View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Industry Wage Survey:
Communications
October-Decem ber 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2029




t

t




For sale b y the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock N um ber 029-001-02318-0

Industry Wage Survey:
Communications
October-Decem ber 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
June 1979
Bulletin-2029

i

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 Bookstores, or
BLS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover. Price $1.10
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents




Stock number 0 2 9 -0 0 1 -0 2 3 1 1 -1




Preface

This summary of data on employment and hourly
rates of pay in the communications industry in 1977 is
based on annual reports filed with the Federal Com­
munications Commission (FCC) by telephone carriers,
the Western Union Telegraph Co., and international
telegraph carriers, as required by the amended Com­
munications Act of 1934. Under a cooperative arrange­
ment with the FCC, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
tabulates and publishes the data annually.
The study was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations. Harry B. Williams of




the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared
the analysis in this bulletin.
Other publications available from the Bureau’s pro­
gram of industry wage studies, as well as the addresses
of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of
this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without the permission of the
Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics and cite Industry Wage Survey: Commun­
ications, October-December 1977, Bulletin 2029.




Contents

Page

Introduction............................................................................................................................................................
Telephone carriers....................................................................................................................................................
Western Union Telegraph C o ....................................................................................................................................
International telegraph carriers................................................................................................................................

1
1
2

3

Text tables:
1. Number and average straight-time hourly earnings of telephone workers in major occupational
categories, 1947 and 1977 ..........................................................................................................................
2. Number and average straight-time hourly earnings of Western Union Telegraph workers in
major occupational categories, 1947 and 1977 ...........................................................................................

1

Reference tables:
Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates, December 1977, for—
1. Telephone carriers ....................................................................................................................................
2. Bell System telephone carriers...................................................................................................................
3. Non-Bell telephone carriers .......................................................................................................................

4
5
6

Average hourly rates of employees in selected occupations by region, December 1977, for—
4. All and Bell System telephone carriers .....................................................................................................

7

Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates, October 1977, for—
5. Western Union Telegraph Company...........................................................................................................
6. International telegraph carriers .................................................................................................................

9
10

Appendix: Scope and method of survey .................................................................................................................

11




v

1




Communications,
October-December 1977

Text table 2. Number and average straight-time hourly
earnings of Western Union Telegraph workers in major
occupational categories, 1947 and 1977

Introduction

The year 1977 marked the 30th anniversary of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupational wage surveys
of the communications industries. The 1977 survey cov­
ered about 830,000 workers of major telephone carri­
ers 1 and 15,000 telegraph workers, who combined,
made up well over four-fifths of the Nation’s 1 million
workers in telephone and wire-telegraph communica­
tion. Over the past three decades, the work force in
these industries has changed dramatically in both oc­
cupational makeup and pay structure. In the telephone
branch, where overall employment rose to half again
its 1947 level, the proportion of higher paid profession­
al and semiprofessional employees more than doubled
while the proportion of lower paid telephone operators
declined by more than one half. (See text table 1.) Sim­
ilarly, in the Western Union Telegraph Company, the
proportion of higher paid construction, installation, and
maintenance personnel more than doubled since 1947
while the proportion of lower paid telegraph operators
fell by one-third. Unlike the telephone industry, how­
ever, Western Union’s work force in 1977 was only
one-fifth as large as it was 30 years earlier. (See text
table 2.)

Item
A il em ployees, except
o fficials and managerial
a ssista n ts.........................
Percent o f to ta l......................
Professional and
semi-professional
em ployees......................
Telegraph o ffice super­
intendents and
managers........................
Sales em plo yees.....................
C lerical em ployees..........
Telegraph o p e ra to rs .. . ,
C o n stru ctio n ,
installation,
and m aintenance
w orkers...........................
Building service
em ployees......................
Messengers, m o to r..........
Messengers, w alking
and b ic y c le ....................

$1.26 830,100
100
2.72

11
9
23
16

7.90
6.70
5.99

1.55

37

8.26

1.19

3

7.23

—

10.53

19
34

1.07
1.45
.99
.94

4
5
20
23

7.03
7.06
6.59
5.64

13
3
3

1.26
.90
.87

34
1
3

8.14

8

(2)

5.69
4.90

1 The study was limited to the 63 carriers that had annual operating
revenues exceeding $ 1 million and were engaged in interstate or for­
eign communications services either through use o f their own facil­
ities or through connections with another carrier under direct or in­
direct common control. Officials and managerial assistants o f these
carriers were not included in the study.

NOTE: Employment estimates are rounded to the nearest hundred,
and percents are rounded to the nearest whole number. Dashes indicate
“ not applicable."



9

—

Straight-time hourly earnings of the 830,000 workers
employed by the Nation’s 63 principal carriers aver­
aged $7.94 in December 1977. Individual earnings of
four-fifths of the workers fell within a range of $3.50
to $9.50 an hour. The middle 50 percent of the work
force earned between $6.10 and $8.85 an hour. Some
factors contributing to the wide dispersion of earnings
were the broad range of skills required by the com­
munications industry, differences in pay by carrier and

12.32

1.45
1.19
1.00

2.26

2

—

Telephone carriers

$7.94

—

'$7.33

'$1.05

Highlights of the 1977 survey and recent wage trends
are presented below. A more detailed analysis of long­
term patterns is available from prior reports, the most
recent of which is Industry Wage Survey: Communica­
tions, October-December 1976 BLS Bulletin 1991 (1978).

October 1947
December 1977
Workers Earnings Workers Earnings

Total, all employees, except
officials and managerial
assistants........................ 552,700
Percent of total......................
100
Professional and
semi- professional
employees ..................
5
Business office and
5
sales employees.........
17
Clerical employees.......
Telephone operators ...
46
Construction, installation,
and maintenance
23
w orkers........................
Building, supplies and
motor vehicle
4
employees....................

11,604
100

53,100
100

3.40
1
.65
18
'Excludes messengers in addition to officials and managerial
assistants.
2Less than 0.5 percent.
3NOTE: Employment estimates are rounded to the nearest hundred,
and percents are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Text table 1. Number and average straight-time hourly earn­
ings of telephone workers in major occupational categories, 1947
and 1977

Item

October 1977
October 1947
Workers Earnings Workers Earnings

1

locality, and pay rates which vary within a given oc­
cupation by length of employee service.
The occupations shown in tables 1 through 4 repre­
sent the full spectrum of activities performed by em­
ployees in the telephone industry. Among the major
occupational categories, average hourly earnings in De­
cember 1977 ranged from $12.32 for professional and
semiprofessional employees to $5.99 for telephone op­
erators. Construction, installation, and maintenance em­
ployees were the largest employment group with near­
ly 307,000 workers; hourly earnings for these workers
averaged $8.26. Some other heavily populated groups
(and their hourly averages) were: Business office and
sales employees ($7.90); building, supplies, and motor
vehicle employees ($7.23); and clerical employees
($6.70).
Employees of the Bell System carriers, slightly over
nine-tenths of all telephone workers, held a 23-percent
average wage advantage over those of non-Bell carriers-$8.06 compared to $6.57 an hour. Similar pay rela­
tionships were also found among various occupational
groups studied; occupational averages for non-Bell
workers typically ranged from 7(3 percent to about 85
percent of those for Bell employees. Differences be­
tween the worker groups narrowed slightly when week­
ly earnings were compared, reflecting, for some occu­
pational groups, the longer average workweeks report­
ed for non-Bell workers.
Workers in the Middle Atlantic States, the largest
region in terms of employment, recorded the highest
average-$8.83 an hour. Other regional averages fell be­
tween $7.25 and $8.25 an hour in December 1977. Of
the 47,467 workers who could not be allocated to in­
dividual regions but were included in the nationwide
total, seven-eighths were employees of the American
Telephone and Telegraph Company’s Long Lines and
General Departments; these workers averaged $9.90 an
hour. 2
Wage levels of the principal telephone carriers in De­
cember 1977 rose 8.0 percent from the previous year.
Part of this change resulted from wage increases nego­
tiated under collective bargaining agreements. For ex­
ample, the Bell System contract, negotiated in 1977,
provided for an immediate general wage increase that
varied by tenure up to a maximum of 8 percent.3 .
The 8.0-percent rise for .1976-77 was the smallest an­
nual gain for telephone workers in the 1970’s. Between
1970 and 1976, telephone wage increases averaged 11.2
percent per year; over the 30 years of BLS communi­
cations surveys, the annual average rise has been slight­
ly over 6 percent.
Telephone carriers included in the Bureau survey
employed 830,100 workers in December 1977-an in­
crease of 20,000 workers or 2 percent over the previ­
ous year. Bell System carriers increased their work force
by 1 percent, to 764,800; employment in non-Bell car­
riers rose 24 percent, to 65,300. Most of the increase



for non-Bell carriers, however, reflected the addition
of a major independent carrier with nearly 10,000 work­
ers, reporting for the first time in the 1977 survey. Ex­
cluding this carrier, the increase for non-Bell employ­
ees was 5 percent between December 1976 and Decem­
ber 1977.
Western Union Telegraph Co.

Wage rates for the 11,100 nonmessenger employees
in the Western Union Telegraph Co. 4 averaged $7.33
an hour in October 1977 (table 5). This was 7.6 percent
above the $6.81 average reported one year earlier. The
average for 500 messengers was $4.59 an hour-up 6.3
percent from October 1976. Motor messengers held a
44-percent average wage advantage over those who ei­
ther walk or use bicycles to perform their duties-$4.90
to $3.40 an hour.
Wage rates for Western Union bargaining unit em­
ployees are determined by labor agreements with the
United Telegraph Workers (UTW) in all areas except
the New York metropolitan area where agreements are
with the Communications Workers of America (CWA).
Unlike those in prior contracts, wage adjustments dif­
fered somewhat under terms of the two agreements,
dated July 1976, as follows: Workers who were in the
bargaining units of the UTW received an across-theboard increase of 6.829 percent, effective July 28, 1977,
with no cost of living adjustment; those under the CWA
contract were provided a 3-percent general wage in­
crease on the same date plus a 29-cent cost-of-living
adjustment. 5Other wage adjustments related to specif­
ic job classifications or types of work assignments also
specified in both agreements.
2Also excluded from the regional tabulations but included in the
U.S. totals were carriers operating in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico,
and the Virgin Islands. These carriers, none of which were affiliated
with the Bell System, employed 5,967 workers averaging $8.36 an
hour.
3The 1977 agreement between the American Telephone and T ele­
graph Company and the Communications Workers o f America pro­
vide for wage increases o f 3 percent, with a guaranteed minimum
increase o f $5 a week, on Aug. 6, 1978, and Aug. 5, 1979. In addi­
tion, cost-of-living adjustments, tied to the BLS Consumer Price In­
dex, were scheduled on the first and second anniversary dates o f the
contract.
4The Western Union Telegraph Co., a subsidiary o f the Western
Union Corp., is a communications common carrier engaged princi­
pally in the business o f providing tariffed telecommunication systems
and services to business customers, the government, and the public.
Such operations include teletypewriter networks, leased private com ­
munication systems, telegram message services, money order serv­
ices, mailgram services, contract maintenance service and ResponsePhone (telephone order and inquiry service).
’ The wage escalator clause provides for adjustments o f 1 cent for
each 0.4-percentage point change in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics
Consumer Price Index (1967= 100). For a more detailed account, see
Wage Chronology: Western Union Telegraph Co. and the Telegraph
Workers and the Communications Workers, 1976-79 Supplement to the
BLS Bulletin 1927. (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1978).
2

Among the major occupational groups studied, the
professional and semiprofessional staff recorded the
highest average-$ 10.53 an hour. Construction, installa­
tion, and maintenance employees (the most heavily pop­
ulated group studied) averaged $8.14 an hour. Other
key employee groups and their average hourly rates in­
cluded: Sales employees ($7.06); telegraph office super­
intendents and managers ($7.03); clerical employees
($6.59); building service employees ($5.69); and tele­
graph operators ($5.64).
Wage rates for the highest paid workers exceeded
those of the lowest paid by at least $4 an hour for most
employee groups. In a few jobs, however, rates were
within a narrow band. For example, individual earnings
fell between $3.50 and $4.00 for virtually all operatorsin- training; between $4.50 and $5.50, for four-fifths of
the motor messengers; and between $7.50 and $8.50,
for nine-tenths of the subscribers’ equipment
maintainers.
Employment at Western Union totaled about 11,600
in October 1977. This was 31 percent below the level
5 years earlier.

employee group studied, averaged $3.21 an hour. Hour­
ly averages for the other groups covered a broad range:
Nonsupervisory clerical employees, operators, building
service employees, sales employees, and construction,
installation, maintenance, and other technical employ­
ees, between $6.50 and $9.50; supervisory employees,
between $11 and $12; and office or station superintend­
ents and assistants, and professional and semiprofession­
al employees, over $12.
Employment in surveyed international telegraph car­
riers was basically unchanged between October 1976
and October 1977-down 1 percent to 4,700 workers.
Over the past 10 years, these carriers’ employment has
fluctuated within a narrow range from 4,700 to 5,500
workers.
Men accounted for nearly five-sixths of the work
force in October 1977 and were predominant in all oc­
cupational groups except nonsupervisory clerical em­
ployees. Three out of four women were clerical work­
ers and of the remainder, about 1 out of 2 were oper­
ators, typically teletype-multiplex operators.

International telegraph carriers

Wage rates for the five international telegraph carri­
ers included in the October 1977 survey averaged $9.10
an hour-up 14 percent from October 1976.'’ The 4,600
nonmessenger employees, who made up 97 percent of
the work force of the five companies, averaged $9.25
an hour in October 1977; messengers, the lowest paid




6The study included carriers engaged in nonvocal international tel­
egraph communication either by radio or ocean cable. Although many
o f the occupational categories studied are common to both opera­
tions, some are exclusive to one carrier group. For example, radio
telegraph operators and cable operators were employed only in ocean
cable operations.

