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Lz. 3 ;

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY




Fluid Milk
0°‘

i SEPTEM BER-O CTO BER 1964

x i#

^

B u lle tin No. 1 4 6 4
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

'~ ^ S ~ W




INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY

Fluid Milk
SEPTEM BER-O CTO BER 1964

B u lletin No. 1464
November 1965

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 — Price 30 cents






P reface

This bulletin s u m m a r iz e s the resu lts of a Bureau
of L a bor Statistics survey of wages and supplem entary b e n ­
efits in the fluid m ilk industry in Sep tem b er— c to b e r 1964.
O
Separate r e l e a s e s fo r each of the area s w ere i s ­
sued e a r lie r , usually within a few months after the p a y r o ll
p e rio d studied.
C opies of these r e l e a s e s are available
fr o m the B ureau of L a bor Statistics, Washington, D. C. ,
20212, or any of its regional o ffi c e s .
This study was conducted in the B u rea u 's D i v i ­
sion of Occupational Pay, T oivo P. Kanninen, Chief, under
the gen eral d ir e c tio n of L . R. L in sen m a yer, A ssistan t
C o m m i s s i o n e r , O ffice of Wages and Industrial R elations.
The analysis was p rep a red by F r e d e r ic k L. Bauer, under
the im m ediate s u p er v is ion of L. E arl L ew is .
F ie ld work
f o r the su rvey was d ir e c te d by the A ssistan t Regional
D i r e c t o r s f o r Wages and Industrial Relations.
Other rep orts available f r o m the B u rea u 's p r o ­
gram of industry wage studies, as w ell as the a d d re s s e s
of the B u rea u 's six region al o f fi c e s , are listed at the end
of this bulletin.




iii




Contents
Page
Sum m ary------------ ._______________________________________________________________________
Industry ch a ra cteristics---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Employment------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unionization------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Method of wage payment---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Occupational earnings------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Routemen------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plant w orkers----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions------------------------------Scheduled weekly h o u rs___________________________________________________________
Shift provisions and practices------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paid holidays-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paid vacations--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Health, insurance, and pension plans___________________________________________
Provisions for work clothing--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5

Tables:
1.
2.

Average weekly earnings: Routemen_______________________________________
Average hourly earnings : Plant occupations-----------------------------------------------

6
7

Earnings distribution:
3. Routemen, retail, regu lar----------------------------------------------------------------------4. Filling-machine ten d ers_________________________________________________
5. Mechanics, automotive-----------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Refrigerator m e n --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Washers, bottle, machine________________________________________________

9
10
11
12
13

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
8. Method of wage payment: Routemen-------------------------------~---------------------9. Method of wage payment: Plant w ork ers----------------------------------------------10. Scheduled weekly hours: Plant w ork ers-----------------------------------------------11. S hift d iffe r e n tia l p r o v is i o n s : P lan t w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------12. Shift differential p ractices: Plant workers------------------------------------------13. Paid holidays: Routemen________________________________________________
14. Paid holidays: Plant workers-----------------------------------------------------------------15. Paid vacations : Routemen----------------------------------------------------------------------16. Paid vacations : Plant w o rk ers---------------------------------------------------------------17. Health, insurance, and pension plans: Routemen_____________________
18. Health, insurance, and pension plans: Plant workers------------------------

14
15
16
17
19
20
21
22
25
28
30

Appendixes:
A.
B.

Scope and method of su rvey--------------------------------------------------------------------------Occupational descriptions-------------------------------------------------------------------------------




v

33
37




Industry W age Survey
Fluid M ilk , September—October 1964
Summary
Routemen on regular retail routes of fluid milk establishments (dairies)
averaged m ore than $ 110 a week in all but 4 of the 25 areas covered by a survey
conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the fall of 1964. 1 Workers
assigned to regular wholesale routes averaged m ore than $ 130 a week in all
areas and more than $180 a week in four.
Among the 11 plant occupations studied separately, stationary engineers
were usually the highest paid, averaging well over $ 3 an hour in more than half
of the areas. Garage attendants were lowest paid in 12 areas and had averages
ranging from $3. 38 in Minneapolis—
St. Paul to $ 1 .4 1 in Atlanta. Average earnings
for the plant occupations studied were usually highest in San Francisco—
Oakland,
and lowest in Atlanta or D allas.
Work schedules of 40 hours a week were in effect in establishments
accounting for m ore than four-fifths of the plant workers in 19 areas. Provisions
for paid vacations for plant workers and routemen, after specified periods of
service, were universal in all areas and paid holidays and various types of in­
surance and pension benefits were provided to a large majority of these workers
in m ost areas.
Industry Characteristics
Employment. The 475 establishments within scope of the 2 5 -a rea study
accounted for approximately three-tenths of the more than 200, 000 workers em ­
ployed in the Nation's fluid milk industry in 1 9 6 4 .2 Area employment levels
varied from fewer than 1, 000 workers in Kansas City, Louisville, and Portland,
to about 5 ,8 0 0 in Chicago, 5 ,9 0 0 in New York, 6 ,8 0 0 in Philadelphia, and 7 ,9 0 0
in Los Angeles—
Long Beach.
A majority of the workers in all of the areas except Detroit were in
establishments whose products were predominantly distributed by retail and
wholesale routemen. In nine areas, however, distribution through company-owned
stores was reported as the predominant method by at least one dairy, and sale
of the products to independent venders was predominant in at least 1 establishment
in 10 areas.
Men accounted for all of the routemen and alm ost all of the plant workers
in the 25 areas.
Among these areas, the proportion of routemen to total em ­
ployment varied considerably and appeared to be influenced at least in part by
the method of product distribution.
For example, in Minneapolis—
St. Paul and
Pittsburgh, where the predominant method of distribution in all establishments
visited was by wholesale and retail routemen, these occupations, as might be
expected, accounted for a large proportion of the total employment— slightly m ore
than one-half of the w orkers. In Detroit, on the other hand, where about threefifths of the workers were in establishments distributing their products prim arily *

* Data for Pittsburgh relate to a payroll period in May 1964, for Cleveland to August 1964, and for Chicago
and Minneapolis~St. Paul to November 1964. For payroll periods studied in the remaining areas see table in
appendix A.
See appendix A for scope and method o f survey, and definition o f areas.
See Employment and Earnings (Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1965, p. 17).




1

2
through independent v en d ers,3 only one-sixth of the workers were employed as
routemen.
A lso, in the latter area, wholesale routemen outnumbered retail
routemen by approximately 3 to 1, whereas in Pittsburgh and Minneapolis—
St.
Paul the relationship was reversed.
Unionization. Establishments with labor-m anagement contracts covering
a majority of their workers employed four-fifths or m ore of the routemen and
plant workers in 18 areas, and a sim ilar proportion of the plant workers and about
seven-tenths of the routemen in Denver. In the remaining areas, the proportions
of routemen and plant workers in establishments having such contract coverage
were about one-half in Houston and two-fifths or le ss in Atlanta, Boston, D allas,
Miami, and Indianapolis. In all except 2 of the 18 areas in which union agree­
ments applied to four-fifths of the workers or m ore and in Bostoil and Denver,
firm s typically united to negotiate the term s of agreement with the local union.
Establishments usually bargained independently in Baltimore and Detroit, and in
all of the remaining areas except Dallas, in which area none of the establishments
visited had union agreements covering a majority of their workers. The Inter­
national Brotherhood of Team sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers
of A m erica (ind.) was the m ajor union in alm ost all of the areas studied.
Method of Wage Payment. Routemen were typically paid on a com m is­
sion basis— generally a guaranteed salary plus a stipulated percentage of dollar
sales or collections (table 8).
In a majority of the areas, regular routemen1s
pay usually included com m issions for sales made on the days when swing or
relief men operated the routes, as well as com m issions on their own sales.
Portland and San Francis co-Oakland were the only areas where virtually all of
the routemen in the plants visited were paid a straight salary or hourly rate.
A ll of the plant workers in the establishments visited were paid on a time basis,
usually under form al plans providing a single rate for a specific occupation
(table 9).
However, a majority of the workers in Boston were in plants with
form al plans providing a range of rates for a given job and all of the workers
in Atlanta and a majority in D allas, Miami, and Indianapolis were paid rates
determined on an individual b asis.
Occupational Earnings
Routemen. Average straight-tim e weekly earnings of routemen assigned
to regular retail routes ranged from $ 1 4 1 .5 0 in San Francisco—
Oakland and $141
in Chicago, to $ 9 4 in Atlanta (table 1).
In 19 of the areas, retail routemen
usually worked 5 days a week; 51
/2-day workweeks were m ost common in Cleveland
and Houston; and a 6 -day week applied to a majority of the workers in Atlanta,
Dallas, Miami, and Detroit.
Individual earnings of regular retail routemen varied considerably in
some areas and were concentrated within a comparatively narrow range in others.
For example, the middle half of these workers in Miami earned between $ 8 4 .5 0
and $ 1 5 4 a week, and in Louisville, between $ 9 1 .5 0 and $ 1 4 0 .5 0 . In contrast,
the spread in earnings of all routemen in Portland was limited to $ 5 ($ 1 3 0 to
$1 35 per week) and over nine-tenths of these workers in San Francisco—
Oakland
earned between $ 140 and $ 145 a week; wages in the latter two areas were almost
exclusively based on time rates, whereas a large majority of these workers in
m ost of the other areas were paid on a com m ission b asis.
Swing or relief routemen servicing retail routes on the days when regu­
lar routemen are off duty averaged m ore than regular routemen in all but 4 of
the 20 areas permitting comparisons.
The average weekly pay advantage for
swing or relief routemen amounted to le ss than $ 5 in six areas, $ 5 to $1 0 in
six other areas, and $ 1 0 to $2 0 in four areas.
3 Independent venders were excluded from the survey.




3

Regular wholesale routemen earned substantially more than regular retail
routemen in all areas except Portland and San Franc is co-Oakland, where nearly
identical averages were recorded for these two groups of w orkers.
Ihe wage
advantage of wholesale routemen, where comparisons were possible, was more
than 40 percent in seven areas, between 20 and 40 percent in eight areas, and
between 9 and 20 percent in all others except the two West Coast areas p re­
viously referred to.
Average weekly earnings of these workers ranged from
$241 in Washington to $ 130.50 in Portland.
Five-day workweeks applied to a
large majority of wholesale routemen in m ost areas; however, in Atlanta, Dallas,
and Miami, 6 -day workweeks were typical.
In New York, regular wholesale
drivers working 6 days a week averaged $4 4. 50 a week more than those working
5 days. In Houston, the only other area for which data could be presented for
both lengths of workweek, those working 5 days averaged $10 more than those
working 6 days.
There was no consistent relationship between the average weekly earnings
of swing or relief drivers and those assigned to regular wholesale routes.
In
13 of the 18 areas for which data could be presented for both jobs, relief drivers
earned more than regular drivers. In only five of these areas did the differences
amount to as much as $ 10 a week.
Plant W ork ers. The 11 plant occupations for which wage data are shown
in table 2 accounted for about 11,000 of the 24, 500 plant w orkers4 in establish­
ments within scope of the Bureau1s survey. Average straight-tim e hourly earnings
for workers in these jobs were usually highest in San Francisco—
Oakland, and
lowest in Atlanta or Dallas.
Among the occupational groups studied, stationary engineers generally
had the highest average hourly earnings, ranging from $ 4 . 18 in New York to
$ 1 . 8 5 in Atlanta.
Average hourly earnings of garage attendants ranged from
$ 3 . 3 8 in Minneapolis—
St. Paul to $ 1 . 4 1 in Atlanta. In 12 of the 25 areas, they
were the lowest paid of the occupations for which data are presented. For each
of the other plant occupations studied, the spread in area averages exceeded
$ 1 . 5 0 an hour. The interarea spread in average earnings tended to be greater
among the relatively lower skilled occupations than among the more highly skilled
jobs.
For example, in San Francisco—
Oakland, sanitary men (whose duties in­
volve washing, scrubbing, and sterilizing equipment), averaged 135 percent more
than their counterparts in Dallas, whereas the corresponding difference for p a s­
teurizers, one of the more highly skilled jobs studied, amounted to 98 percent.
In some areas, average hourly earnings for several occupational groups
were almost identical.
In New York, for example, order fille rs, refrigerator
men, sanitary men, machine bottle washers, and machine can washers all aver­
aged $ 2 . 9 0 an hour, and filling-m achine tenders averaged $ 2 . 9 1 ; in Cincinnati,
averages for these jobs for which data are shown were within a range of $ 2 . 8 6
to $ 2 . 8 9 . I nmos t of the other areas, however, the differences in average hourly
earnings for these occupations were substantial.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Data were also obtained on work schedules for plant workers and on
selected supplementary benefits including paid holidays and vacations and various
health, insurance, and pension plans, for routemen and plant workers. In many
areas such as New York, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Los Angeles—
Long Beach,

A

Although there were a few women in the plant worker category in more than half o f the areas, the occupational
earnings data presented in this bulletin are lim ited to men.




4

m ost w ork ers w ere in establishm ents in which provision s w ere the same fo r plant
w ork ers and routem en.
In a number of a reas, how ever, provision s fo r som e
o f these benefits, p a rticu la rly paid holidays, d iffered substantially fo r these two
groups of w ork ers. F or exam ple, in Chicago and Cincinnati, all of the esta b lish ­
m ents visited reported 6 paid holidays fo r plant w ork ers and none fo r routem en.
Scheduled Weekly H ours.
W ork schedules of 40 hours a week w ere in
e ffe ct in establishm ents accounting fo r m ore than fou r-fifth s of the plant w ork ers
in 19 o f the 25 areas (table 10).
In M inneapolis—
St. Paul, a m a jority of the
w ork ers w ere scheduled to work
hours, in Miami, 45 hours; in Atlanta,
48 h ou rs; in Indianapolis and D allas, 45 hours or m o r e ; and in Houston, 44 hours
or m o re .
Shift P rovision s and P r a c tic e s . Establishm ents with form a l p rovision s
fo r w ork on late shifts accounted fo r at lea st fou r-fifth s of the plant w ork ers
in 20 areas and le ss than half in the rem aining 5 areas (table 11). About tw ofifths o f the w ork ers in New Y ork, 5 w ere em ployed on late shifts; a third in
Newark and J e rse y City, and C hicago; three-tenths in San F ra n cisco —
Oakland; a
fourth in Boston, JLos A ngeles—
Long Beach, and D etroit; and about on e-fifth in
L ou isv ille and Pittsburgh (table 12).
In the rem aining areas, sm a ller p r o p o r ­
tions w ere on late sh ifts; none o f the plants visited in M iam i and M inneapolis—
St. Paul operated late shifts.
Extra pay above day shift rates was typically
p rovid ed to late shift w ork ers in all areas studied except New Y ork, Atlanta,
D allas, and Houston. The amounts o f d ifferen tials varied by area— ranging fro m
2Vz or 5 cents an hour in Newark and J ersey City to 15 cents in Kansas City.
Paid H olidays. Paid holidays w ere reported fo r a m a jority o f the rou tem en in 14 areas * (table 13). Six days a yea r w ere m ost com m only provided in
B altim ore, D etroit, Miami, M inneapolis—
St. Paul, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and
P ortland; 8 days in Boston, Newark and J ersey City, New Y ork, Los A n g e le s Long Beach and San F ra n cisco —
Oakland; 2 days in Houston; and 1 day in St. L ouis.
Paid holidays w ere provided to a m a jority of the plant w ork ers in all
but fou r areas (Buffalo, Indianapolis, L ou isville, and Washington).
Six days a
yea r w ere m ost com m only reported; how ever, in St. Louis, the m ost com m on
p ra ctice was 1 day; in Atlanta, either 3 or 5 days; in D allas, either 4 o r 5 d a ys;
in Houston, 5 days; and in Boston, Newark and J ersey City, New Y ork, Los
A n geles—
Long Beach, and San F ra n cisco —
Oakland, 8 days (table 14).
Paid V acation s. Paid vacations of 1 week or m ore after 1 yea r of se rv ic e
w ere provided to nearly all plant w ork ers and routem en (tables 15 and 16). In
nearly all areas, th ree-fou rth s of the w ork ers or m ore in both groups w ere
eligible fo r at lea st 2 weeks after 3 y e a rs of s e r v ic e . In a m a jority of the areas,
nine-tenths or m ore of the plant w ork ers and routem en w ere eligible fo r 3 weeks of
paid vacation after 10 yea rs of se rv ic e . F ou r-w eek paid vacations after 25 y ea rs
of s e rv ice w ere com m only provided fo r both groups of w ork ers in 15 areas.
Health, Insurance, and Pension P lan s. L ife, hospitalization, and su rgica l
insurance, financed at lea st in part by the em ployer, w ere available to m ore
than fou r-fifth s of the plant w ork ers and routem en in nearly all areas (tables
17 and 18). M edical and sickness and accident insurance w ere provided by estab­
lishm ents accounting fo r a m ajority of the plant w ork ers and routem en in about
fou r-fifth s o f the a rea s.
In m ore than half of the areas, these benefits w ere
usually financed entirely by the em ployer.

