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INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY




Flour and Other Grain
Mill Products
I
FEBRUARY 1967

Bulletin No. 1576

y
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
nsrj

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY

Flour and Other Grain
Mill Products
FEBRUARY 1967

Bulletin No. 1576
November 1967

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S . Government Printing Office
W ashington, D .C ., 20402 - Price 25 cents




VS I







Preface
T h is b u lle tin s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f a B u re a u
o f L a b o r S t a t i s t ic s s u r v e y of w a g e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y
b e n e fit s in the f l o u r and oth er g r a in m i l l p r o d u c t s in d u s tr y
in F e b r u a r y 1967.
S e p a r a te r e l e a s e s f o r B u ffa lo and K a n s a s C ity
w e r e i s s u e d w ith in a few m o n th s of the p a y r o l l p e r i o d
stu d ie d . C o p i e s of th e s e r e l e a s e s a r e a v a il a b le f r o m the
B u r e a u ^ r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s o r f r o m the B u r e a u of L a b o r
S t a t i s t i c s , W a sh in g ton , D . C . , Z0Z1Z.
T h is study w a s c o n d u c t e d in the B u r e a u ' s O f f i c e
o f W a g e s and In d u s tria l R e la t i o n s by the D i v is i o n o f O c ­
c u p a tio n a l P a y . T he a n a l y s i s w a s p r e p a r e d b y E d w a r d J.
C a ra m ela .
F i e l d w o r k f o r the s u r v e y w a s d i r e c t e d by
the B u r e a u 's A s s i s t a n t R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s , D i v i s i o n o f
O p era tion s.
O ther r e p o r t s a v a il a b le f r o m the B u r e a u ’ s p r o ­
g r a m o f in d u s tr y w a g e s t u d ie s , as w e l l as the a d d r e s s e s
o f the B u r e a u ’ s s i x r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , a r e l i s t e d at the end
of this b u lle tin .

Contents
Page
S u m m a r y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I n d u s t r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s __________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s __________________________________________________________________
O c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s _____________________________________________________________________
E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ------------------------------S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S h ift p r o v i s i o n s and p r a c t i c e s _______________________________________________________
P a i d h o l i d a y s ______________________________________________
P a i d v a c a t i o n s __________________________________________________________________________
H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _________________________________________
O t h e r s e l e c t e d b e n e f i t s ________________________________________________________________

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1
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5

T a b les:
A v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in gs:
1.

B y s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

6

E a rn in g s d istrib u tion :
2.

A l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7

A l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B y s i z e o f c o m m u n i t y _________________________________________________________
B y s i z e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

0 ^0

3.
4.
5.

00

O ccu pational a v e ra g e s :

O ccu p a tion a l ea rn in g s:
6.
7.

B u f f a l o , N. Y _________________________________________________________________ . . .
K a n s a s C i t y , M o . —K a n s ---------------

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E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s :

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

M e t h o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t ______________________________________________________
S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s _______________________________________________________
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l p r o v i s i o n s --------------------------------------------------------------------------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l p r a c t i c e s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------P a i d h o l i d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P a i d v a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- _---------H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s -------------------------------------------------O t h e r s e l e c t e d b e n e f i t s ________________________________________________________

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A p p en d ix es:
A.
B.

S c o p e and m e t h o d o f s u r v e y -------------------------------------------------------------------------------O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




iv

23
27

Industry Wage Survey--Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, February 1967
Sum m ary
S t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s o f p r o d u c t i o n an d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s
o t h e r g r a i n m i l l p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 5 6 an h o u r in
N e a r l y a l l o f the w o r k e r s w e r e m e n .
E a r n in g s o f a ll but about
12, 565 w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the s u r v e y 1 w e r e w i t h in a r a n g e o f
an h o u r — the m i d d l e h a l f o f the w o r k e r s e a r n i n g f r o m $ 2 . 2 8 to

in the f l o u r and
F e b r u a r y 1967.
2 p e r c e n t o f the
$ 1 . 4 0 to $ 3 . 50
$ 2 .9 5 .

R e g i o n a l l y , 2 a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s r a n g e d f r o m $ 1. 7 4 an h o u r in the S o u t h e a s t
to $ 2 . 9 9 in the M i d d l e A t l a n t i c a n d P a c i f i c .
E a rn in gs a lso v a r ie d by siz e of
c o m m u n i t y , s i z e o f m i l l , and o c c u p a t i o n .
A m o n g the o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y , a v e r a g e s r a n g e d f r o m $ 2 . 3 3
an h o u r f o r f e e d p a c k e r s to $ 3 . 3 9 f o r m i l l w r i g h t s .
M a t e r i a l h a n d l in g l a b o r e r s ,
n u m e r i c a l l y the m o s t i m p o r t a n t j o b s t u d ie d , a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 3 9 .
P a i d h o l i d a y s and p a i d v a c a t i o n s ,
a s w e l l a s v a r i o u s t y p e s o f h e a lt h ,
i n s u r a n c e , and r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f i t s , w e r e p r o v i d e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g
a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the w o r k e r s .
Industry C h a r a c t e r is t i c s
M i l l s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g w h e a t f l o u r ( e x c e p t b l e n d e d and
p r e p a r e d ) e m p l o y e d t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the 12, 565 p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s
c o v e r e d b y the s u r v e y .
O n e - t e n t h o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in m i l l s m a n u f a c t u r i n g
p r e p a r e d f l o u r and f l o u r m i x e s , and a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
m a k in g c o r n m e a l.
E m p l o y m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s in F e b r u a r y 1967 w a s
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t b e l o w the l e v e l r e c o r d e d in N o v e m b e r 1961 w h e n a
s i m i l a r s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y the B u r e a u . 3
The d e c li n e r e s u lt e d f r o m a
r e d u c t i o n in the n u m b e r o f m i l l s c o v e r e d b y the tw o s t u d i e s ( f r o m 235 in 1961
to 198 in 196 7 ), a s w e l l a s d e c r e a s e s in e m p l o y m e n t w i th in m a n y m i l l s .
The
n u m b e r o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in the 100 m i l l s c o m m o n to b o t h s u r v e y s a m p l e s
d r o p p e d a b o u t 11 p e r c e n t d u r i n g th is p e r i o d .
O utput p e r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r m a n - h o u r in the i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d 27 p e r ­
c e n t b e t w e e n 1961 and 196 5, the l a t e s t d a ta f o r w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n is a v a i l a b l e . 4
T h i s i n c r e a s e w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a d e c l i n e o f 23 p e r c e n t in t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n
w ork er m a n -h ou rs,
w h i l e o u tp u t h a s
re m a in e d r e la t iv e ly stable.
E lectron ic
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , a i r c o n v e y o r s y s t e m s , a u t o m a t i c l o a d e r s and p a c k e r s , an d the
i n d u s t r y 1s t r e n d t o w a r d s c o n c e n t r a t i n g o u tp u t in the m o r e e f f i c i e n t m i l l s a r e
a m o n g the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y .
T he i n d u s t r y h a s
i n v e s t e d a b o u t $ 1 1 5 m i l l i o n in n e w p l a n t s and e q u i p m e n t b e t w e e n 1961 and 1 9 6 5 . 5

1 See appendix A for scope and method of study.
2 For definition of regions used in this survey, see table in appendix A .
3

For an account of the earlier survey, see Industry W age Survey:

1961, BLS Bulletin 1337 (1962).
4 See Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour Selected
3

U .S .

Industries

Flour and Other Grain M ill Products, Novem ber

1939 and 1947— 6 6 ,

Bureau of the Census, Census of Manufactures, 1963 Industry Statistics:

and the Annual Survey of Manufactures,




196 5 , M 65 ( A S ) - l .

BLS Bulletin

1572 (1967).

Grain M ills , M C 63,

( 2 ) -2 0 D ,

2

P e r ca p ita c o n s u m p tio n o f wheat fl o u r (w h ich a c c o u n t s f o r a la r g e
m a j o r i t y o f the i n d u s t r y ’ s p r o d u c t i o n ) in the N a t io n w a s 114 p o u n d s 6 in 1966,
c o m p a r e d w ith 118 p o u n d s in 1961 and the p e a k o f 22 5 p o u n d s r e a c h e d at the t u r n
o f the c e n t u r y . 7
T h i s d o w n w a r d t r e n d in c i v i l i a n p e r c a p i t a c o n s u m p t i o n h a s
p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t the i n c r e a s e in the t o t a l c o n s u m p t i o n o f w h e a t f l o u r that w o u l d be
e x p e c te d as p op u la tion in c r e a s e s .
O v e r the y e a r s , the q u a n t it y o f f l o u r u s e d b y
b a k e r s h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g c o n t i n u a l l y , w h i le f l o u r u s e d f o r f a m i l y c o n s u m p t i o n
stea d ily d e c lin e d .

W h e a t f l o u r is p r o d u c e d b y g r i n d i n g the e n d o s p e r m , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s
a b o u t f o u r - f i f t h s o f the w h e a t b e r r y .
T he o u t e r c o a t o f b r a n and the i n n e r w h e a t
g e r m a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m the e n d o s p e r m b y g r i n d i n g and s i f t i n g .
A fte r bein g
c l e a n e d and t e m p e r e d b y a d d in g w a t e r , the w h o l e g r a i n is p a s s e d t h r o u g h tw o
types of r o l l e r s .
T he b r e a k r o l l s c r u s h the g r a i n in to p a r t i c l e s o f b r a n and
e n d o s p e r m and a s m a l l a m o u n t o f f l o u r .
T he f l o u r s i f t s in to b i n s , and the
p a r t i c l e s o f e n d o s p e r m a r e se n t t h r o u g h r e d u c t i o n r o l l s .
S e v e ra l sets o f re d u ctio n
r o l l s a r e u s e d and a f t e r e a c h g r i n d i n g , the r e s u l t i n g m a t e r i a l i s s i f t e d .
T y p ica lly ,
the c o m p l e t e m i l l i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s l e s s than 30 m i n u t e s .
T he G r e a t L a k e s r e g i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - t h i r d o f the i n d u s t r y ' s w o r k
f o r c e , w h i le o n e - f i f t h w a s in the M i d d l e W e s t .
T he M i d d l e A t l a n t i c , S o u t h e a s t ,
S o u t h w e s t , and P a c i f i c r e g i o n s e a c h a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t a tenth o f the p r o d u c t i o n
w orkers.
A b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 8 i n c l u d i n g
B u f f a l o and K a n s a s C i t y f o r w h i c h s e p a r a t e d a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d .
T he p r o p o r t i o n
o f w o r k e r s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s r a n g e d f r o m a b o u t o n e - h a l f in the M i d d l e W e s t to
m o r e than n i n e - t e n t h s in the M i d d l e A t l a n t i c .

F l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s in t e r m s o f
em ploym en t.
O n l y e i g h t o f the 198 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o v e r e d b y the s u r v e y h a d as
m a n y a s 250 e m p l o y e e s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - f i f t h s o f the e m p l o y e e s w e r e in m i l l s
h a v i n g f e w e r than 100 w o r k e r s , and a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n w e r e in m i l l s e m p l o y i n g
f r o m 100 to 2 4 9 w o r k e r s .
E sta b lish m e n ts h a v i n g c o lle c tiv e
b a rg a in in g a g r e e m e n t s
cov erin g a
m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d n e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s o f the p r o d u c t i o n
w ork fo rce .
S u ch e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n - e i g h t h s o f the
w o r k e r s in the G r e a t L a k e s , M i d d l e A t la n t i c , M i d d l e W e s t , M o u n t a in , and P a c i f i c
r e g i o n s ; a b o u t o n e - h a l f in the S o u t h w e s t and t h r e e - e i g h t h s in the S o u t h e a s t .
The
e x t e n t o f a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e w a s h i g h e r in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 100 w o r k e r s
o r m o r e than in the s m a l l e r m i l l s ( n i n e - t e n t h s and s i x - t e n t h s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and
h i g h e r in m e t r o p o l i t a n than in n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ( e i g h t - t e n t h s c o m p a r e d to
fo u r-te n th s).
A l l w o r k e r s in B u f f a l o and K a n s a s C it y w e r e in m i l l s o p e r a t i n g
u n d e r union a g r e e m e n t s .
T he A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f G r a i n M i l l e r s i s the
m a j o r u n i o n in the i n d u s t r y .

V i r t u a l l y a ll o f the w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e p a i d t i m e r a t e s ,
ty p ic a lly u nd er f o r m a l s y s t e m s p ro v id in g sin g le ra te s fo r s p e c if ie d o c c u p a tio n s
( t a b l e 8).
S l i g h t l y m o r e than o n e - t e n t h o f the w o r k e r s w e r e p a i d r a t e s b a s e d on
the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e e ; th is p r a c t i c e w a s m o r e p r e v a l e n t in
the S o u t h e a s t th an in the o t h e r r e g i o n s .

1967,

6 Preliminary estimate by the U. S.
p. 20.

Department of Agriculture, National Food Situation (N F S -120),

7 The Northwestern M ille r, Minneapolis, Minn. , August 7, 1961, p. 23.
8 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U .S . Bureau of the Budget through




M ay 15,

March 1965.

3

A verage

H ou rly

E arnings

S t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s o f the 1Z, 565 p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the
s u r v e y a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 5 6 an h o u r in F e b r u a r y 1967 9 ( t a b l e 1).
A ccou n tin g fo r
s l i g h t l y m o r e than o n e - h a l f o f the i n d u s t r y ' s e m p l o y m e n t , w o r k e r s in the G r e a t
L a k e s and M i d d l e W e s t r e g i o n s a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 7 7 and $ 2 . 6 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A v e r a g e s
in th e r e m a i n i n g r e g i o n s r a n g e d f r o m $ 1 . 7 4 in the S o u t h e a s t to $ 2 . 9 9 in the
M i d d l e A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c .
T he n a t i o n w i d e a v e r a g e ( $ 2 . 56) f o r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in F e b r u a r y 1967
w a s 15 p e r c e n t a b o v e the a v e r a g e r e c o r d e d in the B u r e a u ' s N o v e m b e r 1961 s u r v e y
( $ 2 . 2 2 ) . 10 A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s d u r i n g the p e r i o d r o s e 21 p e r c e n t in the G r e a t L a k e s
and 15 p e r c e n t in the M i d d l e W e s t .
T he l a r g e s t w a g e r i s e a m o n g the r e g i o n s
(2 6 p e r c e n t ) w a s in the S o u t h e a s t , w h e r e i n c r e a s e s in the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e
b e t w e e n the 1961 and 1967 s u r v e y s a p p e a r to h a v e h a d t h e i r g r e a t e s t i m p a c t ; 11
th e s m a l l e s t r i s e (2 p e r c e n t ) w a s in the S o u t h w e s t .
A fe w re la tiv e ly h ig h -p a y in g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s in the S o u t h w e s t h a v e c e a s e d f l o u r m i l l i n g
o p e r a t i o n s s in c e N o v e m b e r 1961.
The e l i m i n a t i o n o f d a t a f o r t h e s e m i l l s f r o m
the 1961 s u r v e y w o u l d h a v e r e d u c e d the p r o d u c t i o n - w o r k e r a v e r a g e in the r e g i o n
b y a b o u t 7 c e n t s an h o u r — f r o m $ 1 . 9 6 to $ 1 . 8 9 an h o u r .
W o r k e r s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 68 an h o u r in F e b r u a r y 1967,
c o m p a r e d w ith $ 2 . 3 2 f o r w o r k e r s in s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s .
T he a v e r a g e w a g e
a d v a n t a g e f o r w o r k e r s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a m o u n t e d to 35 c e n t s an h o u r in the
G r e a t L a k e s , 19 c e n t s in the M i d d l e W e s t , and 13 c e n t s in the S o u t h e a s t .
W orkers
in n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a v e r a g e d 14 c e n t s m o r e than t h o s e in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s
in the S o u t h w e s t , 12 the o n l y o t h e r r e g i o n w h e r e c o m p a r i s o n w a s p o s s i b l e . E a r n i n g s
o f w o r k e r s in the tw o a r e a s s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 7 9 an h o u r in K a n s a s
C i t y and $ 3 . 16 in B u f f a l o .
N a t i o n w i d e , w o r k e r s in m i l l s w ith 100 e m p l o y e e s o r m o r e a v e r a g e d
$ 2 . 7 7 an h o u r — 49 c e n t s m o r e th an t h o s e in the s m a l l e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
H igher
a v e r a g e s f o r w o r k e r s in the l a r g e r m i l l s w e r e n o t e d in a l l r e g i o n s w h e r e c o m ­
p a r i s o n s c o u l d b e m a d e ; the d i f f e r e n c e s r a n g e d f r o m 40 to 45 c e n t s in the G r e a t
L a k e s , S o u t h e a s t , and S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n s , and w a s o n l y 9 c e n t s in the M i d d l e W e s t .

9

The straight-tim e

average hourly earnings

in this bulletin differ in concept from the gross average hourly

earnings published in the Bureau's monthly hours and earnings series ($ 2 . 82 in February 1967). Unlike the latter, the
estimates presented here exclude premium pay for overtim e, and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Average earnings were calculated by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number of individuals;
in the monthly series, the sum of the man-hour totals reported by establishments in the industry was divided into the
reported payroll totals.
The estimate of the number of production workers within scope of the study is intended only as a general guide
to the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
It differs from the number published in the
monthly series ( 2 1 ,0 0 0 in February 1967) by the exclusion of establishments em ploying fewer than 20 workers, and
by the fact that the advance planning necessary to make the survey required the use of lists of establishments assembled
considerably in advance of data collection. Thus, establishments new to the industry are om itted, as are establishments
originally classified in the flour and other grain m ills industry but found to be in other industries at the tim e of the
survey.
Also om itted are m ills classified incorrectly in other industries at the time the lists were com piled.
10 Footnote 3, op. cit.
11 The Federal m inim um wage for workers in manufacturing establishments engaged in interstate com m erce
was $ 1 .1 5 an hour in Novem ber 1961. It was raised to $ 1 .2 5 on Sept. 1, 1963, to $ 1 .4 0 on Feb. 1, 1967, and w ill
go to $ 1 .6 0 on Feb. 1, 1968.
According to the Novem ber 1961 survey, about three-fifths of the workers in the
Southeast earned less than $ 1 .2 5 an hour, and nearly seven-tenths earned less than $ 1 .4 0 .
Fewer than one-eighth
of the workers earned less than $ 1 .4 0 in each of the other regions except the Border States, which had insufficient data
to warrant presentation in the current survey.
12 In the 1961 study, workers in metropolitan areas in this region had the higher average by 22 cents.

The

reversal in the more recent survey was caused m ainly by two factors.
First, as mentioned earlier, a few relatively
high-paying establishments in metropolitan areas ceased operations since 1961. Second, several relatively low -paying
m ills, previously in nonmetropolitan areas, are now included in metropolitan areas due to expansion in SMSA definitions
over the past 6 years.




4

I n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s o f a ll but a b o u t 2 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w e r e w i t h in
a r a n g e o f $ 1 . 4 0 to $ 3 . 50 an h o u r ; e a r n i n g s o f the m i d d l e h a l f w e r e b e t w e e n
$ 2 . 2 8 and $ 2 . 9 5 ( t a b l e 2).
T h e 1a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f w o r k e r s at the l o w e r
e n d o f th e e a r n i n g s a r r a y w e r e in the S o u t h e a s t and S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n s , w h e r e
o n e - h a l f and t h r e e - t e n t h s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the w o r k e r s e a r n e d l e s s th a n $ 1 . 6 0
an h o u r . 13
O ccu pational E arnings
T h e 13 o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r w h i c h s e p a r a t e e a r n i n g s i n f o r ­
m a t i o n w a s d e v e l o p e d ( t a b l e 3) a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e i n d u s t r y ' s
p rod u ction w o r k e r s .
A v e r a g e (m ea n ) h o u rly e a rn in g s fo r th e se jo b s w e r e h ig h est
f o r m i l l w r i g h t s ( $ 3 . 3 9 ) f o l l o w e d b y g e n e r a l m e c h a n i c s ( $ 3 . 0 5 ) . M a t e r i a l h a n d l in g
l a b o r e r s and j a n i t o r s , t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s i n g n e a r l y a f o u r t h o f the i n d u s t r y ' s w o r k
f o r c e , a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 39 and $ 2 . 53 an h o u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
F lo u r p a c k e r s , another
n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b , a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 4 3 — 10 c e n t s an h o u r m o r e th a n f e e d
p a c k e r s , w h o w e r e l o w e s t p a id a m o n g the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s .
R e g i o n a l l y , j o b a v e r a g e s w e r e u s u a l l y h i g h e s t in the M i d d l e A t l a n t i c and
l o w e s t in the S o u t h e a s t .
O c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s in the G r e a t L a k e s n e a r l y a l w a y s
e x c e e d e d t h o s e in the M i d d l e W e s t , w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s v a r y i n g b y j o b .
For
e x a m p l e , m a t e r i a l h a n d l in g l a b o r e r s in the G r e a t L a k e s a v e r a g e d o n l y 1 p e r c e n t
m o r e th an t h o s e in th e M i d d l e W e s t ,
w h e r e a s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s
w e r e 6 p e r c e n t f o r j a n i t o r s and 9 p e r c e n t f o r s e c o n d m i l l e r s .
O c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s w e r e h i g h e r in m e t r o p o l i t a n th a n in n o n m e t r o ­
p o l i t a n a r e a s ( t a b l e 4) and h i g h e r in m i l l s w i t h 100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e th a n in
s m a l l e r m i l l s ( t a b l e 5).
T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s h e l d w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n in the G r e a t
L a k e s and M id d le W est r e g io n s .
I n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s o f w o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g s i m i l a r t a s k s w i t h i n th e s a m e
a r e a w e r e u s u a l l y g r o u p e d w i t h in c o m p a r a t i v e l y n a r r o w l i m i t s ( t a b l e s 6 and 7).
F o r e x a m p l e , in B u f f a l o , v i r t u a l l y a ll o f the j a n i t o r s e a r n e d b e t w e e n $ 2 . 8 0 and
$ 3 an h o u r , and f o u r - f i f t h s o f the f l o u r p a c k e r s and n e a r l y a ll o f the g r a i n
e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s e a r n e d b e t w e e n $ 3 and $ 3 . 2 0 an h o u r .
The w id e sp re a d use
o f s i n g l e - r a t e w a g e s y s t e m s , as w e l l a s t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d
b y c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a g r e e m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the n a r r o w r a n g e
o f e a r n i n g s f o r w o r k e r s in the s a m e j o b and a r e a .
E sta b lish m e n t

P ra ctice s

and S u p p l e m e n t a r y

W age

P rov ision s

Data a ls o w e r e o b ta in e d on c e r t a i n e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s , in clu d in g
s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s , and w o r k s c h e d u l e s and s e l e c t e d s u p ­
p l e m e n t a r y b e n e f i t s , s u c h a s p a id h o l i d a y s , v a c a t i o n s , and v a r i o u s h e a lt h , i n s u r ­
a n c e , and r e t i r e m e n t p la n s f o r p r o d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s . 14
S ch e d u le d W e e k ly H o u r s .
W o r k s c h e d u l e s o f 40 h o u r s a w e e k a p p l i e d
to s l i g h t l y m o r e th a n t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s ( t a b l e 9 ). A n a d d i t i o n a l
o n e - f i f t h w e r e s c h e d u l e d to w o r k 48 h o u r s .
W eek ly w o r k sc h e d u le s v a r ie d c o n ­
s i d e r a b l y w i t h in e a c h r e g i o n e x c e p t the P a c i f i c , w h e r e a ll w o r k e r s w e r e in m i l l s
op era tin g 4 0 -h o u r sch ed u les.
M o s t c o m m o n w o r k s c h e d u l e s w e r e 48 h o u r s a
w e e k in the M i d d l e W e s t , 44 h o u r s in the M o u n t a in , and 40 h o u r s in th e o t h e r
re g io n s.
M o r e th a n f o u r - f i f t h s o f the o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e s c h e d u l e d to w o r k
40 h o u r s a w e e k .
Footnote 11,

op.

cit.

14 Data for office workers summarized in this bulletin exclude employees of separate central offices.




5

S h ift P r o v i s i o n s and P r a c t i c e s .
M o r e than n i n e - t e n t h s o f th e p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r s w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r l a t e - s h i f t w o r k
( t a b l e 10).
O n l y o n e - f o u r t h o f th e w o r k e r s , h o w e v e r , w e r e e m p l o y e d o n la t e s h i f t s
at th e t i m e o f th e stu d y ( t a b l e 11).
M ost c o m m o n ly , these w o r k e r s r e c e iv e d
10 c e n t s an h o u r m o r e th a n d a y r a t e s f o r s e c o n d - s h i f t w o r k and 1Z c e n t s f o r
th ird o r oth er la t e -s h ift w o rk .
P a id H o lid a y s .
P a i d h o l i d a y s w e r e g r a n t e d t o n e a r l y a ll p r o d u c t i o n and
o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( t a b l e 1Z).
T h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in 5 o f
the 7 r e g i o n s , f o r w h i c h s e p a r a t e d a t a a r e p r o v i d e d , r e c e i v e d 8 o r 9 d a y s a n n u a l l y .
T y p ica lly ,
w orkers
in th e S o u t h e a s t and S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n s r e c e i v e d f e w e r
th a n 8 d a y s a y e a r .
In m o s t r e g i o n s , h o l i d a y p r o v i s i o n s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e
g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r to t h o s e f o r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s .
P a id V a c a t io n s .
P a id v a c a tio n s , after qu alifyin g p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e ,
w e r e p r o v i d e d b y a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d d u r i n g the s u r v e y ( t a b l e 13).
The
m o s t c o m m o n v a c a tio n pay p r o v is io n s fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s w e r e :
1 week’ s
p a y a f t e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e ; Z w e e k s ' a f t e r Z y e a r s ; 3 w e e k s ' a f t e r 10 y e a r s ;
and 4 o r 5 w e e k s ' p a y a f t e r Z0 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
V a ca tio n paym ents w e re le a s t
l i b e r a l in the S o u t h e a s t and S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n s , w h e r e p r o v i s i o n s f o r 4 o r 5 w e e k s '
p a y a f t e r Z0 y e a r s a p p l i e d to l e s s th an o n e - f i f t h o f the w o r k e r s , c o m p a r e d w i t h
a b o u t f o u r - f i f t h s o r m o r e in the o t h e r r e g i o n s .
A m a j o r i t y o f the o f f i c e
w ork ers re ce iv e d
2 w eeks'
v a ca tion pay
a f t e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e and 3 w e e k s ' a f t e r 10 y e a r s .
About th ree-ten th s w e re
in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h p a id v a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s o f 4 w e e k s o r m o r e a f t e r 15 y e a r s
and 5 w e e k s o r m o r e a f t e r Z0 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
H ealth, I n s u r a n c e ,
an d R e t i r e m e n t P l a n s .
L ife,
h osp ita liza tion ,
and
s u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e , f i n a n c e d at l e a s t in p a r t b y the e m p l o y e r s , w e r e r e p o r t e d
b y m i l l s e m p l o y i n g o v e r n i n e - t e n t h s o f the p r o d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( t a b l e 14).
A c c i d e n t a l d e a t h and d i s m e m b e r m e n t i n s u r a n c e w a s p r o v i d e d to a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f
th e w o r k e r s in b o t h g r o u p s and m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e to a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r - f i f t h s .
S i c k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e w a s p r o v i d e d to t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r s a n d to t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s .
P a id s ic k lea v e p r o v is io n s
( f u l l p a y , no w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) a p p l i e d to a t h i r d o f th e o f f i c e w o r k e r s , but w e r e
r a r e ly r e p o rte d fo r p rod u ction w o r k e r s .
E x c e p t f o r l i f e , h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and
s u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e , th e p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g the b e n e f i t s d e s c r i b e d
above v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly by reg ion .
M e d ica l in s u ra n ce , fo r e x a m p le , a p p lied
to s l i g h t l y m o r e th a n o n e - f o u r t h o f the p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in the S o u t h e a s t , c o m ­
p a r e d w i t h m o r e th a n n i n e - t e n t h s in the M i d d l e W e s t , M o u n t a in , a n d P a c i f i c
reg ion s.
In m o s t i n s t a n c e s , h e a l t h and i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t p la n s w e r e f i n a n c e d
e n t i r e l y b y the e m p l o y e r .
P e n s i o n p la n s p r o v i d i n g r e g u l a r p a y m e n t s f o r the r e m a i n d e r o f the r e ­
t i r e e ' s l i f e (i n a d d i t i o n to s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ) a p p l i e d to a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the p r o ­
d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
T h e s e p la n s c o v e r e d at l e a s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the
w o r k e r s in a ll r e g i o n s e x c e p t the S o u t h e a s t and S o u t h w e s t
w h e r e th e c o v e r a g e
f e l l b e l o w t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e w o r k e r s in e a c h g r o u p .
P la n s p r o v id in g l u m p - s u m
p a y m e n t s at r e t i r e m e n t w e r e fo u n d o n l y in the G r e a t L a k e s and M i d d l e W e s t
r e g i o n s , w h e r e t h e y a p p l i e d to l e s s th a n a t e n th o f the w o r k e r s .
O ther S e le cte d B e n e f it s .
F o r m a l p la n s p r o v i d i n g p a y f o r f u n e r a l l e a v e
a p p l i e d to n e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s o f the p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s and s e v e n - t e n t h s o f the
o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( t a b l e 15).
J u r y d u ty p a y p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r e d a b o u t s e v e n - t e n t h s
o f the w o r k e r s in b o t h g r o u p s . M i l l s w i t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e v e r a n c e p a y 15 e m p l o y e d
a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f the p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s and o n e - t h i r d o f th e o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s .
5

Pay to employees permanently separated from the company through no fault of their own.




Table 1.

Average H ou rly Earnings:

0>

By Selected Characteristics

(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings 1 of production workers in flour and other grain milling establishments by selected characteristics,
United States and selected regions, February 1967)
United States 2
Item

Num ber
of
w ork ers

Middle Atlantic

A verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
w orkers

A verage
hourly
earnings

Southeast
Number
of
w orkers

Southwest

A verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
w ork ers

Great Lakes

A verage Number
hourly
of
earnings w ork ers

A verage
hourly
earnings

Middle W e st
Number
of
w ork ers

Mountain

A verage Number
hourly
of
earnings w ork ers

P acific

A ll estab lish m en ts________________ ___

31 2 , 565

$2.56

1, 255

$2.99

1, 366

$1 .7 4

1, 085

$2 .00

4, 047

$2.77

2, 514

$2.60

672

$2 .62

Size of estab lish m en t:
20—99 w ork ers
100 w ork ers or m o r e ____________

5, 275
7, 290

2.28
2.77

1.58
2.0 3

569
516

1.79
2.2 4

1, 295
2, 752

2.49
2.89

1, 248
1, 266

2.55
2.6 4

Size of com m unity:
M etropolitan a r e a s 4
Nonm etropolitan a r e a s __________

8, 501
4 , 064

2.6 8
2.3 2

1, 183

3.08

789
577

1.79
1.66

671
414

1.95
2.09

2, 595
1, 452

2 .« 9
2.54

1, 385
l. 129

2.6 8
2.4 9

532

A verage
hourly
earnings

1, 306

$2.99

3.03

1, 146

3.00

2.5 4

3.16

885
481

396

902

Number
of
w orker s

982

A verage
hourly
earnings

1
2
3
4

E xclu d es
Includes
V irtu a lly
Standard

NOTE;

p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
data for the Border States region in addition to those shown sep arately.
all production w ork ers w ere m en.
M etropolitan S tatistical A r e a s as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget through M arch

D ashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication c r ite ria .




1965.

2.6 3

Table 2.

Earnings D istribution:

A ll Establishments

(Percent distribution of production workers in flour and other grain milling establishments by average straight-time hourly earnings, 1
United States and selected regions, February 1967)
United
States 2

A verage hourly earnings 1

Middle
Atlantic

Southeast

Under $ 1 .4 0 .............................................................................
$ 1. 40 and under $ 1. 4 5 _____________________________
$ 1. 45 and under $ 1 .5 0 _____________________________

(3)
5. 2
1. 9

1. 9
. 3

23. 9
10. 5

$
$
$
$
$

3. 2
_
_
_
.6

7.
10.
7.
2.
2.

_
. 3
-

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

50
55
60
65
70

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1. 55_____________________________
$ 1. 60 _____________________________
$ 1. 65_____________________________
$ 1. 7 0 _____________________________
$ 1 .7 5
__ _
__ __

1. 5
1 .9
.9
1. 1
.4

$ 1 .7 5
$ 1. 80
$ 1. 85
$ 1. 90
$ 1. 95

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

80_____________________________
85_____________________________
90_____________________________
95_____________________________
00_____________________________

.
.
.
.
1.

2
8
5
8
0

$
$
$
$
$

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2. 10_____________________________
$ 2. 20____________________
$ 2 . 3 0 _____________________________
$ 2. 4 0 _____________________________
$ 2 . 5 0 _____________________________

2.
3.
3.
3.
5.

7
4
6
3
3

$ 2. 50
$ 2 .6 0
$ 2. 70
$ 2. 80
$ 2 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2. 60_
$ 2. 70
$ 2. 80
$ 2 .9 0
$ 3. 00

9. 2
9. 1
8. 9
9. 1
7 .9

.
1.
.
8.
17.

$
$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

6.
5.
3.
2.
1.

7
3
1
3
6

1 5 .9
15. 9
8. 3
3. 7
4. 9

2. 3

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

00
10
20
30
40

$ 3. 50 and over

1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

_

_

___

__
_ .
..

_

10_____________________________
20
... ___ ...
30
...
. ..............
4 0 ____
- _
......... _
50

3
9
2
7
2

Great
Lakes

Middle
W est

(3)
0. 4
-

Mountain

Pacific

16. 3
5. 3

0. 1
-

4
1
2
2
1

1. 0
6. 8
_
7. 7
. 5

. 2
. 3
.2
_
. 1

.
1.
1.
.
3.

8
0
0
3
8

.2
1 .4
1. 6
3. 8
3. 2

.
.
.
.
.

2
9
6
7
5

8.
8.
4.
1.
2.

7
4
5
6
9

3.
13.
9.
5.
2.

5
3
9
4
3

3.
2.
2.
4.
5.

4
0
8
1
3

.
2.
5.
5.
12.

5
6
2
1
1

.9
11. 0

-

.
1.
.
.
.

9
0
4
4
4

7.
2.
2.
1.
1.

4
6
5
9
9

9.
8.
12.
9.
9.

3
3
2
9
0

20.
22.
12.
11.
2.

2
3
5
1
9

25. 4
2 1 .0
14. 4
7. 7
4. 8

. 1
3. 2
13. 2
2 1 .3
21. 6

.4
.8

9.
8.
3.
4.
3.

4
1
5
1
2

. 1
_

_
_

_
_

. 2
. 1
. 1
.2

.4
. 1
(3 )
(3i

2. 6
.8
.4
(3)

0. 7

0. 2

. 3
2. 7
. 1
.9

.2

2. 1

.2

. 3
.6

.2
.7

3.
1.
.
.

4
0
9
6

12.
8.
9.
5.
.

6
0
3
6
2

.

Num ber of w ork ers
......................... ..........
A verage hourlv earnings 1............. .... ..

-

. 1

11. 2

. 3

. 3

1. 6

.2

1. 1

3. 4

100. 0

________

T otal________

1. 3
_
1. 6
2. 5

Southwe st

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

12 ,5 6 5
$ 2 . 56

1 ,2 5 5
$ 2 .9 9

1 ,3 6 6
$ 1. 74

1 ,0 8 5
$ 2. 00

4 ,0 4 7
$ 2. 77

2, 514
$ 2 . 60

672
$ 2 . 62

1 ,3 06
$ 2 .9 9

1 E xclud es p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.
2 Includes data for the B order States region in addition to those shown sep arately.
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t.
NOTE:

B ecause of rounding,




sum s of individual item s may not equal 100.

■]
n

T a b ic 3.

O ccupational A verages:

A ll Establishments

00

( N u m b e r a nd a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
U n i te d S ta te s and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , F e b r u a r y 1967)
M id d le A tlantic

United States 3
Number
H ourly earnings 1
of
M iddle
w o r ker s M ean 4 M edian 4
range 4

O ccupation 1
2

B o l t e r s _____________________________________________
G r a i n e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s _____________________
J a n i t o r s _____________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ________________
M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l ____________________________
M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ______________
M i l l w r i g h t s _______________________________________
O i l e r s ______________________________________________
P a c k e r s , f e e d ____________________________________
P a c k e r s , f l o u r ___________________________________
R o l l t e n d e r s __________________________________ ____
S m u t t e r s _______________________________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) _________________

248
377
1 ,0 3 8
1 ,9 0 2

$2.75
2. 65
2 . 53
2 . 39

3.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

47 9
546
183
365
398
1,058
144
186
283

05
84
39
59
33
43
76
77
87

$2.
2.
2.
2.

85
72
62
52

3. 08
2. 86
3. 33
2. 65
2. 46
2. 60
2. 73
2 .7 6
3. 04

$ 2 . 4 5 —$ 3 . 0 6
2 . 4 3 - 3.00
2. 4 6 - 2 . 8 1
2. 11- 2. 7 8

2. 7 5 2. 5 8 3. 2 2 2 .4 9 1 .9 0 2. 1 4 2 .5 3 2. 6 7 2 .7 4 -

3. 33
3. 11
3 .6 2
2 .8 1
2 .7 6
2 .8 3
3 .0 7
3. 01
3. 12

18
91
1 12
173

37
76
26
35
121
16
21
32

$3.
3.
2.
2.

B o l t e r s _________________________________________
G r a i n e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s ___________________
J a n i t o r s ____________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ________________
M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l ____________________________
M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ______________
M i l l w r i g h t s -----------------------------------------------------O i l e r s __________________________________________
P a c k e r s , f e e d -------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r -----------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s ---------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s ----------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) _________________

1
2
3

85
100
437
537
224
176
64
153
94
232
69
72

$2. 95
2. 73
2. 64
2. 52
3 .2 9
3. 04
3. 29
2. 74
2. 60
2 .6 1
3. 03
2. 82

$2. 49—$ 3 .0 8
2 . 3 6 - 3 .0 0
2 . 5 9 - 2 .8 1
2. 3 4 - 2. 78
2. 9 4 - 3 .4 6
2. 6 3 - 3. 32
3 . 1 0 - 3 .3 3
2. 5 4 - 2 .8 1
2. 3 4 - 2 .8 9
2 . 3 3 - 2 .8 5
2. 5 3 - 3. 08
2 . 7 1 - 3 .0 1

42
74
198
451
93
135
-

87
100
257
40
52

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

77
64
49
50
88
83

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

2. 55
2. 55
2 .6 1
2. 65
2. 67

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p ay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la t e
V i r t u a l l y a ll w o r k e r s in the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e m e n .
I n c l u d e s d ata f o r th e B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n in a d d i t io n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
S e e a p p e n d i x A f o r m e t h o d u s e d in c o m p u t i n g m e a n s , m e d i a n s , and m i d d l e r a n g e s

NOTE:

Dashes




in d icate

no

data

reported

or

d ata that d o

3.
3.
3.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.

16
62
04
22
10
39
25
23

$ 3 . 3 6—$ 3 . 4 2
3 . 0 0 - 3 . 10
2 . 8 9 - 2 .8 9
2 . 96- 2 . 9 6

2. 6 0 3. 4 7 2 .9 8 1. 5 0 2. 9 5 3. 0 6 3. 1 7 3 .1 0 -

3. 51
3. 62
3 .0 6
2. 22
3. 10
3. 56
3 .3 3
3 .2 6

25
35
54
198

$ 2 . 12
2 . 00
1.66
1 .60

14
56
12
24
51
134
21

2. 57
2. 06
2. 65
1 .8 2
1. 58
1 .6 8
_
_
1. 91

n ot

meet

publication

83
61
51
51
92
83

$ 2 . 6 9 —$ 2 .8 5
2. 5 8 - 2. 70
2. 4 5 - 2. 57
2. 4 6 - 2 .6 1
2. 7 4 - 3. 05
2. 7 3 - 2. 93

-

-

59
57
64
68
73

$2. 40
2 . 02
1. 55
1.45

2. 1 1
-

1 .9 5
1 .4 5
1. 55
.
2. 17

$ 1 . 50—$ 2 . 4 5
1. 7 0 - 2. 23
1 . 4 0 - 2 . 02
1. 4 0 - 1 . 9 3

1. 7 0 1 .4 5 1 .4 3 1 .4 5 _
1. 5 5 -

2 .4 7
2. 19
1 .6 0
1 .6 9

2 .2 2

Number
H ourly earnings 1
of
M iddle
w o r k e r s M ean 4 M edian 4
range 4

27
17
69
210

$2. 24
1.9 8
2 . 00
1.93

$ 2 . 21
1.9 0
2 . 11
2. 0 4

36
41
25
28
121
10
13
23

2. 35
2. 27

2. 48
2. 32

_

2. 23
1 .7 9
1.9 1
2. 49
2. 55
2. 42

M ountain

H ou rly earnings 1
Number
of
M iddle
w orkers M ean 4 M ed ian 4
range 4

M iddle
range

M ean 4 M edian 4

81
70
63
53
15
09
22
69
56
57
80
77

$ 3 . 39
3.01
2'. 89
2. 9 6

S o u t h w e st

Number
H ou rly earnings 1
of
M iddle
w o r k e r s ,M e a n 4 M e d i a n 4
range 4

M iddle W est

H ourly earnings 1

$2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

37
06
85
88

3. 04
3. 56
3. 03
2. 08
2 .9 3
3. 34
3. 25
3. 20

Great Lakes
Num ber
of
workers

Southeast

H ou rly earnings 1
Number
of
M iddle
w ork e rs M ean 4 M edian 4
range 4

2. 4 9 2. 4 2 2. 5 5 2 .6 1 2. 6 3 -

2. 68
2 .6 9
2 .6 9
2 .6 9
2. 74

Number
of
w orkers

17
30
55
87
21
46
7
27
32
65
14
14

M iddle
range 4

M ean 4 M ed ian 4

$2. 83
2. 68
2. 56
2. 48
2. 94
2 .9 4
-

$2. 68—$ 2 .8 3
2. 4 3 - 2. 72
2. 4 9 - 2 .5 9
2. 4 0 - 2. 56
2. 8 8 - 3. 25
2 .7 8 - 3. 07
-

2. 56
2. 63
2. 64
_
_

1. 5 8 - 2. 11
1 . 9 7 - 2 .5 7
1. 8 0 - 2 .8 8
_

2. 28
1 .6 5
1 .9 0
_
2. 30

2. 0 9 1 .4 5 1 .6 5 _
_
2. 1 3 -

2. 58
1 .9 0
2. 15

2 .7 3

Pacific

H ou rly earnings 1

$2. 81
2. 56
2. 50
2. 36
3. 01
2. 93
3. 25
2. 58
2. 61
2. 55
2. 73
2, 59

_

$ 1 . 6 8 —$ 2 . 4 3
1 . 4 5 - 2. 21
1. 5 8 - 2 . 25

2. 5 6 - 2 .6 1
2. 5 6 - 2 .6 7
2. 5 1 - 2 .6 7
-

Number
H ou rly earnings 1
of
M iddle
w o rk e r s M ean 4 M edian 4
4
range
34
20

105
200
47
43
13
21
38
91
_
11
70

$3. 07
3. 04
2. 76
2. 83
3. 33
3. 32
4. 03
2. 92
2. 93
2. 95
2. 98
2. 98

$3.
3.
2.
2.
3.
3.

03
05
78
81
33
25

-

2. 94
2. 90
2. 95
_
2. 94

$3. 03—$3. 12
2. 9 4 - 3 .0 6
2. 6 9 - 2 .8 1
2. 7 8 - 2. 89
3 . 2 8 - 3 .3 6
3. 2 1 - 3. 35
2 . 8 4 - 3 .0 1
2 . 8 6 - 2 .9 5
2. 9 3 - 2. 95
.
_
2. 9 0 - 3 .0 4

shifts.

of

criteria.

earnings.

M edians

and m i d d l e

ranges

are

not

provided

for

jobs

w i t h f e w e r t h a n 15 w o r k e r s .

Table 4.

O ccu p a tion al A verages:

By Size o f C om m unity

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f l o u r an d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
in m e t r o p o l i t a n a nd n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 7 )
United States 2
O ccupation

B o l t e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------G r a i n e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s _____________________________
J a n i t o r s ____________________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ________________________
M e c h a n i c s , g e n e r a l -------------------------------------------------------M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ---------------------------------M i l l w r i g h t s -------------------------------------------------------------------------O i l e r s ---------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f e e d --------------------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , f l o u r ------------------------------------------------------------------R o l l t e n d e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------S m u t t e r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ------------------------------------------

1
2

M etrop olitan
areas
Average
Number
h ourly
of
earnings
worker s

182
249
730
1 , 1 80
314
331
151
232
208
666
118
141
263

$ 2. 83
2.78
2.5 9
2.4 5
3. 18
2. 96
3. 44
2.6 9
2 .4 0
2.5 2
2 .8 4
2.8 7
2.9 1

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e g i o n s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

Great Lakes

N onm etr opolitan
areas
Number
Average
of
hourly
workers
earnings

66
1 28
308
722
165
215
32
1 33
1 90
392
26
45
20

holidays,

$ 2.50
2 .4 0
2.40
2.30
2.80
2.6 7
3.1 4
2.4 3
2. 25
2 .2 8
2.4 1
2.4 7
2.40

M etropolitan
areas
Number
Average
of
hourly
worker s
earnings

58
50
273
293
143
98
42
96
40
1 27
51
49

$ 3.01
2.9 3
2 .6 9
2.6 3
3.2 8
3 .3 4
3.27
2 .8 0
2.6 6
2.7 6
2.9 7
2 .9 0

M id d le W est

N onm etropolitan
areas
Number
Average
hourly
of
w orkers
earnings

27
50
1 64
244
81
78
22
57
54
105
18
23

$ 2.37
2.4 6
2.5 3
2.40
2.9 3
2 .7 8
3.1 2
2.52
2.49
2.34
2.31
2.4 8

M etropolitan
areas
Number
A verage
of
hourly
w orkers
earnings

32
35
123
229
52
65
-

42
36
1 10
36
36

$ 2.8 3
2.71
2.54
2 .5 9
2.9 8
2 .9 2
_

2.64
2.70
2.69
2.67
2.7 5

N o n m e tr opolitan
areas
Average
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

10
39
75
222
41
70
_
45
64
1 47
_
16

$ 2.59
2. 57
2.3 9
2.4 1
2.7 6
2 .7 4
_
2.4 6
2.4 6
2.55

_

2.49

and la te s h i f t s .

D a s h e s i n d i c a t e n o d a t a r e p o r t e d o r d a t a t h at d o n o t m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a .




CO

Table 5.

O ccupational A verages:

By Size o f Establishment

O

(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings 1 of workers in selected occupations in flour and other grain milling establishments
by size of establishment, United States and selected regions, February 1967)
United States

Great Lakes

Middle W est

E stablish m en ts with—
Occupation

20—99 w orkers
Number
of
w ork ers

B o lte r s________________________________________________
G rain elevator o p e r a t o r s __________________________
Janitor s_______________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a teria l handling ____________________
M e ch a n ic s, general _______________________________
M ille r s , flour (second m i l l e r ) ____________________
M illw r ig h ts ___________________________________________
O i l e r s ------------------------------------ -----------------------------------P a c k e r s , feed________________________________________
P a c k e r s, flou r_______________________________________
R oll t e n d e r s __________________________________________
Smutte r s______________________________________________

121
172
371
946
190
330
47
170
262
568
50
96

A verage
hourly
earnings

$ 2.54
2.42
2.28
2.17
2.80
2.67
3.27
2.45
2.22
2.21
2.49
2.68

100 w orkers or m ore
Number
of
worker s

127
205
667
956
289
216
136
195
136
490
94
90

A verage
hourly
earnings

$ 2.94
2.82
2.67
2.61
3.21
3.11
3.43
2.72
2.49
2.67
2.90
2.87

1 Excludes p rem iu m pay for ove rtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE:

D ashes indicate no data rep orted or data that do not meet publication crite ria .




20—99 w ork ers
Number
of
w ork ers

49
'55
113
215
74
93
17
63
59
124
23
42

A verage
hourly
earnings

$ 2.5 7
2.5 0
2.43
2.2 9
2.86
2.8 6
3.01
2.56
2.4 2
2.3 7
2.52
2.6 4

100 w ork ers or m ore
Number
of
w orker s

36
45
324
322
150
83
47
90
35
108
46
30

A verage
hourly
earnings

$ 3.13
2.9 4
2.71
2.6 9
3.29
3.35
3.30
2.79
2.8 0
2.7 9
2.9 4
2.9 4

vorkers
2 0 -9 9 v
Number
of
w ork ers

16
50
93
238
51
80
_

54
72
142
16
27

100 w ork ers or m ore

A verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
w orker s

$ 2.72
2.61
2.43
2.45
2.81
2.8 0

26
24
105
213
42
55

_

2.51
2.51
2. 60
2.63
2.63

_

33
28
115
24
25

A verage
hourly
earnings

$ 2.80
2.70
2.54
2.55
2.98
2.87
-

2.61
2.64
2.62
2.66
2.71

T able 6.

O ccupational Earnings:

B uffalo, N . Y . 1

( N u m b e r an d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
N um ber of w ork ers
O ccupation

A l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s 3 -------------------------------------

of
w orker s

1,0 23

hourly
earnings

$ 3 . 16

$2.80

$2.80
and
under
$2.90

5

95

_
1
-

_
77
-

February

1 96 7 )

r e c e i v i ng s t r a ig h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f —

$ 2.90

$3.00

$3.10

$3.00

"
$3.10

"
$3.20

$3.30

1 96

192

193

98

44

59

.

.
52
13
17
2
13
6

_

3
2
1
17
-

6
1
3
-

9
22
-

7

3

-

$3 .2 0

$3.30

$3.40

$3.50

$3.40

$3.60

$ 3 .7 0

"

and

$3.60

$3.70

over

21

11 0

10

"
$3.50

S elected occu pation s
B o l t e r s _____________________________________________________
G r a i n e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------J a n i t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ________________________
M i l l e r s , f l o u r ( s e c o n d m i l l e r ) ______________________
M i l l w r i g h t s -------------------------------------------------------------------------O i l e r s _________________________________ ____________ _________
P a c k e r s , f e e d ____________________________________________
P a c k e r s , f l o u r ___________________________________________
R o l l t e n d e r s ______________________________________________
S m u t t e r s ___________________________________________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

18
91
99
149
15
74
20

7
84
16
21
32

3.
3.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.

37
06
90
97
70
56
04
15

3. 13
3. 34
3. 25
3. 20

1
21
1 32
-

3
-

4
54
-

3

3

9

10

6

11

T h e B u ffa lo S ta n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f E r i e and N i a g a r a C o u n t ie s .
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la te s h i f t s .
V i r t u a l l y a ll p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s w e r e m e n ; da ta f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e l i m i t e d to m e n w o r k e r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo llo w s :
1 at $ 4 . 2 0 t o $ 4 . 3 0 ; 2 at $ 4 , 3 0 t o $ 4 . 4 0 ; a n d 1 at $ 4 . 4 0 t o $ 4 . 5 0 .




35
4
-

3
3
5

8
1
-

51
_
_
_
_

44
-

Table 7,
(N um ber

O ccup ation al Earnings:

Kansas City, M o .—K a n s .1

and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f w o r k e r s i n s e l e c t e d
in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , F e b r u a r y 1967)

occupations

Number of w orkers receivin g stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings cif—
of
w orkers

Occupation

A ll production w o r k e r s 3 --------------------------------

Av e r age
hourly
earnings 2

500

$2. 79

$ 2 .50
and
under
$ 2 .60

9

$2.60

$ 2 .70

$2.80

$3.00

$3.10

$3.20

-

-

$3.00

$3.10

$3.20

$3.30

146

35

40

9

5

14

3

$2.70

$ 2 .80

$2.90

163

93

$2.90

-

Selected occupations
B o lte r s ________________________________________________
J anitors------------------- ------------------------------------------------L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling-------------------------------M ech anics, g e n e r a l--- --------------------------------------------M ille r s , flour (secon d m i l l e r ) ___________________
O i l e r s _________________________________________________
P ac k e rs, fee d _______________________________________
P ac k e rs, flo u r_______________________________________
Roll tenders ________________________________________
Smutter s ----------------------------------------------------------------------

2.
2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

17
38
91
18
24
22
16
36
15
20

86
63
70
08
97
71
80
82
71
79

_
-

-

_

38
73
16
_

-

-

12

-

10
3
12
12

8
3
3
_
34
3
6

-

-

-

-

16
-

-

-

4
2

_
-

3
_
-

2
2
.
-

-

-

2

1 T h e K a n s a s C i t y S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a h a s b e e n e x p a n d e d s i n c e 1 96 1 a n d n o w c o n s i s t s o f
P l a t t e C o u n t i e s in M i s s o u r i , and J o h n s o n and W y a n d o tte C o u n t i e s , K a n s a s .
T h e c o u n t i e s a d d e d to the c u r r e n t a r e a
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e i n d u s t r y .
2 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a nd la t e s h i f t s .
3 V i r t u a l l y a l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s w e r e m e n ; da ta f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e l i m i t e d to m e n w o r k e r s .

Table 8.
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c t i o n

-

-

-

16

C a s s, C lay, J a ckson ,
d e f i n i t i o n d id not h a v e

and
any

M ethod o f W a g e Paym ent

o r k e r s in f l o u r an d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y m e t h o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t ,
U n ite d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1967)
Areas

Regions
Unite d
States 2

M e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t 1

M iddle
Atlantic

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

M iddle
West

M ountain

P acific

B u ffalo

Kansas
City

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

1 00

1 00

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

T i m e - r a t e d w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------------F o r m a l p l a n s ----------------------------- ----------------------------------S i n g l e r a t e --------------------------------------------------------------R a n g e o f r a t e s ------------------------------------------------------I n d i v i d u a l r a t e s ------------------------------------------------------------

98
88
82
5
11
2

100
94
91
3
6

100
53
43
11
47

1 00
88
88

100
1 00
1 00

-

-

100
1 00
99
( 3)

7

100
1 00
96
4
_

'

97
96
87
9
1
3

100
93
93

"

96
91
85
b
5
4

'

'

1
2
3

F o r d efinition of m eth od of w age paym ent,
I n c l u d e s d ata f o r the B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n
L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

Because




of

rounding,

sums

of

s ee a p pen d ix A.
in a d d i t io n to t h o s e

individual

item s

may

not

shown

separately.

equal totals.

-

12

"

-

-

T able 9.

Scheduled W e e k ly H ours

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ,
U n i te d S ta tes, s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1967)
Regions
Unite d
State s 2

W eekly h o u rs 1

M iddle
A tl an ti c

Southeast

South we s t

Great
Lakes

Areas
M iddle
W est

M ountain

Pacific

B uffalo

Kansas
City

Production w ork ers
A l l w o r k e r s . . --------------------------------------------------------

4 0 h o u r s _________________ _______________________________
4 2 h o u r s _____ ________________________ ____________________
4 4 h o u r s __________________________________________________
4 5 h o u r s ___
_ . . . . ______
_
....
_ _
___ __
46 h o u r s . _ _______
.
____ ____________
_________
_ _____
48 h o u r s
_ ....
. . . . __ . . __ . . .
O v e r 4 8 h o u r s _________ __
. . . . ______
_________

100

62
1
5
7
f3)
22
3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

55
9
8
28

100

44
32
2
17
5

58
19
18
6

73
3
20
3

42
7
2
46
3

49
51
.
-

100
.
.

63
.
_
10
.
27

80
_
_
_
_
20

100

100

100

100

100

100

3
3
86
.
8

3
68
5
22

98
.
2

100
-

9
.

_

91
_

-

.

O ffice w o rk e rs
:\11 w o r k e r s . .

___ ___________ ___________________

3 5 h o u r s . . . . __
. __ __
. . . ___ __ . ___ __
37 V2 h o u r s _______________________________________________
4 0 h o u r s __
_ _
...
. . . ._ . . . ____
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s __________
.
______
44 h o u r s ..
...
_
. . .
. . . _ ...
_
_ _______
45 h o u r s
__ _______________ ___ ___ ___ . . .
O v e r 4 5 h o u r s _____
.
..
. . . ___ _____
...
.

1
2
3

100

100

2
2
86
1
7
1
1

100

7
86
-

9
78
2
2
5
5

-

6

100

91
.
6
3

D a t a r e l a t e to the p r e d o m i n a n t w o r k s c h e d u l e o f f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r t h e B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n i n a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th an 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

B ecause




of

rounding,

sums

of

indiv idual

item s

may

not

equal

.

-

.

-

1

establishm ent.

totals.

C
O

T abic 10.

