View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

/./J. 3 !

STATE COLLEGE LIBRARY

Industrial Injuries
To Women

United States Department of Labor
Women’s Bureau Bulletin No. 212







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

United States Department op Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, March 21,19If7.
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the occur­
rence of injuries to women in manufacturing and in nonmanufactur­
ing industries. This report is based on data obtained from employ­
ers by the Industrial Hazards Division of the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics. The material was analyzed and the report written by Jennie
Mohr of the Research Division of the Women’s Bureau.
Respectfully submitted.
Frieda S. Miller, Director.
Hon. L. B. SoHWELLENBACII,
Secretary of Labor.
Sir:

CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal______________________________
Introduction_________________________________
Manufacturing industries________________________ ~ ~
Employment of women______ ________________ ~
Number of injuries____________ _______________
Injury frequency rates________________________
Injuries to production and nonproduction workers
Kinds of disability____________________________
Nonmanufacturing industries________________ ~ ' " ” ' "
Employment of women________________________
Number of injuries________________________
Injury frequency rates_______________________ "
Kinds of disability____________________________
Summary and conclusions_________________________

III

1

3
3
4
8
9

10
12
12
12

14
15
16

TABLES

I.Distribution of employment by sex in 9,154 manufacturing establish­
ments, classified by industry group, for one quarter of 1945
II. Distribution of employment and injuries by sex in 9,154 manufac­
turing establishments, classified by industry, for one quarter of
1945___________..______________________________________
III. Fatal and permanently disabling injuries to women in 9,154manufacturing establishments, classified by industry, for one quarter of
1945___________________________________________
IV. Distribution of employment and injuries by sex in 10,665 nonmanu­
facturing establishments, classified by industry, 1945........................




in

4
5
11

13

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN
INTRODUCTION

The development of adequate safety programs in industry and the
control of accidents to workers require a firm basis of factual in­
formation. Extensive reports on the occurrence of industrial inju­
ries have provided much of this information on which to build such
programs. Injury frequency rates in various industries have been
determined on the basis of a large body of data concerning the num­
bers of injuries and the extent to which workers are exposed to haz­
ards. Systematic reporting of injuries has permitted the study of
trends and fluctuations in industrial injury experience.
Relatively little statistical information has been available, however,
on injuries to women workers, although a few studies have been made
in recent years which report separately industrial injuries occurring
to women and to men. Two reports on the subject were published
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during 1945.' A summary of rele­
vant findings in various studies is presented in Dr. Baetjer’s book,
Women in Industry, published in 1946.1 Workmen’s Compensation
2
reports in 18 States give some information on reported or compensated
claims by sex. Generally such reports give only the number of claims,
although in a few States more detailed figures for men and women
separately are given by industry, age of worker, type and cause of
injury, or other factors.
The present study has been undertaken to discover the extent of
injury to women in various industries and to obtain comparison, on
as broad a basis as possible, of the experience of men and women.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly collects and publishes in­
jury information from a representative group of manufacturing
firms, although such data are not secured for men and women sep­
arately. At the request of the Women’s Bureau and the Industrial
Division of the Children’s Bureau (now Child Labor and Youth
Employment Branch of the Division of Labor Standards) the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics asked the group of manufacturing firms
which periodically give information on injuries to report this in­
formation by sex and age (minors and adults) for one quarter of the
year 1945.3 Soon afterward information on injuries by sex and age
was also asked by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a group of
nonmanufacturing firms for the year 1945 as a whole.
1U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Industrial Injuries to Women
Workers, by Mas D. Kossoris. Monthly Labor Review 60 : 311-315, February 1945. Work
Injuries to Women in Shipyards, by Max D. Kossoris. Monthly Labor Review 60 : 551-560
March 1945.
“Baetjer, Anna M. Women in Industry, Their Health and Efficiency. W. B. Saunders
Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1946. Chs. S and 9.
3 In the iron and steel, electrical equipment, and machinery (except electrical) industry
groups, some firms gave information for one quarter and some for another. For purposes of
this study the records of the two quarters were combined for each of these industries.




1

2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

Each reporting firm was asked to give information for the period
covered on the number and type of injuries to men and to women,
and to adults and minors. Manufacturing firms were asked also for
separate reports on production and nonproduction workers.
This report presents first a summary of the quarterly reports from
the manufacturing firms and second a summary of the annual reports
of the nonmanufacturing firms. Injuries to adults and minors are bemg analyzed by the Child Labor and Youth Employment Branch
of the Division of Labor Standards.
The report is based on the replies from 20,000 establishments which
were willing to give injury data separately for men and women work­
ers. I he numbers of reporting firms are, however, only parts of the
total samples of establishments included in Bureau of Labor Statistics
reports and may not necessarily be as representative of the country
as the total Bureau of Labor Statistics groups. Differences in fre­
quency rates for all workers in manufacturing industries as reported
here and as published in the Bureau of Labor Statistics quarterly re­
ports occur because not all of the firms scheduled responded with data
by sex and because some closely related industries have been combined
m the following pages.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

3

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Over 9,000 manufacturing establishments reported injuries4 by sex
during one quarter of 1945. Ninety-two percent of those reporting
employed women. The total number of workers in all the establish­
ments was 2 843,588, of whom 836,753, or 29 percent, were women.
Included in the report are large woman-employing industries, such as
textiles, apparel, electrical equipment, leather, and food products, as
well as those m which women are a small proportion of the workers_
tor example, lumber, foundries and the manufacturing of iron and
eteel products, and heavy machinery. Even in these latter industries,
however, women are found in considerable force, despite the fact that
they are a small percentage of the workers. More than 116,000 women
were employed by the reporting firms in the iron and steel industries—
over 26,000 in the manufacture of basic iron and steel and nearly 14,000
m foundries and forgings.
Four major industry groups accounted for over half the women re­
ported : iron and steel, textiles, electrical equipment, and machinery
(except electrical). In iron and steel they were predominantly in the
manufacture of fabricated metal products and stamped and pressed
metal products. Almost 80 percent of the women in textiles were in
the manufacture of textiles and cotton yarn, and about 15 percent
were m knit goods. The third largest group, women in the electrical
equipment industries, were engaged principally in the making of
industrial electrical equipment, radios and phonographs, and com­
munication and signaling equipment. Nearly half of the 92,000 women
m machine manufacturing were employed on various types of indus­
trial machinery.
Total numbers of workers in the 18 major industry groups repre­
sented m the reports are given in table I. Table II presents the em­
ployment figures for men and women in 63 industry classifications
within these groups.
Employment of both men and women was largely concentrated in
production tasks. Of the women employed in these firms, 76.5 percent
were production workers. The proportion ranged from over 90 per­
cent m the manufacture of clothing, boots and shoes, textiles and cot­
ton yarns, and pottery to approximately 40 percent in the manufac­
ture of paints and varnishes, motor vehicles, and tanks
Ao classification by occupation is available, other than the break­
down between production and nonproduction workers. For this
reason, exposure to hazards is not known except in general terms
relating to the character of the industry and of the production
processes it involves.
^
The data on injuries presented in the following section are primardy in terms of all men or women in particular industries. For
Printed separately fofproTurtionwm-kirst ffsi^theS data

s?



