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INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY
Candy and Other Confectionery
Products




l
SEPTEMBER 1965

B u lle tin N o. 1 5 2 0

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M Ross, Commissioner
.

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY

Candy and Other Confectionery
Products
SEPTEMBER 1965

B u lle tin N o. 1 5 2 0
August 1966

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2 040 2 — Price 30 cents









Preface
This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey of wages and supplementary
benefits in the candy and other confectionery products
manufacturing industry in September 1965.
Separate releases were issued earlier, usually
within a few months of the payroll period studied, as
follows:
Boston, Mass. ; Chicago, 111. ; Los A ngelesLong Beach, C alif.; New York, N. Y. ; Philadelphia, P a .—
N. J. ; and San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif. Copies of these
releases are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington, D . C . , 20212, or any of its regional offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau's Division
of Occupational Pay, Toivo P. Kanninen, Chief, under the
general direction of L. R. Linsenmayer, Assistant Com­
missioner for Wages and Industrial Relations.
The
analysis was prepared by Charles E. Scott, Jr. , under
the immediate supervision of L. Earl Lewis. Field work
for the survey was directed by the Assistant Regional
Directors for Wages and Industrial Relations.
Other reports available from the Bureau's pro­
gram of industry wage studies as well as the addresses
of the Bureau's six regional offices are listed at the end
of this bulletin.

Hi




Contents
Page
Sum m ary------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------- --Industry ch aracteristics______________________________________________________
Employm ent-------------------------------------------------------Production------------------------------------------------- -----------------______________ ____________
Establishment s i z e --------------------------------------------------Union contract coverage------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Method of wage payment--------------------------------------------------------...--------------------------Average hourly earnings--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Occupational earnings_________________ _________________________________-__________
Establishment practices and supplementary p rovisions----------------Scheduled weekly hours andshift p ra ctices------------------------------------------Paid holidays________________________________________________________
Paid vacations---------Health, insurance, and pension plans-----------------------------------------------Nonproduction bonuses______________________

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
?
7

Tables:
Average hourly earnings:
1. By selected characteristics____________________________________________

8

Earnings distribution:
2. All production w orkers----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9

Occupational averages:
3. All establishments-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. By size of establishment________________________________________________
5. By labor-management contract coverage and
size of establishm ent_________________________________________________
6. By method of wage payment-------------------------------

10
12
13
14

Occupational earnings:
7. Boston--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. Chicago___________________________________________________________________
9. Los Angeles—
Long B each------------------------------------------—------------ -------------10. New York_________________________________________________________________
11.
Philadelphia____ __________________________________________________
12. San Francisco—
Oakland---------------------------------

15
16
18
19
20
21

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
13. Method of wage payment-----------------------------------------------------------------------14. Scheduled weekly h ou rs-------------------------------------------------------------------15. Shift differential provisions________________________________________
16.
Shift differential p ra c tices____________________________________________
17. Paid holidays______________________ _____________________________________ —
18. Paid vacations--------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. Health, insurance, and pension plans_________________________________
20. Nonproduction bonuses------------------------------------------------------

22
22
23
24
25
25
27
28

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of su rvey------------ ----------------------------------------------------------B. Occupational descriptions----------------------------------------------------------------------------




v

29
33




Industry W age Survey
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, September 1965
Summary
Straight-time hourly earnings of production and related workers in the
Nation's candy and other confectionery products manufacturing industry averaged
$ 1 . 8 7 in September 1965.
All but 4 percent of the 4 9 ,736 production workers
covered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey1 had hourly earnings within
a range of $ 1. 25 to $ 3; the middle half earned between $ 1 . 5 1 and $ 2. 14 an hour.
Women, comprising nearly three-fifths of the workers, averaged $ 1 . 6 9 an hour,
compared with $ 2 . 1 1 for men.
Regionally, averages ranged from $ 1 . 5 0 an hour in the Southeast to
$ 2 . 2 2 in the Pacific S ta tes.2 In the Middle Atlantic and Great Lakes regions,
which together accounted for 60 percent of total employment, hourly earnings
averaged $1 . 88 and $1. 95, respectively. Among the six areas studied separately, 3
the lowest average was recorded in Boston ( $1. 79) and the highest in San
Francisco—
Oakland ( $2. 28)

Among the occupations studied separately, the lowest nationwide hourly
average earnings were $ 1 . 5 8 for bulk packers, hand, and $ 1 . 6 1 for dippers,
hand (virtually all women).
The highest were $ 3 . 0 5 for maintenance machinists
and $ 2 . 8 1 for maintenance mechanics (all men).
Earnings also varied by size of establishment, by labor-management
contract status, and by method of wage payment. Over nine-tenths of the workers
were in establishments providing paid holidays and paid vacations. Various types
of health, insurance, and pension benefits were also available to a majority of
the production workers.
Industry C h a ra cteristics

Employment.
Peak employment in the candy and other confectionery
products manufacturing industry usually occurs during October and November;
employment is lowest in July. The Bureau's monthly employment s e r ie s 4 shows
that production worker employment in the peak month exceeded that in the lowest
month by approximately 30 percent in 4 of the last 6 years.
Since I960, the
date of the Bureau's previous survey, 5 annual average employment has remained
relatively stable.
*

See appendix A for scope and method of survey.
For definitions o f regions used in this study,

Boston, Chicago, Los A ngeles—Long Beach,
definitions of these areas, see footnote 1, tables 7—12.

see footnote 1 in appendix A table.
New York,

Philadelphia,

and San Francisco— Oakland.

4 See Em ploym ent and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909— 6 5 , BLS Bulletin
and Earnings, V o l. 12, Nos. 6 through 9.
5 For an account o f the earlier study, see W age Structure:
Decem ber I 9 6 0 , BLS Report 195 (1 9 6 1 ).




1 3 1 2 -3

For

and Em ploym ent

Candy and Other Confectionery Products, Novem ber—

2

Establishments covered by the current survey employed 49, 736 pro­
duction workers in September 1965. The Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions
each accounted for approximately three-tenths of these workers. Slightly more
than one-tenth of the workers were in New England, with somewhat sm aller pro­
portions in the Southeast and Pacific regions.
No other region accounted for
more than 5 percent of the workers.
Nearly nine-tenths of the workers were in metropolitan areas; the pro­
portions were more than 95 percent in each of three regions and about 84 percent
each in the Southeast and Great Lakes regions (table 1).
The six metropolitan
areas studied separately accounted for nearly one-half of the industry’ s work
force. Chicago, the largest candy manufacturing center, employed nearly 10, 000
production workers.
Nearly three-fifths of the workers were women. Regionally, the propor­
tions ranged from one-half in the Great Lakes and Southeast to about three-fifths
in the other three regions.
Employment of men and women was nearly equal in
Chicago; in each of the other areas studied separately, women substantially
outnumbered men.

Production. While employment remained about the same, production in
the industry increased 12 percent between I960 and 1964 (the latest year for
which data are available).
This increase in production was accompanied by
a 13 percent increase in the output per man-hour of work and a 1 percent decrease
in total man-hours worked.
Boxed chocolates and other packaged goods were the principal products
in establishments employing about half of the production workers in September
1965. Approximately one-fourth of the workers were employed in plants primarily
making bar goods. Bulk goods were most important in plants with 8 percent of
the workers, salted peanuts in plants with 6 percent, and 5- and 10-cent speci­
alities in plants employing 4 percent.
The proportion of workers in plants
primarily making boxed chocolates and packaged goods was highest in New England
(73 percent) and the Pacific region (62 percent).
Bar goods were the principal
product in plants employing 3 5 percent of the w orkers in the Great Lakes,
14 percent in the Pacific, and 16 percent in New England.
The proportion for
bulk goods in each region was one-eighth or le ss.
In the Southeast, none of the
plants visited produced bulk goods as a principal product. One-fifth of the work
force in this region was employed in plants producing salted nuts, reflecting the
importance of the peanut growing industry there.
Establishment Size.
Two-thirds of the 408 establishments covered by
the survey had fewer than 100 workers.
The median employment size was 65.
Although only 55 establishments employed 250 workers or more, they accounted
for nearly three-fifths of the industry’ s work force. Regionally, such establish­
ments employed over three-fourths of the workers in New England, almost
two-thirds in the Great Lakes, three-fifths in the Middle Atlantic, nearly two-fifths
in the Southeast, and about one-sixth in the Pacific region.
Union Contract Coverage.
Establishments with collective bargaining
agreements covering a majority of their production workers employed half the
industry's work force.
Plants with such contract coverage employed slightly
more than eight-tenths of the workers in the Pacific region, seven-tenths in the
Middle Atlantic, four-tenths in the Great Lakes, less than two-tenths in New
England, and slightly more than one-tenth in the Southeast.
As the following
tabulation illustrates, c o n t r a c t coverage was greater in the two larger
establishm ent-size groups than in plants with 20—
99 workers:




3

Percent of workers in establishments
with labor-m anagem ent contract
coverage by establishment size
2 0 -9 9
workers

Region

1 0 0 -2 4 9
workers

250 workers
or more

United S tates1 ----------------- -------

3 0 -3 4

55— 59

5 0 -5 4

New England-----------------------------M iddle A tla n tic ----------------------- ------Southeast-----------------------------------Great Lakes--------------------------------------P acific---------------------------------------- -------

(2 )
50 54
(2)

(2)
7 0 -7 4
2 5 -2 9
4 5 -4 9
8 5 -8 9

2 0 -2 4
8 0 -8 4

1
2

25
70

29
74

(2 )
4 0 -4 4
(3 )

Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
None o f the establishments visited and classified in this size group had union

contracts covering a majority of their production workers.
2 Insufficient data to warrant publication.

The major union in the industry was the American Bakery and
Workers' International Union.

Confectionery

Method of Wage Payment. Three-fourths of the production workers were
paid on the basis of time rates (table 13). Such rates were usually determined
by formalized wage systems in the Middle Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Pacific
regions, whereas time rates in the New England and Southeast regions were
usually determined on an individual basis.
Incentive wage systems applied to slightly more than one-third of the
workers in the Great Lakes region, nearly three-tenths of the workers in the
New England and Southeast regions, and to one-fourth of the workers in the
Middle Atlantic region.
Few workers in the Pacific region were paid under
incentive wage system s.
Among the areas studied separately, the proportion
of workers paid under incentive systems were:
One-half in Chicago, about
three-eighths in New York and Philadelphia, nearly one-fourth in Boston, and
virtually none in Los Angeles—
Long Beach and San Francisco—
Oakland. Regionally,
the proportion of workers paid under incentive wage systems was typically
larger in establishments with 250 workers or more than in sm aller establish­
ments.
Occupations studied separately in which substantial numbers of workers
were paid incentive rates included wrapping-machine operators, and bulk and
fancy packers.
Average Hourly Earnings
Straight-time earnings of production and related workers averaged $ 1.87
an hour in September 1965. 6 This was 19 percent above the average in November—
December I960, when the Bureau conducted a similar survey. 7 Earnings in the
^ The straight-tim e average hourly earnings in this bulletin differ in concept from the gross average hourly
earnings published in the Bureau's monthly hours and earnings series ( $ 2 .0 6 in Septem ber 1965).
Unlike the latter,
the estimates presented here exclude prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Average earnings were calculated by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number of individuals;
in the monthly series, the sum of the m an-hour totals reported by establishments in the industry was divided into the
reported payroll totals.
The estim ate of the number of production workers within scope of the study is intended only as a general guide
to the size and com position of the labor force included in the survey.
They differ from the number published in
the monthly series ( 5 5 .4 thousand in September 1965) by the exclusion of establishments em ploying fewer than
20 workers and because the advance planning necessary to make the survey requires the use of lists o f establishments
assembled considerably in advance o f data collection.
establishments originally

classified in the candy

Thus, establishments new to the industry are om itted,

as are

and other confectionery products industry but found to be in other

industries at the tim e of the survey.
Also om itted are establishments manufacturing candy and other confectionery
products, but classified incorrectly in other industries at the tim e the lists were com piled.
7 Op. cit. BLS Report N o. 195.




4

Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions, where the industry is most heavily
concentrated, averaged $ 1. 95 and $ 1. 88 an hour, respectively. Earnings averaged
$ 2. 22 in the Pacific region, $ 1. 79 in New England, and $ 1. 50 in the Southeast.
Earnings for men averaged $ 2 . 1 1 an hour, compared with $ 1 . 6 9 for
women. The average wage advantage for men was 51 cents an hour in the Great
Lakes region, about 45 cents in three regions, and 12 cents in the Southeast.
Differences in average pay levels for men and women may be the result of
several factors, including variation in the distribution of the sexes among estab­
lishments and among jobs with disparate pay levels.
Differences in averages in
the same job and area may reflect minor differences in duties.
Job descriptions
used in classifying workers in wage surveys are usually more generalized than
those used in individual establishments because allowance must be made for minor
differences among establishments in specific duties performed.
Also, earnings
in some jobs in the industry are largely determined by production under incentive
payment plans. Variations in incentive earnings for individuals or sex groupings
may be traceable to differences in work experience, effort, workflow, or other
factors which the worker may or may not control.
Earnings of all but 4 percent of the workers were within a range of $ 1. 25
to $ 3 an hour (table 2).
The middle half of the workers had earnings ranging
from $ 1 . 5 1 to $ 2 . 1 4 .
Nearly 8 percent of the workers earned less than $ 1 . 3 0
an hour, 16 percent earned less than $ 1 . 4 0 , and 23 percent earned less than
$ 1. 50. As shown in the following tabulation, the proportions of workers in these
categories varied substantially among the regions:

Percent of production workers
receiving less than—
$ 1 .3 0

$ 1 .4 0

$ 1 .5 0

New England---------------------------------

6

14

25

M iddle A tla n tic -------------------------Southeast--------------------------------------Great Lakes----------------------------------P acific-------------------------------------------

4
29
4
1

7
48
15

14
64
22
4

3

Earnings of production workers averaged $ 1. 95 an hour in establishments
employing 250 workers or more, $ 1. 85 in establishments with 100 to 249 workers,
and $ 1 . 6 6 in plants with 20 to 99 workers. In the Great Lakes region, average
hourly earnings of workers in these three establishm ent-size groups were $ 2 . 0 9 ,
$ 1 . 8 6 , and $ 1 . 5 6 ; and in the Middle Atlantic region, $ 2 , $ 1 . 7 7 , and $ 1 . 6 4 ,
re spective'ly.

Nationwide, workers in metropolitan areas averaged 21 cents an hour
more than those in nonmetropolitan areas ( $ 1 . 8 9 compared with $ 1 . 6 8 ) .
In the
Great Lakes, the only region where this comparison was possible, the relationship
was similar ( $ 1 . 9 9 and $ 1 . 7 8 ) .
Production workers in establishments with union contracts averaged
$1.93 an hour, compared with $1.80 in those without such contracts. In the Pacific
region, workers in union establishments averaged 25 cents an hour more than
those in nonunion establishments; however, in the Middle Atlantic and Great Lakes
regions, averages were about the same for the two groups of establishments.




