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L2.3:
Industry
Wage S u rve y

Candy and Other
Confectionery Products,
August 1970
Bulletin 1732
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1972




Dayton & Montgomery Co
Public Library

MAR 2 9 1972




Industry
Wage Survey

Candy and Other
Confectionery Products,
August 1970
Bulletin 1732
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

1972

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, TJ.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 45 cents







P r e fa c e
This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of wages
and supplementary benefits in the candy and other confectionery products manufacturing
industry in August 1970. A similar survey of this industry was conducted in September
1965.
Separate releases were issued earlier for Boston, Mass.; Chicago, 111.; Los Angeles—
Long
Beach, Calif/, New York, N.Y.; Philadelphia, Pa.—
N.J.; and San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif.
Copies of these releases are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C.
20212, or any of its regional offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations.
The analysis in this bulletin was prepared by Michael Tighe of the Division of Occupational
Wage Structures. Field work for the survey was directed by the Assistant Regional
Directors for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies, as well
as the addresses of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this bulletin.




iii




C o n te n ts
Page
Summary.............................................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics.....................................................................................................................................................
Em ployment..................................................................................................................................................................
Production ....................................................................................................................................................................
Establishment size .......................................................................................................................................................
Union contract coverage..............................................................................................................................................
Method of wage p ay m en t................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings.....................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings........... ............................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions........................................................................................
Scheduled weekly hours and shift practices .............................................................................................................
Paid holidays..................................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations................................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans......................................................................................................................
Other selected b en e fits................................................................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
5
5
5
5

Tables:
1. Average hourly earnings: By selected characteristics.....................................................................................
2. Earnings distribution: All production w orkers..............................................................................................

6
7

Occupational averages—
3. All establishments..............................................................................................................................................
, 4. By size of establishm ent.............................................................................................
5. By labor-management contract coverage and size of establishm ent.............................................................
6. By method of wage paym ent.............................................................................................................................

8
10
11
12

Occupational earnings—
7. Boston, M ass.......................................................................................................................................................
8. Chicago, 111.........................................................................................................................................................
9. Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif ......................................................................................................................
10. New York, N .Y .................................................................
11. Philadelphia, P a .- N .J ........................................................................................................................................
12. San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif..........................................................................................................................

13
14
15
16
17
18

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions—
13. Method of wage p a y m e n t.................................................................................................................................
14. Scheduled weekly h o u r s ...................................................................................................................................
15. Shift differential provisions...............................................................................................................................
16. Shift differential practices.................................................................................................................................
17. Paid holidays.......................................................................................................................................................
18. Paid vacations.....................................................................................................................................................
19. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...........................................................................................................
20. Other selected b e n e fits.....................................................................................................................................

19
19
20
21
22
22
24
25

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey.................................................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions.....................................................................................................................................

26
30




v




C a n d y a n d O t h e r C o n fe c tio n e r y P ro d u c ts , A u g u s t 1 9 7 0
Summary

and the Middle Atlantic States for one-fourth. About
one-tenth were in New England and somewhat smaller
proportions in the Pacific and Southeast.
About seven-eighths of the workers were in metro­
politan areas. Among the regions, the proportions in such
areas were two-thirds in the Southeast, almost seveneighths in the Great Lakes, and nearly all in the Middle
Atlantic, New England, and Pacific regions. The six
metropolitan areas studied separately employed approx­
imately 22,000 workers, a little less than half of the
survey total. About 11,500 workers were in the Chicago
area, 3,300 in Boston, and from 1,000 to 3,000 were in
each of the remaining areas. (See tables 7—
12.)
Women, 55 percent of the work force, were pre­
dominant in occupations such as hand packers, enrobingmachine operators’ helpers, and wrapping-machine oper­
ators. Men, on the other hand, made up a large majority
of the candymakers, mogul operators, and maintenance
mechanics. Regionally, the proportions of women ranged
from three-fifths in New England and the Southeast to
slightly less than half in the Pacific. Women were a
majority in all the selected areas except Chicago and Los
Angeles—
Long Beach.
Production. Output of candy and other confectionery
products increased 30 percent during the 1960’s. Pro­
ductivity gains played a major role in this increase as
output per production worker man-hour rose 23 percent

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in the Nation’s candy and other confectionery
products manufacturing industry averaged $2.52 an hour
in August 1970. Nearly all of the 48,112 production
workers in the study1 had hourly earnings between $ 1.60
and $4. The middle half earned from $2.04 to $2.84
an hour. Women— percent of the industry’s workers
55
and largely employed as hand packers, wrapping-machine
operators, and enrobing-machine operators’ helpers—
averaged $2.25 an hour; men averaged $2.83.
Regionally, averages ranged from $1.97 in the South­
east to $3.02 in the Pacific States.2 Workers in the Great
Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions— three-fifths of the
industry’s work force— averaged $2.66 and $2.54 an
hour, respectively.
Among the occupations studied separately, average
hourly earnings ranged from $1.97 for hand dippers to
$4.07 for maintenance machinists. Wrapping-machine
operators, the largest group, averaged $2.42. Occupa­
tional earnings varied by size of establishment, labormanagement contract coverage, and method of wage
payment.
Paid holidays, usually 6 to 9 annually, and paid
vacations were provided to nearly all workers in the
survey. Typical vacation provisions ranged from 1 week
of vacation pay after 1 year of service to 4 weeks after
20 years. Life, hospitalization, and surgical insurance
plans, usually financed entirely by the employer, covered
more than four-fifths of the workers; pension plans were
available to about seven-tenths.

See appendix A for scope and method o f survey.
For definition of regions, see table A-l in appendix A.
See Employment and Earnings Statistics fo r the United
States, 1909-70 (BLS Bulletin 1312-7), and Employment and
Earnings, Vol. 17, No. 9, 1971.
4 The estimate of the number of production workers is only
a general guide to the size and composition of the labor force
included in the survey. It differs from the number in the Bureau’s
monthly series (55,700 in August 1970) because of the exclusion
of establishments employing fewer than 20 workers and the
planning necessary to assemble lists of establishments consider­
ably in advance of data collection. Thus omitted are new estab­
lishments and establishments originally classified in the candy
and other confectionery products industry but found to be in
other industries at the time of the survey. Also omitted are
establishments manufacturing candy and other confectionery
products, but classified incorrectly in other industries at the
time the lists were compiled.
2

Industry characteristics

3

Employment. The industry’s employment level is
affected greatly by heavy seasonal demands which occur
at Halloween, Christmas, and Easter. Employment typi­
cally drops to its lowest point in July, rises sharply in
August, and reaches its peak in October or November.
In recent years, production employment in the peak
season generally has exceeded the lowest level by 10 to
15,000 workers or 20 to 30 percent.3
Establishments covered by this wage survey employed
48,112 production workers in August 1970.4 The Great
Lakes region accounted for almost two-fifths of the total




1

between 1960 and 1969,5 and total man-hours worked
went up 6 percent.

with the Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ Inter­
national Union of America (Ind.), is the principal union
in the industry.
Method o f wage payment. Slightly more than fourfifths of the workers in the survey were paid time rates.
(See table 13.) Such rates usually were determined ac­
cording to formal plans providing either single rates or
ranges of rates for specified jobs in the Middle Atlantic,
Great Lakes, and Pacific regions. In New England, on the
other hand, informal systems, whereby wages were deter­
mined primarily by the individual’s qualifications, were
predominant for time-rated workers. Formal and informal
systems applied to equal proportions of the workers in
the Southeast.
Incentive pay systems, most common in establishments
employing at least 250 workers, applied to one-fifth
of the work force in the Middle Atlantic and Great
Lakes regions. The proportions amounted to almost onesixth in New England, one-tenth in the Southeast, and
none in the Pacific. Among selected areas, incentive-paid
workers made up approximately two-fifths of the em­
ployment in Philadelphia, three-tenths in Chicago, onefourth in New York, and slightly less than one-tenth in
Boston. None of the workers in Los Angeles-Long
Beach and San Francisco—
Oakland were under incentive
systems in the establishments studied. The occupations
studied separately in which at least one-third of the
workers were paid on incentive systems were wrappingmachine operators and fancy hand packers.

Boxed chocolates and other packaged goods were
the principal products in establishments employing
slightly more than half of the industry’s workers in
August 1970. Plants chiefly producing candy bars em­
ployed another fourth. Five- and 10-cent specialties,
bulk goods, and nuts, each accounted for 5 to 7 percent
of the work force. Plants producing boxed chocolates
and packaged goods employed almost two-thirds of the
workers in the Pacific and New England regions, com­
pared with three-fifths in the Southeast, and about onehalf in the Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic. Plants
primarily manufacturing candy bars were more prevalent
in the Great Lakes region, where they accounted for twofifths of the work force, than in the other regions.
Workers in bulk goods plants made up one-fifth of the
total in the Pacific and one-eighth or less in each of the
remaining regions.
Establishment size. Only about one-sixth of the 400
establishments covered by the survey employed 250
workers or more, but these accounted for slightly more
than three-fifths of the total production work force.
Two-thirds of the establishments covered employed from
20 to 99 workers and one-eighth employed from 100
to 249. Each of these two size groups accounted for
slightly less than one-fifth of the total work force.
Union contract coverage. Establishments which had
collective bargaining agreements covering a majority of
their production workers employed slightly more than
three-fifths of the industry’s work force in August 1970.
In the 1965 survey, only half the workers were in such
plants. Much of the increase occurred in the Great Lakes
region, where plants having a majority covered by con­
tracts employed three-fourths of the workers in 1970,
compared with only two-fifths 5 years earlier. The pro­
portions of workers covered by collective bargaining
agreements in August 1970 were seven-eighths in the
Pacific, seven-tenths in the Middle Atlantic, one-third
in New England, and slightly less than one-tenth in the
Southeast.

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers averaged $2.52 an hour in August 1970 6 —
up 35 percent since September 1965, when the Bureau
conducted a similar survey.7 The average annual rate of
increase in this period was 6.3 percent, compared with 3.8
percent recorded during the first half of the 1960’s. 8
5 Indexes o f Output Per Man-Hour, Selected Industries,
1939 and 1947-70 (BLS Bulletin 1692, 1971).
6 The straight-time average hourly earnings in this bulletin
differ in concept from the gross average hourly earnings published
in the Bureau’s monthly hours and earnings series ($2.74 in
August 1970). Unlike the latter, the estimates presented here
exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts. Average earnings were calculated by
summing in d ivid u al hourly earnings and dividing by the
number of individuals; in the monthly series, the sum of the
man-hour totals reported by establishments in the industry was
divided into the reported payroll totals.
7 See Industry Wage Survey: Candy and Other Confectionery
Products, September 1965 (BLS Bulletin 1520, 1966).
8 Refers to the period between December 1960 and Septem­
ber 1965. For an account of the 1960 study, see Wage Structure:
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, November-Dec ember
1960 (BLS Report 195, 1961).

The extent of unionization varied by size of establish­
ment and size of community. Seven-tenths of the workers
in establishments employing 100 workers or more were
in plants operating under collective bargaining agree­
ments; in smaller establishments, the proportion was
about one-third. Nine-tenths of the workers in metro­
politan areas were in union establishments, compared
with less than one-sixth in smaller communities.
The American Bakery and Confectionery Workers’
International Union (AFL-CIO), which merged in 1969




2

tract coverage, and other factors affecting wage levels.
Examples of these interrelationships were noted in the
discussion of industry characteristics, but the exact
influence on earnings of any particular factor was not
determined in this study.
Individual earnings were widely dispersed and ranged
from $1.60 to $4 an hour for nearly all workers in
August 1970. (See table 2.) The middle half of these
workers had hourly earnings from $2.04 to $2.84, com­
pared with $1.51 to $2.14 in September 1965. The
general upward shift in the distribution of earnings
dramatically changed the proportions of workers at the
lower and upper ends of the array. For example, almost
two-thirds of the workers in 1965 earned under $2 an
hour, whereas by 1970, the proportion had fallen to only
one-fifth. Conversely, at the upper end of the scale, the
proportion of workers earning $3 an hour or more
climbed from 4 percent in 1965 to almost 20 percent in
1970. The extent of such shifting varied widely by
region, as illustrated in the following tabulation:

August 1970 wage levels ranged from $1.97 an hour
in the Southeast to $3.02 in the Pacific. In the Great
Lakes and Middle Atlantic, which employed three-fifths
of the workers, earnings averaged $2.66 and $2.54,
respectively. Among the six candy manufacturing centers
for which separate data were developed, hourly earnings
averaged the least in New York ($2.35) and the most in
San Francisco—
Oakland ($3.08).
Men averaged $2.83 an hour in August 1970, com­
pared with $2.25 for women. The average hourly wage
advantage for men was 28 cents in the Southeast, but
ranged upward to 63 cents in the Middle Atlantic and
72 cents in the Pacific region. Differences in average pay
levels for men and women may result from several factors,
including variations in the distribution of men and
women among establishments and among jobs with dis­
parate pay levels. Also, differences in average earnings
for men and women in the same job and area may reflect
possible minor differences in duties. Job descriptions are
more generalized in wage surveys than in individual estab­
lishments because allowance must be made for possible
differences among establishments in specific duties per­
formed. To the extent that individual pay rates are ad­
justed for length of service, longer average service can
result in higher average pay for one sex than for the other,
when both are employed within the same rate range.
Workers in metropolitan areas averaged 24 cents
more than those in smaller communities ($2.55 compared
with $2.31). Differences in favor of metropolitan areas
amounted to 16 cents in the Great Lakes and 23 cents
in the Southeast, the only two regions in which such
comparisons could be made.
Production workers in establishments employing 250
or more averaged $2.65 an hour, compared with $2.39
in those employing 100 to 249 workers, and $2.18 in
establishments employing from 20 to 99. In the Great
Lakes region, averages for workers in the three establish­
ment size groups were $2.81, $2.45, and $2.14, respec­
tively; in the Middle Atlantic, the only other region
where similar comparisons could be made, the cor­
responding averages were $2.72, $2.31, and $2.14.
Earnings in establishments in which labor-management
contracts covered a majority of the production workers
averaged $2.59 an hour— 19 cents more than in establish­
ments without such coverage. These nationwide wage
levels partly reflected differences in location between
union and nonunion plants: One-third of the workers in
nonunion plants were in the relatively low-paid South­
east and New England, whereas only a small proportion
of the workers in union establishments were in these
regions.
The above comparisons may reflect the interrelation­
ship of community size, establishment size, union con­




Percent of production workers earning—
Less than $2
______an hour
Sept.
1 9 65

Regions
New E n g la n d .............
Middle A tla n tic . . . .
S outheast....................
Great L a k e s ...............
P a c if ic .........................

$3 an hour
or more______

. .
..
..
..
..

Aug.
19 70

Sept.
1965

Aug.
1970

7 6 .6
7 0 .3
9 1 .9
5 6 .8
18 .2

2 1 .8
15.3
6 0 .5
12.9
6 .6

1.4
3.6
.2
5.2
5.4

14.5
2 0 .2
1.9
2 4 .0
37 .9

Occupational earnings

Occupations for which earnings data are presented in
table 3 accounted for almost three-fifths of the pro­
duction workers in the 1970 survey. The occupations were
selected to represent the skill levels and types of opera­
tions found in the industry. National averages for these
jobs ranged from $1.97 an hour for hand dippers (nearly
all women) to $4.07 for maintenance machinists (all men).
Wrapping-machine operators, mostly women and the
largest occupational group studied separately, averaged
$2.42.
Averages of other numerically important jobs staffed
predominantly by women included $2.09 an hour for
bulk hand packers; $2.13 for fancy hand packers; $2.25
for enrobing-machine operators’ helpers; and $2.41 for
inspectors. Among jobs usually filled by men, class A
candymakers (those possessing the full range of candy
mixing and cooking skills) averaged $3.22 an hour; class
B candymakers (who make candy according to formula

3

or under the direction of others) averaged $2.76;
enrobing-machine operators, $2.83; and material handling
laborers, $2.61.
Wage relationships within individual regions did not
always follow the nationwide pattern. Class B candymakers, for example, averaged 26 cents an hour more,
nationally, than did candymakers’ helpers ($2.76 com­
pared with $2.50); in the Pacific region, however, the
candymakers’ helpers had the higher average ($2.98 com­
pared with $2.93). This unexpected relationship in the
Pacific region resulted from a greater proportion of the
candymakers’ helpers being employed in higher paying
establishments than class B candymakers. When com­
parisons were limited to establishments employing both
groups, class B candymakers earned more than helpers
in virtually all cases.
Occupational averages were nearly always highest in
the Pacific and lowest in the Southeast. Wage advantages
for workers in the Pacific over those in the Southeast
ranged from 31 percent for wrapping-machine operators
to 87 percent for material-handing laborers. Such inter­
regional variations are further illustrated in the following
tabulation, which presents regional averages as a percent
of those in the Southeast for three occupations.

Region
P a c if ic ............................
Great L a k e s ..................
M iddle A t la n t ic ..........
N ew E n g la n d ...............
Southeast ....................

Class A
Maintenance
candymakers mechanics
143
128
109
121
10 0

145
111
118
107
10 0

averages (as compared to the overall average in the indus­
try) earned more than some workers in jobs with much
higher averages. The extent of such overlaps is illustrated
in the tabulation which shows the number of men class A
candymakers (average $2.65) and women fancy hand
packers (average $2.15) in New York by specified
earnings classes.

Men class A
candy­
makers

____

2
15
30
20
4
6
8

37
181
52
25
4
1
1
1

T o t a l ................................... ____

85

302

Average hourly earnings............. ____

$ 2 .6 5

$ 2 .1 5

$ 1 .8 0
$ 2 .0 0
$ 2 .2 0
$ 2 .4 0
$ 2 .6 0
$ 2 .8 0
$ 3 .0 0
$ 3 .2 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 2 . 0 0 .............
under $ 2 . 2 0 .............
under $ 2 . 4 0 .............
under $ 2 . 6 0 .............
under $ 2 . 8 0 .............
under $ 3 . 0 0 .............
under $ 3 . 2 0 .............
over ............................

. . .
____
____
____
____

The range of earnings for workers in the same occu­
pation differed by establishment. Among the plants in
New York which employed class A candymakers, the
differential between the highest and lowest paid in this
occupation exceeded 90 cents an hour in one-third of the
establishments, but was less than 20 cents in the
remainder.

Janitors
166
147
139
122
100

Establishment practices and

Occupational averages were generally higher in estab­
lishments employing 250 workers or more than in smaller
establishments, nationally, and in the regions where com­
parison could be made. (See table 4.) Occupational
averages by establishment size and labor-management
contract status are presented in table 5.
Incentive-paid workers typically averaged more than
time-rated workers in the same occupation. (See table 6.)
For example, women fancy hand packers paid under
incentive systems averaged 41 cents more than their
time-rated counterparts in the Middle Atlantic region and
62 cents more in the Great Lakes. Similarly, in the New
York metropolitan area, .women operating wrapping
machines on incentive averaged 17 cents an hour more
than those paid time rates ($2.43 compared with $2.26).
(See table 10.)
Earnings of the highest paid workers within a given
occupation and area frequently exceeded those of the
lowest paid by at least $1 an hour. (See tables 7-1 2 .)
Consequently, some workers in jobs with relatively low




.

Women
fancy hand
packers

supplem entary wage

provisions

Data were also obtained for production workers on
certain establishment practices, such as work schedules
and shift practices, and on selected supplementary wage
benefits including paid holidays, paid vacations, and
health, insurance, and retirement plans. 9
Scheduled weekly hours and shift practices. Work
schedules of 40 hours a week were in effect in estab­
lishments employing 95 percent of the production work
force. (See table 14.) Four-fifths of the workers were in
establishments having formal provisions for late shifts.
(See table 15.) At the time of the survey, however, only
about one-fifth of the workers were actually employed

Q

For an account of employer expenditures for supple­
mentary wage provisions in the industry, see Employee Conpensation and Payroll Hours, Confectionery and Related Prod­
ucts Manufacturing, 1967 (BLS Report 364, 1969).

4

on second shifts and less than 5 percent on third or other
late shifts. (See table 16.) Second shift workers usually
received extra pay above day-shift rates, and of the many
shift differentials reported, the most common was 10
cents an hour.
Paid holidays. Nearly all establishments granted paid
holidays annually to their employees. (See table 17.)
The number of holidays most commonly provided ranged
from 11 in New England to 5 in the Southeast. Workers
in the Great Lakes and Pacific regions usually received 8
or 9 days, while those in the Middle Atlantic States
typically received 7, 10, or 11.
Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying periods
of service, were provided by plants employing nearly all
the workers. (See table 18.) The most common provisions
were 1 week’s vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2
weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and 4 weeks
after 20 years. One-fifth of the workers (principally
employed in the Middle Atlantic and Great Lakes regions)
were in establishments providing 5 weeks after 30 years
of service.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Life, hospi­
talization, surgical, and medical insurance plans, at least
partially paid by employers, were available in establish­
ments employing more than four-fifths of the production




workers. (See table 19.) Accidental death and dismember­
ment and sickness and accident insurance each applied
to two-thirds of the workers, and major medical insur­
ance to slightly more than one-half. Retirement pension
plans, in addition to Federal social security benefits,
were available in establishments employing seven-tenths
of the workers.
The incidence of life, hospitalization, and surgical
insurance varied little by region, but this was not true for
the other benefits. For example, the proportions of
workers covered by major medical insurance varied from
three-tenths in the Middle Atlantic region to over ninetenths in New England. Similarly, pension plans were
available to seven-eighths of the workers in New England,
compared with about two-fifths of those in the Southeast.
Other selected benefits. Pay provisions for funeral
leave and jury duty pay were reported in establishments
employing a majority of the production work force in
each of the regions studied separately. (See table 20.)
Establishments reporting provisions for technological
severance pay employed one-third of the workers in the
Middle Atlantic States and one-fourth in the Great
Lakes. Such payments to workers separated from
employment through no fault of their own were
rare in the other regions.

5

T a b le 1. A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s : B y s e le c te d c h a ra c te ris tic s
(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 of p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in candy and oth er c o n fe c tio n e r y p ro d u cts m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lish m e n ts
by s e le c t e d c h a r a c t e r is t ic s , U n ited S ta te s and s e le c t e d r e g io n s , A ugust 1970)
U n ited S ta tes
Item

2

N um ber
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u rly
ea rn in g s

4 8 ,1 1 2

4 1 ,8 9 9
6 ,2 1 3

2.55
2.31

4 ,4 6 9
“

S iz e o f e sta b lish m e n t:
2 0 —9 9 w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------100—
249 w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------250 w o r k e r s or m o r e ---------------------------------------

8 ,7 9 0
9 ,2 7 2
3 0 ,0 5 0

2.18
2.39
2.65

3 ,6 3 4

L a b o r -m a n a g e m e n t c o n tr a c ts:
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith—
M a jo r ity of w o r k e r s c o v e r e d --------------------N on e or m in o r ity o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d -------

3 0 ,1 5 2
1 7 ,9 6 0

2.59
2.40

3, 192

1
2
3

-

-

-

2.46

-




1 7 ,9 2 4
8 , 327
9 ,5 9 7

$2 .6 6
2.97
2.38

3, 321
1 ,7 4 3
1 ,5 7 8

$3.02
3.36
2.64

2.04
1.81

1 5 ,1 4 6
2 ,7 7 8

2 .68

3, 321

3.02

2.52

2 ,6 7 1
2 ,6 4 5

2.14
2.45
2.81

1, 141
1 ,3 1 2
“

2.72

2 .66

2 ,9 0 3

3.13

2 .5 4
“

2 ,2 2 6
1 ,0 4 0

2 ,2 5 2
2, 123
7 ,5 3 1

2 .1 4
2.31
2.7 2

1 ,9 9 6

1.98

1 2 ,6 0 8

2 ,9 9 2

1.96

1 3 ,4 4 9
4 ,4 7 5

8

,

160

2 .4 2

2.34

D a s h e s in d ic a te no data r e p o r te d or data that do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .

1.86

1 1 ,7 6 1
-

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
In c lu d e s data fo r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o se show n se p a r a te ly .
Standard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a s a s defin ed by the U .S . O ffice o f M an agem en t and B u d get ( fo r m e r ly U. S.

NO TE:

$ 1.97
2.14

3 ,2 6 6

2.8 8

2.2 5

2.38

2 6 ,2 2 6

1,2 9 8

$ 2 .5 4

5 ,4 7 0
6 ,4 3 6

$ 2 .40
2.72
2.18

A verage
hourly
e a rn in g s

1 ,9 6 8

1 1 ,9 0 6

4 ,7 7 6
1 ,9 2 8
2 ,8 4 8

S iz e of com m u n ity:
M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s 3 ----------------------------------------N o n m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s ------------------------------------

2 1 ,8 8 6

P a c ific

N u m ber
of
w orkers

N u m ber
of
w orkers

N u m b er
of
w orkers

N u m b er
of
w orkers

A verage
h o u rly
ea r n in g s

A verage
h o u rly
ea r n in g s

A verage
ho u rly
ea rn in g s

$2.52
2.83
2.25

A ll w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------M e n _- _______ __ _________ _— ------- ------------------ —
W o m e n ---------------------------------------------------------------

G re a t L ak es

S o u th ea st

M id d le A tla n tic

N ew E ngland
N u m ber
of
w orkers

-

-

B u rea u o f the Budget) through Jan u ary 1968.

A verage
h ou rly
ea r n in g s

2.65

'

2.9 8

"

T a b le 2 . E a rn in g s d is trib u tio n : A ll p ro d u c tio n w o r k e rs
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in can d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s ,
U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e le c te d r e g i o n s , A u g u st 1970)
U n ited S ta te s
A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea r n in g s

T otal

N ew
England

M id dle
A tla n tic

S o u th ea st

G reat
L ak es

.9
.7
.4
1. 1

1 1 .4
9. 7
1 1 .4

.
.
.
2.

1. 3
1. 5
1. 2

3.
2.
4.
3.
4.

4. 0
2. 2
2. 2
4. 1
1. 8

1. 1
.7
3. 8
3. 4
3. 2

5. 6
4. 0
8. 6
7 .4
2. 4

.
1.
2.
1.
3.

9 .6
8. 1
6. 1
5. 8
5. 2

. 3
.0
5. 9
4. 6
5. 1

12. 3
9. 9
6. 2
6. 8
5. 2

6 0 --------------------------------------------------------und er $ 1 .6 5 --------------------------------------und er $ 1. 7 0--------------------------------------und er $ 1. 7 5---------------------------------------

0. 3
2 .9
1.4
3. 2

$ 1. 75
$ 1 .8 0
$ 1. 85
$ 1. 90
$ 1 .9 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
und er
u nd er
und er
u nd er

$
$
$
$
$

1. 8 0 --------------------------------------1 .8 5 --------------------------------------1. 9 0--------------------------------------1 .9 5 --------------------------------------2. 00---------------------------------------

2
2

.0
. 1
3. 2
2. 6
3. 0

and
and
2. 20 and
2. 30 and
2. 4 0 and

und er
u n d er
un d er
und er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

. 1 0 _________________________
. 2 0 _________________________
2. 30--------------------------------------2. 4 0 --------------------------------------2. 50--------------------------------------2
2

W om en

2. 9
.5
4. 1

$ 1.
and
and
and

2 . 00
2 .1 0

M en

0. 5
4. 2
2. 0
5. 3

U n der
$ 1. 60
$ 1. 65
$ 1 .7 0

$
$
$
$
$

2

1

1. 3
.6
.8
.7
1. 0

6
6

1
9
7
6

4

0

0

.9
.2
13. 0
5. 0
6. 2

8
10

11.
14.
8.
4.
5.

3
3
3
4

1 2 .9
5. 9
6 .4
4. 1
2. 3

0

2
8
2
0

0. 7
2 .4
.4

7
7
9

1. 0

2

1. 0

.4
.7

2

7. 7
5. 5
4. 6
8. 6
5. 9

1. 2
.2

.4
.6
.8

$ 2. 50
$ 2. 60
$ 2 .7 0
$ 2 . 80
$ 2. 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
un d er
u nd er
und er
u nd er

$ 2.
$ 2.
$2.
$2.
$ 3.

6 0--------------------------------------7 0--------------------------------------8 0--------------------------------------9 0 --------------------------------------0 0---------------------------------------

5. 1
6.4
6. 3
4. 9
2 .7

6
6

. 1
. 1
5. 1
6 .9
4. 2

4.
6.
7.
3.
1.

3
7
3
2
4

6 . 3
4. 7
3. 8
3. 4
2. 1

5. 6
6 . 2
2 .9
4 .6
1 .9

2. 4
1. 0
.8
1. 2
.2

4.
7.
8.
6.
4.

9
0
9
3
0

7. 2
16. 0
19. 5
5. 5
3 .9

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
un d er
und er
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

10--------------------------------------20--------------------------------------30--------------------------------------4 0 --------------------------------------50_________________________

2
2

.6
.0
3. 0
1. 2
2. 0

4. 3
3. 5
3. 6
2. 2
3. 6

1. 2
.8
2 .4
.4
.6

2. 3
1. 9
1. 1
2. 2
1 .4

2. 1
1 .2

2 .9
.8
3. 8

.6
.2
.3
. 1
. 1

4.
2.
4.
1.
1.

0
9
9
5
3

.0
3. 2
1. 8
1. 8
4. 8

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

und er
und er
und er
und er
und er

$ 3.
$ 3.
$ 3.
$ 3.
$4.

6 0 _________________________
7 0 --------------------------------------8 0--------------------------------------9 0--------------------------------------0 0---------------------------------------

.7

1. 3
2. 3
3. 0
1. 6

. 3
. 1
. 1

.9
1. 4
•9
.4
.5

.6
1. 1
1. 6

. 3
. 1
(3 )

.9
1. 4
.8
1. 2
.5

1. 2
2. 3
8. 3
2. 2
3. 2

$ 4 . 00 and o v e r ____ _________________________ ____
T o ta l----------------------------------------------------------N u m b er o f w o r k e r s ______________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 ----------------------------------




1
2
3

1. 1

1 .4
.7
1. 1

2.4

3 .4

7 .4

.0

100. 0

4 8 , 112
$2. 52

2 1 ,8 8 6

100

$2. 83

(?)
(3)

(3)
100

.

0

2 6 ,2 2 6
$2. 25

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and for work on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
In c lu d e s data fo r r e g io n s in addition to th o s e shown s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

NO TE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not equal 100.

1. 5
100

.

0

4 ,7 7 6
$2. 40

.3
2 .4
3 .4

1
1

(3 )

0

100. 0

1 1 ,9 0 6
$2. 54

3 ,2 6 6
$ 1 .9 7

100

.

.
.

4 .6
.

2

7. 1

0

100. 0

1 7 ,9 2 4
$2 . 66

3, 321
$3. 02

100

T a b le 3. O cc u p atio n al averages: A ll establishm ents
.(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s ,
U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e le c te d r e g i o n s , A u g u s t 1970)
N ew E n gland

United S t a te s 2
O ccu p atio n and s e x

w orkers

C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s A (848 m en , 12 w o m en )—
C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s B (1, 799 m en ,
46 w o m e n )— ------------------- —-------------------------------C a n d y m a k er s' h e lp e r s ----------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W o m en -------— --------— ------------------------------------D ip p e r s , hand (7 m en , 415 w o m en )........................E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------- --------------------W o m en ------------------- —-------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ' h e l p e r s -------------M en —-------------------------------------------------------------—
W o m en -----------------------------------------------------------F illin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W o m en ------------------------------------------------------------I n s p e c to r s , candy (59 m en , 785 w o m e n )----------J a n ito r s ---------------------------------------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------- ------- -------------------W o m en ------------------------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l han d lin g (2, 029 m en ,
25 w om en )— ----------------- —_______________________
M a c h in is ts, m a in te n a n c e ( a ll m e n ) ------------------M ain ten an ce m en , g e n e r a l u tility ( a ll m e n ) -----M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e ( a ll m en )--------------------M ogul o p e r a to r s (211 m en , 3 w o m en )---------------M ogul o p e r a to r s ' h e lp e r s (4 4 5 m en ,
1 0 w om en )--------------------- -----------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, bulk (220 m en ,
2 , 6 9 0 w o m e n )---------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, can d y b a r s (1 4 8 m en ,
1, 270 w o m e n )---------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fa n cy (15 m en ,
3, 763 w om en) —________________________________
W atch m en ( a ll m e n ) --------------------------------------------W rapping -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s -----------------------------M e n ---- -------------------------------------- --- -----------------W o m en -------------------------------— --------------------------

See fo o tn o te s at end of tab le,




H ourly ea r n in g s

N u m b er
M ea n 3

1

M ed ian 3

M iddle
range 3
$2. 7 0 -$ 3 . 65

N u m ber
of
w orkers

$3. 18

$3. 15

2 .9 1
2. 52
2. 54
.
2. 78
2 . 88
2 . 19
2 .4 4
2. 13
.
.
2 . 38
2 .2 5
2. 25

2 .9 5
2. 50
2 . 50
-

$3. 30

1, 345
1, 038
484
554
844
2, 004
1, 829
175

2. 76
2. 50
2. 55
2 . 26
1 .9 7
2. 83
3. 19
1 .9 4
2 . 29
2. 51
2. 25
2 .6 1
2. 93
2. 33
2 .4 1
2. 56
2 .5 9
2. 24

2 .7 2
2 .4 2
2 .4 8
2 . 39
1. 85
2 .7 4
3. 17
1 .9 0
2 .2 5
2 . 28
2. 24
2. 50
2 .6 2
2 .0 7
2. 38
2 . 60
2 .6 0
2 . 10

2 .3 0 2 .0 5 2 .0 7 2 .0 3 1 .7 0 2. 2 0 2 .6 1 1 .7 0 1 .9 5 2. 1 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 7 2 .5 0 1 .9 3 2 . 002 . 182 .2 3 2 .0 0 -

2 .6 9
2. 94
2 .6 9
2 .8 6
3 .3 4
2 .7 7
2 .7 9
2 . 86
2 .8 9
2 .6 7

2, 054
326
564
815
214

2 .6 1
4 .0 7
3 .2 7
3 .7 8
2 .9 1

2. 53
4 . 11
3 .2 5
3 .7 9
2 .8 9

2 .2 3 3 .7 2 2 .8 1 3. 3 3 2 .5 0 -

2 .8 0
4 .5 4
3 .6 5
4 .1 0
3 .2 3

181
15
35

455

2. 53

2. 50

2 . 2 5 - 2 .8 4

2, 910

2 .0 9

2 .0 3

1. 8 0 - 2. 25

1, 418

2 .4 9

2 .4 6

2

3, 778
143
4, 527
224
4, 303

2. 13
2. 51
2 .4 2
2. 50
2 .4 2

2. 03
2 .4 2
2. 32
2 .4 5
2. 30

1 .8 0 2 .0 8 2 .0 5 2. 1 0 2 .0 5 -

220

.

00-

2 .0 0

3. 34
3 .5 1
2 .0 9

120

114
.
.
44
36
.
86

17
69
.
-

39
175
166
-

1

M id dle
ra n g e 3

M e d ia n 3

59

$3. 22

3 .0 6
2 .8 7
2 .9 3
2 .4 5

M ean3

99

860

1, 845
2 , 038
1, 722
316
422
529
379
150
1, 565

M id dle A tla n tic

H o u rly e a r n in g s

-

2 .6 9
2 . 80
2. 25
2. 25.
2. 25
-

.
2 .4 0
2 .2 6
2. 27

-

-

$2. 9 8 - $ 3 . 33
2 .6 7 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 .
■
*
2 .5 0 2 .6 7 .
2 .0 2 2 . 021 .9 7 -

3 .0 3
2 .7 0
2 .7 4
—

N u m b er
of
w orkers

$2. 87

$ 2 .7 5

2. 72
2 .2 9
2. 33
2 . 10
1. 83
2. 73
2 .9 7
1. 90
2. 30
.
2. 32
2 . 61
3. 50
2. 33
2 .5 0
2. 58
2 .5 9
2 .2 9

2. 65
2. 27
2. 35
2. 13
1. 85
2 .6 1
2 . 88
1. 90
2 . 16
2. 15
2. 56
3 .9 8
2. 07
2. 52
2 .4 8
2 .4 8
2. 55

2. 0 3 2.04r2 .9 3 2.04r2. 13 2 , 212 .2 2 1 .9 3 -

2 .7 4
2 .7 2
2 .7 2
2 .5 5

2 .4 7
4 . 09
3. 23
3'. 90
2 . 80

2. 35
4. 18
3. 32
3. 84
2 .6 5

2. 1 7 3 .6 2 2 .8 9 3 .5 1 2 .6 3 -

2 .6 7
4 .7 6
3 .5 0
4 .5 7
2 .8 9

226

46
47

3 .0 3

95
27
321

2. 3 0 - 2 .4 0
2 . 0 7 - 2 .3 0
2 . 0 7 - 2 .3 6
-

-

244
387
94
293
148
368
352
16

2 .3 0 2 .0 3 2. 0 3 2 .0 4 1 .7 0 2 .5 1 2 .5 8 1 .5 0 2 .0 3 -

2 .9 1
2 .4 8
2. 52
2. 13
1 .8 5
3 .2 9
3 .2 9
1 .9 8
2 .7 4

-

2. 74
2 .8 6

3 .9 8
2 .8 6

22

2. 27
3. 75
2 .9 5
3 .6 0
2 .7 5

2 .2 7 3 .6 5 2 .7 7 3 .3 0 2 .6 9 -

22

2 .4 1

2. 34

2. 1 0 - 2. 83

107

2 .4 1

2

599

1 .9 4

1. 83

1. 7 5 - 2. 14

838

2 .0 6

2 .0 8

548

2. 76

2

86

2. 1 8 - 3. 21

955
36
1, 123
.
1 , 026

2 . 12
2. 36
2. 35

2 . 10
2 . 10
2 .2 7

1 .9 2 - 2 .4 5
2 . 0 0 - 2 .6 5
2 . 0 5 - 2 .5 8

2 .9 8

_

2 .5 0

4 24

2 .9 8

8

2 .7 5
2 .9 7
2 .7 5

653
.
644

. 26
2. 46
2. 31
2. 31

2

.

.

2. 36
.

2 . 0 5 - 2 .5 0

2 .2 0

2 . 0 0 - 2 .3 7

. 20

2 . 0 0 - 2 .4 0

2

-

275

-

$2. 53—
$3. 23

2 .4 2
3. 76
3. 17
3. 54
2 . 82

61

2 .6 5
4 .0 6
3 .6 5
3 .9 0
3. 1 0

M iddle
range 3

158

122

-

1

M e d ia n 3

455
272

2 .9 9

2 .2 5
2 .8 0
2 .2 5

H ou rly e a r n in g s
M ean3

68

137
278
41

-

2. 36

.

.

26

2

.

2 . 2 6 - 2 .5 4
1 .9 5 - 2 .2 0

26

2 . 0 5 - 2 .6 1

T a b le 3. O c c u p a tio n a l averages: All estab lishm en ts— Continued
(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in candy and o th er c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d r e g io n s , A u g u st 1970)
S o u th e a st
O ccu p atio n and s e x

C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s A --------------------------------------C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s B --------------------------------------C a n d y m a k er s' h e lp e r s ----------------------------------------M e n ___________________________________________
W o m en ------------------------------------------------------------D ip p e r s , hand------------------------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ----------------------------M e n ___________________ ______________________
W o m p ------------------------------------------------------------E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ' h e l p e r s -------------M e n -------- --------------------- ------------- -------------------W o m en --------------------------------- ------- ------------------F illin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------M e n ___________________________________________
W o m en ------------------------------------------------------------I n s p e c to r s , can d y________________ _______________
J a n ito r s --------------------------- ----------------- ---------------M e n --------------------------------------- -----------------------W o m en ________________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h a n d lin g ------------------- --------M a c h in is ts, m a in t e n a n c e _______________________
M a in ten a n ce m en , g e n e r a l u t i l i t y .............................
M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e __________ ______________
M ogul o p e r a to r s __________ _____ ____ _____________
M ogul o p e r a to r s ' h e lp e r s -----------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk ------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, can d y b a r s ___ - ________________
P a c k e r s , hand, fa n c y -----------------------------------------W a tch m e n -----------------------------------------------------------W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ----------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------W o m en __________________ _____________________

1
2

N u m ber
of
w orkers

45
227
215
200

15
42
19
23
90
83
58
27
83
96
83
13
169
39
29
15
42
153
515
8

268
254

G reat L a k es

H o u rly e a r n in g s 1
M ean 3

$2. 63
2 . 19
2 . 02
2 . 02
1. 95
-

. 22
2. 67
1. 85
1 . 81
1 .7 8
2 .7 6
3. 53
1. 77
1. 85
1 .8 5
1 . 86
2. 04
2

-

2 .6 1
3. 31
2. 50
1.9 6
1. 75
1 .7 8
1.91
2 .0 3
2 . 02

M iddle
range 3

M e d ia n 3

$2. 50
2. 15
2 . 10
2 . 11
2 . 00
2. 33
2 .6 2
1 .7 5
1 .8 7
1. 87
2 .0 0

2 .0 0

1 .6 5
1 .7 5
1. 75
2

.

10

-

2 .6 0
3. 13
2 .4 7
1 . 80
1 .7 0
1 .7 5
2 .0 0
2 .0 0

$2. 25—$2. 81
1. 93— 2 .5 0
1. 80- 2 . 20
1. 80- 2 . 20
1. 8 7 - 2 .0 4
1 .7 1 - 2 .5 9
2. 5 7 - 2. 80
1 . 6 5 - 1 .9 5
1 . 6 5 - 1 .8 7
1 . 6 5 - 1 .8 7
1 . 7 5 - 2 .4 2
“
—
1 . 7 2 - 6 .9 5
1. 6 5 - 1. 81
1 . 7 0 - 2 .0 2
1 . 7 0 - 2 .0 1
1 . 7 5 - 2 .3 0
2. 2 5 - 2. 89
3 . 0 8 - 3 .4 5
2 . 3 0 - 2 .8 1
1. 7 0 - 2. 19
1 .6 5 - 1 .8 5
1 . 6 5 - 1 .9 0
-

1 .9 5 - 2 .1 9
1. 9 5 - 2 . 19

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts .
In c lu d e s d ata fo r r e g io n s in ad d ition to th o s e show n s e p a r a te ly .
S ee a p p en d ix A fo r m eth o d u se d in com p uting m ea n s, m ed ia n s, and m id d le r a n g e s o f e a r n in g s.

NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ic a te no da ta r e p o r te d o r data that do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .




N u m ber
of
w orkers

270
718
913
803
110
101

226
156
70
612
41
571
437
305
132
429
977
924
53
1, 0 2 1

205
160
295
94
250
666

381
1, 123
58
1, 805
80
1, 725

P a c ific

H ourly e a r n in g s 1
M ean3

M e d ia n 3

$3. 37
2 .9 5
• 2. 72
2 .7 9
2. 25
1. 98
3. 00
3 .4 8
1 .9 1
2 .2 9
2 . 92
2. 24
2. 63
2. 77
2. 32
2 .4 8
2. 72
2. 73
2. 52
2. 76
4 . 12
3 .4 5
3 .6 6
2 . 96
2 .6 3
2. 31
2 .7 8 .
2 .2 5
2. 83
2 .6 1
2. 87
2 .6 0

$ 3 .4 6
2. 83
2 .6 5
2 . 80
2 .3 9
2 .0 0

2 .9 9
3 .4 3
1 . 80
2. 30
2 .7 5
2. 15
2. 50
2. 50
2. 24
2 .5 9
2 .7 5
2 .8 6

2 .4 8
2 .6 6

4 . 11
3 .4 5
3. 75
3 .0 9
2 .6 9
■ .2 0
2
2 .7 9
2 . 10
2 .6 5
2 .4 8
3 .0 9
2 .4 8

M iddle
ra n g e 3
$ 2 . 94—$3, 6 6
2. 5 5 - 3. 18
2 . 2 8 - 3 .0 6
2 . 3 1 - 3 .0 6
2 . 0 3 - 2 .4 3
1 . 8 5 - 2 .0 0
2. 1 2 - 3 .7 3
2 . 8 5 - 3 .7 3
1 .7 0 - 2 . 0 0
1 . 9 9 - 2 .6 9
2 . 4 0 - 3. 15
1 . 9 8 - 2 .6 9
2 . 5 0 - 2 .8 4
2 . 5 0 - 3 .2 1
2 . 0 0 - 2 .7 7
2. 1 5 - 2 .7 9
2 . 5 3 - 2 .8 9
2 . 5 3 - 2 .8 9
2 . 3 2 - 2 .8 5
2 . 4 2 - 2 .9 8
3. 84r* 4 .4 3
2 . 9 2 - 3 .7 5
3 . 4 0 - 3 .8 5
2 . 5 0 - 3 .3 7
2. 3 0 - 2. 89
2 . 12- 2 . 6 0
2 . 4 8 - 3 .0 0
1 . 9 5 - 2 .7 2
2 . 5 1 - 3 .3 3
2. 24— 3 .1 3
2 . 9 5 - 3 .0 9
2. 2 4 - 3. 18

N u m b er
of
w orkers

147
187
167
116
51
51
28
27
.
191
35
156
66

51
15
60
109
109

_

88
8

47
67
27
.
302
49
161
96
13
83

H ourly ea r n in g s
M ean3

M ed ian 3

1

M iddle
range 3

$3. 77
2. 93
2 .9 8
3. 15
2 .6 0
2 .6 3
3 .3 8
3 .4 1
„
•2.72
3. 14
2 .6 2
3. 19
3 .4 1
2 .4 5
3. 18
3 .0 7
3 .0 7

$ 3 .7 8
3. 20
2. 87
2 .9 5
2 .7 8
2 . 81
3. 37
3 .4 2

3. 82
4 . 14
4 .0 8
4 .7 9
3 .5 2

3 .8 4

3 . 7 5 - 4. 12

4 . 10
5. 19
3 .6 4

3 . 6 5 - 4. 36
4 . 4 7 - 5. 19
3 . 4 5 - 3 .6 4

2 .5 4
2 .7 8
2 .6 2

2 .6 5
2 .7 8
2 .6 5

2 . 5 0 - 2 .6 7
2 . 7 8 - 2 .9 6
2 . 6 5 - 2 .6 8

_

_

2 .7 8
2 .9 6
2. 58
2 .9 6
3 .7 2
2 .6 5
3 .4 1
2 .8 7
2. 87

_

$3. 62—$3. 92
2 . 7 8 - 3. 30
2. 78— 3 .1 4
2 . 8 7 - 3 .4 1
2 . 5 1 - 2 .7 8
2 .5 6 - 2 . 8 8
3. 1 4 - 3. 84
3 . 2 3 - 3 .8 6
2 .5 1 2 .9 4 2 .5 1 2 .6 5 2 .7 8 2 .2 1 2 .7 8 2 .7 0 2 .7 0 -

2 .7 8
3 .0 9
2 .7 8
3 .9 2
3 .9 2
2 .6 5
3 .4 9
3 .8 0
3 .8 0

2 .6 5

_

2 . 5 5 - 2 .7 8

2. 55
2 .6 8

2 .6 5

2 . 5 5 - 2 .7 8

2 .6 6

M ed ia n s and m id d le r a n g e s a r e not p r o v id e d fo r e n t r ie s of fe w e r than 15 w o r k e r s .