—"e®, i

&=

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

4

were not statistically significant for all the industries or groups of
industries considered, major emphasis has been put on the comparison
of data regardless of the proportion of production to nonproduction
workers.
TABLE I.—Distribution of Employment by Sex in 9,154 Manufacturing Establishments,
Classified by Industry Group, for One Quarter of 1945
Number of workers
Industry group
Total

Men

Women

2,843,588

836,753

2,006,835

104,247
110,407
258, 929
87, 310
39, 948
646, 283
57,896
34,926
466,190
51,988
70,409
135,187
4,759
83,480
43,080
235, 361
348, 365
64,823

Total------------ ---------------------- ------- ------- --------------

78,553
33, 589
109, 423
31, 724
8, 223
116,186
28,798
3,977
92,197
13,781
15, 488
35,002
1,821
28, 384
14,125
111,830
85.649
28,003

25,694
76,818
149, 506
55,586
31, 725
530,097
29,098
30, 949
373,993
38,207
54,921
100,185
2, 938
55,096
28,955
123, 531
262, 716
36,820

l

Differences in the proportion of production to nonproduction
workers in an industry make important differences in the proportion
of workers in each of the various types of occupations; and the degree
of hazardousness of the men’s versus the women’s occupations effects
differences in the proportion of injuries to men and the proportion to
women. Since, however, the data on injury experience of men and
women are not available by occupation, no comparisons of accident
experience of men and women on the same job, under similar condi­
tions of work, are possible.
The report does show what has been the injury experience of women
in selected manufacturing industries as a whole and how the ex­
perience of women in these industries compares with the experience
of men. In other words the facts show how hazardous is an industry
to women, on their jobs, as compared with its hazardousness to men
on theirs, and how great is the danger in one industry for its women
workers compared to the danger in other industries for the women
they employ.
NUMBER OF INJURIES

The 836,753 women employed in the reporting firms received 4,072
injuries out of the total of 27,063. These figures show that the women,
who were 29 percent of the total number of workers, received but 15
percent of the injuries. Approximately 1 woman in 205 was injured
during the quarter of the year covered by reports, whereas 1 man in
85 had been injured. The fact that women were thus injured less than
men undoubtedly results in large measure from the fact that women
are largely on less heavy or hazardous jobs than the men. The num­
ber of injuries in each industry classification is shown in table II.




TABLE II—Distribution of Employment and Injuries by Sex in 9,154 Manufacturing Establishments, Classified by Industry, for One Quarter of 1945
737424

1

Employment *

Industry

n

Number
of
estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing




Number of injuries
to—

Number of women

Total

to
Apparel:
Clothing and accessories_______ _____
Trimmings and fabricated textile prod­
ucts, not elsewhere classified......... ......
Chemicals:
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides............
Paints, varnishes, and colors
Synthetic textile’fibers.............................
Other........................ ..................................
Electrical equipment:
Electrical equipment for industrial use. Radios and phonographs, communica­
tion and signaling equipment...............
Batteries______ ___________ ________
Insulated wire and cable................... .......
Other..................... .................................
Food:
Baking and confectionery___________
Canning and preserving
Slaughtering and meat packing
Other........................ .................................
Furniture and lumber products:
Furniture, wood........... .............................
Wooden containers........................... ......
Other................. ....................................
Iron and steel:
Fabricated structural steel and orna­
mental metal work
Fabricated metal products...................._I
Forgings and foundries_____ _________
Heating equipment and plumbers' sup­
plies........................................................
Iron and steel......................................””

Injuries

ProNonducprotion
dueTotal
worktion
workers
ers

ProNonducpro­
tion duction
work- workers
ers

68,940

63,944

4,996

17,833

14,758

3,075

75

9,613

8,533

1,080

7,861

6,735

1,126

150

72
48
291

13,353
2,278
6,300
11,658

9,600
950
5,112
6,191

3,753
1,328
1,188
5,467

10,493
7,483
10, 798
48, 044

7,304
5, 790
8,986
38,981

3,189
1,693
1,812
9,063

228
119
131
558

239

59, 299

42,974

16, 325

96,664

74,394

22,270

695

153
18
19
50

35, 718
3,213
2,923
8,270

28,246
2,848
2,361
6,688

7, 472
365
562
1,582

33,113
3,443
7,068
9,218

22,594
2, 943
6,033
6, 948

10,519
500
1,035
2,270

227
74
93
87

32
36
377
89

6,342
3,976
10,931
10,475

5, 603
3,401
8,894
8, 435

739
575
2,037
2,040

7,762
3,952
29,188
14,684

6, 717
3,125
24, 598
12,692

1,045
827
4, 590
1, 992

64
245
138

2,763
3,089
2,371

2,074
2,631
1,827

689
458
544

7, 912
13, 913
9,900

6,980
12, 932
8,985

212

412
564

3,196
31,105
13,663

1,838
23,835
8,042

1,358 25,614 22, 246
7, 270 77,385 68,267
5,621 120,716 109,486

67
140

4,489
26,285

223

Worn-

148

Men

Total

Wornen

Percent

Percent
injuries
to wom-

workers
Total

707

10

Injury frequency rates
for—

all
injuries

Men

3

75

4.7

4.0

56

94

14.4

10.0

19.7

55.0

37.3

80
7
53
44

148
112
78
514

16.1
20.2
13.6
15.2

10.2
5.3
15.1
6.3

23.4
24.5
12.8
17.3

56.0
23. 3
36. 8
19.5

35.1
5.9
40.5
7.9

192

503

7.8

5.7

9.1

38.0

27.6

81
24
11
27

146
50
82
60

6.0
17.9
15.5
8.7

4.1
11.9
6.3
5.7

8.1
23.7
18.3
11.5

51. 9
48.3
29. 3
47.3

35.7
32.4
11.8
31.0

148
130
842
240

40
29
165
53

108
101
677
187

17.1
26.7
35.5
15.5

10.4
11.9
25.9
8.3

22.5
41.5
39.0
20.5

45.0
50.2
27.2
41.6

27.0
22.3
19.6
22.1

932
981
915

174
315
153

35
36
19

139
279
134

28.4
31.1
20.9

22.8
19.9
13.7

30.3
33.5
22.6

25.9
18.2
19.3'

20.1
11.4
12.4

3,368
9,118
11,230

462
1,269
2,856

12
201
119

450
1,068
2, 737

25.8
18.4
34.6

6.4
10.5
14.6

28.1
21.4
36.8

11.1
28.7
10.2

2.6
15.8
4.2

2,874
1,615 18, 448 16,343
2,105
18,635 1 7,650 190,588 172,501 1 18,087

256
1,395

30
111

226
1,284

17.7
10.3

10.9
6.9

19.3
10.8

19. 6
12.1 1

e
d
cn
H
a
hH
d
3
Sh
Cl
»
M
m
CO

11.7
8.0

7.7

79.4

66.4

o
3
o
K

Cl
I
* »
M
O
o

r
r
N

IP
W

r

?

m
*<

ZJi

TABLE II.—Distribution of Employment and Injuries by Sex in 9,154 Manufacturing Establishments, Classified by Industry, for One Quarter
of 1945—Continued
Injuries

Employment

Industry

Other_________ ___________________
Leather:
Other_________________ __________ Lumber: Sawmills, planing mills, plywood
mills, and veneer mills._
Machinery, except electrical:
Construction and mining machinery---Commercial and household machinery..
General industrial machinery.................
Special industrial machinery...................
Other........................................................
Nonferrous metals:
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware.
Other... .................................................
Ordnance:
Tanks and tank components (military) _.
Other................. ........................ ........... .
Paper:
Paper boxes arid other products
Printing: Printing, book and job...................




Total

70

2,436

Number of women

NonPro­
duc­
proTotal
duction
work­
tion
workers
ers

2,102

334

3,628

Pro­
Nonduc­
pro­
tion duction Total
work­ work­
ers
ers

3,290

Injury frequency rates
for—

Number of injuries
to—

Number of men

338

84

Wom­
en

18

Men

Total

Wom­
en

Percent
Percent injuries
women to wornare of all en are of
all
workers
injuries

Men

66

23.2

12.7

29.9

40.2

21.4

11.5
21.5
14.7
11.0

34.1
22.1
22.9
24.6

15.4
37.4
27. 6
23.5

5.5
36.0
12.1
50.0
15.8

136
198
126
94

4,261
15,443
8,472
6,836

2,497
13,005
6, 759
5,475

1,764
2,438
1,713
1,361

23,377
25,890
22,180
22, 271

20,119
22,652
19,400
20, 277

3,258
3,238
2,780
1,994

541
564
396
389

30
203
76
47

511
361
320
342

30.8
21.9
20.7
21.4

240
39

26,164
2,634

23,852
2,334

2,312
300

23,051
6,047

21,037
5,644

2,014
403

270
139

135
22

135
117

9.7
26.1

9.1
14.5

10.3
30.8

53.2
30.3

425

3,977

3,016

961

30,949

28, 243

2,706

708

60

648

34.4

26.0

35.5

11.4

8.5

38,887 31, 269
41, 362 35,105
29,489 22,941
31,036 24, 938
183,478 154,919
20,184 16,851
29,557 22, 448

7,618
6,257
6,548
6,098
28,559
3, 333
7,109

509
602
335
265
2,245
287
340

52
26
38
17
197
16
46

457
576
297
248
2,048
271
294

17.3
19.7
13.5
12.5
16.1
18.8
14. 5

10.5
5. 7
6.0
4.9
7.5
6.0
7.4

18.7
22. 2
16.1
13.9
18.0
21.5
17.0

17.0
15. 7
26.5
16.5
19.5
18. 2
26.8

10.2
4. 3
11. 3
6.4
8.8
5. 6
13.5

45
98
47
42
853
91
184

7,969
7,678
10, 647
6,132
44,442
4, 500
10,829

4,844
3,717
6,447
2,680
24,471
2, 521
7, 307

3,125
3,961
4,200
3,452
19,971
1,979
3, 522

15
313

3,222
10, 559

2, 712
7,812

510
2,747

3, 510
34, 697

3,022
30, 514

488
4,183

34
539

15
66

19
473

8.7
20.2

8.1
10.5

9.3
23.2

47.9
23.3

44.1
12.2

76
17
14
29

10, 463
2,175
993
1,857

7,953
1,335
398
795

2,510
840
595
1,062

26,451
12,559
6, 366
9, 545

22, 632
10,935
4,794
7, 459

3,819
1,624
1,572
2,086

347
141
60
85

47
6
2
2

300
135
58
83

16.2
17.5
12.6
13.4

7.6
5.0
(o
2.0

19.6
19.7
14.0
15.6

28.3
14.8
13.5
16.3

13.5
4. 3
3.3

316
336
25

19,558
15,444
1,821

14,998
13,100
1,387

4, 560
2, 344
434

81, 735
18, 450
2, 938

73,107
16,121
2, 445

8,628
2, 329
493

1,425
392
27

104
88
6

1,321
304
21

22.9
19.4
9.6

9.0
9.8
5. 6

26.2
27.2
12.1

19.3
45.6
38. 3

7.3
22.4
22.2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

Iron and steel—Continued
Metal coating, engraving, and vitreous
enamel products_______________ _
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop prod-

Number
of
estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing

Ci

* Less than 1 million hours of exposure.




23

9,071

6,472

2,599

25, 734

21,794

3,940

255

22

233

11.8

3.9

14.5

26.1

8.6

79

19, 313

16, 024

3,289

29, 362

25,070

4,292

372

82

290

12.5

7.0

16.0

39.7

22.0

25
26
65

5, 933
2,680
5, 512

4,976
2, 526
4,240

957
154
1,272

12, 505
3, 675
12, 775

11,106
3, 326
11,017

1,399
349
1,758

167
73
226

26
16
19

141
57
207

15.6
20.8
20.3

7.6
11.0
5.7

19.4
27.7
26.5

32.2
42.2
30.1

15.6
21.9
8.4

325
43
65
25

88, 543
4, 534
15, 732
3,021

83,368
3, 537
14, 034
2,677

5,175
997
1,698
344

99, 390
14,148
5, 701
4,292

92,144
12, 899
4,667
3, 749

7, 246
1,249
1,034
543

1,418
153
91
62

475
18
48
25

943
135
43
37

12.9
14.0
7.5
14.2

9.2
6.9
5.4
14.0

16.2
16.2
13.2
14.4

47.1
24.3
73.4
41.3

33.5

18
133
75
55
35

31,920
26, 973
11,487
10, 560
4,709

20,294
19,110
4,482
6,794
2,803

11,626
7, 863
7,005
3, 766
1,906

61,141
78,167
52, 962
37, 779
32,667

38,087
59, 722
37,728
31, 839
27, 914

23,054
18,445
15, 234
5, 940
4, 753

315
643
509
522
324

89
125
24
90
33

226
518
485
432
291

5.5
10.2
13.2
17.5
14.2

4.5
7.8
3.6
13.8
11.7

6.1
11.1
15.3
18.6
14.5

34.3
25.7
17.8
21.8
12.6

84

11,964

8, 354

3,610

17, 382

13, 262

4,120

109

23

86

6.3

3.3

8.5

40.8

21.1

201

16,039

13, 254

2,785

19,438

16,377

3,061

275

65

210

13.0

6.9

17.9

45.2

23.6

11.8

52.7
40.3
28.3
19.4
4.7
17.2
10.2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

Rubber:
Tires and tubes......... ......... .....................
Rubber boots and shoes, and other rub­
ber products.................................. ........
Stone, clay, and glass:
Glass___ __________________ _______
Pottery and related products.......... ........
Other
Textiles:
Textiles and cotton yams
Dyeing and finishing
Knit goods.................................................
Other____________ ________ _
Transportation equipment:
Aircraft___
Aircraft parts__________ ______
Motor vehicles
Motor vehicles parts
Railroad equipment________ ________
Miscellaneous manufacturing:
Scientific instruments and supplies,
optical and related products
Miscellaneous manufacturing, not else­
where classified

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

8

The comparison of women’s and men’s injury experience is shown
in the last two columns of table II, which give for each industry the
proportion of workers who are women and the proportion of injuries
that occur to women. A few industries show an unusually close re­
lationship between the proportion of women and proportion of injuries
received by women. In the manufacture of stamped and pressed
metal products, women’s injuries and women’s employment were in
almost the same proportion—36 and 37 percent, respectively. In the
boot and shoe industry 53 percent of the workers were women,
and 50 percent of the injuries were women’s. Similar figures for the
manufacture of watches, jewelry, etc., were 48 and 44 percent; and for
synthetic textile fibers, in which women had a higher injury frequency
rate than men, the percentages of women’s employment and women s
injuries were 37 and 40, respectively.
.
.
On the other hand, women experienced a disproportionately low
percentage of the injuries in the tire and tube industry, comprising
more than one-fourth of the workers they received less than one-tenth
of the injuries. Similarly, in the manufacture of general industrial
machinery women were reported to be about 20 percent of the workers
and to have received less than 9 percent of the injuries; in paper and
pulp, 19 percent of the workers, receiving 7 percent of the injuries;
and in paints, varnishes, and colors, 23 percent of the workers, with
6 percent of the injuries in the industry.
.
.
The similarities and differences between the injury experience of
men and women indicated above point up sharply the desirability of
obtaining information on the occupations of the workers, by sex,
in reporting firms. It would then be possible to determine the way in
which the injury rates are related to the specific occupations of men
and women.
,
The injury experience of women not only differed trom that ot
men in the same industries; it varied among the women themselves
from industry to industry. A comparison of the employment of
women in the major industry groups with the occurrence of injuries
to women in those groups shows a few outstanding differences be­
tween the proportion of all women employed by an industry and the
proportion of all injuries sustained by those women. Women m iron
and steel were 14 percent of all the women workers reported, but, they
suffered 21 percent of all the injuries to women. The food industries,
with slightly less than 4 percent of all the women, reported 7 percent
of all their injuries. Slaughtering and meat packing, as might be
expected, accounted for well over half of the injuries to women m
the food industries. The apparel industry, on the other hand, showed
5 percent of all the women’s injuries among the women in this group,
who were somewhat more than 9 percent of all women; and the
women in the electrical equipment industries, 13 percent of the total,
experienced only 8 percent of the injuries to women.
INJURY FREQUENCY RATES

The injury frequency rates, defined as the number of injuries
received per million employee-hours worked, are shown in table II
for the reporting firms in each of 63 industries. Each rate given
is based on over one million hours of exposure. The following para­
graphs give the range of injury frequency rates derived for women




9

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

and a comparison with, men’s rates. They indicate the industries
in which injury frequency was approximately the same for the two
sexes, and those in which men’s rate of injury was considerably higher
than women’s.
_
The injury frequency rates for women range from 2.0 in the manu­
facture of various ordnance materials (sighting and fire-control equip­
ment, small arms, and ordnance and accessories not elsewhere classi­
fied) to 25.9 in slaughtering and meat packing and 26.0 in lumber
mills (sawmills, planing mills, plywood mills, and veneer mills).
Roughly these frequency rates correspond to the numbers of women
injured for every 500 women employed throughout a year. Over
half (36) of the frequency rates were under 10. Only 4 were over
20: in addition to the two mentioned above, a frequency rate of 21.5
was found in the manufacture of stamped and pressed metal products,
and 22.8 in the manufacture of wooden furniture.
Among the men, on the other hand, only 6 frequency rates under 10
occurred; and 27 were over 20. Maximum rates of 41.5 and 39.0
were found in canning and preserving and in slaughtering and meat
packing, respectively. Forgings and foundries showed a rate of 36.8
and lumber mills a rate of 35.5. The minimum frequency rates for
men are found in the following industries:
Clothing and accessories—:----------------------------------------------------- 7. 7
Electrical equipment for industrial use--------------------------------------9.1
Radios and allied products-------------------------------------------------------8.1
Watches, clocks, jewelry and silverware— -------------------------------9. 3
Aircraft!1—------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6-1

Scientific instruments, etc8.5

It is obvious that the injury experience of men is more serious
throughout the manufacturing industries than that of women. In
only one industry, the manufacture of synthetic textile fibers, was
the rate for women higher than that for men: 15.1 as compared with
12.8. In four other industries, the injury rates for women and men
are closely comparable. They are:
Women

Stamped and pressed metal products------------------------- 21.5
Boots and shoes 9.1
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware-------------------- 8.1
Textile goods, “other”----------------------------------------------- 14.0

Men

22.1
10.3
9.3 .
14. 4

Of the 10 industries with the highest injury frequency rates for
women, 6 were also among the 10 highest for men. These 6 are slaugh­
tering and meat packing, wood furniture, wooden containers, forg­
ings and foundries, leather and leather products other than boots
and shoes, and lumber. For the rest, there is great diversity in the
relative positions of the various industries on the frequency-rate scale
for men and for women. Such diversity is at least in part reflection
of the differences in exposure to hazards due to the differences in
occupation or working environment of men and women.
INJURIES TO PRODUCTION AND NONPRODUCTION WORKERS

As already noted, most of the workers, both men and women, were
in production jobs. As would be expected injuries were more com­
mon among production workers than nonproduction workers. Of the
total of 2,843,588 workers, 2,331,199 or 82 percent were in produc­




