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23:

1?63

Industry
Wage Survey

Flour and Other
Grain Mill Products
May 1972
Bulletin 1803
U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1973




: ,

Industry
Wage Survey

Flour and Other
Grain Mill Products
May 1972
Bulletin ,1803
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

1973

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Make checks for microfiche payable to NTIS.







P re fa c e

This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of Labor Statistics’ survey of wages
and related benefits in the flour and other grain mill products industry in May 1972.
A separate release providing information for Buffalo, N.Y. was issued in January
1973.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations.
Philip M. Doyle of the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared the analysis
in this bulletin. Assistant Regional Directors for Operations directed field work for the
survey.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies, as well
as the addresses of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this bulletin.




in




Contents
Page
Summary .......................................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics................................................................................................................................................
Location ................................................................................................................................................................
Establishment size ................................................................................................................................................
U n io n iz a tio n ................ * .......................................................................................................................................
Method of wage p a y m e n t......................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earn in g s................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earn in g s...................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ..................................................................................
Scheduled weekly hours ......................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and p ractices................................................................................................................................
Paid h o lid a y s ..........................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations .......................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ............................................................................................................
Other selected b e n e f its ..........................................................................................................................................

1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

Tables:
Average hourly earnings:
1. By selected characteristics......................................................................................................
Earnings distribution:
2. All establishm ents...................................................................................................................... ,
Occupational averages:
3. All establishm ents...................................................................................................................................
4. By size of c o m m u n ity .............................................................................................................................
5. By size of establishm ent.........................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings:
6. Buffalo, N.Y...............................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
7. Method of wage p a y m e n t...............................................................................................
8. Scheduled weekly h o u r s .........................................................................................................................
9. Shift differential p ro v isio n s...................................................................................................................
10. Shift differential practices......................................................................................................................
11. Paid holidays ..........................................................................................................................................
12. Paid v a c a tio n s..........................................................................................................................................
13. Health, insurance, and retirement p l a n s .................................................................................
14. Other selected benefits .........................................................................................................................

11
11
12
13
14
16
17
17

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey ................................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions......................................................................................................................

18
22




6
7
8
9
9
10




Flour and O th e r G ra in M ill P roducts

Summary

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in the flour and other grain mill products
industry averaged $3.51 an hour in May 1972.1 Earnings
of all but 5 percent of the 10,928 workers covered by
the survey were within a range of $2 to $5 an hour; the
middle half in the earnings array earned from $3.09 to
$4.03.
Among the seven regions studied separately, average
earnings ranged from less than $3 an hour in the
Southeast ($2.63) and Southwest ($2.89) to $4.28 in
the Pacific States.2 Workers in the Great Lakes region,
36 percent of the industry’s work force, averaged $3.78
an hour. Earnings levels also varied by size of com­
munity, size of establishment, and pccupation.
Of jobs selected to represent the industry’s wage
structure for plant workers, average hourly earnings
ranged from $3.03 for feed packers to $4.54 for
millwrights.3 Material handling laborers, the only
occupational group accounting for as much as one-tenth
of the work force, averaged $3.21 an hour.
Paid holidays and paid vacations after qualifying
periods of service, as well as various types of health,
insurance, and retirement benefits, were provided by
establishments employing nearly all of the workers
covered by the study. A majority of the workers were in
plants granting 9 or 10 paid holidays annually and 1
week of vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks
after 2 years, and at least 3 weeks after 10 years.

Industry Characteristics

In May 1972, the 184 mills within scope of the
survey employed 10,928 production and related workers
(virtually all men) or 13 percent fewer than in February
*See appendix A for scope and method o f survey. Wage data
exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
2For definitions o f regions, see appendix A, table A -l,
footnote 1.
3See appendix B for job descriptions.




1967, when a similar study was made.4 Among the
factors contributing to this decline were the increased
use of automated equipment, improved materials
handling systems as well as a 7 percent decline in the
number of mills within scope of the survey and a 6
percent decline in the average number of workers per
mill.
The total number of production worker man-hours
declined 13 percent over the same 5 year period, while
industry output remained virtually constant. These
conditions resulted in a 17 percent increase in
productivity, as measured by output per production
worker man hour.
Per capita consumption of wheat flour (which
accounts for a majority of the industry’s production) in
the United States was 109 pounds in 1972, compared
with 112 pounds in 19675 and the peak of 225 pounds
reached at the turn of the century.6 This downward
trend in civilian per capita consumption has partially
offset the increase in total consumption of wheat flour
that would be expected as population increases. Over the
years, the quantity of flour used by bakers has increased,
while flour used for family consumption steadily
declined.
Wheat flour is produced by grinding the endosperm,
which constitutes about four-fifths of the wheat berry.
The outer coat of bran and the inner wheat germ are
separated from the endosperm by grinding and sifting.
After being cleaned and tempered by water which is
added, the whole grain is passed through two types of
rollers. The break rolls crush the grain into particles of
bran, endosperm, and a small amount of flour. The flour
sifts into bins, and particles of endosperm are sent
through several sets of reduction rolls. After each
4Two previous surveys are mentioned in this report. See

Industry Wage Survey: Four and Other Grain Mill Products,
February 1967 (BLS Bulletin 1576)(1967); and Industry Wage
Survey: Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, November 1961 ,
(BLS Bulletin 1337)(1962).
E stim ates by the U.S. Department o f Agriculture, National

Food Situation (N F S -1 4 5 ), Aug. 1973, p. 15.
6The Northwestern Miller, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Aug. 7,
1961, p. 23.

grinding, the resulting material is sifted. Typically, the
complete milling process requires fewer than 30 minutes.
Location. The Great Lakes and Middle West regions were
the largest in terms of employment, accounting for 36
and 20 percent of the workers, respectively. The Middle
Atlantic, Southeast, Southwest, and Pacific regions each
accounted for about 10 percent of the workers; the
Mountain States employed 4 percent.
Establishments in metropolitan areas accounted for
seven-tenths of the work force nationally, and for a
majority of the workers in six of the seven regions
studied separately.7 In the Southeast slightly more than
one-half were employed in smaller communities.
Establishment size. Flour and other grain producing
mills are relatively small operations in terms of employ­
ment. Only 9 of the 184 establishments within scope of
the survey had as many as 250 employees, and together,
they accounted for three-tenths of the workers. A
similar proportion was in mills employing 100-249
workers, and the remaining two-fifths were in plants
having fewer than 100 workers.
Unionization. Four-fifths of the industry’s production
workers were employed in plants operating under
labor-management agreements compared with threefifths in all manufacturing industries combined.8 As
shown in text table 1, the proportion of workers in
unionized flour and other grain mills varied by region,
by size of community, and by size of establishment. The
major union in the industry is the American Federation
of Grain Millers (AFL-CIO).

Method o f wage payment. Virtually all workers covered
by the study were paid time-rates, typically under
formal systems providing single rates for specified
occupations (table 7). Only in the Southeast was a
substantial proportion of the workers (two-fifths) paid
under different system—
based primarily on the qualifica­
tions of individual employees.
Average hourly earnings

Straight-time earnings of the 10,928 production and
related workers covered by the study averaged $3.51 an
7Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the
U.S. Office o f Management and Budget through January 1968.
8See Employee Compensation in the Private NonFarm
Economy , 1970, Bulletin 1770 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics,
1973).




Text table 1. Percent of workers in flour and other
grain mills under labor-management agreements

Plant location

Region

United States1
Middle A t la n t ic ............
Southeast ........................
S o u th w est.....................
Great L a k e s ...................
Middle W e s t...................
M o u n ta in ........................
P a c ific ............................

Plant size

Non
Metro­
100
All
metro­ 20-99
politan
workers
plants
politan workers
areas
or more
areas
80-84

85-89

95+
45-49
75-79
85-89
85-89
75-79
95+

95+
65-69
75-79
85-89
95+
80-84
95+

65-69

_
30-34
80-84
85-89
55-59
—

—

■^Includes data fo r th e N e w E ng la n d and
regions in a d d itio n to those show n sep a ra te ly .