3




Table 1. Telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates2, December 1977
Humbe

O cc u p a tio n a l group

of

employees

/
Total

/

Men,

A l l e m p loy ees, e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s and
m a n a g e ria l a s s i s t a n t s . ............................................... 8 3 0 ,0 8 7 907 ,36 7
P a r t -t im e e m p lo y e e s, in c lu d in g
1 1,939
1,519
o f f i c i a l s and m an agerial a s s i s t a n t s ................
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m ip r o fe s s io n a l
9 2 ,0 6 7 65,709
e m p lo y e e s ............. ............................................. ..
D r a f t e r s ................. ......................................................... ..
1,609
656
O t h e r s ..................................................................................
9 0 ,9 58
65,0 53
B u s in e ss o f f i c e and s a l e s e m p lo y e e s .. . . . . . . .
7 8 ,8 2 3
2 1,798
S u p e r v is o r s ......................................................................
8 ,5 5 3
1,855
7 0 ,2 7 0
19,893
N o n su p e r v iso r y e m p loy ees........................................
C l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s . . . . ................................................. 190,600
28,526
18,516
9 ,729
S u p e r v i s o r s . . . ...............................................................
N o n s u p e r v is o r y ................................................................ 172,089
23,8 02
2 9 ,6 1 8
Com m ercial d ep artm en t..........................................
2,211
T r a f f i c dep artm en t.................................................
9, 706
367
P la n t d e p a r t m e n t .. . . .............................................
3 2 ,0 31
3,587
A c co u n tin g dep a rtm en t.......... ...............................
3 0 ,0 7 0
9 , 120
A l l o t h e r d e p a rtm e n ts..........................................
13,517
7 0,6 59
T elep h on e o p e r a t o r s ...................................................... .. 135 ,08 6
8, 162
C h ie f o p e r a t o r s . ....................................................... ..
8 , 156
33 7
S e r v i c e a s s i s t a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . . . . .
26 1
8 ,2 5 2
E x p e r ie n c e d sw itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ................... 105,561
9 ,998
O p e r a t o r s in t r a i n i n g ..............................................
1 1,931
2, 992
79
O th er sw itc h b o a r d e m p loy ees........................
1 ,686
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m ain ten a n ce e m p loy ees............................................... .. 3 0 6 ,8 9 2 263,023
S u p e r v is o r s o f te le p h o n e c r a f t w o r k e r s . . ..
3 9 ,9 9 8
36,462
C e n t r a l o f f i c e c r a f t w ork ers................. ..
123 ,02 0 8 6 ,7 28
T e st board and r e p e a t e r w o rk ers...................
18,600
21,1 78
C e n tr a l o f f i c e r e p a i r e r s ................................. ..
5 2 ,0 8 5 48,3 95
O th e rs.............................................................................
9 9 ,7 5 7
19,733
I n s t a l l a t i o n and exchange r e p a ir
c r a f t K o rk e r s ............................... ...............................
9 6,1 81
93,309
9 6 ,1 9 8
99,309
PBX and s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exchange r e p a i r e r s .................................................
2 9 ,1 6 7
28,726
O t h e r s ........................ ....................................................
20,816
20,274
9 7,6 29
96,9 18
l i n e , c a b l e , and co n d u it c r a f t u o r k e r s . . . .
2 6 ,1 8 0
L in e w ork ers............................ .................................
25,7 45
19,332
C a ble s p l i c e r s . ..... .... .........................
19,977
C a b le s p l i c e r s ' h e lp e r s .....................................
950
395
O th e rs .............................................................................
996
1 ,017
L a b o r e r s . ................................................ .
119
106
B u i ld in g , s u p p l i e s , and m otor v e h ic le
19,529
e m p lo y e e s . .................................................
2 5 ,3 9 0
3 ,0 9 9
2 ,7 0 9
S u p e r v i s o r s . ..............................................
9 ,0 9 7
3 ,7 9 3
M e c h a n ic s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O ther b u il d i n g s e r v i c e em p lo y e e s.....................
6 ,9 3 8
4 ,1 7 2
O ther s u p p l ie s and m otor v e h ic le
e m p lo y e e s. .......................... ...........................................
8 ,8 5 5
11,361
1 ,229
A l l em p loy ees n o t els e w h e re c l a s s i f i e d . . . . . .
670

Women

P ercen t o f emplo pees r e c e i v i n g A verage Average
$ 3 .5 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 . 5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $9.5 0
and
sch ed u led h o u r ly
Under
and
$3.50 under
ra tes
w eekly
hours
$ 9 .0 0 $ 4 .5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $9.5 0 ov er

9 2 2 ,7 2 0

3 8.9

$ 7 .9 9

10,920

2 9 .0

5. 16

2 6 ,3 5 8
953
2 5 ,9 0 5
5 7 ,0 7 5
6 ,6 9 8
5 0 ,3 7 7
1 62 ,07 9
13,7 92
198 ,28 2
2 7,9 07
9,3 3 9
2 8,9 99
2 5 ,9 5 0
5 7 ,1 4 2
126 ,92 9
7,8 1 9
7,991
101 ,06 3
8,9 3 9
1,612

3 8.1
90. 1
3 8 .1
3 8 .0
3 8 .3
3 8 .0
3 7.9
3 8 .2
3 7.9
3 7 .1
3 7 .9
3 8 .6
3 7 .6
38. 1
3 6 .3
3 8 .2
3 6 .7
36.1
3 6 .5
3 7 .7

1 2 .3 2
6 .6 2
1 2.9 3
7 .9 0
10.33
7 .6 0
6 .7 0
9. 99
6 .3 9
5. 92
6 . 16
5 .9 6
6 . 95
6 .6 8
5 .9 9
9 .5 9
6 .7 0
5 .8 3
9 .1 2
6 .8 9

9 3 ,8 6 9
3 ,9 8 6
3 6 ,2 9 2
2 ,5 7 8
3,6 9 0
3 0 ,0 29

3 9 .8
3 9 .9
3 9 .7
3 9 .9
3 9 .9
3 9 .3

8 .2 6
1 0 .5 3
7 .8 3
8 .9 2
8 .3 6
7 .0 0

2 ,8 7 2
1,889
991
542
1 ,206
435
695
71
13

9 0.0
9 0 .0
4 0 .0
9 0 .0
9 0 .0
9 0 .0
9 0 .0
3 9 .9
3 9 .9
3 3 .8

8 .0 7
8 .0 1
8 . 22
8 .0 1
7 .8 9
7 .7 8
8 .0 2
6 .3 5
8 .8 8
5 .8 2

5 ,8 6 1
335
259
2,7 6 6

39. 1
3 9 .7
3 9 .7
3 7 .9

7 .2 3
1 0 .0 8
8 .0 3
5 .5 1

1.0
♦
.9
2 .5

2 ,5 0 6
559

3 9 .6
3 9 .3

7 . 19
7 .2 6

.9
9 .9

55

1 Covers 63 telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in
interstate or foreign communications service using their own facilities or through connection with those o f another carrier under
direct or indirect common control.

0 .7

2 .2

2 .5

2 .5

3. 1

11.6

10.9

8 .7

6 .0

7 .0

13.9

8 .0

3 .7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.5
1.9
♦
1.5
2 .9
1.7
1.9
1.0
1 .2
1.9
.1
♦
1.9
3 .2
-

.1
2. 1
♦
2 .0
2 .2
3 .9
.1
3 .8
5 .5
1 .3
3 .8
3 .0
3 .7
6 .2
*
. 1
2 .6
9 9 .9
.2

.2
9. 9
. 1
2. 9
♦
2 .7
3 .5
.1
3 .9
5 .9
2 .8
9 .3
2 .8
3 .9
6 .9
*
.9
5 .3
3 2 .5
.2

. 2
3 .9
. 1
2.6
. 1
3 .0
3 .6
. 1
9 .0
9. 8
9 .3
4 .5
3 .9
3 .6
6 .0
*
1.0
6. 7
8 .5
.7

.3
5 .8
.2
2 .7
.2
3 .1
5 .3
.2
5 .8
6 .9
3 .1
8 .9
9 .7
5 .2
5 .9
.9
2 .5
7 .1
2 .5
1.9

.6
1 9.9
.3
9 .7
.2
5 .3
2 0 .9
.3
2 2 .6
2 5 .0
2 9 .1
3 3 .9
1 7.2
18.1
2 9 .6
1 .2
1 2.2
3 6 .9
2 .9
1 2 .5

1 .0
17. 3
.7
1 0.6
.5
1 1 .8
2 1 .9
1. 3
29. 1
2 3 .6
3 1 .9
2 1 .6
2 5 .9
2 3 .8
20. 2
1 .9
3 7 .9
2 2 .0
.9
9 3 .8

1 .5
1 9.3
1 .3
20. 7
.8
2 3 .2
19.6
3 .2
1 5.8
1 5 .5
19.9
10.9
22. 1
1 5.8
7 .0
2 .3
2 0 .1
6 .9
.2
15.9

1.6
8 .9
1 .5
15.9
1.5
17.1
5 .8
5 .9
5 .8
6 .6
5 .5
3 .7
9 .3
9 .9
5 .3
5 .9
7 .2
5 .7
. 1
7 .6

2 .2
5 .6
2. 1
1 .9
3 .1
1 .7
3. 1
6. 7
2 .7
2. 1
1 .3
1 .5
3 .2
3 .6
9. 9
7 .9
7. 1
9 .5
♦
9 .9

2 .9
5 .8
2 .3
7 .9
9 .9
7 .7
2 .9
6 .8
2 .5
1.2
1.3
2 .8
1 .7
3 .5
1.3
10.7
9 .3
.9
*
2 .2

3 .1
3 .2
3. 1
2 .7
10.1
1 .8
2. 1
9. 1
1 .3
.3
.6
1 .6
. 8
2 .0
1. 1
11.9
1.9
.3
.5
2 .6

3 .5
4 .5
3 .5
3 .0
9 .7
2 .2
1.9
9 .9
1. 1
.2
.5
.6
.8
1.9
.9
11.9
1. 5
.2
*
1 .7

8 3.9
9 .9
8 9.7
23. 9
6 8.9
17.9
10.1
5 6 .8
5. 1
. 5
1.7
1.3
9 .5
9. 9
3 .7
9 7 .7
9. 1
.6
. 1
6 .5

.1
*
.3
*
♦
.8

.5
.7
♦
*
1.7

.7
*
.7
. 1
. 1
1.6

.8
.7
.2
.2
1 .4

1.2
*
2 .0
.9
.3
4 .5

3 .3
. 1
6 .9
1 .1
.8
1 5 .9

3 .2
.2
5. 9
.7
.8
12.2

9. 5
.9
6 .5
1 .6
2 .3
1 3.0

5 .1
.6
5 .7
2 .1
2 .7
10.3

13. 2
1 .3
1 1. 1
9. 1
1 2 .5
1 0.5

3 1 .7
2 .9
3 1 .0
4 3.5
3 9.7
16.9

17.6
5 .7
17.9
2 3.9
2 3.7
8 .0

6. 2
10.9
8 .9
19. 2
1 3.8
1.6

11.8
7 8 .5
2 .6
3. 3
2. 7
2 .2

♦
*
*
*
*

.2
.3
.1
.2
.7
.9
.2
6 .0
.2
3 0 .3

.7
1.0
.9
.7
1.5
1.9
.8
6 .0
.9
5 .9

. 9
1 .2
.6
.8
1. 2
1.9
.9
3 .8
2 .3
3 .4

.7
.9
.3
.6
i.i
1 .3
.8
3 .6
1.0
6 .7

1 .0
1 .3
.9
1 .0
1 .5
1 .7
1 .2
6 .0
.8
2 1 .0

1 .9
2 .8
. 7
1. 7
2 .5
2 .3
2 .2
2 9 .6
1. 1

3 .6
3 .9
3 .0
3. 7
9 .7
3 .8

-

1 8.5
1 7.0
1 9 .9
2 7 .0
1 8.2
1 9 .5
17. 1
7 .8
8 .3

9 1 .2
91. 1
93.3
3 8 .7
3 8.7
38.8
90.9
5. 1
18.0

2 2 .7
2 9 .0
2 9 .0
1 0 .8
18.0
1 7.8
1 8.6
3 .3
18.9

1.9
.8
2 .9
1.5
9 .9
3 .8
6 .3
.9
8 .9

1. 1
.8
.8
2 .0
1.5
.9
.6

2 9 .2
3 .6
.8

6. 1
5 .0
9 .2
1 1.3
5 .9
5 .7
5 .2
9 .0
1.9
3 1.9

3 5.9

1 .8
.1
9 .1

2 .8
.1
.7
6 .9

9 .7
.1
1. 2
13.2

7 .4
.1
2 .8
19.6

11.1
.9
2. 1
2 8 .2

9 .6
1 .7
9. 2
1 3.9

1 2 .7
1 .2
7 .7
9 .0

8 .9
2 .0
8 .0
1 .0

8 .3
3 .2
9 .7
.3

9 .8
5 .6
28.7
.9

7 .9
7 .5
2 9 .0
.2

3 .3
9 .5
9 .7
.2

11.1
6 8 .2
9 .9
.9

1 .3
5 .1

1 .8
5 .9

2. 1
2 .9

3 .5
10.0

6 .5
7 .1

10. 9
8. 9

1 9.8

19.9
7 .2

19. 1
2 3 .8

9 .9
2 .8

7 .1
2 .1

3 .2
2 .9

9 .6
12.8

*
.9
♦
.5
*

*
-

.2
.9

-

.5

5 .5

5 .5

-

-

-

-

19. 1

-

2 See appendix for definition o f hours and rates used in this bulletin,
NOTE: Asterisk (*) indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes ( - ) indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums o f individual items may not equal 100.




Table 2. Bell System telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates2, December 1977
Numbei o f emp Loy ees
O cc u p a tio n a l group
Men

A l l e m p loy ees, e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s and
m an agerial a s s i s t a n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6 4 ,7 9 3 3 7 1 ,4 2 5
P a r t-tim e e m p lo y e e s, in c lu d in g
o f f i c i a l s and m a n ag erial a s s i s t a n t s .................
9 ,2 2 8
1 ,134
P r o fe s s io n a l and s e m ip r o fe s s io n a l
em p loy ees. ................. .........................................................
8 4 ,8 0 0
6 0 ,2 0 9
D r a ft e r s ................. .................................... ....................
1,104
39 2
O th ers. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.
83,696
5 9 ,8 1 7
B u sin ess o f f i c e and s a le s e m p l o y e e s ..............
21,0 27
7 9,1 50
S u p e r v is o r s . ........................ .......................................
7 ,8 8 5
1 ,579
N on su pervisory e m p loy ees........................................
6 6 ,2 65
19,453
C l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s ......................................................... 177,858
2 7,0 13
S u p e r v is o r s .......................................................................
17,910
4 ,4 0 3
N on su p erv isory ................................................................ 159,948
2 2,6 10
Commercial d ep artm en t...........................................
27,2 86
2,1 3 1
T r a f f i c d ep artm en t..................................................
8 ,6 1 8
302
P la n t d e p a r tm e n t................. •••••••••••••••
2 8 ,1 09
2 ,9 6 7
A ccou n tin g dep artm ent................. .........................
2 8 ,4 5 4
9 ,0 2 2
A l l o t h e r d ep a rtm en ts.......... ..................
67,4 81
13,188
T elep hone o p e r a t o r s ......................................................... 124,576
7 ,7 3 5
C h ie f o p e r a t o r s .............................................................
7 ,4 8 7
313
S e r v ic e a s s i s t a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . . . . .
7 ,8 4 2
244
E x perien ced s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s . . . . . . . . .
9 6 ,2 9 3
9 , 132
O p era tors in t r a i n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11,318
2 ,9 8 0
O ther sw itc h b o a r d em ploy ees..................................
1 ,636
66
C o n s t r u c t io n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m aintenance e m p lo y e e s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 0 ,7 3 5 2 3 8 ,2 1 3
S u p e r v is o r s o f te le p h o n e c r a f t w o r k e r s . . ..
3 6 ,6 3 7
3 3 ,2 9 1
C e n tr a l o f f i c e c r a f t w o r k e r s .............................. 1 14,961 7 9 ,4 68
T est board and r e p e a t e r w o r k e r s . . . . ..........
20, 3 38 17,913
C e n tr a l o f f i c e r e p a i r e r s ...................................
4 8 ,1 9 2
4 4 ,7 6 6
O th e rs.............................................................. ..
46,431
16,7 89
I n s t a l l a t i o n and exchange r e p a i r
c r a f t w ork ers................... ......................................
8 5 ,7 9 2
83,2 71
PBX and s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40,653
3 8,8 04
£xchange r e p a i r e r s ................ ................................
27,621
2 7,261
O t h e r s . . . . . . . ...................................................... ..
1 7,5 18
17,206
L in e , c a b le , and c o n d u it c r a f t w o r k e r s .. . .
4 3 ,3 4 5
9 2 ,1 8 3
L ine w ork ers................................................................
2 4,326
2 3 ,8 99
Cable s p l i c e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17,641
17,003
Cable s p l i c e r s ' h e lp e r s ......................................
431
378
O t h e r s . . . ........................
947
903
L a b o re r s............................................................................
B u ild in g , s u p p l ie s , and motor v e h i c l e
e m p l o y e e s ... . . ..................................................................
22,3 57
17,113
S u p e r v is o r s .......................................................................
2 ,6 5 7
2,3 6 6
M echan ics...........................................................................
3,4 2 4
3 ,2 8 4
O ther b u il d i n g s e r v i c e em p loy ees......................
6 ,0 7 3
3,5 6 2
O ther s u p p l ie s and motor v e h ic le
em ploy ees................. ..
10,2 03
7,9 0 1
A l l em ployees n ot els e w h e re c l a s s i f i e d . . . . . .
317
115

Women

P e rce n t o f em plo Fees r e c e iv in g A verage A verage
$ 3 .5 0 $4.00 $4. 50 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $8.00 $ 8 .5 0
sc h e d u le d h o u r ly
w eekly
ra tes
$3.5 0 under
hours
$ 4 .0 0 $4.5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $8.50 $ 9 .0 0 $9.5 0

3 93 ,36 8

3 8 .4

$ 8 .0 6

8 ,094

2 4 .8

5 .4 8

29,591
712
23,8 79
5 3 ,1 2 3
6,311
4 6,8 12
1 50,845
1 3,507
1 37,338
2 5 ,1 5 5
8 ,3 1 6
2 5 ,1 4 2
2 4 ,4 3 2
54,2 93
116,891
7, 174
7 ,5 9 8
92,1 61
8 ,3 3 8
1 ,570

3 7 .9
3 7 .7
3 7 .9
3 7 .9
38. 1
3 7 .9
3 7 .9
38. 1
3 7 .9
3 7 .4
3 7 .8
3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 6 .1
3 8 .0
3 6.6
3 5.9
3 6 .5
3 7 .6

12.6 3
7. 32
12.70
8 .0 3
10.99
7 .7 3
6 .8 2
10.06
6 .4 5
6 .0 0
6 .3 1
6 .0 9
6 .5 5
6 .7 6
6 .0 9
9 .7 3
6 .7 3
5 .9 6
4 .0 9
6 .8 3

9 2 ,5 2 2
3 ,3 4 6
3 5 ,4 9 3
2 ,4 2 5
3 ,4 2 6
2 9 ,6 4 2

3 9 .8
3 9 .9
3 9 .7
3 9 .9
3 9 .9
3 9 .2

8 .3 4
10.65
7 .8 6
8 .4 7
8 .4 6
6 .9 6

2 ,521
1,849
360
312
1,162
427
638
53
44

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0.0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .9

8. 16
8 . 14
8 .2 8
8 .0 2
8 .0 0
7. 90
8 . 13
6 .4 0
9 . 10

5,244
291
140
2 ,511

3 9. 1
3 9 .7
3 9 .9
3 7 .7

7 .4 0
10.37
8 . 17
5 .6 9

2,3 0 2
202

3 9 .6
3 7 .3

7 .3 3
9 .2 6

0 .3

2 .0

_

_

*
*
.3
.7
*
* .
.2
1.6
•
*
.2
1 .8
.8
3. 1
_
*
3 .4
.8
1.1
5 .3
.2
.7
3 .3
1.1
.5
2 .6
.8
3 .4
.4
5 .7
*
*
*
. 1
.1
1.4
3 .2
4 9 .9
.1
.1

_

_

.3
*
*
.8

.7
*
♦
1.7

*
♦
*
*
*
*

.2
.3
.1
.3
.6
.7
.2
5 .3
*

-

.2

.2
-

.4

.6
_
. 1

2. 1

1 .8

2 .5

12. 1

. 1
3 .5
♦
2 .0
*
2 .2
3 .9
♦
4 .3
5 .2
1.9
5 .7
3 .2
4 .2
5 .1
.1
1 .3
6 .2
2 .5
.9

.3
15.1
. 1
3 .8
♦

1 1.4

8 .7

and
ov er

5 .8

_
*
1.5
*
2. 1
*
2 .4
2 .7
*
3 .0
4 .6
.8
2 .8
2 .4
3. 0
6 .2
*
.3
4 .2
32.9
.2
.6
♦
.7

. 1
2 .4
*
1 .7
_
1 .9
2 .4
2 .7
3 .8
1 .0
2 .5
2 .2
2 .7
4. 1
*
.5
4 .3
8 .2
.7

12.6

7 .6

2 1 .8

16.3

2 1 .3

2 3 .3

15.4

6 .0

2 3 .6
2 5 .9
3 1 .6
3 7 .3
17.8
18.4
3 1 .8
.2
1 1.8
3 9 .6

25. 7
25. 6
35. 7
24. 3
2 6 .7
24. 7
2 1. 7
. 5

11. 1
2 3 .3
16.4
7 .4

3 .3

7 .2

7 .5

18*7

5. 1
5 .7

1 2.5
3 .3

.6

1 .0
a
2 .0

7 .2

5. 4

5 .8

. 1
1 .6

.1
1 .3

.1
4 .6

.6
16.7

.4
1 2 .8

.5
1 3.5

1 .0
9 .9

.5
.7
•2
.7
1. 1
1.2
.8
5. 1
•2

.7
1 .0
.4
.5
. 9
.9
.9
3 .7
. 1

.4
.6
. 1
.4
.8
.8
.8
2 .8
1 .0

.6
.8
.3
.5
1 .0
1 .0
.9
5 .8
.6

.9
1. 1
.5
. 8
1 .8
1 .5
1 .6
3 0 .6

1 .7
2. 2
1. 1
1 .6

6 .5

1.1

2 .5
2 5 .3
. 8

3 .9
1 .5

1. 3

_

4. 4
.6
13.6

7 .2
*
.6
2 2 .0

11.4
*
1 .6
3 1 .9

1 .3
1 .3

2 .4
2 .8

5 .5
8 .5

.4

1.1

.2
3 .1

.3
2 .8

.7
2 .2

.9
2 .2

.6

1 7.8
1 1 .0

_

1 0 .5

14.0

8 .6

1.7

2 .3

8 .2

19.2

19.7

9 .0

3 8 .5

4 .7

3 .2

1 .3

2 .2

3 1 .5

1 5.4

9. 2

13. 2

8 .7

3 .5

5 .8

6 .0

9 .5
10. 1

12.9

14.2

1 Covers 25 Bell System telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are
2 See appendix for definition o f hours and rates used in this bulletin
engaged in interstate or foreign communications service using their own facilities or through connection with those o f another
NOTE: Asterisk (*) indicate less than 0.05 percent. Dashes ( - ) indicate that no data were reported Because of roundino
carrier under direct or indirect common control.
sums o f individual items may not equal 100.




Table 3. Non-Bell telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates^, December 1977
Number o f em p loy ees
O c c u p a tio n a l group

A l l e m p lo y e e s, e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s and
m a n a g e ria l a s s i s t a n t s .................................................
P a r t -t im e e m p lo y e e s, in c lu d in g
o f f i c i a l s and m a n ag erial a s s i s t a n t s ................
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m ip r o fe s s io n a l
e m p lo y e e s. ............................................................... ..
D r a f t e r s ..............................................................................
O th e rs ...................................................................................
B u s in e s s o f f i c e and s a le s e m p lo y e e s .. . . . . . . .
S u p e r v is o r s .......................................................................
N o n su p e r v iso r y em ploy ees........................................
C l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s .. . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... ..
S u p e r v i s o r s . . .................................................................
N o n s u p e r v is o r y ...............................................................
C om m ercial dep artm en t..........................................
T r a f f i c dep artm en t.................................................
P la n t d e p a r tm e n t.....................................................
A c co u n tin g dep artm en t...........................................
A l l o t h e r dep a rtm en ts..........................................
T elep h on e o p e r a t o r s . . ..... ..............................................
C h ie f o p e r a t o r s .............................................................
S e r v ic e a s s i s t a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s ................
E x p e r ie n c e d sw itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ..................
O p e r a to r s in t r a i n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............
O th er sw itc h b o a r d em p loy ees........................
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m ain ten a n ce em p lo y e e s.................................................
S u p e r v is o r s o f te le p h o n e c r a f t w o r k e r s . . ..
C e n tr a l o f f i c e c r a f t w ork ers...............................
T est b oard and r e p e a t e r w o rk ers...................
C e n t r a l o f f i c e r e p a i r e r s ...................................
O th e rs ..............................................................................
I n s t a l l a t i o n and exchange r e p a i r
c r a f t w ork ers................................................................
PBX and s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e r s .......................... ..
Exchange r e p a i r e r s ..................................................
O th e rs .............................................................................
L in e , c a b l e , and c o n d u it c r a f t w o r k e r s . . ..
L in e w o rk e r s .................................................... ..
C a ble s p l i c e r s ...........................................................
C a ble s p l i c e r s ' h e l p e r s ......................................
O t h e r s ..............................................................................
L a b o r e r s ............................................................................
B u ild in g , s u p p l i e s , and motor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s ................................................................................................
S u p e r v is o r s ...................................................................... ...............
M ech a n ics ......................................................................... .. ................
O ther b u il d i n g s e r v i c e e m p l o y e e s . . . . . ............
O ther s u p p l ie s and m otor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s . ................................................. ..
A l l em p loy ees n ot e ls e w h e re c l a s s i f i e d . . . . . .

A verage A verage
s c h e d u le d h o u r ly
weekly
ra te s
hours

P ercen t o f employ e e s r e c e i v i n g $ 3 .5 0 $9.00 $9.50 $5.0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $8.0 0 T I7 5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $9.501
and
Under
and
$ 3.5 0 under
$ 4 .0 0 $ 9.5 0 $5.0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $ 9 .5 0 ov er

T ota l

Men

Women

6 5 ,2 94

3 5 ,9 4 2

2 9 ,3 5 2

3 9 .4

$ 6 .5 7

4 .9

5 .2

7 .6

11.4

1 0.3

6 .1

5. 9

9 .0

8 .4

9 .9

8 .4

2 .6

2 .7

2 ,7 1 1

385

2 ,3 2 6

21.6

3 .8 8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

7 ,2 6 7
505
6 ,7 6 2
4 ,6 7 3
668
6 ,0 0 5
12,7 42
606
12,136
2 ,3 3 2
1, 088
3 ,9 2 2
1,6 1 6
3 ,1 7 8
10,510
669
mo
9 ,2 6 8
113
50

5 ,5 0 0
264
5 ,2 3 6
721
281
440
1,5 1 3
321
1 ,192
80
65
62 0
98
329
427
24
17
366
12
8

1,767
241
1,526
3,9 5 2
387
3 ,5 6 5
11,229
285
10,944
2 ,2 5 2
1,023
3 ,3 0 2
1,518
2 ,8 4 9
10,083
645
393
8,902
101
42

4 0 .3
4 5 .2
4 0.0
3 9 .4
4 0 .0
3 9 .3
3 8 .3
4 0 .0
3 8 .2
3 3.4
3 8 .3
3 9 .5
3 9 .6
3 9 .6
3 8 .4
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .2
3 8 .6
4 0 .0

8 .8 8
5. 35
9. 18
5. 92
8 .5 6
5 .4 7
5 .0 9
7 .9 3
4 .9 4
4 .8 9
4 .9 5
5 .0 6
4 .8 4
4 .8 9
4 .8 3
7 .5 1
6 . 16
9 .5 3
6 .7 2
7 .2 2

.3
2 .4
.1
4 .9
.3
5 .7
10.2
.2
10.7
16.9
13.1
7 .9
9.8
9 .4
13.0
.4
.5
14.6
7.1
-

.6
5.1
.3
7 .5
8 .8
8 .6
1.7
9 .0
9 .0
5 .6
7 .8
1 0 .4
10.8
12.6
.3
.2
14.2
2 .0

1.4
10.5
.7
6 .3
7 .4
1 5.0
2. 1
15.7
21.7
18.8
15.6
10.2
13. 1
15.3
. 1
2 .9
17.2
-

2. 1
7 .3
1.7
17. 1
1. 3
19. 8
20. 2
4. 1
2 1.0
16.4
3 0.6
19.2
24.6
2 1.4
28.6
.3
10.5
3 1.5
38.1
-

2 .9
10.7
2 .3
1 4 .8
2 .5
16.9
24. 1
6 .6
2 4 .9
1 9 .8
12.7
2 8 .0
3 1 .9
2 5 .5
15.5
3 .7
2 5 .9
16.0
16.0

3 .2
12.9
2 .5
2 0 .3
2 .5
2 3 .3
8 .7
6. 1
8 .8
1 4.6
9 .4
5 .4
6 .7
9 .7
3 .8
12.0
1 8 .8
2 .6
14.0

5 .6
16. 0
4 .8
4 .0
4. 8
3 .8
2 .7
9. 1
2. 4
.4
2. 1
2. 3
1.9
4 .4
2 .5
1 7 .5
9. 8
1. 1
18. 0

7 .0
18.0
6 .2
4 .3
5. 7
4. 1
2 .6
5 .8
2 .9
.7
.5
5 .6
.2
1 .6
1 .4
1 3.9
8 .3
. 1
16.0

5 .7
10. 1
5 .4
2 .2
9 .3
1 .0
2 .8
6. 1
2 .7
*
1.1
6 .7
1 .3
.9
1 .0
10.8
6 .8
♦
8 .0

7. 1
2. 2
7 .5
2 .9
1 3 .3
1. 1
.9
7 .3
.6
. 1
. 4
.7
1 .2
.7
1.0
1 1.7
4 .4
.9
1 0 .0

7 .3
2 .0
7 .7
3 .6
15.7
1.6
1.2
9 .9
.8
. 1
2 .0
.7
.4
1. 1
.7
9 .3
2 .0
.9
6 .0

8 .4
.2
9 .0
2 .7
11.2
1 .3
.9
1 0 .7
.5
. 2
1.7
. 1
.9
.5
2 .7
3 .6
1 .7
2. 1
53. 1
-

8 .3
8 .9
3 .0
1 1.8
1.6
.5
7 .6
.2
*
1.0
.2
.2
1.2
5. 1
6 .6
.7
-

4 0 .0
2 .6
4 2 .8
6 .1
21.4
3 .6
1.4
2 2.8
.4
_
1.0
•2
. 1
.8
.8
11.4
1.7
*
10.0

2 6 ,1 5 7
3 ,3 1 1
8 ,0 5 9
840
3 ,8 9 3
3 ,3 2 6

2 4 ,8 10
3 , 171
7, 260
687
3 ,6 2 9
2 ,9 4 4

1,347
140
799
153
264
3 82

4 0 .0
3 9 .9
3 9 .9
4 0 .0
40. 1
3 9 .7

7 .4 5
9 .2 4
7 .2 8
7 . 13
7 . 16
7 .4 6

. 1
♦
.2
.5

.7
.7
. 1
.3
1.3

2 .0
.9
.2
.6
1.3

2 .6
2. 2
2 .5
1 .7
2 .8

2 .7
. 1
3 .0
2 .5
2 .9
3 .3

3 .8
.3
3 .3
3 .5
3 .0
3 .7

7 .2
.7
4 .7
5. 1
6 .3
2 .8

1 6.8
2 .0
17. 1
2 6 .1
2 4 .8
6 .0

16.4
3 .0
2 1 .3
2 5.8
2 4 .7
16.1

1 9.8
7 .8
1 5 .6
2 4 .8
18. 1
1 0 .2

16.9
14.8
2 9.7
9 .2
16.0
51.0

1.8
14.3
. 1
.2
*
. 1

2 .9
19. 6
.8
1.5
.2

6 .2
3 7 .5
.4
_
. 1
.8

10,389
5 ,5 4 5
1,546
3 ,2 9 8
4,2 7 9
1,8 5 4
2 ,3 3 6
19
70
119

1 0 ,0 3 8
5 ,5 0 5
1,9 6 5
3 ,0 6 8
9 ,2 3 5
1 ,846
2 ,3 2 9
17
43
106

351
40
81
230
44
8
7
2
27
13

4 0 .0
40. 1
4 0 .0
4 0.0
40. 1
4 0 .0
40. 1
3 8 .9
4 0.0
3 3 .8

7 .3 3
7 .0 2
7 . 13
7 .9 4
6 .7 4
6 . 19
7 .2 1
5 . 03
5 .8 7
5 .8 2

*
.1
.1

2 .2
2 .8
2 .7
.8
5 .2
10.7
.8
2 6.3
2 .9
5 .9

3 .0
2 .9
4 .5
2 .3
4. 5
7. 8
1 .0
5 .3
31.4
3. 4

2 .8
3 .3
3 .6
1.7
3 .9
7 .2
1 .2
21. 1
1.4
6 .7

3 .9
4 .7
2 .4
3 .4
6 .4
1 0.3
3. 3
1 0 .5
2 .9
2 1 .0

1 0 .3
1 4 .8
3 .0
6 .3
9 .5
1 3.3
6 .7
5 .3
1. 4

18.7
15.9
3 7 .5
1 4.6
2 3 .3
1 7.3
2 7 .8

16.8
9 .2
1 .6
3 6 .9
16.1
1 3 .8
18.4
5 .3

2 4 .9
3 4 .7
4. 7
1 7 .9
2 5 .3
1 2 .7
3 6 .0

13.2
10.7
3 9 .8
5 .0
3 .7
3 .3
4 .2
5 .3
1.4

-

.2
.3
.1
.1
1.7
3 .5
*
2 1.1
2 .9
3 0 .3

3,0 3 3
387
623
865

2 ,4 1 6
343
509
610

617
44
1 14
255

3 9 .2
4 0 .0
3 8.4
3 8.7

6 .0 1
8 .0 7
7 . 24
4. 32

6 .6
.3
6.1
17. 1

10.6
.5
2 .7
2 5 .3

14.2
.5
3 .2
3 3 .8

7. 4
.5
4 .3
10. 3

8 .8
.5
14.6
2 .8

8 .3
6. 5
4 .7
2 .5

1, 158
912

954
555

204
357

3 9.6
4 0 .0

5 .9 1
6 .6 1

1.0
5 .6

10.0
6 .5

9 .2
2 .7

13.0
1 2 .5

15. 1
6 .6

1 Covers 38 non-Bell telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are
engaged in interstate or foreign communication service using their own facilities or through connection with those o f another
carrier under direct or indirect common control.

-

. 1
.1
-

5.7

7 .3
6. 1

-

-

-

. 1
. 1

_
-

.3
.5
_
.2
.3

3 .4
*
_

10.6
♦
.1

_

.5

-

-

_

-

_
-

3 .4
17.6
1.0
.9

1 .8
13.2

1 .5
1 1. 1

-

-

1.9
2 .7

.3
2 .6

-

4 1 .4
. 8

3 1 .9

-

-

1 2.3
1 1.4
7. 7
1. 8

9 .3
3. 9
1 8.0
2. 2

6 .2
6 .2
18.9
1 .2

4 .3
1 3 .2
8 .0
1 .3

23. 0
7 .8

11.8
3 .0

3 .2
4 .8

1 .6
3 0 .5

8 .6

♦
-

8. 1

.

-

1

.2
-

2 .5

_

5 .3
14.7
10.8
.5
2 .8
6 .3

2 See appendix for definitions o f hours and rates used in this bulletin,
NOTE: Asterisk (*) indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes (—) indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 4. All and Bell System telephone carriers^ Average hourly rates* of employees in selected occupations by region, December 1977
O c c u p a t io n a l g roup

A l l e m p lo y e e s , e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s and
m a n a g e ria l a s s i s t a n t s . .........................................
P a r t -t im e e m p lo y e e s , in c lu d in g
o f f i c i a l s and m a n a g e ria l a s s i s t a n t s • • ...
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l
e m p l o y e e s . .. ........................................................
D r a ft e r s
O t h e r s . . •••• .............................................................
B u s in e s s o f f i c e and s a l e s e m p lo y e e s .......... .
S u p e r v i s o r s . ••••••••••••••••••••••••••.
H o n s u p e r v iso ry e m p l o y e e s ................................
C l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s .•••••••••••••••••••••.
S u p e r v is o r s ......................... .....................••........... .
Hons u p er v i s o r y
..................••••••••••.
Com m ercial d e p a r tm e n t. . .
T r a f f i c d e p a r t m e n t .• • • • • • • • • • • .......
P la n t d e p a r tm e n t.......... ••••••••••.............
A c c o u n t in g d e p a r t m e n t .• • • • • • • • . .. . . ..
A l l o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s .• • • • • • • • • • .....
T e le p h o n e o p e r a t o r s . ••••••••••••••••••••.
C h ie f o p e r a t o r s .
............. ••••••••••••••.
S e r v i c e a s s i s t a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s . . .• .
E x p e r ie n c e d s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s . . . . . .
O p e r a t o r s i n t r a i n i n g ...................................... .
O ther s w itc h b o a r d e m p lo y e e s ......................... .
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m a in ten a n ce e m p l o y e e s .• • • • • • • • • • • .......
S u p e r v is o r s o f t e le p h o n e c r a f t w ork ers.
C e n t r a l o f f i c e c r a f t w o rk ers............... ..
T e s t b oa rd and r e p e a t e r w o r k e r s .. . . . .
C e n t r a l o f f i c e r e p a i r e r s . . • • • • • • .....
O t h e r s ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I n s t a l l a t i o n and e x ch a n g e r e p a i r
c r a f t w orkers.
PBX and s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e r s . . • • . . . . . . .
Exchange r e p a i r e r s . •••••••••••••••••.
O t h e r s .......................................................................
L in e , c a b l e , and c o n d u it c r a f t w orkers.
L in e w o r k e r s ......................................... .. ........... .
C a b le s p l i c e r s .......... ........... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
C a b le s p l i c e r s ' h e l p e r s . • • • . • • • . . . . . .
O t h e r s . . . . . . . . . . .............................................. .
L a b o r e r s . . . . ...........................••••••••••••••.
B u i ld in g , s u p p l i e s , and m otor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s . •• .......................................
S u p e r v is o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................. .
M ech a n ics . • • • • ...................
O ther b u il d i n g s e r v i c e e m p l o y e e s * .••••
O ther s u p p l i e s and m otor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s ................................................... .............
A l l e m p loy ees n ot e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d . .
See footnotes at end o f table.




