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inaxo. Toachers College Library

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Bulletin No. 160

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES
TO WOMEN AND MEN
1932 TO 1934




5L

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

+

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN
AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934
By
MARGARET T. METTERT

Bulletin

of the

Women’s Bureau, No. 160

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1938

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




Price 10 cents




CONTENTS
Letter of transmittal-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction
Progress in injury reports----------------------------------------------------------------------Source and scope
Character of data----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Summary
Data as to injuries
Proportion women form of all injured persons_______________________
Changes in number of injuries, 1927 to 1934________________________
Extent of disability------------------------------------------------------------------------Nature of injury-------------------------------------------------------Part of body injured---------------------Data as to injured persons
Age of men and women workers------------------------------------------------------Age and extent of disability------------------------------------------------------------Age and cause of injury
19
Marital status
20
Dependents of injured women
21
Industries in which injury occurred . _ __
Industry and age of the injured
Cause of injury
Falls of persons--------------Machinery-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Handling of objects
25
Stepping on or striking against objects--------------------------------------------Hand tools
26
Explosions, electricity, heat, and so forth______________
Falling objects
26
Vehicles
26
Harmful substances
26
Cause according to industry
26
Wages and compensation
29
Appendix
32

Pag*
v
1
2
2
4
5
9
9
9
11
12
14
16
16
18

21
23
23
24
24
25
26

TABLES
1. Industrial injuries tabulated by sex, 1927 and 1930 to 1934, in States
reporting this information for 1932, 1933, or 1934___________________
2. Extent of disability, by sex, 1934
3. Nature of injury, by sex, 1934--------------------------------------------------------4. Nature and location of injury, by sex—Indiana 1934 and Pennsylvania
1933____________________
5. Age of injured, by sex, 1934
6. Number of injuries to persons under 16 years, by sex, 1930 to 1934___
7. Extent of disability, by sex and age group, 1934______________________
8. Weekly wages at time of injury, by sex—Michigan and New York,
1932, 1933, and 1934
9. Total and average amount of compensation paid, 1932 to 1934, by sex
and extent of disability
31

10
11
13
15
17
18
19
29

CHARTS
I. Injuries tabulated, minimum period of disability, and employments
covered by law, in the 19 States that reported the sex of injured
persons in one or more of the years 1932, 1933, and 1934__________

32

II. Page references in State reports classifying accident statistics by sex,
1932 to 1934, used in tables 1 to 9_______

36

GRAPHS
I. States reporting number of injured, by sex—1932, 1933, and 1934. .Facing 1
II. Weekly earnings of injured women before injury, 1932, 1933, and 1934.
28




(m)




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, May 8, 1988.
I have the honor to transmit the fourth report issued by
the A/V omen’s Bureau in its series dealing with industrial injuries to
women.
Such injuries to women were an increasingly large part of the acci­
dent total in 1932 and 1933. Though in 1934, with the employment
upturn in heavy industries, injuries increased more rapidly to men than
to women, more than 4,000 women were injured in each of the import­
ant industrial States of Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, and
Pennsylvania (1933), and in the 10 States reporting extent of disability
about 150 women lost their lives in industry.
For the 3-year period covered, 1932 to 1934, 19 States made avail­
able certain data. Reports were received from 11 of the 18 States
ranking highest in woman employment.
Grateful acknowledgement is made of the assistance of State officials
in the collection of this material.
These studies are made and information on the subject is kept cur­
rent by Margaret T. Mettert, assistant industrial economist of the
Bureau’s research division.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. Frances Perkins,
Secretary of Labor.
Madam:




V




Plate I. STATES REPORTIUG I'UIIBER OF INJURED, BY SEX - 1932, 1933 and 1934

---- £37

i MINN. /

^ -....-yS
y////}
NEBR

IOWA

^ " .if

>

KANS

tenn

OKLAHOMA

Data available for two or more Qf three years (IS States)
13 Data available for one year (1 State)
mzzm Ho data (27 States)
llo compensation laws (2 States)

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND
MEN, 1932 TO 1934
INTRODUCTION

The efforts made today to protect the individual against the various
hazards of life have a considerable background in the work done
during the past 25 years to insure the worker against being mutilated
or disabled in some accident of employment.
It has been estimated that the great majority of all accidents that
occur m industry are preventable. State compensation authorities,
employers and workers’ safety organizations, and numerous inde­
pendent agencies have made much progress both in devising and
installing methods of preventing accidents, and in securing some
money payment to persons injured. Many individual groups and
industrial plants can point with pride to their safety records.
Nevertheless, in the 10 States reporting on this subject to the
Women s Bureau, about 150 employed women lost their lives in the
period from 1932 to 1934 and in 2 States alone 6,000 women were
permanently disabled. Through the records of workmen’s com­
pensation departments run the tragic stories of these injured women
and often of their dependents.
In the 1934 reports of industrial fatalities in New York State, for
example, are cited case after case of preventable accident. There
is the case of a maid who pierced her thumb with a fork and died
when the wound became infected; a janitress who died of an infected
knee following a scratch that occurred while she was cleaning stairs;
a beauty-shop operator who was fatally burned because of a short
circuit in an electric dryer; a woman who died as a result of the
explosion of a coffee urn; a laundry sorter who suffered a fatal infec­
ho11 contracted in her employment; two women circus performers
who fell to their death.
Only by a knowledge of the extent of a problem can intelligent
efforts be undertaken to solve it. The reporting of injuries, with
their causes, severity, and other factors, is the key to their possible
elimination. Such records are kept in a considerable number of
States, and some of these make the information available to those
who need it for purposes of developing methods of prevention. The
effectiveness of this is shown by the fact that in some of the reporting
States the number of persons injured in employment is gradually
decreasing, although employment is increasing. No State, however
undeveloped industrially, is free of the necessity for careful planning
toward the prevention of accidents in industry, yet the majority
tabulate the important factors affecting frequency and severity of
the resulting injuries only at infrequent intervals, some of them not
at all.




1

2

INDUSTRIAL, INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

Realizing that the first step in prevention is to know the extent
to which women suffer from industrial injuries, the Women’s Bureau
has brought together such data as State agencies can furnish on such
accidents to women separately from those to men, and has prepared
a continuing series of reports on this subject since 1927.1 In the
earliest of these it was found that only 21 States had published such
material since 1920 and only seven recorded even the number of
injuries for the 8 years. In the present reporl, 19 States have fuinished facts about accidents to women, which, though available to
an increasing extent, still are woefully inadequate and incomplete.
PROGRESS IN INJURY REPORTS

Comparable data about occupational injuries for men and women
could be obtained for 1 or more of the 3 years 1932 to 1934 for 19
States, as compared to only 16 States in the 2 preceding years, 12
States in 1929.
.
.
The significant developments in these years in State reporting of
injuries classified by sex are that New Hampshire has for the first
time made available such data; Michigan and Georgia furnished
information for the period 1932 to 1934, the first compiled by sex
since 1929 for Michigan, 1928 for Georgia; in 1934 Missouri published
the first accident report since 1927 that shows sex of injured workers;
Illinois tables for the 3 years were published, whereas in the previous
2 years they were available only in unpublished form. On the other
hand, lack of sufficient appropriation prevented the compilation of
1932 to 1934 accident data in Wisconsin and North Carolina, though
unpublished data for Wisconsin are available.2 * The summary on
**
pages 5 to 9 shows the salient facts as to injuries that affected
women in the 3 years.
SOURCE AND SCOPE

Through the use of unpublished as well as published reports from
State authorities this discussion can include accident data for the year
1934. The scope of the material also is increased to include 19 States
as compared to 16 in 1930 and 15 in 1931, as shown on the map at the
front of this bulletin.
.
The use of unpublished reports further made it possible to increase
the number of classifications by sex for certain States. While in 1930
and 1931 cause of injury by sex was reported to the Women’s Bureau
by only four States, this important classification was available for
eight States in one or more of the next 3 years. The industries in
which injured persons worked were reported by sex by five States in
1930 and 1931, and by seven in 1932 to 1934. Pennsylvania made a
detailed study of the marital status and dependents of injured women,
and also classified location of injury and cost of compensation by sex
for the first time. (See list on p. 3.)
i This report is fourth in series on industrial injuries to men and women. The earlier reports were: Bui.
81-Industrial Accidents to Men and Women: Bui. 102-Industrial Injuries to Women m 1928 and 1929
Compared with Injuries to Men; Bub 129- Industrial Injuries to Women in 1930 and 1931 Compared with
lDa A1 number6 of States receive reports by sex, but neither the State collecting agency nor the Women’s
Bureau has been able to arrange for the statistical work necessary to handle the material.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

3

Data on injuries classified by sex reported1 by States for 1932 to 1934
[Calendar years or fiscal years ending in 1932,1933, or 1934]
States reporting injuries by sex and—

Number

Industry

Cause

Nature of
injury

Location
of injury

Extent of
disability

Age of
injured
person

Wage

Amount
of com­
pensation
paid

1932
Colo.
Ga.
Idaho.
111.
Ind.
Iowa.
Ky.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
N. J.
N. Y.
Pa.
R. I.
S. Dak.
Wis.

Ga.

Ga.

111.
Ind.

111.
Ind.
Iowa.

Ind.
Iowa.

Mich.

Mich.

Mich.

N. J.

N. J.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ind.

Pa.

Idaho.
111.

Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
N. J.
N. Y.
Pa.

111.
Ind.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
N. J.
N. Y.

111.

Mich.
N. Y.

R. I.

N. Y.
Pa.

1933
Colo.
Ga.
Idaho.
111.
Ind.
Iowa.
Ky.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
N. H.
N. J.
N. Y.
Pa.
R. I.
S. Dak.
Wis.

Ga.

Ga.

111.
Ind.

111.
Ind.
Iowa.

Ind.
Iowa.

Mich.

Mich.

Mich.

N. H.
N. J.

N. H.
N. J.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ind.

Ga.
Idaho.
111.

111.
Ind.

111.

Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.

Pa.

Md.
Mich.
Minn.

Mich.

Mich.

N. J.
N. Y.
Pa.

N. J.
N. Y.

N. Y.

N. Y.
Pa.

R. I.

1934
Colo.
Ga.
Idaho.
111.
Ind.
Iowa.
Ky.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
Mo.
N. H.
N. J.
N. Y.
R. I.
S. Dak.

Ga.

Ga.

111.
Ind.

111.
Ind.
Iowa.

Ind.
Iowa.

Mich.

Mich.

Mich.

N. H.
N. J.

N.H.
N. J.

Ind.

Ga.
Idaho.
111.

■2




111.

Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
Mo.

Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.

Mich.

Mich.

N. J.
N. Y.

N. J.
N. Y.
R. I.

N. Y.

N. Y.

1 Includes unpublished data furnished to the Women’s Bureau.

82951°—3!

111.
Ind.

4

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

In the period 1920 to 1934, 25 States have furnished data on in­
juries classified by sex. New Hampshire did so for the first time in
1933. Data are available for every year in the period only from the
following seven States: Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, and New York.
A number of States have been seriously hampered by slashed appro­
priations for the valuable work of record keeping and publishing. It
cannot be too often or forcibly stated that the only basis for accident
prevention is accurate and readily available knowledge of the impor­
tant facts about accidents—the type and nature of injury occurring,
the industry responsible for its occurrence, the personal characteristics,
that is, age, sex, and marital status, that may affect incidence of in­
dustrial injuries and the severity of injury.
Some advance is shown in comparing reports for the period 1932 to
1934 with those for previous years, but a glance at chart I in the
appendix gives evidence of the continuing need for more reports and
greater completeness. Several highly important woman-employing
States never have classified accident data by sex. Of those not rank­
ing so high in number of employed women, not one could claim to be
free of hazardous conditions especially affecting women, and without
a classification of data by sex the extent of this cannot be known.
Turning to the classifications available by sex for the 19 States re­
porting in one or more of the 3 years under discussion, there are found
four whose report was for number only.3 On the other hand, one
State correlated eight of the nine important subjects by sex for each
of the 3 years.4 The States having correlations by sex with one or
more of these subjects are shown in the list on the preceding page.
It is essential in measuring the efficacy of safety measures to have
a rate of injury frequency based on man-hours of employment. Data
on man-hours never have been available separately for men and women
workers. As a consequence it never has been possible to separate the
factor of varying employment levels as a cause of changing injury
trends. Consideration has been given here to employment trend
information from the decennial census of occupations, and from the
various States in the discussion of changes in number and severity of
injuries occurring.
CHARACTER OF DATA 5
It must be noted that, though the figures for any one State usually
can be compared over a series of years, the data as between the States
are not comparable. This is due to variations in basis of reporting,
as for example, whether or not only compensable cases are reported,
what employments are included, what length of disability is covered,
period of reporting, and other factors. (The limitations of each
State’s tabulations are shown on chart I in the appendix. Careful
perusal of this chart is necessary before any use is made of the following
tables.)
The compensation status of accidents is of greatest importance in
influencing the numbers tabulated. Some States require reports only
of injuries that are compensable, others require reports of all injuries
whether covered by the compensation law or not. Nine States tabu3 Colorado, Kentucky, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.
* Michigan.
* For more detailed discussion of the laws of the various States, see Women’s Bureau buls. 81, 102, and
129.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

5

late only cases which have been paid or are eligible for compensation,
includes medical as well as compensable cases. Seven States
tabulate all injuries reported, regardless of their compensation status
(cases reported and .tabula,table injuries), and one State shows all
claims for compensation. One shows only “fatal and severe” cases of
injury. _ _
The minimum period of disability for which injuries are tabulated
greatly affects the number of cases. Though most accidents result in
slight injuryit is important for prevention that even these be re­
ported, since if the cause is unremedied it may later have a much more
serious result. Two injuries from similar causes may vary greatly in
severity, and emphasis should be placed on the effort to prevent even
the slightest. It is found, however, that eight of the States whose
reports are used have tabulated only injuries resulting in disability of
1 week or more; nine tabulate those with resulting disability of 2 days
or less, three of these showing all injuries without regard to time dis­
abled; two States tabulate cases disabled for more than 3 days.
Where only injuries under the compensation law are reported the
provisions as to employments covered vary from State to State. In
general, casual employees, farm laborers, and household workers are
excluded from compensation laws. Other restrictions important in
affecting the numbers tabulated, as outlined in chart I in the appendix,
include numerical limitations on coverage. In Georgia and Missouri«
employers having fewer than 10 employees are not covered by the
compensation law, in Rhode Island those having fewer than six em­
ployees, in Colorado and New York 7 fewer than four, in New Hampsture fewer than five, and in Kentucky fewer than three. In Idaho
and Georgia charitable institutions are exempt. In Illinois and New
Hampshire only enumerated extra-hazardous employments are
covered.8
A further variation, though a minor one, lies in difference in report­
ing periods. Eight reports cover fiscal years, eight, calendar years.
Three reports are for a biennial period. These have been divided by
2 to give an estimate for 1 year for this study.
While these variations in tabulated material make impossible a
comparison between States of the accident hazards presented to
working women, they do not make the data valueless, since those for
any one State for the years 1927 to 1934 are comparable. Further­
more, analysis of accident data of even so incomplete a group of
women workers suggests points of significance to those interested in
prevention.
SUMMARY
States included.
Data on injuries from the following 19 States are classified for 1 or
more of the years 1932 to 1934: Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan’
Minnesota, _ Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York’
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.
The industrial ranking of .the States is an indication of the signifi­
cance of their accident experience. Among them are the three largest
? tD J)iss™ri employments with fewer employees found to be hazardous also come under the law
ments ar^covered enumerated hazardous” employments, which include principal industrial em'ploy^“eohl/t1!1tatitoSSSdSS'1 tadUStrial employments> but in New Hampshire the list is quite




6

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

woman-employing States,9 and 8 others 10 are among the first 18 States
ranked according to woman employment.11 Details of the findings
follow.
Number of injuries (19 States reporting).
From 1932 to 1933 the number of men injured declined more than the number
of women, and in the year following the number of men injured increased more
than the number of women. This may be due in large part to the general decline
in employment (greater for men than for women) from 1932 to 1933, while employ­
ment increased 1933 to 1934.
Large numbers of women were reported injured in the latest year of reporting
(usually 1934) as follows:
Over 4,000

1,000, under 2,500

500, under 1,000

Kentucky
Georgia
Illinois
Maryland
Wisconsin
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
New Jersey
In the latest year reported (usually 1934) women formed
tions of all persons reported injured:
Massachusetts
Missouri
New York
Pennsylvania

Under 500

Colorado
Idaho
Iowa
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
South Dakota
the following propor­

10 percent or more

8, under 10 percent

5, under 8 percent

Under 5 percent

Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York

Georgia
Minnesota
Missouri
New Jersey

Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Maryland
Michigan
Pennsylvania
South Dakota
Wisconsin

Colorado
Iowa
Kentucky

Severity of injuries (10 States reporting).
As a rule, sufferers from the most serious injuries were men, but during the 3
years 185 women were affected by fatal or permanent total disabilities.
In three important woman-employing States, the following numbers of women
suffered permanent partial disabilities:
New York reported 4,000 women permanently injured during the 3 years.
New Jersey and Illinois each reported about 1,600 women permanently
injured during the 3 years.
The following proportions of the injuries reported in the various States were
temporary disabilities:
Males—64 to 98 percent.
Females—71 to 99 percent.
As to time lost, whether in permanent or temporary disabilities, the States
reporting show no great difference between men and women, but men lost more
time than women in every case but one.
Nature of injuries (four States reporting).
Bruises, contusions, or abrasions constituted the type of injury that ordinarily
affected the greatest numbers of both sexes, from 14 to 38 percent of the injuries
reported being of this nature. Cuts and lacerations ranked first in some cases,
second in others.
Parts of body affected by injuries (two States reporting).
The upper extremities were the parts most frequently affected, whether for
men or for women, but for much larger proportions of women. Next in order
came the lower extremities, which were the parts injured in 20 percent or more
of the cases reported for each sex in each State.
» New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois.
i" Massachusetts, New Jersey, Michigan, Georgia, Missouri, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
u U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930: Population, vol. IV, Occupations, p. 20.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

7

Ages of injured persons (nine States reporting).
The women injured form on the whole a much younger group than the men
afiected, which is not surprising in view of the youth of the woman worker The
proportions of injured under 21 years of age ranged as followsMales—3 to 11 percent.
Females—14 to 30 percent.
The age groups showing the highest proportions of injuries in most States were
as follows:
29S2

19SS

1934

Males

- - 26 to 30
26 to 30
26 to 30
51 and over
Females_________________
.. 16 to 20
16 to 20
21 to 25
21 to 25
Although younger persons had disproportionately large numbers of injuries
the older groups more frequently had severe disabilities. In almost every State
throughout the period studied slightly larger proportions of men and women
over 21 suffered fatal or permanent disabilities.
The chief cause of injuries to men, whether under or over 21 years of age, was
handling objects. Women under 21 were more frequently the victims of machine
accidents; those 21 and over more often were injured by falls.
Marital status and dependents of injured women (one State reporting).
More than half the injured women were single, as the following proportions
snow l
Single------------------------------- 52 to 55 percent.
Married---------------------------- 33 percent.
Widowed and divorced___ 12 to 14 percent.
uok
single I™?*'? had dependents, but about 40 percent of those married
and 25 to 30 percent of the widows had others dependent upon them for suDDort
the average numbers of their dependents being as follows:
’
Of married women2
Of widows---------------------------- 1.6 and 1.7

Industries in which injuries occurred (seven States reporting).
Manufacturing industries accounted for by far the major part of the injuries
reported in most cases, usually for more of those to women than to men. The
proportions of those injured that were engaged in manufacturing in the various
States ranged as follows:
Males----------------27 to 86 percent.
Females------------ 40 to 89 percent.

1

In the States listed below, 15 percent or more of all the injuries reported for
or more ot the years occurred in the particular industries cited:12
Males

Clothing.
Food, beverages, and tobacco____
Leather, rubber, and composition
goods_________________________________
Machinery and vehicles Michigan!.!! "
Metals and metal goodsIllinois
Paper, pulp, and paper goods___ New Hampshire
Textiles-------------------------------------- Georgia
_____
New Hampshire___
11 Manufacturing details were not reported for New Jersey.




Females

Georgia
Indiana
Pennsylvania
Illinois
New Hampshire
Michigan
Georgia
New Hampshire

8

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

Clerical, professional, and personal
Maks
Females
serviceIllinois Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
New Jersey
Pennsylvahia
Care and custody of buildings Michigan
Miscellaneous, including domestic
service Illinois
Construction Georgia
New Jersey
Mining, metallurgy, quarrying_ Illinois
_
Indiana
Pennsylvania
TradeGeorgia Georgia
Michigan Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Pennsylvania
TransportationNew Jersey
Causes of injuries (eight States reporting).
The States listed reported 20 percent or more of total injuries in one or more
years as due to specified cause:
Males

Females

Machinery Michigan

Georgia
New Hampshire__ Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
New Hampshire
New Jersey
Falls of persons
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Michigan
New Hampshire
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Handling objects Georgia
Georgia
Illinois Illinois
New Hampshire__ New Jersey
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Stepping on or striking against objects Indiana
Wages of injured persons (two States reporting) and compensation (four States
reporting).
The wages of the injured women were characteristically below those of the men
affected, and since compensation is based in part on wage, this meant the women
who suffered received less for their injuries. The lowest wages usually were in
1933, and the highest in 1932. In 1934 the proportions of the men and women
injured who had received weekly wages of various amounts in the two States
reporting were as follows:
Weekly wage

Under $10__________ ______________
$10, under $15 14. 3
$40 and over 4. 3

Males

5.3

Michigan
Females
Percent

Males

New York
Females

13.7
45. 4
1. 2

4.1
21. 1
6. 3

15.5
43. 8
1. 1

With two exceptions women’s average compensation was never more than 87
percent of men’s. It was less than 20 percent of men’s for fatal accidents in one
State. The proportions their compensation formed of men’s in 1934 in the States
reporting this type of information are as follows:




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

Extent o) disability

Fatal_______________________
Permanent total_________ '
Permanent partial§6 8
Temporary__________________

Illinois

9

Michigan
New York Pennsylvania13
Percent

69. 8

74. 3

70 8

49.8
69. 0

27.
105.
87.
63.

7
0
0
1

19. 8
“ 64. 4
59. 5

DATA AS TO INJURIES
Proportion women form of all injured persons.
In general, from 1930 on an increasing proportion of the persons
nyured in industry were women. Over 9 percent of all juries
affected women m three States in 1931, in five in 1932, and in seven
nVrent nT u,93-4'- Tl\1933 OTlly two States sported that less than 5
nercent of ti e
Wei‘e womenT an\five reported that over 10
theTlirlpl ■
Were W0IPen- In table 1 are assembled data on
in 1930^0^934 ]UneS occumng to women and to men in 1927 and

r.
™P°r.tant textile States, Rhode Island and New Hampshire
ank highest in proportions of those hurt who were women, and also
high are the important woman-employing States of Massachusetts
melt iSrfnf Georgia- While Pennsylvania industries employ
great numbers of women, the importance there of the heavv man?.roup®’ ste?] and mining, far outweigh other industries in
a consideration of accidents. Of total injuries in Pennsylvania each
ofaJiien?nthaonrohP hTent affect,ed women. Similarly, the predominance
oi mining probably accounts for the small proportion of women
among the injured m Kentucky.
women
_
the- Hummer of injuries to women as well as men generally
was decreasing m this period, those to women continue to be an
pr°nlen? n111?a?y States‘ 0ver 1»°00 women were injured
n 1934 m each of 9 of the 16 States reported and the women who
were hurt in the 16 States combined totaled close to 30,000.
Changes in number of injuries, 1927 to 1934.
Injuries continued into 1933 the decline they began in 1930 but for
most States the trend was upward in 1934. Differentiated by sex the
dedme fr°m 1932 t° 1933 was less for women tlZmmZs oi tie
10 States that showed decreases for both sexes. In three States
neased considerably; in three men’s injuries im
creased though not to so great an extent as in the States showing
increased injury to women.
s
Every State with the exception of New York reported an increase in
the number of injuries to men from 1933 to 1934 In only one State
WaS thf lr,lc;ease as.great for women as men, and in
h Wiu , iere T-as acAua decrease m the number of women’s injuries.
Without question these data on industrial injuries reflect the
employment trend of the period. Employment statistics show that
IT?' ““-employing industries in the
years 1930 to 1933, and when the trend was upward this swing began
in these man-employing industries. Consequently, the great reduction
of men s injuries in the early years and the greater increase in this last
year may be entirely explained on the basis of numbers employed
13 Latest year reported is 1933.
“Includespermanent total cases.




10

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934
Table 1 .—Industrial injuries tabulated by s^J9^7 Jl ldJ913C)0^%l9H’ in
o J

States reporting this information for 1932, 1933, or 1934
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
1930

State
Total

Females

Females

Females

Females

Per­
Per­ Total
Per­ Total
Per- Total
Num­ cent
Num­ cent
Num­ cent
Num- cent
of
ber
of
ber
of
ber
ber
of
total
total
total
total

Colorado..
Georgia—.
Idaho 4-_Illinois 6_.
Indiana...

185
5,751
5 6,067 4 414
181
7,594
53,983 (6)
40,539 1,794

199

4.4

295
2.4 7, 839
(6)
42, 336 2, 408
4.4 31,818 1,815

321
3.8 6,117
5.7 33,167 2, 241
5.7 22,843 1,579

5.2

187
3,856
18,126 1, 650
321
6,116
6.8 25, 462 1,953
6.9 17, 529 1,243

4.8
9.1
5.2
7.7
7.1

Iowa 4________
Kentucky_____
Maryland------Massachusetts..
Michigan--------

497
26,021
835
14, 251
64,167 5,950

315
7,195
287
1.9 20, 758
889
5.8 13,406
9.3 61,741 5,835

4.4 8 5,315! 270
198
1.4 14, 575
6.6 10, 401
696
9.5 50, 006 4,826

269
5.1 8 5, 315
392
1.4 11,741
611
6.7 8,139
9.7 42, 067 4,020
16, 662
923

5.1
3.3
7.5
9.6
5.5

29,825 2,636

8.8 29,825 2, 636

Minnesota4----------Missouri—..............
New Hampshire----New Jersey-----------New York-------------

3.2

5,150

252

6.8

25,865 1,812
98,984 7,399

7.0 27, 583 2,058
7.5 107, 312 9, 579

7.5 23, 208 1,979
8.9 98,424 9,391

8.5 20,198 1,919
9.5 82,433 7,884

9.5
9.6

3.6 144,679 6,256
467
12.7 3,748
6,120
464
4. 0| 20,070
927

4.3 111,458 5,530
354
12.5 2, 794
318
7.6 5. 888
876
16, 943
4.6

5.0 85,099 4,944
12. 7 2,322
311
357
5.4 4,935
906
5.2 16,195

5.8
13.4
7.2
5.6

20, 473

816

Females

1932 to 1933 1933 to 1934

Persons
gain­
Per­
Per­ Total
fully oc­
Total Num­ cent
Num­ cent Males Fe­ Males Fe­ cupied
males in 19303
males
of
ber
of
ber
total
total

Persons in
manufac­
turing and
mechanical
industries
in 1930 3

-3.2 +13.9 +7.2
+9.8 +18.7 -2.0
p>
-3.1 pi
-1.2 +17.3 +8.2
p>
pi
p>

20.1
26.8
13.7
22.5
18.8

7.8
18.8
4. 6
12,1
11.4

Females

Georgia----------Idaho4

181
3,829
19, 077 1,812
311
5, 870
27, 207 1,930
Indiana..............- 710,760 7 801

194
4.7 4,353
9. 6 22, 266 1,776
311
5. 3 5, 870
7.1 31,749 2.
7.4 17,995 1,102

164
e 3,632
541
Kentucky_____ 10, 247
610
Maryland-------- 7, 564
Massachusetts. _ 31, 769 3,432
814
Michigan--------- 13,156

4.5
5.3
8. 1
10. 8
6.2

-31.3 -39.0
-14.5 +38.0
-7.6 -.2
-25.5 -14.6
-21.6 -11.8

r*i
+16.4
+13.4
+9.8
+45.4

(*)
-2.8
-10.2
+19.8
+26.5

17.9
16.2
23.4
29.2
18.7

8.6
12.9
15.5
21.3
7.1

2, 321
4,940
208
1,795
7,452

-19. 6 -11.9

w

pi

20.2
20.5
25.9
24.3
25.6

10.0
14.7
22.3
15.8
16.0

21.6
29.6
15. ]
19.1

15.0
26.3
6.3
11.3

181
New Hampshire 1,560
New Jersey------ 17, 559 1,907
New York------- 74,487 8, 269
Pennsylvania... 85, 642 4,893
309
Rhode' Island-.. 2, 109
251
South Dakota.. 3, 852
860
14,562
Wisconsin.........-

5.7
14. 7
6. 5
5. 9

24,173 2,321

-0.6
+4.8
-4. 1
+7.5

164
o 3,631
526
11, 823
548
8, 435
35, 217 4,111
18,975 1,030

9.6 24,173
51,841
11.6 1,964
10.9 18, 537
11. 1 69, 918

2

Percent of females
among—

Percentage change

1933

Minnesota4-----

4,502

160,743 5,840
506
3,985

Pennsylvania. _
Rhode IslandSouth Dakota.
Wisconsin.........

State

4.9

2,311

320
281

+27.3 +14. c
--­
-14.4 -.6 +7.0 -5.9
-11.2 +4.9 -5.7 -9.9
4- 7 — 1.0
-10.5 -.6 +10.6 +3.C
—fi ll

fo^peTtodcovered^

,
. . .« ,. „„„
available.
FoSteble'fll^elfhowiig compensable cases occurring have been used.

_ t-ons „ 67

Only closed cases were

tabulated by sex in 1927.
.
.
.
! Excludes 203'cases^reported for the 2-year period ending June 30,1932, not classified by sex.
o Excludes 222 cases for the period ending June 30, 1934, not classified by sex.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 193 4

H

So long as the States fail to collect data showing man-hours of
work, the employment variations cannot be eliminated, nor can the
results of safety programs, changes in industrial technique, and other
factors affecting number of injuries actually be evaluated. Data on
man-hours of exposure have been collected in connection with studies
of industrial injuries, but have not been classified by sex. Figures
covering 30 manufacturing industries show a decrease in the frequency
rate (average number of accidents per million man-hours worked)
from 19.55 in 1932 to 19.25 in 1933 and an increase to 20.18 in 1934.15
There is no indication that the frequency rate increased more in almost
exclusively man-employing than in important woman-employing
industries.
Extent of disability.
In the 10 States reporting severity of injury in these 3 years, 185
women lost their lives or were permanently and totally disabled
through their employment. This is a small proportion of total in­
juries, but it is extremely important in itself. If a picture could be
drawn of the disruption of family life caused by the death or perma­
nent and total disability of each woman, many of them homemakers
as well as wage earners, the problem never would seem slight.
In the 3 years, industrial accidents left some permanent disability
to over 4,000 women in New York, to almost 1,600 women in New
Jersey, to over 1,600 in Illinois, and to considerable numbers in other
States. Table 2 shows the extent to which the injuries suffered in 1934
were of temporary character or left more permanent effects.
Table 2.—Extent of disability, by sex, 1934 1
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Percent of injuries that were—
Number of in­
juries

Males
Georgia____ _________
Idaho_______
Illinois - _ _
Maryland_______
Massachusetts ____
Michigan_______
Minnesota_______
Missouri...... .........
New Jersey___ _
New York _ ___
Pennsylvania 6________

Permanent
total

Fatal

State
Fe­
males

2 4, 472
2 395
3 4 5, 669 3 4 311
8 28, 980 6 2,135
7,887
548
31,106
4, 111
17,945
1,030
4 814, 606 4 81,514
46, 901
4,940
16, 742
1,795
62, 466
7, 452
44, 237
2, 490

Males

2.1
.6
2.4
1.0
.7
1.0
1.2
.1
1.2
1.2
1.9

Permanent
partial

Temporary

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
males Males males Males males Males males
0.5
.6
.2

(*)
0.2

«

.1
.4
.3
.1
.3
.3
.2

m
(s)
.i
<s)
.i
.i
m

0. 1
(8)

11.0
4.0
7 30. 9
4.8
2. 5
6.9
7.3
2. 2
30.3
24. 0
8 4. 5

6.6
2.6
7 28.1
3.6
1.9
8.2
4.7
.8
28.6
18.4
8 3. 1

86.9
95.3
66. 5
94.3
96. 7
92. 1
91.5
97. 7
68. 5
74.7
93.6

92.9
96.8
71.7
96.4
98.0
91.5
95.0
99.0
71. 1
81.3
96.6

i Similar tables for 1932 and 1933 are available in Women’s Bureau flies for all these States but Missouri
4 Unly compensable cases.
3 Denied claims omitted.
4 The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
6 Less than one-tenth of 1 percent.
6 Closed compensable cases.
7 Includes disfigurement.
8 Permanent total and permanent partial are combined.
9 For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.
■YTs- Department of Labor.
iyo3, October 1936.
82951°—38---------- 3




Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review.
.

December

12

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 193 4

The wide variation among the States in percentage permanently
injured is accounted for by differences in their compensation practices.
In New Jersey, for example, many injuries are compensated as perma­
nent partial that would in Massachusetts be compensated as tem­
porary. Illinois classified over one-fourth of all injuries to either men
or women as permanent partial, Michigan somewhat over onetwentieth. The summary following shows the average number of
days lost per inj ury in the two States reporting such data. In Michigan
days are those for which compensation is paid; in Illinois they are
days lost from work.

Illinois:1
Permanent partial 2___
Temporary total--------Temporary partial .
Michigan:
Permanent partial---Temporary

1934

1933

1932
State and extent of
disability

Fe­
males

Total

Males

Fe­
males

Total

Males

Fe­
males

Total

Males

62.6
29.9
5.4

63.0
30.2
5.6

57.3
27.1
.3

62.3
30.9

62.6
31. 2

57.2
26.7

57.4
30.3

57.6
30.4

54.3
28.5

276.5
36.4

278.4
36.7

240.8
31.8

337.4
37.2

328.3
37.1

500.2
38.2

337.9
39.6

344.8
40.1

236.5
31.4

i Closed compensable cases.

2 Includes disfigurement.

In Illinois those whose injuries were of permanent partial character
lost on the average roughly 9 to 10 weeks from work, while in Michigan
they were compensated for a loss of from nearly 8 months to con­
siderably over a year. Obviously there is a difference in the use of
the permanent-partial classification in the two States.
There is one instance, Michigan 1934, where a larger percentage of
women’s than men’s injuries were permanent. In most cases the
difference in percentage of men and women in this class was slight.
None of the nine States 16 reporting for each of the 3 years showed
consistent increases or decreases in the proportion of permanent
disabilities to both sexes. However, in 1934, five States reported
increases for both men and women. In these States the increases
show no great difference between the sexes.
The temporary disabilities, most important in point of numbers,
vary greatly in severity. For women in Illinois these resulted in an
average loss of work of roughly a month, in Michigan they averaged
compensation for much the same length of time. In Michigan in
1933 women lost more time than men. In the other years, and m
Illinois in all 3 years, men’s disabilities lasted slightly longer than
women’s.
Table 2 and the summary just discussed are evidence that, except
for the high percentage of fatal cases to men, differences in the seventy
of women’s and men’s injuries are not great, whether measured by
severity of affection or by exjtent of time lost.
Nature of injury.
In this section the tabulated accidents are divided according to
kind of injury suffered. In each of the four States reporting this type
of information, bruises, contusions, or abrasions, or cuts and lacera­
tions, were most prominent in point of numbers for the 3-year period.
i» The States reporting were Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
New Jersey, and New York.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

13

Cuts, bruises, and slight punctures are especially important from the
standpoint of infections. Many of these injuries, slight- in the
beginning, are ignored and become infected, finally resulting in serious,
even permanent, handicaps. More severe injuries such as fractures
and amputations rarely become infected, because proper treatment is
given immediately. The importance of this fact to women is evident
from table 3 and unpublished material, since the States reporting
show that a very much higher percentage of women’s injuries than
men’s become infected.
In table 3 the nature of injuries in 1934 has been summarized to
show the proportions of men’s and women’s injuries in each group. In
all States reporting, bruises, contusions, or abrasions were a more
common type of injury to men than to women. A larger part of
women’s than of men’s accidents resulted in cuts or lacerations in
each State but Pennsylvania, where the difference was insignificant
and where the bruise classification accounted for about a third of the
disabilities suffered by women.
About equal parts of men’s and women’s injuries fell into the most
serious classifications. This was true of amputations and disloca­
tions. However, in each of the 3 years, fractures were a much higher
proportion of the male total than of the female. This was true, too,
of sprains and strains. On the other hand, danger of burns and
scalds and punctured wounds tended to be a greater hazard for
employed women than men.
The predominance of cuts, bruises, and burns among women indi­
cates that the severity of women’s accidents may be successfully com­
bated by measures to enforce the use of first aid for every injury no
matter how slight. Severity of many could be lessened and infections
would practically disappear.
Table 3.—Nature of injury, by sex, 1934 1
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Indiana

2

Iowa 2 3

Michigan

Pennsylvania 4

Nature of injury
Males

Fe­
males

Males

Fe­
males

Males

Fe­
males

Males

Total number reported_______ 16,072

1,028

3,468

164

17,945

1,030

80,749

4,893

.2
6 36. 3
4. 1

6 33.0
5.5

Fe­
males

Percent of total
1.1
Bruise, contusion, or abrasion. _ ___
Burn or scald
Concussion_________________________________ __
Crushing,______________ _______ __________
Cut or laceration _______________
Dislocation_____ ____ __________
Fracture
Infection,
Puncture
Sprain or strain
All other .. _
____
1
2
3
4
B
6
7

25.4
5.7

21.3
6.3

1.3
15.6
.6
10.9
5.5
3.3
18. 1
13.7

1.3
17.7
1.0
6. 1
11. 2
7.2
15.8
12.2

6.3

7.8

22.7
3.7
.3

19.5
4.9

24.4
5.7

24.3
5.5

7 22.0
.9
11. 1
8.3

7 26.8
.6
7.3
18.9

20.1
.8
20.3

23.7
.6
14.7

22.1
.8
10.9

21.1
1.1
8.0

19.3
10.6

17. 1
3.7

3.9
16.6
2. 1

7.7
13.8
2.0

4.9
17.7
2. 1

12.2
15.8
2.5

to

(6)

o

Similar tables for 1932 and 1933 are available in Women’s Bureau files.
Some classifying done by the Women’s Bureau.
Numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.
Less than one-tenth of 1 percent.
Bruise, contusion, or abrasion includes crushing.
Cut or laceration includes puncture.




(5) '

(«)

14

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

Part of body injured.
Two States, Indiana and Pennsylvania, report part of body affected,
and these data also are grouped according to type of injury to the
various members.
Through the 3 years fingers, hands, and arms continued to be the
parts of the body by far the most frequently injured. In each State
and in each year these members were affected in about two-fifths of
the accidents to males and well over one-half those occurring to females.
To all other parts of the body a higher percentage of men’s than of
women’s injuries occurred. The difference was especially marked in
those affecting the head or trunk. New York has found that the
most expensive injuries are those to the head;17 so while in the present
study they constitute less than a tenth of men’s and about a twentieth
of women’s injuries, they deserve particular attention. The summary
following shows the proportions of the accidents that affected the
various parts of the body according to the latest reports of the two
States making such information available.
Indiana, 1934

Pennsylvania, 1933

Part of body injured
Males
i 16,072

Females

Males

i 1,028

80,745

Females
4,893

Percent of total

Trunk

.

_____

_ .

___

______

38. 2
28. 1
19. 5
9.1
5.0

63. 4
20.7
9. 1
3.5
3.3

37.5
29. 1
20. 6
9.3
3.5

52. 7
25.5
13.8
5.4
2.7

i Injuries affecting multiple locations included in Indiana (391 men and 11 women).

Table 4 shows, in order of their importance to women, the nature of
injuries most likely to affect the various parts of the body in Indiana
and Pennsylvania, the two States reporting this information. Only
the latest report year is shown and where variations from this occur
in other years this is indicated in the following text analysis.
Pennsylvania.—Head injuries were chiefly contusions, especially in
the case of women. Over one-fourth of the head injuries to men in
each year and at least one-fifth of those to women were due to cuts and
lacerations. About 5 percent for men, as compared to 3 percent for
w;omen, were fractures. In almost equal proportions of men’s and
women’s cases in each year the disability was the result of burning or
scalding. A very small proportion, slightly higher for women, were
puncture wounds.
Injuries to hands, fingers, and arms are not likely to be so severe, but
they were hurt so frequently that in point of total cost they are of great
importance. That they also may be severe is evidenced by the fact
that over one-eleventh of the men and about one-fourteenth of the
women in this location group suffered fractures. Cuts and lacerations
were the principal type of injury affecting these parts of the body, con­
tusions ranking second for both men and women. The greatest con­
trast between men and women in this location group is in the propor­
17 New York Department of Labor. Cost of Compensation.




Cases Closed in 1932.

Bui. No. 183, p. 17.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

15

tion that were punctures, a type of wound frequently resulting in
infection. More than one-fifth of the women with disabilities of the
hands, fingers, or arms had puncture wounds. About one-fourteenth
of male upper-extremity injuries were of this kind.
Table 4.—Nature and location of injury, by sex—Indiana 1934. and Penn­

sylvania 1933 1
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Location of injury
All injuries
Upper extrem­ Lower extrem­
ities
ities

Nature of injury
Fe­
males

Males

Fe­
males

Males

Fe­
males

Males

216,072 21,028

6,145

652

4,522

213

3,137

Males

Indiana:
Number reported

Trunk

Head

Fe­
Fe­
males Males males

94

1,462

3 36

Percent of total
21. 3
17.7
15.8
11. 2
7.2
6.3
6. 1

21.8
30.4
6.5
10. 7
3. 6
5.0
8.8

16.9
23.9
7. 2
15 3
9.8
6.4
5.1

5.9
15.4
3 3
6. 0
5. 6
19. 7

7.0
34. 3

.6
56.6

2 3
5. 2
7. 5

1.8
10.4

1.1
12.8

8 5
2.2

Pennsylvania:
Number reported_____ . 280,745 2 4,893

30, 261

2,578

23, 532

1, 246

16, 613

673

7,495

262

28.7
1.2
41. 6
.5
11.5

45.6
.6
27. 9
.1
10.4

49.2
35.7

62.2
21.8

.8
5.0

1.5
2.7

Cut or laceration______
Sprain or strain *... _ _
Puncture ____________
Burn or scald
Fracture

25.4
15.6
18.1
5.5
3.3
5.7
10.9

31.9

13^8

41. 5
1.1

Percent of total
Contusion*____________
Cut or laceration____ . _
Sprain or strain
Puncture . _________
Fracture____ _
___

36.3
22. 1
15.9
4.9
10.9

33.0
21. 1
15. 4
12. 2
8.0

30.4
36.9
6. 7
7.0
9. 2

24.9
31.4
6.1
20.3
7.1

47.3
10. 2
16. 1
6.9
15.0

37.7
7.8
32. 1
5. 5
10. 1

1 Similar tables for Indiana, 1932 and 1933, and for Pennsylvania, 1932, are available in Women’s Bureau
flies.
2 Total exoeeds details, as only the more important groups are shown separately.
3 Not distributed, as total less than 50.
4 Includes hernia.
s Includes crushing.

Contusions were the principal type of wound affecting legs and feet.
This type accounted for about half of the men’s injuries in this location
group, only two-fifths of the women’s. Sprains and strains were much
more prominent among women’s than men’s leg and foot disabilities.
However, fractures were more common to men than women.
Trunk injuries to women were principally contusions, to men prin­
cipally sprains and strains. For both men and women a considerable
part, roughly one-tenth, of such disabilities were fractures.
Except for the greater proportion of fractures to men, there is little
difference in distribution of face and neck injuries, which constitute
only a relatively small group. In this class, too, the proportion that
were burns or scalds was greater for men than women, while the pro­
portion that were contusions or sprains was greater for women.
Indiana.—The three classes for which comparisons of men and
women for the 3 years are possible in Indiana are trunk, upper extremi­
ties, and lower extremities. Trunk injuries in Indiana differed from




16

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

those in Pennsylvania in that sprains and strains were of first impor­
tance to women as well as men, and in the latest year reported a greater
percentage of women than men suffered fractures. However, in
Indiana sprains and strains are classified with dislocations, except in
1934.
As in Pennsylvania, cuts and lacerations ranked first, contusions
second, among disabilities of the arms and hands, with one exception.
In an excessive proportion of cases women’s hands and arms were
affected by puncture wounds and infections where reported. The
proportion of men’s cases in which arms and hands were affected by
fractures exceeded those of women considerably.
Reflecting the importance of falls to women (see p. 24) is the fact
that in each year more than one-fourth of their injuries to legs and feet
were sprains or strains—roughly twice the male proportion. Con­
tusions were most important to men, and first or second in importance
to women.
Considering land of injury in Indiana according to the location
affected, these are the high lights:
Over three-fifths of women’s burns and scalds affected their arms, hands, or
fingers, while men’s burns are more distributed and exceed the percentage of
women affected in every other location class with one exception in each year.
For both men and women contusions are likely to affect both upper and lower
extremities.
Cuts and lacerations are almost exclusively a problem of the upper extremities.
From almost two-fifths to somewhat less than one-half, the sprains and strains
of women affected the legs and feet; three-fifths of those of men affected the trunk.
About one-fifth to one-fourth of the women’s sprains and strains affected the trunk.
From about two-fifths to somewhat less than half the fractures sustained by
men affected their lower extremities; over half the fractures sustained by women,
very roughly a third of those of men, affected their upper extremities.
Men were more likely than women to have puncture wounds of the legs or feet;
almost nine-tenths of this type of injury to women affected their hands, arms, or
fingers.
Most commonly for either sex, infections were of the upper extremities.

DATA AS TO INJURED PERSONS
Age of men and women workers.
A marked variation in the ages of injured males and females is seen
in table 5, which gives the age distribution only for 1934. Unpub­
lished material shows that in 1932 and 1933 the difference was even
more striking. It is notable that the effects of injuries fall most
heavily on the younger groups of women. In 1934, women 21 to 25
years old suffered the greatest number of accidents in six of the eight
States reporting in 5-year groups. In two States those most suscept­
ible were the 16-to-20-year group. In another State reporting age in
10-year groups the largest group were women 20 and under 30 years.
In only one State did the largest percentage of men fall in so young a
group as 21 to 25 years. In three States the largest proportion of
men were 26 to 30 years old, in one State 36 to 40, and in three States
51 and over. In Indiana, reporting age in 10-year groups, the largest
proportion of men were 20 and under 30, the same age as that of the
major group of women in this State.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

17

Table 5.—Age of injured, by sex, 1934 1
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]

State and sex

Illinois:2 3
Males.......... ................__
Females
Indiana:5
Males__________ _ _ _
Females___
Maryland:
Males___
__ _____
Females___
Massachusetts:
Males
Females
Michigan:
Males... ___ _______
Minnesota:
Males... ...... ..............
Females--New Jersey:3
Males
Females New York:
Males--.
Females____
Rhode Island:
Females
1
2
3
4
6

Number
with
age re­ Under 16 to
ported
16
20
years years

27, 980
2,025

0.1
<*)

16, 747
1, 085

4.3
16.0

3.3
13.7

Percent whose age was21 to
25
years

26 to
30
years

31 to
35
years

36 to
40
years

41 to
45
years

10. 2
18.9

13.7
14.5

14.3
11.2

14.8
11.6

13.8
9.9

32.5
45.2

27.5
19.8

46 to 51 years
50
and
years over
10.9
8.1

21.0
12.6

17.9
9.8
15.7
8.7

7, 872
547

.4

7.8
20.7

16.1
20.3

16.9
15.0

13.7
9.5

13.3
11.9

10.7
7.5

8.3
8.0

13.2
6.8

31,106
4, 111

.1
.1

7.8
16.9

16.6
19.9

15.3
13.0

11.9
18.4

13.1
9.9

10.6
8.8

8.9
6.3

15.6
6.7

5.2
13.5

15.0
22.3

15.1
19.1

14.4
12.7

15.2
12.2

12.4
7.4

9.2
4.9

13.5
7.8

17, 685
1,012

«

19, 640
2,015

.1
.1

5.8
17.0

17.0
27.2

17.2
17.9

15. 1
9.7

14.0
9.9

10.7
7.0

7.9
4.9

12.1
6.3

15,310
1,619

.1
. 1

7.4
20.6

11.2
17.4

14.7
13.3

14.3
9.1

14.1
11.2

12.3
9.2

10.4
7.0

15.4
12.2

58,483
6,770

.1

6.3
15.4

13.9
20.4

14.8
14.1

14.5
11.7

14.7
11.9

12.0
9.2

9.6
7.9

14.2
9.4

10.0
20.2

16.0
25.6

14.1
14.2

11.0
10.1

11.9
12.0

10. 5
7.6

9.1
5.0

17. 4
5.4

1,913
'317

Similar tables for 1932 and 1933 are available in Women’s Bureau files.
Closed compensable cases.
Age groupings are 21 to 24, 25 to 29, and in 5-year groups.
Less than one-tenth of 1 percent.
Age groupings are under 20, 20 and under 30, and in 10-year groups to 50 and over.

Variations occur in the age trend in industry, and without accurate
knowledge of the number in each age group employed in the plants
reported, it is impossible to give definitely the causes for the high
incidence of accidents to young women. On the average, working
women are younger than employed men, so it is not surprising that
those injured are young. However, it has been found in comparison
with census figures that young girls have more industrial injuries than
proportionate to their number among the gainfully occupied, and
women over 40 have fewer.18 Certain State studies give evidence
that this is true. For example, the Industrial Accident Report of
Rhode Island for April 1937 makes this statement:
Despite the tendency of present personnel agents to put an age limit on appli­
cants for positions, the statistics of the department indicate that the largest
number of injuries occur in the 18-to-25-year age class. The older men may be
slower but are certainly more dependable workers and have a background of
experience which guides their actions in situations where a young and less experi­
enced operator would get hurt.

It is nevertheless true that the age of those injured, both men and
women, appears to have advanced slightly in recent years. This
18 U. S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Industrial Injuries to Women in 1930 and 1931 Com­
pared with Injuries to Men. Bui. 129, p. 32.




18

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

well may be a reflection of the fact that in a time when the labor
market has been crowded, the jobs go to the more mature rather than
the very young workers. In 1930 and 1931 every State reporting in
5-year groupings showed the largest number of injured women to be
in the 16-to-20-year class. In 1932, seven of nine States, and in 1933,
four of nine States, gave the greatest proportion as under 21. In
Illinois those under 21 were 24 percent of all women injured in 1930,
20 percent in 1932, and 16 percent in 1934.
Cases of injury to children under 16 were much fewer in 1934 than
in previous years. There was a marked decline, usually progressive,
in the number of such young persons who suffered. In Maryland, for
example, in 1930, 40 boys and 26 girls, 15 or younger, were included
in the accident report; in 1932 there were nine boys and seven girls
so young, and in 1934 there were only two boys and two girls listed
among the injured. Even more striking is the decrease in Massa­
chusetts from 413 young boys and 85 young girls in 1930 to 43 boys
and 4 girls in 1934. In New York the decrease was from 207 boys
and 60 girls in 1930 to 45 boys and 3 girls in 1934. Table 6 summarizes
these striking changes in the States reporting for 3 or more of the 5
years, 1930 to 1934.
Table 6.—Number

of injuries to persons under 16 years, by sex, 1930 to 19341

[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Girls

Boys
State
1930
Illinois 2____
Maryland,
___ ________________
Massachusetts
Minnesota
New Jersey __
New York
Wisconsin----------------------------------------

1931

1932

1933

1934

1930

1931

1932

1933

69
40
413
(3)
89
207
15
238

45
29
176
44
59
115
6
149

31
9
94
44
44
101
3
(•)

39
3
74
22
24
54
3
(?)

32
2
43
23
14
45

3
26
85
m
32
60
5
34

3
12
35,
1
7
29
2
25

8
7
27
1
11
22
1
13

12
4
13
i
4
7
1
12

m

1934
1
2
4
2
1
3
m

1 Indiana omitted because the age group is under 20 years and Michigan because only 2 persons under 16
were reported injured in the 3 years for which statistics are available.
2 Closed compensable cases.
3 Not reported.

Without question this decline in accidents to children has been
effected through the raising of age limits in industry. From 1933 to
1935 the National Recovery Administration worked toward the
elimination of children under 16 from industry and children 16 to 18
from dangerous or unhealthful occupations.
Age and extent of disability.
Considered by number of injuries, older women appear to be the
best industrial risk. This conclusion might be modified somewhat by
analysis of table 7, which indicates that the more serious injuries are
likely to affect employees 21 years old or over more frequently than
those under 21. However, these differences were slight, especially
in the case of women workers, and in several instances the younger
groups of women suffered greater proportions of severe injuries than
did those over 21. For example, this was true in Illinois, where in




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

19

each year injuries to girls under 21 had permanent effects in a greater
percentage of cases than in the group of injuries to women 21 or older.
In 1933 in Massachusetts and in 1934 in Michigan accidents affecting
young girls had the more serious effects.
There is certainly no evidence in these State reports to prove that
accidents involving older women are more expensive than accidents
involving younger workers. If there is some tendency for older
persons to suffer more severe results from their injuries, this is more
than offset by the lesser frequency of accidents to them. It is also
probable that older, more experienced, workers are more likely than
the young and inexperienced to be placed in the most hazardous types
of work. This may account entirely for the more serious effects to
older persons.
Table 7.—Extent of disability, by sex and age group, 1934 1
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Males

Females

Percent with disability
as specified
State and age group

Num­
ber re­
ported

Percent with disability
as specified

Num­
ber re­
Per­ Per­
Per­ Per­
ma­ Tem­ ported
ma­ Tem­
Fatal ma­ nent po­
Fatal ma­ nent po­
nent
nent
par­ rary
total par­ rary
total tial
tial

Illinois:2
1, 241
26, 704

25.9
31.1

73.0
66.3

1,700

7.7
4. 5

91.8
94.5

115
432

(=)

2.3
2.5

97.4
96.7

700
3,411

1.0
1.0

.1
m

5.9
6.9

93.0
92.1

777
12,322

.8
1.1

.l

5.5
7.4

779
14, 531

.4
1.2

.l

3, 738
21 years and over_____________ 54, 745

.7
1.3

.l
.1

Massachusetts:
Under 21 years________ ______
Michigan:
Under 21 years
Minnesota:
Under 21 years

_____

New Jersey:
Under 20 years
New York:

1.0
2.5

613
7, 259

.5
.9

2,473
28,633

.2
.8

929
16, 756

Maryland:
Under 21 years

0.2

0. 2

72 2
3. 5

96 5

.l

2. 7
1 7

97. 3

137
875

.5

12.4
7. 4

87.6
92 1

93. 7
91. 5

232
1,078

.3

3. 4
4. 8

96.6
94 9

24.4
31.1

75.2
67.6

240
1,379

.4
.2

24. 2
29. 5

75.4
70.3

17.8
24.8

81. 5
73.8

1,047
5,723

.3

14. 3
19.5

80.0

.1

1 Similar tables for 1932 and 1933 are available in Women’s Bureau files.
2 Closed compensable cases.
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 percent.

Age and cause of injury.
The New Jersey report of cause of disability according to age
group brings out some interesting differences in the factors affecting
men’s and women’s accidents. The differences between the two sexes
are striking and have been consistently evident over a period of years.
About three-tenths to almost two-fifths of the injuries of girls under
21, but only one-sixth to one-fifth of those to boys, resulted from the
use of machinery. Similarly, one-sixth to one-fifth of older women’s
injuries, but only approximately one-tenth of those of older men,




20

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN. 1932 TO 1934

were from such cause. The summary following shows the causes of
injuries to the two sexes in New Jersey in 1934 according to age.
Males

Females

Cause of injury
Under 21
years
Number of injuries reported________

_______

21 years
and over

Under 21
years

1,147

14,163

335

21 years
and over
1,284

Percent of total
Machinery__________________ _______ _ . __ __ . _
Falls of persons _________ ______ ______________ ___
Handling of objects _______________________________
Stepping on or striking against objects _ ____________ _
Explosions, electricity, heat, and so forth___________
Falling objects
Vehicles_____ ________ _____________________________

22.0
10.3
36.5
5.4
3.8
2.8
12.1

12.0
19. 1
35.4
4.4
5.3
5.8
9.3

5. 2

5.9

31. 6
17.3
26.6
9.3
3.9
3.3
.9

16. 7
41.1
19.3
6. 5
5.1
2.0
1. 9
6.4

Another striking difference between the sexes is in the class of
causes grouped under handling objects. In each year this cause
affected over one-third of the men, whether under or over 21. Much
smaller percentages of women’s injuries were caused by handling
objects, though this was a more serious problem to young girls than
older women.
Falls are so predominantly a hazard of older women that where
these workers are employed special consideration should be given to
the prevention of conditions that result in falls. Among these may
be named slippery floors, dark stairways, unprotected trap doors,
unsafe step ladders, and other poor housekeeping arrangements.
Boys under 21 had the lowest percentage of injuries from falls. Men
over 21 had a higher proportion from this cause than girls under 21.
It is not surprising that vehicle accidents were a very minor part of
women’s injuries in either age group, since women are not likely to be
employed as drivers. But this cause accounted for about a tenth of
men’s injuries and for a somewhat higher percentage of those to young
boys than of those to older men.
Marital status.
Pennsylvania made a special tabulation of the marital status of
injured women with temporary disabilities in 1932 and 1933. Over
half the women were single, one-third married, the remainder widowed
or divorced. The following summary shows that in a comparison of
these proportions with the distribution of gainfully occupied women
in Pennsylvania, single women suffered a much lower proportion of
injuries than their numbers among the gainfully employed would
indicate.
Women gainfully
Women injured
Marital status

employed, 1980 19

Number reported----------------------------- 800, 582
Single------- -----------------------------------------------Married--------------------------------Widowed and divorced____________________

66. 8
20. 8
12. 4

jggg

2, 626
Percent of total

52. 4
33. 1
14. 4

jg^

2, 317
55. 1
32. 9
12. 0

19 U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930: Population, vol. IV, Occupations, p. 1424. The
comparison is not exact, since census figures for single included those not reporting marital status and minors
15 and under 21, few of whom probably would have been in hazardous occupations.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

21

As in Illinois in 1930, the explanation of the less frequent occurrence
of injuries to employed single women may be found in the occupa­
tional differences of the marital groups.20 For example, while 67
percent of the employed women were single, 84 percent of those in
clerical occupations were single, 80 percent of all telephone operators
were single, 83 percent of all professional workers were single. On
the other hand, just under one-half of the women domestic and
personal service employees were single, as were only two-thirds of
those engaged in manufacturing. Thus it is evident that a large
share of the more attractive and safer occupations are engaged in by
single women.21
Dependents of injured women.
Pennsylvania alone reports on the responsibilities of the women
injured in this period. No comparison with men is possible, but the
following summary shows a picture of the number of people, for the
most part children, who were dependent on the women with tempo­
rary injuries in 1932 and 1933,22 in their capacity not only as home­
makers but as wage earners.
1933

1932
Status as to dependents
Single

Married

Widowed or
divorced

Married

Single

Widowed or
divorced

-.....................

Cases with dependents---------

Number of dependents

379

1, 277

762

278

526

282

1,272

472

196

344
140
155
34
15

97
55
36
5
1

5

290
140
116
34

82
54
24
4

5

No dependents

870

5

686

156

6

570

143

1,377

Total cases.

____

1,372
5

5

About two-fifths of all the married women with temporary injuries
had dependents, while this was true of somewhat more than a fourth
of the widowed and a much smaller part of the single women. Of the
married women who had persons dependent on them, over half were
responsible for the support of two or more and about one-tenth for
four or more persons. Approximately three-fifths to two-thirds of
the widows who had dependents had one dependent cliild; 5 percent
had four or more. The married women who had dependents averaged
two each, the widowed averaged 1.6 to 1.7 each.
INDUSTRIES IN WHICH INJURY OCCURRED

The very great majority of women’s injuries occurred in manufac­
turing in the 3 years under consideration. In the latest year reported,
this proportion was highest in New Hampshire, lowest in Illinois and
Pennsylvania. It is notable also that in most cases there is a con­
siderably higher percentage of the women than the men in manu­
facturing in each year. This probably may be explained in part by
so u. S. Department of Labor. 129, p. 38.
pared with Injuries to Men. Bui.Women’s Bureau- Industrial Injuries to Women in 1930 and 1931 Com­
U. S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census: 1930. Population, vol. IV, Occupations, pp. 1426-1427.
23 The 68 women having permanent injuries in 1932 had 13 dependents, the 78 having permanent injuries in
1933 had 22 dependents.




22

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 19 3 4

the fact that the large numbers of women in household service usually
are not covered by compensation and consequently not included in
reports of injuries. The differences between the percents of men and
women in manufacturing were greatest in Georgia and Pennsylvania
in each of the 3 years; Indiana ranked third in the last 2 years and
New Jersey in 1932. The following summary shows the proportions
of injuries that occurred in manufacturing industries in the various
States reporting in 1934.
Percent in manu­
facturing

Number reported
State
Males
Georgia__________________
Illinois2________ ______
Indiana.. ________
Michigan. _ _____ ____
New Hampshire______________
New Jersey... ___________
Pennsylvania 2__________

20,478
29,612
15,318
17,945
1, 756
16, 742
80, 749

Females

Males

1, 773
2,088
1,047
1, 030
208
1,795
4,893

49.7
41.7
52. 1
62.4
85.6
44.5
30.2

Females
64.9
42.1
64.6
62.3
88.9
46.1
43.9

1 Compensable cases occurring.
2 For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.

While, as has been referred to, the percentage of men reported hurt
in factory occupations was smaller than the percentage of women,
manufacturing was the principal source of injury to men in each State
but Pennsylvania, where mining and related industries outranked all
other classifications. Accidents in mining, metallurgy, and quarrying
also were a large part of the male total in Illinois and Indiana. "
Textile mills were responsible for from well over one-half to threefifths of all injured women in New Hampshire and from three-tenths
to well over one-third of those reported in Georgia. Food plants
ranked first among manufacturing industries in accidents affecting
women in Illinois, clothing factories in Indiana and Pennsylvania,
machinery and vehicle factories in Michigan.
. The following summary shows the industrial distribution of the
injuries affecting women in industries and occupations in which as
many as 5 percent of all the injuries reported in 1934 had occurred
and for which detailed figures are available.
Industry
Number of injuries______

Georgia Illinois1 Indiana
1,773

2,088

1,047

Michi­
gan

New
Jersey

1,030

1,795

Pennsyl­ New
vania 2 Hamp­
shire
4,893

208

Percent of total
Food, beverages and tobacco
Clothing_________________
Textiles.. ____________
Metals and metal goods. _.
Machinery and vehicles. _
Leather, rubber and composition
Trade_________________
Clerical and professional service...
Hotels and restaurants.. .
Care and custody of buildings
Miscellaneous service (including do­
mestic service)__________________
1
2
3
4
3

64 9
6.0
16.0
32.8

42.1
15.5
7.8
7.3

62.3
7.6

46.1

88.9
5 0
15.1
10.0

6.5

60.6

337.0
21.8

4 18 0
« 7.2

6.4

18.9

11.4

6. 9
11.4
30.7

Compensable cases occurring.
For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.
Foundries, machine shops, and automobiles.
Trade and finance.
Professional only.




64.6
11.8
17.1

7.5

8.0

13.5
16.8
12.3

7.2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

23

Accidents in the trade group followed manufacturing in number of
women’s injuries in Georgia, Indiana, and Pennsylvania and unpub­
lished data show that in most States a higher percentage of women’s
than men’s accidents occurred in trade.
The principal number of injuries outside the manufacturing occupa­
tions was in the miscellaneous service group including domestic
service in Illinois, and in hotels and restaurants in New Hampshire.
Almost one-eighth of the injuries to Pennsylvania women were in
hotels and restaurants, and these industries accounted for considerable
proportions of accidents also in Georgia, Indiana, and New Hampshire.
Industry and age of the injured.
In New Jersey, the one State giving data on this subject, the various
industries show striking differences not only between the men and
women but between the age classes of each sex. The following sum­
mary shows these data for 1934, and the situation was similar in the
earlier years.
Males

Females

Industry
Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years
and over
and over
years
years
1,147

14,163

335

1,284

Percent of total
54.0
6. 2
15.3
13. 6
3. 7
3.8
.3
3.1

44.6
5. 9
10. 0
16. 5
12.1
2.1
1. 9
6.9

66. 3
8. 7

42.5

.9
.3

1 6
.2
.4

11.9

31.3

1 Includes clerical and professional.

For women the greatest differences were in manufacturing, which
accounted for two-thirds or more of the injuries to girls under 21 but
for only two-fifths or less of those to older women, and in the service
industries, where the proportion of the older women injured was
approximately twice to four times as high as that of the younger.
For men the most striking variations occurred in construction, where
injuries to older men predominated, and in trade and manufacturing,
where greater percentages of boys were hurt. There were also consis­
tently higher percentages of the older groups of men in transportation
accidents.
The following section on cause of injury further emphasizes the
differences in accident causation for men and women and points
toward the factors where special attention to preventive methods will
decrease the number of accidents affecting women.
CAUSE OF INJURY

Eight States reported on the agency or immediate cause leading to
industrial accident in 2 or more of the 3 years under discussion. In
the three preceding Women’s Bureau studies no more than five States,
and in 1931 and 1932 only four States, had reported cause of injury.



24

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

The following paragraphs analyze data from the eight States reporting
cause of injury.
Falls of persons.
Falls are a major cause of women’s injuries and are shown by these
reports to rank first for at least 2 of the 3 years in five of the eight
States that gave data on this subject; they were responsible for from
about one-fifth to almost two-fifths of all accidents to females in these
States. Although in Georgia falls were of less importance to women
than either machinery or handling objects, they were the cause of onesixth to one-fifth of all women’s accidents. In two States, Iowa and
Michigan, falls were the principal cause of accidents to men as well.
In every State and in each year falls caused a much larger share of
women’s than of men’s disabilities, and in practically every State the
difference was greater than in the case of accidents due to machinery.
The following summary showrs the data for 1934.
Males

Females

State
Number
Georgia.. _ ... . _________________________________
Illinois i_________ _____ ______ _____________________
Iowa___________ __________________________________
Michigan_____________________ ____________ __ _____
New Hampshire
New Jersey _______________________ ____ _______
Pennsylvania 2
1 Compensable cases occurring.

Percent

1,819
4,910
1,401
664
2,919
214
3,113
12,849

Number

Percent

8.9
16.7

334
676

19.0
32.6

19.1
16.3
12.2
18.6
15.9

45
276
48
653
1,638

27.4
26.8
23.1
36.4
33.5

2 For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.

Machinery.
In Georgia, where the textile industry ranked high in number of
women’s accidents, more of these were due to machinery than to any
other cause, and this was the agency responsible for well over a fourth
of all the injuries to women reported in that State in each of the 3
years. . In 1934_, machinery ranked first in causing injuries to women
m Indiana and in New Hampshire. It was responsible for a smaller
proportion of all injuries to women in Iowa than in any other State in
each year. In this class of causes there was great variation between
the proportion of men and of women. In each State except Iowa, the
proportion of women injured by machinery in each year was from one
and a third times to more than twice the proportion of men so
affected. The following summary shows the proportions of the injuries
to men and women that resulted from machinery in 1934.
Males

Females

State
Number
Georgia __________________________________________
Illinois L—______________ __________________________
Indiana
Michigan_____ _____ ______ _____ ___________________
New Jersey_____________________________ _______ ___
Pennsylvania2... _______________________________
1 Compensable cases occurring.




3,088
3, 748
2,053
452
3, 595
411
2, 106
6,980

Percent
15.1
12.8
15.5
13.0
20.0
23. 4
12.6
8.6

Number

Percent

453
381
244
24
329

25.8
18.4
26.3
14.6
31.9

346
917

19.3
18.7

1 For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

25

Corresponding with the upturn in employment and factory pro­
duction in 1934, several States show an extraordinary rise in machine
accidents. In Michigan an increase in the total of women’s injuries
of 26.5 percent from 1933 to 1934 was accompanied by an increase
of 60.5 percent in injuries caused by machines. For men the increase
in total injuries was 45.4 percent, in those due to machines 111.7
percent. New Hampshire reports notable differences in total and
machine-caused accidents. The women’s total increased 14.9 per­
cent from 1933 to 1934 while machine-caused accidents to women
increased 54.1 percent. In the same period the male accident total
increased 27.3 percent, machine injuries to males increased 51.1 per­
cent. It may be that special safety instruction and supervision is
necessary for machine operators after periods of unemployment.
Handling of objects.
Women had much smaller proportions of injuries resulting from
handling objects than men had. Nevertheless, one-fifth to almost
one-fourth of the women reported in Georgia and one-sixth or more in
Illinois, New Hampshire, and New Jersey were hurt by handling
objects. In Michigan and Indiana the percentages exceeded onetenth in every case but one, though in Iowa they were considerably
less.
The heavier nature of men’s work is evident in the high proportion
of their injuries caused by handling objects. Heavy material is likely
to be the principal source of accident from this cause.23 In six of the
eight States reporting in 1933 and in four of the seven reporting in
1932 and 1934 this was the principal cause classification for men.
Each year over one-third of the men reported in New Jersey and
New Hampshire were hurt through the handling of objects. The
lowest proportion of men in this cause group was in Iowa, the only
State reporting fewer than one-tenth each year injured from this
cause.
The summary following shows the distribution of cases from this
class of causes in 1934.
Females

Males
State
Number
Georgia______________________________ _____________
Illinois 1____________________ _________ - ________ __
Indiana_____________________ _____ ________________
Iowa_. ___________________________________________
Michigan............ ............................................................. .........
New Hampshire_____
________________
New Jersey
Pennsylvania 2

5,758
8,107
1,222
292
3,181
605
5,922
21,168

Percent
28.2
27.7
9.2
8.4
17.7
34.5
35.4
26.2

Number
418
364
110
6
140
37
374
871

Percent
23.8
17.6
11.8
3.7
13.6
17.8
20.8
17.8

1 Compensable cases occurring.
2 For 1933, the latest year for which statistics were available.

Stepping on or striking against objects.
There is less variation between the sexes in the proportion of injuries
due to stepping on or striking against objects. Quite consistently
through the 3 years the proportion of women in this group is higher
than that of men in every State but Iowa and Indiana. Indiana
reported a greater proportion of women in 2 of the years, 16 to 30
23 N.Y. Department of Labor. Division of Industrial Hygiene.
Cause and Prevention. Bui. 181, p. 6., 1933.




Handling-Material Accidents; Their

26

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

percent of women’s injuries resulting from this cause. In each year
over a tenth of the women injured in Georgia were in this class.
Hand tools.
Injuries caused by the use of hand tools usually affected smaller
proportions of women than men, and for both sexes in most States
constituted one of the minor causes of accidents. However, in
Georgia the use of hand tools resulted in over 7,000 or more than 13
percent of all male injuries from 1932 to 1934.
Explosions, electricity, heat, and so forth.
Illinois, Indiana, and New Jersey report about 5 to 8 percent of all
women’s injuries, and slightly less of men’s, as resulting from explo­
sions, electricity, heat, or hot substances. The percentages were
much lower in the five other States. The very small proportion due
to this cause in Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Georgia (not over 2 per­
cent in each State) is accounted for by their classification of hot sub­
stances with harmful substances instead of with explosions, electricity,
and heat.
Falling objects.
Women were much less likely than men to be hurt by falling objects.
The States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, and Pennsylvania report 10 to
15 percent of all male cases as resulting from these causes. The fact
that falling objects are a common hazard in the construction and
mining industries accounts for the preponderance of male accidents
from this cause.
Vehicles.
Vehicle injuries, common to men, are of minor importance to women.
Although about a tenth of all the men reported in the important indus­
trial States of Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsyl­
vania were hurt by vehicles, the highest proportion of women so in­
jured, which was in Michigan, was no more than 3 percent of all women
suffering from accidents in any year.
Harmful substances.
Harmful substances were reported as the cause of from
to 5 per­
cent of women’s injuries in Georgia, Michigan, and Pennsylvania in
the 3 years, usually for slightly larger proportions of men. As none of
these States had provided compensation coverage for occupational
disease at that time, only accidental injuries due to harmful substances
are included.
It is injuries from this class of causes that are most likely to be
under-reported, since often they are slow in disabling and difficult of
diagnosis. Where the State compensation law includes occupational
disease, employers and insurance carriers will be informed of the harm­
ful substance exposure and reporting will be more complete.
Cause according to industry.
Unpublished statistics from two States, New Hampshire and Penn­
sylvania, give more specific information about the causes of accidents
by correlating them with the industries in which accidents occurred.
_ Considered according to cause, over one-third of the women injured
in manufacturing in Pennsylvania in 1933 attributed the reason to
machinery, one-fifth to falls. On the other hand, handling objects was




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

27

the cause of injury to three-tenths of the men hurt in manufacturing
pursuits. Injuries due to machinery are second for men, with some­
thing less than one-fifth of the total. A disproportionately high per­
centage of women’s accidents in Pennsylvania in 1933 resulted from
machinery and hand tools. About two-fifths of all injured women
were classed in manufacturing occupations, but over four-fifths of
those injured by machinery and half of those disabled by hand tools
were so employed. Less than one-third of the men who suffered were
in manufacturing, but almost two-thirds of the accidents due to ma­
chinery and over one-half those arising from hot and corrosive sub­
stances were in these occupations.
In trade, the industry reporting the second highest number of acci­
dents to women, falls caused over two-fifths of those accidents and
handling objects about one-fifth. One-third of the men hurt in trade
occupations were injured handling objects, about one-fourth by falls.
In State and municipal service, falls were the cause in over half the
women’s cases. Here again handling objects ranked first in cause of
accidents affecting men.
In the industry group reporting most accidents to men, mining and
quarrying, falling objects caused more than a fourth of all these. Of
the other industries employing men almost exclusively, handling ob­
jects was the chief cause in construction, vehicles in transportation.
The.summary following shows for certain types of work the causes
of the injuries to women in Pennsylvania that occurred in 1933. The
picture for 1932 is very similar and variations from these figures
were slight.
Cause of injury

Number of injuries..........................

All indus­
tries 1
4,893

Manufac­
turing

Trade

State and
municipal
service

2,147
Percent of total

Falls of persons....................................................
Machinery__________ _________
Stepping on or striking against objects _.
Hand tools.. __________ . ...
Harmful substances2____________
Falling objects________________________
Vehicles___________________
Explosives, electricity, heat, etc____
Miscellaneous___________ _____

33.5
18.7
17.8
9.5
6.5
3.5
3.0
2.0
.9
4.6

20.1
35.0
18.4
10.2
7.4
1.7
2.7
3! 0

54.1
19.6
12.0
5.1
1.8
4.5
2.7

6.9

5.1

1 Total exceeds details; not all industries are shown separately.
2 Includes hot substances.

In New Hampshire almost 90 percent of women’s accidents in both
1933 and 1934 occurred in manufacturing, and 20 to 33 percent of these
were caused by falls, an additional 28 to 38 percent by machinery. In
each year handling objects caused almost one-fifth of the accidents to
women in manufacturing. As in Pennsylvania, this cause was of con­
siderably greater importance to men in manufacturing than to women,
and falls were a minor source of injury to men in this industry. In
hotels and restaurants falls caused half of the injuries to women in each
year. Again in this industry the heavier nature of men’s work is
evident in the preponderance of accidents resulting from handling
objects.




28

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

MICHIGAN

NEW YORK
HI

ttti

“«»..

-ftt

titimrow

”

";u

tiiitniti#

m

tffiWMn

IMM

lUliffPfl

Iftitll

$20 AND OVER l933
usss nn mi ft)

ftflf

'•“ft1

ttttl

Plate II.—WEEKLY EARNINGS OF INJURED WOMEN BEFORE

INJURY, 1932, 1933, AND 1934
Each complete figure = 5 percent of women injured




WAGES AND COMPENSATION

Information as to the usual weekly wages of workers receiving com­
pensation is available for two States—Michigan and New York.
Compensation is based in each State on earnings before injury.
These data show the wage differences customarily found between the
two sexes, women’s earnings being by far the lower, and also the dif­
ferences characteristic of the economic period covered in this study.
The wage distribution for men and women for the 3 years is shown in
table 8.
In Michigan in 1932 about 4 percent of the men as compared to
14 percent of the women received wages of less than $10 weekly. In
1933 these had increased to 10 percent for men, about 26 percent for
women. In 1934 they approximated the 1932 percentages. Some­
what smaller percentages of the workers in New York received such
low wages, but the trend is similar through the 3 years. This table
shows further that in each State the decrease in number in the very
low wage class in 1934 is somewhat offset by an increased number in
the next lowest class, $10 and under $15. The number in each State
earning $30 or more weekly continued to decrease through 1934.
Table 8.— Weekly wages at time of injury, by sex—Michigan and New York, 1982,

1933, and 1934
[For sources of information, see chart II in the appendix ]
1932
Weekly wages

Michigan

Males

Number of injuries- 15,693

1933

New York

Michigan

1934

New York

Michigan

New York

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
males Males males Males males Males males Males males Mal&s males
923 72, 599 7,634 12,157

812 64,317 7,977 17,857 1,008 60,781 7, 227

Percent of total
Under $10
$10, under $15________
$15, under $20
$20, under $25_________ _
$25, under $30
$30, under $35___________
$35, under $40________
$40, under $45.......................
$45, under $50____ .
$50, under $55___________
$55, under $60_________ .
$60 and over____________




3.6
8.2
15.8
22.3
14.9
13. 5
10.1
5.2
2.5
1. 7
.7
1.5

14.1
32.1
33.2
9.3
5.1
2.6
1.5
1.3
.2
.1
.1
.5

2.1
8.3
14.3
18.2
17.4
11.7
10.3
4.3
5.1
1.8
1.9
4.6

11.6
33.0
21.3
15.4
8.3
5.3
2.6
.8
.8
.2
.2
.4

10.0
16.2
21.2
20.6
11.9
8.7
6.1
2.3
1.1
.9
.4
.5

25.7
37.2
24.4
6.4
2.7
1.2
.9
.2
.5
.5
.1
.1

5.2
15.9
18.0
18.4
15.0
9.2
8.1
2.7
2.9
.9
1.6
2.1

17.8
37.9
18.3
12.8
7.4
3.3
1.3
.4
.3
.1
.2
.2

5.3
14.3
27.5
22.7
13.3
8.7
4.0
2.0
.9
.7
.2
.5

13.7
45.4
28.2
6.5
3.3
.9
.8
.1
.4
.4
.3

4. 1
21.1
22.3
18. 4
13. 5
8. 0
6.3
2.1
1. 8
.5
.9
1.0

29

15.5
43.8
18. 4
11. 3
6.3
2. 5
1.1
.3
.3
.1
.2
.2

30

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

The compensation laws of New York and Michigan provide that a
worker disabled for more than 7 days will be reimbursed at the rate
of two-thirds of his average weekly wages, in New York up to a max­
imum benefit of $25, in Michigan to a maximum of $18, a week. In
Pennsylvania compensation is 65 percent of wages with a weekly
maximum of $15. In Illinois compensation may be 50 to 65 percent
of wages, depending on a schedule of injuries and number of depend­
ents, and the weekly maximum varies from $15 to $20. In each State
the amount of compensation in fatal cases depends on the number of
dependents involved. This element explains in part the fact that
compensation in- fatal cases of women was very low as compared to
compensation in men’s fatal cases.
Both total and average compensation for men’s and women’s in­
juries in these four States are organized in table 9 according to severity
of the affection. As far as totals are concerned, compensation for
women costs little more than 3 or 4 percent of compensation paid in
any State or year. This is in spite of the fact that women suffered
5 to 11 percent of all injuries in these States.
Correspondingly it appears that the average woman (regardless of
extent of disability) received compensation of from less than two-fifths
to well under three-fifths as much as that received by the average man.
There are two exceptional cases, both applying to those who had suf­
fered the more serious injuries classified as permanent total, one in
Illinois in 1933 and one in New York in 1934, in which women injured
received higher compensation on the average than did men.
Average compensation for all injuries combined decreased from 1932
to 1934 for men in each State but Michigan. For women the decrease
was less, and in Michigan and New York the average for 1934 was
considerably higher than in 1932. The greatest increase in both cases
came from higher compensation in fatal or permanent total cases and
may reflect the increase in the extent to which women wage earners
become responsible for dependents during depression years.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN AND MEN, 1932 TO 1934

31

Table 9.—Total and average amount of compensation paid, 1932 to 1934, by sex and

extent of disability
[For source of information, see chart II in the appendix]
Total amount

Average per injury

Total amount

Average per injury

Females

bility

Males

Percent

Females Males

Females

Males

Males

Amount male
average

Amount

Illinois 1
1932
All classes. 2 $7,090,062 * $278, 738
Fatal.....................
Permanent total.
Permanent partial
...........
Temporary_____

1, 577,960
119,336

Michigan

$267

$133

49.8

14,209 2,808
4, 773

1.184

42.2

883,105
9,000

375
35

69.2
64.8

636, 799
1, 236, 757

23,141
46,969

120

46.7

1,908,786

63, 203

655 23.0
3, 720 100.3

540, 745

4, 419, 537
964,477

210,923
53,561

542
54

1933
All classes. 2 6,577, 812

2 233,254

257

Fatal
Permanent total.
Permanent partial.. _______
Temporary_____

1,669, 214
204, 058

7, 209 2,848
7,440 3, 710

3,813, 804
889, 235

173,415
44, 940

503
51

1934
All classes. 2 7,066, 793

2 271,830

244

7, 931 2,840
4,552

354
34

Fatal
Permanent total.
Permanent partial
Temporary-------

1, 999, 603
218, 518
3, 920,651
925, 766

212,164
51, 735

438
48

355
31

$2,765,661 $78,192

Fatal
5.152,011
Permanent total. 1, 580,405
Permanent partial__________ 12, 236,519
Temporary_____ 7,497, 725

Fatal................. .
4, 292,179
Permanent total. 2, 502,113
Permanent partial . 10,430, 544
Temporary... _
5,935,959

749
84

503
54

67 2
64.3

155

78

50.3

508
57

75. 9
71.3

3,781

127

52.0

3,047,228

97,558

170

95

55.9

1,983

69.8

739,272
16,055

11,880 3. 996
4,014

2,970

74. 3

80.-8
70.8

907,033
1,384,868

366
58

49.8
69.0

$208

$75

36.1

6,015 3,313

752

22 7

30, 774
54, 904

47.6 $10, 940, 379 $212,061
26.1
68.6

3,600-, 730

624
67

80.5 3 2,987,982 3 48, 566 3 1,266
51.5
4,351, 667 157,480
89

350

183

52.3

8, 615,484 183,120

37, 640 5.625
155, 273 18, 398

1,981
12,939

35.2
70.3

2,836,003

757
115

1934
All classes. 20, 732,927 1, 351,156

332

29, 264 5, 553
121,034 19, 208
805,943
394,915

676
103

195

74

37.9

656

19. 8

580
78

76.6 3 2,302, 732 3 58.479 31,164
67.8
3,476, 749 120, 707
84

181

54.5

1,540 27.7
20,172 105.0
588
65

3 714 3 56. 4
57 64.0

3,934 3,305

87.0
63.1

1 Closed compensable cases.
2 Total exceeds details, as cases not reporting extent of disability are included.
3 Includes permanent total cases.




735
84

Pennsylvania i

$169

784, 666
535,835

Fatal . 4,087,124
Permanent total. 1, 671,108
Permanent partial
10,149, 617
Temporary_____ 4,825, 078

40 6

669
80

1,517
12,178

1933
All classes. 23,160,795 1,513,414

48.3

18, 786
44,417

$355

775
130

$85
1,616

442,809
925,232

22, 750 5,815
85, 249 17, 757
786, 666
440, 042

$176

8, 082 3,978
9,000

70.6
60.8

New York
1932
All classes. $26,466, 660 $1,334,707

cent
of
male
average

3 750 3 64.4
50 59.5

32

APPENDIX

[Source: State laws and reports]
—----------------------------- r

State

Period covered by
figures tabulated

Injuries tabulated

Minimum period of
disability of injuries
tabulated.

Employments covered 1 by accidept-reporting law (marked *)
or compensation law (where only injuries under compensa­
tion law are tabulated)
Private

Colorado...... ............

Years ended Nov.
30, 1927, 1930 to
1934.

Compensation claims. More than 10 days___

Georgia_____ ______

1927, 1932 to 1934,.

Cases reported 6

Idaho___________

Illinois_______ ____




2-year periods
ended Oct. 31,
1928, 1930, 1932,
and 1934.

Closed compensable
cases.

1927, 1930 to 1934.. ____ do.3...........................

More than 7 days or
requiring medical
treatment.

Public

All except those having regularly less
than 4 employees, farm and ranch
labor, private domestic service, and
casual employees not in the usual
course of employer’s business.
Voluntary as to excepted employments.
All except those whose employment is
not in the usual course of employer’s
business, employees of intrastate
common carriers operated by steam,
farm laborers, domestic servants,
and employees of institutions main­
tained as public charities. Volun­
tary as to excepted employments
and for those employed by employ­
ers having regularly less than 10 em­
ployees in the same business within
the State.

All except elective offi­
cials, National
Guard, and members
of volunteer fire de­
partments.

More than 1 week____ All except agricultural pursuits, do­
mestic service, outworkers, casual
employment, crews of aircraft while
under way, employment not carried
on by the employer for pecuniary
gain, and charitable institutions.
Voluntary as to excepted employments.
“Extra-hazardous” employments as
enumerated.1 Elective as to other
private employments including
those not in usual course of employ­
er’s business. Does not apply to

All...........................

Elective or compulsory
compensation law
(where only injuries
under law are tabu­
lated)
Election presumed in
absence of written
notice.2 Compulsory
as to
public employees.
Do.3

INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN , 193 2 TO 19 34

Chart I.—Injuries tabulated, minimum period of disability, and employments covered by law, in the 19 States that reported the sex of injured
persons in one or more of the years 1932, 1933, and 1934

to
H
HH
£
>t"1
^

Cl
S
ft
V*
^
o
o

g

M
tel

>
St
o

g
fej
!zi

All except judges of
election, clerks of
election, and jurors.

Compulsory.

^
<©
CO

to
H
O

All except officials and
duly appointed
members of fire de­
partments in cities
of 200,000 or more,

Do.

co
4^

Iowa.

Kentucky.

Years ended Sept.
30, 1927, 1930 to
1932, and June
30,1933 and 1934.
2-year periods
ended June 30,
1930, 1932, and
1934.
Years ended June
30, 1927 1930 to
1934.

*A11 except mines subject to inspection * All except elective offi­
cials.
by State mine inspector.®
All except those having less than 3 em­
ployees, agriculture, and domestic
service. Threshing and hulling
grains and seeds are within the act.
Voluntary as to excepted employ­
ments.

Maryland.

Years ended Oct.
31, 1927, 1930 to
1934.

Compensation claims
allowed.

More than 3 days-----

‘‘Extra-hazardous" employments as
enumerated 4 Casual employees,
cutters of cordwood or firewood,1
farm labor, domestic service, coun­
try blacksmiths, wheelwrights, or
similar rural employments excepted.
Voluntary as to works not extrahazardous and excepted employ­
ments.

Massachusetts.

Years ended June
30, 1927, 1930 to
1934.
1932 to 1934........... .

Tabulatable injuries 8. 1 day or 1 shift_____

♦All except those whose employment
is not in usual course of employer's
business.
All...............................................................

Michigan

Minnesota.

2-year periods end­
ed June 30, 1932
and 1934.

See footnotes at end of table.

of day,
turn11

shift,

or

All including commercial threshing
and baling, except steam railroads,
domestic servants, farm laborers, or
casual employees not in usual course
of employer’s business. Voluntary
for farm labor.

Election in writing "by
employer and em­
ployee.2

All except
officers.

Election in writing by
employer,8 and pre­
sumed in absence of
written notice by
employee. Compul­
sory as to public
employments.
Election presumed in
absence of written
notice.2 Compulsory
as to public employ­
ments.

elective

All except officials and
employees of high­
way department.

Compulsory.

33




Compensable cases— More than 1 week----

All municipal corpo­
rations and all de­
partments of State
government having
3 or more employees.
Voluntary as to
others.
All workmen employ­
ed for wages and en­
gaged in extra-haz­
ardous employ­
ments, including
the State police force
and guards of penal
institutions.
Vol­
untary as to other
employments.
♦All_______ _________

INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN , 1 9 3 2 TO 1 9 3 4

Indiana.

and totally blind
members of fire patrols (of any
board of underwriters) or to any
persons.
totally blind person.
♦All...........................-................................. ♦All.................................

I.—Injuries tabulated, minimum period of disability, and employments covered by law, in the 19 States that reported the sex of injured
persons in one or more of the years 1932, 1933, and 1934—Continued

Injuries tabulated

Minimum period of
disability of injuries
tabulated

Employments covered 1 by accident-reporting law (marked *)
or compensation law (where only injuries under compensa­
tion law are tabulated)
Private

Missouri

1934

Compensable and
medical cases 12

New Hampshire___

Years ended June
30,1933 and 1934

Fatal and
cases.13

New Jersey.

1927, 1930 to 1934.. Closed compensable
cases.10

New York,

Year ended June ____ do.10..........................
30, 1927; calen­
dar years 1930
to 1934.




severe

All except farm labor, domestic ser­
vants, casual employees or those in
employments not incidental to oper­
ation of employer's usual business,
employees working in their own
homes or on premises not controlled
by employer, employments by em­
ployers having 10 or less regular
employees unless the occupations
have been determined to be hazard­
ous, and employees receiving over
$3,000 a year.. Elective as to ex­
cepted employees. Elective as to
occupational disease.
Not reported................. Workmen engaged in manual or me­
chanical labor in certain hazardous
employments described. Employ­
ments are: Railroads; work with or
near machinery if 5 or more persons
are engaged in manual or mechanical
labor in the place of employment;
work with electricity; work with or
near explosives; work in or about
quarries, mines, or foundries.
At least 7 days
All except casual employees_____ ____
None______ _____ ___

More than 7 days........

All enumerated “hazardous" employ­
ments,4 and all others having 4 or
more workmen. Farm labor and
domestic service excluded. Volun­
tary as to other employments.

Public

Elective or compulsory
compensation 1 a w
(where only injuries
under law are tabu­
lated)

All excepted from law
unless they elect by
law or ordinance to
come under it.

Election presumed in
absence of written
notice.3

Not included------------

Election in writing by
employer.3

All except elective
officials, those re­
tired on pensions.

Election presumed in
absence of written
notice.14 Compul­
sory as to public
employments.
All employees........... .. Compulsory.

INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN, 1 9 3 2 TO 1 9 3 4

Period covered by
figures tabulated

34

Chart

Closed 'compensable
cases.

South Dakota

Years ended June
30, 1930 to 1934.

Cases reported 6

Wisconsin

1927, 1930 to 1933.. Closed compensable
cases.13

*A11_
_
At least 1 week.............. All except those having" less than 6 All employees of State,
employees, farm labor, domestic
cities and towns,
service, casual employees not in
except fire and police
usual course of employer’s business,
departments.
and employees receiving over $3,000
a year. Voluntary as to excepted
employments.
None
All except farm and domestic service All except officials
and employees not in usual course
of employer’s business. Compul­
sory for operation, for profit, of
threshing machines, grain combines,
corn shellers, corn huskers, shred­
ders, silage cutters, and seed hullers,
including traction engines used
therewith. Voluntary as to except­
ed employments.
More than 3 days
All except those usually employing ____ do______ ________
less than 3 employees, domestic
service, farmer s or farm labor, and
employees not in usual course of
employer’s business. Voluntary as
to excepted employments.

Election in writing by
employer,2 and pre­
sumed in absence of
written notice by
employee. Compul­
sory as to State em­
ployees.
Election presumed in
absence of written
notice.2 Compulsory
as to public em­
ployees.

Compulsory.1

1 Only change in features of laws given in this chart is as follows: 1933. Maryland—Cutters of cordwood or firewood excepted by session law 1933, ch. 354, sec. 3, effective June
1, 1933.
2 Inducement to election is offered by abrogation of common-law defenses where employer rejects the law.
3 Also reports compensable cases occurring in 1930 to 1934. Type of injury tabulated is indicated, for this State, on each table in this report. Includes occupational diseases in
certain occupations.
* The principal industrial employments are included.
8 Reports of accidents to workers in mines are not received by the bureau of labor. All industrial accidents are reported, however, to the compensation commissioner.
6 Only employers subject to compensation act are required to report.
7 Includes injury from gas or smoke in mines or from any gas.
8 Occupational diseases included by court decision.
® Common-law defenses abrogated where employer rejects law except in actions by household domestic servants or farm laborers.
10 Designated occupational diseases included.
11 “Nondisabling cases,” presumably with no time lost but with medical and hospital costs reported, are included in the tabulation.
12 Occupational diseases included if employer so elects.
Includes occupational diseases.
14 Common-law defenses abrogated regardless of acceptance or rejection of act.
15 Common-law defenses abrogated for employers covered by compulsory features of law. Employers of fewer than 3 persons lose defense of assumed risk if they do not elect law.

35




INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN , 1 9 3 2 TO 1 9 3 4

1927, 1930 to 1933_.
Years ended Sept.
30, 1927, 1930 to
1934.

Rhode Island............

36

Chart II.—Page references in State reports classifying accident statistics by sex, 1932 to 1934, used in tables 1 to 9 1 2

Source
1
Biennial report of Industrial Commission,
period ended Nov. 30,1934. (Thirteenth
report.) 3
Biennial reports of Industrial Accident
Board, periods ended Oct 31:

Illinois

Mimeographed Industrial Accident Re­
ports of Department of Labor for cal­
endar years:
1932___________ ____ _____
1933________________
1934
Annual reports of Industrial Board, years
ended:
Sept. 30, 1932
June 30. 1934 _______________ ____
Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor,
periods ended June 30:

1934 (twenty-sixth report)
Kentucky........ ............ Annual reports of Workmen’s Compensa­
tion Board, years ended June 30:
1932 (sixteenth report)____________
Maryland




2

4

5

6

Series B,
table 2.

3

Series B,
table 2.
Series B,
table 2.
Series B,
table 2.

7

8

9

Facing 24..

87..............
77 ..
77

Series A,
table 1.
Series A,
table 4.
Series A,
table 4.

Series B,
table 1.

12, 54
698,711
13 to 19

29 to 41_
_

9,12
8,12______

Series B,
table 2.

8,12_____

29.......... .
29_______
1934 (eighteenth report)
29____
Annual reports of Industrial Accident
Commission, years ended Oct. 31:
1932 (eighteenth report) _. _____ ____ 23,24.........
23,24_____
23,24
23,24_____
Annual reports of Department of Indus­
trial Accidents, years ended June 30:
34, 35_____
34, 35_____
34, 35_____1___________
1934 (twenty-second report)___ ____ 1 34, 35

29 to 41....

42,43_____

23, 24

23............. .
23 .
23______
23,24_____

34, 35

34________
34______
34
34, 35_____

Series B,
table 1.
Series B,
table 1.
Series B,
table 1.

INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN , 1 9 3 2 TO 1 9 3 4

Page references for table—
State

Eighth Annual Report of Workmen’s
Compensation Commission for 1934.
Biennial report Bureau of Labor (twen­
tieth report) for periods ended June 30:
1033»
___
___ _
1934 2_._
________
Mimeographed Industrial Accident Re­
ports of Department of Labor for calen­
dar years:
1932._
________________
1933________
__
1934._ ___________
Special bulletin of Department of Labor,
No. 183, Cost of Compensation, Cases
Closed, 1932.
Special bulletin of Department of Labor,
No. 191, Cost of Compensation, Three
Years—1933,1934, and 1935:
1933
_____
1934_________
Reports of Commissioner of Labor for
years ended Sept. 30:

Annual reports of Industrial Commission­
er, years ended June 30:

117_______
240
240_______
12,13
11 to 13....

240

17________
19_______

9________
8___
10___
25. _ .

30_______
30

8________
7________
10________ 9_________ 10_______
62_______

10.__

60, 61

131, 132....
137_______
139,140.... 133, 134....
139, 140.... 139

30___

19______
10_______
8________

19________
10_______
8, 9______

10_______
4_______
4________

1 For years preceding 1932, see Women’s Bureau Bulletins 102 and 129.
2 Data for Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin and New Hampshire data for women are from unpublished tables.
* Contains also data for 1932 and 1933.

O

37




117_______
240_______

INDUSTRIAL IN JU R IE S TO WOMEN AND M EN , 1 9 3 2 TO 1 9 3 4

Biennial reports of Department of Labor
and Industry contain biennial reports of
Industrial Commission (sixth and sev­
enth reports) periods ended June 30: