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Industry Wage Survey:
Communications
October - December 1975
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1954

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Preface
This summary of data on employment and hourly rates of pay in the communications industry
in 1975 is based on annual reports filed with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
by telephone carriers, the Western Union Telegraph Co., and international telegraph carriers, as
required by the amended Communications Act of 1934. Under a cooperative arrangement with the
FCC, the Bureau of Labor Statistics tabulates and publishes the data annually.
The study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations. Harry B.
Williams of the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared the analysis in this bulletin.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies, as well as the addresses
of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without the permis­
sion of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite the name
and number of the publication.




mi

Contents
Page

Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Telephone carriers .............................................................................................................................................................. 1
Employment and wages in 1975 ................................................................................................................................ 1
Trends in wages and employment ......................................................................................................; .................. 2
Western Union Telegraph Co................................................................................................................................................ 4
International telegraph carriers........................................................................................................................................... 5
Chart:
Wage rates of communications workers except
officials and managerial assistants, 1947-75 .......................................................................................................... 2
Text tables:
1. Pay rates of non-Bell carriers relative to Bell carriers, 1975 ............................................................................... 2
2.
Relative pay levels for all telephone carriers by occupation and region, 1975 ...................................................2
3.
Annual increases in average hourly rates for telephone carriers, 1965-75 .......................................................... 3
4.
Telephone workers by major occupational category and sex, selected d ates.....................................................3
5.
Earnings for major occupational categories, telephone workers, 1947 and 1975,
and percent increases, 1947-75 ................................................................................................................... 4
6.
Regional pay relatives for telephone workers, selected periods......................................................................... 4
7.
Average hourly rates in major occupational categories, Western Union Telegraph Co.,
selected periods, and percent increases, October 1947 to October 1975 ...................................................5
8.
Occupational composition of work force, Western Union Telegraph Co.,
selected periods.......................................................................................................................................... 5
Reference tables:
Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly
rates, December 1975, for—
1. Telephone carriers ................................................................................................................................ 7
2.
Bell System telephone carriers............................................................................................................... 3
3.
Non-Bell telephone carriers....................................................................................................................9
Average hourly rates of employees in selected occupations by region,
December 1975, for—
4.
All and Bell System telephone carriers ...................................................................................................10
Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average
hourly rates, October 1975, for—
5.
Western Union Telegraph Company....................................................................................................... 12
6.
International telegraph carriers.............................................................................................................. 13
Appendix: Scope and method of survey............................................................................................................................ 14




IV

Communications, October-December 1975
employees in various departments or geographic areas.
The New York Telephone Co., for example, maintained
separate agreements for its plant, traffic, and commercial
departments in the New York City area and different
agreements for those groups in the rest of the State.
The occupations for which wage data are presented
represent the full spectrum of activities performed by
employees in the telephone industry. Average hourly
earnings in December 1975 ranged from $10.76 for profes­
sional and semiprofessional employees (other than drafters)
to $3.75 for telephone operators-in-training. Experienced
switchboard operators— most heavily populated occupa­
the
tion studied, with about 129,000 incumbents—
averaged
$4.90 an hour. Some other numerically important job
classifications and their hourly averages were: Nonsupervisory business office and sales employees, $6.31; nonsupervisory clerical employees, $5.50; supervisors of tele­
phone craftworkers, $9.30; central office repairers, $6.95;
and PBX and station installers, $6.75.
The Bell System companies accounted for 94 percent
of the 816,533 workers in the industry. The proportion
of Bell System workers ranged from seven-eighths in the
Great Lakes region to slightly over nine-tenths in the
Chesapeake, Pacific, and South Central regions, and to
virtually all in the Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England,
North Central, and Southeast regions.
Bell System companies, which often serve an entire
State or group of States, were typically much larger than
other carriers. Fourteen of the 25 Bell carriers, for example,
employed more than 25,000 workers whereas the largest
of the 36 non-Bell companies had only 5,100 employees,
and 22 reported fewer than 500 workers.4
Employees of Bell System carriers held a 27-percent
average wage advantage over those of non-Bell carriers—
$6.82 in contrast to $5.36. Similar pay relationships
were also found among various occupational groups studied.
For example, averages for non-Bell workers typically
ranged from 71 percent to 87 percent of those for Bell
employees. (See tables 2 and 3.) Differences between the
two worker groups narrowed slightly when weekly earn­
ings were compared, reflecting, for some occupational

Summary

Hourly wage rates for all communications workers
(except officials and managerial assistants) averaged $6.73
in late 1975—
11.4 percent above the level of a year earlier.
This was the third largest yearly gain recorded since the
Bureau of Labor Statistics annual surveys began in 1947.1
Telephone and telegraph carriers surveyed employed
833,838 workers in late 1975— 5-percent decline from
a
the total reported in 1974.2 (About seven-eighths of the
Nation’s 1 million workers in telephone and telegraph
communication were covered by the 1975 study).
Telephone carrier employees, 98 percent of all commu­
nication workers within the scope of the survey, averaged
$6.73 an hour in December 1975. Wages rates for the Bell
System carriers averaged $6.82 an hour— percent more
27
than non-Bell carriers ($5.36).3 Wage rates for the non­
messenger work force of five international telegraph carriers
averaged $7.95 an hour compared with $6.22 for similar
employees of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Telephone carriers
a n d w a g e s in 1 9 7 5 . Straight-time hourly
earnings of the 816,533 workers employed by the Nation’s
61 principal telephone carriers averaged $6.73 in December
1975 (table 1). Individual earnings of five-sixths of the
work force fell within a range of $2.50 to $8.50 an hour.
The middle 50 percent of those workers earned between
$5.20 and $7.48. Contributing to the dispersion of earnings
were the broad range of skills required by the industry,
differences in pay by carrier and locality, and pay rates
that vary within a given occupation by employees’ length
of service.
Wages and working conditions at carriers employing
more than nine-tenths of the workers surveyed were deter­
mined under collective bargaining agreements, usually
with the Communications Workers of America (CWA).
A number of carriers had several agreements covering

E m p lo y m e n t

1 See appendix for scope and method o f survey including de­
finitions o f employment covered and pay rates.
2See In d u s t r y Wage S u r v e y : C o m m u n ic a tio n s , O c t o b e r - D e c e m ­
b er 1 9 7 4 , Bulletin 1909 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1976).
3The study was limited to the 61 carriers that had annual
operating revenues exceeding $1 million and were engaged in
interstate or foreign communications services either through use
o f their own facilities or else through connections with another
carrier under direct or indirect common control. Officials and
managerial assistants o f these carriers, numbering approximately
23,300, were not included in the study.




4 See appendix for definition o f carriers included in this study.
In 1975, more than 1,600 independent telephone carriers,
employing an estimated 158,000 workers, operated in the United
States; o f these, 36, employing 49,060 workers, were within the
scope o f the survey.
For more information regarding the independent carriers, see
In d e p e n d e n t T e le p h o n e S ta tis tic s , Vol. 1, 1976 edition (Washington,
D.C., U.S. Independent Telephone Association).

1

T e x t ta b le 1.

T e x t tab le 2.

Pay rates o f non-Bell carriers relative to

R ela tiv e pay levels fo r all telep h on e carriers

Bell carriers, 1 9 7 5

by o ccu p ation and region, 1 9 7 5

( B e l l c ar r ie r s = 1 0 0 )

(Southeast = 1 00)

O c c u p a tio n a l category

A ll em ployees, exce pt o ffic ia ls and
m anagerial a s s is ta n ts ...........................
C lerical em ployees, no n su p e rviso ry . . .
E xperienced s w itc h b o a rd o p erators . . .
C entral o ffic e r e p a ir e r s ..............................
PBX and s ta tio n in s t a ll e r s .......................
Exchange r e p a ir e r s .....................................
Line w o r k e r s ..................................................

Average
h o u rly
rates

79
72
76
86
83
87
78

Average
w e e kly
rates

R egion

N ew England . .
M id d le A tla n tic
G reat Lakes . .
C hesapeake. . .
S o u th e a s t. . . .
N o rth C entrai .
S o u th C entral .
M o u n ta in . . . .
P a c ific .................

81
77
81
87
83
87
78

groups, the longer average workweeks reported for nonBell workers (text table 1).
Workers in the Middle Atlantic States, the largest region
in terms of employment, recorded the highest average—
$7.43 an hour. Other regional averages ranged between
$6 and $7 an hour in December 1975. The 40,142 em­
ployees of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.’s
Long Lines and General Departments were not allocable
to individual regions, but were included in the nationwide
total. Hourly averages for these workers were $8.54 in
December 1975.5
Regional differences in average wages varied slightly
by occupation. In at least 7 of the 9 regions studied, for




C lerical
em ployees
(n onsup erviso ry)

E xperienced
s w itc h b o a rd
operators

C entral
o ffic e
repairers

111
121
107
106
100
100
97
102
110

101
118
104
102
100
100
104
91
105

110
110
105
103
100
103
102
99
107

example, averages for three numerically important jobs
studied—
central office repairers, experienced switchboard
operators, and nonsupervisory clerical employees—
fell
within about a 10-percent spread (text table 2).
Trends in wages and employment. Wage levels for the
principal telephone carriers rose l l .4 percent in 1975—
the third largest annual gain ever reported for these workers.
Since the initial BLS survey of the communications industry
in 1947. wage rates have increased at an average annual
rate of 6.3 percent—
from $1.26 an hour to S6.73 (chart 1).
During the first half of the 1970's, however, yearly gains

2

T e xt table 4. Telephone workers b y major occupational
category and sex, selected dates

Text table 3. Annual increases in average hourly rates for
telephone carriers, 1965*75
(Percent)

Item
Year

All
telephone
carriers

1 9 6 5 -6 6 .............
1 9 6 6 -6 7 .............
1 9 6 7 -6 8 .............
1 9 6 8 -6 9 ..............
1 9 6 9 -7 0 .............
1 9 7 0 -7 1 .............
1 9 7 1 -7 2 .............
1 9 7 2 -7 3 .............
1 9 7 3 -7 4 ..............
1 9 7 4 -7 5 .............

3.3
3.5
7.1
4 .0
7.5
14.9
9 .4
9 .4
12.9
11 .4

Bell
system
carriers
3 .6
3.1
7.3
3.7
7.7
15.3
9 .5
9 .5
13.1
11.1

Non-Bell
carriers

T o ta l, all employees:
N u m b e r............................................... 5 5 2 ,7 0 0
100
Percent ...............................................
5
Professional and semiprofessional
17
C le r ic a l...........................................
46
Telephone op erato rs....................
Construction, installation, and
23
m aintenance..................................
9
AH o t h e r ........................................

2.9
6.1
5.7
7.2
8.1
10.3
8 .8
8.1
11.5
15.5

8 4 1 ,2 0 0
100
11
22
22

8 1 6 ,5 0 0
100
11
25
20

33
11

33
12

Men:
N u m b e r...............................................
Percent of t o t a l ..............................

1 7 9 ,7 0 0
33

4 0 0 ,5 0 0
48

3 9 9 ,0 0 0
49

Women:
N u m b e r...............................................
Percent of total ...............................

have substantially exceeded this long-term trend (text table
3), resulting in a doubling o f the average rate o f increase
over the past decade.
Changes in the occupational composition of the in­
dustry’s work force have been partly responsible for the
increase in average wage rates over the years. Since 1947,
for example, the proportion of higher paid professional
and semiprofessional employees has more than doubled,
while the proportion of lower paid telephone operators
has declined by more than one-half (text table 4). The
effect of such shifts can be observed by weighting 1975
wage averages by 1947 employment levels. This technique
results in an average of $5.96—
77cents below that recorded
by the current study.

3 7 3 ,0 0 0
67

4 4 0 ,7 0 0
52

4 1 7 ,6 0 0
51

NOTE: Excludes officials and managerial assistants. Employ­
ment estimates rounded to the nearest hundred.

they ranged from 8 percent for professional and semiprofessional employees to 16 percent for telephone opera­
tors and for building, supplies, and motor vehicle employees.
As indicated in text table 5, wage gains have varied signi­
ficantly among occupational groups since 1947.
Since 1951, Bell System wages have increased at an
average annual rate of 6.1 percent, in contrast to 6.7
percent for non-Bell carriers.7 As a result, the spread
between average wage rates for the two carrier groups
has decreased from 43 percent in 1951 to 27 percent in
1975.
Over the past two decades, regional relationships in
average wages for all carriers have changed little. Hourly
averages were typically highest in the Middle Atlantic
region and lowest in the Mountain, South Central, and
Southeast regions (text table 6).
Telephone carriers included in the Bureau survey em­
ployed 816,533 workers in December 1975, a decline of
5 percent, or 43,964 workers, since 1974. Of this total,
Bell System carriers cut back their work force 5 percent,
from 804,842 to 767,473 workers; non-Bell carriers re­
duced their staff nearly 12 percent, from 55,655 to 49,060
workers.

Part of the change in average wages resulted from
general wage increases negotiated under collective bar­
gaining agreements. For example, Bell System carrier
agreements negotiated in July 1974 provided for a de­
ferred wage increase in August 1975 (which did not apply
to minimum rates but which ranged up to 3.3 percent for
maximum rates). The cost-of-living escalator clause of the
same agreements also provided for an adjustment in August
1975: The formula called for a flat increase of 50 cents
a week plus 0.6 percent of the individual employee’s
rate, rounded to the nearest 50 cents, for each full 1percent increase in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics’ Con­
sumer Price Index during the preceding May-to-May period.
Any additional increase in the index less than the next
full percentage point was to be applied proportionately.5
6
Average wage rate increases between 1974 and 1975
were not uniform among the major occupational groups;

The 5-percent decline for all telephone carriers in 1975
followed a 1-percent drop during 1974. Employment change
between the 1974 and 1975 surveys varied among the oc­
cupational categories studied, ranging from declines of
18 percent for building, supplies, and motor vehicle em­
ployees and 20 percent for professional and semiprofes-

5 Also excluded from the regional tabulations but included in
the U.S. totals were carriers operating in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto
Rico, and the Virgin Islands. These carriers, none o f which were
affiliated with the Bell System, employed 5,952 workers averaging
$6.67 an hour.
6 For a more detailed explanation, see Wage Chronology -

7
Detailed occupational data for Bell System and non-Bell com­
panies as reported to the Federal Communications Commission
in earlier years are not comparable with those reported since 1951.
(For more information on employment and earnings trends in Bell
System carriers from 1945 to 1965, see “Employment and Wage
Trends in Bell System Companies”, Monthly Labor Review, March
1967, pp. 38-41.)

American Telephone and Telegraph Co.-Long Lines D epartm entand Communications Workers o f America, July 19 74-August 1977,
Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1812 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, May
1976).




October December December
1975
1947
1972

3

Text table 5. Earnings for major occupational categories,
telephone workers, 1947 and 1975, and percent increases,
1947-75
Average hourly earnings
Occupational category

Professional and semiprofessional employees .
Clerical employees.............
Telephone operators . . .
Construction, installation,
and maintenance
w orkers.............................
Building, supplies, and
motor vehicle
e m p lo y e e s ......................

October
1947

December
1975

$10.19
5.79
5.17

275
387
417

1.55

7.18

363

1.19

6.09

Hourly wage rates for Western Union’s 12,210 nonmes­
senger employees averaged $6.22 in October 1975. This

Percent
increase,
1947-75

$2.72
1.19
1.00

Western Union Telegraph Co.

412

was 9.3 percent above the $5.69 average reported in October
1974. The average for the 609 messengers employed by
the Western Union Telegraph Company in October 1975
was $3.90 an hour—
up 15 percent from a year earlier.
Motor messengers held a 45-percent average wage advantage
over those who either walk or use bicycles to perform
their duties—
$4.18 compared to $2.88.
Wage rates for Western Union bargaining unit employees
are determined by labor agreements with the United
Telegraph Workers (UTW) in all areas except the New
York City metropolitan area where agreements are with the
Communications Workers of America (CWA).
Under terms of 3-year agreements effective July 28,
1973, workers in both the CWA and UTW bargaining units
received across-the-board wage increases approximating 6
percent in July 1973 and July 1974 and 5 percent in July
1975. The agreements also provided for certain job classifi­
cation adjustments and for a cost-of-living adjustment
(COLA) of 1 cent per hour for each full 0.4-point increase,
based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price
index (1967=100), of June 1975 over that of January
1974. The maximum increase provided under each of the
COLA provisions— cents per hour—
25
was granted to these
workers on July 28, 1975.
Established rate ranges are provided for all classifications
covered by UTW and CWA agreements. Advancement
through the several progression steps is automatic after
specified periods of service for employees meeting require­
ments of the job. Differences between the starting and max­
imum rates for some occupations amounted to 75 cents an

sional employees to a 9-percent increase in clerical workers.
The overall employment decreases in recent years have
reversed the long-term trend in the industry. Prior to the
1974 and 1975 surveys, the only decreases in telephone
carrier employment occurred between 1957 and 1962,
when technological change resulted in a sharp decline
in the number of telephone operators.8
Over the years, growth in telephone carrier employment
has been associated with changes in the occupational make­
up of the industry and in the proportion of men employed.
Since 1971, men have made up nearly one-half of the work
force, compared with only one-third in 1947. Part of this
shift can be explained by the relative growth over the
years in professional and semiprofessional occupations and
in the construction, installation, and maintenance depart­
ments, all staffed mostly by men.
Significant changes have occurred in the proportion of
men and women in individual occupational classifications
in recent years. Between 1970 and 1975, for example,
the number of male nonsupervisory clerical workers rose
from 11,261 to 27,546 and the number of women in con­
struction, installation, and maintenance jobs increased
from 2,273 to 15,119. Most of the increase in both groups
occurred in Bell System carriers.9

h ou r or m ore.

In UTW contracts, rate ranges for most job classifications
varied by locality, according to the amount o f business in
each office. Nationwide contract rates, however, applied to
the technical classifications, walking and bicycle messengers,
and certain headquarters groups.
Among the major occupational groups studied, the
professional and semiprofessional staff recorded the highest
average—
$8.90 an hour. Construction, installation, and
maintenance employees (the most heavily populated group

Text table 6. Regional pay relatives for telephone workers,
selected periods
(National average = 100)
Region

New England......................
Middle A t la n t ic ................
Great L a k e s ......................
Chesapeake ......................
Southeast
......................
North C e n t r a l...................
South C e n t r a l...................
M ou ntain .............................
Pacific...................................




October December December December
1955
1965
1974
1975
97
105
105
99
87
94
95
88
105

102
107
102
97
87
93
89
95
105

102
111
99
96
90
92
91
93
102

8During the 1957-62 period, overall employment declined by
85,300 workers and the number o f telephone operators dropped
by 68,500.

103
110
99
97
91
92
91
91
101

9In January 1973, the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
(the Bell System) entered into a consent decree with the U.S.
Department o f Labor and the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission. Under terms o f the decree, AT&T agreed to provide
more job opportunities for women and minorities, particularly in
the higher paid craft positions. A portion o f the recent growth in
employment o f female construction, installation, and maintenance
workers may be attributable to this agreement.

4

studied) averaged $7.08 an hour. Other key employee
groups and their average hourly rates were: Telegraph office
superintendents and managers, $6.07; sales employees,
$6.06; clerical employees, $5.67; telegraph operators,
$4.78; and building service employees, $4.71.

managers, telegraph operators, and construction, installa­
tion, and maintenance employees), 9 percent for clerical
employees, 8 percent for building service employees, and 4
percent for sales personnel.
Total employment at Western Union dropped 4 percent
since the October 1974 survey when 13,344 workers
were employed. Declines ranging from nearly 4 percent to
17 percent have been reported over the past 7 years. The
October 1975 work force of 12,819 employees was only
about one-fourth as large as that recorded in the initial
survey in 1947,11 about one-third that in 1955, and
half as great as in 1965 (text table 8). The occupational
composition of the work force in 1975 remained basically
unchanged from 1974, but dramatic shifts have occurred
among major groups studied during the 28-year period
covered by these surveys.

Wage rates for the highest paid workers exceeded those
of the lowest paid by $4 an hour or more for most employ­
ee groups. In a few jobs, however, rates were within a nar­
row spread. For example, individual earnings fell between
$2.50 and $3 for four-fifths of the walking and bicycle
messengers, between $3.25 and $3.50 for 94 percent of the
operators in training, and between $6.50 and $7.50 for
seven-eighths of the subscribers’ equipment maintainers.
The 9-percent rise in average rates for nonmessenger
employees between October 1974 and October 1975
followed an increase of 8 percent during the October
1973-74 period. The hourly rate of $6.22 reported in
1975 was 492 percent above the $1.05 average recorded
by the first survey in 1947. Changes in the occupational
composition of the company’s work force accounted
for 73 cents of the $5.17 increase in the average rate
over the 28-year period.10 Since 1947, increases in average
rates for major occupational groups have ranged from
294 to 473 percent (text table 7).
Average pay rates between 1974 and 1975 rose 10 per­
cent for four major employee groups (professional and
semiprofessional, telegraph office superintendents and

International telegraph carriers

Wage rates for the five international telegraph carriers
included in the October 1975 survey averaged $7.95
an hour—
up 17 percent from the $6.78 rate recorded in
1974. This was the largest year-to-year gain ever reported

Text table 8.

Occupational composition of work force.

Western Union Telegraph Co., selected periods
Occupational category

Text table 7.

Average hourly rates in major occupational

categories, Western Union Telegraph Co., selected periods,
and percent increases, October 1947 to October 1975

Occupational category

1955

1965

Percent
increase,
October 19471975 October 1975

All employees, except
officials, managerial
assistants, and
messengers................... $1.05 $1.86 $2.89 $6.22
Professional and
semiprofessional . . . 2.26 3.17 4.94 8.90
Telegraph office super­
intendents and
managers...................
1.07 1.92 2.84 6.07
Sales employees . . . .
1.45 2.54 3.93 6.06
Clerical employees. . .
.99 1.73 2.74 5.67
Nonsupervisory . . .
.99 1.70 2.60 5.32
Telegraph operators . .
.94 1.66 2.45 4.78
Construction, installa­
tion, and maintenance
em p loyees................
1.26 2.19 3.21
7.08
Traffic testing
and regulating
em p loyees............
1.43 2.31 3.31 6.96
Subscribers' equip­
ment maintainers .
1.23 2.09 3.24 6.88
Messengers......................
.69 1.00 1.66 3.90
M o to r............................
.87 1.32 2.12 4.18
Walking and bicycle . .
.65
.90 1.30 2.88




1955

1965

1975

All employees, except officials
and managerial assistants:
Number1 ................................... 53,100 37,500 25,900 12,800
100
100
Percent ......................................
100
100
Percent of employees classified
as:
Professional and
semiprofessional...................
4
7
2
3
Telegraph office super­
intendents and managers . .
9
10
4
8
(2 )
1
1
Sales em ployees......................
5
Clerical employees...................
22
21
19
19
34
24
Telegraph operators................
31
23
Construction, installation,
and maintenance
14
e m p loyees............................
13
23
34
Building service employees . .
3
3
2
1
Messengers, m o to r...................
3
4
6
4
Messengers, walking and
b ic y c le ...................................
1
18
16
9

Average hourly rates,
October
1947

October
1947

492
294

467
318
473
437
409

1 Employment estimates rounded to the nearest hundred.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
462

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

387
1

459
465
380
343

o

Weighting occupational averages for 1975 by occupational em­
ployment in 1947 results in an average o f $5.49 rather than $6.22.
1 1Exclusive of officials
in selected years.

5

and managerial assistants reported

for such workers in a BLS survey. The 4,932 nonmes­
senger employees, who made up 97 percent of all workers
studied, averaged $8.10 an hour; messengers, the lowest
paying employee group studied, averaged $2.73. Hourly
rates for most occupations studied fell between $5 and
$8 (table 6).
Total employment of the five carriers rose 3 percent
to 5,095 workers in October 1975.12 The professional
and semiprofessional staff, which increased 17 percent,
accounted for much of the growth during the 12-month
period. Other employment increases noted among major
occupational categories were: Building service employees
(9 percent), construction, installation, maintenance, and
other technical workers (8 percent), and sales personnel
(5 percent). Declines were reported in such categories
as office or station superintendents and assistants (12

percent), messengers (6 percent), and clerical employees
and operators (3 percent).
Men made up nearly five-sixths of the work force in
October 1975 and were predominant in nearly all oc­
cupational groups. Three numerically important categories
employing virtually all men had average hourly rates as
follows: Engineers and engineering assistants, $10.44;
mechanics and maintenance technicians, $7.43; and radio
operating technicians, $7.13. Women were employed
primarily as teletype-multiplex operators and nonsupervisory clerical employees—
groups which averaged $6.43
and $5.83 an hour, respectively.
Included in the study are carriers engaged in nonvocal
international telegraph communication either by radio
or ocean cable. Although many of the occupational cate­
gories studied are common to both operations, some are
exclusive to one carrier group. For example, radio operators
and radiotelegraph riggers were reported only by radio
telegraph carriers, and cable operators were employed
only in ocean cable operations.

12 The study excluded 102 officials and assistants and approx­
imately 800 employees working outside the United States. The
study covered international telegraph carriers whose annual operat­
ing revenues are over $50,000.




6

Table 1. Telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates,2 December 1975
Number of employees
Occupational group
Total
ALL EMPLOYEES, E X CE PT O F FI CI AL S AND
M A NA GE RI AL A S S I S T A N T S .......................
PART T I M E .....................................
FULL T I M E .....................................
P R O F ES SI ON AL AND S E M I P R O F E S S I O N A L
E M P L O Y E E S ......................................
D R A F T E R S ......................................
O T H E R S ........................................
BUSI NE SS OFFICE AND SALES E M P L O Y E E S .......
S U P E R V I S O R S ..................................
NONS UP ER VI SO RY E M P L O Y E E S . . . . ..............
C L E R IC AL E M P L O Y E E S ............................
S U P E R V I S O R S ..................................
N O N S U P E R V I S O R Y ...............................
CO MM E R C I A L D E P A R T M E N T ...................
T R A F F I C D E P A R T M E N T .......................
PL AN T D E P A R T M E N T ..........................
AC CO UN TI NG D E P A R T M E N T ...................
ALL OTHER D E P A R T M E N T S ....................
TE LE PH ON E O P E R A T O R S ...........................
CHIEF O P E R A T O R S ..............................
SERVICE AS SI ST AN TS AND I N S T R U C T O R S ......
EXPE RI EN CE D S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S .......
OP ER AT OR S IN T R A I N I N G ......................
OTHER S W I T C H B O A R D E M P L O Y E E S ...............
CONS TR UC TI ON , IN ST ALLATION, AND
MA I N T E N A N C E E M P L O Y E E S .......................
SU PE RV IS OR S OF TE L E P H O N E C R A F T WORKERS..
CE NT RA L OFFICE C R A F T W O R K E R S ..............
T E ST BOARD AND RE PE AT ER W O R K E R S .......
CE N T R A L OF FI CE R E P A I R E R S ................
O T H E R S ......................................
I N S T A L L A T I O N AND EXCH AN GE REPAIR
CR A F T W O R K E R S ...............................
PBX AND STATION I N S T A L L E R S . . ...........
E X C H AN GE R E P A I R E R S .......................
O T H E R S ......................................
LINE, CABLE, AND C O N D U I T CR A F T WORKERS..
LINE W O R K E R S ...............................
CABL E S P L I C E R S ............................
CA B L E SPLICERS' H E L P E R S .................
O T H E R S ......................................
L A B O R E R S ......................................
BUILDING, SUPPLIES, AND MOTOR VEHICLE
E M P L O Y E E S ......................................
S U P E R V I S O R S ..................................
M E C H A N I C S .....................................
O T HE R BUILDING S E RV IC E E M P L O Y E E S .........
OTHER SUPP LI ES AND MOTOR VE HICLE
E M P L O Y E E S ...................................
AL L EMPLOYEES NOT ELSE WH ER E C L A S SI FI ED .. ..