65-69

90-94

95+
30-34
65-69
70-74
80-84
70-74
95+

95+
70-74
90-94
95+
90-94
95+
95+

B o rd e r S tates

hour in May 19729 (table 1). This level of earnings was
37 percent higher than the $2.56 recorded for a similar
survey in February 1967. The increase was virtually the
same as that reported for all nondurable goods manu­
facturing industries and for the food industry as a whole
over the 5-year period.10
Regionally, May 1972 averages ranged from $2.63 in
the Southeast to $4.28 in the Pacific States. Workers in
the Great Lakes and Middle West regions, 56 percent of
the industry’s work force, averaged $3.78 and $3.44,
respectively.
The largest increase in average hourly earnings over
the February 1967-May 1972 period was recorded in
the Southeast (51 percent), where the effect of a 20
cents per hour rise in the Federal minimum wage was
9 Straight-time hourly earnings in this bulletin exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Average earnings were calculated by summing
individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number o f
individuals. They differ from gross average hourly earnings in the
Bureau’s monthly series ($3.92 in May 1972) in which the sum
o f the man-hour totals reported by establishments in the
industry was divided into the reported payroll totals.
The estimate o f production workers within scope o f the
study is intended only as a general guide to the size and
composition o f the labor force included in the survey. If differs
from the monthly series (19,600) in May 1972 because (1)
establishments employing fewer than 20 workers are excluded
and (2) lists o f establishments must be assembled considerably in
advance of data collected to make the survey. Thus, new
establishments are omitted as are establishments originally
classified in the flour and other grain mills industry but found in
other industries when fists were compiled.
10Based on data from the Bureau’s Employment and Earnings
series.

apparently the greatest.11 Increases in the remaining
regions ranged from 36 percent in the Middle Atlantic
and Great Lakes States to 44 percent in the Southwest.
Nationwide, workers in metropolitan areas averaged
$3.67 or 17 percent more than those in smaller
communities, where earnings averaged $3.13 an hour. In
the three regions compared, workers in metropolitan
areas had higher averages— 15 percent in the South­
by
east, 13 percent in the Middle West, and 6 percent in the
Great Lakes States (tables 4 and 5). In Buffalo, the only
metropolitan area studied separately, workers averaged
$4.30 an hour (table 6).
Workers employed in mills having 100 employees or
more averaged $3.71 an hour— percent more than
15
those in smaller establishments. In the four regions
compared, the wage advantage of large plants ranged
from 5 percent in the Pacific to 15 percent in the
Southeast.
Earnings of 95 percent of the workers were within a
range of $2 to $5 an hour; the middle half earned from
$3.09 to $4.03 an hour. Regionally, the percent of
workers earning less than $2 an hour varied considerably
(table 2). As indicated in the following tabulation, 11
percent of the workers in the Southeast and 14 percent
in the Southwest earned less than $2 an hour, whereas
rates below $2 were rarely found in the other regions.
Percent o f workers earning—
Under
$2
United States ..........
Middle A t la n t ic ............
Southeast ........................
S o uth w est.....................
Great L a k e s ...................
Middle W e s t...................
M o u n ta in ........................
P a c ific ............................

3.7
_

11.3
14.3
.4
.2
1.8
—

Under
$ 2.10

Under
$ 2.20

5.6

6.9

_

_

18.9
19.1
.6
.4
3.7
—

28.0
19.3
.7
.6
3.7
—

Occupational earnings

Occupations selected to represent wage structures,
skills, and manufacturing operation in the industry,
constituted nearly six-tenths of the production workers
studied (table 3). Average earnings were highest for
11 The Federal minimum wage for establishments engaged in
interstate commerce was $1.40 an hour in February 1967 and
was raised to $1.60 in February 1968. According to the 1967
survey, slightly more than one-half o f the workers in the
Southeast earned less than $1.60 an hour. Fewer than one-tenth
of the workers earned less than $1.60 an hour in each of the
other regions except the Southwest, where the proportion was
nearly three-tenths.




(U .S . averages each o c c u p a tio n = 1 0 0 )

Occupation
Bolters ...............................
Grain elevator
operators.....................
Janitors, porters,
cleaners........................
Laborers, material
handling........................
Mechanics, general ..........
Millers, flour (second
miller) ..........................
M illw rig h ts ........................
Oilers .................................
Packers, fe e d .....................
Packers, f l o u r ...................
Roll tenders .....................
Sm utters.............................
Truckers, power
(forklift) .....................

Middle
Atlantic

South­
east

South­
west

Great
Lakes

119

83

85

102

114

79

65

101

113

75

80

105
'

116

76
83

87
83

106
108

114
110
111
141
126
—
121

85
79
77
77
78
—
67

85
87
80
84
90
92

108
97
105
114
111
104
100

118

74

79

104

—

-

Middle
West
B o lte rs .................................
Grain elevator
operators........................
Janitors, porters,
cleaners..........................
Laborers, material
handling ........................
Mechanics, gen eral............
Millers, flour (second
m ille r )............................
M illw rights..........................
O ile rs ...................................
Packers, feed .....................
Packers, f lo u r .....................
Roll ten d ers........................
Smutters ............................
Truckers, power
( f o r k lif t ) ........................

Mountain

Pacific

82

103

114

101

103

119

97

101

115

104
96

97
106

126
116

101

103

124

-

-

-

95
110
106
102
96

97
110
100
—

115

100

94

113

—

114
—

126
_

millwrights ($4.54) and lowest for feed packers ($3.03).
Material handling laborers, the largest group studied
separately, averaged $3.21 an hour.
Workers in the Pacific and Middle Atlantic States, the
highest paid regions, often averaged from 30 to 60
percent more than workers in the same occupation in
the Southeast and Southwest, the lowest paid regions
studied separately. Flour millers (second millers) in the
Pacific and Middle Atlantic regions, for example,
averaged about 45 and 35 percent, respectively, more
than their counterparts in the Southeast and Southwest.
Occupational averages were usually higher in metro­
politan areas than in nonmetropolitan areas and higher
in mills having 100 workers or more than in smaller

plants (tables 4 and 5). These relationships were
generally the same in the Great Lakes and Middle West,
the only regions for which such comparisons could be
made.
The extensive use of single-rate wage systems and the
high proportion of workers covered by collective
bargaining agreements contributed to a relatively narrow
range of earnings for workers performing similar tasks in
the same area. In the Buffalo area, for example, all flour
packers earned between $4.20 and $4.30 an hour; all of
the bolters between $4.40 and $4.60; and more than
three-fourths of the grain elevator operators earned $4
to $4.30 an hour.
Occupational pay relationships have remained
relatively stable since the early 1960’s. Among com­
parable jobs, millwrights had the highest average and
feed packers the lowest average when surveyed by the
Bureau in 1961, 1967, and 1972. The difference in
average earnings between these two groups, however,
increased moderately over the period, as millwrights’
average earnings exceeded those of feed packers by 43
percent in 1961 and by 50 percent in 1972. Other
changes in pay relationships are illustrated in text table 3.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions

Data also were obtained on work schedules, shift
practices, and selected supplementary wage benefits,
such as paid holidays, vacations, and health, insurance,
and retirement plans.
Text table 3. Pay relatives for selected occupations
(Packers, feed = 1 0 0 )

Pay relatives in—
Occupation

M illw rig h ts ............................
Bolters ...................................
Millers, flour (second
millers) ............................
Sm u tte rs .................................
Truckers, power
(forklift) ..........................
Oilers ......................................
Roll tenders ..........................
Grain elevator
operators..........................
Janitors, porters,
clean ers............................
Packers, f l o u r ........................
Laborers, material
handling............................




May
1972

February
1967

November
1961

150
126

145
118
122
119

121
118

122
117
117

123
111
118

124
110
114

116

114

113

113
107

109
104

108
103

106

103

104

Work schedules of 40 hours a week were in effect in
mills employing two-thirds of the workers in May 1972
(table 8). One-fifth of the workers were scheduled to
work 48 hours or more per week, while the remainder
had weekly schedules ranging between 40 and 48 hours.
Substantial differences in work schedules were noted
among regions. In the Mountain States, for example,
more than nine-tenths of the employees were scheduled
to work 40 hours per week, but in the Southeast region,
three-fourths of the workers were on longer schedules,
mostly 44 to 48 hours.

Shift provisions and practices

Mills employing more than nine-tenths of the workers
had formal provisions for late shifts, usually with pay
differentials for such work (table 9). Only one-fourth of
the workers, however, were employed on late shifts at
the time of the survey (table 10). Most commonly, these
workers received 12 cents an hour above day-shift rates
for second shift work and 15 to 20 cents for third or
other late shifts. Regionally, the proportion of workers
employed on late shifts ranged from about one-sixth in
the Southeast to three-tenths in the Great Lakes and
Pacific States. Differentials for such work varied
somewhat by region.

Paid Holidays

Paid holidays were provided by establishments
employing virtually all of the production workers
covered by the survey (table 11). Establishments
granting 9 or 10 paid holidays, annually, accounted for
two-thirds or more of the workers in five regions,
two-fifths in the Southwest, and one-fifth in the
Southeast. In the latter region, most workers received 4
to 6 days.