T a b le 4. O cc u p atio n al averag es: B y size of establishm ent
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s ,
U n ite d S t a te s a n d s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , A u g u s t 1970)
G reat L ak es

M id dle A tla n tic

U n ited States

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith—
2 0 -9 9
w orkers

S e x and o c c u p a tio n

100-249
w orkers

250 w o r k e r s
or m o r e

1 0 0 -2 4 9
w orkers

2 0 -9 9
w orkers

Num ­
ber
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
h o u rly
earn­
in g s

Num ­
b er
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Num ­
ber
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
ho u rly
earn.... in 8 s

Num ­
b er
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
h o u rly
earn­
in g s

222

$ 3 .1 6
2.52
2.2 8
3.00

155
505
306
49
285
312
203
132
41
143

$ 3 .17
2.67
2.35
3.14
2.34
2.48
3.26
3.54
2.74
2.28

471
771
980
277
1,406
1,505
255
644
137
280

$ 3 .2 8
3.0 0
2.72
3.23

26
118
69
13
32
67
45

$2.92
2.5 8
2.31
3.22

389
218

2.30
2.27

86

2.21

2.29
2.56
2.45

650
209
727
1,174

2.13
2.18
2.06
2.23

756
232
607
1,268
827
2,085
2,591

Num ­
b er
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
h o u rly
earn-

_

250 w o r k e r s
or m o r e
Num ­
ber
of
w ork­
ers

2 0 -9 9
w orkers

100-2 4 9
w orkers

A ver­
age
h o u r ly
earnin g s

Num ­
ber
of
w ork­
ers

A ver­
age
h o u r ly
earn­
in gs

Num ­
b er
of
w ork­
ers

$ 2 .9 5
2.99
2.43
2.94
2.73
2.71
3.26
3 .98
2 .67

56
164
135
17
29
9
-

$ 3 .0 1
2.50

2.41
2.42
2.96
2.18
2.50

139
72
446
124

250 w o r k e r s
or m o re

Num ­
A ver­
ber
age
of
h ou rly
w ork­
earn­
ers
in g s__

A ver­
age
hou rly
earn­
in gs

M en
C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s A ---------------------------------------C a n d y m a k er s, c la s s B ---------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e lp e r s ----------------------------------------,
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------J a n ito r s ----------------------------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h a n d lin g ......... ..............................
M a in ten a n ce m e n , g e n e r a l u t ility ................. ............
M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------- 1 -----------M ogul o p e r a to r s ---------------------- ---------------------------M ogul o p e r a to r s ' h e l p e r s ------------------------------------

523
436
53
138
212
106

39
33
-

2 .12

2.23
3.36
3.81
3.03
-

2.68

2.71
3.25
3.83
2.93
2.6 7

2 .10
2 .20

3.42

-

-

-

"

29
109
65
14
62
77
40
50
21

83

$ 2 .7 5
2.44
2.23
2.85
2 .2 7
2.30
2.96
3.54
2.73
2.39

97
214
92
68

258
131
52
223
16

2.95

23
163
73
9

2.1 1

68

3 .47
“

75
54
42
42

1.91
1.90
1.95
2.04

117
25
39
99
74
155
453

2 .2 2

12

$3.56
3.21

$ 2 .9 4
2.82
2.77
3.25
2.36
2.53
3.59
3.29
2.64
2.13

185
385
595
130
827
97
233
74
208

3.57
2.78
2.82
3.37
3.70
3.11
2.73

2.33
2.24
2.42
2.15
2.33

315
107
372
455
307
513
1,148

2.36
2.34
2.50
2.40
2.89
2.52
2.76

886

2.92

W om en
E n r o b in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ' h e l p e r s -------------F illin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------I n s p e c to r s , candy------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, b u lk -------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand , candy b a r s -------------------------------P a c k e r s , hand, fancy____________________________
W r a p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s —--------------- -----------

1
2

200
-

92
772
234
951
538

1.99
2.0 7
2.06
1.97
1.99
2.1 1

2 .12

D a s h e s in d ic a te data not r e p o r te d or data that do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .




1.89
2.03
1.98
-

101

255
130

2.61

-

2 .22

196

1.8 8

68

2 .5 7

121

2.09

279

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts .
In clu d es data fo r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e shown s e p a r a te ly .

NOTE:

30
27
364

2.14
2.1 4
2 .0 8
2.31
2.15

188
88
-

249
691
626

2 .2 2

2.35

T a b le 5. O cc u p atio n al averages: By lab or-m an agem en t co n tract co verage and size of estab lishm en t
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n f e c tio n e r y m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s ,
U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e le c te d r e g i o n s , A u g u s t 1970)
U n ite d S ta te s

M id d le A tla n tic

G re a t L akes

E s t a b l i s h m e n ts w ith —
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , a n d s iz e of e s ta b l is h m e n t

N o n e o r m in o r it y
c o v e re d

M a jo r ity c o v e re d
N um ber
of
w o rk ers

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

1, 123
191
357
575
1, 014

$2.86
2.65
2.85
2 .9 4
2.6 7

120

2.66

189
705
260

2.62
2.6 9
3.1 4
3.30
3.16
3.12
2.61
2 .2 4
2.46
2.65
2.6 7

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v erag e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

M a jo r it y c o v e r e d
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

M a jo r it y c o v e r e d
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v erag e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

N one o r m in o r it y
c o v e re d
N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

M en
C a n d y m a k e rs , c la s s R __
......
20— w o r k e r s _______________________________
99
100—
249 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s ___________________________
2
20^-99 w o r k e r s -------------------------------100—
249 w o r k e r s ___
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ___________________
20— w o r k e r s _______________________________
99
1 0 0 -2 4 9 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
J a n i t o r s ______________ _
20— w o r k e r s
99
100—
249 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d li n g ___________________
20— w o r k e r s __________________ „ * __________
99
100—
249 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e ________________________
20—99 w o r k e r s —______________________________
1 0 0 -2 4 9 w o r k e r s —
_ .................
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s _________________________________
100—
249 w o r k e r s
.... ____
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________

20

38
20 2

1, 372
55
180
I,' 137
1, 470
73
180
1 ,2 1 7
509
-

2.22

2.7 0
2.6 9
3.72
-

106
400
177
38
118

3.58
3.75
3.00
2.7 9
2.9 9

1 , 026

2.3 2
2.4 8
2.2 8
2.4 9
2.46
2 .4 4
2.5 0
2.3 7
2.2 7
2.35
2.39
2.3 8

676
332
148
196
708
316
117
275
119
33
11

75
457
83
105
269
559
139
132
288
306
36
26
244
34
_
19

$ 2 .6 2
2.45
2 .2 4
3.19
2.36
2 .1 4
1.91
2.81
3.30
2.8 3
3.0 4
3.55
2.5 2
2.0 4
2.1 3
2.82
2.4 9
2.2 3
2.18
2.76
3.90
3.79
3.36
3.97
2.47
_
2.58

389
94
93
20 2

183
48
49
86

76
10

14
52
252
18
58
176
225
57
55
113
145
_
40
104
41
21

16

$ 2 .7 7
2.50
2.4 8
3.02
2.4 0
2.4 2
2.32
2 .4 4
2.91
3.36
2.85
2 .8 3
2.3 8
2.09
2.2 8
2.4 4
2.40
2.16
2.35
2 .5 4
3.56
_
3.56
3.56
2.8 0
2.7 3
2.9 0

507

$ 2 .8 8

205

145
313
557

2 .8 6

2 .93
2 .77

_
_
246
126

72
476
116

2.78
2.78
3.30

9
104
820
25
52
743
859

3.25
3.33
2.70
2.09
2.36
2 .7 4
2 .7 4

55
795
240

2 .5 4
2.76
3.63

40

74

3.28
3.69
3.06
2.71
3.11

501
_
117
315
393

2.33
2.36
2.48
2.42
2.50
2.41
_

_

_

20 0

85
11

40

$3.14

2.84
2 .2 2

4.00

_
_
161

2.87

20

2.49
3.31
3.83

91
55
_
33

3.71

_
-

-

70
70

1.94
1.94

_
33

_
2.52

_
33
404
404

2.52
1.96
1.96

_
708
34

2.81
2.19

W om en
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s
20— w o r k e r s
99
.. .....
100—
249 w o r k e r s . _
_
_
,
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e
__
I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y ________________________________
20— w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------99
100—
249 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e
.......... _
P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y ___________________________
20— w o r k e r s ________________________________
99
100—
249 w o r k e r s _____________________________
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ________________________
W ra p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _____________ 1____
2 0 -9 9 w o r k e r s _______________________________
100—
249 w o r k e r s
250 w o r k e r s o r m o r e
_
._ . .....

-

298
635
571
34
53
484
2, 037
225
390
1 ,4 2 2
2, 135
241
488
1, 406

2.10

2.36
2 .4 4

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r tim e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s ,
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a te l y .

NOTE:

D a s h e s i n d ic a te n o d a ta r e p o r t e d




319
107
91
121

214
58
33
123
1, 726
726
337
663
2 , 168
297
68 6

1, 185

h o lid a y s , a n d la t e s h if t s .

d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a ,

2.0 3
1. 92

1.72
2.35
2.0 7
1.84
1.82
2.25
1.85
1.91
1.71
1.85
2.46

148
_
_
119
75
_
63
692
76
68

548
744

2.12

121

2 .1 4
2.7 3

145
478

2.20

_
_

2 .2 1

2.41
_
_
2.41
2.26
1. 88

2.31
2.30
2.3 0
2.09
2.07
2.4 3

2.29

39
339
710
_
155
518
1 ,0 1 7

2.52
2.45

282
645

2 .53
2.48

_

2 .2 2

■

T a b le 6. O c c u p a tio n a l averag es: B y m ethod o f w age paym ent
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s ,
U n ite d S t a te s a n d s e le c te d r e g i o n s , A u g u s t 1970)

T im e w o r k e r s
S e x a n d o c c u p a tio n

M id d le A tla n tic

N ew E n g la n d

U n ited S ta te s 2
I n c e n tiv e
w o rk e rs
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
ag e
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

1 ,4 8 1
1, 332

$2. 71
2 .4 8
3. 11
2 . 61
2 . 80
2. 44

318
390
89
37
87

1. 94

76
281
94
467
1 ,2 6 8
1 ,4 7 8

A v e r­
age
h o u rly
e a rn ­
ings

T im e w o rk e rs
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v er­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

T im e w o rk e rs
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

S o u th e a s t

In c e n tiv e
w o rk ers
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

T im e w o rk e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

$ 3 . 09
2 .4 5

168
140
9
15
32

$ 2 . 08
1 .9 5
2. 76
2. 50
1. 98

_
83
27
70
118
468
167

_
1. 78
3. 53
1. 72
1. 74
1. 76
1 .9 2

A v er­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

P a c if ic

G re a t L akes
T im e w o rk e rs

I n c e n tiv e
w o rk e rs

T im e w o r k e r s
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g 8___

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly '
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

588
521
118
27
69
187

$ 2 .9 3
2. 72
3. 33
2 .9 3
2. 76
2. 50

124
282
38
14
-

$3. 10
2 .9 1
3 .9 6
2. 92
-

183
116
27
35
_

$ 2 .9 5
3. 15
3 .4 1
3. 14
“

57
469
107
301
426
593
1 ,2 7 9

1 .9 6
2. 17
2. 27
2. 38
2. 23
1 .9 6
2 . 59

_
25
-

_
2. 54
2 .4 7
2. 58
2 . 62

48
156
15
-

2 . 61
2 . 62

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

M en
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B ---------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ----------------------------------------E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s 1 h e l p e r s --------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s ------------------------------------

290

139
174
358

-

$3. 03
2. 76
3 .4 3
3. 44
2 .9 7

54
94
31
17
18
"

$2 .9 2
2. 51
2. 94
2 .4 4
2. 74
-

2. 04
2 .4 0
2 . 28
2 . 20
2 .4 0
2. 50

_
69
33
450
424
285

_
2. 13
2 .4 0
1. 94
2 . 26
2. 15

-

304
200
68

14
34
93

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

59
32

137
26

96

-

-

-

33

-

68

-

33

-

1. 83
2. 36
2. 37
2. 25
2 . 06
1 .9 3
2. 33

_
97
-

W om en
D i p p e r s , h a n d ------------------------------------------------------E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s -------------F i ll in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y ------------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u l k -------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y -----------------------------------------W ra p p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------

339
1 ,0 6 4
46 0
628
2 ,2 2 3
2 ,4 9 5
2 ,8 2 5

2 . 21

2. 34
2. 30
2 . 09
2 . 00
2 . 38

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s ,
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .

NOTE:

h o lid a y s , a n d l a t e s h if t s .

D a s h e s i n d ic a te no d a ta r e p o r t e d o r d a ta th a t do n o t m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .




47
147
224
94
689
514
547

-

441
479

_
2. 27
-

2. 34
2 . 39

2 00

521
446

292
161

83

2 .4 5
2. 54
2 . 62
2 . 68

T a b le 7. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: Boston, M a s s .1
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N um O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s _________
M e n ......................................................
W o m e n _______________________

of
w o rk -

A v e rage
$ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5
h o u r ly
e a rn under
in g s
$ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0

3,3 0 1
1,470
1,831

$ 2 .4 0
2.70
2.15

80
65
47
42
71
51
28
23

3.15
3.19
2.83
2.83
2.56
2.49
2.79

22
1
21

163

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s of—
$1.80 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0
$1.85 $ 1 .9 0 $ 1 .9 5
69

$ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0

$ 2.10

$ 2.00

$ 2 .5 0
154
58
96

$ 2.10

$ 2.20

$ 2 .3 0

“
$ 2 .4 0
192
45
147

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$2.80“ $ 2 .9 0

$ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $4.0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $4.4 0 ■$476

$ 2.60

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

“
$ 2 .9 0

"
“
$ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $4.2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4.8

274
95
179

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .5 0
"

$ 2.20

"

158
141
17

119
117

77
74
3

68

109

59
9

106

72
71
1

35
35
"

73
73

3

7
6

2

2

7
7

2

-

8
1
20
20

28
28

7
7

9

8
8

3
3
3
9
9
4
4

1
1
1

5
5

1
1

2
2

-

$ 3 .0 0

71
15
56

153
98
55

61
17
44

332
115
217

432
67
365

562
176
3 86

-

-

-

-

-

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1
1

2
2

3
3

2
2

2
2

3
3

14
14

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5
30

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6

2

11

2
21

3

3
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8

4
60

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15

1

57

2

1

2

15

16

12

6

6

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-

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1

2

11

2

1

_

_

_

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1
1

2
2

8
8

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6

-

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163

67

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2. 86

-

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-

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15
164

2.41
2.25

.

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1

11

10

137

2.48

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38
38
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33
33
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15
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S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
c a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A _.................
T im e __________________________
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B -------------C a n d y m a k e r s 1 h e l p e r s __________
2
T im e --------------------------------------E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s _
_
T im e __________________________
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ____
J a n i t o r s (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____________
M a c h i n i s t s , m a i n te n a n c e
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____________
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t il it y ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ............
M e c h a n ic s , m a i n te n a n c e
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____________
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ------------------------T i m e --------------------------------------M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ' h e l p e r s 3 _____
W a tc h m e n ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ___

-

_

11

3.75

35

3.17

-

46
19
15
19
7

3.61
2.80
2.71
2.39
2.48

_

_

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7

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3

1
1

4
7
2
2
10

9
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17
267
252

2.34
1.98
1.98

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311
392
248

2.31
2.19
2 .2 2

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_
_
115
115

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69

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5

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20

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.

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6
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2

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4
4

32
32

4
7
4

39
38

14

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9
4

50
73
47

50
105
50

3
61
55

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39

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10
10

6
6

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14
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35
59
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28
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43
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156
5
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3
3

1 T h e B o s to n S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a ti s t i c a l A r e a c o n s is ts of S u ffo lk C o u n ty , 15 c o m m u n itie s in E s s e x C o u n ty ,
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , a n d l a t e s h if t s .
3 I n s u f f ic i e n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n of s e p a r a t e a v e r a g e s b y m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t, p r e d o m in a n tly t i m e w o r k e r s .




14
14

'

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ____
I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y ( a ll
t i m e w o r k e r s ) __________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u l k ____________
T im e ---------------------------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , fa n c y
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _____________
W r a p p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___
T i m e __________________________

7
-

30 in M id d le s e x

5
5

C o u n ty ,

20 in N o rfo lk

C o u n ty ,

and 9 in P ly m o u th C ounty.

T a b le 8. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: C h icag o , III.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N um O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

A v e r-

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g !3 Of---

of
h o u r ly
U J
w o rk - e a rn $ 1 .7 5
ex 6s

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s __________ 1 1 ,5 7 2
M e n ------------------------------------------ 6 , 135
W o m e n ________________________
5, 437

$1 .7 5

$1 .8 0

$1 .8 5

$ 1. 90

$1.95

$2.00

$2.10

$ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $3.00 $3.2 0 $3.4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $4.00 $ 4 .2 0 "$4.40 $4,60 $4.80

under
$ 1 .80 $1.85

$ 1 .90

$1.95

$2 . 0 0

$ 2.10

$2.20

and
$ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 . 9 0 $3 .0 0 $3.2 0 $3.4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $4.0 0 $4.2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $4.80 o v e r

362

131
38
93

238

757
246
511

688

.

_
77
76
1
2
2

3
4
4

3
3

-

$ 2 .7 9
3.0 2
2 .5 3

99
16
83

30
30

155
19
136

3 .4 4
3.0 2
3.00
3.11

-

-

-

-

-

8

354

88

150

428
261
167

621
333
288

548
224
324

591
438
153

_

8

16

58
58
18
15
3

_
14
14
34
26

_
31
31
_
32
16
16
3
3

24
44
17
27
24

249
439

588
223
365

1333
318
1015

845
629
216

561
369

_
7

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29
26
3
17
4
13
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89
72
17
17
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192

1017
523
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305
226
79

318
294
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256
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252
244

110

11

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17

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39
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.
26
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968
664
304

109

124
124
-

151
151
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96
96

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A 3 b / _______
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B __________
T i m e ___________________________
I n c e n tiv e ___ - __________________
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ___________
T im e __________________ ______
I n c e n tiv e _______________________
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ____
T im e ___________________________
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s ------------------------------------T im s
_
_
In r.p n tiv p _
_ __
_
F i ll in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s 3 a / ___
J a n i t o r s ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ______
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------------------M a c h i n i s t s , m a in te n a n c e
^all
ej
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t il it y ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) —_____
M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e
|»11 f i r m p\x/nrlfAr c^
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s ------------------------T im e ___________________________
M o g u l npprat-.nrB 1 h f » l p # » r s
. . .
T im e ___________________________
W a tc h m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) —___
1
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16
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169
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108
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367
275
103
67
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2.81
2 .9 2
3 .7 3
3.5 9
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268
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S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n

E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s ---------------------------------------T i m e ---- —— -----------------------------F i ll in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s —— —
T i m e --------------------------------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y ______________________
T im e _____________________________________
J a n i t o r s ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------"Pa r 'l c p r ft j V ia n H j K n llc
Tnoenti vp
_ ___
P a r l f p r B j V ia n r l,
T n r p n tiT rP

fa -n ry

..
W ra p p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----T im e __- _______________________
T n r p n tiv p _
____ _ _ _____

2.68

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4
3

2

31
30
93
_

2

-

-

3

1
21
8
1

4
4

10

-

-

6
1

32
32
_

7
7
24
24
30

32
31

10

.

8

7

12

48
46

102

-

104
38

17

9

96

-

1

1

1

66

5

2

6

30

9
9
8
1

22
22

g
g

18
_
18

32
_
32

68
68

244
244
78
39
39

-

1
1

15
4
4
16

_
16

30
14
3
3

26
26
19
_
19

23
23
7
7
22
22

71
_
71

15
15
1
2

401
401

1 T h e C h ic a g o S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s is t s of C o o k , D u P a g e , K a n e , L a k e , M c H e n ry , a n d W ill C o u n tie s .
2 • E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la t e s h if t s .
3 I n s u f f ic i e n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n of s e p a r a t e a v e r a g e s by m e th o d of w age p a y m e n t; (a) p r e d o m in a n tly t im e w o r k e r s , o r (b) p r e d o m in a n tly in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .




T a b le 9. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: Los A n g e le s —Long B each, C alif.
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts
m a n u f a c tu r in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N um O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s -------------M e n ----------------------------------------W o m e n ________________________

A v er-

of
w o rk ­
e rs

h o u r ly $ 1.6 0
e a rn ­
in g s u n d e r
$1.65

1 ,0 0 8
508
500

$2.58
2.82
2.34

13
73

3.48
2.99
2.32
2.60
3.39

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A _________
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B _________
F i ll in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s -------J a n i t o r s --------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d li n g ---M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t i l i t y ----------------------------------------W r a p p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----

10

43
16

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s of—

24
24

$1.65
$ 1 .70

$1.75

$1 .8 0

$1.85

$ 1 .9 0

$ 1 .9 5

$2.00

$2.10

$ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0 $2 .5 0

$2.60

$ 2 .? 0

$2.80 $2.90 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $3.4 0 $3.60 $3.80 $4.00 $4.20

$1.85

$1.90

$1 .9 5

"

-

-

$1.75

$1 .8 0

$2.00

$2.10

$2.20

$ 2 .3 0 $2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0 $ 2 . 6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$2.8 0

a nd
$ 2 . 9 0 $3.00 $3.2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $3.6 0 $3.80 $4.00 $4.20 o v e r

10

81
18
63

13
13

14
6
8

34
18
16

23
4
19

32
15
17

-

3
-

“

-

_
3
-

“

4
-

_

_

_

_

_
-

-

_

_

_
_
_

_

_

3

“

"

4

4

'

13

3.65
2.55

165
31

2.32

24

2 .21

2

10

$1.70

15

_

5

■

15
15
'

3

6

7

_

3

6
6

_
-

_

-

20
2

18

_
-

26
7
19

_
_

230
26
204

136
45
91

_

_

2
2

2

37
28
9

71
59

16
14
2

1

55
55
“

21

67

12

18

35

3
_
_

1
2

5
-

9
-

3

-

19

17
16

2

1

3

_

25
25

18
18

5

11
11

2

-

15
-

-

-

12

4

-

-

"

5
-

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

9

1

-

-

6

-

-

1

-

.
"

_

68

1

1

3

1

2

1

-

7

“

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n
—
P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u l k -----------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y ___________

8

9
2

6
2

T h e L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a ti s t i c a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f L o s A n g e le s C o u n ty .
L
E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y fo r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d l a t e s h if t s .




48
17

54
"

T a b le 10. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: N e w Y o rk, N .Y .1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N um O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

A ll p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s ---------------M e n ____________________________
W o m e n -------------------------------------

of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v erage
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s 1
2

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s i r e c e i v in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of—
$ 1 .8 0
and
under
$1 .8 5

$1.85

$ 1 .9 0

$1.95

$2.0 0

$2.10

$2.20

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$2.60

$2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$3.00

$3.2 0

$3.4 0

$3.6 0

$ 3 .8 0 $4.0 0

$4.20

$4.40

$ 1. 90

$1 .9 5

$2.00

$2.1 0

$2.20

$ 2 .30

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$2 .9 0

$ 3 .0 0

$3.20

$3.40

$3.60

$3.8 0

$4.00 $4.20

$4.40

over

123
32
91

163
25
138

573
134
439

381
211

418
153
265

134
79
55

126
95
31

173
82
91

93
40
53

91
77
14

51
26
25

50
46
4

119
87
32

32
29
3

_
5
5

.
-

9
5

6
2

1

3-

2
2
1

3
i
-

2

1
1
1

4
3
-

3
-

6

10
10
10

10
6
1
1
1

10
6

3
3

15
9
17
17

15
4

22
21
6

-

a nd

2 ,9 2 5
1 ,4 1 2
1 ,5 1 3

$ 2 .3 5
2 .5 3
2.1 7

9

221

1
8

128
93

85
42
118

2 .6 5
2.71
2.5 7
2.5 6

.
-

.
4
4
13

-

-

12
2

170

30
30
-

12
12

-

36
36
-

10
10

1

5
5

-

21
20

1

-

-

-

-

65
64

“

15
15
"

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A __________
T i m e ----------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e r s , c la s s B ---------------T i m e ___________________________
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s ----------------T i m e ----------------------------------------J a n i t o r s ( a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) ----------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
( a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) _______________
M a c h i n i s t s , m a in te n a n c e
( a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t il it y ( a l l t im e w o r k e r s ) -----------M e c h a n ic s , m a i n te n a n c e
( a l l tim e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------W a tc h m e n ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) -------

101

67
53
93

2.10

2.0 9
2 .3 6

10
10

-

1
1

1

1

-

6

3

12
10
12

2
1

5
7

23

4
18

4
8
6

6

-

14

-

12
1
1

2

28

-

-

149

2 .2 9

1

6

2

1

25

37

35

8

4

6

6

1

3

13

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

4 .0 4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

7

-

3

2

2
2

36

3.51

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

10

1

7

5

4

3

-

43

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

“

Z

3

12

6

"

~

■

16
-

1

1

3

2

6

-

-

11

3.81
1.98

95
373
300

2 .0 5
2.1 5
2 .1 5

8

3

4
15

5
170
155

10

1
10
10

-

57
31

13

12

55
79
57

2

1

-

8
21
20

8

-

-

5
5

-

-

-

-

108
302

2.1 6
2 .1 5
2.31

-

13

17
3

1

-

11
11

3

5

21

-

16

1

5

5

1

1

"

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s 3 ________________________
P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u l k -------------------T i m e ___________________________
P a c k e r s , h an d , candy b a rs
( a l l t im e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y 3 ---------------W ra p p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s -----T i m e ___________________________
I n c e n t iv e -----------------------------------

222
151
71

2.26

2.4 3

6

3

9
12
11
1

32
25
9
8
1

19
129
67
59
8

8

52
20
6

14

26
38
15
15

14
25

12
5

20

-

5

5

2
2

1

2

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

"
-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

"
-

-

2

22

-

16

-

6

1

3

2

1 T h e N ew Y o r k S t a n d a r d M e tr o p o li t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s is t s of New Y o r k C ity ( B r o n x , K in g s , N ew Y o r k , Q u e e n s , a n d R ic h m o n d C o u n tie s ) a n d N a s s a u , R o c k la n d , S u ffo lk , a n d W e s tc h e s te r
C o u n t ie s .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d l a t e s h if t s .
3 I n s u f f ic ie n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m eth o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, p r e d o m in a n tly in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .




T a b le 11. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: P hiladelphia, Pa.—N .J .1
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

N um ­ A v erber
ag e
of
h o u r ly $ 1.6 0 $ 1.65 $T .70 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $1 .8 5
and
w o rk ­ e a rn ­
e rs
in g s 2 u n d e r
$1 .6 5 $ 1 .7 0 $1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
2 ,1 3 7
M e n __________________________ _
838
W om en.
..
....... ...
1,299

$2 .5 1
2.7 7
2.34

12

4

8

-

-

8

-

-

-

4
4

14

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s of—
$ 1 .9 0

$ 1 .9 5

$ 2.00

$ 2.10

$ 2.20

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 1 3 .6 0 $3.8 0 $4.0 0 $4.2 0

$ 1 .9 5

$ 2.00

$ 2.10

$ 2.20

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2 .8 0

$ 2 .9 0

$ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $3.8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $4.2 0

240
37
203

91
44
47

and

1
1

168

44

22 0

10

-

8
160

-

4

8

44

28
192

199
75
124

116
58
58

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

4
4

2
2

_
_
_

_

1
1

2
2

2
2

1
1

4
4

2
2
1
1

1
1

7
7

7
7

4
4

3
3

6
6

5
5

2

5

5

15

8

9

_

_
_

3

2

3

2

-

-

-

2
2
2

7

4
4

-

4
4

-

-

148
77
71

139
40
99

261
66

195

94

69
57

26

12

106
70
36

74
65
9

48
45
3

35
35

4

68

2

6

7

29
29

14
14

3
3

-

-

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A __________
T im e ----------------------------------------C a n d y m a k e rs , c la s s B
T im e ___
C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e lp e r s
T im e ----------------------------------------E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ___
T im e ___________________________
J a n i t o r s ( a ll t im e w o r k e r s )
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t il it y ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s )
M o g u l o p e r a t o r s _________________
T im e ___________________________

28

3.25

12

2.88

31
29
56
47
32
18
63

2.83
2.80
2.64
2.58
3.17
3.01
2.40

28
15
11

3.06
2.84
2.69

78
80
70

2.08
1.95
1.93

150

2. 21

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_
_

.
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
4

_
15

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

8

9

5
4

5

2

3
4

8
8

_

3

1

3

12
12
12

8

10
4

2

4

3

4
-

2

2
1
1

-

l

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n
F i ll in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s 3 b / ~ _
P a c k e r s , h a n d , b u l k _____________
T im e —
W r a p p i n g - m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s 3 a / ___________________

2

.
8
8

_
_
_

8
8

_
_

4
4

_
_

2
6
6

20

_

16

76

4

1

7

50
40

68

4
4

3

9

5

13

4

T h e P h i ia d e i p h ia S t a n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a ti s t i c a l A r e a c o n s is t s of B u c k s , C h e s t e r , D e la w a r e , M o n tg o m e ry , a n d P h ila d e l p h ia C o u n tie s , P a .; a n d B u r lin g to n , C a m d e n , a nd G lo u c e s t e r C o u n tie s
E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la t e s h if t s .
’

3 I n s u f f ic i e n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n of s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s by m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t; (a) p r e d o m in a n tly t i m e w o r k e r s , o r (b) p r e d o m in a n tly in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .




NJ

T a b le 12. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: S an F ran cis co —O akland , C a lif.1
(N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ...................
M e n __________________________
W o m e n .'.............. ............................ —

N um - A v erg
age
of
h o u r ly
w o rk ­ e a rn ­
e rs
in g s 2

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s of—
$ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0
and
U nder
$ 2 .6 0 u n d e r
$ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 0 $ 3 .4 0

$ 3 .5 0

$ 3 .6 0

$ 3 .7 0

$ 3 .8 0

$ 3 .9 0

$ 4 .0 0

$4710 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .3 0

$ 4 .4 0

$ 4 .5 0

$ 4 .6 0 ' $ 4 .7 0 $ 4 .8 0

$ 3 .3 0

$ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .5 0

$ 3 .6 0

$ 3 .7 0

$ 3 .8 0

$ 3 .9 0

$ 4 .0 0

$ 4 .1 0

$ 4 .2 0

$ 4 .5 0

$ 4 .6 0

$ 4 .7 0 $ 4 .8 0

and

1,252
583
669

$ 3 .0 8
3.41
2 .8 0

3
3
“

77
39
38

579
47
532

91
45
46

96
57
39

42
41

54
46

1

8

33
33
"

30
27
3

57
65
23

-

-

-

1

-

-

13
-

13
-

12

2

8

3 .7 8
3.25
3.1 5
3.61

13
4

19
-

25
23
37

3 .0 4
3.21
4 .0 6

15

7

_

1

21

3 .9 0
. 4 .4 7

27
25

5
5

$ 4 .4 0

5
5
"

16
16
"

22
22

3
-

_

_

1

_
-

-

1

_

1

_

_

.