Men

Women

Average
scheduled
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
rates

Percent of emplo'/0<: receiving—
«
$ 2.10 [
$2.30 $2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6 . 0 0 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $ 8 . 0 0
UNDER
AND
$3.50
$ 2 . 1 0 UNDER
AND
$2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $ 6 . 0 0 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $ 8 . 0 0 $8.50 OVER
2.30

816,533 398,961 417,572
15,275
1,826
13,449
801,216 397,192 404,024

38.4
24.1
38.6

$6.73
4.63
6.76

*
-

*
-

4
c
-

90,190
9,629
80,561
65,537
9,309
56,228
202,944
19,312
183,632
38,498
27,155
57,794
34,142
26,043
159,496
9,814
10,424
129,088
7,903
2,267

61,667
1,546
60,121
17,999
3,349
14,650
33,141
5,595
27,546
4,726
1,839
11,350
5, 562
4,069
8,965
757
286
5,678
2,170
74

28,523
8,083
20,440
47,538
5, 960
41,578
169,803
13,717
156,086
33,772
25,316
46,444
28,580
21,974
150,531
9, C57
10,138
123,410
5,733
2,193

38.1
38.5
38.0
38 .0
38.2
38.0
38.1
38.3
38.1
37.4
38.1
38.8
37.9
37 . 8
36.2
38.2
36.5
36.0
35.8
38.4

10.19
5.46
10.76
6.80
9.69
6.31
5.79
8.59
5.50
5.23
5.50
5.45
5.76
5.65
5.17
8.63
5.92
4.90
3.75
5.69

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*
-

*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*
♦
4
c
4
c
.1

4
c
4
c
4
c
4
c
4
c
4
>
4
c
4
c
4
c
-

269,856 254,737
34, 256
33,357
94,743 82 ,8 04
22, 111
18,902
68,951
60,479
3,681
3,423

15,119
899
11,939
3,209
8,472
258

39.9
39.9
39.9
39.7
39.9
39.9

7.18
9.30
7.00
7.24
6.95
6.60

*
*
*
-

4
c
_
4
c
4
c

92,970
44,778
28,261
19,931
45,573
17,472
20,773
918
6,410
33

1,640
1,138
275
227
633
207
256
82

6.83
6.75
7.01
6.76
6.70
6.49

88
8

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.6

27,283
2,976
2,775
9,480

21,621
2,633
2,723

6, 111

5,662
343
52
3,369

12,052
1,227

10,154
831

1,898
396

94,610
45,916
28,536
20,158
46,206
17,679
21,029
1,000

6,498
41

.2
-

.5
-

.9
-

1.4
-

2.0

4
c
4
<
.1
-

4
<
4
c
4
c
.2
-

.1
.8
.1
.6

.2
1.6
.1

.4
2.3

.1
.2

.2

.1
.6
4
c
.4
.4

.1

4
<

.2
.1

.3
4
<
.3

.8

4
c
.9

.2

1.1

.3
.3
.5
.5
*

.4
.9
.7
1.3
1.3
4
c

.6

.8

.5

.9
.9

12.4
.7

.1

_
_
-

4
c
_
4
c
.1

4
=
_
4
c
4
c
4
c

4
c
_
4
c
4
c
4
c
.1

4
c
4
c
-

-

4
c
4
t
4
c
.1
-

4
c
4
>
4
c
4
>
4
c
.1
4
c

4
c
4
c
4
*
4
c
.1

5.46
6.94
6.15

*
*
-

38.9
39.6
39.8
37.8

6.09
8.89
6.96
5.03

-

-

-

-

.1

.1

4c

.2

.4

39.3
38.0

6.00

-

-

8 .3 3

.3

6.86

4
c

.2

Covers 61 telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in interstate or foreign
communication service using their own facilities or through connection with those of another carrier under direct or indirect common control.
3See appendix for definition of hours and rates used in this bulletin.




-

.2

.1

.5
.1
.1
.2

.3
4
c
4
<
.3
.2

.2

.2

2.2
.6
1.2
1.1
2 .1
2.2

4
=
.1

1.5
20.9
.3
.1

1.3
.1
1.6

1.9
.1

2.7
4
c
3.0
3.9

2.1

2.9
1.1
1.8

1.7
3. 1
3.8
4
c
.1
3. 1
25.5
.3
.2

_

4
<

.1
.1
.1

.8

.5

4
«

.2

.1

.2
.2

-

4
c
-

.5
.3

.5
.4

.9
.4

.1

.9
4
c

.1
.1

4
c
-

1.8

2.9
2.4
3.9
5. 1
4
c

.2

-

1. 2

1. 1

1. 6

-

4
c

1. 1

1. 6

.1
1.3

.7
2.9

1. 0
2. 2

1.0

2.4
16.6
.7

5.8
40.0
1.7
18.0
.5
20.9
26.2

6.7
.3
4.0
.1

4.6
6.9
.2

7.6
9.6
4.0
6.9
6.5
11.4
11.6

.4
13.2
14.2
1.7

.2

.9
4
c
.7
.5

_

.2
.2
.1
1.0

.2

1.7

14.6
-

5.1
18.4
4
c

.3

.2

11.5
-

2.0

.1

.3
.5
.9

5.0
-

.6

.3
.3

1.4
.5
2.5

.1

.2

1.0

_

4
c
.4
-

.1

4
c

.7
1.3
4
c
1.4

-

.4
.6
1.0
.2

.6

4.0

6.1

.3
7.1
16.8
.4
18.6
18.8
18.5
23.5
13.3
14.3
27.4
.8

9.2
32.6
3.5
11.9
2.3
4
c
1.5
1.0

1.5
4.6

5.7
-

3.0

2.3
4.3

11.6
2.0
21.0

.5
24.3
14.2

1.0

2.6

28.8
31.4
37.0
27.4
28.6

15.4
16.7
20.7

20.0

23.2
1.5
32.4
25.1
1.3
48.7

8.8

21.7
14.4
7.7
1.9
23.0
7. 2
1.7
13.2

3.2
4
>

5.0
.3

2.6
2.1
2.6

6.8

3.8

1.3
.4

2.9
3.9
1.3

3.8
5.3

1.2
2.0

2.8

4.2

1.0

9.2
_

2.0

3.4

6.1

1.1

2.9
16.6
1.5
_

3.0
5.7
7.3
3.8
34.1
3.0
4.9

3.1
7.9
6.5
4.7
6.3
2.4
4.4
5.7
6.9
5.2
17.4
2. 3
7. 3

2.3
.3
2.4

7.3

2.3

8.6
.1
1.2

14.8
.9

11.8
1.2

15. 6

2.2

17.4

29.5

4.2
15.4

4.9
15. 1

5.4
3.3

9.6
3.0

13.3
4.6

22. 1

.1

.5
4.3
1.7

2. 0

.6

-

1.2

5.0

2.0

8.4
1.2

9.6
5.5
4.9
5.6
5.3
3.1
5.4
7.6
6.4
6.0

4.4
9.0
6.2
.6

10. 8

-

2.7
5.6
2. 3
7.2
1.6
8.2

13.5
_

5.4
_

2.4
_
_

16.7
_
_

3.0
2.7
3.1
2.3
4 .0

3.3
2.4
3.4
3.5

4.4
1.4
4.8
3.5
10.3
2.3

71 .1
3.2
79.3
22.5
73.5
14.0
9.2
50.3
4.9
3.3
5.2

2.1

4.9
7.3
4.7
2.7

4.6
8.9
4.1

2.2

2.3
8.7
1.9
3.5

7.9
2.5
5.6
3.5
8.9
8.4
2.9

.8

1.2

11 .9
3.6
.3

8.1
2.8

2.5
11.8

1.5
.6
1.1

2.1
12. 6
1 .0

.5
1.0

1.7
1.5

.5
1.7

2.6
1.1
12.8
2.6
.2

2.2
1.0

10. 7
2.4

2.0

8.7
8.4
4.0
46.6
6.4

.1

.8

.2

.1

5.0

4.2

1.9

2.0

2.2

6.2

5.9

23.3
1.3
23.5

11.4
6.7
16.2
19.7
15.6
6.9

2.5
9.6

10.9
78.1

25.0
17.6

34.1
3.4
38.0
43.4
36.3
38.0

8.7
6.3
3.3
2.4
85.4

28.4
26.4
27.9
33.7
28.6
26.8
26.4
9.2
43.4
-

39.6
38.9
44.0
35.1
-37.4
30.2
45.0
6.5
37.0
_

10.3
10.3
15.2
3.4
7.0
7.2
8.1

.4
.3
.7
.3
.5
.4
.3
-

8.5
1.9
7.6
2.7

9.3
3.2
17.6
3.9

9.4
5.9
41.6
2.3

15.0
7.2

13.2
7.7

8.5
5 .8

.6

5.8
2.3
6.5
12.7
7.6
6.4
5.2
13.8
6.6

20.1

*

1.1

2.8

1.8

3.3

4.1

2.8

1. 1

1.7

1.5

4.0
_

1.8

4.8
7.8
1.0

2.5
11.7
2.3
.3

5.5
5.5

2.1
8.4

12.2

_

.6

.3
.5
1.6

.9
.6
#5
.2

3.0
_
8.9
66.0

4.0
1 .1
1.9
39.2

NOTE: Asterisk indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,sums of individual items
may not equal 100.

Table 2. Bell System telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees In occupational groups by average hourly rates,* December 1975
Number of employee!
Occupational group
Total

Men

M I EMPLOYEES, EXCEPT OFFICIALS AND
MANAGE RI AL A S S I S T A N T S ................. .
767 ,47 3 3 72 ,116
PART T I M E ....................... ........... .
13,402
1,5 7 2
FULL T I N E ..................................... 7 5 3 , 9 6 3 3 7 0 , 5 3 7
PR OF ES S I O N A L AND SEMI PROFES SI ON AL
E M P L O Y E E S ............................ .. ...................
57,623
85,133
D R A F T E R S .....................................................................................
9,2 5 9
1 ,300
75,874
O T H E R S ....... .. ................................
56,323
62,434
BUSI NE SS OFFICE AND SALES E M P L O Y E E S .................
17,411
8 ,7 9 6
S U P E R V I S O R S .............. .. ................ .......................................
3,0 7 3
5 3,638
14,338
NONSUPERVISORY E M P L O Y E E S ..........................................
32,284
CIZRICAL E M P L OY EE S ............................................................... 1 9 3 , 5 4 9
18,787
5 ,3 7 6
S U P E R V I S O R S .............................................................................
26,908
N O N S U P E R V I S O R Y ................. .. ........................... 1 7 4 , 7 6 2
36,908
4 ,6 3 2
CO MM E R C I A L D E P A R T M E N T ........ .......................
1 ,7 8 6
T R A F F I C D E P A R T M E N T . ......................
26,139
5 5,025
1 1,188
PL AN T D E P A R T M E N T ..........................
5 ,4 8 9
A C C O UN TI NG D E P A R T M E N T ....................
32,811
23,879
ALL OTHER D E P A R T M E N T S ....................
3,8 1 3
8 ,6 8 5
TE LE PH ON E O P E R A T O R S ........................... 1 5 0 , 2 0 3
9 ,2 9 2
740
CHIEF O P E R A T O R S ........................... ........ ..
SE RV IC E AS SI ST AN TS AND I N S T R U C T O R S ..........
281
9 ,9 4 6
5 ,4 4 7
EX PE RI EN CE D SW I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S ............ 1 2 1 , 2 0 4
O P E R AT OR S IN T R A I N I N G ...................................
7 ,5 8 0
2 ,1 5 3
64
OTHER SW IT C H B O A R D E M P L O Y E E S ........................
2 ,1 8 1
CONS TR UC TI ON , IN ST ALLATION, AND
M A IN TE NA NC E E M P L O Y E E S ....................... 2 5 0 , 0 3 2 2 3 5 , 6 4 4
SU PERVISORS OP T E LE PH ON E C R A F T WORKERS..
31,943
3 1,089
7 7,1 77
CE NT RA L OFFICE CR A F T W O R K E R S ..............
88,664
TEST BOARD AND REPEATER W O R K E R S .......
21,574
18,449
65,176
5 6,874
C E NT RA L OF FI CE R E P A I R E R S ................
1,8 5 4
1,9 1 4
O T H E R S ............................................................
IN ST A L L A T I O N AND EX CHANGE RE PA IR
C R A F T W O R K E R S .................................................
87,042
85,571
PBX AND STATION I N S T A L L E R S ......................
40,818
41,927
E X CH AN GE R E P A I R E R S .....................................
27,548
27,371
17,567
17,382
O T H E R S ............................................................
42,383
4 1,807
LINE, CABLE, AND C O N D U I T CR A F T WORKERS..
15,909
15,710
LINE WO R K E R S .................................................
18,849
1 9,096
CABL E S P L I C E R S ............................
985
903
CA B L E SPLICERS* H E L P E R S .................
O T H E R S ....................................................................................
6 ,3 9 3
6 ,3 4 5
L A B O R E R S ....................................................................................
BUILDING, SUPPLIES, AND MOTOR VE HICLE
19,882
2 5,186
E M P L O Y E E S ............................................................
2 ,4 1 7
2,7 4 6
S U P E R V I S O R S ......................................................
2 ,4 6 5
2 ,4 4 2
M E C H A N I C S ..........................................................
OTHE R BUILDING S E RV IC E E M P L O Y E E S ..............
8 ,6 6 5
5 ,5 2 5
OTHER SUPPLIES AND MOTOR VE HI CL E
E M P L O Y E E S .......................................................................
11,310
9 ,4 9 8
93 6
587
ALL EMPLOYEES NOT EL SEWHERE C L AS SI FI ED .. ..

Women

Average
scheduled
weekly
houri

"
Average
hourly
rates

'
$2.10

2 .3 0

395,357
11,830
383,426

38.3
24.5
38.5

$ 6.82
4 .7 9
6 .8 4

27,510
7 ,9 5 9
19,551
45,023
5 ,723
39,300
161,265
13,411
147,854
32,276
24,353
4 3 , 837
27,322
20,066
141,518
8,552
9,6 6 5
115,757
5 ,4 2 7
2,117

3 8.0
38.4
37.9
37.9
38.1
37.9
38.0
38.3
38.0
37.5
37.9
38.8
37.5
3 7.5
36.1
38.1
36.4
35.9
35.6
38.3

10.37
5 .4 7
10.97
6 .9 0
9 .8 5
6.41
5 .8 8
8 .6 5
5 .5 8
5 .2 8
5 .5 6
5 .5 3
5 .8 4
5 .8 0
5 .2 4
8 .7 8
5 .9 6
4 .9 8
3 .6 9
5 .7 7

14,388
854
11,487
3,1 2 5
8 ,3 0 2
60

39.9
3 9.9
39.9
39.7
39.9
39.8

1,471
1 ,1 0 9
177
185
576
199
247
82
48
-

*
-

h •cent

employeesi receiving
$4.00 $ 4 ,5 0 $ 5.0 0

$5.50

$6.00

$6.50

$7.00

$7.50

$6.00

$6.50

$7.00

$7.50

$9.00 $ 8 .5 0

15.1
-

9.2

5.4

10.8

14.0

2 .3
1 6.8
.5
6 .0
6 .9
17.0
.1
18.8
18.6
18.8
2 4.2
13.3
1 4.1
28.7
.1
7 .9
34.5
3 .6
12.2

5 .8
4 1.1
1 .5
18.7

2 .9
11.3
1 .8
21.8
.1
2 5.3
14.8
2. 3
16. 1
17. 4
21.5

1 .8

$ 3.00

$3.25

$3.50

$3.75

$3.00 $3.25

$3.50

$3.75

$ 4.00

$4.50

$ 5.00

$5.50

.6
.
.

1 .2
•
-

1 .6

4 .5
.
-

1 1.7
•
-

.1

.2
1 .5

.3
2 .1
.1

.9
6 .4
.2
3 .0

$ 8 . CO

-

-

a

a
_
-

_
.
-

a

a

a
a
a

*

a
a

-

a
a
a

a

a
a

a
*

-

$8.50
AND
$2.5 0. $ 2.75

_
-

-

-

a
a
a
a
a
a

a

.3

-

_

-

-

a

a

-

-

a
a

. 1
.6

-

a

a

. 1
.1
.5
•
,5
.8
.2
.5
.4
.8
.8

-

a
-

a
a

-

a
a

-

-

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

a
a

-

a
a
a
a
a
a
. 1

.

.3
.4
1 .0

-

1 .7
2 .6
.8
1 .3
1.4
2 .5
3 .3

-

-

-

a
a
a
-

a
a

-

a
a
-

7 .2 7
9 .4 2
7 .0 7
7 .2 7
7 .0 0
7 .1 3

a
a

a
a

-

a

a

a

-

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
4 0.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
-

6 .9 0
6 .8 5
7 .0 4
6.8 0
6 .8 0
6 .6 3
6 .9 5
5.4 7
6 .9 8
-

a
a
-

5,304
329
23
3 ,1 4 0

38.9
39.6
39.9
37.7

6 .1 9
9 .0 7
7 .0 9
5 .1 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

a

a

a

.1

1 ,8 1 2
349

3 9.3
37.6

6 .0 6
9 .0 3

-

-

-

-

.1

.1

.5

-

a

-

-

-

.9

-

-

-

-

-

a

-

a

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1
-

-

-

a

a

-

.1

a
a

-

.1

a

.2
12.8
.1

a
a
a
a

-

a

-

a

-

-

a

-

a
a
a

.6
.7

1 .1
1 .9
.4
.7
.8
1 .6
1 .7

a
a
-

a

a

1.5
a

-

-

-

.7
a

a

-

1Covers 25 Bell System telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in interstate
or foreign communication service using their own facilities or through connection with those of another carrier under direct or indirect common
control.
may not equal 100.




............................
""
$2.30 $2.5 0 $ 2.7 5

AND
$ 2 . 1 0 UNDER
UNDER

a
a
.8
2 1.7
.1

a

a
a
2. 4
2 6.4
.2
.1

.

.8

1 .0
2.1

a

2 .3
3 .4
1 .1

2.0
1 ,9
3.1
4 .4

a
.3
4.3
18.4

a

.1

a
3 .4
6 .0

a
6 .7
9 .0
3 .4
6 .1
5 .3
10.1
10.9

a

1.4
12.5
14.8
.9
.7

2. 1

2.3

6 .2

4.8
.2
5.0

23.6
.3
23.3

36.2
2.1
39.8

1.6
6 .1
1.9

24.5
16.2

58.8

12.0
5. 3
17.3
20.2
16.5
13. 1

2 .5
9.2
3.0
3.4
2. 9
3.2

11.5
82.7
1.9
4.2
1 .1
2.7

42.7
42.4
45.2
39.7
40.6
33.6
49.3
6.2
37.5

11.2
11.3
15.7
3.9
7.7
8. 0
9.0
1.1
4. 1

.4
.3
.7
.4
.6
.4
.3

.3

10.0

2 .7
12.1
2. 6
. 3
2. 2
9.2

a

a

.2
.2

.3
.3
.5
.2
2 .0

.7
.9
.3
1 .0
1 .5
2 .3
.9
7 .0
.2

2 .3
3 .0
1 .2
2 .2
3 .5
5.0
2 .3
1 6.8
1 .5

3 .1
4 .2
1 .9
2 .2
5 .1
6 .6
3 .0
34.5
3 .0

a

a

.1

.4

.7

1 .7

8 .4

a

a

.2

.5

1.1

.1
3 .3

.1
1 .4

.5
1 .5

.7
1 .8

1 .2
.9

a

.3

a
a
a

-

1 .2

a

.5

-

-

-

-

-

2.4
7 .0

.8
3 .3
4 .4
2.1
2 .4
4. 3
5 .6
3 .3
17.6
2 .3
-

6 .3

5.5
5 .3
10.0
4 .9

7.6
3 .5
3 .4

2.5

-

16.2

8.7

.8

1 .5
5 .6

.4
18.2

15.1
.1
1.4
31.7

12.1
.3
3 .9
1 6.6

3 .9
1 6.3

4.7
1 .9

9 .1
2 .4

1 3.2
5 .1

2 2.5
5 .4

-

2 .3
8. 3
2 .6
6. 1

1.9

.7

a

5.8
5.5
3.2

*

3. 9

a

.8
2.3
9.1
2.0
3.8
1.2
12.3
3.4

4 .7

1.0

4.4

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5 .7

-

4 .3

2.8

5.7

.1
5.2

a

-

4 .9

8.6
.3
10.0

7.7

2 .1
2 .0
2 .2
.6

a
-

8.5
5.1
7,3

2.7
2.6
2. 3
3.5
2.1
4.7
8.8

.3
1 3.8

2 .7

-

73.7
3.2
82.3
23.3
76.4
14.6
9.6
51 .4
5.1
3.4
5.4
2.1
9 .0
9.1
4.2
49.8
6.7
.8

2 .6

5.6
1.8
7.5

.7
50.6

a

.1
-

4.2
1.5
4.5
3.5
10. 4
2. 4
2.2
12.8
1.1
.5
1.1
.6
1.7
2.4
1.0
11.1
2.5
,2

2.2

-

24.0

.4

1 .2
.9
1 .3
.6

-

,

2.9
2. 5
2.9
3.6
8. 1
2,8
2.6
11,9
1.6
.6
1.1
1.8

1.9

17.4

33.3
26.6

.4
.4
.4
.7

a
a
a

-

2.9
1.2
13.2
2.6
.2

-

-

-

2 .4

-

4.1
1,6

3.6
9.0
8.6
2.9

.1
.2
.1
.1

-

5.6

-

7.8
6.9
6.3
4.0
9.1
6.6

8.1
1.1

-

-

-

22.5
1 5.4

.1

.2
.2

-

5 .5

-

a
a

-

9.2

a
a
a

.2
.4
.7
.2
1 .7

-

a
2 1.7
2 7.3
.7
3 0.1
3 2.7
38.4
2 8.7
29.7
2 1.2
2 4.5

.

OVER

2.9
15.5
4 .5

20,2

29.3
27.4
26.8
37.4
30.2
2 9. C
27.6
9 .3
4 4.0

-

44.5
37.7

-

1 .6

-

_

9 .7
2 .3
18.3
4.1

5.1
46.9
2.5

5.1
7.1
13.7
1.1

13.9
5 .0

9 .0
6.9

5.8
6.6

-

_

1.8

-

a

t7
!s
,9

1.6
.7
.6
.2
3.0

-

9.2

70.6

3.1
1.2
1.7

46.4

2See appendix for definition of hours and rates used in this bulletin,
NOTE: Asterisk indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,sums of individual items

Table 3. Non-Bell telephone carriers:1 Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates,2 December 1975
Number of employees
Occupational group
Total
ALL EMPLOYEES, EXCEPT OFFICIALS AND
MANAGERIAL ASSISTANTS....................................................
PART TIM E..................................................................................
FULL T I M E..................................................................................
PROFESSIONAL AND SEMIPROFESSIONAL
EMPLOYEES....................................................................................
DRAFTERS.....................................................................................
OTHERS..........................................................................................
BUSINESS OFFICE AND SALES EMPLOYEES.................
SUPERVISORS.............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES.........................................
CLERICAL EMPLOYEES...............................................................
SUPERVISORS............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY....................................................................
COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT............................................
TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT....................................................
PLANT DEPARTMENT.........................................................
ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT............................................
ALL OTHER DEPARTMENTS............................................
TELEPHONE OPERATORS............................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS..................................................................
SERVICE ASSISTANTS AND INSTRUCTORS..............
EXPERIENCED SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS.................
OPERATORS IN TR A I N I N G ................................................
OTHER SWITCHBOARD EMPLOYEES.................................
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION, AND
MAINTENANCE EMPLOYEES....................................................
S U P E R V IS O R S OF
CEN TRAL O F F IC E

TELEPHONE CRAFT W ORKERS..
C R A F T W O R K E R S ............................

T E S T B O A R D A N D R E P E A T E R W O R K E R S ................
C E N T R A L O F F I C E R E P A I R E R S ....................................
O T H E R S ....................................................................................
IN S T A L L A T IO N
AND E X C H A N G E R E P A I R
CRAFT
W O R K E R S ................................................................
P B X AND S T A T IO N
I N S T A L L E R S ............................
E X C H A N G E R E P A I R E R S ................................................
O T H E R S ....................................................................................
L IN E ,
C A B L E , AND C O N D U IT C R A F T W O R K E R S..
L IN E
W O R K E R S ....................................................................
CABLE

S P L I C E R S ...........................................................

CABLE S P L IC E R S '
H E L P E R S ....................................
O T H E R S ..............................................................................
L A B O R E R S .....................................................................................
B U IL D IN G ,
SU P P LIES,
AND MOTOR V E H I C L E
E M P L O Y E E S ....................................................................................
S U P E R V I S O R S .......................................................................
M E C H A N I C S ............................................................................
OTHER B U IL D IN G
S E R V IC E
E M P L O Y E E S ..................
OTHER S U P P L I E S AND MOTOR V E H IC L E
E M P L O Y E E S ..........................................................................
A L L E M P L O Y E E S NOT E L S E W H E R E C L A S S I F I E D . . . .

Men

t*9, 060
1 , 873
47 253

26 845
254
26 , 655

5, 057
3 70
4 , 687
3, 103
513
2, 590
9 , 395
5 25
8 , 870
1 , 590
1 , 016
2 , 769
1 , 331
2 , 164
9 , 293
522
478
7,,884
323
86

4, 044
246
3 7 98
588
276
312
857
219
638
94
53
162
73
256
280
17
5
231
17
10

19,,8 2 4
2 ,,3 13
6 ,,079
537
3, 7 7 5
1 ,,767

Women

2 2 , 215
1 , 619
20 598

Average
scheduled
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
rates

39 7
21 3
40 1

$ 5 . 36
3 27
5 43

C13
124
889
2 515
237
2 278
8 538
306
8 232
1 , 4 96
963
2 ,,6 07
1 ,,2 58
1 ,,908
9,,013
505
473
7,,6 5 3
306
76

39 9
39 4
40 0
39 9
40 0
39 9
40 5
39 9
40 6
36 3
41..4
39..5
46 ,. 8
40 ..9
38 ,. 2
40,.0
40..0
38..0
39., 1
38,.7

7 41
5. 23
7 . 58
4 . 88
7 . 18
4 . 42
4. 16
6 . 42
4. 03
3. ,95
3.,93
4. , 00
4. ,15
4 . ,08
4 . 05
6 ., 1 0
5., 1 2
3.,80
5.,04
3.,6 9

19, ,093
2 ,f268
5,, 6 2 7
453
3,, 6 0 5
1 ,, 5 6 9

731
45
452
84
170
198

40.. 1
40.. 1
40,. 1
40,. 1
40.. 1
39..9

7,, 568
3,,989
988
2 ,,591
3,,8 2 3
1 ,,770
1 , 933
15
105
41

7,,3 9 9
3,, 9 6 0
890
2 ,, 5 4 9
,766
3,
1 ,, 7 6 2
1,, 9 2 4
15
65
33

169
29
98
42
57
8
9

2 ,, 09 7
230
310
815
74 2
291

$ 2 . 1 0 $2.30
UNDER AND
$ 2 . 1 0 UNDER
2.30
$2.50
*
-

*
-

.1
-

*
*
.1
.4
♦
*
.1
♦
.4
.2
-

*
♦
2.3

.1
.1
.4
*
.1
.2
.1
3.4
-

6 ., 1 2
7. ,6 5
6 .. 00
5.,79
6 .,03
6 ., 02

_
-

*
_
. 1
-

_
_
_
-

40
8

40 , 1
.
40,. 2
40.. 1
39,.9
40,. 1
39..9
40..4
40,.0
38..9
39 ,. 6

6 ., 01
5.,67
6 .,13
6 .,50
5..57
5., 20
5.,95
5., 02
4..6 4
6 .,15

-

-

_
-

1 ,, 7 3 9
216
281
586

358
14
29
229

39 ,. 2
40..0
38,.8
38,.6

4. , 88
6 .,7 8
5.,97
3.,75

-

-

.1
-

.9
-

.4

.6
2. 1

656
244

86
47

39,, 6
39..6

5.,06
6 .,17

1

-

-

*

-

1.0

Covers 36 non-Bell telephone carriers which have annual operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in interstate
or foreign communication service using their own facilities or through connection with those of another carrier under direct or indirect common
control.




$ 2 ..7 5 $ 3 . 0 0

$ 3 . .25

? 3 . .50 $3 . .75

1 ..7

3., 1

3., 8

4.,6

1 .. 3

.1
,8
*
4,.0

.4
2 .. 4
.2
5,. 5

,8
3],8
,6
6 ..3

4.. 8
5.. 4
.4
5,.7
5.. 0
7,. 2
5..9
4 ,. 5
6 .. 1
7.. 6

6 ,. 6
7,.0
.8
7..3
8 ..3
3..9
8 .. 2
7..7
6 .. 8
9,. 1

7..5
8 ..0
1 .. 1
8 ..4
9..6
6 ..4
9..6
7..5
7..6
1 0 .. 2

8 ..7
.6
24.. 4

.2
1 0 ,. 5
.9
M , .4

1 ..9
1 1 ..7
1 ..9
5,.8

.5
7..6
.6
9.. 0
9..7
1 ..9
1 0 .. 2
1 0 ..5
9,,4
1 1 .. 8
8 ..3
9., 3
1 2 .,0
.2
2 .. 3
13.. 8
3,.4
3.. 5

.2

.4

.8

.3

1 ,. 5
3..3
.2
3, , 5
3,.6
1 2 .1
1 ,. 9
1 ,. 3
2 ..7
4,. 8
.2
5,. 3
4,.3
1 2 ,. 8

*

1 .. 8
1 ..3
4.. 2
2 .,7

$7, . 00 $7 . 5 0

$ 8 ,. 00 $8 . 50
2, 0
.

5 >-

9,.8
6 ,. 5
1 0 ,. 1
2 ,. 9
1 C..9
1 ,.3
1 ,3
.
6.9
1 ..0
.5
1 ..3
1 ..5
.8
.6
2 ..6
8 ..4
3.,3
2 ., 1
4.,3

10 .7
1 1 ,. 1
1 .6
,3
1 1 . 4 1 1 ,. 9
3 .2
3,. 0
10 . 9
8 ,. 8
1 .7
1 .,8
1 .1
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9. _
12 .4
.5
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1 ,8
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.
.3 ; *
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1 ,. 3
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5,. 0
6 ..3
9,. 0
2 .. 3
*
.6
>0

8 ,. 9
.5
9,. 5
2 ,. 6
S ,. 2
1 ,. 5
.4
5,. 5
.1

27 .9
4.1
29 .7
5 .6
23 ,
2 ,. 2
.7
1 0 ..7
,1
,1
,2
,1

2 0 ..0
7.. 2
17..9
30.. 4
13. .0
24 , .4

19., 2
14., 2
27.. 1
14,.5
32 ,. 7
19., 1

7,6
.
2 0 ,. 7
1 1 ,. 2
.2
10 ,. 7
15..5

2 ., 9
25., 0
,1

1 ,, 9
15. , 7
.1

3 ,, 1
1 4 ., 3
.1

,1
2

.1
.1

,1
,2

2 2 ..4
16., 2
2 ..4
39..5
25. ,7
18.,5
33.,9

18.,7
15. ,9
56.,6
8 .,4
1 1 .,0
7.,2
14.,8

3 .,6
2 ,, 1
9.. 5
3..7
1 ..8
,1
2 ., 9
26.,7
7..6

6 ,. 7

9.. 9

10 . 3

10 ,0
.

.9

2 ,. 2
7..8
1 ..7
1 1 ..5
1 ..0
13,.6
15..8
1 ..3
16,.6
13..8
2 1 ,. 5
2 0 ,. 1
14,. 8
13,. 1
15..9
.4
7,.9
17..5
18,. 0

3,.2
15.. 1
2 ..2
24 . ,4
1 ..2
29 . ,0
2 4 . ,5
5.,7
25 . ,6
2 2 .,6
2 0 .,0
24 .,4
36, . 2
25..4
2 1 ..7
6 ..5
14,.9
23 ..9
,6
23,.3

4,.0
1 2 .. 2
3,.4
8 ,. 7
4,.9
9,. 5
13,. 8
1 1 ,. 0
14,. 0
2 2 ,. 0
1 0 ,. 8
9..5
1 2 ,. 4
16..4
6 ,. 2
1 2 ..5
36, .0
4.. 2

6 .. 3
19.. 2
5., 3
4., 1
5..7
3.. 8
2 .. 2
1 1 ,.3
1 ..6
1 .. 1
1 ..8
.5
1 ..7
3..4
2 .. 2
1 5., 9
2 .. 5
*
34 . , 4

8,2
.
8 ,. 9
8 ,. 2
3,.9
15,.4
1 .6
2 .2
1 0 ,. 5
1 .7
.2
.9
3 ,3
.
1 ,.4
1 ,.4
1 .. 5
1 1 ,. 5
6 .. 3
k
13..0

3..5

5,. 6
1 0 ,. 5
5,. 2
5.. 3
9 ,. 2
4,. 6
3,.9
9,.9
3,. 5
2 ,. 0
2 ,. 0
2 ,. 9
3,. 2
6 ,. 4
3.. 6
2 1 ,.8
13.. 2
1 .. 4
14. , 2
1 ., 2

.8

1 ,. 7

.8
2 ,. 6
.5
.8

.6
.9
.6
.6

1 ,. 2
1 .3
.8
2.. 0

4,.6
.3
4..5
6 ,. 1
2 .,8
7.,6

7..8
.4
5 ].7
4,.3
4. , 3
8 .,9

9 . ,8
.1
8 .9
'.
7., 6
9..7
7 . ,4

19., 1
2 ., 1
2 1 ., 5
32 . , 0
24 ., 1
1 2 .,7

.6
.8
,9

1 ..8
1 .,5
5.. 6
.9
3..3
5., 1
.8
2 0 !.0
18.. 1
2 ..4

4..3
5.,5
4. 1
2 .,4
8 ., 1
1 2 .,8
2 .,8
26 . ,7
2 2 ., 9

9.,8
13. ,2
2 .,9
7.,1
1 2 .,0
16 . ,3
8 .,7
6 .,7
1 .,0

1 2 ., 4
16 . 9
3. ,8
8 .,6
1 2 .. 1
13., 4
1 1 .,5
6 .,7

2 1 .,5
26., 3
1 1 .,7
17., 9
2 0 ., 7
18 . , 4
23. 8
6. 7
3. 8
7. 3

8 5 . ,4

6.. 2

.2
.3
.4
k
1 .. 1
2 .. 0
.2

1 ..7
2 ., 1
,2

.8
.9
1 .. 2
,4
1 ., 8
3., 1
,3

2 2 .,9

9., 5

4.9

4 .9

Q

_c

.2
.2
2 ,. 9

6 .,7

3. 8

,1

1 1 .. 0
*

.. 8

1 ,.0

,7
6 .. 5

4 ,, 3
11 . 3
11 .
,4

,

3 ,0
1 2 ,, 0

3

5.. 0

7..5

9., 3

2 ..9
13.,9

3..9
17., 1

9..6
1 ,. 7
3,.5
14,.8

1 0 .,7
1 .,3
7.,1
8 .,8

1 1 .,3
1 0 .,4
9 . ,0
6 .,9

8. 4
1 1 ., 3
6 ., 5
1.8

8.
5.
12.
2.

8
7
6
1

7., 1
6 .,5
23 ., 2
1 ,2

2 .. 0
16 . 1

2 . r,
15.,2

.

4.,7
13.,9
12. 3
1.3

,1

4

.7
l i .0

4.,7
7. ,2

6 .. 1
3..4

8 ,. 8
5..5

17.,3
7 . ,6

17 . 4
5.,2

15. ,5
2 .7

1 5 . ,5
3 . ,4

7.,0
15. ,8

2 .,4
16.,2

.4
2 .1

5
1 7

,

.

,5
8 ., 0

5, ,8

2 .,9 ' 3.. 2
13., 6 1 0 ..9
3. 1

OVE 3

2 ,. 8

8 ,. 5

.3
.3

5.,7

$8 . 50
AND
$5, . 00 $5, . 5 0 $ 6 . 0 0 $ 6 . 5 0

13., 0

*
.1

(5
l ! !o
.1
6 ,. 7

$6 . 5C $7 . 00 17. ,50 $8 . 0 ^

8 ,. 1

2 ..9

-

$4. . 00 $4 . ,50

$6 . 0 0

5..5

.3
.4
.7

.1

-

.3

Percent of employees receiving$ 2 ..5 0 $ 2 . 7 5 $ 3 , . 00 $3 . .25 $3 . .5 0 $3. .7 5 $4. , 00 $4, . 5 0 $5 . 00 $5, . 5 0

,

.

8. 9

.

.

2 See appendix for definition of hours and rates used in this bulletin.
NOTE: Asterisk indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,sums of individual items
may not equal 100.

Table 4. AH and Bell System telephone carriers:1 Average hourly rates2 of employees in selected occupations by region, December 1975
United States
Occupational group

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

New England
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Middle Atlantic
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Great Lakes
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Southeast

Chesapeake
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Number
of
workers

North Central

Average
hourly
rates

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

South Central
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Mountain
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Pacific
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

All carriers
ALL EMPLOYEES, EXCEPT OFFIC IALS AND
MANAGERIAL ASSISTANTS....................................................
PART TIME..................................................................................
EDLL TIME..................................................................................
PROFESSIONAL AND SEMIPROFESSIONAL
EMPLOYEES.....................................................................................
DRAFTERS.....................................................................................
OTHERS..........................................................................................
BUSINESS OFFICE AND SALES EMPLOYEES.................
SUPERVISORS.............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES..........................................
CLERICAL EMPLOYEES...............................................................
SUPERVISORS.............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY....................................................................
COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT............................................
TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT....................................................
PLANT DEPARTMENT.........................................................
ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT............................................
ALL OTHER DEPARTMENTS............................................
TELEPHONE OPERATORS............................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS.................................................................
SERVICE ASSISTANTS AND INSTRUCTORS..............
EXPERIENCED SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS.................
OPERATORS I N TRAINING.................................................
OTHER SWITCHBOARD EMPLOYEES.................................
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION, AND
MAINTENANCE EMPLOYEES....................................................
SUPERVISORS OF TELEPHONE CRAFT WORKERS..
CENTRAL OFFICE CRAFT WORKERS...............................
TEST BOARD AND REPEATER WORKERS.................
CENTRAL OFFICE REPAIRERS....................................
OTHERS.....................................................................................
INSTALLATION AND EXCHANGE REPAIR
CRAFT WORKERS.....................................................................
PBX AND STATION INSTALLERS..............................
EXCHANGE REPAIRERS....................................................
OTHERS....................................................................................
LI NE , CABLE, AND CONDUIT CRAFT WORKERS..
LINE WORKERS....................................................................
CABLE SPL ICE RS ................................................. ..
CABLE SPLICERS* HELPERS.......................................
OTHERS....................................................................................
LABORERS......................................................... ... .......................
BUILDING, SUP PL IE S, AND MOTOR VEHICLE
EMPLOYEES................................... . ............................................
SUPERVISORS............................................................................
MECHANICS.................................................................................
OTHER BUILDING SERVICE EMPLOYEES....................
OTHER SUPPLIES AND MOTOR VEHICLE
EMPLOYEES...............................................................................
ALL EMPLOYEES NOT ELSEWHERE C L A S S I F I E D . . . .