143
118

122
122

Scheduled weekly hours

Paid Vacations

All establishments studied provided paid vacations to
their production workers after qualifying periods of
service (table 12). Typically, flour mills granted at least
1 week of vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks
after 2 years, and 3 weeks after 10 years. Mills providing
at least 4 weeks’ vacation pay after 15 years of service
and 5 weeks or more after 25 years’ employed about
one-half of the workers. Vacation provisions varied by
region and were usually most liberal in the Pacific States.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans

Life, hospitalization, medical, and surgical insurance
for which the employer paid at least part of the cost
were available to nearly all of the production workers
(table 13). About four-fifths of the workers were
provided sickness and accident insurance and major
medical insurance; and one-tenth were covered by paid
sick leave plans. The incidence of health and insurance
plans varied little by region, with some notable
exceptions. For example, major medical plans were
available to all workers in the Middle Atlantic; fourfifths to nine-tenths in the Mountain, Great Lakes, and
Middle West; and about three-fifths in the remaining
regions. Basic medical insurance, a benefit available to
virtually all workers in six regions, was available to about
seven-tenths in the Southeast.
Financing of health and insurance plans, on the other
hand, varied considerably. For example, although all
w o rk ers received hospitalization insurance, the
proportion covered by plans paid for entirely by the
employer ranged from all in the Middle Atlantic region
to one-half in the Southwest and Middle West.
Retirement pension plans (other than Federal social




security), providing regular payments for the remainder
of the retiree’s life, were available to about four-fifths of
the work force. These plans, typically financed wholly
by the employer, applied to about half the workers in
the Southeast compared with four-fifths or more in the
remaining regions. Retirement severance pay plans
applied to no more than one twenty-fifth of the
workers, primarily in the Southeast and Great Lakes
regions.

Other selected benefits

Pay for jury duty and attendance at funerals of
specified relatives was available to almost nine-tenths of
the production workers (table 14). These benefits were
reported by mills employing about four-fifths or more of
the workers in all regions except the Southeast, where
approximately three-fifths of the workers were covered.
Severance pay for workers who lose their jobs due to
a technological change or mill closing was provided to
one-half of the workers. Regional proportions varied
from one-fourth in the Southeast and Southwest to all
of the workers in the Middle Atlantic region.




( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in f l o u r an d o t h e r g r a in m i l l i n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , U n ite d S t a t e s an d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , M ay 1972)
U n ite d S t a t e s 2
Ite m

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

M id d le A t la n t i c
N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

S o u th e a st
N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

S o u th w e st
N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

A l l w o r k e r s 3-----------------------------

10, 9 2 8

$ 3 .5 1

846

$ 4 . 05

1, 2 9 0

$ 2 . 63

1, 0 1 9

$ 2 . 89

S iz e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t:
2 0 - 9 9 w o r k e r s ------------------------100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e -------------

4, 566
6, 362

3. 22
3 . 71

537

4 . 29

767
523

2 . 47
2 . 85

554

2. 94

S i z e o f c o m m u n it y :
M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s 4----------------N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s

7, 662
3, 2 6 6

3 . 67
3. 13

84 6

4 . 05

5 82
708

2 . 83
2 .4 6

564

2 . 85

G reat L ak es

M id d le W e s t

P a c if ic

M o u n ta in

A l l w o r k e r s 3-----------------------------

3, 92 9

$ 3 . 78

2, 164

$ 3 . 44

478

$ 3 .5 8

87 7

$ 4 . 28

S iz e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t:
2 0 - 9 9 w o r k e r s ------------------------100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e -------------

1, 091
2, 838

3 . 45
3 .9 1

1, 0 6 4
1, 100

3. 31
3 .5 6

348

3 . 46

306
571

4 . 14
4 . 35

S i z e o f c o m m u n it y :
M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s 4 --------------N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s ----------

2, 652
1, 277

3. 86
3 . 63

1, 4 7 0
694

3 .5 7
3. 15

454

3. 66

877

4. 28

1
2
3
4

E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , an d l a t e s h i f t s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
V i r t u a l l y a l l p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s w e r e m e n .
S ta n d a r d M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s a s d e f in e d b y th e U . S . O ffic e o f M a n a g e m e n t an d B u d g e t th r o u g h J a n u a r y

NOTE:

D a s h e s i n d i c a t e n o d a ta r e p o r t e d or d a ta th a t d o n o t m e e t p u b l ic a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

1968.




( P e r c e n t d is t r i b u t i o n o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in f l o u r an d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s ;
U n ite d S t a t e s an d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , M a y 1 9 7 2 )
U n ite d
S ta te s2

M id d le
A t la n t ic

$ 1 . 6 0 an d u n d e r $ 1 . 6 5 -------------------$ 1 . 6 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 . 7 0 -------------------$ 1 . 7 0 an d u n d e r $ 1 . 7 5 --------------------

0. 2
. 1
.3

.
-

$ 1 .7 5
$ 1 .8 0
$ 1 .8 5
$ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5

and
and
and
and
and

u nd er
u nd er
u n d er
u nd er
u nd er

$ 1 .8 0
$ 1 .8 5
$ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5
$ 2 . 00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.5
.4
.3
1 .4
.5

$ 2. 00
$ 2 .1 0
$ 2 . 20
$ 2 , 30
$ 2 . 40

and
and
and
and
and

u nd er
u nd er
under
under
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

2 .1 0
2. 2 0
2 .3 0
2 . 40
2 .5 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .9
1 .3
1 .8
1 .2
1 .0

$ 2 . 50
$ 2. 60
$ 2. 70
$ 2 .8 0
$ 2 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
u nd er
under

$ 2 . 60
$ 2 .7 0
$ 2 .8 0
$ 2 .9 0
$ 3 .0 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .4
1 .3
2. 1
2. 3
3 .4

$ 3. 00
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 . 20
$ 3 . 30
$ 3. 40

and
and
and
and
and

u nd er
u n d er
under
u nd er
u nd er

$ 3 .1 0
$ 3. 2 0
$ 3 . 30
$ 3. 4 0
$ 3 .5 0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3 .9
3 .6
4. 5
4. 5
4 .9

$ 3 . 50
$ 3. 60
$ 3 . 70
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3. 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
u nd er
under
u nd er
u nd er

$3. 6 0
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3 .9 0
$ 4. 0 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$4.
$4.
$ 4.
$ 4.
$4.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
under
u nd er
u nd er

$4.
$4.
$ 4.
$ 4.
$4.

10
20
3 0
4 0
50

$ 4 . 50
$ 4. 60
$ 4. 70
$ 4 .8 0
$ 4. 90

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u nd er
under
under
under

$ 4 . 60
$ 4. 7 0
$ 4. 8 0
$ 4 .9 0
$ 5 . 00

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

0. 1
.6
1 .4

0. 1

_

_

. 1

-

2. 0
2. 1
1 .5
1 .8
1 .3

.9
.4
. 2
7. 2
3. 5

. 1

7 .6
9. 1
7. 6
5 .7
3. 4

4 .8
.2
5. 2
1 .9
. 3

7. 4
1 .5
4. 7
1 .8
7. 7

.
.
2.
9.
5.

4
3
6
5
1

. 6
1 .0
.8
1 .6
2 .9

.6
1 .6
3. 7
2 .8
3. 7

2. 4
. 5
1 .4
.9

8. 2
8. 2
4. 1
1 .7
4. 3

12. 7
7 .8
4 .8
12. 5
9. 1

1. 5
1 .4
4. 4
5. 4
4. 5

4.
6.
8.
5.
7.

1
3
6
5
2

2. 1
.8
7 .9

8 .6
6 .3
6. 2
4 .9
4. 6

3. 3
.4
6. 4
7. 0

1 .6
1 .0
1 .4
. 5
. 4

1 .6
1 .9
2. 5
1 .7
. 2

9 .8
7. 4
9. 3
4 .9
6. 5

20.
1 2.
7.
6.
2.

7
7
3
6
7

6. 3
18. 0
1 5 .9
1 1 .3
6. 7

. 5
. 2
3 .6
7. 4
10. 6

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. 7
4 .9
4 .9
1 .9
2 .6

20. 2
8 .6
1 2 .8
3 .8
5 .8

. 2
. 3
. 1
. 1
-

6.
4.
.
1.
1.

1 6 .8
10. 0
9. 5
7. 2
8. 7

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .4
. 6
1 .3
1 .2
. 4

3. 7
1. 3
1 .9
.9
. 5

. 1

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

-

.
_
_
"

_
4. 7
2 .8
1 .9

S o u th e a st

S o u th w e st

1. 5
. 2
.9

_
_
_

_
.
.
.
.

2
1
1
1

.
_
_
_

-

0. 2

. 1
_

_

-

-

. 2
. 1
_
. 5
.9

.
.
.
.
.

1.
.
2.
2.
.

1
3
7
1
1

P a c if ic

0 .8
. 2

_

6. 1
8. 0
8. 0
2 .8
3. 7

M o u n ta in

-

. 4

_
_
.4

2
2
5
2
1

1 .2
1 .6
.9
. 1

1 .9
2. 3
2. 5
3. 1

-

1 .0

0. 2

1 .0

_
_

. 2

-

_

_

7
6
4
3
5

. 1

_

1 .3

. 2
. 1
-

.6
. 2

. 1
-

9.
4.
1.
3.
4.

2
3
1
8
1

$ 5 . 0 0 a n d o v e r ----------------------------------

1. 5

8 .9

. 1

.4

1. 2

. 3

. 4

2. 6

T o t a l -----------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s -------------------------A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 ----------------

1 0 ,9 2 8
$ 3 . 51

846
$ 4 .0 5

1 ,2 9 0
$ 2 . 63

1 ,0 1 9
$ 2 .8 9

3 ,9 2 9
$ 3 . 78

2, 1 6 4
$ 3 . 44

478
$ 3 . 58

877
$ 4 . 28

1
2

E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , an d l a t e s h i f t s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g s u m s o f i n d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 .

(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f lo u r an d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , U n ite d S t a t e s an d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , M a y 1 9 7 2 )
U n ite d S t a t e s 3
O c c u p a tio n s 2

B o l t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------G r a in e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s --------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ---------------------M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l ------------------------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ------------------M i l l w r i g h t s ----------------------------------------------------O i l e r s --------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d -----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ---------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s ---------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s --------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) --------------------------

N um b er
of
w orkers
19 6
371
946
1, 4 3 9
558
529
147
333
260
882
144
161
344

M id d le A t la n t ic

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1
M ean
$ 3 .8 3
3 . 50
3 .4 2
3 . 21
3 .9 6
3 .6 9
4 . 54
3. 54
3 . 03
3 . 25
3. 54
3 .6 9
3 .6 9

M e d ia n
$ 3 .8 5
3. 64
3 . 51
3. 34
4 . 03
3 . 70
4 . 70
3 . 61
3 . 13
3 . 31
3. 44
3 .6 9
3 . 71

M id d le
ran ge
$ 3 .4 0 - ; $ 4 . 32
3. 1 5 - 4 . 08
3 . 1 4 - 3. 82
2 . 8 3 - 3. 58
3. 5 7 - 4 . 4 3
3 . 2 5 - 4 . 25
4 . 2 2 - 5 . 00
3 . 2 8 - 3. 92
2 . 3 0 - 3. 61
2 . 8 7 - 3. 78
3 . 2 0 - 3 .9 1
3 . 4 3 - 4 . 00
3 . 3 6 - 4 . 29

N u m b er
of
w orkers
12
90
67
96
31
58
24
63
15
14

G reat L ak es
B o l t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------G r a in e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s --------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g --------------------M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l -------------------------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ------------------M i l l w r i g h t s ----------------------------------------------------O i l e r s --------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d -----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ---------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s --------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s --------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) --------------------------

71
103
422
401
229
147
57
128
47
183
63
63
138

$ 3 .9 2
3 . 52
3 .6 0
3 . 40
4 . 29
3 . 97
4 . 39
3 . 72
3 .4 6
3 . 60
3 . 68
3 .6 9
3 .8 5

$ 3 .9 8
3. 42
3 . 55
3. 50
4 . 42
3 .9 3
4. 44
3 . 70
3 . 50
3 . 63
3 . 61
3. 80
4 . 03

M ean
$ 4 . 54
4 . 00
3 .8 8
3 . 73
-

M e d ia n

$ 4 . 08
3. 95
4. 02
-

4 . 22
4 . 98
3 .9 2
-

4 . 09
4 . 48
4 . 35

4 . 39
5 . 00
4 . 07
4 . 21
4 .4 7

N u m b er
of
w orkers

M id d le
ran ge

$ 3 . 9 8 - $ 4 . 08
3 .9 5 3 .9 7
4 . 05
3. 5 9 -

3 .8 1 5. 0 0 4. 0 7 -

4. 0 0 4. 4 1 "

-

4 . 45
5 . 00
4 . 16
4 . 23
4 . 49
■

22
39
67
202
42
74
13
18
52
153
-

7
22

M ean

$3.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

24
60
21 6
390
129
114
90
80
174
29
31
43

$ 3 . 75
3 . 55
3 . 32
3 . 35
3 . 80
3 . 72
3 . 36
3 . 32
3 . 45
3 . 60
3 . 54
3 .6 9

$ 3 . 72
3 . 55
3 . 48
3 . 50
3. 92
3 . 70
3 . 42
3 . 23
3 . 54
3. 54
3 . 59
3. 71

M id d le
ran ge

M e d ia n

$ 3 . 38
2 .9 7
2 . 53
2 . 30
3 . 23
3 . 17

18
77
56
44
28
05
58
74
32
53

-

3 . 07
2 . 12
2 . 40
-

47
74

2 . 90

N u m b er
of
w orkers

$3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

_

-

-

2. 2 5 -

$ 3 . 6 3 - $ 3 .7 9
3. 4 5 3 .6 9
3. 1 5 3 . 51
3 . 53
3. 1 3 4. 03
3. 4 9 3. 4 8 3 .8 7
3. 1 4 3 . 61
3. 0 7 3 . 61
3. 1 8 3 .6 9
3. 4 5 3 .7 2
3. 4 8 3 . 71
3. 6 5 3 . 71

18
26
41
38
19
31
-

17
13
43
-

28

$ 3 .9 3
3 . 60
3 . 47
3 . 11
4 . 19
3 . 79
3 .4 2
3 . 33
3. 24
-

3 . 47

u s e d in

$ 3 .9 4
3 . 76
3 . 60
3 . 20
4 . 38
4 . 13
3 .6 6
3 . 58
-

3 . 52

M id d le

M e d ia n

______r a n g e_____

3 5 - $ 3 . 51
213. 17
153 . 05
003 . 05
583. 80
503. 50

2. 1 2 2. 0 2 2. 1 2 -

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1
M ean

3. 13
2. 63
3 . 10
_
3 . 18

24
24
56
183
67
69
26
33
153
28
24
31

$ 3 . 25
2. 28
2. 72
2 . 80
3 . 27
3 . 12
3 . 08
2 . 42
2 . 72
3 . 17
3. 38
2 . 90

Mo u n ta in

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , an d l a t e s h i f t s . S e e a p p e n d ix A f o r m e th o d
M e a n s a n d m i d d l e r a n g e s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d f o r e n t r i e s o f f e w e r th a n 15 w o r k e r s .
2 V i r t u a l l y a l l w o r k e r s in t h e s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e m e n .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d a n d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .




H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

M icIdle W e s t
$ 3 . 5 0 - $ 4 . 42
3 . 0 1 - 4 . 07
3 . 4 1 - 3 .9 1
3 . 2 1 - 3. 64
4 . 0 5 - 4 . 74
3 . 2 7 - 4. 41
4 . 2 2 - 4 . 70
3 . 4 5 - 3 .9 2
3 . 2 2 - 3. 63
3 . 3 1 - 3. 86
3 . 2 7 - 4. 16
3 . 5 7 - 3 .9 5
3 . 4 7 - 4 . 29

S o u th w e st

S o u th e a st

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

$ 3 . 27
1 .9 0
3 .0 3
2 . 98
3 . 35
3 . 37
3 . 23
2 . 22
2 .8 7
3 . 11
3 . 42
2 .8 5

$ 3 . 1 0 -!£
1 .9 0 2. 1 3 2. 2 2 3. 1 8 2. 2 6 3 .0 3 1 .9 0 2. 2 2 3. 0 9 3. 3 6 2. 8 0 -

3 .4 0
2. 20
3 .0 4
3. 33
3 . 73
3 .6 3
-

3. 38
3. 13
3. 08
3. 20
3 .4 3
3 .0 5

P a c if ic
$ 3 . 7 9 - $ 4 . 03
3. 4 1 3. 8 0
3. 4 5 3. 6 5
2. 3 7 3 .6 3
4. 1 6 4. 65
3. 7 6 4 . 27
3. 5 0 3. 70
2 .9 8 3. 72
3. 4 0 3. 7 2

c o m p u tin g m e a n s ,

25
21
59
98
43
42
28
82
15
59

m e d ia n s ,

$ 4 . 37
4 . 16
3 .9 5
4. 04
4 . 61
4 . 58
4. 04
4 . 09
4 . 25
4 . 18

$ 4 . 31
4 . 16
3 . 92
4. 04
4 . 60
4 . 56
4 . 05
4. 04
4 . 09
4. 04

an d m id d le

$ 4 . 2 1 - $ 4 . 56
4 . 0 3 - 4 . 20
4. 13
3. 7 9 3 . 9 0 - 4 . 23
4 . 4 1 - 4 .8 7
4 . 5 5 - 4 . 60
4 . 05
3. 9 0 4 . 27
3. 9 7 4 . 0 9 - 4 . 54
4 . 0 0 - 4. 53

ran ges of

e a r n in g s .

( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f l o u r a n d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in m e t r o p o l i t a n
a n d n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , U n ite d S t a t e s an d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , M a y 1 9 7 2 )
U n ite d S t a t e s 2
O c c u p a t io n

M e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s
N u m b er
of
w orkers

B o l t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------G r a in e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s -------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g --------------------M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l -----------------------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) -----------------M i l l w r i g h t s ----------------------------------------------------O i l e r s -------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d ----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ---------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s ---------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s --------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) -------------------------

1
2

166
280
724
95 9
385
329
118
228
157
634
113
110
272

G reat L ak es

N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

$ 3 .9 7
3 . 66
3 . 49
3 . 36
4 . 11
3 . 89
4 . 68
3 . 67
3 . 22
3 . 39
3. 6 4
3. 88
3. 88

30
91
222
48 0
173
20 0
29
105
103
248
31
51
72

$ 3 . 06
3 . 01
3 . 20
2 .9 1
3 . 62
3 . 35
3 .9 6
3 . 25
2. 74
2 . 88
3. 17
3 . 27
2 .9 5

59
65
295
254
158
67
36
86
31
135
51
46
"

$ 4 . 10
3 . 55
3 . 60
3. 53
4 . 34
4 . 33
4 . 56
3 .8 3
3 . 43
3 . 62
3. 82
3 . 78
"

E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s ,
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

T ab le 5.