.

_

_

2
20

1

_

-

12

4

1

_

"

"

13
13
“

- 14
14

19

10

4

2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

“

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

"

1

4

_

9
9
"

39
39

8
8

7

3

1

_

_
-

2

$ 4 .3 0

-

10
10

-

64
64

over

2
2

5
5
"

13
13
"

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
_

_

1

.
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
8

1
1

2

1
1

1

"

3
3
"

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — m e n
C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s A -------------C a n d y m a k e r s , c l a s s B -------------C a n d y m a k e r s ' h e l p e r s .....................
E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ---E n r o b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s '
h e l p e r s -------------------------------------J a n i t o r s _______________ ________—
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d li n g ___
M a in te n a n c e m e n , g e n e r a l
u t il it y ___________________________
M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e ------------

15

_
1

-

_

-

2

_
3
-

_

_

-

2

2

1

1
2

8

-

-

-

-

4

-

1

-

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

2

2

_

2

2

7

_
"

S e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s — w o m e n
I n s p e c t o r s , c a n d y ---------------P a c k e rs , hand, candy b a rs
P a c k e r s , h a n d , f a n c y ---------

12

3 .0 8

38
54

2 .8 2

2.86

_

_
14

3
20
20

_
2

6

3

18
18

T h e San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S t a ti s t i c a l A r e a in c lu d e s A la m e d a , C o n tr a C o s ta , M a rin , S an F r a n c i s c o , a n d San M a te o C o u n tie s .
O
E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la t e s h if ts .




T a b le 1 3 . M e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s by m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
R e g io n s
U n ited
S ta te s 2

M e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t 1

N ew
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

A re a s

S o u th e a s t

G reat
Lakes

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

Los A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

New
Y o rk

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o —
O ak la n d

A ll w o r k e r s . . _______________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

T i m e - r a t e d w o r k e r s ___________________________
F o r m a l p l a n s _________ ^______________________
S in g le r a t e s _______________________________
R a n g e of r a t e s ___________________________
In d iv id u a l r a t e s -------- -------------------------------------

83
65
31
34
18

86

89
44
24

78

100

100

68
21

68

59

77
67
8

20

47
10

59
41

59

44

10

57
48
48
_
9

100
100
100

12

9
59
4

-

49

87
70
18
13

93
47
42
5
45

72

8

79
67
34
33

I n c e n tiv e w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------- I n d iv id u a l p i e c e w o r k ------------------------------------G ro u p p i e c e w o r k .............. ................................... ......
I n d iv id u a l b o n u s _____________________________
G ro u p b o n u s _________________________________

17
3

14
7

21

11

22

_

7

23

43

.

5

3

-

2

28
5

_

4

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

1

-

-

4
13

-

5
17

-

15

3

2
21
20

-

6

-

8

2
8
8

-

4

2
2

1
2

37
29

5

8

_
-

_

F o r d e fin itio n o f m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t, s e e ap p e n d ix A.
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s of in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

T a b le 1 4 . S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s by m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
Regions

U nited
S ta tes 2

W eek ly h o u r s 1
2

N ew
England

Middle
At lanti c

A ll w o r k e r s _______________________________ _

100

100

100

U n der 40 h o u r s __________________ ______________
40 h o u r s _________________________________________
O ver 40 and u n d er 4 8 h o u r s ____________________
48 h o u r s _______________________________________
O ver 48 h o u r s ___________________________________

1
95
2
1

.
100
_
_

1
98
1
_

1
2

1

Southeast

100

Areas
Great
Lakes

100
3

100

_
_

91

_
2

3

D a ta r e l a t e to p r e d o m in a n t w o rk s c h e d u le s f o r f u ll - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h e s ta b l is h m e n t .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e of r o u n d in g ,




s u m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.

P acific

100
100
_

Boston

100
100
_
_

L os A n g e l e s Long B e ac h

C h ic a g o

100

100

3

88
_
4
5

100
_
_

.

New
York

Philade lphia

San
Franci sc o Oa kl a nd

100

100

100

100

6
94

100

_
_

_
_

_
_

T a b le 15. S h ift d iffe ren tial provisions
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s b y s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l p r o v is i o n s 1 in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
R e g io n s
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

S ta te s 2

New
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

84.8
57.8
50.8
4 .2
18.0
28.6
7.0
7.0
27.0
15.2

80.8
8 0 .4
67.2
-

24.4
24 .4
17.4
6 .4
-

65.2
65 .2
56 .4
.9

S o u th e a s t

A reas
G reat
L akes

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

86.8
86.8
86.8

79.1
5 7 .6
57 .6
-

8 4.8
8 4.8
38.7
5.2
8.5
2.9
6.9
13.7
1.5
46.1
-

L o s A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

’ N ew
Y o rk

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o —
O a k la n d

S e c o n d s h if t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
s e c o n d - s h if t p r o v i s i o n s _______________ ______
W ith s h if t d i f f e r e n t ia l -------------------------------------U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r __________ ________
3 c e n t s ------------------------------- -------------------5 c e n t s —__________ - ---------------- ----------6 c e n ts —________________________________
7 c e n t s _________________________________
7 l/ i c e n t s —____________________________—
8 c e n t s . ..................... ....................... —..................
c e n t s _________________________________
10 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts _________________________________
1 2 V c e n t s ______________________________
2
15 c e n ts _________________________________
17 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------25 c e n ts a n d o v e r ---------------------------------U n if o rm p e r c e n t a g e ----------------------------------4 p e r c e n t _______________________________
5 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------6 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------8 p e r c e n t _______________________________
10 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------F u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s ________
W ith no s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------No p r o v is i o n s f o r la t e s h i f t --------------------------------

79.2
70 .9
52.6
3.2
3.8
.7
4.2
2 .8

7.0
.3
16.7
2 .0

3.9
5.5
1.3
1.1

17.8
.7
6.5
1.3
.4
8.9
.5
8 .3
20.8

12.7
3.7
-

77.6
36.0
17.6
5.3
-

79.1
74 .3
44 .5
3.4
5.5
3.8
16.3

10.8

6 .1

3.4
-

12.8

3.0
8.5
3.0
12.6

11.2

3.1
1.5
6 .7
1.9
.4
19.2

-

2 .2
8 .8

6.2

1.2

18.4
18.4
41 .5
2 2 .4

29.7
7.9
2 .4
19.5
4 .8
20.9

20 .8
16.6

6 7.8
6 7 .8
38.8
-

10.1

33.7
3.4
17.4
18.8
3.5
13.2

6. 1

26.1
25.5
_
_
2 1 .4
20.9

12 .2

3.7
30.2
15.2

6 4.9
6 4 .9
6 4.9
6 4 .9
35.1

66.7
6 6.7
4 2 .0
-

51.8
5 1 .8
41.7
41.7
-

4 9 .4
4 9 .4
2 8.8
12.3
16.4
18.5
12.5
5.9
-

6 .8

12.3
22.8

24.6
12.5
12.1

33.3

86.2

8 3.9
83.9
59.0
25.0
2.3
13.8

93.3
93.3
93.3
26.7
37.1
9.1
11.2

9.3
6.7

T h ir d s h if t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
th ir d - o r o th e r la te -s h ift
p r o v is i o n s ----------------------------------------------------------W ith s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l ------------------------------------U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ___________________
5 c e n t s _________________________________
7 c e n ts ------------------------------------------------8 c e n t s _________________________________
10 c e n t s _________________________________
11 c e n ts _______________________________
1 2 c e n t s — _—__ - ____ _________________
15 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------17 c e n ts _________________________________
18 c e n t s _________________________________
20 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------21 c e n t s _________________________________
22 c e n ts a n d o v e r ---------------------------------U n if o rm p e r c e n t a g e ------------------------- ------5 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------5 Vi p e r c e n t
----------------- ----------— -----8 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------- ----8 V p e r c e n t —_____ _____________________
2
10 p e r c e n t ------------ -------- ------------------------15 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------F u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s ------------O th e r f o r m a l p a id d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------W ith no s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------No p r o v is i o n s f o r la t e s h i f t ---------------------------------------------

57.1
56 .7
4 0 .4
3.2
.6

3.1
11.6

1.5
.7
9.0

11.0

12.6

18.0
5.1
5 .2
3.7
-

5.3
5.3
11.3
11.3
-

.8

7.0
-

.7

-

-

-

7.0
-

1.5
3.7
-

-

-

.5
-

-

.2

.9
1.8
6.0

1.7
15.0
1.5
2.9
8.0
.9
.9
.3
.5

4 2 .9

75.6

10 .8

8 .3
3.1
-

34.8

4 .2
79 .2

10 .2

1.9
12.6

4.1
8 .8
1.2

26.5
-

7.9
18.7
2.5
-

32.2

71.5
71.5
68 .5
28 .9
13.2
3 .4
4 .2
18.8
-

3.1
-

28.5

1 R e f e r s to p o l ic ie s o f e s ta b lis h m e n t s e ith e r c u r r e n tly o p era tin g la te sh ifts or h aving p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ift s .
2 In c lu d e s data fo r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a te ly .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g , s u m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta l s .




15.8
15.8
15.8
15.8
-

8 4 .2

77.7
77.7
32.8
4 .2
14.9
13.7
41.1
T
12 .2
29.0

3.8
-

22.3

10.1
-

4 8 .2

2.2
-

50.6

49.5
49.5
4 9.5
49.5
-

63.3
63.3
63.3
43.1
9.1
11.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

50.5

-

36.7

T a b le 16. S h ift d iffe ren tial practices
( P e r c e n t of ^ p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on l a t e s h if ts in can d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s by a m o u n t o f s h if t d i f f e r e n t ia l ,
U n ite d S ta te s , s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u st 1970)
R e g io n s
U n ited
S ta te s 1

S h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l

New
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

13. 7
8. 7
6. 1
-

16. 1
16. 0
13. 8
_
2. 5
.5
1. 8
. 1
4. 5
_
1. 0
.4
3. 1

S o u th e a s t

A reas
G reat
L akes

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

1 0 .4
5 .9
5 .9

29. 2
29. 2

Los A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

N ew
Y o rk

P h ila d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o —
O a k la n d

S e c o n d s h if t
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on S e c o n d s h if t _____________
R e c e iv in g s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________
U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r __________________
3 c e n t s _________________________________
5 c e n t s _________________________________
6 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------7 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------l l/z c e n t s ------------------------------------------------8 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------1 2 V c e n t s ---------------------------------------------2
15 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------17 c e n ts ________________________________
25 c e n ts a n d o v e r ______________________
U n if o rm p e r c e n t a g e _______________________
4 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------5 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------6 p e r c e n t _______________________________
10 p e r c e n t ______________________________
F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s _________
R e c e iv in g no s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l
_ _

1 9 .7
17. 8
11. 5
1. 0
.8
. 1
.7
.6

1. 7
(2)
3. 7
.4
1. 0
.9
.3
.4
6. 3
.4
2 .9
.5
2. 5
(2)
1. 8

-

_
2. 1
-

4. 0
2. 6

_
2. 6
-

5. 0

-

_
2. 1
_
1. 3
.8
. 1
. 1

20. 6

11. 3
3. 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3. 1
8. 2
_
8. 2
_
_
_
9. 3

25. 3
23. 7
12. 6
_
_
_
.7
1. 5
1. 0
_
5. 5
.6
2. 7
. 3
_
.4
11. 1
_
3 .9
.9
6. 2

9. 7
9. 7
9 .7
_
_
_
_
_
.8
_

3. 5

_
_
_
_
3. 0
_
2 .9

.6

_
.9
3. 8
.2
_

_

_
_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
.
_

_

_

_

1. 6

-

4. 5

6. 0
6. 0
4. 3

_

_

_
_

_

12.1

_
_
_
1. 0
2. 3
1 .4
2. 8

_

10. 8
10 . 8
10 . 8

_

_

10 . 8

1. 5
9. 6
-

-

_
17. 2
_

6. 1

.3

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

4. 1
.4

6. 2
6. 2

18. 0
17. 5
17. 5

6. 6
6. 6
6. 6

14. 0
. 3
2. 1

_
_

3 .4

.5
1. 6

_
_

2. 0
.5

5. 8
5. 1
.7
-

.5

-

■

"

T h i r d s h if t
W o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on t h i r d o r o t h e r
l a t e s h if t __________________________ _ _
R e c e iv in g s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________
U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r __________________
5 c e n t s _________________________________
8 c e n t s _________________________________
10 c e n t s ________________________________
11 c e n t s ________________________________
12 c e n t s _________________________________
15 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------------------------------18 c e n ts ________________________________
21 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------------------25 c e n ts a n d o v e r ________________________
U n if o rm p e r c e n t a g e _________________________
5 p e r c e n t -------------------------------------------------------------------5 72 p e r c e n t ________________________________
10 p e r c e n t _________________________________
F u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s _________
R e c e iv in g no s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l _________________

1 In c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

. 1
.2
. 1
.6
. 1

1. 7
(2 )
.
.
.
.
.

8
1
1

5
1

.3
.3
.2
_
-

.2
_
.
.
. 1
. 1
-

5. 5
5. 5
5. 3
_

.8
.2
.9

_
. 1
. 3

3. 1
_
.2
. 2
-

(2)

in a d d itio n to th o s e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,




4. 3
4. 3
3 .4
.4
.2

s u m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls ,

1. 1

.9

_

_
_
_
_
.
_

.9
.9
_

. 2

_
_
_

. 3
_
_
2. 6
. 1

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

8. 8
8. 8
6. 1
_
_
_

_
_

.9
.9

_

_
.

_

2. 0

_

_
_

..

_
_

_
_
_
_

„
_
_
_
..

2. 2
_
_
2. 2
. 5

_

4. 1

1 .4

_
_
_

1. 4
. 3

_
_

_

_

_
_

.9
.9

_
_

_
_

*

■

T a b le 17. Paid holidays
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n f e c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id h o l id a y s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
A reas

R e g io n s
N u m b e r of p a id h o lid a y s

A ll w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 5 d a y s _____________________________
5 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------5 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------6 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------6 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ________________________
6 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ----------------------------------7 d a y s _________________________________________
7 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s _______________________
8 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------8 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------8 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ----------------------------------9 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------9 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------9 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ----------------------------------10 d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------10 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y .............................................
10 d a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ---------------------------------11 d a y s ________________________________________
12 d a y s ——-------------------------------------------------------12 d a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ---------------------- -----------W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
no p a id h o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------

U n ited
S ta te s 1

New
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

100

100

100

97

100

97

2

-

( 2)
-

1

1

-

(2)

5

20
1
10
2

5

1
12
1
1

13
1
20
1
1

17
1
2
6
1

(2 )
10

(2)
1

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

N ew
Y o rk

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o —
O a k la n d

100

100

100

100

100

100

. 100

S o u th e a s t

G reat
L akes

P a c if ic

B o s to n

100

100

100

86

99

100

100

100

100

100

100

5

2

~
■
- -

2

■
~

3

20

3

■

■
‘
■
"
■

“

-

"
'
-

~

"
13
38
3

8

-

48
26
7
-

3

14

1

12

7
4
4

8

5
22

8

4
-

2

43
15

21
2

3

1
8

6

4

-

1

3

19

-

32
41
19
■

1

"

1

32
2
2

27
1

~
-

1

"
5
-

36
-

2

6
12

■
■
~

"

2

53
-

■
"
48
“

“
“
■
~
13
■

~

10

13
-

3
3
■
75

"
■

1

“
"
3
9
2
20
12

“
5
“
49
"
“
■

6

21

"

"
“
"
"
“
■
'
100

"
“
■
“
“
■
“
■

"

1 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a te l y .
2 L e s s th a n 0.5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e of r o u n d in g , s u m s of i n d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o ta ls .