5 This proportion does not include workers in three establishments operating second and third shifts for which
data were not available.
For purposes of this study, paid holidays were limited to formal provisions for pay on holidays not worked;
provisions for extra payment for work on designated holidays were not included.




5

R etirem ent pensions, m ostly financed entirely by the em ployer, w ere
provided by establishm ents accounting fo r a m a jority of the plant w ork ers in all
but three areas and routem en in all but five a rea s.
P rov ision s fo r Work Clothing. P rovision s fo r payment of at lea st part
of the co s t of w ork clothing or its cleaning w ere reported by establishm ents
em ploying about seven-tenths of the routemen and nearly all of the plant w ork ers
in the 25 areas com bined.
As indicated in the follow ing tabulation, the m ost
com m on p ro v ision fo r plant w ork ers was furnishing and cleaning w ork clothing
w hereas p rov ision s fo r routem en varied con siderably.
Percent of workers in establishments
furnishing and/or cleaning
_________ work clothing__________
Routemen
Furnishes and cleans woik clothing----Furnishes work clothing-----------------Cleans work clothing--------------------Pays part of cost of work clothing
and total cleaning cost----------------Pays part of cost of work clothing
and part of cleaning cost-------------Pays part of cost of work clothing-----No provisions-----------------------------

Inside
plant workers

13
9
5

61
4
7

13

18

8
15
30

(M

6
2

Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: Small proportions of workers were in establishments having other pro­
visions, such as paying part of the cost of cleaning work clothing or paying part of
the cost of cleaning and total cost of work clothing.

P rov ision s in establishm ents accounting fo r a m a jority of the routem en
included both furnishing and cleaning w ork clothing in Chicago and San F ra n cis c o Oakland; furnishing clothing in Newark and J ersey City, Houston, Cincinnati,
M inneapolis—
St. Paul, and Portland; cleaning clothing in L ou isville, Kansas City,
and D en ver; paying part of the co st of clothing in Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland,
and Indianapolis; paying part of the co st of clothing and total co st of cleaning in
Boston and Los A ngeles—
Long B each; and part o f the clothing co st and part of
the cleaning co st in M iam i and Washington. O ne-half o r m ore of the routem en
in New Y ork, Philadelphia, St. L ouis, and D etroit w ere in plants that did not
have w ork clothing p rovision s and in the rem aining areas, p rovision s varied
substantially.
P rov ision s in fluid m ilk plants accounting fo r at least seven-tenths of
the inside plant w ork ers included both furnishing and cleaning w ork clothing in
Buffalo, Newark and J ersey City, New Y ork, Philadelphia, B altim ore, Washington,
C hicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, D etroit, M inneapolis—
St. Paul, St. L ouis, and
San F ra n cis co —
Oakland; furnishing clothing in Portland; cleaning w ork clothing in
D allas, Kansas City, and D enver; and paying part of the co s t o f w ork clothing
and total co s t o f cleaning in Los A ngeles—
Long B each. T w o-thirds of the plant
w ork ers in Houston w ere in establishm ents with p rov ision s fo r furnishing w ork
clothing; o n e-h a lf w ere in plants in L ou isville with p rovision s fo r cleaning work
clothing only; and th ree-fifth s in B oston w ere in plants that paid part of the co st of
clothing and total co s t o f cleaning. The m ost com m on p rovision s in Indianapolis,
applying to nearly half of the plant w ork ers, w ere furnishing and cleaning work
clothing and in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, and Miami, approxim ately tw o-fifths of the
w ork ers w ere in plants paying part of the co s t of work clothing and part of the
co s t of laundering.




Table 1 Average Weekly Earnings: Routemen
.

0)

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 o f r e t a il and w h o le s a le r o u t e m e n ( d r i v e r - s a l e s m e n ) in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s
in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r —O c t o b e r 1964)
R e ta il r o u t e m e n
R e g u la r
A rea

T o ta l 2

W h o le s a le r o u t e m e n
Sw ing o r r e l i e f m e n

5 -d a y w o rk w e e k

N u m b e r A v e r a g e N u m b er A v e r a g e
w e e k ly
of
of
w e e k ly
w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s

R e g u la r

5 -d a y w o r k w e e k

T o ta l 24

N u m b er A v e r a g e N u m b e r A v e r a g e
w e e k ly
w e e k ly
of
of
w o r k e r s e a r n in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s

T o ta l 2

Sw ing o r r e l i e f m e n

5 -d a y w o r k w e e k

T o t a l2

5 -d a y w o rk w e e k

N u m b er A v e r a g e N u m b er A v e r a g e N u m b e r A v e r a g e N u m b er A v e r a g e
of
w e e k ly
of
w e e k ly
of
w e e k ly
w e e k ly
of
w o r k e r s e a rn in g s w o r k e r s e a r n in g s w o r k e r s e a r n in g s w o r k e r s e a rn in g s

N orth ea st
B o s t o n ---------- — ____________________________________
B u f f a l o ---------------- — -----------------------------------------------N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y ____ ____________________
N ew Y o r k -----------------------------------------------------------------P h il a d e lp h ia __________ ________________________ —
P it t s b u r g h ___________________________________________

$ 12 3. 50
112. 50
130. 00
1 3 8 .0 0
119. 00
123. 00

_
83
193
161
703
300

_
$ 1 1 5 . 00
136. 00
1 3 4 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0
121. 00

( 5)
728

.
1 1 8 .0 0

134. 50

(*)
( 6)
180
( 58
)
511

_
132
-

120. 00
_
1 3 0 .0 0

52
_
107

1 1 9 .5 0
_
1 3 4 .5 0

52
_
107

1 4 1 .0 0
1 3 4 .5 0
125. 00
121. 00
1 0 3 .5 0
110. 50
139. 00
1 2 2 .5 0

1, 501
383
(91
)
0
( 5)
304
235
487
435

141. 00
134. 50
.
103. 50
n o . so
139. 50
122. 50

304
99
71
10 22
71
40
10 145
24

1 3 6 .5 0
1 4 6 .5 0
131. 00
1 2 7 .0 0
123. 50
112. 50
148. 50
1 3 7 .5 0

304
98
(9)

24

1 0 9 .5 0
131. 50
1 3 0 .5 0
1 4 1 .5 0

348
1, 153
181
482

109.
131.
130.
141.

77
338
47
128

1 1 7 .0 0
135. 50
133. 50
1 4 8 .0 0

77
338
47
128

620
376
411
452
2, 373
992

$ 1 2 3 . 00
1 1 3 .5 0
1 3 4 .0 0
139. 00
1 1 9 .0 0
1 2 3 .0 0

245
728
196
122
181
226
513

94. 00
1 1 8 .0 0
1 0 8 .5 0
118. 50
1 2 0 .5 0
122. 00
130. 00

1, 501
391
526
79
304
235
497
435

348
1, 167
181
482

604
366
377
444
2, 373
992

_
82
190
161
703
300

_
$ 1 1 4 . 50
135. 00
1 3 4 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 1 .0 0

19
58
307
130
70

_
$ 1 5 3 . 00
154. 50
165. 00
1 3 3 .0 0
153. 00

1 6 3 .5 0
145. 50
1 4 5 .5 0
_
2 4 1 .0 0

_
26
15
7
_
34

1 7 3 .0 0
120. 00
1 5 4 .5 0
_
2 5 3 .5 0

26
-

261

2 1 5 .5 0
1 5 4 .0 0
1 7 6 .0 0
1 6 7 .5 0
1 5 1 .5 0
1 8 2 .0 0
1 5 7 .0 0

158
36
37
_
_
7
10 23
39

196. 50
1 7 3 .0 0
178. 50
_
_
195. 00
188. 00
1 6 7 .0 0

158
35
37
_
_
7
39

104
894
105
413

1 3 4 .0 0
1 4 3 .5 0
1 3 0 .5 0
1 4 1 .0 0

190
28
111

240
120
183
1, 025
391
327

$ 1 3 5 . 50
1 4 8 .5 0
1 6 3 .0 0
1 6 4 .5 0
1 3 6 .5 0
1 6 9 .0 0

155
no
205
80
118
8 1 52
148

1 5 0 .0 0
1 6 3 .5 0
1 3 7 .5 0
1 4 0 .5 0
1 4 4 .5 0
145. 50
2 4 1 .0 0

( 5)
no
( 5)
7 43
115
_
148

2 1 5 .5 0
1 5 5 .0 0
1 7 6 .0 0
1 7 3 .5 0
1 5 1 .5 0
1 8 2 .0 0
1 8 0 .5 0
1 5 7 .0 0

535
181
243
206
77
77

1 3 7 .5 0

535
184
243
11 278
77
77
10 169
261

1 1 7 .0 0
1 3 5 .5 0
1 3 3 .5 0
1 4 8 .0 0

104
898
105
413

1 3 4 .0 0
1 4 3 .5 0
1 3 0 .5 0
1 4 1 .0 0

226
118
142
3 920
353
327

$ 1 3 7 .0 0
1 4 7 .0 0
1 5 5 .5 0
1 6 0 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0
1 6 9 .0 0

.

_
19
55
4 275
130
70

$153.
152.
160.
133.
153.

00
00
50
00
00

South
A t la n t a ________________________________________________
B a l t i m o r e _____________ _____________________________
D a l l a s --------------------------------------------------------------------H o u s t o n -----------------------------------------------------------------------L o u i s v i l l e --------------------------------------------------------------- _
M i a m i ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------W a sh in g to n -------------------------------------------------------------- -

-

_
-

-

_
132
-

_
1 3 4 .5 0
1 1 9 .5 0
134. 50

_

_

.

( 6)
7
_
34

_
173. 00
_
1 5 4 .5 0
_
253. 50

N o r th C e n t r a l
C h i c a g o -------- ------------------------------------------------------------C in c in n a ti — -----------------------------------------------------------C le v e la n d --------------------------------------------------------------------D e t r o i t _________ ____ _____ ____ _______________________
I n d ia n a p o lis __________________________________________
K a n s a s Ci t y- —- - —
—
M in n e a p o lis —
St. P a u l ----------------------------------------------St. L o u i s --------------------------------- ------------------------------

71
40
-

1 3 6 .5 0
146. 00
_
_
1 2 3 .5 0
1 1 2 .5 0
-

-

196. 5ft
172. 00
178. 50
_

_

195. 00
1 6 7 .0 0

W e st
D e n v e r _________ ______________________________________
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h ---------------------------------------P o r t l a n d ---------------------------------------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c o —O a k la n d --------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

50
00
50
50

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te
I n clu d e s da ta f o r w o r k e r s in a d d itio n to th o s e sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
T he r e m a in d e r o f the w o r k e r s in th is a r e a w o r k e d a 6 -d a y w eek and a v e r a g e d $
T h e r e m a in d e r* o f the w o r k e r s in th is a r e a w o r k e d a 6 -d a y w eek and a v e r a g e d $
A ll o r a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in t h e s e a re a s w o r k e d a 6 -d a y w eek .
R o u te m e n m o s t c o m m o n l y w o r k e d a 5 l/z -d a y w e e k .
T h e r e m a in d e r o f the w o r k e r s in th is a r e a w o r k e d a 6 -d a y w eek and a v e r a g e d $
I n clu d e s d a ta f o r 128 w o r k e r s o n a 6 -d a y w eek .
A ll o r a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in th is a r e a w o r k e d a
-d a y w eek .
A m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s w e r e o n a 5 -d a y w o rk w e e k .
69 w o r k e r s in th is a r e a w o r k e d a 6 -d a y w e e k and a v e r a g e d $ 195. 50 a w e e k .

NOTE:

s h ift s .

a w eek.
a w eek.

135. 50

a w eek.

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




E a r n in g s in c lu d e c o m m i s s i o n s

2 04. 50
2 00. 50

_

_
1 4 7 .5 0
133. 50
146. 50

and w e r e ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o l la r .

_
184
28
111

_
1 4 7 .5 0
133. 50
146. 50

Table 2. Average Hourly Earnings: Plant Occupations
(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f m e n in s e l e c t e d plant o c c u p a t io n s in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s
in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r — c t o b e r 1964)
O

E n g in e e r s
A rea

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

sta tio n a ry
A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

F il li n g - m a c h in e t e n d e r s
N um ber
of
w ork ers

A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

G a r a g e atten dants
N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A v era ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e
(m a in te n a n ce )
N um ber
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

O rd er fille r s
N um ber
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N o rth ea st
B o s t o n ________________________________________________
B u f f a l o ----------------------------------------------------------------------N e w a rk and J e r s e y C i t y ----------------------------------------N ew Y o r k ____________________________________________
P h il a d e lp h ia ------------------------------------------------------------P it t s b u r g h ___________________________________________

.

.

12
22
60
51
34

$2.99
3.97
4.18
2.95
3.72

128
42
36
292
119
65

$ 2.50
2 .6 0
2 .9 2
2.91
2 .5 0
2 .8 2

17
42
30

21
19
11
19
37
28

1.85
3.16
2.14
2.56
2.20
3.76

31
43
64
56
25
37
65

1.73
2 .32
1.73
2.11
2 .38
2.07
2 .7 2

78
25
34
11
20
19
17

3.84
3.43
3.37
2.19
3.40
3.51
3.52

204
54
74
105
44
29
53
66

3.33
2.89
2 .7 3
2 .7 8
2 .2 4
2 .7 3
3.36
2 .87

18
101
15
60

3.18
3.65
3.28
3.81

21
239
21
98

2.61
3.17
3.27
3.40

24
10

$ 2.9 4
2 .86
3 .08
3 .10
2 .87
3 .23

109

2 .8 3
2 .36
2.77

79
23
42
102
109
42

22
77
65

2 .82
2.90
2 .88

14
22
22
16
6
15
33

1.41
2 .2 3
1.47
1.97
2 .2 6
1.87
2 .5 0

27
56
26
32
9
23
42

1.98
2 .7 8
2.21
2 .4 3
2 .66
2 .15
3 .10

24
88
48
32
16
34
49

1.54
2.22
1.60
2.06
2 .43
2 .00
2 .7 4

40
11
24
12
16
10
26

3 .20
2 .85
2 .56
2 .4 4
1.71
2 .5 4
3 .38

120
44
54
46
23
21
28
35

3 .72
3 .12
3 .08
3 .1 4
2 .3 0
2 .9 9
3.55
3 .10

213
13
53
77
33
18
-

3.36
2 .86
2.75
2.89
2.09
2.72
-

_

19
112
12

-

$ 2.45
2 .5 7
-

-

$2.57
-

South
A t l a n t a _______________________________________________
B a l t i m o r e ___________________________________________
D a l l a s ----------------------------- ----------------------------------------H ou sto n
______________- _________________ _______
L o u i s v i l l e ___________________________________________
M i a m i ___ _______________ —___________- ___________ _
W a s h in g t o n __________________________________________

-

N o r th C e n t r a l
C h i c a g o ____________________________
C i n c i n n a t i___________________________________________
C le v e la n d ------ ------------- - ------------------------------------D e t r o i t _______________________________ _____________
I n d ia n a p o lis ____________________________________ ___
K a n s a s C i t y _________________________________________
M in n e a p o lis - S t . P a u l______________________________
St. L o u is --------------------------------------------------------------------

"

-

-

-

W e st
D e n v e r _______________________________ _______________
L o s A n g e l e s — on g B e a c h ---------------------------------- _
L
P o r t l a n d _____________________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d ___________________________

_

74
7
27

.

3 .03
3 .0 4
3.10

_

156
35
50

3 .4 8
3.27
3.89

2.67
3.25
3.25

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le .




