77
2. 29
2. 40
3. 10
2. 89
2. 41
2. 53
2. 56
2. 73
2. 53
"

51
91
7
354
687
42
180
71
138
122
267
68
54

re g io n
A v e ra g e
h ou rly
ea rn in gs

$2. 27
2. 15
2. 32
. 2. 17
2. 03
3. 33
2. 43
2. 74
2. 19
1. 99
2. 07
2. 09
2. 17
"

M id d le W est
M ountain
K an sas City

T ota l

B o lt e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C le a n e r s , g ra in ----------------------------------------------------------------------- —-------G ra in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ----------------------------------------------------------------G rin d in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , fe e d -------------------------- ------- --------------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ---------------------------------------- -— -----L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h a ndling ----------------------------------------------------------M ille r s , flo u r (h e a d )------------------------------------------------------------------------ —
M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m il le r ) -------------------------------------------------------M illw r ig h ts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------O ile r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------- —---P a c k e r s , fe e d -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ---------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------R o ll te n d e r s ------------------------------------------------------— ------------------------------S m u t t e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift) -------------------------------------------------------- ------

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h olid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
* In clu d e s data f o r oth e r a r e a s in a d d ition to B u ffa lo.
NOTE:




D a sh es in d ic a te no data r e p o r t e d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lica tion c r it e r ia .

53
-

70
292
779
26
192
26
131
175
335
42
55

$ 2. 39
-

2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

17

$ 2 .5 2

36

_

2. 34
15
18
03
45
59
18
19
26
33
31

-

_

-

-

70

52
135
-

24
>

22
-

35
15
19

2. 28
2. 35
-

2. 61
-

2. 31
-

2. 47
2. 34
2. 42

P a c ific

R e s t o f re g io n

240
644
24
168
22
109
145
300
27
36

$ 2. 34
_

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

30
-

2. 34
13
14
94
43
57
16
14
23
32
25

44
90
118
11
62
17
49
64
146
-

15
30

$ 2. 47
-

2. 38
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

32
17
20

23
24
45
64
59
26
32
32

119
226
14
53
29
39
35
133

2. 42
2. 32

38
92

-

-

$ 2. 66
2. 54
2. 63
2.
2.
3.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.

38
46
43
85
07
53
50
52

-

2. 57
2. 54

Table 4. Occupational Averages: By Size o f Establishment
(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f m en in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o cc u p a tio n s in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts
by s iz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t, United States and s e le c t e d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
U nited States

M idd le A tla n tic

B o r d e r States

S outheast

Southw est

E s ta b lish m e n ts w ith—
O cc u p a tio n

B o lte rs
— ——----- —-----------------G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ------ L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d l i n g ------ -—
M i ll e r s , flo u r ( h e a d ) ---------: -------— —
M i ll e r s , fl o u r (s e c o n d m il le r ) — ——
M i l l w r i g h t s ----------------------------------------—
O il e r s ---------- ------------- --------------------- — P a c k e r s , fe e d — — — —— — — — —
P a c k e r s , flo u r — «------—— ----------------R o ll te n d e r s ——
-----— ------------- ——
S m u t t e r s ------- —
— ------ — ------ ------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) -----— —

100 o r m o r e
100 o r m o r e
100 o r m o r e
lOO o r m o r e
2 0-^ 9
w ork ers
w ork ers
■workers
w ork ers
w ork ers
w ork ers
w ork ers
w ork ers
w ork ers
N um ber A v e ra g e N um ber A v e r a g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N um ber A v e r a g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N u m b er A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N um ber A v e ra g e
of
h ou rly
h o u r ly
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
h ou rly
of
h ou rly
of
of
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
of
h o u r ly
of
of
w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o rk e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s ea rn in gs
i0 4
233
442
1, 234
77
409
43
241
401
845
59
102
65

$ 2. 14
2. 08
2. 03
1. 89
2 .9 7
2. 28
2. 62
2. 09
1. 88
1 .8 8
1. 93
2. 28
2. 20

143
210
772
1, 460
51
249
193
246
224
689
113
130
246

$2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

55
50
26
25
65
68
93
33
25
34
50
44
57

30
82
-

44
-

$ 2. 15
2. 11
-

18
94
116
195

$ 2 .9 4
2. 79
2. 52
2. 59

-

2. 02
-

10
54
26
13
109
19
15
17

G re a t L ak es

-

3. 26
3. 20
2. 63
2. 72
2. 74
2 .9 2
2. 84
2. 74

27
13
77
6
19
34
85
-

$ 1 . 30
1. 37
1. 34
2. 22
1. 68
1. 24
1. 27
_

-

-

12
11
18
105
-

29
43
131
_
12

$ 1. 50
1. 37
1. 27
1. 22
_
1. 72
1. 20
1. 25
_
1. 17

M id d le W est

13
50
9
10
44
-

$ 1. 49
1. 63
_
2. 09
1. 66
1. 69
-

14
33
114
15
15
27
91
-

23
13
47
151
25
19
36
93
16
21
13

$ 1. 89
1. 74
1. 64
1. 47
1. 73
1. 60
1. 77
-

-

M ountain

$ 2. 28
2. 04
1. 98
2. 03
_
2. 47
2. 15
2. 05
2. 02
2. 23
2. 23
2. 17

P a c ific

E s ta b lish m e n ts w ith—
w orkers

100 o r m o r e
w ork ers

30
60
88
276
26
106
9
59
82
155
39
39

36
44
348
492
23
105
83
100
52
171
46
40

ZU^9

B o l t e r s — — ------ — - — --------------------—
G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ------------- ------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s — —
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a ndling —-----------M i ll e r s , flo u r ( h e a d ) ----------------------------M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m il le r ) — -----—
M illw r ig h t s — —
— ----------------------------O i l e r s -----— ----- — —-------------------- -------—
P a c k e r s , f e e d ------ ----------------------------------P a c k e r s , flo u r — —
--------------------------- -—
R o ll t e n d e r s — ----------------------------------------S m u t t e r s -----— ----------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) --------------------

$ 2. 02
2. 01
1 .9 5
1. 72
3. 20
2. 25
2. 63
1 .9 9
1. 86
1. 85
1. 82
2. 07

$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

64
53
25
27
89
81
79
35
33
43
55
49

2 0 -9 9
w ork ers

27
44
168
394
18
129
15
75
109
189
16
27

$ 2. 30
2. 30
2. 09
2. 11
2 .9 1
2. 39
2. 59
2. 12
2. 10
2. 20
2. 29
2. 22

100 o f m o r e
w ork ers
26
26
124
385
8
63
-

56
66
146
26
28

$ 2. 49
2. 42
2. 24
2. 24
3. 32
2. 58
2. 27
2. 33
2. 34
2. 35
2. 40

w ork ers

38
52
93
48
-

34
49
108
-

$ 2. 36
2. 23
2. 22
_
2. 62
2. 23
2. 30
2. 31
-

100 or■ m o r e
'
w ork ers
15
38

$ 2. 54
2. 24

-

-

-

15
15
38
-

-

2. 33
2. 36
2. 38
-

ZS-99
w ork ers

17
40
93
8
36
-

20
61
24
39

$ 2. 60
2. 34
2. 48
3. 31
2. 83
2. 57
2. 51
2. 59
2. 54

100 or■m o r e
w o rk e r s

18
79
133
6
17
29
19
72
14
53

$ 2. 68
2. 39
2. 45
3. 60
2. 89
3. 07
2. 49
2. 52
2. 53
2. 54

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eeken d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a te no data r e p o r t e d o r data that d o not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .




VO

Table 5. Occupational Averages: By Size o f Community

o

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h ou rly ea rn in gs 1 o f m en in s e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n o cc u p a tio n s in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts in m e t r o p o lit a n and
n on m etrop olita n a r e a s , United States and s e le c t e d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1961)

O cc u p a tio n

B o l t e r s ---------------------------------------------------G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a ndling ------------M i ll e r s , flo u r (h e a d )-----------------— -------M ille r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ------ — M illw rig h ts
O ile r s ----------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d ---------------------------------------P a c k e r s , flo u r ----------------- -----------------------R o ll t e n d e r s -----------------------------------------------S m u tters ---------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) --------------------

B o r d e r States

M iddle A tla n tic

United States

168
267
835
1, 582
63
341
162
291
317
855
117
163
290

$2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

55
47
28
24
43
61
98
33
14
28
48
50
54

79
176
379
1, 112
65
317
74
196
308
679
55
69
21

$ 2. 01
1. 99
1. 96
1. 87
3. 06
2. 24
2 .6 5
2. 04
1. 88
1. 84
1. 94
2. 06
1 . 81

18
116
146
277
10
61
52
57
134
19
18
18

$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
3.

94
71
44
45
24

10
12
49
11
-

-

3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

20
43
18
61
92
83
73

$1.
1.
1.
1.
-

25
37
"

37
27
25
52

1. 27
1 . 22
~

23
8
57
14

$ 1 . 29
1. 48
1. 37
1. 81

-

-

19
64
-

M etrop olita n
a rea s

—

39
28
284
368
16
88
46
83
39
151
42
43

$2.
2.
2.
2.
4.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

N o n m etrop olita n
area s

65
71
29
31
03
89
82
38
42
44
60
52

27
76
152
400
33
123
46
76
95
175
43
36

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eekend s, h olid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
N OTE:

D a sh es in d ic a te no data r e p o r t e d or data that d o not m e e t p u b lica tion c r it e r ia .




Southw est

1. 27
1. 30

22
12
93
19
14
30
76

$ 1. 68
1. 50
1. 41
1. 92

7
19
62
19

-

-

1. 64
1. 33
1. 48

-

-

-

"

14

1.

23
99
-

61

$1. 94
2. 05
2. 00
1 . 86
3. 28
2. 27
2. 74
2. 04
1. 89
1. 91
1. 83
1. 99

M etrop olita n
a rea s
37
33
158
384
6
82
8
66
65
142
37
37

$2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

47
41
23
27
40
60
69
28
36
37
34
39

$ 1 . 34
1. 27
1. 27
1. 70
-

1. 22
1. 27

11
12
32
112
-

16
-

12
26
90
-

-

12
10

"

M idd le i W est

G rea t L ak es

B o lt e r s — ----------------------------------------------- -----G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s -----------------—
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ---------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l handling ---------------M ille r s , flo u r ( h e a d ) -------- — ------------------M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m i l l e r ) --------------M i ll w r i g h t s -------------- -------- -------------------------- —
O ile r s -------------— ---------- --------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d ----- ---------------------------------------P a c k e r s , flo u r — ----- --------------------------------R o ll te n d e r s ----------------------- -— — ---------------S m u t t e r s -------------- --------------- -------------— —— —
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k lif t ) ----------- ------—

S outheast

M etr o p o lita n
M etrop olita n
N on m etrop olita n
N on m etrop olita n
M etrop olita n
N on m etrop olita n M e tr o p o lita n
M e tr o p o lita n
N on m etrop olita n
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
a rea s
N u m b er A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N um ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N um ber A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e r a g e N u m b er A v e ra g e N u m ber A v e ra g e
of
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
of
h ou rly
of
of
of
h ou rly
h ou rly
h o u r ly
h ou rly
of
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
of
w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in gs w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s ea rn in gs
$ 2 . 35
1. 98
1 .9 6
2. 07
-

2. 24
-

2. 18
1. 95
2. 06
-

2. 22
2. 15

M ountain

N o n m etrop olita n
area s
16
37
134
395
20
110
18
65
110
193
-

18

$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

M etr o p o lita n
a rea s

22
29
06
08
92
35
54
08
08
17

22
40
92

2. 15

15

-

21
26
72
73
8
35

$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
2.

-

-

-

54
43
26
30
50
74

2. 33
2. 38
2. 39
-

2. 42

18
15
48
153

$1.
1.
1.
1.
-

-

24

1. 99

-

22
37
94

-

1. 85
1. 79
1. 75

-

12
-

99
94
83
72

-

2. 27
-

P a c ific

N on m etrop olita n
a rea s

18
18
45
-

27
-

27
24
-

$2. 30
2. 12
2. 13
-

2. 52
-

2. 21
2. 21
-

M etrop olita n
area s
32
20
119
226
14
53
29
39
35
133
-

38
92

$2.

2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.

66
63
38
46
43
85
07
53
50
52

-

2. 57
2. 54

Table 6. Occupational Earnings: Buffalo
(N u m ber and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly ea rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n o cc u p a tio n s
in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts, N o v e m b e r 1961)
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of—
O cc u p a tio n and s e x

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s _ _____
M en -----------------------------------------------W om en _____ __ _
_ n

of
h ou rly
w o rk e r s ea rn in g s 1

1, 366
1, 353
13

$ 2 . 75
2 .7 6
2. 41

18
100
124
219
13
61
28
15
116
19
18
18

2. 94
2 . 79
2 .5 2
2 .5 9
3. 18
3. 20
2 .6 3
2. 73
2. 74
2 .9 2
2. 83
2 .7 3

$ 1.70 $ 1.80 $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2.80 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $3. 20

$ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .5 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .7 0 $ 3 .8 0

under
$ 1.80 $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2.60 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3.00 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3.20 $3. 30 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3.50 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .7 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 3 .9 0

2
2

2
2

-

_

-

1

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_

-

3
_
3

11
1
10

407
407

_
_
_
_

1
_
_
_

123
189
_
_
8

134
134

399
399

154
154

61
61

63
63

2

3
66

22

9
1

5
9

22

8

_

3

3
12

18
18

103
103

3
3

_

_

1
1

1
1

$ 3 .9 0
and
over

3
3

M en
B o l t e r s _______
______________ ____
G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s __ _______
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ___
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g _______
M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m i l l e r ) _____
M i ll w r i g h t s __
O il e r s _ _ _ _ _
_ _ .......
P a c k e r s , f e e d _____ ___
P a c k e r s , f l o u r ___ ________ ___ __ _
R o ll te n d e r s _________ ____________ _
S m u t t e r s __________ __ _______ __ _
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) _______

_
_
-

.

_

-

_
-

_

_
_
_
-

_

_

_

_

_
_
_

_

_

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .




_

I

_
18

_

2
14
102

6
1

(,
17

_
1
14
3
q
7

'

4

1
49

_

_

1

1
“
"

3

A ll w o r k e r s w e r e paid on a tim e b a s is .

7

Table 7. Occupational Earnings: Kansas City
(N um ber and a v e r a g e str a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n occ u p a tio n s
in flou r and oth er g r a in m illin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , N o v e m b e r 1961)
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r'e c e iv in g str a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly ea rn in g s o f—
N um ber
of
w orkers

A v era g e
h ou rly
ea rn in gs 1

A ll w o r k e r s __ __
_
_
_
M en ___
W om en - ____________

__ __ __ ________ __
___
__________
____________ _________

598
581
17

$ 2 .4 3
2 .4 3
2. 36

17
52
135
24
22
35
15
19

2. 52
2 .2 8
2. 35
2 .61
2. 31
2 .4 7
2. 34
2 .4 2

$ 2 . 20

$ 2 . 25

$ 2 . 30

$ 2 .3 5

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .4 5

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 . 30

$ 2 .3 5

$ 2 .4 0

-

$ 2 . 25

O cc u p a tio n and se x

$ 2 .5 0

“
$ 2 .6 0

13
13
-

48
47
1

162
162

70
54
16

$ 2 .4 5

90
90
-

60
60
-

99
99
-

$ 2 .6 0

$2. 70

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

12
12
-

42
42
-

M en
B o lt e r s _______ _______________ __________________
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s _ --- ------------L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h andling ____________________
M i ll e r s , flo u r (s e c o n d m i l l e r ) _______ - _________
O ile r s -------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , flou r __________________________________
R o ll te n d e r s
_____ _______________________________
S m u tters -----------------------------------------------------------------

E x clu d e s




_

_

7

38

-

-

6
-

-

p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e and for w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts.

_

7
112
-

12
12

_

2
4
3
12

_

8
_
2
3

_

17

-

-

8
28
-

5
16
5
4

-

8
-

A ll o f the w o r k e r s in ea ch o cc u p a tio n stu d ied w e r e paid on a tim e b a s is .

$ 2 .8 0
and
over

2
2

Table 8. Occupational Earnings: Minneapolis—St. Paul
(N u m ber and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n o cc u p a tio n s
in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , N o v e m b e r 1961)
N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f—
N um ber

O cc u p a tio n and s e x

A l l w o r k e r s -------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------W om en ----------------------------------

$2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.OCT $3.10 $3.2(T $3.3(T $3740 $33 cr $ 3 ^ r $3770 $3.80 $3.90 $4.00 $ 4 .n r $£20 $33cT $4.40 $ 3 3 0 $4.6 0
Under
and
w o r k e r s ea rn in g s 1 $
and
under
2. 20
$2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 $3.60 $3.70 $3.80 $3.90 $4.00 $4.10 $4.20 $4.30 $4.40 $4.50 $4.60 ov er

730
723
7

$2. 60
2. 60
2. 21

16
13
3

79
75
4

15
13

2. 65
2. 77

-

-

82

2. 29

-

72

10

81

2. 40

-

-

66

31
21
21
12
59
17
25

3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

.

-

-

-

64 179
64 179

91
91

43
43

11
11

3
-

9
1

3
10

2

7

5

3

-

-

-

-

4

-

12

6

3
6
6
3

7

3

111
111

91
91

21
21

3
3

3
3

7
7

1
1

17
17

3

.

2

7

_ _

-

2
2

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

3
3

_

M en

B o l t e r s ---------------------------------------G r a in -e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s --------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s ,
and c l e a n e r s ---------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l
ha n dlin g -----------------------------------M i ll e r s , flo u r
(s e c o n d m il le r ) ---------------------M i ll w r i g h t s --------------------------------O il e r s ----------------------------------------P a c k e r s , fe e d -------------------------P a c k e r s , flo u r -------------------------R o ll te n d e r s -----------------------------S m u t t e r s -------------------------------------

10
89
41
53
56
73
53

-

10

53
1
12

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.




2

A ll o r a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in e a ch o cc u p a tio n stu d ied w e r e pa id on a tim e b a s is .

1
1

3
3

Table 9. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n and o ff ic e w o r k e r s in flo u r and other g ra in m illin g esta b lis h m e n ts b y sc h e d u le d w e e k ly h ou rs of f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , 1
United S ta tes, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R e g io n s
United
States

W eek ly h ou rs

M iddle
A tla n tic

B order
S tates

S outheast

Southw est

A reas

G rea t
L ak es

M iddle
W est

M ountain

P a c if i c

B u ffa lo

M in n ea p olis—
St. P aul

K ansas
City

P r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

40
41
44
45
46
4ft
50
56
60

h ou rs
and 43
hours
h ou rs
h ou rs
h rm r s
h ou rs
h ou rs
h ou rs

________________

__

_ -----------------

________ ________________________________
h o u r s __ _______ ____________________ _
_____________________ _____ ________ __
___________________________________________
___ ____________ ______ _______— ______ __
__
... ................. _
____________________ _________________ ___
_________ ___ ___ ____ __ ___________ ______
-----------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

56
2
6
6
1
22
4
2
2

63
9
23
5
-

21
14
14
24
5
22
-

40
30
13
18
-

46
5
16
8
20
5
-

62
4
4
24
6

40
4
2
43
2
9

49
51
-

100
-

62
31
7
-

52
_
48
-

72
28
-

100

100

100

100

100

_
90
10
-

4
96
-

6
_
_
94
_
-

_
100
_
-

_
1
99
_
_
-

O ffice w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

_______ _

____________ _______________

35 h ou rs
3 7 V2 h o u r s ________________ ___ __________________
383 h ou rs ______________________________ ________
/4
40 h ou rs ___________________________________________
41 and 4 l 7 2 h o u r s _______________________________
42 h o u r s ___________________________________________
44 h ou rs ___________________________________________
45 h o u r s _____________________________________ ____
48 h ou rs ______________________________________ ___

100

1
1
(2)
87
2
1
6
1
(2 )
1

100

5
_
95
-

100

100

100

100

_
58
17
12
13

2
65
4
2
10
4
12

_
82
3
2
12
-

2
88
9
-

1 D ata r e la t e to the p re d o m in a n t w o rk sch edu le in ea ch esta blish m en t.
2 L e s s than 0.5 p e r ce n t.
NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f rou n din g, su m s o f in dividual ite m s m a y not equal 100.