Shift D ifferen tial Provisions

(Percent of production workers by shift differential provisions 1 in flour and other grain milling establishments,
United States, selected regions, and areas, February 1967)
A reas

Regions
Shift d ifferen tial

United
States 1
2

Middle
Atlantic

Middle
W est

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

72.4
39.5
36.2
17.1
19.1
-

93 .7
79.3
79.3
18.8
6.3
22.7
31.5
14.4

100.0
89.5
89.5
5.2
7.0
5.7
4.9
54.4
6.5
5.8
10.5

100.0
95 .0
95 .0
3.0
1.7
2.1
7.5
80 .7
5.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
7.4
7.1
85.4
-

69.3
60 .5
60.5
-

100.0
89.6
89.6
5.2

100.0
9 5 .0
9 5 .0
3.0
1.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
-

Mountain

P acific

Buffalo

Kansas
City

100.0
100.0
100.0
_
_
_
_
_
_
100.0
_
-

100.0
100.0
100.0
_
_
_
3.8
_
96.2
_
_

Second shift

W ork ers in estab lish m en ts having secon d shift p r ovision s____________________________________
With shift d ifferen tial___________________________
Uniform cents per h o u r _____________________
3 cents _ ___________________________ _____
4 c e n ts _____________________________________
5 c e n ts _____________________________________
6 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------7 c e n ts _____________________________________
8 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts _____________________________________
10 cen ts____________________________________
1 1 cen ts------------------------------------------------------15 cen ts____________________________________
O th e r ___________________________________________
With no shift d ifferen tial_____________________ _

95.5
84.3
83.9
.6
2.0
5.4
2.1
2.3
6.6
2.3
50.7
10.2
1.9
.4
11.2

99.9
94.3
94.3
-

_
8.6
4.1
81.5
5.7

3.3
32.9

94.3
94.3
94.3
_
-

62.2
36.2
36.2
_
-

-

-

96 .8
96 .8
96.8
_
_
6.9
89.9
_
-

-

-

Third or other late shift

W o rk ers in estab lish m en ts having th ird or other la te -s h ift p r o v is io n s ----------------------------With shift d ifferen tial----------------------------------------U niform cents per h o u r— -------------------------5 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------6 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------7 c e n ts ----------------------- -----------------------------7V2 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------8 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------10 cen ts------------------------------------------------------11 cen ts------------------------------------------------------12 cen ts------------------------------------------------------13 cen ts____________________________________
14 cen ts------------------------------------------------------15 cents------------------------------------------------------20 cen ts------------------------------------------------------With no shift d ifferen tial------------------------------------

1
2

91.4
82.5
82.5
2.7
.3
1.0
.4
3.5
8.5
11.1
43.8
.7
1.4
7.1
1.9
8.9

-

8.6
81.5
4.1
_
_

-

32.4
3.8
_
26 .0

-

22.7
31.5
_
6.3
_
8.8

-

3.2
9.6
6.5
56.1
3.2
_
5.8
10.5

R e f e r s to p o l i c i e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la te s h if ts o r h a v i n g p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g la te s h i f t s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r the B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




-

9.6
_
80.7
_
5.1

-

7.4
_
85 .4
7.1
_

96.8
96.8
96.8
-

_
8.8
18.0
6.9
63.1
_

100.0
100.0
100.0
-

100.0
_
-

100.0
100.0
100.0
-

3.8
_
96.2
_
-

T a b ic 11.

Shift D ifferen tial Practices

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d o n la te s h if t s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s by a m o u n t o f s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l ,
U n i te d S ta tes, s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1967)
Regions
Unite d
State s 1

Shif t d i f f e r e n t i a l

M iddle
Atlantic

Southeast

S ou th w e st

Great
Lakes

Areas
M iddle
W est

M ountain

P acific

B uffalo

Kansas
C it y

S e c o n d s h if t

W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d o n s e c o n d s h i f t ________________
R e c e i v i n g s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l _______________________
U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ______________________
U n d e r 5 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s _________________________________________
6 c e n t s _________________________________________
7 c e n t s _________________________________________
8 c e n t s _________________________________________
9 c e n t s _________________________________________
10 c e n t s ________________________________________
11 c e n t s __________________________ ____________
1 5 c e n t s ________________________________________
O t h e r _______________________________________________
R e c e i v i n g n o s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________

15. 8
14. 5
14. 4
. 2
1. 0
. 4
.4
1.4
. 5
8. 0
2. 0
. 5
. 1
1. 3

17. 5
17.2
1. 0
. 8
15. 4
. 3

10.
9.
9.
.
.
.
1.
1.
5.
.
.
.
.
.

10.
10.
10.
1.
8.
.
-

12. 1
8. 1
7. 1
3. 7
3. 4
1. 0
4. 0

13. 2
11.9
11.9
1. 7
1.8
4. 0
4. 4
1. 3

17. 8
16. 2
16. 2
.8
1. 2
1. 5
1. 2
8. 4
1. 6
1. 5
1. 6

16. 0
15. 4
15. 4
. 5
. 3
1. 8
12. 8
. 6

13. 8
13. 8
13. 8
. 3
1. 5
12. 1
-

17. 0
17. 0
17. 0
1.4
15. 6
-

18. 9
18. 9
18. 9
18. 9
-

14. 0
14. 0
14. 0
1 .2
12. 8
-

7.
6.
6.
3.
3.
-

12. 0
11.4
11.4
. 8
.6
1. 2
1.2
6. 3
.4

12. 2
11.7
11.7
. 5
1. 3
9. 9
-

9. 2
9. 2
9. 2
. 3
-

9. 5
9. 5
9. 5
. 2
1.9
. 7
6. 7

10. 8
10. 8
10. 8
10. 8
-

10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4

T h i r d o r o t h e r la te s h if t

1

4
7
7
3
2
5
1
3
0
1
2
7
3
7

-

5
5
5

0
8
8

7. 9
4. 8
4. 8
4. 6
. 2
-

3. 1

Includes data for the B order States region in addition to those shown sep arately,

N O TE :

B ecause of rounding,




sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

3
5
5

2
3

-

. 7

-

. 8
. 6

-

. 6

o
00

W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on third o r
o t h e r l a t e s h i f t s _______________________________________
R e c e i v i n g s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l ______________________
U n i f o r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ______________________
U n d e r 7 c e n t s ________________________________
7 o r 7 x/ 2 c e n t s _______________________________
8 c e n t s _________________________________________
10 c e n t s ________________________________________
1 1 c e n t s ________________________________________
12 c e n t s ________________________________________
1 3 c e n t s ______________________ __________________
14 c e n t s ________________________________________
15 c e n t s ________________________________________
2 0 c e n t s _______ ________________________________
R e c e i v i n g n o s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________

. 9
-

-

-

-

T able 12.

Paid H olidays
0)

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d o f f i c e w o r k e r s i n f l o u r a n d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h formal p r o v i s i o n s f o r p a i d h o l i d a y ;
U nite d S ta te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1967)
A r ■eas

Regions
United
States 1

N u m b e r o f paid h o lid a y s

M iddle
Atlantic

Southeast

S outhwest

Great
Lakes

M iddle
W est

M ountain

Pacific

B uffalo

K an s as
City

P roduction w orkers
A l l w o r k e r s _________________________________________

100

1 00

100

10 0

1 00

1 00

1 00

100

100

96
1
2
4
10
Z

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a i d h o l i d a y s _______________________ ______________ ______
3 d a y s ___________________________________________________
4 d a y s ___________________________________________________
5 d a y s ____ ______________________________________________
6 d a y s ___________________________________________________
6 d a y s p l u s 2 h a l f d a y s ____________________________
7 d a y s ___________________________________________________
7 d a y s p l u s 2 h a l f d a y s ____________________________
8 d a y s ___________________________________________________
9 d a y s ___________________________________________________

100

94
-

93
5
22
12
41
5
8

75
14
9
30
6
15

1 00
4
7
10
1
14
64

10 0
11
11
45
33

1 00
7
74
18

100
3
26
7 1

100
100

100
-

9
-

9
(2)
Z2
45

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s __________________ — __________________

86

4

-

24
76

25

6

O ffice w o rk e rs
100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d h o l i d a y s _____________________________________ ______
3 d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d a y s _________________________ ________________________
5 d a y s ___________________________________________________
6 d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 d a y s p l u s 1 h a l f d a y ______________________________
6 d a y s p l u s Z h a l f d a y s ____________________________
7 d a y s __________________________________________________
7 d a y s p l u s Z h a l f d a y s ____________________________
8 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------8 d a y s p l u s 2 h a l f d a y s ____________________________
9 d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 d a y s p l u s 1 h a l f d a y -----------------------------------------------

100

10 0

10 0

1 00

100

100

100

1 00

100

98

A l l w o r k e r s _________________________________________

94
4
-

93
2
12
12
56
-

95
9
29
12

1 00
5
3
15
1
15
8
54

1 00
44
-

100
5
-

1 00
5
21
38
36

1 00
15
76
9

100
58
5
-

(2)
1
3
18
1
1
13

-

-

-

13
69
7

r)
20
4
37
1

3
8
-

22
23
-

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s _______________________________________

1
2

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r the B o r d e r
L e s s t h a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

Because




of

rounding

States

sum s

of

region

in a d d i t io n

in dividual

item s

to

those

.y n o t

shown

equal

separately.

totals.

-

-

13
22
20
1

-

79
2
13
-

-

3C

T able 13.

Paid V acations

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n a nd o f f i c e w o r k e r s in f l o u r a n d o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p a i d v a c a t i o n s
a f t e r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e , U n i t e d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1 96 7 )
Regions
"V ac ati on p o l i c y

Great
Lake s

State s 1

M iddle
A tl anti c

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

96
3

100
~

81
11

94
6

30

9
91

73
3
24

62
38

Areas
|
|

100

S o u t h w e st

M iddle
We s t

B uffalo

Kansas
C it y

M ountain

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

98
-

98
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

-

-

P rodu ction w o rk e rs
A l l w o r k e r s ________________________________
Method of paym ent
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s _ __ __ ___ ________ _ _ ______
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ____ __ ______._
Am ount of vacation p a y 2
After 1 year of service:
1 w e e k __________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ —
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _________ ______
Z w e e k s ________
____
_
_ _ _ ---------A fter Z yea rs of se rvice :
1 w e e k ______ — _______ ___ _________ — _ _
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r Z w e e k s _______________
Z w e e k s ___________________________ ____________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s . _____________
A fter 3 ye a r s of s e rv ice :
1 w e e k _____ __
______ ______________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r Z w e e k s _______________
Z w e e k s _______________________________________
_______
O v e r Z an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s
\ fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k , _______ ____________
_
_
___ ______
O v e r i a n d u n d e r Z w e e k s . __________ _
2 w e e k s ________________
___ ___
_____ __ _ _
O v e r Z an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s
3 w e e k s ___ __ ___________________________ _
_
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _______________
__________________ __
O v e r 1 and u n d e r Z w e e k s
_________
Z weeks
_ ______________ ____________________
_
3 w e e k s ____ ___________ __________ ________ ___
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _ ____________
_
A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _________________________ ______________ __
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s . _________ ...
2 w e e k s _____ _____________ __ ____________ __ _
3 w e e k s _________________________ _
_
_
_
O v e r 3 and un d er 4 w eek s
____________
4 w e e k s ..............
.............
. _
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s _____ __
5 w e e k s ___________________________ ____________
A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e : 4
1 w e e k ________ ___________ ___________________ _
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________
Z w e e k s ___________________ _______ _ _______
_
3 w e e k s _ _____________________________________
4 w e e k s ___ ______________________________ _____
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s _____________
5 w e e k s _____________________________ __________
O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s _______________

See

footnotes




at e n d

of

table.

(3 ^
70
-

2

|

-

-

93
7

31

|
j
|

9
91

29
71

5
95

100

4
96

-

'

-

-

100

100

100

69

-

-

-

9
91

64
3
32

33
67

6

-

94

100

100

-

-

-

-

'

-

~

-

-

100
-

50
3
47
-

33
67
-

3
97
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

86
14

-

-

9
15
76

6
94

50
35
15

33
37
29

10
90

11
89

7
93

100

100

100

-

-

-

-

'

"

-

-

-

9
_
7
45
_

6
9
86
-

50
23
27
-

33
13
39
15
-

2
50
48
-

5
68
28
-

7
68
25
-

34
66
-

100
-

18
82
-

-

-

-

-

-

5
19
49
-

7
7
60
-

48

28

25

3
40
57

100

15
(M
85
-

10
f3 )
88
1

39
-

-

9
_
6
18
29

6
9

_

-

38

86

50
14
25
11
-

33
6
45
15

2
16
33

-

4
-

82

Table 13.

Paid V acation s— C ontinued

(Percent of production and office workers in flour and other grain milling establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations
after selected periods of service, United States, selected regions, and areas, February 1967)
Regions

United
States 1

Vacation policy

A rea s

Great
Lakes

Middle
W est

Mountain

P acific

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

50
6
35

59
41

25
75

57
1
41

54
46

28
72

13
87

3
5
92

4
_
96
-

45
6
48
-

22
78
-

19
78
3

10
_
87
3

84
16

93
7

.
100
-

3
_
81
16

6
C
3)
90
4

4
96
-

39
6
55
-

9
91
-

2
95
3

97
3

84
16

93
7

100
-

84
16

A fter 5 y e a rs of serv ic e:
1 week______________________________________
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s______________
Z w e e k s______________ ____ _________________
Over Z and under 3 weeks
................ .
3 w e e k s___________________ ________________

3
(3)
91
4
1

100
-

Z1
6
73
-

9
91
-

1
96
3
-

97
3
-

84
16
-

84
7
9

100
-

84
16
-

After 10 y e a rs of serv ic e:
1 w eek.__________ ________ _____ ____________
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s______________
Z w e e k s____________________________________
3 w e e k s. . .
____ _
.
..
. . .
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ______________

3
(3)
Z3
67
6

14
65
Z1

Z1
6
53
19
-

9
44
47
-

14
83
3

.
30
66
3

5
78
16

18
75
7

9
67
24

84
16

A fter 15 ye ars of serv ic e:
1 week______________________________________
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s______________
Z w e e k s ____________________________________
3 w e e k s __________ _________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s_____________
4 w e e k s____________________________________
Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s______________
5 w e e k s____________________________________

3
(3 )
14
50
1
Z6
4
1

14
4
61
21
-

21
6
52
21
_
-

9
32
36
23
-

2
59
3
36
-

29
54
14
3

5
63
15
16
-

82
11
7
-

9
67
24
-

66
19
16

A fter Z0 y ears of serv ic e: 4
1 week______________________________________
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s ___________ ___
Z weeks ____________ _______________________
3 w e e k s ____________________________________
4 w e e k s. __________________________________
Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s ______________
5 weeks _ __________________________________
Over 5 and under 6 w e e k s___________ _

3
(3 )
13
Z6
Z6
1
Z6
4

-

21
6
44
13
16

-

-

Middle
Atlantic

Southeast

Southwe st

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

A fter 1 year of servic e:
1 week______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
Z weeks ....