10

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

tion. Of the 836,753 women, the percentage of production workers
was 76; and 1,691,201, or 84 percent of the 2,006,835 men workers,
were on production jobs. In most of the industries, over 95 percent
of the injuries, among both men and women, occurred to production
workers.
A number of industries report between 85 and 100 percent of their
injuries to women occurring in production, although much
smaller proportions of the women in these industries are production
workers. In the motor vehicle industry, for example, 61 percent
of the women are in nonproduction occupations; but all of the injur­
ies reported were in production. Forgings and foundries report 41
percent of the women workers, and 4 percent of the injuries to women,
in nonproduction. General industrial machinery, special industrial
machinery, and construction and mining machinery all show com­
parable figures indicating a much higher than average rate of injuries
in production as compared with nonproduction; their figures are 55,
56, and 48 percent of the women in production, respectively, with
93, 100, and 88 percent of the injuries, respectively, occurring in this
category.
The textile and apparel industries, on the other hand, showed the
proportions of workers and injuries in production to be somewhat
more nearly alike than the average. For the former, 99 percent of the
injuries to women and 93 percent of the women workers were reported
in production. The apparel industry reported the only instance in
which the ratio of production to nonproduction workers was slightly
higher than the ratio of production to nonproduction injuries: 92
percent of the women workers, who were in production, received 90
percent of the injuries to women.
Whether such deviations from the average distribution of injuries
among production and nonproduction workers are characteristic of
the industries cannot be determined by a comparison of data for pro­
duction and nonproduction workers, as in several instances the num­
ber of workers involved in each group is too small for statistical
analysis.
KINDS OF DISABILITY

For both men and women over 95 percent of the injuries resulted in
temporary disabilities. Among the 4,072 injuries to women, 6 were
fatalities, 0.2 percent of all women’s injuries. There were also 184
permanent disabilities, 4.5 percent of all women’s injuries. Compara­
ble figures for men are 85 fatalities and 884 permanent disabilities,
which are 0.4 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively, of the total number
of injuries.
Of the 6 fatalities to women, 2 occurred in the apparel industry, 2
in iron and steel industries, and 1 each in the electrical equipment and
textile groups. The manufacture of stamped and pressed metal prod­
ucts, with the high injury frequency of 21.5 for women, had 1 of
the 2 iron and steel fatalities; the other occurred in the making of
basic iron and steel, where the frequency rate for women, 6.9, was
relatively low. The fatality in the electrical industry occurred in the
manufacture of radios and phonographs, and that in textiles in the
knit goods industry.




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

H

TABLE III.—Fatal and Permanently Disabling Injuries to Women in 9,154 Manufactur­
ing Establishments, Classified by Industry, for One Quarter of 1945
Number of injuries
Industry 1
Fatal
Clothing and accessories............
Drugs, toiletries and insecti­
cides___ _________________
Synthetic textile fibers___ ____
Chemicals, “other”__________
Electrical equipment for indus­
trial use...................................
Radio and phonographs, com­
munication and signaling
equipment................................
Batteries.................................. .
Baking and confectionery.........
Canning and preserving______
Slaughtering and meatpacking
Food industries, “other”...........
Furniture, wood.................. ......
W ooden containers____ _____.
Fabricated metal products........
Forgings and foundries_______
Heating equipment and plumb­
ers’ supplies............................
Iron and steel.........................
Metal coating, engraving, and
vitreous enamel products___
Stamped and pressed metal
products...................................
Wire and wire products .............

Perma­
nently
disabling

Number of injuries
Industry'
Fatal

Perma­
nently
disabling

Iron and steel, “other”...............
Boots and shoes_____________
Lumber (sawmills, etc.)______
Agricultural machines, and
tractors________________
Construction and mining ma­
chinery........ ........... ................
Commercial and household
machinery____ ___________
General industrial machinery...
Machinery, “other”_________
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and
silverware........ ............ .........
Nonferrous metals, “other”___
Paper and pulp............. .............
Paper boxes and other products.
Rubber boots and shoes, and
other rubber products______
Textiles and cotton yarns.........
Knit goods_________________
Textiles, “other”____________
Miscellaneous manufacturing,
not elsewhere classified_____
Aircraft parts____ __________
Motor vehicle parts__________
Ammunition_______________
Stone, clay, and glass, “other”..

1
3
2

14

1

1 Only industries for which fatal or permanently disabling injuries were reported are shown here.

Table III gives the distribution by industry of the fatal and per­
manently disabling injuries to women. Although for the entire group
these more serious injuries constitute less than 5 percent of all injuries,
their frequency varies considerably from one industry to another.
High on the list is the manufacture of ammunition, with 14 perma­
nent disabilities out of 47 injuries, or nearly BO percent. Stamped
and pressed metal products also showed a high percentage of serious
injuries, 16 percent of the total 203 injuries being fatal or permanently
disabling. Other industries showing more than 10 percent of women’s
injuries as fatalities or permanent disabilities are:
- ,
industry

Percent of injuries fatal or
permanently disabling

Batteries12
Wooden containers14
Metal coating, engraving, and vitreous enamel products11
Iron and steel, “other”11
Agricultural machinery, tractors13
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware13

All of the 6 fatalities and all but 3 of the 184 permanent disabilities
occurred among production workers. The 3 permanent injuries to
nonproduction workers were found in the manufacture of agricultural
machines and tractors, structural clay products (in “other” stone, clay,
and glass), and wooden containers.




12

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

NONMANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

Records of industrial injuries by sex of worker have been obtained
for the entire year 1945 from 10,665 establishments in nonmanufac­
turing industries. Of these, 3,019 were in wholesale trade, 6,145 in
retail trade, and 1,501 in other nonmanufacturing industries. They
employed about 445,000 workers, of whom 52 percent were in retail
trade, 20 percent in wholesale trade, and 28 percent in other nonmanu­
facturing industries. Table IV gives details of the distribution of
workers in the 29 industry classifications listed. It also indicates, in
showing the number of reporting plants for each industry, that on
the average the firms are small. Mail order houses and electric light
and power companies are the largest, with average numbers of about
700 and 500 persons per firm, respectively.
As in the case of the manufacturing industries, the data here
presented for nonmanufacturing cover only the responding firms, and
cannot be taken as necessarily representative of nonmanufacturing
industries throughout the country.
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

In the nonmanufacturing firms covered by this survey, women num­
ber 195,172 and constitute 44 percent of all employees reported—a
considerably larger proportion than is found in the manufacturing
industries. In retail trade about half of the workers are women.
The wholesale trade firms, on the other hand, report that only 28
percent of their workers are women. (For individual industries see
table IV.)
Women predominate in variety and limited-price stores and in
mail-order houses, where they are over 80 percent of the workers.
Other retail trade industries in which women comprise more than half
the workers are apparel, department and general merchandise, and
drug stores. Approximately two-thirds of the workers in cleaning
and dyeing and in laundries, and slightly over half those in hotels,
are women. In the various wholesales trades, women are from onefifth to two-fifths of the employees.
The following sections will discuss the number of injuries to women,
the injury frequency rates, and the types of disability suffered.
NUMBER OF INJURIES

During 1945 the number of injuries reported by the nonmanufac­
turing firms covered in this survey was 12,095, of which 2,621 occurred
to women and 9,474 to men. Thus women, constituting 44 percent of
all workers reported, received only 22 percent of all the injuries. In
retail trade, they were 49 percent of the workers and had 23 percent
of the injuries; in wholesale trade, comprising 28 percent of the
workers, they suffered only 9 percent of the injuries. The difference
is least in the other nonmanufacturing industries, where women, 45
percent of the workers, received 30 percent of the injuries.
In proportion to the number of women employed, the records for
injuries to women were highest in drug and chain food stores among
the retail trades, and in hotels among the other industries. Women
working in drug stores comprised only 6 percent of all the women in




TABLE IV.—Distribution of Employment and Injuries by Sex in 10,665 Nonmanufacturing Establishments, Classified by industry, 1945
Injuries

Employment
Industry

Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores—Chain.. _
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores—IndependFuel and ice dealers..............................................
Lumber and building materials, not metal------Variety, limited-price stores............ .................. .
Other.................... ........................ ................... - Chemical, drugs and related products. -------- -Dry goods and apparel___________ _____ _
Farm products and supplies..............................
Groceries and food specialities___... --------- ..
Industrial and household building material,
equipment, and supplies .
Paper and paper products...................... ............
Other___ ____________ _________________ Other nonmanufacturing industries:
Cleaning and dyeing......... .............. ......... ..........
Banks and brokerage_________ ____________
Electric light and power
Manufactured gas production and distribution..
Natural gas distribution......................................




Number of injuries to—
Total

of women

of men

Total

Women

Injury frequency rate for—

Men

Total

Women

Men

Percent
injuries
women
are of ail to women
are of all
injuries

836
1,077
550
414
352
117
52

36,452
20,128
7,203
67,252
11,120
12,340
13, 966

23,169
2,113
1,697
49,893
6,461
2,017
4,765

13.283
18,015
5, 506
17, 359
4,659
10, 323
9,201

233
798
172
938
373
796
684

136
14
9
533
247
22
212

97
784
163
405
126
774
472

3.2
17.4
11.0
7.0
15.5
26.9
24.5

3.0
3.3
2.6
5.4
17.8
4.9
22.5

3.6
18.8
13.4
11.4
12.3
30.8
25.6

63.6
10.5
23.6
74.2
58.1
16.4
34.1

58.4
1.8
5.2
56.8
66.3
2.8
31.0

445
391
510
424
5
63
909

6,340
9,306
11,318
7, 330
3,605
5,100
19, 565

2,207
1,029
3,556
828
2,891
4,248
8,484

4,133
8,277
7,762
6, 502
714
852
11,081

232
762
231
399
31
161
346

57
0
20
3
14
101
72

175
762
211
396
17
60
274

18.3
38.6
9.1
25.7
4. 5
18.1
9.1

13.7
0
2.6
1.8
2. 5
13.7
4.6

20.5
43.1
12.0
28.6
12.5
38.9
12.4

34.8
11.1
31.4
11.3
80.2
83.3
43.4

24.5
0
8.7
.7
45.1
62.7
20.8

191
143
362
363
623

5, 578
5, 575
8, 111
12,932
16, 902

1,461
2.187
2,994
3, 592
3,517

4,117
3,388
5,117
9,340
13,385

156
81
57
573
752

16
28
11
50
39

140
53
46
523
713

12.2
7.2
3.6
25.2
20.5

4.9
6.4
1.9
11.4
5.6

14.,7
7.7
4.6
28.5
24.0

26.2
39.3
37.0
27.8
20.8

10.3
34.6
19.3
8.7
5.2

644
174
519

21,144
5,058
12,866

6,150
1,648
3,620

14,994
3,410
9,246

545
114
600

46
7
51

499
107
549

12.1
10.8
21.7

3.6
2.1
6.8

15.5
14.8
27.1

29.1
32.6
28.1

8.4
6.1
8.5

244
178
648
319
39
42
31

20, 912
6,166
56,817
7, 988
18,956
4,025
10,827

14,089
4,013
29,495
2,874
3,333
855
1,986

0,823
2,153
27,322
5,114
15,623
3,170
8,841

365
94
1, 602
29
473
212
286

172
45
674
11
18
5
8

193
49
928
18
455
207
278

8.2
7.1
12.9
1.8
11.6
23.7
12.3

5.7
5.3
10.5
2.0
2.5
2.8
1.9

13.4
10.4
15.3
1.7
13.6
28.9
14.6

67.4
65.1
51.9
35.9
17.6
21.3
18.3

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

Building and household supplies and equipment.
Department and general merchandise stores-----

of estab­
lishments
reporting

47.1
47.9
42.1
37.9
3.8
2.4
2.8

00

14

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

retail trade, but received 17 percent of the injuries in this group; in
chain food stores, the figures are respectively 4 and 15 percent. In
contrast, the apparel shops employed one-fifth of all the women in
retail trade, but experienced less than one-tenth of the injuries to
women in retail trade. Hotels employed 52 percent of all women in
nonmanufacturing industries, other than trade, which are covered
by this report, and they received 72 percent of all the injuries to
women in this group. For a comparison between injuries to men and
those to women, the last two columns of table IV give for each industry
the percentage of workers who are women and the percentage of
injuries that occur to women.
INJURY FREQUENCY RATES

Most of the women employed in nonmanufacturing industries are
engaged in sales or clerical and other office work. The relatively nonhazardous nature of such work, as compared for instance with certain
manufacturing processes, is reflected in the low injury frequency
rates for women in most of the nonmanufacturing industries (table
IV). Twenty-three of the twenty-nine industries show injury fre­
quency rates of less than 10 for women, and of the 23,17 show rates of
less than 5.
The records show marked differences in injury frequency rates in
certain of the retail trades. The rate for women in chain food stores,
22.5, is considerably higher than their rate in independent food stores,
13.7. This difference, to a somewhat smaller degree, is shown also
for men in these two industries. Variety and limited price stores also
have a relatively high rate for women/ Drug stores, with a rate of
17.8 for women and 12.3 for men, report the only instance in this group
of a higher injury rate for women than for men.
The variation in injury rates throughout the retail trades probably
indicates a wide range of conditions of work, for both women and
men. For the former, drug stores, variety stores, and food stores—
especially chain stores—offer the greatest risks. For the latter, fuel
and ice dealers, variety stores, and dairy products firms show the
highest rates. The wide differences between men’s and women’s rates
in the fuel and ice industry and in dairy products probably reflect
the fact that men are employed on delivery and other types of rela­
tively hazardous work which women do not do.
Wholesale trades show a somewhat lower range of injury rates for
women than do the retail trades; the average for the wholesale trades
of 5.1 compares with 6.5 for the retail trades. The handling of farm
products and supplies produced the top rate for women in this group,
11.4, which nevertheless was less than half that for men in the same
industry.
In the industries outside of trade, banking and brokerage show a
slightly higher injury rate for women than for men, 2.0 as compared
with 1.7, though the difference is probably not of significance. Here
the occupations of the two sexes are comparable, as far as exposure
to hazards is concerned. If anything, the more extensive employment
of women than men on bookkeeping, addressograph, and other types
of office machinery might expose women to a greater extent to certain




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

15

types of hazards. In contrast, great disparity in injury rates is
shown in the production and distribution of manufactured gas, in
which the rate for men is 10 times as high as the rate for women.
Injury frequency rates for nonmanufacturing as a whole, and for
each of the three nonmanufacturing groups, as indicated by these
reporting firms, are:
Nonmanufacturing total____

Total
13.0

Women
6.7

Men
17.6

Wholesale trade_________________
Retail trade_____________________
Other nonmanufacturing industries.

15.8
12.9
11.3

5.1
6.5
7.7

19.6
18.6
14.2

KINDS OF DISABILITY

. Two women were killed and eight permanently disabled by in­
juries reported in nonmanufacturing establishments. Both fatali­
ties occurred in hotels. One permanent disability was suffered in
each of the following eight industries:
Retail trade..

Wholesale trade_________________
Other nonmanufacturing industries.

Bakeries and caterers.
Department stores.
Apparel.
Drug stores.
Automotive dealers.
Power laundries.
Electric light and power.
Hotels.

The fatalities and permanent disabilities together constituted 0.4
percent of all the women’s injuries. The greatest numbers of tempo­
rary disabilities occurred in hotels, with 671, department and general
merchandise stores with 532, drug stores with 247, chain groceries
with 212, and power laundries with 171.
. The proportion of fatalities and permanent disabilities among in­
juries occurring to men was higher than that for women—0.5 percent
of all men’s injuries were fatal and 1.6 percent permanently disabling.
Oyer half of the 52 fatalities among men occurred in four industries:
8 in natural gas distribution, 7 in hotels, and 6 each in electric light
and power companies and fuel and ice dealers.
There were 152 permanently disabling injuries to men. Ketail
trades reported 71, of which 21 occurred among fuel and ice dealers,
j11} dairy products, and 9 each, in lumber and building materials
and m motor vehicle firms. In wholesale trade, food shops reported
9 and farm products dealers 7 of the 41 permanent injuries to men
forty occurred in industries other than trade, 18 of them in electric
light and power.




16

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The injury experience of women in industry in 1945 has been re­
ported as it is shown in some 20,000 establishments employing about
314 million workers. Of these workers, over a million, or about 30
percent, were women. These figures represent a larger coverage of
injuries by sex of the worker than has hitherto been available and con­
sequently may be expected to yield a broader understanding of the
extent of the problem of industrial injuries as it relates separately
to men and women.
The actual number of injuries sustained by women and the occur­
rence of serious injuries point to certain industries as having par­
ticular need for safety programs. During one quarter of the year,
for example, the 11,000 women working in slaughtering and meat
packing received 165 injuries, or 1 for every 67 women. In stamped
and pressed metal products, the quarter’s record was 1 injury for
every 76 women; in fabricated metal products, 1 in 155; and m
textiles and cotton yarns, 1 in 186. The annual record in nonmanufac­
turing industries shows 1 injury for every 22 women in chain gro­
ceries ; 1 for every 26 in drug stores; 1 in 42 in variety and limitedprice stores; 1 in 44 in hotels; 1 in 82 in laundries; and 1 in 94 in de­
partment and general merchandise stores. These figures represent
a serious accumulation of injuries, a loss of working time and pro­
duction, and particularly an amount of human distress, that call
for remedy.
.
.
About 4 percent of the injuries in manufacturing resulted m death
or permanent disability. In nonmanufacturing, the proportion was
smaller, being less than 1 percent for women and about 2 percent for
men. These small percentages, however, represent 91 lives lost and
over a thousand people permanently disabled in manufacturing
industries during one quarter of 1945; and in nonmanufacturing, 54
workers who died and 160 who were permanently disabled through
the year. Based on records covering only a sample of the establish­
ments throughout the country, these figures give but a partial picture
of the national loss in lives and productivity.
In general, the frequency of injuries in various industries is con­
siderably lowTer for women than for men. It is also lower for women
working in nonmanufacturing than for those in manufacturing plants;
and in manufacturing, lower among nonproduction than among
production workers. In the absence of occupational classifications of
the workers who were injured, we can only infer from general knowl­
edge of the work of men and women, the comparative risks that men
and women face. It is probable that in industries in which rates
are found to be comparable for men and women—such as the manu­
facture of stamped and pressed metal products, jewelry and silver­
ware, and boots and shoes in manufacturing, chain food stores and
brokerage and banking firms in nonmanufacturing—the actual jobs
and working conditions, with attendant exposure to hazards, are also
similar.
The stamped and pressed metal products industries show a high
rate for both men and women, indicating special need for a program
to improve the record. Other industries also call for special at­
tention-slaughtering and meat packing, furniture and lumber prod-




V~" TE COLLRGE LIBRARY
INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

17

ucts, and lumber mills, where rates are less comparable but still very
high for both men and women; and those industries in which,
though women’s rates are low, men’s rates are seriously high.
In all these industries particular efforts are needed to develop a pro­
gram that will reduce the material and personal losses incurred
through industrial injury.
Recognizing the generally more favorable aspect of women’s injury
experience as compared with men’s we must nevertheless not lose sight
of the real problem of high rates wherever they occur, and the necessity
to reduce all rates to a minimum. The basic principles of an effective
safety program apply throughout industry, regardless of whether the
workers affected are men or women.




PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
For complete list of publications, write the Women’s Bureau.
Single copies of these publications—or a small supply for special educational
purposes—may be secured through the Women’s Bureau without charge, as long
ns the free supply lasts. These bulletins may be purchased direct from the Super­
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., at prices listed. A discount of
25 percent on orders of 100 or more copies is allowed. Leaflets may be secured
from the Women’s Bureau.
Bulletins available for distribution, published since 1940

No.

157. The Legal Status of Women in the United States of America, January 1938,
United States Summary. 1941. 89 pp. 150. No. 157-A. Cumulative
Supplement, 1938-1945. 31 pp. 1946. 100. Leaflet—Women's Eligibil­
ity for July Duty. June 1, 1947.
175. Earnings in the Women’s and Children’s Apparel Industry in the Spring
of 1939. 91 pp. 1940. 150.
176. Application of Labor Legislation to the Fruit and Vegetable Canning and
Preserving Industries. 162 pp. 1940, 200.
177. Earnings and Hours in Hawaii Woman-Employing Industries. 53 pp. 1940.
100.

178. Women’s Wages and Hours In Nebraska. 51 pp. 1940. 10(1.
180. Employment in Service and Trade Industries in Maine. 30 pp. 1940. 100.
182. Employment of Women in the Federal Government, 1923 to 1939. 60 pp
1941. 10 0.
183. Women Workers in Their Family Environment. (City of Cleveland, State
of Utah.) 82 pp. 1941. 150.
185. The Migratory Labor Problem in Delaware. 24 pp. 1941. 100.
186. Earnings and Hours in Pacific Coast Fish Canneries. 30 pp. 1941. 100.
187. Labor Standards and Competitive Market Conditions in the Canned-Goods
Industry. 34 pp. 1941. 100.
188. Office Work in 5 Cities in 1940:
1. Houston (10(f) ; 2. Los Angeles (100) ; 3. Kansas City (150) ; 4. Rich­
mond (15(f) ; 5. Philadelphia (150) : Chart, Salary Rates in 5 Cities.
189. Part 1. Women’s Factory Employment in an Expanding Aircraft Production
Program. 12 pp. 1942. 50. (See Bull. 192-1.)
Part 4. Employment of and Demand for Women Workers in the Manufacture
of Instruments—Aircraft, Optical and Fire-Control, and Surgical and Den­
tal. 20 pp. 1942. 50.
190. Recreation and Housing for Women War Workers: A Handbook on Stand­
ards. 40 pp. 1942. 10(f.
191. State Minimum-Wage Laws and Orders, 1942: An Analysis. 52 pp. and 6
folders. 1942. 200. Supplements through 1946. Mimeo. Progress of
Minimum-Wage Legislation, 1943-1945.
192. Reports on employment of women in wartime industries : 1. Aircraft Assem­
bly Plants (100) ; 2. Artillery Ammunition Plants (50) ; 3. Manufacture
of Cannon and Small Arms (10(f) ; 4. Machine Tool Industry (100) ; 5.
Steel (100) ; 6. Shipyards (200) ; 7. Foundries (100) ; 8. Army Supply
Depots (100) ; 9. Cane-Sugar Refineries (100).
195. Women Workers in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. 15 pp. 1942. 50.
196. “Equal Pay” for Women in War Industries. 26 pp. 1942. 100.
197. Women Workers in Some Expanding Wartime Industries—New Jersey,
1942. 44 pp. 1943. 100.
198. Employment and Housing Problems of Migratory Workers In New York and
New Jersey Canning Industries, 1943. 35 pp. 1944. 100.

18




INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

19

No.

199. Successful Practices In the Employment of Nonfarm Women on Farms in
the Northeastern States. 44 pp. 1944. 10^.
200. British Policies and Methods in Employing Women in Wartime. 44 pp.
1944. 100.
■
201. Employment Opportunities in Characteristic Industrial Occupations of
Women. 50 pp. 1944. 100.
202. State Labor Laws for Women with Wartime Modifications, Dec. 15, 1944.
Part I. Analysis of Hour Laws. 110 pp. 1945. 150.
Part II. Analysis of Plant Facilities Laws. 43 pp. 1945. 10(1
Part III. Analysis of Regulatory Laws, Prohibitory Laws, Maternity
Laws. 12 pp. 1945. 50.
Part IV. Analysis of Industrial Home-Work Laws. 26 pp. 1945. 100.
Part V. Explanation and Appraisal. 66 pp. 1946. 150.
203. The Outlook for Women in Occupations In the Medical and Other Health
Services.
No. 1. Physical Therapists. 14 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 2. Occupational Therapists. 15 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 3. Professional Nurses. 66 pp. 1946. 150.
No. 4. Medical Laboratory Technicians. 10 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 5. Practical Nurses and Hospital Attendants. 20 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 6. Medical Record Librarians. 9 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 7. Women Physicians. 28 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 8. X-Ray Technicians. 14 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 9. Women Dentists. 21 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 10. Dental Hygienists. 17 pp. 1945. 100.
No. 11. Physicians’ and Dentists’ Assistants. 15 pp. 1946. 100.
No. 12. Trends and Their Effect Upon the Demand for Women Workers.
55 pp. 1946. 150.
204. Women’s Emergency Farm Service on the Pacific Coast in 1943. 36 pp
1945. 100.
205. Negro Women War Workers. 23 pp. 1945. 100.
206. Women Workers in Brazil. 42 pp. 1946. 100.
207. The Woman Telephone Worker. 38 pp. 1946. 100.
207-A. Typical Women’s Jobs in the Telephone Industry. (In press.)
208. Women’s Wartime Hours of Work—The Effect on their Factory Perform­
ance and Home Life. 187 pp. 1947. 350.
209. Women Workers in Ten War Production Areas and Their Postwar Em­
ployment Flans. (Springfield-Holyoke, Baltimore, Dayton-Springfield,
Detroit-Willow Run, Kenosha, Wichita, Mobile, Seattle-Tacoma, San Francisco-Oakland, and Erie County, N. Y.) 56 pp. 1946. 150.
210. Women Workers in Paraguay. 16 pp. 1946. 100.
211. Employment of Women in the Early Postwar Period, with Background of
Prewar and War Data. 14 pp. 1946. 100.
212. Industrial Injuries to Women. (In press.)
213. Women Workers in Peru. (In press.)
214. Maternity-Benefits Under Union-Contract Health Insurance Plans
(In
press.)
215. Women Workers in Power Laundries. (In press.)
216. Women Workers After VJ-Day in One Community—Bridgeport, Conn. (In
press.)
217. International Work for Status of Women. (In press.)
218. Women’s Occupations Through Seven Decades. (In press.)
219. Earnings for Women Factory Workers, 1946. (In press.)
Special bulletins

No.

2. Lifting and Carrying Weights by Women In Industry. Rev. 1946. 12 pp. 5^.
3. Safety Clothing for Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1941. 100. Supplements:
Safety Caps for Women Machine Operators. 4 pp. 1944. 50 Safety
Shoes for Women War Workers. 4 pp. 1944. 50.
4. Washing and Toilet Facilities for Women War Workers. 11 pp. 1942. 50.
10. Women’s Effective War Work Requires Good Posture. 6 pp 1943 50
13. Part-Time Employment of Women in Wartime. 17 pp. 1943 100 ’
’
14. When You Hire Women. 16 pp. 1944. 100.
15. Community Services for Women War Workers. 11 pp 1944 50




STATE COLLEGE LIBRARY
20

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

HU.

19. The Industrial Nurse and The Woman Worker. 47 pp. 1944. VH.
20. Change in Women’s Employment During the War. 29 pp. 1944 . 10(i. (Chart
based on statistical data also available.)
Bibliography on Night Work for Women. 1946. Multilith.
Leaflets

Standards for Employment of Women. Leaflet No. 1, 1946.
Training for Jobs—For Women and Girls. Leaflet No. 1, 1947.
Equal Pay For Women. Leaflet No. 2, 1947.
_ .
Women White-Collar Workers, “Re-Tool Your Thinking for Your Job
1945
Protect Future Wage Levels Now (on minimum-wage legislation).
Unemployment Compensation—How it Works for Working Women.
Why Women Work. 1946. Multilith.
.
The Women’s Bureau—Its Purpose and Functions. 1J46.
Your Job Future After College. 1947.

___ _
..
Tomorrow.
1946.
1945.

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, TJ. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. O.
Price 10 cents