5

Occupational Earnings
The occupational classifications for w h i c h data are presented in
table 3 accounted for about three-fifths of the production and related workers
within scope of the survey.
Maintenance machinists had the highest average
earnings, $ 3. 05 an hour.
They were followed by maintenance mechanics at
$ 2 . 8 1 , class A candymakers at $ 2. 55, general utility maintenance men at $ 2. 48,
enrobing-machine operators at $ 2 . 2 8 , and mogul machine operators at $ 2 . 2 7 .
Fancy hand packers, numerically the most important job surveyed
separately, averaged $ 1 . 6 7 an hour. Other numerically important jobs included
bulk packers (hand), and wrapping-machine operators, who averaged $ 1. 58 and
$ 1 . 8 5 , respectively. Candymakers1 helpers averaged $ 1 . 8 9 an hour. The large
majority of candymakers1 helpers were men, while the other three jobs were
held principally by women.
Average hourly earnings of women enrobing-machine operators’ helpers
exceeded those of women operators by 13 cents nationally, and by 8 cents in the
Great Lakes region. In the Southeast, the only other region where comparison
was possible, the more likely relationship existed— operators averaged more than
helpers.
The unexpected relationships in the national and Great Lakes averages
resulted from varying proportions of women in these job classifications in estab­
lishments of different pay levels.
Thus, some high-wage establishments may
report large numbers of women employed as helpers and none as operators, the
latter job being filled by men.
In the Great Lakes, for example, in every
establishment reporting both women operators and helpers, the operators aver­
aged more than the helpers.
In the 15 jobs where comparison for all regions was possible, average
hourly earnings were highest in the Pacific and lowest in the Southeast; differ­
ences ranged from 40 to nearly 80 percent above the averages in the latter region.
Data on occupational earnings were also developed by establishment size
and by labor-management contract coverage (tables 4 and 5).
In both major
regions, averages were generally higher in the largest establishm ent-size group
than in the smaller size groups. Occupational averages were generally higher in
union establishments than in nonunion establishments in the Middle Atlantic
region; but in the Great Lakes, this relationship was reversed.
Incentive-paid workers typically averaged higher hourly earnings than
their tim e-rated counterparts (table 6).
For example, in the Middle Atlantic
region, women fancy packers, hand, who were paid on an incentive basis,
averaged $ 1 . 8 1 , compared with $ 1 . 5 4 for tim e-rated workers.
In the Great
Lakes region, the corresponding hourly averages were $ 1 . 9 0 and $ 1 . 4 5 .
In
Chicago, men candymakers’ helpers, who were paid on incentive, averaged
$ 2 .6 5 — 87 cents an hour more than those paid time rates (table 8),
For women
wrapping-machine operators in New York, the average wage advantage for
incentive workers over those paid time rates amounted to 25 cents— $ 1 .8 9 com ­
pared with $ 1 . 6 4 (table 10).
Earnings of individual workers varied considerably within the same job
and general geographic location.
In some instances, hourly earnings of the
highest paid workers exceeded those of the lowest paid in the same job and area
by $ 1 or more (tables 7—12). Thus, when two jobs with disparate pay levels are
compared, some workers in the lower paid jobs may earn as much as some
workers in the higher paid jobs. For example, the following tabulation indicates
a considerable overlapping of individual rates for incentive-paid men candy­
m akers’ helpers and women wrapping-machine operators in Chicago, despite
a 43-cent difference in the hourly average between the two jobs.




6

Number o f workers
M en candymakers'
helpers
$1. 40 and under $1 . 6 0 --------$ 1. 60 and under $ 1. 8 0 --------$ 1. 80 and under $ 2 . 0 0 --------$ 2.
$ 2.
$2 .
$2.
$2.
$ 3.

00
20
40
60
80
00

and under $ 2 . 2 0 --------and under $ 2 . 4 0 --------and under $ 2. 6 0 --------and under $ 2 . 8 0 --------and under $ 3 . 0 0 --------or m o r e ------------------------

W om en wrapping-m achine
operators

1
4

18
46

6
14

103

205
37
47
4
123

62
387
51
6
-

T o ta l--------------------------------

441

673

Average hourly earnings-------

$ 2 .6 5

$ 2. 22

The range of earnings for workers within the same job varied widely
by establishment.
To illustrate, differences between the highest and lowest paid
candymakers1 helpers in individual establishments in Chicago ranged from less
than 10 cents an hour to about $ 1 . 2 0 an hour; the highest paid exceeded the
lowest paid by 20 percent or less in a majority of the plants employing two
workers or more in this classification.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Data were also obtained on work schedules, shift differentials, and
supplementary benefits, including paid holidays and vacations, pension plans, life
insurance, sickness and accident insurance, hospitalization, surgical, and medical
benefits for production workers.
Scheduled Weekly Hours and Shift P ractices. A work schedule of 40 hours
a week was in effect in establishments employing four-fifths of all production
workers and more than nine-tenths of the workers in all but the Great Lakes
region, where schedules of 48 hours or more (principally Chicago) applied to
two-fifths of the workers (table 14).
Nearly a fifth of the production workers
were employed on second shifts at the time of the study (table 16).
Most of the
workers were paid shift differentials, the single most common amount was 5 cents
an hour above first-sh ift rates. Third-shift operations accounted for almost 3 per­
cent of the workers.
Paid Holidays.
Nearly all workers were provided paid holidays.
The
most common provisions were 6 or 7 days annually, with additional half days in
some instances (table 17).
Holiday provisions varied considerably among the
regions.
For example, a third of the workers in the Middle Atlantic received
11 paid holidays; whereas, the maximum number provided in the Southeast was 6.
Boston and New York were the only areas studied separately in which provisions
for as many as 11 days were recorded.
Paid Vacations. Virtually all production workers were eligible for paid
vacations after qualifying periods of service.
Most of the production workers
were employed in establishments providing 1 week of vacation pay after 1 year
of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, and 3 weeks after 15 years; slightly more than
a third were eligible for 4 weeks after 25 years (table 18). Regional differences
in provisions were less pronounced after 1 year than after longer periods of
service. The proportions of production workers employed in establishments pro­
viding 1 week after 1 year ranged from 7 5 percent in the Southeast to 97 percent
in the Pacific region. After 15 years of service, 22 percent of the workers in
the Southeast were eligible for 3 weeks, compared with 89 percent in the Pacific
region.




7

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans. Life, hospitalization and surgical
insurance were available to approximately seven-eighths of the workers (table 19).
Sickness and accident insurance applied to three-fifths; medical insurance, to
seven-tenths; and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, to slightly
more than half of the workers.
These benefits relate to plans financed at least
in part by the employer.
Typically, employers paid the total costs, with this
practice varying by region.
For example, in New England 95 percent of the
workers were in establishments providing life insurance but only 26 percent were
covered under plans wholly financed by the employer.
In the Middle Atlantic
region, however, 83 percent were covered by employer financed plans and
only 3 percent by jointly financed plans.
Retirement pension plans (other than Federal social security benefits)
were provided by establishments employing three-fifths of the workers. Region­
ally, the proportions ranged from 45 percent in the Great Lakes to 87 percent
in the Pacific. In each region, most of these workers were covered by employer
financed plans.
Nonproduction Bonuses.
Form al provisions for nonproduction bonuses,
usually Christmas or yearend, were in effect in plants accounting for one-fourth
of the workers nationally, two-fifths in the Great Lakes region, a third in New
England, and a fifth or less in the remaining regions (table 20).




Table 1. Average Hourly Earnings:

00

By Selected Characteristics

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and oth e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s
by s e le c t e d c h a r a c t e r is t i c s , U n ited Sta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
United St ate s1
2
Item

N u mb er
of
workers

Average
ho ur ly
earni ngs

Mi dd le Atl ant ic

New England
N u mb er
of
workers

Average
h ou r ly
ea rn in gs

Number
of
workers

G re a t L ak es

Southeast

Average
h ou r ly
ea rn in gs

Number
of
workers

Average
ho ur ly
e ar ni ngs

N u m b er
of
workers

Average
ho ur ly
ea rn in gs

P acific
Number
of
w orkers

Average
ho ur ly
ea rn in gs

A l l w o r k e r s __________________________________________
M e n ____________________ ___________________________
W o m e n _______________ *
.____________________________

49,736
2 0,8 7 2
2 8, 8 64

$1. 87
2. 1 1
1. 69

5, 339
1,96 0
3, 379

$1. 79
2. 07
1. 62

13, 863
5 ,5 4 2
8, 321

$1. 88
2. 15
1.71

3, 628
1,78 2
1,846

$1. 50
1. 56
1. 44

15,9 97
7, 367
8 ,6 3 0

$1.95
2. 23
1. 72

4, 329
1,66 0
2, 669

$2. 22
2. 49
2. 05

Size o f co m m u n i t y :
M e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s 3________________ __________
N o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s --------------------------------------

4 4, 0 01
5, 735

1. 89
1. 68

5, 104

1. 79

13, 514

1. 88

3, 074

1. 53

13, 380
2 ,6 1 7

1.99
1. 78

4, 180

2. 21

Si ze of es t a b l is h m e n t :
20—99 w o r k e r s ___________________________________
100—249 w o r k e r s ________________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ___________________________

1 0, 473
11,500
2 7, 7 63

1. 66
1. 85
1. 95

489
4, 120

2, 963
2 ,7 0 2
1 0, 332

1. 56
1. 86
2. 09

1 ,61 0
2, 103

L ab or-m ana gem en t contracts:
E s t a b li s h m e n t s with—
M a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d __ ____________
Non e o r m i n o r i t y o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d ____

2 4, 8 44
24,892

1.93
1. 80

4, 384

6, 574
9 ,4 2 3

1. 94
1. 96

3, 590
7 39

-

-

-

-

-

2, 853
2, 724
8, 286

1. 64
1. 77
2. 00

1,41 9
1,4 0 4

10,037
3, 826

1. 89
1. 88

3, 216

1. 85
1. 77

-

1. 78

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e ek e n d s, ho lid a y s, and late sh ifts.
2 In cl ud es data f o r r e g i o n s in a ddi tio n to tho se shown se p ar at e ly .
3 Standard M e t r o p o l it a n S t a ti st i ca l A r e a s as defin ed by the U. S. Bure au of the Budget th rou gh M a r c h
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a t e no data r e p o r t e d o r data that d o not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r i t e r i a .




“

-

1965.

-

-

-

1.43
1. 64

-

1.49

2. 12
2. 30
-

2. 26
2. 01




Table 2. Earnings Distribution:

All Production Workers

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s
b y a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , 1 U n ited S ta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
U n ited S t a te s 2
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1
T ota l

W om en

M en

N ew
E ngland

M id d le
A tla n tic

_

0. 2

S ou th ea st

G reat
L a k es

P a c ific

U n d er $1. 2 5 ________________________________________

0. 6

( 3>

1. 0

1. 5

_

$1. 25
$1. 30
$ 1 .3 5
$1. 40
$1. 45

7.
2.
5.
3.
3.

1
9
4
6
8

3.
1.
2.
2.
2.

6
1
0
1
1

9.
4.
8.
4.
5.

7
2
0
7
0

5.
4.
4.
3.
7.

9
3
2
5
5

3.
.
2.
2.
3.

5
6
8
9
5

28.
10.
8.
7.
8.

0
7
7
4
7

2. 3
2. 8
7 .9
4. 4
2. 7

0.
1.
.
.
.

8
8
7
4
5

10. 8
7. 9
8 .9
7. 0
7. 3

8.
5.
7.
6.
7.

2
0
9
3
6

12.
10.
9.
7.
7.

7
0
6
5
1

10.
16.
13.
8.
3.

1
2
1
5
3

16.
9.
10.
10.
10.

2
1
2
4
9

8.
7.
3.
4.
3.

7
5
9
3
5

6.
6.
9.
6.
7.

1
2
1
1
7

.
1.
2.
.
9.

4
2
4
7
3

7.
7.
6.
6.
3.

9
8
7
2
5

5.
7.
2.
2.
1.

6
0
5
6
4

3.
3.
2.
2.
3.

4
3
9
3
4

7.
4.
2.
3.
2.

3
6
7
0
0

3.
1.
1.
.
.

5
7
1
4
3

5. 6
9 .4
6. 2
7. 1
2. 2

17.
25.
11.
6.
2.

6
6
2
0
2

1. 0
. 2
. 1
( 3)
( 3)

2.
1.
1.
.
.

3
8
3
8
3

1.
1.
1.
.
.

9
7
3
9
6

. 3
. 2
. 1
. 2
( 3)

3.
4.
3.
1.
1.

6
0
3
5
6

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$1.
$1.
$1.
$1.
$1.

30_____________________________
35_____________________________
4 0 _____________________________
4 5 _____________________________
50_____________________________

$1.
$1.
$1.
$1.
$1.

50
60
70
80

and
and
and
and
9 0 and

under
under
under
under
under

$1. 60_____________________________
$ 1 .7 0 _____________________________
$1. 80_____________________________
$1. 9 0 _____________________________
$2. 00_____________________________

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

10_____________________________
20_____________________________
30_____________________________
4 0 _____________________________
50_____________________________

6.
7.
4.
4.
2.

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
u n d er

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$3.

60_____________________________
70___ _______________________
80_____________________________
9 0 ________________________ __
00_____________________________

2. 2
1. 7
1 .4
.8
.6

6
3
3
1
2

3. 8
3. 7
3. 1
1 .9
1. 3

0. 5

2.
1.
1.
1.
.

6
8
7
0
6

$3. 00 and o v e r ______________________________________

3. 5

8. 2

( 3)

1. 4

3. 6

. 2

5. 2

5. 4

T o t a l__________________________________________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1
_________________________

4 9 ,7 36
$1. 87

20, 872
$2. 11

2 8 ,8 6 4
$1. 69

5, 339
$1. 79

13, 863
$ 1 .8 8

3, 628
$1. 50

1 5 ,9 9 7
$ 1 .9 5

4 , 329
$2. 22

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 I n clu d e s data f o r r e g io n s in addition to t h o s e show n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g ,

su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l 100.

(0

Table 3. Occupational Averages:

All Establishments

O

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly ea rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and oth e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c ts
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , U nited S ta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
U nited S ta tes
O c c u p a t io n and s e x

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A (a ll m en )--------------------------C a n d y m a k ers, c la s s B (1 ,6 8 4 m en
and 96 w o m e n )--------------------------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s ______________________________
M e n ________________________ _______________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
D ip p e r s , hand (15 m e n and 699 w o m e n ) ------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________________
M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n _____________________________ _____________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ---------------M e n ___________ ______________________________ _____
W o m e n ____________________________________________
F il li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
I n s p e c t o r s , ca n d y (1 3 m e n and 419 w o m e n )-----J a n i t o r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ____________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g (1 ,9 3 6 m en
and 18 w o m e n )______________________________________
M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n c e ( a ll m e n ) --------------------M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l u t ilit y (a ll m en)-------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce (a ll m e n )_______________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ( a ll m e n )_________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s (468 m en
and 9 w o m e n )----------------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk (57 m en
and 3, 318 w o m e n )_________________________________
P a c k e r s , hand, c a n d y b a r s (3 0 m en
and 1, 362 w o m e n )-------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y (2 m e n
and 5 ,6 3 6 w o m e n )--------------------------------------------------W a tch m e n (a ll m e n ) ________________________________
W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------M en -----------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .




N u m b er
of
w ork ers

New E ngland

1

H ou rly e a rn in g s 1
M ean 3

M edian 4

M id d le
ra n g e 5

$ 2 .3 1 —$2.77

M id d le A tla n tic

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

M ean 3

M ed ia n 4

M id d le
ra n g e 5

$ 2 .1 0 — 2.6 5
$

H o u r ly e a rn in g s 1

773

$2.55

$2.60

131

$2.45

$2.45

1, 780
2, 571
2, 397
174
714
463
378
85
1 ,9 3 0
141
1, 789
853
358
495
432
1 ,5 6 4
1 ,4 4 8
116

2 .1 4
1.89
1.91
1.60
1.61
2.28
2.45
1.54
1.69
2 .0 2
1.67
1.84
2 .10
1.65
1.78
1.83
1.84
1.66

2.20
1.80
1.84
1.64
1.50
2.36
2.46
1.40
1.68
1.90
1.60
1.83
2.25
1.55
1.83
1.82
1.84
1.67

1 .8 5 1 .5 0 1 .5 0 1 ,3 5 1 .3 0 1 .9 0 2 .1 0 1 .2 5 1 .3 6 1 .8 3 1 .3 5 1 .4 5 1 .8 3 1 .4 0 1 .4 5 1 .5 7 1 .5 7 1 .4 0 -

2 .5 0
2 .17
2.19
1.75
1.77
2.65
2.66
1.72
1.97
2.29
1.97
2.22
2.29
1.93
2.08
2.05
2.05
1.89

105
170
169
21
54
37
_
89
13
76
53

2.25
1.81
1.81
_
1.76
2 .12
2 .30
_
1.62
1.94
1,56
1.65

2 .30
1.80
1.80
1.69
2 .0 0
2.18

1 ,9 5 4
262
371
642
227

1.91
3.05
2.48
2.81
2.27

1.90
3.07
2.49
2.80
2.30

1 .6 4 2 .7 2 2 .1 0 2 .4 9 2 .0 0 -

2 .14
3.39
2.80
3.03
2 .52

237
29
41
55
47

477

1.96

2.00

1 .7 5 - 2.15

47

1.92

1.93

3, 375

1.58

1.53

1 .3 5 - 1.79

521

1.39

1.34

1, 392

1.74

1.71

1 .3 6 - 1.96

5 ,6 3 8
144
3, 564
157
3, 407

1.67
1.83
1.85
1.79
1.86

1.63
1.82
1.86
1.78
1.85

1 .4 4 1 .4 3 1 .5 3 1 .5 9 1 .5 3 -

1.86
2.12
2 .1 4
1.91
2 .14

-

52
20
146
130
-

636
302
16
286

$2.50

2 .1 8
1.79
1.83
1.62
1.46
2 .2 4
2 .30

2.12
1.79
1.85
1.71
1.40
2 .28
2.28

1.69
2.15
1.66
1.72
1.78
1.71
1.80
1.92
1.94
1.69

1.71
2.39
1.71
1.55
1.53
1.55
1.80
1.84
1.84
1.61

1 .4 0 1 .9 0 1 .3 5 1 .4 5 1 .5 3 1 .4 5 1 .5 5 1 .7 2 1 .7 2 1 .4 0 -

1.96
2.39
1.95
1.96
1.98
1.96
1.98
2.09
2.10
2.00

356
60
85
204
60

1.91
2 .92
2 .52
2.99
2.19

1.94
3.05
2.61
2 .93
2.20

1 .7 9 2 .3 0 2 .2 2 2 .7 2 1 .8 7 -

2 .02
3.13
2.97
3 .14
2.37

1 .7 5 - 2 .1 0

123

2 .0 0

1.91

1 .8 0 - 2 .02

1 .2 7 - 1.45

1, 195

1.61

1.55

1 .5 3 - 1.67

414

2.10

1.96

1 .9 6 - 2.55

2 ,2 1 3
60
673
42
631

1.63
1.82
1.88
1.84
1.89

1.57
1.90
1.88
1.80
1.90

1 .5 3 1 .4 2 1 .6 0 1 .8 0 1 .5 6 -

-

1.75
2 .80
2.35
2 .6 0
2.31

1 .5 3 2 .7 7 2 .0 0 2 .5 5 2 .0 4 -

-

-

-

1.72
2.03
1.65
2.05

1.75
1.88
1.65
1.88

M id d le
ra n g e 5

$2.5 3

1.75
2.89
2.49
2.61
2.29

-

1.57
1.68

M e d ia n 4

132

1.68
1.75
1.63
1.70
-

-

1.65
1.85
1.67
1.69

-

H o u r ly ea rn in g V
M ean3

607
486
393
93
238
103
96
_
484
31
453
232
42
190
128
338
315
23

2 .1 0 1 .6 5 1 .6 5 1 .6 7 1 .7 2 1 .9 7 _
1 .5 7 1 .5 7 1 .5 9 1 .5 9 1 .6 0 1 .5 0 1 .5 1 -

1.57

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

2.39
1.90
1.90
1.95
2.35
2 .6 3
1.62
1.58
1.68
1.68
2.11
1.80
1.80

1.79
2.97
2 .60
2.75
2 .42

1 .6 5 1 .6 6 1 .6 0 1 .6 6 -

1.83
2.48
1.70
2.48

-

-

$ 2 .3 6 —$2.65
1 .8 5 1 .6 0 1 .6 2 1 .3 5 1 .2 5 1 .9 8 2 .0 5 -

2.42
1.93
1.97
1.75
1.57
2.46
2 .46

-

1.79
2.07
2 .03
1.88
2 .03

Table 3. Occupational Averages:

All Establishments— Continued

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c ts
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , U n ited S ta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g io n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A ( a ll m en)--------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B ( 1 ,6 8 4 m e n
and 96 w o m e n ) _____________________________________
C a n d y m a k e rs * h e l p e r s _____________________________
M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
D ip p e r s , hand (15 m en and 699 w o m e n )-------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s --------------M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
F il li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n --------------------------------------------- --------------------I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y (1 3 m e n and 419 w om en )------J a n it o r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g (1 ,9 3 6 m en
and 18 w o m e n )_____________________________________
M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce ( a ll m en )---------------------M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l u t ilit y (a ll m en)------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e ( a ll m e n )---------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s (a ll m e n )-------------------------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s (4 6 8 m e n
and 9 w o m e n )______________________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d, bu lk (57 m en
and 3 ,3 1 8 w o m e n )_________________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d, ca n d y b a r s (3 0 m e n
and 1, 362 w o m e n )_________________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d, fa n c y (2 m en
and 5 ,6 3 6 w o m e n )_________________________________
W a tch m e n (a ll m e n ) ------------------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------M e n ________________________________________________
W o m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

H o u r ly e a rn in g s 1
M ean 3

P a c if i c

G re a t L a k es

S ou th ea st
O c c u p a t io n and s e x

M ed ia n 4

M id d le
ra n g e 5

H o u r ly e a rn in g s 1
M ean 3

M ed ia n 4

$ 2.7 0

$ 1 .5 5 —$ 2.25

246

$ 2.66

1.70
1.57
1.57
1.25

1.50
1.32
1.32
1.45
1.78
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.50
1.45

456
1 ,0 7 1
1 ,0 3 1
40
118
161
145
16
593
63
530
348
153
157
628
584
44

2.31
2 .1 3
2.15
1.68
1.60
2.47
2.58
1.47
1.60
2.05
1.55
1.96
1.64
1.99
1.91
1.91
1.82

2.30
2.11
2.1 1
1.60
1.70
2 .52
2 .56
1.40
1.50
1.90
1.45
1.98
1.55
2 .0 0
1.94
1.94
1.82

1.60
2.25
2 .50
2 .1 2

867
135
98
231
76

2 .0 2
3.19
2.61
2 .72
2.38

2 .0 0
3.17
2 .5 7
2.67
2 .40

52

$1.91

$1.85

253
341
314
27
28
13
15
126
_
119
89
37
52
94
116
96
20

1.51
1.45
1.47
1.28
1.62
1.92
1.36
1.35
_
1.34
1.43
1.51
1.36
1.38
1.40
1.41
1.37

1.45
1.35
1.35
1.25
1.50
1.30
1.32
1.32
1.40
1.45
1.32
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

1 .2 5 1 .3 0 1 .3 0 1 .3 0 1 .3 0 1 .2 7 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 -

136
12
40
35
15

1.45
2. 15
1.96
2.17
1.77

1.45
1.87
2.25
1.75

1 .2 5 1 .5 5 1 .9 2 1 .4 5 -

-

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .3 0 -

-

1.85
-

M id d le
ra n g e 5

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

H o u r ly e a rn in g s 1
M ean 3

M ed ia n 4

M id d le
L ange5

$ 2 .5 7 —
$2.77

107

$ 2 .8 3

$2.7 2

2 .0 2 1 .7 0 1 .7 4 1 .5 0 1 .3 5 2 .0 3 2 .1 7 1 .0 8 1 .3 6 1 .8 3 1.36—
1.55—
1 .3 6 1 .8 3 1 .7 4 1.75—
1.68—

2.50
2 .34
2 .34
1.82
1.75
2.71
2.71
1.87
1.83
2.28
1.79
2.25
1.95
2.18
2.05
2.05
2.17

194
147
147
130
55
48
347

2.59
2 .30
2 .30
2.21
2.61
2.65

-

2.55
2 .30
2 .30
2 .13
2 .62
2 .69
2 .06
2.06
2 .3 0
2 .42
2.02
2 .2 4
2 .2 4
-

2 .0 4
2 .0 4
2.29
2 .29
2 .0 4
2 .23
2 .23
_

2 .5 4 2 .1 7 2 .1 7 2 .1 0 2 .5 2 2 .5 4 1 .9 7 1 .9 7 2 .0 4 2 .2 9 1 .9 7 2 .1 2 2 .1 2 _

1.75—
2 .9 4 2 .2 5 2 .4 3 2 .0 5 -

2 .32
3.60
2.85
3.01
2.71

96
15
47
14

2.57
3 .14
3.37
2 .5 4

2 .5 2
3.01
3.30
-

2 .2 0 - 2.97
2 .7 3 - 3.79
3 .0 7 - 3.75
-

-

339
64
44
20
97
96

-

$ 2.72—$2.92
2.65
2.39
2.39
2 .24
2.77
2 .85
2 .1 4
2 .14
2.38
2.65
2.04
2.36
2.35
-

39

1.52

1.50

1 .3 5 - 1.66

205

2 .0 0

2 .0 4

1 .8 0 - 2.19

21

2 .38

2 .2 3

2 .1 5 — 2.60

176

1.34

1.27

1 .2 5 - 1.33

795

1.74

1.79

1 .4 6 - 1.92

218

1.88

1.99

1 .3 5 - 2.15

105

1.30

1.32

1 .2 5 - 1.32

553

1.55

1.36

1.36— 1.79

104

2 .05

2.05

1 .9 5 - 2 .14

245
13
401
38
363

1.37
1.34
1.52
1.55
1.52

1.32
1.42
1.65
1.40

1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .4 0 1 .2 5 -

1.44
1.78
1.69
1.79

1 ,2 5 8
59
1 ,4 5 7
34
1 ,4 2 3

1.71
1.93
1.95
2.12
1.94

1.67
1.96
1.97
2 .22
1.97

1 .4 0 1 .6 0 1 .6 4 1 .91—
1 .6 2 -

543
223
214

2.05
2.13
2 .1 3

2 .0 4
2 .1 4
2 .1 4

2 .0 4 - 2.11
2 .0 4 - 2.20
2 .0 4 - 2 .14

2.13
2.12
2.36
2 .22
2.36

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s ,
2 In c lu d e s data f o r r e g io n s in a d d ition to t h o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 T h e m e a n f o r e a ch jo b is co m p u te d b y m u ltip ly in g ea ch ra te b y the n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv in g the r a te ; the to ta l o f t h e se p r o d u c t s is d iv id e d b y the n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s .
4 T h e m e d ia n d e s ig n a t e s p o s it io n , that is , h a lf o f the e m p lo y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e iv e d m o r e than the r a te show n and h a lf r e c e iv e d le s s than the ra te sh ow n .
M ed ia n s a re om itte d fo r
o c c u p a t io n s that had fe w e r than 15 e m p lo y e e s in a r e g io n .
5 T h e m id d le ra n g e is d e fin e d b y 2 ra te s o f p a y ; a fou rth o f the e m p lo y e e s e a rn e d l e s s than the lo w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s and a fo u r th e a rn e d m o r e than the h ig h e r r a te .
M id d le ra n g e s
a r e o m it t e d f o r o c c u p a t io n s that had fe w e r than 15 e m p lo y e e s in a r e g io n .
NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a t e no data r e p o r t e d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .




Table 4.

Occupational Averages:

By Size o f Establishment

10

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , U n ited S tates and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
U n ited States

G r e a t L ak es

M id d le A tla n tic
E s ta b lis h m e n t s w ith —

S ex and o c c u p a t io n

2 0-99
w ork ers

250 w o r k e r s
or m ore

100 -2 49
w ork ers

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver a ge
h ou rly
ea rn ­
ings

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver age
h ou rly
ea rn ­
ings

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver a ge
h o u r ly
earn ­
ings

216
569
654
85
151
320
128
24
42
40

$2. 51
2. 00
1. 66
2. 36
1 .6 1
1. 77
2. 59
2. 37
2. 1 1
1. 83

170
471
670
77
291
476
170
160
50
116

$2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
1.

51
09
71
38
85
94
47
77
20
83

387
644
1 ,0 7 3
216
1 ,0 0 6
1, 140
73
458
135
312

492
586
112
34
958
268
1 ,8 3 2
528

1. 44
1. 51
1 .4 0
1. 52
1. 49
1. 61
1. 58
1. 55

109
487
126
156
872
205
1, 255
914

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

13
82
63
60
59
54
63
75

98
716
257
229
1 ,4 8 8
889
2, 549
1 ,9 6 5

100--249
w o r ' k er s

2 0 -9 9
w ork ers
Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver­
a ge
h o u r ly
earn ­
in gs

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

250 w o r k e r s
or m ore

A ver age
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
in gs

250 w o r k e r s
or m ore

1 0 0 -2 4 9
w ork ers

2 0 -9 9
w ork ers

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver­
a ge
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
in gs

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver­
a ge
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
ings

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

60
247
87
66
238
147

24
79
142
27
54
139
27

$2. 55
2. 12
1. 62
2. 30
1 .6 4
1. 78
2. 66

160
34
100

$2. 56
2. 38
1. 98
2. 34
2. 01
1. 96
3. 07
2. 38
2. 08

32
104
122
16
57
140
46
50
18
63

21
275
134
79
629
_
1, 114
424

2. 29
1. 86
1. 82
1. 87
1. 67
_
1. 70
1. 94

95
225
_

A ver­
age
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
ings

Num ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver­
a ge
h o u r ly
earn ­
ings

M en
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A _____________________________
C a n dy m a k ers, cla s s R
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ________________________ ____
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________________
J a n i t o r s _______________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g -------------------------------M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y ________________
M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e ___________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s _____________________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s __________________________

$2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

15
105
165
16
58
132
45
36
14

$2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

-

-

-

58
35
18
51
87
95
29
85
34
03

57
173
141
14
19
76
36
8

$2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.

-

-

1. 80
1. 70
1. 76
1. 91
1. 63
1. 79
1. 75
1 .9 9

204
132
_
214

49
09
80
09
56
79
66
89

54
14
77
33
80
92
37
68
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$2.
2.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
1.

53
26
70
34
90
97
80
52
42
90

190
262
767
102
473
579
25
177
51
129

$2. 70
2. 40
2. 31
2. 70
1 .9 5
2. 10
2. 23
2. 79
2. 43
2. 09

_
245
81
109
351
523
599
1 ,0 6 6

_
1. 61
1 .7 3
2. 03
1. 86
1. 56
1. 93
2. 00

W om en
D ip p e r s , h and_______________________________________
E n r o b i n g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s __________
F i l li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
I n s p e c t o r s , ca n d y ___________________________________
P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk -----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, ca n d y b a r s ----------------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d, fa n c y ---------------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s ,
2 I n clu d e s data f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a t e ly .
NOTE:

h o lid a y s ,

656
70

and la te s h ift s .

D a s h e s in d ic a t e no data r e p o r t e d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r i t e r i a .




-

1. 37
1. 28
_
1. 50
-

1. 50
1 .7 3

_
46
_
27
342
-

44 3
137

_
1. 58
_
1 .7 2
1. 56
1. 62
1. 79

-

172
_
477
88

1. 51
1. 42
_
-

1. 63
1 .4 6
1. 60

_
60
32
262
-

182
269

_
1. 80
1. 82
1. 66
-

1. 67
1. 84

Table 5. Occupational Averages:

By Labor-Management Contract Coverage and Size o f Establishment

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c ts
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , U n ited S ta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
U n ited State

M id d le A tla n tic

G re a t L a k e s

E s ta b lis h m e n t s w ith—
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and s i z e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t

M a jo r it y c o v e r e d

N one o r m in o r it y
cov ered

M a jo r it y c o v e r e d

N one o r m in o r it y
cov ered

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

841
402
192
247
1, 504
484
274
746
199
57
26
116
679
115
114
450
948
140
219
589
248
14
65
169
117
23
60

$ 1 .9 8
1. 84
1. 81
2. 32
1 .8 8
1. 53
1. 55
2. 21
2. 44
2. 17
2. 20
2. 62
1 .8 5
1. 55
1 .6 0
1 .9 9
1. 89
1 .6 4
1 .7 7
2. 00
2. 81
1 .8 7
2. 58
2. 98
2. 17
1 .9 2
2. 35

426
95
226
304

$ 2. 25

396
327
179
51
100
769
177
556
988
257
551
394
95
289
110
27
75

$ 2. 34
2. 28
2. 37
1. 95
1. 81
2. 06
2. 47
2. 48
2. 38
1. 83
2. 00
1. 78
1. 94
2. 09
1. 89
2. 81
2. 91
2. 77
2. 37
2. 44
2. 33

151
82
65
15
45
229
52
166
244
71
128
148
30
110
43
11
32

1. 79
1 .9 7
2. 34
2. 35
2. 31
1 .8 3
1. 84
1 .8 4
1 .9 0
1 .9 7
1. 88
2. 85
2. 74
2. 87
2. 35
2. 32
2. 37

14
31
21
86
_
Ill
_
17
-

916

1. 88

873
433
83
357
234
94
112
774
185
482
107
082
406
567
109

1 .4 5
1. 35
1. 34
1. 59
1. 69
1 .4 5
1 .9 6
1. 59
1 .4 4
1 .4 3
1 .8 0
1 .8 3
1 .4 5
1 .6 5
2. 07

245

1 .8 2
1. 58
1 .8 8
1 .8 2
1 .6 7
1 .8 6
i . 68
1. 57
1 .7 2
1 .8 5
1 .7 5
1 .8 8

208

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h ou rly
ea rn in g s

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

M a jo r it y c o v e r e d
N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N one o r m in o r it y
cov ered
N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

M en
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B -----------------------------------------20—
99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s _______________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s ------------------------------------------20—99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------20—
99 w o r k e r s __________________________________
100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------J a n it o r s --------------------------------------------------------------------20—
99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ------------------------------20—
99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------------20—
99 w o r k e r s __________________________________
100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e _________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ---------------------------------------

843
279
397
893
-

-

-

2. 16
2. 37
1. 88
-

99
10
89
-

$ 2. 17
1 .9 8
1. 64
-

188
-

62
119
268
180
52
9
37
263
_
28
223
407
80

$ 2. 30
2. 20
2. 35
1 .9 3
-

1. 77
-

150
_
27
123
33
10
23

2. 12
2. 53
2. 42
2. 50
1. 84
.
1 .9 9
1 .8 2
1. 97
2. 05
_
2. 68
_
2. 51
2. 72
2. 30
2. 46
2. 23

1 .4 8

182

1 .7 3

1 .6 0
2. 22
2. 40
2. 24
_
1 .9 3
-

-

257
72
42
143
763
120
56
587
93
21
7
65
321
42
29
250
451
34
60
357
81

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.

33
10
34
44
22
63
90
37
61
13
24
81
97
59
81
05
08
67
85
16
79

23
54
43
8
-

2. 53
2. 93
2. 45
2. 37
-

348
201

1. 46
1 .4 2

W om en
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ’ h e l p e r s -------------20—99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s _______________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s _______________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e _________________________
P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y _____________________________
20—
99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e --------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------20—99 w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------100—249 w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ---------------------------------------

-

404
359
185
62
117
2, 862
773
1 ,4 4 2
1, 325
347
856

-

1. 91
1. 80
1 .8 6
1 .8 3
1 .8 7
1 .7 5
1 .7 5
1 .7 0
1 .8 9
1 .9 0
1 .8 9

2,
1,
1,
2,

1,

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
2 In c lu d e s da ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th ose sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
NOTE:

h o lid a y s ,

and la te s h ift s .

D a s h e s in d ic a t e no data r e p o r t e d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .




-

46
184
87
19
68
1, 645
351
1, 042
445
44
336

-

-

_

_

-

-

_
186
93

_
_
1 .9 7
1 .8 1

-

48
110
75
49
323
181
_
457
83
364

-

1 .8 8
1. 72
1. 89
1 .8 9
1. 64
1 .6 7
_

1. 89
1 .9 4
1. 88

_

135
74
12
60
935
423
_
_

966
78
186
702

.

1. 52
2. 07
1. 78
2. 15
1. 74
1 .4 5
_
_

1 .9 7
1. 59
1. 79
2. 06

Table 6.

Occupational Averages:

By Method o f W age Payment

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , U n ited S tates and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , S e p te m b e r 1965)

T im e w o r k e r s
S ex and o c c u p a t io n

M id d le .A tla n tic

New E n gland

U n ited S ta te s 2
In cen tiv e
w ork ers

T im e w o r k e r s

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A v e r ­ Num - A v e r ­ N u m ­
a ge
ber
ber
age
of
h o u r ly
of
h o u r ly
ea rn ­ w o rk ­ ea rn ­ w o rk ­
ers
ings
ers
ings

1 ,2 6 0
1 ,8 7 2
286
121
163
311

$2. 11
1. 73
2. 34
1 .9 6
2. 19
1. 89

T im e w o r k e r s

A v e r­ Num ­
a ge
ber
h o u r ly
of
ea rn ­ w o rk ­
ings
ers

A v er­ Num ­
a ge
ber
h o u r ly
of
ea rn ­ w o rk ­
in gs
ers

G re a t L a k e s

S ou th ea st

I n ce n tiv e
w ork ers

T im e w o r k e r s

A ver­
age
h o u r ly
ea rn ­
in gs

In cen tiv e
w ork ers

N um ­ A ver - Num ­ A v e r­
ber
age
a ge
ber
of
h ou rly
of
h o u r ly
w o rk ­ earn ­ w ork ­ earn ­
ers
in gs
ers
in gs

T im e w o r k e r s
Num ­ A ver a ge
ber
h o u r ly
of
w ork ­ earn ­
ers
in gs

P a c ific

I n ce n tiv e
w ork ers

T im e w o r k e r s

N um ­ A ver - Num ­
age
ber
ber
h o u r ly
of
of
w o rk ­ ea rn ­ w o rk ­
ers
ers
in gs

Av er age
h o u r ly
ea rn in 8 s

M en
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B _____________ _______________
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ______________________________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________ _____
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s __________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s _____________ ________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s __________________________

424
525
92
20
64
157

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

31
54
80
38
46
11

73
151
29
13
38
40

427
168
86
1 ,0 2 7
2, 003
1 ,5 5 4

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

84
88
99
68
81
06

38
20
178
434
79

$2. 18
1. 77
2. 39
1 .9 4
2. 22
1. 85

381 $2. 15
382
1. 81
73
2. 26
31
2. 15
2. 05
47
94
1. 84

144
-

23
13
-

$ 2 .4 5

2. 69
-

161
269
12
18

1.
1.
1.
2.

100
37
79
78
166
149

-

2. 44
-

$ 1 .4 7
1. 41
1. 96
1 .4 4

9
16

1. 66
1. 59

300
583
94
46
44
99

19
15
78
79
214

1. 51
1. 52
1 .4 3
1. 55
1. 68

430
108
107
563
529
578

92
-

$ 1 .5 9
-

$2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.

17
77
32.
89
24
94

145
448
51
17
32
102

1. 50
1. 53
1 .9 3
1. 65
1. 45
1. 65

100
45
7 29
845

61
64
07
47
58
08

191
147
48
14
21

$2. 55
2. 30
2. 69
2. 54
2. 38

1. 76
1. 9 0
1. 90
2. 14

325
20
20 2
541
214

2. 05
2. 02
1. 86
2. 04
2. 13

$2.
2.
3.
2.
2.
2.

W om en
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ---------------F il li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ________________________
I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y __________________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d, b u lk _______________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d , fa n c y ______________________________
W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________________

1, 362
327
333
2, 291
3, 633
1 ,8 5 3

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

61
53
71
53
59
69

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s ,
2 In c lu d e s data f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
NOTE:

D ashes




_

h o lid a y s ,

_

1. 66
1. 85
1 .4 3
1. 66
1 .6 9

260
96
94
801
1 ,5 0 2
358

1. 52
1 .4 5
1. 69
1. 51
1. 54
1. 78

and la te sh ifts .

in d ic a t e n o data r e p o r t e d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r i t e r i a .

193
-

384
711
27 3

86

83
81
02

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

30
32
36
27
29
30

Table 7. Occupational Earnings:

Boston

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c ts
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p t e m b e r 1965)
NumSex and o c c u p a t io n

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s __________
M e n --------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------

A ver-

of
w ork ci s

h o u r ly
ea rn -

4 ,1 6 0
1,598
2,5 6 2

$ 1 .7 9
2. 07
1 .6 2

156
2
154

130
12
118

144
15
129

100
17
183

308
44
264

446
141
305

782
94
688

603
173
430

442
162
280

104
90
86
56
111
94
29
21

2. 43
2. 41
2. 28
2. 21
1 .8 9
1 .8 3
2. 25
2. 34

_
_
-

_
2
2

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
6
6

_
_
_
10
10

_
1
1
12
11

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

_

_
5
5
46
46
1
1

8
119

2. 00
1 .6 8

_

4

7

2

2

1
29

_
15

_
29

2

1

9

27

23

-

-

-

_

_

1
Mumbe r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e houi:ly e a rn in g s o f—
$1.2 5 $1.3 0 $1.35 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0
and
un d er
$1.30 $ 1 .3 5 $1.40 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0 o v e r

157
104
53

171
153
18

143
116
27

112
105
7

105
103
2

68
67
1

74
74

52
52

62
62

"

-

-

3
3
3
3
_

1
1
8
6
4
4
8
8

1
1
12
11
14

10
10
28
14
1

16
15
6
3

18
5
7
6

8
8
9
1

7
7

2
2

_

_

9
2

29
29
7
6
16
15
2
2

2
1

_
_

1
1

1
1

.
_

_

3
3

_

_
12

2
9

_
8

5
2

67

11

4

4

21

2

1

_

1

3

8

_

3

6

1

2

4

_

_

_

_
8
7
7
7

2
10
8
2

2
5
5
2

2
5
1

12
2
1

_
1

2

5
5
5
4

1
_
_
2

14
_

10
10

1
5
5
5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

1

6

2

7

_

_

29
29

13
13

21
20
1

27
25
2

6
6

2
2

5
5

10
10
-

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — m e n

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A __________
T im e ------------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B __________
T im e ------------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s ___________
T im e ------------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___
T im e ------------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____
J a n it o r s (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ______
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _______________
M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce
(a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) .
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t ilit y (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ___________________
T im e -------------------------------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ________
T im e --------------------------------------------

172

1 .7 6

23

2. 50

38
41
32
39
32

2. 62
2. 28
2. 21
1 .9 5
1 .8 7

76
34
147
113
542
343
100
58

1. 56
1 .6 8
1. 50
1 .4 6
1 .7 4
1 .6 8
1 .7 3
1 .7 8

2
2

2. 83

37

_

1
1

1
-

-

_

-

“

-

3
1
14
14
7
7

_
20
19
17
16

-

1
1

1

1

4

8
6

20
19
12
12
1
1

1

2
2

1
1

1
1

50
7
28
18
15
15
1
1

14
21
22
10
135
131
52
10

4

_

2

-

34

3
1

1

-

"

-

-

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s ---- 'w om en

E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s 2 --------------------------------------4
3
F il li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s 4 ____
P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk _____!________
T im e -------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y ____________
T im e -------------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___
T im e --------------------------------------------

_
_
13
13

_
_

_

_

_
_

_

15
14
164
151
24
24

4
7
176
11
21
21

1

1
1

2 T h e E o s to n S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f S u ffolk C ounty, 15 c o m m u n it ie s in E s s e x C ounty, 30 in M id d le s e x C ou n ty , 20 in N o r fo lk C ou n ty, and
9 in P ly m ou th C ounty.
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . A p p r o x im a t e ly 77 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the
study w e re paid on
tim e b a s i s .
’
*
r
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo l lo w s :
3 at $ 3 . 6 0 to $ 3 . 7 0 ; and 1 at $ 3 . 7 0 to $ 3 . 8 0 .
I n s u ffic ie n t data to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s by m e th o d o f w ag e p a y m en t; p r e d o m in a n t ly t im e w o r k e r s .




Table 8.

Occupational Earnings:

0)

Chicago

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p te m b e r 1965)

Sex and o c c u p a t io n

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s -------W o m e n ____________________

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o fA verage
$ 1 .2 5 $ 1.3 0 $1.3 5 $1.40 $1.45 $ 1.50 $1.60 $ 1.70 $1.8 0 $ 1 . 9 0 $ 2.0 0 $2.1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2.3 0 $2.4 0 $ 2.5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2.7 0 $ 2.8 0 $ 2.9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $3.1 0 $ 3.2 0 $3.40 '$ 3 .6 0 $3.8 0
h o u r ly
and
and
ea rn ­
u n d er
in gs 2
$ 1 .3 0 $ 1.3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1.45 $1.50 $ 1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $ 1 .?0 $2.0 0 $2.1 0 $2.2 0 $ 2.3 0 $ 2.4 0 $2.5 0 $2.6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2.8 0 .£ 4 2 P $ 3 .0 0 $3.1 0 $ 3.20 $ 3.4 0 $3.6 0 $ 3.8 0 o v e r

9 ,9 7 6
5, 159
4 , 817

$2. 09
2. 30
1. 86

132
14
118

255
70
185

_
_
3
3
-

_
_
10
10
-

459
118
341

439
134
305

135
35
100

503
173
330

603
214
389

597
242
355

527
206
321

759
297
462

6 32
361
271

1241
558
683

790
462
328

990
528
462

229
180
49

291
198
93

197
187
10

215
215

146
146

“

~

161
161

8
8

"

4

3

4

-

-

-

-

17

-

4
4

3
4

4
-

3

2

58

60

17
-

-

4

-

3

2

58

60

-

-

6
6

-

3
3
-

-

19
19

-

-

127
127

172
170
2

71
71
~

63
60
3

234
224
10

'

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — m e n

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B _____

C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s --------I n c e n t iv e ___________________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ___________________
T i m e _______________________
I n c e n t iv e ___________________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ------------T i m e ...........................................
I n c e n t iv e __________________
J a n i t o r s _______________________
T i m e ...........................................
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l
h a n d lin g _____________________
T i m e _______________________
M a c h in is t s , m a in t e n a n c e . . .
T im e _______________________
M a in te n a n c e m e n ,
g e n e r a l u t ilit y
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) -------------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) -------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s -------------------T im e _______________________
M ogul o p e r a to r s '
h e l p e r s ______________________
T im e _______________________
W a tch m e n (a ll
t im e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------W ra p p in g - m a ch in e
o p e r a t o r s 3a / -----------------------

305
177
128
744
30 3
441

2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
2.