100

_
(2 )
85
5
2
8
-

Table 10. Shift Differential Provisions
(P e r c e n t o f p rod u ction w o r k e r s by sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l p r o v is io n s 1 in flo u r and o th e r g r a in m illin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
U nited Sta tes, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R e g io n s
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l

United
States

M id d le
A tla n tic

B order
S tates

S outheast

95. 8
8 3 .6
83. 3
1. 1
3. 3
3 .9
.7
1 .9
1 0.7
3 .9
46. 3
1 0 .6
.9
.3
12. 2

100. 0
90. 8
90. 8
21. 7
69. 1
_
9 .2

53. 2
19. 5
19. 5
14. 4
5. 1
33. 8

63. 6
33. 6
29. 7
9. 2
6 .4
9. 8
4. 3
3. 9
30. 0

90. 2
83. 4
8 3 .4
2 .6
1. 5
1. 3
3 .0
2. 5
11. 0
11. 3
46. 5
1. 8
.6
1. 2
6. 7

100. 0
90. 8
90. 8
21. 7
_
69. 1
_
9 .2

42. 8
19. 5
1 9 .5
14. 4
5. 1
23. 3

50. 8
29. 7
2 9 .7
12. 2
9 .8
7. 7
21. 0

A reas
G rea t
L ak es

M idd le
W est

100. 0
9 1 .6
91. 6
9 .9
10. 2
7. 3
2 6 .0
20. 0
18. 2
8 .4

1 00 .0
83. 7
83. 7
2 .9
6. 7
4. 2
1 2 .8
4 .4
49. 8
2 .9
_
16. 3

81. 7
81. 7
8 1 .7
3 6 .0
18. 2
20. 0
7. 5
-

9 7 .6
89. 5
8 9 .5
5 .7
4 .2
7 .4
13. 3
2. 5
5 2 .6
3. 8
8. 2

Southw est

M ountain

P a c ific

1 0 0 .0
9 0 .4
9 0 .4
2. 1
7. 3
10. 3
70. 6
_
9 .6

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
_
_
100. 0
-

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
_
_
_
_
2 1 .6
68. 5
9 .9
_
_

9 2 .2
88. 3
88. 3
7. 3
10. 3
7 0 .6
3 .9

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
-

B u ffa lo

M in n ea p olis—
St. P aul

K ansas
City

S econ d sh ift
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts having s e c o n d sh ift p r o v is io n s
— -------------- ------------ --------W ith sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l ----------------------------------U n ifo r m ce n ts p e r h ou r ______
3 ce n ts ____________
__ ------- --------4 ce n ts --------------------------------------------------5 ce n ts ----------------- --------------- ----- ----6 ce n ts „ ------------- —
— ------- -----7 ce n ts ____________ — „ ________
8 ce n ts __________________________________
9 ce n ts --------------------------- --------------------------10 ce n ts ----- ------- __ —
11 ce n ts -------------------------— —
15 ce n ts -----------------------------------------------O th er ---------- ------------- ---------W ith no s h ift d iff e r e n t ia l ------------------

-

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
7 .2
92. 8
_

-

100 .0
100 .0
100 .0
_
_
_
_
_
_

_

100.0
_
_

_

1 00 .0
100. 0
100. 0

_
_
_
_
_
4. 2
_
95. 8
_
.
_

-

T h ir d o r o th e r la te sh ift

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving th ir d o r o t h e r la t e - s h if t p r o v is io n s -----------------------W ith sh ift d iff e r e n t ia l ----------------------------------U n ifo r m ce n ts p e r h ou r --------------------------5 ce n ts — _____ — — __
___
„ .
6 ce n ts ------------------ ------- ------- . . __
7 ce n ts ------- -------- —
-- —
8 c e n t s _________________________________
9 ce n ts — ----------------- ----- — ------------10 ce n ts ______________ _________________
11 ce n ts ____________________ ___ _____
12 ce n ts ----- ------------- ------13 ce n ts
—
—
— __
15 c e n ts ______ — _____
___ __
20 ce n ts
— _____ — —
W ith no sh ift d iff e r e n t ia l ___________________

1 R e f e r s to p o l ic ie s o f esta b lis h m e n ts eith e r cu r re n tly o p e r a tin g la te sh ifts o r having p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts.
NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f roun din g, sum s o f in div idu a l item s m a y not eq u al to ta ls .

9 6 .4
96. 4
9 6 .4
4 .7
9 .9
64. 9
1 6 .9
_

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
_
_
7. 2
_
92. 8
_
_
_

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
_
.
_
_
93. 7
_
6. 3

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

_

_
_
_
.
4. 2

_

95. 8
_
_
_
“

Table 11. Shift Differential Practices

C n

(P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s e m p loy ed on la te sh ifts in flo u r and o th er g ra in m illin g esta b lis h m e n ts b y am ount of pa y d iffe r e n t ia l,
United S tates, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
A reas

R eg ion s
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l

United
States

M idd le
A tlan tic

B order
State s

Southeast

Southw est

G reat
L ak es

M idd le
W est

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

M inne a p o lis—
St. P aul

K ansas
City

S econ d shift

W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on s e c o n d sh ift ____________
R e c e iv in g sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l _________________
U n iform c e n ts p e r h ou r _____ _____ ____
3 cen ts __________________________________
4 cen ts __________________________________
5 cen ts __________________________________
6 cen ts _______ __ ------------- ----------------7 cen ts __________________________________
8 cen ts
________________________________
9 cen ts ______________ __________________
10 ce n ts ___________________ ___________
11 c e n ts ______________________________
15 ce n ts __________________________ ____
Othe r ___ ____________________ __________ ___ _
R e c e iv in g no sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l ________ _____

5.2
2.7
2.7
1.8
.9
2.5

12.0
8.0
7.5
2.3
1.1
3.0
1.1
.5
4.0

16.3
14.9
14.9
.9
2.1
.6
5.1
2.7
3.6
1.4

16.4
14.1
14.1
.5
1.4
.8
2.8
.7
7.1
.8
2.2

19.3
16.0
16.0
.5
1.1
2.6
11.8
3.3

13.7
13.7
13.7
13.7
-

2.0

21.8
20.8
20.8
3.9
17.0
1.0

11.2
10.6
10.6
.6
.2
.2
.5
.4
1.3
1.7
5.2
.2
.1
.1
.6

17.3
16.3
16.3
3.9
12.4
1.0

2 .2
1.4
1.4
.5
.9
.7

6.5
3.7
3.7
2.9
.4
.4
2.8

9.4
9.4
9.4
-

11.0
10.7
10.7
1.4
.7
1.5
1.2
.2
5.5
.3
.3

12.8
11.9
11.9
1.1
1.8
9.1
.9

11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
-

16.8
14.8
14.8
.3
.5
.8
.2
.3
2.3
.7
7.1
2.4
.3
C)

'

16.7
16.7
16.7
4.4
11.1
1.2
-

23.6
23.6
23.6
.8
22.8
-

15.8
15.8
15.8
*
15.8
*

14.2
14.2
14.2
•
-

17.5
17.5
17.5
.8
16.7
-

8.8
8.8
8.8
8.4
.4

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
-

1.0
13.2
"

"

T h ird o r o th e r la te shift

W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on th ir d o r
o th e r la te s h ifts ________________________________
R e c e iv in g sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l _________________
U n iform c e n ts p e r h ou r __________________
5 ce n ts _______ _______________________ __________________
6 cen ts ___ _____
7 cen ts
__ ________ __________________
8 cen ts
__________________________ _
9 cen ts _____ __________ __________________
10 c e n ts __ __ ______________________ _
11 c e n ts .
___________ _____ _
12 c e n t s ____ ___ ______________ _______
13 c e n ts __ ------- --------------------------------15 ce n t s ________________________________
20 c e n ts ________________________________
R e c e iv in g no sh ift d i ffe r e n t ia l ______________

L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:




B e c a u s e of rou n din g, su m s o f in div idu a l ite m s m a y not equal to ta ls.

-

5.7
1.3
1.7
.7
-

9.4
9.4
9.4
.2
.5
6.7
2.0
-

Table 12. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n and o ffic e w o r k e r s in flo u r and o th er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r pa id h o lid a y s .
United Sta tes, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R e g io n s
United
States

N u m b er o f pa id h o lid a y s

M idd le
A tla n tic

B order
States

Southeast

Southw est

A reas
G rea t
L ak es

M idd le
W est

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

M in n ea p olis—
St. Paul

K ansas
City

P r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r .