39
1
60

ZZ
78

A fter Z y e a rs of serv ic e:
1 week.. .
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s______________
Z w e e k s _________________ _____ _____________
Over Z and under 3 w e e k s ______________

15
(3 )
81
4

A fter 3 y e a rs of serv ic e:
1 week___________________________________ __
Over 1 and under Z w e e k s______________
Z w e e k s____________________________________
Over Z and under 3 w e e k s ______________

Buffalo

Kansas
City

Office w orkers
A ll w ork ers______________________________
Method of payment
W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing
paid vacatio n s_______________________________
L e n g th -o f-tim e p aym e n t________________
Amount of vacation pay 2

at

14
4
-

.
_

61
Z1

9
-

23
45
-

23

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r the B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n in a d d i t io n to t h o s e s how n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the i n d i v i d u a l
10 y e a r s
m a y i n c l u d e c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
3 L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
4 V a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y the s a m e a f t e r l o n g e r p e r i o d s of s e r v i c e ,


NOTE:
B e ca u sie


of

rounding,

sums

of

in div idu al

item s

may

not

equal tota ls.

-

-

2
25
34
3
36

establishm ent

25
29
28

-

-

-

5
4
59

9

44
38

-

-

18

provision s

-

-

15
16

11
7

67
24

for

p rogression.

For

exam ple,

changes

in p r o p o r t i o n s

-

58
8
34

-

in d icated

T a b le 14.

H ealth, Insurance, and R etirem ent Plans

(Percent of production and office workers in flour and other grain milling establishments with specified health, insurance,
and retirement plans, United States, selected regions, and areas, February 1967)

United
States 2

T y p e of plan 1

Regions
M iddle
Atlantic

Southeast

S o u th w e st

Great
Lake s

Ar eas
M iddle
W est

M ountain

P acific

B uffalo

Kansas
City

v
P roduction m orkers

A l l w o r k e r s _____________________

__________

1 00

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1 00

97
64
33

100
100
-

83
33
50

94
45
49

99
75
23

100
53
47

100
93
7

100
62
38

100
100
-

1 00
90
10

51
32
20

49
49
-

44
23
21

62
29
33

52
37
15

43
9
34

26
19
7

79
67
12

43
43
-

4
4
-

81
75
58
18

84
84
84
-

29
29
22
7

71
71
36
35

93
84
76
9

91
85
45
40

93
85
85
-

83
69
57
12

87
87
87
-

90
90
90
-

10

7

-

26

100
90
10
100
90
10
86
75
10
86
86
86
86
46
40
-

90
46
44
80
36
44
27
27
15
15

1 00
45
55
1 00
45
55
46
30
16
40
24
16
57
57
57
-

5
96
71
25
96
71
25
89
71
19
65
56
9
87
83
64
20
8
1

8
100
55
45
100
55
45
97
55
42
37
32
5
77
75
52
22
2

7
100
76
24
100
76
24
1 00
76
24
76
76
93
93
86
7
-

31
100
75
25
1 00
75
25
95
75
20
46
34
12
97
97
71
25
-

100
87
13
100
87
13
100
87
13
100
1 00
100
100
56
44
-

1 00
100
100
1 00
100
100
76
73
4
90
90
38
53
-

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------S ick n e s s and a ccid e n t in s u ra n ce or
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 3 -----------------------------------S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ----E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ______________________
S ic k le a v e (full p ay, no w a itin g
p e r l o d ) ___________________________________
S ick le a v e (p a rtia l p ay or w aiting
p e r i o d ) ------------------------------------------------------H o s m t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e - ---------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l v f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p l a n s 4 ---------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n - ---------------------------E m p l o v e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------L u m p - s u m p a y m e n t s ___________________
N o p l a n s -------------------------------------------------------------

8
7
97
64
33
96
63
33
81
59
22
52
44
8
77
76
56
19
3
1

-

34
34
24
11
3

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e .




C
D

T a b le 14.

H ealth, Insurance, and R e tire m e n t Plans----- C ontin ued

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n an d o f f i c e w o r k e r s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i e d h e a lt h ,
and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s , U n i te d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , a nd a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1967)

United
States 2

Type of p l a n 1

insurance,

Regions
M iddle
A tlantic

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Areas
M iddle
W est

M ountain

P a cific

B uffalo

Kansas
City

O ffice w o rk e rs
A l l w o r k e r s _________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1 00

96
52
44

1 00
84
16

77
30
47

95
52
43

97
65
32

100
51
49

100
47
53

100
21
79

100
85
15

100
100
_

55
28
27

56
43
13

47
20
27

59
28
31

60
38
22

52
12
39

28
22
6

59
21
38

53
38
15

19
19
-

75
61
42
19

91
77
56
21

16
16
10
6

63
50
32

18

89
59
49
10

81
77
32
45

95
91
89
2

59
50
33
17

100
85
60
24

81
81
81

34

64

6

13

50

24

4

26

74

5

7
96
52
44
96
52
44
85
48
36
57
32
25
84
82
52
30
4

-

-

-

-

100
34
66
100
34
66
53
15
38
49
11
38
53
53
47
6

100
56
44
100
56
44
100
56
44
62
56
6
96
96
66
30

21
100
70
30
100
70
30
88
70
18
38
21
17
95
95
66
29

-

90
37
53
87
34
53
40
24
16
35
12
23
56
56
40
16

100
85
15
1 00
85
15
100
85
15
100
85
15
100
100
53
47

100
100
100
100

-

-

-

5
92
47
45
92
47
45
90
47
43
35
27
9
84
77
54
23
6

-

100
87
13
1 00
87
13
89
76
13
86
73
13
89
89
46
44

9
96
43
53
96
43
53
95
43
52
74
31
43
89
87
50
37
9

-

-

-

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e _______________________________
E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d __________________________
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e __________________________________
E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ______________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d -------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 3 _______________________
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e -----E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d __________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d — ---------------------------S ic k le a v e (full p a y , no w a itin g
p e r i o d ) ------------------------------------------------------S ick leav e (partial pay or w aiting
p e r i o d ) ------------------------------------------------------H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e - ______________
E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ______________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ----------------------------------------S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e __________________________
E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d — __________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ________________________
M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ______________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ---------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e - --------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d ______________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ----------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p l a n s 4 ------- -------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n --------------------------------E m p l o y e r f i n a n c e d __________________
J o i n t l y f i n a n c e d ______________________
L u m p - s u m p a y m e n t s ----------------------------N o p l a n s -------------------------------------------------------------

(5)

-

_

100
1 00
_

42
38
5
100

ioo

63
37
-

2

1 I n c l u d e s o n l y t h o s e p l a n s f o r w h i c h at l e a s t p a r t o f t h e c o s t i s b o r n e b y t h e e m p l o y e r a n d e x c l u d e s l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d p l a n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ;
h o w e v e r , p l a n s r e q u i r e d b y S t a t e t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y l a w s a r e i n c l u d e d if the e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t e s m o r e t h a n i s l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d o r t h e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s i n e x c e s s o f t h e l e g a l
requ irem en ts.
2 I n c l u d e s d ata f o r the B o r d e r S t a t e s r e g i o n in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 U n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s in p l a n t s h a v i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r p e n s i o n p la n s o r l u m p - s u m p a y m e n t s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
5 L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e of r ou n d in g,




s u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y not e q u a l to ta ls .

T a b le 15.

O th er Selected Benefits

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s in f l o u r and o t h e r g r a i n m i l l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h f u n e r a l l e a v e p ay,
U n i t e d S t a t e s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , ar.d a r e a s , F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 7 )

U n ite d
S ta te s 1

ju r y duty pay,

and s e v e r a n c e p ay ,

Regions
M iddle A tlantic

Southeast

Southwest

Great Lakes

Areas
M iddle W est

M ountain

P acific

Euffalo

K a n s a s C it y

100
100

P rodu ction w o rk e rs
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h
p rovision s for:
F u n e r a l l e a v e p a y -----------------------------------------J u r y d u t y p a y _________________________________
S e v e r a n c e p a y 2 ______________________________

79
73
53

94
94

8
6

28
30
17

60
60
40

91
80
52

85
82
45

93
42
83

97

88
8
6

100
100
1
00

69
69
41

91
65
58

62
82
17

1
00
1
00
100

87

O ffice w ork ers
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h
p rovision s for:
F u n e r a l l e a v e p a y -----------------------------------------J u r y d u t y p a y _________________________________
S e v e r a n c e p a y 2 -----------------------------------------------

68
71
34

91
91
89

19

20
6

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r th e B o r d e r S ta te s r e g i o n in a d d i tio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
P a y t o e m p l o y e e s p e r m a n e n t l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t he c o m p a n y t h r o u g h n o f a u l t o f t h e i r




6
68
6

own.

87
77
29

81
81
92




Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey

Scope of Survey
The s u r v e y included e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y engaged in m illin g flour or m e a l f r o m
g ra in , excep t r ic e (industry 2041 as defined in the 1957 edition and the 1963 Su pple m ent of
the Standard Indust rial C la s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l, p r e p a r e d by the U .S . B u re au of the Budg et).
E s t a b li s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y engaged in cleaning and polishing r ic e and in m anufacturing ric e
fl our or m e a l (SIC 2 0 4 4 ) , and e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y eng aged in m anufacturing p r e p a r e d
fl ou r m i x e s f r o m p u r c h a s e d ingredie nts (SIC 2045) w e r e ex clude d f r o m the s u r v e y . S e pa ra te
a u x ilia r y units, such as c en tra l o f f i c e s , a ls o w e r e ex clu ded.
The e s t a b l is h m e n t s studied w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m those em p lo y in g 20 w o r k e r s or m o r e
at the tim e of r e f e r e n c e of the data u sed in com pilin g the u n iv e rs e li s t s (u n e m p lo ym en t in ­
su ran ce lis t in g s c o m p ile d by the v a r io u s Sta te s).
The num ber of e s t a b l is h m e n t s and w o r k e r s a ctu ally studied by the B u re a u , as w e ll
as the num ber e s t i m a t e d to be within scop e of the s u r v e y during the p a y r o ll p e rio d studied,
a r e shown in the foll ow in g table:

Estimated Number of Establishments and Workers Within Scope of Survey and Number Studied,
Flour and Other Grain Milling Establishments, February 1967
Number of
establishments 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of survey

Region * and area2

Within
scope of
survey

Studied

Studied

Nonsupervisory
Total 4

Production
workers

Office
workers

Total

United States 5 -----------------

198

132

16,985

12,565

1 ,609

14 ,1 2 0

Middle A tlan tic------------------------Buffalo----------------------------------Southeast----------------------------------Southwest----------------------------------Great Lakes--------------------------------Middle W est------------------------------Kansas C ity--------------------------Mountain----------- ------------------------Pacific-----------------------------------------

17
7
31
17
48
44
6
16
17

10
7
18
11
29
34
6
12
11

1 ,7 0 4
1 ,420
1 ,930
1,4 5 5
5 ,3 7 5
3 ,2 7 7
651
978
1,818

1,2 5 5
1,023
1 ,366
1 ,085
4 ,0 4 7
2 ,5 1 4
500
672
1 ,306

190
164
124
116
517
294
64
97
239

1, 507
1 ,4 2 0
1 ,4 2 5
1, 126
4 ,3 0 8
2 ,9 3 5
651
823
1 ,5 7 6

1 The regions used in this study include:
Middle Atlantic— New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Southeast— Alabam a,
Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; Southwest— Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas;
Great Lakes— Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Middle West— Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain— Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New M exico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific— California,
Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
Alaska and Hawaii were excluded from the survey.
2 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the U. S. Bureau of the Budget through March 1965.
For definition
of areas, see footnote 1, tables 6 and 7.
Includes only establishments with 20 workers or more at the time of reference of the universe data.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate production and office worker categories.
Includes data for the Border States region in addition to those shown separately.

Meth od of Study
Data w e r e obtained by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s of B u re au field e c o n o m i s t s unde r the d i r e c ­
tion of the B u r e a u ' s A s s i s t a n t R egion al D i r e c t o r s , D iv ision o f O p e r a t i o n s .
Th e s u r vey
w a s conducted on a sa m p le b a s i s .
To obtain a pprop ria te a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a
g r e a t e r proportion of l a r g e than o f s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s w a s studied.
In com binin g the
data, h o w e v e r , all e s t a b l is h m e n t s w e r e giv en their approp ria te weight.
A l l e s t i m a t e s are
p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , as rela ting to all es t a b l is h m e n t s in the in du stry, excluding only those
b elow the m i n i m u m s i z e at the t im e of r e f e r e n c e of the u n iv e rs e data.




23

E s ta b lis h m e n t D efin ition
An e s t a b l is h m e n t , for p u r p o s e s of this study, is defined as a single ph y s ica l l o c a ­
tion where industrial operations are p e r f o r m e d . An e s t a b l is h m e n t is not n e c e s s a r i l y id e n ­
tic a l with the com p an y , which m a y c o n s is t of one or m o r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

Em ploym ent
The e s t i m a t e s of the number of w o r k e r s
as a g e n e r a l guide to the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n
The advance planning n e c e s s a r y to m ake a wage
li s h m e n t s a s s e m b l e d c o n s i d e r a b ly in advance of

within the scope of the study are intended
of the labor fo r c e included in the s u r v e y .
s u r vey r e q u ir e s the use of li s t s of e s t a b ­
the p a y r o ll pe rio d studied.

P rod u c tio n W o r k e r s
The t e r m "p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s , " as used in this bulle tin, includes working f o r e m e n
and all n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s engaged in nonoffice fu nctions.
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , ex e c u t iv e ,
p r o f e s s i o n a l and technic al p e r s o n n e l, and f o r c e - a c c o u n t con s tr u c tion e m p l o y e e s , who w e r e
u tiliz ed as a s ep arate w o rk fo r c e on the f i r m ' s own p r o p e r t i e s , w e r e exclu ded.

O ffic e

Workers

The t e r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " includes all n o n s u p e r v i s o r y office w o r k e r s and ex clu des
a d m i n i s t r a t iv e , e x ec u tiv e, p r o f e s s i o n a l , and technical e m p l o y e e s .

Occupation s S e lec ted for Study
Occupation al c la s s i f i c a t i o n wa s b a s e d on a u n ifo rm set of jo b d e s c rip t io n s de sign ed
to take account of inter e s t a b l is h m e n t and in te r a r e a v a r ia tio n s in duties within the s a m e jo b .
(See appendix B for these d e s c r i p t i o n s .)
The occupations w e r e ch ose n fo r their n u m e r ic a l
i m p o r t a n c e , their u s e f u ln e s s in c o lle c t i v e bargain in g, or their r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the
entire job s c a le in the in dust ry.
W orking s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t i c e s , l e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s ,
t r a i n e e s , handicapped, p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , and p r o ba tio n ar y w o r k e r s w e r e not r ep o r te d
in the data fo r s e le c t e d occupations but w e r e included in the data fo r all production w o r k e r s .

Wage

Data

The wage in fo rm a tio n r e la te s to a ver a ge s t r a i g h t - t i m e hourly e a r n in g s , excluding
p r e m i u m pay for o v e r t i m e and for w o rk on w e ek en d s , h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts.
Incentive
p a y m e n ts , such as those resu lt in g f r o m p ie ce w o r k or production bonus s y s t e m s and c o s t o f- li v i n g b o n u s e s , w e r e included as a pa rt of the w o r k e r ' s r e g u l a r pay; but nonproduction
bonus p a y m e n ts , such as C h r i s t m a s or y ear en d b o n u s e s , w e r e ex clu ded.
A v e r a g e (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each occupation or other group of
w o r k e r s , such as production w o r k e r s , w e r e calculated by weighting ea ch rate (or h ou rly
earnings) by the number of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g the rate, totaling and dividing by the number
of individuals.
The hourly earnin gs of s a la r i e d w o r k e r s w e r e obtained by dividing their
s t r a i g h t -t i m e s a l a r y by n o r m a l rather than actual h ou rs.
The m ed ia n de sign a te s position; that i s , o n e -h a lf of the e m p l o y e e s s u r vey ed r e c e i v e d
m o r e than this rate and o n e -h a lf r e c e i v e d l e s s .
The m iddle range is defined by two rates
of pay; o n e -f o u r t h of the e m p lo y e e s earned l e s s than the lo w er of these rates and o n e -f o u r t h
earned m o r e than the higher rate.
Size

of C om m u n ity

Tabulations by s iz e of c om m u n ity pe rtain to m e t r o p o li t a n and n on m etr op olitan a r e a s .
The t e r m " m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , " as u sed in this bulletin, r e f e r s to the Standard M e tr o p olita n
S ta tis tic a l A r e a s as defined by the U .S . B u reau of the Budget through M a r c h 19 65 .




E x c ep t in New En g la n d , a Standard M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a is defined as a
county or group of contiguous counties which contains at l e a s t one city of 50, 000 inhabitants
or m o r e .
Contiguous counties to the one containing such a city are included in a Standard
M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a , if, acco rd in g to c ertain c r i t e r i a , they a re e s s e n t i a l l y m e t ­
r op olitan in c h a r a c t e r and are s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a ll y inte grated with the cen tra l city. In
New Engla nd, where the city and town a re a d m i n i s t r a t iv e l y m o r e im portant than the county,
they are the units u sed in defining Standard M e tro polita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s .

Method of W a ge P a ym en t
Ta bulatio ns by m eth od of wage pa ym ent r ela te to the number of w o r k e r s paid under
the v a r i o u s tim e and incentive wage s y s t e m s . F o r m a l rate st ru c t u re s for t i m e - r a t e d w o r k e r s
provide single ra t e s or a range of ra t e s fo r individual job c a t e g o r i e s . In the a b s e n ce of a
f o r m a l rate s t r u c t u r e , pay ra t e s are d e te rm in ed p r i m a r i l y with r e f e r e n c e to the qualifica tio ns
of the individual w o r k e r . A single rate structure is one in which the s a m e rate is paid to
all ex p e rie n c e d w o r k e r s in the s a m e job c la s s if i c a t i o n .
L e a r n e r s , a p p r e n t i c e s , or p r o b a ­
tio n ary w o r k e r s m a y be paid acc o rd in g to rate sch ed ules which start b elow the single rate
and p e r m i t the w o r k e r s to ach ieve the full job rate over a pe rio d of t im e . Individual e x p e ­
r ie n c ed w o r k e r s m a y o c c a s i o n a lly be paid above or b elow the single rate fo r sp e c ia l r e a s o n s ,
but such pa ym e n ts are r e g a r d e d as e x c ep tio n s . Range of rate plans a re those in which the
m i n i m u m a n d / o r m a x i m u m rates paid ex p e rie n c e d w o r k e r s for the s a m e job are s p e c ified .
Spec ific r ates of individual w o r k e r s within the range m a y be d e te r m in e d by m e r i t , length
of s e r v i c e , or a com bination of v a r io u s concepts of m e r i t and length of s e r v i c e . Incentive
w o r k e r s are c l a s s i f i e d under p ie c e w o r k or bonus p lan s . P i e c e w o r k is w o rk fo r which a p r e ­
d e te r m i n e d rate is paid for each unit of output. Pr od u c tio n bonuses a re b a s e d on produ ction
in e x c e s s of a quota or fo r c om p letion of a job in l e s s than standa rd t im e .
Scheduled W e e k l y H ou rs
Data on w e e k ly hours r e f e r to the predom in an t w ork sched ule fo r
duction w o r k e r s (or office w o r k e r s ) em p loy ed on the day shift.
Shift P r o v i s i o n s

fu ll-tim e

pro­

and P r a c t i c e s

Shift p r o v i s i o n s rela te to the p o li c i e s of e s t a b l is h m e n t s either c u rr e n t ly operating
late shifts or having fo r m a l p r o v i s i o n s cov erin g late shift w o r k. P r a c t i c e s r e la te to w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d on late shifts at the tim e of the s u rvey .
Su p p le m en ta r y Wage P r o v i s i o n s
Su p p le m en ta r y ben ef its w e r e tre ated s t a t i s ti c a l ly on the b a s i s that if f o r m a l p r o ­
v is i o n s w e r e app licable to half or m o r e of the production (or office w o r k e r s ) in an e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t , the benefits w e r e c o n s i d e r e d applic able to all such w o r k e r s . S i m i l a r l y , if few er
than half of the w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d , the benefit w a s c o n s id e r e d non exist en t in the e s ­
t a b lis h m en t. B e c a u s e of l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e and other elig ib ilit y r e q u i r e m e n t s , the pr o por tion
of w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g the benefits m a y be s m a l l e r than e s t i m a t e d .
P a id H o l i d a y s .
vided annually.

P a i d - h o li d a y p r o v i s i o n s r ela te to f u l l - d a y and h a l f - d a y hol idays p r o ­

Pa id V a c a t i o n s .
The s u m m a r i e s of v acation plans are li m i te d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n t s , excluding in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e off with pay is granted at the d i s c r e t i o n of
the e m p lo y e r or the s u p e r v i s o r . P a y m e n t s not on a t im e b a s i s w e r e con v erte d; fo r e x a m p le ,
a paym ent of 2 p e rc e n t of annual earnings wa s c o n s id e r e d the equ ivalent of 1 w e e k 's pay.
The pe rio d s of s e r v ic e fo r which data a re pres e n te d w e r e s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n ta t iv e of the
m o s t c o m m o n p r a c t i c e s , but they do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f le c t individual e s t a b l is h m e n t p r o ­
v is i o n s for p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , the changes in pro portion s in dicated at 10 y e a r s of
s e r v i c e m a y include changes which o c c u r r e d between 5 and 10 y e a r s .
H ea lth, I n s u r a n c e , and R e t i r e m e n t P l a n s . Data a re p r e s e n te d fo r hea lt h, i n s u ra n c e ,
pension, and l u m p - s u m r e t ir e m e n t paym en t plans fo r which all or a pa rt of the cost is
borne by the e m p l o y e r , excluding p r o g r a m s req u ir ed by la w, such as w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a t io n
and s o c i a l s e c u r i ty . A m o n g the plans included are those u nderw ritte n by a c o m m e r c i a l in­
surance com p an y , and those paid d i r e c t ly by the e m p lo y e r f r o m his c u rren t operating funds
or f r o m a fund set side for this p u r p o s e .




26

Death benefits are included as a f o r m of life i n s u ra n c e. S ic k n e s s and accident in­
suran ce is li m i te d to that type of in su ran ce under which p r e d e t e r m in e d cash pa ym e n ts are
m ad e d i r e c t ly to the insured on a w e e k ly or monthly b a s i s during i lln e s s or accident disa bility.
In form atio n is p r e s e n te d for all such plans to which the e m p lo y e r contributes at l e a s t a pa rt
of the c o s t. H o w e v e r , in New Y o r k and New J e r s e y , w h e re t e m p o r a r y d isa bilit y in su ran ce
laws r eq u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s , 16 plans a re included only if the e m p lo y e r (1) contributes
m o r e than is le g a lly r eq u ir e d or (Z) prov des the e m p lo y e e s with b en efits which ex c ee d the
r e q u ir e m e n ts of the law.
Tabulatio ns of paid
pay or a pr o p o r tio n of the
fo r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s have
(1) plans which provide full
pay or a waiting pe rio d.

s i c k - l e a v e plans a re lim ite d to f o r m a l plans which provide full
w o r k e r ’ s pay during a bse n ce f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e of i l l n e s s ; in­
been o m itted.
Se para te tabulations a re provide d a cc o rd in g to
pay and no waiting p e rio d , and (Z) plans providing either partial

M e d i c a l insura nce r e f e r s to plans providing for c om p lete or p artial pa ym ent of
d o c to r s* f e e s .
Such plans m a y be underw ritte n by a c o m m e r c i a l in su ran ce com pany or a
nonprofit o rg an iza tio n , or they m a y be s e l f - i n s u r e d .
C ata strop h e in s u ra n c e , s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d to as extended m e d i c a l in s u ra n c e , in­
cludes the plans de sign ed to c ov er e m p lo y e e s in case of s i c k n e s s or injury involving an e x ­
pe nse which g oes beyond the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e of h os p ita liza tio n , m e d i c a l , and s u r g ic a l plans.
Tabu lations of r e t ir e m e n t pensions a re lim ite d to plans which provide r e g u la r p a y ­
m en ts for the r e m a i n d e r of the r e t ir e e *s li f e . Data are p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly for l u m p - s u m
r e t ir e m e n t pay (one pa ym ent or s e v e r a l over a s p e c ified pe rio d of time) m ade to e m p lo y e e s
on r e t ir e m e n t . E s t a b li s h m e n t s providing both l u m p - s u m p a ym e n ts and pensio ns to e m p lo y e e s
on r e t ir e m e n t w e r e c o n s id e r e d as having both r e t ir e m e n t pen sio n and l u m p - s u m r e t ir e m e n t
pay. E s t a b li s h m e n t s having optional plans providing e m p lo y e e s a choice of either l u m p - s u m
r e t ir e m e n t pa ym e n ts or pensio ns w e r e c o n s id e r e d as having only r e t i r e m e n t pen sio n b e n e fits .
Paid F u n e r a l and Jury Duty L e a v e . Data for paid fu n eral and ju r y duty le av e are
lim ite d to f o r m a l plans which provide at l e a s t p artial paym en t for tim e lo s t as a r e s u lt of
attending fu n e ra ls of s p e c ifie d f a m i ly m e m b e r s or ser v in g as a j u r o r .
Severance P a y .
Data r ela te to fo r m a l plans providing fo r pa ym e n ts to e m p lo y e e s
p e rm a n en tly se p a r a t e d f r o m the com pany through no fault of their own.

16

The temporary disability insurance laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.




Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The p r i m a r y purpose of pr ep ar in g job d e s c rip t io n s
for the B u r e a u 's wage s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its field staff
in c la s s i f y i n g into approp riate occupations w o r k e r s who
are em p loy ed under a v ar iety of p a y r o ll titles and diffe rent
w ork a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b l is h m e n t to e s t a b l is h m e n t
and f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
This p e r m i t s the grouping of o c ­
cupa tio nal wage rates repr ese n tin g c o m p a r a b le job content.
B e c a u s e of this e m p h a s i s on in te r e s ta b li s h m e n t and i n t e r ­
a re a c o m p a r a b i li t y of occupatio nal content, the B u r e a u 's
job d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y diffe r s ign ific a n tly f r o m those in use
in individual e s t a b l is h m e n t s or those p r ep a r ed for other
p u r p o s e s . In applying these job d e s c r i p t i o n s , the B u r e a u 's
field e c o n o m i s t s are instructe d to exclude wo rking s u p e r ­
v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t i c e s ; l e a r n e r s ; b e g i n n e r s ; t r a i n e e s ; handi­
c apped, p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , and pro ba tio n ary w o r k e r s .

BOLTER
(Sifter operator)
Sifts ground grain in the sifting m a c h in e s to r e m o v e the broke n k e rn e ls and lumps
to be returned to grinding m i l l s fo r further p r o c e s s i n g ; and adjusts feed s li de s so m achine
can take in only as m u c h grain as it w i l l sift.
G R A IN E L E V A T O R

OPERATOR

Has charge of grain unloading fr o m trucks or r ailr oa d c a r s .
Tends el evating m a ­
c h i n e r y , and m a y do m i n o r r e p a ir and m ainten an ce w o r k on elevating m a c h i n e r y .
Sees that
v ariou s g ra d es of gra in go to sep arate b in s .
D e t e r m i n e s where gra in is to be s tor ed and is
r e s p o n s ib le for sending d e s i r e d gra in to m i l l .
M a y a ctually do unlo ad ing, and m a y a ls o run
grain through o rig in a l sc r e e n in g or cleaning p r o c e s s which r e m o v e s large p ie c e s o f fo r eign
m atter.
J A N IT O R
(S w eep er;

c h ar w o m an ; j a n i tr e s s )

C le an s and keeps in an o r d e r l y condition fa c to r y working a r e a s and w a s h r o o m s , or
p r e m i s e s of an o f f i c e , a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , or c o m m e r c i a l , or other e s t a b lis h m e n t .
Duties
involve a c om b in ation of the f o llo w in g : Sw ee ping, mopping or s c r u b b in g , and po lishing f l o o r s ;
r em o v in g c h i p s , t r a s h , and other r e f u s e ; dusting eq u ipm en t, fu r n itu r e , or fix tu r e s ; po lishing
m e t a l fi x tu r es or t r i m m i n g s ; providing supp lies and m i n o r maintenance s e r v i c e s ; and cleaning
l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s who s p e c ia li z e in window washing a re ex clu ded.

L A B ORE R ,

M A TERIA L HANDLING

(L o a d e r and u n lo ad er; handler and s t a c k e r ;
w a r e h o u s e m a n or w a r e h o u s e helper)

shelver;

tru c k e r ;

stockm an or stock h elp er ;

A w o r k e r em p lo y ed in a w a r e h o u s e , man ufacturing plant, s t o r e , or other e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t whose duties involve one or m o r e of the fo llo w in g :
Loading and unloading variou s
m a t e r i a l s and m e r c h a n d i s e on or f r o m fr e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , or other tra nsporting d e v i c e s ;
unpacking, s h elv in g , or placing m a t e r i a l s or m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r storage lo cation; and
transp orting m a t e r i a l s or m e r c h a n d i s e by handtruck, c a r , or w h e e lb a r r o w .
Longshorem en,
who load and unload s h i p s , are e x c lu d e d .