38
19
65
29
78
65

_
.
22
22
-

.
20
20
-

.
4
4
-

5
5
15
14
1

7
7
69
67
2

10
10
38
36
2

6
5
1
17
16
1

23
21
2
21
16
5

10
5
5
17
11
6

24
20
4
79
71
8

51
36
15
43
11
32

21
18
3
175
2
173

23
18
5
32

68
31
37
5

29
1
28
43

32

5

43

4

.8
3
5

20
20
-

16
1
15

90
44
46

2. 82
2. 47
3. 15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

6
6
-

-

2
2
-

1
1

2
2
-

4
4
-

33
16
17
4 53
332

2. 18
1. 87
2. 47
1 .9 2
1. 87

_

-

22
22

1
1
42
42

28
27

10
8
2
71
71

2
2
133
13

2
2
24
24

1
1
1
1

7
2
5
60
60

4

'

~

-

-

-

5
5
21
21

4

-

3
3

1

_

37
37

1

-

11
11

-

-

49 3
270
104
53

2.
1.
3.
3.

13
88
32
39

9
9

1
1

6
6

4
4

4
4

13
13

14
14

48
48

32
31

50
50

39
38

27
27

13
13

185
9

3
2

2. 95

-

30

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

13

19

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1
1

5
5

3
1

4
1

19
6

12
2

4
2

19
5

36
31

-

4

1

"

16

3

2

2

2

1

2

1

"

2

4

6

15
6
"

4
2
2

6
1
1

7
“

8
1
1

4
20

5

10

46

5

10

-

"

"

36
3

140
43
16

2. 89
2. 36
1. 99

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
11

1
1

1
*

4
“

104
33

2. 03
1 .7 3

-

-

-

3
3

3
3

3
3

11
11

6
6

-

7
-

11
1

24
3

44

1. 97

-

-

-

10

-

3

1

3

-

-

~

18

-

-

-

21

2. 19

1

1

2

1

12

2

1

-

1
-

4

2

"

■

"

'

"
"
9

"

"

"

"

•

■

“

~

"

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

"

1

"

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s 3b / —
D ip p e r s , hand 3 / ----------------a
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ------------T i m e -----------------------------------

13
46

1. 65
1. 78

-

-

3

-

4
-

1
2

1
2

2
-

1
27

2
2

1
2

213
158

1. 51
1 .4 3

30
30

20
20

10
10

63
63

15
15

5

11

11

40
12

8
8

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le .




2

-

-

Table 8.

Occupational Earnings:

Chicago1— Continued

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
NumS ex and o c c u p a t io n

of
w ork er s

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s ofA verage
^1725 $1.3 0 $ 1.35 $1.40 $1.4 5 $1.5 0 $ 1.6 0 $1.7 0 $ 1.8 0 $1.9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $2.1 0 $2.2 0 $ 2.3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2.7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $3.40 $ 3.6 0 $3.8 0
h ou rly
ea rn and
ings 2
$1.3 0 $ 1.35 $ 1.40 $1.45 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1.6 0 $1.70 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1.9 0 $2.0 0 $2.1 0 $2.2 0 $ 2.30 $ 2.4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2.6 0 $2.7 0 $ 2.8 0 $^•90 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $3.60 $ 3.80 o v e r

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n —
C o n tin u ed

F i l li n g - m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s _____________
T im e ________________
I n c e n t iv e ____________
I n s p e c t o r s , ca n d y ____
T i m e ------------------------J a n i t o r s ------------------------T im e ------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u lk .,
T i m e . _______________
P a c k e r s , h a n d, fa n cy .
T i m e ________________
I n c e n t iv e ___________
W ra p p in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ____________
T i m e ________________
I n c e n t iv e ___________ *
3
2

99
54
45
116
75
29
23
284
96
8 36
240
596

$1. 77
1. 66

868
195
673

2. 11
1. 72
2. 22

1.9 0

2. 04
1. 99
1. 92
1 .9 3
1. 83
1. 39
1 .8 1
1 .4 7
1 .9 4

45
45
5
3
2

13
13
41
36
5

12
12

_
_

6
6
2
2
6
6
90
40
50

8
8
8
8
2
2
87
62
25

1
1
12
12
9
9
-

21
16
5
1
1
1
1
1
39
39
-

10
3
7
4
3
5
5
21
48
33
15

4
1
3
1
1
16
12
82
3
79

8
1
7
5
6
.
11
4
47
15
32

27
18
9
27
27
4
4
5
2
29

9

350

29

9

350

7
7

7
6
1

11
10
1

66
50
16

38
9
29

32
15
17

43
13
30

112
39
73

54
34
20

42

23

364

42

23

364

7

1

3

1

2

7
8
8
_
_
2

1
46
11
11
11
150

3
1
1

1
15
15

2

_

51
51

_

6

_

.

_

_

_

_

6

T h e C h ic a g o Sta nda rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f C o o k , D u P a g e , K an e, L a k e , M c H e n r y , and W ill C o u n tie s . In the B u r e a u 's I960 s u r v e y o f th is in d u s tr y , the a r e a w as
lim it e d to C o o k C ou n ty ; the a d d itio n a l co u n tie s in the cu r r e n t stu d y a c c o u n te d f o r le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t s and e m p lo y m e n t.
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . A p p r o x im a t e ly 51 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the stud y w e r e pa id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s is .
3 I n s u ffic ie n t data to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n o f se p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m eth od o f w a g e p a y m en t; (a) p r e d o m in a n t ly t im e w o r k e r s , and (b) p r e d o m in a n t ly in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .




Table 9.

Occupational Earnings:

Los A ngeles-L on g Beach

00

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p t e m b e r 1965)

S e x and o c c u p a t io n

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—
A v erage
$ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $ 2.3 0 $ 2.40 $ 2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.8 0 $2.9 0 $3.00 $ 3.10 $3.20 $3.30
h o u r ly $1.2 5 $1.3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5
and
and
ea rn ­
under
in gs 2
$ 1.3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1.4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1.60 $ 1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $ 2.3 0 $ 2.4 0 $2.5 0 $ 2.60 $2.7 0 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $ 3.20 $3.30 o v e r

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ___________________
M en — ____________________________________
W nm pn . _
. . .

1 ,4 2 2
627
795

$2.11
2 .40
1.88

20
61
24
19
19
53
46
13
6

3. 13
2.42
2.09
2 .74
2.45
2 .10
2.62
3 .04
2.71

73
137
65
44

2.07
1.72
1.84
1.95

33
33

29
_
29

18
4
14

21
_
21

16
4
12

43
11
32

33
12
21

32
8
24

383
12
371

26
26

8
8

22
22

4

3
4

-

2

5

_

1

_

1

3

1
3

-

2

-

82
16
66

110
68
42

200
150
50

46
34
12

30
21
9

76
63
13

30
28
2

6

77
_
77

_
10

8
2

5

22

-

10
7

_
2

2
30
2

8
2

31
31

30
30

28
28

18
18

6

4

5

2

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

18

1

33

-

-

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — m e n

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A ___________________
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B ----------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------F il li n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ---------------------J a n itn rs
.......
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ____________
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l u t il it y ---------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ___________________________

_
-

-

-

3

3
_

_
_

_
_

_
1

-

-

-

-

-

2

_
_

_
1

2
_

1
_

_
_

_
_

6
5
2

_
1
3

:

:

2
11
7
:

:

2

14
2
2

19
4
-

2
8

6

-

-

6
2
2

:

:

2
2

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n

D ip p e r s , h a n d ______________________________
P a c k e r s , ha nd, b u l k . -----------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y -------------- ---------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------

_
_

48
_

'

‘

4
9
6

1
1
1

2
.
1

.
_
1

1
3
9

_
2
6

2
1
9
1

14
61
33
28

6
2
6

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

1 T h e L o s A n g e l e s - L o n g B e a ch S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f L o s A n g e le s C ou n ty .
In the B u r e a u 's I960 s u r v e y , the a r e a a ls o in clu d e d O ra n g e C ou n ty w h ich had
no e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e o f the c u r r e n t su r v e y .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
V ir t u a lly a ll o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e paid on a t im e b a s is .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e at $ 3 .7 0 to $ 3 .8 0 .




Table 10. Occupational Earnings: New York
(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
NumS ex and o c c u p a t io n

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s —
M e n -------------------------------W o m e n --------------------------

of
w ork ers

3, 845
1, 399
2, 446

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s ofA v erage
$ 1 .2 5 $1 .30 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $2.1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $2.30 $ 2.4 0 $ 2.5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2.8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3.30 $3.4 0 $3.5 0
h o u r ly
ea rn and
in gs 1
2
3
$ 1 .3 0 $ ! .35 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $ 2.1 0 $ 2.2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $2.6 0 $ 2.7 0 $2.8 0 $2.9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .3 0 $ 3.4 0 $3.5 0 o v e r

$ 1 .8 6
2. 09
1. 74

109
33
76

30
6
24

87
3
84

70
23
47

128
53
75

438
66
372

541
85
456

518
218
300

692
128
564

316
136
180

233
98
135

153
86
67

101
82
19

87
73
14

83
75
8

40
29
11

24
19
5

28
22
6

'

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — m e n
C a n dym a k ers, c la s s A —
T im e ____________________
C a n d y m a k ers, cla s s B
T im e -----------------------------I n c e n t iv e ----------------------C a n d y m a k ers' h e lp e r s —
T im e -----------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ------------------------T im e -----------------------------J a n it o r s (a ll
t im e w o r k e r s ) ___________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l
h a n d lin g (a ll
t im e w o r k e r s ) ----------------M a in te n a n c e m e n ,
g e n e r a l u t ilit y
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------M og u l o p e r a t o r s 3 -----------W a tch m e n (a ll
t i m e w o r k e r s ) ----------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s (a ll
t i m e w o r k e r s ) -----------------

35
35

40
20
140
121
19
163
153

2. 52
2. 52
2. 30
2. 26
2. 50
1 .9 3
1 .9 1

24
9

2. 27
2. 30

96

1. 78

101

_

_

_

16
13
3
16
13

2
2
11
9
2
24
23

5
3
14
11
3
17
14

7
4
35
32
3
2
1

9
2
25
25

16
16

9
8
1
23
23

1
1

1
"

1
-

5
2

4

9
4

44

17

11

4

1

21

9

19

14

5

2

1

-

-

1

1

3

-

-

-

2
2

8

1

11
17

'

14
14

3
3

'

'

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

29
26
3

1

1

16
16

13
13
'

27
27

1

6

30
30

2
2

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

3
3

17
17

_

_

_

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

4

2

3

7

1. 80

-

-

-

1

18

5

32

2. 74

-

-

-

-

-

-

39
15

2. 87
2. 42

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

14

1 .8 6

1

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

29

1 .7 9

-

-

*

-

-

-

6

-

125
383
193
190
918
376

1. 81
1 .7 0
1. 51
1 .8 9
1 .7 3
1 .6 1

23
23

19
18
1
5
5

9
6
3
14
10

3
5
4
1
1
-

18
75
68
7
155
105

16
41
32
9
193
162

18
28
11
17
140
30

34
76
14
62
325
25

169
40
129

1 .8 3
1. 64
1 .8 9

1
1

13
7
6

15
14
1

29
4
25

46
2
44

2
2

5
3
1
1

3
2
3
-

3
2
5
5

_

-

-

3

_

3
3

2
-

-

-

1
-

2
2

-

2

4

4
2

2

2

-

-

-

-

2
2

3
_

_

3
2

_
_

_

_

_

2

2

_
_

_

_

_

_
.

2

2

_
.

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

5

13

-

-

-

-

10

10
-

4
-

_

_

.

-

4

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

8
8
33
33

_

3
3

"

_

-

_

2

1
2

1

-

-

10
36

2

17
36
10

35
8
-

36
-

-

2

2

-

-

"

16
6
10

31

7

4

31

7

4

1

11
35

"

2
2

4

-

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s 3 ----P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk -----T im e -----------------------------I n c e n t iv e ----------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y ----T im e -----------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s -----------------------T im e -----------------------------I n c e n t iv e -----------------------

-

25
25

_

_

_

-

2
19
17
2
6
1
1

6
5
1

4
2

-

1 T he N ew Y o r k S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f N ew Y o r k C ity (B r o n x , K in g s, New Y o r k , Q u een s, and R ich m o n d C o u n tie s) and N a ss a u , R o c k la n d , S u ffolk , and
W e s t c h e s t e r C o u n tie s .
In th e B u r e a u 's I960 s u r v e y o f this in d u str y , the a r e a w as lim it e d to N ew Y o r k C ity ; the a d d itio n a l c o u n tie s in the c u r r e n t stu d y a c c o u n te d f o r
about o n e -s ix t h o f
the e s t a b lis h m e n t s and o n e - s ix t h o f the e m p lo y m e n t.
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 63 p e r c e n t o f
the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s w e r e
pa id on a tim e b a s is .
3 I n s u ffic ie n t data to w a r r a n t p r e s e n ta tio n o f se p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m en t; p r e d o m in a n tly in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s .




Tabic 11. Occupational Earnings:

Philadelphia1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s '1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
Num S ex and o c c u p a t io n

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s M e n ------------------------------

h o u r ly
ea rn in gs 2

2,5 8 8
959
1, 629

$ 1 .9 3
2. 14
1 .8 1

24
66
51
99
98
26
18
57

2. 25
2. 28
2. 16
1 .7 4
1 .7 4
2. 28
2. 05
1 .8 4

33
9

1 .9 4
2. 41

63
46

1 .7 6
1. 57

132
62
10
230
195
37

1 .6 4
1 .4 8
1 .9 6
1. 65
1. 54
1. 74

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g * t r a ig h t -t im e hou r ly e a rn in g s o f—
s

A v er-

of
w ork ers

$1.25 $1.30 $1.35 $ 1.40 $1.4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and

-

$1.30 $1.35 $1.40 $ 1.45 $ 1.5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1.7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .? 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 . 9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 o v e r

102
28
74

237
19
218

334
38
296

212
93
119

168
106
62

-

-

12
12

-

14
14
26
26
12
12
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
21

17

_

2

46
18
28

68
6
62

_
_

-

.

4
1

7
2

127
25
102

162
47
115

_

36
20
16

251
48
203

304
115
189

121
59
62

18
18
1

10
1
1
3
3

120
87
33

69
38
31

45
36
9

38
33
5

56
53
3

30
30

18
18

18
16
2

17
17

1
9
5

3

2

2

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
-

-

5
3

-

7
4
2
1
1

-

_
-

3
3

1

3

4

-

_

-

-

9
9

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s — m e n

C a n dym a k ers, c la s s A
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B -------------------------------------T im e -----------------------------------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s --------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------J a n it o r s ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ____________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l ha n dlin g
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____________________________
M og u l o p e r a t o r s 3 ------------------------------------------------

6

_
_

_

_

-

_

-

-

_
_

-

6

-

2

-

3

3

9

6
6
26
26
1
1
8

2

_

_

_

3

_

_

_

-

-

.