100

_________

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s
___ _____
- ----------------------- —
1 da y
__ __ ____ _ __ _____ ____________ —
3 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------4 d a y s _________ _____ __ — __ — — --------5 d a y s __ _____ ________ _____ _____ — —
6 d a y s __ „ __ _____ __ -------- ------------6 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ___________ _____ —
6 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _ __ — ------------------7 d a y s __ __
__ ___________________________
7 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day _______________ _______
7 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _________________ _—
8 d a y s __ __ — — — — ------------- ------------ W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no p a id h o lid a y s
__ — __ ------- ---- --------

—

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

96
1

100
9
91

73
10
15
18
10
19

84
3
26
17
23
10
4

90
8
3
7
10
21
41

98
6
10
15
6
60

100
2
22
7
1
68

100
100

100
4
96

100
100

100
100

100

27

16

10

2

n

2
2
11
1
3
9
(*)
2
65

4

4
96

O ffic e w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

______ ________

_____

________

—

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s
—
-------- ------ - — — __ —1 day
„ _____ __ „
-------- ------- — —
3 day's ......... .
_
______
4 days
______ __ ------------------------ ------- —
5 d a y s ______ — _ ~ __ __ __ — -------------6 d a y s __ ___ ____ . . . _____ _____ ____________
6 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf da y _____ — __
-----6 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _ ------------- -------------7 d a y s __
_ — -------- — ------— —
7 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day __ -----------------------------7 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _ __
------- — —
d a y s __ __ — __ ------- — ------- ------- —
d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day _____ __ — — --------d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _ ----------------------- —
9 d a y s plu s 1 h a lf da y _______________________

8
8
8

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no p a id h o lid a y s
_____ _______________

1

— —

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
1
i
1
2
21
2
2
14

100
9
25
43
7
12
5

87
10
37
15
8

100
4
6

100
-

100
37
28
1
11
22
2
-

100
90
10
-

100
6
19
71
4
~

100
-

100
-

17
-

93
4
6
18
16
33
11
4
"

100
•33
2
34
31
"

13

7

(*)
6
42
5
1
1

1

-

L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, sum s of in dividu a l ite m s m ay not eq u al to ta ls .

-

17
18
7
44
4
-

-

24
3
5
13
C)
1

45
9
-

-

-

31
41
8
14
6

5
13
51
31
-

Table 13. Paid Vacations

CO

(P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n and o ff ic e w o r k e r s in flo u r and o th e r g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r pa id v a c a tio n s ,
United States, s e le c t e d re g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R e g io n s
V a ca tio n p r o v is io n

United
States

M idd le
A tlan tic

B order
States

Southeast

Southwe st

A reas
G rea t
L ake s

M id d le
W est

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

M in n e­
a p o lis—
St. P aul

K ansas
C ity

P r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
96
1

100
100
-

86
86
-

84
84
-

92
92
-

100
98
2

100
97
3

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

14

16

8

-

-

M eth od o f pa ym ent
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
pa id v a c a t io n s _____________________________ ______
L e n g t h - o f-t im e p a y m en t _________ _____ __
P e r c e n ta g e p a y m en t
__
__ _____
...
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g no
p a id v a c a tio n s __ __
__
..

2

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 1
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek _ _
....... .. ....
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s _ _ ________ __
2 w e e k s _______ __ „ _____ _____ _____ . . .
A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ___________________
2 w eeks
________ _
_______
__
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s _______ _.
__
A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek
____ _ ..
..... __ ....
_ ...
2 w eek «
s
_
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s _
. . __ ___ . . .
3 w e e k s _________________ . _ ____________________
A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _____ _. __ __ _____ . .
.. —
2 w e e k s ____ ___ ___ ___ __________ . . . . _____
_
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s __________ ________
— «_ __ — __ __
3 w e e k s . __ _____ —
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ___ ___ _____ ________________ ___________
2 w e e k s ____ _____ — ____ _______ _____ __
3 w e e k s . . . . . . — . . _. _____
. . __
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s _ ._ ________ __
A fte r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e ;
1 w e e k ___________ ___ __________ ___ ___ __ ____ _
2 w eeks
__ _ ____ __
____ ________ _____
3 w e e k s . . . . . . . _____________ .____________ ______
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s _ ._ __ _____ . . .
4 w e e k s _ ._ _____ _______ __ ________________
A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ___________ _____ ; _ _____ _______ ______ __
_
2 w e e k s . — - . — — _____ ________ ._ __
3 w e e k s . — — -------------------— __ ____ __
4 w e e k s _________________ ______________________
O v e r 4 w e e k s . ________ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ____
A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _. . . . ___ _______ __ — . . _____ _______
2 w e e k s . ____...__ ________ _____ _____ __
3 w e e k s _ _____ __ _____ _____
_. ______
4 w e e k s . ._ _. __ ._ _. — . . . ________ —
Over 4 w e e k s _ _
_ _
. . .
__
___

See footn ote



at end o f ta b le .

83
11
1

100
-

72
14

66
3

92
-

100
-

93
-

53
47
-

20
75
5

100
-

100
-

100
-

27
1
59
iO

26
74
-

67
19
-

72
7
-

34
3
55
-

33
67
-

15
85
-

19
53
28

5
20
75

100
-

100
-

4
96
-

15
71
10
1

26
74
-

67
19
-

62
17
-

10
82
-

14
86
-

2
98
-

72
28
-

13
75
12

100
-

100
-

100
-

8
79
10
1

.
100
-

42
45
-

50
34
-

10
82
-

6
94
-

100
-

72
28
-

13
75
12

100
-

100
-

100
-

6
21
61
10

9
91
-

42
40
5
-

40
39
4
-

10
31
51
-

4
22
75
-

30
70
-

72
28

25
75

100
-

100
-

100
-

6
12
69
10
1

9
91
-

42
29
16
-

40
39
4
-

10
18
64
-

4
4
92
-

19
81
-

72
28
-

13
75
12

100
-

100
-

100
-

6
11
20
55
5

9
16
74
-

42
29
10
5
-

40
39
.
4
-

10
18
23
41
-

4
2
33
60
-

19
19
61
-

72
28

8
60
32

100
-

100
-

4
96
-

6
11
15
60
5

9
16
74

42
29
10
5

40
39
4

10
18
23
41

4
2
22
72

-

-

72
28

4
64
32

-

19
18
63

100

100

-

100

Table 13. Paid Vacations— Continued
(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n and o ff ic e w o r k e r s in flo u r and oth e r g ra in m illin g esta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r pa id v a c a tio n s ,
U nited Sta tes, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R eg ion s
V a ca tio n p r o v is i o n

United
States

A rea s
G rea t
L ak es

M idd le
W est

M inne­
a p o lis —
St. P aul

M idd le
A tlantic

B order
States

S outheast

Southw est

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99

160
100

100
100

100
100

96
96

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

(2 )

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

47
(2)
52

27
_
73

73
_
27

52
4
31

41
54

40
_
60

57
_
42

44
56

57
_
43

11
_
89

18
.
82

44
.
56

17
7
66
10

18
52
29

53
42
5

61
4
29
4

14
3
56
22

23
_
74
3

11
77
12

_
44
56

_
29
71

-

-

_
.
64
36

.
_
59
41

2
_
67
31

10
6
74
10

18
52
29

53
_
42
5

42
4
47
4

.
.
73
22

13
_
84
3

2
86
12

_
44
56
-

_
29
71
-

_
.
64
36

_
_
59
41

.
_
69
31

4
6
80
10

_
_
71
29

45
_
50
5

34
4
58
4

_
73
22

5
_
92
3

_
_
88
12

_
44
56

_
29
71

-

-

_
_
64
36

_
59
41

69
31

4
(2)
29
51
16

.

45

34
4
58

.

.

31
42
22

4
27
66
3

_

14
57
29

37
51
12

-

23
48
29

6
58
36

_
-

_
.

59
41

69
31

-

-

10
61
29

6
58
36

_
_
_

_
_
_

59
41

69
31
_
_
_

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

K ansas
C ity

O ffic e w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

---------------------------------------------------------M eth od o f p a y m en t

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p a id v a c a t io n s ----------------------------------------------- —
L e n g t h - o f-t im e pa y m en t ----------- — -—
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no pa id v a c a t io n s -------------- .------------------------ ——
A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n pay 1
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek ------------------- — — — — — — O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w ee k s ---------------------------2 w e e k s __. . . ____ _______________ _______ ____
A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek
__ _____
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w ee k s __________________
2 w eek s —
----------------------------- ---------- — —
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w ee k s --------- — — — A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek _________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s __ —
„ .
2 w eeks
___ — _______
_________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w ee k s — — —
A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k __ ________ _______
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ________________ 2 w e e k s ___ _________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w eek s --------- --------- —
A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _____________ ____ _____ ___ ____ _______ ___
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s --- -----------------------.......................
.
2 wppks
_ ...
... _
_
... _
3 w e e k s ________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s __________
_____
A fte r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek _______ ____ __ _____________ ____ ____ ___
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s — ________ — „
2 w ee k s — ___ ______ — __ „ — „
3 w ee k s ---------------- ---------------- ~ —
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w ee k s _______ —
A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w eek ____ — __
—
______
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s — ---------- — —
2 w e e k s ------- — ----- ---------- --------------- ----3 w ee k s __________ —__________________________ _
_____ ____________ ___
4 w ee k s — _______
O v e r 4 w eek s _________
_
_ ___
A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 week
_
_ ...
................................
.
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s _______ „
2 w ee k s ---------- ------------------— _______________
______
3 w eek s ----------- ----------- „ ______ _____ „ „
„
4 w e e k s ___ — —
_ _ _ __ _ _ _
___
___
O v e r 4 w ee k s ________
__
___
___

-

50
_

.

5

4
34
4
58

4
(2 )
19
61
16

-

45

14
57
29

42
8
5

4
(2)
18
28
34
16

_
-

45

14
9
48
29

42
8

4
<2)
18
23
38
16

14
9
48
29

_

-

-

-

4
34
4
58

_

_

5

4

45

34
4
58

42
8
_

_

5

4

'

-

-

4

-

27
46
22

4
89
3

35
53
12

,

4
.

_
_

20
25
28
22

2
36
55
3

35
29
24
12

4
.

20
25
28
22

2
28
63
3

_
35
28
25
12

-

56
44
_

56
44
_
_
-

56
44

_
-

56
44

_
-

_
_

_

10
53
8
29

6

_

10
37
24
29

_

-

.
_
_
_

58
36

59
41

6
-

_
_
_

58
36

59
41

_

_

35
34
31
I
_

32
37
31

.
V a ca tio n p a y m e n ts, su ch as p e r ce n t o f annual ea rn in g s, w e r e c o n v e r te d to an eq u iv a len t t im e b a s is .
P e r io d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and d o not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t
in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s . F o r ex am p le, the ch a n g es in p r o p o r t io n s in d ica ted at 10 y e a r s ' m a y in clu d e ch a n g es o c c u r r in g b etw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n din g, su m s o f in dividu a l item s m ay not eq u al to ta ls.




the

to

Table 14. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

O

(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n and o ff ic e w o r k e r s in flou r and oth er g ra in m illin g esta b lis h m e n ts w ith s p e c ifie d health, in s u ra n ce , and p en sio n pla n s,
U nited S ta tes, s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
A reas

R e g io n s
U nited
State s

T yp e o f p l a n 1

M idd le
A tla n tic

B order
State s

G rea t
L ak es

Southeast

.Southwest

100

100

100

100

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

M in n ea p olis—
St. P au l

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

M idd le
W est

K ansas
City

P r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
A ll w o r k e r s

__ -_______- ____________________

_____

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife in s u ra n ce ________________________________
A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u ra n ce __ ----------- - --------- -------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r s ic k
le a v e or b o t h 1 ________
2
________ _____
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e
----S ic k le a v e (fu ll pay, no w a itin g p e r io d ) __
S ic k le a v e (p a r tia l pay o r w aitin g
p e r io d )
__ _______ ____________________ —
H o s p ita liz a t io n in s u r a n c e
___ ____
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e ___ ____________ _ — _
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
_
__
_ __ _
C a ta s tro p h e in s u r a n c e _ __ __
__ _ __ _
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n ____ ____
_______ __
R e t ir e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y
- ___ ______ _
N o h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n plan _____

100

100

91

.100

55

81

89

86

96

100

100

100

94

40

58

36

29

34

41

35

-

68

56

_

4

79
76
2

100
100
-

55
55
10

31
31
-

69
69
-

82
79
_

88
88
3

78
78
_

74
57
12

100
100
_

100
100
-

100
100
-

6
92
91
75
11
68
4
5

100
100
75
5
91
-

64
64
16
15
53
36

-

92
83
17
16
12
9
2

8
89
89
75
10
70
6
9

3
94
94
94
6
64
4

_
100
100
100

_
100
100
79
7
100
-

_
100
100
100

100
-

30
100
100
95
17
91
-

100
-

_
100
100
100
89
-

-

81
81
52
25
36
15
3

-

-

O ffic e w o r k e r s

Allw
orker8 ___________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife in s u r a n c e -------- - . _ ____ ___
A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u ra n ce
_
--------. . --------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r s ic k
le a v e o r b o t h 2 --------------- -„ __ .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e —
S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y , no w a itin g p e r io d )
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r w aitin g
p e r i o d ) _____ .
___ — ___
„
_ _
H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e
__ ___
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e
.
.
__ ___
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ______ ___
_____ _____
C a ta s tro p h e i n s u r a n c e ___ ___________________
R e tir e m e n t p e n s io n »
_
R e t ir e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y
___
__
N o h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n _____

100

100

89
51

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

88

74

100

100

100

100

87

100

58

55

5?

_

47

61

23

33

40
40
22

41
27
14

93
55
29

87
81
14

90
90
_

54
23
13

100
100
81

95
90
23

75
75
10

88
90
20
28
30
14
2

84
84
52
52
51
21
2

21
87
87
79
32
70
. 12
3

98
98
96
37
78
_

_
100
100
100
64
100
_

19
100
100
84
58
77
_

_
100
100
100
95
100
_

_
100
100
100
59
100
_

_
100
100
100
59
91
.

100

100

100

100

55

84

59

43

33

80
62
26

100
100
84

65
55
18

8
93
93
80
45
73
6
2

-

100
100
91
77
91
-

-

65
65
13
25
55
35

1 In clu d e * o n ly th o s e p la n s f o r w h ic h at le a s t p a rt o f the co s t is b o rn e b y the e m p lo y e r . L e g a lly r e q u ir e d pla ns su ch as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n and s o c ia l s e c u r it y w e r e ex clu d ed ;
h o w e v e r , th ose p la n s r e q u ir e d b y T e m p o r a r y D is a b ility In su ra n ce L aw s w e r e in clu d e d i f fin a n ce d at le a s t in p a rt b y the e m p lo y e r .
2 U n d u p lica ted t o ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e or s ick n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly .




| Table 15. Paid Funeral Leave, Jury-Duty Leave, and Technological Severance Pay
(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n and o ff ic e w o r k e r s in flo u r and oth er g ra in m illin g e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith p r o v is io n s fo r pa id fu n e r a l le a v e , ju ry -d u ty le a v e ,
and te ch n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e pay, U nited S ta te s ; s e le c t e d r e g io n s , and a r e a s , N o v e m b e r 1961)
R eg ion s
Item

United
States

M idd le
A tla n tic

B order
States

S outheast

Southw est

A reas
G rea t
L ak es

M idd le
W est

M ountain

P a c ifi c

B u ffa lo

M in n ea p olis—
St. P aul

K ansas
C ity

P r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith
p r o v is io n s fo r :
P a id fu n e r a l le a v e __
__ _ __ _
P a id ju ry -d u ty le a v e
__
__ __
__ __
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y _______

77
73
43

91
74
74

38
19
5

8
30
4

66
72
29

87
69
37

80
82
37

100
100
78

80
95
70

100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
57

46
100
46

16
68

92
100
50

10
82
41

44
75
25

O ffice w o r k e r s
• W ork ers in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith
p r o v is io n s fo r :
P a id fu n e r a l l e a v e __ __ _
„
__
P a id ju ry -d u ty le a v e ___________ ___
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y _______________




49
69
15

84
82
41

28
18

2
39

7
62
4

63
68
11

57
69
17




Appendix A: Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of Survey
The s u r v e y in clu d e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r im a r i ly en g a g ed in m illin g flo u r o r m e a l fr o m
g r a in , e x c e p t r i c e (in d u s tr y 2041 as d e fin e d in the Stan dard In d u s tr ia l C la s s ific a t io n M a n u a l,
1957 e d itio n , p r e p a r e d b y the U. S. B u re a u o f the B u d g e t). E s ta b lis h m e n ts p r im a r i ly en g a g ed
in c le a n in g and p o lis h in g r i c e , and m a n u fa ctu rin g r i c e flo u r o r m e a l (in d u s tr y 2044) o r
m a n u fa ctu rin g p r e p a r e d flo u r m ix e s fr o m p u r c h a s e d in g r e d ie n ts (in d u s tr y 2045) w e r e e x c lu d e d
fr o m the s u r v e y .
S e p a ra te a u x ilia r y u n its su ch as c e n t r a l o f f i c e s a ls o w e r e e x c lu d e d .
The e s t a b lis h m e n t s stu d ied w e r e s e le c t e d fr o m th o se e m p lo y in g 20 o r m o r e w o r k e r s
at the tim e o f r e f e r e n c e o f the da ta u se d in c o m p ilin g the u n iv e r s e lis t s .
The n u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s a c tu a lly stu d ied b y the B u r e a u , a s w e ll
as the n u m b er e s t im a te d to b e in the in d u s tr y d u rin g the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ie d , a r e show n
in the fo llo w in g ta b le :

Estimated number o f establishments and workers within scope o f survey and number studied,
flour and other grain m illing establishments, November 1961
Number of
establishments ^
Region* and area^

Workers in establishments—
Studied

Within scope o f study

Within
scope of
study

Studied

United States ----------------------------

235

140

21, 398

Middle A tlantic5 ----------------------B u ffa lo ---------------------------------Border S tates-----------------------------Southeast-----------------------------------Southwest ---------------------------------Great L akes-------------------------------Minneapolis—
-St. P a u l------ —
Rest o f r e g i o n ----------------------Middle W e s t ....................................
Kansas C i t y --------------------------Rest o f r e g i o n ----------------- -—
Mountain ---------------------------------P a c ific -------------r-------------------------

17
7
18
28
20
57
7
50
54
6
48
21
20

9
7
9
19
16
30
7
23
35
6
29
9
13

2,501
1,895
784
1,583
1,968
6, 495
858
5, 637
4, 594
873
3,721
1, 299
2, 174

T o ta l4

Production
workers

O ffice
workers

Total

15, 984

2, 153

16,084

1,834
1,366
554
1, 131
1, 377
5,025
730
4, 295
3, 364
598
2, 766
1,020
1,679

260
212
60
97
178
612
39
573
559
131
428
118
269

2,028
1,895
559
1,284
1,728
4,586
858
3,728
3, 384
873
2,511
650
1,865

1 The regions used in this study include: Middle Atlantio— New Jersey, New York, and Penn­
sylvania; Border States— Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and West
Virginia; Southeast—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Tennessee; Southwest— Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; Great Lakes— Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Middle West.— Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain— Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New M exico, Utah, and
Wyoming; and P acific— California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
2 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the U. S. Bureau o f the Budget
3 Includes only establishments with 20 or more workers at the tim e o f reference of the unem­
ployment insurance listings.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate production
and office worker categories.
® Includes data for other areas in addition to Buffalo.




23

24

Method of Study
D ata w e r e ob ta in ed b y p e r s o n a l v is it s o f B u rea u fie ld e c o n o m is t s u n d er the d ir e c t io n
o f the B u r e a u 's A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r s fo r W a g es and In d u s tr ia l R e la tio n s .
The su rvey
w a s c o n d u c te d on a sa m p le b a s is .
T o ob ta in a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r
p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w a s stu d ied .
In c o m b in in g the d a ta , h o w e v e r ,
a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. A ll e s t im a te s a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e la tin g to a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in the in d u s tr y g r o u p , e x clu d in g on ly th o se b e lo w the m in im u m
s iz e at the tim e o f r e f e r e n c e o f the u n iv e r s e data.