T a b le 1 8 . P a id v a c a tio n s
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r p a id v a c a tio n s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
A reas

R e g io n s
V a c a tio n p o lic y

A ll w o r k e r s —...........-.....................................-........... -

U n ited
S ta te s 1

New
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

S o u th e a s t

G re a t
Lakes

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

N ew
Y o rk

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o O akland

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

97
83
14

95
76
19

98
74
24

100

98
85
13

100
100

100
100

100
100

100

-

■

87
13

37
63

100
100

-

98
79
19

100

87
13

3

5

2

-

2

-

-

2

“

■

'

1

78
4

1
86

12

76
-

98
-

12

12

11

79
19

-

-

79
19

95
5

96
4

M e th o d of p a y m e n t
W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id v a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t -------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t---------------------------------------W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g
no p a id v a c a t i o n s ......... ............................ .........................

_
-

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2
A f te r 1 y e a r of s e r v i c e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k _________________________________
1 w e e k _________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------See fo o tn o te s a t e n d of ta b le .




79
4
13

2

86
6
8

-

-

100

100

“

■

T a b le 18. P aid v a ca tio n s— Continued
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r p a id v a c a tio n s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)
R e g io n s
U n ited
S ta te s 1

V a c a tio n p o lic y

New
E n g la n d

M id d le
A tla n tic

S o u th e a s t

A reas
G reat
L akes

P a c if ic

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

L os A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

N ew
Y o rk

P h i la ­
d e lp h ia

San
F ra n c is c o —
O ak la n d

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2— C o n tin u e d
A f te r 2 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k _________________________________
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------A f te r 3 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
U n d e r 1 w e e k _________________________________
1 w e e k _________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------A f te r 5 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k _________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________________
3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------A f te r 10 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k -------------------------------- ----------------------------2 w e e k s _______________________________________
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------ ----------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________
A f te r 15 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________
4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------- ------- ----------A f te r 20 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
i w e e k ______ ____ _____________________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________
3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s _______________________________________
5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------A f te r 25 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s _______________________________________
3 w e e k s _______________________________________
4 w e e k s _______________________________________
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------------------5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------A f te r 30 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :4
1 w e e k _________________________________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________
3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------5 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------

(3)
46
7
44

29
4
62

44

(3 )

14
4
76
-

11

4
80
1

1

80

3
26
67

11
1
8

6

87
-

28
72
-

16
84
-

6
8
86

-

-

9
72
17

28
47
24

3
97
-

6
8
86

91
9

-

6

9
91
-

16
84
-

11

1
10

-

73
14

66

5
92
3

1
10
22

_
9

61
4

83

5
19
76

-

-

1
10

_
9

17
50

8

5
13
72
-

-

6
10

3
16
74
5

33
50
17
-

3
90
-

3
5
84
5

2

1

33
17
50
-

69
1

3

3
5

2
12

_
3
9
69
_
13

3
10

3
5

11

33
17
43
7
33
17
28

60
5
15

22

-

3

33

3

5

17
28

9
69
13

13
84
_
3

100

89
_

-

21

76
_
24

_
44
_
56

66

15
48

13
87
-

100

2

15
54

-

13
87
_

90
_

80
5

20

10

-

6
1

3
26

3

4
94
-

49
44
-

1

25
56

10

_
48
.
52

-

6

-

_
26
_
74

40

51
_
5

3

_
76
24

6

74

_

_
49
50

11

1

30
65

_
15

13

38

•

_
41
_
59

48

1

8
1

1

74

_
56

75
7

_
95

5

1
10

6

6

11

51
29

-

22

8
1

16
81
-

2

18

1
10

17
39
31

_
-

9
25

8

79
_
4
9

6

79
3
6

91
-

_

10

5

92
_
-

9

28

3

10

10

20

73

62

6

-

77
-

9
5
53
4
28

28
48
13

9

28

79

13
72

41

4

10

44

8

100

5

10

1
0

48
13

3
3
81
13

45
49

6

5
26
64
6

5
24
65
-

6

_
_
_
100

100

9
91
100

14
86

14
86

-

3
3

24

14

81
13

16

86

49

-

5

1 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a te l y .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts s u c h a s p e r c e n t of a n n u a l e a rn in g s w e r e c o n v e r te d to a n e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s i s .
P e r io d s of s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l
e s ta b l is h m e n t p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p le , c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t io n s a t 10 y e a r s m a y in c lu d e c h a n g e s o c c u r r in g b e tw e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
3 L e s s th a n 0.5 p e r c e n t .
4 V a c a tio n p r o v is i o n s w e r e s u b s ta n t ia l ly th e s a m e a f t e r lo n g e r p e r i o d s of s e r v i c e .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g ,




s u m s of in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o ta l s .

T a b le 1 9 . H e a lth , in s u ra n c e , a n d re tire m e n t p la n s
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y a n d o t h e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , s e le c te d r e g i o n s , a n d a r e a , A u g u s t 1970)
A reas

R e g io n s
T y p e of p la n 1

A ll w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e ________________________________
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s ------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e -------------- -------- ------------------------------N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s ------------------------------S ic k n e ss an d a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r
s ic k l e a v e o r b o th 3 _________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e -----------—
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s . . ----------------------S ic k le a v e ( fu ll p a y , n o w a itin g p e r i o d ) —
S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r i o d ) .......................................................
H o s p i ta l iz a t io n i n s u r a n c e ........................................
N on c o n tr i b u to r y p l a n s ........................................S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e ....................................... ................
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s ------------------------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------N on c o n tr i b u to r y p l a n s ------------------------------M a jo r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------N on c o n tr i b u to r y p l a n s ------------------------------R e t ir e m e n t p l a n s 4 ......................................... ........... —
P e n s io n p l a n s .......................................... ................
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s -------------------------R e t ir e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y ________________
No p l a n s ................... - -------------------------------------------

M id d le
A tla n tic

S o u th e a s t

G reat
L akes

P a c if i c

B o s to n

C h ic a g o

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

86

90
27

92
91

94
39

86

46

83
79

93

59

89
46

53
40

96
96

94
94

92
92

71
69

49
35

74
42

83
79

61

83
46

53
40

78
78

37
37

92
92

77
74
73
18

75
71
41
4

83
82
44
14

82
24

61
61

86
86

20
22

6

44
17

55
13
24

87
81
81
13

89
89
89

89
7
7
■

14
96
89
96
89
85
81
30
25
81
81
80
5
3

-

16
94
53
94
53
91
53
56
36
69
67
46
4
4

39
95

-

17
84
61
84

16

49
92
89
92
89
81
79
5
3

S ta te s 2

66

68

47

23

74
67
45
13

55
55

13
94
63
94
62
84
56
54
35
72
71
60
3
5

-

11
-

95
23
95
11

95
11

93
23
88
88

82
-

5

99
50
99
50
66

45
55
38
38
38
33
-

88

95
88

95
88

83
76
84
84
69
4
5

12

6

100
6
100
6
100
6

98
6

90
90
81
-

24
98
54
98
54
93
54
50
33
67
64
38
7
2

61

84
61
60
37
55
55
55
~
16

N ew
Y o rk

San
P h ila d e lp h ia F r a n c i s c o O akland

N ew
E n g la n d

L o s A n g e le sL ong B e a c h

100
100
100
100
100
100

25
12
86
86
86

18

12

86
86
86

-

89
100
100
100
100
100
100

97
97
93
93
93
11

6

1 I n c lu d e s on ly t h o s e p la n s f o r w h ic h a t l e a s t p a r t of th e c o s t is b o rn e by th e e m p lo y e r a n d e x c lu d e s le g a lly r e q u i r e d p la n s s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n a n d s o c ia l s e c u r i ty ; h o w e v e r , p la n s
r e q u i r e d b y S ta te t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li ty i n s u r a n c e la w s a r e in c lu d e d if th e e m p lo y e r c o n tr i b u te s m o r e th a n is le g a l ly r e q u i r e d o r th e e m p lo y e e r e c e i v e s b e n e fits in e x c e s s of th e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n ts .
" N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s " in c lu d e o n ly t h o s e p la n s f in a n c e d e n ti r e l y by th e e m p lo y e r.
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e show n s e p a r a te l y .
3 U n d u p lic a te d t o t a l of w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .
4 U n d u p lic a te d t o t a l of w o r k e r s h a v in g p e n s io n a n d r e t i r e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y p la n s sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .







T a b le 2 0 . O th e r s e le c te d b e n e fits
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in c a n d y and o th e r c o n fe c tio n e r y p r o d u c ts e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f u n e r a l l e a v e p a y , j u r y d u ty p a y , a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l
s e v e r a n c e p a y , U n ite d S ta te s a n d s e le c te d r e g i o n s , A u g u s t 1970)
R e g io n s
I te m

W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith
p r o v is i o n s fo r:
F u n e r a l le a v e p a y ____________________________
J u r y d u ty p a y ________________________________
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p ay 2 ______________

TTnii 4 d
u -*« ite A
S ta te s 1
2

76
77
19

N ew
E n g la n d

74
77

1 In c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e g io n s in a d d itio n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .
2 P a y to e m p lo y e e s p e rm a n e n tly s e p a r a te d f r o m th e c o m p a n y b e c a u s e

M id d le
A tla n tic

90
86

S o u th e a s t

61
61

S o u th w e s t

44
65

35

of a te c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e o r c lo s in g of th e p la n t.

G re a t
Lakes

81
80
24

P a c if i c

78
57
4

A p p e n d ix A . S c o p e a n d M e t h o d o f S u r v e y
Scope o f survey

The survey included establishments primarily engaged
in manufacturing candy and other confectionery prod­
ucts (industry 2071 as defined in the 1967 edition of
the S ta n d a r d I n d u s tria l G a s s ific a tio n M a n u a l , prepared
by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, formerly
U.S. Bureau of the Budget). Establishments primarily
manufacturing solid chocolate bars (SIC 2072), those pri­
marily manufacturing chewing gum (SIC 2073), those
making confectionery primarily for direct sale on the
premises and those primarily engaged in shelling and
roasting nuts (which are classified in trade industries)
were excluded. Also excluded were separate auxiliary
units such as central offices.
The establishments studied were selected from those
employing 20 workers or more at the time of reference
of the data used in compiling the universe lists.
The number of establishments and workers actually
studied by the Bureau, as well as the number estimated

to be in the industry during the payroll period studied,
is shown in table A-l.
M ethod o f study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff. The survey was conducted on a sample basis.
To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion of large than of small establishments
was studied. In combining the data, however, all estab­
lishments were given their appropriate weight. All esti­
mates are presented, therefore, as relating to all establish­
ments in the industry, excluding only those below the
minimum size at the time of reference of the universe data.
Establishment definition

An establishment, for purposes of this study, is de­
fined as a single physical location where industrial
operations are performed. An establishment is not

Table A -1. Estimated num ber o f establishments and workers w ith in scope o f survey and number studied, candy and
other confectionery products manufacturing establishments, August 19 7 0
Num ber o f establishments

1

2

3

Workers in establishments
W ithin scope o f study

Studied

W ithin
scope of
study

Studied

United States 5 ........................................

400

185

58.501

4 8 .1 1 2

4 5 .9 3 8

New E n g la n d ...............................................................
B o s to n ....................................................................
M iddle A t la n t ic ..........................................................
New Y o rk ............................................................
P h ila d e lp h ia ..........................................................
S outheast......................................................................
Great L a k e s .................................................................
Chicago .................................................................
P a c if ic ...........................................................................
Los Angeles—Long B eac h .................................
San Francisco—O a k la n d ...................................

29
18
117
34
25
28
118
53
44
17
16

16

5,731
4 ,0 7 2
1 4 ,880
3 ,5 8 8
2 ,6 3 6
4 ,1 8 8
2 1 ,2 7 8
13,601
4,151
1,2 19
1,6 29

4 ,7 7 6
3,301
1 1 ,906
2 ,9 2 5
2,1 3 7
3 ,2 6 6
1 7 ,924
1 1 ,565
3,321
1,0 08
1,2 52

5,2 0 7
3 ,7 6 7
11,081
2 ,6 4 4
2 ,2 3 0
3 ,5 9 3
16 ,724
1 1 ,199
2 ,9 4 6
90 7
1,2 88

Region

and area

11
51
16

12
16
49

22
24
9

10

T o ta l 4

Production
workers

Total

The regions used in this study include: New England—Connecticut. Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, R hode Island, and
V erm o nt; M iddle A tla n tic —N ew Jersey, N ew Y o rk , and Pennsylvania; Southeast—Alabam a. Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, N orth
Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; Great Lakes—Illinois. Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, O h io, and Wisconsin; and Pacific—
California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. Regional data include areas in addition to those shown separately.
^ For d e fin ition of th e respective areas, see fo o tn o te 1, tables 7 —12.
Includes only establishments w ith 2 0 workers or more a t the tim e o f reference o f the universe data.
Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers excluded fro m the production w orker category shown separately.
Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately. Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the study.




26

necessarily identical with the company, which may con­
sist of one establishment or more.

Employment

The estimates of the number of workers within the
scope of the study are intended as a general guide to the
size and composition of the labor force included in the
survey. The advance planning necessary to make a wage
survey requires the use of lists of establishments as­
sembled considerably in advance of the payroll period
studied.

salaried workers were obtained by dividing their straighttime salary by normal rather than actual hours. The
m e d ia n designates position, that is, half of the em­
ployees surveyed received more than this rate, and half
received less. The m id d le ra n g e is defined by two rates of
pay; a fourth of the employees earned less than the lower
of these rates and a fourth earned more than the higher
rate.
Size of community

Tabulations by size of community pertain to metro­
politan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metro­
politan area,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through
January 1968.
Except in New England, a Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area is defined as a county or group of
contiguous counties which contains at least one city of
50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties contiguous to
the one containing such a city are included in a Stand­
ard Metropolitan Statistical Area, if, according to
certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in
character and are socially and economically integrated
with the central city. In New England, the city and
town are administratively more important than the
country, and they are the units used in defining
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

Production workers

The term “production workers” as used in this bul­
letin, includes working foremen and all nonsupervisory
workers engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative,
executive, professional, and technical personnel, and
force-account construction employees, who were uti­
lized as a separate work force on the firm’s own proper­
ties, were excluded.
Occupations selected for study

Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment and interarea variations in duties within
the same job. (See appendix B for these job descrip­
tions.) The occupations were chosen for their numerical
importance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or
their representativeness of the entire job scale in the in­
dustry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners, be­
ginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, tempo­
rary, and probationary workers were not reported in the
data for selected occupations, but were included in the
data for all production workers.