^1

Table 2. Average Hourly Earnings: Plant Occupations----Continued

00

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f m e n in s e l e c t e d plant o c c u p a t io n s in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s
in 25 s e le c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r — c t o b e r 1964)
O

P a s t e u r iz e r s

R e f r ig e r a t o r m e n

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

T ru c k d r i v e r s
N um ber
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

W a s h e r s , b o t tle ,
m a ch in e
N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

47
25
16
63
67
37

$ 2.56
2 .6 0
3.02
3.09
2.66
2.77

66
44
31
112
187
62

$ 2.41
2 .57
2 .9 3
2 .9 0
2 .5 4
2 .89

44
28
51
175
58
35

$2.47
2 .52
2 .92
2 .9 0
2.51
2 .85

62
11
32
80
99
35

$ 2.5 8
2 .6 2
3 .2 4
3.17
3.01
3.03

25
13
21
44
49
15

$ 2 .3 3
2 .6 0
2 .9 7
2 .9 0
2 .3 9
2 .8 6

15
32
31
21
15
16
24

1.83
2.29
1.78
2.17
2.51
2.09
2.87

22
41
46
45
16
61
78

1.55
2 .4 5
1.58
1.94
2 .4 0
1.93
2 .6 5

20
38
24
20
17
47
39

1.63
2 .2 4
1.46
1.94
2 .3 4
1.90
2.59

9
46
44
25
15
24
47

1.51
2 .4 3
1.94
2 .1 2
2.31
1.96
2.41

13
17
11
15
13
15
17

1.56
2 .3 0
1.58
2 .0 4
2 .26
1.88
2 .6 0

103
23
29
45
20
16
20
19

3.40
2 .9 4
2 .7 6
2 .9 2
2 .5 3
2.89
3 .40
2 .9 4

220
46
54
69
25
39
77
65

3.37
2 .8 7
2.71
2 .69
1.89
2 .7 3
3 .3 4
2 .89

182
35
29
60
25
20
26
29

3.19
2 .8 6
2 .6 6
2 .7 3
2 .0 4
2.69
3.35
2.81

131
49
33
119
10
10

3.41
3.19
2 .7 8
2 .96
1.87
2 .8 3
-

60
21
28
47
9
7
18
15

3 .5 3
2 .88
2 .75
2 .7 4
1.85
2 .5 7
3.29
2 .8 5

14
93
13
38

2 .65
3 .2 4
3.29
3 .53

17
120

2.61
3.09

16
157
19
41

2 .5 4
3.07
3.21
3 .43

11
44

2 .4 3
3 .1 2

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

S a n ita ry m e n

W a s h e r s , ca n ,
m a c h in e
N u m ber
o.f
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N o rth ea st
B o s t o n ______________________________ ________________
B u f f a l o _______________________ _____ ____ ________
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y ___________________________
N ew Y o r k ________________________________________ ____
P h il a d e lp h ia __________________________________ ____
P it t s b u r g h ___________________________________________

_
9
14
39
21
6

_
$2.6 0
2 .9 2
2 .9 0
2.51
2 .55

South
A t l a n t a _______________________________________________
B a l t i m o r e _____________________ ____________________
D a l l a s ___________________ __________________________
H o u s t o n ______________________ _______________________
L o u i s v i l l e _______________________________________ ____
M i a m i ________________________________________________
W a s h i n g t o n _________________________________________

_

_

_

_
1.45
_
_
_

-

-

-

6
_
-

N o r th C e n t r a l
C h i c a g o ________________________
__________________
C i n c i n n a t i_______________ ________ ________________
and
D e t r o i t __________________________________ __________
I n d ia n a p o lis ----------------------------------------------------- K a n s a s C i t y __________________________________________
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l---------------------------------------St. L o u is ______________________________________ _____

-

14
-

13
^
8
-

3.20
-

2.71
2 .8 2

-

-

7

3 .42

W est
D e n v e r _______________________________________________
L o s A n g e l e s — on g B e a c h ------------ ------------- -----L
P o r t l a n d _____________________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d ------------------------------------------O

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m

NOTE:

pay fo r o v e r tim e

and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,

-

38

h o lid a y s ,

-

3.47

and la te s h ift s .

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




_
195
-

129

_
3.40
-

3 .72

-

13

-

3.39

_
24
-

12

_
3 .10
-

3.41

Table 3. Earnings Distribution: Routemen, Retail, Regular
(Distribution of regular retail routemen in fluid m ilk establishm ents by average stra igh t-tim e weekly earnings 1
in 25 selected a rea s, Septem ber—
October 1964)
Numof
w ork -

A rea

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f-

A verage
$ 80
w e e k ly
and
e a r n - Unde i
$ 80 u n d er
m gs
$ 85

$ 85

$90

$95

$ 100 $ 105 $ 110 $ 115 $ 120 $ 125 $ 130 $ 135 $ 140 $ 145 $ 150 $ 155 $ 160 $ 165 $ 170 $ 175 $ 180 $ 190 $ 200 $ 210 $ 220

$90

$ 9 5 $ 100

$ 105 $ 110 $ 115 $ 120 $ 125 $ 130 $ 135 $ 140 $ 145 $ 150 $ 155 $ 160 $ 165 $ 170 $ 175 $ 180 $ 190 $ 200 $ 210 $ 220 o v e r

and

N orth ea st

N ew Y o r k --------------------------------P it t s b u r g h -------------------------------

620
376
411
452
2 ,3 7 3
992

$
123.00
113.50
134.00
139.00
119.00
123.00

6
36

245
728
196
122
181
226
513

9 4 .0 0
118.00
108.50
118.50
120.50
122.00
130.00

2 35
2
11
3
11
3 27
2

1,501
391
526
79
304
235
497
435

141.00
134.50
125.00
121.00
103.50
110.50
139.00
122.00

348
1,167
181
482

109.50
131.50
130.50
141.50

2
10
_
-

9

15
21
_
120

9

9

32
_
121
38

37
21
17
6
4
17

25
41
17
4
16
11
5

29
43
22
6
18
12
8

10
15
_
-

9

10
4

55
43
2
165
143

21
58

18
90

9

9

12
8
8
3

67
44
22

44
35
46
3
204
78

8
8
1

-

295
79

40
46
49
1
352
100

55
38
40
16
318
78

8
86
4
21
10
10
46

53
12
42
167
197
62

55
13
31
70
153
61

45
15
31
28
106
46

9

2
49
1
3
6
5
62

2
28
1
5
6
7
77

1
33

2
74
91
16
6
3
91

_

52
25
58
102
210
72

_

4

51
57

30
1
22
5
27
33

15
3
16
1
13
27

1
6
17

24

10

7

2

25
7
10
9

9

-

-

-

-

6
13
4

3
12

3
-

4
-

9

_
1
2
10
4
6

2

2

1

2

1

-

2
1

9

2
4
7
3
10

5

1

3
1
8
5
6

-

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

4

South
A t la n t a ________________________
R a lt im n r p
D a lla s
.......
T-Tnn s t n n __ ...
T ,rm i r v i 11 e* ........
.......
Mi am '
W a s>vi n g t n n

43
4
7
1
25
35

_

13
80
5
11
9

3
21

9

62
2
9
9

10
88

-

_

5
4
5
42

5
4
11
22

-

5
5
7

2
3
8
7

1
3
6
8

1
3
2
10

2
5
12
4

2
10
1

1
10
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
3
1

1
5
7

-

3

1
3

3
4

4
2

-

-

-

2

9
-

N orth C en tra l
P.Vii r a g o

... . _ ...

C i n c i n n a t i------------------------------C .1 p v p I a n r l
”"

D e t r o i t ------------------------------------Tndi
»
....
K a n s a s (~'.ity
M i n n p qpr>11 s —S t ,

Paul

St. L o u i s ___________________________

_

2
4

1
3

4
1

6

.

2
4 10

1

1

1 |

-

-

3
3

18
6

9 1

13

1 1

1

47

2
-

4
-

_

.

2

2
25
4

38
3

32

43 1

_|

-

1

56
32
66
64
60
58
1
3
8
D is tr ib u t io n b y
20 1 16 1 12
38
22 |
10 1
E> istrib u tio n iDy

54
17
123
358
195
240
450
51
14
21
15
32
34
27
19
39
7
3
17
42
31
27
53
65
6
5
1
1
5
4
8
in d iv id u a l w e e k ly e a rn in g s w a s not a v a ila b le .
2
2
1
5 1
7
15 1
17 1
46 1 99 1 71 !
1
29 1
1
59 1 63 !
ind iv id u a 1 w eek ly e a r n in gs w a s ;not av.a ilab le

8

4

5

-

8
3
4

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

1 3
3

1
io

-

4

5

I

1

1

1

|

1

W est
D p n v p r ...........
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h —
P n r tla n r l

.

._ ..

San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d -------O

2
3
4

E xcludes
W ork ers
W ork ers
W ork ers

-

-

6
17

179
6

58
12

23
11

23
15

24
371

7
261

12
123
181
10

4
119

.

_

_

76

1
44

36

26

12

10

452

4

6

3

4

2

2

2

-

-

-

8

8

8

1
3

-

-

-

1

-

1

p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Earnings include c om m ission s and were rounded to the n earest half d ollar.
2 at $ 6 5 to $ 7 0 ; 15 at $ 7 0 to $ 7 5 ; and 18 at $ 7 5 to $ 8 0 .
w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $ 7 0 to $ 7 5 ; and 26 at $ 7 5 to $ 8 0 .
w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $ 6 0 to $ 6 5 ; 2 at $ 70 to $ 7 5 ; and 7 at $ 7 5 to $ 8 0 .
w ere distributed as follow s:




(0

Table 4. Earnings Distribution: Filling-Machine Tenders

o

(D istribution of men fillin g-m ach ine tenders in fluid m ilk establishm ents by average stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings
in 25 selected a r e a s, S eptem bei^O ctober 1964)

A rea

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
in g s 1
3
2

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s of
$ 1 .5 0
U nder and
$ 1 .5 0 u n d er
$ 1 .6 0

$ 1 .6 0

$ 1 .7 0

$ 1 .8 0

$ 1 .9 0

$ 2 .0 0

$ 2 .1 0

$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .5 0

$ 1 .7 0

$ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0

$ 2 .0 0

$ 2 .1 0

$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .5 0 o v e r

_
4
6

45
8

and

N orth ea st
128
42
36
292
119
65

$ 2 .5 0
2 .6 0
2 .9 2
2.91
2 .5 0
2 .8 2

_
-

31
43
64
56
25
37
65

1.73
2 .3 2
1.73
2.11
2 .3 8
2 .0 7
2 .7 2

26
3 13
3
-

204
54
74
105
44
29
53
66

B u ffa lo
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C ity
N ew Y o r k

3 .3 3
2 .89
2 .73
2 .7 8
2 .2 4
2 .73
3 .3 6
2 .8 7

21
239
21
98

2.61
3 .1 7
3 .2 7
3 .4 0

_
4
-

1
-

1
5

_
5

1
-

-

_
-

"

-

-

6
2
17
_
-

4
4
6
1
-

1
2
7
4
1
9

5
4
3
7
23

4
2
5

4
-

-

44
38
4

17
24

_
10

-

11
42
19

-

_
36
292
50

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

South

B a lt im o r e
D a lla s

W a s h in g t o n .

3
6
1
_
-

4
6
1

-

_

_

1‘
13
_
3

7
1
1
_

11
2
_
_
_

14
16
-

-

2
3
2
30
_
2

-

-

-

_

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
30

_
26

_

_ _

_

_

_

_

_

_
_
_
_
_
8

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
-

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
-

_
_
-

N o r th C e n t r a l
C h ic a g o
C in c in n a ti
C le v e la n d .
D e t r o it
I n d ia n a p o lis .
K a n s a s C ity

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
-

_
_
2
-

-

-

_
1
-

_
1
1
-

_
7
-

_
_
4
1
-

4
1
-

-

_
_
2
-

-

-

“

"

-

-

_

_
7
-

-

8
-

-

17
2
-

2

"

_

-

-

-

_
13
8
-

_

_
54
2
10
15

_
25
3
17
27
-

_ _
23
60
-

48

_

61
-

138
_
_
-

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

12

29

-

-

5

7

"

-

W est

P o r t la n d
San

T T r a n r i s e n —O a k l a n d

1
2
3

_

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

_

_

3

6

1

-

-

-

-

-

E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 1 at $ 1 .1 0 to $ 1 .2 0 ; and 5 at $ 1 .4 0 to $ 1 .5 0 .
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 3 at $ 1 .2 0 to $ 1 .3 0 ; 1 at $ 1 .30 to $ 1 .4 0 ; and 9 at $ 1 .4 0 to $ 1 .5 0 .




_

19
-

-

_

_

_ _

-

-

-

-

_
108
3

_
113
21

_

_

_

6

-

-

92

3

-

Table 5. Earnings Distribution: Mechanics, Automotive
(Distribution of men automotive mechanics (maintenance) in fluid milk establishments by average straight-time hourly earnings 1
in 24 selected areas, 2 September—
October 1964)
N um -

A ver-

of
w orkCIS

hourly
earn -

Number of w orkers receiving stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings of—
$2 .1 0

$2.2 0

$2 .30

$ 2 . 40

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$3 .0 0

$ 3 .1 0

$3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 0

$ 3 .4 0 $3.50 $3 .6 0 $3 .7 0 $ 3 .8 0 $3.90 $4.00

$2 .2 0

$2 .30

$2 .40

$ 2 . 50 $ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .90

$ 3 .0 0

$ 3 .1 0

$ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 0

$ 3 .4 0

$ 3 .5 0 $ 3 .60 $ 3 .7 0 $3 .8 0 $ 3 .9 0 $ 4 .00

-

_
_
5

_
-

_
_

“

$ 2 .0 0
Under and
$ 2 . 0 0 under
$2 .1 0

■

■

■

3
3
3
_

11

_

9

2

6

5

1
1

2

■

-

_
-

■

■

-

-

and
over

Northeast
B oston _________ ______________
B u ffa lo _______________________
Newark and J er se y C ity___
New Y ork ____________________
P hiladelp hia------------------------Pittsburgh----- ------------------------

109
42

$ 2 .9 4
2 . 86
3. 08
3. 10
2. 87
3. 23

27
56
26
32
9
23
42

1 .9 8
2. 78
. 21
2. 43
2 . 66
2. 15
3. 10

12 0

79
23
42
102

7

8

-

_
_
-

"

2

_
_
-

_
_
_
"

11

_
9
■

1

_
11

4

32
7
7
73
■

28
4

2

22

11

_

2

75
7

14

12

1

_
_

_
.

_
_

_
.

_
_

.
_

_
_

2
2

32

2

2

■

■

"

-

-

"

_
_
_
_

.
_
.
_

_
_
_
-

_
_
.
_

_
_
.
_

_
_
_
.

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

11

“

“

“

2

-

-

-

8
1

2

5

15

53

13

7

11

6

9

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_
15

11

_

1

12

_

-

1

-

-

3
~

1

“

-

1

6

144

.

1

_
4

_
35

7

"

2

South
A tla n ta _______________________
B a ltim o r e ----------------------------D a lla s -----------------------------------H ouston______________________
L o u is v ille ----------------------------Mi a m i------------------------------------Washington__________________

2

3

2

3
_

5
-

*7

15

1

1

1

-

_
-

1

10

_
7

"

■

“

54
-

-

28
35

3. 72
3. 12
3 .0 8
3. 14
2. 30
2 .9 9
3. 55
3. 10

3
-

156
35
50

3 .4 8
3. 27
3. 89

-

1

1

3
_
3
-

3

_
_
16
_
_

_
_
4
_

“

2

2

-

-

-

3

1

.
.
_
_
_
17

-

-

23
_
_
-

2

1

5
_
_
_
_
6

■

4

1

12
12

-

-

31
38
31

21

_

12

_
1
1

North C en tral

C incinn ati______________ _____
C levelan d____________________
D e tr o it_______________________
Indianapolis_________________
Kansas C ity_________________
M inneapolis—
St. P a u l--------

44
54
46
23
21

_

6

_
'

1

_

1

6

1
2

-

.
-

-

-

*

2

■

16

-

“

-

-

_

-

-

■

W est
Los A ngeles—Long B each-.
P ortlan d _____________________
San F ra n cisc o —Oakland___

2

-

-

1

-

-

.
2

Excludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Data for this occupation in Denver did not m eet publication c rite ria .
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $ 1 . 4 0 to $ 1 .5 0 ; 5 at $ 1 . 5 0 to $ 1 . 6 0 ; 2 at $ 1 . 7 0 to $ 1 . 8 0 ; 3 at $ 1 . 8 0 to $ 1 . 9 0 ;
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
3 at $ 1 .7 0 to $ 1 .8 0 ; 1 at $ 1 .8 0 to $ 1 .9 0 ; and 3 at $ 1 .9 0 to $ 2.
A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 1 . 9 0 to $ 2 .




3
32

-

_
1

and 4 at $ 1 . 9 0 to $ 2 .

_
3

Table 6. Earnings Distribution: Refrigerator Men

1
0

(Distribution of refrigerator men in fluid m ilk establishm ents by average stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings
in 24 selected areas, 23 Septem ber—
5
4
October 1964)

A rea

N um ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A verage
hourly
ea rn ­
ings 1

1

Number of w orkers receiving stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings of—
$1 .5 0 $1 .60
Under and
$1 .5 0 under
$1 .6 0 $1.70

$1 .7 0

$ 1 .8 0

$ 1.90

$2 .00

$2 .10

$2.20

$ 2 .3 0

$2 .4 0

$2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $3 .4 0 $3 .5 0

$1.80

$1 ,9 0

$2 .00

$2 .1 0

$2.20

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .20 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .50 over

_
_
_

4
_
_
-

22
12

_
4

28
_
143

32
_
_

-

-

_
-

_
28
-

10

and

Northeast
B oston__________________________________
B u ffa lo _________________ ________________
Newark and J er se y C ity_____________
New Y ork _____________ , ________________
Philadelphia ______________ ____________
Pittsburgh______________________________

66

44
31
112

187
62

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

3
-

1

1

2

_
_
4

_
_
5

-

-

$ 2. 41
2. 57
2 .9 3
2 . 90
2. 54
2 . 89

-

-

-

-

-

“

6

_
-

_
-

-

1

1

3

2

3
-

_
_
_
3

2

21

-

_
_
_
62

_
31
112

-

_
_
_
5

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

28
-

26
28

81
36
-

72
-

13
7
-

-

South
A tla n ta _________________________________
B a lt im o r e ___ ____ _________ ____ _
D all a s ___ _____ ________________ _
H ou ston -______- _______________ -________
L o u isv ille _________________________________
M ia m i------------------------------------- ------------Washington------------------------------- ------------

22

41
46
45
16
61

78

1. 55
2 ,4 5
1. 58
1 .9 4
2. 40
1 .9 3
2. 65

-

2

_
-

2

8

16

56

1

_

1

2

-

-

1

-

3

-

-

19
-

9
14

3
4

6

2

_

3

2

9
27
-

8

4
-

1

_

_

1

1

8

8

-

-

-

5
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

15
-

_
41

_
_
33

_
-

_
-

2

_
-

-

_

North C entral
C h ic a g o ------------------------ , — ------------- —
C i nc i n n ati_________________________
C levelan d---------------------------------------------D etroit _________ _________ ___ ________ _
Indi anapoli s __ —----- ----------------------------Kansas C ity____________________________
M inneapolis—
St. P a u l-----------------------St. L o u is _______________________________

220

46
54
69
25
39
77
65

3. 37
2. 87
2. 71
2 . 69
1 .8 9
2 . 73
3. 34
2 . 89

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
-

.
_
-

_
-

_
4

-

6

2

-

1

6

-

-

-

-

-

2

3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
3

_
-

-

1

-

"

-

-

_
13
3
-

-

_

_

_

_

_

26

9
-

2

38
16

35
3
38
-

_
-

-

2

25
“

_
-

4
-

13
-

6

1

1

-

1

6

-

-

39

6

_
-

_
-

_
-

1

2

6

-

W est
D e n v e r ---------- --------------------------------------Los A ngeles—Long B e a c h ----------------San F ra n cisc o —
Oakland------------- -------

1
2
3
4
5

E xcludes
Data for
W ork ers
W ork ers
W ork ers

17
120

38

. 61
3. 09
3. 47
2

prem ium pay for ove rtim e and
this occupation in Portland did
w ere distributed as follow s:
3
w ere distributed as follow s:
2
w ere distributed as follow s:
5




_

_

_

_

_

_

,

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

for work
not m eet
at $ 1 . 1 0
at $ 1 . 1 0
at $ 1 . 2 0

_
-

on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
publication c riteria .
to $ 1 . 2 0 ; 2 at $ 1 .2 0 to $ 1 . 3 0 ; 2 at $ 1 . 3 0 to$ 1 . 4 0 ;
and 2 at $ 1 . 4 0 to $ 1 . 5 0 .
to $ 1 .2 0 ; 7 at $ 1 .2 0 to $ 1 . 3 0 ; and 5 at$ 1 . 3 0
to$ 1 . 4 0 .
to $ 1 . 3 0 ; and 1 at $ 1 . 3 0 to $ 1 . 4 0 ,

_
111

_

_

3

-

_
36

_
2

Table 7. Earnings Distribution: Washers, Bottle, Machine
(Distribution of men bottle w ash ers, m achine, in fluid m ilk establishm ents by average stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings
in 24 selected a r e a s, 2 S ep tem b er-O ctob er 1964)
Number of w orkers receiving stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings o fUnder
$1.50

$1.50
and
under
$1.60

$1.60

$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2 . 0 0

$27T0

$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2 . 0 0

$2 . 1 0

tv

A verage
hourly
ea rn ­
ings 1
6
5
4
3
2

$2 . 2 0

o

N um ­
ber
of
w ork­
ers

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60

$2.70

$2.80

$2.90

$3.00 $3.10

$3.20

$3.30 "$3.40

o

A rea

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60

$2.70

$2.80

$2.90

$3.00

$3.10 $3.20

$3.30

$3.40

$3.50

Northeast
B oston_________________________________
B u ffa lo ________________________________
Newark and J erse y C i t y ___________
New Y o r k ______________________________
P hiladelp h ia _____ ___________________
P ittsburgh _____________________________

25
13

$2.33

21

2.97
2.90
2.39

44
49
15

2.60

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_

2

_
_
_

_
_
5

-

2 .86

_
_
_
-

1

_
4

-

-

-

-

“

1
2
2

3
_
_
_

.
_
_

2

_
_
_
_

2

6

1

-

2

_
_
_
_

_
-

_
_
_
_

9
_
_
_
34

-

-

-

-

2

3
_

1

9

_

.
_
_
_
_
9

_
18
44
_
4

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
3
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
.
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

56
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

2

_
_
_
_

2

13
_
_
4
-

_
_
_
_
_
13

_
_
_

-

_
_
_
_
_
4

_
_
_
7

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
28

1

1

2

_
_
_

.
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

South
A tla n ta ______________ __________ ____
B a lt im o r e _____________________________
D a l la s __________ ___ ____ _____________ _
H ou ston __________________________ _____
L o u is v ille _______________________ __ _
_
M ia m i__ ___ _______ ________________
W ashington____________________________

13
17
11

15
13
15
17

1.56
2.30
1.58
2.04
2.26
1.88
2.60

36

2

1

_
45

_

_

1

2

52

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

1

1

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

1

1
11

_
_

2

2

2

1

7

4

1
1
1

"

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
4
_
-

-

_

.

_

1

_
5
_

North C en tral
C h ic a g o ________________________________
C in cin n ati_____________________________
C levelan d ________ ________ ______ _
D e tr o it ________________________________
Indianapolis___________________________
Kansas C ity ___________________________
M in n eap olis-S t. P aul________________
St. L ou is_______________________________

60

3.53

21

2 .8 8

28
47
9
7
18
15

2.75
2.74
1.85
2.57
3.29
2.85

61
-

11

2.4 3
3.12
3.39

~

_
-

_
2
1

-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
_
3
-

1

-

-

-

1

_

-

-

_
_

-

-

-

-

_

1

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

5

-

.
4
_
16
_

_
5

6

_

_

_

1

_
6

_

2
2

_
1

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_

10

-

-

-

7
-

-

39

4

_

_

_

_
1

4

-

2

15
_
16
_
_
_
4

-

W est
D e n v e r ________________________________
Los A n g e le s—
Long B e a c h _________ _
San F r a n c isc o —
Oakland_____________

1
2
3
4
5
6

44
13

-

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts.
Data for this occupation in Portland didnot m eet publication c rite ria .
W o rk ers w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $1.10 to $1.20; 1 at $1.20 to $1.30; 2 at $1.30
to$ 1 .4 0 ;
and 2 at $1.40 to $ 1 .50.
W o rk ers w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $1.20 to $1.30; 2 at $1.30 to $ 1 .40; and 2
at $1 .40
to$1.50.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
1 at $1.20 to $1 .30; and 1 at $1.40 to $1.50.
W ork er at $1.30 to $1 .4 0 .




1

_
12

Tabic 8. Method of Wage Payment: Routemen
(Percent of routemen in fluid milk establishments by method of wage payment in 25 selected areas, Septembei>-October 1964)
Nort heast
Method of wage paym ent
Boston

A ll w ork ers

100

_ .

T im e -r a te d w ork ers (sa la r y or
h ourly rate)

100

_ ..

Incentive w o rk ers:
Earnings include c o m m issio n s
only for days w orked.
S alary (or hourly rate) and
c o m m ission _
C o m m issio n only_

........ .........

3

(*)

South

New York

100

Philadelphia

100

100

9

Pittsburgh

7

20

,

100

8

......

______

Atlanta

B altim ore

100

100

Dallas

Houston

86

96
4

72

91

89
3

9
51

100

100

100

15

5

(M

16

11

cc

52

2

100

33

o5

_ _

Earnings include c o m m issio n s for
days w orked and for days on
which swing or r e lie f m en
se r v ic e the route.
S alary (or hourly rate) and
c o m m issio n *
............
C o m m issio n only
___
Other methods of p a y m e n t_ _______ ____ ________ _
_

1

100

Indianapolis

Kansas
City

100

100

100

100

1

4

85

100

3

74
3

-

-

91

9

13

n

B ecause of rounding,




su m s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

Minneapolis—
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

L os A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

100

100

100

100

29

100

"

1

41

100

i Uv
1 nn

5

100

-

---------- SIS---------F r a n c is c o Oakland
1 0 0 _______

97

.

-

-

1-

88

47

10

54

“

-

1

-

-

7

9

96

8

85

L e s s than 0 .5 p ercen t.

NOTE;

41
33

W est

Detroit

Cincinnati Cleveland

12

Incentive w o rk ers:
E arnings include c o m m issio n s
only for days w orked.
S alary (or hourly rate) and
co m m issio n
_
....
C o m m issio n only__________________________ __

-

10

53

100

10

Chicago

A ll w ork ers

Washington

15

North C entral

T im e -r a te d w ork ers (sa la r y or
h ourly rate)

M iam i

(*)

2

37

92

Lou isville

100

8
1

Earnings include c o m m issio n s for
days worked and for days on
which swing or r e lie f m en
serv ic e the route.
S alary (or h ourly rate) and
c o m m is s io n ________________________________
C o m m issio n only
_ ......................
Other m ethods of payment

Buffalo

Newark and
J erse y City

88

3

4

3

-

3

Table 9. Method of Wage Payment: Plant Workers
(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments by method of wage payment in 25 selected areas. September-October 1964)
Northeast
Method of wage p a y m e n t 1

Newark and
J e r se y City

Boston

A ll w ork ers

...

................. .

......

T im e -r a te d w o r k e r s:
F o rm a l plan
Single r a t e ___________________________________
Range of rates ...
.. .
. ..
........ _
Individual r a t e s ............
_
_____

Buffalo

100

100

100

85
29
56
15

91
91

98
98

-

9

South

New York

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

100

100

100

99
96
3

82
82

98
95

-

-

2

-

2

1

18

2

100

Atlanta

B altim ore

100

100

_

D allas

Houston

A ll w ork ers

.................

. .

T im e -r a te d w o r k e r s:
F o rm a l plan
.
................... . . .
Single r a t e ___________________________________
Range of r a t e s ______________________________
Individual ra tes _
. . . . ..
. ... ....

1
2

Cincinnati

Cleveland

100

10 0

100

100

76
76

14
-

71
51

-

14

20

84
84
.

100
-

24

86

29

16

40
14
25
60

100

"

W est

Indianapolis

Kansas
City

M inneapolis—
St. Loui s
St. Paul

Denver

L os A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

San
Francis c o Oakland

100

100

100

100

100

100

10 0

100

100

100

100

99
99

81
81

99
90

93
93

35
35

97
97

94
94

10 0
100

8

-

-

-

-

-

98
98
-

100
100

-

100
100
-

100
100

-

-

-

( 2)

19

1

7

“

'

6

2

"

"

B ecau se of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal totals,




Washington

10 0

F or definition of method of wage payment, see appendix A .
L e s s than 0 .5 p ercen t.

N O TE :

Detroit

M iam i

100

North C entral
Chicago

L ou isville

65

3

Table 10. Scheduled W eekly Hours: Plant Workers
(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments by scheduled weekly hours 1 in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
Northeast
W eekly hours

South

Buffalo

Newark and
J ersey City

New York

Philadelphia

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1

3
97
-

.

.

1

.

_

100

100

-

-

93
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

'

“

■

“

75
-

4

-

2
-

-

-

-

-

Boston

A ll w ork ers
32, 35, or 37V 2 h o u r s ______________________________
40 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------Over 40 and under 45 h ours----------------------------------45 hours
-----------------------------------------------------------------46 h o u r s ____ ______ ___ __________________ __ _______ _
48 hours _ ------------------- ----------------------------------------50 h o u r s ______________________________________________
54 h o u r s ______________________________________________

93
6

-

Pittsburgh

Atlanta

100

Dallas

100

100

100

_
-

_

6

-

B altim ore

19

-

-

-

_
94
-

Houston

38
31
1
9

"

A ll w o r k e r s-----------------------------------------------------

40 h o u r s ______________________________________________
Over 40 and under 45 h ours-----------------------------------45 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------48 hour s ------------ --------------------------------------------------------50 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------

1

100

100

Indi anapolis

100

100

100

.

.

100

100

100

43

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

84
5
7
3

Data relate to the predominant work schedule in each establishm ent.

N O TE :

B ecause of rounding,




Kansas
City

Detroit

3 7 i/2 hQ urs___________________________________________

su m s of individual item s may not equal totals.

100

93
-

-

-

3
3

“

Washington

100

.

.

-

100

20

-

"

59
20

"

W est

.

100

Cincinnati Cleveland

M iam i

_

13
-

North C entral
Chicago

100

45
42

21

-

L ou isville

M inneapolis—
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

San
F rancisco—
Oakland

100

100

100

100

100

67
33

_

.

.

.

.

100

99

98
2
-

100

92

-

-

-

-

-

43
13

-

-

-

1

100

-

-

-

8

Table 11. Shift Differential Provisions: Plant Workers
( P e r c e n t o f plant w o r k e r s b y sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l p r o v is i o n s 1 in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s in 25 s e le c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r 1964)
N ortheast
Shift d ifferen tial
Boston

Buffalo

Newark and
J ersey City

South

New York

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

Atlanta

B altim ore

D allas

Houston

Louisville

Mis.mi

W ashington

Second shift
W ork ers in estab lish m en ts having
p rovisions for late s h ift s _______________________

91 .3

91 .3

100.0

With shift d iffer en tia l__________________________

85.5

91 .3

100.0

Uniform cents per h o u r ------ ----------------------2 1 2 c e n t s --------- ----------------------------------- __
/
5 c e n t s ____________________________________
l ltz c e n t s _________________________________
1 0 c en ts___________________________________
1 2 V c e n ts ------------- ----------------------------------2

85.5
29.7
55.8

91 .3
91.3
-

100.0

With no shift d iffe r e n tia l___________________ _

5.8

48 .6
51 .4
-

"

-

-

-

100.0

-

_
_
100.0

81.5

82.6

81.5

82.6

-

57.3

-

81.5
_
81.5
-

82.6
_
82 .6
-

57.3
_
57 .3
_
_

.

_

_
-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

18.9

61.0

18.9

19.0

3.7

19.0

37.7
-

37.7

80.5

25.2

97.2

80.5

25.2

97.2

80.5
_
_
80.5

25 .2
_
25.2
_
_

97.2
.
_
86.6
1 0 .6

-

-

-

-

-

-

Third or other late shift
W o rk ers in estab lish m en ts having
provisions for late s h ift s _______________________
With shift d ifferen tial

_

Uniform cents per h o u r ___________________
2 V c e n t s -------------------------------------------------2
5 c e n t s ____________________________________
7 V c e n t s -------------------------------------------------2
1 0 c en ts_________________________
________
1 2 V2 c e n ts________________________________
With no shift d ifferen tia l______________________

S e e fo o t n o t e

at end o f ta b le .




85.5

91 .3

100.0

100.0

82.8

82.6

84.2

8.7

-

80.5

25.2

97.2

85.5

91 .3

100.0

100.0

82.8

82.6

-

43.9

-

-

80.5

25 .2

97.2

85.5
-

91.3
91 .3

100.0

100.0

48 .6
51 .4
-

100.0

82.8
82.8

82.6
_
_
82 .6
-

.
.
_

43.9
_
43.9
_
_

.
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

80.5
_

25.2
_
25.2
_

97.2
_

-

-

8.7

-

-

-

85.5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.1

_
6.1

40 .3

_

_
80.5
-

_

_
86.6
1 0 .6

-

-

-

-

Table 11. Shift Differential Provisions:

Plant W o rk e rs — Continued

( P e r c e n t o f pla n t w o r k e r s b y sh ift d iff e r e n t ia l p r o v is io n s 1 in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r 1964)
N o r th C e n t r a l
Sh ift d i ff e r e n t ia l
C h ic a g o

C in cin n a ti C le v e la n d

D e t r o it

In d ia n a p o lis

W e st
K ansas
C it y

M in n e a p o lis —
St. P a u l

St. L o u is

D enver

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a c h

P o r t la n d

San
F r a n c is c o —
O ak land

S e c o n d sh ift
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g
p r o v is i o n s f o r la te s h i f t s __________ _____.______

100.0

100.0

100.0

8 6.8

4 3 .4

9 7 .3

100.0

9 6.1

9 4.1

9 3 .0

100.0

9 7 .0

W ith s h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

8 6.8

4 3 .4

9 7 .3

100.0

9 6.1

94.1

9 3 .0

1 00.0

9 7 .0

U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r
5 c e n t s __________ _______________________
7 c e n t s __
_ _
8 V4 c e n t s _________________________________
10 c e n t s
103 c e n t s _______________________________
/4
12 c e n t s
1 2 V2 c e n t s ________________________________
15 c e n t s ___________________________________
O th e r 2 ____________________________________
F la t s u m _____________________________________
$ 0 .7 5 _________________ _____________________
$ 1 .0 0 ________________ ______________________

_
100.0
-

100.0
100.0
-

100.0
9 1 .5
8 .5
_
-

8 6.8
8 6.8
-

4 3 .4
3 0.8
_
_
12.6
_
_
_

9 7 .3
_
_
_
8 .5
_
8 8.9
_
_
_

_

9 6.1

9 4.1

9 3 .0

_

100.0

9 7 .0

_

_
_
_

W ith no s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l______________________

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
_
_
.
100.0
32.9
67.1
-

_

_
_

9 6.1
_
.
_
_

_

_
_

_
_

10.8

_

8 3 .3
_
_

_
_

9 3.0
_

_

_

100.0
_
_

8.1
8 8.9

_

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

T h ir d o r o t h e r la te sh ift
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g
p r o v is i o n s f o r la te s h i f t s ___________ - __________

100.0

W ith sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________________

100.0

U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ____________________
5 c e n t s ____________________________________
7 c e n t s __________________________ ________
8 V c e n t s _________________________________
4
10 c e n t s
_
__
_
_
10 3 c e n t s ________ ________ ____________
/4
12 c e n t s _______________________________ ___
I 2 V2 c e n t s ________________________ ________
15 c e n t s ___________________________ ,________
O th e r 2 ____________________________________
F la t s u m ___________________________ ________

80.9

100.0

8 6.8

4 3 .4

9 7 .3

100.0

9 6.1

9 4.1

9 3 .0

100.0

9 7 .0

80.9

100.0

8 6.8

4 3 .4

9 7 .3

100.0

9 6.1

9 4.1

9 3 .0

100.0

9 7 .0

-

80.9
-

100.0
9 1 .5

8 6.8
8 6.8

4 3 .4
3 0.8
-

9 6.1
_

9 4.1

9 3 .0

100.0

9 7 .0

-

80.9

9 7 .3
_
8 .5
8 8.9
_

-

-

-

-

-

12.6
-

____

-

-

-

-

-

W ith no s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l________________

-

8.5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

-

-

-

_

_
_
_
_
_
100.0
32.9
Ln 1
67.1

_

_
_

_
9 6.1

_
_
_

_

_
_
_

10.8
_

8 3 .3
_

_
_

9 3 .0

_
_

“

-

-

-

_

B ecause o f rounding,




sum s of individual item s may not equal totals.

_
_
_

_
100.0
_
_

8.1
8 8.9

-

.

_

-

-

-

1 R e fers to p olicies o f estab lish m en ts either curren tly operating late shifts or having p rovisions covering late sh ifts.
2 Second- and third -sh ift differen tials are paid for hours worked between 6 p. m . and 4 , 5, or 6 a. m . as follow s:
(a) for le ss than 4 hours w orked,
of $ 1.25 per night, (b) for 4 hours or m ore w orked, em ployees receive a bonus of 10 percent added to hourly rates for each hour worked.
NOTE:

_
_

em ployees receive a flat sum

T able 12. Shift Differential Practices:

Plant W ork ers

(P e r c e n t o f plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on la te s h ift s in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y am ou n t o f pay d iff e r e n t ia l
in 23 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 1 S e p t e m b e r — c t o b e r 1964)
2
O
N o r th e a s t
Shift d i ff e r e n t ia l
B o s to n

B u ffa lo

N ew a rk and
J e r s e y C ity

South

N ew Y o r k

P h ila d e lp h ia

P itts b u r g h

2 26. 5

4.
4.
4.
4.

A tla n ta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

H ou ston

7. 7
_
_
_
_
.
_
_

1 1 .5
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

7. 7

1 1 .5

L o u is v i ll e

W ash in gton

S e c o n d sh ift
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on la te s h i f t s _________________
R e c e iv in g s h ift d i ff e r e n t ia l------------------------------U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ____________________
2 V2 c e n t s __________________________________
5 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------7 V2 c e n t s __________________________________
10 c e n t s ________________________________ ___
I 2 V2 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------R e c e iv in g no s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l-------------------------

1 1 .8
10. 1
10. 1

4. 1
4. 1
4. 1

23.
23.
23.
16.
6.

7
7
7
9
8

-

4. 1
_

_

-

-

14. 6
14. 6
14. 6

2. 0
2. 0
2. 0
2. 0
-

10. 4
1 0 .4
10. 4
4. 7
5. 7
-

-

-

_
-

_
_
26. 5

.

14. 6
14. 6
14. 6
_
_
14. 6
_

-

-

4. 2
4. 2
4. 2
_
_
4. 2
_

4 .9
4 .9
4 .9
_
_
_
4 .9
_

5. 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_

-

-

6. 4
3. 7
1 .7

-

5
5
5

-

5. 1

6 .4

5

-

1 .8
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 .8

4. 5
3 .9
3 .9

12. 0
5. 5
5. 5
_
5. 5
.
_

3 .9
_
_
.5

2 1 .7
2 1 .7
2 1 .7

7. 9
7. 9
7. 9

_
_
2 1 .7

4. 8
3. 1

_

-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

9. 1
9. 1
9. 1

-

-

T h ir d o r o t h e r la te sh ift
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on la te s h i f t s _________________
R e c e iv in g sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l------------------------------U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r _______________ ___
2 V2 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------7 V2 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------I 2 V2 c e n t s _________________________________
R e c e iv in g no s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l_________________

-

14. 6
-

2 14. 2
14. 2
14. 2
14. 2
_
_

-

1 .2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 .2

N o r th C e n t r a l
Chicago

Cincinnati

Cleveland

21.6
21.6

4. 7
4 .7
4. 7
4. 7
-

7 .4
7. 4
7. 4
6 .9
_
.5
_
-

-

-

2 .9
2 .9
2 .9

4 .4
4. 4
4. 4
-

Detroit

_
8. 9
.2

_

_

-

W est
Indianapolis

Kansas
City

St. Louis

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

San
F ran cisco—
Oakland

Second shift
W ork ers em ployed on late s h ift s _________________
Receiving shift d ifferen tial------------------------------U n iform cents per h o u r------------------------------7 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------8 V4 c e n ts __________________________________
1 0 cen ts____________________________________
1 0 3/ 4 c en ts-------------------------------------------------1 2 cen ts____________________________________
I 2 V2 c en ts-------------------------------------------------15 c en ts------------------------------------------------------O th e r ______________________________ ____________
Receiving no shift d ifferen tial______ *_________

3 2 1

.

6

-

19.
19.
19.
19.

1
1
1
1

4 .9
4. 9
4 .9
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
-

-

_

4 .9

.3
.3
.3
.3
_
.
.
.
.
_

12
12
1 2

.2
.2
.2
_
_
_

_
-

_
_
.2

8
8
8

.5
.5
. 5
_

8

.5
_
_

-

4 .8
4. 8
4. 8

19
19
19

_

.
.
.

2
2
2

_

_

_

_
_
_

1.6
.

3. 2
-

19 .2

3. 6
3. 6
3. 6
_
_
_

11.0
1 1 . 0
11.0

_

_

_
3.

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

4. 0
4. 0
4. 0

.

_

3.
3.
3.

1 1

_
-

1 .9
1 .9
1. 9
_

6

.

_

_

12

_
-

.

0

-

Third or other late shift
W ork ers em ployed on late s h ift s _________________
Receiving shift differen tial____________________
U niform cents per h o u r ____________________
7 c e n t s _____________________________________
8 V c e n ts ---------------------------------------------------4
1 0 c e n t s — —---------------- ------- ---------------------1 2 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------1 2 l/z c e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 5 c e n t s . . . . . . . . — ------- ------------------------------

11.2
11.2

.
.

4. 4
2 .9

1 1 ,2
R e c e i v i n g n o s h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------

1
2
of

■

6
6
6
6

-

1 .9

NOTE:

Because of rounding,




fo r h ours w o r k e d b e tw e e n 6 p . m .
and 4,
e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e a b o n u s o f 10 p e r c e n t

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

_
_

_
1. 1
2 .7

.
.

.9
.9
.9

18.
18.
18.

6
6
6

_

_

_
■

5. 5
_

„
_
-

4. 0

N o w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d o n l a t e s h i f t s d u r i n g th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d i n M i a m i a n d M i n n e a p o l i s - S t .
T h e s e p r o p o r t i o n s d o n o t i n c lu d e w o r k e r s in 3 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o p e r a t in g s e c o n d a n d th ir d s h i f t s f o r w h ic h d a ta w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .

3 S e c o n d -a n d t h ir d -s h ift
d i f f e r e n t i a ls w e r e p a id
$ 1 . 2 5 p e r n i g h t , (b ) f o r 4 h o u r s o r m o r e w o r k e d ,

5. 5
5. 5
5. 5

8
8
8

5, o r 6 a. m .
as fo llo w s :
a d d e d to h o u r l y r a t e s f o r

( a ) f o r l e s s th a n 4
each hour w ork ed .

_
_
.

_
-

18. 6

9

_
-

-

P a u l.
h ours

w orked

e m p lo y e e s

r e c e iv e

a

fla t

su m

(0

Table 13.

Paid Holidays:

R outem en

( P e r c e n t o f r o u t e m e n in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r pa id h o lid a y s in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r — c t o b e r 1964)
O
N o r th e a s t
N u m b e r o f pa id h o lid a y s
B o s to n

B u ffa lo

N ew a rk and
J e r s e y C ity

South

N ew Y o r k

P h ila d e lp h ia

P itts b u rg h

A tla n ta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

H ou ston

L o u is v ille

M ia m i

W a sh in g ton

100

____ ___ _ _
_

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

__ _______

92

4

100

100

94

97

48

100

37

55

5

63

-

1 d a y ____________________ ______ ___ „__________. _____
2 d a y s ------------------------------------------------- ----------------3 d a y s __________ _______ _____________ ______ _____
4 d a y s _____________________ ______________ . . . _____
5 d a y s __ ________ _________________________________
6 d a y s ___,,______ ______ ___ ________________________ _
7 d a y s --------------------------- ---------------------------------------8 d a y s ______________________ ________________ _____
11 d a y s --------- ,-----------------— ------------------------ -— , —

_

.

_

_

_
-

13
-

_

_
55
-

C)
4
-

.

_

34
-

-

-

-

-

_
37

1
_

-

-

_
63
29

-

-

-

_
63
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R e c e iv in g no pa id h o l i d a y s _________________ . . . ___

8

45

95

37

100

A l l w o r k e r s _________ _____ „ ___
R e c e iv in g p a id h o lid a y s

_____ „__

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

94
-

90
7
-

27
8
-

_
66
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

96

-

-

6

4

52

-

-

-

63

N orth C e n t r a l
C h ic a g o

A l l w o r k e r s ------------------------------------ —

-----------

R e c e iv in g pa id h o l i d a y s --- _-----------------------------------1
3
5
6

d a y . . _____ ________________________________________
d a y s --------- . ------------------------------ -------------------------d a y s ------------------------- -------------- -------------------------d a y s ____________ . . . . . . ---------------------------- ---------7 d a y s . . . --------- -— . — . . . — ---------- „----------------------8 d a y s ________ —------------------------------- --------------------

R e c e iv in g no p a id h o l i d a y s _______________________

1

100

C in cin n a ti C le v e la n d

D e t r o it

In d ia n a p o lis

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




W est
K ansas
C ity

M in n e a p o lis —
St. L o u is
St. P a u l

D enver

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch

P o r t la n d

San
F ra n cis co —
O akland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

56

30

1

100

95

3

100

100

100

7

4
-

_
100
-

85

.
3
-

.

-

_
1
-

100
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
100

70

99

-

5

97

-

-

-

-

14

_
-

.
-

14
-

48
-

100

100

86

44

L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

-

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls,

27

-

4
6

-

6
94

Table 14.

Paid Holidays:

Plant W ork ers

( P e r c e n t o f plant w o r k e r s in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id h o lid a y s in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r — c t o b e r 1964)
O
N o r th e a s t
N u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s
B o s to n

B u ffa lo

N ew a rk and
J e r s e y C ity

South

N ew Y o r k

P h ila d e lp h ia

P it t s b u r g h

A tla n ta

B a lt im o r e

D a lla s

H ou ston

L o u is v i ll e

M ia m i

W a sh in gton

A ll w o r k e r s _________________________________ ___

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

R e c e iv in g p a id h o l i d a y s ------------------------ ----------------1 d a y _____________________ ________________ _________
2 d a y s ___________________________ __________________
3 d a y s ----- -----------------------------------------------------------4 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------5 d a y s ________________________ _____________________
6 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------

95

4

100

100

90

98

94
6

100
13
4

96

73
2
29

18
3
11

100

3

4
6

4
-

-

-

90

89
9

83

52
45
-

42
"

3

-

3
-

_

_

_

“

100

"

.

_

32
36
19
:

:

:

“

8 d a y s ___ ______________________ _____ ___.. . _______
11 d a y s ------------------------------------- --------------------- -------

56
30

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R e c e iv in g no p a id h o l i d a y s ______ ,_________________

5

96

-

-

10

2

6

-

4

27

82

-

97

100

100

N o r th C e n t r a l
C h ica g o

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------

C in cin n a ti C le v e la n d

D e t r o it

Indi a n a p o lis

W e st
K ansas
C ity

M inne a p o li s—
St. L o u is
St. P au l

San
F ra n cis co —
O akland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

63
4

39
~

97

100

-

100
-

-

-

96
87

94
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

2
8

94

7

100

-

-

93

-

100

6

-

-

-

100

100

100

57

35

97

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R e c e iv in g no p a id h o l i d a y s _____ - __________________

-

-

-

37

61

3

-




P o r t la n d

100

8 d a y s --------------------------------------------------- -----------------

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

L os A n g e le s L ong B ea ch

100

R e c e iv in g p a id h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------1 d a y - ..--------------- ------------------------------- ----------------3 d a y s ------------- *--------------------------------------------------

NOTE:

D enver

su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a ls .

4

Table 15.

Paid Vacations:

R outem en

B

(Percent of routemen in fluid milk establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
in 25 selected areas, September-October 1964)
N o rth e a st
V a c a tio n p o lic y
B o sto n

B u ffa lo

N e w a rk and
J e r s e y C it y

S o u th

N ew Y o rk

P h ila d e lp h ia

P ittsb u rg h

A t la n t a

B a ltim o r e

D a lla s

H o u sto n

L o u is v ille

M ia m i

W a s h in g to n

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s ________________________________________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _____________________________

100

100
100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

76

100

100

100

100

P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ____________________________________

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

“

“

”

“

24

-

"

-

"

"

-

-

-

100

-

71

100
-

-

-

29
-

100

-

-

-

_

100
-

100

-

■

-

A l l w o r k e r s ____________________________________________ . .

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t

F la t-s u m

p a y m e n t ______________________________________

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e : 2
U n d e r 1 w e e k ______________________________________________
1 w e e k _________________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________ __________
4 w e e k s _______________________________________________________

A fte r 2 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k _________________________________________________________
O v er 1 and under
2 w eeks
4 w e e k s _____

2 w e e k s ___________________________
_
_____ _

______________________________________________

A fte r 3 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e : 3
1 w e e k ________________________________________________________
O ver

1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________
2 w e e k s _______________ _______________
____________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s __________ ______________
3 w e e k s ___________________________ _________________- _________
4 w e e k s ______________________________________________________

-

-

24

100

100
-

75
6
-

76
-

100
-

99
1

6
94

100

-

100
-

-

-

-

■

19

-

-

-

-

•

-

-

3
-

75

20

-

-

99
-

28

-

1

97

30
50

93
-

100

6
-

-

100

16
56

100

-

“

"

'

19

■

_

4
-

-

-

8
-

-

100
-

96
-

100

95
-

92

5

-

15
85
-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

A fte r 5 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k . . ______________________ . . . . . . . _______________ ____ . . .
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________

-

-

2 w e e k s ______________________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________________________

37
_

100
-

-

-

3 w e e k s --------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------— ----------------------------------------

63

-

100

100

4 w e e k s ------------

■

1
-

-

99
-

15
85
-

"

■

■

-

-

-

■

-

19

_

■

4

7
70

16
80
-

1
24

-

75
-

“

■

■

-

4

7

96
-

7
4
-

1
75
24
-

-

7
-

-

-

1
4
-

85

3 w e e k s ______________________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________________

98
-

93
-

100
-

100
-

95
-

8
-




100

-

2
-

See footnotes at end of table.

20
30
50

19

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------- -—
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________________________

4 w e e k s ________________________ _____________________________

4
7
66
5

100
-

“

-

4
16
80

-

5
-

66
5
19

-

-

-

7

100

100

-

"

“

6
-

100

100

94
-

-

-

-

-

■

“

■

6

43
-

100

94
-

57

-

“

-

“

-

6

39
-

94
-

37
-

100

61
-

63
-

-

T able 15. Paid Vacations.

R outem en— Continued

(Percent of routemen in fluid milk establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
in 25 selected areas, September-October 1964)
N o rth e a st
V a c a tio n p o lic y
B o sto n

B u ffa lo

N e w a rk and
J e r s e y C it y

N ew

S o u th

Y ork

P h ila d e lp h ia

P ittsb u r g h

A t la n ta

B a ltim o r e

D a lla s

H o u sto n

L o u is v ille

M ia m i

W a s h in g to n

A m o u n t o f v a c a t i o n p a y 1 — C o n tin u e d
A fte r

12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :

U n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
2 w e e k s ______ _______________________ ______ _____ _____ ____
O
3
O
4

v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________________________
w e e k s _____________________________________________________
ver 3 and u nder 4 w eek s
___
___ _____
w e e k s __ _ _
___
_
_____ _

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n der 2 w eek s
__
____________
2 w eeks
__
_ __
_

_
_

_

_

__
_

O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s ______ ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _________________________
4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r

20 y e a r s

-

_

_

_

1

_

4

2
_

7
_

_
_

_

4
_

4

-

88

98
_

93
_

100
-

100
-

92
-

8
-

96
_
_
_

66
5

-

“

-

-

2

-

-

19

_
_
_

_
_
_

1
2
_

_
_
_

4
75
_

7
4
_

85

_

_

2
_

7
-

98
-

93
_

-

-

95
_

-

100

100

2

-

21
-

-

6

_

14
_

37
_

_
_

61
_

80
_

63
_

100
-

“

-

-

-

1

_

71
24
4
-

29
_

6
1
_

37
-

_
_

71
-

93
_

63
-

100
-

-

-

-

-

.

6
1
13
_

_

-

37
63
_

-

80

-

100

-

-

1
75
24
_

66

-

15

_
39
_

_

7
4
-

19

5

-

_

o f se rv ic e :

U n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
2 w eeks
__
_ _
__
__ ______
3 w eeks
_
____ ___ _
____
O ver 3 and und er 4 w eek s
_ _ _ _________
4 w e e k s ________________________________________________

__

A ft e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e : 4
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
2 w eeks
___
_ _
___ __
3 w e e k s ____________________ ________ ____ ___________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________ _
4 w eeks
_
_
__ _

_

_

_

_

2
6
-

7

-

_
_

-

_

1
2

93
_

93
-

15
85

75
21
-

66
5

24

29
65
_

92

-

100

100

4

-

-

19

-

6

_

4
75
21
-

7
4
66
5

1
71
4
24

29
65
-

13
_

-

6

80

-

-

-

2
2
_

7
_

-

-

1
2
93
-

15
_

95

93

100

100

4

4

7
4

85

1
71
4

19

-

6
1

37
63
_
-

100

N o rth C e n tra l

C h ic a g o

A l l w o r k e r s _____________________________________________

C in c in n a ti

C le v e la n d

D e tr o it

I n d ia n a p o li s

K an sas
C ity

M in n e a p o lis —
S t.

Paul

S t.

L o u is

D enver

L o s A n g e le s Long B each

P o r tla n d

San
F r a n c is c o —
O a k la n d
100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

10 0
10 0

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100

100
100

100

100

100

100

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

28
72

-

-

100

98
2

100

100

-

-

100
-

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s ______________________________________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _________________________ __
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ________________________________ _
A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ___
_ _ _ _ _

_

-

100

100

100

100

-

100

2 w e e k s _____________________________________________________

100

100

-

-

-

-

100

-

A fte r 2 y e a rs of se r v ic e :
1 w e e k _____________________________ _________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________ _
2 w e e k s ............
......................................... _

_

_

_

-

22
-

-

-

-

98
-

3
-

100

100
_

85
-

100

15

78

100

100

100

2

97

_

_

See footnotes at end of table.




________

_

-

-

_

_
100

Table 15.

Paid Vacations

R outem en----- Continued

10

*

( P e r c e n t o f ro u t e m e n in flu id m ilk e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id v a c a t io n s a ft e r s e l e c t e d p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e
in 25 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r 1964)
N o r th C e n t r a l

W est

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
C h ica g o

C in cin n a ti

C lev ela n d

D e t r o it

K ansas
C ity

I n d ia n a p o lis

M in n e a p o lis —
St. P a u l

St. L o u is

D enver

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a c h

P o r t la n d

San
F ra n cisc o —
O ak la n d

A m o u n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 1 C o n tin u e d
—

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e : 3
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s ____________________________________________

100

100

100

100

4
96

100

100

100

4
96

100

100

100

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
3 w e e k s ____________________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
97

100

-

-

2
98

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________

100

100

100
-

33
67

96
4

3
97

100

100

97
3

_
100

100

100

A f t e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ________- __________________________ -_______
O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _____________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________

_
100

_
100

100

1
14
85

70

-

-

-

-

30

97

100

100

10
90

100

100

100

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s - _____________ _____ ______________ ___
_
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
4 w e e k s ____________________________________________

100

100

100

21
79
-

100

100

6
94

-

1
99
"

3
97

-

-

-

-

-

3
97

100

2
98

-

-

2

3

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________-—
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s _____________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________

100

100

1
99

21
75

3
97

100

15

6
4

3

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

100

-

-

-

4

-

-

85

90

97

100

A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e : 4
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________ __________
4 w e e k s _________________________ - ________________ _

-

-

-

100

1
51
48

21
60
19

-

-

-

100

100

97

100

6
4
90

3
97

3

15
85

-

-

98

-

-

2
98

100

1 V a c a t i o n p a y m e n t s , s u c h a s p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s , w e r e c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u i v a l e n t t i m e b a s i s . P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e
in d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n .
F o r e x a m p l e , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s i n d ic a t e d a t 10 y e a r s m a y in c l u d e c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
2 A f t e r 6 m o n t h s o f s e r v i c e : 2 5 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k e r s in B a l t i m o r e w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g l e s s t h a n 1 w e e k ; 6 3 p e r c e n t i n B o s t o n , 1 0 0 p e r c e n t in N e w a r k a n d J e r s e y C i t y ,
100

p e r c e n t in N e w Y o r k , a n d 6 p e r c e n t in L o u i s v i l l e w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g 1 w e e k .
3 V a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s a f t e r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e w e r e i d e n t ic a l w ith t h o s e a f t e r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

4

A fte r

35

e s ta b lis h m e n ts
NOTE:

years

p r o v id in g

B ecau se

of




of
4

s e rv ic e :

29

percen t

of

th e

w orkers

in

H o u sto n w e r e

w eek s.

r o u n d in g ,

su m s

of

in d iv id u a l

ite m s

m ay

not

equ al to t a ls .

in

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

in

a ll

p r o v id in g

areas.
2

w eek s,

55

percen t

in

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

p r o v id in g

3 w eek s,

and

16

p ercen t

in

Table 16. Paid Vacations: Plant Workers
(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
Northeast
V acation policy

South

Buffalo

Newark and
J erse y City

New York

Philadelphia

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

A fter 1 year of s e r v ic e : 2
1 week________________ __
_ _ _
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s __ ____ ____________
2 w e e k s------------------------------------------------------------------

36
_
64

97
_
-

_
100

A fter 2 y e a rs of s e r v ic e :
1 week-------------------------- ----------------- ------ -- ------ ------Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ---------------- --------------2 weeks — _----- ---------...---------------— -----------------------

6
_
94

97
_
3

6
94
_

4

Atlanta

B altim ore

D allas

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

_
100

100
_

100
_

83
_
17

91
4
5

100
_

100
_
-

97
_
3

14
_
86

100
_

-

_
100

_
100

99
_
1

3
_
97

21
6
73

73
22
5

24
_
76

_
100

90
_
10

_
100

_
_
100

_
100
-

11
_
89
.

2
4
94
_

24
_
76
_

_
.
100
_

91
_

_
_
100
_

_
_
100
_

-

-

_
_
17
83
-

6
6
88
_

-

94
.
6

9

96
.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
44
56

_
.
100
-

_
_
100

_
_
_
_
100

_
_
17
83
-

6
6
88
_

_
_
96
4
-

3
_
97
_

_
_
100
_

6
_
94
_

-

-

-

_
_
40
_
60

_
7
.
93

_

_
_
100
-

_
_
_
100

6
94

_
25

-

-

-

-

1
6
.
88
_
4

_
5
86
9
_

6
94
_
_
_

-

-

1
4
91
_
4

_
_
17
_
_
83

6
56
38
_
_

Boston

A ll w o rk ers— ----- ----------------------------------------------

Pittsburgh

Houston

Lou isville

M iam i

Washington

Method of payment
W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing
paid vacatio n s__________ . _______ ___________ — ____
L e n g th -o f-tim e p aym ent______________ _________

Amount of vacation p a y 1

A fter 3 y e a rs of s e r v ic e : 3
1 week--------------------------. -----------------------. ----. ---------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ___ ________________
2 weeks
_—____ __. ______ _____ _____ __ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___ ___________ „„____
3 weeks . . . . . __________ ___________. _____ . ____ ______
A fter 5 ye ars of s e r v ic e :
1 week____ _________ _____________________________ __
Over 1 and under 2 w eeks ______ ________________
2 w e e k s _____________ ________ . ____________________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s -------------------- -----------3 w e e k s --------------------- ------ ___ . ____ „___ ____________
A fter 10 y e a rs of se r v ic e :
1 week______________ ________ __
_
2 w e e k s ___________________________ . __ ___ ,..______
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________ ______ . . .
3 w e e k s ______ __
_______________ _____ _________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks . . _____ ___ _______ . . . .
A fter 12 ye ars of se r v ic e :
1 week------------. . . __ _____________________________
T
^
2 weeks __ ____ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w ee k s,,________ ___________
3 weeks —_________________ _____ _________________ .
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ______________ _____
4 w e e k s ------------------- ------ ----------------- -------- ----------

-

9
91
-

See footnotes at end of table,




-

-

100
-

100
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
9
91
_
_

-

-

-

-

1
.
99
_
1
6
_
92

_
9
83
9
-

6
94
_
_
-

_
7
_
89
4

3
66
_
31
-

_
39
_
61
-

,
7
-

93
-

7
93
_
_

100

100

_

3

_

_
25
_
75

3
_
97
-

-

-

-

_
2
94
4

3
53
45
_
_

_
18
82
_

6
7
88
_

25
75

_

_
_

'

'

_

_

6
14
_
81

-

61
_

_
_
100
_

-

3
66
_
31

39

-

75
-

_
7
_
89
4
-

_

_

_

'

A fter 15 ye ars of se r v ic e :
1 week----- — ____ __ ____________ _____ _____ ___ __
2 w e e k s _______ . __ ______ . _______ ___ ___________ _
3 w e e k s __ _____ . ___________ . . ______ ______________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ____,________________
4 w e e k s ___
_
„ T.
Over 4 w eeks____________________ ___ ____________

_
9
91

-

_

_

_

97

_

_
3
97

_
'

Table 16. Paid Vacations: Plant Workers— Continued
(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
South

Northeast
Vacation policy
Boston

Buffalo

Newark and
J ersey City

New York

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

Atlanta

B altim ore

Houston

L ou isville

M iam i

Washington

18
71
11

6
7
7
81

25
75
-

‘

Dallas

"

3
97
-

6
7
7
81

25
75
-

3
97

Amount of vacation p a y 1— Continued
A fter 20 y e a rs of se r v ic e :
1 w eek------ ---------------------------------- ---------------------2 w e e k s _____ ______________________________________
3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ------------------- ------ -—
4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 w eeks--------------------------------------------------------

7
8
86

9
91
-

100

-

-

-

A fter 25 ye ars of s e r v ic e :4
1 w eek--------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------- ------ ---------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s --------------------------------4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 w ee k s--------------------------------------------------------

7
5
88

9
91
“

100

“

_
100

1
4
89
6
-

■

"

6
56
38
-

2
94
4
-

3
53
14
31

-

"

-

1
4
89
6
“

100

17
83

14
3
83

6
56
38
-

-

2
94
4
-

3
53
14
31

"

“

"

18
71
11
“

North C entral
Chicago

Cincinnati Cleveland

Detroit

Indianapolis

"

’

W est
Kansas
City

Minne apolis—
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

San
F rancisco—
Oakland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
“

100
100
■

100
100
“

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
13
87

100
100

100
100

100
100

'

"

"

"

'

A fter 1 year of se r v ic e : 2
1 week----------------------------------------------------- — ----------2 w e e k s------------------------------------------------------------------

100

19
81

100

99
( 5)

100

100

100

100

-

-

95
5

100

-

100

100

-

-

-

A fter 2 years of serv ic e:
1 week---------------- --------------------------------------------- -----O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ------------------------ ----2 w e e k s------------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

94
6

21
79

100

100

100

97
3

2
98

100
-

-

-

100

A fter 3 ye ars of sei*vice: 3
1 week--------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------- ------ ----------------------- --------------------3 w e e k s--------------------------------------------------------------- —

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

-

-

1
99
*

100

-

4
96
-

100

-

81
19

-

-

-

A fter 5 ye ars of se r v ic e :
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------- 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------- -------------------------

100

81
19

100
-

99
( 5)

100
“

100
-

100
-

100

100
-

2
98

100

-

1
99

A fter 10 years of se r v ic e :
2 w e ck s „.rr________________________ —
ii
3 weeks

-

100

100

29
71

84
16

3
97

100

100

89
11

-

-

-

100

100

100

100

A ll w o rk ers--------------------------------------------------------

Method of payment
W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing
paid vacations---------------------------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p aym en t-----------------------------------P ercentage payment--------------------------------------------

“

'

Amount of vacation p a y 1

See footnotes at end of table.




M-r T -w-«
T

-

-

Table 16. Paid Vacations:

Plant W orkers— Continued

(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
North Central
Vacation policy
Chicago

Cincinnati Cleveland

Detroit

Indi anapolis

West
Kansas
City

Minneapoli s—
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long Beach

Portland

San
Fran cisco—
Oakland

Amount of vacation p a y 12 Continued
—
3
A fter 12 years of s e r v ic e :
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s -------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

A fter 15 ye ars of se r v ic e :
2 w e e k s -------- ------------------------------------- -------------3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
4 weeks ______________________________________ ___

_
92
8

-

A fter 20 y ears of se r v ic e :
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s _________ - ------------- ----------------— -----------4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

A fter 25 ye ars of se r v ic e : 45
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------- -------------------------------------------4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------

100

1 Vacation payments such as
individual establish m en t provisions
2 A fter 6 months of se r v ic e :
providing 1 week.
3 Vacation provisions after 4
4 A fter 35 ye ars of se r v ic e :
estab lish m en ts providing 4 w eeks.
5 L e s s than 0 .5 p ercen t.

NOTE:

-

100

2
3
95

61
39

3
97

100

100

6
94

100

100

100

-

-

100

100

2
98

13
87

3
97

100

100

4
96

-

“

"

“

“

“

2
98

100

1
99

-

100
-

2
98
-

13
70
16

3
97
"

100
"

12
88

4
2
94

2
98

100

1
99

100

100

2
44
54

13
58
29

3
97

100

12
88

4
2
94

2
98

100

1
99

percent of annual earnings, were converted to an equivalent tim e b a sis.
P eriods of serv ic e w ere arb itrarily chosen and do not n e c e ssa r ily reflect the
for p rogression .
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years m ay include changes occurring between 5 and 10 y e a rs.
56 percent of the workers in Boston, 100 percent in Newark and J ersey City, 100 percent in New York, and 6 percent in L ou isville w ere in establishm ents
years of service were identical with those after 3 years of service in all areas.
18 percent of the w orkers in Houston w ere in establishm ents providing 2 w eeks,

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




_

51 percent

in establishm ents providing

3 w eeks,

and 31 percent in

Table 17. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans: Routemen
(Percent of routemen in fluid milk establishments with specified health, insurance, and pension plans in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
Northeast
Type of plan 1
Boston

All w ork ers

....

_

_ ... __

Buffalo

Newark and
Jersey City

South

New York

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

Atlanta

B altim ore

D allas

Houston

L ou isville

M iam i

Washington

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance ....
Jointly financed . _
E m p loyer financed__________________________

98
98

100
7
93

100
100

100
_
100

100
6
94

97
_
97

100
68
32

100

100
73
27

100
100
-

86
6
81

100
100

100
100

100

A ccid en tal death and d ism em b erm en t
in su ran ce_______________________________________
Jointly financed--------------------------------------------E m p loyer financed__________________________

98
63
35

7
7

-

-

89

53
_
53

86
67
18

86
6
81

94
94

-

79
47
32

25
25

-

14
6
8

89
_

"

98
98
63
35

93
93
93

100
100
100

100
100
100

94
94
5
89

95
95
_
95

40
8
8
_

96
96

25
15
15

99
86
6
81

63
63
63

96

67
60
60
_

92

-

-

_

1

_

_

7

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

40

-

-

-

13

-

-

H ospitalization insurance
_ _
Jointly financed--------------------------------------------E m p loye r financed
. .

100
6
94

100
7
93

100
100

100
100

98
7
91

100
_
100

100
55
45

100
_
100

80
71
9

100
100

100
19
81

100
78
22

100
100

Surgical in su ran ce______________________________
Jointly financed_________ ___________________
E m p loyer financed _
. . .

100
6
94

100
7
93

100
100

100
100

98
7
91

100
_
100

100
55
45

100
_
100

80
71
9

100
100
-

100
19
81

100
78
22

100
100

M edical in su r a n c e ______________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed----------------------------------------

100
6
94

93
93

100
100

100
100

98
7

95
_
95

84
39
45

52
_
52

43
34
9

35
35
-

1
1
(3)

63
41
22

100
100

C atastrophe insurance
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

65
65

_
-

-

57
34
22

100
100

33

71
64
7

1
1

-

64
27
37

35
35

-

4
_
4

33

-

R etirem ent pension
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed----------------------------

98
65
32

_
-

100
_
100

89
_
89

88
_
88

72
13
59

85

45
35
10

43

85

50
50
-

93

-

100
100

93

43

"

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

-

"

-

W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing:

S ickn ess and accident insurance or
sick leave or b o th 2 _
.................
Sickness and accident in su ran ce_________
Jointly financed _
.
............ . .
E m p loyer financed
Sick leave (full pay, no
waiting period) _
..
..
Sick leave (p artial pay or
waiting period )_____________________________

No p la n s _______________

________________________

See footnotes at end of table.




_

-

-

_

9
1
5
5

_

_

_

-

100
100
100

43

-

Table 17. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans: Routemen-----Continued
(P ercen t of routem en in fluid m ilk establishm ents with specified health, insurance, and pension plans in 25 selected a r e a s, S ep tem b er-O ctob er 1964)
North C entral
Type of plan 1
Chicago

A ll w o r k e r s ________

_ _ _

T

Cincinnati Cleveland

D etroit

Indianapolis

W est
Kansas
City

Minne apo li s—
St. Louis
St. Paul

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long B each

Portland

San
F ran cisco—
Oakland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance
Jointly financed______________________________
E m ployer financed__________________________

100
100

100
100

100
100

86
57
29

100
69
31

100
3
97

100
35
65

100
_
100

53
30
24

100
3
97

52
24
28

100

A ccidental death and d ism em b erm e n t
in su ran ce_______________________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
100

100
100

11
11

47
21
26

53
53
-

100
3
97

5
5
-

96

-

10
4
6

5
3
1

52
24
28

-

100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
100
-

70
69
44
25

69
48
48
_

100
100
3
97

100
100
18
82

96
96

95
8
4
4

98
93

100
95

93

95

-

-

_

_

_

W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing:

Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or b o th 2 _____ __ _ _
S ickn ess and accident in su ran ce_________
Jointly financed
E m p loyer financed _ _
_
Sick leave (full pay, no
waiting period )------------- ----------- ----- _ _
Sick leave (p artial pay or
waiting p eriod )_____________________________

-

_

_

96

96

_

_

100

100

3

-

-

-

9

21

-

-

-

87

1

100

100

H osp italization in su ran ce_____________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed_____________ __________ _

100
100

100
100

100
89
11

92
22
69

100
69
31

100
3
97

100

100
4
96

100
3
97

100

100

100

100
4
96

100

100

Surgical in su ran ce______________________________
Jointly financed_____________ - _________ __ —
E m p loyer financed----------------------------------------

100
100

.100
100

100
89
11

92
22
69

100
69
31

100
3
97

100
_
100

100
4
96

100
4
96

100
3
97

100

100

100

100

M edical in su r a n c e _____________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
100

100
100

92
22
69

73
42
31

100
3
97

100

-

4
4
-

100
4
96

100
3
97

100

100

100

100

100

Catastrophe in su ran ce .
_ .. r_
.
Jointly financed________________________
E m p loyer financed____________________

100
100

-

_

_

_

2

-

36
36
-

74

-

15
2
13

-

-

-

74

2

-

3

R etirem ent pension___________________________ _
Jointly f i n a n c e d . __ __ _
E m p loyer financed---------------------------------------

100
100

100
100

100
100

91
15
77

58
58
-

97
_
97

100

95

90

97

100

100

100

95

90

97

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

No plans

......

-

_
_

_

_

_

_

3

Includes only those plans for which at least part of the cost is borne by the em ployer and excludes legally required plans such as w ork m en 's com pensation and social security; however,
plans required by State tem p orary disability insurance laws are included if the em ployer contributes m ore than is legally required or the em ployees receive benefits in ex cess of legal
req u irem ents.
2 Unduplicated total of w ork ers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
3 L e ss than 0.5 percent.
NOTE:

B ecause of rounding,




sum s of individual item s may not equal totals.

10

(0

Table 18. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans: Plant Workers
(Percent of plant workers in fluid milk establishments with specified health, insurance, and pension plans in 25 selected areas, September—
October 1964)
South

Northeast
Type of p lan 1
Boston

Buffalo

Newark and
J ersey City

100

100

100

Life in su r a n c e __________________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

99
4
95

97
6
91

100

A ccid en tal death and d ism em b erm e n t
in suran ce_____________________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

99
60
39

6
6

99
93
60
34

A l l w o r k e r s ____________________________________

New York

Dallas

Houston

Lou isville

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
68
32

100

100
70
30

100
100

100

89
6
84

100
94
6

97
97
"

88
88

62
30
32

65
65

75
54
21

35
35

89
6
84

86
79
6

-

97
97

69
19
19

85
85

-

-

54
53
53

53
33
33

-

85

-

81
75
75
-

97
97
97

97

89
89
6
84

-

Philadelphia

P ittsburgh

Atlanta

100

100

100

100

100

100
6
94

97
97

B altim ore

M iam i

Washington

W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing:

S ickn ess and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 2_________________________
S ick n ess and accident in suran ce_________
Jointly financed__________________________
E m p loyer financed______________________
Sick leave (full pay, no
waiting p eriod )_____________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p eriod )_____________________________

-

-

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

17
6
11

91
91
91

100
100
100

100
100
100

90
90
5
86

-

-

"

-

20

95

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

“

"

69

-

-

H ospitalization in suran ce_____________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m ployer financed__________________________

100
7
93

97
6
91

100
100

100
100

96
7
89

100
100

100
49
51

100
100

76
68
9

100
100

S urgical in suran ce______________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
7
93

97
6
91

100
100

100
100

96
7
89

100
100

100
49
51

100
100

76
68
9

100
100

M e d ical in su r a n ce --------------------------------------------Jointly financed--------------------------------------------E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
7
93

91
91

100
100

100
100

96
7
89

97
97

94
43
51

61
61

55
46
9

34
34

Catastrophe in suran ce_________________________
Jointly financed________________________ ___
E m p loyer financed__________________________

57

5
5

2

51
17
34

30
30

68
66
1

55
55
-

R etirem ent pension_____________________________
Jointly financed______________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

89
57
32

70
19
51

89
89

44
44
-

71
55
16

"

"

"

No plans _ _____

____________________

See footnotes at end of table.




_____

_
_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

57

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

100

100

88

89

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

88

89

3

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

■

-

-

66
-

100
16
84

94
73
20

100
100

100
16
84

94
73
20

100
100

7
3
3

75
55
20

100
100
-

3
3

97
97

-

60
40
20

88
88

60
60

-

-

-

-

-

Table 18. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans: Plant Workers--- Continued
(P ercen t of plant w orkers in fluid m ilk establishm ents with specified health, insurance, and pension plans in 25 selected a r e a s , Septem ber—
October 1964)
North C entral
Type of p lan 1
Chicago

A ll w o r k e r s____________________________________

Cincinnati

Cleveland

Detroit

Indianapolis

W est
Kansas
City

M inneapolis—
St. Paul

St. Louis

Denver

Los A n g e le s Long Beach

P ortland

San
F rancisco—
Oakland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

92
54
39

100
57
43

100
3
97

100
30
70

100
_
100

45
32
12

100
2
98

60
33
27

100
_
100

25
7
17

57
44
13

100
3
97

9
9
-

98
_
98

6
1
5

4
2
2

60
33
27

_
_

65
63
48
15

69
56
43
13

100
100
3
97

100
100
17
83

98
98

87
3
1
2

95
91

10 0
96

100

W ork ers in estab lish m en ts providing:
L ife in su r a n c e __________________________________
Jointly financed_____________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________
A ccid en tal death and d ism em b erm en t
insurance
_
_ .......... .
. ...
Jointly financed_____________________________
E m p lover financed
_ ...
_ . . .
S ickn ess and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 2 . . ...
.... . _ . ..
S ick n ess and accident in suran ce_________
Jointly financed__________________________
E m p loyer financed______________________
Sick leave (full p ay, no
waiting p eriod )_____________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p eriod )_____________________________

-

-

100
100

100

100

"

100

100

-

-

8
8

100

100

-

100
100

100
100
100

100

100
100
100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

98
-

-

-

_

91

96

_
_

2

-

_

-

-

-

3

13

-

-

-

83

2

100

100

Hospitalization in suran ce_____________________
Jointly financed_____________________________
E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
100

100
100

100
100

94
15
79

100
57
43

100
3
97

100
100

100
100

100
1
99

100
2
98

100
100

100
100

Surgical in suran ce_____________________________
Jointly financed--------------------------------------------E m p loyer financed__________________________

100
100

100
100

100
100

94
15
79

87
57
31

100
3
97

100
_
100

100
100

100
1
99

100
2
98

100
100

100
100

M edical in su r a n ce _____________________________
Jointly financed _
. . .
E m p loyer financed.. .

100
100

81
81

94
15
79

65
34
31

100
3
97

100
100

2
_
2

100
1
99

100
2
98

100
100

100
_
100

C atastrophe in suran ce_________________________
Jointly financed_____________________________
E m ployer financed
. .

10

.

_

_

89

5

-

26
26

_

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

25
3
22

_

-

10

-

-

R etirem ent pension____________________________
Jointly financed __
_
_
E m p loyer financed__________________________

100

100

100

No p la n s ______________________

_________________

-

-

_
-

“

_

2

.

-

-

89

5

-

2

94

98

100

100

94

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

100

66
53
13

100

-

100

95
8
88

97

-

100

97

100

94

94

98

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

1 Includes only those plans for which at least part of the c ost is borne by the em ployer and excludes legally required plans such as w ork m en 's com pensation and social security;
how ever, plans required by State tem porary disability insurance laws are included if the em ployer contributes m ore than is le gally required or the em ployees rec eiv e benefits in excess of
legal req u irem en ts.

2 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.







Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of Survey
The survey included establishments p rim arily engaged in processin g (pasteurizing,
homogenizing, vitam inizing, and bottling), distributing fluid milk and cream , and related
products (industry 2026 as defined in the 1957 edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification
Manual and 1963 Supplement, prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget).
The establishments studied w ere selected from those employing 20 w orkers or m ore
at the time of referen ce of the data used in com piling the universe lists.
The number of establishments and w orkers actually studied by the Bureau, as w ell
as the number estim ated to be in the industry during the payroll period, are shown in the
table on the following page.
Method of Study
Data w ere obtained by personal visits of Bureau field econom ists under the direction
of the Bureau's A ssistant Regional D irectors for Wages and Industrial Relations. The survey
was conducted on a sample b asis. To obtain appropriate a ccu racy at minimum cost, a greater
proportion of large than of sm all establishments was studied. In combining the data, however,
all establishments w ere given their appropriate weight. A ll estim ates are presented, th erefo re , as relating to all establishments in the industry group, excluding only those below
the minimum size at the time of referen ce of the universe data.
A rea Definitions
The areas studied w ere Standard M etropolitan Statistical A reas as defined by the
U.S. Bureau of the Budget in 1961 and included: Atlanta— Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton,
and Gwinnett Counties, Ga.; B altim ore— B altim ore city and Anne Arundel, B altim ore, C arroll,
and Howard Counties, Md.; Boston— 76 cities and towns in Suffolk, M iddlesex, E ssex, N orfolk,
and Plymouth Counties, M ass.; Buffalo— E rie and Niagara Counties, N .Y.; Chicago— Cook,
DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and W ill Counties, 111.; Cincinnati— Hamilton County, Ohio,
and Campbell and Kenton Counties, Ky.; Cleveland— Cuyahoga and Lake Counties, Ohio;
Dallas— Collin, Dallas, Denton, and E llis Counties, Tex.; Denver— Adam s, Arapahoe, Boulder,
Denver, and Jefferson Counties, C olo.; D etroit— M acom b, Oakland, and Wayne Counties, M ich.;
Houston— H arris County, T ex.; Indianapolis— Marion County, Ind.; Kansas City— Clay and
Jackson Counties, M o., and Johnson and Wyandotte Counties, Kans.; Los Angeles—
Long Beach—
Los Angeles and Orange Counties, C alif.; L ou isville— J efferson County, Ky., and Clark and
Floyd Counties, Ind.; Miami— Dade County, F la.; Minneapolis—
St. Paul— Anoka, Dakota,
Hennepin, Ram sey, and Washington Counties, Minn.; Newark and Jersey City (a combination
of the two SMSA's)— E ssex, Hudson, M orris, and Union Counties, N.J.; New York— New
York City and Nassau, Rockland, Suffolk, and W estchester Counties, N .Y.; Philadelphia—
Bucks, C hester, Delaware, M ontgom ery, and Philadelphia Counties, P a., and Burlington,
Camden, and G loucester Counties, N .J.; Pittsburgh— Allegheny, B eaver, Washington, and
W estm oreland Counties, P a.; Portland— Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington Counties,
Or eg., and Clark County, Wash.; St, Louis— St. Louis city and Jefferson , St. C harles, and
St. Louis Counties, M o., and Madison and St. Clair Counties, 111.; San F ra n cisco —
Oakland—
Alam eda, Contra Costa, Marin, San F ra n cisco , San Mateo, and Solano Counties, C alif.; and
Washington— D istrict of Columbia, M ontgomery and P rin ce G eorges Counties, Md., and A le x ­
andria and Falls Church cities and Arlington and F airfax Counties, Va.
Establishment Definition
An establishment, for purposes of this study, is defined as a single physical location
where industrial operations are perform ed. An establishment is not n e cessa rily identical
with the company, which may con sist of one or m ore establishm ents.




33

34
Estimated Number o f Establishments and Workers Within Scope o f Survey and Number Studied
in the Fluid Milk Industry in 25 Selected Areas, Septem ber-October 1964 1

Area

2

Payroll
period

Number of 3
establishments
Within
Studied
scope o f
survey

Workers in establishments
Within scope o f survey
T o ta l 4

Plant

Studied

Routemen

Total

475

T otal, 25 areas--------------------------------------------------

302

63,282

24,567

24,696

52,120

20
20

15
14

16
55
57
29

28
25
16

3,395
1,495
1,699
5,942
6 ,8 4 7
3 ,064

1,174
460
473
2,829
2,168
741

901
598
844
1,943
. 3,597
1,689

3,199
1,261
1,040
3,515
5,208
2,572

1,241
2,342
1,295
1,099
894
1,413
2 ,1 4 4

508
761
588
531
318
658
977

405
995
407
231
358
425
802

1,241
2,2 3 7
1,295
1,099
841
1,268
1,795

5,791
1,564
2 ,3 1 0
2,1 8 6
1, 149
993
1,514
1,824

2,209
551
769
1,344
412
377
407
609

2,498
709
874
383
464
359
834
759

4,099
1,393
1,967
1,671
1,149
816
1,353
1,662

1,267
7,948
873
2,9 9 3

372
4,001
224
1,106

531
2,595
361
1,134

945
6,934
873
2 ,687

Northeast
Boston--------------------------------------------------------------------B uffalo-------------------------------------------------------------------Newaik and Jersey C ity-----------------------------------------New Yodt 5 -----------------------------------------------------------Philadelphia^ -------------------------------------------------------Pittsburgh----------------------------------------------------------------

September
September
October
September
September
May

10

South
Atlanta-------------------------------------------------------------------Baltimore---------------------------------------------------------------Dallas--------------------------------------------------------------------H ouston-----------------------------------------------------------------Louisville---------------------------------------------------------------M ia m i------------ ----------------------------------------------------W ashington------------------------------------------------------------

September
October
September
October
Septembe'r
October
September

7
11

7
9

8

8

6

6

13
7

11

8

6

44
16
18

20

21

6

14
7
5

15
15

10

6

North Central
Chicago 5 ---------------------------------------------------------------C incinnati-------------------------------------------------------------C le v ela n d -------------------------------------------------------------D etroit-------------------------------------------------------------------Indianapolis-----------------------------------------------------------Kansas C ity -----------------------------------------------------------Minneapolis—
St. Paul--------------------------------------------St. L ou is----------------------------------------------------------------

November
September
August
September
October
September
November
October

7

12
11

11

West
D enver-------------------------------------------------------------------Los A ngeles-Long B ea ch ---------------------------------------Portland-----------------------------------------------------------------San Francisco— akland-----------------------------------------O

September
October
October
October

13
34
7
22

9
21

7
14

Data for Cleveland relate to a payroll period in August, for Pittsburgh to May, and for Chicago and Minneapolis—
St. Paul
to Novem ber.
For definition o f areas, see p. 33.
Includes only establishments with 20 workers or more at the tim e o f reference o f the universe data.
4 Includes o ffic e , executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the plant and routemen categories shown.
^ The data reported in this survey for New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago are not exactly com parable with those shown in
the report on the previous study Wage Structure: Fluid Milk Industry, April—
June 1960 (BLS Report 174, 1961) because of changes in
area definitions. In the earlier study, data for New York were lim ited to the 5 boroughs; Philadelphia consisted o f the counties of
Delaware and Philadelphia, P a ., and Cam den; N .J .; and data for Chicago was lim ited to Cook County, 111. The added counties
in Chicago accounted for about on e-fifth o f the establishments and less than a fifth of the current area employment; in New York,
for about one-seventh o f the establishments and less than one-seventh o f the current area em ploym ent; and in Philadelphia, about
o ne-h alf o f the establishments and less than one-fourth of the current area em ploym ent.

Employment
The estim ates of the number of w orkers
as a general guide to the size and com position
The advance planning n ecessary to make a wage
lishments assem bled considerably in advance of




within the scope of the study are intended
of the labor fo rce included in the survey.
survey com pels the use of lists of estab­
the payroll period studied.

35
Total Employment
The term "total employment, " as used in this bulletin, re fe rs to all em ployees of the
establishment except those em ployed at com pany-owned stores rem oved from the dairy site.
Plant W orkers
The term "plant w ork ers, " as used in this bulletin includes working forem en and
all nonsupervisory w orkers except office em ployees and routemen. A dm inistrative, executive,
profession a l, and technical personnel and fo rce -a cco u n t construction em ployees, who w ere
utilized as a separate work fo rc e on the fir m 's own p rop erties, arid retail em ployees at the
dairy site, w ere excluded from this category.
Routemen
The term "routem en, " as used in this bulletin, re fe rs to w holesale and retail s a le s ­
men who make d eliveries to regular cu stom ers. Included are swing and re lie f men as w ell
as regular d rivers.
Occupations Selected for Study
Occupational cla ssifica tion was based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed
to take account of inter establishment and interarea variations in duties within the same job.
(See appendix B for these job description s.) The occupations w ere chosen fo r their num erical
im portance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or their representativeness of the
entire job scale in the industry. Working su p ervisors, apprentices, lea rn ers, beginners,
trainees, handicapped, p art-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers w ere not reported
in the data for the selected occupations.
Wage Data
The wage inform ation relates to average straight-tim e earnings, excluding prem ium
pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive payments,
such as those resulting from piecew ork or production bonus system s, co s t-o f-liv in g bonuses,
and com m ission s w ere included as part of the w ork ers' regular pay; but nonproduction bonus
payments, such as Christm as or yearend bonuses, w ere excluded. Earnings of routemen
are reported on a weekly b asis; earnings of plant w ork ers, on an hourly b asis. The hourly
earnings of salaried plant w orkers w ere obtained by dividing their straight-tim e salary by
norm al rather than actual hours. Average rates or earnings fo r each occupation w ere ob­
tained by weighting each rate (or earnings) by the number of w orkers receivin g the rate.
Method of Wage Payment
F orm al rate structures fo r tim e-rated w orkers provide single rates or a range of
rates fo r each job category in the establishment. In the absence of a form al rate structure,
pay rates are determ ined p rim a rily with referen ce to the qualifications of the individual
w orker. A single rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to all experienced
w orkers in the same job cla ssifica tion . L earn ers, apprentices, or probationary w orkers
may be paid according to rate schedules which start below the single rate and perm it the
w orker to achieve the full job rate over a period of tim e. Individual experienced w orkers
occasion ally may be paid above or below the single rate for special reason s, but such pay­
ments are regarded as exceptions. R an ge-of-rates plans are those in which the minimum
a n d /or maximum rates paid experienced w orkers fo r the same job are specified. Specific
rates of individual w orkers within the range may be determ ined by m erit, length of se rv ice ,
or a com bination of various concepts of m erit and length of se rv ice .
Scheduled Weekly Hours
Data re fe r to the predominant work schedule fo r fu ll-tim e plant w orkers employed
on the day shift.




36
Shift P rovision s and P ra ctices
Data relate to the provision s in establishments having form a l provision s fo r late-shift
operations and to the shift p ra ctices in those establishments operating extra shifts during
the p ayroll period studied.
Supplementary Wage P rovision s
Supplementary benefits w ere treated statistically on the basis that if form al p r o ­
visions w ere applicable to half or m ore of the plant w orkers (or routemen) in an establishment,
the p ra ctices or benefits w ere considered applicable to all such w ork ers. Sim ilarly, if few er
than half of the w orkers w ere covered , the benefit was considered nonexistent in the estab­
lishment. Because of len g th -o f-se rv ice and other eligibility requirem ents, the proportion
of w orkers receivin g the benefits may be sm aller than estim ated. Because of rounding, sums
of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
Paid H olidays.
provided annually.

Paid holiday provisions

relate to full-d ay and half-day holidays

Paid V acations. The sum m aries of vacation plans are lim ited to form a l arran ge­
ments, excluding inform al plans w hereby time off with pay is granted at the d iscretion of
the em ployer or the supervisor. Payments not on a time basis w ere converted; fo r exam ple,
a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the equivalent of 1 w eek's pay.
The periods of serv ice for which data are presented w ere selected as representative of the
m ost com m on p ra ctices, but they do not n e ce ssa rily re fle ct individual provisions fo r p r o ­
gression . F or exam ple, the changes in proportions indicated at 20 years of se rv ice include
changes in provision s which may have occu rred after 17 years.
Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans. Data are presented fo r all health, insurance,
and pension plans fo r which all or a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, excluding
only program s required by law, such as w orkm en's com pensation and socia l security. Among
the plans included are those underwritten by a com m ercia l insurance company and those paid
d irectly by the em ployer from his current operating funds or from a fund set aside for
this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance. Sickness and accident in­
surance is lim ited to that type of insurance under which predeterm ined cash payments are
made d irectly to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented fo r all such plans to which the em ployer contributes at least a part
of the cost. H owever, in New York and New J ersey, where tem porary disability insurance
laws require em ployer contributions, 7 plans are included only if the em ployer (1) contributes
m ore than is legally required, or (2) provides the em ployees with benefits which exceed
requirem ents of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are lim ited to form a l plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the w o rk e r's pay during absence from work because of illn ess; inform al
arrangements have been omitted. Separate tabulations are provided according to (1) plans
which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans providing either partial pay or
a waiting period.
M edical insurance refers to plans providing fo r com plete or partial payment of
d octors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by a com m ercia l insurance company or a
nonprofit organization, or they may be self-in su red.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es re fe rre d to as extended m edical insurance, in­
cludes the plans designed to cov er em ployees in case of sickness or injury involving an
expense which goes beyond the norm al coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirem ent pensions are lim ited to plans which provide, on retirem ent,
regular payments fo r the rem ainder of the w o rk e r's life.
7 The temporary disability insurance laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.




Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions
for the Bureau's wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff
in classifyin g into appropriate occupations w orkers who are
employed under a variety of payroll titles and different
work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This perm its the grouping of o c ­
cupational wage rates representing com parable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishm ent and inter area com parability of occupational content, the Bureau's
job descriptions may d iffer significantly from those in use
in individual establishments or those prepared fo r other
purposes. In applying these job description s, the Bureau's
field econom ists are instructed to exclude working super­
v is o rs , apprentices, learn ers, beginners, trainees, handi­
capped, part-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines
and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which em ployed with
power, heat, refrigeration , or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air co m p re sso rs, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam b oilers and b o ile r-fe d water pumps; making equipment
repairs; and keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption.
May also supervise these operations. Head of ch ief engineers in establishments employing
m ore than one engineer are excluded.
FILLING-MACHINE TENDER
(F iller operator; pure-pac operator; seal-king operator)
Controls the operation of a filling machine which automatically fills containers such
as cartons, boxes, bottles, cans, or ja rs with a specified weight or amount of the com m odity
being packaged. May also feed containers to the machine, or this operation may be perform ed
by a filling-m achine feeder.
May rem ove filled containers from machine.
W orkers who tend machines that p erform other operations such as closin g, sealing,
capping, or wrapping, in addition to filling containers, are included.
GARAGE ATTENDANT
Services com pany's trucks and ca rs, perform ing any one or com bination o f the
follow ing: Inspects trucks (or cars) to ascertain need for gasoline, oil, and water, and
supplies these item s as needed; changes oil and lubricates various parts of chassis and
m otor; cleans in terior and exterior of trucks; and changes or repairs tires.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work
involves m ost of the follow ing: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
disassem bling equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of handtools such as
wrenches, gages, d rills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and in­
stalling the various assem blies in the vehicle and making n ecessa ry adjustments; and alining
wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the
automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




37

38
ORDER FILLER
(O rder picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer ord ers for finished goods from stored m erchandise in
accordance with specifications on sales slip, cu stom ers' o rd e rs, or other instructions. May,
in addition to filling ord ers and indicating item s filled or omitted, keep record s of outgoing
o rd ers, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.
PASTEURIZER
Pasteurizes raw m ilk, cream , or ice cream m ixtures to rem ove harmful bacteria.
Pumps product through a pasteurizing tank, and after it has been held at a specified tem p er­
ature for a specified length of tim e, pumps milk or cream through a cooling unit to a
bottling machine, or pumps ice cream m ixtures to other m achines, storage tanks, or to
freezin g room . Is responsible for reading therm om eters and gages and making proper
adjustments so that product is properly pasteurized. May add chocolate syrup to skimmed
m ilk to make chocolate m ilk. May clean and sterilize tanks and interconnecting pipelines.
May operate a centrifugal separator that separates cream or butterfat from whole m ilk.
May operate hom ogenizer.
REFRIGERATOR MAN
(C ooler man; icebox man; stacker; stack -off man, cheese)
Rem oves boxes, ca ses, cartons, or cans of products (butter, milk, ice cream , e tc .)
from con veyors or handtrucks and stacks them in a refrigerated storage room .
May pack
cartons or cases in ice for delivery.
May keep record s of stock movements and stock
on hand.
ROUTEMAN (DRIVER-SALES MAN)
D elivers m ilk and other dairy products to regular custom ers and acts as salesm an
in obtaining new accounts. May co lle ct payments and empty containers from cu stom ers. In
addition, swing or re lie f men who regularly work on several routes on the days when the
regular routemen are off duty are included. T ruckdrivers delivering products to com panyowned stores and special d elivery drivers not serving regular cu stom ers are excluded.
F or wage study purposes, routemen are cla ssifie d by type of route,
Routeman
Routeman
Routeman
Routeman

(driver-salesm an ),
(driver-salesm an ),
(driver-salesm an ),
(driver-salesm an ),

as follow s:

retail, regular
retail, swing or re lie f man
wholesale, regular
wholesale, swing or re lie f man

SANITARY MAN
(Cleanup man; equipment washer)
Washes, scrubs, and sterilizes equipment, using brushes, hot water, cleaning
preparations, and dilute acids.
Work involves one or m ore of the follow ing: Dismantling
piping and cleaning interior with spiral brush; scrubbing inside equipment, flo o rs, and walls
with hand brushes, rinsing with hot water; and wiping down cleaned walls with dilute acid.
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a m etropolitan area to transport m ilk or other dairy products,
usually from the processin g plant to distribution points of com pany-owned stores. Includes ice
cream m ix d rivers. D riv er-sa lesm en are excluded. (See routeman, retail and w h olesale.)




39
WASHER, BOTTLE,

MACHINE

Washes dirty bottles of various sizes by operating an automatic bottle-washing
machine.
P laces or inserts bottles into bottle receptacles or racks of conveyor system
which ca rrie s the bottles through the various washing, brushing, rinsing, and sterilizin g
units of the machine; after being washed, the bottles are discharged onto a conveyor system
for transfer to the filling m achines. May adjust water tem perature. May replenish alkali
solution in the washing cham bers.
WASHER, CAN, MACHINE
Cleans and sterilizes metal cans, such as m ilk cans,* by feeding them into an
automatic can-washing machine and controlling its operation.
May reclean cans or lids
which are not thoroughly cleaned in the machine, by hand.
Cleans machine.







Industry Wage Studies
The m ost recent reports for industries included in the Bureau's program
of industry wage surveys since January 1950 are listed below. Those for which
a price is shown are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U .S .
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. , 20402, or any of its regional
sales offices. Those for which a price is not shown may be obtained free as
long as a supply is available, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington,
D .C . , 20212, or from any of the regional offices shown on the inside back cover.

I. Occupational Wage Studies
Manufa c tur ing
Basic Iron and Steel, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1358 (30 cents).
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, I960. BLS Report 195.
^Canning and Freezing, 1957. BLS Report 136.
Cigar Manufacturing, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1436 (30 cents).
Cigarette Manufacturing, I960. BLS Report 167.
Cotton T extiles, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1410 (40 cents).
Distilled Liquors, 1962. Series 2, No. 88.
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1957. BLS Report 123.
F ertilizer Manufacturing, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1362 (40 cents).
Flour and Other Grain M ill Products, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1337 (30 cents).
Fluid Milk Industry, I960. BLS Report 174.
Footwear, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1360 (45 cents).
H osiery, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1456 (45 cents).
Industrial C hem icals, 1955. BLS Report 103.
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1386 (40 cents).
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1378 (40 cents).
Machinery Manufacturing, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1429 (35 cents).
Meat Products, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1415 (75 cents).
M en’ s and B o y s’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Nightwear, 1964.
BLS Bulletin 1457 (40 cents).
M en’ s and Boys' Suits and Coats, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1424 (65 cents).
M iscellaneous P lastics Products, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1439 (35 cents).
M iscellaneous T extiles, 1953. BLS Report 56.
Motor Vehicles and Motor Vechicle P a rts,. 1963. BLS Bulletin 1393 (45 cents).
Nonferrous Foundries, I960. BLS Report 180.
Paints and V a rn ish es, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1318 (30 cents).
Petroleum Refining, 1959. BLS Report 158.
P ressed or Blown Glass and G lassw are, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1423 (30 cents).
^P rocessed W aste, 1957. BLS Report 124.
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard M ills, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1341 (40 cents).
Radio, Television, and Related Products, 1951. Series 2, No. 84.
Railroad C a rs, 1952. Series 2, No. 86.
*Raw Sugar, 1957. BLS Report 136.
Southern Sawmills and Planing M ills, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1361 (30 cents).
Structural Clay Products, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1459 (45 cents).
Synthetic F ib e rs, 1958. BLS Report 143.
Synthetic T ex tiles, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1414 (35 cents).
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1311 (35 cents).
*'Tobacco Stemming and Redrying, 1957. BLS Report 136.*

* Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.



I. Occupational Wage Studies— Continued
Manufacturing— Continued
W est Coast Sawmilling, 1959. BLS Report 156.
Women1s and M isses* Coats and Suits, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1371 (25 cents).
Women*s and M isses* D re s s e s , 1963. BLS Bulletin 1391 (30 cents).
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1369
(40 cents).
^Wooden Containers, 1957. BLS Report 126.
Wool T ex tiles, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1372 (45 cents).
Work Clothing, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1440 (35 cents).
Nonmanufa ctur ing
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1452 (30 cents).
Banking Industry, I960. BLS Report 179.
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1383 (45 cents).
Communications, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1426 (20 cents).
Contract Cleaning S ervices, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1327 (25 cents).
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, I960. BLS Report No. 181.
Department and Women*s R eady-to-W ear Stores, 1950. Series 2, No. 78.
Eating and Drinking P la ces, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1400 (40 cents).
Electric and Gas U tilities, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1374 (50 cents).
H ospitals, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1409 (50 cents).
Hotels and M otels, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1406 (40 cents).
Laundries and Cleaning S ervices, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1401 (50 cents).
Life Insurance, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1324 (30 cents).

II. Other Industry Wage Studies
Factory Workers* Earnings— Distribution by Straight-Tim e Hourly Earnings,
1958. BLS Bulletin 1252 (40 cents).
Factory Workers* Earnings— Selected Manufacturing Industries, 1959.
BLS Bulletin 1275 (35 cents).
Retail Trade:
Employee Earnings in Retail Trade, June 1962 (Overall Summary of the
Industry). BLS Bulletin 1380 (45 cents).
Employee Earnings at Retail Building M aterials, Hardware, and Farm
Equipment D ea lers, June 1962. BLS Bulletin 1380-1 (25 cents).
Employee Earnings in Retail General Merchandise Stores, June 1962.
BLS Bulletin 1380-2 (45 cents).
Employee Earnings in Retail Food Stores, June 1962. BLS Bulletin 1380-3
(40 cents).
Employee Earnings at Retail Automotive Dealers and in Gasoline Service
Stations, June 1962. BLS Bulletin 1380-4 (40 cents).
Employee Earnings in Retail Apparel and A ccesso ry Stores, June 1962.
BLS Bulletin 1380-5 (45 cents).
Employee Earnings in Retail Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Household
Appliance Stores, June 1962. BLS Bulletin 1380-6 (40 cents).
Employee Earnings in Miscellaneous Retail Stores, June 1962.
BLS Bulletin 1380-7 (40 cents).
Employee Earnings in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the South and North Central
Regions, June 1962. BLS Bulletin 1416 (40 cents).*

* Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.



☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F IC E : 1965 O - 794-756

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

HAWAII





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102