E s ta b lis h m e n t D e fin itio n
An e s t a b lis h m e n t , fo r p u r p o s e s o f th is stu d y, is d e fin e d a s a s in g le p h y s ic a l lo c a t io n
w h e r e in d u s tr ia l o p e r a t io n s a r e p e r fo r m e d .
An e s ta b lis h m e n t is n ot n e c e s s a r i l y id e n t ic a l
w ith the c o m p a n y , w h ich m a y c o n s is t o f one o r m o r e e s t a b lis h m e n t s .

E m p lo y m e n t
The e s t im a te s o f the n u m b er o f w o r k e r s w ith in the s c o p e o f the study a r e in ten d ed
as a g e n e r a l gu id e to the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in the s u r v e y .
T he a d v a n ce plann in g n e c e s s a r y to m a k e a w a g e s u r v e y r e q u ir e s the u se o f lis t s o f e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts a s s e m b le d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v a n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied .
P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s
T he t e r m "p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s , " as u se d in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o rk in g f o r e m e n
and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s en g a g ed in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in is t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e ,
p r o f e s s i o n a l , and te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l, and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s t r u c t io n e m p lo y e e s , w h o w e r e
u tiliz e d as a se p a r a te w o r k f o r c e on the f i r m 's ow n p r o p e r t i e s , w e r e e x clu d e d .
O c c u p a tio n s S e le c t e d fo r Study
O cc u p a tio n a l c la s s if i c a t io n w a s b a s e d on a u n ifo r m set o f jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s d e s ig n e d
to take a c c o u n t o f in te r e s t a b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a v a r ia t io n s in d u tie s w ith in the sa m e jo b .
(S ee ap p en d ix B fo r th e s e jo b d e s c r ip t io n s . ) T h e o c c u p a t io n s w e r e c h o s e n fo r th e ir n u m e r ic a l
im p o r t a n c e , th e ir u s e fu ln e s s in c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , o r th e ir r e p r e s e n t a t iv e n e s s o f the e n tir e
jo b s c a le in the in d u s tr y .
W o rk in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a in e e s ,
h a n d ic a p p e d , p a r t -t im e , t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s w e r e n ot r e p o r t e d in the
data fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s , but w e r e in clu d e d in the data fo r a ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s .
W age D ata
The w a g e in fo r m a t io n r e la t e s to a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , e x clu d in g
p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
In ce n tiv e
p a y m e n ts , su ch as th o s e r e s u ltin g fr o m p ie c e w o r k o r p r o d u c tio n bon u s s y s t e m s and
c o s t - o f - l i v i n g b o n u s e s , w e r e in clu d e d as p a rt o f the w o r k e r s ' r e g u la r pay; but n o n p r o d u ctio n
bon u s p a y m e n ts , su ch as C h r is t m a s o r y e a r e n d b o n u s e s , w e r e e x c lu d e d .
T h e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
o f s a la r ie d w o r k e r s w e r e ob ta in ed by d iv id in g s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r y b y n o r m a l r a th e r than
a c tu a l h o u r s . 9
C o m p a r is o n W ith O th er S ta t is t ic s
The s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s p r e s e n te d in th is r e p o r t d iffe r in c o n c e p t fr o m
the g r o s s a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s p u b lish e d in the B u r e a u 's m on th ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s
s e r ie s .
U n like the la t t e r , the e s t im a te s p r e s e n te d h e r e e x c lu d e p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t im e
and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s w e r e c a lc u la t e d f r o m
the w e ig h te d data b y su m m in g in d iv id u a l h o u r ly e a r n in g s and d iv id in g b y the n u m b e r o f
in d iv id u a ls .
In the m o n th ly s e r i e s , the su m o f the m a n -h o u r to ta ls r e p o r t e d b y e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in the in d u s tr y w a s d iv id e d in to the r e p o r t e d p a y r o ll to t a ls .

9 A v e r a g e h o u r ly r a te s o r e a r n in g s fo r e a c h o c c u p a t io n o r o th e r g r o u p o f w o r k e r s ,
su ch as m e n , w o m e n , o r p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s , w e r e ob ta in e d by w e ig h tin g e a c h r a te (o r
h o u r ly e a r n in g s ) b y the n u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g the r a te .




25
Size of Community
T a b u la tio n s b y s iz e o f c o m m u n ity p e r ta in to m e t r o p o lita n and n o n m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s .
T h e t e r m " m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a , ” as u s e d in th is r e p o r t , r e f e r s to the S tan dard M e tr o p o lita n
S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s e s t a b lis h e d u n d er the s p o n s o r s h ip o f the U. S. B u re a u o f the B u d g et.
E x c e p t in N ew E n g la n d , a S tan dard M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a is d e fin e d as a
cou n ty o r g ro u p o f co n tig u o u s c o u n tie s w h ic h c o n ta in s at le a s t one c it y o f 5 0 ,0 0 0 in h a bitan ts
or m ore.
C o n tig u o u s c o u n tie s to the on e con ta in in g su ch a c it y a r e in clu d e d in a S tan dard
M e tr o p o lita n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a i f , a c c o r d in g to c e r t a in c r i t e r i a , th ey a r e e s s e n t ia lly m e t r o ­
p o lita n in c h a r a c t e r and a r e s o c ia lly and e c o n o m ic a lly in te g r a te d w ith the c e n t r a l c it y .
In
N ew E n g la n d , w h e r e the c it y and tow n a r e a d m in is t r a tiv e ly m o r e im p o rta n t than the co u n ty ,
th ey a r e the u n its u s e d in d e fin in g S tan dard M e tr o p o lita n S ta t is t ic a l A r e a s .
E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta ry W a ge P r o v is io n s
S u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fit s and p r a c t ic e s w e r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is that i f
f o r m a l p r o v i s io n s fo r s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fit s and p r a c t ic e s w e r e a p p lic a b le to h a lf o r m o r e
o f the p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t , the p r a c t ic e s o r b e n e fit s w e r e c o n s id e r e d
a p p lic a b le to a ll su ch w o r k e r s .
S im ila r ly , i f fe w e r than h a lf o f the w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d ,
the p r a c t ic e o r b e n e fit w a s c o n s id e r e d n o n e x is te n t in the e s ta b lis h m e n t.
B ecau se of
l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e and o th e r e lig ib ilit y r e q u ir e m e n t s , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g the
b e n e fit s m a y b e s m a lle r than e s tim a te d .
B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s
m a y not eq u a l to t a ls .
W e e k ly H o u r s .
D ata r e la t e to the p r e d o m in a n t w o r k sc h e d u le fo r p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
(o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ) e m p lo y e d on the da y s h ift, r e g a r d l e s s o f se x .
Shift P r o v is io n s and P r a c t i c e s .
D ata r e la t e to the p r o v i s io n s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
having fo r m a l p r o v i s io n s f o r la t e - s h if t o p e r a t io n s and to the p r a c t ic e s in th o s e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
o p e r a tin g e x tr a sh ifts d u rin g the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied .
P a id H o lid a y s .
p r o v id e d an n u a lly .

P a id

h o lid a y

p r o v i s io n s

r e la t e

to

fu ll-d a y

and

h a lf-d a y

h o lid a y s

P a id V a c a t io n s .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s ,
e x clu d in g in fo r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith pa y is g ra n te d at the d is c r e t i o n o f the e m ­
p lo y e r o r the s u p e r v i s o r .
P a y m e n ts n ot on a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r t e d ; f o r e x a m p le , a
p a ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k ’ s pa y.
The p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e fo r w h ic h data a r e p r e s e n te d w e r e s e le c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f the
m o s t c o m m o n p r a c t i c e s , but th ey do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t in d iv id u a l e sta b lis h m e n t p r o ­
v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n .
F o r e x a m p le , the ch a n g e s in p r o p o r t io n s in d ic a te d at 5 y e a r s o f
s e r v ic e in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v is io n s w h ich m a y h ave o c c u r r e d a fte r 4 y e a r s .
H ea lth , I n s u r a n c e , and P e n s io n P la n s .
D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ea lth , in s u r a n c e ,
and p e n s io n p la n s f o r w h ich a ll o r a p a rt o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r , e x clu d in g
o n ly p r o g r a m s r e q u ir e d by la w , su ch as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n and s o c ia l s e c u r it y .
A m on g
the p la n s in clu d e d a r e th o s e u n d e r w ritte n b y a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y and th o s e pa id
d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r fr o m h is c u r r e n t o p e r a tin g funds o r f r o m a fund se t a s id e fo r
th is p u r p o s e .
D eath b e n e fit s a r e in c lu d e d as a f o r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t
in s u r a n c e is lim it e d to that type o f in s u r a n c e u n d er w h ich p r e d e t e r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts
a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g ill n e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
I n fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d fo r a ll su ch p la n s to w h ich the e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t e s
at le a s t a p a rt o f the c o s t .
T a b u la tio n s o f p a id s i c k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s w h ic h p r o v id e fu ll
pay o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's p a y d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e o f ill n e s s ;
in fo r m a l a r r a n g e m e n ts h ave b e e n o m itte d .
S e p a ra te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
( l ) p la n s w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and n o w a itin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r t ia l
pa y o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g fo r c o m p le t e o r p a r t ia l p a y m en t o f
d o c to r s ' fe e s .
Such p la n s m a y b e u n d e r w ritte n b y a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y o r a
n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n , o r m a y b e s e lf-in s u r e d .




26
C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e t im e s r e f e r r e d to as ex ten d ed m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ,
in c lu d e s the p la n s d e s ig n e d to c o v e r e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s o r in ju r y in v o lv in g an
e x p e n s e w h ich g o e s b e y o n d the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a t io n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l plans.
T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p la n s p r o v id e in fo r m a t io n s e p a r a te ly fo r :
(1) T h o s e that
p r o v id e r e g u la r p a y m e n ts u pon r e t ir e m e n t fo r the r e m a in d e r o f the w o r k e r ’ s lif e , and (2) th o s e
that p r o v id e a lu m p -s u m am ou n t to the w o r k e r u pon r e t ir e m e n t , c o m m o n ly r e f e r r e d to as
’’ r e t ir e m e n t s e v e r a n c e pa y. "
P a id F u n e r a l L e a v e , J u r y -D u ty L e a v e , and T e c h n o lo g ic a l S e v e r a n c e P a y . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id fu n e r a l and ju r y -d u t y le a v e a r e lim ite d to f o r m a l p la n s w h ich p r o v id e at le a s t p a r t ia l
p a y m en t fo r tim e lo s t as a r e s u lt o f atten din g fu n e r a ls o f c e r t a in fa m ily m e m b e r s o r
s e r v in g as a ju r o r .
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e pay p la n s a r e lim ite d to f o r m a l p la n s p r o v id in g
pa y to w o r k e r s se p a r a te d fr o m e m p lo y m e n t b e c a u s e o f t e c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e s o r c lo s in g
o f m i lls .




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions

T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r i p ­
tion s f o r the B u r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its fie ld
s t a ff in c la s s ify in g in to a p p r o p r ia te o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s
w ho a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll t itle s and
d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t and fr o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is is e s s e n t ia l in
o r d e r to p e r m it the g ro u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a te s
r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b c on ten t. B e c a u s e o f th is e m ­
p h a s is on in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y
o f o c c u p a t io n a l co n te n t, the B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r ip t io n s m a y
d iffe r s ig n ific a n tly fr o m th o se in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts o r th o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o th e r p u r p o s e s . In a p p ly ­
ing th e s e jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s , the B u r e a u 's f ie ld e c o n o m is t s
a r e in s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o rk in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s ,
le a r n e r s ,
b e g in n e r s , t r a i n e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d , p a r t -t i m e ,
t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

BOLTER
(S ifte r o p e r a t o r )
S ifts g ro u n d g r a in in the s iftin g m a c h in e s to r e m o v e the b r o k e n k e r n e ls and lu m p s
to b e r e tu rn e d to g rin d in g m i lls f o r fu r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g ; and a d ju sts fe e d s lid e s s o m a c h in e
ca n take in o n ly as m u c h g r a in as it w ill s ift.

CLEANER,

G R A IN

(S e p a r a to r m a n )
O p e r a te s m a ch in e to r e m o v e d ir t , c h a ff, s t o n e s , and o th e r f o r e ig n m a tt e r fr o m g r a in .
T he g r a in p a s s e s o v e r sh a k e r s c r e e n s w h e r e the d ir t and d u st a r e r e m o v e d b y a b lo w e r o r
s u c tio n s y s t e m . The g r a in fa lls th rou g h the s c r e e n s w h ile the f o r e ig n m a tt e r su ch as s t o n e s ,
s t ic k s , e tc . , a r e e je c t e d in to a b a g o r c o n t a in e r fr o m the s c r e e n .

G R A IN -E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R
H as c h a r g e o f g r a in u n loa d in g fr o m tr u c k s o r r a ilr o a d c a r s . T en d s e le v a tin g m a ­
c h in e r y , and m a y do m in o r r e p a ir and m a in te n a n ce w o r k on e le v a tin g m a c h in e r y . S e e s that
v a r io u s g r a d e s o f g r a in g o to s e p a r a te b in s .
D e te r m in e s w h e r e g r a in is to b e s t o r e d and
is r e s p o n s ib le f o r sen d in g d e s ir e d g r a in to m i ll. M ay a c tu a lly do u n lo a d in g , and m a y a ls o
run g r a in th rou g h o r ig in a l s c r e e n in g o r c le a n in g p r o c e s s w h ich r e m o v e s la r g e p ie c e s o f
f o r e ig n m a tt e r .

G R IN D IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ,
( H a m m e r -m ill o p e r a t o r ;

FEED

p u lv e r iz e r ; g r in d e r o p e r a t o r ; c r u s h e r -m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r )

O p e r a te s on e o r m o r e o f s e v e r a l ty p e s o f m a c h in e s f o r c r a c k in g , p u lv e r iz in g , g r in d ­
in g , o r ch op p in g m a t e r ia l s . Is r e s p o n s ib le f o r p r o p e r o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e , r e g u la t e s flo w
o f m a t e r ia l s , r e lie v e s c h o k e u p s , and m a k e s m in o r a d ju stm e n ts o r r e p a i r s . M a y , in a d d ition
to b e in g r e s p o n s ib le f o r o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e , dum p m a t e r ia l in to m a c h in e , take ou t, and
s a c k and w e ig h it.




27

28
J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

AN D C L E A N E R

(S w e e p e r ; c h a rw o m a n ; ja n i t r e s s )

C lea n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d itio n f a c t o r y w o r k in g a r e a s and w a s h r o o m s , o r
p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u ties
in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : S w eep in g , m o p p in g o_r s c r u b b in g , and p o lis h in g f l o o r s ;
r e m o v in g c h ip s , tr a s h , and o th e r r e fu s e ; d u stin g e q u ip m e n t, fu r n itu r e , o r fix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g
m e t a l fix t u r e s o r t r im m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s and m in o r m a in te n a n ce s e r v i c e s ; and c le a n in g
l a v a t o r ie s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w ho s p e c ia liz e in w in d ow w a sh in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

LABORER,

M A T E R IA L . H A N D LIN G

(L o a d e r and u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r and s t a c k e r ; s h e lv e r ; t r u c k e r ; s to c k m a n o r s t o c k h e lp e r ;
w a r e h o u s e m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r )
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, s t o r e , o r o th e r e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t w h o s e d u ties in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : L o a d in g and u n loa d in g v a r io u s
m a t e r ia ls and m e r c h a n d is e on o r fr o m fr e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o th e r tr a n s p o r t in g d e v ic e s ;
u n p a ck in g , s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; and
tr a n s p o r t in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y hand tr u ck , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n ,
w h o lo a d and u n loa d s h ip s , a r e e x c lu d e d .

M IL L E R ,

F L O U R (H E A D )

O v e r s e e s w o r k e r s e n g a g e d in c le a n in g , g r in d in g , and b o ltin g (s iftin g ) to in s u r e m i l l ­
ing o f g r a in a c c o r d in g to fo r m u la . P la n s s c h e d u le a c c o r d in g to am ou n t o f g r a in to b e g ro u n d
d u rin g p e r io d s p e c ifi e d .
In s p e c ts g ra in at v a r io u s s ta g e s o f m a n u fa c tu r e to d e t e r m in e i f
fin e n e s s is a c c o r d in g to s p e c if i c a t io n s . M ay a d ju st o r in s t r u c t a n d /o r a s s i s t v a r io u s m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s in a d ju stin g m a c h in e r y .

M IL L E R ,

F L O U R (SE C O N D M IL L E R )

P e r f o r m s any o r a ll n e c e s s a r y c le a n in g , g rin d in g , b o ltin g (s ift in g ), and p a ck in g jo b s
in a g r a in m i l l . S ta rts m a c h in e r y and e x a m in e s g r a in at v a r io u s s ta g e s o f m a n u fa c tu r e to
d e t e r m in e d e g r e e o f fin e n e s s .
In s p e c ts v a r io u s m i lls f o r p r o p e r o p e r a t io n and m a k e s any
n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts .

M IL L W R IG H T

In s ta lls new m a c h in e s o r h ea v y e q u ip m e n t and d is m a n t le s and in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r
h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w hen c h a n g e s in the p la n t la y o u t a r e r e q u ir e d . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the
fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la y in g out o f the w o r k ; in te r p r e tin g b lu e p r in ts o r o th e r s p e c if i c a t io n s ;
u sin g a ~ v a r ie ty o f h a n d to o ls and r ig g in g ; m a k in g sta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to
s t r e s s e s , stre n g th o f m a t e r ia l s , and c e n t e r s o f g r a v it y ; a lin in g and b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t;
s e le c t in g sta n d a rd t o o l s , e q u ip m e n t, and p a r t s to b e u s e d ; in s ta llin g and m a in ta in in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m is s io n eq u ip m e n t su ch as d r iv e s and s p e e d r e d u c e r s .
In g e n e r a l, the
m i llw r i g h t ’ s w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rou n d ed tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tr a d e a c q u ir e d
th rou g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

O IL E R
L u b r ic a t e s , w ith o il o r g r e a s e , the m o v in g p a r t s o r w e a r in g s u r fa c e s o f m e c h a n ic a l
eq u ip m en t o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .




29
PACKER
T en d s a m a ch in e that s a c k s and w e ig h s fin is h e d p r o d u c ts o r m a t e r ia l s ; p la c e s em p ty
s a ck o r b a g o v e r d is c h a r g e n o z z le o r sp ou t o f p a ck in g m a c h in e ; s t a r ts flo w o f p r o d u c t o r
m a t e r ia l in to s a c k ; shuts o ff o r sto p s flo w o f p r o d u c t o r m a t e r ia l w h en s p e c if i e d w e ig h t o r
am ou n t h as e n te r e d the s a ck (m a ch in e m a y do th is a u to m a t ic a lly ).
M ay s e a l o r c l o s e s a c k s
b y hand o r m a c h in e .
M ay m a k e a d ju stm e n ts and m in o r r e p a ir s .
F o r w a g e stud y p u r p o s e s ,
P ack er,
P acker,

p a ck e rs a re c la s s ifie d by p ro d u ct,

as f o llo w s :

flo u r
fe e d

R O LL TENDER
R e g u la te s flo w o f g r a in b e tw e e n g rin d in g r o l l e r s o f a r o llin g m i l l . W ork in c lu d e s :
M ovin g r o l l e r s to g e th e r s o that g ra in p a s s in g b e tw e e n th em w ill b e c r u s h e d ; s t a r ts fe e d e r
r o l l w h ich m o v e s g ra in out o f su p p ly h o p p e r o f m i l l and c a u s e s it to fa ll b e tw e e n rota tin g
g rin d in g r o l l s .