27

28
M E CH A NIC ,

GENERAL

P e r f o r m s the w o r k of two or m o r e m aintenance trades rath er than s p e c ia liz in g in
only one trade or one type of m ain ten an ce w o r k .
T y p i c a l l y , the w o r k of a g e n e r a l m ec h an ic
r e q u ir e s rounded training and ex p e rie n c e u s u ally acquired through a f o r m a l a ppren tic esh ip
or equivalent training and e x p e r i e n c e .
The c la s s if i c a t i o n include s w o r k e r s who r e g u l a r ly p e r f o r m two or m o r e types of
skilled m aintenance w o r k within a section or d e pa rtm en t of a la rg e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , such as
pipefitting, m i l l w r i g h t i n g , w e ld in g , m a c h in in g , m achine and equipm en t r e p a i r i n g , and c a r ­
p e n tr y, among o th e r s . It a ls o include s w o r k e r s that maintain and rep a ir m a c h i n e s , m e c h a n i c a l
and e l e c t r i c a l eq u ipm en t, a n d / o r the stru ctu re of a s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t w h e re s p e c ia liza tio n
in m aintenance w o r k is i m p r a c t i c a l .
It does not, h o w e v e r , include w o r k e r s who only m ak e
m in o r r e p a i r s or a d ju s t m e n ts .
M IL LER ,

FLOUR

(S EC O N D M I L L E R )

P e r f o r m s any or a ll n e c e s s a r y c le an in g, grinding, bolting (s iftin g ), and packing jo bs
in a grain m i l l .
Starts m a c h i n e r y and ex a m i n e s grain at v ariou s s tag es of m an u factu re to
de te rm in e d e g r e e of fi n e n e s s .
In spects v ariou s m i l l s for p r o p e r operation and m a k e s any
n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n ts .
M IL LW R IG H T
In stall s new m a c h in e s or h ea vy eq u ipm en t, and d i s m a n t le s and in s ta lls m a c h i n e s or
heavy equipm en t when changes in the plant layout are r eq u ir e d .
W o r k in volv es m o s t o f the
fo llow ing: Planning and laying out of the w o r k; in te rp reting b lu eprints or other s p e c if i c a t i o n s ;
using a v a r ie t y o f handtools and rig gin g; making standard shop com putations relating to
s t r e s s e s , strength of m a t e r i a l s , and c e n t e r s of g ravity; alining and balancing of equipment;
s elec tin g standard t o o ls , eq u ipm en t, and pa rts to be used ; and in sta llin g and m aintaining in
good working o r d e r po wer t r a n s m i s s i o n eq u ipm en t, such as d r i v e s and speed r e d u c e r s .
In
g e n e r a l , the m i l l w r i g h t ’s w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u ir e s a rounded training and e x p e r ie n c e in the
trade acqu ired through a f o r m a l a ppren tic esh ip or equivalent training and e x p e r i e n c e .
O IL E R
L u b r i c a t e s , with oil or g r e a s e , the mov ing parts or w e ar in g
equipm en t o f an e s t a b l is h m e n t .

surfaces

of m echanical

PACKER
Ten d s a m achine that sa ck s and weighs finished products or m a t e r i a l s ; p la c e s em p ty
sa ck or bag o v e r d is c h a r g e n o z z le or spout of packing m a c h i n e ; s t a r ts flow of product or
m a t e r i a l into sack; and shuts off or stops flow of product or m a t e r i a l when s p ecified weight
or amount has en tered the s a ck (m achin e m a y do this a u t o m a ti c a lly ).
M a y s e a l or c lo s e
sa ck s by hand or m a c h i n e .
M a y m ak e ad ju s tm en ts and m i n o r r e p a i r s .
F o r wage
Packer,
Packer,
ROLL

study p u r p o s e s ,

p a c k e rs

are

c l a s s i f i e d by p r o d u c t,

as fo llo w s :

feed
flour

TENDER

R eg u la te s flow o f grain bet ween grinding r o l l e r s o f a r oll ing m i l l .
W o r k in clu de s:
M ovin g r o l l e r s toget her so that grain p a s s in g between them w i ll be c r u s h e d ; and starts fe e d e r
r o ll which m o v e s grain out o f supply hopper o f m i l l and c a u s e s it to fa ll between rotating
grinding r o l l s .

SMUTTER
W a s h e s and s c o u r s gra in which is infested with s m u t , by operating a washing m a ­
chine and a s c ou r in g m a c h i n e .
M a y a ls o w e igh , t e m p e r , and condition grain for grinding.
M a y c le a n , a d ju s t, and a s s i s t in r epa irin g m a c h i n e r y .




29

TRUCKER,

POWER

O p e r a te s a m an u a lly con troll ed g a s o li n e - or e l e c t r i e - p o w e r e d truck or tra c to r to
t ra n s p o rt goods and m a t e r i a l s of all kinds about a w a r e h o u s e , m an u factu rin g plant, or other
e sta b lis h m e n t .
For

wage

Trucker,
Trucker,




study

purposes,

workers

power (forklift)
po we r (other than forklift)

are

classified

by

type

of

tru ck,

as

fo llow s :




Industry Wage Studies
T h e m o s t r e c e n t r e p o r t s f o r i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e d in the B u r e a u * s p r o g r a m
o f i n d u s t r y w a g e s u r v e y s s i n c e J a n u a r y 1950 a r e l i s t e d b e l o w .
T h os e f o r w h ich
a p r i c e i s s h o w n a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s ,
U. S.
G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , Z 0 4 0 Z , o r a n y o f it s r e g i o n a l
sa les o ffic e s .
T h o s e f o r w h i c h a p r i c e is n o t s h o w n m a y b e o b t a i n e d f r e e a s
l o n g a s a s u p p l y is a v a i l a b l e , f r o m the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , W a s h i n g t o n ,
D. C . , Z0Z1Z, o r f r o m a n y o f the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s s h o w n o n the i n s i d e b a c k c o v e r .

I. Occupational Wage Studies
M a n u fa ctu rin g
B a s i c I r o n and S t e e l, 196Z. B L S B u l l e t i n 1358 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
C a n d y and O t h e r C o n f e c t i o n e r y P r o d u c t s , 196 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 15Z0 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
^ C a n n in g and F r e e z i n g , 1 9 5 7 . B L S R e p o r t 136.
C i g a r M a n u f a c t u r i n g , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1436 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
C i g a r e t t e M a n u f a c t u r i n g , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 147Z (2 0 c e n t s ) .
C o t t o n T e x t i l e s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1506 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
D i s t i l l e d L i q u o r s , 195Z. S e r i e s Z, N o . 88.
F a b r i c a t e d S t r u c t u r a l S t e e l, 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1463 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
F e r t i l i z e r M a n u fa c tu r in g , 1966.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1531 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
F l o u r a n d O t h e r G r a i n M i l l P r o d u c t s , 1 9 6 1 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1337 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
F l u i d M i l k I n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1464 ( 3 0 c e n t s ) .
F o o t w e a r , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1503 (5 0 c e n t s ) .
H o s i e r y , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1456 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
I n d u s t r i a l C h e m i c a l s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 15Z9 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
I r o n and S t e e l F o u n d r i e s , 196Z.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1386 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
L e a t h e r T a n n i n g a n d F i n i s h i n g , 1 9 6 3 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1378 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
M a c h i n e r y M a n u f a c t u r i n g , 1 9 6 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1563 (7 0 c e n t s ) .
M e a t P r o d u c t s , 1 9 6 3 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1415 (7 5 c e n t s ) .
M e n ’ s and B o y s * S h i r t s ( E x c e p t W o r k S h ir t s ) an d N i g h t w e a r , 1 9 6 4 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1457 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
Men* s and B o y s * S u its and C o a t s , 1 9 6 3 . B L S B u l l e t i n 14Z4 (6 5 c e n t s ) .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s P l a s t i c s P r o d u c t s , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1439 (3 5 c e n t s ) .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s T e x t il e s , 1953.
B L S R e p o r t 56.
M o t o r V e h i c l e s an d M o t o r V e h i c l e P a r t s , 196 3 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1393 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
N o n f e r r o u s F o u n d r ie s , 1965.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1498 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
P a i n t s and V a r n i s h e s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 15Z4 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
P a p e r b o a r d C o n t a i n e r s a n d B o x e s , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1478 (7 0 c e n t s ) .
P e t r o l e u m R e f i n i n g , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 15Z6 ( 3 0 c e n t s ) .
P r e s s e d o r B l o w n G l a s s an d G l a s s w a r e , 196 4 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 14Z3 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
^ P r o c e s s e d W a s t e , 195 7 .
B L S R e p o r t 1Z4.
P u l p , P a p e r , and P a p e r b o a r d M i l l s , 196Z. B L S B u l l e t i n 1341 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
R a d i o , T e l e v i s i o n , a n d R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s , 1 9 5 1 . S e r i e s Z, N o . 8 4 .
R a i l r o a d C a r s , 195Z. S e r i e s Z, N o . 8 6 .
* R a w S u g a r , 1 9 5 7 . B L S R e p o r t 136.
S o u t h e r n S a w m i l l s a n d P l a n i n g M i l l s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1519 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
S tr u c tu r a l C la y P r o d u c t s , 1964.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1459 ( 4 5 c e n t s ) .
S y n t h e t ic F i b e r s , 1 9 6 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1540 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
S y n t h e t ic T e x t i l e s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1509 ( 4 0 c e n t s ) .
T e x t i l e D y e i n g and F i n i s h i n g , 1965—6 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 15Z7 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
*

Studies of the effects of the $1 m inim um wage.




I. Occupational Wage Studies— Continued
M a n u fa c tu r in g — C ontin ued
^ ' T o b a c c o S t e m m i n g and R e d r y i n g , 1 9 5 7 .
B L S R e p o r t 136.
W e s t C o a s t S a w m i l l i n g , 1964.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1455 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
W o m e n 1s and M i s s e s 1 C o a t s and S u its, 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1508 (2 5 c e n t s ) .
W o m e n 1 s and M i s s e s 1 D r e s s e s , 1 9 6 6 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1538 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
W o o d H o u s e h o l d F u r n i t u r e , E x c e p t U p h o l s t e r e d , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1496
(4 0 c e n t s ) .
^ W o o d e n C o n t a i n e r s , 195 7 .
B L S R e p o r t 126.
W o o l T e x t i l e s , 196 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1551 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
W o r k C l o t h i n g , 1964.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1440 (3 5 c e n t s ) .
N on m an u factu rin g
A u t o D e a l e r R e p a i r S h o p s , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1452 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
B a n k i n g , 1 9 6 4 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1466 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
B i t u m i n o u s C o a l M i n i n g , 1 9 6 2 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1383 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , 1965. B L S B u l l e t i n 1521 (2 0 c e n t s ) .
C o n t r a c t C l e a n i n g S e r v i c e s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1507 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
C r u d e P e t r o l e u m and N a t u r a l G a s P r o d u c t i o n , I 9 6 0 . B L S R e p o r t 181.
D e p a r t m e n t and W om e n * s R e a d y - t o - W e a r S t o r e s , 1 9 5 0 . S e r i e s 2, N o . 78.
E a t i n g and D r i n k i n g P l a c e s , 1 9 6 3 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1400 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
E l e c t r i c and G a s U t i l i t i e s , 1 9 6 2 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1 3 7 4 (5 0 c e n t s ) .
H o s p i t a l s , 1 9 6 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1553 (7 0 c e n t s ) .
H o t e l s and M o t e l s , 1 9 6 3 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1406 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
L a u n d r y and C l e a n i n g S e r v i c e s , 196 6 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 154 4 (6 0 c e n t s ) .
L ife In su ra n ce , 1966.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1569 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
M o t i o n P i c t u r e T h e a t e r s , 1 9 6 6 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1542 ( 3 5 c e n t s ) .
N u r s i n g H o m e s and R e l a t e d F a c i l i t i e s , 1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1492 (4 5 c e n t s ) .

II.

Earnings Distributions Studies

F a c t o r y W o r k e r s 1 E a rn in g s— D is trib u tio n by S tr a ig h t-T im e H ou rly
E a r n i n g s , 1 9 5 8 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1252 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
F a c t o r y W o r k e r s * E a r n i n g s — S e l e c t e d M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s , 195 9 .
B L S B u l l e t i n 127 5 ( 3 5 c e n t s ) .
E m p l o y e e s E a r n i n g s and H o u r s , J u n e 1965—
R eta il T ra d e .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1501 (5 0 c e n t s ) .
B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s , H a r d w a r e , and F a r m E q u i p m e n t D e a l e r s .
B L S B u lle tin 1 5 0 1 -1 (25 c e n t s ).
G en eral M erch an d ise S tores.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1 5 0 1 - 2 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
Food S tores.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1 5 0 1 - 3 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
A u t o m o t i v e D e a l e r s and G a s o l i n e S e r v i c e S t a t i o n s .
B L S B u lle tin 1 5 0 1 -4 (40 c e n ts ).
A p p a r e l and A c c e s s o r y S t o r e s .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1 5 0 1 - 5 (4 5 c e n t s ) .
F u r n i t u r e , H o m e F u r n i s h i n g s , and H o u s e h o l d A p p l ic in c e S t o r e s .
B L S B u l l e t i n 1 5 0 1 - 6 (4 0 c e n t s ) .
M isce lla n e o u s S tores.
B L S B u l l e t i n 1 5 0 1 - 7 (3 0 c e n t s ) .
E m p lo y e e E a rn in gs
C entral R eg ion s,
E m p loy ee E arn in gs
B L S B u l l e t i n 1533

*

and H o u r s in N o n m e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s o f the S o u th and N o r t h
1 9 6 5 . B L S B u l l e t i n 1552 (5 0 c e n t s ) .
and H o u r s in E i g h t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s o f the Sou th , 1 9 6 5 .
(4 0 c e n t s ) .

Studies of the effects of the $1 m inim um wage.




U.

S. GOVERNM ENT PRINTING O FFIC E : 1967 O - 2 8 4 -2 8 7

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

New England
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Governm ent C enter, Room 1603-B
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T e l .: 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2

Mid-Atlantic
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North Central
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Pacific
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Mountain-Plains
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