D ash es

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s

and la te

M id d le W e s t

N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s
N u m b er
of
w orkers

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N u m b er
of
w orkers

.

.

38
127
147
71
80
21
42
16
48

$3.
3.
3.
4.
3.
4.
3.
3.
3.

24
41
170
273
91
68

-

17
"

45
60
18
19
66
09
50
52
53

-

3 . 45
“

-

44
42
123
29
19
43

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s
$3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

75
67
39
41
92
91

N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s
N u m b er
of
w orkers

19
46
117
38
46

-

_

3 . 57
3 . 50
3 . 55
3 . 60
3 . 69
3 .6 9

46
38
51

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

$3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

31
02
22
53
44

-

3. 16
3 . 11
3 . 19

_
.

_

'

-

s h if t s .

i n d i c a t e no d a ta r e p o r t e d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b l ic a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

O c c u p a tio n a l averages:

By size of e stab lish m en t

(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f l o u r an d o th e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s i z e o f
e s t a b l i s h m e n t , U n ite d S t a t e s an d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , M a y 197 2)
U n ite d S t a t e s

G r e a t L ak e:

M id d le W e s t

E s t a b li s h m e n t s w ith —
O c c u p a t io n

2 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s
N u m b er
of
w orkers

B o l t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------G r a in e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s -------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g --------------------M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l -----------------------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) -----------------M i l l w r i g h t s ------------------------ .---------------------------O i l e r s --------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d ----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ---------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s --------------------------------------- ---------S m u t t e r s --------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k li f t ) ------------------------

1
2

86
172
397
695
25 3
365
37
168
163
426
66
85
105

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s
$3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
3.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.

65
20
23
02
69
55
20
44
90
03
23
57
36

100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e
N u m b er
of
w orkers
110
199
549
744
305
164
110
16 5
97
456
78
76
239

E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s ,
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:




D a sh es

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s
$ 3 .9 7
3 . 75
3 . 56
3 . 39
4 . 18
4 .0 0
4 . 65
3 . 65
3 . 26
3 . 45
3 .8 0
3 .8 3
3. 83

h o li d a y s ,

2 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s
N u m b er
of
w orkers
32
55
120
144
71
91
16
46
23
73
20
42
10

an d l a t e

s h if t s .

i n d i c a t e n o d a ta r e p o r t e d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b l ic a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

$ 3 . 55
3 . 28
3 . 54
3 . 08
3 . 97
3 . 67
3. 8 2
3 . 61
3 . 31
3 . 43
3 . 28
3 . 63
2 .8 1

39
48
302
257
158
56
41
82
24
110
43
21
128

$ 4 . 22
3 . 79
3 . 62
3 . 58
4. 44
4 . 45
4 . 61
3 . 78
3 . 60
3 . 71
3 .8 7
3 .8 1
3 . 93

2 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s
N u m b er
of
w orkers

.
36
126
188
71
72
-

53
59
81
_
"

100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

.

18
24
90
202
58
42

$ 3 . 79
3 . 68
3. 43
3 .4 0
3 .9 5
3 .8 7
3 . 51
3 . 45
3 . 51
3. 64
3 .6 9
-

$ 3 .4 7
3 . 24
3 . 30
3 . 68
3 . 63
-

3. 25
3 . 27
3 . 38
-

"

-

37
21
93
20
19
'

T able 6 .

O c c u p a tio n a l earnings:

B u ffalo N .Y .1

(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in f l o u r a n d o t h e r g r a in m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
2

M a y 1972)

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s o f—
O c c u p a tio n

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s 2

$ 4 . 30

A l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s 3----------------------

$1780

$ 3 .9 0

$ 4 .0 0

$ 4 .1 0

$ 4 .2 0

$ 4 .3 0

$ 4 .4 0

$ 4 .5 0

$ 4 .6 0

$ 4 . 70

$ 4 .8 0

$ 4 .9 0

$ 5 .0 0

$ 5 .1 0

$ 5 .2 0

and
u nd er
$ 3 . 90

R4 .0 0

$ 4 .1 0

$ 4 .2 0

$ 4 .3 0

$ 4 .4 0

$ 4 .5 0

$ 4 ,6 0

$ 4 .7 0

$ 4 . 80

$ 4 .9 0

$ 5 .0 0

$ 5 .1 0

$ 5 .2 0

$ 5 .3 0

21

56

144

67

1
46

48
5
47

8

19

105

29

31

16

S e le c t e d p r o d u c tio n o c c u p a tio n s 3
12

G r a in e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ----------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g -----------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ----------------------M i l l w r i g h t s -------------------------------------------------------O i l e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d -------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ----------------------------

82
51

66
10
55
11

7
44
15
14

$4.
4.
3.
4.
4.
5.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

54
07
96
06
52
00
14
27
23
48
35

11

4
44

1 T h e B u f fa lo S ta n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f E r i e a n d N i a g a r a C o u n t ie s .
2 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , and l a t e s h i f t s . A l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y th e s tu d y w e r e p a id on a t i m e b a s i s .
3 V i r t u a l l y a l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s w e r e m e n . D a ta f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s w e r e l i m i t e d to m e n .




73

1

1




M e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t 1

A l l w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------------------ —
T i m e - r a t e d w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------F o r m a l p la n s ------------------------------------------------------------S in g l e r a t e -------------------------------------------------------------R a n g e o f r a t e s ------------------------------------------------------I n d iv id u a l r a t e s ---------------------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s --------------------------------- ■
------------------------------

1
2
3

U n ite d
S ta te s2

T a b le 8 .

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
93
87
6
7

100
98
89
9
2

100
95
95

100
100
100
-

100
100
96
4

5

_

_

-

-

100

100
100
97
3

100
59
59

_

41

"

99
91
85
6
8
1

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s

M id d le
W est

S o u th w est

“

-

S e e a p e n d ix A f o r d e f in it io n o f m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t.
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r N e w E n g la n d a n d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s i n a d d it io n to t h o s e
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

G reat
L akes

S o u th e a st

100

100

A rea

R e g io n s
M id d le
A t la n t i c

-

96
96
86
10
(3 )
4

-

B u f fa lo

sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .

m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .

Scheduled w e e k ly hours

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in flo u r an d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s , 1 U n ite d S t a t e s ,
s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , an d a r e a , M a y 1 9 7 2 )
R e g io n s
U n ite d
S ta te s2

W e e k ly h o u r s 1

A rea

M id d le
A t la n t i c

S o u th e a st

S o u th w est

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

4 0 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------4 4 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 4 a n d u n d e r 48 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------48 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 8 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------

67
1
7
5
16
4

83

27
9
29
18
13
4

74

69

63

95

80

77

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

7
13

_
_

33
4

3
2

_

23

1
2

_
_
-

17
~

_
_
_

11
16

8
3
16
3

D a t a r e l a t e to th e p r e d o m in a n t w o r k s c h e d u le o f f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r N e w E n g la n d a n d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 .

_
-

_




( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s b y s h if t d if f e r e n t i a l p r o v i s i o n s 1 in f l o u r an d o t h e r g r a in m i l l i n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , U n it e d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a , M ay 1972)

U n ite d
S ta te s2

S h i f t d if f e r e n t i a l

A rea

R e g io n s
M id d le
A t la n t ic

S o u th ea st

S o u th w est

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

97. 5
97. 5
9 7 .5

100. 0
90. 2
90. 2
3. 9
-

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

100. 0
96. 9
96. 9

100. 0
100. 0
87. 2
-

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
-

S e c o n d s h if t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g s e c o n d s h if t
p r o v i s i o n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------W ith s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------------------------U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ----------------------------------------U n d e r 5 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 8 c e n t s --------------------------------8 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------11 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 12 an d u n d e r 15 c e n t s ----------------------------15 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 15 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------------------------------------W ith n o s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------------------------

4
3
5
8
2
8
7
8
1
9
9
6
8
8
1

100. 0
80. 6
80. 6

1
3
5
2
9
8
9
9
8
5
7
8
1. 8
4. 8

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

96.
87.
85.
.
4.
.
2.
19.
2.
46.
3.
1.
2.
1.
9.

8 1. 0
59. 1
5 2 .9

100. 0
84. 4
84. 4

_

-

-

-

5. 1

-

-

1 2. 3
1 1. 9
6. 9

3. 4
2. 1

-

_
61. 0
1 2. 1
7. 6
19. 4

1 3. 3
24. 5
-

-

3. 9
6. 0
6. 3
21. 9

34. 7
18. 6
15. 6

70. 5
59. 1
52. 9

84. 4
84. 4
84. 4

-

-

35.
5.
42.
2.
6.
-

-

9 .2
-

7
8
3
1
1

-

-

1 1. 0
72. 6
2. 8
9. 8

1. 9
85. 8
3. 1

1 2. 3
64. 5
10. 4
12. 8

-

72. 4
17. 0
1 0. 6
-

-

T h ir d o r o t h e r l a t e s h if t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g th ir d o r o th e r
l a t e - s h i f t p r o v i s i o n s -------------------------------------------------------W ith s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------------------------U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ----------------------------------------U n d e r 10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 12 an d u n d e r 15 c e n t s ----------------------------15 c e n t s __________________________________________
O v e r 15 a n d u n d e r 20 c e n t s ----------------------------20 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------2 5 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 25 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------O t h e r ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W ith n o s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------------------------------------

92.
87.
85.
3.
8.
6.
8.
12.
3.
37.
2.
.

_

-

-

-

"

"

9. 8

-

-

1 8. 4
9 .5

17. 6
6 .9
1 2. 9
12. 4

_
_
_

19. 6
6 1 .0
_
-

-

-

1 5. 0
6. 0
3. 9

-

34. 7

-

B eca u se

o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

1
1
1
2

-

1 1. 0
2. 8
33. 7
5. 0
3 3 .9

8. 2

100. 0
100. 0
87. 2
-

-

1 8. 8

-

-

77. 6
3. 1

-

1 R e f e r s to p o l i c i e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t in g l a t e s h if t s o r h a v in g p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g l a t e
2 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
NOTE:

98.
98.
98.
9.

0
2
2
9

6. 3
11. 3

-

19. 4

6
6
6
4
0
0
0
9
6
0
7
1

100.
90.
90.
3.

93.
93.
93.
3.
1 0.
8.
20.
3.
1.
39.
5.
2.

61. 3
7. 1

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
-

27. 6
72. 4
-

-

-

-

-

1 2. 8

-

~
s h if t s .

-




S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

U n ite d
S ta te s 1

R e g io n s
M id d le
A t la n t i c

A rea

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

18. 7
18. 7
18. 7
.9
5 .7
. 5
9. 2
2. 3
-

13. 5
12. 1
12. 1
. 4
1 .5

1 3 .8
13. 2
13. 2
1 .7
.4

20. 5
20. 5
18. 2

-

-

-

9 .8
.4

11. 1

-

-

2. 1

-

1 .4

13. 3
2. 3
2. 3
-

15. 6
15. 6
15. 6
_
_
_
11. 3
4. 3
_

5 .7
5 .7
5. 7
2. 4
1 .2
_
2. 2

10. 7
10. 7
10. 7
.9
4. 5
. 3
. 2
4. 7
. 3

1 1 .0
10. 1
10. 1
.4
1 .5
4. 2
.6
3. 3

S o u th ea st

S o u th w e s t

1 1 .9
7. 5
7. 4
2. 6
3. 1

17. 6
15. 5
15. 5
6. 0
1 .8

-

-

5. 4
2. 4

S e c o n d s h if t
W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d o n s e c o n d s h if t --------------------------------------R e c e i v i n g s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l ----------------------------------------------U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r -----------------------------------------------U n d e r 10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s -- ------------------ ------------------------------------------11 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 12 c e n t s ----------------- -----------------------------------------O th e r --------------------------------------------------------------------------------R e c e i v i n g n o s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------------------

16. 0
1 4 .8
14. 6
1 .5
3. 1
. 2
8. 2
1 .7
. 2
1. 2

14. 3
1 2 .9
1 2 .9

1 .4

.8
.9
. 2
4. 3

9 .6
9 .2
9. 1
.4
2. 4
1. 5
.5
4. 1
. 2
. 1
.4

13. 1
13. 1
13. 1

6. 3
5 .0
4 .9

-

9 .8
3. 1
-

-

. 6

-

2. 6

-

T h ir d o r o t h e r l a t e s h if t
W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d o n t h i r d o r o t h e r l a t e s h if t ----------------R e c e i v i n g s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------------------------U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r -----------------------------------------------U n d e r 10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s an d u n d e r 15 c e n t s ---------------------------------15 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------16 c e n t s an d u n d e r 20 c e n t s ---------------------------------20 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 20 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------O t h e r ---------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- -—
R e c e i v i n g no s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------------------

1

-

-

1 .4
_
3. 3
8. 4

1 .6
2. 3
. 7
. 2

_
_

_

. 2
1 .2

_
_

"

I n c lu d e d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n t o t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

-

_

_
.9

8.
8.
8.
.

2
2
2
4

10. 5
10. 5
9. 7

_

_

1 .0

1 .8

6. 1
. 6

7. 4
. 5
.8

-

14. 0
14. 0
14. 0
_

_
_

4. 7
9. 3
_

-




N u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id h o li d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------2 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y -----------------------------------------------5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------6 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------6 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------------------7 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------8 d a y s __ - ------ ----------------------- —------------------------ ------- -—
9 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------10 d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g n o
p a id h o li d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------

U n ite d
S ta te s1

A rea

R e g io n s
k id d le
A t la n t i c

S o u th ea st

S o u th w e s t

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
(1
2)
0
(2)
5
7
(2)
6
8
15
55

10 0
-

95
20
2
12
26
13

10 0
-

-

18
4

100
9
11
14
20
46

100
-

-

100
5
1
7
2
19
66

100
2
3
9

19
81

100
21
37
7
35

1

"

5

"

■

100

1 I n c lu d e d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d it io n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

_

-

86

-

-

2
98

100

'

“




V a c a t io n p o li c y

A l l w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------------------

U n ite d
S ta te s1

R e g io n s

A rea

M id d le
A t la n t i c

S o u th e a st

S o u th w est

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u ffa lo

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
99

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100
"

100
100

1£0
100
-

100
100

100
100

-

"

"

83
17

26
72

40
60

12
86

95
-

74
26

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W o r k e r s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id v a c a t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t --------------------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ----------------------------------------------------

(2)

-

A m o u n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 3
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ----------------------- -------------------------- —---------------------O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s
A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------4 w e e k s —--------------------------- -----------------------------------------—
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ------------------------------------------5 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s -------------------------------------------

51
47

53
47

88

17
9
35
39

53
47

56
9
28
-

33
50
17

8
21
20
51

7
34
60

3
11
86

2
98
-

74
26

11
1
41
46

53
47

59
9
31
-

9
74
17

2
1
27
71

40
60

3
11
86

100
-

74
26

6
1
45
48

53
47

31
9
46
13

9
74
17

2
27
72

40
60

14
86

100
-

74
26

5
11
4
36
44

-

9
19
55
17

6
4

53
47

31
28
13
28
-

9
5
32
54

5
_
9
86

_
100
_

_
74
26

19
53
28

31
25
24
13
7
-

9
19
37
18
17

4
25
31
12
29

5
9
_
_
86

_
98
-

_
_
_
_
74
26

19
53
28

31
25
14
12
13
4

9
13
7
37

4
16
5
19
21

5
9

6

2

-

94

33

86

5
8
(2 )

18
19
21
29
5
7
( 2)

8
1
16
18
16
28

L
o

-

18

1
7

22

68
2

1
15 ,
28
11
43
2

1
5
16
28
5
43

2

-

_
-

74
26




V a c a t i o n p o li c y

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e : 4
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 an d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 an d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ------------------------------------------5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 an d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ------------------------------------------

U n ite d
S ta te s1

5
7
(1 3
2)
7
1
11
16
21
31

A rea

R e g io n s
M id d le
A t la n t ic

-

19
53
28

S o u th e a st

S o u th w est

31
25

9
13

-

-

14
-

12
13
4
"

7

G reat
L akes

-

-

2
1
5

4

5

-

-

-

-

10
22
11
48

-

M o u n ta in

-

37
18
17

M id d le
W est

16
5
6
21
15
33

9
-

86

P a c if ic

-

100
"

B u f fa lo

-

74
26

1 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d i t i o n s to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
3 V a c a t i o n p a y m e n t s s u c h a s p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u iv a l e n t t i m e b a s i s . P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y an d
do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d i c a t e d a t 10 y e a r s m a y i n c lu d e
c h a n g e s w h ic h o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
4 V a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s w e r e th e s a m e a f t e r lo n g e r p e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e .