U n ited S t a t e s 3
Mew Er g la n d
R id d le
Average
A verage Number
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
w orkers r a t e s
w orkers r a t e s
w ork ers

tla n t ic
G reat
Average Humber
h o u r ly
of
ra tes
w orkers

Lakes
Chesai>eake
S o u th e a st
N orth C e n t r a l
South C e n t r a l
Mountain
A verage Number A verage Number Average Number A verage Dumber A verage Number Average Number
of
h o u r ly
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
of
h ou rly
of
w ork ers r a t e s
ra te s
w ork ers r a t e s
w ork ers r a t e s
w ork ers
All c a r r i e r s

Average
h o u r ly

8 30 ,08 7

* 7 .9 4

5 2 ,0 6 9

$8. 24

137 ,44 5

* 8 .8 3

134 ,87 8

* 7 .7 5

4 6 ,6 2 8

* 7 .6 9

1 32,598

* 7 .3 5

2 7 ,6 3 2

* 7 .4 0

8 8,8 88

* 7 .2 7

43,6 91

* 7 .3 3

118,791

* 7 .9 5

1 1 ,9 3 9

5 .16

1 ,609

5 .2 2

2 ,3 3 2

5 .6 4

2 ,2 0 4

4 .8 6

446

4 .6 0

599

5 .1 3

520

5 .6 1

826

4 .4 3

1 ,0 9 5

4 .7 0

2 ,0 6 8

5 .3 9

9 2 ,0 6 7
1 ,6 0 9
9 0 ,4 5 8
78 , 823
8 ,5 5 3
7 0 ,2 7 0
190,600
1 8 ,5 1 6
172 ,08 4
2 9 ,6 1 8
9 ,7 0 6
3 2,0 31
3 0 ,0 7 0
7 0 ,6 5 9
135 ,08 6
8 ,1 5 6
8 , 252
105,561
1 1,431
1 ,6 8 6

12.32
6 .62
12.43
7 .9 0
1 0.3 3
7 .6 0
6 .7 0
9 .9 9
6 .3 4
5 .9 2
6 .1 6
5 .9 6
6 .4 5
6 .6 8
5 .9 9
9 .5 4
6 .7 0
5.83
4 .12
6.84

6 , 172
59
6 ,1 1 3
4 ,3 9 4
4 30
3 ,9 6 4
12,4 13
1 ,0 7 3
11,3 40
1 ,8 9 6
534
1,8 6 4
2 ,3 2 4
4 ,7 2 2
6 ,6 8 9
598
614
7 ,0 0 6
317
154

1 2 .5 2
7 . 16
12.57
8 .3 8
1 0 .7 7
8 . 12
7 .0 2
10.48
6 .6 9
6 .1 9
6 .4 3
6 .3 6
6 .5 7
7 .1 1
6 .2 0
10. 25
6 .7 5
5 .8 5
3 .8 4
6 .9 3

15,201
140
15,061
1 3 ,6 6 2
1,4 8 5
1 2,1 77
2 9 ,9 0 2
3 ,4 89
2 6 ,4 1 3
4 ,6 6 3
1 ,4 1 8
4 ,7 9 6
6 .0 9 2
9 ,4 4 4
2 0 ,7 4 5
1,0 4 6
1 ,8 0 0
16,6 56
881
362

14.11
8 .3 4
1 4 .1 7
9 . 09
11.81
8 .7 6
7 .5 3
11.08
7 .0 5
6 .6 7
6 .9 6
6 .6 7
7 .0 2
7 .4 7
6 .7 4
11.1 6
7 .1 9
6 .5 1
4 .2 0
7 .2 1

15,7 87
271
15,516
12,918
1 ,307
11,611
2 9,1 08
2,901
2 6 ,2 0 7
3 ,8 4 0
1,514
5 ,2 4 2
4,6 7 8
1 0,933
2 1,629
1,226
1,670
16,511
2 ,064
158

11.39
6 .6 0
11.47
7 .5 0
9 .8 8
7 .2 3
6 .4 8
9 .7 3
6 .1 1
5 .7 3
5 .8 2
6 .0 6
6 .01
6 .3 6
5 .8 3
9. 18
6 .5 8
5 .6 9
4 .1 5
6 .9 7

4 ,7 4 0
106
4 ,6 3 4
4 ,3 3 5
555
3 ,7 8 0
10,884
796
1 0,0 88
1 ,9 1 6
515
1,7 0 3
1,524
4 ,4 3 0
7, 06 8
419
297
5 ,7 7 6
460
116

1 1 .7 3
6 . 17
11.86
7 .8 7
10. 16
7 .5 3
6 .6 3
9 .9 5
6 .3 7
5 .5 5
5 .9 6
5 .8 8
6 . 22
7 .0 3
5 .7 4
9 .4 6
6 .5 3
5 .5 4
4 .0 2
6 .9 3

1 2 .1 1 8
204
1 1 ,9 1 4
1 2 ,5 0 6
1 ,3 9 5

2 ,8 3 0
26
2 ,8 0 4
2 ,8 6 4
329
2 ,5 3 5
6 ,7 0 2
765
5 ,9 3 7
1.1 6 1
415
910
938
2 ,5 1 3
5 ,3 0 6
321
398
3 , 876
633
78

11. 13
5 .7 0
11.18
7 .4 6
10.34
7 .0 8
6 .2 5
9 .2 9
5 .8 5
5 .4 7
5 .9 1
5 .5 5
5 .8 9
6 .1 1
5 .7 6
9 .8 3
6 .3 2
5 .6 1
3 .9 5
6 .6 1

7 .6 1 3
219
7 ,3 9 4
10,1 72
1 ,0 5 3
9 ,0 7 9
1 9,396
1 ,7 9 3
17,6 03
3 ,7 8 4
1,331
3 ,7 9 3
2 ,5 1 6
6 ,1 7 9
15,5 63
1 ,0 7 2
813
12,0 52
1,4 9 0
136

11. 11
6 . 13
1 1.2 6
6 .8 8
9 . 32
6 .5 9
5 .9 6
9 .2 2
5 .6 3
5 .4 6
5 .8 1
5 .2 8
5 .8 3
5 .8 3
5 .9 9
8 .8 5
6 .5 6
5 .9 0
3 .9 8
6 .2 9

4 , 147

11.37

2 7 ,0 0 3
2 ,5 7 4
2 4 ,4 2 9
4 ,4 7 5
1 .5 8 7
5 ,8 3 0
3 ,4 8 3
9 ,0 5 4
2 5 .1 6 1
1 ,7 6 5
935
2 0 ,2 8 6
1 ,8 5 0
325

11.30
4 .6 3
11.45
7 .3 8
9 .6 7
7 .0 9
6 .1 3
8 .8 9
5 .84
5 .6 9
5 .9 7
5 .5 6
6 .0 0
6 .0 2
5 .7 3
8 .7 9
6 .5 3
5 .5 8
3 .7 6
6 .71

3 0 6 ,8 9 2
3 9 ,9 4 8
123,020
2 1 , 178
5 2 ,0 8 5
4 9 ,7 5 7

8.26
10.53
7 .8 3
8 .4 2
8 .36
7 .0 0

1 6 ,3 7 9
2 ,4 4 8
8 ,2 4 0
1 ,2 4 5
3 ,0 0 5
3 ,9 9 0

8 .5 5
11.0 7
8. 19
8 .7 5
8 .7 0
7 .6 2

5 2 ,7 8 6
6 ,8 5 1
2 0 ,1 3 0
2 ,8 6 2
8 ,8 2 8
8 ,4 4 0

8 .8 9
11.48
8 .2 6
8 .9 1
8 .8 5
7 .3 8

49,149
6,3 1 4
18,283
2 ,617
8,046
7 ,6 20

8 .2 8
10.50
7 .81
8 .4 2
8 .3 2
7 .0 7

1 8 ,0 7 0
2, 318
6 ,7 0 6
804
3 ,2 9 5
2 ,6 0 7

8 .0 5
10.16
7 .5 3
8 .4 2
8 . 19
6 .4 0

5 2 ,9 3 3
6 ,8 9 0
1 9 ,1 9 1
2 ,8 9 2
7 ,2 5 5
9 ,0 4 4

7 .8 1
9 .8 3
7 .3 0
7 .9 7
8 .0 5
6 .4 8

9 ,0 5 4
1 ,2 3 6
3 .1 6 4
417
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,2 9 7

7 .9 7
10.25
7 .4 1
8 . 13
8 .0 9
6 .4 1

3 4 ,6 0 5
4 ,1 4 7
12,795
1 ,8 6 5
6 ,0 1 8
4 ,9 1 2

9 6,1 81
4 6 ,1 9 8
2 9 ,1 6 7
2 0 ,8 1 6
4 7 ,6 2 4
2 6 ,1 8 0
1 9,9 77
450
1 ,017
119

8 .0 7
8.01
8 .2 2
8 .01
7 .89
7 .7 8
8 .0 2
6 .3 5
8.88
5 .8 2

5 ,3 2 4
2, 182
1 ,5 8 4
1 ,558
2, 367
1,3 3 0
939
3
95
"

8 .4 1
8 .3 9
8 .4 2
8 .4 4
7 .4 9
6 .5 8
8. 56
6 .6 3
9 .6 3
“

17,8 93
8 ,2 7 1
5 ,9 5 3
3 ,6 6 9
7 ,9 1 2
4 ,4 4 9
3 ,1 6 7
148
148

8 .6 9
8 .7 2
8 .7 8
8 .4 7
8 .6 6
8 .6 4
8 .74
6 .6 7
9 .5 6
*

16,419
7 ,8 7 3
5 ,5 3 5
3,011
8,014
4 ,356
3,348
54
256
119

8 .0 8
8 .1 4
8 .1 5
7 .7 9
8 .0 5
7 .9 8
8 .1 7
6 .16
8 .05
5 .82

6 ,2 4 5
3 , 108
1 ,5 7 0
1,5 6 7
2 ,8 0 1
1,471
1 ,299
10
21
“

7 .9 0
7 .7 1
8 .3 1
7 .8 6
7 .8 8
7 .7 8
7 .9 9
7 .4 7
8 .7 5
“

1 7 ,3 0 8
8 ,6 2 5
5 .3 8 7
3 ,2 9 6
9 , 544
5 ,6 4 1
3 ,6 0 1
165
137
-

7 .6 6
7 .6 2
7 .75
7 .5 8
7 .64
7 .56
7 .8 0
6 .1 5
8 .6 8

3 ,0 4 8
984
464
1 .6 0 0
1,6 0 6
836
760

7 .8 1
7 .9 5
8 .0 1
7 .6 6
7 .6 5
7 .6 1
7 .6 7

10

2 5 ,3 9 0
3 ,0 4 4
4 ,0 4 7
6 ,9 3 8

7 .2 3
10.08
8 .0 3
5.51

2 ,0 1 7
240
209
706

7 .4 3
10. 56
7 .7 7
6 .0 4

5 ,1 3 1
614
8 09
1 ,7 93

7161
11. 19
8 .6 8
5 .8 2

6 ,2 2 3
784
907
2,061

7 .0 3
9 .7 7
7 .84
5 .2 7

1 ,526
240
182
377

6 .7 9
9 .2 4
7 .6 8
4 .7 2

2 ,8 6 9
326
349
465

6 .8 0
9 .1 9
6 .6 2
4 .7 4

11,361
1 ,2 2 9

7 .19
7 .2 6

862
5

7 .5 6
5 .9 9

1 ,9 1 5
18

7 .6 4
8 .2 9

2 ,471
64

7 .2 5
5 .8 2

727
5

6 .8 0
7 . 13

1 ,7 2 9
8

6 .9 2
6 .1 8

1 1,111

3 ,9 7 4
10,9 75
1 0.2 8

9^840
1,606

5 .9 3

7^854
499
389
5 ,8 3 4
1 ,042
90

5 .6 7
5 .6 1
3 .91
6 .4 5

7 .8 1
10.01
7 .5 5
8 .1 7
8 .0 8
6 .6 6

14,281
2 ,0 18
5 ,466

7.91
10.02
7 .4 9

2 ,3 4 1
2 ,4 6 9

6 .7 9

7 .6 6
7 .4 9
8 .0 5
7 .5 3
7 . 19
7 . 10
7 .3 1

4 ,4 6 3
1,870
1,043
1,550
2 ,3 3 4
1,3 4 5
925

7 .71
7 .5 7
7 .8 9
7 .74
7 .4 7
7 .43
7 .4 9

9 .4 0
-

11,541
6 .1 2 7
3 ,3 1 0
2 ,1 0 4
6 ,1 2 2
3 ,1 9 0
2 ,8 5 2
65
15
-

7 . 18
-

64

8 .1 2

876
75
124
380

7 .0 5
9 .9 2
7. 84
5 .7 6

1,5 3 9
138
267
2 27

6 .5 4
9 .2 8
7 .9 3
4 .9 0

1,232
162
162
216

6 .9 9
9 .2 7
7 .12
5 .5 9

404

5 .9 6

297

7 .5 5

907

6 .0 7

692
719

6 .8 2
6 .7 7

183

6 .3 1

-

_

* 231

6 .6 3

7^931

7 .0 6

2

,99 7

Table 4. All and Bell System telephone carriers:1 Average hourly rates2 of employees in selected occupations by region, December 1977— Continued
States1
3
*
Hev England
d id d le A t la n t ic
G reat
Humber Average Number Average Number Average Number
h ou rly
of
of
of
h ou rly
h ou rly
of
w orkers r a t e s
w orkers r a t e s
w orkers
w orkers r a t e s

United

O c c u p a t io n a l group

Lakes
Chesapeake
S o u th e a s t
N orth C e n t r a l
South C e n tr a l
Mountain
P a c ific
hvera ge Number A verage Number A verage Number Average Number Average Number A verage Number A verage
of
of
h ou rly
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
h o u r ly
of
of
h o u r ly
h o u r ly
h ou rly
ra tes
w orkers r a t e s
w ork ers r a t e s
vork ers ra te s
w ork ers r a t e s
vork ers ra tes
vorkers ra te s
Bel 1

System

carriers

A l l e m p lo y e e s , e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s and
7 6 4 ,7 9 3
P a r t -t im e e m p lo y e e s , in c lu d in g
9 ,2 2 8
o f f i c i a l s and m a n a g e ria l a s s i s t a n t s . . .. • • • •
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l
e m p lo y e e s ................................................................................
8 4 ,8 0 0
D r a f t e r s ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 ,1 0 4
O t h e r s ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 3 ,6 9 6
B u s in e ss o f f i c e and s a l e s e m p l o y e e s .. . .............
7 4 ,1 5 0
S u p e r v is o r s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 ,8 8 5
6 6 ,2 6 5
H o n s u p e r v iso ry e m p l o y e e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 ,85 8
S u p e r v is o r s ................................................ .......................
1 7 ,9 1 0
H o n s u p e r v i s o r y ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159,948
C om m ercial d e p a r t m e n t .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 7 ,2 8 6
8 ,6 1 8
T r a f f i c d e p a r t m e n t .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P la n t d ep a rtm en t........................................................
2 8 ,1 0 9
2 8 ,4 5 4
A c co u n tin g d e p a r tm e n t. ....................................... .
A l l o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s ..........................................
6 7 ,4 8 1
T elep h on e o p e r a t o r s . ...........................
124 ,57 6
C h ie f o p e r a t o r s ...............................................................
7 ,4 8 7
S e r v i c e a s s i s t a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . . . . .
7 ,8 4 2
E x p e r ie n c e d s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s . . . . . . . . .
9 6 ,2 9 3
O p e r a t o r s in t r a i n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1,3 18
O ther s w itc h b o a r d e m p lo y e e s ...................................
1 ,6 3 6
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m a in ten a n ce e m p lo y e e s . . . . . • ...........................
. . 2 8 0 ,7 3 5
S u p e r v is o r s o f t e le p h o n e c r a f t v o r k e r s . . . .
3 6 ,6 3 7
C e n tr a l o f f i c e c r a f t v o r k e r s . ............................ 144,96 1
T e s t b oa rd and r e p e a t e r v o r k e r s . . . . . . . . .
2 0 ,3 3 8
C en tra l o f f i c e r e p a i r e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 8 ,1 9 2
O t h e r s ............................................................ ..
4 6 ,4 3 1
I n s t a l l a t i o n and ex ch a n g e r e p a i r
c r a ft v o r k e r s .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 5 ,7 9 2
PBZ and s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 0 ,6 5 3
Exchange r e p a i r e r s .
...........................................
2 7 ,6 2 1
O th ers
• .................................................................
1 7 ,5 1 8
L in e , c a b l e , and c o n d u it c r a f t v o r k e r s . . . .
4 3 ,3 4 5
L in e v o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . .................................... ..
2 4 ,3 2 6
C a b le s p l i c e r s . .......... ..
1 7 ,6 41
C a b le s p l i c e r s ' h e l p e r s . . . . . . . . . . .......... ..
431
O t h e r s . ......................................................................
94 7
L a b o r e r s ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B u i ld in g , s u p p l i e s , and m otor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 2 ,3 5 7
2 ,6 5 7
S u p e r v is o r s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M e c h a n ic s ............................................................................
3 ,4 2 4
6 ,0 7 3
O th er b u il d i n g s e r v i c e e m p lo y e e s -...................
O th er s u p p l i e s and m otor v e h i c l e
e m p lo y e e s......................... .................................................
1 0 ,2 0 3
A l l em p lo y e e s n o t e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d .
317

$8.0 6

5 2 ,0 2 4

$8. 24

1 36 ,49 5

$ 8 .8 5

1 14 ,53 9

$ 8 .0 3

4 0 ,6 7 4

$ 7 .9 7

119 ,94 9

$7.41

2 7 ,4 4 8

$7.41

8 0 ,1 2 1

$ 7 .4 0

4 2 ,2 1 2

$7.3 5

109,831

5 .48

1 ,6 0 7

5 .2 2

2 ,2 8 9

5 .6 6

1,358

5 .6 2

272

5 .8 5

529

5 .3 9

506

5 .6 6

335

5 .3 9

1,089

4 .7 0

1 ,0 9 5

6 .0 6

12.63
7 .3 2
12.70
8 .0 3
10.49
7 .7 3
6 .8 2
10.06
6 .4 5
6 .0 0
6.31
6 .0 9
6 .5 5
6 .7 6
6 .0 9
9 .73
6 .7 3
£ .96
4 .0 9
6 .83

6 , 169
59
6 , 110
4 ,3 8 2
4 29
3 ,9 5 3
1 2 ,4 1 0
1 ,0 7 3
11,3 37
1 ,8 9 6
534
1,8 6 1
2 ,3 2 4
4 ,7 2 2
8 ,6 8 9
598
614
7 ,0 0 6
317
154

12.52
7 .1 6
12.57
8 .3 9
10.78
8 . 13
7 .0 2
10.48
6 .6 9
6 . 19
6 .4 3
6 .3 6
6 .5 7
7 .11
6 .2 0
10.25
6 .7 5
5 .8 5
3 .8 4
6 .9 3

1 5,112
135
14,9 77
1 3 ,6 09
1 ,4 7 9
1 2 ,1 30
29,7 11
3 ,4 8 6
2 6,2 25
4 ,6 3 2
1,404
4 ,7 3 7
6 ,0 4 9
9 ,4 0 3
2 0 ,5 8 2
1 ,0 30
1 ,7 9 2
1 6 ,5 17
881
362

1 4.1 5
8 .4 7
14.20
9 . 10
1 1 .8 3
8 .7 7
7 .5 5
1 1.0 8
7 .0 7
6 .6 8
6 .9 9
6 .7 0
7 .0 4
7 .4 9
6 .7 6
1 1 .2 3
7 .2 0
6 .5 3
4 .2 0
7 .2 1

13,379
153
1 3 ,2 26
11,297
1,151
1 0 ,1 4 6
2 4,9 20
2 ,5 8 4
2 2 ,3 3 6
3 ,4 7 9
1,185
3 ,8 9 2
4,1 2 8
9 ,6 5 2
1 8 ,3 75
1 ,003
1,521
13,636
2 ,0 5 8
157

11.90
7 .8 9
11.94
7.81
10.06
7 .56
6 .7 3
9 .96
6 .3 6
5 .8 9
6 .2 3
6 .32
6 .2 3
6 .61
6 .0 8
9 .7 0
6 .61
6 .0 2
4 .1 6
7 .0 0

4 ,0 6 3
84
3 ,9 7 9
4 ,0 7 4
477
3 ,5 9 7
9 ,7 4 6
784
8 ,9 6 2
1,4 6 2
353
1,4 8 2
1 ,4 1 7
4 ,2 4 8
5 , 900
382
195
4 ,7 4 7
460
116

12.5 2
6 .3 7
12.65
7 .9 4
10.51
7 .6 0
6 .8 8
9 .9 8
6 .61
5 .9 7
6 .3 3
6 .0 5
6 . 37
7 .1 4
6 .0 4
9 .6 9
6 .8 8
5 .8 8
4 .0 2
6 .9 3

1 0 ,8 9 7
127
1 0 ,7 7 0
1 1 ,4 0 9
1 ,2 2 6
1 0 ,1 8 3
2 5 ,0 2 9
2 ,5 3 6
2 2 ,4 9 3
4 ,2 1 0
1 ,4 8 3
4 ,9 6 4
3 ,2 7 6
8 ,5 6 0
2 3 ,0 7 6
1 ,5 6 8
897
1 8 ,4 8 0
1,8 4 8
283

1 1 .6 0
6 .2 1
11-66
7 .4 8
9 .8 1
7 .2 0
6 .21
8 .9 1
5 .9 0
5 .6 6
6 .0 6
5 .6 6
6 .0 7
6 .0 7
5 .8 1
8 .9 6
6 .5 9
5 .6 8
3 .7 6
6 .7 3

2 ,8 1 7
21
2 ,7 9 6
2 ,8 5 6
324
2 ,5 3 2
6 ,6 5 7
765
5 ,8 9 2
1 ,1 4 0
410
901
9 37
2 , 504
5 ,2 6 7
319
396
3 , 841
633
78

11.1 5
6 .0 1
11.19
7 .4 5
10.37
7 .0 8
6 .2 6
9 .2 9
5 .8 6
5 .4 9
5 .9 3
5 .5 7
5 .8 9
6 .1 1
5 .7 7
9 .8 5
6 .3 3
5 .6 3
3 .9 5
6 .6 1

6 ,5 8 6
37
6 ,5 4 9
9 ,3 3 0
993
8 ,3 3 7
17,6 19
1,6 5 8
15,961
3 ,6 8 2
1,1 0 0
3 ,1 6 5
2 ,2 6 1
5 ,7 5 3
14,440
1,0 1 8
778
11,0 18
1,4 9 0
136

11.5 0
5 .6 6
1 1 .5 3
7 .0 4
9 .4 7
6 .7 5
6 .0 9
9 .3 7
5 .7 5
5 .4 8
6 .0 7
5 .4 8
5 .9 6
5 .9 2
6 .0 9
8 .9 3
6 .6 3
6 .0 4
3 .9 8
6 .2 9

4 ,1 3 5
68
4 ,067
4 ,3 5 3
430
3 ,9 2 3
10,8 33
1,1 3 0
9 ,7 0 3
1,577
670
1 ,4 3 5
1,399
4 ,6 2 2
7 ,7 1 9
491
381
5 ,7 1 5
1,042
90

11.34
6 .6 0
11.42
7 .1 7
9 .7 0
6 .8 8
6 .2 9
9 .2 4
5 .9 4
5 .4 9
5 .9 2
5 .3 9
6 .0 7
6 .2 3
5 .6 9
8 .9 0
6 .6 6
5 .6 3
3 .91
6 .4 5

1 1 ,5 0 5
133
1 1 .3 7 2
1 1 ,2 2 8
1 ,3 0 8
9 .9 2 0
2 7, 292
2 ,6 2 6
2 4 ,6 6 6
4 ,3 6 4
1,261
4 ,3 8 5
4 ,1 0 9
1 0 ,5 47
1 8 ,1 35
936
1, 136
1 3 ,3 46
2 , 488
229

12.48
7 .4 9
12.54
8 .3 2
11.0 0
7 .9 6
6 .8 6
10.3 0
6 .5 0
6 .2 4
6 .3 8
6 . 13
6 .5 9
6 .7 4
5 .9 8
10.32
6 .5 4
5 .9 1
4 .4 2
6 .6 4

8.34
10.65
7 .8 6
8 .4 7
8 .4 6
6 .9 6

1 8 ,3 5 5
2 ,4 4 5
8 ,2 3 2
1 ,2 4 4
2 ,9 9 9
3 ,9 8 9

8 .5 5
11.0 8
8. 19
8 .7 5
8 .7 0
7 .6 2

5 2,3 89
6 ,7 9 7
2 0 ,0 06
2» 855
8 ,7 1 7
8 ,4 3 4

8 .9 0
1 1.5 0
8 .2 7
8 .9 1
8 .8 7
7 .3 8

4 1 ,4 3 0
5 ,3 4 5
15,741
2 .3 1 8
6 ,4 98
6 ,9 25

8 .5 0
10.76
7 .9 3
8 .6 2
8 .5 8
7 .0 9

15,6 17
1 ,9 3 3
5 ,9 2 2
751
2 ,5 9 4
2 ,5 7 7

8 .2 5
1 0 .5 4
7 .6 3
8 .5 4
8 .5 8
6 .4 0

4 7 ,2 8 2
6 ,1 1 3
1 7 ,3 6 4
2 ,6 7 5
6 ,9 2 7
7 ,7 6 2

7 .81
9 .8 6
7 .2 8
8 .0 5
8 .1 3
6 .2 5

8 ,9 8 5
1 ,2 2 2
3 ,1 4 7
403
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,2 9 4

7 .9 9
1 0 .2 8
7 .4 1
8. 18
8 .0 9
6 .4 1

3 0 ,9 08
3 ,7 2 2
11,799
1 ,7 7 7
5 ,6 4 1
4 ,3 8 1

7 .9 5
1 0. 17
7 .6 2
8 .2 2
8 .1 6
6 .6 7

13,9 17
1,976
5 ,3 0 6
643
2 ,2 0 2
2 ,4 6 1

7 .9 3
1 0 .0 5
7 .4 9
8 .10
8 .1 0
6 .7 9

3 9 . 102
5 ,4 8 4
1 6 ,8 5 0
2 ,8 6 5
6 ,4 5 9
7 ,5 2 6

8 .4 0
10.67
7 .8 8
8 .5 1
8 .5 6
7 .0 4

8 .16
8.14
8 .2 8
8 .0 2
8 .0 0
7 .9 0
8 . 13
6.40
9 .1 0
-

5 ,3 1 8
2 ,1 8 2
1 ,5 8 4
1 ,5 5 2
2 ,3 6 0
1 ,326
936
3
95
-

8 .4 1
8 .3 9
8 .4 2
8 .4 5
7 .4 9
6 .5 8
8 .5 6
6 .6 3
9 .6 3
-

1 7 ,7 55
8 , 151
5 ,9 5 3
3 ,6 5 1
7 ,831
4 ,4 0 7
3 ,1 2 8
148
148
-

8 .7 0
8 .7 4
8 .7 8
8 .4 8
8 .6 8
8 .66
8 .7 6
6 .6 7
9 .5 6
-

1 3,6 43
7,0 9 1
4,7 0 2
1,850
6 ,7 0 1
3,7 3 9
2,7 1 7
46
199

8 .3 5
8 .3 2
8 .4 5
8 .2 5
8 .3 5
8 .2 8
8 .4 5
6 .4 3
8 .7 2

8 .1 4
8 .1 0
8 .3 1
8 .0 1
8. 14
8 .0 5
8 .2 5
7 .4 7
8 .7 5
-

14,9 91
6 ,6 1 3
5 ,3 8 7
2 ,9 9 1
8 ,8 1 4
5 ,4 1 9
3 ,0 9 4
164
137
-

7 .6 8
7 .6 4
7 .7 5
7 .6 2
7 .6 8
7 .6 0
7 .8 6
6 .1 6
8 .6 8

3 ,0 2 3
964
464
1 ,5 9 5
1 ,5 9 3
829
754

7 .8 2
7 .9 8
8 .0 1
7 .6 7
7 .6 7
7 .6 3
7 .6 8
9 .4 0
-

1 0,068
5 ,0 2 9
3 ,3 0 5
1,7 3 4
5 ,3 1 9
2 ,8 3 4
2 ,4 1 6
58
11

7 .8 4
7 .7 6
8 .0 5
7 .6 7
7 .3 6
7 .3 4
7 .3 9
6 .2 3
8 . 14

4 ,3 4 7
1,763
1,039
1 .5 4 5
2 ,2 8 8
1,321
907

7 .7 4
7 .6 5
7 .8 9
7 .7 5
7 .5 0
7 .4 6
7.51

-

5 ,3 7 1
2 ,4 6 3
1 ,5 7 0
1 ,3 3 8
2 ,3 9 1
1 ,275
1 ,0 8 5
10
-21
-

8 .1 6
8 .0 8
8 .3 1
8 .0 8
8. 21
8 . 12
8 .1 7
5 .1 5
9 .4 3
-

7 .4 0
10.37
8 .1 7
5 .6 9

2 ,0 1 4
240
209
703

7 .4 4
10.56
7 .7 7
6 .0 5

5 ,0 7 4
608
802
1 ,7 6 9

7 .6 3
1 1 .2 2
8 .6 9
5 .8 3

5 .1 2 9
597
787
1,719

7 .3 3
10.30
8 .1 5
5 .4 6

1 ,2 6 9
180
174
244

7 . 18
1 0 .0 7
7 .7 3
5 .2 6

2 ,2 4 8
276
103
341

7 .0 7
9 .3 2
7 .6 5
5 .1 8

866
75
124
376

7 .0 6
9 .9 2
7 .8 4
5 .7 8

1 ,2 3 8
99
257
171

7.33
9 .2 6

862

7 .5 6
5 .9 9

1 ,8 9 5

7 .6 6
8 .2 9

2 ,0 2 6

7 .6 2
7 .5 8

671

6 .9 3
7 .1 3

1 ,5 2 8
8

7 .0 4
6 .1 8

291

7 .5 4

711

5

18

-

9

1 Cover telephone carriers which have operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in interstate or foreign communication
service using their own facilities or through connection with those o f another carrier under direct or indirect common control.
|S ee appendix fo r definition o f hours and rates used in this bulletin.
3 Includes data fo r employees in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, and employees o f the American Telephone and Telegraph
Company, which are excluded from the regional tabulations. (For scope o f survey, see appendix.)
NOTE: For purposes o f this study, the regions fo r which separate data are presented include: New England—Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle A tlantic—Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Great Lakes—Illinois, Indiana,




5

-

-

10
-

-

*

$ 8 .0 4

60

8 .21
-

1 1 ,2 5 7
6 ,3 9 7
3 ,6 1 7
1 ,2 4 3
5 ,5 1 1
2 ,6 9 5
2 ,5 4 8
2
266
-

6 .7 3
9 .6 6
8 .0 0
5 .1 4

1,200
157
160
203

7 .0 2
9 .3 1
7 .1 3
5 .6 6

2 ,5 3 3
347
458
348

7 .9 0
10.51
8 .3 0
6 .0 9

6 .2 1
*

680

6 .8 3
6 .5 4

1 ,3 8 0
36

7 .5 6
6 .3 8

-

-

-

-

55

Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Chesapeake-District o f Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; Southeast-Alabama. Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; North Central—Iowa. Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South
Dakota; South Central—
Arkansas. Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas (except El Paso County); Mountain—
Arizona. Colorado, Idaho (south o f the
Salmon River), Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas (El Paso County), Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific—
California. Idaho (north o f the Salmon River),
Oregon, and Washington.
Dashes (—) indicate that no data were reported.




Table 5. Western Union Telegraph Company: Percent distribution of employees^ in occupational groups by average hourly rates2, October 1977
P ercen t o f em p loy ees r e c e iv in g A verage A verage
$ 3 .5 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8.0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0
sc h e d u le d h o u r ly
Under
and
$ 9 .5 0
w eekly
r a t e s 2 $ 3 .5 0 under
and
hours
$ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .5 0 $5. 00 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $9.5 0
ov er

O c c u p a t io n a l group
T ota l
A l l em ployees e x c e p t o f f i c i a l s , m a n ag erial
a s s i s t a n t s , and m e s s e n g e r s ,......................................
P r o f e s s io n a l and s e m ip r o fe s s io n a l
e m p lo y e e s . .
...................................... .................... ..
E n g in eers and e n g in e e r in g a s s i s t a n t s . ............
O th e rs ............ ..........................................................
T eleg ra p h o f f i c e s u p e rin te n d e n ts and
m a n a g ers .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S a le s e m p l o y e e s ... . . . . . . ...............................................
C l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s.............................................................
S u p e r v is o r s .. ..................................................................
N on su p ervisory e m p l o y e e s ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Com m ercial d e p a r tm e n t.........................................
T r a f f i c d e p a r tm e n t.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A l l o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Route a i d e s . ...............................................
T eleg ra p h o p e r a t o r s ...........................................................
T r a f f i c m anagers, c h i e f o p e r a t o r s .
s u p e r v is o r s , and i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E x p erien ced t e le g r a p h o p e r a t o r s
(e x c e p t Horse o p e r a t o r s ) ......................................
Com m ercial d ep artm en t............................
T r a f f i c d e p a r t m e n t ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O p e r a t o r s - in - t r a in in g ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m a intenance em p lo y e e s........................................
T r a f f i c t e s t i n g and r e g u la t in g e m p l o y e e s ...
C o n s t r u c t io n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and
m aintenance e m p lo y e e s ...................... .................... ..
S u p e r v is o r s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S u b s c r ib e r s ' equipm ent m a i n t a i n e r s . . ..........
L ine and c a b le w o rk e r s...........................................
O t h e r s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L a b o r e r s ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B u ild in g s e r v i c e em p lo y e e s.............. ...........................
H e c h a n ic s .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O t h e r s .................................. ..
M e s s e n g e r s ............. .... ....................................... ..
W alking and b i c y c l e m essen gers.
H otor m essen gers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1Men

Women

11,089

6 ,7 0 8

3 8 .6

$ 7 .3 3

1 ,063
267
796

89 6
259
637

4,381
167
8
159

37. 1
3 6 .9
3 7 .2

1 0 .5 3
10.59
10.51

439
525
2 ,3 3 6
496
1,840
814
35
990
i
2 ,6 1 6

274
42 5
663
271
39 2
144
8
239
1
517

165
100
1,6 7 3
225
1,448
670
27
751
2,0 9 9

3 9 .8
3 6 .6
3 6 .8
3 7 .2
3 6 .7
3 6 .7
4 0 .0
3 6 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .3

7 .0 3
7 .0 6
6 .5 9
7 .8 6
6 .2 5
6 .2 2
5 .3 1
6 .3 0
4 .6 3
5 .6 4

0 .1
, .2
.3
.5
*

442

229

213

3 9 .7

7 . 18

-

2 ,0 5 0
516
1 ,5 3 4
124

280
122
158
8

1 ,770
394
1,376
116

3 9 .2
4 0 .0
3 8.9
4 0 .0

5 .4 1
5 .4 7
5 .3 9
3 .8 8

*
.2
-

1.3

1 .0

7 .8

7 .3

9. 0

8 .4

5 .8

1 9 .6

10.9

2 .9

2. 6

10.5

.1
.4
-

.3
1.1
-

.2
.3

.3
.4

1. 1
.4
1 .4

6 .8
1 .9
8. 4

3 .8
2. 2
4 .3

5 .8
6 .0
5 .8

3 .7
6 .4
2 .8

3 .4
3 .4
3 .4

4 .3
3 .4
4 .6

5 .3
7 .9
4 .4

6 5 .0
6 7.0
6 4 .3

.2
1.1
.4
.5
.9
4 .7

5 .7
1 .7
1 .0
1 .8
.2
8 .6
2 .9
1.1

2 .3
9 .0
8 .9
.4
11.2
9 .0
6 0 .0
1 1.3
1 9.0

9 .8
1 1 .8
1 6 .0
1 .6
19. 8
2 3 .0
2 5 .7
17. 1
3 1 .8

20. 7
10. 7
19.6
9. 3
2 2 .3
2 8 .3
18. 3
1 0 .7

23. 9
13. 1
16.7
19.0
16.1
18.9
14.4
2 .9

2 0.7
6 .5
1 5 .6
1 5.3
15.7
6 .4
2 3 .9
1 .1

9 .6
9 .9
7. 1
1 7 .9
4 .2
6. 1
2 .7
1 .3

1 .4
4 .6
2 .3
8 .3
.7
. 1
1 .2
1.0

1 .8
3 .2
2. 1
6 .7
.9
.2
1.4
.2

2 .3
3 .6
2 .0
7 .7
.5
.5
.5
.2

6 .4
12.6
2 .9
12.5
.3
.4
.3
1 .6

7 .0

6 .1

1.1

1. 1

9 .5

-

-

-

-

.9
8. 2
4 .5
.4
5. 6
6 .9
5 .7
4 .4
100
2 4 .3

-

-

. 2

2 .0

7 .0

4 7. 1

13.6

5 .2

9 9 .2

1 .5
4 .5
.5
-

3 0 .9
8 .5
3 8 .5
.8

2 3 .8
3 7 .0
19.4
-

3 9 .1
4 0 .3
3 8 .7
-

3 .5
6 .6
2 .5
-

.7
2 .3
. 2
-

.3
.4
.3
-

.2

.4
-

1 .0

2 .0
1 .3

1 .0
.6

5. 9
2. 8

1 .4
.8

4 6 .0
4 4 .2

2 6.7
4 4.8

4 .8
5 .4

3. 8
-

6 .8
.

2 .1
. 1
1 .1
3. 1
5 .8
2 5 .0
3 .2
6 .4
1 .3
-

1. 1
.6

7. 1

4 7 .0
1 .3
7 3 .4
28. 1
4 3 .6
1 1.1
2 9 .8
-

2 0 .4
2 6 .4
17.3
3 3 .6
18.1
_
1 .6
4 .3
-

4 .7
14.2
1 .3
9 .4
.9
_
-

9 .3
3 6.9

1 .6
2 .8
2 .4
4 .3
1. 3
. 2

1 .6
•6
2 .5
.8
1 .0
_
4 .0
1 0.6
-

5. 1
18.7

3 .4
4 .7
2 1 .6
15.1
4 0 .4
-

1 1.7
.6
_
.8
2. 1
-

3 .9
1 .0
_
.8
2 .1
_

-

-

-

_

_

3 ,9 8 4
1 ,0 4 4

3 ,8 3 6
1 ,021

148
23

3 9 .8
4 0 .0

8 . 14
8 .0 5

-

-

-

2,9 1 6
702
1,396
128
690
24
126
47
79
515

2 ,7 9 2
688
1 ,394
128
582
23
97
45
52
499

124
14
2

3 9 .7
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .9
4 0 .0
3 9 .9
3 9 .9
3 9.9
3 8 .6

8 .2 0
9 .4 7
7 .9 6
8 .0 8
7 . 44
4 .9 8
5 .6 9
7 .1 8
4 .8 0
4 .5 9

_
1.6
2 .5
2 1 .4

_
3 .9

*
_
.1
2 5 .0
3 .2
5 .1
11.1

.3
.1
. 1
.7
3 7 .5
50.0
7 9 .7
5 3 .8

3. 1
3 .8
1 2 .5
6 .3
10. 1
9 .7

111
404

103
396

3 7 .1
3 9 .0

3 .4 0
4 .9 0

9 6 .4
.7

2 .7
4 .2

14. 1

.9
6 8 .3

12.4

-

108
i
29
2
27
16
16
8
8

1 2.7

.2

1 .2
.3
.2

.2
'

’ Includes employees working in the conterminous 48 States and the District o f Columbia; the company does not operate in
Alaska and Hawaii.
sums o f individual items may not equal 100.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

.6

.9

_
-

. 1
.2
. 1
•

_

*

NOTE: Asterisk (*) indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes (— indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
)




Table 6. International telegraph carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates2, October 1977
P e rce n t o f e m p loy ees r e c e iv in g Number o f em ployees
A verage
O c c u p a tio n a l group
T ota l
A l l em p lo y e e s e x c e p t o f f i c e r s and a s s i s t a n t s . •.
t i l e m p loy ees e x c e p t o f f i c e r s and
a s s i s t a n t s and m essen gers...................... .................
P r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m ip r o fe s s io n a l e m p l o y e e s ....
E n g in e e rs and e n g in e e r in g a s s i s t a n t s . . . .........
O th e rs ................. ..................................................... ..
O f f i c e o r s t a t i o n su p e r in t e n d e n t s and
a s s i s t a n t s . .........................................................................
S a le s e m p lo y e e s .. ............................................... ..
C l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s . ....................... ..
S u p e r v i s o r s . • . . . ............................................. ..
N o n su p e r v iso r y em p lo y e e s............................................
O p e r a tin g dep a rtm en t..... ...........................................
Com m ercial d e p a r tm e n t.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A cco u n tin g d ep a rtm en t•............ ...................... ..
E n g in e e r in g dep a rtm en t............................................
A l l o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts....................... ..
O p e r a t o r s .. .................................. ............. .................... ..
T r a f f i c c h i e f s , d i s p a t c h e r s , s u p e r v is o r s .
i n s t r u c t o r s , and a s s i s t a n t s ...............................
N o n su p e r v iso r y o p e r a t o r s . ........................ ..
...
R a d io o p e r a t o r s ...............................................................
Marine c o a s t a l s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s .......................
C a b le o p e r a t o r s . ................... .................. ..
T e le t y p e - m a l t i p le x o p e r a t o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T elep h on e o p e r a t o r s . . .......................... ..
A l l o t h e r o p e r a t o r s ...................................... ...............
M es sen g ers............... ............. .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
f o o t and b i c y c l e . ••••••.................
H o t o r ....................................... ..
C o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n , m a in ten a n ce.
and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l em p loy ees............... ..
S u p e r v i s o r s . . ................ ..
M echan ics and m aintenance
t e c h n i c i a n s .......... ............. ............................................
R a d io o p e r a t in g t e c h n i c i a n s .............
B a d io t e le g r a p h r i g g e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O t h e r s ......................................................................................................
B u ild in g s e r v i c e e m p lo y e e s . .....................................
A l l e m p lo y e e s , n o t e ls e w h e re c l a s s i f i e d . . . . . . . .

Men

Women

w eekly
hours

A verage
$ 3 .5 0 $4.0 0 $ 0 .5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $ 9 .5 0
h o u r ly
Under and
and
r a t e s 2 $ 3 .5 0 under
$ 4 .0 0 $0.5 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .5 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .5 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .5 0 $ 8 .0 0 $ 8 .5 0 $ 9 .0 0 $ 9.5 0 ov er

4 ,7 0 7

3 ,8 7 5

832

3 6 .9

$ 9 .1 0

4 ,5 7 4
746
300
446

3 ,7 5 0
7 00
294
406

824
46
6
40

3 7 .0
3 7 .2
36. 9
3 7 .4

9 .2 5
12.2 8
12.66
12.0 3

. 1
-

28
407
1, 124
148
976
245
114
309
33
275
1,040

24
349
582
132
450
135
59
133
16
107
886

4
58
54 2
16
526
110
55
176
17
168
150

3 5 .6
3 6 .4
3 6 .8
36. 4
3 6 .8
37. 1
3 7 .5
3 7 .2
37. 2
3 5 .9
3 6 .9

12.08
9 .2 1
7 .4 4
11. 17
6 .8 9
7 .2 1
6 .7 3
6 .9 5
7 .0 4
6 .5 6
8 .8 8

-

187
853
11
102
92
531
62
55
133
130
3

180
706
11
102
80
4 26
42
05
125
122
3

7
147

37. 3
3 6 .9
34. 1
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 6 .6
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
33. 1
3 3 .0
37. 3

11.5 3
8 .2 9
7 .7 8
8 .7 0
8 . 17
8 . 16
8 .2 7
9 .0 8
3 .2 1
3 .1 8
4 .6 9

1,131
151

1 ,1 1 3
151

18

3 7 .5
3 7 .3

9 .5 0
1 1.8 6

_

570
95
7
304
89
9

560
93
7
302
87
9

14
2

3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .4
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .4

9 .0 4
9 .0 7
9 .6 0
9 .3 4
7 . 19
8 .1 9

12
105
20
10
8
8

-

2
2

1Covers employees o f international telegraph carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $50,000; excludes
employees working for international telegraph carriers outside the conterminous 48 States and the District o f Columbia.

0. 8

1 .0

2 .5

3 .4

4 .2

3 .6

5 .4

5 .8

5 .8

7 .5

1 2 .0

5 .9

4 0 .0

. 1
-

1 .0
-

2 .6
-

3 .5
.1
.3
-

4 .3
.3
.3
.2

3 .7
.4
.7

5 .5
.8
.7
.9

6 .0
1 .5
1.0
1 .8

6 .0
3 .8
1 .0
5 .6

7. 7
2 .7
1 .0
3 .8

1 2 .3
4. 6
3 .0
5 .6

6 .1
4 .3
4 .7
4 .0

4 1.2
8 1 .6
8 8.0
7 7.4

-

.2
.3
.3
1.1
. 1

.7
3 .3
3 .8
3 .3
2 .6
2 .6
6 .5
. 1

1 .5
7 .7
8. 8
9 .4
6 .1
4 .2
6 .1
1 4 .9
2. 1

2 .2
9 .3
10.8
1 0.2
15.8
9 .1
12.1
10.9
1.4

7. 1
2 .0
9 .6
11.1
6 .5
1 3.2
1 3.6
1 5.2
10.9
4 .2

7 .1
4 .2
8 .6
2 .0
9 .6
6 .1
7 .9
1 2 .3
1 8.2
9 .5
1 .6

6 .2
9 .6
2 .0
1 0.8
9 .0
12. 3
10.7
12. 1
1 1.6
5 .8

9. 6
8 .2
1 .4
9 .2
6. 1
2 3.7
6 .5
3 .0
9. 8
5. 4

7. 1
6 .6
3 .4
7. 1
9 .0
1 .8
9 .4
6. 1
5. 1
4 .4

6 .9
10. 3
5 .4
ii. i
9 .8
5 .3
20. 1
6. 1
5. 1
11. 1

6 .6
8 .8
4. 1
9. 5
2 3 .3
2 .6
5. 8
6. 1
4 .7
3 3 .2

7 .1
1 1.8
3 .3
8. 1
2 .6
5 .3
2 .6
.6
6. 1
1 .8
6 .3

7 8.6
4 3.0
14.4
7 3.6
5 .4
2 .0
6. 1
5 .2
9. 1
8 .0
2 4 .2

-

. 1
.2

. 1
1.6
3 .0
3. 1

2. 6
4 .1

1.8
9. 1
2 .2
2 .3
1.5
.8
3 3 .3

5 .2
1 2.0
5 .6
4 .8
~

2 .0
9 .1
2 .2
2 .4

7 .0
9. 1
2 2 .5
5 .8
8 .1
.8
.8
•

6 .6
1 8.2
7 .8
2. 2
6 .6
1 1 .3
3 .6
-

.5
5 .3
18.2
7 .8
2 .2
4 .9
3 .2
9. 1
“

1 .6
13. 1
9. 1
2 .9
14. 1
17. 1
6 .5
*

5 .9
3 9 .2
9. 1
4. 9
38. 0
4 5. 2
6 1. 3
27. 3
-

11.2
5 .3
9 .1
5 .9
2 7 .2
.6
3 .2
14.5
*

8 0.7
11.8
9. 1
4 8 .0
5 .1

-

.2

1 .7

-

3 .0

-

2 .2

-

3 .8

-

4 .7

-

8 .1

-

6 .2
-

4 .9
1 .3

8 .0
6 .0

5 7.0
9 2 .7

. 3

2 .3

3 .7

-

2 .8

3 .7
1.1

8 .4
3 0 .5

7 .7
5 .3

2. 8
7 .1
11.1

4 .9
6 .0

6 .8
3 .6
11. 1

6 .8
6 .3
1 4 .3
2 .5
2 .4
2 2 .2

7 .1
1 0 .5

4 .0
1 .2

6. 6
2. 1
1 4.3
4 .0
2 5 .0
2 2 .2

50.0
4 4 .2
71.4
5 6 .2
16.7
11. 1

2 .0

-

-

-

67. 7
6 9 .2

2 6 .3
2 6 .2
3 3 .3

_
.

_
-

-

-

-

-

“

~

.3
.7

-

-

3 .6

-

.8
3 3 .3

-

3 .6
“

-

2 .2
11.9

-

~

-

1 .8
-

-

-

6 .8
1 9 .0
11. 1

-

-

-

9 .9

-

11. 1

-

4 3.6
-

2 See appendix for definitions o f hours and rates used in this bulletin.
NOTE: Dashes (—) indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Appendix: Scope and Method
of Survey

Data presented in this study are based on annual re­
ports filed with the Federal Communications Commis­
sion (FCC) by communication carriers, as required by
the amended Communications Act of 1934. All carri­
ers engaged in interstate or foreign communications
service by means of their own facilities or through con­
nection with the facilities of another carrier under di­
rect or indirect common control are subject to the full
jurisdiction of the Commission. Telephone carriers en­
gaged in interstate or foreign service only by connec­
tion with the facilities of another unaffiliated carrier are
not subject to the full jurisdiction of the Commission
and are not required to file annual reports of hours and
earnings of employees.
Tabulations for telephone carriers relate to those
having annual operating revenues over $1 million, and
which are subject to the full jurisdiction of the FCC.
Included are 25 Bell System companies and 38 compa­
nies not affiliated with the Bell System.
Tabulations for wire-telegraph and international tel­
egraph carriers are confined to companies with annual
revenues exceeding $50,000 which are engaged in in­
terstate or foreign commerce. Western Union Telegraph
Company is the only wire-telegraph company includ­
ed. Five companies engaged in nonvocal radio or ca­
ble communications are included in the international
telegraph tabulations.

Hours and rates

Average hourly rates presented in this bulletin were
computed by dividing total “scheduled weekly com­
pensation” by total “scheduled weekly hours.” Aver­
age scheduled weekly hours were obtained by dividing
the total scheduled weekly hours by the number of em­
ployees. The terms “scheduled weekly hours” and
“scheduled weekly compensation” for the three carri­
er groups covered by the study are defined, according
to the FCC’s Rules and Regulations, as follows:
Telephone carriers

51.12 (b). “Scheduled weekly hours” means the num­
ber of regular hours, excluding overtime hours, in the
duty tours which the employee is scheduled to work
during the week in which December 31 occurs, wheth­
er or not excused because of a holiday, vacation, leave
of absence, or other reason.
51.13 (b). “Scheduled weekly compensation” means
compensation to the employee at the rate of pay in ef­
fect on December 31 for the “scheduled weekly hours.”
It includes the basic weekly pay rate plus any regular­
ly scheduled supplementary compensation, such as dif­
ferentials for evening and night tours, equivalent value
of board and lodging for unlocated employees, equiv­
alent value of meals furnished dining service employ­
ees, and equivalent value of living quarters and main­
tenance furnished for managers of agency offices. It ex­
cludes pay for overtime work and pay in excess of
weekday rates for Sunday and holiday work.

Employees and occupational groups studied

Officials and managerial assistants are not included
in the tabulations. Also excluded are employees work­
ing outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia,
except telephone carrier employees in Puerto Rico and
the Virgin Islands. All other employees, both full-time
and part-time, are included. Part-time employees are
defined as those regularly assigned shorter hours than
a full-time schedule.
Occupational groups for which separate data are pre­
sented are defined in the FCC’s Rules and Regulations,
volume X, part 51, applying to telephone carriers, and
part 52, applying to telegraph companies. Copies of this
volume are on sale by the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.



Western Union Telegraph Company

5121 (b). “Scheduled weekly hours” are defined as
an employee’s regular daily tour of duty multiplied by
the number of days, or fraction of days, scheduled to
be worked during a week.
5122 (b). “Scheduled weekly compensation” is de­
fined as wages scheduled to be paid for scheduled week­
ly hours as defined in 52.21 (b). This should include
employee contribution for old-age benefits, unemploy­
ment insurance, and similar deductions, paid vacation
and holiday hours, the regularly scheduled weekly com­
pensation for employees temporarily on leave due to
disability or sickness, and the scheduled weekly com­
pensation of both full-and part-time employees.
11

The company reports that “scheduled weekly com­
pensation” excludes premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

Company, except that scheduled weekly compensation
should include regularly scheduled maintenance, trav­
el, or other allowances.
Distribution of workers by earnings classes

In the tables, workers are distributed according to
the percentage having stipulated hourly rates of pay.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

International telegraph carriers

International telegraph carriers are instructed to re­
port scheduled weekly hours and compensation for their
employees as defined for the Western Union Telegraph




12

Industry Wage Studies

The most recent bulletins providing occupational
wage data for industries included in the Bureau’s
program of industry wage surveys are listed below. Copies
are for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
or from any of its regional sales offices, and from regional

offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown on the
inside back cover. Copies that are out of stock are available
for reference purposes at leading public, college, or univer­
sity libraries, or at the Bureau’s Washington or regional
offices.

Manufacturing

Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1967
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work
Clothing Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1976. BLS Bulletin
2007
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered,
1974. BLS Bulletin 1930

Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 18391
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1976
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and Solid Fiber Boxes, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Grain Mill Products, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2026
Hosiery, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1987
Industrial Chemicals, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1978
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin
1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1978. BLS Bulletin 2022
Meat Products, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS
Bulletin 1906
Men’s and Boy’s Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and
Nightwear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boy’s Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1962
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin
1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1973
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1923
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills, 1977. BLS Bulletin
2008
Semiconductors and Related Devices, 1977. BLS
Bulletin 2021



Nonmanufacturing
i._ -

*

'*

.

Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking and Life Insurance, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1988
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1999
Communications, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1991
Computer and Data Processing Services, 1978. BLS Bulletin
2028
Contract Cleaning Services, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2009
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Department Stores, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2006
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees,
1968-69. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Metal Mining, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2017
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1976. BLS
Bulletin 1974
Oil and Gas Extraction, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2014
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1712
'Bulletin out o f stock.

☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1979

O - 281-412 (96)

Occupational Outlook
Handbook,
1978-79 Edition
The Occupational Outlook Handbook-published
every two years—is one of the most widely used
resources in the field of vocational guidance.
The 1978-79 edition, now available, covers
several hundred occupations and 35 major industries.
For each major job discussed, the reader can get
authoritative information:
• What the work is like.
• Job prospects to 1985.
. Personal qualifications, training, and
educational requirements.
• Working conditions.
• Earnings.
• Chances for advancement.
• Where to find additional information.

Fill out and mail coupon below to
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.

Please send___copies of Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition (Paper), No. 029-001-02059-7
at $8 a copy. Please send___copies of Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition (Cloth), No.
029-001-02067-8 at $11 a copy.
□ Remittance is enclosed.
□ Charge to GPO deposit account no. ______________________________

Name
Address

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
FederalCity, State, and Zip Code
Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street. NE
Atlanta. Ga 30309
Phone (404) 881-4418

Regions VII and VIII*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City. Mo 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region II
S uite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York. N Y 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Region V
9th Floor
Federal O ffice B uilding
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago, III 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions IX and X**
450 G olden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif 94102
Phone: (415)556-4678

Region III
3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa 19101
Phone. (215) 596-1154

Region VI
Second Floor
555 G riffin Square B uilding
Dallas. Tex 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Region I
1603 JFK Federal B uilding
G overnm ent Center
Boston. Mass 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761




* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
•’ Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco