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M OTO R VEHICLES A N D EQUIPMENT
INDUSTRY, 1 9 5 7 - 6 6




BLS BULLETIN N O . 1613

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




B S B L E IN N .
L UL T
O

1 6 1 3

IN E E O O T U
DXS F UP T
P RMN O R
E A -H U
Motor Vehicles and Equipment
Industry, 1 9 5 7 - 6 6
D e c e m b e r

U.S.

1968

D E P A R TM E N T

O F

LA B O R

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ben Burdetsky, Acting Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 45 cents







Preface
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has been publishing reports on output per man-hour for selected
industries for many years. The motor vehicles and equipment industry will be the most important
of the published series in terms of the number of persons employed.
The problems of measurement in this report are complex in view of the industry structure,
the range of products, and the rapidly changing product mix. As a result, the Bureau made extensive
use of detailed information provided by the motor vehicles manufacturers to supplement regular
sources of published information.
This study was prepared in the Office of Productivity, Technology and Growth, under the
direction of Jerome A. Mark, Assistant Commissioner. The measures were prepared by Clyde
Huffstutler, Jeffrey Hohenstein, and Edwin Adelman, of the Division of Industry Productivity Studies,
under the direct supervision of Chester Myslicki, Chief. Arthur S. Herman of the Division of Tech­
nological Studies wrote the section relating to technological developments.




1 1 1




CONTENTS
Page
Introduction................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Trends in output per man-hour, output and employment
2
Technological developments..................................................................................................................................... 14
Technical n ote............................................................................................................................................................... 16
Definition of the industry
16
General procedures.................................................................................................................................................. 17
Output indexes........................................................................................................................................................... 17
Employment and man-hour indexes.................................................................................................................... 21
Tables:
Motor vehicles and equipment industry:
lc Output per man-hour, unit labor requirements, and related data, all employees, 1957-66
A
2. Output per man-hour, unit labor requirements, and related data, production workers,
1957-66 ........................................................................................................................................................... 6
3. Output per man-hour, unit labor requirements, and related data, nonproduction
workers, 1957-66 ....................................................................................................................................... 8
4. General characteristics, selected years, 1957-66 ................................................................................ 10
5. Distribution of U.S. automobile model year production by price group, car size, and
body style, 1957-66 ..................................................................................................................................... 12
6. Factory installations of selected equipment items (percentages), model years, 1957-66 . . . . 13
Charts:
Motor vehicles and equipment industry:
1. Output per all employee man-hour, output, and all employee man-hours, 1957-66 ................. 5
2. Output per production worker man-hour, output, and production worker man-hours,
1957-66 ........................................................................................................................................................... 7
3. Output per nonproduction worker worker man-hour, output, and nonproduction
worker man-hours, 1957-66 .................................................................................................................... 9
4. New plant and equipment expenditures for motor vehicles and equipment ................................... 11
Appendixes:
A. Weighting diagram for the motor vehicles and equipment industry.................................................. 23
B. Accessories covered in the optional equipment output index..........................................
24
C. Unit value weights used in compiling the truck trailer output index................................................ 25
D. Motor vehicles and equipment industry: Average annual rates of change (percent).................... 2 7
Output per man-hour and related indexes




v




INDEXES OF OUTPUT PER MAN-HOUR
MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY, 1957-66
Introduction
The efficient use of resources in the production of a nation’s goods and services has long been
recognized as the means to higher levels of economic well-being and national strength. One measure
of change in resource use is productivity, and one form of productivity measurement is output per
man-hour, which reflects the change in output (the quantity of goods produced) per unit of labor
input.
Measures of output per man-hour for a specific industry are particularly useful for studying
changes in manpower utilization, projecting future manpower requirements, analyzing trends in
labor costs, comparing productivity progress among countries, examiningthe effects of technological
developments on employment and unemployment, and analyzing related economic and industrial
activities. Such analyses usually require that indexes of output per man-hour be used in conjunction
with other industry data. For example, to study technological effects, related data on production and
employment are useful; to study trends in labor costs, data on earnings and other labor expenditures
are essential.
Although the measures relate output to one input—labor—they do not measure the specific
contribution of labor, of capital, or of any other single factor. Rather, they reflect the joint effect of
a number of interrelated influences such as changes in technology, capital investment per worker,
utilization of capacity, layout and flow of operations, skill and effort of the work force, managerial
skill, and labor-management relations.
In general, industry measures of output per man-hour are subject to certain qualifications.
First, existing data techniques cannot fully take into account changes in the quality of goods produced.
Second, although efforts are made to.maintain consistency of coverage between the output and labor
input estimates, some slight statistical differences may remain. Third, changes in the degree of
plant integration and specialization are often not reflected adequately in the production statistics.
Overstatement of productivity gains in some years and understatement in others may result. Fourth,
year-to-year changes in output per man-hour are irregular and, therefore, not necessarily indicative
of basic changes in long-term trends. Conversely, long-term trends are not necessarily applicable
to any one year or to any period in the future. Because of these and other statistical limitations, these
indexes cannot be considered precise measures; instead, they should be interpreted as general
indicators of movements of output per man-hour.
This report includes new measures of output per man-hour for the motor vehicles and equipment
industry. Included also is some analysis of the trends in output per man-hour and related series as
well as a description of some of the technological developments that have occurred in the industry.
Finally, there is a detailed technical note which describes the sources of data and the statistical
techniques utilized.




Trends in Output Per Man-Hour, Output, and Employment
Output per man-hour of all employees in the
motor vehicles and equipment industry increased
at an average rate of 4.8 percent per year be­
tween 1957 and 1966 (appendix D). J./ The 1966
index of output per man-hour exceeded the 1957
level by over 45 percent (table 1). This annual
rate of gain compares favorably with the 3.7
percent rate for manufacturing and the 3.4 per­
cent rate for the entire private economy.
The gain in output per man-hour for the in­
dustry was closely related to the high rate of out­
put increase. Over the 9-year period, total prod­
uction of motor vehicles and equipment rose at
an annual rate of 8.2 percent. The industry’s
growth rate was considerably above the 5.3 per­
cent rate for manufacturing and the 4.4 percent
rate for the private economy.
Major factors underlying output per man-hour
movements are changes in output and in tech­
no logy. Technological progress generally
operates as a positive factor in good and bad
years; in the automotive industry, its impact
over the long run has been obscured by the effects
of dramatic yearly fluctuations in output. (See
p. 14 for a detailed discussion of technological
developments in the industry.)
The automotive industry is particularly re­
sponsive to changes in general economic condi­
tions; cyclical factors strongly influence produc­
tion and consequently output p e r man-hour.
Thus, productivity did not increase at a uniform
rate: year-to-year changes ranged from a de­
cline of 2.8 percent between 1957 and 1958 to an
increase of approximately 1 0 percent between
1961 and 1962. The 1958 decline reflects a re­
cession-induced production cutback of more
than 25 percent. Correspondingly, the high in­
crease in 1962 occurred when output rose over
25 percent in a strong rebound after another re­
cession.
1 / Average annual rates in this report are
based on the linear least squares trend line fitted
to the logarithms of the index numbers.




2

Business cycles were not the only factor in
the short-term variations in output that explain
much of the variation in the rate of productivity
growth. For instance, strikes in the industry
affected production in 1961 and 1964, as did the
lengthy steel strike in 1959. Changes in the
relative importance of imported cars have had
a significant impact too. Imports took an in­
creasing proportion of the automobile market
until 1960, when the American industry intro­
duced the compact car and the sale of imported
cars dropped sharply. Over the next several
years imports climbed back steadily; a sizable
increase in sales occurred in 1966. (See table
4.) Customer response to style changes and the
degree of inventory buildup also directly in­
fluenced the industry’s production; thus, all of
these factors helped determine variations in out­
put per man-hour.
Cyclical factors probably account for the di­
vergence in the relation between output and in
output per man-hour that began in 1962. Output
per man-hour rose an average of 6.7 percent
a year from 1958 through 1962, but only 3.3 per­
cent a year from 1962 through 1966. On the other
hand, output rose almost as much in the later
years—9.6 percent per year, as in the earlier
years—9.7 percent per year.
Since the two periods began at different stages
of the business cycle, changes in capacity utili­
zation probably account for some of the decrease
in the rate of productivity increase. The 195862 period not only followed the 1957-58 recession
but also a peak automobile production year of
1955 and the peak employment year of 1953. Thus,
the industry had both plant and labor reserves
to draw on when production picked up. In con­
trast, the 1962-66 period started from a level of
output 60 percent higher than that of 1958. The
industry’s productivity rate thus appears to
follow a fairly typical pattern of more rapid in­
creases in output per man-hour in the earlier
stages of business expansion than in the later
stages.

A further damper on the rate of growth in the
later period may have occurred as the job market
tightened. Both employment and man-hours
fluctuated widely between 1957 and 1962, but
their net effect w a s a small decline in both
figures. After 1962*employment rose 5.8 per­
cent a year, total man-hours 6 .2 percent. As
employment expanded, overtime h o u r s in­
creased, the quit rate rose, skill shortages oc­
curred, and employers hired new inexperienced
workers.

Although isolating the contributions of sep­
arate factors to changes in productivity is im­
possible, to some extent the lower productivity
gains for the 1962-66 period reflect a change in
the type of production. In contrast to the earlier
period, when plainer, compact cars played an
important role, car p r o d u c t i o n after 1962
featured an increasing variety of models and
equipment. (See tables 5 and 6 .) Consequently,
the industry had less opportunity to derive the
benefits that result from a smooth workflow—
including ease of mechanization.