$6.1 2
3.92
6.18

116,646 $6.81
2, 081
5.06
114,569
6.83

9.0 5
5.00
9.60
6 . 14
8.95
5.71
5.32
7.90
5.03
4.71
5.23
5.05
5.23
5.19
4.94
8.44
5.53
4.71
3.66
5.64

6,897
9 74
5,923
7,935
1,078
6,857
19,064
1,694
17,370
4,269
3,400
5,344
2,646
1,711
20,125
1,418
913
15,683
1,835
276

9.21
4.78
9.94
5.85
8.81
5.38
5.15
7.6 5
4.91
4.76
4.39
4.97
4.94
5.07
5.08
8.09
5.52
4.90
3.73
5 . 37

4,448
380
4,068
3,444
503
2,941
10,021
908
9,113
2,053
1,644
2,729
1,559
1,128
9,273
588
457
7,418
673
137

9.04
4.88
9.43
6.51
9.42
6.01
5.40
8.12
5.1 3
4.88
4.3 5
5.31
5.2 1
5.26
4. 52
7.75
5.18
4 . 30
3. 20
4.77

13,304
9.83
1,964
5.43
1 1,340 10.61
7.26
9,834
1,512 10.12
6.74
8,322
30,551
5.89
2,796
8.93
27,755
5. 58
5.41
6,287
5.71
4,191
8,562
5.53
4,963
5.71
5.70
3,752
22,599
5.20
1,158
9. 40
1,417
6.08
4.95
18,276
1,427
4.03
321
5.42

8,274
1,083
2,390
45 2
1,920
18

6.96
8.86
6.82
6.98
6.79
5.89

29,661
3,414
9,587
1,685
7,448
4 54

6.70
8.72
6.67
6.93
6.69
5. 41

11,774
1,559
3,698
584
2,940
174

6.78
8.71
6.54
6.80
6.53
5.88

36,743
4,866
13,984
3,749
9,883
352

7.32
9.40
7.07
7.19
7.05
6.47

3,070
1,133
489
1,448
1,731
557
817
1
356
-

6.67
6.74
6.81
6.57
6.48
6.06
6.64
6.55
6.79
-

11,222
6,054
2,978
2,190
5,438
2,425
2,370
228
' 41 5
-

6.48
6.33
6.89
6.34
5.92
5.77
6.06
4.76
6.56
-

4,515
2,066
1,106
1,343
2,001
701
8 93
12
39 5
1

6.50
6.38
6.69
6.51
6.35
5.95
6. 53
6.62
6.63
3. 92

12,470
6,658
4,290
1,522
5,423
2,114
2,556
9
744
-

6.95
6.95
7.07
6.67
6.95
6.76
6. 99
5.87
7. 34
-

908
59
74
437

5.77
8.35
6.83
4.83

1,409
91
21 7
321

5.29
7.94
6.88
4.19

1,382
155
104
38 0

5.45
8.02
6.01
4.49

3,353
404
499
650

6.46
9.22

338

6.17

78 0
63

4.96
7.78

743
134

5.2 8
7.1 8

1,800
262

6.10
5.99

9.29
5.00
9.89
6.19
8.93
5.72
5.31
7.65
5.05
4.88
5.06
4.97
5.31
5.28
4.88
7.76
5.40
4.70
3.36
5.68

2,802
332
2,470
2,477
323
2,154
7,365
742
6,623
1,867
811
1,804
1 ,293
848
6,179
394
398
4,775
533
79

41,564
5,087
12,537
2,609
9,823
105

6.71
8.56
6.64 ’
6.87
6.58
6.13

6.68
6.47
7.07
6.72
6.60
6.27
6.80
5.75
7.09
-

15,517
7,191
5,355
2,971
8,423
2,800
3,244
232
2,147
-

6.31
6.21
6.47
6.28
6.42
6.06
6.63
5.39
6.69

1,627
24 6
134
48 6

5.84
8.11
6.69
4 . 48

2,193
2 18
525

5.69
7.97
5.34
4.39

761
46

5.79
9.90

1 ,3 9 5
16 4

5.83
8.24

$6.91
4.50
6.96

143,667 $7 .4 3
4,165
5.08
139,507
7.48

136,878 $ 6 .6 4
2,282
4.3 0
134,659
6.67

46,197 $ 6 .5 2
60 7
4. 20
45,498
6.49

9 0,190 10.19
9,629
5.46
80,561 10.76
65,537
6.80
9,309
9.69
56,228
6.31
5.79
202,944
8.59
19,312
5.50
183,632
5.23
38,498
27,155
5.50
57,794
5.45
5.76
34,142
26,043
5.65
5.17
159,496
9,814
8.63
10,424
5.92
129,088
4.90
7,9 0 3
3.75
5.69
2,267

5 ,8 8 9 10.38
599
5.34
5 ,290 10.95
4,001
7.14
599 1 0 . 1 4
6.60
3,402
5.89
13,759
1,200
8.49
12,559
5.63
2,846
5.39
1,629
5.52
5.61
3,696
2,875
6.01
5.55
1,513
10,713
5.13
6 93
9.03
652
5.92
9,133
4.76
3.34
76
159
5.65

14,805 11.54
1,520
6.21
13,285 12.15
7.67
12,018
1 ,6 0 7 10.71
10,411
7 . 20
6.46
36,520
4,227
9.26
32,293
6.09
6,454
5.82
4,629
6.24
10,178
5.84
7,244
6.37
6.56
3,788
25,255
5.88
1,440
9.89
6.50
2,608
5.54
20,318
512
3.81
3 77
6.26

15,280
9.75
1,539
5.61
13,741 1 0 .2 2
11,265
6.44
1,440
9.25
9,825
6.02
32,919
5.69
8. 50
2,880
30,039
5.42
5,803
5.14
4,284
5.37
5.51
9,638
5.65
5,795
4,519
5.32
5.16
24,972
1,436
8.58
2,177
5.78
4.87
20,232
3.84
7 39
388
5.7 5

5,313
9.50
654
5. 40
4,659 10.07
3,245
6. 59
4 82
8. 82
2,763
6.19
12,023
5.58
8.39
885
11,138
5.36
2,495
5.05
1,688
5.65
3,596
5.11
1,885
5.82
1,474
5.60
8,516
5.09
50 0
8.58
444
5.98
4.80
7,211
3.84
192
169
5.82

10 , 6 4 9
1 ,332
9,317
9 ,404
1 ,378
8,026
27,500
2,6 7 8
24,822
5,436
3,690
9,166
3,572
2,958
27,797
1,957
1,104
22,866
1,556
314

269,856
34,256
94,743
22,111
68,951
3,681

7.18
9.30
7.00
7.24
6.95
6.60

17,008
2,732
6,754
1,528
3,955
1,271

7.65
9.70
7.29
7.41
7.26
7.23

49,124
7.69
6 ,1 1 7 10.16
7.37
15,882
3,314
7.78
12,551
7.26
17 7 . 5 1

45,475
5,590
14,117
2,750
10,819
548

7.17
9.2 9
6.94
7 . 18
6. 94
5.77

15,427
1,960
4,749
809
3,924
16

7.01
8.87
6.88
7.40
6.78
4.97

94,610
45,916
28,536
20,158
46,206
17,679
21 , 0 2 9
1 ,000
6,498
41

6.83
6.75
7.01
6.76
6.70
6.49
6.86
5.46
6.94
6.15

5,107
1,935
1,537
1,635
2,415
1,166
1,036
13
200
-

7.20
7.14
7.26
7.20
7.33
7.22
7.37
6.79
7.73
-

18,611
8,921
6,000
3,690
8,514
3,278
4,425
358
453
-

7.34
7.33
7.46
7.20
7.2 5
7.21
7.37
5.70
7.61

17,095
8,192
5,045
3,858
8,633
3,391
3,984
69
1,189
40

6.89
6.88
7.0 7
6.66
6.72
6.47
6.8 7
6.16
6.99
6.19

5,965
3,280
1,626
1,059
2,753
1,048
1,422
62
221
-

27,283
2,976
2,7 7 5
9,480

6.09
8.89
6.96
5.03

2,755
282
171
1,171

6.18
8.97
6.68
5.42

5,813
657
649
2,344

6.41
9.71
7.34
5.27

6,705
7 65
625
2,688

6.02
8.73
6.81
4.87

12,052
1,227

6.00
8.33

1,131

6.16
9.75

2,163
6.31
132 1 0 . 0 9

2,627
262

6.17
9.65

20

40,476
1,618
38,858

$6.21
4.72
6.26

54,145
1,659
52,462

-

8 5 ,154 $6.10
3.88
680
84,474
6. 1 1

28,005
798
27,207

816,533 $ 6.73
4.63
15,275
801,216
6.76

119,271 $6.15
9 58
4.41
6.16
118,313

55

-

~
"

See footnotes at end of table.




6 .8 6

5.41

Table 4. All and Bell System telephone carriers:1 Average hourly rates2 of employees in selected occupations by region, December 1975 — Continued
United States
Occupational group

Number

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

New England
Number

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Great Lakes

Middle Atlantic
Number

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Number

of
workers

Southeast

Chesapeake

Average
hourly
rates

Number

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Num ber

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

North Central
N um ber

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

South Central
Num ber

of
workers

Average
hourly
rates

Mountain
Number

of
workers

Pacific

Average
hourly
rates

N um be r

of
workers

Average
h ourly
rates

Bell System carriers

ALL EMPLOYEES, EXCEPT OF FICIALS AND
MANAGERIAL ASSISTANTS....................................................
PART TIME..................................................................................
FOIL TIME..................................................................................
PROFESSIONAL AND SEMIPROFESSIONAL
EMPLOYEES.....................................................................................
DRAFTERS.....................................................................................
OTHERS..........................................................................................
BUSINESS OFFICE AND SALES EMPLOYEES.................
SUPERVISORS.............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES.........................................
CLERICAL EMPLOYEES...............................................................
SUPERVISORS.............................................................................
NONSUPERVISORY.................................... ................................
COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT............................................
TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT....................................................
PLANT DEPARTMENT.........................................................
ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT............................................
ALL OTHER DEPARTMENTS............................................
TELEPHONE OPERATORS............................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS..................................................................
SERVICE ASSISTANTS AND INSTRUCTORS..............
EXPERIENCED SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS.................
OPERATORS IN TRAINING.................................................
OTHER SWITCHBOARD EMPLOYEES.................................
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION, AND
MAINTENANCE EMPLOYEES....................................................
SUPERVISORS OF TELEPHONE CRAFT WORKERS..
CENTRAL OFFICE CRAFT WORKERS..............................
TEST BOARD AND REPEATER WORKERS.................
CENTRAL OFFICE REPAIRERS....................................
OTHERS.....................................................................................
INSTALLATION AND EXCHANGE REPAIR
CRAFT WORKERS....................................................................
PBX AND STATION INSTALLERS........... .. ................
EXCHANGE REPAIRERS....................................................
OTHERS....................................................................................
LI NE, CABLE, AND CONDUIT CRAFT WORKERS..
LINE WORKERS....................................................................
CABLE S P L IC ER S...............................................................
CABLE SPL IC ER S' HELPERS......................................
OTHERS....................................................................................
LABORERS....................................................................................
BUILDING, SU PPL IE S, AND MOTOR VEHICLE
EMPLOYEES.....................................................................................
SUPERVISORS............................................................................
MECHANICS..................................................................................
OTHER BUILDING SERVICE EMPLOYEES....................
OTHER SUPPLIES AND MOTOR VEHICLE
EMPLOYEES...............................................................................
ALL EMPLOYEES NOT ELSEWHERE C L A S S I F I E D . . . .

767,473 $6.82
13,402
4.79
753,963
6.84

54,097 $6.91
1,658
4.51
6.96
52,418

142,653
4,065
138,593

$7.44
5.12
7.49

85,133 10.37
5.47
9,259
75,874 10.97
62,434
6.90
8,796
9.85
53,638
6.41
193,549
5.88
18,787
8.65
174,762
5.58
36,908
5.28
26,139
5.56
55,025
5.53
32,811
5.84
23 , 8 7 9
5.80
150,203
5.24
9,292
8.78
9,946
5.96
121,204
4.98
7,580
3.69
5.77
2,181

5,886 1 0.38
5.34
599
5,287 10.95
3,990
7.15
598 1 0 . 1 5
3,39 2 6 .6 2
13,753
5.89
1,197
8.50
12,556
5.63
2,846
5.39
1,629
5.52
3,694
5.61
2,874
1,513
5.55
5.13
10,713
693 9 . 0 3
652
5.92
4.76
9,133
76 3 . 3 4
5.65
159

14,718
1,515
13,203
11,969
1,603
10,366
36,310
4,224
32,086
6,419
4,614
10,118
7,189
3,746
25,050
1,423
2,602
20,136
5 12
377

11.57

250,032
31,943
88,664
21,574
65,176
1,914

7.27
9.42
7.07
7.27
7.00
7.13

16,983
2,729
6,745
1,527
3,947
1,271

7.66
9.70
7.29
7.41
7.26
7.23

48,719
7.70
6 ,0 6 4 10.18
15,760
7.38
3,306
7.79
12,441
7.27
13
8.32

37,603
4,768
11,557
2,496
9,035
26

7.41
9.56
7.15
7.3 4
7 . 10
7.3 9

13,500
1,654
4,116
765
3,351

87,042
41,927
27,548
17,567
42,383
15,909
19,096
985
6,393

6.90
6.85
7.04
6.80
6.80
6.63
6.95
5.47
6.98

5,102
1,935
1,537
1,630
2,407
1,161
1,033
13

7.20
7.14
7.2 6
7.20
7.33
7.23
7.37
6.79
7.73

18,476
8,796

14,422
6,969
4,711
2,742
6,856
2,583
3,115
69
1,089

7.09
7.0 6
7.21
6.98
7.02
6.82
7.14
6.16
7.21
-

5,285
2,649
1,626

-

-

6.01

200

-

-

6,000

3,680
8,419
3,226
4,382
358
4 53
-

6.22

12.19
7.6 8
10.72
7.21
6.48
9.26

6.11
5.83
6.27
5.85
. 39
6.59
5.90
9.94
6.50
5.55
3.81
6.26

6

7.35
7.34
7.46
7.20
7.26
7.23
7 . 38
5.70
7.61
-

25,186
2,746
2,465
8,665

6.19
9.07
7.09
5.15

2,752
282
171
1,168

6.19
8.97
5.42

5,755
651
642
2,320

11,310
936

6.06
9.03

1,131

6.16
9.75

6.33
2,142
132 1 0 . 0 9

20

6.68

6.42
9.73
7.36
5.28

117,858
1,701
116,157

$6.87
4.73
6.89

41,582 $6.74
469
4.70
41,021
6.70

116,656
922
115,734

$6.19
4.50
6.19

13,381 1 0 .1 3
1,441
5.68
11,940
9,776
6.71
1,239
9.55
8,537
6.29
29,698
5.87
2,762
8.62
26,936
5.59
5,523
5.20
3,988
5.48
8,497
5.71
5,329
5.81
3,599
5.69
21,467
5.36
9.05
5.87
1,943
17,198
5.07
719
3.87
3 87
5.76

4,785
9.94
632
5.43
4,153 10.62
3,148
6.62
438
9. 18
2,710
5.74
11,136
869
8.43
10,267
5.51
5.30
2,163
5.76
1,573
5.23
3,370
5.95
1,775
1,386
5.72
7,546
5.33
483
8.67
6.41
342
6,360
5.04
3.84
192
169
5.82

10,450
1 ,329
9,121
9,338
1 ,370
7,9 6 8
26,957
2,643
24,314
5,306
3,618
9,048
3,500
2,842
27,179
1,896
1,091
22,338
1,540
314

9.35
5.00
9.98

8.95
5.73
5.34
7.68
5.08
4.93
5.09
4.99
5.34
5.35
4.92
7.8 8
5.41
4.73
3.37
5.68

7.24
9.26
7.11
7.51
7.02
-

40,480
4,918
12,139
2,534
9,551
54

6.74
8.6 2
6.69
6.91
6.62
6.99

6.89
6.82
7.07
6.80
6.81
6.56
7.0 0
5.75
7.09

15,166
6,909
5,355
2,902
8,257
2,702
3,177
231
2,147
-

6.34
6.26
6.47
6.31
6.46

10.68

1,220

-

5,760
661
527
2,309

1,010
2,445
9 03
1,259
62
-

221

-

6.23
9.01
7.1 7
5.03

1,423
190
124
379

2,263
6.36
173 1 1 . 4 8

730

1Covers telephone carriers which have operating revenues exceeding $1,000,000. These carriers are engaged in interstate or foreign communication
service using their own facilities or through connection with those of another carrier under direct or indirect common control.
2See appendix for definition of hours and rates used in this bulletin.
3May include employees in occupations in addition to those shown separately.
4Includes data for employees in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, and employees of the American Telephone and Telegraph
Company, which are excluded from the regional tabulations. (For scope of survey, see appendix.)




6.21

6.09
8.85
6.81
4.88

2,088
214
29
462

5.85
44 1 0 . 2 7

1 ,383

164

6.20

6.12
6.66
5.40
6.69
-

27,833 $6.22
78 3 4 . 7 4
27,050
6.25

7 7,482
45 1
77,031

$6.21
4.61

2,788
327
2,461
2,472
320
2,152
7,327
742
6,585
1,841
806
1,798
1 ,292
848
6,138
39 2
397
4,737
533
79

9.07
5.02
9.60
6.14
8.97
5.71
5.33
7.90
5.04
4.72
5.24
5.05
5.23
5.19
4.95
8.45
5.53
4.72
3.66
5.64

6,182
832
5,350
7,241
992
6,249
17,405
1,451
15,954
4,204
3,100
4,800
2,427
1,423
18,891
1,361
873
14,550
1,835
2 72

9.41
4.71
10.14

8,210

6.97
8.89
6.83
6.98
6.79

26,538
3,032
8,728
1,615
7,113

6.82

1,070
2,373
45 2
1,920

1 10.88
3,045
6.68
1, 1 0 8 6 . 7 7
489
1 ,448
1 ,722
550
815

1

356
-

5.81

9,979
5,129
2,973
1,877
4,799
2,136
2,028

221

-

414

~

6 .9 0

6.79
8.72
6.54
6.79
6.53
5.86

6.62
6.52
6.89
6.44
6.03
5.94
6.15
4.78
6.56
-

4,462
2,019

6.51
6.41
6.69
6.51
6.36
5.98
6.53
6.62
6.63

1,378
155
104
376

5.46

4.50

602

5 .4 8

743
133

5.28
7.18

1 ,7 0 2
128

6.15

8.88
6.78
6.97
6.74

5.79
8.40
6.83
4.86

1,162

250

5.46
8.27
6.93
4.46

6.17

636
63

5.03
7.78

66
210

$ 6 . 88
5 .2 5

11,617
1,542
3,629
576
2,882
171

338

6.80
4.62

1 0 9 ,0 5 5
1 ,4 0 8
1 0 7 ,6 4 7

5.13
4.89
4.95
5.32
5.21
5.27
4.53
7.76
5 . 1S
4.30
3.20
5.33

6.02

8.98
5.55
5.26
7.85
5.03
4.77
5.06
5.12
5.04
5.33
5.19
8.17
5.61
5.03
3.73
5.38

-

-

4 0 , 1 1 5 $ 6 . 13
1,607
3.93
38,508
6.18
4,430
377
4,053
3,420
498
2,922
9,965
907
9,058
2,035
1,642
2,702
1,556
1,123
9,172
58 2
453
7,360
673
104

898
58
74
428

8.02
5.84
8.24

6.81
6.57
6.49
6.07
6.64
6.55
6.79
-

6.22

1,102
1, 3 4 1
1,984

688
12

889
-

39 5

9.05
4.85
9.44
6.52
9.45

6.01
5.41
8.12

-

8.02
6.01

1 2 ,5 1 0
1 ,9 1 0

9 .9 9
5 .4 4

10,600
9,518
1,383
8,135
28,877
2,773
26,104
5,624
4,081
8,118
4,755
3,526
21,044
1,058
1,409
16,872
1,427
278

1 0 .8 3
7 .3 0
1 0 .3 9
6 .7 7
5 .9 6
8 .9 5

3 3 ,8 8 2

5 .6 4
5 .5 1
5 .7 3
5 .5 7
5 .7 7
5 .7 6
5. 26
9 .7 4
6 .0 8

5.00
4.03
5 .7 4
7 .3 8

4, 573

9 .5 0

13,332
3,713

7.10

9 ,5 9 9

7 .1 9
7 .0 6

21

7 .3 9

1 1 ,0 8 3
6 ,4 1 0
3 ,7 4 6
927

7.02

4 ,8 9 4
1 ,8 5 0

7 .0 2
6 .8 7

2 ,2 9 8

7.04

2
744

-

6 .9 5
7 . 14
7 .0 5

4. 36

7. 34
-

3 ,0 9 6

6 .5 5

389
403

9.31
7.12

6 .9 2

NOTE: For purposes of this study, the regions for which separate data are presented include: New England-Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic— Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Great Lakes— I l n i , Indiana,
lios
Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Chesapeake— District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; Southeast— Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; North Central— Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and
South Dakota; South Central— Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas (except El Paso County); Mountain— Arizona, Colorado, Idaho (south
of the Salmon River), Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas (El Paso County), Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific— California, Idaho (north of the
Salmon River), Oregon, and Washington.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.

Table 5.

Western Union Telegraph Company: Percent distribution of employees1 in occupational groups by average hourly rates,2 October 1975

Occupational group

All employees except officials, managerial
assistants, and messengers..............................
Professional and semiprofessional employees.
Engineers and engineering assistants.................
O th e rs ................................................................
Telegraph office superintendents and
m anagers.............................................................
Sales employees.....................................................
Clerical em ployees...............................................
Supervisors........................................................
Nonsupervisory employees............................
Commercial d e p a rtm e n t.........................
Traffic departm ent....................................
A ll other departments...............................
Route aides.......................................................
Telegraph op erators............................................
Traffic managers, chief operators,
supervisors, and instructors......................
Experienced telegraph operators
(except Morse operators)............................
Commercial d e p a rtm e n t.........................
Traff ic departm ent....................................
Operators-in-training.......................................
Construction, installation, and
maintenance employees....................................
Traffic testing and regulating employees. .
Construction, installation, and
maintenance employees...............................
Supervisors..................................................
Subscribers' equipment maintainers . . .
Line and cable w o rk e rs ............................
O th ers ..........................................................
Laborers.............................................................
Building service employees.................................
Mechanics..........................................................
O th ers ................................................................
Messengers.............................................................
F u ll-tim e ..........................................................
P a rt-tim e ..........................................................
Walking and bicycle messengers.................
Motor messengers............................................

Percent of employees receivingNumber of employees Average
sched- Average $2.10 $2.30 $2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6.00 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $8.00 $8.50
hourly and
uled
and
Total Men Women
weekly rates1 under
2
over
hours
$2.30 $2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6.00 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $8.00 $8.50

12,210 7,361
898 735
209 205
689 530

4,849
163
4
159

38.9
37.9
38.5
37.8

$6.22
8.90
9.07
8.85

530
681
2,739
573
2,161
977
68
1,116
5
2,900

331
600
808
340
466
158
22
286
2
609

199
81
1,931
233
1,695
819
46
830
3
2,291

39.8
36.7
37.0
37.4
36.9
36.9
40.0
36.7
40.0
39.9

6.07
6.06
5.67
6.96
5.32
5.26
4.64
5.43
4.33
4.78

558

284

274

39.7

6.15

2,113
691
1,422
229

310
166
144
15

1,803
525
1,278
214

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

4.56
4.71
4.49
3.47

4,314 4,172
1,121 1,100

142
21

39.8
40.0

7.08
6.96

3,173 3,053
771
756
1,520 1,518
125 125
757 654
19
20
148 106
33
35
73
113
609 595
556 542
53
53
146 140
463 455

120
15
2
_
103
1
42
2
40
14
14

39.8
39.1
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.6
-

7.14
8.34
6.88
6.78
6.53
4.70
4.71
6.40
4.18
3.90
-

0.2
_

0.2

0.1

_

—

-

-

2.5

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

.2
.1
3

_

.1

3.5

_

_

—

-

—

.

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

10.7
.4

-

-

3

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.5
.1
-

.8

.1
-

0.9
.3
1.4
-

1.0
-

10.6
.3
1.0
.2

13.8
2.3
1.4
2.6

10.1
6.6
1.9
8.0

10.5
5.7
4.3
6.1

6.9
9.5
7.7
10.0

19.1
2.4
1.0
2.9

10.5
3.7
4.3
3.5

2.8
6.0
7.7
5.5

2.3
7.1
7.2
7.1

8.4
56.0
62.2
54.1

.2
6.3
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.2

_

.3
1.9
2.4
3.7
1.5
1.3
40.0
1.4

1.7
12.0
8.6
10.9
10.6
26.5
10.1
20.0
30.2

9.3
12.5
17.7
1.4
21.9
21.2
61.8
20.2
40.0
34.2

21.1
8.4
17.5
11.0
19.2
17.7
10.3
21.1

23.8
6.0
22.8
18.5
24.0
33.3
17.4

25.7
4.0
13.8
14.7
13.6
5.0
21.9

5.5
9.4
6.9
15.9
4.5
6.3
3.1

2.5
3.5
2.3
7.2
1.0
.1
1.9

2.8
2.9
2.2
9.2
.3
.1
.5

2.5
3.2
1.8
7.9
.1
.1
.2

4.9
16.9
3.2
14.3
.2
.1
.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.5

4.9

1.6

1.2

.9

.6

.5

1.3

.2

3.2

7.0

37.5

21.3

7.3

6.5

4.8

3.0

2.5

6.6

1.3
1.6
1.2

1.9
1.9
1.9

45.1
67.3
34.2

10.0
10.3
9.8

1.1
3.2
.1

.2
.4
.1

-

-

40.2
14.8
52.5
3.5

-

-

-

-

.4
.3

1.2
-

2.5
1.9

6.4
3.3

3.6
3.2

45.7
44.1

1.2

2.6
.4
2.2
3.2
5.4
25.0
1.4
2.9
.9

7.6
.6
4.0
7.2
21.8

3.8
.6
6.6
4.0
1.5

46.6
3.0
69.5
39.2
46.1

-

.3

-

7.5

1.0

-

3

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.2
.4
.1
2.2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

3

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.8
-

-

1.0
-

—

—

—

19.9

_

2.7
.4

.3

.3

_

-

-

-

-

-

94.3

-

.8

-

.1

.7
-

.9
19.0
-

-

1.4
-

.7
-

-

16.9
22.1
15.4
-

64.6
48.6
-

—

—

-

-

.9
1.2
-

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

.3
2.4
4.0
60.0
1.4
-

1.8
9.0

-

8.8
25.7
3.5

-

6.8
22.9
1.8
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26.0
45.1

4.1
2.2

4.1
-

6.1
-

19.4
25.0
16.6
28.8
17.6
1.4
5.7

4.8
14.9
.7
8.0
2.0

5.6
21.9
2.4
.7
-

8.3
33.5

-

10.8
42.9
.9
-

-

-

•9
.4
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
8

34.3
40.0

2.88
4.18

—

.4

1 In clu d e s e m p lo y e e s w o rk in g in th e c o n te rm in o u s 4 8 States and th e D is tric t o f C o lu m b ia ;
th e c o m p a n y does n o t o p e ra te in A la sk a and H a w a ii.
2 E xc lu d e s p re m iu m pa y fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h o lid ay s , and late
shifts.
in d iv id u a l item s m ay n o t equal 1 0 0 .




—

77.4
.7

—

.9

1.5

-

20.3

-

63.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

—

-

-

3.2
.7
15.0
49.3

.7
-

.9
.7

1.8

-

-

"

"

"

11.9

3 |_ess th a n 0 .0 5 pe rce n t,
NO TE:

Dashes in d ic a te th a t no data w ere re p o rte d .

Because o f ro u n d in g , sums o f

Table 6.

International telegraph carriers1 : Percent distribution of employees in occupational groups by average hourly rates,2 October 1975

Occupational group

A ll employees except officers and assistants . . .
A ll employees except officers and
assistants, and messengers............................
Professional and semiprofessional employees. . .
Engineers and engineering assistants...............
O th ers................................................................
Office or station superintendents and
assistants........................................................
Sales employees.....................................................
Clerical employees................................................
Supervisors........................................................
Nonsupervisory employees..............................
Operating departm ent.................................
Commercial d e p a rtm e n t............................
Accounting department..............................
Engineering d e p a rtm e n t............................
A ll other departments.................................
Operators...............................................................
Traffic chiefs, dispatchers, supervisors,
instructors, and assistants............................
Nonsupervisory o p e ra to rs..............................
Radio operators...........................................
Marine coastal station o p erators...............
Cable operators...........................................
Teletype-multiplex operators....................
Telephone operators....................................
A ll other operators .....................................................................
Messengers...............................................................................................................
Foot and b ic y c le ...................................................................................
M o t o r ................................................................
Construction, installation, maintenance,
and other technical em ployees.........................
Supervisors........................................................
Mechanics and maintenance
technicians .................................................................................................
Radio operating technicians ...................................................
Radio telegraph rigg ers ................................................................
O th ers................................................................
Building service employees....................................
All employees, not elsewhere classified...............

Number of employees Average
Percent of employees receiving—
sched­ Average
$2.10 $2.30 $2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6.00 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $8.00 $8.50
hourly
uled
and
and
Total Men Women weekly rates2
under
over
hours
$2.30 $2.50 $2.75 $3.00 $3.25 $3.50 $3.75 $4.00 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6.00 $6.50 $7.00 $7.50 $8.00 $8.50
5,095 4,191

904

37.0

$7.95

1.4

0.4

0.3

0.2

-

-

-

-

1.1

0.7

1.2

3.7

5.1

5.4

6.2

9.0

9.2

11.9

6.7

7.3

30.1

.6

1.2
-

3.8
-

5.3
.1
.2
-

5.5
.1

6.4
1.0
_
1.7

9.3
2.7
2.7
2.7

9.5
3.4
3.0
3.8

12.3
3.4
2.7
4.0

6.9
5.3
5.2
5.3

7.5
8.2
5.7
10.1

31.1
75.8
80.4
72.3

.9
11.0
—
12.4
12.6
10.9
11.4
9.7
15.3
2.5

1.4
13.9
.7
15.6
8.6
13.5
15.1
12.9
23.0
2.3

2.6
9.8
11.0
7.6
10.4
8.3
11.3
17.0
5.1

8.0
9.6
2.1
10.5
13.6
7.4
11.7
12.9
9.0
3.6

8.0
11.3
1.4
12.5
18.7
10.4
15.7
11.3
6.7
19.7

13.2
13.5
6.2
14.5
18.2
20.9
16.5
8.1
6.0
11.4

11.2
7.4
4.8
7.7
6.6
14.8
7.1
8.1
3.7
30.1

8.3
4.3
6.2
4.0
7.1
3.0
2.8
6.5
3.7
5.4

14.3
10.9
2.7
11.0
1.7
1.5
1.3
2.0
_
2.0
6.5

85.7
35.2
10.6
67.8
3.3
1.5
4.3
.6
14.5
4.7
11.4

3.0

2.7
-

2.3
5.6

4.3

23.6
16.7
12.2
16.5
30.6
17.3
1.9

1.2
13.4

4.0
35.3
66.7
29.6
36.7
32.6
67.3
37.0

10.4
4.6
16.7
12.2
19.3

13.9
4.9

67.1
.1

4,932 4,036
931
902
.404
401
527
501

896
29
3
26

37.2
37.3
37.1
38.0

8.10
12.55
10.44
12.22

-

14
349
1,287
146
1,141
198
230
351
62
300
1,028

14
320
626
135
491
99
119
154
29
90
862

29
661
11
650
99
111
197
33
210
166

36.8
36.4
37.0
36.6
37.0
37.4
37.5
37.1
37.3
36.2
37.5

11.02
8.08
6.17
8.81
5.83
5.72
6.11
5.83
6.36
5.58
7.05

-

-

-

173
855
6
115
109
519
52
54
163
159
4

167
695
6
115
98
389
39
48
155
151
4

9.02
6.65
6.93
7.07
6.78
6.43
6.99
7.24
2.73
2.69
4.02

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.5
-

-

-

11
130
13

37.4
37.5
34.9
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
31.3
31.1
37.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,228 1,218
167
166

10
1

37.1
37.4

7.83
10.37

2
5

37.5
37.5
37.5
36.5
42.3
37.6

7.43
7.13
8.23
7.54
5.14
6.32

518
128
10
395
85
10

516
123
10
393
84
10

6
160
-

6
8
8
-

2
1

.2

.1

-

.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

.7

1.8

3.3

.8
1.0
.4

2.0
1.0
.4
2.0
3.2
3.7
.6

3.7
2.0
2.2
5.7
1.6
4.0
1.3

.2
-

-

.2

.6

.6

.1

1.3
.1

.1

.1

-

-

.6

.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10.4
10.7

-

-

-

-

-

3.1
3.1

10.4
10.7

1.8
1.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

.1

C o v e r s e m p lo y e e s o f in te rn a tio n a l telegraph carriers w h ich have annu al o p e ra tin g reve­
nues exc e e d in g $ 5 0 ,0 0 0 ; exc lu d e s em p loyees w o rk in g fo r in te rn a tio n a l tele g ra p h carriers
o u ts id e th e c o n te rm in o u s 4 8 S ta tes and th e D is tric t o f C o lu m b ia .
2 See a p p e n d ix fo r d e fin itio n o f hours and rates used in this b u lle tin .

2.5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.2

26.4
27.0
-

1.2
.6

25.0

.1

.6

-

3.7
3.7

1.8

.2

50.0

.2

_

7.8
.9
6.6
3.8
3.7

.6
.6

.6

—

25.0

.1

—

.6
.6

-

11.1
—

.6
.6

_

_

5.2
16.5
15.6
11.5
7.4
_

_

_

_

-

2.4

-

2.4

1.2

.5
3.5

1.3
5.9

'

"

"

"

_

_

_

_

__

35.8
81.4

9.5
10.9
10.0
6.1
3.5
30.0

10.0
21.9
—
10.1
4.7
—

17.4
10.9

5.8
3.1

35.1
23.4
90.0
21.0
1.2

3.5
4.7
5.3
8.2
30.0

-

_

33.3

11.6
5.4

7.1
18.0
7.1
37.6

-

5.6
_

12.1
5.4

3.8
.6

6.0
-

_
_

10.3
3.6

7.2
.6

3.8

.9
_

7.8
3.0

__

-

_

_

_

1.0

—

20.9

_

_

-

_

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.2

3

9.6
1.8
3.5

_

-

-

.2

-

1.0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

42.3
43.4

.6

1.7
4.6
3.7

.2

-

"




0.1

3

.2

.8

2.1
-

8.9
4.7
10.0

8.1
7.0
5.6
9.4
20.0

_

9.1
3.5
-

—

25.1
11.8
10.0

Less than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.

N O T E : Dashes in d ic a te th a t no data w e re re p o rte d .
in d iv id u a l item s m ay n o t equal 1 0 0 .

Because o f roun din g, sums o f

Appendix. Scope and Method of Survey
Data presented in this study are based on annual reports
filed with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
by communication carriers, as required by the amended
Communications Act of 1934. All carriers engaged in
interstate or foreign communications service by means of
their own facilities or through connection with the facilities
of another carrier under direct or indirect common control
are subject to the full jurisdiction of the Commission. A
large number of telephone carriers engaged in interstate or
foreign service only by connections with the facilities of
another unaffiliated carrier are not subject to the full
jurisdiction of the Commission and are not required to file
annual reports of hours and earnings of employees.
Tabulations for telephone carriers relate to those having
annual operating revenues over $1 million, and which are
subject to the full jurisdiction of the FCC. Included are
25 Bell System companies and 36 companies not affiliated
with the Bell System.
Tabulations for wire-telegraph and international tele­
graph carriers were confined to companies with annual
revenues exceeding $50,000 which are engaged in interstate
or foreign commerce. Western Union Telegraph Co. is the
only wire-telegraph company included. Four companies
engaged in nonvocal radio or cable communications are
included in the international telegraph tabulations.

duled weekly hours were obtained by dividing the total
scheduled weekly hours by the number of employees.
The terms “scheduled weekly hours” and “scheduled
weekly compensation” for the three carrier groups covered
by the study are defined, according to the FCC’s R u l e s a n d
R e g u l a t i o n s , as follows:
Telephone carriers
51.12(b). “Scheduled weekly hours” means the number o f
regular hours, excluding overtime hours, in the duty tours which
the employee is scheduled to work during the week in which
December 31 occurs, whether or not excused because o f a
holiday, vacation, leave o f absence, or other reason.
51.13(b). “Scheduled weekly compensation” means comp­
ensation to the employee at the rate of pay in effect on Decem­
ber 31 for the “scheduled weekly hours.” It includes the basic
weekly pay rate plus any regularly scheduled supplementary
compensation, such as differentials for evening and night tours,
equivalent value o f board and lodging for unlocated employees,
equivalent value o f meals furnished dining service employees,
and equivalent value o f living quarters and maintenance fur­
nished for managers o f agency offices. It excludes pay for
overtime work and pay in excess o f weekday rates for Sunday
and holiday work.

Western Union Telegraph Co.
52.21(b). “Scheduled weekly hours” are defined as an
em ployee’s regular daily tour o f duty multiplied by the number
o f days, or fraction o f days, scheduled to be worked during a
week. *
52.22(b). “Scheduled weekly compensation” is defined as
wages scheduled to be paid for scheduled weekly hours as
defined in 52.21(b). This should include employee contributions
for old-age benefits, unemployment insurance, and similar
deductions, paid vacation and holiday hours, the regularly
scheduled weekly compensation for employees temporarily
on leave due to disability or sickness, and the scheduled weekly
compensation o f both full- and part-time employees.

Employees and occupational groups covered by the study

Officials and managerial assistants were not included in
the tabulations. Also excluded were employees working
outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia, except
telephone carrier employees in Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands. All other employees, both full-time and part-time,
were included. Part-time employees are defined as those
regularly assigned shorter hours than a full-time schedule.
Occupational groups for which separate data are pre­
sented are defined in the FCC’s R u l e s a n d R e g u l a t i o n s ,
volume X, part 51, applying to telephone carriers, and part
52, applying to telegraph companies. Copies of this volume
are on sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402.

The company reports that “scheduled weekly compensa­
tion” excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on
weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

International telegraph carriers
International telegraph carriers are instructed to report
scheduled weekly hours and compensation for their employees
as defined for the Western Union Telegraph Co., except that
scheduled weekly compensation should include regularly sche­
duled maintenance, travel, or other allowances.

Hours and rates
Distribution of workers by earnings classes

Average hourly rates presented in this bulletin were
computed by dividing total “scheduled weekly compensa­
tion” by total “scheduled weekly hours.” Average sche­



In the tables, workers are distributed according to the
percentage having stipulated hourly rates of pay. Because of
rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.
14

Industry Wage Studies
The most recent reports providing occupational wage
data for industries included in the Bureau’s program of
industry wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies
are for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or
from any of its regional sales offices, and from the regional

offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown on the
inside back cover. Copies that are out of stock are available
for reference purposes at leading public, college, or univer­
sity libraries, or at the Bureau’s Washington or regional
offices.

M a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c tu r in g - C o n tin u e d

Basic Iron and Steel, 1972,*BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1796
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972. BLS Bulletin
1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1863
Industrial Chemicals, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1768
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1974-75. BLS Bulletin 1929
Meat Products, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1843
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914.
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1739
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1844
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1694
Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1740
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1757

Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1908
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930




N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1862
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583
Communications, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1954
Contract Cleaning Services, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1916
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1972. BLS
Bulletin 1797
Department Stores, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1869
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 196869. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 16451
Life Insurance, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1791
Metal Mining, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1820
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1973. BLS Bulletin
1855
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1712
1Bulletin out o f stock.

15

Keep up to date with:

M AJOR

COLLECTIVE

BARGAMMG
AGREEMENTS

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has published a series of 16 bulletins dealing with key
issues in collective bargaining. The bulletins are based on analysis of about 1800 major
agreements and show how negotiators in different industries handle specific problems.
The studies are complete with illustrative clauses identified by the company and union
signatories, and detailed tabulations on the prevalence of clauses.
ORDER

FORM

Bulletin
Number

Title (Check Publication Desired)

Date of
Publication

Price

Major Collective Bargaining Agreements:

Grievance Procedures....................................................
Severance Pay and Layoff Benefit Plans...........................
Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Plans and
Wage-Employment Guarantees....................................
Deferred Wage Increase and Escalator Clauses................
Management Rights and Union-Management Cooperation.
Arbitration Procedures..................................................
Training and Retraining Provisions.................................
Subcontracting....................................... ...................
Paid Vacation and Holiday Provisions...............................
Plant Movement, Transfer, and Relocation Allowances......
Seniority in Promotion and Transfer Provisions.................
Administration of Negotiated Pension, Health, and
Insurance Plans.........................................................
Layoff, Recall, and Worksharing Procedures................
Administration of Seniority.. ............................................
Hours, Overtime and Weekend Work..............................
Safety and Health Provisions..........................................
Total for all 16 Bulletins...................................................

To order, check the bulletins wanted
above, and mail the list with payment, to
your nearest Bureau of Labor Statistics regional office.
MAKE CHECK PAYABLE TO
SUPERINTENDENT OF
DOCUMENTS.




1425-1.............. .......... 1964................ ................$ 1.45
1425-2.............. .......... 1965................ ................
1.80
1425-3..............
1425-4..............
1425-5..............
1425-6..............
1425-7..............
1425-8..............
1425-9..............
1425-10............
1425-11............

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

1965................
1966................
1966................
1966................
1969................
1969................
1969................
1969................
1970................

................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................

1.80
1.10
1.35
2.40
1.05
1.10
1.90
1.55
1.25

1425-12............
1425-13............
1425-14............
1425-15............
1425-16............

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

1970................
1972................
1972................
1974................
1976................

................
................
................
................

1.00
1.75
1.25
1.45
1.30

$23.50

Regional Office
Bureau of Labor Statistics
U.S. Department of Labor

1603 Federal Building, Boston, Mass. 02203
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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock No. 029-001-02017-1

☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1977

0 -2 4 1 -0 1 6

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

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R egions IX and X * *

R egion IV

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9th Floor
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Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
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