20
20

10
10

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

_
_

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

3

1

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n

D ip p e r s , ha n d-----------------------------------------------------T im e -----------------------------------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------T im e ----------------------------------------------------------------J a n it o r s (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y ----------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s 3 ------------------------

-

-

-

6
6

6
6

18
18

-

-

10
10

10
10

_

34
34

-

12
2
-

_

34
34

_

12
12

3

2

3

2

3

-

"

"

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

20
15

29

10

4

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_ _

3

1

6

-

-

-

4

19

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

6

2

_

_

27
15

-

-

-

-

25
25

60
60
17

56
56
10

1

1
-

2

1

-

-

-

1 T he P h ila d e lp h ia S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s of B u c k s , C h e s t e r , D e la w a r e , M o n t g o m e r y , and P h ila d e lp h ia C o u n tie s , P a . ; and B u r lin g to n , C a m d e n , and G lo u c e s t e r
C o u n t ie s , N. J.
In the B u r e a u 's I960 s u r v e y o f this in d u str y , the a re a w as lim it e d to D e la w a r e and P h ila d e lp h ia C o u n tie s , P a . , and C a m d e n C ou n ty , N. J. ; the a d d itio n a l c o u n tie s in the
c u r r e n t stu d y a c c o u n te d f o r a bou t 3 p e r c e n t o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t s and 12 p e r c e n t o f the e m p lo y m e n t.
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 62 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e paid on
a t im e b a s is .
3 I n s u ffic ie n t data to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m en t; p r e d o m in a n tly t im e w o r k e r s .




Table 12.

Occupational Earnings:

San Francisco—Oakland

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of—
S e x and o c c u p a t io n

A l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ______ ____ __
__ __
M e n ___ _____
__ _____
________ ___
W o m e n _________ ______________ _________ ___ __

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
U n der
ea rn in g s 1
2
$ 2 .1 0

1, 572
547
1 ,0 2 5

$ 2 .2 8
2.53
2.15

16
102
68
25
24
26
9

2.91
2.62
2.36
2.64
2.30
2.47
3.45

49
143
72
43
195
95

2.19
2.15
2.16
2.13
2 .12
2 .14

$ 2 .1 0
and
u n d er
$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$ 3 .0 0

$ 3 .1 0

$ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 0

$ 3 .4 0

$ 3 .5 0

$ 3 .6 0

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$ 3 .0 0

$ 3 .1 0

$ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 0

$ 3 .4 0

$ 3 .5 0

$ 3 .6 0

over

908
79
829

253
116
137

64
56
8

28
24
4

53
51
2

64
64

30
30

-

-

-

-

-

14

34
_
8
_
_

18
_
6

7
2

10
2
7
2

46
_
7

_
-

6
12

_
44
_
4
2

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

_

_

58
21
37

and

22
17
5

23
22
1

6
4

9

19
18
1

6
6

2
2

13
13

13
13

-

-

-

_
_

_

_
_

_
_
_

1

2

2

_

_

_

_

_
_

_

-

6
5
1

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

10
10

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s — m en

C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A ____________________________
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B ______ __
__ _________
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s _______ „ _________ ____
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________________
J a n i t o r s __________ __________________ ___ __ __
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ______________ ___
M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e __________________________

-

_

_

_
_

_
2

3

_

_
_

_
1

-

-

-

_

_
_

_
_

_

_
_
_
_
4
1

_
-

1
_

_
1

_
_

S e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s — w o m e n

D ip p e r s , hand _______________________________________
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ________ _
P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u lk ______________ _______________ _
P a c k e r s , h a n d , c a n d y b a r s __
P a c k e r s , ha n d, fa n c y ________________ ____________
W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________________

1
2

-

16
109
62
43
185
87

33
34
10
_
10
8

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_

T h e San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f A la m e d a , C o n tr a C o s ta , M a r in , San F r a n c i s c o , and San M a te o C o u n tie s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e p a id on a tim e b a s is .




2

Table 13. Method o f Wage Payment
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t,
U nited S ta tes , s e le c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p t e m b e r 1965)
A reas

R e g io n s
U nited
S ta tes 2

M ethod o f w a g e p a y m e n t 1

N ew
E ngland

M idd le
A tla n tic

S o u th ea st

G reat
L a k es

P a c ific

B o s to n

100

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch

N ew
Y ork

San
P h ila d e lp h ia F r a n c i s c o —
O akland

A ll w o r k e r s _____________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

T im e - r a t e d w o r k e r s _______________________________
F o r m a l p la n s _____________________________________
S in g le r a t e ____________________________________
R a n g e o f r a t e s -----------------------------------------------In d iv id u a l r a t e s __________________________________

75
44
28
16
31

73
19
12
7
54

75
46
31
15
30

71
25
21
3
46

64
41
17
24
23

99
88
87
(3)
11

77
24
16
9
53

49
31
9
21
19

98
63
63
35

63
13
10
3
50

62
42
42

100
100
100

-

-

In c e n tiv e w o r k e r s ___________________________________
In d iv id u a l p i e c e w o r k ____________________________
G ro u p p i e c e w o r k ________________________________
In d iv id u a l b o n u s _________________________________
G ro u p b o n u s ______________________________________

25
6
2
4
12

27
22
2
2

25
5
3
5
11

29
13
9
7

36
4
2
7
23

1
1
-

23
17
3
3

51
7
( 3)
10
34

2
2

37
3
5
14
15

38
8
8
22

-

-

-

20
_
-

1 F o r d e fin it io n o f m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, s e e a p p en d ix A .
2 In c lu d e s data f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to t h o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls .

Table 14.

Scheduled Weekly Hours

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and oth er c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y sc h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ,
U nited S ta tes, s e le c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
A reas

R e g io n s
U nited
Sta tes 2

W e e k ly h o u r s 1

A ll w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------- --------35 h o u r s ______________________________________________
40 h o u r s ______________________________________________
O v e r 40 and u n d er 48 h o u r s ----------------------------------48 h o u r s ______________________________________________
50 h o u r s ______________________________________________
54 h o u r s ______________________________________________
55 h o u r s ______________________________________________

100
(3)
83
3
10
(3)
3
1

New
England

M idd le
A tlan tic

S ou th ea st

G reat
L akes

P a c ifi c

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le s L ong B e a ch

N ew
Y ork

San
P h ila d e lp h ia F r a n c i s c o —
O akland

100
-

100

97
2
1
-

100

100
-

100

54
7
28
1
8
2

su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq ual 100.

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

.

100

1 D ata r e la t e to p r e d o m in a n t w o r k s c h e d u le s f o r fu l l- t im e d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s in e a ch e st a b lis h m e n t .
2 I n clu d e s da ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to t h o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .




B o s to n

.

100
-

100
-

.
33
4
45
2
13
2

.
100
-

_
100
-

_
94
6
-

_
100
-

Table 15.

Shift Differential Provisions

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s by shift d i ff e r e n t ia l p r o v i s i o n s 1 in ca n d y and oth e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s ,
U n ited S ta te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
R e g io n s
U nited
States 2

Shift d i ff e r e n t ia l

New
England

M id d le
A tla n tic

S ou th ea st

A reas
G reat
L a k es

P a c ific

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch

New
Y ork

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n cis c o —
O akland

S e co n d sh ift
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s ha vin g
s e c o n d - s h if t p r o v i s i o n s __________________________
W ith sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l___________________________
U n ifo r m ce n t s p e r h o u r ------------------------------3 c e n t s _____________________________________
5 c e n t s _____________________________________
6 c e n t s ______________________ ______________
7 c e n t s _____________________________________
7 V2 c e n t s ___________________________________
8V2 c e n t s ___________________________________
9 c e n t s _____________________________________
10 c e n t s ____________________________________
12 c e n t s ____________________________________
U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e _________________________
4 p e r c e n t __________________________________
5 p e r c e n t __________________________________
7 p e r c e n t __________________________________
10 p e r c e n t _________________________________
8 h o u r s ' p a y f o r 7 V2 h o u r s ' w o r k -------------W ith no sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l-----------------------------------

76. 9
66. 9
49. 5
2. 6
24. 2
.7
4. 5
1. 5
2. 8
. 3
9. 8
3. 1
17. 1
. 3
8. 0
2. 7
6. 1
. 3
10. 0

80. 2
7 1 .4
43. 7
3. 4
9. 7
12. 2
18. 3
27. 6
4. 7
23. 0
8. 8

81. 8
75. 5
70. 5
54. 0
2. 7
4. 0
.8
9. 1
5. 0
.7
4. 2
6. 3

69. 5
24. 1
13. 7
13. 7
10. 4
10. 4
45. 4

77. 7
70. 0
38. 0
11. 1
6. 0
8. 8
.9
7 .9
3. 3
32. 0
16. 6
15. 3
7. 7

86. 4
86. 4
86. 4
36. 3
27. 0
23. 2
-

48. 1
47. 3
33. 0
6. 7
.4
. 2
17. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 6
12. 2
3. 4
. 3
7. 6
.9
1. 8
. 3
.7

32. 7
32. 7
28. 0
-

57. 4
57. 4
50. 2
14. 8
1. 3
27. 4
2. 5
4. 2
3. 1
-

10. 4
10. 4
-

56. 2
54. 5
21. 2
-

72. 1
72. 1
72. 1
-

-

-

10. 4
10. 4

.7
8. 3
8. 8
3. 3
30. 3
8. 1

44. 6
23. 2
4. 3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4. 7
-

3. 1
2 .9
1. 1

-

22. 1
3. 1
1. 7

-

-

35. 5
4. 9
-

-

4. 0

-

79. 7
79. 7
50. 3
4. 3
6. 9
15. 7
23. 5
29. 4
29. 4
"

85. 7
85. 7
39. 9
13. 3
9. 6
_
14. 1
2. 8
45. 9
21. 3
24. 6
-

69. 0

69. 0
69. 0
69. 0
-

79. 9
76. 5
76. 5
58. 4
18. 1
3. 4

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
_
-

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

-

7 1 .6
7 1 .6
7 1 .6
10. 4
7. 0
54. 3
-

-

-

87. 9
84. 1
77. 5
74. 8
2. 7
6. 6
2. 6
4. 0
-

3. 7

"

T h ir d o r o th e r la te sh ift
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s ha vin g t h ir d o r
o t h e r la t e - s h if t p r o v i s i o n s ______________________
W ith sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l___________________________
U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ____________________
5 c e n t s _____________________________________
7 V2 c e n t s ___________________________________
9 c e n t s _____________________________________
10 c e n t s ____________________________________
12 c e n t s ____________________________________
14 */2 c e n t s _________________________________
15 c e n t s ____________________________________
U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e _________________ ________
5 p e r c e n t ________________________________
8 p e r c e n t __________________________________
10 p e r c e n t _________________________________
15 p e r c e n t _________________________________
F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r,ed u ced h o u r s _________
O th er f o r m a l p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l _____________
W ith no s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l_______________________

-

28. 0
4. 7
-

1 R e f e r s to p o l i c i e s o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s eith e r c u r r e n t ly op e r a tin g la te s h ifts o
2 In c lu d e s data f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a t e ly .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




-

having p r o v is i o n s

c o v e r in g

30.
30.
30.
30.
-

2
2
2

2

74. 0
74. 0
20. 6
1. 1
5. 4
14. 1
4 8. 5
13. 0

25.
25.
25.
25.
-

3
3
3

3

30. 6
30. 6
26. 7
26. 7
-

-

100. 0
-

-

la te s h ift s .

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .

10
CO

Table 16.

Shift Differential Practices

10

*

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on la te sh ifts in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s by a m ou n t o f sh ift d i ff e r e n t ia l ,
U n ited S t a te s , s e le c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
R e g io n s
U n ited
S ta te s 1

S hift d iff e r e n t ia l

A reas

New
E ngland

M id d le
A tla n tic

S ou th ea st

G rea t
L a k es

17. 3
12. 7
7. 0
_
_

16. 0
14. 4
13. 6
1 1. 3
.6
. 3
1. 3
.
.8
( 2)
.8
1.6

16. 3
5. 3
2. 3
2. 3
_
3. 0
3. 0
10 . 9

25. 4
22. 5
8 .9
2. 8
.9
3. 0
. 3
1. 4
.6
13. 6
7. 2
6. 4
2. 9

9 .4
9 .4
9 .4
3. 0
3. 6
2. 9
-

.2
. 2
-

4. 5
4. 3
2. 7
.5
2. 2
.8
.8
.7

.4
.4
.4
.4
-

.6
.6
.6
.6
-

-

-

-

-

-

P a c ific

B o s to n

C h ica g o

14. 9
14. 9
8. 5
_
1.8
1. 2
5. 6
_
6. 4
6. 4
-

30. 2
30. 2
11. 0
4. 4
1 .4
4. 8
.4
19. 2
9. 0
10 . 2
-

L os A n g e le s L ong B e a ch

N ew
Y ork

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n cis co —
O ak la nd

S e co n d s h ift
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on s e c o n d s h ift _______________
R e c e iv in g sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l____________________
U n ifo r m ce n t s p e r h o u r ____________________
3 c e n t s _____________________ ________________
5 c e n ts _ _
_
_ __
_
______
7 c e n t s _____________________________________
7 l/z c e n t s ___________________________________
8 lh c e n t s ___________________________________
9 c e n t s _____________________________________
1 0 c e n t s ____________________________________
1 2 c e n t s ____________________________________
U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e _________________________
4 p e r c e n t __________________________________
5 p e r c e n t __________________________________
7 p e r c e n t __________________________________
1 0 p e r c e n t _________________________________
8 h o u r s ' p a y f o r l x z h o u r s ' w o r k _________
f
R e c e iv in g no sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l_________________

18. 5
15. 5
9. 3
.4
4. 8
.7
.2
1. 0
. 1
1.8
. 5
6. 1
. 1
3. 1
.6
2. 3
( 2)
3. 0

1 .8

.9
4. 3
_
5. 6
.6
5. 0
_
4. 6

8. 4
8. 4
8. 4

_
8.4
-

-

9. 2
8. 2
7. 1
6. 0
1. 1
1. 1
. 1
.9
1. 0

10 . 8

9. 3
9. 3
8. 4
1. 0
1. 5

8. 2
8. 2
8. 2

8. 2

-

T h ir d o r o t h e r la te sh ift
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on t h ir d o r
o t h e r la te s h i ft .__________________________ - _____ ___
R e c e iv in g sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l____________________
U n ifo r m c e n t s p e r h o u r ____________________
5 c e n t s _____________________________________
1 0 c e n t s ____________________________________
1 2 c e n t s ____________________________________
14*/2 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------15 c e n t s ____________________________________
U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e _________________________
5 p e r c e n t __________________________________
8 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------1 0 p e r c e n t _________________________________
F u ll -d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s _________
O th er f o r m a l p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l _____________
R e c e iv in g no sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l_________________

1
2

I n clu d e s da ta f o r r e g io n s
L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

2.
2.
2.
.
.
.
.
.
.

7
6
0
6

3
1

7
3
3

(!)

( z)
. 3
. 2
( 2)
. 1

.5
.5
.5
.5
-

3.
3.
3.
1.
.
.

-

1. 2

. 1
. 1
-

2
2
0
3
3
2

-

. 1
. 1

in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a t e ly .

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls.




-

.2
. 2
-

. 3

1. 1
1. 1
1. 1

-

6. 7
6. 7
4. 2
.7
3. 6
1. 3
1. 3
1. 1

-

-

-

-

. 3
. 3
-

-

-

-

-

-

. 3

-

-

-

-

1. 1

-

-

Tabic 17.

Paid Holidays

(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r pa id h o lid a y s ,
U nited S ta te s , s e le c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
R e g io n s
United
Sta tes 1

N u m b e r o f pa id h o lid a y s

A l l w o r k e r s __________________________ ________—
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
pa id h o l i d a y s ----------- ,--------------------------- -----------------L e s s than 5 d a y s ............ ........... .................................
5 d a y s -------------------------------------j.----------------------------6 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------6 d a y s plu s 2 h a lf d a y s —----------------------------------7 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------7 d a y s plu s 1 h a lf d a y ---------------------------------------7 d a y s plu s 2 h a lf d a y s ------------------------------------8 d a y s _______ *— ,.-------------------------------------------------8 d a y s plu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d a y s ----------------------------9 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------9 d a y s plu s 1 h a lf d a y ---------------------------------------9 d a y s plu s 2 h a lf d a y s ------------------------------------1 0 d a y s — -------------------------------- ----------------------------1 0 d a y s p lu s 1 o r 2 h a lf d a y s -------------------------1 1 d a y s _______________________________ ____________
1 2 d a y s plu s 1 h a lf d a y _________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
no pa id h o l i d a y s -----,-----------------------------------------------

1
2

10 0

94
3
5
25
1

25
( 2)
1

7
3
5
2

(2)
4
1
11
1
6

N ew
E ngland

M id d le
A tla n tic

S ou th ea st

10 0

10 0

10 0

94
( 2)

71

1

42

7
25
9
4

16

20
2

1
8
1
2

12

10

3
32
-

-

2

6

29

N ew
Y ork

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n cis c o —
O akland

P a c ifi c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le s L ong B e a ch

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

98
-

10 0

10 0
2

94
-

10 0

-

10 0

98
3
5

32
3
23

A reas
G rea t
L a k es

96
( 2)
3
52

10

4
-

25
4

-

-

-

-

22

8

-

41
4
29
13

-

4

“

“

2

8

30
-

1

33
1
1

3
1

1

54
42
1

25
-

4
-

22

22

17
-

28

54
-

-

12

21

5
7
82
-

42
-

51
-

*

~

6

"

-

I n c lu d e s da ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d ition to th o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .

Table 18. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in cand y and oth e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r pa id v a c a t io n s
a fte r s e le c t e d p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e , U n ited S ta te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
R e g io n s
V a c a t io n p o l ic y

A ll w o r k e r s _____________________________________

U nited
S ta tes 1

New
England

M id d le
A tla n tic

10 0

10 0

10 0

95
84

98
90
9

5

1
86

A reas
G reat
L ak es

P a c ifi c

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

97
81
15

88

94
80
14

10 0
10 0

10 0
10 0

10

-

-

97
78
19

2

3

12

6

85
5

89

14
75

88

97

_

_

_

.

8

7

4

3

S ou th ea st

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

N ew
Y ork

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n cis c o —
O akland

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0
10 0

98
98
-

94
36
58

10 0
10 0

-

2

6

L os A n g e le s L ong B e a ch

M eth od o f p a y m en t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
pa id v a c a t i o n s ______________________________________
L en gth - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _______________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t____________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
no p a id v a c a t i o n s __________________________________

11

78

3

_

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 2
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e :
U n d er 1 w e e k _____________________________________
1 w e e k .____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s -------------------------------2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le .




3
5

-

-

-

-

-

89
7
4

91

10 0

98

.
91

10 0

_

-

_

_

_

4

-

3

-

_

Table 18.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t io n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r paid v a c a tio n s
a fte r s e le c t e d p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e , U n ited S ta te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
A reas

R e g io n s
U nited
S ta tes 1

V a c a t io n p o l ic y

N ew
England

M id d le
A tlan tic

(3)
50
9
36

36
5
57

35

(3)
19
7

9
5
84

7
78

1

98
-

7
79
3

4

-

8

(3)
4
45
3
43

18

S ou th ea st

G reat
L a k es

L os A n g e le s L ong B e a c h

N ew
Y ork

6

83
5

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

51

30
7
63

60
30

12

7
92

7
93

19

5
95

4
94

95
-

92
-

-

8

-

16

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F r a n cis c o —
O akland

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 2— C on tin u ed
A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U n der 1 w e e k _____________________________________
1 w e e k ----------------------------------- ..-------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U n der 1 w e e k _____________________________________
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s --------------------------------2 w e e k s _ --------------------------- ------------------------------A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U n der 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k _____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s --------------------------------2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s -------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------- -----------------------------------------------A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n der 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s --------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n der 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________
A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n d er 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s -------------------------------4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
U n der 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------- —

68

(3)
4
1

85

(3)
4
18
73
1

10

71

18
78
3

24

18
54
27

(3)
4
14
41
36

14
17
67

(3)
4
15
51
1

1

8

53

6

73
9

63
5
25

2

48

-

6

-

11

63
19

22

-

4

2

68

98

6

-

13

2

8

62
-

92
-

80
-

-

-

20

9
91

-

6

-

6

13
63
-

70

24
5
62

6

1
2
21

10 0

-

48
-

53
32

-

-

7
45
42

-

57
27

3
32
64

16
57
27

3
24
72

7
39
48

8

-

10 0

10 0

5
82
-

1
8

59

-

-

6
13

12

-

-

4

21

23

7
87

6

6
6
24
58
3

7
92

5
93

-

12

51
49

16
67
17

83

-

52
42

-

-

-

98
-

-

22

48

10 0

84

83

1

82

-

5
89

9
71
13

-

13

-

6

12

7
85

1
10

13

10 0

2

6

21

45

82

13
48

-

2

-

-

-

7
28
3
53

70

12

8

6
8

6

6

37

.

8
88

69
23

5
82

4
21

12

75

2

4
91
"
2

4
73
18

2

4
49
42

16

10 0

10 0

-

1 In clu d e s da ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to t h o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
2 V a c a t io n p a y m e n ts su c h as p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w e r e co n v e r te d to an e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s is .
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b it r a r i ly c h o s e n and d o not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n .
F o r e x a m p le , ch a n g es in p r o p o r t io n s at 10 y e a r s m a y in c lu d e ch a n g e s o c c u r r in g b e tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a r s .
3 L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not equal to t a ls .

Table 19.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in ca n d y and o th e r c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith s p e c i fie d h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s,
U n ited S t a te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
R e g io n s
T yp e o f p la n 1

A l l w o r k e r s ____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e ___________________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d __________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
A c c id e n t a l dea th and d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e _______________________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d __________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e or
s i c k le a v e o r b oth 3 ___________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e __________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d _______________________
J o in tly fin a n c e d __________________________
S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y , no
w a itin g p e r i o d ) _____________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r i o d ) _____________________________
H o s p it a liz a t io n in s u r a n c e ______________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d __________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ---------------------------------------J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d __________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e _________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c ed __ ________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n _____________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d __________________________
J o in t ly fin a n c e d ______________________________
N o p l a n s __________________________________________

U nited
S ta te s 2

N ew
E ngland

M id d le
A tla n tic

10 0

10 0

10 0

86

95
26
70

86

52
34

A reas
G reat
L a k es

P a c ific

B o s to n

C h ica g o

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

89
43
46

84
33
51

81
64
17

96
13
83

86

83
3

23
62

83
62

56
36

66

20

38
37

81
64
17

45
9
37
75
75
9

S ou th ea st

55
31
24

53
33

1

20

23
43

71
61
42
19

67
67

57
57
42
15

69
54
29
25

80
23
23

56

80
80
76
4

4

7

4

4

3

„
72
23
49
72
23
49
64
15
49
39

8
88

13

53
98
85
13
98
85
13
98
85
13

11

87
57
29
87
57
30
69
42
27
25
13

11

_

59
55
4
7
7

93
48
45
93
48
45
69
32
37
57
37

82
6
88

88

12

31

-

20

61
55

66

78
72

50
50

6
8

6

6

-

42
46
79
37
42
33
16
17
45
38
7

5

9

2

10

8

60

82

88

42
46

6

-

66

8
2

4

8

San
F r a n cis c o —
O akland

10 0

10 0

10 0
10 0

97
94
3

87
87
_

_

77
19
58

83
62

18
18

28
28

10 0
10 0

21

_

_

_

71
50
26
24

39

87
87
87

10 0

_
_

92
92
92

_

_

_

.

87
87

10 0
10 0
10 0

_

10
21

9
87
79

20
11

10 0

P h ila d e lp h ia

21

9

67
13
54
67
13
54
67
13
54
38
4
34
70
62

N ew
Y ork

91
31
60
91
31
60
80
25
56
33
11
22

50
45
5
9

28
95
55
40
95
55
40
95
55
40
36

22

96
96
_

_

_

96
96

87
87

10 0
10 0

_

_

_

67
67

13
13

10 0
10 0

_

_
_

_

_

_

28
61
50

_
-

97
97

69
63

10 0
10 0

10

_

6

_

5

2

13

8

_

I n clu d e s o n ly th o s e p la n s f o r w h ich at le a s t p a rt o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r and e x c lu d e s le g a lly r e q u ir e d p la n s su c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n and s o c ia l s e c u r it y ;
h o w e v e r , p la n s r e q u ir e d b y State t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u ra n ce la w s a r e in clu d e d if the e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t e s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u i r e d o r the e m p lo y e e r e c e i v e s b e n e fits in e x c e s s
o f the le g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .
2 I n clu d e s data f o r r e g i o n s in a d d ition to t h o se show n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 U n d u p lic a te d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .




10

Table 20.

Nonproduction Bonuses

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in cand y' and o th er c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u fa c tu r in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith s p e c i fie d ty p e s o f n o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s ,
U nited S ta tes, s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , and a r e a s , S e p te m b e r 1965)
A reas

R e g io n s
U nited
States 1

T y p e o f b on u s

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------- --------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith
n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s -----------------------------------------C h r is t m a s o r y e a r e n d ---------------------------------------P r o f i t s h a r in g ________ ___________________ _____
O t h e r _______________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith
no n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s -------------------------------------

New
E ngland

M idd le
A tla n tic

S ou th ea st

G re a t
L akes

P a c ifi c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch

N ew Y o r k

P h ila d e lp h ia

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

26
19

33
33

12

21

42
31

54

12
12

16

16

2

-

1
2

28

-

-

4
74

In clu d e s data f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,




67

9

88

show n s e p a r a t e ly .

su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not equal t o t a ls .

17
5
-

79

San
F ra n cis co —
O akland

10 0

1
10

18
5
9
3

36
36
-

54
38
16

10

-

12

-

58

82

64

46

46

88

84

10 0

5

-

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of Survey
The survey included establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing candy and
other confectionery products (industry 2071 as defined in the 1957 edition and 1963 Supplement
of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual). Establishments primarily manufacturing
solid chocolate bars (SIC 2072), those primarily manufacturing chewing gum (SIC 2073), those
making confectionery primarily for direct sale on the premises and those primarily engaged
in shelling and roasting nuts (which are classified in trade industries) were excluded. Also
excluded from the study were separate auxiliary units such as central offices.
The establishments studied were selected from those employing 20 workers or more
at the time of reference of the data used in compiling the universe lists.
The number of establishments and workers actually studied by the Bureau, as well
as the number estimated to be in the industry during the payroll period studied, are shown
in the table below.
Estimated Number of Establishments and Workers Within Scope of Survey and Number Studied,
Candy and Other Confectionery Products Manufacturing Industry, September 1965

Number of establishments 3

Region 1 and area2

Workers in establishments
Within scope
of study

Within
scope of
study

Studied
T o ta l4

Studied

Production
workers

Total

United States 5 -------------------------------------------------

408

190

5 9 ,0 7 5

4 9 ,7 3 6

4 6 ,5 5 0

New England----- ------------------------------------------------------Boston------------------------------------------------------------------Middle A tlan tic------------------------------------------------------New York------------------------------------------------------------Philadelphia------------------------------------------------------Southeast------------------------------------------------------------------Great Lakes--------------------------------------------------------------C hicago--------------------------------------------------------------Pacific----------------------------------------------------------------------Los Angeles—Long Beach----------------------------------San Francisco— Oakland-------------------------------------

30
22
129
40
29
32
105
45
50

16
11
52
17
11
16
54
23
25
10
10

6 ,3 2 6
4 ,9 7 3
1 6 ,4 3 0
4 ,6 5 7
2 ,9 7 6
4 ,3 0 7
1 9 ,0 2 4
1 1,929
5 ,2 1 8
1,7 8 8
1,871

5 ,3 3 9
4 ,1 6 0
1 3,863
3 ,8 4 5
2 ,5 8 8
3 ,6 2 8
1 5 ,9 9 7
9 ,9 7 6
4 ,3 2 9
1 ,4 2 2
1 ,5 7 2

5 ,6 5 8
4 ,4 4 1
1 2,918
3 ,6 9 7
2 ,2 5 4
3 ,4 9 7
1 5 ,5 7 0
10,221
3, 378
1 ,1 6 7
1 ,3 2 3

18
20

1 The regions used in this study include:
New England— Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
and Vermont; Middle Atlantic— New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Southeast— Alabam a, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; Great Lakes— Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin; and Pacific—
California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
Regional data include areas in addition to those shown separately.
2 For definition of the respective areas, see footnote 1, tables 7— 12.
3 Includes only establishments with 20 workers or more at the time of reference of the universe data.
4 Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers excluded from the production worker category shown separately.
5 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the study.

Method of Study
Data were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists under the direction
of the Bureau's Assistant Regional Directors for Wages and Industrial Relations. The survey
was conducted on a sample basis. To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion of large than of small establishments was studied. In combining the
data, however, all establishments were given their appropriate weight. All estimates are
presented, therefore, as relating to all establishments in the industry, excluding only those
below the minimum size at the time of reference of the universe data.




29

30
Establishment Definition
An establishment, for purposes of this study, is defined as a single physical lo­
cation where industrial operations are performed. An establishment is not necessarily
identical with the company, which may consist of one establishment or more. The terms
"establishment" and "plant" have been used interchangeably in this bulletin.
Employment
The estimates of the number of workers within the scope of the study are intended
as a general guide to the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The advance planning necessary to make a wage survey requires the use of lists of establish­
ments assembled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied.
Production Workers
The term "production workers" as used in this bulletin, includes working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative, executive,
professional, and technical personnel, and force-account construction employees, who were
utilized as a separate work force on the firm ’ s own properties, were excluded.
Occupations Selected for Study
Occupational classification was based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed
to take account of interestablishment and interarea variations in duties within the same job.
(See appendix B for these job descriptions.) The occupations were chosen for their numerical
importance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or their representativeness of the
entire job scale in the industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees, handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers were not reported
in the data for selected occupations, but were included in the data for all production workers.
Wage Data
The wage information relates to average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or production bonus systems and costof-living bonuses were included as part of the workers* regular pay; but nonproduction bonus
payments, such as Christmas or year end bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each occupation or other group of
workers, such as men, women, or production workers were calculated by weighting each
rate (or hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving the rate, totaling, and dividing
by the number of individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers were obtained by
dividing their straight-time salary by normal rather than actual hours. The median desig­
nates position, that is, half of the employees surveyed received more than this rate, and
half received less. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay; a fourth of the em­
ployees earned less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earned more than the
higher rate.
Size of Community
Tabulations by size of community pertain to metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
The term "metropolitan area," as used in this bulletin, refers to the Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget through March 1965.
Except in New England, a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area is defined as a
county or group of contiguous counties which contains at least one city of 50, 000 inhabitants
or more. Contiguous counties to the one containing such a city are included in a Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area, if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metro­
politan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In
New England, where the city and town are administratively more important than the county,
they are the units used in defining Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.




31
Labor-Management Agreements
Separate wage data are presented, where possible, for establishments with (l) a
majority of the production workers covered by labor-management contracts, and (Z) none
or a minority of the production workers covered by labor-management contracts.
Method of Wage Payment
Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to the number of workers paid under
the various time and incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for time-rated workers
provide single rates or a range of rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily with reference to the qualifications
of the individual worker. A single rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to
all experienced workers in the same job classification. Learners, apprentices, or proba­
tionary workers may be paid according to rate schedules which start below the single rate
and permit the workers to achieve the full job rate over a period of time. Individual
experienced workers may occasionally be paid above or below the single rate for special
reasons, but such payments are regarded as exceptions. Range-of-rate plans are those in
which the minimum and/or maximum rates paid experienced workers for the same job are
specified. Specific rates of individual workers within the range may be determined by merit,
length of service or a combination of various concepts of merit and length of service. In­
centive workers are classified under piecework or bonus plans. Piecework is work for which
a predetermined rate is paid for each unit of output. Production bonuses are based on pro­
duction in excess of a quota or for completion of a job in less than standard time.
Scheduled Weekly Hours
Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work schedule for full-time production
workers employed on the day shift.
Shift Provisions and Practices
Shift provisions relate to the policies of establishments either currently operating
late shifts or having formal provisions covering late-shift work. Practices relate to workers
employed on late shifts at the time of the survey.
Supplementary Wage Provisions
Supplementary benefits were treated statistically on the basis that if formal pro­
visions were applicable to half or more of the production workers in an establishment, the
benefits were considered applicable to all such workers. Similarly, if fewer than half of the
workers were covered, the benefit was considered nonexistent in the establishment. Because
of length-of-service and other eligibility requirements, the proportion of workers receiving
the benefits may be smaller than estimated. Because of rounding, the sums of individual
items may not equal totals.
Paid Holidays.
provided annually.

Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day and half-day holidays

Paid Vacations. The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrangements,
excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the discretion of the em­
ployer or the supervisor. Payments not on a time basis were converted; for example, a
payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the equivalent of 1 week's pay. The
periods of service for which data are presented were selected as representative of the most
common practices, but they do not necessarily reflect individual establishment provisions for
progression. For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of service may
include changes which occurred between 5 and 10 years.
Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans. Data are presented for health, insurance,
and pension plans for which all or a part of the cost is borne by the employer, excluding
programs required by law, such as workmen's compensation and social security. Among the
plans included are those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those paid
directly by the employer from his current operating funds or from a fund set aside for
this purpose.




32
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance. Sickness and accident
insurance is limited to that type of insurance under which predetermined cash payments are
made directly to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident dis­
ability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the employer contributes at
least a part of the cost. However, in New York and New Jersey, where temporary dis­
ability insurance laws require employer contributions, 8 plans are included only if the em­
ployer (1) contributes more than is legally required or (2) provides the employees with
benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work because of illness; in­
formal arrangements have been omitted. Separate tabulations are provided according to (1)
plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans providing either partial
pay or a waiting period.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial payment of
doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by a commercial insurance company or a
nonprofit organization, or they may be self-insured.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended medical insurance, in­
cludes the plans designed to cover employees in case of sickness or injury involving an ex­
pense which goes beyond the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to plans which provide, on retire­
ment, regular payments for the remainder of the worker's life.
Nonproduction Bonuses. Nonproduction bonuses are defined for this study as bonuses
that depend on factors other than the output of the individual worker or group of workers.
Plans that defer payments beyond 1 year were excluded.
8

The temporary disability insurance laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.




Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions
for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff
in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are
employed under a variety of payroll titles and different
work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This permits the grouping of oc­
cupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and inter area comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's
job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use
in individual establishments or those prepared for other
purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's
field economists are instructed to exclude working super­
visors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handi­
capped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

CANDYMAKER
(Batch maker; boiler; confectioner; cook, candy; cooker, batch; fondant maker; hardcandy-maker; jelly- or gum-candymaker; taffy-candymaker)
Measures, weighs, mixes and/or cooks ingredients in making candies or in preparing
bases for making candies.
May, in addition, operate heating, pulling, molding, and other
types of candymaking machines, or may specialize in making one type of candy such as hard,
cream, caramel, or nougat.
Class A . Makes one or more types of candy. Work involves most of the following:
Knowledge of various ingredients, formulas, methods, and equipment used in producing
candy; the exercise of judgment, initiative, and ingenuity in creating new candy items or
in meeting production difficulties; working with a minimum of supervision; and directing
the activities of candymakers of lesser skill and/or helpers.
Class B . Makes candy according to formulas or under the direction of others,
usually preparing one type of candy or performing only some of the operations required
in candymaking.
May be assisted by, and assign work to, one helper or more.
CANDYMAKER'S HELPER
Assists the candymaker by performing such tasks as: Obtaining, measuring, or
weighing sugar, glucose, and other ingredients according to formulas or instructions; lifting
or conveying ingredients to cooking kettles; cutting or chopping fruits or nuts; mixing creamcandy batches; washing cooking equipment and utensils; and cleaning working areas.
May,
in addition, perform various candy forming and cutting operations.
DIPPER, HAND
(Bonbon dipper; candy dipper, hand; caramel dipper; chocolate dipper, hand; coater,
hand; cream dipper; dipper, fork; icing dipper; stripper)
Dips candy centers, fruits, or nuts into fondant, chocolate, or other icing material
and finishes the surface by hand. Work involves: Regulating temperature of small dipping
vat with valve or switch; dropping candy center, fruit, or nut into vat of icing and removing
it with fingers or fork; and smoothing the surface and making an identifying mark on the top.
May, in addition, prepare icing in small quantities in dipping vat or place nut or other gar­
nishing on top of candy.




33

34
ENROBING-MACHINE OPERATOR
(Coating-maching operator; coater, machine; dipper, machine; dipping-machine operator;
enrober man)
Controls the operation of one machine or more that automatically coat (dip) candy
centers with chocolate or other icing material.
Work involves: Regulating supply and tem­
perature of chocolate or other icing material, and making minor mechanical adjustments to
keep machines operating efficiently.
May be assisted by several helpers.
ENROBING-MACHINE OPERATOR’S HELPER
(Candy liner; coating-machine feeder; corder; decorator; dipping-machine feeder, offbearer; dipping-machine operator’s helper; enrober's helper; separator; slider; straight ener; streaker; stringer; stroker; take-off girl; tray filler)
Assists the enrobing-machine operator by performing one hand operation or more
involved in the candymaking process. Typical of such operations are: Placing and arranging
candy centers on the feed conveyor of the coating machine; dumping centers into a mechanical
feed hopper which discharges them on the feed conveyor; finishing the top of coated candies
by applying coating material with fingers; separating coated candies with a wire tool to prevent
them from sticking together; lifting wax paper plaques of candies from discharge conveyor
and sliding them onto candy trays; and stacking trays of candy on handtrucks.
This classification does not include off-bearers who also pack candy into boxes or
other containers.
FILLING - MACHINE OPERATOR
Controls the operation of a filling machine which automatically fills containers such
as cartons, boxes, bottles, cans, or jars with a specified weight or amount of the commodity
being packaged.
May, in some plants, feed containers to the machine and remove filled
containers from the machine where these operations are not assigned to other workers.
This classification includes workers who tend machines that perform other operations
such as closing, sealing, capping, or wrapping, in addition to filling containers.
INSPECTOR, CANDY
Examines boxes or other containers of candy to see that candy is properly formed,
polished, wrapped, and packed; and stamps or indicates date of inspection on box or container,
or returns candy to packer with explanation for rejection.
May, in addition, weigh candy,
or pack boxes or containers of candy in cartons.
JANITOR
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress; cleaner)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or
premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties
involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and clean­
ing lavatories, showers, and restrooms.
Workers who specialize in window washing are
excluded.
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper;
warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establish­
ment whose duties involve one or more of the following: Loading and unloading various




35
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and
transporting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen,
who load and unload ships are excluded.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of
mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following:
Interpreting written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a
variety of machinists handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowl­
edge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equip­
ment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY
Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or structure of an establishment
(usually a small plant where specialization in maintenance work is impractical) in repair.
Duties involve the performance of operations and the use of tools and equipment of several
trades, rather than specialization in one trade or one type of maintenance work only. Work
involves a combination of the following: Planning and laying out of work relating to repair
of buildings, machines, mechanical and/or electrical equipment; repairing electrical and/or
mechanical equipment; installing, alining, and balancing new equipment; and repairing build­
ings, floors, and stairs as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, and partitions.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves
most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source
of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts
with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine
shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written speci­
fications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop;
reassembling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation.
In general, the
work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this
classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MOGUL OPERATOR
Molds soft candy centers, such as gums and jellies, by operating a mogul machine.
Work involves the following: Inserting mold die in machine and fastening it in place with
wedges or by tightening thumb screws; starting machine and turning valve to supply steam
to jacket of candy hopper; adjusting setscrews to regulate flow of candy from depositors;
oiling machine and observing its proper operation; and directing one helper or more.
MOGUL OPERATOR'S HELPER
Assists the mogul-machine operator by feeding, catching, stacking, and trucking
candy.
Typical of the specific duties performed by the helper are: Lifting trays of freshly
molded candy from conveyor or machine and stacking them on handtrucks to be pushed to
hardening room; placing trays of hardened candy in starch molds on automatic feed rack of
mogul machine; placing empty trays under conveyor of machine to catch candy after it has
been separated from starch; spreading candy on trays; and pushing loaded handtrucks to and
from hardening room.




36
PACKER, HAND
Packs candy or other confectionery products by hand in various size of shaped
boxes, cartons, jars, or other containers.
Packer, hand, bulk. Pours, scoops, or funnels loose candy into boxes, cartons,
jars, pails, bags, or other containers.
Packer, hand, candy bars. Fills cartons with a specified number of wrapped candy
bars of the same kind, shape, and size.
Packer, hand, fancy. Places pieces of wrapped or unwrapped candy in boxes by
hand, following a prescribed packing arrangement; packs a complete box or places a few
pieces of more than one type of candy in each box; may also wrap individual pieces of
candy in paper, or place candy in paper cups, and count or weigh candy.
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft,
and illegal entry.
WRAPPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Packages rolls, bars, slabs, or individual pieces of candy in advertising or desig­
nating wrapper by feeding to a candy wrapping machine. Work involves most of the following:
Feeding candy items onto a conveyor belt and guiding to slots of machine which automatically
wraps them; starts and stops machine and may thread paper through the rolls of the machine
as necessary; catching and removing wrapped items as they come from the machine and may
also pack by putting specified number of items in boxes or other containers.
(Both feeders
and catchers are to be included regardless of whether they alternate between the two types
of work.)




Industry Wage Studies
The m o s t recent reports for industries included in the Bureau's program
o f industry wage surveys since January 1950 are listed below. Those for which
a p r i c e is shown are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S.
G ov ern m en t Printing Office, Washington, D. C. , 20402, or any of its regional
sales o f f i c e s . Those for which a price is not shown may be obtained free as
long as a supply is available, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington,
D. C. , 20212, or f r o m any of the regional offices shown on the inside back cover.

I. Occupational Wage Studies
Manufa c tur ing
Basic Iron and Steel, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1358 (30 cents).
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, I960. BLS Report 195.
^Canning and Freezing, 1957. BLS Report 136.
Cigar Manufacturing, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1436 (30 cents).
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1472 (20 cents).
Cotton Textiles, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1506 (40 cents).
Distilled Liquors, 1952. Series 2, No. 88.
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1463 (30 cents).
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1362 (40 cents).
Flour and Other Grain M ill Products, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1337 (30 cents).
Fluid Milk Industry, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1464 (30 cents).
Footwear, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1503 (50 cents).
H osiery, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1456 (45 cents).
Industrial Chemicals, 1955. BLS Report 103.
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1386 (40 cents).
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1378 (40 cents).
Machinery Manufacturing, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1476 (25 cents).
Meat Products, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1415 (75 cents).
Men’ s and B oys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirt* *
.ghtwear, 1964.
BLS Bulletin 1457 (40 cents).
Men’ s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1424 (65 cents).
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1439 (35 cents).
Miscellaneous Textiles, 195 3. BLS Report 56.
Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle P arts, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1393 (45 cents).
Nonferrous Foundries, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1498 (40 cents).
Paints and V arnishes, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1318 (30 cents).
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1478 (70 cents).
Petroleum Refining, 1959. BLS Report 158.
P ressed or Blown Glass and Glassw are, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1423 (30 cents).
"P ro cessed W aste, 1957. BLS Report 124.
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard M ills, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1341 (40 cents).
Radio, Television, and Related Products, 1951. Series 2, No. 84.
Railroad C ars, 1952. Series 2, No. 86.
'"Raw Sugar, 1957. BLS Report 136.
Southern Sawmills and Planing M ills, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1361 (30 cents).
Structural Clay Products, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1459 (45 cents).
Synthetic F ibers, 1958. BLS Report 143.
Synthetic Textiles, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1509 (40 cents).
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1311 (35 cents).
^Tobacco Stemming and Redrying, 1957. BLS Report 136.

*

Studies of the effects of the $1 m inim um w age.




I. Occupational Wage Studies--- Continued
Manufacturing— Cont inued
West Coast Sawmilling, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1455 (30 cents).
Women’ s and M isse s' Coats and Suits, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1508 (25 cents).
Women's and M is s e s 1 D resses, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1391 (30 cents).
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1496
(40 cents).
^Wooden Containers, 1957. BLS Report 126.
Wool T extiles, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1372 (45 cents).
Work Clothing, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1440 (35 cents).

Nonmanufacturing
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1452 (30 cents).
Banking, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1466 (30 cents).
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1383 (45 cents).
Communications, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1467 (20 cents).
Contract Cleaning Services, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1507 (30 cents).
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, I960. BLS Report 181.
Department and Women's R eady-to-W ear Stores, 1950. Series 2, No. 78.
Eating and Drinking P laces, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1400 (40 cents).
Electric and Gas U tilities, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1374 (50 cents).
Hospitals, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1409 (50 cents).
Hotels and M otels, 196 3. BLS Bulletin 1406 (40 cents).
Laundries and Cleaning Services, 1963. BLS Bulletin 1401 (50 cents).
Life Insurance, 1961. BLS Bulletin 1324 (30 cents).
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1492 (45 cents).

II.

Earnings Distributions Studies

Factory W orkers' Earnings— Distribution by Straight-Time Hourly
Earnings, 1958. BLS Bulletin 1252 (40 cents).
Factory W orkers' Earnings— Selected Manufacturing Industries, 1959.
BLS Bulletin 1275 (35 cents).
Retail Trade:
Employee Earnings and Hours, June 1965—
Building M aterials, Hardware, and Farm Equipment Dealers.
BLS Bulletin 1501-1 (25 cents).
General Merchandise Stores. BLS Bulletin 1501-2 (40 cents).
Food Stores. BLS Bulletin 1501-3 (30 cents).
Automotive Dealers and Gasoline Service Stations.
BLS Bulletin 1501-4 (40 cents).
Apparel and A ccessory Stores. BLS Bulletin 1501-5 (45 cents).
Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Household Appliance
Stores. BLS Bulletin 1501-6 (40 cents).
Miscellaneous Stores. BLS Bulletin 1501-7 (30 cents).
Employee Earnings in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the South and North
Central Regions, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1416 (40 cents).*
*

Studies of the effects of the $1 m inim um w age.




☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PR IN TIN G OFFICE : 1966 0 - 2 3 0 - 0 9 5





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102