Clearly, cyclical factors had the most im­
portant effect on changes in output per man­
hour during the period studied—not only for
automotive employees in general, but also for
production workers. The production worker out­
put per man-hour index, increasing at an aver­
age of 4.5 percent a year, was both smaller and
steadier than the all employee measure. It was
steadier because production worker man-hours
tend to follow changes in output more closely than
nonproduction worker man-hours do. It was
smaller because the high and continuing increase
in output caused a slightly faster rate of increase
of man-hours and employment for production
than for nonproduction workers. Thus, a turn­
around occured in the post-war decline of
production workers as a percentage of all auto­
motive employment.

A change in the industry’s capital expenditures
may have had an additional influence on output
per man-hour. After the high levels of 1954-57,
capital expenditures fell between 1958 and 1962
(chart 4). Establishing a direct relationship
between changes in capital expenditures and in
output per man-hour is difficult, but in many
industries increases in the rate of productivity
gain have followed periods of high capital ex­
penditures. A lag appears between the time when
expenditures for plant and equipment are made
and when these facilities—which usually incor­
porate new technological advances—become
fully operative. Similarly, cutbacks in the level
of capital e x p e n d i t u r e s tend to retard the
rate of p r o d u c t i v i t y growth in subsequent
years.




3

Table 1. Motor V ehicles and Equipment Industry:
Output P er M an-Hour, Unit .Labor R equirem ents, and Related Data,
A ll E m ployees, 1957-66
(Indexes, 1957-59=100)
Output p e r-Year

A ll
em ployee

A ll
em ployee
m an-hour

99.2
94. 1
106. 1
114.9
114. 1
131.9
137. 5
139.5
152. 2
150. 2

98.7
95.9
104. 9
113.9
115.3
126.7
131.6
133. 0
141.8
143.4

1957 ____
1958 ___
1959 ----1 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ___
196 2 ___
1963 ____
1964 ____
1965 ____
196 6 ___

Unit labor requirem ents
fo r -A ll
A ll
em ployee
em ployees m an-hours
100. 8
106. 3
94.3
87. 1
87. 7
75.8
72.7
71.7
65. 7

101.4
104. 2
95.3
87.8
86.7
78. 9
76. 0
75. 2
70. 5
69.7

6 6 .6

Related data
Output

A ll
em ployees

no. 7
82.8
106. 5
120. 6
104. 6
132.3
147.8
152. 3
186. 0
187. 1

1 1 1 .6
88. 0

100.4
105. 0
91.7
100.3
107.5
109. 2
1 2 2 .2
124.6

A ll
em ployee
m an-hours
112. 2

86.3
105. 9
90.7
104.4
112.3
114. 5
131.2
130. 5

1 0 1 .5

Source: Output based on data from company records; Autom obile M anufacturers A ssociation;
Automobile Invoice Service Company; Autom obile P ricing P ublications, Inc. ; National Autom obile
D ealers Used Car Guide Company; Pow ers and Co. , Inc. (Ward*s Automotive Y earbooks): Bureau of
the C ensus, U. S. Department of Com m erce; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor.
Employment and m an-hours based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Departm ent of
Labor, and company records.




4

Chart 1
MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY
Output Per All Employee Man-Hours, Output,
and All Employee Man-Hours, 1957-66
Indexes, 1957-59=100




Ratio scale

5

Table 2. Motor V ehicles and Equipment Industry:
Output P er M an-Hour, Unit Labor R equirem ents, and Related Data,
Production W orkers, 1957-66
(Indexes, 1957-59=100)
Year

1957 ____
1958 ____
1959 ____
1960 ____
1 9 6 1 ----1962 ____
1963 ____
1964 ____
1965 ----1966 ____

Output p e r -Production Production
worker
worker
m an-hour
97.6
97. 1
105. 1
113.6
115.8
131.5
136.7
139.5
149.8
148.5

96.9
9 9 .4
103.9
112.5
117.4
125.0
129.8
131.7
137.7
141.0

Unit labor requirem ents
R elated data
fo r -Production Production Output1 Production Production
worker
worker
w orkers
w orkers
m an-hours
m an-hours
103.2
100.6
96.2
88 .9
85.2
80 .0
77. 1
75 .9
72.6
70.9

102.4
103.0
95.1
88. 1
86.3
76 .0
73. 1
71.7
66. 8
67.3

110.7
82.8
106.5
120.6
104.6
132.3
147.8
152.3
186.0
187. 1

113.4
85.3
101.3
106.2
90.3
100.6
108. 1
109.2
124.2
126.0

114.2
83.3
102.5
107.2
89. 1
105.8
113.9
115.6
135. 1
132.7

xThe m easures of output used in this table represent the total production of the industry
resulting from all em ployees and do not represent the specific output of any single group of em ployees.
Source: Output based on data from company records; Autom obile M anufacturers A ssociation;
Autom obile Invoice Service Company; Autom obile P ricing Publications, Inc.; National Autom obile
D ealers Used Car Guide Company; P ow ers and Co. , Inc. (Ward*s Automotive Y earbooks); Bureau of
the C ensus, U. S. Department of Com m erce; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Departm ent of Labor.
Employment and m an-hours based on data from the Bureau of Labor S tatistics, U .S. Departm ent of
Labor.




6




7

Table 3. Motor V ehicles and Equipment Industry:
Output P er M an-Hour, Unit Labor R equirem ents, and Related Data,
Nonproduction W orkers, 1957-66
(Indexes, 1957-59=100)

Year

1957 ____
1958 ----1959 -----I960 ___
1 9 6 1 ___
1962 ____
1963 ____
1964 ___
1965 ____
1966 ___

Unit labor requirem ents
Related data
for- Non­
Non­
Non­
Non­
Non­
production production production Output2 production production
worker
worker
w orker
w orkers
m an-hours1
m an-hour1 w orkers
m an-hours1

Output p e r-Non­
production
worker
104. 9
85.4
109. 2
119. 1
108. 4
133.2
140. 0
139. 2
160.8
155. 7

(104.6)
( 86.4)
(108. 2)
(118.5)
(109.3)
(132.2)
(138. 0)
(137. 1)
(157. 0)
(151.7)

95.3
117. 1
91.5
84. 0
92. 3
75. 1
71.4
71.8
62. 2
64. 2

( 95.6)
(115.7)
( 92.4)
( 84.4)
( 91.5)
( 75.7)
( 72.5)
( 72.9)
( 63.7)
( 65.9)

110. 7
82. 8
106. 5
120.6
104. 6
132.3
147.8
152. 3
186. 0
187. 1

105.5
97. 0
97.5
101.3
96. 5
99.3
105. 6
109.4
115. 7
120. 2

(105.8)
( 95.8)
( 98.4)
(101.8)
( 95.7)
(100. l)
(107. 1)
(111.1)
(118.5)
(l23. 3)

xThe figures shown in parentheses are subject to a wider m argin of error than are other
m easures for this industry because of the method of estim ating nonproduction worker m an-hours.
(See Technical Note, p. 22.)
2The m easures of output used in this table represent the total production of the industry
resulting from all em ployees and do not represent the specific output of any single group of
em p loyees.
Source: Output based on data from company records; Automobile M anufacturers A ssociation;
Automobile Invoice Service Company; Automobile Pricing Publications, Inc. , National Autom obile
D ealers Used Car Guide Company; Pow ers and Co. , Inc. (Ward*s Autom otive Yearbooks); Bureau of
of the C ensus, U .S. Departm ent of Com m erce; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Departm ent of Labor.
Employment and m an-hours based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U .S. Departm ent of
Labor, and company records.




8




9

Table 4. Motor V ehicles and Equipment Industry: G eneral C haracteristics,
Selected Y ears, 1957-66
Item
E sta b lish m en ts--------------------------Total em p loym en t-----------------------Production w o r k e r s -------------------Ratio of production w orkers
to all e m p lo y e e s-------------------Nonproduction w o r k e r s --------------F actory Sales:
P assen ger c a r s ------------------------Trucks and b u s e s ---------------------Exports:
P assenger c a r s -------------------- ----Trucks and b u s e s ---------------------Imports:
P assen ger c a r s -------------------------Trucks and b u s e s ---------------------Value added by m anufacture3 -----Capital expenditures (new)-----------

632.3
479. 1
75.8
153.2

1963
2, 765
741. 3
573. 6
77.4
167.7

1965
(')
842.7
658.9
78. 2
183.8

859. 2
668.4
77.8
190. 8

4, 258
877

5, 543
1, 134

7. 638
1,463

9, 306
1, 752

8,598
1, 731

161
212

126
179

140
209

2194
2146

2 205
2 136

2 261
2 125

259
8
2 8,577

431
15
6, 781
343

409
279
18
9
8, 860 12, 781
426
655

559
31
16,450
1, 251

913
57
16, 086
1, 177

Unit
Number
Thousands
-doPercent
Thousands

1957
(l)
769. 3
601.7
78. 2
167.6

1958
2,292
606.5
452.5
74.6
154.0

-do-do-

6, 113
1, 107

-do-do-do -do$ m illion
-do-

(‘)

1961
0

1966
0

1 Not available.
2 Not strictly com parable with other years.
3 Adjusted for inventory changes.
Source: Automobile M anufacturers A ssociation, Bureau of the Census, U .S. Department of
C om m erce, and Bureau of Labor S tatistics, U .S . Departm ent of Labor.




10

Chart 4.
NEW PLANT AND EQUIPMENT EXPENDITURES FOR MOTOR
VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

(Millions $)

1954-66

1,300
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,1 0 0
1 ,0 0 0

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

1954 ‘55 ‘56 ‘57 ‘58 ‘59 ‘60 ‘61 ‘62 ‘63 ‘64 ‘65 ‘66
Note: Data for 1956, 1957, 1959, and 1960 not strictly comparable
with other years.
Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.




11

T a b le 5. D is tr ib u tio n o f U . S . A u to m o b ile M o d e l Y e a r P r o d u c tio n by P r i c e G ro u p ,
C ar S iz e , and B o d y S ty le , 1 9 5 7 -6 6
(D a ta E x p r e s s e d a s P e r c e n t o f T otal)
1958

1959

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

6 , 212 4 , 260

5, 568

6 ,0 1 1

5 ,4 0 9

6 , 687

7, 340

7, 891

8 ,8 4 3

1966
8 ,6 0 6

3 .4
5 3 .5
2 9 .9
6. 3
6 .9

1 7 .9
4 6 .4
2 4 .4
5 .5
5 .8

1 9 .7
4 8 .0
2 2 .0
3 .4
6 .9

19. 3
47. 9
2 1 .9
3 .6
7. 3

1 5 .8
5 0 .0
2 2 .9
4. 1
7 .2

8. 1
40. 5
3 9 .0
5. 3
7. 1

5 .6
4 1 .8
3 9 .3
6 .5
6 .8

3 .0
37. 5
43. 1
8. 3
8. 1

3 .4
2 2 .4
6 7 .0
7. 2

2 .9
1 9 .7
4 9 .9
4 .6
2 2 .9

3. 5
1 6 .4
42. 6
9 .6
26. 3
1. 6

3 .0
1 7 .9
3 9 .5
13. 5
2 5 .0
1. 1

2 .8
1 8 .4
41. 1
1 3 .6
23. 2
0 .9

2 .7
16 . 9
3 6 .0
2 0 .0
1 7 .9
6. 5

2. 8
1 8 .4
3 5 .5
22. 2
1 2 .5
8 .6

3. 1
1 9 .0
3 1 .8
2 6 .0
8. 5
11 . 6

15 .7
3 4 .8

1 6 .4
40. 2

1 7 .5
39. 5

17. 3
37. 5

1 3 .8
36. 1

11 .7
33. 7

7 .9
3 0 .6

6. 7
2 7 .9

4 .6

4 .7

4 .8
0. 1

5. 7

4 .9
__

11. 9
1 1 .4

2 6 .4
10 . 0

3 3 .8
11.0

3 7 .4
12. 5

2 .7
11 .7
2 .4
--

1.9
1 0 .9
2. 6
--

11.0
11 . 1
1. 2
12. 3
1. 8
0. 7

6 .6
0. 1
2 0 .5
9 .8

6. 3

14. 0
14. 0

5 .9
0. 1
15. 5
9 .9
0 .5
11.0
1. 7
0. 6

0 .3
1 0 .3
2 .0
0 .5

0. 1
9. 2
2. 2
0 .4

0. 2
8 .0
2 .3
0 .5

7 .4
2. 7
0. 5

1957
U . S . auto p r o d u c tio n (tho u san d s)

A uto p r o d u c tio n by p r ic e group
10.6
$ 2, 000 o r l e s s -------------------------0
5 8 .5
2 , 0 0 1 - 2, 500 ------------------------0
18. 3
2 ,5 0 1 - 3 ,0 0 0 ............ ......................
(*)
6. 2
3 , 0 0 1 - 3, 500 --------------- ---------(!)
6 .4
3, 50 1 and o v e r ----------------------(*)
A uto p r o d u c tio n by c a t s iz e
L u x u r y -----------------------------------3. 7
3 .9
2 3 .6
2 7 .0
M e d i u m -----------------------------------6 7 .4
6 7 .4
R e g u l a r ------------------------------------I n t e r m e d i a t e --------------------------5. 1
C o m p a c t s -------------------------------1 .9
S p e c i a l t y ---------------------------------A uto p r o d u c tio n -b y bod y s ty le
Sedans
16 . 2
2 -d o o r ---------------------------------- 2 16 . 4
32. 6 34. 2
4 -d o o r ---------------------------------C o n v e r tib le s
2 -d o o r ---------------------------------4 .4
4 .4
-4 -d o o r ---------------------------------H a r d to p s
18. 3 1 6 .9
2 -d o o r ---------------------------------4 -d o o r ---------------------------------1 4 .6
1 3 .0
W ago n s
2. 3
2 -d o o r ---------------------------------3. 2
4 -d o o r 2 - s e a t --------------------- } 1 0 . 4 '^ 1 3 .0
4 - d o o r 3 - s e a t --------------------5 - 6 d o o r -------------------------------30. 1
-N o t a v a il a b l e .
I n c lu d e s b u s i n e s s c o u p e and c lu b c o u p e .
3 M iscella n eo u s.
S o u r c e : W a r d 's A u to m o t iv e Y e a r b o o k .

N ote: S u m s of in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y not e q u a l
to t a ls b e c a u s e o f rou n d in g.

1

2




12

T a b le 6. F a c t o r y I n sta lla tio n s of S e le c te d E q u ip m en t I te m s , M o d el Y e a r s , 1 9 5 7 -6 6
(P ercen t)
E q u ip m en t
A u t o m a t i c t r a n s m i s s i o n ---------M anual tr a n sm issio n ,
3 s p e e d -------------------------------------M anual tr a n sm issio n ,
4 s p e e d -------------------------------------O v e r d r i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n ---------V - 8 e n g i n e ---------------------------------6 - c y l i n d e r e n g i n e --------------------4 - c y l i n d e r e n g i n e --------------------P o w e r b r a k e s --------------------------P o w e r s t e e r i n g ------------------------P o w e r w i n d o w s ------------------------P o w e r s e a t s -------------------------------R a d i o --------------------------------------------A i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ----------------------L o c k i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l ---------------M o v a b le s t e e r i n g w h e e l ---------D i s c b r a k e s -------------------------------T a p e r e c o r d e r ---------------------------

19571

19581

1959

75

77

75. 1

► 25

1
>23
|

► 20. 8

29
33
6
7
85
4

J

--31
36
8
11
81
5

-

4. 1
7 1 .8
2 8 .3
(2)
2 9 .5
42. 9
6. 3
5 .9
58. 8
6. 2
--

--

1961

1964

1 9 6 5 1966

7 1 .6 72. 8 74. 1 7 5 .6
3
]
V 2 5 . 7 ) ‘2 5 . 3 ► 2 4 . 5 > 2 3 . 1
f
J
1 .4
1 .4
2 .6 1 . 9
56. 7 5 2 .9
55. 6 62. 2
43. 3 45. 3 42. 0 3 6 .6
1 .2
1 .8
2. 5
(2)
3 2 . 4 2 2 .8
2 5 .7
27. 2
42. 7 47. 7
39. 2 3 8 .4
9 .8
12. 2
6 .3 6 .9
6 .4
6. 3 6 .4
7. 3
6 1 .6
5 6 .4 55. 3 5 9 .6
14. 0
6 .9 8 . 1 1 1 .3
4. 6
3 . 5 (2)
5. 5
2. 5

77. 5

80. 7 8 3 .6

16. 8

1 4 . 3 1 1 .6

J

- -

- —

1 D ata not c o m p a r a b le to la te r y e a r s .
2 N ot a v a ila b le.
S o u r c e : B a s e d o n d a ta f r o m A u t o m o b i l e F a c t s a n d F i g u r e s .




13

1962

1963

I960

--

4 .6
1 .0
69. 0
3 1 .0
34. 0
5 1 .9
13. 0
7 .4
6 4 .4
17. 1
6. 7
5 .2
- -

5. 0

4 .8

7 3 .4 80. 0
2 6 .6 2 0 . 0
-32. 3 35. 3
5 9 . 6 6 6 .6
14. 3 13. 7
7. 2 8 . 1
74. 2 78. 9
23. 3 29. 3
1 .6 8 . 5
4. 0 6 . 1
2. 2 2 .9
1 .0

Technological Developments
stalled. This technique, consisting of automatic
operation and control of machine tools by elec­
tronic devices and coded tape instructions, is
suitable particularly for small volume produc­
tion. Because of greater accuracy in reproduc­
tion of parts and elimination of jigs and fixtures,
numerical control has been applied in the auto
industry largely to increase efficiency in man­
ufacture of the many tools and dies needed by
the industry for the large number of automobile
models produced. Numerical control is also
being used increasingly to produce small volume
parts and in combination with conventional
machine tools on transfer lines to increase their
flexibility.

Although changes in output greatly influence
short-run movements in output per man-hour,
long-term trends are affected by additional, in­
terrelated factors—changes in technology, cap­
ital investment, research and development, skill
and effort of the work force, managerial ability,
and labor-management relations. Changes in
technology are especially important, although the
precise effect on output per man-hour cannot
be measured.
The industry had been involved in a substan­
tial program of modernization during the 19626 6 period. A 1966 McGraw-Hill S u r v e y ^ /
indicates that the industry’s producing facilities
five years old or less increased from 29 percent
in 1961 to 58 percent in 1966, the highest pro­
portion of new equipment reported by any man­
ufacturing industry in that year. Moreover, 25
percent of the industry’s capital spending in 1965
was for automated machinery and equipment,
well above the average for all manufacturing.

Electrical discharge and electrochemical ma­
chining techniques, which apply electrical energy
to shape metal parts, provide much closer toler­
ances than conventional techniques, and reduce
much of the time and hand labor formerly needed.
Electrical discharge machining is used mainly
for tool and die production; electrochemical
machining is being applied to debur parts and
to a limited extent to produce actual parts.

Important technological changes have been
taking place in almost all phases of motor ve­
hicles manufacture—designing, machining, in­
spection, assembly, and data processing. Many
of these changes are designated to meet the need
of greater flexibility in production techniques
brought about by the large number of different
automobile models and accessory items being
manufactured. The use of most of these innova­
tions, however, is still quite limited and their
future diffusion will depend on such nontechni­
cal factors as market prospects, competitive
conditions, union attitudes, capital requirements,
and character of management. Information on
some of the more important technical develop­
ments that have been taking place in the industry,
obtained from a review of annual reports of cor­
porations and trade and technical publications,
is presented below.
Advances in Machining

New transfer lines permit greater product
flexibility and more efficient operations than
older equipment by incorporating multipurpose
machines, which, can produce a number of
variations of a given part with mininum adjust­
ment. These lines feature automatic work hand­
ling devices, and built-in storage areas for parts
in process which allow shutdown and maintenance
of individual stations without stopping the whole
line. The number of automatic operations per­
formed on transfer lines, including time consum­
ing functions such as gaging and inspection
has been increasing.
2 J Data from this survey include investments
made in some automotive stamping plants that
are classified outside of the motor vehicles and
equipment industry.

In machining, a significant number of numer­
ically controlled machine tools have been in­




14

Use of Computers
Over 400 computers are being used for such
applications as accounting, payrolls, inventory
control, and for scientific, engineering, and
manufacturing functions. In the final assembly
line operation computer systems match parts
of different models, styles, and colors of motor
vehicles. This procedure permits smaller parts
inventories, warns of interruption of parts flow,
and adjusts the model mix to provide more
efficient assembly operations. Computer assem ­
bly line applications also provide daily work
schedules, on-line quality control, and reports
of bad assemblies to repairmen. In some cases
computers are connected to gages and equip­
ment on the lines to directly monitor operations.
Computer applications in other areas of manu­
facturing monitor and control individual and
banks of production machines, check automatic
transmissions, and test completed automobiles
for safety, quality, and air pollution control.
Advanced techniques, incorporating compu­
ters, which reduce the lead time between design
and production of individual automobile models,
have been gaining acceptance for engineering
and design functions. Computers are useful in
solving complex engineering problems that pre­
viously would have taken many computational
man-hours. New techniques to increase designer
and draftsmen productivity include computer
aided design techniques and digitizing drafting
machines, which translate auto body contour
drawings into, numbers and record points on
tape used on numerically controlled drafting
machines to produce perspective drawings.
Another system consists of a contour scanner
using a TV camera which records data from clay
models. The data are fed into a computer which
produces tapes for numerically controlled die
making machines to speed up greatly the design
cycle.




15

New Materials
New and substitute materials for motor ve­
hicle manufacture include plastics for numerous
components ranging from grilles to rear fender
extensions. Injection molded plastic parts, such
as instrument panels and inner fender panels,
have been substituted increasingly for die cast
metal parts. They reduce the amount of labor
needed for parts production and assembly since
they are generally molded in one piece and
require fewer finishing operations. They also
provide substantial weight savings and reduction
in the number of dies needed. Aluminum is
being substituted for iron and steel in making
gear housings, rocker arm covers, and com­
ponents of accessory options such as power
steering, power brake units, and air condi­
tioners. Crankshafts and connecting rods, form­
erly produced as steel forgings, are now made
of nodular iron castings which reduce man­
hours in subsequent processing. Zinc die cas­
tings, stainless steel, fiber glass, and adhesive
for bonding are some other new materials.
Mechanization of Assembly
Automatic assembly machines, which can per­
form screwdriving, nut running, riveting, feed­
ing and aligning operations, reduce unit labor
requirements in the assembly of large volume,
fixed design parts, such as door locks and brake
components. Automatic assembly may improve
product quality, increase production speed, and
reduce inventories.
Major subassemblies, such as different horse­
power V-8 engines, are produced containing
numerous interchangeable parts. This technique
allows a number of different subassemblies to
be built using the same production equipment,
reduces drastically the number of different
parts to be manufactured, allows longer produc­
tion runs for individual components, simplifies
assembly operations, and reduces the inventory
of parts needed for service.

Technical Note
Definition of the Industry
The motor vehicles and equipment group, as
defined in this report, is based on the 1967
Standard Industrial Classification, (SIC) Group
No. 371.J3/ This consists of the 4-digit indus­
tries defined in the following paragraphs. For
each industry, an alphabetical list of the prin­
cipal products appears in the SIC manual.
1. Motor Vehicles (SIC 3711)
Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing or assembling complete passenger auto­
mobiles, trucks, commerical cars and buses
(except trackless trolleys—Industry 3742), and
special purpose motor vehicles such as ambu­
lances and fire engines.
2. Passenger Car Bodies (SIC 3712)
Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing passenger car bodies, but not engaged in
manufacturing complete passenger automobiles.
(Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing stamped body parts for passenger cars
are classified in Industry 3461.)
3. Truck and Bus Bodies (SIC 3713)
Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing truck and bus bodies, for sale separately
or for assembly on purchased chassis. (Estab­
lishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
stamped body parts for trucks and buses are
classified in Industry 3461.)

3 / 1967 Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, U.S. Bureau of the Budget. Some indus­
try sources have recommended expanding the
definition to include all automotive stamping
plants. At present, only those plants producing
automobile bodies as final products or consid­
ered integral parts of motor vehicle establish­
ments are included.




4. Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories
(SIC 3714)
Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing motor vehicle parts and accessories, but
not engaged in manufacturing complete motor
vehicles. (Establishments primarily engaged in
manufacturing tires and tubes are classified in
Industry 3011, automobile glass in Major Group
32, automobile stampings in Industry 3461, ve­
hicular lighting equipment in Industry 3642,
ignition systems in Industry 3694, and storage
batteries in Industry 3691.)
In addtion to the specific exclusions noted
above, a considerable number of components,
parts, and accessories for motor vehicles are
classified in other SIC industries, and are based
on the characteristic of the product itself, rather
than the specific application. The U.S. Bureau of
the Census lists some of these other important
exclusions:_4/ automotive hardware, SIC 3429;
diesel and semidiesel engines, SIC 3519; sealed
beam and other electric lamps, SIC 3641; auto­
mobile radios, SIC 3651; and carburetors and
pistons, SIC 3599.
5. Truck Trailers (SIC 3715)
Establishments primarily engaged in manufac­
turing truck trailers and truck trailer chassis
for sale separately, but not engaged in manu­
facturing complete trucks and buses.
One of the data sources for this report is the
Census of Manufactures of the U.S. Bureau of
the Census. In collecting and publishing statis­
tics for this group, the Bureau of the Census has
combined SIC industries 3711, 3712, and 3714
into Census code 3717 - Motor Vehicles and
Parts. This grouping was made because large
establishments which have integrated operations
produce parts or bodies as well as assemble
complete vehicles. This complexity in the struc­
ture of the industry group has prevented the
development of output per man-hour indexes
for the component 4-digit industries.

4/ 1963 Census of Manufactures.
16

(SIC Codes 3711, 3712, 3714—Census Code
3717), (2) Truck and Bus Bodies (SIC 3713),
and (3) Truck Trailers (SIC 3715). 1958 man­
hours based primarily upon published BLS data
supplemented by special BLS surveys were used
as weights for 1957-63; from 1963 forward, 1963
man-hours were used. The motor vehicles and
parts index represented about 94 percent of the
total weight in the output index for the group;
the remaining weights were divided between
truck and bus bodies and truck trailers. (See
appendix A.)
A. Motor Vehicles and Parts (SIC 3711, 12,
14—Census Code 3717)
To obtain the output index for this industry
group, separate indexes were constructed for
(1) passenger cars and equipment, (2) trucks
and buses, and (3) replacement parts and ac­
cessories. These indexes were combined with
1958 aggregate value of shipments weights for
1957-63 and 1963 weights for 1963 and subsequent
years. The value of shipments data were ob­
tained from the 1963 Census of Manufacturers.
Although combining these indexes with total
man-hour weights would have been desirable,
separate man-hour data for each of these prod­
uct groupings were not available.
(1) Passenger Cars and Equipment
The output index for passenger cars and equip­
ment, which represents about three fourths of
the motor vehicles and parts industry, was
derived by combining two production indexes:
One for passenger cars with standard equip­
ment and another for optional equipment. These
two indexes were combined with base year
(1958 and 1963) aggregate value weights derived
from detailed production and unit value data.

General Procedures
The indexes for the motor vehicles and equip­
ment industry presented in this report were
developed according to the general procedures
followed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for
deriving industry output per man-hour indexes.
For an industry producing a single homogeneous
product, the indexes measure the change over a
period of time in the ratio of the number of units
produced to the number of man-hours expended.
For an industry producing many products, such
as the motor vehicles and equipment industry,
the indexes measure the change in the ratio of
a composite of the p r o d u c t s appropriately
weighted to the man-hours. To derive the output
per man-hour index, an output index is developed
and is divided by the corresponding man-hour
index.
To construct industry output per man-hour
measures, the preferred output index is obtained
by weighting the quantities of the industry’s
products by the average man-hours required to
produce one unit of each product in a specified
year. Thus, those products which require more
labor time are given more importance in the
output index. For the automotive industry, how­
ever, unit man-hour data are not available for
most of the products and the substitution of
weights which are assumed to be proportional
to unit man-hours was necessary. Both unit
value and unit value added weights were used
as substitutes.
Output Indexes
The output index for the motor vehicles and
equipment industry was constructed by compu­
ting indexes for three major component indus­
tries and combining these indexes with aggregate
man-hour weights. _5/ The three industries with­
in the group are (1) Motor Vehicles and Parts

Passenger Cars with Standard Equipment.
The output index for this component of the indus­
try was derived by removing from the change in
current value of passenger car production the
change in prices. To obtain abase year weighted
production index consistent with the other seg­
ments of the output index, the index of current
value of production should be divided by a current
year weighted price index as noted in the follow­
ing formulation:

j>/ This procedure is equivalent to combining
quantities of products with unit man-hour weights.




17

Value of produc- r Price index = Output index
tion index
(Paasche)
(Laspeyres)
2 PiQi
2PoQo

*

2 PiQi
2 PoQi

=

The list of cars selected for pricing changed
frequently during the 1957-66 period to reflect
changing models, increased coverage, and shifts
in the volume sellers. Price imputation patterns
were shifted concurrently. The price indexes
related to the selected models were adjusted for
differences in quality, i.e., for additional features
and product improvement or deterioration. 8/

2 PoQi
SPoQo

where P represents prices, Q quantities and sub­
scripts i and o refer to current and base year
values, respectively.

An effort was made to derive a physical prod­
uction measure for passenger cars with standard
equipment by utilizing detailed data on calendar
year production of automobile by nameplate
(Chevrolet, Buick, Dodge, etc.) model (Bel Air,
Galaxie 500, etc.), body style (convertible, 2
door hardtop, etc.) and number of cylinders. This
detail resulted in approximately 500 separate
product classifications each year. For the base
years of 1958 and 1963, these automobile types
were grouped by unit values into weight classes
with $100 class intervals. For later years the
current models were compared with the base
year models. If a new model was introduced or
if the specifications (including standard equip­
ment) were changed significantly, an appro­
priate base year weight class had to be deter­
mined. The comparability of the current models
was determined after examination of data from
several sources including wholesale values and
specification changes from New Car Cost Guide
and Official Used Car Guide 9/, BLS Wholesale
Price Indexes, and a special listing made by the
automobile manufacturers of the models they
considered generally equivalent from year to
year. The volume and complexity of the annual
changes taking place in passenger car produc­
tion meant that the determinations of appro­
priate weight classes were often subjective and
could lead to a serious bias. As a result of
these difficulties, a more accurate index could
be obtained by analyzing the information available

The current value of production for each year
was calculated by multiplying calendar year
production of passenger cars (including standard
equipment) for approximately 500 product clas­
sifications § J by the introductory wholesale
price for each classification as reported in the
New Car Cost Guide. 7/ Prices exclude excise
taxes and freight charges.
The price index used for this industry was
prepared especially for this report and is based
on the data and techniques underlying the develop­
ment of the BLS Wholesale Price Index for
Passenger Cars, WPI 14-11-01. The differences
from the published index essentially reflect ex­
clusion of imported cars and use of current
year weights rather than base year weights.
November data were used as the best match for
the introductory prices used for current valua­
tions.
Each of the specified domestic car models
which were priced for the Wholesale Price Index
for a given period was selected to represent
a broader range of models so that all domestically
produced cars would be included either directly
or indirectly. Thus, for 1966 the price indexfor
a priced model was usually given a weight that
reflected not only the value of production of all
models which have the same nameplate but also
the value of production of unpriced nameplates
made by the same company.

8 / For further detail on the techniques and
guidelines used in adjustments fo r quality
changes, see Margaret S. Stotz, “Introductory
Prices of 1966 Automobile Models,” Monthly
Labor Review, February 1966.
9/ National Automobile Dealers Used Car
Guide Company, Washington, D. C.

6 / Detailed production breakdown was re­
ceived directly from automotive manufacturers.
J j Automobile Invoice Service Company, a
division of the Chek-Chart Corporation, Chicago,
Illinois.




18

by applying model year installation percentages,
from Ward’s, to the calendar year production
data for cars. Installation percentages include
both standard and optional equipment. Therefore,
standard equipment, as determined from New
Car Cost Guide and Auto Bluebook, 11/ was sub­
tracted from the total installed equipment.

on the price and quality changes for the sample
cars selected for the BLS Wholesale Price Index
and assuming that the price movements of the
individual cars, properly weighted, would rep­
resent all cars.
Ideally, the output index should be unit man­
hour weighted. Since the passenger car with
standard equipment accounts for about 60 per­
cent of the total weight, a partial check was made
on the validity of the assumption that unit man­
hours weights tend to be proportional to unit
value weights. A special examination of unpub­
lished data from both the 1958 and 1963 Census
of Manufactures was made for establishments
both specializing in automotive assembly and
fabrication and highly integrated, i.e., value
added was more than 75 percent of the value
of shipments. A regression equation was de­
veloped from the weighted establishment aver­
ages for unit values and unit man-hours. The
relative weights obtainable from the relevant
range of unit values corresponded fairly closely
with relative weights derived from the unit man­
hours developed from the regression equation.

The weights for the optional equipment items
were derived from 1958 (1963) wholesale prices
for each auto series (Fairlanes, Tempests, Val­
iants, etc.), from New Car Cost Guide. When
a choice of prices existed for the same item,
the most popular type of equipment was selected.
These are used directly as weights for equip­
ment classified as. primary products of the
industry since they are produced largely by
establishments classified in the motor vehicles
and equipment group. A fraction of the whole­
sale price was used as a weight for those items
classified as primary products of other indus­
tries to represent the installation costs incurred
by the industry. 12/ This weight was based on
unpublished special analyses of installation costs
provided by the motor vehicle manufacturers.

Optional Equipment. This output index was
based on production of the major items of non­
standard equipment installed by the motor vehi­
cles and equipment industry plus an estimate
for all other optional equipment. The total items
covered directly ranged from 13 in 1957 to 23
in 1966. Production of equipment after 1957 was
linked into the index if these items had been
available previously to customers but not counted
due to lack of adequate information or relative
unimportance. The 1957-63 output index was
based on the annual production of 13 to 17 items.
(See appendix B for list.) The 1963-66 index was
based on 17 to 23 major items.

When an accessory was introduced as a new
item or on an auto series for the first time, a
1958 (1963) unit value weight was derived from
the price trend of a similar item or from the
price trend of an item from the most closely
related series.
The estimate for all other optional equipment
items was based on a comparison between maxi­
mum v a l u e of optional equipment items per
car 13/ and maximum value of major items per

Actual calendar year production data were
available from 1957 to 1963 for automatic trans­
missions, power steering, and power brakes
from Ward’s Automotive Yearbooks. 10/ For
the other accessories, production was estimated

11/ Currently known as the Complete Auto­
mobile Pricing Manual published by Automobile
Pricing Publications, Inc., Burlingame, Cali­
fornia.
12/ Items such as tinted glass and white wall
tires, which require no additional man-hours by
the industry, are not covered.
13/ Only those items were considered which
were either produced in the industry or had sig­
nificant installation costs.

10/ Powers and Company, Inc., Detroit,
Michigan.




19

car for the passenger car models priced for the
price indexes; A weighted ratio was used to ad­
just a production index based on the major items
only. The list of available equipment for the sam­
ple cars and the related prices were determined
from the New Car Cost Guide. The estimated
value of the optional items not covered directly
ranged from 20 to 25 percent of the total optional
equipment index. Many implicit assumptions
were involve in this type of estimate; represent­
ativeness of sample, comparability of installa­
tion percentages and charges between covered
and uncovered item s, and similarity of price
movements. The overall weight of the uncovered
sector represents less than 3 percent of the total
index of the motor vehicles and equipment index.

vehicle manufacturers* (Parts and accessories
shipped to or produced by motor vehicle manu­
facturers are included directly or indirectly in
other output indexes.) Rebuilt motor vehicle
engines and parts also are included. The ship­
ments cover export shipments as well as ship­
ments to distributors, dealers, wholesalers,
service stations, etc.
The output index was based on the total value
of shipments of motor vehicle parts and acces­
sories shipped to other than domestic motor
vehicle manufacturers (Censuscode 37176), plus
rebuilt motor vehicle engines and parts (Census
code 37177), as deflated by BLS Wholesale Price
Index 14-1, (Motor Vehicles and Equipment).
Only those parts and accessories which are clas­
sified in SIC 371 were included. (See page 16 for
definition.) Value data for 1958-63 were taken
from the 1963 Census of Manufactures. An
estimate was made for 1957 based on the 195758 percentage change in value of sales of replace­
ment parts and accessories as published by the
Automobile Manufacturers Association in Auto­
mobile Facts and Figures. These data were ad­
justed by BLS to include exports and to exclude
replacement batteries. Value data for years
subsequent to 1963 were taken from the Annual
Survey of Manufactures.

The same adjustment factor for noncovered
optional items was used to blow up value of
production figures for covered optional equip­
ment items for both 1958 and 1963 to provide
weights for combining the optional equipment
index with the index for passenger cars (includ­
ing standard equipment)*
(2) Trucks and Buses
The output index for trucks and buses is based
on the deflated value of shipments for these two
product groups. The current dollar value of ship­
ments for truck tractors, truck chassis, and
trucks is converted into a constant dollar series
by using a deflator composed of BSL Wholesale
Price Indexes 14-1 (Motor Vehicles and Equip­
ment) and 14-11-02 (Motor Trucks). These WPl*s
were combined with value of shipments weights
from the 1963 Census of Manufactures. Similarly,
the shipments data for buses and fire department
vehicles were deflated using BLS Wholesale
Price Index 14-11-03 (Motor Coaches).

To combine this index with other components
of industry 3717, base year (1958 and 1963) Cen­
sus values for codes 37176 plus 37177 were
used as weights. The industry value was used for
1963, and the product value (wherever made) was
used for 1958.
B. Truck and Bus Bodies (code 3713)
The output index for truck and bus bodies was
based on the value of output expressed in constant
1958 (1963) dollars. The value of output was
derived from data on (1) the industry value of
shipments of truck and bus bodies, converted to
constant dollars plus (2) the net change in the
value of finished goods inventories, also incon­
stant dollars. Value data were from the Census
of Manufactures and the Annual Survey of
Manufactures.

Annual shipments data were obtained from the
Census of Manufactures and Annual Survey
of Manufactures.
(3) Replacement Parts and Accessories
This index reflects the production of parts
and accessories for passenger cars, trucks, and
buses shipped to other than domestic motor




20

For 1963-66, output was measured by the
quantity of units shipped since actual production
figures are not available after 1963. No inventory
adjustment was made, but inventories have not
been significant for this industry. 14/ At the
same time, product detail was revised and re­
duced. Also, 1983 unit value weights were used
for this period.

Industry value of shipments for 1957, 1958,
and 1983 exclude resales; value of shipments for
1959-62 as it appears in the Census of Manu­
factures includes resales. To exclude resales
from the data for intercensal years, the 1958
and 1963 ratios of value of shipments without
resales to value of shipments with resales
were used to interpolate the 1959-62 value
of shipments excluding resales. For intercensal
years after 1963, the 1963 ratio was used to ad­
just value of shipments.
Annual value of shipments was deflated by a
special industry price index constructed from
the yearly averages of BLS Wholesale Price
Index 14-11-02 (Motor Trucks) and BLS Whole­
sale Price Index 14-11-03 (Motor Coaches). In
combining the commodity price indexes into an
industry price index, the weight assigned to WPI
14-11-02 was equal to the 1958 (1963) total value
of shipments and inter plant transfers of all truck
bodies, shipped by all manufacturing establish­
ments; the weight assigned to WPI 14-11-03 was
equal to the 1958 (1963) total value of shipments
and interplant transfers of all bus bodies. Value
of shipments weights were from the 1963 Census
of Manufactures.
Beginning-of-year and end-of-year values of
finished goods inventories were deflated by a
special price index constructed from the Decem­
ber figures of WPI 14-11-02 and WPI 14-11-03.
The commodity price indexes were combined into
an industry price index by using the method des­
cribed in the preceding paragraph.

Employment and Man-Hour Indexes
Employment and man-hour indexes measure
the change in aggregate number of employees or
man-hours over a period of time. Employees and
employee man-hours are treated as homogene­
ous and additive. Changes in qualitative aspects
of employment such as skill, efficiency, health,
experience, age, and sex of persons comprising
the aggregate are not reflected in the indexes.
The man-hour data relate to total time expended
by employees in establishments classified in the
industry group. These data include not only the
hours spent on primary activities of the establisment, but also those on other activities and m is­
cellaneous operations. Paid time for vacations,
holidays, or sick leave when the employee is not
at the plant also is included.
Six labor input indexes were developed for the
motor vehicles and equipment group for 1957-66:
All employees, production workers, nonproduc­
tion workers, man-hours of all employees, man­
hours of production workers, and man-hours of
nonproduction workers.
“Production workers” cover working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers (includingleadmen and trainees) engaged in fabricating, proc­
essing, assembling, inspection, receiving, stor­
age, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping,
trucking, hauling, m a i n t e n a n c e , repair,

C. Truck Trailers (code 3715)
The output index for truck trailers was con­
structed from data on the annual physical quan­
tities of trailers produced, as published in the
Current Industrial Reports series of the Bureau
of the Census. Product detail is by use (e.g., in­
sulated vans, high pressure tanks, dump trailers,
etc.) and material (steel and aluminum). For
1957-63, each product was weighted by its 1958
unit valuer (See appendix C.) Unit values were
derived from Census of Manufactures data by
dividing the total value of shipments and inter­
plant transfers by the total quantity of shipments
and interplant transfers for each product.




14/ The 1964 Current Industrial Reports for
truck trailers states: “Data on the number of units
produced, collected for prior years, were eli­
minated in 1964 in recognition of the fact that in
this industry no great time difference occurs
between products (sic) and shipments.”
21

janitorial, watchman services, product develop­
ment, auxiliary production for plant’s own use
(e.g., power plant operations), and recordkeep­
ing and other services closely associated with the
above production operations. The term thus in­
cludes some indirect as well as direct plant
labor.

Employment and Production Worker ManHours. Employment indexes are based on BLS
data for the motor vehicles and equipment in­
dustry group (SIC 371). These are 12-month
averages of persons who worked full- or parttime or received pay for any part of the payroll
period which includes the 12th of each month.

“Nonproduction workers” include employees
engaged in the following activities: Executive,
purchasing, finance, accounting, legal, person­
nel, cafeterias, medical, professional and tech­
nical activities, sales, sales-delivery (e.g.,
route men), advertising, credit, collection, and
in installation and servicing of own products,
routine office f u n c t i o n , factory supervision
(above the working foreman level); and force
account construction employees on the payroll
engaged in construction of major additions or
alterations to the plant who are utilized as a
separate work force.

Man-hour indexes for production workers
are based on production worker employment
and average weekly hours data published by the
BLS. Man-hours include all the hours at the
plant plus all paid time for vacations, holidays,
disability time, and personal time off, when the
employee is not at the plant. Overtime and other
premium pay hours are included on the basis of
actual time at the plant.
All Employee Man-Hours. The index of all
employee man-hours is derived from three com­
ponents: (1) production worker man-hours, de­
rived from BLS data; (2) number of nonproduc­
tion workers, derived from BLS data; and (3)
an estimate of average annual paid hours of
nonproduction workers derived from special
confidential company studies. For consistency
with production worker man-hours, these data
also include time paid for vacations, holidays,
disability time, and personal time off.

Employment and man-hour indexes for the
motor vehicles and equipment industry group
were derived from data published by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in Employment and Earnings
Statistics for the United States, 1909-1936 and
subsequent monthly issues of Employment and
Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor
Force.




22

Appendix A. W eighting Diagram for the Motor V ehicles
and Equipment Industry
(W eights E xpressed as Percent of Total)
W eights [Percent)
19 S 3
1958

Output Components
Motor vehicles and equipment in d e x ---------(A) Motor veh icles and p a r t s --------------(1) P assen ger cars and equipm ent-(a) P assen ger cars and standard
equipm ent---------------------------(b) Optional eq u ip m en t--------------(2) Trucks and b u ses-----------------------(3) Replacem ent parts and
a c cesso ries -----------------------(B) Truck and bus b o d ie s --------------------(C) Truck t r a i l e r s --------------------------------

100.0
93. 1
68.8
59.0
9 .8
15. 2
9. 1
4. 2
2.7

Type of
index

100.0
92.9

70.4
61. 2
9. 2
14.9
7. 6
4 .2
2.9

DV
PP
DV
DV
DV
PP

1 DV ■ Deflated value; PP = P hysical production.
Notes: Indexes of (A), (B) and (C) are com bined with m an-hour w eights.
(A) (1), (2) and (3) are com bined with value of ship­
m ents w eights.
(A) (1) (a) and (b) are com bined with value of produc­
tion w eights.
See text for fuller explanation.
Source: Bureau of Labor S tatistics, U .S . Departm ent of Labor.




23

Appendix B. A ccesso ries Covered in the Optional
Equipment Output Index
Item s prim arily cla ssified and installed in the m otor veh icles and
equipment industry:
Autom atic tran sm ission
Power brakes
Power steering
O verdrive
Window w asher
H eater
L im ited -slip differential
4 -sp eed synchrom esh tran sm ission
E lectric w ipers
Added after
1963:
D isc brakes
Speed regulating device
Movable steering
Vinyl tops
Item s prim arily cla ssified outside but installed by the m otor veh icles and
equipment industry:
Air conditioner
Radio
Power windows
Power seats (2 -, 4 -, and 6 -w ay)*
Backup lights
Power antenna
Bucket seats
Added in
1963:
Rear power window, station wagons

*After 1963, power seats are separated into 2-w ay, and 4 - and
6 -way sea ts.




24

Appendix C . Unit Value W eights U sed in Com piling the
Truck T railer Output Index (SIC 3715)
Unit value weights
1958
1963

Product group
I. Complete tra ilers ----------------------------------A* Vans -------------------------------------------------1. Insulated, sem i-in su lated
and r e fr ig e ra te d ----------------------S te e l------------------------------------A lu m in u m ---------------------------2. F u r n itu r e ----------------------------------S te e l------------------------------------A lu m in u m ---------------------------3. Other closed top v a n s----------------S te e l------------------------------------A lu m in u m ---------------------------4. Open top v a n s-----------------------------S te e l------------------------------------A lu m in u m ---------------------------B. Tanks -----------------------------------------------1. Petroleum and aircraft
r e f u e le r s --------------------------------Carbon and alloy s t e e l -------Stainless steel --------------------A lu m in u m ---------------------------2. C hem ical, food, and
sanitary------------------------------------3. Dry m aterials and other
low p ressu re ta n k s------------------4. High p ressu re-----------------------------C. Pole and lo g g in g -------------------------------1. Single axle --------------------------------2. Tandem axle -----------------------------D. P la tfo rm ------------------------ -------------------1. Racks, livestock, and s ta k e -----2, Grain b o d ie s-------------------------------3. Other platform s -----------------------E. Low -bed heavy h a u le r s ----------------------




25

$7,464
7, 697
4, 372
4 ,612
4, 664
6,031
4, 6 16
5,495
6, 508
11, 233
9, 174
11, 026
8,743
11, 779
1, 333
3, 535
4, 546
3,465
3,432
4, 250

$ 5,525
8,293
\
/

\
/

5,577
4, 541
5, 167
4,864
5, 244

9,010
10,087
11, 262
9, 527
13, 297

\

/

3,674

\

r 3,820
4,559

Appendix C. Unit Value W eights U sed in Compiling the
Truck T railer Output Index (SIC 3715) — Continued
Unit value weights
T95B
1963

Product group
F . Dump tr a ile r s1 ------------------------------------G. A il other tra ilers -------------------------------II. T railer ch a ssis only, for sale
sep arately2 -------------------------------------------III. Detachable trailer van bodies,
for sale se p a r a te ly --------------------------------




$ 4 ,4 7 4
4, 681
2, 578
3, 645

1 Includes dump trailer ch a ssis in 1963.
2 Includes dump trailer ch a ssis in 1958.
Source: 1963 Census of M anufactures, table 6A.

26

$ 5,666
-I 3,089

}

3,445

APPENDIX D. MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY
AVERAGE ANNUAL RATES OF CHANGE (PERCENT)1
(To obtain annual rate of change between any 2 years shown, find row for
initial year at left of table and read figure in that row under the term inal year
shown on top .)
Output per A ll Em ployee Man-Hour
Term inal year

1958
1
#
M
00

Initial
year
1957----1958___
1959----1960___
1961___
1962----1963___
1964___
1965___

—

1959
3. 1
9.4

I960
5. 3
8.9
8.5

1961
5.0
6. 5
4. 8
1. 3

1962
5. 5
6.7
6.0
5.5
9.9

1963
5. 6
6.4
5. 8
5.4
6. 8
3.9

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

-

1964
5.1
5. 7
5.0
4.5
4.8
2. 5
1. 1
—
—

1965
5. 1
5.4
4 .9
4.6
4.7
3.5
3.8
6.6
—

1966
4. 8
5.0
4.6
4. 2
4. 2
3. 3
3. 3
3.8
1. 1

Output
In itia l
year

1957___
1958___
1959----I960___
1961___
1962----1963___
1964___
1 9 6 5 ....

1958
-25. 2
—
—
—

1959
-1 .9
28.6
—
—

I960 1961
5. 2
2. 7
20.7
8.6
13. 2 -0.9
— -13. 3

—

—

—

—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

—

—

1962
5.0
9.6
5. 2
4. 7
26. 5
—
—
—
—

1963
6. 6
10. 2
7.8
8. 8
18. 9
11.7
—
—
—

1964
6.9
9.6
7. 8
8. 5
13. 2
7. 3
3.0
—
—

1965
8. 1
10.4
9.3
10. 2
13.8
11. 1
12. 2
22. 1
—

1963
1.0
3.6
1. 9
3. 2
11. 3
7. 6

1964
1. 7
3. 8
2. 7
3. 8
8.0
4. 7
2.0

1965
2. 8
4 .7
4. 2
5 .4
8 .7
7.3
8. 1
14. 6

1966
W7Z

10. 1
9. 1
9.8
12.0
9.7
9.5
10. 8
0.6

All em ployee man-hour
Initial
year
TWTTTT
1 9 5 8 ____
1 9 5 9 ------I 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ____
1 9 6 2 ____
1 9 6 3 ____
1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ____




1958
-23. 1
—

1 959
-4 .9
17.6

I960
-0. 1
10. 8
4. 3

1961
-2. 2
1.9
-5. 5
-14.4

1962
-0. 5
2.7
-0 .7
-0. 7
15. 1

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

See footnote at end of table.

27

—

1966
3. 2
4. 8
4 .4
5. 3
7. 5
6. 2
6.0
6. 8
-0. 5

APPENDIX D. MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY--Continued
AVERAGE ANNUAL RATES OF CHANGE (PERCENT)1
(To obtain annual rate of change between any 2 years shown, find row for
initial year at left of table and read figure in that row under the term inal year
shown on top.)
Output per A ll Em ployee
Term inal year
Initial
year
1 9 5 7 ____
1 9 5 8 ____
1 9 5 9 ------I 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ------1 9 6 2 ____
1 9 6 3 ____
1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ____

Initial
year
1957___
1958___
1959----1960___
1961___
1962----1963___
1964----1965-----

1958
-5. 1
—

1959
3.4
12.7

I960
5 .8
10.5
8. 3

1961
4 .9
6. 8
3. 7
-0 .7

1962
6. 1
7 .8
6. 7
7. 2
15.6

1963
6.4
7 .5
6. 8
7. 1
9 .8
4. 2

1 964
6.0
6 .8
6 .0
5.9
6. 7
2. 8
1.4

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1 965
6. 1
6 .7
6. 1
6.0
6. 5
4 .5
5 .2
9. 1
—

1 966
5. 7
6. 1
5. 5
5. 3
5. 3
3. 7
3. 6
3. 8
- 1. 3

All em ployees

1958
-21. 1
—
—

1959
-5. 2
14. 1
—

I960
-0.5
9. 2
4 .6

1961
-2. 1
1. 7
-4 .4
-12. 7

1962
- 1.0
1. 7
- 1.4
-2. 3
9.4

1963
0. 2
2. 5
0.9
1. 6
8. 3
7. 2

1964
0. 8
2. 7
1. 7
2.4
6. 1
4. 3
1.6

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1965
1.9
3.5
3.0
3.9
6.8
6.3
6.6
11.9
—

1966
2.4
3. 8
3. 5
4. 3
6. 3
5. 8
5.7
6. 8
2.0

Output per production worker man-hour
I n itia l
year

1957___
1958___
1959___
1960___
1961___
1962___
1963___
1964___
1965___




1958
2. 5
—

—
—

—

—
—
—
—

1959
3.5
4. 5
—
—

I960
5.0
6.4
8. 3
—

1961
5. 2
6. 0
6. 3
4.4

—

—

—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

—

—

See footnote at end of table.

28

1962
5.4
6.0
6. 2
5.4
6. 5
—
—
—
—

1963
5. 3
5. 7
5. 7
5.0
5. 1
3. 8
—
—
—

1964
5. 0
5. 1
4. 9
4. 2
3.9
2. 6
1.5

—

1965
4. 8
4.8
4. 6
4. 1
3.8
3. 1
3.0
4. 5
—

1966
4. 5
4. 5
4. 3
3. 8
3. 5
3. 0
3.0
3.4
2.4

A P P E N D IX D . M O T O R V E H IC L E S A N D E Q U IP M E N T IN D U S T R Y --C o n tin u e d
A V E R A G E A N N U A L R A T E S O F C H A N G E (P E R C E N T )1
(T o o b ta in a n n u a l r a te o f ch a n g e b e tw e e n an y 2 y e a r s sh o w n , fin d r o w fo r
in itia l y e a r at le ft of ta b le and r e a d fig u r e in th at ro w u n d er th e te r m in a l y e a r
sh ow n on t o p .)
P r o d u c tio n W o rk er M a n -H o u r s
T e r m in a l y e a r
Initia l
year
1 9 5 7 ____
19 58 ____
1 9 5 9 -----I 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ____
1 9 6 2 ____
1 9 6 3 ____
1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ____

1958
-27. 1
—

1959
-5 .5
23.0

I960
0TZ
1 3 .4
4 .6

1961
-Z .4
2. 5
-6. 8
-16. 9

1962
-0.4
3.4
-0.9
-0. 7
18. 7

1963
1. 2
4. 3
2. 0
3. 6
13. 1
7.7

1964
1 .9
4. 3
2. 8
4.0
8.9
4. 5
1. 5

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1965
3. 1
5.3
4. 5
5.9
9.6
7.8
8.9
1 6 .9
—

1966
3. 5
5. 3
4. 7
5. 7
8. 1
6.4
6. 3
7. 1
- 1. 8

O utput p e r p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r
Initia l
year
1 9 5 7 ____
1 9 5 8 ____
1 9 5 9 -----I 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ____
1 9 6 2 -----1 9 6 3 -----1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ____

1958
-0. 6
—

1959
3.8
8. 3

I960
5. 5
8. 2
8. 0

1961
5. 1
6. 3
5.0
2. 0

1962
6. 2
7.3
7.2
7. 6
1 3 .5

1963
6. 3
7. 1
7.0
7. 1
8. 6
4. 0

1964
6. 0
6. 5
6. 2
5.9
6. 1
3.0
2. 0

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1965
6.0
6. 3
6.0
5.8
5.9
4. 2
4 .7 .
7.4
—

1966
5.5
5. 7
5.4
5.0
4. 8
3.4
3. 2
3. 2
-0. 8

P r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
In itia l
year
1 9 5 7 ____
1 9 5 8 ____
1 9 5 9 -----I 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 ____
1 9 6 2 ____
1 9 6 3 ____
1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ------




1958
-24. 8
—

1959
-5.5
18. 8

I960
-0. 2
11. 6
4. 8

1961
-2. 3
2. 2
-5.6
- 1 5 .0

1962
- 1. 1
2. 2
- 1. 8
-2. 7
1 1 .4

1963
0. 3
2.9
0. 8
1 .6
9.4
7.5

1964
0.9
3.0
1. 5
2.4
6.6
4. 2
1. 0

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

S e e fo o tn o te at en d o f t a b le .

29

1965
2.0
3.8
3. 1
4. 2
7.5
6.6
7. 2
1 3 .7
—

1966
2. 5
4. 1
3. 6
4. 5
6. 8
6. 1
6. 1
7.4
1 .4

A P P E N D IX D . M O T O R V E H IC L E S A N D E Q U IP M E N T IN D U S T R Y --C o n tin u e d
A V E R A G E A N N U A L R A T E S O F C H A N G E (P E R C E N T )1
(T o o b ta in an n u al r a te o f ch a n g e b e tw e e n a n y 2 y e a r s sh o w n , fin d ro w fo r
in itia l y e a r at le ft o f ta b le and r e a d fig u r e in th a t ro w u n d er th e te r m in a l y e a r
sh o w n on to p .)
O utput p e r N o n p ro d u ctio n W o rk er M a n -H o u r
T e r m in a l y e a r

Initial
1958
year
19577777" - 17.4
1958----1959----I960___
1 9 6 1 ----1 9 6 2 ___
1963----1964___
1965___
—

1959
1.7
25. 2

I960
6.2
17. 1
9 .5

1961

4. 1
8.3
0 .5
-7. 7

1963
5‘.S~~ 6 . 2
8.5
9.0
6. 1
5. 3
5 .6
6.7
12.4
2 0 .9
4 .4
1962

1964
S.6
7. 3
5.4
5 .4
7. 5
1. 8
-0. 7

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1965
6.2
7 .4
6 .0
6.3
7 .9
5. 2
6 .6
14. 5
—

1966

5 .8
6.7
5. 5
5. 5
6.3
4. 1
4. 3
5. 2
-3. 3

N o n p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r m a n -h o u rs
In itia l
year

1 9 6 7 ....
1958___
1959___
1960___
1961___
1962----1963___
1964.. .-.
1965----I n itia l
year
1 9 5 7 -----1 9 5 8 ____
1 9 5 9 -----1 9 6 0 ____
1 9 6 1 . . . .'
1 9 6 2 ____
1 9 6 3 -----1 9 6 4 ____
1 9 6 5 ____




1958
-9.5
—

1959
-3 .6
2.7

I960
-6 .9
3. 1
3. 5
—

1961
- 1.4
0. 3
- 1.4
-6.0

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—
—
—

—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

1958
- 18. 6
—
—
—
—
—

—

—

—

1962
-0. 7
0.6
-0. 1
-0 .8
4 .6
—
—
—
—

1963
on
1. 6
1.5
2.0
5.8
7.0
—
—
—

O utput p e r n o n p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r
I960
1961
1962
1963
1959
2 .0
6 .5
4. 1
6 .4
5 .9
2 8 .0
18. 1
8 .4
9.2
8 .9
9 .0
-0 .4
5. 1
6. 3
- 9 .0
5 .8
7. 2
1 3 .6
2 2 .9
5. 1
—

—

—

—

—

—

1964
1. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2.9
5. 3
5.4
3. 7
—
—

1965
1.6
2. 8
3. 1
3. 7
5.5
5.6
5. 2
6. 7
—

1966
2. 2
3. 1
3. 5
4.0
5. 3
5. 3
5.0
5. 3
4.0

1964
6. 1
7. 7
5 .6
5. 8
8.3
2. 2
- 0 .5

1965
6 .5
7 .8
6 .4

1966
6.2

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

S e e fo o tn o te at en d o f ta b le .

30

—

6 .8
8.7

5 .7
7 .2
1 5 .5
—

7. 1
5 .9
6.0
7 .0
4 .6
4 .7
5 .7
-3.2

A P P E N D IX D . M O T O R V E H IC L E S A N D E Q U IP M E N T IN D U S T R Y -- C o n tin u ed
A V E R A G E A N N U A L R A T E S O F C H A N G E (P E R C E N T )1
(T o o b ta in an n u al r a te of ch a n g e b e tw e e n a n y 2 y e a r s sh o w n , fin d ro w fo r
in itia l y e a r a t le ft of ta b le and r e a d fig u r e in th at ro w u n d er the te r m in a l y e a r
sh ow n on to p .)
N o n p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s
T e r m in a l y e a r
Initia l
1962
1958
I960
1961
1963
1964
1965
1966
1959
year
-0.8
0. 1
0. 8
-8. 1 - 3 .9
- 1. 2 - 1. 3
1. 5
1 9 5 7 ____
1. 9
0.4
0.5
2. 2
0. 2
1. 2
1. 8
2.4
2. 7
1 9 5 8 ____
—
1 .4
2. 1
2. 7
-0.5
0. 1
3. 1
3.9
1 9 5 9 -----—
—
2. 5
-4.7
- 1.0
1. 5
3. 2
3. 5
I 9 6 0 ____
4. 6
4. 5
4.7
4. 7
196 1____
2.9
—
6. 3
5. 1
5.0
4. 8
1 9 6 2 ____
—
—
—
—
—
—
3. 6
4. 7
4. 5
1 9 6 3 ____
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
4. 8
5.8
1 9 6 4 ____
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3. 9
1 9 6 5 ____
—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1 A ll a v e r a g e a n n u al r a te s of ch a n g e a r e b a s e d on the lin e a r le a s t
s q u a r e s tr e n d s of th e lo g a r ith m s of th e in d ex n u m b e r s.




31

OTHER RECENT BLS PUBLICATIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY
AND AUTOMATION
Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour—
Selected Industries, 1939 and 1947-67 (Bulletin 1612). October 1968. 102 pp.
65 cents.
Air Transportation Industry, 1947-64 (Report 308). August 1966. 14 pp.
(Free).
Aluminum Rolling and Drawing Industry, 1958-65 (Report 314). December 1966.
20 pp. (Free).
Concrete Products Industry, 1947-63 (Report 300). November 1965. 20 pp.
(Free).
Footwear Industry, 1947-63. July 1965. 17 pp. (Free).
Gas and Electric Utilities Industry, 1932-62. April 1964. 19 pp. (Free).
Hosiery Industry, 1947-64. (Report 307). June 1966. 22 pp. (Free).
Man-Made Fibers Industry, 1957-63. October 1965. 20 pp. (Free).
Primary Aluminum Industry, 1947-62. September 1964. 15 pp. (Free).
Radio and Television Receiving Sets Industry, 1958-66. November 1968, 27 pp.
(Free).
Labor Productivity of the Steel Industry in the United States (Report 310). July 1966.
36 pp. (Free).
Productivity: A Bibliography, July 1966. (Bulletin 1514). 129 pp. 65 cents.
Industry Productivity Projections, A Methodological Study. 1966. 5 pp. (Free).
Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour, Hourly Compensation, and Unit Labor Costs in
the Manufacturing Sector, 1947-66. June 1967. 2 pp. (Free).
Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour for the Private Economy, 1947-67. March 1968.
5 pp. (Free).
Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour, Hourly Compensation, and Unit Labor Costs in
the Private Sector of the Economy and the Nonfarm Sector, 1947-67. May
1968. 4 pp. (Free).
Implications of Automation and Other Technological Developments
Technology and Manpower in the Textile Industry of the 1970,s (Bulletin 1578,
1968). 60 cents.
Manpower Planning for Technological Change: Case Studies of Telephone
Operators (Bulletin 1574, 1968). 34 pp. 30 cents.
Job Redesign for Older Workers, Ten Case Studies (Bulletin 1523, 1967). 63 pp.
40 cents.
Technological Trends in Major American Industries (Bulletin 1474, 1966).
71 pp. 45 cents.
Technological Change and Disemployment of Labor at the Establishment Level.
1956. 17 pp. (Free).
Impact of Office Automation in the Insurance Industry (Bulletin 1468, 1966).
71 pp. 45 cents.
Manpower Planning to Adapt to New Technology at an Electric and Gas Utility
(Report 293, 1965). 25 pp. (Free).
Outlook for Numerical Control of Machine Tools: A Study of a Key Technologi­
cal Development in Metalworking Industries (Bulletin 1437, 1965). 63 pp.
40 cents.




Labor and Material Requirements for—
School Construction (Bulletin 1586, 1938). 23 pp. 30 cents.
Private One-Family House Construction (Bulletin 1404, 1964). 37 pp. 30 cents.
Public Housing Construction (Bulletin 1402, 1964). 42 pp. 30 cents.
College Housing Construction (Bulletin 1441, 1965). 34 pp. 30 cents.
Sewer Works Construction (Bulletin 1490, 1966). 31 pp. 30 cents.
Construction of Federally Aided Highways, 1958, 1961, and 1964. (Report 299,
1966). 17 pp. (Free).
Sales publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington, D.C. 20402, or from regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
at the addresses shown below. Free publications are available as long as the supply
lasts, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington,
D.C. 20212.
R egional O ffices
R egion I
F ed eral Building
Room 1603-A
G overnm ent Center
B oston, M ass. 02203
Region IV
1371 P each tree Street, NE
Suite 540
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
R egion VII
M ayflow er Building
411 North Akard S treet
D allas, T exas 75201




R egion II
341 Ninth Avenue
New York, N. Y. 10001
R egion V
219 South D earborn Street
C hicago, 111. 60603

R egion III
J efferson Building
Room 818
1915 C hestnut Street
Philadelphia, P a. 19107
R egion VI
911 Walnut Street
10th F loor
K ansas City, Mo. 64106

R egion VIII
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San F r a n c isc o , C alif. 94102

☆ US. GVRMN PININ OF E: 19690-329-491
. OENET R T G FIC







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