SM U TTER
W a sh es and s c o u r s g r a in w h ich is in fe s t e d w ith sm u tj b y o p e r a tin g a w a sh in g m a ch in e
and a s c o u r in g m a c h in e .
M ay a ls o w e ig h , t e m p e r , and c o n d itio n g r a in f o r g rin d in g . M ay
c le a n , a d ju st, and a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g m a c h in e r y .

TRU CKER,

POW ER

O p e r a te s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o l in e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d tr u ck o r t r a c t o r to
t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r ia ls o f a ll k in d s a b ou t a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, o r o th e r
e s ta b lis h m e n t.
F or

w age

T ru ck er,
T ru ck er,

study

pu rp oses,

w ork ers

p o w e r (fo r k lift )
p o w e r (o th e r than fo r k lift )




are

c la s s ifie d

by

type

o f tr u c k ,

as

fo llo w s :




IK D U S T R Y WAGE S T U D IE S

The following reports cover part of the Bureau's program of industry wage surveys. These reports cover the period 1950 to date
and may be obtained free upon request as long as a supply is available. However, those for which a price is shown are available only
from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D. C . , or any o f its regional sales offices.

I. Occupational Wage Studies
Manufacturing
Apparel:
Men's Dress Shirts and Nightwear, 1950 - Series 2, No. 80
Men's and Boys' Dress Shirts and Nightwear, 1954 BLS Report No. 74
♦Men's and Boys' Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Nightwear,
1956 - BLS Report 116
Men's and Boys' Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Nightwear,
1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1323 (40 cents)
Men's and Boys' Suits and Coats, 1958 - BLS Report No. 140
Women's and Misses' Coats and Suits, 1957 - BLS Report No. 122
Women's and Misses' Dresses, 1960 - BLS Report No. 193
Work Clothing, 1953 - BLS Report No. 51
Work Clothing, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1321 (35 cents)
♦Work Shirts, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report 115
♦Work Shirts, 1957 - BLS Report No. 124

Chemicals and Petroleum:
Fertilizer, 1949-50 - Series 2, No. 77
♦Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. I l l
♦Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1957 - BLS Report No. 132
Industrial Chemicals, 1951 - Series 2, No 87
Industrial Chemicals, 1955 - BLS Report No. 103
Paints and Varnishes, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1318 (30 cents)
Petroleum Production and Refining, 1951 - Series 2, No. 83
Petroleum Refining, 1959 - BLS Report No. 158
Synthetic Fibers, 1958 - BLS Report No. 143
Food:
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1960 BLS Report No. 195
♦ Canning and Freezing, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 117
♦Canning and Freezing, 1957 - BLS Report No. 136
Distilled Liquors, 1952 - Series 2, No. 88
Fluid Milk Industry, 1960 - BLS Report No. 174
♦ Raw Sugar, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 117
♦ Raw Sugar, 1957 - BLS Report No. 136
Leather:
Footwear, 1953 - BLS Report No. 46
♦ Footwear, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 115
Footwear, 1957 - BLS Report No. 133
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1954 - BLS Report No. 80
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1959 - BLS Report No. 150

Lumber and Furniture:
Household Furniture, 1954 - BLS Report No. 76
Lumber in the South, 1949 and 1950 - Series 2, No. 76
Southern Lumber Industry, 1953 - BLS Report No. 45
♦ Southern Sawmills, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 113
♦ Southern Sawmills, 1957 - BLS Report No. 130
West Coast Sawmilling, 1952 - BLS Report No. 7
West Coast Sawmilling, 1959 - BLS Report No. 156
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1959 BLS Report No. 152
♦ Wooden Containers, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 115
♦Wooden Containers, 1957 - BLS Report No. 126

* Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.




Paper and A llied Products:
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard, 1952 - Series 2, No. 91
Primary Metals, Fabricated Metal Products and Machinery:
Basic Iron and Steel, 1951 - Series 2, No. 81
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1957 - BLS Report No. 123
Gray Iron Foundries, 1959 - BLS Report No. 151
Nonferrous Foundries, 1951 - Series 2, No. 82
Nonferrous Foundries, 1960 - BLS Report No. 180
Machinery Industries, 1953-54 - BLS Bulletin No. 1160 (40 cents)
Machinery Industries, 1954-55 - BLS Report No. 93
Machinery Manufacturing, 1955-56 - BLS Report No. 107
Machinery Manufacturing, 1957-58 - BLS Report No. 139
Machinery Manufacturing, 1958-59 - BLS Report No. 147
Machinery Manufacturing, 1959-60 - BLS Report No. 170
Machinery Manufacturing, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1309 (30 cents)
Radio, Television, and Related Products, 1951 - Series 2, No. 84
Steel Foundries, 1951 - Series 2, No. 85
Rubber and Plastics Products:
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1960 - BLS Report No. 168
Stone, Clay, and Glass:
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1960 - BLS Report No. 177
Structural Clay Products, 1954 - BLS Report No. 77
Structural Clay Products, 1960 - BLS Report No. 172
T extiles:
Cotton Textiles, 1954 - BLS Report No. 82
Cotton Textiles, 1960 - BLS Report No. 184
Cotton and Synthetic Textiles, 1952 - Series 2, No. 89
Hosiery, 1952 - BLS Report No. 34
Miscellaneous Textiles, 1953 - BLS Report No. 56
♦Processed Waste, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 115
♦Processed Waste, 1957 - BLS Report No. 124
♦Seamless Hosiery, 1955 and 1956 - BLS Report No. 112
♦ Seamless Hosiery, 1957 - BLS Report No. 129
Synthetic Textiles, 1954 - BLS Report No. 87
Synthetic Textiles, 1960 - BLS Report No. 1S2
T extile Dyeing and Finishing, 1956 - BLS Report No. 110
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1311 (35 cents)
W oolen and Worsted Textiles, 1952 - Series 2, No. 90
W ool Textiles, 1957 - BLS Report No. 134
T o b a cco :
Cigar Manufacturing, 1955 - BLS Report No. 97
♦Cigar Manufacturing, 1956 - BLS Report No. 117
Cigar Manufacturing, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1317 (30 cents)
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1960 - BLS Report No. 167
♦ T ob a cco Stemming and Redrying, 1955 and 1956 BLS Report No. 117
♦ T ob a cco Stemming and Redrying, 1957 - BLS Report No. 136

T ransportation:
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1950 - BLS Bulletin No. 1015 (20 cents)
Motor Vehicles and Motor V ehicle Parts, 1957 - BLS Report No. 128
Railroad Cars, 1952 - Series 2, No. 86

I. Occupational Wage Studies— Continued

Nonmanufacturing

Auto Dealers Repair Shops, 1958 - BLS Report No. 141
Banking Industry, 1960 - BLS Report No. 179
Contract Cleaning Services, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1327 (25 cents)
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1960 BLS Report No. 181
Department and Women's R eady-to-W ear Stores, 1950 Series 2, No. 78
Eating and Drinking Places, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1329 (40 cents)
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1950 - Series 2, No. 79

Electric and Gas Utilities, 1952 - BLS Report No. 12
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1957 - BLS Report No. 135
Hospitals, 1960 - BLS Bulletin No. 1294 (50 cents)
Hotels, 1960 - BLS Report No. 173
Hotels and Motels, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1328 (30 cents)
Life Insurance, 1961 - BLS Bulletin No. 1324 (30 cents)
Power Laundries and Cleaning Services, 1961 BLS Bulletin No. 1333 (45 cents)
Power Laundries and Dry Cleaners, 1960 - BLS Report No. 178

II. Other Industry Wage Studies
Communications Workers, Earnings in October 1956 - BLS Report No. 121
Communications Workers, Earnings in October 1957 - BLS Report No. 138
Communications Workers, Earnings in October 1958 - BLS Report No. 149
Communications Workers, Earnings in October 1959 - BLS Report No. 171
Communications, October 1960 - BLS Bulletin No. 1306 ( 20 cents)
Factory Workers' Earnings ■ Distributions by Straight-Tim e Hourly Earnings, 1954 - BLS Bulletin No. 1179 (25 cents)
Factory Workers' Earnings ■ 5 Industry Groups, 1956 - BLS Report No. 118
Factory Workers' Earnings ■ Distribution by Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, 1958 - BLS Bulletin No. 1252 (40 cents)
Factory Workers' Earnings ■ Selected Manufacturing Industries, 1959 - BLS Bulletin No. 1275 (35 cents)
Wages in Nonmetropolitan Areas, South and North Central Regions, October 1960 - BLS Report No. 190

Retail Trade, Employee Earnings in October 1956:
Initial Report - BLS Report No. 119 (30 cents)
Building Materials and Farm Equipment Dealers - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-1 (20 cents)
General Merchandise Stores - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-2 (35 cents)
Food Stores - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-3 ( 30 cents)
Automotive Dealers and Gasoline Service Stations - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-4 (35 cents)
Apparel and Accessories Stores - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-5 (45 cents)
Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Appliance Stores - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-6 (35 cents)
Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores - BLS Bulletin No. 1220-7 (15 cents)
Summary Report - BLS Bulletin No. 1220 (55 cents)

Regional Offices

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau o f Labor Statistics
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
New York 1, N. Y.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta 9, Ga.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1365 Ontario Street
Cleveland 14, Ohio

U. S. Department o f Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau o f Labor Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San Francisco 11, C alif.