Labor-management agreements

Separate wage data are presented, where possible,
for establishments with (1) a majority of the produc­
tion workers covered by labor-management contracts,
and (2) none or a minority of the production workers
covered by labor-management contracts.
Method of wage payment

Wage data

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for time­
rated workers provide single rates or a range of rates for
individual job categories. In the absence of a formal rate
structure, pay rates are determined primarily with
reference to the qualifications of the individual worker.
A single rate structure is one in which the same rate is
paid to all experienced workers in the same job classifi­
cation, .Learners, apprentices, or probationary workers
may be paid according to rate schedules which start
below the single rate and permit the workers to achieve
the full job rate over a period of time. Individual experi­
enced workers occasionally may be paid above or below
the single rate for special reasons, but such payments are

Information on wages relates to average straighttime hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Incentive payments, such as those resulting from
piecework or production bonus systems and cost-ofliving bonuses were included as part of the workers’
regular pay; but nonproduction bonus payments, such
as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or other group of workers, such as men,
women, or production workers were calculated by
weighting each rate (or hourly earnings) by the number
of workers receiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by
the number of individuals. The hourly earnings of




27

regarded as exceptions. Range-of-rate plans are those in
which the minimum and/or maximum rates paid ex­
perienced workers for the same job are specified. Speci­
fic rates of individual workers within the range may be
determined by merit, length of service, or a combination
of various concepts of merit and length of service. Incen­
tive workers are classified under piecework or bonus
plans. Piecework is work for which a predetermined rate
is paid for each unit of output. Production bonuses are
based on production in excess of a quota or for comple­
tion of a job in less than standard time.
Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on
the day shift, regardless of sex.
Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having
formal provisions covering late-shift work. Practices re­
late to workers employed on late shifts at the time of
the survey.
Supplementary wage provisions

Supplementary benefits were treated statistically on
the basis that if formal provisions were applicable to half
or more of the production workers in an establishment,
the benefits were considered applicable to all such
workers. Similarly, if fewer than half of the workers
were covered, the benefit was considered nonexistent in
the establishment. Because of length-of-service and
other eligibility requirements, the proportion of workers
receiving the benefits may be smaller than estimated.
Because of rounding, the sums of individual items may
not equal totals.
P a id h o lid a y s . Paid holiday provisions related to fullday and half-day holidays provided annually.
P a id v a c a tio n s . The summaries of vacation plans are
limited to formal arrangements, excluding informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the discre­
tion of the employer or the supervisor. Payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of
2 percent of annual earnings was considered the equiva­
lent of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for which
data are presented were selected as representative of the
most common practices, but they do not necessarily re­
flect individual establishment provisions for progression.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10
years of service may include changes which occurred be­
tween 5 and 10 years.




H e a lth , in su ra n c e , a n d r e tir e m e n t p la n s. Data are
presented for health, insurance, pension, and retire­
ment severance plans for which all or a part of the
cost is borne by the employer, excluding programs re­
quired by law, such as workmen’s compensation and
social security* Among the plans included are those
underwritten by a commercial insurance company and
those paid directly by the employer from his current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this
purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that
type of insurance under which predetermined cash pay­
ments are made directly to the insured on a weekly or
monthly basis during illness or accident disability. Infor­
mation is presented for all such plans to which the em­
ployer contributes at least a part of the cost. However,
in New York and New Jersey, where temporary dis­
ability insurance laws require employer contributions,1
plans are included only if the employer (1) contributes
more than is legally required or (2) provides the em­
ployees with benefits which exceed the requirements of
the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sepa­
rate tabulations are provided according to (1) plans
which provide full pay and no waiting period, and
(2) plans providing either partial pay or a waiting
period.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctor’s fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commerical insur­
ance company or a nonprofit organization, or they
may be a form of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes the
plans designed to cover employees in case of sickness
or injury involving an expense which exceeds the normal
coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the remainder
of the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately for
retirement severance pay (one payment or several over a
specified period of time) made to employees on retire­
ment. Establishments providing both retirement sever­
ance payments and retirement pensions to employees

1
The temporary disability insurance laws in California and
Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.

28

were considered as having both retirement pension
and retirement severance plans. Establishments having
optional plans providing employees a choice o f either
retirement severance pay or pensions were considered
as having only retirement pension benefits.
Paid funeral and jury du ty leave. Data for paid
funeral and jury duty leave relate to formal provisions




29

for at least partial payment for time lost as a result
of attending funerals o f specified family members or
while serving as a juror.
Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal
plans providing for payment to employees perma­
nently separated from employment because o f a techno­
logical change or plant closing.

A p p e n d ix B . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c r ip tio n s
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed
under a variety o f payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to
establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping o f occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because o f this emphasis on interestablish­
ment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared
for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field staff is in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, and
handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
Dipper, hand

Candymaker

(Batch maker; boiler; confectioner; cook, candy;
cookery batch; fondant maker; hard-candymaker;
jelly- or gum-candy maker; taffy-candy maker)

(Bonbon dipper; candy dipper, hand; caramel dipper;
chocolate dipper, hand; coater, hand; cream dipper;
dipper, fork; icing dipper; stripper)

Measures, weighs, mixes and/or cooks ingredients in
making candies or in preparing bases for making candies.
May, in addition, operate heating, pulling, molding, and
other types o f candymaking machines, or may specialize
in making one type o f candy such as hard, cream,
caramel, or nougat.
Class A. Makes one or more types of candy. Work
involves most o f the following: Knowledge o f various
ingredients, formulas, methods, and equipment used
in producing candy; the exercise of judgment, initia­
tive, and ingenuity in creating new candy items or in
meeting production difficulties; working with a mini­
mum o f supervision; and directing the activities of
candymakers o f lesser skill and/or helpers.
Class B. Makes candy according to formulas, or
under the direction of others, usually preparing one
type o f candy or performing only some o f the opera­
tions required in candymaking. May be assisted by,
and assign work to, one or more helpers.

Dips candy centers, fruits, or nuts into fondant, choc­
olate, or other icing material and finishes the surface by
hand. Work involves: Regulating temperature of small
dipping vat with valve or switch; dropping candy center,
fruit, or nut into vat o f icing and removing it with
fingers or fork; and smoothing the surface and making
an identifying mark on the top. May, in addition, pre­
pare icing in small quantities in dipping vat or place nut
or other garnishing on top o f candy.

Enrobing-machine operator

(Coating-machine operator; coater, machine; dipper,
machine; dipping-machine operator; enrober man)
Controls the operation o f one or more machines that
automatically coat (dip) candy centers with chocolate or
other icing material. Work includes: Regulating supply
and temperature of chocolate or other icing material, and
making minor mechanical adjustments to keep machines
operating efficiently. May be assisted by several helpers.

Candymaker's, helper
Assists the candymaker by performing such tasks as:
Obtaining, measuring, or weighing sugar, glucose, and
other ingredients according to formulas or instructions;
lifting or conveying ingredients to cooking kettles;
cutting or chopping fruits or nuts; mixing cream-candy
batches; washing cooking equipment and utensils;*and
cleaning working areas. May, in addition, perform vari­
ous candy forming and cutting operations.




30

Enrobing-machine operator's helper

(Candy liner; coating-machine feeder; corder; decora­
tor; dipping-machine feeder, off-bearer; dippingmachine operator’ helper; enrober’ helper; sepa­
s
s
rator; slider; straightener; streaker; stringer; stroker,
take-off girl; tray filler)

Labor, material handling

Assists the enrobing-machine operator by perform­
ing one or more hand operations involved in the candy­
making process. Typical o f such operations are: Plac­
ing and arranging candy centers on the feed conveyor
o f the coating machine; dumping centers into a mechani­
cal feed hopper which discharges them on the feed con­
veyor; finishing the top o f coated candies by applying
coating material with fingers; separating coated candies
with a wire tool to prevent them from sticking together;
lifting was paper plaques o f candies from discharge con­
veyor and sliding them onto candy trays; and stacking
trays o f candy on handtrucks.
This classification does n o t include off-bearers who
also pack candy into boxes or other containers.

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing
plant, store, or other establishment whose duties in­
volve one or m ore o f the following: Loading and
unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise
in proper storage location; and transporting materials
or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships, are excluded.

Filling-machine operator

Machinist, maintenance

Controls the operation o f a filling machine which
automatically fills containers such as cartons, boxes,
bottles, cans, or jars with a specified weight or amount
o f the commodity being packaged. May, in some plants,
feed containers to the machine and remove filled con­
tainers from the machine where these operations are not
assigned to other workers.
This classification includes workers who tend ma­
chines that perform other operations such as closing,
sealing, capping, or wrapping, in addition to filling
containers.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making
repairs o f metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated
in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ­
ing: Interpreting written instructions and specifications;
planning and laying out o f work; using a variety of
machinist’s handtools and precision measuring instru­
ments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping o f metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimenstions of
work, tooling, feeds, and speeds o f machining; knowl­
edge of the working properties o f the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into
mechancial equipment. In general, the machinist’s work
normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver;
trucker; stockm an or stock helper; warehouseman
or warehouse helper)

Inspector, candy
Examines boxes or other containers o f candy to see
that candy is properly formed, polished, wrapped, and
packed; and stamps or indicates data o f inspection on
box or container, or returns candy to packer with ex­
planation for rejection. May, in addition, weigh candy,
or pack boxes or containers o f candy in cartons.

Maintenance man, general utility

Janitor
(Sweeper; charwoman; fanitress; cleaner)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory work­
ing areas and washrooms, or premises o f an office, apart­
ment house, or commercial or other establishment.
Duties involve a com bination o f the follow ing: Sweep­
ing, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; re­
moving chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equip­
ment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms.
Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.




31

Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or
structure o f an establishment (usually a small plant
where specialization in maintenance work is impractical)
in repair. Duties involve the performance o f operations
and the use o f tools and equipment o f several trades,
rather than specialization in one trade or one type of
maintenance work only. Work involves a com bination
o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work
relating to repair o f building?, machines, mechanical
and/or electrical equipment; repairing electrical and/or
mechanical equipment; installing, alining and balancing
new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, and
stairs as well as making and repairing bins, cribs and
partitions.

Mechanic, maintenance
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diag­
nose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the
use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from
stock; ordering the production o f a replacement part by
a machine shop or sending o f the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications
for major repairs or for the production o f parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making
all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the
work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose pri­
mary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
Mogul operator
Molds soft candy centers, such as gums and jellies, by
operating a mogul machine. Work involves the following:
Inserting mold die in machine and fastening it in place
with wedges or by tightening thumb screws; starting
machine and turning valve to supply steam to jacket of
candy hopper; adjusting setscrews to regulate flow of
candy from depositors; oiling machine and observing
its proper operation; and directing one or more helpers.
Mogul operator's helper
Assists the mogul-machine operator by feeding, catch­
ing, stacking, and trucking candy. Typical of the specific
duties performed by the helper are: Lifting trays of
freshly molded candy from conveyor or machine and
stacking them on handtrucks to be pushed to hardening
room; placing trays o f hardened candy in starch molds
on automatic feed rack o f mogul machine; placing
empty trays under conveyor o f machine to catch candy




32

after it has been separated from starch; spreading candy
on trays; and pushing loaded handtrucks to and from
hardening room.
Packer, hand
Packs candy or other confectionery products by
hand in various size or shaped boxes, cartons, jars, or
other containers.
Packer, hand, bulk . Pours, scoops, or funnels loose
candy into boxes, cartons, jars, pails, bags, or other
containers.
Packer, hand, candy bars. Fills cartons with a
specified number o f wrapped candy bars o f the same
kind, shape, and size.
Packer, hand, fancy. Places pieces o f wrapped or un­
wrapped candy in boxes by hand, following a pre­
scribed packing arrangement, packs a complete box
or places a few pieces o f more than one type of candy
in each box; may also wrap individual pieces of candy
in paper, or place candy in paper cups, and count or
weigh candy.
Watchman
Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
Wrapping-machine operator
Packages rolls, bars, slabs, or individual pieces of
candy in advertising or designating wrapper by feeding
to a candy wrapping machine. Work involves most o f
the following: Feeding candy items onto a conveyor
belt and guiding to slots of machine which automatically
wraps them; starts and stops machine and may thread
paper through the rolls o f the machine as necessary;
catching and removing wrapped items as they come from
the machine and may also pack by putting specified
number o f items in boxes or other containers. (Both
feeders and catchers are to be included regardless of
whether they alternate between the two types o f work.)

In d u s try W a g e S tu d ie s
The most recent reports for industries included in the
Bureau’s program of industry wage surveys since Jan­
uary 1960 are listed below. Copies are available from
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government

I.

Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402, or any of its
regional sales offices, and from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Washington, D.C., 20212, or from any of its
regional offices shown on the inside back cover.

Occupational Wage Studies
Manufacturing

Price
Basic Iron and Steel, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1602 ......................................................................................................... $0.55
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1520 .......................................................................
.30
Cigar Manufacturing, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1581 ...........................................................................................................
.25
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1472 ............................................................................................................... 20
Cotton and Man-Made Fiber Textiles, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1637................................................................................
1.00
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1695 ...........................................................................................................50
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1 5 3 1 ............................................................................................................... 30
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1576 ...........................................................................................25
Fluid Milk Industry, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1464 ........................................................................................................................ 30
Footwear, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1 6 3 4 ................................................................................................................................
.75
Hosiery, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1562 .............................................................................................................................................70
Industrial Chemicals, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1529 ...........................................................................................................
.40
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1626 .....................................................................................................
1.00
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1618 .........................................................................................
.55
Machinery Manufacturing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1664 ............................................................................................................. 65
Meat Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1677 .......................................................................................................................
1.00
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (except Work Shirts) and Nightwear, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1659 ..................................................65
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 6 .......................................................................................
1.00
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1690 ....................................................................................................60
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1679 ................ .............................................................................................. 75
Nonferrous Foundries, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1498 .......................................................................................................
.40
Paints and Varnishes, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1524 ...........................................................................................................
.40
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 9 .....................................................................................
1.25
Petroleum Refining, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1526 ........................................................................................................................ 30
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 3 ..............................................................................
.50
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1608 ..................................................................................
.60
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1694 ...........................................................................................50
Structural Clay Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1697 ....................................................................................................
.65
Synthetic Fibers, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1540 ............................................................................................................................. 30
Synthetic Textiles, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1509 ...........................................................................................................................40
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1 9 6 5 -6 6 . BLS Bulletin 1527 ............................................................................................... 45
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1 7 0 4 .........................................................................................................
.45
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1508 ........................................................................................25
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1649 ........................................................................................................45
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1 6 5 1 .................................................................... 60
Wool Textiles, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1551 ..................................................................................................................................45
Work Clothing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1624 ................................................................................................................
.50




I. Occupational Wage Studies— Continued

Nonmanufacturing
Price
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1689 ................................................................................................... $0.50
Banking, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1703 ............................................................................................................................................. 65
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583 ............................................................................................................... 50
Communications, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1662 .............................................................................................................................30
Contract Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1644 ...........................................................................................................55
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1566 ...........................................................................30
Eating and Drinking Places, 1966—
67. BLS Bulletin 1588 ....................................................................................................40
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 1968—
69. BLS Bulletin 1 6 7 1 ...........................................................50
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1 6 1 4 ............................................................................................................... 70
Hospitals, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1688 ..................................................................................................................................
1.00
Hotels and Motels, 1966—
67. BLS Bulletin 1587 ....................................................................................................................40
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1645...................................................................................................... 75
Life Insurance, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1569 ................................................................................................................................. 30
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1542 ............................................................................................................... 35
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1967—
68. BLS Bulletin 1 6 3 8 ..................................................................................75
II. Other Industry Wage Studies
Employee Earnings and Hours in Nonmetropolitan Areas o f the South and North Central
Regions, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1552 ......................................................................................................................................... 50
Employee Earnings and Hours in Eight Metropolitan Areas o f the South, 1965.
BLS Bulletin 1 5 3 3 ..............................................................................................................................................................
.40
Employee Earnings and Hours in Retail Trade, June 1966—
Retail Trade (Overall Summary). BLS Bulletin 1584 ................................................................................................
1.00
Building Materials, Hardware, and Farm Equipment Dealers. BLS Bulletin 1584-1 ......................................................30
General Merchandise Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-2 ............................................................................................................... 55
Food Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-3 .......................................................................................................................................... 60
Automotive Dealers and Gasoline Service Stations. BLS Bulletin 1584-4 ........................................................................ 50
Apparel and Accessory Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-5............................................................................................................. 55
Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Household Appliance Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-6..................................................50
Miscellaneous Retail Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-7..................................................................................................................65




* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1972 O - 484-789 (67)

B U R E A U

O F

L A B O R

R E G IO N A L

Region I
1603-JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617

S T A T IS T IC S

O F F IC E S

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III, 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1025
New York, N.Y. 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 5 5 6 ^ 6 7 8 (Area Code 415)




Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S

T H IR D C LA SS M A IL

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212
OFFICIAL BUSINESS
P E N A L T Y FO R P R IV A T E U S E, $ 3 0 0




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F LA B O R