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State Teachers College Library

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Bulletin No. 129

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES
TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931
COMPARED WITH INJURIES
TO MEN

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No.

129

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN
IN 1930 AND 1931
COMPARED WITH INJURIES TO MEN
By
MARGARET T. METTERT

vTeNT o?

£res oj,

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1935

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents* Washington, D. C.

Price 10 cents

CONTENTS
Letter of transmittal
Introduction'
Summary
Source and scope of data
Character of data
10
Data as to injuries____________________________ ___________________
Changes in number of injuries, 1927 to 1931
Proportion women form of all injured persons_________________
Extent of disability ____________________________________ .____
Nature of injury_____________
Location of injury_______ ____________________________________
Data as to injured persons _
Age-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Age and extent of disability ________________________________
Age and cause of injury
36
Age and wage
37
Marital status and number of dependents______________________
Industries in which injuries occurred
40
Industry and age of the injured
46
Cause of injury
46
Cause according to industry
50
Wages and compensation
Appendix—Page references in State reports classifying accident statistics
by sex, 1927 to 1931, used in tables 1 to 19............ ................................. ..

v
1
1
3

11

11

15
16
19

21
29
29
33
38

50
55

TABLES

1. Industrial injuries tabulated by sex in 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, and
1931, in States reporting this information for 1930 or 1931, by State2. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by extent of
disability, 1930 and 1931
3. Number of days lost on account of temporary and permanent partial
disability cases, by extent of disability and sex—Illinois_______
4. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by nature of
injury, 1930 and 1931
5. Nature and location of injuries to male and female employees, Illinois,
1930
6. Nature and location of injuries to male and female employees, Indiana,
1930 and 1931_________
7. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by age of
injured, 1930 and 1931
8. Accident frequency among girls and older women, by State_________
9. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by extent of
disability and age group, 1930 and 1931
10. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by cause and
age group, New Jersey
37
11. Distribution of permanent partial disability cases in Wisconsin, 1930
and 1931, by age, sex, and wage
38
12. Marital status of injured women and number of their children under
16, by average weekly wage, Illinois, 1930
13. Marital status of injured women. North Carolina, 1930____________
14. Industrial distribution of injuries to male and female employees,
1930 and 1931___
15. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees, by industry and
age group, 1930 and 1931
16. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by cause, 1930
and 1931_____________________________________________ _____
111876—36

ttt

12
17
18
20
22
24
30
32
34

39
40
42
45
47

IV

CONTENTS

17. Cause of injuries to male and female employees, Illinois, 1930, by industry group
48
18. Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by weekly
wages, 1930 and 1931
19. Total and average amount of compensation paid in Illinois in 1930,
by sex and extent of disability___ ___________

Page
53
54

CHARTS

I. Extent of information on injuries to women for the period 1920 to 1931
in State reports giving the same information for men____________
II. Injuries tabulated, minimum period of disability, and employments
covered by law, in the 16 States that reported the sex of injured
persons in 1930 or 1931, or both__________ __________facing
9

4

GRAPHS

II. Injuries to men and women, 1929-1931: Percent increase or decrease
from 1928_____________________________________________ ___
III. Industrial distribution of injuries to women in five States, 1931____
IV. Weekly earnings of injured women before injury, 1931____________
V. Average amount of compensation paid men and women, by extent
of disability, Illinois, 1930............. ............................... .......................

14
44
51
52

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, January 18,1935.
I have the honor to transmit the third report issued by
the Women’s Bureau in its series dealing with industrial injuries to
women.
The period covered in this bulletin is the 2 years 1930 and 1931.
Data for 16 States were available for these years. Though the
important States of Pennsylvania and Illinois had temporarily
abandoned their publication, they supplied figures for this report.
A comparison of 1931 data with those of 1929 for the 12 States
reporting in these years shows that injuries to women increased in
4 States, though injuries to men decreased in all 12. Unemployment
in such industries as construction, iron and steel, and mining un­
doubtedly is largely responsible for this difference.
The cooperation of State officials and other persons in making these
figures available to the Women’s Bureau is gratefully acknowledged.
Much of the research for this report was done by Marie Correll.
The text has been written by Margaret T. Mettert, also of the
Division of Research.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. Frances Perkins,
Secretary of Labor.
Madam:

v

PLATE I.

STATES REPORTING NUMBER OF WOMEN INJURED, 1930 AND 1931

NEBR///

IOWA

'Tah/i
COLO.
KANSV

OKLAHOM.
N.MEX.

| Data available for both years (lh States)
7H Data available for one year (2 States)

Y///////Z%
»I

Ho data (22 States)
'.'.a

compensation laws (a States)

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN
1930 AND 1931 COMPARED WITH IN­
JURIES TO MEN
INTRODUCTION

This study continues the series of Women’s Bureau reports on
ndustrial injuries to men and women. The series was initiated by
Industrial Accidents to Men and Women (Bui. 81), an analysis of
the facts on this subject available in State reports for 1927 or the most
recent previous years since 1919. Following this, Industrial Injuries
to Women in 1928 and 1929 Compared with Injuries to Men (Bui.
102) was published. The present study covers the State data available
for the years 1930 and 1931.
The significant developments of 1930 and 1931 in the reports of
injuries classified by sex (see chart I) are that South Dakota and North
Carolina appear in the list for the first time; Minnesota, that had not
classified its data by sex since 1924, does so for 1931; and New Jersey,
that failed to classify its data by sex in 1929, does so for 1930 and
1931. Unfortunately, Georgia and Michigan, that published such
data in 1928 or 1929, failed to do so in 1930 and 1931; and Illinois data
for both years, and Pennsylvania data for 1931, were not published.
SUMMARY

Data on injuries classified by sex for one or both of the years 1930
and 1931 are given for the following 16 States: Colorado, Idaho,
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Min­
nesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. As these data cover the
accident experience of several industrially important States, the
facts regarding the injury experience of women are significant.
Number of injuries

The number of injuries decreased in this period, the decline being
especially marked in 1931. In general, women’s injuries decreased
less than did men’s. In one State they showed an increase in 1931
over 1930 and in four an increase over 1929. While inj uries to women
are. still absolutely and relatively fewer than those of men, they are
an increasing proportion of total injuries. In 1931 there were only 2
States of 15 where women’s injuries were less than 5 percent of the
total. In 1930 there were 6 of 15 States where this was true. In 1931
each of 7 States reported, over 1,500 injuries to women, 3 of them
reporting over 4,500 such injuries.

1

2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Severity of injuries

Fatal and permanent total injuries to women were not so much as
0.5 percent of all injuries reported in any State, and not more than
1.8 percent of injuries to men in any State. Small as the figures are,
each such case deserves particular attention from State authorities to
prevent repetition. The difference in proportion that permanent
partial injuries were of men’s and of women’s cases was slight. In
1930 and 1931 there were increases in this severe type of injury for
both men and women in several States. Data from Illinois as to time
lost are evidence that temporary total injuries are about as severe for
women as for men.
Nature of injuries

In the case of both men and women (1) cuts and lacerations and
(2) bruises, contusions, and abrasions were the most frequent injuries.
A much larger proportion of women than of men suffered from infec­
tions. In Indiana and Illinois, the only States with location reported,
injuries to fingers, hands, and arms occurred most frequently. More
of women’s than of men’s injuries were to these parts of the body, due
largely to women’s employment as machine operators. Other parts
of the body were injured more commonly in men’s than in women’s
accidents.
Age of injured persons

A much greater proportion of injuries to women than to men are
to persons 20 years of age or under. In each State the women under
21 years had more injuries than any other woman’s age group. The
proportion of injuries to these young women is greater than can be
accounted for by their number among all gainfully occupied women.
On the other hand, women over 45 years of age, from these statistics,
seem to be particularly good accident risks. Data as to disability
and age show that young persons’ injuries are likely to be as severe as
those of older persons. Falls are the most frequent source of injury
to women over 21, while machinery causes most of the accidents to
girls under 21. Handling of objects or tools is the most frequent
injury to both the younger and older male worker.
Marital status and number of children

Illinois and North Carolina are the only States reporting on marital
status by sex. In Illinois married women had more than their share
of industrial injuries, and in North Carolina this was the case for both
married and single women. Available data seem to show occupa­
tional differences to be the causal factor.
Of the married women inj ured in Illinois almost half had children
and over 10 percent had 3 or more children.
Industries in which injuries occurred

Manufacturing outranked other industries in number of injuries
both to women and to men, and generally had a larger proportion of
women’s accidents than of men’s. Clerical, professional, and other
service were important groups in number of women’s injuries; con­
struction and mining (particularly in Pennsylvania, Illinois, and
Indiana) were important in men’s injuries. Girls under 21 had a
higher proportion of their injuries in manufacturing than had older
women, and the latter had a higher proportion of their injuries in the
clerical, professional, and other service groups than had girls under 21.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

3

Cause

Falls and machinery caused most of women’s accidents. Handling
of objects and falls ranked high as causes of men’s accidents. Falling
objects and vehicles also were important factors to men’s injuries,
minor in the case of women.
Wages and compensation

As would be expected, the women injured were receiving much less
wages than were men at time of injury. The great majority earned
under $20 a week, while only a small percent of the men earned so
little.. . Chiefly due to their smaller wages, even for comparable
disability women received much less in compensation than did men.
SOURCE AND SCOPE OF DATA

_ The available information on injuries to women in the United States
is that given in the reports of certain State agencies, usually those
administering compensation laws. In a few cases this information is
for female workers only, but most of the reports cited give information
for each sex. Chart I is a record of all data published by the States
on injuries to women in the period 1920 to 1931. Only data classified
by sex are listed in the body of the chart, footnote references being
given to special reports on female workers.
Only published State, reports were used in the two earlier bulletins,
but economy measures.in 1930 and 1931 having restricted the amount
of published material in some cases, the present report includes un­
published information from Illinois and Pennsylvania, States that
had published data by sex throughout the period 1920 to 1929.
. In the period 1920 to 1931, 24 States published some facts on in­
juries classified by sex. North Carolina and South Dakota did so
for the first time in 1930. Data are available for every year in the
period in the 8 States following:1 Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.
The incomplete and inadequate character of the data has been
fully discussed in the first and second reports of this series. The pres­
ent study, using the data available for 1930 and 1931, emphasizes
more recent practice.
Colorado, Kentucky, and South Dakota classify by sex only the
numbers of injuries in the 2 years. For one or both of the years data
by sex are available for more than 1 State on cause (4 States), industry
(5), wage (3),2 extent of disability. (9), nature of injury (3), and marital
status (2). Seven States—Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minne­
sota, New Jersey, New York, and Wisconsin—give extent of disability
by age.. Nature and location of injury are cross classified in Illinois
and Indiana and age and industry in New Jersey and Illinois. These
are the only correlations made by more than one State. The follow­
ing list.summarizes the nature of the available data.
Published information about the number of industrial injuries to
men and women during one or both years of this period is available
in only 15 States. (See chart I.) Unpublished data can be secured
in only a few other instances. This means that in most States it
is impossible to get any accurate mdication of the number of women
injured in industry.
Maryland excluded because published data incomplete for 1922 to 1924
! Indiana reports wage data for women only.
■

111876°—35- 2
-

Chart I.—Extent of information on injuries to women for the period 1920 to 1931 in Stale reports giving the same information for men 1
[Asterisk (*) indicates States for which data are published for 1930 or 1931. Reports are those available July 1, 1933]

Number injured.

Number
of States
publish­
ing3

State 4

24

Period covered by published reports 5

1920 to 1922________________
1920 and 1921................................

Georgia............. .
‘Idaho............... _ _

‘Iowa................. .

‘Maryland..........
‘Massachusetts.
Michigan

Nebraska......... .
’New Jersey___
‘New York____

Source

First quadrennial report of W orkmen’s Compensation Commission, 1919-1922.
Annual reports of Industrial Accident Commission, years ended June 30, 1921 and
1922.
1919-20 to 1930-31______________
Annual and biennial reports of Industrial Commission, fourth to twelfth, periods
ended Nov. 30, 1920 to 1932.
1927-1928
Seventh and eighth annual reports of Industrial Commission, 1927 and 1928.
1919-20 to 1921-22-1922-1924 to 1930-1932. Biennial reports of Industrial Accident Board, second to eighth, periods ended Oct.
31, 1920 to 1932.
1920 to 1929 3............... .........................
Annual report of Industrial Commission, year ended June 30,1921; annual reports of
Department of Labor, fifth to thirteenth, years ended June 30, 1922 to 1930; and
Labor Bulletin of Department of Labor, vol. VII, no. 12, June 1928.
1919-20 to 1930-31.......... ........................
Annual reports of Industrial Board, years ended Sept. 30,1920 to 1931.
192.5-26 and 1927-28;1928-1930 and1930- Biennial report of Bureau of Labor Statistics, period ended June 30, 1926; biennial
1932.
reports of Bureau of Labor, periods ended June 30, 1928 to 1932.
1919-20 to 1930-31...................................... Annual reports of Workmen’s Compensation Board, years ended June 30, 1920 to
1931.
1919-20 to 1930-31 (1922 to 1924, incom­ Annual reports of Industrial Accident Commission, sixth to seventeenth, years ended
plete periods).
Oct. 31, 1920 to 1931.
1919-20 to 1930-31
Annual reports of Department of Industrial Accidents, years ended June 30, 1920 to
1931.
1928-29______________________
Labor and Industry, quarterly bulletin of Department of Labor and Industry, vol. I,
no. 1, December 1930.
1919-20 to 1923-24; 1930-1932
Seventeenth biennial report of Department of Labor and Industries, period ended
June 30,1920; biennial reports of Industrial Commission, first and second, periods
ended June 30, 1922 and 1924, sixth, period ended June 30,1932 (in twenty-third
biennial report of Department of Labor and Industry).
First annual report of Workmen’s Compensation Commission, Jan. 9 to Dec. 31,1927.
1927__________________________
Biennial report of Department of Labor, 1926-1927.
1927, 1928, 1930, 1931.................................
Industrial Bulletin of Department of Labor: Vol. 2, no. 9, September 1928; vol. 3,
no. 9, September 1929; vol. 6,no.9, September 1931; and Industrial Accident Report
(mimeographed), year ended Dec. 31,1931.
1919-20 to 1929-30,6 1930 and 1931....
Special bulletins of Department of Labor: No. 126, September 1924, Analysis of work­
men’s compensation cases closed July 1, 1922, to June 30, 1923; no. 142, March 1926,
Compensation awards year ended June 30,1924; Compensated accidents, July 1914,
to June 1922; no. 144, June 1926, Some recent figures on accidents to women and
minors; no. 146, July 1926, Accidents compensated in year ended June 30,1925, Cost
of compensation; no. 148, January 1927, Compensation of statistics year ended
June 30, 1926; no. 152, August 1927, Causes of compensated accidents two years
ended June 30,1926; no. 157, August 1928, Compensation statistics year ended June
30, 1927; no. 160. June 1929, Cost of compensation year ended June 30, 1928; no. 170

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Type of information 2

‘North Carolina 1929-30
* Pennsylvania 3. 1920 to 19303.

Tennessee
Virginia...

‘Wisconsin

Frequency rate.

1919-20.................................................. .
1919-20 and 1920-21; 1921-1923 and
1923-1925. (Figures for 1920-21 in­
clude nonfatal cases only; 1921-1923
and 1923-1925, temporary total dis­
ability only.)
1923 to 1931 (1923, 1924, 1925 cover in­
juries by machinery only).

Labor Statistics, vol. II, nos. 1 and 2, January-February 1924; vol. Ill, nos. 1 and
2, January-February 1925; vol. IV, nos. 4 and 5, April-May 1926; no. 25, Mar. 14,
1930; no. 28, July 28,1930; no. 31, Sept. 25, 1930; no. 35, July 10, 1931; no. 36, Dec. 28,
1931; no. 41, July 31, 1932; and no. 42, June 14, 1932.

9

1924..

Special bulletin of Department of Labor and Industry, no. 17, 1926, An analysis of
compensated accidents to minors for the year 1924.

California.
Illinois3—

1920 and 1921..
1928 and 1929 3.

‘Indiana
Kentucky--------‘New Jersey___
New York...........

Industry.,..

Pennsylvania...

1919-20, 1920-21, 1925-26 to 1930-31
1919-20__________________________
1927, 1928, 1930, 1931....................... ..
1924-25 to 1926-27_____ ___________

Same as for number injured.
Annual reports of Department of Labor, twelfth and thirteenth, years ended June 30,
1929 and 1930.
Annual reports of Industrial Board, years ended Sept. 30, 1920,1921, and 1926 to 1931.
Annual report of Workmen’s Compensation Board, year ended June 30, 1920.
Same as for number injured.
Special bulletins of Department of Labor: No. 144, June 1926, Some recent figures
on accidents to women and minors; no. 146, July 1926, Accidents compensated in
year ended June 30,1925, cost of compensation; no. 148, January 1927, Compensat ion
statistics year ended June 30, 1926; and Industrial Bulletin, vol. 6, no. 7, April 1927,
and vol. 7, no. 9, June 1928.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, 1920; Labor and Industry, vol. XIII,
no. 12, December 1926, and vol. XVIII, no. 6, June 1931.
Same as for number injured.
Labor Statistics, no 28, July 28, 1930; no. 31, Sept. 25, 1930; no. 41, July 31, 1932; and
no. 42, June 14, 1932.

Pennsylvania 3._ 1920 to 19303.
Tennessee
‘Wisconsin_____
See footnotes at end of chart.

1919-20_____
1926 to 1931..

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

* Rhode Island.. 1926-27 to 1930-31—
•South Dakota.. 1929-30 and 1930-31.

[June 1931], Cost of compensation 2 years ended June 30, 1930; no. 173, [June 1932],
Cost of compensation 2 years, 1930 and 1931; and Industrial Bulletin of Department
of Labor, vol. 6, no. 7, April 1927; and vol. 7, no. 9, June 1928.
First annual report of Industrial Commission, 1929-30.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, 1920; special bulletin of Department
of Labor and Industry, no. 17,1926, an analysis of compensated accidents to minors
for the year 1924; Labor and Industry, monthly bulletin of Department of Labor
and Industry, vol. I, no. 7, November 1922; vol. XIII, no. 12, December 1926; vol.
XVIII, no. 6, June 1931.
Reports of Commissioner of Labor for the years 1927 to 1931.
Annual Reports of Industrial Commissioner, thirteenth and fourteenth, periods ended
June 30, 1930 and 1931.
.
Eighth annual report of Bureau of Workshop and Factory Inspection, 1920.
Annual reports of Industrial Commission, second and third, periods ended Sept. 30,
1920 and 1921; biennial reports of Industrial Commission, periods ended Sept. 30,
1923 and 1925.

Cn

Chart I.—Extent of information on injuries to women for the period 1920 to 19S1 in State reports giving the same information for men—Contd.
Number
of States
publish­
ing
7

State

1928 and 1929 3
♦Indiana. ... .. 1919-20, 1920-21, 1925-26 to 1930-31
1925-26 and 1927-28; 1928-1930 and 1930♦Iowa
1932.
1928-29_____________ _________________
♦New Jersey___ 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931_____________ ____
1924-25 to 1926-27____ .................................

Pennsylvania... 1924............................................................
5

1928 and 1929 3
1919-20, 1920-21, 1925-26 to 1930-31
1927-28; 1928-1930 and 1930-1932...............
1927______________________ ____ ______
Pennsylvania. _. 1920 and 1924............................................ .

Same as for industry.
Do.
Same as for number injured.
Do.
Do.
Special bulletins of Department of Labor: No. 144, June 1926, Some recent figures on
accidents to women and minors; no. 152, August 1927, Causes of accidents 2 years
ended June 30, 1926; and Industrial Bulletins, vol. 6, no. 7, April 1927 and vol. 7,
no. 9, June 1928.
Labor and Industry, vol. XIII, no. 12, December 1926.
Same as for industry.
Do.
Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor, periods ended June 30, 1928 to 1932.
Same as for number injured.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, 1920; I.abor and Industry, vol. XII,
no. 5, May 1925.

1928 and 1929 3
1919-20, 1920-21, 1925-26 to 1930-31

2
Extent of disability-----

Source

Period covered by published reports

13
♦Idaho

Same as for industry.
Annual reports of Industrial Board, years ended Sept. 30, 1920,1921,1926 to 1931.

1920 to 1922
1919-20 to 1921-22; 1922-1924 to 19301932.
1920 to 1929 3

Same as for number injured.
Do.

Same as for number injured with the exception of tenth annual report of Department
of Labor, year ended June 30, 1927.
Biennial report of Bureau of Labor Statistics, period ended June 30, 1926; biennial
report of Bureau of Labor, period ended June 30, 1928.
♦Maryland.......... 1919-20 to 1930-31 (1922 to 1924, incom- Same as for number injured.
plete periods).
Do.
♦Massachusetts. 1919-20 to 1930-31
Do.
1928-29__________ ____________________
Seventeenth biennial report of Department of Labor and Industries, period ended
1919-20; 1930-1932
June 30,1920, and sixth biennial report of Industrial Commission (in twenty-third
biennial report of Department of Labor and Industry), period ended June 30, 1932.
Same as for number injured.
♦New Jersey___ 1927, 1928, 1930, and 1931
Same as for number injured, with the exception of special bulletin 144 and the indus­
♦New York------- 1919-20 to 1929-30; 3 1930 and 1931
trial bulletins.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, 1920; Labor and Industry, vol. I,
♦Pennsylvania3. 1920 to 19303
no. 7, November 1922, and vol. XVIII, no. 6, June 1931.
1925-26 and 1927-28........................... .........

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Type of information

05

Virginia.
*Wisconsin.

Age.

12

1920 to 1922_______ ____
1925 3____________ ____
1926-27_______ ____
1921-1923 and 1923-1925.

1920 to 1922................................................. ..
1927-1928--.................................................. ..
1920 to 1929 3--------------------------------------------------1919-20, 1920-21, 1925-26 to 1930-31
1923, 1924, 1924-25 to 1930-31 (1923 and
1924 incomplete periods).
* Massachusetts. 1919-20 to 1930-31_________________ _
* Minnesota____ 1919-20 to 1923-24; 1930-1932
*New Jersey___ 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931—____ _________
*New York____ 1919-20 to 1929-30;6 1930 and 1931
Alabama
Georgia...............
Illinois 3
*Indiana._...........
*Maryland_____

Pennsylvania. _ 1924.
* Rhode Island. _ 1926-27 to 1930-31
* Wisconsin_____ 1926 to 1931............
Marital status.

8

Georgia...
Illinois 3—.
MarylandMissouri
Nebraska
*North Carolina.
Pennsylvania..
Virginia.......... .. _

Nationality

1

1927-28....................
19293___________
1919-20 to 1921-22.
1927 (period incomplete)------1927.................................................
1929-30................................ ...........
1920.................................... .............
1919-20 and 1920-21; 1921-1923

* North Carolina- 1929-30.

Same as for number injured.
Ninth annual report of Department of Labor, year ended June 30, 1926.
Industrial Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 9, June 1928.
Biennial report of Industrial Commission, periods ended Sept. 30, 1923 and 1925.
Same as for number injured.
Do.
Same as for number injured with the exception of the Labor Bulletin.
Same as for industry.
Annual reports of Industrial Accident Commission, ninth to seventeenth, years
ended Oct. 31, 1923 to 1931.
Same as for number injured.
Do.
Do.
Same as for the number injured, with the exception of special bulletin 144 and the
industrial bulletins.
,
Special bulletin of Department of Labor and Industry, no. 17, 1926, An analysis of
compensated accidents to minors for the year 1924.
Same as for number injured.
„
Labor Statistics, no. 25, Mar. 14, 1930; no. 28, July 28, 1930; no. 36, Dec. 28, 1931; and
no. 42, June 14, 1932.
Same as for number injured.
Thirteenth annual report of Department of Labor, year ended June 30, 1930.
Annual reports of Industrial Accident Commission, sixth to eighth, years ended
Oct. 31, 1920 to 1922.
Same as for number injured.
Do.
Do.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, 1920.
Annual reports of Industrial Commission, second and third, periods ended Sept. 30,
1920 and 1921; biennial report of Industrial Commission, period ended Sept. 30,
1923.
Same as for number injured.

See footnotes at end of chart.

\

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Alabama..
Illinois 3-_New York
Virginia...

Time lost

1919-20 and 1920-21; 1921-23 and 1923­ Same as for number injured.
25.
Labor Statistics, no. 42, June 14, 1932.
1930 and 1931....................

Chart I.—Extent of information on injuries to women for the period 1920 to 1931 in State reports giving the same information for men—Contd.
Type of information

State

Period covered by published reports

Source

Annual report of Industrial Commission, year ended June 30, 1921; annual reports
of Department of Labor, fifth to eighth, tenth, twelfth, and thirteenth, years
ended June 30, 1922 to 1925, 1927, 1929, and 1930.
1919-20 to 1930-317_____ ____ - ................ Same as for number injured.
Do.
1927
Same as for number injured, with the exception of special bulletin 144 and the indus­
1919-20 to 1929-30; « 1930 and 1931
trial bulletins.
1926 to 1931______________ _____________ Labor Statistics, no. 28, July 28, 1930; no. 35, July 10, 1931; and no. 42, June 14, 1932.
1920 to 1924, 1926, 1928, 1929 3

5

*New York____

1 This chart does not include the following published data on women injured:
A. Compensation per disability for eye, arm, hand, foot, and leg losses. In report of Workmen’s Compensation Bureau, Pennsylvania, 1920.
B. Machine accidents analyzed according to cities and counties in the State. Wisconsin Labor Statistics, vol. II, nos. 1 and 2, January-February 1924; vol. Ill, nos. 1 and 2,
January-February 1925; vol. IV, nos. 4 and 5, April 1926. Analysis of temporary disability cases to females, 1926, 1927, 1928, in Wisconsin Labor Statistics, no. 25, Mar. 14, 1930.
C. Fatal accidents classified by industry, conjugal condition, and part of body injured; also blood-poison cases. In report of Workmen’s Compensation Bureau, Pennsylvania,
1920. Fatal accidents by industry, cause, and nature of injury, 1924; in Labor and Industry, monthly bulletin of Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, vol. XII, no. 5,
May 1925.
D. Fatal cases classified by marital status and number of dependents, 1919-20. In second annual report of Industrial Commission of Virginia, 1920.
E. Special study of 102 accidents to women classified by industry and cause of injury, 1924. In fifth annual report of Court of Industrial Relations, Kansas, year ended Dec. 3i, 1924.
F. Special reports—New York Department of Labor: Some social and economic effects of work accidents to women. A study of 500 women compensated for permanent partial
injuries, 1918-20. Classified according to age, wage, occupation, industry, nature of injury, location of injury, cause of accident, manner of occurrence of machine accidents, extent
of disability, degree of impairment, proportion of infections, present earning capacity, ability to speak English, schooling, change of employer, experience on machines, and length
of time machine operators had been on accident job. Special Bulletin 127, November 1924. An analysis of 100 accidents on power punch presses, 1923-24. Classified by number
of establishments, product of plant, and nature and location of injury. Special Bulletin 131. New York food-canning accidents, July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1929, cases closed, classified
by age and extent of disability, in New York Industrial Bulletin, vol. 9, no. 7, April 1930. Compensated back injuries among women, year ended June 30, 1930, in New York Indus­
trial Bulletin, vol. 10, no. 7, April 1931.
O. Special study—Cases of anthrax, by industry and extent of disability, 1922 to 1926. In Labor and Industry, monthly bulletin of Pennsylvania Department of Labor and
Industry, vol. XIV, no. 6, June 1927.
IT. Illinois tables for 1929 classified by sex and the place where accidents occurred (county, city); number of children under 16 years of age that injured person had; and total
and average amount of compensation paid; in thirteenth annual report of Department of Labor, year ended June 30,1930.
2 Type of injuries tabulated varies in different States and in some States from year to year..
3 Unpublished information has been used for Illinois, 1930 and 1931, and Pennsylvania, 1931. Illinois unpublished tables classified by sex cover: In 1930, number injured, industry,
cause, nature of injury, location of injury, extent of disability, time lost, age, marital status, number of children under 16, place where accident occurred (county, city), wage, total
and average amount of compensation paid, and days lost in temporary disability cases; in 1931, number injured, industry, cause, extent of disability, time lost, age, and wage. The
Pennsylvania unpublished tables classified by sex cover numbers injured, industry, and extent of disability (fatals and nonfatals).
4 It should be noted that since 1919 the following 24 States and the District of Columbia have not published any accident data by sex: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware,
Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
WashingtDn, West Virginia, Wyoming; and the following additional States did not publish 3 such data in 1930 or 1931: Alabama, California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri,
Nebraska, Tennessee, and Virginia. Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, and South Carolina have no compensation laws.
6 The following examples illustrate the system used in indicating periods covered: 1920—calendar year; 1920-21—other than calendar year; 1927-1928—2 calendar years combined
in biennial report; 1927-1929—2 years other than calendar years combined in biennial report.
6 Both calendar-year and fiscal-year reports were published for industrial injuries in New York, 1930. .Since the State plans to tabulate figures for the calendar year in succeeding
reports, these have been used by the Women's Bureau for 1930, and no further reference is made to the report of the fiscal year.
7 Wage for men not given.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Number
of States
publish­
ing

00

Chart

II.—injuries tabulated, minimum period of disability, and employments covered by jaw, in the 16 States that reported the sex of injured persons in 1930 or 1931, or both

[Source: State laws and reports; U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, series of reports of compensation laws, Bulletins 272, 332, 379, 423, and 496; and Monthly Labor Review, March 1930, December 1930, and January 1932]

Employments covered 1 by accident-reporting law (marked *) or compensation law (where only injuries under compensation law are tabulated)
State

Period covered by figures
tabulated

Injuries tabulated

More than 10 days

Closed compensable cases------- More than 1 week---------

Years ended Sept. 30,1927 to 1931.

All except those having regularly less than 4 employees, farm and ranch labor, private domestic
service, and casual employees not in the usual course of employer’s business. Voluntary as to
excepted employments.
.. All except agricultural pursuits, domestic service, outworkers, casual employment, crews of aircraft
while under way, employment not carried on by the employer for pecuniary gain,1 and charitable
institutions. Voluntary as to excepted employments.
“Extrahazardous” employments as enumerated,4 totally blind persons, members of fire patrols (of
any board of underwriters)-1 Farm labor and persons not in usual course of employer’s business
excepted. Voluntary as to excepted employments.
*A11_______________________ _
_______________________________________ _____________________ ____

do
............ .........................
Year ended June 30, 1928; 2-year
periods ended June 30, 1930
and 1932.
Years ended June 30,1927 to 1931. ____ do.8'_____________________
Years ended Oct. 31,1927 to 1931.. Compensation claims allowed. More than 3 days----- ---------

Massachusetts--------

Years ended June 30,1927 to 1931­
2-year period ended June 30,1932.
shift, or turn.10

All except those having less than 3 employees, agriculture, domestic service, and common carriers
engaged in interstate commerce. Threshing and hulling grains and seeds are within the act.
Voluntary as to excepted employments.
“Extrahazardous” employments as enumerated.4 Casual employees, farm labor, domestic serv­
ice, country blacksmiths, ■wheelwrights, or similar rural employments excepted. Voluntary as
to works not extrahazardous.
♦All
All including commercial threshing and bailing, except steam railroads, domestic servants, farm
laborers, or casual employees not in usual course of employer’s business. Voluntary for farm
labor.

Closed compensable cases 9-----

North Carolina-------

Years ended June 30, 1927 to ____ do.9
1929; calendar years 1930,1931.
All involving time lost with
medical or compensation
costs.

All enumerated “hazardous” employments,4 and all others having 4 or more workmen.1 Farm
labor and domestic service excluded. Voluntary as to other employments.
All excejit those having regularly less than 5 employees, agriculture, domestic service, railroads,
casual employees not in usual course of employer’s business, and persons selling agricultural
products for the producer. Voluntary as to excepted employment.

Years ended Sept. 30, 1927 to
1931.

Closed compensable cases.._ . More than 1 week------------ ... All except those having less than 6 employees, farm labor, domestic service, casual employees, and
employees receiving over $3,000 a year. Voluntary as to excepted employments.

South Dakota- ------ Years ended June 30, 1930 and
1931.

All except farm and domestic service and employees not in usual course of employer’s business;
employees in interstate and foreign commerce excepted if United States laws provide for their
compensation. Compulsory for operation, for profit, of threshing machines, grain combines,
corn shellers, corn huskers, shredders, silage cutters, and seed buffers, including traction engines
used therewith. Voluntary as to excepted employments.
All except those usually employing less than 3 employees, domestic service, farmers or farm labor,
and employees not in usual course of employer's business.1 Voluntary as to excepted employ­
ments.

Closed compensable cases.11... More than 3 days after Apr.
24, 1931; more than 1 week
previously.

Wisconsin---------------

1 Changes in features of laws given in chart II are as follows: A—1927 to 1929. Colorado—Members of volunteer fire departments excepted by
session law 1927, ch. 197, sec. 2, effective May 1, 1927. Idaho—Judges of election, clerks of election, and jurors excepted by session law 1927, eh.
106, sec. 1, effective Mar. 2, 1927; crews of aircraft while under way excepted by session law 1929, ch. 88, sec. 1, effective May 7, 1929. New York Employments not conducted for pecuniary gain included by session law 1928, ch. 765, sec. 1, effective Oct. 1, 1928. Wisconsin—Domestic service
specifically excepted; voluntary election provided for employees not in usual course of employer’s business; session ldws 1929, ch. 453, sec. 3, effec­
tive Sept. 3,1929. B—1930 and 1931. Colorado—Defined employees to include sheriffs, deputy sheriffs regularly employed and any person called
to serve upon any posse, session laws 1931, ch. 175, effective July 25,1931. Idaho—Agricultural pursuits defined to include care taking and handling
of livestock on enclosed lands and public ranges; exclusion of employments not carried on by the employer for the sake of pecuniary gain from
the compulsory application of the act clarified; session laws 1931, ch. 222, secs. 1 and 2, effective June 5,1931. New Jersey—Volunteer firemen were
added to coverage of the law by Session Laws 1931, ch. 172, effective Apr. 21,1931; public employees earning over $1,200 were added to coverage of
the law and public employees retired on pensions were excluded, Session Laws 1931, ch. 355, effective July 4,1931. New York—Additional occupa­
tional diseases made compensable, Session Laws 1930, ch. 60, effective Oct. 1,1931; private chauffeurs in cities of 2,000,000 or more included under
coverage of act, Session Laws 1931, ch. 510, effective Apr. 20,1931. South Dakota—Operation, for profit, of grain combines, corn shellers, com huskers, shredders, silage cutters, and seed buffers added to compulsory coverage by Session Law 1931, ch. 269, approved Eeb. 27,1931. WisconsinWaiting time made more than 3 days by Session Laws 1931, ch. 66, effective Apr. 24,1931. Act made compulsory for private employers who usually
employ three or more employees, except farmers or farm labor, domestic service, and employees not in usual course of employer’s business; volun­
tary as to excepted employments; voluntary (joint election) for steam railroads repealed; Session Laws 1931, ch. 87, effective May 7, 1931.
111876°—35.

(Face p. 9.)

Elective or compulsory compensation law
(where only injuries under law are tabulated)

Private

Years ended Nov. 30,1927 to 1931. Compensation claims.................
2-year periods ended Oct. 31,
1928, 1930, and 1932.

Minimum period of disability of injuries tabulated
Public
All except elective officials, National Guard,
and members of volunteer fire departments.1

Election presumed in absence of written notice.*
Compulsory as to public employees.

All except judges of election, clerks of election,
and jurors.

Compulsory.

All except officials and duly appointed members
of fire departments in cities of 200,000 or more.
♦All__

All municipal corporations having 3 or more
employees. Voluntary as to others.

Election in writing by employer and employee.3

All workmen employed for wages and engaged
in extrahazardous employments, including
the State police force and guards of penal insti­
tutions. Voluntary as to other employments.
♦All

Compulsory.

Election presumed in absence of written notice.3
All except elective officials and those retired
on pensions.1

Election presumed in absence of written notice.18
Compulsory as to public employments.
Compulsory.

All employees of the State and its subdivisions
except elective officials and appointees of the
Governor. Federal Government employees
and State and county prisoners are also ex­
cepted.
♦All
All employees of State, cities, and towns, except
fire and police departments.

Election presumed in absence of written notice.3
Compulsory as to public employees.

Election in writing by employer,3 and presumed
in absence of written notice by employee.
Compulsory as to State employees.
Election presumed in absence of written notice.3
Compulsory as to public employees.

Compulsory.113

2 Inducement to election is offered by abrogation of common-law defenses where employer rejects the law.
3 Also reports compensable cases occurring in 1928, 1929, 1930, and 1931. Type of injury tabulated is indicated, for this State, on each table in
this report. Includes occupational diseases in certain occupations.
4 The principal industrial employments are included.
6 Reports of accidents to workers in mines or in railway service are not received by the bureau of labor. All industrial accidents are reported,
however, to the compensation commissioner.
8 Only employers subject to compensation act are required to report.
7 Includes injury from gas or smoke in mines or from any gas.
8 Occupational diseases included by court decision.
8 Designated occupational diseases included.
10 “Nondisabling cases”, presumably with no time lost but with medical and hospital costs reported, are included in the tabulation.
11 Includes occupational diseases.
13 Common-law defenses abrogated for employers covered by compulsory features of law. Employers of fewer than 3 persons lose defense of
assumed risk if they do not elect law.

9

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Data on injuries classified by sex published by States for 1930 and 1931 1
[Calendar years or fiscal years ending in 1930 or 1931]

States reporting injuries by sex and—

N umber

Industry

Cause

Nature of Location Extent of
of injury disability
injury

Age

Nation­
ality

Wage

Marital
status

1930

Ind

Ind____

Ind.3___

Ind.........
Iowa___

Ky________
Md—
N. J___
N. J___
N. Y.
N. C
Pa......
Pa._ .
R. I
S. Dak .
Wis................

Md____ Md____
Mass—
N. J.3— N. J____
N. Y___ N. Y._..

N. J____

N. Y_...
N. C___

R. I____
Wis.®___ Wis____

Wis

1931

Ind.*-----

Ind...
Iowa___
Ky________
Md_____
N. J_____
N. J___
N. Y____
R. I...............
S. Dak.........
Wis
Wis ...

Md____
N. J____

Md____

N. J____
N. J
N. Y___ N. Y___
R. I____

h. Y___

Wis.4— Wis____

Wis____

1 On account of their unbroken series of reports, 1920 to 19L9, unpublished figures for Illinois in 1930 and
1931 and for Pennsylvania in 1931 were accepted for the present study. (See footnote 3 of chart I.)
3 Comparable data for men not available.
3 Fatals and permanent totals only.
* Fatals and nonfatals only.
i Permanent partials only.
.

Illinois, not included in the foregoing lists because its 1930 and 1931
data had not been published, classified by sex several more types of
information than did any other State. This is clear from chart 1.
Indiana ranked second in this respect. Colorado, Kentucky, and
South Dakota reported by sex only the total number of injuries.
In addition to the problem of analyzing scattering and incomplete
reports, lack of uniformity and resulting noncomparability of data
have made close analysis of available statistics difficult in each of the
bulletins of the accident series. In the interest of accident prevention
it cannot be emphasized too strongly that States should at least be
guided in their collecting, classifying, analyzing, and publishing of
statistics by the standard methods advocated by the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.3
3 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Standardization of Industrial Accident Statistics.
The revision of this bulletin has not been completed.

Bui. 276.

1920.

10

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

CHARACTER OF DATA

Study of chart II will bring out distinctions in the definition of
tabulated cases that must be taken into consideration in any inter­
pretation of the tables in this report. These distinctions have been
carefully described in the two earlier reports, but it may be well to
give them again before taking up an analysis of statistics.
The most important difference lies between States reporting all
cases without regard to their compensation status—reportable cases
and tabulatable injuries (8 States)—and States reporting only cases
that have been or are eligible for compensation—compensation
claims allowed and closed compensable cases (8 States). Of the
latter, 7 States report the number of injuries that have been paid
or will be paid compensation (1, Illinois, reports compensable cases
occurring, also), and the other reports the number of compensation
claims.
Another distinction closely connected with this one is the difference
in minimum period of disability of tabulated injuries. In all but 1 of
the 8 States in the first group just mentioned all cases are tabulated
in which the time lost is as much as 1 day or shift to more than 3 days.
In the remaining State all accidents were to be reported. For all
the 8 States in the group reporting compensable cases, from 3 to 10
days must have been lost from work for an injury to be included.
A further limitation upon comparability follows from differences in
employments covered by the State reports. These vary from all
employments in Massachusetts and Indiana to enumerated “extrahazardous” employments in Illinois. The other States make various
exceptions. In some States employers may elect to come under
these reporting requirements, in others it is compulsory.
A minor difference lies in reporting periods. Some States report
for calendar-year periods, some for fiscal-year periods. TV here
figures cover a 2-year period they have been divided by 2 to give an
estimate for 1 year for the present study.
These variations must be clearly understood to arrive at valid
conclusions, but it will be evident that, if used with care, the figures
are comparable. The data for any one State for the 5 years 1927 to
1931 are reasonably comparable, as most of the changes made in the
’ ses of the compensation laws analyzed here are minor ones.
only exception is Wisconsin, where the reduction of the waiting
period from 1 week to 3 days in 1931 undoubtedly brought many
more injuries under the law.
While it is essential to be cautious in their use, the value of the data
available should not be underestimated. Several of the States fur­
nishing the most complete data are important industrially, and
analysis of the injury experience of even a sampling of women workers
will suggest trends significant in an understanding of the character,
cause, and means of prevention of accidents in industry.

K

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

11

DATA AS TO INJURIES
Changes in number of injuries, 1927 to 1931

Table 1 is a compilation of the data on industrial injuries occur­
ring to women and to men in the 5-year period 1927 to 1931. The
tabulation shows for each State a substantial decrease from 1930 to
1931 in the total number of accidents. The percentage decrease was
greater for men than for women in 8 of the 12 States that can be com­
pared. _ In one State—Idaho—the number of women's injuries re­
ported increased by almost 9 percent, while men’s injuries decreased
by about 19 percent. A substantial decline in 1931 in accident fre­
quency shows in the annual survey by the United States Bureau of
Labor Statistics of accidents in manufacturing industries 4 and in the
rates published by the National Safety Council.5 Probably the basic
cause of the decline in numbers noted in this study is the decrease in
exposure to industrial hazards resulting from unemployment. That
this was not the only factor is evidenced by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and National Safety Council studies. In these studies
hours of exposure are available and the frequency rates based on
these show considerable decline. It seems logical to conclude, there­
fore, a measure of progress made in safety. This conclusion is borne
out by a survey of the trend of accidents over the 5-year period. Eight
of the ten States® with comparable data for 1927-29 reported a de­
crease in number of accidents in 1928, before the onset of the depres­
sion, though 8 of the 10 showed some increase in 1929.
It has been stated that the decrease in women’s accidents from
1930 to 1931 was somewhat different from that of men. This differ­
ence is evident throughout the 5 years.
Plate II presents a graphic comparison of the years 1929 to 1931
with 1928, a time of comparatively normal employment, for the 11
States reporting.® The trend from 1928 to 1929 is uneven. Women’s
injuries increased more than men’s increased in 5 of the 10 States
reporting, and advanced while men’s declined in 1. Men’s injuries,
on the other hand, increased while women’s decreased in 2 States.
Declines in number were reported for both sexes in 1 State, somewhat
greater for women than for men. One State had a slight advance for
each sex. The decrease in women’s injuries was very marked in 1
State.
The picture is quite different for 1930, presumably due to the unem­
ployment of men. Women’s injuries increased in all but 1 State and
there the decrease was slight and was less than for men. The number
of accidents to men fell off in 8 States and in the other 3 the increase
was considerably less than in the case of women. For the significance
of these figures to be clear it would be necessary to compare them with
the numbers of the two sexes employed.
Just as marked is the difference in trend of men’s and women’s
cases from 1928 to 1931. In this period men’s accidents declined
*U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, April 1933, p. 780 if.
6 National Safety Council. Accident Facts, 1932 edition, Chicago, p. 19.
8 For Idaho and Iowa, where biennial reports combine the figures for 2 years (divided by 2 to arrive at
yearly average for the present report), no comparison of numbers injured in first and second year of the
period is possible.

111876°—35--- 3

Table

1.—Industrial injuries tabulated by sex in 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, and 1981, in States reporting this information for 1930 or 1931,1
by State

to

[For sources of information, see appendix]

Male

Fe­
male

Fe­
male

Total

Male

Fe­
male

Total

Male

Male

Fe­
male

4,502
4,303
252
5,796
295 o 6,117
2,408 33,167 30,926
1,815 22,843 21, 264
315 10 5,315
5,045
287 14, 575 14,377
889 10, 401
9, 705
5,835 50,006 45,180
«29,825 27,189
2, 058 23,208 21, 229
9, 579 98,424 89,033
2,342
6, 256 111,458 105,928
2, 794
2,440
467
464
5,888
5, 570
927 16,943 16,067

199
321
2,241
1, 579
270
198
696
4,826
2, 636
1,979
9, 391

12.14
18.92
22.55
25.79
22.74
29.77
16.91
19.19

21.00
7 8. 81
6. 94
13.00
14. 29
31.01
21.70
17. 29

16.83
8.90

3. 83
1. 96

5,530
354
318
876

23.48
25.63
1.52
16.07

11.60
24.19
31.46
5.50

Fe­
male

Total

Per­ Percent of
women
cent
in
among
persons
manu­
factur­ employed
in manu­
ing
of all facturing
and
women
gain­ mechanical
fully industries
occu­
pied
in
19303 19204
1930 3

NUMBER *

497
835
5,950

5, 312
6 7, 594
54, 750
37, 714
7, 897
23,395
13, 902
60, 330

5,090
7. 413
52, 655
35, 913
7,554
23,132
13,166
54, 744

222
181
2, 095
1,801
343
263
736
5, 586

5, 467
6 7, 840
56, 167
40, 931
6 7, 195
19, 365
14, 147
60, 195

5,281
7,544
54,845
38, 787
6,881
19,154
13,410
54,460

7, 399

9§i 565

24,139
86, 545

1,841
7; 020 100, 462

92,371

5,751
6 7, 594
53, 983
40, 539

185
181
m
1,794

26, 021
14, 251
64,167
New Jersey------

5,566
7,413
«
38,745
25, 524
13, 686
58, 217

98^984

9l! 585

160, 743 154, 903
3, 479
3, 985
Wisconsin_____

20, 473

19, 657

5,840 152, 498 146, 489
3,362
3,831
506
816

21,818

21, 045

6, 009 166, 657 159,728
3,671
469
4, 207
773

22, 630

21, 728

186
296
1,322
2,144
314
211
737
5, 735

5,150
6 7, 839
42, 336
31, 818
e 7, 195
20, 758
13,406
61, 741

4,898
7,544
39,928
30, 003
6, 880
20, 471
12, 517
55, 906

27, 583 25, 525
8, 091 107, 312 97,733
34, 031 31, 689
6,929 144, 679 138,423
3, 748
3,281
536
>1 6, 120
5,656
902 20, 070 19,143
PERCENT *

100.0
6100.0
100.0
100.0
Iowa......................

96.8
97.6
(9)
95.6

3.2
2.4
(9)
4.4

100.0
6 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

95.8
97.6
96.2
95.2
95.7

4.2
2.4
3.8
4.8
4.3

100.0
«100.0
100.0
100.0
«100.0

96.6
96.2
97.6
94.8
95.6

3.4
3.8
2.4
5.2
4.4

100.0
8 100.0
100.0
100.0
e 100.0

95.1
96.2
94.3
94.3
95.6

4.9
3.8 e
5.7
5.7
4.4 16

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0

95.6
94.8
93.2
93.1
94.9

4.4
5.2
6.8
6.9
5.1

20.1
13.7
22.5
18.8
17.9
16.2
23.4
29.2
20. 2
24.3
25.6
23.9
21.6
29.6
15.1
19.1

7.4
5.5
17.5
21.0
9.1
14.3
22.0
31.2
10. 2
26.1
21.1
25.2
26.5
45.4
4.7
19.1

7.8
4.6
12.1
11.4
8.6
12.9
15.5
21.3
10.0
15.8
16.0
23.7
15.0
26.3
6.3
11.3

8.
5.
14.
12.
10.
17.
17.
24.
11.
17.
20.
22.
15.
27.
7.
13.

5
3
0
1
4
4
5
7
5
8
0
1
6
9
6
4

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Total | Male
Total

1931

1930

1929

1928

1927

Per­
cent
of
Percent de­ women
crease, 1930 among
to 1931
per­
sons
gain­
fully
occu­
pied
in
Fe­
Male male 1930 2

100.0
100.0
100.0

98.1
94.2
90.7

1.9
5.8
9.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

98.9
94.7
90.7

1.1
5.3
9.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

98.9
94.8
90.5

100.0
100.0

93.0
92.5

7.0
7.5

100.0
100.0

92.9
92.5

7.1
7.5

100.0

91.9

loo. 6
100.0

96.4
87.3

3.6
12.7

100.0
100.0

96.1
87.8

3.9
12.2

100.0
100.0

95.8
87.3

100.0

96.0

4.0

100.0

96.5

3.5

100.0

96.0

1.1
5.2
9.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

98.6
93.4
90.5

1.4
6.6
9.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
4.2
100.0
12.7
100.0
'1 100. 0
4.0
100.0

92.5
91.1
93.1
95.7
87.5
92.4
95.4

7.5
8.9
6.9
4.3
12.5
7.6
4.6

8.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
6 100.0
100.0
100.0

98.6
93.3
90.3
91.2
91.5
90.5

1.4
6.7
9.7
8.8
8.5
9.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

95.0
87.3
94.6
94.8

5.0
12.7
5.4
5.2

—

1 S0ILsu?llar information for 1927, 1928, or 1929 from States not reporting injuries classified by sex in period 1930-31, see Women’s Bureau Buis. 81 and 102.
2 U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930: Population, Occupations, vol. V, p. 57.
3 Ibid., p. 61.
* Ibid. Fourteenth Census, 1920: Population, Occupations, vol. IV, p. 51.
6 For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
6 The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
7 Increase.
8 Fo? 1?*?. table fiKures showing compensable cases occurring have been used. The cases closed show an increase for women from 1930 to 1931 of 10.83 percent and a decrease for
men of 28.93 percent.
2 Only closed cases were tabulated by sex for 1927.
10 Excludes 203 cases reported for 2-year period not classified by sex.
11 Includes 11 public accidents.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Kentucky_____
Maryland____
Massachusetts..
Minnesota____
New Jersey____
New York_____
North Carolina.
Pennsy1 vania._ .
Rhode Island...
South Dakota..
Wisconsin_____

CO

14

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

PLATE II.

INJURIES TO MEN AND WOMEN, 1929-1931: PERCENT INCREASE OR
DECREASE FROM 1928

COLO. ILL. IND.

KY

WD. MASS, N.J N.Y PA.

far cevt

R.l. WIS.

1929

$ to

1

_0___

19281

1

IO

j

ia

I

* io

I

120

30
1930

30
I 20
?
10

Mill
1928

p

! io

20

I

1931

30
20-

«

1

io-

n

1928
10

120

5

13 30

I

m

P
Men

40-

■

Women O

1

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

15

considerably in all but 1 State, and there the advance was slight. On
the other hand, the number of women’s injuries increased in 4 States—•
in 1 of them greatly—and in the other 7 the decline was less than in
the case of men.
Comparing 1931 statistics with 1929, the prosperous business year,
accidents to males decreased in every one of 12 States reporting,
while accidents to females actually increased in 4 States, Colorado,
Idaho, Illinois, and New York.
These facts may be summed up in this statement: While the trend
throughout the period is downward jor both males and females, it is less
marked for females than for males.
Unemployment figures help to explain tins situation. Unemploy­
ment has not been proportionately so high in woman-employing in­
dustries as in certain heavy industries employing only men, for exam­
ple, construction, steel, mining. A slighter decrease in exposure to
hazards has kept women’s accident rates from so consistent a decline.
Proportion women form of all injured persons

. Corresponding to the slighter decrease in number of women’s injur­
ies than of men’s, there appear for 1931 only 2 States in 14 in which
the proportion of accidents that were injuries to women was less than
5 percent, though in 1930 the proportion was less than 5 percent in 7
of the 14 States. Women’s accidents formed a slighter highly per­
centage of all accidents in 1931 than in 1930 in 11 of the 14 States in
which such a comparison is possible.
Ranking the States according to the proportion women formed of
injured persons in 1931 and in each other year of the 5-year period,
there is little variation in them position. Rhode Island, Massachu­
setts, and New York had the highest proportions in each year. The
point to be noted is the relation of this ranking to the proportion
women formed of all persons gainfully employed, or those in manu­
facturing and mechanical industries, in 1930. Giving due consider­
ation to the lack of uniformity of reports there can be no doubt of
the validity of the correlation shown.
In Industrial Accidents to Men and Women (Bui 81), covering
the years 1920 to 1927, the same tendency was apparent from a com­
parison of those data with statistics from the census of 1920. Since
1930 census data are available, this comparison for 1927-31 is useful
as corroboration. _ The tendency may be stated simply as follows:
Generally speaking, the proportions of accidents to women in the acci­
dents reported are greater where women constitute more considerable pro­
portions of the gainfully occupied and of those in manufacturing and
mechanical industries.
A survey of table 1 shows Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New
York to have the highest proportions of accidents to women in each
of the 5 years. These 3 States also had in 1930 the largest propor­
tions of women among those gainfully occupied and, with one excep­
tion (North Carolina), among those occupied in manufacturing and
mechanical industries.
Probably the basic explanation of the low proportion of women in
all accidents in Kentucky, Colorado, and Pennsylvania compared to
the percentage women were of the gainfully employed in these States
lies in the greater extent of employment of men in hazardous occupa­
tions. In Pennsylvania the iron and steel industry and mining con-

16

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

stitute the great employers of men, and women are entirely excluded
from their most hazardous phases. In Kentucky and Colorado, too,
mining is one of the principal hazardous industries, and in the latter
State it is one from which women are excluded by law.
_
Though it has been mentioned in connection with chart II, it may
be well to emphasize here that in excluding accidents to household
employees from the reports of most States one of the largest groups
of employed women is omitted and a considerable number of women’s
injuries are left out of consideration. Even with this important omis­
sion injuries to women are by no means of small importance. In
1931 each of 3 States reported over 4,800 injuries to women and each
of 7 States reported 1,500 or more injuries to women. As far as the
proportion women’s injuries are of the total is concerned, the omis­
sion of household employees is offset by the omission of agricultural
employees, an important group from the standpoint of men’s injuries.
Extent of disability

As in the earlier studies, death and permanent total disablement
form a very small part of all injuries and a smaller part of women’s
injuries than of men’s. Combined they amount to less than 0.5 per­
cent of all injuries to women in each of the 8 States7 reporting for
1930 or 1931. For men they range from 0.6 percent to 1.8 percent
of all injuries.
_ _
These percentages may make the problem of deaths in industry
seem slighter than is actually the case. Fifty-seven women in the 7
States reporting in 1930, and 53 women in the 8 States in 1931, lost
their lives in the course of gainful employment.
While by far the largest group of injuries, both to men and to
women, were temporary, a considerable number left some permanent
impairment. The fact that New York reported over 1,500 such seri­
ous disabilities to women in both years, New Jersey reported over
500 in 1931, and Illinois almost 400 in 1930, almost 500 in 1931, em­
phasizes the need for analysis of women’s injuries and the formulation
of a definite program for prevention.I
I Pennsylvania included, though only fatal cases reported.

Table 2.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by extent of disability, 1930 and 1931
[For sources of information, see appendix]

Percent1

Male

Total

Fatal

Female

Per­
Perma­ Tempo­
ma­
nent
nent partial
rary
total

Total

Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Male

Perma­ Tempo­
Total
nent
rary
partial

Fatal

Female

Per­
Perma­
Tempo­ Total
ma­
nent
nent partial
rary
total

Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Perma­ Tem­
nent
partial porary

1930

Maryland____ ____
New Jersey
Pennsylvania___ __
Wisconsin......... .......

2 7,544
5 44,000
12, 517
55, 906
25,525
97, 733
138,423
19,143

63
683
107
340
339
1,301
1,745
(,0)

1
343
38 612,840
1
578
7
1,072
(10)
12
50 21, 300
(10)
(10)

(10)

2,164

7,137
7 30,439
11,831
54,487
(10)

75,082
o°>
M

2 295
81,882
'889
5,835
2,058
9, 579
6,256
927

2
2
4
5
27
17
(10)

1
1

9
8 383
34
107
(10)

1,647
(10)

m
m

100

286
9 1,497
852
5, 724
(10)

7,905
Cio)
(10)

2 100. 0
6 100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

0. 8
1.6
.9
.6
1.3
1.3
1.3
(10)

(3)

0.1
p)
(3)

(>)
.1

(10)
(10)

4. 5
8 29 2
4.6
1.9
(10)

94. 6
94.5
97. 5
(10)

21.8

76. 8

(10)

(10)
(10)

11.3

3 1
loo. 6
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

.2
.1
.2
.3
.3
(10)

0.1

3.8

M

(10)

(i»)

(10)

17. 2

(>»>

10.8

95.8
(10)

82. 5

(10)

m

1931
2 5,796
ii 31, 266
9, 705
45,180
Minnesota
21218, 779
21,229
New York. ______
89,033
Pennsylvania...........
105,928
Wisconsin
16,067
1
2
3
4
B
6
7

47
547
77
278
202
287
1,143
1,476
(10)

3
31
3
5
5
16
64
(10)
(10)

277
6 9,165
469
959
1,393
6,795
18, 302
(10)

1,601

5,469
2 321
21,523
2,087
9,156
696
43,938
4, 826
17,179 2 is 1,795
14,131
1,979
69,524
9,391
(!0)
5,530
(10)
876

3
4
4
2
34
6
(10)

1
(ID)
(10)

4

For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
Less than 0.05 percent.
Closed compensable cases.
38, with extent of disability not reported, excluded.
Includes disfigurement.
Includes 534 with combinations of some kind of disability.

9
6 474
35
72
79
504
1,503
(10)

78

312 2 100.0
1,610 11 100. 0
661
100. 0
4, 750
100.0
1,711 2 12100,0
1,473
100. 0
100.0
7,850
m
100.0
(10)
100.0

0. 8
1. 7
.8
.6
1.1
1. 4
1.3
1.4
(ID)

0. 1
.1
(3)

(3)
«
.1
.1
(10)
(10)

4. 8
6 29.3
4. 8
2.1
7.4
32. 0
20.6
(10)

10.0

94. 4 2 100. 0
68. 8
100. 0
94. 3
100 0
97.3
100. 0
91.5 213100. 0
66. 6
100 0
78.1
100.0
(10)
100.0
(10)
100.0

2 8
6 22. 7

0 1
.1
.2
.1
.4
.1
(10)

0.1
P)
(10)
(10)

81, with extent of disability not reported, excluded.
9 Includes 17 with combinations of some kind of disability.
10 Not reported.
11 34, with extent of disability not reported, excluded.
12 Excludes 8,410 nondisabling cases.
13 Excludes 841 nondisabling cases.

1 5
4.4
25 5
16.0

(i°)

8.9

97. 2
77.1
95 0
98.4
95.3
74.4
83.6
(10)

OT

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Number 1

>—*■

18

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Six States reported comparable data on permanent partial dis­
abilities, 5 States on temporary disabilities, in both 1930 and 1931,
and for 4 of these a comparison with 1929 is possible.
Comparison of these States indicates that severity of injury,
especially in the case of men, has not yielded to preventive methods
and decrease in exposure to the same extent as has frequency of
injury.
In two States, Illinois and Maryland, the percentage of men suffer­
ing permanent partial disability increased throughout the 3-year
period. In_ Massachusetts there was a slight decrease in 1930; the
percentage in 1931 wTas higher than in 1930 but lower than in 1929.
In New York there was considerable increase in 1930 followed by a
decrease in 1931, the 1931 percentage remaining higher than the
figure for 1929. Wisconsin, reporting only for 1930 and 1931, shows
a decrease in this proportion.
In the case of women’s permanent.partial injuries, the proportion
decreased throughout the 3-year period reported for Massachusetts
and the 2 years reported for Wisconsin. In Maryland there was a
drop in 1930, but the 1931 percentage was the.same as for 1929. In
Illinois the proportion decreased in 1930 but increased in 1931. In
New York the proportion increased in 1930 and decreased in 1931
but the 1931 proportion was higher than that for 1929.
Table 3 following indicates that in one State at least permanent
partial injuries were almost as serious for women as for men from the
standpoint of time lost from work.
Table 3.—Number of days lost on account of temporary and permanent partial

disability cases, by extent of disability and sex—Illinois 1
[For sources of information, see appendix]
Number of injuries with
days lost reported

Number of days lost

Average number of days
lost per injury

Extent of disability
Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

1930
Total temporary and
permanent partial
cases2------------------- 41,864

40,057

1,807 1,651,917 1, 593,322

Permanent partial------- 10, 622
Temporary total--------- 31,165
77
Temporary partial------

10, 280
29, 707
70

342
1,458
7

58,595

39.4

39.8

32.4

731,937
859,472
1,913

19,666
38,856
73

70.8
28.8
25.8

71.2
28.9
27.3

57.5
26.7
10.4

2,084 1,270,967 1, 205,217

65,750

38.8

39.3

31.5

25,010
40, 740

62.6
29.1

63.2
29.3

52.8
25.5

761, 603
898,328
1,986
1931

Total temporary and
permanent partial
32,772
Permanent partial------

9,639
22, 965
168
Temporary partial------

30,688
9,165
21,370
153

474
1,595
15

603,803
667,164

578, 793
626,424

1 Closed compensable cases.
a Excludes the group “not otherwise classified”, a combination of temporary total and temporary partial
cases. There were 499 so classed, 484 men averaging 89 days lost and 15 women averaging 69.8 days lost.

Women lost an average of slightly over 8 weeks per injury in 1930,
men about 10 weeks; 7}{ weeks per injury was the average for women
in 1931, and 9 weeks for men. Of these permanent injuries in 1930,

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1030 AND 1931

19

11.4 percent of the women’s and 6.3 percent of the men’s were dis­
figurements; in 1931 the figures were respectively 11.8 percent and
10.2 percent. In 1930 women lost an average of 28.5 days, men an
average of 32.4 days, by the injuries whose permanent effect was
disfigurement; in 1931 the average was practically the same for
women (28.6 days), but men’s average dropped to 16.8 days.
Turning to the most important group of injuries in point of number
affected, it should be remembered that the severity of temporary
injuries reported varies from State to State. In Idaho, Illinois, New
Jersey, New York, and Wisconsin until April 24, 1931, only tem­
porary injuries that disabled for over 1 week are included. Massachu­
setts, Minnesota, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin since
April 24, 1931, have included injuries causing disability varying by
State from 1 shift to over 3 days.
Some data as to the actual severity of these injuries in terms of the
number of days lost on account of disability have been made available
for Illinois, 1930 and 1931 (table 3). In this State the average of
days lost per injury is much greater than the minimum required for
reporting. For the largest group of injuries to both men and women,
the temporary total disabilities, injuries to men were only slightly
more severe than those to women. Women averaged 26.7 days lost
from work in 1930, 25.5 days in 1931, and men averaged 28.9 days in
1930, 29.3 days in 1931. From this discussion the conclusion may be
drawn that while the frequency of injury is much greater for men than
for women, differences in severity in other than fatal injuries are slight.
Nature of injury

Considered by the nature of injury, the differences as between men
and women were slight. Cuts and lacerations were the type of
injury most common with women and usually next to the most com­
mon with men; bruises, contusions, or abrasions generally rank first
with men and second with women. For each sex these two groups
combined were from about two-fifths to almost one-half of all injuries.
In each State more than 10 percent ofmen’s cases were fractures, as
were more than 10 percent of women’s injuries in one State in 1930.
The most striking difference between men’s and women’s injuries
in this classification is in the proportion of infections. In Illinois in
1930 the proportion of women’s injuries that were infections was not
far from twice the proportion of men’s. In Iowa in both 1930 and
1931 women had about 2% times as high a proportion as men had.
In the latter State infections ranked second in women’s injuries in
both years. This is a type of injury almost completely preventable
and one that may have the most serious results. Woman-employing
industries might conduct an intensive educational campaign to reduce
the number of infections.
....
T.
Two significant points in connection with infections stated by Dr.
Mayers 8 may properly be emphasized here: (1) A small, jagged, and
irregular wound is much more dangerous from the standpoint of
infection than is a clean-cut one, no matter how large and dangerous
looking the latter may be; (2) when the wound is large and the injury
is a dramatic one, medical care usually is sought, but workers need
educating as to the dangers of infection and the need for early treat­
ment of even minor injuries.
8 New York. Department of Labor.
Mayers, M. D.

111876°—35------4

Industrial Bulletin, June 1932, p, 262.

Infection, by May R.

Table 4.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by nature of injury, 1930 and 1931

tO

[For sources of information, see appendix]
Percent1

1930

1931

1930

1931

Nature of injury
Indiana

Illinois i
2

Iowa 3

Indiana

Iowa 3 *

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

44, 038

1,883

30,003

1,815

6,880

315

21,264

1,579

5, 045

33
1,850

616
29, 387

43
1,772

6. 880

315

491
20, 773

44
1,535

5, 045

15

125

3

388

14

80

322 1,457
127
351
3
20
14
486 51, 693
(9
48

52
21
1

4, 295
1,039
15
290
4,124
(«)

285
106
•
1
8
439
m

960
242
12

39
11
1

1,138
61

79
2

Indiana

Iowa3

270

562
Total reported------- --------------------- 43, 476

Iowa 3

Indiana

Illinois 2

Total........................... ...............

Amputation--------------------------------

1,609
37
Bruise, contusion, or abrasion..
10,137
Burn or scald------------------------------ * 2,094
Concussion------------- ------- -----------59
227
Cut or laceration
8,955
Dislocation--------------------------------369
6
67
Fracture

66
1
381
* 124
5
1
416
19

521
6,275
1,599
20
381
5,770
«
3

2

7,557
88

201

3, 371
600

3, 322

240
33
60

896
278
Sprain or strain----------- --------------- 8 6,932
Not otherwise classified.................-

194

61
6
9 280 >o 4, 875
14

6,561

87

7

5 99
3

24
342
804
7
17
620
10

1

m

io 217 9 1,083
213
494
66

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

270

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

4

3.7
.1
23.3
*4.8
.1
.5
20.6
.8
(?)
.2

3.6
.1
20.6
*6.7
.3
.1
22.5
1.0

1.8

.8

1.8

1.0

1.9

.9

1.6

1.5

21.4
5.4
.1
1.3
19.6
(«)

18.2
7.2
.2
.8
27.4
«

21.2
5.1
.3

16.5
6.7
.3

20.7
5.0
.1
1.4
19.9

18.6
6.9
.1
.5
28.6

19.0
4.8
.2

14.4
4.1
.4

«

(«)

22.6
1.2

29.3
.7

2, 253

37

85

17.4
.2

10.9

5.5

.3
4.1
10.5

.4
1.1
4.1

7. 8
1.4

13.0
1.8

.3
10. 9

2

26.7

14
205
530

1
3
11

13
549

66

5
19

Male

72

(»)
9 33 io 3,812
5
7
4, 520

io 198
397

9 934
296

»38
9

2.1
.6
9 15.9
.4

« 24. 6 5 31.4
.7
1.0

Fe­
Male male Male Fe­
male

(0

.1
11.3

.2

11

Fe­
male

4.9

.4

.3
5.0
11.7
.1
.2
9.0

21.0

.1

.3

1.6
6.0

10.8

.2

.1

c)
(*)
3.3
.3
9 15.1 io 16.6 io 12. 2. 9 15.7 910.5 1018.4 1012.9
3.1
1.6
.8
22.3
27.9
1.0
2.2 21.8 25.9

i For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
a Closed compensable cases.
3 Some classifying done by Women's Bureau. The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
* Includes blisters not otherwise classified.
e Includes punctures.

100.0

.2
9

18.5
5.9

6 Included in sprain or strain,
7 Less than 0.05 percent.
8 included in cut or laceration.
8 Includes cases of hernia,
10 Includes dislocations and cases of hernia

® 14.1
3.3

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Number 1

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

21

Sewing-machine needle injuries are a kind of punctured wound that
in many cases becomes infected, and there are thousands of such
injuries.9 There were 912 sewing-machine needle injuries compen­
sated in New York State in 1931—45 percent of all injuries in the
textile industries of the State. They cost in compensation $64,350.
An average of about 40 needle injuries a day are reported in New
York City alone. These amount to about 12,000 injuries in 1 year
and about 20 percent are infected. Most of the injuries do not involve
a loss of time of more than a week, so they are not compensated, but
each one is a potential infection hazard.
Another large group of injuries to both men and women are sprains
and strains. This class constituted over.15 percent of men’s injuries
and over 10 percent of women’s injuries in both years.
Location of injury

Illinois for 1930 and Indiana for 1930 and 1931 give a more detailed
analysis showing, by nature of injury, the part of the body injured.
This is shown in tables 5 and 6, which include percentage distribution
according to nature and to location. About 60 percent of women’s
injuries in each State were to the upper extremities. This was also
the principal part of the body affected in men’s injuries but in a less
proportion (about 40 percent) of all men’s injuries. Lower extremities
were second in rank, being involved in over one-fifth of women’s
injuries and about three-tenths of men’s. Injuries to the trunk were
twice as common among men’s injuries as among women’s. In
Illinois the largest proportion of the injuries to upper extremities was
cuts or lacerations, infections ranking second with women and
fractures with men. Contusions ranked second with both men and
women in Indiana.
»Ibid., p. 283.

Needle Accidents in the Clothing Trades, by Kobert B. Northrup.

Table 5.—Nature and location of injuries to male and female employees, Illinois19S0

bO

[For source of information, see appendix]

bO

Nature of injury

Total number Not reported Total reported

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Head (not
otherwise
classified)

Male

Face and
neck

Upper ex­
tremities

Trunk

Lower ex­
tremities

Other and
not clas­
sified

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

59

6,924

221

16, 573

1,400 11, 530

565

1,055

43

59

134
6,790

12
209

142
16,431

19
143
1,381 11, 387

13
552

16
1,039

43

23

2

239
240
1
53
78

17
9

Fe­
male

NUMBER
Total

39,928

2,408

193

8

39, 735

2, 400

2,376

112

1,277

Not reported__________ ______ __ . ... __
720
Total reported 39, 208

61
2, 347

170
23

7
1

550
39,185

54
2, 346

103
2,273

10
102

12
1,265

1,227
27
21
8,948
1, 904
61
105
8.028
319
5
56
7,199
64
3,124
515
781
281
6,286
234

87
2
6
457
144
9

39

Amputation or enucleation... _________
Asphyxiation (except drowning)___ _____
Blister, not otherwise classified...
Bruise, contusion, or abrasion
Burn or scald___________ ______
___
Concussion ...
_
Crushing___
____ ___________________
Cut or laceration________ ______...
...
Dislocation_________ ________________
Drowning___ __ ____ __________________
Electric shock_______ ____ __________ _
Fracture.__________ ... . __
____
Freezing_
_ _ ____
... ___ __
Infection (septic)____ ___________________
Inflammation. ... _
. ________
Puncture____________
... .. ______
Sickness (general)_____
Sprain or strain (including hernia). _
..
Not otherwise classified__________
___

1,227
27
21
8, 953
1,904
61
106
8,030
319
5
57
7, 200
64
3,126
518
781
282
6,290
237

87
2
6
457
145
9
540
26

5
1
1
2

2
293

I
1

322
42
65
4
329
18

2
3
1
4
3

540
26
2
293
322
42
65
4
329
18

484
147
56
17
821
2
218
1
142
265
45
1
35

2
4
29

1
136
188

12
11

765

26

9
36

6
5
11
1
5

98
1
33
8
5
20
10

4
2
1
3

1,788
35
3
35
140
31
2
923
1
33
38
30
22
3, 628
75

1,106

87

80

92
5

15
2,533
713
1

6
150
88

5
3, 768
581

157
31

2
4

5,184
206

426
18

1,040
82

46
4

24
3

74
5

2
2,830
45
2,366
116
299
1
968
46

177
280
20
53
74
2

1
3,080
15
538
75
402
2
1,663
55

82
32
8
11
1
175
5

4

5
49
50
1
12
13

2

255
7
13

3
3
1

2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Location of injury

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION BY NATURE OF INJURY
100.0

Dislocation--------------------- -----------------------Electric shock_______________ ____________
Infection (septic)-------------------------------------

Sprain or strain (including hernia)---------Not otherwise classified------------------- -------

3.7
.1
.3
19.5
6.2
.4
23.0
1.1
.1
12.5
i§.7
1.8
2.8
.2
14.0
.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.1
9.6
(3)
6.2
11.7
2.0
(3)
1.5

.1
10.8
14.9

20.3
18.6

35.3

60.5

44.1

5.9

6.8

4.9
10.8
1.0

7.7
.1
2.6
.6
.4

3.4
1.7
5.1

4.9

1.6
.8

28.4
8.8

26.3
.5
(3)
.5
2.1
.5
l3)
13.6

(?)
.5
.6
.4
.3
53.4
1.1

100.0

100.0

00
33.1
5.1

28.4
5.6

9.1
:7

8.3
.7

w

23.0
23.1
.1
5.1
7.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

6.7

6.3

.7

44.6
2.4

.1
15.4
4.3
00

.4
10.9
6.4

1.0
1.9

31.6
1.3

30.8
1.3

100.0

00
.1

1.7
21.3
6.5
2.5
.7
36.1

100.0

2.2

5.4
.1

(3)
27.0
.1
4.7
.7
3.5
00
14.6
.5

41.9

58.9

29.1

90.1

100.0

20.1
3.5

28.3
37.4
1.6

32.8
61.1

.4

64.6
64.6

78.9

.5
4.7
4.8
.1
1.2
1.3

6.5

34.5
2.4

(3)
17.2
.3
14.4
.7
1.8
00
5.9
.3

8.9

11.5
1.4

12.8
20.T]
1.4
3.8

14.9
5.8
1.4
2.0
.2
31.7
.9

24.5 —
.7
1.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION BY LOCATION OF INJURY
Total reported--------- --------------------

Concussion---------------------------------------------Crushing________________________________
Cut or laceration-------------------------------------

Infection (septic)________________________
Inflammation___________________________

i Compensable cases occurring.

100.0

100.0

5.8

100.0
(0
(0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(2)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
(2)
(2)
100.0
100.0
(2)

4.3

3.2

2.5

3.2

100.0
(2)
(2)
100.0
100.0
(2)
100.0
(2)
100.0
(2)

5.4
7.7
91.8
16.2
10.2
3.6
3.0
1.6
4.5
51.5
5.8
.4
15.0

17.3
.2

6.3

1.5
9.9

2.6
7.6

6.7

9.5

4.8

2.0

1.4
1.6
1.1
1.6
.6

1.4

.3
4.3

.9

1.6
1.5

* Not computed; base less than 50.

.6

20.0
1.8
4.9
33.3
1.7
9.7
3.6
12.8
1.6
1.1
7.4
3.8
7.8
57.7
32.1

8.2
.9

22.5

3.6
39.3
70.3
75.7
22.5
38.3
.4
15.4
19.7

23.5

2.7

1.8

42.1
30.5

34.4
21.5

3.7
6.2

13.0
25.7

8.5

2.7
12.6
1.6
50.5
1.0

81.5

1.8
42.8
23.4
17.2
14.6
51.5

22.5

26.5

60.4
87.0

23.5

8 Less than 0.05 percent.

28.0
9.9

.7

87.5
.7
1.6
.4
2.5

16.9
53.2

90.7
.1
5.6

.9

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Bruise, contusion, or abrasion-----------------

3.1
.1
.1
22.8
4.9
.2
.3
20.5
.8
(3)
.1
18.4
.2
8.0
1.3
2.0
.7
16.0
.6

100.0

Table 6.—Nature

and location of injuries to male and female em-ployees, Indiana, 1930 and 1931

to
if*

[For sources of information, see appendix]

Nature of injury

Total
reported
Male

Head

Female

Male

Face and neck

Female

Male

Upper
extremities

Trunk

Female

Male

Female

Male

Lower
extremities

Female

Male

Not otherwise
classified

Female

Male

Female

NUMBER i IN 1930
Total____ ____ ________________________

29,999

1, 815

Not reported... __________________
Total reported....................... ..................................

612
29,387

43
1,772

2,951

106

783

25

Amputation___________________________ _____
Burn and scald___________ _ _________ _____
Concussion____________...______________
Contusions_____ ____ ________________________
Crushing_________ ___________________________
Cuts and lacerations___________________ _____
Dislocations, sprains, strains (including
hernia).____ ______________ __________
Fracture ...
Not otherwise classified.............................................

521
1,599
20
6, 275
381
5,770

15
127
3
322
14
486

233
20
163
7
629

5
3
10

249

11

84

2

28

74
1
250

2 4,875
3,322
3 6,624

3 217
87
3 501

68
1,831

60

32
72
105

2,951

106

783

25

7
1
4

5,059
5,059

152

11, 738

1,090

8,849

399

619

43
43

399

612
7

152

11,738

1,090
79

422

29

642
40
43

35

2,494

175

2,901

100

4,069

407

779

43

2 2, 713
550
3 987

2 44
15
354

1 246
1,762

277

1,935

106

8,849

1

4

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Location of injury

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION1 BY NATURE OF INJURY IN 1930
Total reported-------- ------------------------------

Dislocations, sprains, strains

Fracture_______________________________ ______
Not otherwise classified______________________

«

100.0

100.0

100.0

4.1
5.2

1.3
7.2

.5
4.8

.3
7.3

.7

21.3
1.9
34.7

16.1
1.2
37.3

32.8
1.3
8.8

25. 1
—
.3 —-.........
10.8

a 28.9
9. 9
3 35.5

7.3
10. 6
15.0

7.1
4. 4
25.4

14.4
21.9

23.8
—
6.0 .................
26.6

61.5

30.1

22.5

62.2

8.3
26.4

22.8

8.8
43.8
27.6
21.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.8
5.4
.1
21,4
1.3
19.6

.8
7.2

7.9

31.8

1.7

2.0

1872
.8
27.4

5.5
.2
21.3

4.7
2.8
9.4

12.7
.8
.8

23.0

26.4

9.5
.1
31.9

2 16.6
11.3
3 22.5

2 12.2
4.9
3 28.3

2.3
62.0

56.6

4. 1
9.2
13.4

2 53.6
10.9
3 19.5

(including

<<)

100.0

100.0

100.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION ‘ BY LOCATION OF INJURY IN 1930

Total reported........... ................—..................
Burn and scald----------------------------------------------Concussion....................................................................Contusions__________ ____ -------------- --------------Crushing--------- ------- --------------------- ------------ ------

100.0

100.0

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(4)
100.0
tv
100.0
(4)
100.0

2100.0
100.0
3 100.0

2 100.0
100.0
3 100.0

10.0
14.6

6.0
3.9

See footnotes at end of table.

15.6

2.6
1.8
10.9

3.1
5.8

1.2
.3
4.3

27.6

1276"

.7
2.2
1.6

Dislocations, sprains, strains (including
Fracture_______________________________ ______
Not otherwise classified----------------------------------

2.7

1.4

17.2

8.6

5.3

2.4

1.4

10.2
10.5
.7

10.9

.5

2 55.7

.8

3 14.9

8.7
.6

91.7
38.1

54.3

.2

39.7
57. 7
70.5

83.7

46.2
29.7
13.5

2 20.3
17.2
3 10.8

17.6
37.5
26.6

35.5
55. 2
55.3

26.1
41.7
29.2

(«)

—

.................

...............
.1

—
—

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Burn and scald----------------------------------------------Concussion-.......................................................... .........
Contusions----------------------------------------------- -----Crushing.......... ................... ....................-......................

100.0

(*)

100.0

to

Ox

Table 6.

Nature and location of injuries to male and female employees, Indiana, 1930 and 1931—Continued

to
OS

Location of injury
Total
reported
Male

Head

Female

Male

Face and neck

Female

Male

Female

Upper
extremities

Trunk

Male

Female

Male

Lower
extremities

Female

Male

Not otherwise
classified

Female

Male

Female

NUMBER 1 IN 1931
Total................. ..
Not reported_______
Total reported____ _______
Amputation_____________
Burn and scald____________
Concussion___________
Crushing. _

___

Dislocations, sprains, strains, (including
hernia)___________
Fracture.
Not otherwise classified

21,264

96

20,773

1,535

1,039
16
4,295
290
4,124

285
8
439

542

3,812
2,253
6 4, 557

106
1

3,960

144

25
141
15
132
4
430

8
1
10

48
1,166

160

24

2
188

49

24
57
73

198
6 399

25

3, 960

144

9

54

4

8, 348

919

5,975

8,348

919

5, 975

348

503

47

348

491
12

44
3

2

14
63

26
266

21

3

1

39
4

362
415
1,741
171
2,963

141

92

3

1

371

1,881
79
520

47
13
8 41

602
812
1,282

54
45
224

953
951
1,299

96
21
77

4
2

1

34
23
381
6 735

40

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Nature of injury

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION i BY NATURE OF INJURY IN 1931
Total reported .

III I III I"

100.0

100.0

1.9
5.0
.1
20.7
1.4
19.9

.9
6.9
18.6
.5
28.6

7.3
.8
6.8

8.3
1.0
10.4

22T2

18.4
10.8
6 21.9

12.9
5.5
6 26.0

2.5
60.2

.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

(4)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

4.3
5.0

1.5
6.9

.4
4.5

(4)

(4)

6.0

29.5

1.4

2.8

12.6

"27." i

25." 0

7.0
.4
34.7

20.9
2.0
35.5

15.3
.8
40.4

31.5
1.3
8.7

26.4
.3
11.5

4.2
51.0

4.4
10.5
13.5

56.4
9.6
6 18.6

32.6
9.0
B2S.5

7.2
9.7
15.4

5.9
4.9
24.4

15.9
15.9
21.7

27.6
6.0

59.9

28.8

22.7

59.4

6.7
25.6

49.5

43.8

.9
.6

22.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION i BY LOCATION OF INJURY IN 1931
Total reported.
Amputation........ ....................... ...............................
Burn and scald
Concussion
Contusions
Crushing______________ ___________1111111111 ■

IIIIIIIII"

Cuts and lacerations
Dislocations, sprains, strains (including
hernia)...__________ ________________
Fracture______ ______________________________
Not otherwise classified____ _________________

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
(0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(*)
100.0
(9
100.0
(4)
100.0

100.0
100.0
6 100.0

100.0
100. 0

9.3
13.6
1.4
10.4
2.1
26. 6

1 For period covered and injuries tabulated, see chart II facing p,
2 Includes 645 male and 7 female “hernias.”
3 £°cIu(les 60 male and 7 female internal injuries and 3 male drownings.
* Not computed; base less than 50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
6 Includes 37 male and 2 female internal injuries.

6.3
7.5

2.6
15.4

1.6

19.1

9.4

40.2
93.3
39.9

0.1

0.2

19.8

.3

.9

32.3

.1

8.5

5.2

3.8
13.7

40.5
59. 0
71.8

84.5

12.6

9.1

23.7
15.3
« 10.3

15.8
36.0
28.1

27.3
52.9
56.1

25.0
42.2
28.5

48.5
24. 7
19.3

5.5

.7
4.6

.9

11.6
11.7
.6

4.7
12.3

.6
2. 5
1.6

.5
2.4
1.8

58.6
16.9
6 16.1

.3

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Amputation...................................................................
Burn and scald_______________________ _______!
Concussion__________________________ _______
Contusions__________________________________
Crushing
Cuts and lacerations
Dislocations, sprains, strains (including
hernia)
Fracture___________________ __________
Not otherwise classified_________________ ____

to

-a

28

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Considered by principal type of injury, it will be noted that over
three-fourths of cuts and lacerations suffered by women in Illinois,
over four-fifths in Indiana, and about two-thirds of those by men in
each State, were to the upper extremities. The largest proportion of
bruises, contusions, or abrasions affected the lower extremities, except
for women in Indiana, where upper extremities ranked first. Upper
extremities received high proportions for both men and women in
other cases, too. Of infections among women in Illinois, not far
from nine-tenths were of injuries to the hands, arms, or fingers.
Though complete data as to nature or location of injury have not
been available for New York State, a special analysis of back injuries
among women was made for 1930.10 During the 12 months ended
June 30, 1930, there were 7,683 persons compensated for back injuries
in this State. Of these, 428 were to women, 5.6 percent of all women’s
compensated injuries. These do not include fractures and dislocated
vertebrae resulting from very serious accidents. Most of them were
strains, bruises, or lacerations. None of the women died or were
permanently disabled. Notwithstanding the fact that they were the
common back injuries, the average length of disability for women was
8 4 weeks
About 70 percent of these women were injured by falls—on stairs
and steps, from elevations such as chairs, boxes, and ladders, or on
level surfaces. Many falls on stairs were attributed to shoe heels
catching on stair treads. Though the reports were not complete on
this point, a number of restaurant workers gave slipping on wet floors
as the cause of injury.
About one-sixth of the 428 women suffered strains from handling
heavy objects. In 8 of the 72 cases disability lasted from 7 to 13
weeks. Nine other workers were even more seriously injured. In
two instances the combined total disability amounted to 235K weeks.
The analysis concluded that women should be warned against the
strain of lifting something not ordinarily handled by them. _
Over half of these back injuries were to employees in clerical and
personal service. Hotels and clubs had the largest number of injured.
Most of these were waitresses, maids, cooks, cleaners, and helpers.
Those employed in the care of apartments and offices were the next
largest group. Almost all these were janitresses, cleaners, and maids.
Clerical service—principally telephone operators and clerks—had 42
back injuries, the most frequent cause being falls on stairs.
Over one-fourth of women’s back injuries occurred in manufac­
turing, the largest number in any single industry being in the manu­
facture of clothing. The group of industries making metal products
and machinery ranked second, a considerable number of injuries
being caused by lifting heavy material.
Commercial industries reported 70 back injuries. Saleswomen were
the principal group affected.
These back injuries occurred to a somewhat older group than did
compensated injuries in New York in general. The largest number
of back injuries were to persons of 25 to 29 years, whereas total
injuries were most numerous to those of 20 to 24.
w New York.

Department ot Labor.

Industrial Bulletin, April 1931, pp. 222 and 224.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

29

DATA AS TO INJURED PERSONS
Age

i

In 1930 and 1931, as in earlier years, the most striking difference
between men’s and women’s injuries is the age of the victims. In
each of the 6 States reporting this in 1930 and the 7 in 1931 (shown
in table 7), the largest group of women were 16 to 20 years old. In
no State were the men of such ages a large proportion. Though a
larger proportion of all employed women than of all employed men
are in this age group, there is evidence to show that youth and its
characteristic inexperience are factors in accident frequency.

Table 7.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by age of injured, 1980 and 1981
[For sources of information, see appendix]
Massachusetts

Maryland

Indiana

New Jersey

New York

Rhode Island

Age
Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Wisconsin
Male

Female

NUMBER 2 IN 1930
5,835 |
44,038

Total
Total reported. _ -------------Under 16 years_______ ____
16 to 20 years
21 to 25 years--------------------26 to 30 years--------------------31 to 35 years............... ............
36 to 40 years.. ----- -------41 to 45 years.. -------- ----46 to 50 years _ - - 51 years and over

43,490
69
3, 237
s 4,878
s 6,065
5 6,000
5 6,183
5 5, 525
s 4, 478
5 7,055

1,883
1, 855
3
440
5 290
s 239
5 209
5 234
5 175
5 105
5 160

30,003
29,540

1,815
1,774

< 1,885

<350

< 9, 765

<674

4 7, 617

<363

4 5,668
4 4, 605

< 237
< 150

25,525

2,058

97,733

9,579

3, 281

467

19,143

856

55,906

5,835

25, 525

2,058

90,197

8,654

3, 218

464

18, 784

903

26
261
142
112
94
69
67
36
49

413
6,168
9,084
7,924
7,183
7,189
5, 272
4, 529
8,144

85
1,344
1,149
712
668
591
481
373
432

89
2,199
e 23, 237

32
458
6 1, 568

207
7, 767
13,809
13,882
12, 515
12, 717
9,697
7,802
11,801

60
1,954
1,556
1,194
940
982
672
591
705

15
459
454
426
412
372
319
254
507

5
145
89
45
47
40
30
28
35

3 238
3 2,728
3 2,838
3 2,426
3 2,200
3 2,233
3 1,821
3 1, 611
3 2, 789

334
3 258
3 143
3 75
3 86
3 94
3 66
3 52
*95

100.0

100.0

3 1.3
14.5
15.1
12.9
11.7
11.9
3 9.7
3 8.0
3 14.8

3 3.8
3 28.6
3 15.8
3 8.3
3 9.5
3 10.4
3 7.3
3 5.8
3 10.5

889

55,906

12, 213
40
1, 396
2,126
1, 979
1,565
1,497
1,156
939
1,515

12,517

927

PERCENT 2 IN 1930

-

100.0

100.0

Under 16 years.
16 to 20 years---------------------21 to 25 years...... ............. .......
26 to 30 years.
. ..............
31 to 35 years---------------------36 to 40 years—____ _______
41 to 45 years--------------------46 to 60 years---------------------51 years and over

.2
7.4
11.2
13.9
13.8
14. 2
12.7
10.3
16.2

.2
23.7
5 15.6
5 12.9
6 11.3
b 12.6
«9.4
6 5.7
3 8.6

Total reported. _______

s
«
®
*
®
3
«

100.0

100.0

<6.4

< 19.7

<33.1

<38.0

<25.8

<20.5

< 19.2
< 15.6

< 13.4
4 8. 5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.3
11.4
17.4
16.2
12.8
12.3
9.5
7.7
12.4

3.0
30.5
16.6
13. 1
11.0
8. 1
7.8
4.2
5.7

.7
11.0
16.2
14.2
12.8
12.9
9.4
8.1
14.6

1.5
23.0
19.7
12.2
11.4
10.1
8.2
6.4
7.4

.3
8.6
6 91.0

1.6
22.3
6 76.2

.2
8.6
15.3
15.4
13.9
14.1
10.8
8.6
13.1

.7
22.6
18.0
13.8
10.9
11.3
7.8
6.8
8.1

.5
14.3
14.1
13.2
12.8
11.6
9.9
7.9
15.8

1.1
31.2
19.2
9.7
10.1
8.6
6.5
6.0
7.5

3
3
3
3
3

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Illinois 1

NUMBER 2 IN 1931

Illinois1

Indiana

Maryland

Massachusetts

Minnesota

New Jersey

New York

Rhode Island

Wisconsin

Male

Female

31,300

2,087

31,074
45
1,827
«3, 302
5 4,243
5 4, 328
e 4' 727
5 4, 078
5 3i 293
5 5, 231

2,069
3
475
6 301
5 292
6 242
5 267
6182
5 125
5 182

Male Female

Male Female

Male

21, 264

9,705

696

45,180

4,826 7 27,189

9,466

671

45,180

4,826

24,718

29
940
1,640
1,498
1,313
1,191
890
724
1,241

12
186
124
80
64
72
44
36
53

176
4,352
7', 127
6,726
5,926
5,831
4,676
3, 773
6, 593

35
1,160
996
606
498
551
350
285
345

21,022

1,579
1,552

4 1,011

4 266

4 6,760

4 585

4 5, 561

*338

4 4,321
4 3, 369

4 224
4 139

Female

Male

Female

Male Female

Male Female

Male

7 2,636

21,229

89,033

2,440

354

16,067

2,356

343

15,745

854

3149
3 2, 014
3 2,443
3 2,166
3 1,991
31,950
3 1,597
3 1,317
3 2,118

3 25
3 242
3 136
3 95
3 85
3 87
3 75
3 46
363

100.0

44
2,199
4,402
4,082
3,472
3, 283
2,444
1,839
2,953

1,979

8,426

Male Female

19,040

1,781

1
59
574
1,661
567 5 2,154
324 fi 2, 666
227 5 2, 758
215 6 2, 762
155 8 2, 330
115 81, 784
130 5 2,866

7
475
8 279
s 195
8 178
8 183
8136
5 132
5 196

115
6,367
12, 485
12,859
111 736
11,790
9,004
7,189
10, 508

29
1, 718
1,603
1,113
'877
968
712
632
774

6
273
331
296
304
294
247
219
386

2
98
69
46
40
37
20
11
20

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

(1 2 3 4 * * 7.3
8)
24.9
8.7
24.6
8 11.3
8 14.0
14.0
9.8
8 14.5
9.3
614.5
6.7
« 12.2
5.0
6 9.4
5.6
» 15.1

.4
26.7
5 15.7
5 10.9
5 10.0
8 10.3
«7.6
»7.4
811.0

.1
7.8
15.2
15.7
14.3
14.4
11.0
8.8
12.8

.3
20.4
19.0
13.2
10.4
11.5
8.5
7.5
9.2

.3
11.6
14.0
12.6
12.9
12.5
10.5
9.3
16.4

.6
28.6
20.1
13.4
11.7
10.8
5.8
3.2
5.8

3.9
3 12.8
3 15.5
3 13.8
3 12.6
3 12.4
3 10.1
3 8.4
313.5

2,308

82,053

9,391

Female

876

PERCENT 2 IN 1931
Total reported____ ______
16 to 20 years_______ _____
26 to 30 years
36 to 40 years____ ________
46 to 50 years.........................
51 years and over...... ...........
1
2
3
4
6
*
7
8

100.0

100.0

.1
5.9
s 10.6
8 13.7
6 13.9
5 15.2
5 13.1
«10.6
816.8

.1
23.0
514.5
8 14.1
811.7
«12.9
*8.8
8 6.0
8 8.8

100.0
4 4.8
4 32. 2

100.0
417.1
»
‘37.7

4 26.5

4 21.8

4 20.6
416.0

4 14.4
‘9.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

7 100.0

.3
9.9
17.3
15.8
13.9
12.6
9.4
7.6
13.1

1.8
27.7
18.5
11.9
9.5
10.7
6.6
5.4
7.9

.4
9.6
15.8
14.9
13.1
12.9
10.3
8.4
14.6

.7
24.0
20.6
12.6
10.3
11.4
7.3
5.9
7.1

.2
8.9
17.8
16.5
14.0
13.3
9.9
7.4
11.9

Closed compensable cases.
For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
Age groups are 17 and under, 18 and under 23, 23 and under 28, and in 5-year groups to 53 and over.
Age groupings are under 20, 20 and under 30, and in 10-year groups to 50 and over.
Age groupings are 21 to 24, 25 to 29, and in 6-year groups.
21 and over.
The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.
Less than 0.05 percent.

7100.0

3
3
3
3
3

3 2.9
28.3
15.9
11.1
10.0
10.2
3 8.8
3 5.4
» 7. 4

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Age

CO

32

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

For this period comparison is possible with data from the census of
1930, similar to that made with census data of 1920 in the first
bulletin in this series on accidents. The following tabulation lists
the 9 States with the proportion of women injured who were 16 and
under 21 years of age and the proportion women 16 and under 20
formed of all gainfully employed women. Though the census data
do not include the age 20, the proportion injured.is so much higher
in every case that youth undoubtedly is a factor in the incidence of
accidents to women. Too much attention cannot be given to the
hazards of employment surrounding young persons, especially girls.
—Accident frequency among girls and older women, by State

Table 8.

State

Percent of injured
women 16 and under
21 years old 1

1930

Massachusetts-----------------------

23.7
< 19.7
30.5
23.0

Wisconsin...................................

22.3
22.6
31.2
6 28. 6

1 From table 7.
2 U. S. Bureau of the Census,
s Includes all 45 or more.
* Includes all under 20.
* Includes all 40 or more.
«18 and under 23.
i18 and under 25.
s Includes all 43 or more.

1931
23.0
« 17. 1
27.7
24.0
24.9
26.7
20.4
28.6
6 28.3

Percent
of all
gainfully
occupied
women 16
and under
20 years
old 2
14.9
* 12.8
13.9
12.7
12.7
18.7
15.0
17.5
^36.2

Percent of injured
women 46 or more
years old 1

1930
a 14.3
5 21.8
9.9
13.8
15.0
13.6
8 16.3

1931

Percent
of all
gainfully
occupied
women 45
or more
years old 3

3 14.8
5 23. 4
13.3
13.1
10.6
3 18.4
16.7
9.0
812.8

17.5
5 31.8
22.0
22.5
18.7
16.7
17.9
19.6
19.2

Fifteenth Census: 1930, vol. IV, Population, Occupations, table 8.

This conclusion is supported by the fact that women 46 years of
age and over had considerably fewer accidents than their number
among the gainfully employed would indicate. Census figures, shown
are for women of 45 and more, and figures available for the injured
women were in most cases for women of 46 and more.. But even in
2 States where the age grouping was the same and in 2 where the
grouping of the injured was more inclusive, the percent of women
injured remained smaller than the percent women of these ages formed
of all gainfully employed women. This was true in Indiana also,
where the group 40 years and older is considerably smaller than the
comparable group reported by the census as gainfully occupied. This
is true in spite of the fact, generally conceded, that older persons re­
cover from injuries more slowly than do girls and boys, and so more
of their accidents would be reportable to compensation authorities.
Differences in exposure undoubtedly are a partial explanation of the
small proportion of injuries to older women, but the steadying influ­
ences of age and experience also are factors of importance. This is
especially important to bear in mind at a time when industries are
refusing employment on the basis of age at 40 years or even younger.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

33

Age and extent of disability

While it is established that young women have a disproportionate
number of injuries, the evidence presented in table 9 with regard to
seriousness of inj ury by age is not so definite. Leaving for the moment
the two worst classes of injury, analysis of permanent partial cases in
1930 seems to show younger women at least as liable as older women
to such disabilities. In every State but New York in 1930 the
younger women had a higher proportion of such injuries than had the
older women, more injuries to older women than to the younger ones
being temporary. The evidence is not clear in 1931, the proportion
that permanent partial injuries formed of all injuries being less in
the case of women under 21 than of the older women in 4 of the 6
States reporting.

OO

Table 9.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by extent of disability and age group, 1930 and 1931
[For sources of information, see appendix)

Male

Male

Female

Female

State and age group
Total

Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Per­
ma­
nent
par­
tial

Tem­
po­
rary

Total

Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Per­
ma­
nent
par­
tial

Tem­
po­
rary

Total Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
par­
tial

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Per­
ma­
nent
par­
tial

Tem­
po­
rary

(6)
0.1

3 27.9
3 29.2

4 71.1
7 69.2

100.0
100.0

0.1

3 25.7
3 18.5

3 74.3
8 81.4

Total Fatal

Per­
ma­
nent
total

Tem­
po­
rary

1938
Illinois:2
3,306
40;i51

32
601

1
30

3 921
3 11,733

i 2, 352
7 27, 787

443
1, 411

2

3 114
3 261

6 329
8 1,148

100.0
100.0

1.0
1.5

1,436
10,777

6
91

1

57
509

1,373
io; 176

287
569

2

17
15

270
552

100.0
100.0

.4
.8

«

4.0
4.7

95.6
94.4

100.0
100.0

.4

5.9
2.6

94.1
97.0

6, 581
49,325

21 years and over—
Maryland:

13
327

7

119
953

6,449
48; 038

1,429
4,406

4

41
66

1,388
4,336

100.0
100.0

.4
.8

(•)

4.0
4.7

95. 6
94.4

100.0
100.0

.4

5.9
2.6

94.1
97.0

2, 288
23,237

25
314

1
11

(9)
(»>

490
1,568

5

m

(9)
m

100.0
100.0

1.1
1.4

(6)
(■)

(9)
(»)

(9)
(»)

100.0
100.0

.3

7, 974
82' 223

71
1,202

1,344
18; 808

6,559
62,165

2,014
6,640

5
21

250
1,286

1,759
5,333

100.0
100.0

.9
1.5

16.9
22.9

82.3
75.6

100.0
100.0

.2
.3

10 300
io 1,843

m
«

10 292
10 611

io 39
10 61

m
(»)

Massachusetts:
New Jersey:
21 years and*over..
New York:

21 years and over—
Wisconsin:
Under 21 years.
2, 966
21 years and over.. io 15,818

(•>
<9)

48
(»>

m

(9)

ra

(9)

m
m

1
m

to

10100.0
10100.0

m
m

.1
(•)
(>)

io 10.1
10 11.7

(»)
(•)

10100.0
10100.0

m

(»)

(•)

0)

00
(»)

(9)

12.4
19.4

0.1

87.3
80.3

io 13.4
io 10. 0

m

m
(•)

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Percent1

Number 1

1931
Maryland:

100. 0
100.0

0.2
.8

(«)

6.0
4.7

93.8
94.4

40| 652

261

5

84
875

21 years and over— » 15* 570
New Jersey:
Under 21 years___ 12 1,307
21 years and over.. « 17, 733

168

4

1,169

12 12
12 250

1216

1,067

60

21 years and over.. 75, 571
Wisconsin:
Under 21 years___ 10 2,163
21 years and over.. 1013, 582

(9)
(■)

(1!)

(")
(■)

1,195
3, 631

21
51

1
3

1< 229 11 1,192

1
1

39, 511

1,173
3; 577

100.0
100.0

.4
.6

(*)

1.9
2.2

97.8
97.2

100.0
100.0

0.1
.1

12 313
12 982
12 398
12 5,833 12 11,634 121, 383
16,337
10189
101,395

58,107
m
(*)

1, 747
6, 679
10 267
10 587

(u)

12 2

1

16
53

364 11 100.0
1,137 u 100. 0

.6
1.1

(«)

5.8
7.5

93.7 11 100.0
91.4 11 100.0

.3
.1

(u)

(12) 12 23.9 12 75.1 12100.0
12 0.1 12 32.9 12 65. 6 12 100.0

(1!)
12.1

12.9
1294
12 304 12100. 0
12 361 12 1, 020 12 100. 0 12 1.4

(u)

3
31

4
(»)
(»)

m
(*)

94.9
94.9

1.8
1.4

98. 2
98.5

4.2
4.4

95. 5
95.4

(12)

12 23.6
12 26.1

12 76.4
1* 73.8

.1

10.4
18.0

89. 5
81.4

100.0
100.0

181
1,205

1,563
5, 439

10 23
10 53

(»)
w

100.0
100.0
10 100. 0
10 100.0

(6)

.8
1.4

.1

(9
(')

«

14.9
21.6
m 8.7
1010.3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

84.3
76.9
(•)
(•>

100.0
100.0
10100. 0
10100. 0

.2
.5
(»>
«

___
0.1
(«)

(")
(*)

108.6
109.O

«
(B)

For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
Closed compensable cases.
Includes disfigurement.
Includes 38 with combinations of some kinds of disability.
Includes 4 with combinations of some kinds of disability.
Less than 0.05 percent.
Includes 478 with combinations of some kind of disability.
Includes 12 with combinations of some kind of disability.
9 Not reported.
10 Age groups are under 23, and 23 years and over.
...
11 The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2; nondisabling accidents are excluded.
is Age groupings are under 20 years, and 20 years and over. Fatals and permanent totals were also given by the age groupings, under 21 years, and 21 years and over, as follows:
Females

Males
Age group
Total

21 years and over-----------

1,720
17;320

Fatal

18
244

Permanent
total
1
15

Total

482
1,299

Permanent
total

Fatal

2

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

188
449

Massachusetts:
21 years and over—

5.1
5.1

10
24

473

402

CO
Cn

36

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Of the 87 fatal and permanent total cases to women in the 2 years,
10 occurred to women under 21. This is somewhat higher than their
proportion among the gainfully employed, but the figures are too
small for the drawing of conclusions.
Age and cause of injury

In each year New Jersey has reported statistics on the cause of dis­
ability by age groups that have considerable importance in planning
a prevention program. The data for 1930 and 1931, showm in table
10, corroborate further the conclusions made in the bulletin covering
the years 1928 and 1929. These are restated briefly here, omitting
the discussion.
There are very decided differences in the cause of disability be­
tween younger and older women and between men and women of
each age class. In each year considerably over one-third of the inju­
ries to women under 21 were caused by machinery. A similar pro­
portion of the injuries to women 21 years and over were caused by
falls. Twice as high a percentage of young women as of women 21
and over had accidents with machinery, and the older women had
more than twice the percentage shown by younger women of injuries
caused by falls. While younger men had a higher share of injuries
from machinery and older men from falls, the differences in proportion
were not great. Both classes of men suffered most disabilities from
the handling of objects and hand tools, which also ranked high as a
cause of women’s injuries. By age, the difference in proportions of
injuries from this cause was comparatively slight for either men or
women. A considerable part of male injuries were by vehicles, and
an appreciably larger part of accidents to boys under 21 than to older
men were so caused.

37

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931
Table

10.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by cause and age
group, New Jersey
[For sources of information, see appendix]
1930

1931

Male

Female

Male

Cause of injury

Female

Under 21 years Under 21 years Under 21 years Under 21 years
and
and
21 years
21 years
21 years and 21 years and
over
over
over
over
NUMBER i
Total......................................
Machinery___
Falls of persons___________
Handling of objects and hand tools-.Stepping on or striking against objectsExplosions, electricity, heat, etc
Falling objects_____ _________
Vehicles____________
Harmful substances and occupational
disease____________________
Miscellaneous and indefinite.. .. _

2,288

23, 237

490

1, 568

482

31,497

469
247
800
163
107
75
275

2,465
3, 955
8, 280
1, 513
1, 111
1, 617
2,253

187
92
112
33
19
7
6

308
583
282
127
81
45
30

312
189
582
127
78
56
232

1,924
3,486
7, 131
1,149
899
1,135
1,944

182
69
130
47
19
6
7

284
522
311
102
77
44
38

33
119

646
1,397

6
28

20
92

40
104

603
1,238

1
21

16
103

1,720 U9,509

PERCENTi
Total...................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2 100.0

100.0

3 100.0

Machinery..........................
Falls of persons_______ ________ ___
Handling of objects and hand tools- - Stepping on or striking against objects.
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc
Falling objects_________ _______
Vehicles______________
Harmful substances and occupational
disease. .. ____________
Miscellaneous and indefinite................

20.5
10.8
35.0
7.1
4.7
3.3
12.0

10.6
17.0
35.6
6.5
4.8
7.0
9.7

38.2
18.8
22.9
6.7
3.9
1.4
1.2

19.6
37.2
18.0
8.1
5.2
2.9
1.9

18.1
11.0
33.8
7.4
4.5
3.3
13.5

9.9
17.9
36.6
5.9
4.6
5.8
10.0

37.8
14.3
27.0
9.8
3.9
1.2
1.5

19.0

1.4
5.2

2.8
6.0

1.2
5.7

1.3
5.9

2.3
6.0

3.1
6.3

4.4

6.9

2 9
2.5

1 For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
2 Includes 2,189 cases for which age was not stated.
3 Includes 198 cases for which age was not stated.

The influence of youth in the causation of accidents seems fairly
well established, and certainly from this standpoint the demand for
young girls rather than older women as machine operators is unfor­
tunate. Study of individual industries probably would point to the
necessity for prohibiting the work of young girls and boys on certain
machines and for further safeguarding their employment on others.
Age and wage

The serious aspect of injuries to youths lies not only in their fre­
quency and severity but in the low compensation received, due to the
lower wage of young persons. The only statistics available to show
this are those for permanent partial disability cases in Wisconsin,
1930 and 1931 (see table 11). In 1931 the average weekly wage for
all injured women was $19.22, but of the 14 girls under 21 who were
injured, 13 averaged $14.62 a week and 1 earned $9. In both years
women reached the peak of their earning capacity at 36 to 40 years.
It is especially unfortunate that young girls living on a wage that
allows little or no saving for emergencies, and who must receive even
a lower compensation because of the low wage, should be faced with
some disability permanently impairing their earning power.

38

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Table 11.—Distribution of 'permanent partial disability cases in Wisconsin, 1930

and 1931, by age, sex, and wage

[For sources of information, see appendix]
1930

1931

Male

Female

Male

Female

Age
Per­ Aver­
Per­ Aver­
Per­ Aver­
Per­ Aver­
Num­ cent
age
age Num­ cent
age Num­ cent
age Num­ cent
ber distri­ weekly ber distri­ weekly ber distri­ weekly ber distri­ weekly
bution wage
bution wage
bution wage
bution wage
Total-.-----

21
Total reported------ 2,143

100. 0

1
171
324
308
270
275
195
207
132
113
81
48
18

C1)
8.0
15.1
14.4
12.6
12.8
9.1
9.7
6.2
5.3
3.8
2.2
.8

14 to 15 years
16 to 20 years..........
21 to 25 years..........
26 to 30 years-------31 to 35 years-------36 to 40 years..........
41 to 45 years..........
46 to 50 years..........
51 to 55 years
56 to 60 years..........
61 to 65 years
66 to 70 years-------71 to 75 years

27. 00
21.69
28.46
31. 73
33. 88
33. 81
32. 88
31.15
30.27
31.04
29. 36
28. 33
27.17

100

$17.83 1,601

100

$30.68

2,164

100.0

17
1,584

$29. 51
100.0

1
30
13
14
13
8
7
4
6

1.0
30.0
13.0
14.0
13.0
8.0
7.0
4.0
5.0

17.00
16. 53
16. 00
18. 50
19. 38
21.50
18. 86
14. 75
18. 80

3
1
1

3.0
1.0
1.0

20.00
19. 00
15. 00

1
104
194
206
210
203
172
148
116
101
75
31
19
4

0.1
6.6
12.2
13.0
13.3
12.8
10.9
9.3
7.3
6.4
4.7
2.0
1.2
.3

$19.22

78
2
76

22. 00
19. 54
26. 73
30. 42
32.73
32. 61
30.02
30. 68
30. 55
27.89
31.05
25. 23
25.47
32. 25

100.0

1
13
13
8
9
6
10
4
5
2
3
2

1.3
17.1
17.1
10.5
11.8
7.9
13.2
5.3
6.6
2.6
3.9
2.6

9.00
14.62
16. 69
17. 50
22. 22
28.83
17.80
19.75
24.60
26.00
23. 67
15. 50

» Less than 0.05 percent.

Marital status and number of dependents

There are few data as to marital status of injured persons and the
only States compiling such data by sex are Illinois and North Carolina
(see tables 12 and 13). It is strikingly apparent in Illinois that
married women are exposed to greater hazards than are single women.
While married women are little over one-fourth (26.7 percent) of all
gainfully occupied women in this State, they sustained over twofifths of all injuries to women in 1930, nearly as many as single
women, who constitute not far from three-fifths of the gainfully em­
ployed women. These data were available also for 1929 and the
relative proportions were very similar. This is even more remarkable
considered in relation to age data. In Illinois as in other States the
largest proportion of injured women were 16 to 20 years of age, a
group including, without doubt, a greater proportion of single women
than the older groups. •
The explanation of tlus preponderance of married women among
the injured is to be found in differences of occupation. Table 14 lists
the largest proportions of accidents to women in Illinois in the fol­
lowing industrial groups: Manufacturing, under which the main
groups reporting injury were food, beverages, and tobacco; metals
and metal goods, including machinery and vehicles; textiles, including
clothing; and clerical, professional, and personal service, under which
hotel and restaurant employees were the largest group of injured.
Correspondingly, the census reports a larger proportion of married
women in each of these industries than the married women were of
all gainfully occupied. Of all women in manufacturing, 30.8 percent
were married; of laborers in food and allied products, 37.3 percent; of
slaughtering and meat packing employees, 40.7 percent;of iron, and

39

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

steel, machinery and vehicle employees, 31 percent; in the suit, coat,
and overall industry, 37.7 percent; in knit goods, 30.4 percent; of all
domestic and personal service employees, 33.9 percent; and of the
waitress group, 37.6 percent.
Table 12.—Marital status of injured women and number of their children under

16, by average weekly wage, Illinois, 19301
[For source of information, see appendix]
Women whose average weekly
wage was—
Marital status and number of
children under 16

Num­
Num­
ber
ber of
with
women wage
injured not re­
ported

TotgJ with
wage reported
Less than $15

$40 and over

Num­
Num­
Num­
Percent
Percent
Percent
ber
ber
ber
Total. .............................. ..............

2,408

7

2,401

Marital status not reported 2
Total with marital status reported-. _

31
2,377

1
6

30
2,371

Single.......................... -_____ _________
Married____________________________

1,105
977
517
341
111
8

3
1

1,102
976
517
340
111
8

295
187
86
13
9

2
2

293
185
86
13
9

1 or 2 children.-.
Number of children not reported.
Widowed or divorced_______ _______
No children................................ .........
Number of children not reported

1

100.0

655

27.3

85

3.5

100.0

4
651

27.5

1
84

3.5

100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100. 0

293
296

26.6
30.3

50
21

4.5
2.2

116
42
3

34.1
37.8

3

]9
1.8

100.0
100.0
100. 0

62
38
21
2
1

21.2
20.5
24.4

13
10
3

4.4
5.4
3.5

1 Compensable cases occurring. Percents not computed where base less than 50.
* Some of these had children under 16.

On the other hand, single women were between 70 and 80 percent
of all telephone operators, clerical employees, and professional per­
sons, and were practically half (49.7 percent) of all saleswomen. Over
a third (34.7 percent) of the gainfully employed single women were in
clerical occupations and just over 17 percent (17.1) were in profes­
sional work. These occupational differences explain the greater
accident frequency of married women, and they add proof that mar­
ried women are working through necessity and not choice or they
would not be so largely in the less attractive and more hazardous
industries.
_ The situation in North Carolina, as shown in table 13, is somewhat
different. Both single and married women have a larger proportion
of injuries, and the widowed and divorced have a smaller proportion,
than their distribution among the gainfully occupied would indicate.
Again the explanation lies in difference of occupation. Almost 75
percent of all the gainfully employed widows in North Carolina were
in agriculture and domestic service, two industries where reporting of
accidents is not required. Just over 21 percent of the widows, as
compared to about 14 percent of the single women and 17 percent of
those married, were servants. This concentration where accidents
are not compensable probably is the explanation for the low propor­
tion of injuries occurring to the widowed. On the other hand, over
30 percent of married women and just over 25 percent of single women

40

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

were in manufacturing, where the hazards of machinery are greatest
and reporting is likely to be most complete.
Table 13.—Marital status of injured women, North Carolina, 1930
[For source of information see appendix]

Marital status

Total
Single_________
- - ------------Married
Widowed and divorced

Number

Percent

Marital
status of all
gainfully
occupied
women 1

2,297

100.0

100.0

1,173
917
207

51.1
39.9
9.0

47.2
35.5
17.2

lU.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census: 1930, vol. IV, Population, Occupations, p. 75.
includes “status unknown” with single women in computing percents.

Census

Several other facts presented in table 12 are of interest in a study
of the costs to society of industrial injury. The first of these is the
number of married women who had children at least partially depend­
ent upon their earnings. This is not, by any means, a complete
picture of family responsibility, as many single women have dependents
and many a married woman has other relatives besides her children
dependent on her earnings.
Of the married women 46.6 percent had children, 11.5 percent having
3 or more. Of the widowed and divorced women, 34.6 percent had
children.
Whatever the cause—age or occupation or both—the figures show
clearly a lower wage status for women with children under 16 than for
those who had no children. For example, 34.1 percent of the married
women with 1 or 2 children and 37.8 percent of those with 3 or more
had weekly wages of less than $15, in contrast to 26.1 percent of the
married women who had no children under 16. Of the widowed or
divorced women who had children, 23.2 percent had earnings of less
than $15, in contrast to 20.5 percent of those without children. At
the opposite extreme as regards wages—$40 or more a week—were
3.1 percent of the married women and 5.4 percent of the widowed or
divorced women without children, but only 1.1 percent of the married
women and 3 percent of the widowed and divorced who had children.
Thus the mothers of children had less compensation than had childless
women, instead of more, during the disability caused by industrial
injury. The inequities of the much lower wages of women than of
men are another story and one that need not be repeated here. (See
pages 54-56.)
INDUSTRIES IN WHICH INJURIES OCCURRED

Five States reported injury by industry and by sex in 1930 and 1931While these data are not complete for each State, they furnish
valuable information on the source of injury. (See table 14 and
plate III.)
Naturally there is considerable difference between the industries
showing a high proportion of men’s accidents and those showing a high
proportion of women’s accidents. Manufacturing was the principal

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

41

source of injury both to men and to women in all States but Pennsyl­
vania, where injuries to men in mining and related industries out­
ranked all other groups. In 3 States in 1930 the proportion of women's
injuries that were in manufacturing exceeded 50 percent of all women’s
injuries. Domestic and personal service generally ranked second for
women, hotels and restaurants figuring most largely in this.
Only 3 States in 1930, 2 in 1931, reported subgroups under manu­
facturing. Food, beverages, and tobacco ranked first in number of
injuries to women in Indiana and Wisconsin in both years, metals,
metal goods, machinery and vehicles in Illinois in 1930. Food, bever­
ages, and tobacco ranked second in Illinois; clothing had the second
largest number in Indiana; metals, metal goods, and machinery in
Wisconsin. In each of these States the manufacturing of metals and
metal goods (machinery included in Wisconsin and machinery and
vehicles in Illinois) accounted for the largest group of men injured.
Wood and wood products manufacture ranked second for men in each
State except Illinois in 1930, where the food group ivas the second
largest.
Of the other main industry groups, the clerical, professional, and
personal-service _ groups ranked second in proportion of women’s
injuries except in Pennsylvania, where the tabulating of domestic
and personal service in the residual group “other” changes the rank.
Clerical, professional, and personal service is relatively unimportant
in the total of men’s injuries, which are caused instead by construc­
tion, metallurgy, quarrying, and transportation, with comparatively
few injuries to women. Trade accounts for a larger part of women’s
than of men’s accidents in all States and both years, excepting only
New Jersey in 1931, where the figures are alike.
The importance of knowing the industry in which the accident
occurred, as an aid in formulating prevention policies, cannot be
overestimated. Yet only 9 of the 24 States reporting by sex the
number of accidents report also the industries in which they occurred.
(See chart I.) The usefulness of tills information would be increased
considerably by knowledge of the man hours of exposure involved,
but even without this it is apparent that certain industries need
special attention. Of all gainfully occupied women in these 5 States
from 17.5 percent to 26.5 percent were in manufacturing, but manu­
facturing was the source of about half of all women’s injuries. Two
percent or less of all employed women were in the food, beverages,
and tobacco group, but they suffered 11 to 14 percent of women’s
injuries in the 3 States reporting. Only 5.2 percent of all employed
women in Indiana were in the manufacture of clothing, but twice
as high a proportion were injured.. In each of the 3 States reporting,
considerably more women were injured in metal and metal goods
manufacture than their proportion of all women employed wmuld
indicate. The information available shows what industries are the
most hazardous woman employers in these States.

Table 14.—Industrial distribution of injuries to male and female employees, 1980 and 1931

to

[For sources of information, see appendix]

Industry

Illinois 1

Male

Fe­
male

Indiana 1
Fe­
Male male

New Jersey Pennsylvania

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Wisconsin 1

Male

Fe­
male

Illinois

Male

Indiana 1

Fe­ Male Fe­
male
male

New Jersey Pennsylvania Wisconsin1

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Fe­
Male male

NUMBER a
Total reported *43,934

8 43,934 *1,878

M anufacturing.._..........................—.
18,543
941 16,051
Food, beverages, and tobacco.
3, 536
225 2,013
(n
(>)
96
Clothing.........................................
110
10 345 io 138
Textiles_____________________
Metals and metal goods-------11 9,788 11 244 4, 347
(.3)
(13)
Machinery and vehicles_____
2,474
Laundries and cleaning and dyeing.
382
96
166
Leather, rubber and composition.__
363
34
339
Paper, pulp, and paper goods
545
42
295
211
746
Printing._____________ ___________
55
Wood and wood products................
1,373
46 2,528
Stone, clay, and glass products-----694
13 1,549
Chemicals
389
24 1,102
Other manufacturing
382
24
821
Clerical, professional, and personal
516
706
service........................ ..................................
2,684
Clerical and professional
209
204
1,460
Hotels and restaurants
268
241
756
Care and custody of buildings-------281
33
138
Miscellaneous, including domestic
23
187
6
service
Trade
4, 329
319 1,872
Transportation and public utilities------4,297
94 2,732
Construction______ ___________________
6,911
5 4,882
3
283
Agriculture
199
6,971
3,336
Mining, metallurgy, and quarrying___
Other industries_________________
141

25,525 2,058 138,423 6,256 * 19,137
10, 530 1,055 42,376 2, 814

293 17 4,743 17 249

868

2i 2,140 2i 188 8,074 1,161
48 7, 231
112
3,546
8 20,667
42
5, 822
461
5
7 48,469
6
653
i« 1, 537 i° 454 6,863 1,872

1,925
2,016
3,823
492
308

i« 836

21,229 1,979 105,928 5,530 16,063

927 • 31, 259 7 2,086

440
9,705
1, 212
107
(9)
(9)
io 112 io 61
12 3, 676 12 101
i*579
i*3
(»*)
(16)
43
296
687
43
(15)
(15)
2,632
33
223
75
1
213
48

11,817

902 10,721
1, 665
66
85
2, 666
1,740
80
254
213
160
1,684
674
793
641

341 is 3,578 18 749
1® 309 i® 108

544
173
221
126

24
20 2, 594 20 637
107 22 3,423 22 348 1,679
14 23 2,285 23 78 2,217
1 2,882
5,085
8
246
25
196
2,792
4,875
183

985 29,185 2,457

984
219
180
33
94
46
57
47
14
24
100
44
28

7,885

305
77
172
40

876

7,141 371
1,249 100
(«)
101
55
12 2.310 12 66
n 413 (“)

16 884 is 298 17 5, 359

<*)

(15)

260
582

(15)

1,755
206
89
176

16
934
259 21 2,035 21 189 7, 516
43 4,786
92
24 3, 267
7 13,244
27
1 4,597
556
10
2
440
39, 545
3
181, 565 16 447 6,293 1,762

(15)

40
31

(15)

25
3
5
46
337

1,925
2,019
3,388
442
212

124
12
5
27

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

1931

1930

PERCENT 2

Total reported.....................................

42.2 50.1
8.0 12.0
«
<»)
i®.8 io 7. 3
ii 22. 3 ii 13.0
03)
(1!)
5.1
.9
1.8
.8
1.2
2.2
1.7
2.9
3.1
2.4
.7
1.6
.9
1.3
1.3
.9

53.5
6.7
.3
.4
14.5
8.2
.6

6.1
3.3
1.7
.6

27.5
11.1
14.3
1.8

2.4
.7

.4
9.9
9.8
15.7
.5
15.9

.3
17.0
5.0
.3
.2

.1
6.2
9.1
16.3
.9
11.1
.5

...........

100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0
41.3

51.3

« 100.0 100.0

45.0

50.7 47.5
6.3 11.5
(9)
(9)
10.6 io 6.6
12 19. 2 1210. 9
n 3.0 n.3

30.6

(15)

1.5
3.6

1.1

1.0

(15)

.7
8.4
5.2
3.7
2.7
17 3.4 17 4.0

8
77?
3 2
3 7
3. 0

37.8

43.2

(15)

4.6
4.6

(15)

13.8
1.2
.4
1.1
i« 3.3 >6 14.2

6 100.0 7 100.0 100.0 100.0

3.6

4.5

36.8

.1
5.2
18 11.4 18 35.9
i« 1.0 10 5.2

50.4
7. 8
.3
.4
12. 5
8 2
.4
1. 2

62.3
13.9
11.4
2.1
6.0
2.9
3.6
3.0
.9
1. 5
6.3
2.8
1. 8
6. 2

2.6

19.3

37.1

49.8

100.0 100.0 8 100.0 100.0
27.6

44.4

44.5 42.4
7.8 11.4
(■)
m
.6 6.3
12 14. 4 12 7.5
i<2.6 (14)
(15)
(IS)
1.6 4.6
3.6 3.5
(15)

10.9
1.3
.6
1.1
16 4.2 16 15.1

(!S)

2.9
.3
.6
5.3

17 5.1 17 4.6

5.8 38.5

7.1
4.5
12.5

16.9
1.7
.5

37.3
5.9

.1
31.9

12.0 14.2
12.6 1.4
21.1
.6
2.8 3.1
1.3

10 9
2 5

.8

.5

1 Some classifying done by Women’s Bureau.
2 For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
pensable cases shown for Illinois.
3 Excludes 104 not reporting industry.
* Excludes 5 not reporting industry.
& Excludes 6 not reporting industry,
e Excludes 41 not reporting industry.
2 Excludes 1 not reporting industry.
* Excludes 4 not reporting industry.
»Is classified with textiles.
i® Includes clothing,
u Includes machinery and vehicles.
JJ Includes machinery.

100.0 100.0

3i 8.4 21 9.1
2.3
13.9
.4
22.8
1.8
.2
2.6
.3
io 6.0 16 22.1

Closed

5.8
5.2
14.9

18.6
1.8
.7

35.0
5.0

.1
29.9

com­

10.1
10.5
20.0
2.6
1.6

11.5
1.5
2.7

20 8.3 20 30. 5
2211.0 22 16. 7
23 7.3 23 3.7
16.3 (24)
.6 (24)
15.6
.4

1
7.9
10.4
13.6
1. 2
13. 1
.9

1 0
16.4
1.5
.1
.1
.3

21 9.6 21 9.6
15.4
2.2
21.7
.4
2.6
.5
2.1
16 7.4 16 22. 6

13 Is classified with metals and metal goods.
h Is vehicles only. Machinery is classified with metal and metal goods.
Not obtainable. Laundries, cleaning and dyeing, and printing are combined in
“other manufacturing.”
_
.
16 Domestic and personal service is included in “other industries.
17 State and municipal government.
38 Includes “governmental”, 675 males and 4 females.
Professional only.
20 Sei vices not otherwise classified,
si Includes garages.
22 Trade and finance.
33 Transportation, storage, and communication.
24 Less than 0.05 percent.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Manufacturing............................ ....................
Food, beverages, and tobacco--------Clothing----------- --------------- ------------Textiles____________ ____ _
Metals and metal goods----------------Machinery and vehicles----------------Laundries and cleaning and dyeing.
Leather, rubber and composition. __
Paper, pulp, and paper goods--------Printing------------- --------------------------Wood and wood products--------------Stone, clay, and glass products------Chemicals......................... ........................
Other manufacturing
Clerical, professional, and personal
service............. ................................................
Clerical and professional---------------Hotels and restaurants
Care and custody of buildings-------Miscellaneous, including domestic
service.—........................... ............. —
Trade--------- --------------- ------------------------Transportation and public utilities----Construction.-------------------------- ------Agriculture. ......................... ........................Mining, metallurgy, and quarrying........
Other industries..............................................

3 100.0 * 100.0 100.0 100.0

CO

44

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

PLATE III. INDUSTRIAL DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 5 STATES,
1931
(Industries in which over 5 per cent of all injuries reported in the State were to women. For period covered
and injuries tabulated see chart II)
SENNSILVAIIIA

il

Ea°h COmplet,! unlt = 100

Manufacturing

Trade

- Clerical, professional,,
and personal

tNHMK
HI.
nxiuois

M. mm

Manufacturing

Trade and finance

jfei
3
4^

Clerical and professional

«i
t
T

Personal

INDIANA

warn
m

*
IK

Transportation, storage,
and communication

NEW JERSEY

gg
Ss H
m
i
_5R__

Manufacturing

Trade

Clerical, professional,

Transportation and
public utilities
X^Trade

^/Transportation and public utilities

WISCONSIN

HH
K
HK

Table 15.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees, by industry and age group, 1930 and 1931
[For sources of information, see appendix]

Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years Under 21 21 years
and over
and over
and over
and over
years
and over
and over
years
years
years
years
years
NUMBER i
Total................................. ............... ..................................
Manufacturing___ ______________________
Transportation and public utilities.

_____ _____

_________ _____

1,497

2,683

36,738

549

1,808

2,288

23,237

490

1, 568

1, 720

7 19, 509

482

1,388
4 266
6 359
121
279
17
253

14,351
4 3,911
6 3, 672
2,676
6,036
' 175
5,917

348
4 78
8 92
27
1
3

681
4 724
6 319
75
3
6

1,164
8 79
7 311
245
289
59
24
8 117

9, 366
6 757
71,829
3,301
5, 533
402
629
»1,420

347
5 25
7 51
21

781
»67
7 264
232
189
63
19
8 105

7,104
5 817
7 1, 771
3,035
4, 408
493
421
8 1, 460

346
5 23
7 50
14

639
5 275
7 139
29

1
3
8 42

708
5 268
7 137
27
8
4
4
8 412

8 49

8 398

Other industries............................................. ..............-...........

3

10

PERCENT i
Total.......................................................... ........................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2 100.0

100.0

3 100.0

Transportation . ............................................. ........................

51.7
4 9.9
613.4
4.5
10. 4
.6
9.4

39.1
4 10.6
« 10.0
7.3
16.4
.5
16.1

63.4
4 14.2
6 16.8
4.9
.2
.5

37.7
4 40.0
617.6
4.1
.2
.3

50.9
5 3.5
7 13.6
10.7
12.6
2.6
1.0
8 5.1

40.3
«3. 3
7 7.9
14.2
23.8
1.7
2.7
»6.1

70.8
5 5.1
7 10.4
4.3

45.2
5 17.1
7 8. 7
1.7
.5
.3
.3
8 26.3

45.4
5 3.9
7 15.3
13.5
11.0
3.7
1.1
«6.1

36.4
«4. 2
7 9.1
15.6
22.6
2.5
2.2
8 7.5

71.8
«4.8
7 10.4
2.9

42.7
« 18.4
7 9.3
1.9
.5
.7

* 10.2

8 26.6

Other industries--------------------------------------------------------

.2
.6
»8.6

1 For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9. Compensable cases occurring are shown for Illinois.
2 Includes 2,189 cases for which age was not stated.
3 Includes 198 cases for which age was not stated.
4 Service not otherwise classified, professional service, and governmental service.
8 Includes clerical and professional service.
6 Includes finance.
7 Includes garages.
8 Includes domestic and personal service.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Industry

New Jersey—1931

New Jersey—1930

Illinois—1930

•

46

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Industry and age of the injured

New Jersey and Illinois correlate industry and age for the chief
industrial groups. (See table 15.) This information further cor­
roborates conclusions drawn from statistics as to cause of injury.
In Illinois almost two-thirds and in New Jersey over two-thirds of
the younger women’s injuries were incurred in manufacturing, while
less than half the older women injured were in manufacturing. On
the other hand, women 21 and over in New Jersey had a higher
proportion of injuries in clerical and professional than had the younger
women. This is true also of the corresponding group in Illinois,
which includes professional service, governmental sendee, and service
not otherwise classified. Since a large part of the older group were
injured by falls probably many of them were janitresses and cleaners.
More of the young men injured than of the older men were in
manufacturing, "but the difference was not so great as between the
two groups of women. A much higher proportion of the older men
injured than of those younger were in construction.
CAUSE OF INJURY

Some consideration already has been given to the causes of acci­
dents in connection with age for one State. This and three other
States have data as to cause by sex. These are listed in table 16.
As might be expected from the analysis of industry, a large part
of women’s accidents are caused by falls or by machinery. In the
two large industrial States here reported, New Jersey and Illinois,
these caused higher proportions of women’s injuries than in Indiana
and Iowa. In each State falls caused the largest number of women’s
injuries. In most cases the proportion from falls was not appre­
ciably greater than that from machinery, but in Iowa in 1931 falls
caused more than twice as many as did machinery, and here accidents
caused by hand tools were greater than those caused by machinery.
The difference in hazard according to occupation is attested further
by the very small proportion of injuries in Iowa resulting from han­
dling of objects, an important cause in large industrial States. Since
Iowa gives no data by industry the figures do not of themselves ex­
plain the high proportion of accidents to women from hand tools,
but the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, an important one
in this State, is known to have a disproportionate number of knife
injuries, which may account for these figures. The State has a
correspondingly high rate of injuries with infections.
Stepping on or striking against objects resulted in about 10 percent
of women’s injuries in Illinois and almost 20 percent in Indiana. In
the latter State this cause ranked higher in 1931 than did machinery.
In Iowa, in both years, men as well as women suffered most dis­
abilities from falls, the wet floors in the slaughtering industry un­
doubtedly contributing largely to this. In the other States handling
of objects caused most accidents to men. Falls ranked second in
Illinois and New Jersey. In Indiana both stepping on or striking
against objects, and falling objects, caused more injuries to men than
did falls. The importance of construction and mining industries in
frequency of injury to men is reflected in the much greater propor­
tion of injuries to men than to women caused by falling objects.

Table 16.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by cause, 1930 and 1981
[For sources of information, see appendix]

Cause of injury

Illinois 1
Male

Indiana 1

Female

Iowa 1

Male ^ Female

Male

New Jersey

Female

Male

Female

Indiana 1

Illinois

New Jersey

Iowa 1

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

NUMBER 2
Total................. ..................... ................... 3 43,122
Machinery______________________________
Falls of persons....................... ........... ...............
Handling of objects
Stepping on or striking against objects.—
Hand tools
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc
Falling objects_____ ____ ____
________

Miscellaneous and indefinite

6,443
6,761
9,472
4,408
2,654
1,970
4,240
4, 852
'718
316
1,288

4 1,851

30,003

1,815

8 6,880

*315

25, 525

2,058

6 30, 793

7 2,056

21,264

1, 579

« 5,045

5 270

21,229

1,979

443
556
285
197
59
90
67
47
39
2
66

2, 851
4, 389
4,734
4,585
1,224
1,582
4, 482
2,122
' 346
180
3,508

390
423
161
335
121
108
66
32
21
3
155

1,048
1,137
465
382
755
130
1,069
90
55
12
1,737

52
61
6
8
46
3
13
1
5

2,934
4,202
8 9, 080
1,676

495
675
8 394
160
(9
100
52
36
9 26
(10)
120

4,127
4, 873
6,959
2,222
1,827
1,408
3,087
3,764
341
247
1,938

458
611
339
199
74
125
60
44
16
4
126

1,931
3,076
3,657
3,284
897
1,030
3,099
1,501
260
143
2,386

282
360
179
309
98
90
82
22
31
3
123

681
936
490
307
536
116
683
33

25
61
9
7
42
3
14

2,236
3,675
8 7, 713
1,276
(*)
977
1,191
2,176
9 643

1,263

109

1,342

466
591
8 44i
149
(*)
96
50
45
9 17
0°)
124

« 100. 0
13.4
15.8
22.6
7.2
5.9
4.6
10.0
12.2
1.1
.8
6.3

7 100.0

100.0
9. 1
14.5
17.2
15.4
4.2
4.8
14.6
7. 1
1.2
.7
11.2

100.0
17.9
22.8
11.3
19.6
6.2
5.7
5.2
1.4
2.0
.2
7.8

5 100. 0

22.3
29.7
16.5
9.7
3.6
6.1
2.9
2.1
.8
.2
6.1

120

(>)
1, 218
1,692
2,528
9 679
(i°)
1,516

m

PERCENT 2
Total..................... ............. ......... ........... ..
Machinery
Falls of persons____ ____________________
Handling of objects
Stepping on or striking against objects_. _
Hand tools
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc...... ......... .
Falling objects

Miscellaneous and indefinite........................

8 100.0
14.9
15.7
22.0
10.2
6.2
4.6
9.8
11.3
1.7
.7
3.0

4 100.0
23.9
30.0
15.4
10.6
3.2
4.9
3.6
2.5
2.1
. 1
3.6

100.0
9.5
14.6
15.8
15.3
4.1
5.3
14.9
7.1
1.2
.6
11.7

100.0
21.5
23.3
8.9
18.5
6.7
6.0
3.6
1.8
1.2
.2
8.5

1 Some classifying done by Women’s Bureau.
2 For period covered and injuries tabulated see chart II, facing p. 9.
3 Excludes 916 not reporting cause.
4 Excludes 32 not reporting cause.
* The numbers reported for a 2-year period have been divided by 2.

* 100.0
15.2
16.5
6.8
5.6
11.0
1.9
15.5
1.3
.8
.2
25.2

s 100.0

100.0

100.0

16.5
19.4
1.9
2.5
14.6
1.0
4.1
.3
1.6

11.5
16. 5
8 35. 6
6.6
w
4.8
6.6
9.9
9 2.7
(1°)
5.9

24.1
32.8
8 19.1
7.8
(s)
4.9
2.5
1.7
9 1.3
(,0)
5.8

38.1

Closed compensable cases shown for Illinois.

8 100.0

100.0

100.0

13.5
18.6
9.7
6.1.
10.6
2.3
13.5
.7

9.3
22.6
3.3
2.6
15.6
1.1
5.2

25.0

40.4

10.5
17.3
8 36. 3
6.0
(*)
4.6
5.6
10.3
9 3.0
pi)
6.3

23.5
29.9
8 22.3
7.5
(>)
4.9
2.5
2.3
9. 9
(10)
6.3

6 Excludes 507 not reporting cause.
7 Excludes 31 not reporting cause.
8 Hand tools are included in handling of objects.
9 Includes occupational disease.
10 Included in miscellaneous and indefinite.

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

1931

1930

i-^
-<I

Table 17.— Cause of injuries to male and female employees, Illinois, 1930, by industry group

00

[For source of information, see appendix]

Cause

Total reported

Male

Fe­
male

Agriculture
and extrac­
tive indus­
tries

Male

Fe­
male

Manufactur­
Transporta­
Construction
tion
ing

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Mai*

Communica­
tion

msde Male

Professional
service

Trade and
finance

Governmen­
tal service

Services not
otherwise
classified

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

Male

Fe­
male

NUMBER i
Total---------------------------- -- 2 39,010 2 2, 359

2, 608

10

192

90

3,991

402

371

137

712

8

3,056

674

3

130
356
741

1
1
3

3
58
19

2
49
3

310
706
1,048

29
166
85

31
132
69

10
68
16

18
160
102

1
6

244
706
606

8f
258
86

159
143
52
122
677

7
4
1
3
10

324
273
109
172
709

33
8
10
21
19

26
16
14
16
37

10
4
10
3
2

49
36
26
95
156

221
190
291
114
329

69

1

19
15
9
5
41

61

3

1

1

14

6

3

1

14

i;

144
28
340

8
29
188

1
24

4
4
19

3

10

15
37
274

34
38
269

3C

1, 024

6, 222

1
2
2

3,558
2,021
3, 882

426
174
166

475
1,580
1, 278

1

1, 272
811
970
1, 017
898

90
43
20
31
10

623
415
172
682
424

3

212

8

12
87
339

147
67
660

7
1
48

556
727
361

469
431
989

3, 067
2,370
1,800
3, 952
4, 553

209
78
109
84
59

374
471
157
1, 729
1, 282

310

Falls of persons

5

9 15, 515

6, 343

5,238
6, 150
8, 734

30

376
299
2,161

16
4
126

Stepping on or striking against
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc..-

3

1

Occupational disease and indusPoisonous and corrosive sub-

1

3

2
1
20

10

10
8
52

1

U
67
26
i:

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1630 AND

Industry group

<£>

Oo

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION BY CAUSE OF INJURY

Handling objects
Stepping on or striking against
objects_____ _________________
Hand tools____________ _____
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc. Fallingobjects
Vehicles____________ ____
Occupational disease and industrial poisoning
Poisonous and corrosive substances. .. . ...
Animals_______________________
Miscellaneous___________ __

100.0

100.0

100.0

13. 4
15.8
22.4

23. 6
30. 8
15.3

7.4
6. 8
15.6

22. 9
13.0
25.0

7.9
6. 1
4.6
10. 1
11.7

8.9
3.3
4.6
3. 6
2.5

5. 9
7. 4
2.5
27. 3
20.2

8 2
5.2
6.3

.8

1.3

«

1. 4

.8

1.0

1.0
.8
5.5

.7
.2
5.3

.2
1. 4
5.3

.9
.4
4.3

.7

2. 3

4.7

5.5

5.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

JOO.O

100.0

100. 0

100.0

17.0
16.2

7.6
25.4
20.5

«

5.0
13.7
28.4

1.6
30.2
9.9

2.2
54.4
3.3

7.8
17.7
26.3

7.2
41.3
21.1

8.4
35.6
18.6

7.3
49.6
11.7

8 8
4.2
2.0
3.0
1.0

10.0
6.7
2.8
11.0
6.8

6.1
5.5
2.0
4.7
26.0

7.8
4. 7
2.6
21.4

7.8
4.4
1. 1
3.3
11. 1

8.1
6.8
2. 7
4.3
17.8

8.2
2.0
2.5
5.2
4.7

7.0
4.3
3.8
4.3
10.0

7.3
2.9
7.3
2.2
1.5

6.9
5. 1
3.7
13.3
21.9

2.2

1.4
1.1

1.1
.3
1.1
7.2

1.5

«

100.0

8.0
23.1
19.8

12.8
38.3
12.8
10.2
2.7

3.7
10.8

7.3

100.0

7.2
6.2

2.5
22.5
14.3 —

3.9
1.9

.8

1.0
10.4

100.0

1.9

11.1

.9
6.9

6.0

1.1
1.1
5.1

3.8

10.2

17.0

1.0

5.8

1.8

0.3

7.8

28.6

11. 5
12.0

5 2
22.8
23.5

2. 1
.8

9. 4
4.4

2. 6
1.2

.8

11. 5

35. 5
23.8

16. 2

61 5

1.1
1.2
8.8

4.5

.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION BY INDUSTRY
Total______ __________

..

Machinery._ .................. .............
Falls of persons......................... .........
Handling objects____ ____ .
_
Stepping on or striking against
objects
Hand tools___________________
Explosions, electricity, heat, etc..
Fallingobjects..
Vehicles_________________________
Occupational disease and industrial poisoning_______________ _
Poisonous and corrosive substances........ ......................... ...........
Animals..........................
Miscellaneous............ ............. ............

100.0

100.0

16.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

9. 0
7.0
11.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

12. 2
19.9
8.7
43. 7
28.2

0.4

39.8

43.4

.3
.6

32.9
44. 4

23.9
46.0

41. 5
34. 2
53.9
25. 7
19.7

0.2

6.7

0.4

0.5

6?7~
.8

43.1

1.0

15.9

5.0

25.7
14.6

.4

5.8
8.5

18.3

17 5
9.6
9.3

14.9

.5

1.0

6. 1

9. 2

.8

9. 2

1. 4

1.7

.9

16.9

15.6

32' 2

.8

3. 4

3. 4

1. 0

38.1

.9

2.9

16.9

.1
.8

100.0

(!)

1.0

68.4

19. 7

100.0
100.0
100.0

(3)
(3)
100.0

3.2
29.1
15.7

39.1
22. 4
30.5

38. 3
9. 4
15.7

.8

8.7

4.5

2.4

1 Compensable cases occurring.
2 Excludes 918 injuries to males and 49 to females for which one or both of these factors was not reported.
3 Not computed; base less than 50.
4 Less than 0.05 percent.

.9

7.9

12.7

1.0

19.0

.9

1. 7

7 2
4.5

7.9

2.4

12.4

23.8

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

100.0
Machinery______________ ______

4^
CD

50

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Cause according to industry

Table 17 makes possible a further analysis within each industry of
the immediate causes of injury in Illinois. Falls, causing the largest
number of women’s injuries and the second largest number of men’s,
were principally in manufacturing for men and in services for women.
Over one-third of women’s falls occurred in services; about one-fourth
were in manufacturing and almost as many in trade and finance.
Machinery caused almost one-fourth of women’s injuries as com­
pared to slightly more than one-eighth of men’s. This difference is
due in part to the larger proportion of women’s injuries than of men’s
that are in manufacturing and in part to the heavier work done by
men. Handling objects caused more injuries to men in manufacturing
than did machinery. Manufacturing accounted for over three-fourths
of the disabilities to women from machinery, about two-thirds of
those to men.
Handling objects, chief in importance to men, ranked third with
women. The greatest number of all injuries from this cause was in
manufacturing, though almost a fourth to women were in trade and
finance and about another fourth were in services. A considerable
number (more than one-tenth) of men’s accidents from this cause were
in construction and in trade and finance.
Vehicles and falling objects, each causing over 10 percent of men’s
injuries, were of principal importance in the extractive industries.
WAGES AND COMPENSATION

Table 18 and plates IV and V show how much less adequate are
women’s wages than men’s to meet an emergency caused by incapacity
for work for any length of time. Compensation is based in each State
on a certain percentage of the weekly wage received by the inj ured, with
minimum and maximum limits. In Illinois in 1930, 65 percent of
the women injured earned less than $20 a week, while only 11 per­
cent of the men earned so little; in New York 60 percent of the women
but only 20 percent of the men received $20 a week or less. In
Wisconsin almost three-fourths of the women in contrast to one-sixth
of the men earned under $20.

PLATE IV.

WEEKLY EARNINGS OF INJURED WOMEN BEFORE INJURY. 1931
Eaoh complete

figure =

5

percent of to ta l number of

women

Injured

o
°

CY1
R1

y

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

(C om pensation is a c e rta in p ro p o rtio n of earn in g s before in ju ry )

52

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

PLATE V

AVERAGE AMOUNT OF COMPENSATION PAID MEN AND WOMEN, BY
EXTENT OF DISABILITY, ILLINOIS, 1930
Average compensation for AIL injuries

I

$240

$100

$2,73>*

$1.15“*

r
Average compensation for PERMANENT PABTIAL Injuries

i

*557

t

$112

*372
Average compensation for PISPIGUREMWT

i

t
i

$87

Average compensation for TEMPORARY TOTAL injuries

$51

$35
rage compensation for TEMPORARY PARTIAL injuries

ft

$78

!

E

$19

f

Table 18.—Distribution of injuries to male and female employees by weekly wages, 1980 and 1981
[For sources of information, see appendix]
1930 1
Illinois
Male

New York

Female

Male

Female

Wisconsin
Male

Illinois

Female

Male

New York

Female

Male

$10 and less than $15..................................
$15 and less than $20_________________
$20 and less than $25___ ______________
$25 and less than $30 _. _
$30 and less than $35___ ___
$35 and less than $40__________________
$40 and less than $45_____
$45 and less than $50____________
$50 and less than $55____
______________
$55 and less than $60___________
$60 and over................ ............

39,928
3 151
39, 777
225
949
3,211
7, 539
6,771
7, 211
4,256
3, 702
1,680
1,395
657
2,181

2,408
7
2,401
106
549
908
366
212
118
57
25
15
17
3
25

Male

Female

NUMBER »
Total_______________________
W ages not reported............. ..................
Total reported_____________ _

Wisconsin
Female

.

97,733

9,579

19,143

2,760
94,973
4 520
4 2, 733
4 7,385
4 16,885
4 20,335
4 14, 817
4 9,953
4 6,129
4 5, 725
4 2, 564
4 2,282
4 5,645

334
9,245
4 661
4 2, 734
4 2,139
4 1, 511
4 934
4 549
4 331
4 149
4 130
4 29
4 38
4 40

13
19,130
77
469
2, 525
4, 715
3,311
3,607
1,945
1,088
546
382
182
283

927
927
38
318
326
139
50
31
14
6
85

30,926
82"
30, 844
369
1, 370
3, 397
6,486
4, 718
4, 676
3,042
2,540
1,186
1,068
404
1,588

2,241
r
2,237
163
683
718
331
156
97
43
14
10
12
3
7

89,033
2,185
86, 848
797
4,059
8,941
15, 690
16, 594
11,766
9,818
4, 527
5,339
2,093
1,908
5,316

9,391
3l6~
9,075
834
2,786
1,941
1,458
901
556
286
114
118
22
24
35

16,067
8
16,059
105
975
2,562
3,957
2, 754
2,700
1,386
686
363
267
100
204

876
876
43
330
270
120
45
28
19
9
5 12

PERCENT 2
Total reported_____________________
Less than $10________
___
$10 and less than $15_______________
$15 and less than $20________________ .
$20 and less than $25____ ____________________
$25 and less than $30____ _____ __________
$30 and less than $35________________
$35 and less than $40__________________ _
$40 and less than $45___ ______________________
$45 and less than $50___ ___
$50 and less than $55________ ______
$55 and less than $60________________ _
$60 and over_. _

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
4.4
.6
4. 5
4 7.1
.4
4.1
1.2
2.4
22.9
4 2.9
4 29.6
2.5
34.3
4.4
8.1
37.8
4 7. 8
4 23. 1
13.2
35.2
11.0
19.0
15.2
4 17.8
4 16.3
24.6
15.0
21.0
17.0
8.8
4 21. 4
4 10.1
.17.3
5.4
15.3
18.1
4 15.6
4.9
4 5.9
18.9
3.3
15.2
10.7
2.4
4 10.5
4 3. 6
10.2
1.5
9.9
9.3
1.0
4 6. 5
4 1.6
5.7
.6
8.2
4.2
4 6.0
.6
4 1.4
2.9
8.5
3.8
3.5
.7
4 2. 7
4. 3
2.0
3.5
1.7
.1
4 2. 4
4. 4
1.0
1.3
1.5
5.5
1.0
4 5. 9
4. 4 '
5.1
1 In addition Indiana reported the average weekly wage for females as $13.90 in 1930 and $13.27 in 1931.
2 For Illinois, compensable cases occurring, calendar year; New York and Wisconsin, closed compensable cases, calendar year.
3 Includes 1 receiving no wage.
4 Wage groups are $ 10 and under, over $10 and including $15, over $15 and including $20, and

100.0
7.3
30.5
32.1
14.8
7.0
4.3
1.9
.6
.4
.5
.1
.3

100.0
.9
4.7
10.3
18.1
19.1
13.5
11.3
5.2
6.1
2.4
2.2
6.1

100.0
9.2
30.7
21.4
16.1
9.9
6.1
3.2
1.3
1.3
.2
.3
.4

in $5 groups to over $60.

100.0
.7
6.1
16.0
24.6
17.1
16.8
8.6
4.3
2.3
1.7
.6
1.3
« $45 and over

100.0
4.9
37.7
30.8
13.7
5.1
3.2
2.2
1.0
8 1.4

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Weekly wage

1931 i

54

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

In 1930, from about 1 percent to 4 percent of the women, in contrast
to from 13 to 25 percent of the men, made as much as $40 a week.
The relative proportions in 1931 are quite similar.
In the table following is the amount of compensation received by
men and women in Illinois for injuries of specified seriousness. The
last column shows the percent by which average compensation for
women was lower than that for men. The lower compensation to
women indicates the lower wages on which compensation is based.
Even in fatal cases the compensation to dependents of women aver­
aged less than half as much as the compensation to dependents of
men. Though the loss in income to the family usually is not so great
when a woman is injured, the real loss may be even greater than
when a man is injured. An extraordinary proportion of injured
women are married and have children. Injury to a woman often
means loss of the home maker as well as loss of earnings, and com­
pensation should take this into account.
Table 19.—Total

and average amount of compensation paid in Illinois 1 in 1930,
by sex and extent of disability
[For source of information, see appendix!

Amount of compensation
paid
Number of
accidents

Sex and extent of disability

Total

Average
per acci­
dent

Percent
by which
average for
females is
lower than
that for
males

Females-----------------------------------------------------

45,921
44, 038
1,883

$10,774,609
10,556,923
187,686

$234
240
100

58.3

Females......................... .............. ............. ........... .............

685
683
2

1,869,651
1,867, 344
2,307

2, 729
2, 734
1,154

57.8

38
38

165, 381
165, 381

4, 352
4, 352

11,853
11, 519
334

6,540, 026
6,415, 719
124, 307

552
557
372

33.2

1,370
1,321
49

152, 395
148,122
4,273

111
112
87

22.3

31,203
29,739
1, 464

1, 574,834
1, 524,218
50,616

50
51
35

31.4

182
166
16

13,235
12,930
305

73
78
19

75.6

551
534
17

418,051
412,173
5,878

759
772
346

55.2

39
38
1

11, 036
11, 036

283
290

Females__________ ______ ______

Females_______________ _______ _______ _________

Females..

Females

------------------------------------------------- ---

_____________________________ ________

Females------------ ------------- -

i Closed compensable cases.

-------------------

-------

APPENDIX
Page references in State reports classifying accident statistics by sex, 1927 to 1931, used in tobies 1 to 19

Source
1

Colorado.

Idaho.

Illinois.

Indiana.

Iowa.

Kentucky.

Biennial reports of Industrial Com­ 22,10,8
mission, periods ended Nov. 30,1928,
1930, 1932. (Tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth reports.)
FacingBiennial reports of industrial Accident
Board, period ended Oct. 31:
1928 (sixth report)__________ _____
139
1930 (seventh report)............ .............
121
1932 (eighth report)
87
Annual reports of Department of
Labor, years ended June 30:
1928 (eleventh report)_____ _____
84
1929 (twelfth report)
74
1930 (thirteenth report).....................
148
Unpublished data for 1930 2
(»)
Unpublished data for 19312_________ _
(2)
Annual reports of Industrial Board,
years ended Sept. 30:
1927
2,3
1928..____________ _______________
28,63
1929........... ...................... .......................
26,61
1930
4.50
1931
3.50
Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor,
periods ended June 30:
1928 (twenty-third report)
8,9
1930 (twenty-fourth report)..............
9.11
1932 (twenty-fifth report)
9.12
Annual reports of Workmen’s Com­
pensation Board, years ended June
30:
1927 (eleventh report)_______ ____
5
1928 (twelfth report)___________ _
5
1929 (thirteenth report)___________
5
1930 (fourteenth report)......... ...........
5
1931 (fifteenth report)____ _______
5

1 2

3

4

5

w
(■)

w

(«)

6

7

8i

9

«
(>)

....

«

10

11

12

13

m

....

14

15

(■)
«

c)

16

17

18

19

(4

m n
m

m

121
87

(*)
(>)

19, 57
16,56

9.11
9.12

19,57

28,62
25, 61

8, 50
6,50

14, 54
12,53

9.11
9.12

—

——

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Page references for table—
State

See footnotes at end of lisL
Oi
Oi

Page references in State reports classifying accident statistics by sexf 1927 to 1981, used in tables 1 to 19

Continued

C5

Source
1

Maryland____

Annual reports of Industrial Accident
Commission, years ended Oct. 31:
1927 (thirteenth report). _ -------1928 (fourteenth report)---------------1930 (vSia Luo u tli leport)------------ — —

Massachusetts - Annual reports of Department of In­
dustrial Accidents, years ended
June 30:

Minnesota------- Biennial report Department of Labor
and Industry (twenty-third report
1931-32) contains biennial report of
Industrial Commission (sixth re­
port) 2 years ending June 30,1932.
New Jersey----- Industrial Bulletin of Department of
Labor:
September 1928
September 1929----------------------------September 1931__________________
Mimeographed Industrial Accident
Report, for calendar year 1931.
New York____ Special bulletins of Department of
Labor:
No. 157, Compensation Statistics,
year ended June 30, 1927.
No. 160, Cost of Compensation,
year ended June 30,1928.
No. 170, Cost of Compensation, 2
years ended June 30, 1930.
No. 178, Cost of Compensation, 2
years:
1930________________ _____ —
1931
North Carolina First Annual Report of Industrial
Commission, year ended June 30,
1930.

3

2

4

5

6

8i

7

10

9

24
24
26
23
23

23
23

23
23

34
34
117

34
34
117

16, 46
12

16,46
6,12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

34
34
117

43,45
27, 35
16, 46
12

12

23
23

34
34
36
34
34
117

11

—-

17, 46 17, 46
4,7 5, 7,12

16,46 16, 47
6,12 2, 6,12

16, 47
2,6

56
32,33
127

27
27
43

89
91

89
91 —-

89
91

84
87
43

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Page references for table—
State

9
0)

0)

9

9
0)

12
13
14
12
25

12
25

8
10
4,11
3
7,9

7,9

4,8

1 Table footnoted for source.
3 Illinois data for 1930 and 1931 and Pennsylvania data for 1931 from unpublished tables.

O

....

3

....

4,5,8

5

1
8

3,4,7

INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN IN 1930 AND 1931

Pennsylvania.. Labor and Industry, Bulletin of De­
partment of Labor and Industry,
vol. XVIII, no. 6, June:
1931.................. ..................
19313____________
Rhode Island.. Reports of Commissioner of Labor for
years:
1927______ ____________ ______
1928__________________
1929...............................................
1930_____ ____ _____________
1931______________
South Dakota. _ Annual reports of Industrial Commis­
sioner, years ended June 30:
1930 (thirteenth)_________ ____ _
1931 (fourteenth). ..............................
Wisconsin____ Wisconsin Labor Statistics:
Bulletin No. 28, July 28, 1930........ .
Bulletin No. 35, July 10,1931_____
Bulletin No. 41, July 31,1932..........
Bulletin No. 42, June 14, 1932.........

Cn