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in f l o u r an d o th e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith s p e c i f i e d h e a lth , i n s u r a n c e ,
r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s , 1 U n ite d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , an d a r e a , M a y 1972)

U n ite d
S ta te s2

T y p e o f p la n

A l l w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------------------

an d

R e g io n s

A rea

M id d le
A t la n t i c

S o u th e a st

S o u th w e st

G reat
L akes

M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
73
63
44

100
100
53
53

91
57
56
36

100
74
42
35

100
77
70
50

100
63
60
31

100
90
41
31

94
90
88
85

100
100
74
74

85
80
62
4
7
100
70
99
69
96
67
77
55
84
83
78
2

64
64
64

66
66
44

75
75
50

94
88
78
6
2
100
77
100
77
98
77
78
63
89
86
78
3

91
86
54
5
5
100
49
100
49
100
49
87
45
90
90
90

98
86
78
3
9
100
81
100
81
100
81
88
78
86
86
78

90
67
67
63
100
•96
100
96
100
96
65
61
100
100
86

77
77
77
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

"

■

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L if e i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a t h an d d is m e m b e r m e n t i n s u r a n c e —
N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r s ic k le a v e
o r b o th 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s --------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y , n o w a it in g p e r i o d ) -------------S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t ia l p a y o r w a it in g p e r i o d ) ---------H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s -------------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p l a n s 4 -------------------------------------------------------P e n s i o n s ------------------------------------------------------------------N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s --------------------------------------S e v e r a n c e p a y ---------------------------------------------------------

-

-

-

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

100
66
95
61
71
43
58
31
50
50
47
4

100
50
100
50
100
50
63
43
79
79
72

"

“

-

-

1 I n c l u d e s o n ly t h o s e p la n s f o r w h ic h th e e m p l o y e r p a y s a t l e a s t p a r t o f th e c o s t an d e x c l u d e s l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d p la n s s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n
an d s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . H o w e v e r , p la n s r e q u ir e d b y S ta te t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e l a w s a r e i n c lu d e d i f th e e m p l o y e r c o n t r ib u t e s m o r e th a n i s l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d o r th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s in e x c e s s o f l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . " N o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p la n s " i n c l u d e o n ly t h o s e f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y b y th e e m p l o y e r .
2 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r th e N e w E n g la n d an d B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 U n d u p li c a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s in p la n t s h a v in g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s an d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d to t a l o f w o r k e r s in p la n t s h a v in g p e n s io n s an d s e v e r a n c e p a y p la n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .




NOTE:

T a b le 14.

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

O th e r selected b en efits

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in f lo u r an d o th e r g r a i n m i l l in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith f u n e r a l l e a v e p a y , j u r y d u ty p a y , an d s e v e r a n c e p a y , U n ite d S t a t e s ,
s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , an d a r e a , M a y 1 9 7 2 )

Ite m 1

U n ite d
S ta te s2

R e g io n s
M id d le
A t la n t i c

S o u th e a st

100
100
100

64
59
28

S o u th w est

G reat
L akes

A rea
M id d le
W est

M o u n ta in

P a c if ic

B u f fa lo

100
100
85

100
100
100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith p r o v i s io n s f o r :
F u n e r a l l e a v e p a y -------------------------------------------------------J u r y d u ty p a y ---------------------------------------------------------------S e v e r a n c e p a y ---------------------------------------------------------------

89
86
49

S e e a p p e n d ix A f o r d e f i n it i o n o f i t e m s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r N e w E n g la n d and B o r d e r S t a t e s

r e g i o n s i n a d d itio n to t h o s e

87
87
24

97
94
46

sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .

84
81
46

78
78
70

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
within the scope of the survey during the payroll period
studied, is shown in table A-l.

Scope of survey

The survey included establishments primarily engaged
in milling flour or meal from grain, except rice (Industry
2041 as defined in the 1967 edition of the Standard
Industrial Classification Manual prepared by the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget). Establishments
primarily engaged in cleaning and polishing rice and in
manufacturing rice flour or meal (SIC 2044), and
establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
prepared flour mixes from purchased ingredients (SIC
2045) were excluded. Separate auxiliary units, such as
central offices, also were excluded. The establishments
studied were selected from those employing 20 workers
or more when the universe lists were compiled.
The number of establishments and workers studied
by the Bureau, as well as the number estimated to be

Method of Study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff. The survey was conducted on a sample basis.
To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion of large than of small establishments
was studied. In combining the data, however, all
establishments were given their appropriate weight. All
estimates are presented, therefore, as relating to all
establishments in the industry, excluding only those
below the minimum size at the time of reference of the
universe data.

Table A1. Estimated number of establishments and workers within scope of survey, and number studied, flour and other grain
m:U products. May 1972

Number of
establishments2

Region and area1

Workers in
establishments
Within scope
of study

Actually
studied

Within
scope of
study

Actually
studied

Total3

Production
workers

Total3

...............................

184

117

14,865

10,928

11,624

Middle A tla n tic ......................................
Buffalo5 .............................................
Southeast ...............................................
Southwest...............................................
Great Lakes.............................................
Middle West ...........................................
Mountain ...............................................
P acific.......................................................

12
5
31
20
52
36
11
13

7
5
21
12
29
21
11
10

1,074
764
1,839
1,407
5,361
2,826
655
1,268

846
601
1,290
1,019
3,929
2,164
478
877

850
764
1,440
1,086
4,108
2,009
655
1,126

United States4

1The regions used in this study include M iddle A tla n tic —
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Southeast — Alabama,
Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
and Tennessee;Southwest — Arkansas, Louisiana,Oklahoma, and
Texas; Great Lakes — Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
Ohio, and Wisconsin; M iddle West — Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; M ountain —
Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and
Wyoming; and Pacific — California, Nevada, Oregon, and
Washington.




in clu d es only establishments with 20 workers or more at the
time of reference of the universe data.
inclu des executive, professional, office clerical, and other
workers excluded from the production worker category.
inclu des data for the New England and Border States regions
in addition to those shown separately. Alaska and Hawaii were
not included in this study.
5 For definition of area, see footnote 1, table 6.

Establishment definition

An establishment, for purposes of this study, is
defined as a single physical location where industrial
operations are performed. An establishment is not
necessarily identical with the company, which may
consist of one or more establishments. In this bulletin
the terms “plant,” “mill,” and “establishment” have
been used interchangeably.
Employment

Estimates of the number of workers within scope of
the study are intended as a general guide to the size and
composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The advance planning necessary to make a wage survey
requires the use of lists of establishments assembled
considerably in advance of the payroll period studied.

were included as part of the workers’ regular pay; but
nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or other group of workers, such as
production workers, were calculated by weighting each
rate (or hourly earnings), by the number of workers
receiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number
of individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers
were obtained by dividing straight-time salary by normal
rather than actual hours.
The median designates position; that is,#one-half of
the employees surveyed received more than this rate and
one-half received less. The middle range is defined by
two rates of pay; one-fourth of the employees earned
less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earned
more than the higher rate.
Size of community

Production workers

The term “production workers,” as used in this
bulletin, includes working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative, executive, professional, and technical
personnel, and force-account construction employees,
who were utilized as a separate work force on the firm’s
own properties, were excluded.
Occupations selected for study

The occupational classification was based on a
uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account
of interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix B for these descrip­
tions.) The occupations were chosen for their numerical
importance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or
their representativeness of the entire job scale in the
industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners,
beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers were not reported
in the date for selected occupations, but were included
in the date for all production workers.
Wage data

Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems and cost-of-living bonuses,




Tabulations by size of community pertain to metro­
politan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metro­
politan area,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through
January 1968.
Except in New England, a Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area is defined as a county or group of
contiguous counties which contains at least 1 city of
50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties contiguous to the
one containing such a city are included in the Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area if, according to certain
criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character
and are socially and economically integrated with the
central city. In New England, the city and town are
administratively more important than the county and
they are the units used in defining Standard Metro­
politan Statistical Areas.
Method of wage payment

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to the
number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily
by the qualifications of the individual worker. A single
rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to all
experienced workers in the same job classification.
Learners, apprentices, or probationary workers may be
paid according to rate schedules which start below the

single rate and permit the workers to achieve the full job
rate over a period of time. Individual experienced
workers occasionally may be paid more or less than the
single rate for special reasons, but such payments are
regarded as exceptions. Range of rate plans are those in
which the minimum and/or maximum rates paid
experienced workers for the same job are specified.
Specific rates of individual workers within the range may
be determined by merit, length of service, or a
combination of various concepts of merit and length of
service. Incentive workers are classified under piecework
or bonus plans. Piecework is work for which a
predetermined rate is paid for each unit of output.
Production bonuses are based on production in excess of
a quota or for completion of a task in less than standard
time.

Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on
the day shift.
Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or haying
formal provisions covering late shift work. Practices
relate to workers employed on late shifts at the time of
the survey.
Supplementary wage provisions

Supplementary benefits were treated statistically on
the basis that if formal provisions were applicable to half
or more of the production workers in an establishment,
the benefits were considered applicable to all such
workers. Similarly, if fewer than one-half of the workers
were covered, the benefit was considered nonexistent in
the establishment. Because of length-of-service and other
eligibility requirements, the proportion of workers
receiving the benefits may be smaller than estimated.
Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day
and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summary of vacation plans is limited
to formal arrangements, excluding informal plans
whereby time off with pay is granted at the discretion of
the employer or the supervisor. Payments not on a time
basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2




percent of annual earnings was considered the equivalent
of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for which data
are presented were selected as representative of the most
common practices, but they do not necessarily reflect
individual establishment provisions for progression. For
example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10
years of service may include changes which occurred
between 5 and 10 years.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are
presented for health, insurance, pension, and retirement
severance plans for which all or a part of the cost is
borne by the employer, excluding only programs
required by law, such as workmen’s compensation and
social security. Among the plans included are those
underwritten by a commercial insurance company and
those paid directly by the employer from his current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this
purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life
insurance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to
that type of insurance under which predetermined cash
payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly
or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least part of the cost. However,
in New York and New Jersey where temporary disability
insurance laws require employer contributions1 plans are
included only if the employer (1) contributes more than
is legally required, or (2) provides the employees with
benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted.
Separate tabulations are provided according to (1) plans
which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2)
plans providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. These
plans may be underwritten by a commercial insurance
company or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a
form of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical insurance, includes the plans designed
to cover employees for sickness or injury involving an
expense which exceeds the normal coverage of
hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide, upon requirement, regular payte m p o ra r y disability insurance laws in California and
Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.

ments for the remainder of the retiree’s life. Data are
presented separately for retirement severance pay (one
payment or a specified number over a period of time)
made to employees upon retirement. Establishments
providing retirement severance payments and pensions
to employees upon retirement were considered as having
both retirement pension and retirement severance pay.
Establishments having optional plans which provide
employees a choice of either retirement severance
payments or pensions were considered as having only
retirement pension benefits.




Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral
and jury-duty leave are limited to formal plans which
provide at least partial payment for time lost when an
employee attends funerals of specified family members
or serves as a juror.
Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal
provisions for severance pay to workers permanently
separated from employment as a result of force
reduction arising out of the introduction of new
equipment or from department or unit closings.

Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety
of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from
area to area. This classification permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing
comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea
comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly
from those in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these
job descriptions, the Bureau’s field staff is instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

Bolter

(Sifter operator)
Sifts ground grain in the sifting machines to remove
the broken kernels and lumps to be returned to grinding
mills for further processing; adjusts feed slides so
machine can take in only as much grain as it will sift.
Grain-elevator operator

metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and
minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers,
and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window
washing are excluded.
Laborer, material handling

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver;
trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or
warehouse helper)

Has charge of grain unloading from trucks or railroad
cars. Tends elevating machinery, and may do minor
repair and maintenance work on elevating machinery.
Sees that various grades of grain go to separate bins.
Determines where grain is to be stored and is responsible
for sending desired grain to mill. May actually do
unloading, and may also run grain through original
screening or cleaning process which removes large pieces
of foreign matter.

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing
plant, or other establishment whose duties involve one
or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various
materials and merchandise on or from freight cars,
trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking,
shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise
by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who
load and unload ships, are excluded.

Janitor, porter, or cleaner

Mechanic, general

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory
working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f
the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and
polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse;
dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing




Performs the work of two or more maintenance
trades rather than specializing in only one trade or one
type of maintenance work. Typically, the work of a
general mechanic requires rounded training and
exp erien ce usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
The classification includes workers who regularly
perform two or more types of skilled maintenance work

within a section or department of a large establishment,
such as pipefitting, millwrighting, welding, machining,
machine and equipment repairing, and carpentry, among
others. It also includes workers that maintain and repair
machines, mechanical and electrical equipment, and/or
the structure of a small establishment where specializa­
tion in maintenance work is impractical. It does not,
however, include workers who only make minor repairs
or adjustments.
Miller, flour (second miller)

Performs any or all necessary cleaning, grinding,
bolting (sifting), and packing jobs in a grain mill. Starts
machinery and examines grain at various stages of
manufacture to determine degree of fineness. Inspects
various mills for proper operation and makes any
necessary adjustments.
Millwright

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and
dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment
when changes in the plant layout are required. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out
of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifica­
tions; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making
standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength
of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning and
balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equip­
ment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in
good order power transmission equipment such as drives
and speed reducers. In general, a millwright normally
must have rounded training and experience in the trade
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
Oiler

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or
wearing surfaces of mechanical equipment of an
establishment.




Packer

Tends a machine that sacks and weighs finished
products or materials; places empty sack or bag over
discharge nozzle or spout of packing machine; starts
flow of product or material into sack; shuts off or stops
flow of product or material when specified weight or
amount has entered the sack (machine may do this
automatically). May seal or close sacks by hand or
machine. May make adjustments and minor repairs.
For wage study purposes, packers are classified by
product, as follows:
Packer, feed
Packer, flour

Roll tender

Regulates flow of grain between grinding rollers of a
rolling mill. Work includes: Moving rollers together so
that grain passing between them will be crushed; starts
feeder roll which moves grain out of supply hopper of
mill and causes it to fall between rotating grinding rolls.

Sm utter

Operates machines which wash and scour grain. May
also weigh, temper, and condition grain for grinding.
May clean, adjust, and assist in repairing machinery.

Trucker, power

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electricpowered truck or tractor to transport goods and
materials in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other
establishment.
For wage studies, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

Industry Wage Studies
The most recent reports for industries included in the
Bureau’s program of industry wage surveys since January
1960 are listed below. Copies are available from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government

Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402, or from any
of its regional sales offices, and from the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212, or from any
of its regional offices shown on the inside back cover.

I. Occupational Wage Studies

Manufacturing
Price
Basic Iron and Steel, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1602 .........................................................................................................$0.55
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1732 ..............................................................................45
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1796 ..................................................................................................................65
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1748 ........................................................................................................... 30
Cotton and Man-Made Fiber Textiles, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1637 ............................................................................
1.00
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1695 .....................................................................................................50
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763 ........................................................................................................... 75
Fluid Milk Industry, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1464 ..................................................................................................................30
Footwear, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1792 .........................................................................................................................
1.25
Hosiery, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1743 ...................................................................................................................... ... .
.75
Industrial Chemicals, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1768 ..................................................................................................................80
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1626 ...............................................................................................
1.00
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1618 ................................................................................ .
.55
Machinery Manufacturing, 1970-71. BLS Bulletin 1754 .........................................................................................
1.00
Meat Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1677 ...................................................................................................................
1.00
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1752 ........................................................................................60
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Nightwear, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1794 ............................................. 95
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 6 .....................................................................................
1.00
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1690 .............................................................................................. 60
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1679 ........................................................................................................75
Nonferrous Foundries, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1726 ...............................................................................................................50
Paints and Varnishes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1739 ..................................................................................................................60
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 9 ..................................................................................
1.25
Petroleum Refining, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1741 ..................................................................................................................50
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 3 .................................................................................... 50
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1608 ........................................................................................60
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1694 ........................................................................................50
Structural Clay Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1697 ........................................................................................................... 65
Synthetic Fibers, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1740 .........................................................................................................................40
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1757 ..................................................................................................70




Manufacturing-Con tinued
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704 ......................................................................................................$0.45
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLSBulletin 1728
35
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1783
65
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1793 .................................................................90
Wool Textiles, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1551
45
Work Clothing 1968. BLS Bulletin 1624 ............................................................................................................................50
Nonmanufacturing
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1689 ........................................................................................................50
Banking, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1703 ..................................................................................................................................... 65
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583 ........................................................................................................... 50
Communications, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 5 1 ........................................................................................................................ 30
Contract Cleaning Services, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1778 ........................................................................................................85
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1566 .......................................................................30
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 1968-69. BLS Bulletin 1 6 7 1 ..........................................................50
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1614 ........................................................................................................70
Hospitals, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1688 ............................................................................................................................. 1.00
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1645 .............................................................................................. 75
Life Insurance, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1 7 9 1 ........................................................................................................................... 85
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1542 ........................................................................................................... 35
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1967-68. BLS Bulletin 1638 ..............................................................................75
Scheduled Airlines, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1734 .....................................................................................................................45
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 2 ..............................................................................60
II. Other Industry Wage Studies

Employee Earnings and Hours in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the South and North Central Regions,
1965. BLS Bulletin 1552 ............................................................................................................................................... 50
Employee Earnings and Hours in Eight Metropolitan Areas of the South, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1533 ......................... 40
Employee Earnings and Hours in Retail Trade, June 1966Retail Trade (Overall Summary). BLS Bulletin 1584 .........................................................................................
1.00
Building Materials, Hardware, and Farm Equipment Dealers. BLS Bulletin 1584-1 ................................................ 30
General Merchandise Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-2 ........................................................................................................55
Food Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-3 .................................................................................................................................. 60
Automotive Dealers and Gasoline Service Stations. BLS Bulletin 1584-4 .................................................................50
Apparel and Accessory Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-5 .....................................................................................................55
Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Household Appliance Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-6 ..........................................50
Miscellaneous Retail Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-7 ........................................................................................................65




BUR EA U OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S
R E G IO N A L O FFIC E S

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Region 1
1

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

1 5 1 5 B ro ad w a y

New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
Region III
P. O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)

Regions V II and V III *
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions IX and X **
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)




**

Regions VII and V III are serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco.