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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. B. W ILSO N, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ET H EL B ER T STEW ART, Commissioner

----- No.

BULLETIN OF TH E UNITED STATES )
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S )
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

H O U S IN G
IN




T H E

BY

263

S E R I E S

E M PLO Y E R S

U N IT E D
LEIFU R M AGNUSSO N

OCTOBER, 1920

W ASHINGTON
GO VERNM ENT PR INTING O FFICE
1920

STA TE S




A D D IT IO N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FR0M
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

65 CENTS P E R COPY

C O N T E N T S.
Page

Chapter I.— Introduction and summary...................................................................... 7-16
Introduction...............................................................................................................
7-11
9-11
Scope of the investigation...............................................................................
Summary..................................................................................................................... 12-16
The company tow n...........................................................................................
12
The company house......................................................................................... 12,13
Cost of company housing................................................................................. 13,14
Cost of maintenance.........................................................................................
14
General aspects of company housing............................................................. 15,16
Chapter I I .—Reasons for supplying houses................................................................ 17-21
Decentralization of industry................................................................................... 17-19
Temporary or isolated character of com m unity..................................................
19
Reasons assigned b y employers..............................................................................20, 21
Reasons assigned by manufacturers.............................................................. 20, 21
Reasons assigned b y mine operators.............................................................
21
Chapter II I .—Method of conducting housing............................................................ 22-40
Housing survey.......................................................................................................... 22-26
Type of housing developm ent................................................................................ 26, 27
Site and arrangement of tow n................................................................................ 27-40
Town planning................................................................................................... 27-30
Width and character of street......................................................................... 30-32
Parking................................................................................................................
32
Districting and restrictions............................................................................. 32-37
Race segregation................................................................................................ 37, 38
Public utilities................................................................................................... 38, 39
Exercise of public functions........................................................................... 39, 40
Schools, churches, playgrounds, and hospitals...........................................
40
Chapter IV .—Nature of accommodations provided.................................................. 41-55
Types of houses.......................................................................................................... 41, 42
Size of dwellings........................................................................................................ 42-44
Material of construction...........................................................................................
45
Provision of sanitary systems.................................................................................. 45-48
Rents............................................................................................................................ 49-55
Chapter Y .— Bituminous-coal region of Pennsylvania and West Virginia........... 56-68
Scope of survey.......................................................................................................... 57, 58
The company tow n ...................................................................................................
58
Types of houses.......................................................................................................... 58, 59
R en t........................................................... ................................................................. 59-62
Modern improvements..............................................................................................
62
Cost of construction................................................................................................... 62-65
Administration........................................................................................................... 65, 66
Maintenance............................................................................................................... 66-68
Cost of maintenance.......................................................................................... 67, 68




3

4

CO N TE N TS.
Page.

Chapter V I.— Coal, iron, and steel region of the South.............. .»........................... 69-87
Scope of survey.......................................................................................................... 70, 71
The company tow n................................................................................................... 71, 72
Public utilities and civic improvements.............................................................. 72, 73
Types of houses..........................................................................................................
74
Size of dwellings........................................................................................................ 74, 75
R en t................................................................................................................................ 75-79
M odem im provem ents............................................................................................. 79, 80
Cost of construction................................................................................................... 80, 81
Maintenance............................................................................................................... 82,86
Cost of maintenance.......................................................................................... 82-86
Housing investm ent.................................................................................................. 86, 87
Chapter V II.— Coal-mining towns of Ohio and Indiana.......................................... 88, 89
Chapter V III .—Bituminous-coal camps of Colorado and W yom ing....................90-100
Scope of survey.................................................................................. ....................... 90, 91
The company tow n...................................................................................................
91
Types of houses.......................................................................................................... 91, 92
Size of dwellings........................................................................................................ 92, 93
R en t.............................................................................................................................. 93-95
Modern improvements..............................................................................................
96
Cost of construction................................................................................................... 96, 97
Boarding houses......................................................................................................... 97, 98
Administration...........................................................................................................
98
Maintenance.............................................................................................................. 98-100
Cost of maintenance........................................................................................ 99,100
Chapter I X .— Anthracite region of Pennsylvania.................................................. 101-114
Scope of survey....................................................................................................... 103,104
The anthracite tow n..................................................................................................
104
Types of houses....................................................... .............................................. 104,105
Size of dwellings........................................................................................................
105
R ent.......................................................................................................................... 106-109
Modem improvements..............................................................................................
109
Cost of construction...................................................................................................
110
Administration...........................................................................................................
110
Maintenance............................................................................................................ 110,111
Cost of maintenance..........................................................................................
Ill
Special anthracite communities:
Community A ................................................................................................. 112,113
Community B ................................................................................................. 113,114
Chapter X .— Northern iron and copper mining region......................................... 115-122
Chapter X I .—Metal-mining region of the Southw est........................................... 123-127
Chapter X I I .— New England textile towns............................................................ 128-138
Scope of survey..........................................................................................................
130
The company tow n ................................................................................................ 130,131
Types of houses...........................................................................................................
131
Size of dwellings.........................................................................................................
131
R ent........................................................................................................................... 132-134
Modern improvements..............................................................................................
135
Cost of construction............................................................................................... 135-137
Administration and maintenance....................................................................... 137,138
Cost of maintenance..........................................................................................
138




CO N TE N TS.

5
Page,

Chapter X I I I .— Southern cotton-mill villages....................................................... 139-160
Scope of survey....................................................................................................... 141-143
The mill village..................................................................................................... 143-145
Types of houses...................................................................................................... 145-148
Size of dwellings.....................................................................................................
148
Rent.......................................................................................................................... 148-151
Modern im provem ents......................................................................................... 151-153
Cost of construction............................................................................................... 153,154
Hotels and lodging houses................................................................................... 154-156
Administration.......................................................................................................
156
Maintenance........................................................................................................... 156-160
Cost of maintenance...................................................................................... 158-160
Chapter X I V .— Iron and steel towns of the North................................................ 161-181
Scope of survey......................................................................................................
161
Size of dwellings....................................................................................................
162
Rent.......................................................................................................................... 162,163
Modern improvements..........................................................................................
163
Cost of maintenance..............................................................................................
164
Special communities:
Community C ................................................................................................. 164-172
Community D ................................................................................................. 173-175
Community E ................................................................................................. 176,177
Community F ................................................................................................. 177-179
Community G ................................................................................................. 179-181
Chapter X V .—Miscellaneous industries................................................................... *182-199
Rent.......................................................................................................................... 182,183
Cost of maintenance.............................................................................................. 183,184
Special communities:
Community H ................................................................................................. 184-186
Community I .................................................................................................. 186-194
Community J.................................................................................................. 195-199
Community K .................................................................................................
199
Chapter X V I.—Method of financing................................................................. . . . 200-204
How the employer conducts housing................................................................ 200, 201
Collection of rent................................................................................................... 20i-203
Limitation of rent to percentage of wages........................................................ 203, 204
Free rent..................................................................................................................
204
Chapter X V I I .— Sale of company houses................................................................ 205-227
Management of funds............................................................................................
206
A bility to pa y......................................................................................................... 206, 207
Insurance to guarantee payment of loan.......................................................... 207, 208
Provisions to prevent speculation..................................................................... 208, 209
Option to repurchase............................................................................................ 209, 210
Sale to nonamployees...........................................................................................
210
Conclusion............................................................................................................... 210,211
Plans of payment:
Plan No. 1 ....................................................................................................... 211-213
Plan No. 2 .................................................................... ................................ 214,215
Plan No. 3 ....................................................................................................... 215-222
Plan No. 4 .......................................................................................................
222
Houses sold under Plan No. 2..................................................................... 222-224
Houses sold under Plan No. 3..................................................................... 224-227




6

CONTENTS.
Page.

Chapter X V I I I .—Maintenance.................................................................................. 228-233
Chapter X I X .— Results of housing........................................................................... 234-247
Proportion of labor force affected....................................................................... 234,235
Overcrowding......................................................................................................... 236,237
Class of employees housed................................................................................... 237-241
Class of employees housed, b y industries................................................. 239-241
Results arising from location of company towns................................................
242
Effects of provisions in leases............................................................................. 242-245
Summary of results of housing........................................................................... 245-247
Appendix I.—List of references concerning housing by employers in the United
States (revised to end of 1918)............................................................................... 248-272
Appendix II.— List of representative companies conducting housing of em­
ployees (revised to end of 1918)........................................................................... 273-283




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
no. 263.

W A S H IN G T O N .

october,

1920.

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.
CHAPTER I —INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.2
INTRODUCTION.

“ Employers’ housing ” is the term used to describe housing work
done by employers in the interest of their employees. It is synony­
mous with the term “ company housing.” The housing work must be
incidental to the main business of the employer. The employer’s
interest in the housing work must be that of an employer, and not
primarily that of a real estate operator or builder. The employer
may carry on the housing work as an integral part of his main business,
or through a subsidiary company or other secondary means; he may
provide the capital for building or merely furnish the land. The
fact that an employer houses only a small fraction of his employees or
only a certain limited class is not a test as to whether or not any
particular scheme is an employers’ housing scheme; neither is the
amount of profits from the scheme a test. Further, the mere name
of the company which does the housing work for the employer is not
a criterion of the bona fide character of such work as an employers’
housing scheme.
Company housing is as old as the industrial history of the United
States. When industry passed from the home to the factory, com­
pany housing became necessary, since the colonial manufacturer was
a pioneer who opened up new sites for factories at those points gener
ally where water power was available. These sites were usually in
1 Mr. Robert L. Davison, from th e departm ent of social ethics, Harvard University, was originally
engaged b y th e bureau to undertake this survey of company housing in the U nited States, and was associ­
ated w ith Mr.Leifur Magnusson of the Bureau. Mr. Davison subsequently entered the armed forces of
the U nited States w hen war broke out w ith Germany, after he and Mr. Magnusson had prepared the
schedules and outlined the report under the general supervision of the Bureau. Mr. Davison also did some
of the field work connected w ith the investigation, but the report in its final outline and presentation has
been the work of Mr. Magnusson. Miss E lizabeth A. H yde of the Bureau wrote Chapter V III, on housing
in th e bituminous-coal camps of Colorado and W yoming, and Chapter X III, on the southern cotton-mill
villages, the field work in both of which regions was in large part done by her.
2 Practically the whole of this ‘‘Introduction and summary ” has already appeared in the M onthly Review
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for N ovember, 1917 (pp. 35-60). That article was also published separately
by the Bureau and appeared likewise in the Proceedings of the N ational Housing Association, October,
1917, pp. 106-129.




7

8

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

undeveloped country, and force of necessity compelled the employer
to provide housing accommodations for the labor which he brought
to his establishment. This was the origin of the New England mill
towns, some of which date back to 1791.3 Among the early New
England company towns is Lowell, Mass., founded in 1820. The
company which entered that district had extensive real estate hold­
ings, not an unusual feature of early industrial undertakings.4 And
in several of the New England cotton-mill centers to-day the operating
companies own much property in the form of land and dwellings.
There was distinct development, if we may believe the early records,
of autocratic control in these company towns. "M any colonial iron­
masters ruled with almost feudal sway over a neighborhood settlement
of their laborers and country people, and such enterprises often became
the nucleus of a permanent village.” 5 Among such single develop­
ments may be mentioned the building of Brady’s Bend, Pa., in 1839,
when the Great Western Iron Co. was formed and $500,000 invested
in land and works in western Pennsylvania. Six years later the
Brady’s Bend Iron Co. purchased the property from the original com­
pany, which had failed, and built a steel manufacturing plant on this
spot. It housed in its own tenements 538 laboring families.6
In the course of the present investigation, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics found, in the bituminous-coal mining region of Pennsylvania
and West Virginia, company developments dating from 1877 and
from 1885. In the southern coal regions one community dated
from 1871 and another from 1875. In the coal region of Colorado
and Wyoming none antedated 1892, in which year four were founded.
The anthracite-coal region shows examples of company towns estab­
lished as long ago as 1840. One company development was
begun in 1850; another in 1857; one in 1858; two in 1860; and one in
1865, though this company reported that no building except the
superintendent’s house had been erected since that^date. Another
company reported that most of its houses had been built in 1870.
One iron-mining community in Alabama dated from 1880; a
copper-mining community in Michigan, from 1866; a steel town in
Pennsylvania, from 1850; another from 1854; one from 1860; and
another from 1875. A steel-manufacturing town in Alabama dated
from 1882.
In New England there was included a cotton-manufacturing town
dating from 1835; one from 1848; another from 1867; and one from
1860.
The earliest cotton-mill community was found in Wilmington, Del.,
established in 1831, most of the houses of which had been built
3 Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the U nited States.

Washington, 1917, p. 404.

* Idem, p. 405.

» Idem, p. 187.
• Brady’s Bend Co. Report, 1858. Cited by Clark, in H istory of Manufactures in the U nited States, p. 446.




IN TR O D U C TIO N AND S U M M A R Y .

9

between the years 1850 and 1860; a South Carolina community had
been established in 1845; one in Georgia in 1850; and another in 1856.
In all these cases some of the houses built, even in the early days, were
part of the present development.
The more recent developments were found in the iron-mining region
of Wisconsin and Minnesota, in the coal fields of Ohio and Indiana,
and in the western metal-mining region. The shortage in industrial
housing, which became acute during the war, gave rise to considerable
building on the part of employees. Much of the war housing, par­
ticularly that of the United States Shipping Board, Emergency
Fleet Corporation, was practically company housing. While the
Government supplied most of the funds, the management of the
enterprises was turned over to the shipbuilding corporations.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION.

The object of this investigation was to study the best and most
representative work being done by employers to provide housing
accommodations for their employers. Inasmuch as only the more
significant representative work was included, very naturally the
larger housing enterprises supplied the greater proportion of the basic
information; but, in many instances, smaller enterprises were
included in the survey because of their representative character, or
because they illustrated points of special interest. On the whole,
the better types of communities were covered.
The investigation covered two distinct types of communities, i. e.,
the manufacturing towns and the mining towns. Different classes
of manufacturing towns were included, such as the cotton-mill towns
of New England and of the Southern States, and the steel towns of
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Alabama, and Minnesota. The mining tow^ns
naturally group themselves into the towns of the bituminous-coal
region and of the anthracite district; the copper towns of northern
Michigan; the iron-mining towns of northern Michigan, Wisconsin,
and Minnesota; the coal and iron mining towns in Alabama; the
coal and metal mining towns of Colorado and Wyoming; the distinctly
company towns in the copper and other metal-mining districts of
Arizona.
The inquiry did not include housing conditions in seasonal indus­
trial camps, nor housing carried on by railroad companies. No
schedules were taken for the agricultural tenant towns of Texas.
In studying the housing work of the employer no attempt was made
to cover the hygienic and sanitary aspects of the problem, except
incidentally.
In this report effort has been made to describe and analyze those
conditions and factors in the housing problem over which the em­
ployer who essays to provide housing accommodation has more or




10

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

less direct, responsible control. These include such matters as
relate to the house and its plan and construction, size, number of
rooms, state of repair, sanitary equipment, and the quality and
character of exterior and interior finish— in short, its adequacy for
the proper housing of the employees.
To present the technical side of the housing problem, inquiry was
made as to the type and character of the town-site arrangements
adopted by the employer; the agency which provided the public
utilities, which carried out and controlled the various commu­
nity functions, such as police and fire protection, care of streets,
sanitary rules, collection of garbage, etc., and which provided the
various community institutions— schools, churches, and hospitals.
Some attention was given to town planning and street and lot
arrangement in relation to the topography of the locality. Data
were secured to show the type of house built, whether single or
semidetached, flats, or row houses, the building material used, and
the cost, as well as the year of construction. Inquiries were made
with regard to the number of rooms, rentals, sanitary equipment,
and manner of heating of the dwellings provided for the employees.
Typical floor plans were secured.
The extent of the housing work in proportion to the annual pay
roll and the total cost of the housing investment and the proportion
of each employer’s total labor force accommodated in company
houses was ascertained. The further cost of the housing work is
shown by the annual maintenance and repair charges and the annual
rent receipts as reported by the employer. The methods pursued
by the employer in carrying out the housing work, his manner of
financing it, his policy as regards renting or selling, methods of
collecting rent or purchase-price installments, policy as regards
collecting either rent or purchase-price installments in time of sick­
ness or unemployment, were all subjects of inquiry.
Finally, the employer was asked to give his reasons for engaging
in housing work and to estimate the results to himself of his work.
The results of the housing work by the employer are also shown
by the proportion of the labor force reached by the housing work;
the class of the labor force affected, whether skilled or unskilled
workers; the existence of overcrowding— investigated only inciden­
tally— and by the provisions contained in leases and deeds of sale.
Altogether 213 companies were scheduled, which operated 423
different establishments, employing 462,991 men, of whom 160,645,
or 34.4 per cent, were accommodated in company houses. The
following table shows the number of companies and establishments
covered, the number of employees at the time of the investigation,
which covered, generally speaking, the year 1916, and the number
and per cent of employees housed:




IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y .
T able 1 .—

11

SCOPE OF T H E HOUSING INVESTIGATION.

Industry and State.

Number
of com­
panies.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and W est V irginia...........................
Ohin and Indiana______ _ _ ~
. .....................
Alabama, Tennessee, and K entucky.....................
Colorado and W yoming
.................................

32
3
24
5

Number Number
of estab­ of em­
lish­
ployees.
ments.

1 114
4
29
16

2

78,218
1,287
18,694
4,644

Number
of em ­
ployees
housed.

43,877
688
2 15,035
3,148

Per cent
of em ­
ployees
housed.

56.1
53.5
80. 4
67.8

Total.......................................................................

64

163

102, 843

62,748

61.0

Anthracite-coal m in in g ..................................................

24

3 104

4 90,608

4 20,660

*22.8

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and M innesota....................
Alabam a...................................................................

10
3

33
3

&5,433
1,497

51,447
805

26.6
53.8

Total.......................................................................

13

36

6,930

2,252

32.5

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee.....................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New Mexico,
and Colorado................................................................

5

5

10,064

3,290

32.7

6

6

5,398

857

15.9

Iron and steel and allied industries:
N orthern district......................................................
Southern district........................................

25
3

30
3

6 116,904
3,180

6 20,625
930

17.6
29.2

Total.......................................................................

28

33

120,084

21,555

17.9

Manufacture of explosives.............................................

2

5

28,777

10,840

37.7

Textile manufacture:
Northern district.....................................................
Southern district......................................................

6
48

6
48

7 10,624
35,643

^ 2,047

25,289

19.3
71.0
59.1

T otal.......................................................................

54

54

46,267

27,336

Miscellaneous industries........................................................

17

17 | 8 56,020

s 11,107

19.8

Grand total............................................................

213

423 j 466,991

160,645

34.4

1 One company did not report number of establishments.
N ot including 1 company w ith 500 employees; number housed was not reported.
8 Two companies did not report number of establishments.
<N ot including 1 company w ith 25,600 employees; number housed was not reported.
6 N ot including 1 company w ith 1,450 employees; number housed was not reported.
6 Not including 7 companies w ith 21,050 employees; number housed was not reported.
7 N ot including 1 company w ith 700 employees; number housed was not reported.
s Not including 2 companies w ith 2,460 employees; number housed was not reported.
2

It need not be said that the investigation was not comprehensive,
but merely representative, though taken over a considerable extent
of territory.
The industries have been grouped so as to bring together localities
where similar types of houses prevailed. This, however, was not
possible in the “ Miscellaneous industriesM group, as so few com­
panies were included, generally only one representing an industry,
that to show them separately would render it easy to identify indi­
vidual operations. Among the industries included in this group were
salt manufacturing, zinc smelting, manufacture of grinding wheels,
cordage and rubber manufacture, cotton machinery, silk and artificial-silk manufacture, arms and ammunition, lumber manufac­
ture, etc.




12

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

SUM M ARY.
THE COMPANY TOWN.

The chief characteristic of every company town is its uniformity,
due to a tendency to erect houses of similar plan and type and to
arrange them along rectangular lines of survey. The possibilities of
architecture and town planning have been neglected. Another fea­
ture of the company town, which it shares with most other com­
munities, has been its disregard of the advantages of planting trees,
grass, and shrubbery as beautifying elements. This is particularly
true of the isolated mining towns.
On the other hand, company towns are quite generally character­
ized by relatively wide streets and ample lots. There is no tendency
toward land crowding, save in two or three instances where com­
panies have been compelled to buy land within city limits where
speculative values have forced the price up.
Generally speaking, company tow^ns are unsewered and without a
piped water system for a large majority of the dwellings. Dirt
streets prevail, and many towns are without sidewalks or gutters.
The smallness of these communities, however, and freedom from
land crowding tend greatly to minimize the disadvantage from the
lack of these utilities.
From a governmental point of view company towns are “ closed,”
being private property. Such general community functions as
street cleaning and lighting, health and sanitary regulation, and
administrative policing are vested in the controlling company.
There is a distinct absence of self-government in all company towns.
It is rarely that company towns are found within the limits of selfgoverning communities; they are generally industrial satellites of
larger cities or are isolated hamlets.
Company towns differ markedly in the matter of maintenance,
even in the same section of the country and with the same class of
employees. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that these differ­
ences are due to the care and attention given the matter by the com­
pany and not, as has been asserted, to the tendency of the work­
man to keep the premises in an unsightly condition.
THE COMPANY HOUSE.

The typical company house is a single or detached frame house
consisting generally of four rooms, two of which are bedrooms, leav­
ing a kitchen and one living room for general use. Stoves or fire­
places form the heating equipment. Company houses are generally
without modern sanitary plumbing. They are for the most part
lighted by electricity. The company house tends to become stand­




IN TR O D U C TIO N AND S U M M A R Y .

13

ardized in each locality, as respects both plan and material of con­
struction, and even with regard to the color of the exterior. Cer­
tain types, however, are characteristic of different sections of the
country; and in the eastern States there is a further differentiation
between the manufacturing and the mining town, which is not true
in the northern and southern States, where there is no essential dif­
ference in the company house in the manufacturing town and in the
mining town.
The characteristic dwelling of the eastern mining communities is a
semidetached frame house of stereotyped plan and exterior, with all
houses in each community painted the same color. The typical
house of the Southern States is a small four-room hip-roofed frame
cottage or bungalow. In the southwest mining region this type also
prevails, but it is not so substantially constructed, and is more
likely to be equipped with modern sanitary plumbing. In the latter
region practically only the skilled labor is housed. The mining
camps of the West have adopted the hip-roofed bungalow style of
cottage, and have constructed many of concrete blocks. The com­
pany house of the northern mining region and of the steel towns is
the conventional story-and-a-half or two-story gable cottage of frame.
On the whole, the companies in different sections of the country
have adopted the type of house commonly erected by private home
builders in the particular localities.
Rents of company houses are moderate and well within the means
of the low-paid wage earner. Of 17,643 four-room dwellings 29.8
per cent rent for less than $5 a month; 39.5 per cent for less than
$6; 58.1 per cent for less than $7, and 76.3 per cent for less than $8.
Considering all company dwellings, 68.6 per cent rent for less than
$8 a month. These rents, it should be recalled, were applicable in
1916, since which time there have no doubt been some increases.
COST OF COMPANY HOUSING.7

The cost of a few typical company houses in different sections of
the country may be of some interest. Costs as here given include
only cost of the house— not outbuildings or land or street improve­
ments.
The cost of semidetached houses in the Pennsylvania and West
Virginia mining regions ranges from $600 to $800 per dwelling, i. e.
renting unit, of four or five rooms. A similar type of house of five
rooms per family erected in Michigan in 1907 cost $825. The semi­
detached frame cottage in the New England States cost, in 1914,
from $800 to $1,000 per dwelling.
7 The costs to-day would be much greater than those given in this report, owing to increased wages and
cost of materials. The increases would vary w ith the materials used and the locality.




14

H O U S IN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The four-room miner’s frame house in Ohio costs $600 to $800;
similar houses in Oolorado cost, in 1914, $750 each. A group of 40
houses was built in 1914 in Colorado for $700 each. A cementblock house of four rooms in Colorado cost $650 in 1900. The
simple four-room house on open piers built in the South in 1917
cost $670; a group of 35 four-room two-story frame houses built in
northern Minnesota cost, in 1910, $750 each. A four-room, onestory, one-family house of the ready-built type cost $1,500 in 1913
in Virginia; a five-room ready-built house of a similar type erected
in New Jersey cost, in 1915, approximately $1,200. A four-room
ready-built house erected in 1914 in Pennsylvania by a railwayequipment company cost $1,500. A four-room, one-family frame
bungalow, neither ceiled nor plastered inside but having inside sani­
tary conveniences, erected by companies in Arizona, costs $1,000.
These costs of typical company houses are cited merely by way of
example, but even these few examples show how widely costs vary
and how dependent they are upon local conditions and changes in
the materials market from time to time.
CO ST OF MAINTENANCE.

The cost of housing to the employer is approximately $383 per
employee housed, if calculated on the basis of the original cost of
the houses alone, not including land or improvements.
Those companies, however, which reported an inventory or esti­
mated present value of their houses show a smaller cost ($361) per
employee housed. Both these figures are extremely low, even
when consideration is taken of the fact that employers do housing
on a large scale. This low cost reflects in a measure the relatively
low grade of housing furnished in all but a comparatively few cases.
On his housing investment the employer gets a gross return of
8.3 per cent, a percentage based on the original cost of all houses as
reported by 60 different companies. The total original cost of the
houses, not including land, was about $15,126,125. Reports from
eight different coal companies in Pennsylvania show a gross return
of 11 per cent on a total inventory value of $2,855,912. In calcu­
lating these percentages average annual rent receipts for a fiveyear period (1911-1915) have been used. The gross returns re­
ceived by companies in different sections of the country and for
different industries vary considerably— e. g., from a maximum of
20 per cent on company houses of certain mining companies in
Alabama to 6.2 per cent on the houses belonging to five steel com­
panies in Pennsylvania and Ohio.




IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y .

15

GENERAL ASPECTS OF COM PANY HOUSING.

Employers undertake to house their workmen primarily because
there is a dearth of houses. In only a few industrial villages were
there found vacant houses at the time of this survey, and that was
because the houses were obviously bad. Aside from the immediate
necessity for more houses other reasons moved employers to main­
tain at least a nucleus of company houses— the need of certain
emergency men near the plant for the sake of added safety (as in
mine operations in case of fire or accident); the desire for a stable
supply of labor, married men particularly; and the belief that a
more efficient labor force would thereby be secured.
It is extremely difficult to say whether employers accomplish their
purpose. Certainly they do not supply nearly enough houses for all
their labor force, as only one-third of the employees of the companies
scheduled are accommodated in company houses. The cotton mills
of the South house relatively the largest proportion of their labor
supply, namely 71 per cent, followed by soft-coal mine operators in
all sections of the country, who house 61 per cent. The smallest per­
centage housed, or 15.9 per cent, is in the copper and gold mining
regions of the Southwest. This is due to the fact that the unskilled
Mexican laborers are not generally housed by the companies.
While 165 out of 213 companies stated that their practice is to
supply houses to all classes of their employees, preference is natur­
ally given to men most difficult to retain; that is, the higher-paid
skilled workmen. No definite data are available to show what pro­
portion of each particular class of labor is housed in company houses.
Practically all companies state that they are satisfied with the
results of their housing work; only a few report an unfavorable ex­
perience, the commonest complaint being that the housing business
is unprofitable. There were received altogether some 350 replies to
the inquiry asking for the results to employers of their housing work.
Arranged according to the frequency with which they have been
noted, the results of company housing are declared to be as follows:
(1) A better class of workmen is secured, (2) there is greater stability
in the supply of labor, (3) a reduction in the number of floaters, (4)
better living conditions, (5) greater loyalty from employees, (6) more
contented and (7) more efficient workmen, (8) a better control of the
labor situation (that is, hire and discharge with greater freedom), (9)
married men are attracted, (10) there is greater regularity of employ­
ment, (11) the workman secures a better house for less money, (12) it
brings profit to the company, (13) facilitates part time, and (14) serves
t o
advertise the company and to keep it favorably before the public.
From this statement of results it is quite plain that housing is prob­
ably one of the most important factors in maintaining a steady




16

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

supply of labor; that is, it is a factor in reducing labor turnover, a
problem which is now receiving a great deal of attention from
employers.
As this survey was not conducted as a house-to-house investiga­
tion, it has not been possible to secure any information concerning
crowding in company houses. Incidentally, however, some light
has been thrown upon this question. A certain cotton mill in the
Southern States required that each house should provide one em­
ployee per room. Furthermore, in general there is disclosed no
policy on the part of the employer to restrict the keeping of roomers
and boarders. Out of a considerable number of leases examine^
only a few contain such restriction.
Company housing is not merely a problem concerned with the
provision of more houses for industrial employees; it not only affects
the fundamental relations of employer and employee, but it also has
wide social significance.
Many employers frankly recognize that a social responsibility
rests upon them. Through their control of community streets,
lights, public utilities, houses, recreational centers, and the industry
which supports the economic life of their community employers are
in a position to control the character of the community. The rules
promulgated by the employer are readily enforceable as they carry
with them the threat of discharge from employment.
It is difficult to see how this responsibility can be avoided in a
mining town. The isolation of mining towns, the impermanence
of many of them, the shifting character of the labor force, the ab­
sence of local self-government, are all factors which throw the re­
sponsibility upon the employer. In a manufacturing community
usually placed near populous centers where community life already
exists, and where other agencies are already established to provide
community needs, the responsibility of the employer is not so great.
It is therefore not necessary for him so thoroughly to control or domi­
nate the life of the community.
But whether in the isolated mining community or in the thicklysettled city, the employer is placed in an advantageous position in
relation to the housing problem. He knows the purposes which he
wants his community to serve and can therefore lay it out with fore­
thought, take advantage of the advice of experts, and consult town
planners, architects, and large-scale builders. He knows how many
families he will need to supply with houses; that is, he can gauge
the supply of and demand for his houses. He can build on a large
scale so as to cut down costs. He knows the type of labor he will
want to house and can erect his houses to supply the needs of that
particular class of employees.




CHAPTER II.—REASONS FOR SUPPLYING HOUSES.
The employer is impelled to supply houses for his men primarily
because of an actual shortage of houses such as exists at present in
most industrial communities, and such as will always exist at first in
an isolated or temporary community which depends entirely upon
the industry established by the employer. Employers also feel that
f t ere are certain specific results, particularly in relation to the char­
acter and loyalty of the labor force, to be obtained by supplying an
improved type of housing. Furthermore, underlying the whole
movement of company housing is the growing tendency toward the
decentralization of industry which tends to increase the necessity
for the employer to undertake housing.
DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRY.

Industries become located at certain points principally because of
a desire to be adjacent to the raw materials upon which they depend.
Such location is determined by natural advantages. The movement
is frequently termed “ localization of industry/’ But there is also
another movement of industry which tends to take industries away
from the congestion which has been created by extreme localization.
It is a movement away from city centers out into the suburbs or
outside of the established city limits and into new towns or smaller
cities immediately adjoining the larger center. This is a conscious
movement directed by advantages foreseen and calculated. As a
result of it towns and communities have been built up as single units
or developments within a short space of time.
The reasons for this movement of industry away from the city are
a desire for more land as well as for cheap land, lower taxes, lower
rentals, and avoidance of congestion. The desire to get more light
and air and quieter surroundings— wants arising from city conges­
tion— was stated by one employer as a reason for moving out into
a surburban community. The representative of another company
called attention to the contagion of strikes in a city, due to the men
living together under conditions of city life.
Transportation is an element in the movement and has greatly
facilitated it; it has made it possible to widen the area of decentral­
ization and to allow greater spreading out.
The extent of this decentralization of industry in the United States
can be expressed in statistical terms available from the United States
Census of Manufactures, as follows:
125882°— 20— Bull. 263-------2




•

17

18

H O U S IN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T a b l e 2 . —PR O P O R T IO N OF P O P U L A T IO N A N D

OF N U M B E R OF E ST A B L ISH M E N T S
A N D N U M B E R OF W AGE E A R N E R S O U T SID E OF C E R T A IN R ECO G N IZ E D CITY
A R E A S COM PARED W ITH TOTAL N U M B E R W IT H IN T H E W H O L E IN D U S T R IA L
DISTRICT OF W HICH T H O SE CITIES A R E T H E C E N T E R S.
[U. S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the U. S., Vol. X: Manufactures, 1909.

District.

Per cent in territory
outside of each city of
total for district.
1899

Baltimore:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earners...
Boston:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earlier s . ..
Buffalo:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earners...
Chicago:
Population.......
Establishments.
W ate earners...
Cincinnati:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earners...
Cleveland:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earners...
Detroit:
Population.......
Establishments.
Wage earners...

1904

1909

19141

10.5
3.3
7.1

( 2)
3.6
8.7

14.2
5.8
11.3

16.4
7.3
13.1

55.1
42.5
59.8

56.0
43.6
63.1

55.9
41.5
62.6

55.1
43.4
58.9

7.0
4.7
8.7

9.5
4 .8
10.6

9.3
5.7
14.7

14.2
9 .3
18.8

5 .8
2.0
1.6

(2)
2.3
2.4

7.2
3.1
3.5

11.4
7.6
13.4

31.1
17.5
14.7

( 2)
16.5
19.5

32.0
20.4
22.3

32.3
18.8
23.4

8.0
4 .0
2.7

( 2)
4.9
4.8

7.5
3.3
4 .8

8.1
3.6
3 .8

( 3)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
(*)
(3)

7.0
3.2
5.8

D istrict.

Per cent in territory
outside of each city of
total for district.

10.3
5.3
20.1

1899
Minneapolis-St. Paul:
Population................
Establishm ents.........
Wage earners............
N ew York:
Population................
Establishm ents.........
Wage earners............
Philadelphia:
P opulation................
Establishm ents.........
Wage earners............
Pittsburgh:
Population................
Establishm ents.........
Wage earners............
St. Louis:
Population................
Establishm ents.........
Wage earners............
San Francisco-Oakland:
Population................
Establishments.........
Wage earners............

1904

1909

1914 ‘

0.6
.5
.8

0.5
.3
•6

0.6
.7
1.1

2.5
1.4
5.8

24.3
17.3
28.0

24.2
17.5
29.0

25.4
17.9
29.7

26.5
18.6
30.5

15.6
8.4
11.4

(2)
8.8
12.4

16.5
10.3
15.6

21.8
12.9
21.1

27.6
11.9
24.0

(2)
16.0
32.5

33.8
17.8
39.2

51.2
29.8
53.6

9.9
3.1
8.1

( 2)
4.6
9 .8

14.6
8.1
12.6

18.8
9.8
20.3

9.1
3.6
6.3

(2)
4 .4
6 .8

12.2
10.9
14.3

18.9
10.6
17.1

1 Figures in this column obtained from Vol. I, Census of Manufactures, 1914.
2 No population census in 1905. Thirteenth Census, Vol. X, Metropolitan Districts.
3 Statistics for this district were not presented in census reports prior to 1909.

The returns of the census show an increasing proportion of
population, the number of manufacturing establishments, and the
number of wage earners in each of 13 industrial districts in the
United States as outside of the established city limits of the
principal city. Each of these industrial districts comprises a central
city, together with certain outlying and neighboring towns or
counties which make up a natural industrial unit. The outside area
is classed as a part or adjunct of the central zone, because its manu­
facturing business is largely controlled by capital in the principal city
and because the latter is also the principal distributing point for the
whole district. From 1909 to 1914 the proportion of wage earners
living in the outlying districts increased 12.9 per cent, while within
the central zone the proportion increased 6.1 per cent.
The further fact that practically all company housing develop­
ments recently undertaken are new-town developments or are located
in the suburbs of cities also shows how extensively industrial decen­
tralization underlies company housing.




REASONS FOR S U P P L Y IN G H O U SES.

19

To meet in a practical way the progress of the movement, the
employer builds not only his factory plant, but also houses for his
employees. The development of house and plant must be simulta­
neous so that operations may begin at once and continue steadily.
The employer desires to meet the movement away from the city with
equal provision for his labor supply. For although rapid transit
makes it possible for labor to live farther removed from its place of
work than formerly, yet it is always necessary to have a certain
nucleus of men near the plant or factory.
How far the employer has avoided the recurrence of the evils he
has sought to escape in the city— "land sweating” and increase in
land values, overcrowding, repetition of the slum in a word—by
careful town planning, community control, regulations against over­
crowding, and provision of comfortable and fairly artistic houses
forms the subject matter of the subsequent pages.
TEM PO RARY O R ISOLATED CHARACTER OF C O M M U N IT Y .

Such enterprises as those of mining, brickmaking, and munition or
explosives manufacture can not choose their location in or near cities;
the first two must locate where their raw materials are found, while
the last is required as a safety measure to seek isolation. The
employer is therefore compelled to build accommodations for his
enterprise. The only answer most mining companies were able to
give to the inquiry as to their reasons for supplying houses was that
it was absolutely necessary for them to do so; and many stated that
they would gladly dispense with the housing work. The larger oper­
ators, however, generally saw the possibilities of the work. In addi­
tion to the necessity was the desire to improve the housing in such a
way as to secure secondary or indirect results.
Most employers in the bituminous-coal regions pointed to the
temporary character of the mines as a reason why they must supply
houses; neither the miners nor private builders would build houses
in a community which was expected to disappear within 20 or 25
years. Large scale housing operations in the munitions industry
have also been undertaken to meet the requirements of temporary
conditions.
It is in housing in remote and isolated localities that abuses are
more likely to creep in than in settled and accessible communities.
It is also in these localities that the “ one-man” town is most likely to
spring up and dominate the community, giving it a decided feudalis­
t s air. The real “ company tow n” is tho product of industrial isola­
tion as instanced by its greater prevalence in mining and its domi­
nance in the early industrial history of the United States as already
noted.




20

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

REASONS ASSIGNED BY EM PLOYERS.
REASONS ASSIGNED BY MANUFACTURERS.

The reason for supplying houses most commonly given by managers
of manufacturing plants is that private interests failed to do so; the
only way of securing accommodations for the labor force was for the
employer to provide them. The desire to have a part or a certain
class of the men, such as bosses, watchmen, or emergency men, near the
plant is second in importance, while the belief that a better and more
efficient class of labor would be secured, follows. In several instances
it was stated that the purpose of the housing enterprise is to control
the labor supply, and in several instances the company expects to
provide cheaper quarters for its men than private interests will or
can provide. An instance of how far some companies go in making
the houses practically a subsidy to wages is a cotton mill which leases
its houses from a third party and sublets them at reduced rates to
its employees. Thus, in a certain cotton mill community in the
South, the $15 house is sublet for $9, the $6.50 house for $3.30, and
the $8 house for $6 per month.
Some of the other reasons assigned for undertaking housing were
as follows: It pays as a business proposition; stockholders were in­
terested in real estate company which built the houses; property was
bought for plant extension (which shows the housing enterprise was
merely an incidental feature); there was a feeling that employer owes
employee something; as an experiment; to prove out factory-village
plan as a new theory; to promote the general welfare of mankind;
and to obtain supply of foreign labor.
Some of the reasons given show clearly the exploitative character
of the undertaking, while others express a vague and conventional
humanitarianism. What should be emphasized, however, is the
general impression given that there is a dearth of houses and that
private enterprise is failing to supply low-cost accommodations for
workingmen. It is not possible, however, to say whether this is a
reason why employers are led into housing work, or whether it is a re­
sult, for the work of the employer antedates that of the private builder
and once established tends to keep rentals below the levels at which
private industry can realize a profit.
In the southern cotton-mill districts, and in the southern indus­
tries in general, company housing is more prevalent than in the
industrial districts of the North. This is probably so because indus­
trial development is more recent than in the North, and the housing
work by private builders has never kept up with it there any more
than it did in the North, where in the early era of industrial develop­
ment company housing was also relatively more widespread than




REASONS FOR S U P P L Y IN G H OU SES.

21

at present. Where the employer goes into a new district to organize
and establish a new plant he must practically build his whole commu­
nity; he assumes the responsibility for the creation of a new center of
social life. And not until he has established the community and
demonstrated the likelihood of its permanence do secondary interests
establish themselves and social control and self-direction by the
members of the community take shape.
REASONS ASSIGNED BY MINE O PERATORS.

The first and practically the only reason assigned by many mine
operators for housing their men is that there are no houses available
or likely to be provided. The mine is the only reason why community
life has developed in the particular locality. The next most commonly
assigned reason is that it is desirable to have men near to the opera­
tions in case of emergency as of accident or breakdown; but, it
was noted by several operators, for the ordinary employees nearness
to the plant is not so essential now because of improved communica­
tions. It is the experience of some of the southern districts that it is
impossible to conduct operations without a certain nucleus of men
in company houses to give stability to the labor supply.
The belief that a better class of men, that is, men of greater effi­
ciency, will be secured is the next common reason, as is also the belief
that greater stability' in employment is attained. The desire to secure
the loyalty of the men is also put forward as a reason for housing work,
and two mine operators declared that their purpose is to control the
labor situation better, one emphasizing the desire “ to have men
concentrated so as to have proper supervision over them, to better
control them in times of labor agitation and threatened strikes.”
It was declared by another operator that the company houses had
undoubtedly been a factor in winning a strike which had recently
occurred.
Other variously phrased answers have been given by mine opera­
tors to the query as to their reasons for doing housing work. The
following are noted: Matter of general decency; furnished houses at
moderate rentals; improve living conditions; to make men loyal to
company; set example for better housing; ilunsettled labor condi­
tions and high wages necessitated a better type of house than opera­
tors in the past were in the habit of furnishing,” a statement which
recognized .the effect of raised standards of living as reflected in the
housing problem. One superintendent in a very isolated mining town
in Pennsylvania remarked that “ the time is gone when it is possible
to pack foreigners in boxes for houses; we must supply them with
clean, homelike quarters; for neatness of the town tends to cheerful­
ness and contentment of employees. The operator must consider
the welfare of his workers.”




CHAPTER III.—METHOD OF CONDUCTING HOUSING.
HOUSING SURVEY.

The housing survey is the method by which the employer may
ascertain the amount, the need, and the character of the housing to be
undertaken. The method will differ according as the housing enter­
prise is preliminary or subsequent to the manufacturing or mining
enterprise. If the building of the homes for the labor force must
precede the beginning of business operations, the employer will need
•to be guided by the experience of others engaged in similar lines of
business and by the type and character of the labor force he may
desire; if he begins his housing work after his plant has been in
operation for some time he is in a position to find out the desires of
his men in the matter of houses by means of an inquiry among them.
The housing survey involves consideration of the probable number
of employees to be provided with houses, their racial complexion,
their distribution as married and single, and the type of house
they desire. Consideration of the housing supply in towns near
the works will enter into the survey. Such a consideration in fact
led one employer not to go into housing and suggested to him the
feasibility of constructing a trolley line from the neighboring towns
to his factories inasmuch as there was an abundant supply of labor in
those towns. In another instance, instead of building houses for
the men, the company maintains a house-and-room list for its em­
ployees, a careful description of available houses being kept.1
Single

Double

H O U SE S

Apartment

LOCATION

D ist. No.

Terrace

Price
$

Lot

B'ld'g

Stories

Material

Roof

Mortgage

No. suites

Rooms

Finish

Floors

Light

Held by

Sidewalk

Sewer

Water

Paving

Gas

Years hu ilt

Bath

Tubs

Taxes per year

Phone

Remarks

Rent

i The attached is the form of record card used.
22




Due

Heated by

Owner

Address

%

M E T H O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

23

Another employer, in studying the problem of the future housing
of his men, was able to compel the real estate companies of the
neighborhood to undertake the work by threatening, as a competitor
likely to lower profits, to do it himself.
The actual housing survey proceeds by the use of a questionnaire
or card form of schedule calling for such information as the name,
address, length of service, nationality and the citizenship of the
employee; whether married or single; whether the owner of a lot or
desirous of owning a house; and if the latter, type of house desired,
size and number of rooms; the composition of the family (number
of children and dependents, their ages, etc.). The following is a sam­
ple form of schedule used:
Heads o f Families Desiring to Build Homes.
Name.................................. Factory............................ Clock N o..........................
Address.............................. How long in service.................................................
N ationality........................................... N aturalized............................................
Maried or single...........................................................
Do you own a lot? .......................... Location......................................................
If not all paid for, how much is still du e?............................................. .
How much cash can you put toward building house?..................................
Do you prefer house of one or two stories?......................................................
Number of bedrooms’ wanted..............................................................................
T
T
. /A dults...............................................................................
How many m f a n n l y ^ . ^ ............................-..............................................
How many of these children are of school age?..............................................
Do you intend to make —— — your permanent hom e?................................

The information for these schedules may be secured by giving one
to each employee to be filled out; by having each gang boss or fore­
man make one out for each man, or by having the foreman collect
the cards after they are filled out by the men. The method of gather­
ing the information entirely through the foremen probably insures
the return of a larger proportion of the schedules. These schedules
are then tabulated, and the results, when analyzed, show quite defi­
nitely the amount and character of the housing to be undertaken.
One employer used two schedules in making this preliminary
survey. The second questionnaire was a detailed one and related
primarily to the character of the houses wanted by those employees
who on the first inquiry had shown their desire for a house. In this
case, the company, on analyzing its returns, found that the largest
number of men had signified their desire for a six-room house, the
next largest number a five-room house, and the third group a sevenroom house; but on actual construction the heaviest demand was for
a five-room house on account of its being less costly than the sixroom house. The survey did not in that instance prove as accurate a
guide as was expected. Desires in the matter of a house are proverb­




24

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

ially uncertain, and a house on paper may seem wholly different
when actually erected.
In order to ascertain the wishes of new men in the matter of housing,
it would seem quite feasible to make some of these inquiries part of
the application for employment. The replies would give a rough
working basis on which to start the housing enterprise.
The institution of a survey, as stated, is the beginning of a sys­
tematic attack by the employer upon the housing problem; but be­
cause the housing work of the employer is likely to be looked upon as
incidental to the principal business, the survey has rarely been
considered or undertaken except in the most general way. All em­
ployers naturally roughly estimate the number of men whom they
will have to house. Few employers have been found who have made
preliminary surveys of housing needs and possibilities as described
above, yet the need of it was strongly sensed in an indefinite way.
No mine operators were found who had made such an inquiry as
here described. Almost without exception no preliminary investi­
gation has been made beyond estimating in a rough way the probable
tonnage and the number of men required to take it out. This esti­
mate was based upon the knowledge of the engineer in charge. In
short, the housing problem was not given any great consideration,
little regard being had to the type of labor which would be attracted
to the enterprise or the type of house to be built. It is possible,
therefore, to summarize briefly the information secured on the
point in question.
In the bituminous-coal region of Pennsylvania one employer based
his operations on the estimate of 30 houses per 100 beehive ovens;
but he later found it necessary to build 40 to 50 for each 100 ovens:
another estimated one man to an oven; and if two men may be
averaged to a house, as this investigation shows in that region, this
estimate means an equivalent of 50 houses per 100 ovens. Three
employers have been found who made an annual inquiry among
their tenants as to the size of the family and the number of boarders
kept, and as to their desires in the matter of housing. Such a system
has been but recently adopted, a fact which shows the growing under­
standing of the advantages of keeping informed as to housing con­
ditions and needs.
Of three operators included in Ohio and Indiana, two have given
careful consideration to the labor supply in neighboring towns and
limited their housing work accordingly: the third decided that semi­
detached houses were relatively less expensive than single houses and
therefore built the former.
One company out of the 24 reporting in the southern coal district,
including Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky, had a coal vein of 4




M ET H O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

25

feet. The company considered that in order to house its labor for the
first five years of the life of the mine, and according as the difficulty
of mining varied, the housing provided must be on the ratio of a
four-room house for each 8 tons mined per day; for the second five
years,for each 7 tons; for the third five years,for each 6 tons; and for
the fifth five years, for each 5 tons.
Of five companies in Colorado and Wyoming, one reported having
considered the number and class of employees to be housed; no
company in the anthracite region, in the copper region of Michigan
and Tennessee, or in the textile towns of New England reports having
made a formal housing survey. This was likewise true in the ironmining region of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. One iron
company in Michigan had built a model town on the basis of the
experience it had had in housing its men in one of the centers of the
iron industry in the State.
Of three companies reporting for the southern iron district in
Alabama, one reports having made a slight preliminary survey for
one of its white camps; and among the cotton mills of Alabama,
Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, 5 out of 48 had made only
the slightest estimate of the probable number of employees they might
desire to house; in other words, no formal survey was made of future
needs in the matter of housing.
It may be interesting to note that one company has calculated
three and a half employees to the family, and built houses accord­
ingly, knowing the number of employees desired.
‘ Twenty-seven companies were covered among the iron and steel
allied industries. One of these, preliminary to doing any housing,
gathered information concerning Philadelphia housing and utilized
that experience. In 1913 one of the largest steel manufacturing
companies in the JohnstowT Pa., district, before inaugurating a plan
n,
for the selling of its houses, which had up to that time been rented,
undertook a survey as to the payments tenants might be expected
to make in the purchase of a house, and listed all its houses, noting
their condition, together with the name and wage of the tenant.
Thus it secured a basis on which to proceed in the selling of its houses.
Of six companies engaged in copper and gold mining in the South­
west, one has put its housing work in charge of a man who has had
housing experience in Mexico, and on the basis of that experience
he has worked out a type of house considered suitable for Mexican
labor. This is the only company covered in that section which is
giving any considerable thought to the housing of Mexican laborers.
However, it should be said that two other model mining towns giving
consideration to the Mexican labor problem were in proccss of building.




26

H O U S IN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Three out of the total of 17 companies whose industries are of a
miscellaneous character and not separately classifiable, have under­
taken formal housing surveys of the kind described.
TYPE OF HOUSING DEVELOPM ENT.

The type of housing development is of interest primarily as show­
ing how free or hampered employers have been in undertaking their
housing enterprises. The possible types of development are four,
in order of lessening degree of limitation upon the carrying out of the
housing scheme: Lots laid out within the city subdivisions, already
determined as to sizes, street width, and number and width of alleys;
the subdivision not yet laid out, allowing of somewhat more freedom
in development; the suburb of the city, with less restriction, only the
lines of communication to it being already determined; and finally
the undeveloped locality having no restrictions as to lot size, direc­
tion of roads, or uses of land. The employer under such circum­
stances may develop his community from the ground up, determine
what shall be the size, direction, and width of streets and alleys,
locate his recreation centers, and place such restrictions on the use
of the land as he sees fit.
Also, from an architectural landscape point of view the greatest
freedom exists where the housing scheme is to be undertaken on
undeveloped land.
That employers are hampered but little by existing building regula­
tions and city development in the planning of their housing projects
is brought out in the following tabulation. Of 236 developments,
owned by 213 companies, operating 423 establishments, 157, or twothirds, are reported as located on undeveloped land, requiring the
laying out of new towns. The employer has been in a position to lay
out a new housing development free from all artificial limitations,
and, as far as town planning is concerned, required to meet only
conditions of topography.




27

M E T H O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

T a ble 3 .—T Y P E OF L A N D D E V E L O PM E N T OF 236 E M P L O Y E R S’ HO U SIN G E N T E R P R IS E S

IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.
Houses built on land described asIndustry and State.

Lots
New
already Subdi­ Suburb. town.
laid out. vision.

Bituminous-coal m ining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia................
C)hio and Indiana................~.......................
Alabama, Tftnnpissfift, and K entucky ...........
Colorado and W y oming...............................

1

T otal...........................................................

3

1

Anthracite-coa 1m ining: Pennsylvania............
Iron mining: Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
sota ....................................................................
Copper mining: Michigan, Wisconsin, and
Tennessee..........................................................
Other copper and gold mining: Western dis­
trict ....................................................................
Iron and steel and allied industries: Southern
district ...............................................................
Manufacture of explosives...................................

3

2

Textile manufacture:
New England district...................................
Southern district...........................................

1

2

2

30
1
24
11

4

66

2

22

41

1

77

i 1
21

30
3

8

1

6

5

5

5
3
5
1

3
5

1

2
12

9

3
25

1

6
48

1

54

..........................................

2

14

9

28

Iron and steel manufacture:
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Minnesota...........
Southern district...........................................

6

8

1

11
2

Total

33
3
25
16

33

4

1

2

Combi­
Total.
nation N ot re­
of
ported.
types.

51
61

27
3
30

T otal...........................................................

6

8

1

13

2

Miscellaneous industries.....................................

2

6

2

6

72

Grand total.
........................................
Per cent ....................................................

16
6.8

31
13.1

16
6.8

157
66.5

10
4.2

18
6
2.5

236
100.0

i Combination of lots already laid out in a subdivision and in a suburb.

* Combination of lots already laid out and as a part of a new town development.
s Three types of development combined: (1) Lots laid out and in a town; (2) lots laid out and in a suburb;
(3) in a suburb and in a town.
* Combination of suburb and subdivision.
6 Combination of lots already laid out, suburb, and subdivision.
6Combination of lots already laid out and subdivision.
7 Two types of development combined: (1) Lots laid out and subdivision; (2) subdivision and new town
layout.

SITE AND ARRANGEMENT OF TO W N .
TOWN PLANNING.

In this investigation the attempt was made to secure principally
information from employers who had built complete towns, owned
and controlled by the company. Where such towns were covered,
town planning became an element of some interest.
Town planning has regard for such matters as the subdivision of
land, laying out of local and minor streets, principal streets and busi­
ness centers, public and semipublic buildings, neighborhood and
recreational centers, park systems, the water-supply system, and
lines of transportation, both rail and water, industrial and residential
areas (problem of zoning and districting), and the systematic articu­
lation of all these utilities and functions.




28

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

The layouts of all towns may be classified as of three types: (1)
Rectangular, (2) contour, (3) radial. By the first method all streets
are laid out at right angles to each other regardless of the character
of the surface upon which they are laid; by the second method
regard is had for the character of the surface and streets are made to
follow the natural curves or the profile of the land; and by the third
method the rectangular survey is cut across by radial streets.
The rectangular method has been accepted in most town layouts
because of its simplicity, economy of engineering and land use, and
adaptability for indefinite extension. It is quite frequently accepted
because it is the traditional method. The contour method is favored
generally because of its artistic possibilities; it also has advantages
of utility, such as obviating too heavy grades, facilitating drainage,
and provision of open places for recreation. The advantage of the
radial method in conjunction with the rectangular survey lies in the
provision of diagonal streets, which are a saving in travel time and
give better opportunities for provision of open spaces. Probably no
single one of these methods is wholly made use of in any city as
planned or developed; there is rather a combination of all three
methods.
The real problem in city planning is not so much the acceptance of
any particular type of layout as the selection of the best points of
each, having in view the functions to be subserved by any particular
street, alley, or highway. For the employer, however, who builds a
large number of quite similar houses in one locality, careful contour
town planning, it was pointed out and was quite observable, has
special advantages. Short curved streets relieve the monotony of
architecture of the houses; no long views are afforded which tend to
emphasize similarities, as for instance in a group of row houses;
houses set on short curved streets expose to the passer-by views from
varying angles.
The layout for a town in which practically the only types of houses
constructed are the semidetached, the four, five, or six room dwellings,
some old colonial semidetached houses, and a few rows may easily be
made so as to give the general impression of pleasing symmetry and
harmony. The landscape work can be made to offset any monotony
or repetition of architecture. (Figs. 1 and 2.)
A certain flat layout in a mining district was given beauty and
symmetry by the judicious use of a central wide diagonal street and
the retention of a natural highway in the angle formed by two small
streams. Figure 4 shows a general layout of the town.
Economy in the use of land is secured by careful planning. In
Figure 5 is shown the layout of an industrial village in one of the
Eastern States. A pleasing arrangement of row houses, as well as
great economy in the use of land, has been secured.







F ig . 2 — L A YO U T OF TOW N SHOWN IN FIG. 1.




F ig . 3.—MODERN IRON-MINING TOWN IN WYOM ING.

Detached layout caused by mountainous character of country.




Fig. 4.—MODEL IRON-MINING TOW N IN N O RTH ERN MICHIGAN.
Rectangular layout, central radial avenue, short cross streets.

F ig . 5 —COMPACT TOW N PLANNING TO SECURE ECONOMY IN LAND USE.




Row houses, but open backyard spaces.

METHOD OF CONDUCTING HOUSING.

29

The obvious and immediate advantage of scientific street planning
and laying out are thus emphasized by one employer, who may be
quoted as typical of those employers who appreciate the advantages
of the town-planning principle:
Every effort has been made to save the natural beauty of the country. The plan
worked out shows full recognition of this important feature.
The main object in locating streets has been to secure ample width to provide for
the traffic of the future as well as of the present city. All streets have been made as
direct and convenient as possible. They have been closely fitted to the hills and
valleys to reduce grades to a minimum, thus providing the best transportation facili­
ties and lessening the expense of construction.

About 30 communities, or about one-seventh of the number
included in the study, have been laid out with some observance of
town-planning principles. Such communities also were the more
recently established ones. Frequently the town planners have been
hampered by limitations placed on their work by the company officials
who have not been quite convinced of the practicability of the townplanning idea. Manufacturing employers more than mine operators
have seemed inclined to adopt systematic community planning in
their housing schemes, probably for the reason that manufacturing
towns give greater prospects of permanency than mining towns.
Mine owners, however, also are beginning to take greater interest
in their town layout, as two factors of vital importance to them
must be considered: (1) Economy of space, and (2) accessibility to the
operations for the labor force. The mountainous mining regions
offer special difficulties which require to be treated in a special way;
not merely contours, but location of the ores, fixed and predetermined,
are to be taken into consideration. In the mountains there is very
frequently an actual scarcity of space in which to erect houses.
Nearness to the mines frequently has to be sacrificed to conditions
of health and comfort; thus in the coking region it is highly desirable
that the town be placed not too near the coke ovens, on account
of the smoke of the ovens. Travelers through the coke region can
not avoid noticing the hillsides burned barren by the noxious gases
of the beehive ovens. Yet all too many towns were found placed not
only immediately adjoining the ovens, but with no consideration to
the direction of the prevailing winds in the region. With prevailing
winds from the west, houses to the east would be constantly enveloped
in smoke. Consequently conditions of dreariness and desolation were
quite common in the region.
Furthermore, it was pointed out by some operators that because of
improved means of communication, nearness to the mines is not so
essential now as formerly. This is particularly true in the bituminous
and anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, which are situated in
fairly closely settled regions. Workers in the bituminous-coal region
of Pennsylvania commuted from neighboring cities as far as 7 miles




30

H O U S IN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

away. It is less true of the western mining country and some of the
newer mining developments in West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ten­
nessee. Isolated “ patches” in the bituminous region still existed by
reason of pure inertia, one of the more farseeing managers remarked.
It seems altogether unfortunate that the scattered locations of formerly
individually owned mines were not consolidated into a single town
with developed community life at the same time that the mines came
under single corporation control.
As by far the largest proportion of all company towns has been
established either in isolated places or on the outskirts of cities, there
has been great opportunity for the practice of the fundamentals of
town planning on the part of employers. None the less the rectan­
gular system of town planning has been the prevailing one and the
larger aspects of town planning ignored. The reasons for using the
rectangular survey have been:
(1) Cheapness from the engineering point of view; curved
streets too costly;
(2) Simplicity and facility in surveying;
(3) Economy of space;
'
(4) Custom of district; people used to straight streets;
(5) Level ground;
(6) Easier to maintain streets;
(7) Convenience;
(8) Small town and no possibility of extension of town to justify
diagonal streets;
(9) Convenience in case of fire protection; greater accessibility
of continuous and straight streets ;
(10) Greatest number of houses per acre;
(11) Land to be used more as garden land.
Indiscriminate use of the rectangular system of town survey has
resulted in bad grades in some company towns— 12 per cent in one
steel town in Pennsylvania and 14 per cent in another. Many mining
towns, both in the anthracite and the soft-coal region of Pennsylvania,
show instances of equally excessive and almost impossible grades.
While obviously it is not possible to avoid grades altogether in moun­
tainous mining towns, much can nevertheless be done in this direction.
W IDTH AND CHARACTER OF STREET.

Practically without exception streets in all company towns are of
ample width. Exact widths are not generally reported.
Generally all streets in any one town have been made the same
width; in a few of the more carefully developed towns distinction has
been made between principal and minor streets. The greatest width
in the case of principal streets has been 100 feet; minor streets average
about 30 feet.







F i g . 6.—MODERN

PLANNED VILLAGE IN N EW ENGLAND.

CONTOURS CLOSELY FOLLOWED.

Note specially adapted corner houses. Houses and lots sold to employees.

F ig. 7 —PRACTICAL USE OF A L L E Y IN A MINING TOW N IN MINNESOTA, SHOWING
GARBAGE REM OVAL, WOODSHEDS, ETC.

F ig . 8 — MINING TOW N IN MICHIGAN.

Note garbage cans in street in front of bouses.
lack of careful maintenance.




One effect of no alleys and

F ig . 9 —ACCESS TO R EAR OF HOUSES W IT H ­

OUT A L L E Y .

Fig . 10.—NO A L L E Y . STONE CIRCLE FOR
BURNING
PAPERS AND
HOLDING
ASHES.

Passageway to rear between 4-family row houses,
made necessary by high bank in rear. Note
fine condition of lawn and absence of fences.

F ig . 1 1 — A L L E Y

IN HIGHER-CLASS RESIDENCE DISTRICT OF EASTERN IRON
AND STEEL AND SHIPBUILDING TOW N.




F ig . 12 — A L L E Y IN AVER AG E RESIDENCE

DISTRICT OF EASTERN IRON AND
STEEL AND SHIPBUILDING TO W N .

F ig . 13—FORMAL PARKING ON STREETS OF A COMPANY TOW N LAID OUT ON THE
R ECTANGULAR SYSTEM.
Note use of hedge, instead of spikes or picket fence, to prevent cutting corners.

F ig . 14.—HILLSIDE STREET IN N E W ENGLAND COMPANY V IL L AG E.

Note trees in yards and absence of fences.




Equally as pleasing as formal parking.

M E T H O D OF CON D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

31

Throughout mining towns the streets are not paved; open roads
are the rule. In the iron-ore region fine waste ore dust is used with
success for surfacing. In the iron-mining and steel towns of the
South dolomite screenings are found satisfactory for this purpose.
In the arid southwest mining communities lack of paving or sur­
facing does not appear to be a serious defect. In the Pennsylvania
region coal dust and cinders are employed, but are rather disagreeable
in the wet season. Only one community in the southern mining
towns had macadamized streets and asphalt walks; this was true also
of a few communities in the anthracite-coal region; crushed rock,
plentiful in the region, was used in the northern copper country of
Michigan; oiled roads have been provided in a certain western mining
town.
Iron and steel towns in the northern district (Pennsylvania, New
York, Ohio, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, etc.) are brick or concrete
paved in a few instances. Oiled cinders have been used in one town,
and asphalt in another.
A few companies, while providing wide streets, have not paved the
whole of the roadway, but only a central portion of 16 or 18 feet, a
practice found economical, quite satisfactory, and making for neatness.
It is proposed for a mining town near Birmingham, Ala., to elimi­
nate the ordinary street between the houses and to confine traffic to
the alleys, put the street proper into grass, having only the sidewalks
in front of the houses. This method of improving front streets has
not been put in practice as yet, and its success is still problematical.
Alleys are the rule in company towns; only a few towns are without
them. The prevailing width is 15 to 18 feet.
Alleys are a great convenience in mining towns where sewer systems
do not exist. Sewage disposal and rubbish collections are simplified
by the alley. (Fig. 7.) Lack of alleys in mining towns meant in
one instance the placing of trash and ash barrels out in the front
yards and on the streets. (Fig. 8.) The need of access to the rear
yard was secured in another town by providing a special path or
roadway between the houses. (Fig. 9.) And in another instance
where no alleys were provided, circular stone receptacles were con­
structed on the back lots and in these all rubbish and waste were
burned. (Fig. 10.)
In a certain town in one of the North Central States the alleys in
the low-rental group of houses were placed next to the houses. The
space between the houses and alleys was not grassed but covered with
gravel. The area in the center of the block was then divided into
garden plots for the tenants, each family in the multiple house being
assigned a plot. In other sections of the community the alley— 16
feet wide and concrete paved— was cut through the center of the
block.




32

H O U SIN G B Y EM P LO YE E S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

In the better-class residence district of an eastern iron and steel
and shipbuilding town, the alleys were flanked b y well-kept hedges,
22 feet apart. The cinder roadway is 12 feet wide. The garbage cans
are placed close to the hedges so that they are inconspicuous. The
alleys present a remarkably neat and attractive appearance.
If outbuildings are permitted and certain dom estic animals are
kept, the alleys seem almost a necessity. They have also been used
for the placing of underground piping for sewer, water, or gas, so as
to obviate tearing up the paved streets when repairing or installation
is necessary.
PARKING.

Provision for a strip of parking between the sidewalks or paths
and the roadway is not generally made in com pany towns. Very
few also have established a central parking strip. As a rule, how­
ever, the houses are set well back from the street, 20 feet or more.
Model com pany towns planned and executed b y technical town plan­
ners make provision for parking areas along the streets.
Trees on the lots, provided no fences are erected, are perhaps
equally as pleasing as parked areas. Parking, however, is largely a
matter of taste, but concerning the provision of trees there appears
no difference of opinion.
Instances abound where a little thought would have shown the
possibility o f preserving the natural trees and shrubbery of the
locality. In a certain m odel copper-mining town of the Southwest
trees have been carefully preserved even though standing in the
middle of the street.
DISTRICTING AND RESTRICTIONS.

The technical districting of land areas in the com pany town for
special uses— i. e., for factory or industrial purposes, for the distrib­
utive tracks, or for residential purposes— is not generally practiced
b y employers. This is equally true of other cities and communities
almost everywhere. Neither in com pany towns nor in the privately
developed cities, until very recently, has legal classification been
made of the uses of land with a view to protecting the original and
distinctive character of a neighborhood. Limitations on the use of
land are only occasionally contained in the deeds to property. There
is always a tendency, however, in the com pany town to place the
stores in the center of the com m unity and to group houses around
them. Such residential districting as is practiced relates mainly to
the creation of a general residence district, separate from the indus­
trial and store center.
The ground for the necessity or desirability of certain limitations
on the indiscriminate use of land b y private holders is thus set forth
by one com pany in Ohio which is selling to its employees:




M ETH O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

33

In order to foster and maintain attractive, homelike conditions throughout the
allotment, it is necessary to safeguard each owner from intrusion on his comfort and
convenience by his neighbors. The only way is. clearly to state certain definite
restrictions on the use of the property, and to apply them to all buyers.
A t first glance it is natural to fear that interference with a man’s right to do as he
will with his own is not for the best. But experience is proving all over this country
that while restrictions may be accepted first with suspicion, yet where they have
been in force for any length of time owners are enthusiastic about their success.
Moreover, the value of the property is increased by a knowledge that agreeable con­
ditions are permanent and by the assurance that no owner will be allowed to annoy
his neighbors. The company wishes to sell land only to such employees as intend
to make permanent homes and who are willing to cooperate in doing their share
toward the welfare of the community.

Aside from provisions against the keeping of saloons or the fol­
lowing of noxious trades contained in all leases and deeds of sales,
such other limitations as are stipulated relate to the keeping of
domestic animals, the type of fences and outbuildings, type and
cost of house, etc.
The fullest and most complete restrictions found in practice by
any of the two hundred and odd companies included in the study of
the Bureau are the following:

1. Creation of residence districts.—The property shall be ueed for private residence
purposes only. There shall not be permitted or maintained upon any lot, or part
thereof, except on certain lots specified, any trade, business, or profession ircon­
sistent with and apart from occupation for private residence, but there may be main­
tained ordinary house industries such as taking of boarders, dressmaking, or use by
a physician, but such other business, the nature of which shall be approved b y ------—
may be conducted on the aforesaid lots; provided, however, that on no lot, or part
thereof, or building, structure, booth, tent, or other place thereon, shall be kept or
maintained for sale, barter, or disposal, intoxicating liquors or habit-forming drugs;
no obnoxious, dangerous, unlawful, or offensive thing or use which chall be objec­
tionable to a neighborhood of dwelling houses, including use as a dump, shall be
permitted or maintained upon any of said lots.
2. M um cost of residence and general design.—No residence shall be built on
inim
any lot or lots costing less than the minimum amount herein specified.
The position, location, and materials and design of all buildings, including out­
buildings and all alterations, shall be subject to the approval o f ---------landscape
and architectural advisers, in order that a good effect in the whole allotment may be
maintained.
3. Building line.—No building shall be erected on any lot with its main front
wall nearer the street than is shown by a schedule, ranging from 15 to 25 feet.
The location of such main front walls may be fixed by the grantor at a point not
more than five (5) feet farther back than that fixed in said schedule, at its option,
so as to prevent building in a straight line.
On corner lots, however, the residence may be built within 15 feet of the side
street line.
4. Porches and 'projections.—No porch or other minor part of any house shall pro­
ject more than 5 feet nearer the street than the building line, nor shall any house
be erected on any of said lots with the main side wall nearer than 6 feet from the
side line of such lot or lots.
125882°— 20— B u ll, 263-------3




34

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE ES IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

5. Single and double houses.—Only one residence shall be built upon any lot;
provided, however, that if any person should purchase two lots, then a double house
may be built upon such two lots across the center line, but subject to the restrictions
herein in other respects.
6. Fences.—No fence or other solid obstruction shall be built upon any lot nearer
to the front than 60 feet. On comer lots, however, the fence in the rear may be
built not closer to the street line than the established building line for that street.
No fence shall be built over 4 feet in height, unless the fence be a hedge, which may
be allowed to attain a height of 6 feet.
7. Outbuildings.—The bam or garage, if any, shall be built of the same material
as the house to which it belongs, and shall be placed on the rear of the lot, and in no
case nearer to the front thereof than the rear line of said house.
8. Easem .—The following rights, rights of Way, and easements are reserved
ents
by the said grantor, its successors and assigns, namely:
The right and privilege of granting to telephone and electric light companies the
right to string wires or pole lines within 1 foot of the rear lire of any lot or lots, as the
said grantor may determine from time to time, including the right to such grantor
to enter upon said premises at all reasonable times to install or repair such telephone
and electric light lines.
Said grantor reserves the further right to grant to a street railway company the
right to build a street railroad along-------- - in and across said allotment, upon such
terms and conditions as it may deem proper.
Said grantor reserves the further right to itself, its successors and assigns, to enter
upon any of said lots for the purpose of repairing any sewer that may run through any
such lot; upon being repaired such property to be put in as good condition as before.
9. All of the restrictions, conditions, covenants, charges and agreements contained
herein shall run with the land and be perpetual; Provided, how
ever, That at any time
after January 1, 1928, the owners of the majority of the foot frontage on both sides of
the street, in any block between intersecting streets in said allotment, may, by agree­
ment in writing, duly recorded in the recorder’s office o f --------County,---------, change
and modify the restrictions herein applying to any such block, except the restriction
relating to the sale or barter of intoxicating liquors, and the restriction relating to the
use of any obnoxious, dangerous^ offensive or unlawful thing.
1 . Right of reentry.—Violation of any of the restrictions, conditions, or breach of
0
any of the covenants and agreements herein contained, shall give the ----------com­
pany the right to enter upon the property upon or as to which such violation or breach
exists, and summarily to abate and remove, at the expense of the owner thereof, any
structure, thing -or conditions that may be or exists thereon contrary to the intent and
meaning of the provisions hereof, and the —----- company shall not thereby be deemed
guilty of any manner of trespass for such entry, abatement or removal.
The provisions herein contained shall bind and inure to the benefit of and be
enforceable by the grantor, or by the owner or owners ot any property in said allot­
ment, their legal representatives, heirs, successors and assigns, and the failure of the
grantor or any property owner to enforce any of such restrictions, conditions, cove­
nants and agreements herein contained shall in no event be deemed a waiver of right
to do so.
Any and all of the rights and powers o f---------company herein contained may be
assigned to any corporation or association which is now or may hereafter be organized
which will assume the duties of------company hereunder pertaining to the particular
rights and powers assigned, and upon any such corporation or association evidencing
its consent in writing to accept such assignment and accept said duties it shall, to
the extent of such assignment, have the same rights and powers and be subject to
the same obligations and duties as are given to and assumed by the grantor herein.




M E T H O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

35

I t m ay be noted that a special district is reserved for stores. The
fixing of a building line is not sufficient for that purpose, as was
thought to be the case in a steel com pany in a town in Pennsylvania.
The com pany built on lots already laid out, thinking that a building
line would keep out stores. Dwellings, however, have been con­
verted into stores, and stores have been built back of the building
line. Similar developm ent has taken place in all cities in spite of
a mere building-line restriction.
The follow ing are restrictions placed upon property sold b y a
certain Massachusetts com pany to its employees. They illustrate
the type of restrictions adaptable when the entire housing develop­
ment is exclusively a residential one:
1. The property shall be used for private purposes only and shall not be used for
commercial, manufacturing or other trade or institutional uses.
2. No buildings shall be erected or maintained thereon except private dwelling
houses with cellars, each for occupation by not more than two families; and private
garages and hen or fowl houses not more than one story in height, for the sole use of
the owners or occupants of the lots or plots upon which such garages and hen or fowl
houses are erected.

3. No horses, cattle, hogs or other live stock and no poultry, except hens or fowl
to a number not exceeding 25, shall be permitted or kept up©n this property.
4. No cesspool or privy vault or other source of annoyance shall be constructed or
maintained after a sewer is available, adjacent to the property.
5. No building, fence, wall or other structure shall be erected or maintained nor
any change or alteration made therein unless the plans and specifications therefor
showing the nature, kind, shape, height, material, color scheme and location of such
structure or lot to be built upon shall have been submitted to, approved in writing
by, and a copy thereof, as finally approved, lodged permanently with the company.
6. No building or part thereof except steps, one-story porches, bay, low and oriel
windows, shall be erected, permitted or maintained within 20 feet of any street or
within 15 feet of adjoining lot lines.
No garage shall be erected in front of the rear line of any dwelling house without
special permission in writing obtained from the company.
7. No dwelling houses shall be erected or maintained which shall cost less than
$2,500.
8. Easements and rights of way are reserved for the erection, construction and main­
tenance of poles, wires, pipes and conduits for the transmission of electricity, water
or steam for all purposes and for public and private sewers and drains and for other
purposes included within the performance of any public or quasi-public utility or
function above or beneath the surface of the ground. Except when necessity
demands, these easements shall be confined to the rear three feet of the property
herein conveyed.
9. The company shall have the right, without liability for damage for trespass, to
enter upon the property for the purpose of determining whether these restrictions
are being complied with, to abate any construction or condition in violation of said
restrictions, and to exercise its powers under the easements reserved above.

Somewhat different are the follow ing restrictions enforced b y a
com pany town in central Pennsylvania— different as respects require­
ments in the type of house which m ay be built upon land purchased
by the employee from the company. The restrictions quoted are




36

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

contained in each individual deed. The decision as to whether or
not a lot may be used for business purposes, the minimum cost of a
house on any particular lot, and the depth of the building line is
made for each lot at the time that it is sold, and not for all lots or
groups of lots at the time the land is plotted and placed on the
market. This is a practice contrary to that in true districting, and
is of interest for that reason:
And the said part— of the second part, for---------, heirs and assigns, the owners or
occupiers of the above-described lot of land, do— hereby covenant and agree, to and
with the said---------■ heirs and assigns, that--------- the said part— of the second
,
part,— ----- , heirs and assigns, shall build and at all times hereafter maintain in good con­
dition a substantial sidewalk of the same material, character, and construction, built
and maintained by the owners of other properties in the same neighborhood, and fail­
ing so to do the said----- — , heirs or assigns, may build and maintain the same at the
cost and expense of the part— of the second part,---------, heirs and assigns, which the
part— of the second part, heirs and assigns, hereby agree to pay, and shall at all times
hereafter forever leave unbuilt upon and unobstructed, except by steps, cellar doors,
piazzas, bay windows, fences, trees or shrubbery thereupon, the —— — feet in
depth of the said hereby granted lot fronting on the said —------ , and that neither
---------nor any nor either of them shall or will at any time hereafter erect or build, or
cause or permit to be erected, built, or maintained, upon the hereby granted lot of land,
or upon any part thereof, any hospital, hotel, tavern, drinking saloon, piggery, black­
smith, carpenter, machine or wheelwright shop, steam mill, tannery, slaughterhouse,
butcher shop, skin-dressing establishment, currier shop, livery stable, glue, soap,
candle, lamp black, poudrette, or starch factory, or any factory of any kind where
power shall be used, or any building for the manufacture of malt or spirituous liquors
of any kind, or any building for offensive purposes, or occupation, trade, calling or
business, which will in anywise be dangerous, noxious, unwholesome or offensive to
the neighboring inhabitants; nor shall the premises or any part thereof, be used for
any of the above-named purposes, nor shall any building thereon be converted into
any such building, or used for any offensive occupation or purpose hereafter forever;
that neither the land hereby conveyed, nor any part thereof, shall be used for any
business or manufacturing purpose of any kind or nature whatsoever, except by per­
mission of the said ----- —■ heirs and assigns, given in writing, setting forth the nature
,
and character of the business to be done (which shall not conflict with or violate the
restrictions contained herein) and the style and value of the buildings, which shall be
constructed thereon for that purpose; nor shall the land hereby conveyed, or any part
thereof, be laid out or used as a cemetery; that no fence shall be built, constructed or
maintained, on any part of said premises, unless the nature, kind, shape, style and
material shall have been first made known and shown to the said—-------, heirs or assigns,
and shall have received his or their approval; that no outcloset or privy shall be main­
tained or erected on any part of said premises, unless the same be at least 8 feet wide,
10 feet high and 10 feet long; that no shed or structure of any kind shall be erected on
the land hereby conveyed, or any part thereof, before a dwelling house or building
for business purposes has first been erected; and shall not at anytime thereafter erect,
build, maintain, or permit to be erected, built and maintained on the premises above
described, or any part thereof, any building, unless by the permission hereinbefore
„provided for, except a dwelling house and outbuildings appurtenant thereto, or more
than -—----- dwelling house----------, and the said dwelling house shall not be less than
two stories in height and the cost thereof shall not be less than---------dollars, and must
not have what is commonly known as a flat roof, and no barn, stable, coop or other out­
building shall be erected thereon closer to the street front than 75 feet; nor shall any




M E T H O D OF CO N D U CTIN G H O U SIN G .

37

dwelling house for the use and occupancy of more than one family be erected or main­
tained on said premises, or any part thereof, unless the plans for the same shall have
been first submitted to and approved in writing by the said —— , heirs or assigns.
—

Company towns should lend themselves to the districting idea, as
it is very much easier to plan for their future growth than for that of
the ordinary industrial city of uncertain future. Employers can fore­
cast fairly well the size of their town by knowing somewhat definitely
its future growth. A mining town, particularly, laid out on a con­
ceived plan, is in little danger of finding its plan inadequate to its
future needs; there is small risk of unforeseen obsolescence, as the length
of the life of a mining towai is to a great extent determinable in ad­
vance.
One company violated its own restrictions as to the use in a certain
district of a certain type of house; since then such restrictions as do
exist have not been enforced in that particular town. There is reason
to believe, however, that violation of the restriction was necessary, as
the towrn did not develop as had been expected. The instance, in
fact, is an illustration of the uncertainty of restrictions created and
enforced by the grantors of the property and shows the advantage of
having such restrictions, if they are to be imposed and serviceable for
the life of the community, in the hands of the community collectively.
It is but proper that the community should meet the loss arising from
past limitations when it becomes necessary for the future prosperity
and well-being of the com m unity that the limitations be removed or
altered.
RACE SEGREGATION.

A certain amount of race segregation is enforced in a few company
towns. One employer declared, k The different nationalities usually
‘
prefer to, and as a rule do, live mainly to them selves/7 The Negroes
are segregated in the South, although two company towns in Alabama
stated that they made no separation of Negraes and whites. In
northern com pany towns where the Negroes were numerous they were
segregated from the other employees. In the southwestern company
towns of the copper and gold mining regions Mexicans are segregated
in hamlets by themselves. They do not as a rule occupy company
houses, but are left to their own devices for shelter. They build their
own houses and have their own communities upon company land.
A certain Pennsylvania town in the bituminous region is split up into
a certain number of hamlets, Italians living in one section and Slavs in
another. One com pany town in Massachusetts has a group of lowrental houses which are rented only to Poles and other unskilled labor.
A steel com pany in western Pennsylvania alternates the immigrant
races with Negro families in order, it states, to prevent too great
clannishness among the European immigrants, and a similar arrange­
ment is observed in an iron-mining town in Michigan, where the dif­




38

H O U S IN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

ferent European immigrants are alternated for the same purpose.
In a certain copper-mining community in Michigan the com pany's
renting agent discriminates in the rental of houses against so-called
Russian Finns, whom as a class he does not consider as likely to be
loyal to the company. In a neighboring town in the same region the
Finns are more or less kept together in the community, and American
employees are also grouped together. This grouping was said to
have been begun as a result of a serious strike which had occurred
within recent years. A t that time it was observed that some races
influenced others who desired to go to work to stay out on strike.
In three com pany towns in Pennsylvania and, as stated, in practi­
cally all the copper and gold mining towns of the Southwest company
houses are rented only to American employees.
Some employers have decided against all forms of restrictions on
the ground of the danger of paternalism, a danger made evident b y
the fate of Pullman, 111. In one town in question the agent of the
Bureau noted the following results:
Many tenants keep chickens, and some keep cows and horses. In consequence
the ba.ck yards are untidy. Some of the lots have two houses, one in front and one
on the rear of the lot. In some cases the person buying a lot put up a cheap house on
the rear of the lot and lived in it for the first few years and then the tenant would
put up a better house on the front of the lot and rent the rear house. In a few cases
the bam has been converted into a rear house. Business buildings, stores, stables,
etc., have been built in the residence district.
PUBLIC UTILITIES.

Public utilities (such as water system, lighting, etc.) are provided
b y the employing companies themselves in the large m ajority of
cases in the 236 communities studied. And when the agency pro­
viding the utility is a private com pany it is very frequently a sub­
sidiary of the employing com pany or controlled b y the same indi­
viduals who control the employing com pany. N o water system
other than outside wells or hydrants is provided in 14, or 6.1 per
cent, of the 229 communities reporting; no sanitary sewers in 91, or
39.7 per cent; no storm sewers in 116, or 50.7 per cent; no electric
lights in 39, or 17 per cent; no gas in 173, or 75.5 per cent; no street
paving in 103, or 45 per cent; and no sidewalks or gutters in 43, or
19 per cent, of the communities studied.
There is a lack generally of these public utilities in mining communi­
ties. F or example, such water system as does exist here goes only
so far as the provision of hydrants in the yards of the tenants.
Mining towns without a system of electric lighting are, however, very
uncommon.
The data summarized above tend to exaggerate the extent to
which the utilities named are provided in com pany towns, as very




39

M E T H O D OF C O N D U CTIN G H O U S IN G .

frequently they are provided only in a part of the community,
usually the better class of houses. Such also is the case as respects
the provision of sidewalks and gutters, though it was impossible to
ascertain the relative extent to which these prevailed in the com­
munity. This survey indicates elsewhere1 more accurately the
extent to which various modern conveniences such as inside water,
bath, heating and lighting have been introduced in company houses.
The following table shows the extent to which employers provide
certain public utilities within the company town, either for a whole
of the community or a part of it.
Table 4 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF COMMUNITIES R E PO R T IN G IN W HICH SPEC I­
F IE D PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S A R E P R O V ID E D , B Y M A NN ER IN W HICH PR O V ID E D .
Communities in which specified utility
is provided by—
N um ­
ber of
com­
muni­ Company.
Other agency.
Total.
ties
report­
ing. Num­ Per Num ­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent.
ber. cent.
ber.
cent.

Public utility.

Water sy stem .........................................
Sanitary sew ers.....................................
Storm sew ers..........................................
Electric lig h ts........................................
G as..........................................................
P aving....................................................
Sidewalks...............................................
Gutters....................................................

229
229
230
229
229
229
229'
232

165
167
89
148
12
94
166
159

72.1
46. 7
38. 7
64.6
5.2
41.0
72.5
68.5

50
31
25
42
44
32
20
30

21.8
13.5
10.9
18.3
19.2
14.0
8.7
12.9

215
138
114
190
56
126
186
189

93.9
60.3
49.6
83.0
24.5
55.0
81.2
81.5

No provision
made.

N um ­ Per
ber.
cent.

14
91
116
39
173
103
43
43

6.1
39.7
50.4
17.0
75.5
45.0
18.8
18.5

EXERCISE OF PUBLIC FUNCTIONS.

In such matters as fire and police protection, street cleaning and
lighting, collection of garbage and the enforcement of sanitary rules,
the companies establishing the communities are almost wholly
responsible. In over one-half of the communities reporting, street
cleaning and lighting, fire protection, garbage collection, and sanitary
regulations are functions of the employing com pany and not of the
community. In 85 cases the com pany also provides the police
protection of the community. The number and proportion of
communities in which these and other functions named are performed
b y the com pany providing the houses are set forth in the table
following.




i See Tables 11 and 12, pp. 47 and 48.

40

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE ES IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T able 5 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF COMMUNITIES R E PO R T IN G IN W HICH SPECI­
FIE D PUBLIC FU N C T IO N S A R E PE R FO R M E D , B Y AGENCY.

Num­
ber of
com­
muni­
ties
report­
ing.

Public function.

Street cleaning.....................................................
Street lighting......................................................
Fire protection....................................................
Police protection.................................................
Sanitary collection...............................................
Sanitary regulations...........................................
Restrictions..........................................................

224
222
224
220
225
207
202

Communities in which specified
public function is performed

Company.

No provision
made.

Town or city.

N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

146
132
142
85
155
116
148

65.2
59.5
63.4
38.6
68.9
56.0
73.3

54
60
69
118
41
35
6

Per
cent.
24.1
27.0
30.8
53.6
18. 2
16.9
3.0

Num­
ber.

24
30
13
17
29
56
48

Per
cent.

10. 7
13. 5
5.8
7.7
12.9
27.1
23. 8

SCHOOLS, CHURCHES, PLAYGROUNDS, AND HOSPITALS.

In general, employers controlling com pany towns merely assist in
the provision of schools and churches. The interest of some com ­
panies, however, in the m atter of providing educational facilities is
controlling in the com m unity. One com pany, to cite an example,
has built a trade school at a cost of $500,000 and rents it to the State
for the nominal sum of $1 a year. The same com pany has also built a
high school costing $100,000, and a $50,000 building for a com m unity
art collection. A teachers’ home is also provided b y the com pany
and rents for $1 a year. The real estate agent of the com pany stated
that there is considerable friction between the townspeople and the
com pany b y reason of the latter exercising too much control in local
school matters.
Playgrounds and hospitals where found are generally provided at
the em ployer’s expense. In over one-third of 205 communities
reporting, no playgrounds, and in about two-fifths of the 185 towns
reporting, no hospitals were provided. Lack of playgrounds, how­
ever, is not so serious, as com pany towns are usually small, and there
are plenty of open spaces.
The principal facts as to the provision of schools, churches, etc., in
com pany towns are set forth in the table below.
Table 6 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF COM MUNITIES R E PO R T IN G IN W HICH SPECI­
F IE D PU B L IC A N D SE M IPU BL IC IN ST IT U T IO N S A R E PR O V ID E D , B Y M A NN ER OF
PR O V ISIO N .

Institution.

Schools....................................................
Churches.................................................
Hospitals.................................................
Playgrounds...........................................




N um ­ Communities in which institution is pro­
vided by—
ber
No provision
of
made.
com­ Company. Assistance by
Other
muni­
company.
agencies.
ties
report­ Num ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per
ing.
ber. cent.
ber. cent.
ber. cent.
ber. cent.
226
198
185
205

6
11
72
110

2.7
5.6
38.9
53.7

76
73
16
7

33.6
36.9
8.6
3.4

143
89
25
16

63.3
44.9
13.5
7.8

1
25
72
72

0.4
12.6
38.9
35.1

CHAPTER IV.—NATURE OF ACCOMMODATIONS PROVIDED.
TYPES OF HOUSES.

It may be well to point out some of the general features of com pany
houses as disclosed b y the Bureau’s investigation. Of the 53,176
dwellings erected b y the companies covered b y this study, 25,582, or
48.1 per cent, are detached dwellings; 18,871, or 35.5 per cent, semi­
detached dwellings; and 6,014, or 11.3 per cent, row dwellings, while
all other types com bined number only 1,938, or 3.6 per cent of the
total. In 1.4 per cent of all cases the type is not reported.
Table 7.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D T Y P E , B Y
IN D U S T R Y A N D STATE.

Detached.

Semi­
detached.

Miscella­
neous.

R oav.

Industry and State.

Total.
N um ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per Num ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia....................... 3,886 33.2 7,388 63.1
106 45.1
129 54.9
Ohio and Indiana
..........................................
521 9.1
Alabama,Tennessee, and K entucky................... 5,177 90.9
54 4.4
Colorado and W yom ing......................- .............. 1,158 93.8
Total.................................................................... 10,350 54.8 8,069 42.7

429

3.7

22

1.8

451

2.4

438

8

0.1 11,711
235
5,698
1,234

7.1

8 0)

18,878

Anthracite-coal m ining...............................................

728 12.0 4,923 80.9

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota................
Alabam a.................................................................

915 84.9
482 92.0

100
42

9.3
8.0

56

5 .2 1,071
524

Total.................................................................... 1,397 87.6

142

3.5 31,595

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee.................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico, and Colorado..............................................

26,089

8.9

56

743 81.8

162 17.8

3

.3

908

349 54.4

90 14.0

11

1.7

642

192 29.9

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district................................................... 1,655 28.9 1,302 22.8 1,865 32.6
457 65.0
246 35.0
Southern district...................................................

900 15.7 5,722
703

Total.................................................................... 2,112 32.9 1,548 24.1 1,865 29.0

900 14.0 6,425

Manufacture of explosives..........................................

1,254 39.6

170

T extile manufacture:
101 15.6
194 29.9
N orthern district...................................................
Southern district................................................... 7,425 70.0 2,772 26.1
Total.................................................................... 7,526 66.9 2,966 26.3
Miscellaneous industries.............................................

1,123 32.6

3,164

5.4 1,740 55.0

801 23.2

208 32.0
149 1.4
357

3.2

971 28.2

146 22.5
649
263 2.5 10,609
409

3 .6 11,258

551 16.0 3,446

Grand total......................................................... 25,582 48.8 18,871 36.0 6,014 11.5 1,938

3.7 *52,405

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
> Not including 764 dwellings for which type of construction was not reported,
a Not including 7 dwellings for which type of construction was not reported.
< Not including 771 dwellings for which type of construction was not reported.

Since 1881 there has been a significant development in the type of
buildings erected by employers for their workmen. The prevailing
type of house erected beforo 1881 was the semidetached dwelling; 870,




41

42

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

or 48.3 per cent, of the 1,800 dwellings erected before then were of
that type; the row dwelling was the next most com m on, 423, or 23.5
per cent, being of that type. The proportion of the row type of
dwelling erected declined somewhat irregularly from that time to
1915. A t the time of this survey this type form ed 11.5 per cent
of all com pany dwellings. It is significant that of the 3,547 houses
erected b y employers in 1916, 1,529, or 43.1 per cent, are of the row
type, and of 1,177 erected in 1917, 375, or 31.9 per cent, are of the row
type. This increase in row houses in 1916 and 1917 is explained by
the fact that the new com pany developments which were reported
as of those years happened to be laid out in large cities where land is
high.
Table 8 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R C E NT OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D T Y P E , BY
Y E A R OF CONSTRUCTION, A LL IN D U S T R IE S COM BINED.
Detached.
Year of construction.

N um ­
ber.
357
1,080
2,543
3,431
3,912
421
435
652
880
1,499
1,088
587
8,697

B e f o r e 1881..
1881-1890____
1891-1900____
1901-1905____
1906-1910____
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
N o t re p o rte d
T o t a l..

25,582

Per
cent.
19.8
55.4
54.0
47.4
55.1
41.1
87.2
48.2
40.6
60.6
30.7
49.9
48.1

Semidetached.
N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

Row.
Num ­
ber.

Miscellaneous.

Per
cent.

870
673
1,811
2,763
1,825
204
52
404
1,176
534
830
204
7,525

48.3
34.5
38.5
38.4
25.7
19.9
10.4
29.9
54.2
21.6
23.4
17.3
41.6

423
155
328
955
814
112

23.5
7 .9
7.0
13.2
11.5
10.9

297
114
132
1,529
375
780

22.0
5.3
5.3
43.1
31.9
4.3

18,871

36.0

6,014

Num ­
ber.

Per
cent.

150
42
26
79
544
288
12

2 .2
.6
1.1
7.7
28.1
2 .4

310
100
11
376

12.5
2 .8
.9
2.1

11.5

Total.

1,800
1,950
4,708
7,228
7,095
1,025
499
1,353
2,170
2,475
3,547
1,177
17,378

3. 7 i 52,405

1 Not including 771 dwellings for which type of construction was not reported.

SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

The largest proportion of the company houses— 15,672 dwellings,
or 30.4 per cent of the 51,473 for which data as to number of rooms
were secured— have four rooms. A little over one-sixth (9,413) of
the houses have five rooms; and approximately an equal proportion
(9,127) six rooms. That is, about two-thirds of all these houses are
four, five, and six room dwellings. There are 160 one-room dwellings,
but this is less than 1 per cent of the total.
Considerable variation exists as between the different industry
groups and the different sections of the country. The prevailing
size of dwelling for a family in the Pennsylvania and W est Virginia
bituminous-coal region is either three or four rooms; in the Ohio
and Indiana coal regions, four rooms; in Alabama, Tennessee, and
Kentucky, three or four rooms; and in the coal towns of Colorado
and Wyoming, four rooms. In the anthracite-coal region the typical
company house is of five or six rooms.




43

N A T U R E OF ACCO M M O DATION S PROVIDED.

Houses in the southern company towns are generally smaller than
those in the northern towns. Porches, however, are more commonly
used in the South than in the North for sleeping purposes. In the
iron-mining region of the Northwest, including Michigan, Minnesota,
and Wisconsin, the common type is that of five rooms. In the ironmining district of Alabama the prevailing type is of two or three
rooms. In the iron and steel industries of the central and eastern
States there is a uniform distribution of four, five, and six room
houses, while in the southern towns three-fourths are two-room
houses. A similar contrast exists between the size of houses in the
textile-mill towns of the northern and southern districts. In the
former five, six, and seven room houses prevail and in the latter three
and four room houses.
In each industry group the district having the largest proportion
of two-room dwellings is as follows: The bituminous-coal region of
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky (18 per cent); the iron-mining
region of Alabama (35.5 per cent); the copper and gold mining region
of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (30.5 per cen t); and the south­
ern iron and steel and cotton-mill districts (75.1 and 8.9 per cent,
respectively).
The following table shows the distribution of company dwellings
by number of rooms, according to the several industry groups:
T a b l e 9 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLING S HAVING EACH SP E C IFIE D NUM ­

B E R OF ROOMS P E R DW ELLING , B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D ST A TE.
NUM BER.

Dwellings having—
Industry and State.

9
Total.
1
2
3
5
6 |
4
8 rooms
room rooms rooms rooms rooms rooms rooms rooms and
ovei.

Bituminous-coal m in in g:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia
Ohio and Indian a..............................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky
Colorado and W yom ing...................

801 3,358
30
1,027 1,650
51
217

118

112

19

19
6

28
1

16

1,879 5,255 6,238 3,095 2,092

T otal................................................
Anthracite-coal mining................................

2,969 2,566 1,768
184
14
7
2,291 446
221
794
69
96

143

141

35

18,878

479

237

72

5,320

37

247

920 1,604 1,724

11,711
235
5,698
1,234

Iron m in ing:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
sota ..................................................
Alabama.............................................

3

128

7
125

223
81

T otal................................................

3

128

132

4

9

196

118

274
528

125
64

1,547 1,442 1,629
27
45
30

245
1

239
4

221
4

802

189

1,574 1,487 1,659

246

243

225

6,425

120

161

238

3

3

3,164

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee
Other copper and gold m in ing: Arizona,
New Mexico, and Colorado..................
Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district...............................
Southern district...............................

109

T otal................................................
Manufacture of explosives.......................




48

415
12

196
11

92
1

104

34

1,071
361

304

427

207

93

104

34

1,432

262

317

143

26

134

13

171

35

13

674

462 1,455

908
642
5,722
703

44

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T able

9 .= N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E L L IN G S H A V IN G EACH S E P A R A T E NUM ­
B E R OF ROOMS P E R D W E L L IN G , B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D ST A T E —Continued.
NUM BER .

Dwellings having—
Industry and State.

9
Total.
7
8 rooms
5
3
1
4
6
2
rooms rooms rooms rooms and
room rooms rooms rooms
over.

T extile manufacture:
Northern district
..............
Southern district................................

12
941 3,165

55
4,585

Total................................................

941 3,177

4,640 1,140 1,005
829

6

Miscellaneous industries..........................
Grand to ta l.....................................

177

889

155
985

846

209
796

20
42

90
32

649
10,609

171

62

122

11,258

404

258

37

3,446

108
63

160 4,113 9,465 15,672 9,413 9,127 1,800 1,182

541 151,473

PER CENT.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia
Ohio and Indiana..............................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky
Colorado and W yom ing...................

18.0
4.1

28.7
12.8
29.0
17.6

25.4
78.3
40.2
64.3

..........................................

10.0

27.8

33.0

16.4

11.1

.8

Anthracite-coal mining............................

.7

4.6

17.3

30.2

32.4

9 .0

Total

6.8

21.9
6.0
7.8
5.6

15.1
3 .0
3 .9
7.8

1.0

1.0

0.2

.3
.5

.5
.1

.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.7

.2

100.0

4.4

1.4

100.0

9.7

3 .2

100.0
100.0

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
.................
sota
A la b a m a ...........................................

0.8

35.5

.7
3 4.6

20.8
22.4

38.7
3.3

18.3
3 .0

8.6
.3

T otal................................................

.2

8.9

9.2

21.2

29.9

14.4

6.5

7.3

2.4

100.0

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona,
New Mexico, and Colorado.................. 17.0

.4

1.0

28.9

34.9

15.7

2.9

14.8

1.4

100.0

30.5

18.4

26.6

5.5

2.0

2.2
9.1

27.0
3 .8

25.2
6.4

28.5
4.3

4.3
.1

4.2
.6

3.9
.6

100.0
100.0

12.5

2 .9

24.5

23.1

25.8

3.8

3 .8

3.5

100.0

3.8

5.1

21.3

14.6

46.0

7.5

.1

.1

100.0

Textile manufacture:
Northern district...............................
Southern district...............................

8.9

1.8
29.8

8.5
43.2

23.9
9.3

32.2
7.5

16.6
.6

3.1
.4

13.9
.3

100.0
100.0

Total................................................

8.4

28.2

41.2

10.1

8.9

1.5

.6

1.1

100.0

Miscellaneous industries..........................

.2

5.1

25.8

24.6

24.1

11.7

7.5

1.1

100.0

8.0

18.4

30.4

18.3

17.7

3.5

2.3

1.1

100.0

Iron and steel and allied industries:
4.8
Northern district...............................
75.1
...............................
Southern district
Total................................................
Manufacture of explosives.......................

Grand total.....................................

1.5

.3

100.0

1 Not including 1,703 dwellings for which number of rooms was not reported.




45

N A T U R E OF ACCOM M OD ATION S PROVIDED.

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION.

The frame structure is the most prevalent style of company house,
with brick less than a tenth as prevalent, and all other types of mate­
rial combined even less prevalent than brick.
T able 1 0 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACJH SP E C IFIE D M ATERIAL
OF CONSTRUCTION, B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D STA TE.
Frame.
Industry and State.

Brick.
N um ­
ber.

Other.

Per
cent.

Num ­
ber.

Per
cent.

2 .8

279

2.4

Total.

N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

11,101
235
5,698

94.8
100.0
100.0
78.4

331

2L 6

11,711
235
5,698
1,234

Total........................................................... 18,002

95.4

331

545

2.8

18,878

Anthracite-coal m ining......................................

6, 708

.97.9

43

102

1.5

6,853

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota...... .
Alabam a.......................................................

1,071
524

99.4
100.0

T otal..........................................................

1,595

99.6

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee____

902

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and W est Virginia.............
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.......................
Alabama, Tennessee? and K entucky.......
Colorado and W yom ing............................. .

Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico, and Colorado....................................
T extile manufacture:
Northern district........................................
Southern district........................................

i 1,071
524

908
61.2

20

3.1

402
10,287

61.9
97.0

213
293

32.8
2.8

Total.........................................................

10,689
3,290
668

57.5
95.0

Total.........................................................

3,958

Manufacture of explosives................................

3,163

100.0

Miscellaneous industries...................................

2,363

68. 6

Grand total..............................................

35.7
5.2
.3

649
10,609

19. €

722
703

63

94.9

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Forthern district........................................
Southern district........................................

229

47,773

1,310
35

22.9
5.0

1,122

1,345

6,425
3,164

(2)
970

28.1

113

3, 446

2,177

1 53,169

1 Not including 7 dwellings for which the material of construction was not reported.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

PROVISION OF SANITARY SYSTEM S.

An indication of the extent of modern conveniences in company
houses may be obtained from the following table showing data for
about 230 communities. This table shows that 18,331, or 38.5 per
cent, of the 47,580 dwellings for which reports were obtained had
inside water. The sanitary conveniences in these dwellings ranged
from a complete three-piece bathroom and modern kitchen plumbing
to merely a bibb or faucet in the kitchen. On the other hand, 29,249,
or 61.5 per cent, of the dwellings reported had no inside water and
sanitary conveniences.




46

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T ABLE 1 1 . — N U M B E R

A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S HAVING SP E C IFIE D SA N ITA R Y
E Q U IPM E N T , B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D STA TE.
NUM BER.

Industry and State.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and W est V irginia...
Ohio and Indiana..............................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Ken­
tu ck y .............................................
Colorado and W yom ing...................

Wa­
Bath,
terwa­
ter- Bath, closet, Wa­
sewer tercloset, wa­ or closet,
sewer ter- cess­ sewer
or closet,
or
cess­ sewer pool, cess­
run­
or
pool,
ning
water cess­ water pool,
sys­ pool, in ­ and
tem , and side, run­
and water and ning
gas or sys­ gas or water
in­
elec­ tem. elec­ side.
tric
tric
light.
light.

1 242
53

1

1

25

298
4

13 _____

234

21

418

215 5,042 10,119
156
235

1,189

148 3,871
29

7

58

353

360

96

170

1

4,314
76

3

58
6

Total................................................
Anthracite-coal mining............................

No
No
Run­ mod­ mod­ No
ning ern
ern mod­
water con­ con­ em
in ­ ven­ ven­ con­ Total
side, iences iences ven­ num­
bath, e x ­ ex­ iences ber re­
port­
and cept cept
gas or gas or run­ (out ing.
side
elec­ elec­ ning p r iv ­
tric tric water
light. light. in ­ ies).
side.

289

12

3

Gas
or
elec­
tric
light
and
run­
ning
water
in ­
side.

142

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
sota..................................................
Alabama.............................................

73
19

1
1

96

54

70 6,700
4

92

284

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district...............................
Southern district...............................

2,259
31

274

507

2

Total................................................ 2,290

276

515

32

Manufacture of explosives....................... 2,762
Textile manufacture:
Northern district...............................
Southern district...............................

652
652

95
33

113
417

1,057
524

152

8

544

128

560

1,581

57

250

305

908

8

97

121

642

55
5

7 31

62
428

472 1,410

5,722
697

60

31

6

1

6

222

490

473 1,632

6,419

8

66

144

184

3,164

2,546

129
19
249 4,912

643
9,892

188
797

56
648

344

Total................................................

633

14

985

704

344

Miscellaneous industries..........................

1,569

503

121

587

548

8,238

859 1,917 2,534

2 ,0 1 0

9, fvtfi 1
I ’

9.7R 4,931 10,535

5
6i
3.401
01
isnlio. finft| 2,593 18. fi49l8i7. K O
S
1
1
1

Fifteen have “ K austine” privies.
Four have shower baths; 1 has no gas or electric lights,
s One has shower bath and no gas or electric lights.
4 Forty have combination bath and laundry tub in kitchen.
8 Three have pumps inside house.
6 One hundred and seventy-three have pumps inside house.
i Twenty-nine of these have no gas or electric lights.
* N ot including 5,596 dwellings lor which data have not been reported.




4,034

6

9
5

1
2

940 1,813

8

242
391

Grand to ta l................................... .

363 9,098 16.896

127

5

538

5,328
1,214

10

8

76

16

62

134

Total................................................
Copper mining: Michigan and Ten­
nessee......................................................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona,
Colorado, and New Mexico..................

1 ,1 2 1

47

N A T U R E OF ACCO M M O D ATIO N S PROVIDED.
T able

1 1 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S HAVING SP E C IFIE D SA N ITA R Y
E Q U IPM E N T , B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D ST A T E —Concluded.
PE R CENT.

Wa­
Bath,
terwa­
closet, Wa­
ter- Bath, sewer tercloset, wa­ or closet,
sewer ter- cess­ sewer
or closet,
cess­ sewer pool, or
run­ cess­
pool, or
ning
water cess­ water pool,
sys­ pool, in ­ and
tem , and side, run­
and water and ning
gas or sys­ gas or water
elec­ tem . elec­ in ­
side.
tric
tric
light.
light.

Industry and State.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. -.
Ohio and Indiana..............................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky
Colorado and W yom ing...................

2.4
1.3
1.0

Total................................................

1.8

.5

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
sota..................................................
Alabama.............................................

6.9
3.6

Total................................................

5.8

(x)

.1

5.8

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee 8.4
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona,
Colorado, and New Mexico................. 44.2
Iron and steel manufacture:
Northern district...............................
Southern district..............................

4.3

Manufacture of explosives....................... 87.3

Total......................................... ...

49.8
m. 4
72.7
2.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0.1
4.8

2.1

.4

39.7

2.1

53.8

100.0

8.9

10.4

1.5

.4

23.3

44.9

100.0

9.1

13.4
1.9

1.5

50.9
1.1

9.0
6.3

10.7
85.3

100.0
100.0

6 .0

9.6

.5

34.4

8.1

35.4

100.0

5.9

14.8

6.3

27.5

33.6

100.0

18.8

100.0

19.8

.8
4.8
.3

37.6
3.9

42.6
2.1
32.3
22.3 " 2 .8
92.5

0)

1.1
• 5.

.1
3.5

39.5
4.4

Textile manufacture:
N orthern district...............................
Southern district...............................

Total
num ­
ber re­
port­
ing.

C
1)
4.2

.2

7

_
Total_

No
R un­ No mod­ No
ning mod­ ern
ern
water con­ con­ mod­
in ­
ven­ ern
side, ven­ iences con­
iences ex­ ven­
bath, ex ­
and cept cept iences
gas or gas or run­ (out
elec­ elec­ ning side
tric tric water priv­
light. light. in ­ ies).
side.

2.9

0.1
(x)

Anthracite-coal mining............................

Gas
or
elec­
tric
light
and
run­
ning
water
in ­
side.

15.1

8.9
1.1

11.4

1.0
.7

.5

1.1
61.4

8.2
.1

24.6
31.9

100.0
100.0

8.0

10.2

.9

.5

7.6

7.4

25.4

100.0

5.8

100.0

.3

2.1
1.4
.1

1.2

29.2
8.1

8.7
6.6

.6

3.5

25.7

20.1
2.5

3.0
49.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

6.0

.1

9.3

6.7

3.3

24.2

3.6

46.8

Miscellaneous industries.......................... 46.1

14.8

3.6

17.3

16.1

.2

1.8

.1

100.0

Grand to ta l..................................... 17.3

1.8

4.0

5.3

4.2

22.3

5.4

39.2

100.0

.4

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Smallness and isolation of the community is the determining factor
in limiting the extent to which modern sanitary conveniences have
been provided. The type of wage earner to be housed also is a large
factor. Sanitary conveniences are most rarely found in mining towns,
both North and South, and in the mill towns of the South. Thus in
the soft-coal regions only 312 dwellings, or 1.9 per cent of the 16,896
reported, have inside toilets, while 16,584, or 98.1 per cent, have
outside toilets. In the more thickly settled anthracite region 19.5
per cent have inside toilets and 80.5 per cent outside. In the northern
iron-mining regions 84 per cent have outside toilets, and in the




48

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLOYERS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Alabama or southern district 96.2 per cent. For the northern and
southern textile regions the effect of relative isolation is equally
apparent. In the northern district 23.0 per cent have outside
toilets and in the southern 81.4 per cent. For certain communities
engaged in miscellaneous industries near larger centers of population
and industry, and where a better paid class of workmen are housed,
only 18.3 per cent of the company dwellings are dependent on outside
toilets, while in communities engaged in the manufacture of explosives
the proportion is only 10.6 per cent. More detailed figures for the
various regions are shown in the table which follows:
T able

1 3 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF COMPANY D W E LL IN G S H A V IN G IN S ID E OR
OUTSIDE TOILETS, B Y IN D U S T R Y A N D STA TE.
Inside toilets.
Industry and State.

Outside toilets.

Total.
Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia...........................
Ohio and Indiana.....................................................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.....................
Colorado and W yoming..........................................

10,119
235
5,328
1,214

254
3
55

2.5
1.3
1.0

9,865
232
5,273
1,214

97.5
98.7
99.0
100.0

T otal.......................................................................

10,896

312

1.9

16,584

98.1

Anthracite-coal m ining..................................................

4,034

785

19.5

3,249

80.5

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and M innesota...................
A labam a....................................................................

1,057
524

169
20

16.0
3.8

888
504

84.0
96.2

T otal.......................................................................

1,581

189

12.0

1,392

88.0

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee....................
Other coppcr and gold mining: Arizona, Colorado, and
New Mexico..................................................................

908

296

32.6

612

67.4

042

289

45.0

353

55.0

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district...................
................
Southern district......................................................

5,722
697

3,692
41

64.5
5.9

2,030
656

35.5
94.1

Total.......................................................................

6,419

3,733

58.1

2,686

41.9

Manufacture of explosives..............................................

3,164

2,828

89.4

336

10.6

'I1extile manufacture:
Northern district......................................................
Southern district....................................................

043
9,892

495
1,841

77.0
18.6

148
8,051

23.0
81.4

Total.......................................................................

10,535

2,336

22.2

8,199

77.8

Miscellaneous industries.................................................

3,401

2,780

81.7

621

18.3




Grand total............................................................

47,580 _ 13,548 7L5

28.5

34,032

49

NATURE OF ACCOMMODATIONS PROVIDED.

RENTS.

The rents of company houses appear reasonable. There is no
evidence of any attempt to overcharge tenants. It is quite conserva­
tive to say that over two-thirds of all company houses are well
within the means of the low-paid unskilled laborer, for 69 per cent of the
total number of dwellings reported rent for less than $8 per month.
While no study has been made of the actual relation between wages
and rent, two employers report that they limit rent to a definite
percentage of wages—namely, 25 per cent in one case and 10 per cent
in the other. Assuming either of these ratios to be the correct one,
the estimate that two-thirds of all company houses are within the
means of the low-paid workers is not exaggerated. It presupposes,
on the basis of the higher ratio, earnings of about $32 a month.
The number of dwellings of each specified number of rooms at
each classified amount of rent per month are shown in the following
two tables:
1 3 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D N U M B E R OF ROOMS AT
CLASSIFIED AMOUNT OF R E N T P E R MONTH—ALL IN D U S T R IE S COM BINED.

T able

Number of dwellings having—
Classified amount of
rent .per month.

9
Rooms Total.
rooms not re­
5
6
8
1
2
4
7
3
room. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
port­
over.
ed.

Under $ 3 .....................
$3 and under $4..........
$4 and under $5..........
$5 and under $6..........
$6 and under $7..........
$7 and under $8..........
$8 and under $9..........
$9 and under $10.........
$10 and under $11.......
$11 and under $12.......
$12 and under $14.......
$14 and under $16.......
$16 and under $18.......
$18 and over................
Rent not reported.__

3
48

T otal.................

160

13

96

1,186
923
887
534
494
7
57
16
1
5
3
4,113

847
1,105
3,305
1,714
3,274
3,220
1,985
774
611
28
188
31
254
276
31

234
576
810
1,428
1,137
1,735
939
460
930
65
238
301
104
447
3

25
204
488
783
1,440
1,007
1,458
403
1,217
280
722
226
272
538
34

57
65
77
114
115
194
220
29
128
49
226
117
73
221
1

1
2
13
19
81
130
217
108
184
4
203
126
58
182
2

1
1
7
7
29
49
40
13
58
3
24
42
84
177
5

31
138
355
294
270
228
256
46
39
13
15
4
5
9

3,528
5,128
6,648
6.322
8,161
6,711
5,702
1,883
3,287
442
1,680
872
858
1.862
92

7,497 17,643

9,407

9,097

1,686

1,330

540

1,703

53,176

1,143
2,066
706
1,416
1,321
141
530
34
23
13
66
9
9
16
4

1 2 5 8 8 2 ° — 2 0 — B u ll. 2G3---------4




50

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

Table 1 4 . —N U M B E R A N D CUM ULATIVE P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF SP E C IFIE D NUM­
B E R OF ROOMS R E N T IN G U N D E R CERTA IN SP E C IFIE D AM OUNTS P E R M ONTH—ALL
IN D U S T R IE S COM BINED.
N U M BER .
Dwellings having—
Rent per month.

9
Rooms Total.
rooms not
and
re­
over. ported.

4
6
7
5
3
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms.

1
room.

Under $ 3 .......
Under $ 4 ........
Under $ 5 .......
Under $ 6 .......
Under $ 7 .......
Under $ 8 .......
Under $ 9 .......
Under $10___
Under $11--Under $12--Under $14--Under $16--Under $18--$18 and over..
Not reported.

3
51
51
64
64
64
64
64
160

1,186
2.109
2,996
3,530
4,024
4,031
4,088
4.104
4.105
4.105
4.105
4.110
4.110

1,143
3,209
3,915
5,331
6,652
6,793
7,323
7,357
7,380
7,393
7,459
7,468
7,477
16
4

847
1,952
5,257
6,971
10,245
13,465
15,450
16,224
16,835
16,863
17,051
17,082
17,336
276
31

234
810
1,620
3,048
4,185
5,920
6,859
7,319
8,249
8,314
8,552
8,853
8,957
447

25
229
717
1,500
2,940
3,947
5,405
5,808
7,025
7,305
8,027
8,253
8,525
538
34

T o ta l...

160

4,113

7,497 17,643

9,407

»,097

57
122
199
313
428
622
842
871
999
1,048
1,274
L,39l
1,464
221
1

1
3
16
35
116
246
463
571
755
759
962
1,088
1,146
182
2

1
2
9
16
45
94
134
147
205
208
232
274
358
177
5

31
169
524
818
1,088
1,316
1,572
1,618
1.657
1.657
1,670
1,685
1,689
5
9

3,528
8,656
15,304
21,626
29,787
36,498
42,200
44,083
47,370
47,812
49,492
50,364
51,222
1,862
92

1,6

1,330

540

1,703

53,176

3.4
7.2
11.8
18.6
25.4
36.9
49.9
51.7
59.3
62. 2
75.6
82.5
86.8
13.1
.1

0.1
.2
1.2
2 .6
8.7
18.5
34.8
42.9
56.8
57.1
72.3
81.8
86.2
13.7
.2

0.2
.4
1.7
3 .0
8.3
17.4
24.8
27.2
38.0
38.5
43.0
50.7
66.3
32.8
.9

1.8
9 .9
30.8
48.0
63.9
77.3
92.3
95.0
97.3
97.3
98.1
98.9
99.2
.3
.5

6.6
16.3
28.8
40.7
56.0
68.6
79.4
82.9
89.1
89.9
93.1
94.7
96.3
3 .5
.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

P E R CENT.
1.9
Under $ 3 .....................
Under $ 4 ..................... 31.9
31.9
Under $ 5 .....................
Under $ 6 .....................
40.0
Under $ 7 .....................
40.0
Under $ 8 .....................
40.0
Under $ 9 .....................
40.0
Under $10.................... 40.0
Under $11.................... 100.0
Under $12................
Under $14....................
Under $16....................
Under $18....................
$18 and over................
N ot reported...............

28.8
51.3
72.8
85.8
97.8
98.0
99.4
99.8
99.8
99. 8
99.8
99.9
99.9
.1

15.2
42.8
52.2
71.1
88.7
90.6
97.7
98.1
98.4
98.6
99.5
99.6
99.7
.2
.1

4.8
11.1
29.8
39.5
58.1
76.3
87.6
92.0
95. 4
95.6
96.6
96.8
98.3
1.6
.2

2.5
8.6
17.2
32.4
44.5
62.9
72.9
77.8
87.7
88. 4
90.9
94.1
95.2
4.8
C
1)

Total.................. 100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

0.3
2.5
7.9
16.5
32.3
43.4
59.4
63.8
77.2
8 0.3 '
88. 2
90.7
93.7
5.9
.4
100.0

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In Table 15 are shown, by industry groups, the number and per
cent of dwellings renting for each classified amount per month.




T able

1 5 .—N UM BER A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLINGS RENTING A T EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT P E R MONTH, BY IN D U ST R Y A N D STATE.
NUM BER.
Dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Industry and State.

4

137

352

1,203

661

762
12

908
66

2,041
10
1,652
158

3,370

261
22

660
64

2,576
114
352
647

752
46
184
10

824
56
162
120

I ll

145
6
69
116

102

2
2

17
14

73
3
3
3

20
5

Total.

11,710
235
5,698
1,234

1,126

2,177

3,861

4,094

3,689 1

992

1,162

115

336

133

82

25

18,877

905

1,176

1,310

1,265

745

513

158

177

17

116

42

32

27

6,827

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.................
Alabama.....................................................

29
119

70
78

208
141

182
44

123
12

169
3

35
2

228
8

3

7

16

1

117

6

1,077
524

117

148

148

349

226

135

172

37

236

3

7

16

1

6

1,601

4

30

275

203

148

74

67

34

13

17

24

6

904

70

105

66

53

109

14

52

32

24

87

612

477
9

209

546
32

296
7

507
1

819
6

5,722
703

Total...............................................................
Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee.................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico, and Colorado..............................................
Iron and steel and allied industries:
N orthem district..................................................
Southern district..................................................

2

T otal..................................................................

2

Manufacture of explosives..........................................




9

35
58

450
407

347
64

940
59

300
4

518
56

276 ;

93

857

411

999

304

574

276

486

209

578

303

508

825

6,425

514 j

468

461

306

36

739

11

204

116

24

141

3,164

144

PROVIDED,

798

344

ACCOMMODATIONS

287

Anthracite-coal mining....................................

O
F

T otal.....................................................

$6 and $7 and $8 and $9 and $10 and $11 and $12 and $14 and $16and $18 and
under under under under under under under under under over.
$10.
$14.
$16.
$7.
$12.
$18.
$8.
$9.
$11.

NATURE

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia....................
Ohio and Indiana.......................................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.................
Colorado and W yoming.......................................

Under $3 and $4 and $5 and
under under under
$3.
$4.
$6.
$5.

Table 15.*—
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF DWELLINGS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER MONTH, BY INDUSTRY AND STATEConcluded.

Or
to

NUM BER.

Industry and State.

Grand total........................................................

$8 and
under
$9.

Total.
§9 and $10 and $11 and $12 and 614 and $16 and
under under under under under under $18 and;
over.
$10.
$12.
$14.
$16. ! $18.
$11.

1
102 ,
2,655 ' 2,970

49
2,893

102
954

2,757

2,971

2,942

1,056

763

214

126

75

143

27 |

39

390

160

271

610

182

189

201

46

6,322

8,161

6,711

5,702

1,883

3,287

442

1,680

6.4
19.6
3.2
.8

7.0
23.8
2. 8
9.7

5.3

6.2

2.3

2.6

17 !
5,128 J 6,648
3,528

52
711

69
145

37
89

11
64

74
69

12
15

59
20

14
5

648
10,609

71

19

11,257

92

726

3,417

13
1 1

53
18

79

14 j

295

199 1
872 s
1

858

0.9

0.6
1.3
.1
.2

1,862 I 1 53,0S4
1

i
1.2

(2)

3.0

11.6 1
5.2

22.0
48,5
6.2
52.4
19.5

4.6 1
1.8 |

11.6 !

13.4 j
i.o ;

Total..................................................................

1.5 |

4.2

6.0

11.5 !

20.5 i

21.7

Anthracite-coal m ining..............................................

5.0 j

17.2

19.1 |

18.5 1

10.9

22.3

Total..................................................................

7.3

Copper mining" Michigan ancLTennessee.................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico and Colorado..............................................




.4 !

19.3
26.9 i

16.9
8.4

.2

•3
1.1

.6

1.8

.7

.2

1.7

.6

15. 7
.6 !

3.2
-4

21.2
1-5

•3

14.1

8.4

10.7 |

2.3

14.7

.2

22.5

16.4

8.2

6.5
14.9

9.2

9.2

21.8

3.3

1.0

30.4
11.4

17.2

------

10.8

1

0.2
.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

!
•4 ,

-1

100.0

.5

.4

100.0

.6

100.0
100.0

1

11. 4
2.3

2 .7 i
22.7

...■-

7.5 1

1
1.2
2-6
1.2
9-4

7.4 1
1
8.7

1.5

2.3

.4

1.0

1. 4

3 .8 i
17.8 |

.6

1.9

2.7

.1 i

8.5

5 .2

3.9 ;

.4 i
'

100.0

.7

100.0

14.2

100.0

STATES.

Iron mining:
Michigan Wisconsin, and Minuesota................
Alabama
....................................................

13.2 1

1
0.9 '

UNITED

28.8 ,

15.9
5.3

17.4
4.3
29-0
12.8

10.3

THE

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and W^est Virginia.......................
Ohio and Indiana.................................................
Alabama Tennessee, and Kentucky.................
Colorado and Wyoming.......................................

I
N

PER CENT.

EMPLOYERS

T otal..................................................................
Miscellaneous industries............................................

$6 and $7 and
under under
$8.
$7.

B
Y

Textile industries:
Northern district..................................................

Under S3 and $4 and $5 and
13. | under under under
$5.
$e.
$4.

HOUSING

Dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district........................
Southern district........................
T otal.........................

( 2)
(2)

7.9
57.9

1.4

13.3

4.6 ............i

Manufacture of explosives.
15.7
25.0

.2
28.0

7.6 ,
27.3

6.1
9.1

16.4
8.4

5.2
.6

4.8
9-1
8.0 1............

8.3
1.3 1

3.7

9.5
4.6

5.2
1.0

8-9
.1

1 4 .3

•9

1
:

K ). 0
K
100.0

6.4

15.5

4.7

8.9 i

4.3

7.6

3.3

9.0 !

4.7

7.9

12.8

100.0

16.2

14.8

14.6

9.7 I

1.1 ;

23.4

.3

6.4

3.7

.8

4.5-

100.0

10.6
1.4

5.7
.8

i
1.7 j
.6

11.4
.7

1.9
.1

9.1
.2

2.0
O
’)

8.2
.2

15.7
9 .0

8.0
6.7 !

Total......................

24.5

26.4

26.1

9.4

6.8

Miscellaneous industries.

X

1.1

11.4

4.7

7.9 1

Grand total............

6.6

9.7

12.5

11.9

1.3

1.9

11

•7 |

17.9

5.3

5.5 1

5.9 1

10.7

3.5 I

6.2 i

15.4

1 Not including 92 dwellings for which amount of rent was not reported.

12' “

100.0
100.0

.2

.7

.1

.6

.2

100.0

1.4

8.7

5.8

2.7

21.2 1

100.0

3.2

1.6

1.6

3.5 |

100.0

.8 |

O
F

i

2.2
(2)

2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

ACCOMMODATIONS

In Table 16 the data contained in Table 15 are arranged to show cumulatively the number and per cent of
dwellings renting for each classified amount per month.

PROVIDED,




NATURE

Textile industries:
Northern district.
Southern district.

.6
8.3

Oi
oo

T able 1 6 . —NUM BER AND CUMULATIVE PE R CENT OF DW ELLINGS R ENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PE R MONTH, B Y IN D U STR Y
AND STATE.

Oi

NUMBER.

Industry and State.

Total.

Under
$16.

Under $18 and
over.
$18.

141

10,435
170
5,440
979

11,259
226
5,602
1,099

11,370
226
5,604
1,101

11,515
232
5,673
1,217

11,617
232
5,690
1,231

11,690
235
5,693
1,234

2,211

4,388

8,249

12,343

16,032

17,024

18,186

18,301

18,637

18, 770

18,852

5,000

5,745

6,258

6,416

6,610

6,726

489
499

612
511

781
514

816
516

1,044
524

1,047
524

1,054
524

1,123 j 1,295

1,332

1,568

1,571

743

810

844

844

241

294

403

2,592
648

648

2,362

3,240

658

1,126

1,893

287

1,085

344

1,249

2,425

117

236

117

265

413

762

34

43

318

521

70

175

834
529

1,774

1,363

307
455

487
465

Total.

95
144

25

18,877

6,800

6,827

1,070
524

1,071
524

1,077
524

1,578

1,594

1,595

1,601

857

874

417

469

501

3,345
657

3,554
657

4,100

4,396

3,516

4,002

4,211

5,092

1,929

2,668

2,679

904
87

612

4,903
697

819
6

5,722
703

5,600

825

6,425

3,023

141

3,164

102
2,655

103
5,625

152
8,518

254
9,472

306
10,183

375
10,328

412
10,417

423
10,481

497
10,550

10,565

568
10,585

581
10,586

634
10,604

648
10,609

8,670

9,726

10,489

10,703

10,829

10,904

11,047

11,074

11,153

11,167

11,238

11,257

877

1,487

1,669

2,059

2,105

2,400

2,599

2,691

3,417

29,787

36,498

42,200

47,370

47,812

49,492

50,364

51,222

i 53,084

Total......................

2,757

5,728

Miscellaneous industries.

17

56

Grand total............

3,528

8,656




2,074
592

11,710
235
5,698
1,234

15,304

1,
44,083

STATES.

9,683
124
5,256

UNITED

7,107
10
4,904
322

THE

3,737
10
4,244
258

922
22

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico, and Colorado.............................................
Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district........................
Southern district........................

Manufacture of explosives.
Textile industries:
Northern district.........
Southern district.........

34

2,592
100

493

261
22

Total.

I
N

Anthracite-coal m ining...............................
Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
Alabama...............................................

Under Under Under
$11.
$12.
$14.

EMPLOYERS

Total..

Under
$10.

B
Y

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia___
Ohio and Indiana...............................
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.
Colorado and W yoming.....................

Under Under Under Under Under Under Under
$6.
$9.
$5.
88.
$4.
87.
$3.

HOUSING

Dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.

PER CENT.
Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia___
Ohio and Indiana............................... .
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.
Colorado and W yom ing..................... .

16.2

45.5
8.1

31.9
4.3
74.5
20.9

1.5

Total.

4.6
1.8

5.7

23.2

1.2

4.2

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
Alabama................................................

16.6

(2)
(2)

99.3

.7

100.0

48.0

65.8

68.1

76.6

81.9

85.8

14.2

100.0

50.1
92.2

58.5
93.5

62.1
93 .5

71.7
98.0

76.8
99.0

85.7
99.1

14.3
.9

100.0
100.0

54.7

62.3

65.5

79.3

87.2

91.1

94.8

95 .5

4.5

100.0

97.8
99.9

2.2
.1

100.0
100.0

82.2

89.6

28.6

28.6

39.4

14.6
75.2

31.0
83.6

36.2
84.2

45.3
92.2
50.4

23.5

41.5
50.2

39.2
89.3

47.2
96.0

57.9
97.4

77.0
13.1

6.6

36.8

16.3

75.8
98.5

100.0

97.9

61.0
63.6
98.2

65.3
98.8

76.7
99.4

78.5

60.3

61.6

95.1

25.7

43.5

48.8

54.4

40.7

56.1

68.8

79.5

83.0
2

87.7
99.8
99.1

96.9

93.2
17.7

1 Not including 92 dwellings for which rent was not reported.

96.9
100.0

76.1

100.0

99.2

70.2

100.0

90.1

100.0

78.8
3.5

PROVIDED,

15.9
53.0
50.9

15.7
25.0

Total......................




96.7

80.9

74.0

35 .6

100.0
100.0

94.8

70.1

57.6

21.2

100.0

93.4

61.7

20.8

100.0

99.6

93.4

47.6
35.2

14.8

99.9

99.4
100.0

25.8

1.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.4
100.0

56.8
97.5

4.6

0.2

.....

97.9
100.0

45.4
95.2

8.5
66.1

72.5
98.1

100.0
99.9
100.0

97.2
100.0

28.5

.6
8.3

Miscellaneous industries.
Grand total............

6.3

94.0

11.4

Manufacture of explosives.
Textile industries:
Northern district.
Southern district.

90.2

99.9
99.8

98.4
89.2

ACCOMMODATIONS

Total.........................

96.1
96.2
98.3
89.1

4.S

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New
Mexico, and Colorado.............................................
Iron and steel and allied industries':
Northern district.........................
Southern district............ ........... .

89.1
72.3
95.5
79.3

O
F

9.2
59.9

7.3

Total.

2.7
45.0

82.7
52.8
92.2
78.5

84.2

54.7

22.3

60.7

NATURE

Anthracite-coal m ining...............................

14.5

84.9

43.7

(2)

Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Cl

ox

CHAPTER V.—BITUMINOUS-COAL REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA
AND WEST VIRGINIA.1
The earliest established mining town in the soft-coal region of
Pennsylvania included in the survey dated from 1877, and that of
West Virginia from 1885. The earliest houses in this region were
built of board and batten, generally not ceiled or plastered inside.
(Fig. 21.) Inside running water and other improvements were not
known in the earlier days.2 Often only one well, it was charged before
the Industrial Commission of 1900, was sunk for 12 or 14 houses,
and only one privy provided for every 3 or 4 houses. The houses
were generally of three or four rooms each; a three-room house would
rent for $4 a month, and a four-room one lor $6, and a five-room
one for $8.
Considering the houses for which the data have been reported (8,108
out of 11,711, or 69.2 per cent) the largest number of the houses re­
ported for any period were constructed between the years 1901 and
1905— 2,888 out of 8,108, or 35.6 per cent. Five hundred and fortysix, or 6.7 per cent, date from an earlier period, but it is more likely
that the largest proportion of the number for which the date of con­
struction has not been reported is also of this earlier period. It was
frequently stated by the companies that they did not know the date
of construction because the present company had taken the proper­
ties over from a former organization and data as respects the houses
of the companies had been frequently admittedly defective.
According to date of construction the houses in the bituminouscoal region of Pennsylvania and West Virginia are distributed as
follows:
T a b le 17.—N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D T Y P E A N D M ATERIAL OF
CONSTRUCTION, CLASSIFIED B Y Y E A R OF CONSTRUCTION—BITUMINOUS-COAL
REGION OF P E N N SY L V A N IA A N D W EST V IR G IN IA .
Detached.

j

Year of construction.
Frame. Brick.
ore 1881.............................................
[-1890................................................
L-1900.
.................................
[-1905
5-1910
..........................
L
1911..........................................................
>
1912.
{
...............................................
1913.
t.........................................................
19T4.
).........................................................
1915.
1916.
; reported.........................................
T otal..........................................

10
10
32
(’57
•
784
12
148
118
325
133
182
1,161

210

3,576

253

Other.

Semidetached.
1
Frame. Brick.

Other.

Row,
frame.

56
1

4
400
2,012
988
102
2
260
672
122
no
2,056

51

l2
>

11

57

7,088

78

222

Total.

10
2°
510
2,888
2,133
114
149
378
997
255
648
a 3,595

429

4?
!
1

24

80
140

97
221

« Not including 8 double-flat frame houses for which year of construction was not reported.
& Stone.
1 This chapter, with slight modification, appeared also in the M onthly Labor Review of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics for April, 1920 (pp. 215-222).
2 United States Industrial Commission, 1900, vol. 12, Washington, 1901, pp. 4', 40, 80, 81, 98, 133, 134.

56




57

BITUM INOUS COAL REGION OF PA. AND W . VA.

SCOPE OF SURVEY.

The housing survey of the solt-coal region of Pennsylvania and
West Virginia included 32 separate companies operating 114 estab­
lishments.3 In these mines were employed at the time of the survey
(1916-17) 78,218 men. The companies housed 43,877 men, or 56.1
per cent of the total employed. The survey covered 11,711 dwellings.
In 20 coal communities in western Pennsylvania, which employed
19,535 men, 13,632, or 69.8 per cent, were housed in the 7,761 dwell­
ings provided. This makes an average of 1.8 employees per dwelling.
Four companies in West Virginia, which employed 13,395 men,
housed 4,700, or 35.1 per cent, in the 1,898 dwellings provided, an
average of 2.5 employees per dwelling. The number of employees per
dwelling, it may be noted, is about 40 per cent greater than that in
Pennsylvania. The number per dwelling in the West Virginia min­
ing towns is the same as in the cotton-mill towns of the South.4
There is more opportunity for employees to get housing accom­
modations outside of company houses in the Pennsylvania section
than in the West Virginia section, where the towns are more isolated
and practically the only accommodation available is that provided
in company houses.
T able 18.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, NUMBER HOUSED, AND NUMBER OF DW ELL­
INGS AND ROOMS PROVIDED, B Y STATE AND COMMUNITY — BITITMINOUS-COAL
REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA AND WEST VIRGIN IA.

State and community.

Pennsylvania:
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Communit y
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1......
2 ......
3 ......
4 ......
5......
G
......
7 ......
8......
9 ......
10_
_
11_
_
12_
_
13_
_
14_
_
15_
_
10_
_
17_
_
18_
_
19_
_
20_
_

Total...................
West Virginia:
Community
Community
Community
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.

1.,
2..
3..
4.,

Average
Number Number number
of dwell­ of rooms. of rooms
ings.
per dwell­
ing.

Number
of em­
ployees.

Number
housed.

652
1,250
391
275
885
200
3,051
235
376
1,537
997
780
675
324
350
298
2,348
580
1,631
2,700

652
1,200
375
125
314
148
1.500
124
300
1,313
700
650
340
240
325
275
1,691
580
1.500
1,280

302
336
166
55
127
124
1,011
60
96
809
360
435
101
139
154
152
701
291
1,165
1,177

19,535

13,632

7,761

34,409

4.4

1,800
395
2,000
9,200

1,800
300
2,000
600

746
177
588
387

2,883
'722
2,110
1,875

3.9
4.1
3.6
4.8

1,447
1,346
670
223
530
566
5,596
240
407
4,074
2,009
1,778
'540
681
721
651
1,600 |
1,111
5,143
5,076

Total..........

13,395

4,700

7,590

Grand total.

32,930

18,332

41.999

3 In c lu d in g 1 com pany w hich d id not re po rt n um ber of establishm ents.




* See p. 141.

4.8
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.6
5.5
4.0
4.2
5.0
5.6
4.1
5.4
4.9
4.7
4.3
2.3
3.8
4.4
4.3

58

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

There is possibly a tendency to crowd company houses in this
region, although a house-to-house canvass would be required to
establish that fact with certainty. However, there may be cited
the case of a company in West Virginia which offered a bonus of $1 a
month to every family having over three boarders, but stated at
the time of the inquiry that this had not been successful. How a
family could be expected to accommodate more than three boarders
in view of the fact that most of the dwellings contained only four
rooms each is not explained.
THE COM PANY TO W N.

The present houses of the miners in this region, like those of the
earlier days, are characterized by uniformity in arrangement upon
rectangularly laid-out streets, and by uniformity in design and ma­
terial of construction. The towns of the region have dirt roads,
generally no sidewalks, and gutters only rarely. A piped-water system
and sanitary sewers are infrequently encountered. The streets are,
without exception, of adequate width— about 40 feet on the average—
for the infrequent traffic which passes over them. The lots generally
afford ample space for gardening, although where the region is exces­
sively rugged space becomes very limited. Trees, lawns, and flowers
are conspicuously lacking as beautifying elements. In the coke
region of Pennsylvania the large majority of the towns are prac­
tically destitute of all such growth; the neighboring hillsides have
been burnt bare by the noxious fumes of the coke ovens. In the
locations of dwellings and ovens with respect to each other no regard
has been had for the direction of the prevailing winds.
As it is difficult, if not impossible, to present a true word picture
of the towns in the region, illustrations of two have been included
here. (Figs. 15, 16, and 17.)
TYPES OF HOUSES.

The prevailing type of house found in the soft-coal region of
Pennsylvania and West Virginia is the semidetached frame house.
Dwellings are generally of three or four rooms. Of the 11,711
dwellings reported 7,388, or 63.1 per cent, were of the double or
semidetached type; 3,886, or 33.2 per cent, single or detached
houses; and 429, or 3.7 per cent, multiple rows. Eight dwellings
were of the flat type or other form. Row after row of similar
houses, alike even as to color, are placed upon straight streets, giving
• an impression of distinct monotony.
The exterior of practically all the houses is clapboard or siding.
For the ordinary miner’s house there is no undersheathing, the clap­
board being laid directly on the framing. This does not as a rule
make a sufficiently warm house, and the houses are heated almost
without exception by a grate or stove.







Fig. 15—ONE OF THE BETTER-MAINTAINED COAL TOWNS IN W EST VIRGINIA.




F ig .

1 7 —B E T T E R SECTION OF T H E SAME TOWN.

Fig. 18.—GROUP OF HOUSES IN BITUMINOUS COAL REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Note the placing of houses in rows on hillside and the uniformity of architecture; also, all houses are painted
red with white trim. Single houses are placed in one row, double houses in another. The larger out­
building in the foreground is an outside bathhouse and laundry, but has no modern equipment in it.
Each family has 4 rooms in both double and single houses, 2 rooms upstairs and 2 downstairs. Double
houses rent for $8 per month for each family; single houses about $8.50.

ONE-FAMILY HOUSE.
Four-room house, 2 rooms downstairs and
2 rooms upstairs; cost, in 1914, about
$900; rent, $8 to $8.50 per month.




Four rooms to each family; 2 rooms downstairs and 2 rooms
upstairs. Cost per dwelling or renting unit, in 1914, $800;
rent per family, $8 per month.

Fig. 21.—A N OLD-STYLE BOARD AND B AT T EN 3-ROOM
M INER’ S COTTAGE STILL IN USE IN A N ISOLATED
MINING TOW N OF PEN N SY LVA N IA.

F ig . 22.—IMPROVED A L L E Y IN COAL AND COKE T OW N IN W ESTE R N P EN N SY LVA N IA,




Note drainage gutter with garbage receptacles over it.

59

B IT U M IN O U S COAL REGION OF PA. AN D W . VA.

The houses are generally ceiled inside with tongue-and-groove
material, which is usually left unstained, or are plastered. Tenants
frequently paper their houses themselves. Few companies plaster
and paper anywhere near all their houses, though better-class houses
for superintendents and foremen are plastered and papered and
are frequently furnace heated or heated by steam from the com­
pany plant.
RENT.

The rent of the miner’s house in the Pennsylvania and West Vir­
ginia region is generally from $1 to $2.50 a month per room. This
rent covers the use of the house and water in the case of 27 com­
panies out of the 32 included in the survey of this region. Two
companies include light and three include coal as a part of the
house rental.
Table 19 shows the number and per cent of dwellings of each
specified number of rooms renting for each classified amount of rent
per month.
T able 1 9 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLING S OF EACH SPEC IFIED N U M B E R
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED AMOUNT P E R MONTH—BITUM INOUSCOAL REGION OF P E N N SY L V A N IA A N D W EST VIRGINIA.
NUM BER .
Dwellings having—

1
Classified amount of rent per month.

9
3
4
5
8
6
rooms
1 2
7
jrooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.

Under $ 3 _________________________ 1______
4
$3 and under $4.................................... 1
79
18
$4 and under $5.................................... 1 253
66
$5 and under $6.................................... 1 297
471
$6 and under $7.................................... 1 127
447
___
1,989
$7 and under $8..
.
$8 and under $9.................................... '
45
363
$9 and Tindp,r £10__________________ 1
$10 and under $11.................................1...........
$11 and under $12.................................'...........
$12 and under $14.................................1...........
$14 and under $16.................................1...........
$16 and under $18..............
.. . J .........
S18 and over______________________ 1______
T otal........................................... 1 801 3,358

31
8
424
935
118
765
356
286
46

9
25
11
294
1,079
558
150
325
25
89

2,969 i 2,565

238
170
721
246
186
86
68
7
46
1,768

1
1

13
76

47

3

23

1

14
1
4
7
118

16
3
22
1
112

1
2
1
12
19

Total.

4
137
352
1,203
2,041
3 370
2 . 576
752
824
111
145
102
73
20
i 11,710

P E R CENT.
Under $ 3 ................
$3 and under $4_
_
$4 and under $5—
$5 and under $6—
$6 and under $7_
_
$7 and under $8—
$8 and under $9—
$9 and under $10...
$10 and under $11..
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $14..
$14 and under $16..
$16 and under $18..
$18 and over..........
Total............

31.6
37.1
15.8

0.1
.5
2.0
14.0
13.3
59.2
10.8

1.0
.3
14.3
31.5
4.0
25.8
12.0
9.6
1.5

0 .4
1.0
.4
11.5
42.1
21. S
5.8
12.7
1.0
' T 5*

100.0

1 N o t in c lu d in g 1 house th e re n t for w h ich was n o t reported.

13.5
9.6
40.8
13.9
10.5
4.9
3 .8
.4
2.6
100.0

11.0
64.4

42.0

5.3
5.3

2.5

' 2 0 .5

5.3

’ii.’s i4.3
2 .7

3 .4
5.9

19.6

5. 3
10.5
5.3
63.2
100.0

(2)
1.2
3 .0
10.3
17.4
28.8
22.0
6 .4
7.0
.9
1.2
.9
.6
.2
100.0

2 Less th a n one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In Tables 20 and 21 are shown, by size and type of dwelling and
material of construction, the classified monthly rentals per dwelling
and per room, respectively.




T a b le 2 0 .— NUMBER OF DW ELLIN GS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER MONTH, B Y TYPE AND SIZE OF D W ELLIN G — BITUMINOUS
COAL REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA AND W E ST VIRG IN IA.

o*
O

Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.

Total.................................................................




247
121
52
i
19

............
!
!
!
i

25
16

14
14
16

37
5
1
3
1
1

42
4
15
1

i i

.
119

514 |

122

369 1

401 1 1,131

|
'
i

1 ..
1
!

.
1

264

441

41 j
i

i

j

121

j
36 i

l
45

44

j
!

. j ............ 1.............
|
i
_. 1______ L _____
1
............ | ............. 1.............

48 |

.........

62

1

.......... 1...............
I
i
1______
............ 1............
I
1
1
i
1
i
I

121

............| ............. ............ i
j

36 j
!

1
2 i
2 1

46
l
50
--- :

3,575
122
81
40

40
!
1

7
'
1 !

1
41

..... i
I

19

7
1
6
3

1
j
............

1
l

1
1

171
864
1,032
805
472
114
101
8
4
2
1
1

i
i

1
!
!

7 1

1
1
1

1 |

253
1
50

1
|
4

1

2
4

4

6

STATES.

T otal_________________________________

11

20
16
234 1
120
11 !
1

UNITED

Detached, concrete:
4 rooms_______________________________
Brooms_______________________
_
_

1

405
83

THE

Total.................................................................

234
24 1
6 f
1

5
12
153
173
26

EMPLOYERS

I
!
|
1
!

i
:

45
363
262
146
191
76
47
1

; . . . J ............;............ ............................
.. 1___
_ 1.......... . .............

31
9

Detached, brick:
4 rooms_______________________________
5 room s... ___
___________________
1
6 rooms................................................................ 1
8 rooms_______ _
. . . . . .
i
10 rooms................................................................
12 rooms................................................................
14 rooms................................................................

Detached, stone: 5 rooms..........................................
Detached, tile: 6 rooms.......................................

27
64
6
25

I
N

79

B
Y

Detached, frame:
2 rooms................................................................
3 room s....
4 rooms..............
.
......................
5 room s............
.....................
6 rooms................................................................
7 rooms..........................................................
8 rooms.............
..................................
9 rooms................................................................
10 rooms.......................................................
12 rooms.......................................................
14 rooms... .....
.........................
16 rooms.........................................................

HOUSING

| Total.
$12 and
$7 and S8 and
Under S3 and 14 and S5 and $6 and under under $9 and ;S10 and $11 and under $14 and* $16 and $18 and
under under under
under under over.
under under under under
$3.
$8.
$16.
$18.
I
So.
S6.
$10.
$11.
$9.
$14.
$4.
$12.
97.
_______

Type and size of dwelling.

Semidetached, frame:
2 rooms..................
3 rooms..................
4 rooms..................
5 rooms...................
6 rooms...................
7 rooms..................
8 rooms...................
18 i

191 |

120
54
260

434

8
405
734
121
212

825
49

300
374
530

1,480

2,845

1,204

Semidetached, brick:
4 rooms.................
5 rooms.................
6 rooms.................

122
90
238

30 j
158
84;
2
4

450 j

278 |

46 |
'ii* 1

70

60

52 ,
2 :

54
18
57
3

16
38
22

T otal.............................

54
64

Semidetached, tile: 4 rooms..

315
483
3,463
1,620
1,199
4

220
COAL

Semidetached, stone:
4 rooms.............................
5 rooms.............................

114
30
36
180

315
42
72

36 !

429
PA.

Semidetached, flat, frame: 4 rooms .
137

352

1,203

2,041 I 3,370 | 2.576 I

752 ,

102

20 ! i 11, 710

W.

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which rent was not reported.

145 I

AND
VA.




O
F

Total....................................... .

162
12
174

39

REGION

Total...
Row, frame:
2 rooms...
3 rooms...
4 rooms...

Grand total..............................

B IT U M IN O U S

Total.

187
2
2

a

62

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T able 2 1 . —N U M B E R OF D W ELLING S R E N T E D AT EACH C LASSIFIED AM OUNT P E R
ROOM P E R MONTH, B Y T Y PE OF D W E LL IN G A N D M ATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION—
BITUMINOUS-COAL R EG IO N OF PE N N SY L V A N IA A N D W EST V IR G IN IA.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per
room.
Type of dwelling and material of con­
50 cents $1 and
struction.
and
under under
$1.50.
$1.
Detached:
Fram e.............................................
B rick...............................................
Stone...............................................
Tile..................................................
Concrete..........................................
T otal............................................
Semidetached:
Fram e.............................................
Brick...............................................
T ile..................................................
Stone...............................................
T otal............................................

67
1

974
1

$2 and
under
$2.50.

$2.50
and
under
$3.

$3 and
under
$3.50.

$4 and
under
$5.

1,022
36

745
214
1

712
1

10

45

3,576
253
1
50
6

45

3,886

50

2

4

68

975

1,108

962

717

10

4

1,872
2
80
2

3,768
60
76

1,186
16
64

204

54

7.088
78
220
2

4

1,956

3,904

1,266

204

54

7,388

84

69

162
8

114

429
8

5,096

2,297

1,091

178

45 | 1 11,710

Row, frame...........................................
Semidetached........................................
Grand total.................................

Total.

$1.50
and
under
$2.

72

2,931

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which rent per room was not reported.

M ODERN IM PROVEM EN TS.

The conveniences supplied in the houses are somewhat limited.
Considering only those dwellings for which such data have been re­
ported— 10,119 out of 11,711, or 86.4 per cent— 242, or 2.4 per cent,
are equipped with three-piece bathrooms, water systems, and gas or
electric lighting systems; 289, or 2.9 per cent, have running water inside
and gas or electric lighting systems; 4,314, or 42.6 per cent, gas or
electric lighting only; 215, or 2.1 per cent, running water inside only;
and 5,042, or 49.8 per cent, have outside privies only. Of the remain­
ing 17 dwellings, 12 have bath, water-closet, and water system, but no
gas or electric lighting system, and 5 have bath, running water, and
electric light, but no water-closet. Gas or electric lighting in the
houses is fairly general— altogether 4,850 dwellings out of the 10,119
reported, or 47.9 per cent, being so equipped.
COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

The costs of construction of the frame houses in the mining region
are roughly comparable, since the size of the houses, the number
of rooms, and the substantialness of construction are very similar.
However, only the data as respects the frame houses are sufficient,
quantitatively, to be of value for comparative purposes.




63

B IT U M IN O U S COAL REGION OF PA . AN D W . VA.

The data in the following summary table relate to 10,001 frame
houses built by coal companies in western Pennsylvania and West
Virginia. Of 3,381 single or detached frame houses, 1,987, or 58.8
per cent, cost between $100 and $150 per room, while of 6,620
semidetached dwellings, 2,253, or 34 per cent, cost within those limits.
In the higher-cost groups the relative position is reversed, a greater
proportion of the double or semidetached houses than of the single
or detached houses falling within these groups. This would indicate
that on the whole the single cottages cost relatively less than the
double or semidetached houses of similar material and construction.
The following is a summary table showing the classified cost per
room of detached and semidetached frame dwellings in this region:
2 2 .—CLASSIFIED COST P E R ROOM OF FRAM E D W E LL IN G S, D ETA C H E D A N D
SEM ID ETAC H ED — BITUMINOUS-COAL REG IO N OF PE N N SY L V A N IA A ND W EST
V IR G IN IA .

Table

Dwellings costing each classified amount per room.
*
Type of dwelling.

$100
$50
$150
$200
$250
$300
$350
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under over.
$100. $150. $200. $250. $300. $3o0.

Total.

NUMBER.

Detached, frame...............................................
Semidetached, frame........................................

264
306

1,987
2,253

312 ‘
564
2,572 1,201

62
288

106

86

3,381
6,620

Total............................................ ...........

570

4,240

2,884

350

106

86

1 10,001

1,765

PER CENT.

Detached, frame...............................................
Semidetached, frame........................................

7.8
4.6

58.8
34.0

9.2
38.9

16.7
18.1

1.8
4.4

3.1

2.5

100.0
100.0

Total........................................................

5.7

42.4

28.8

17.6

3.5

1.0

.9

100.0

1 N ot including 663 dwellings for which cost per room was not reported.




64

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

Tables 23 and 24 show, by type of dwelling and material of construc­
tion, the classified cost of construction per dwelling and per room,
respectively.
T able 2 3 . —N U M B E R OF D W ELLING S OF EACH C LASSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION,
B Y T Y P E OF D W ELLING A N D M ATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION—BITUMINOUS-COAL
R EG IO N OF PE N N SY L V A N IA A N D W E ST VIR G IN IA.
Detached.

Semidetached.
Row,
frame.

( lassified cost per dwelling.
Frame. Brick. Other. Frame. Brick. Other.
Under $250..........
. __
31
1,170
$250 and under $500...........
.........
$500 and under $750..................................... 1,141
622
$750 and under $1.000..................................
204
$1,000 and under $1,250...............................
107
$1,250 and under $1,500..
14
$1,500 and under $1,750...............................
30
$1,750 and under $2,000...............................
26
$2,000 and under $2,250...............................
2
$2,250 and under $2,500..
15
$2,500 and under $2,750.........
.........
$2,750 and under $3,000............
...........
6
$3,000 and under $3,250............................... !
9
1
$3,250 and under $3,500............................... |
$3,500 and under $4,000.............................
$4,000 and over............................................. i
3
195
Not reported................................................ 1

209

1

3,576

253

57

1

Not including

8

1

50

'2

239

294
36

220

2 ,0 0 0

5,043
1 2,410
668

131
99
34
27

22

60

1

2

24
2

1

2

15

4

10

9
1

i

6

;

468

32

2

78

222

429

G
3
1,006

99

©
Q
C
00

Total...................................................

36

208
536
3,646 .......... I
1,720
18 |
426
2 !

Total.

i 11,703

semidetached flat frame dwellings costing $750 and under $ 1 ,0 0 0 per dwelling.

T able 2 4 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH CLASSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION
P E R ROOM, B Y T Y PE OF D W ELLING A N D M ATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION— BITUM I­
NOUS-COAL REGION OF P E N N SY L V A N IA A N D W EST VIR G IN IA.
i
Detached.

Semidetached.
Row,
frame.

( lassified cost per room.
Frame. Brick. Other. Frame. Brick. Other.
$50 and under $100.......................................
$100 and under $150.....................................
$150 and under $200.....................................
$200 and under $250.....................................
$250 and under $300.....................................
$300 and under $350.....................................
$350 and under $400.....................................
$400 and under $450.....................................
$450 and under $500.....................................
$500 and under $550.....................................
N ot reported................................................

264
1,987
312
564
62
106
60
16
5
5
195

209

1

468

32

2

99

T otal...................................................

3,576

253

57

7,088

78

2 22

429

Total.

1

Not including




8

50
37

306
2,253
2,572
1 ,2 0 1

288
2

1
6

1

18

" 226'

1

i

1

,

24

I
1

2

.

4

18
24
252
36

i
i

588
4,315
3,374
1,839
350
132
61
24
9

semidetached flat frame dwellings costing $150 and under $200 per room.

1,006
1

11,703

65

B ITU M IN OU S COAL REGION OF PA. AND W . VA.

The relation of rent per room to cost per room is shown in the
following table:
T a b le 2 5 .—R ELATIO N OF COST P E R ROOM TO R E N T P E R ROOM—BITUMINOUS-COAL
REGION OF PE N N SY L V A N IA A N D W EST VIR G IN IA.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount
per room per month.
Classified cost per room.

$50 and under $100...............................
$100 and under $150.........
$150 and under $300..............................
$200 and under $250..............................
$250 and under $300..............................
$300 and under $350..............................
$350 and under $400..............................
$400 and under $450..............................
$450 and under $500..............................
$500 and under $550..............................
$550 and under $600..............................
$600 and under $650................
$650 and under $700..............................
$700 and under $750..............................
$750 and over.........................................
Not reported.........................................
T otal............................................

i
$1.50
50 cents
$1
and
and j and
under under j under
$1.50. ! $2.
$1.

$2
and
under
$2.50.

11
289 i
63
1,412
53
1,979
4
565
1,833
1 ,
26
1,010
1 I
5
77
26
29
7
7
!
14
i
1
.
|

223
239
646
657
131
73
1
6
2
2

!
2
72

|
34 |
2,931

1

650

$2.50
$3
and
and
under i under
$3. I $3.50.

632
171
145
127
3
1
6
3

$4
and
under
$5.

1
163
9
1
4

45

i
............ 1.............
______ 1_______
317
3

5,096 j 2,297

1,091 I
!

178

Total.

i 587
4,315
3,382
1,839
350
132
61
24
9
5

1,006
45

i 11,710

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which rent per room was not reported.

ADM INISTRATION.

As already stated, the housing work of all the coal companies in
this region is carried 011 as incidental to the main enterprise of coal
mining. Each local superintendent is charged with the management
of the housing in his locality. This carries with it control over com­
munity life, regulation of sanitary conditions, and general policing of
the community.
Rent is generally collected semimonthly. Only five of the 32 com­
panies report making monthly collections. Without exception rent
is deducted from the pay of the miner along with the other deductions.6
It is also the practice to defer the collection of the rent in time of
sickness or of shutdown of the mine until the resumption of work, when
collection is made in installments. Five of the 32 companies report
that they allow a rebate on the rent during sickness or unemployment
of the miner. Several observe no definite policy in that respect
but judge each case on its merits. Several instances may be cited
5 The different kinds of deductions made from a miner 's pay m ay be indicated from the following, as shown
by the deduction slip of a large company in Pennsylvania: Blacksmithing, checkweighman, rents, house
coal, brass checks, explosives, mercantile-store account, insurance, miner’s dues, special collections, accident
fund, water account, and gas account.
Legally, company stores are abolished, but there is no bar to the formation of store companies, the capital
ownership of which is in the same hands as the mining enterprise. In Pennsylvania almost every com­
pany town has such a store, and store credits are regularly deducted from the wages of the miner.

125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 5




66

HOUSING BY EMPLOYEES I N THE UNITED STATES.

where pensioners or widows of former employees occupy company
houses without paying any rent.
In all houses of 27 of the 32 mining companies reported, rent
includes the house and water; in the case of two companies it also
includes light; and in three, water, light, and coal. It may also be
mentioned that the rent always covers such garbage and rubbish
collection and general sanitary inspection and cleaning as may be
afforded in the village by the company.
MAINTENANCE.

While, as already stated, there has been little or no change in
recent years in the design and size of the miner’s house, there has
been an improvement in the care taken to keep the company towns
fairly clean and sanitary. That this has not always been accom­
plished is attested by some of the illustrations here shown and by
the reports of the agents who traveled through the region. Un­
guttered dirt roads are still the rule. In several instances there
were accumulations of cans, rubbish, and debris; in both streets and
alleys weeds grew where grass should have been. The larger oper­
ators were apparently making efforts to change the aspect of min­
ing towns in these respects, however. Houses were being repaired
and painted, and regular systematic cleaning up of premises en­
forced or undertaken by the companies. In these better-appearing
towns garbage and rubbish receptacles were provided and were
emptied at regular intervals. In a few towns it was reported that
no provision was made for garbage collection, and frequently where
it was stated that the company disposed of the garbage for its ten­
ants it was reported that removal was made monthly or even
bimonthly. In such cases it may be assumed that only rubbish was
removed, and that tenants probably fed the table waste to pigs or
chickens. In only a few communities had the company either pro­
vided garbage and rubbish receptacles or required the tenants to
do so. Where such was the practice a marked improvement in the
appearance of the alleys and streets was noted over those of the
towns where there were no such requirements. Where special recep­
tacles were provided no trouble was experienced in getting tenants
to use them.
Ordinary privy vaults, some of concrete, cleaned generally annu­
ally, are the rule in this region. Two towns only were using a dry
chemical vault system of night-soil destruction, and in only two
were pumps employed for removal of privy contents.
Encouragement of gardening by giving prizes has done much to
improve sanitary conditions, putting an end to barren courtyards,
which are sources of dust and dirt, and aid in the spread of disease.
The products of the garden, too, tend to lower the cost of living.




BITU M IN O U S COAL REGION OF PA. AND W . VA.

67

Fences are not generally provided by the companies, and conse­
quently makeshift fences of various kinds of ugliness have been
provided b y tenants. The larger companies have provided uni­
form fences for their towns in order to encourage gardening and care
of the premises. Fences are frequently kept whitewashed.
The mining towns of the region are generally fairly accessible to
larger centers b y trolley and steam road or jitney service. The
schools and the church are the principal social centers. The in­
frequency of m otion-picture theaters should be noted. Usually
the only store in town is the com pany store.
V ery few of the towns are incorporated as governmental units, so
that com pany control extends both to the sanitary and administra­
tive policy of the com m unity and to the provision of all means of
recreation within the town. Schools and church sites are provided
b y the controlling com pany.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

It has been almost impossible to secure comparable data regard­
ing the finances of the companies as respects housing. Methods of
accounting vary so greatly that comparisons between companies
are almost out of the question. The facts as to a few companies,
however, are available.

Four companies in Pennsylvania,, which charged to maintenance
the general repairs to houses, including labor and material, fencing,
work of keeping the premises clean, street cleaning, and lighting and
drainage, but not insurance and depreciation, show that such charges
formed 38.1 per cent of the rent receipts. This is a statement based
on a five-year average as shown in the table below. Taxes may be
considered as included in the above figure, since such functions as
street cleaning and lighting, drainage, etc., are burdens ordinarily
borne by taxes.
T able 2 6 .—R ELATIO N B E T W E E N R E N T RECEIPTS A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AIN­
TENANCE OF 1 BITUMINOUS-COAL COMPANIES IN P E N N SY L V A N IA , 1911 TO 1915.
Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

1911
..............................................................................
1 9 1 2 ....................................................................................
1913......................................................................................
1914......................................................................................
1915
..............................................................................
Averaae

.........................................................




Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$122,433.14
131,636. 21
140,776.99
146,856.04
147,019. 80

$37,666. 28
40,600.56
62,622. 86
57,443. 50
64,300. 31

30.8
30. 8
44.5
39.1
43.7

137,744.44

52,520.70

38.1

68

HOUSING BY EMPLOYEES IN THE UNITED STATES.

A single coal company in West Virginia, which did not specify
exactly what it did charge to maintenance, shows a ratio of 39.7 per
cent in the relation between the maintenance charge and its average
annual rent receipts for the five-year period, 1910 to 1915.
Table 2 7 . —R ELA TIO N B E T W E E N R E N T R EC E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R MAIN­
T ENANCE OF A BITUMINOUS-COAL COMPANY IN W EST VIR G IN IA, 1911 TO 1915.
Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1 9 1 1 ....................................................................................
1912......................................................................................
1913........................................... ..........................................
1914......................................................................................
1915......................................................................................

$37,345.48
46,856. 42
49,179.06
48,393.50
42,477.33

$7,654. 72
19,703.59
18,338.97
19,787.69
23,612.71

20.5
42.1
37.3
40.9
55.6

A verage...................................................................

44,850. 36

17,819.54

39.7

Two companies in Pennsylvania, which report the inclusion of
taxes and insurance in these charges, show that for the four-year
period, 1912 to 1915, 63.4 per cent of their rent receipts were absorbed
for that purpose. These two companies, one of which began building
in 1902, the other in 1904, report the total original cost of their
houses as $1,048,505. If the average annual charges noted above are
deducted from the average annual rent receipts, there is left the sum of
$31,938. This is net return for interest on the cost of the houses,
not including land, of 3 per cent. Depreciation may perhaps be
left out of consideration, as being cared for in the charges for re­
pairs and maintenance.
2 8 . —R ELA TIO N B E T W E E N R E N T R ECEIPTS A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AIN­
TENANCE OF 2 BITUMINOUS-COAL COMPANIES IN PE N N SY L V A N IA , 1912 TO 1915.

T able

Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1912................ .......................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

$76,295.31
84,926. 90
92,040.84
95,887.93

$49,032.18
64,721.99
55,164.57
52,479.27

64.3
76.2
59.9
54.7

Average............................... .......................................

87,287.75

55,349.50

63 4




CHAPTER VI.—COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF THE
SOUTH.
Certain reasons present themselves for considering together hous­
ing conditions in the coal and iron and steel manufacturing region
of the South. First, the industry is considerably interlocked in
control, the same companies owning both iron and coal mines and
steel plants; second, the region is compactly located in the vicinity
of one large city, Birmingham, Ala.; third, housing conditions are
very similar in the. locality because the same traditions and conven­
tions as to design and plans of houses have shaped development;
and fourth, the class of labor housed is very similar, largely unskilled
colored labor.
While coal and iron were discovered in Alabama some time before
the Civil War, these deposits were not commercially exploited to any
extent until during the Civil War; and not until the eighties were
the Birmingham beds developed on any considerable scale.1 De­
velopment in Tennessee and Kentucky occurred during about the
same period. The earliest-established coal company included in
the Bureau’s survey in Alabama dated from 1887; in Kentucky
from 1871; and in Tennessee from 1875.
The iron-mining communities and the iron and steel manufactur­
ing towns covered are all located in the vicinity of Birmingham.
Of the former, one dates from 1880, another from 1882, and the
third from 1890; and of the latter, one dates from 1882, another
from 1887, and a third from 1905. The houses of the early period
of development were extremely primitive. Those of one of the
steel companies, for instance, had been built in the form of board
and batten rows, one story high, a single room to the family, neither
ceiled nor plastered inside, and with small windows and unpainted
exterior.
1 Clark, Victor D.: The History of Manufactures in the U nited States, 1607 to 1860, Washington, Carnegie
Institution, 1916, pp. 497, 498. Swank, James M.: History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, Phila­
delphia, 1884, p. 231.




70

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES,

For the most part the houses in the region have been constructed
since 1905. Only about 10 per cent were built before 1901. This
is set forth in the table following:
T able 2 9 v - N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D T Y P E A N D M A TE R IA L OF
CONSTRUCTION, B Y IN D U S T R Y G ROUP A N D B Y Y E A R OF CONS TRUCTION—SOUTH­
E R N COAL, IRO N, A N D ST E E L REGION.
Coal raining.
Total.
SemiDo
de­
tachedr tached,
Per
frame. frame. Num<
ber.
cent.

Year of construction.

Iron mining.
Total.
SemiDe­
de­
tached.
frame. tached, Num Per
frame.
ber.
cent.

Before 1S81.............................................
114
1881-1890................................................
1891-1900........................................
2 00
1901-1905................................................
881
1,302
1906-1910.............................................
1911...................................
:
265
1912.......................................................
60
1913...................................
!
178
191 4
291
191 5
i
13
191 6
107
191 7
_...........................
10
3,421

T otal............................................

1

114

2.9
5.1

2 00

38

889
1,349
331
60
178
613
15
145
10

34.6
8.5
1.5
4.6
15.7
.4
3.7
.3

483

3,904

1
1
1

1 0 0 .0

8

47
66

322
2

1

2 2 ,8

!
i

39
70

39
!

I

16

j—

128

1

51.5

;
1
8
8

!

.7

2

24

1.5
17.6

136

1
2

28.7

70 i

1 0 0 .0

1

Iron and steel mills.

I
|

Grand total.

!
Year of construction.

Total.
frame, j frame
Number. JPer cent.

Number. Per cent.

I
!
Before 1881...................................... ........ « ...
123 i
71.i
1881-1890.................................................
123 !
237
5.6
!
1891-1900...............................
2 00
4 7
19ei-1905................................................. ---36
42 |
24.3
931
2 2 !1
6
1906-1910__________________________
1,388
32.9
1911................................................................ 1............... ..................
331
7.9
1912..................................................................i............... ................
130
3.1
1913................................................................ 1..................................
178
4.2
................ ................1___
1914..................................................................i...........
614
14.6
1915________ _______________
I
1
4
15
1916.........................................................
8 i
8 1
4.6
155
3.7
1
1917..................................................
34
.8
1................
i 4,213
36
173 |
100.0
Total............................................
137 |
1 0 0 .0
i _ . _
i
........... .
... ..............
. .. .
_. __
1 Not including 2,712 dwellings for which year of construction or type of dwelling was not reported.

SCOPE OF SURVEY.

The Bureau's survey included 24 southern bituminous-coal min­
ing companies, 11 of which operate in Alabama, 3 in Tennessee,
and 10 in Kentucky. The iron-mining towns and the iron and
steel communities, as stated, are all located in the vicinity of Bir­
mingham, Ala. The scope of the investigation in this region is set
forth in the table following:




Fig. 23—N EW COAL MINING CAMP,CONSTRUCTED IN 1916.
Houses built before grading and laying of streets. All cottages of similar plan and adapted for conversion into double houses. Used as one-family 4-room
houses. Running water in kitchen, electric light. Ceiled inside, composition roof. Final cost $807 (house proper, $666; wiring, $30; piping for water, $45;
fences, $31; clearing site, $10; grading streets, $25); rent, $6 per month.







Fig. 24.—IRON-MINING TOWN OF THE BETTER CLASS IN THE BIRMINGHAM DISTRICT (ALA.).
Typical 4-room cottages convertible into doable bouses.

71

COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF THE SOUTH.

—N UM BER OF EM PLO YEES, AND NUM BER AND PER CENT OF EM PLO YEE S
HOUSED, B Y IN D U ST R Y GROUP—SOUTH ER N COAL, IRON, AN D STEE L R EG IO N .

T able 3 0

Number
of com­
panies.

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments.

Number
of em­
ployees.

Number
of em­
ployees
housed.

Bituminous-coal mining....................................................
Iron mining
....................................................................
Iron and steel m ills........................................................

24
3
3

29
3
3

1 18,694
1,497
3,180

1 15,035
805
930

80.4
53.8
29.2

Total............................................................................

30

35

1 23,371

1 16,770

71.8

Industry group.

Per cent
of em­
ployees
housed.

1 Not including one company with 500 employees for which number housed was not reported.

For the companies reporting on the subject, the average number of
employees to the house is 2 in the coal-mining towns, 1.5 in the iron
region, and 1.3 in the iron and steel communities. The houses aver­
age rather low in the number of rooms per dwelling— namely, 3.5.
The number of employees per company house for the three groups of
companies combined is 1.9. The larger number of employees per
house in the coal and iron mining camps is probably due to the
greater isolation of these camps and the consequent greater relative
shortage in houses; the steel-plant houses are in competition with
housing accommodation in the near-by city of Birmingham.
The following table shows the number and per cent of dwellings of
each specified type and material of construction, by industry group:
T able

3 1 —NUM BER AND PER CENT OF D W ELLIN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED T YP E AND
M ATER IAL OF CONSTRUCTION, B Y IN D U S T R Y GROUP.

Type of house.

Industry group.

Detached.

Material of construction.

Semi­
detached.

Frame.

Brick.

Total.
Num­ Per
ber.
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.
9.1

Total.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Bituminous-coal mining........... 5,177
482
Iron mining.................................
Iron and steel mills...................
457

90.9
92.0
65.0

521
42
246

5,698
524
703

5,698
524

100.0
100.0

35.0

668

95.0

35

5.0

5,698
524
703

Total................................... 6,116

88.3

809

11.7

6,925

6,890

99.5

35

.5

6,925

8.0

THE COM PANY TOW N.

With one or two exceptions the company towns of the region have
not been formally planned; nor are the streets paved and parked.
Such road or street covering as has been used consists of dolomite
screenings or a sort of gravel. Though the rectangular plan is
generally used, certain principal streets have been laid according to
land contours. On the other hand, in the distinctly less well-kept
towns, even where the ground is rugged and hilly, streets are not in
r
evidence. The thoroughfares between the houses are zigzagging




72

HOUSING BY EMPLOYEES IN THE UNITED STATES.

i

paths, undrained and guttered with surface waters. Opportunities
for careful and proper drainage are offered, however, as the villages
are usually located on high ground near the plants or mines.
There is no crowding of houses in the villages; open space is found
in abundance in and around them. No lots are under 25 feet in
width, most of them are between 50 and 75 feet, and a very consid­
erable proportion are 75 feet or over.
As the soil is rather poor, little gardening is in evidence. The com­
panies, however, generally attempt to encourage gardening by pro­
viding fertilizer and doing free plowing for the tenants. Some com­
panies also, try to stimulate gardening by giving prizes.
The steel manufacturing towns in the Birmingham district are
easily accessible to Birmingham and to Bessemer by street car. The
iron and coal mining towns are very much less accessible, some being
as far as 20 miles and some even 55 miles from Birmingham. The
Tennessee and Kentucky mining towns are extremely isolated, con­
nected with near-by towns only by a single train, perhaps, a day, and
some being as far as 80 miles from any place of considerable size.
In each town there is a Negro district and a white district. The
latter district is in turn usually subdivided so that Italians are
housed on one street, Greeks on another, and Polish on still another.
Perhaps a relatively greater proportion of the labor housed in the
towns of this region is unskilled labor than in the company towns of
other parts of the United States, but no exact data on that point are
available. The Negro quarters of many of the towns are not so well
maintained nor the houses so good as those of the district occupied by
white employees (Figs. 25 and 26). The Negro quarters in one town,
for instance, immediately adjoin the waste heap of the furnace, the
heap towering high above the houses. The smoke from the furnaces
blows over them, as the houses face the east, and the prevailing winds
are from the west or southwest.
PUBLIC UTILITIES AND CIVIC IM PRO VEM EN TS.

The water supply of practically all the mining communities is
spring or well water, generally piped by the companies into the yards
of tenants. One community was supplied by a local municipal water
system. Very few houses throughout the region have an inside water
system.2 In one of the iron-mining towns water is drawn from lime­
stone springs, in another it comes from wells drilled to a depth of from
60 to 180 feet, and in a third community a stream of water from the
limestone reef is pumped to the surface and piped throughout the
village. The springs or wells are carefully protected and inclosed to
prevent contamination of the water supply. The company which




2

See Table 38, p. 80.

F i g . 25.— R EAR OF HOUSES OF NEGRO EM PLO YEES OF A

STEEL MILL.
Cinder-covered courts. Adjoins waste pile near furnaces.

F ig . 26.—V IE W OF PRINCIPAL STREET OF COMMUNITY, THE

NEGRO QUARTERS OF WHICH ARE SHOW N IN FIG. 25. THIS
IS W HITE SECTION OF VILLAGE.




F ig . 27.—THREE-ROOM COTTAGE IN A MINING TO W N IN K E N TU C K Y.

Cost in 1912-13, $425 (33 built at one time). Rent, $8 per month.
water. No modern improvements.

Heated by grate.

Hydrant

F ig . 28.—PICTURE AND PLAN OF TYPICAL 4-ROOM FRAME HOUSE IN MINING
TO W N IN ALABAM A.




73

COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF THE SOUTH.

controls the communities, the water supply of which is here de­
scribed, has the water regularly tested at its hygienic laboratories.
A t two of its coal-mining towns, one of which is 9 miles from Bir­
mingham, filtration plants have been installed. *
Owing to the ruggedness of the country, abundance of space, and the
rural location of the communities, sewer systems have not been deemed
absolute necessities. Only in a part of each of seven coal-mining
towns, out of the 25 covered in the survey, is there any sanitary
sewer systems, the same being true in one of the three iron-mining
towns, and in one of the three steel manufacturing towns.
Electricity for street lighting and for the houses is very general.
Only five of 25 coal-mining towns in the district are without electric
lighting, w
rhile all iron-mining and steel towns are supplied with this
convenience. No gas is used in this region.
Schools, churches, lodge halls, and playgrounds are provided by the
two largest companies operating in the Birmingham district. In two
of the 25 coal-mining communities located in Alabama, Tennessee, and
Kentucky hospitals are maintained by the companies specially for
employees and their families. In three additional towns only emer­
gency rooms are provided, in another community the company assists
in the maintenance of a hospital, while in another the hospital is
endowed and supported by other interests than the company. One
of the three iron-mining camps has a company hospital, another has a
hospital partly supported by the company, and a third is without
hospital provision. The steel manufacturing towns depend entirely
upon local city hospital facilities.
The manner and extent of provision of schools, churches, and play­
grounds are set forth in the following table:
T ahle 3 2 . - N UM BER OF COMMUNITIES IN W HICH SPECIFIED INSTITUTIONS ARE PRO­

V ID ED , B Y IN D U ST R Y GROUP AND M AN NER
IRON, AND STEEL REGION.

OF PROVISION—SOUTHERN COAL,

Number of communities in
which institution is pro­
provided by —
Institution and industry groups.
Com­
pany.

Schools:
...............
Coalmining.
Tmn mininp
________
Tron and st.o .l mills _ _ _
.p
___________________ 1
_________
Churches:
4
Coal mining...................................................................
Iron m ining. .
............................................
2
Iron and steel mills.....................................................
Playgrounds:
8
Coal mining .
..........................................
2
Iron mining..................................................................
2
Iron and steel mills
.........................................




Assist­
Other
ance of
company. agency.

20

No pro\ ision
made.

25
3
3

5

3
2

1

14

5

1

Total.

2
2
1

25
3
3

17

25
3
3

1
1

74

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS m

THE UNITED STATES.

TYPES OF HOUSES.

Only two types of houses are found in the southern bituminous
region— the single or detached house and the double or semi­
detached house. All are of frame, built in the form of one-story
cottages, generally square and hip-roofed. Most of them are plas­
tered or ceiled inside and weatherboarded outside. There are still
to be found several survivals of an earlier day, of board and batten,
unpainted and weatherbeaten. All houses are still painted the same
color throughout each mining town. As a whole, too, they need
paint badly. Some rather quaint whitewashed cottages are found in
the mining towns of Tennessee.
The prevailing plan of house in the Birmingham district is a square
hip-roofed cottage about 28 feet by 28 feet with a chimney in the
center of the roof, a front porch running the full length of the house,
and a small porch at the rear. (Fig. 28.) The houses are generally
raised from the ground by brick piers 4 or 5 feet high, the area under
the house being usually uninclosed. In the Tennessee and Kentucky
coal fields, small gable-roof cottages prevail. These, too, are generally
without cellars; front and rear porches are common.
A type of house more or less peculiar to all small Southern towns
is the so-called “ shotgun” house, shaped like an oblong box and
divided into three rooms in a row and frequently with the doors con­
necting the rooms in alignment. (Fig. 30.)
SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

The prevailing size of dwelling in the coal-mining camps consists
of four rooms, in the iron-mining towns of two and three rooms, and
in the iron and steel towns of two rooms. In this instance the size of
the houses provided reflects somewhat the character of the labor
force housed. The greater isolation of the coal camps has necessi­
tated provision for a greater variety of employees—skilled, semi­
skilled, and unskilled—-and hence a greater range in the size of houses
provided. The small size of the houses in the iron and steel towns
is explained by the fact-that one of the companies covered in the
survey was particularly delinquent in the provision of improved
houses, and housed very largely only its Negro labor force. This
class of labor is commonly less well housed than the white labor.
The number and per cent of dwellings having each classified number
of rooms are shown in the table following:




F ig . 29—FOUR-BOOM BOARD AND B ATTEN HOUSES SHOWN IN LO W ER PICTURE

RECONSTRUCTED FROM DILAPIDATED R O W SHOW N ABO VE.
Rent $4 a month. Ceiled inside. No improvements except
electric light and hydrant in yard outside.




F ig . 30.— PICTURE AND PLAN OF “ SHO TG U N ” TYPE OF HOUSE




COMMON IN SOUTHERN COMPANY TOWNS.




Fig. 31.—BETTER TYPE COMPANY COTTAGE IN SOUTHERN MINING REGION.




75

COAL? IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF TH E SOUTH.

T a Iile 33*—N UM BER AND PER CENT OF D W ELL IN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED N U M BER
OF ROOMS, B Y IN D U ST R Y GROUP—SOUTH ER N COAL, IRON, AND STEEL R EGION.

Iron mining.

Iron and steel
mills.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Num ­

18.1

128
125
81

Coal mining.

Total.

Size of dwelling.
Num­
ber.
2 rooms.................
3 rooms............... .
4 rooms.................
5 rooms.................
Grooms................
7 rooms............... .
S rooms............... .
9 rooms and over.

1,027
1,650
2/291
446

Total........ .

5,698

221

19
28
16

29.0
40.2
7.8
3.9
.3
.5
.3

12
11
1

Per
cent.

ber.

35.8
34.9

22.6

3.4
3.1
.3

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

75.

1,683
1,839
2,399
503
262

528
64
27
45
.30

3.8
6.4
4.3

4

.1
.6
.6

703

i 358

1
4

100.0

21

Per
cent.
24.9
27.2
35.5
7.4
3.9

.3

20

.5
.3

i 6,759

100.0

32

1 Not including 3 one-room dwellings and 163 dwellings for whieh the number of rooms was not reported.

RENT.

The rentals of company dwellings in the southern district appear to
be moderate. Out of 6,925 dwellings, 1,755, or 25.3 per cent, rent
for $6 and under $7 a month, and 5,331, or 77 per cent, rent for less
than $7 a month. The table following shows in detail the number
and per cent of dwellings of each classified number of rooms renting
at each amount per month:
T

3 4 . — NU M BER AND PER CENT OF D W ELLIN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED NU M BER
OF ROOMS R ENTING A T EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT PER M ONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y
GROUP— SOUTHERN COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION.

able

NUMBER.
Dwellings having—
Industry group and rent per
month.

2
7
1
3
4
room. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. Srooms. rooms.

rooms

Total.

and

over.
Bituminous-coal mining:
Under S3......................
S3 and under $ 4 ... —
$4 and under $ 5 ............
$5 and under $6 ..........
$6 and under $7...........
$7 and under $8 ..........
$8 and under $ 9 ............
$9 and under $10........
$10 and under $11 ____
$11 and under $12 ____
$12 and under $14___
$14 and under $16___
$16 and under $18___
$18 and over................

261
490
204

171
297
540
529
28
83

1
1

1,027 | 1,650

Total.

253

294
934
561
219
29

57
116
44
14
128
75

1

2,291

2

69
17

446

Iron mining:
Under $3................
$3 and under $4..
$4 and under $5..
$5 and under $6 ..
$6 and under $7..
$7 and under $8 ..
$8 and under $9..
$9 and under $10.
T o ta l.................

16

5,698
96

111

13
113
18
7

1
^ 2
128

125

81

1 N ot in c lu d in g 163 dwellings for w h ich num ber of rooms was not reported.




261
661
762
908
1’, 652
660
352
184
162

76

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 34.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF DWELLINGS OF EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER
OF ROOMS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER MONTH, BY INDUSTRY
GROUP—SOUTHERN COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION—Concluded.
NUM BER .

Dwellings havingIndustry group and rent per
month.

9
Total.
4
1
8
5
6
7
rooms
3
2
room. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.

Iron and steel mills:
$3 and under $ 4 ..................
$4 and under $ 5 ..................
$5 and under $ 6 ..................
$6 and under $7 ................
$7 and under $ 8 .............
$8 and under $ 9 ..................
$10 and under $11..............
$12 and under $14..............
$14 and under $16...............
$16 and under $18...............
$18 and over.......................

58
406
64

59
4

23
4

32
9
4

528

1
2

4

4

703

1
23
6

64

27

30

45

1

1
!

1

T otal................................

3

58
407
64
59
4
56
9
32
7
1
6

1

1

PER CENT.
B i t u m in o u s -c o a l m i n i n g :
U n d e r $3.....................
$3 a n d u n d e r $ 4 .........
$4 a n d u n d e r $ 5 .........
$5 a n d u n d e r $ 6 .........
$6 a n d u n d e r $ 7 .............
$ 7 a n d u n d e r $ 8 .............
$8 a n d u n d e r $ 9 .............
$9 a n d u n d e r $10.......
$10 a n d u n d e r $11 ____
$11 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 ____
$12 a n d u n d e r $14___
$14 a n d u n d e r $16___
$16 a n d u n d e r $18___
$18 a n d o v e r .....................

25.4
47.7
19.9
.3
6.0
.7

10.4
18.0
32.7
32.1
1.7
5.0
.1
.1

11.0
12.8
40.8
24.5
9 .6
1.3

Total.
Iron mining:

Under
$3 and
$4 and
$5 and
$6 and
$7 and
$8 and
$9 and

$3..............
under $ 4 ..
under $ 5 ..
under $ 6 ..
under $ 7 ..
under $ 8 ..
under $ 9 ..
under $10.

T otal.
Iron and steel mills:
$3 and under $ 4 . ..
$4 and under $ 5 . ..
$5 and under $ 6 ...
$6 and under $ 7 . . .
$7 and under $ 8 ...
$8 and under $ 9 ...
$10 and under $11.
$12 and under $14.
$14 and under $16.
$16 and under $18.
$18 and over.........

100.0

72.7
27.3

60.8
4.0
35.2

9 .9
82.7
7.4

5.0
4.5
5.4
14.0
11.3
33.9

.9

23.5
2.3

"io.'s'
5.3
15.8
21.1

100.0

C
1)

1.8
12.8
26.0
9.9
3.1
28.7
16.8

100.0

100.0

16.7
75.0
8.3

100.0

100.0
11.0
76.9
12.1

100.0

92.2
6.3

100.0

85.2
14.8

100.0

71.1
20.0

7.1
14.3
3.6
28.6

12.5
6.3

17.9
17.9
7.1
3.6

31.3
18.8

100.0

100.0

18.2
100.0

100. 0

25.0
76.7
20.0
3.3

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

100.0
26.6
30.7
3.6
31.3
5.0
1.9
.3

18.2
63.6

T otal.




5.3
5.3
31.6
5.3

4.6
11.6
13.4
15.9
29.0
11.6
6.2
3.2
2.8
(*)
1.2
.3
.1
.1

100.0
75.0

25.0
50.0

8.3
57.9
9.1
8.4
.6
8.0
1.3
4.6
1.0
.1

77

COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF THE SOUTH.

Table 35 shows in summary form the number and per cent of
dwellings renting for each classified amount per month, by industry
group:
T able 3 5 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LLING S R E N T IN G AT EACH C L A SSIFIE D

AMOUNT P E R MONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y GR O U P—SO U T H E R N COAL, IR O N , A N D S T E E L
REGION.

Coal mining.

Iron mining.

Iron and steel
mills.

Total.

Classified amount of rent per month.
N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

58
407
64
59
4
56

8.2
57.9
9.1
8.4
.6
8.0

Num ­
ber.

261
661
762
908
1,652
660
352
184
162
2
69
17
3
5

4.6
11.6
13. 4
15.9
29.0
11.6
6.2
3.2
2.8
<*)
1.2
.3
.1
.1

117
119
78
141
44
12
3
2
8

T otal............................................

5,698

100.0

524

22. 3
22.7
14.9
26.9
8.4
2.3
.6
.4
1.5

100.0

9

1.3

32
7
1
6

Under $ 3 ..........
$3 and under $4.....................................
$4 and under $5 . . .
. ..
$5 and under $6.....................................
$6 and under $7.....................................
$7 and under $8.....................................
$8 and under $9.....................................
$9 and under $ 1 0 .................................
$10 and under $11.................................
.....................
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $14.................................
$14 and under $16.................................
$16 and under $18.................................
$18 and over..........................................

4.5
1.0
.1
.9

378
838
1,247
1,113
1,755
676
411
186
179
2
101
24
4
11

703

100.0

6,925

Per
cent.
5.5
12.1
18.0
16.1
25.3
9.8
5.9
2.7
2.6
C
1)
1.4
.3
.1
.2
100.0

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Tables 36 and 37 contain, respectively, detailed and summary
figures showing the number and per cent of dwellings renting at each
classified amount per room per month, by industry group.




78

HOUSING BY EMPLOYEES IN TH E UNITED STATES.

T able 3 6 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED
AM OUNT P E R ROOM P E R M ONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y GRO U P, T Y P E OF D W E LL IN G ,
AND M ATER IA L OF CONSTRUCTION—SO U T H E R N COAL, IR O N , A N D ST E E L REGION.
NUM BER .
Dwellings renting at each classified amount per
room per month.
Industry group, type of dwelling, and
material of construction.

50
$1.50
$3.50
$2
$2.50
$3
$i
cents and
and
and
and
and
and
and under under under under under under
under SI.50.
$3.50.
$4.
$2.50.
$3.
$2.
81.

Total.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Detached frame................................. .......

26

1,390
20

2,449
501

1,149

92

64

7

5,177
521

T otal........................................................

26

1,410

2,950

1,149

92

64

7

5,698

1

229
38

89
4

1319
42

1

i 361

Iron mining:
Semidetached, fram e................................

267

93

Iron and steel mills:
Detached, fram e........................................
Detached, b r ic k .........................................
Semidetached, fram e................................

2
1

68
23

281
5
246

66
6

5

422
35
246

T otal........................................................

3

91

532

72

5

703

A ll industries combined:
Detached, fram e........................................
Detached, b r ic k .........................................
Semidetached, fram e................................

27

1,621
1
58

2,606
23
505

1,430
5
246

158
6

69

7

15,918
35
809

T o ta l........................................................

27

1,680

3,134

1,681

164

69

7

16,762

PER CENT.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Detached, fram e........................................
Semidetached, fram e................................

0.5

26.9
3.8

47.3
96.2

22.2

1.8

1.2

0.1

100.0
100.0

20.2

1.6

1.1

.1

100.0

T otal........................................................

.5

24.7

51.8

Iron mining:
Detached, fra m e........................................
Semidetached, fra m e................................

.3

71.7
90.0

28.0
10.0

100.0
100.0

T otal........................................................

.3

100.0

74.0

25.7

Iron and steel mills:
Detached, fra m e........................................
Detached, b r ic k ........................................
Semidetached, fr a m e ................................

.5
2.9

16.1
65.7

66.6
14.3
100.0

15.6
17.1

1.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

T otal........................................................

.4

13.0

75.7

10.2

.7

100.0

All industries combined:
Detached, fra m e........................................
Detached, b r ic k ........................................
Semidetached, fr a m e ................................

.5

27.4
2.9
7.2

44.0
65. 7
62.4

24.1
14.3
30.4

2.7
17.1

1.2

.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

Tot-al........................................................

.4

‘ 24.8

46.4

24.9

2.4

1.0

.1

100.0

1 Not including 163 dwellings for which rent per room was not reported.




79

COALy IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF TH E SOUTH.

T a ble & 7.— N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W ELLING S R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED

AM OUNT P E R ROOM P E R MONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y G R O U P—SO U T H E R N COAL, IRO N,
A N D ST E EL REGION.

Coal mining.

Iron mining.

Iron and steel
mills.

Total.

Classified amount of rent per room.
Num ­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Under $1.................................................
$1 and under $1.50.................................
11.50 and under $2.................................
$2 and under $2.50................................
$2.50 and under $3.................................
$3 and under $3.50.................................
53.50 and under $1.................................

26
1,410
2,950
1,149
92
64
7

0.5
24.7
51.8
20.2
1.6
1.1
.1

1
267
98

0.3
73.9
25.8

Total.............................................

5,698

100.0

1 361

100.0

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num ­
ber.

3
91
532
72
5

0.4
13.0
75.7
10.2
.7

27
1,680
3,134
1,681
164
69
7

0.4
24.8
46.4
24.9
2.4
1.0
.1

703

100.0

1 6,762

100. 0

Per
cent.

1 Not including 103 dwellings for which rent was not reported.

MODERN IMPROVEMENTS.

Only a very small proportion of the company dwellings in this
region have modern sanitary equipment in the shape of baths,
water-closets and running water, both hot and cold. Such houses as
do have such improvements are the dwellings of the better-paid
white workmen, superintendents, bosses, and technical men. Of
the 6,549 dwellings for which complete data on this point have
been reported, 106, or 1.6 per cent, have bathtubs and water-closets;
386, or 5.9 per cent, have running water inside, either as part of a
complete sanitary system or as a bibb or hydrant connection in the
kitchen; and 1,823, or 27.8 per cent, have electricity for lighting
purposes, while 4,540, or 69.3 per cent, have no modern conveniences
whatever.




80

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

The facts as to sanitary equipment are summarized in the follow ­
ing table:
T able 3 8 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLING S HAVING SP E C IFIE D SA N IT A R Y

E Q U IPM EN T,
IN D U S T R Y .

BY

Industry group.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Number....................
Per cent....................
Iron mining:
Number....................
Per cent....................
Iron and steel mills:
Number....................
Per cen t....................
Total......................
Per cent.................

IN D U S T R Y

Bath,
watercloset,
sewer
or
cess­
pool,
water
sys­
tem,
and
elec­
tric
lights.

G R O U P—SO U T H E R N

Bath,
watercloset,
sewer
or
cess­
pool,
and
water
sys­
tem.

53
1 .0 j (2)
19

31
103 I
1.6

Watercloset,
sewer
or
cess­
pool,
and
run­
ning
water
inside.

Elec­
tric
light
and
run­
ning
water
inside.

IRO N,

No
mod­
ern
con­
ven­
iences
except
run­
ning
water
inside.

AND

No
mod­
em
con­
ven­
iences
except
elec­
tric
light.

ST E E L

No
mod­
ern
con­
ven­
iences Total.
(out­
side
priv­
ies).

1
0.2

2
0.3
:
.2 j

1 5

1 One has shower bath and no gas or electric light.

(2)

148
2.8

1,189
22.3

3,871
72.7

5,328
100.0

10
1.9

(2)

58
1.1

33
6.3

6
1.2

447
85.3

524
100.0

5
0.7

0.1 j
8 I
1.5 |

3.6
4.4

I
Watercloset,
Run­ sewer
or
ning cess­
water pool,
inside, run­
bath, ning
and water
elec­ inside,
tric
and
light. elec­
tric
light.

COAL,

1
0.1

428
61.4

222
31.9

697
100.0

73
1.1

182
2.8

1,623
24.8

4,540
69.3

6,549
100.0

2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

As all the houses scheduled in the region are frame houses, with
the exception of 36 detached brick houses, somewhat similar in size,
substantialness of construction, and equipment provided, they m ay
be roughly compared as to cost per room. Taking those houses for
which costs have been reported it appears that 2,484, or 53.2 per
cent, cost between $100 and $150 per room. A bout half (50.8 per
cent) of the detached frame houses and 71.5 per cent of the semi­
detached houses are within that range o f cost per room . The table
following shows these facts.




COAL, IR O N , AND STEEL REGION OF T H E S O U T H .

81

3 9 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH C L A SSIFIE D COST OF
CONSTRUCTION P E R ROOM, B Y IN D U S T R Y G R O U P, T Y P E OF D W E L L IN G , A N D
M A T E R IA L OF CONSTRUCTION—SO U T H E R N COAL, IR O N , A N D S T E E L R EG IO N .

T able

N U M BER.
!

Dwellings costing each classified amount per room.

Industry group, type of
$150
$250
$300
$350
$50
$100
$200
$400 Total.
dwelling, ana material of
and ! and
and
and
and
and
Under and
and
construction.
$50. under under under under under under under under
$100. $150. $200. $250. $300. $350. $400. $600.
i

I

J

Bituminous-coal mining:
Detached, fram e................

1

1,283
132

1,658
364

468
21

173

6

1 ..........
.......... 1...........

1

3,591
517

T o ta l...............................

1

1,450

2,022

489

173

6

1 i...........

1

4,108

Iron mining:
Detached, fram e................
Semidetached, frame.........

2

47
4

257 :
30

13

1
!

2

51

287

13

!

6
175
Detached, b r ic k

15

i

T otal..............................
Iron and steel m ills:
Detached, fram e.............
................
Semidetached, frame.........

353
8

1
1

205
1

8

2

206

------6

175

15

1,336

2,090

496

136

394

21

T3otal
1,472

2,484

T o ta l................................
All industries combined:
Detached, frarae................
Detached, brick
... 4.
Semidetached, frame.........
................................

319
34

3

517 |

173

6

1

8

2
1

4,115
1
oo 1

173

6

1

8

3

i 4,667

P E R C EN T .
Bituminous-coal mining:
Detached, fram e................
Semidetached, frame.........

(2)

35. 7
25.5

46.2
70.4

13.1
4.1

4.8

T otal................................

4.2 I

(*)

34.5

49.2

11.9

Iron mining:
Detached, fram e................
Semidetached, frame

0.6

14.7
11.8

80.6
88.2

4.1

T otal................................

.6

0 .2 1 (2)

(2)

100.0
100.0

. 2 ; (*)

(2)

100.0

|
1
...........I........................

14.4

81.3

3.7

Iron and steel m ills:
Detached, frame................
Detached, brick.................
Semidetached, frame.........

2.9

85.4

7.3

T otal................................

2.9

84.9

7.3 .......... ............ i...........

32.5

50.8

12.1

24.7

71.5

3.8

31.5

53. 2

1 100.0
1 100.0

All industries combined:
Detached, frame................
Detached, b r ic k ................
Semidetached, frame.

.1

T otal................................

.1

I

11.1

i 100.0
!

4. 2 1

3.9

.1

0.5
:m o
i
3. 9 i 1.0
!

(2)

.2

(2)

3 .7

.r

(2) 1 100.0
100.0
IftO.ft
100.0

.2 .

1

1 Not including 2,258 dwellings for w hich cost of construction was not reported.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 6 + 7




! 100.0
! m o
i
| 100.0

(2)

; 100.0

82

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE ES IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

MAINTENANCE.

In none of the companies of the region is the housing work sepa­
rated from the general business of the company; it becomes a part
of plant operation. One of the large operators, however, has a
general welfare service department which supervises the housing
work and gives it specialized attention.
The maintenance work of the companies extends to the care of the
streets and their cleaning and lighting, and generally also to the
provision and care of fences. Lawns and gardens are maintained
by the tenants, except in the case of the residences of certain officials
where the company cares for the lawns. Fences are generally of
wire or pickets; board fences are used by only one coal company.
Rubbish and garbage collection is reported as being made by all
companies except one. Of 24 coal-mining companies three report
that collection is made weekly; three that it is made twice a week;
five, every two weeks; and two report “ continually” or “ man on
job all the time.” The remaining 11 companies report less frequent
collection, such as monthly, three or four times a year, etc. In cases
of this kind “ collection” probably does not mean garbage collection,
but merely a sporadic clean-up or rubbish collection. Of the ironmining companies, one reports weekly or semiweekly collection, the
second semiannual collection, and the third does not concern itself
in the matter. All three of the iron and steel companies report
collection as weekly.
The open-vauit privy still predominates in the mining towns of
the South. Only 8 of the 24 coal-mining companies (owning
5,698 houses) have adopted the more approved sanitary-can type of
privy. Where such a privy is used collection and disposal of the
contents takes place more frequently, much to the improvement of
sanitary conditions. One of the eight coal companies is in the
Birmingham district. The outhouses provided by this company
consist of combination coal bin and privy, situated in the rear of
each house and adjoining the alley. The privies are of standard
frame construction, ventilated and provided with water-tight cans or
receptacles. All openings are screened. Each privy is fitted with a
tight flap door at the rear for removal of the can. The cans are
removed weekly on a wagon and taken to a septic tank for destruc­
tion of the contents. The wagon passes through the alley in taking
up the cans.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

As company bookkeeping methods differ so much, it has not been
considered advisable to make any comparison as between the com­
panies operating in the different States here included—Alabama,
Tennessee, and Kentucky—in the matter of expenditure for main-




COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF TH E SOUTH.

83

tenanee. Only those companies whose reports indicate that they
include under “ charges to maintenance” somewhat similar items are
combined in the presentations below.
Two Tennessee mining companies report charging to maintenance
only labor and material necessary for upkeep. Such charges do not
include improvements and additions to houses, interest, taxes, insur­
ance, nor garbage collection, street cleaning and improvement, or
water. Data from these two companies show that 39 per cent
of the rent receipts for a period of five years were absorbed for
repairs only. As no information was secured from these companies
respecting the amount invested in housing no statement can be
made concerning the probable return on their investment.
T able 4 0 . —R E L A T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E

TEN A N C E (R E P A IR A N D U P K E E P O N L Y )
COM PANIES IN T E N N E S S E E , 1911 TO 1916.

OF TWO

FO R MAIN­
BITUMINOUS-COAL MINING

Expenditure for m ainte­
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911.........................................................................................
1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914..................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
1916.........................................................................................

$31,580.30
34,264.30
34,172.06
32,183.92
28,163.83
29,404.79

Average.......................................................................

31,628.20

$11,389.68
10,967.34
14,488.95
14,577.26
9,561.76
12,365.91
12,225.15 i

Per cent
of rent
receipts.
36.1
32.0
42. 4
45.3
34.0
42.1
38.7

Data reported by one Alabama coal company as to two of its
mining towns showed that outlay for maintenance, which included
only ordinary repairs (no replacements or additions) and “ a small
amount for insurance and garbage collection/’ consumed 32 per
cent of the average annual rent receipts for 1911 to 1915. The
original cost of the houses in the two towns belonging to this com­
pany is reported as $122,065. The difference between the average
annual rent receipts and expenses of maintenance is $11,265. This
makes a net return of 9.2 per cent for interest, depreciation, and
taxes.
Two coal companies in Kentucky which reported only repairs to
houses as an offset to their rent receipts showed that 25 per cent of
the average receipts for the five-year period 1911 to 1915 were so
absorbed, while two other companies in the same region, which
included under maintenance general repair to houses and such
village upkeep as street cleaning and garbage collection, showed
that 41 per cent of their rent receipts were expended for these
purposes.




84

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a bl e 4 1 . — R E LA T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S

A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R MAIN­
TEN A N C E (R E P A IR O N L Y ) OF TWO BITUMINOUS-COAL M INING COM PANIES IN
K E N TU C K Y , 1911 TO 1915.
Expenditure for mainte­
nance.
Year.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

1911.........................................................................................
1912......................................................................................... 1
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
Average.......................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$32,163.94
37,328.51
40,907.63
42,340.98
42,204.58

$ 6 ,429.*06
9,915.49
9.716.40
9.270.40
12,927.23

20.0
26.6
23.8
21.9
30.6

38,989.13

9,651.72

24.8

T able 4 2 . — R ELA TIO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E

FO R MAIN­
TENANCE (R E P A IR , U P K E E P . GARBAGE COLLECTION, A N D ST R E E T CLEANING)
OF TWO BITUMINOUS-COAL MINING COMPANIES IN K E N T U C K Y , 1911 TO 1915.
J

Year.

Expenditure fo r maintenance

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1911.........................................................................................
1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

$41,499
42.092
40.092
46,355
46,082

$23,583.00
16.347.00
17.878.00
16.820.00
13,975.00

56.8
38.8
44.6
36.3
30.3

Average.......................................................................

43,214

17,700.60

41.0

Two coal companies in Alabama which include “ maintenance,”
replacement, and insurance expenses, as well as repairs and general
house upkeep, find that 64 per cent of the rent receipts are con­
sumed. As shown in the table immediately following, the propor­
tion of the rent receipts absorbed varies from 96 per cent in 1912
to a minimum of 40 per cent in 1914.
T able 4 3 . —RELA TIO N

OF E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AINTENANCE (R E P A IR , U P K E E P ,
REPLACEM ENTS, A N D IN SU R A N C E ) TO R E N T R E CE IPT S OF TWO BITUMINOUS-COAL
MINING COMPANIES IN ALABAM A, 1912 TO 1916.
Expenditure fo r maintenance,
Year.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
1916.........................................................................................

$23,637.52
26,559.92
25,671.66
26,509.47
26,175.59

$22,806.11
21,449.48
10,280.07
13,152.11
14,822.97

96.5
80.8
40.0
49.6
56.6

Average.......................................................................

25,710.83

16,502.15

64.2




COAL, IRON, AND STEEL REGION OF TH E SOUTH.

85

In contrast to the above may be cited the case of another coal­
mining company in Alabama, which reports that for two of its min­
ing towns ordinary repairs and maintenance alone consumed 69
per cent of its average annual rent receipts for the period 1913 to
1916, the percentage ranging from 96 in 1913 to 48 in 1914. The
details are given in the following table:
T a ble 4 4 . —R E LA T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S

A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AIN­
T EN A N C E (R E P A IR A N D U P K E E P , O N LY ) OF TWO M INING TOW NS OW NED B Y ONE
BITUMINOUS-COAL MINING COM PANY IN ALABA M A , 1913 TO 1916.
Expenditure for m ainte­
nance.
Y ear.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

!
191 3
191 4
191 5
1916.........................................................................................
Average.......................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$14,039.38
14,249.44
15,098.55
13,791.60

$13,546.37
6,779.53
7,487.72
11,568.43

96.5
47.6
49-6
83.9

14,294.74

9,845.51

68.9

Reports from three iron-mining companies in the Birmingham dis­
trict indicate that 48 per cent of the average annual rent receipts
for the period 1913 to 1916 were expended for maintenance; that is,
general repair and upkeep of company houses and streets, including
garbage and sanitary collection, but not including interest on the
investment, insurance, taxes, or depreciation.
T able 4 5 . —R ELA TIO N B E T W E E N R E N T RECEIPTS AND

E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAIN­
TENANCE (NO T INCLUDING INSU R A N C E , TA XE S, OR D E PR E C IA T IO N ) OF T H R EE
IRON-MINING COMPANIES OF ALABAM A, 1913 TO 1916.
Expenditure for mainte­
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
1916.........................................................................................

$20,575.20
23,226.97
23,919.75
25,242.07

$10,024.30
9,560.65
10,797.48
14,569.45

48.7
41.2
45.1
57.7

Average.......................................................................

23,241.00

11,237.97

48.4

The great variation shown in the relative amount of the rent
receipts which are turned back in the form of maintenance expense
is explained partly, undoubtedly, by differing accounting methods
and partly by different ideas on the part of the companies as to
what constitutes adequate maintenance. Without drawing any
very significant conclusions from the scattered data presented, it




86

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

appears that less than 50 per cent of the rent receipts are required
for general maintenance of the company’s housing properties, repair
and upkeep of the houses, garbage collection, and street cleaning.
HOUSING INVESTMENT.

While, as shown by the table following, 14 of the companies in
this district house three-fourths of their labor force, they find it
possible not to spend as an original investment more than two-fifths
of the average annual pay roll, in the provision of the houses for
their employees. The actual average investment per employee,
of the 7,140 housed, is only $228.
T a bl e 4 6 . —RELA TIO N B E T W E E N TOTAL ORIGINAL COST OF COM PANY HOU SES A N D

A V ER A G E A N N U A L PA Y ROLL—SO U T H E R N COAL, IRON, A N D ST E E L REGION .

Industry group.

Employees
N um ­
housed.
ber of N um ­
com­ ber of
panies
em ­
Per
report­ ployees. N um ­ cent.
ber.
ing.

Average
annual
pay roll
(1911-1915).

Original
cost of
houses.

Total.......

13
1

8,987
522

6,750
390

75.1
74.7

i $3,887,939
146,536

$1,552,948
75,105

14

Bituminous-coal m ining.......
Iron mining............................

9,509

7,140

75.1

4,034,475

1,628,053

Per
cent
original
cost
forms
of pay
roll.

1
Aver­
age cost
per em ­
ployee
housed.

39.9 ;
51.3 !
40.4

$230
194
228

1 One company reported for 3 years, 2 for 4 years, and 4 for Gyears.

Fourteen companies in this region reported the total original cost
of all houses constructed, and three reported an inventory valuation,
an appraisal put upon the houses by the employees of the companies
in question. In making the appraisal regard was had to the condi­
tion of the house at the time of appraisal and the amount esti­
mated as necessary to put it into proper state of repair. An estimate
was made of the cost of a similar house built new, and the amount
required for repairs and remodeling immediately necessary was then
deducted. The result was the recorded inventory value of the house.
No land values are included in these house’ values. The land,
moreover, has value primarily for mining purposes, and may very
well be left out of consideration in calculating return on the housing
investment.
In the case of 12 coal companies reporting, the average annual rent
receipts for a five-year period showed a gross return of 11.6 per cent
on the investment; in the case of three companies reporting inventory
values the return was 20.4 per cent. Two iron mining companies
which reported on this point obtained a gross return of 13.1 per cent.
It was found that this gross return covers maintenance and repairs,
interest, insurance and taxes. No information is available as respects
depreciation; depreciation is, however, an uncertain quantity, and
may or may not be covered by the maintenance charges.




COAL, IR O N , AND STEEL REGION OF T H E SO U T H .

87

The results as to return on investment are as follows :
T able 4 7 . —R E LA TIO N

B E T W E E N HOUSING IN V ESTM EN T (ORIGINAL COST) A N D
A V ERAGE A N N U A L R E N T RECEIPTS, B Y IN D U S T R Y G ROUP—SO U T H E R N COAL,
IRON, A N D ST E EL REGION.

Industry group.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Companies reporting original cost.......................
Companies reporting appraised co st...................
Iron mining: Companies reporting original cost.......

Number
of com­ Cost of houses.
panies
reporting.

12
3
2

$1,471,873 j
211,670 j
112,305

Average
annual
rent receipts
(1911-1915).

i $170,193
2 43,259
14,686

1 One company reported for 3 years, tw o for 4 years, and three for 6 years.
2 One company reported for 3 years, and one for 6 years.




Per cent
rent re­
ceipts
form of
original
cost.

11.6
20.4
13.1

CHAPTER VIL— COAL MINING TOWNS OF OHIO AND INDIANA.
Only three mining towns were covered in the survey for Ohio and
Indiana, two of which were in the former State. This is too small a
number, perhaps, to be of any great significance.
The mining towns in this region are of more recent origin than
those in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, where bituminous-coal
mining began. The two companies in Ohio began operations in 1904
and 1906, respectively, the Indiana company in 1913.
S c o p e
o f s u r v e y .— The three companies employ, respectively, 387,
650, and 250 men and house 60, 588, and 40 men. The total employed
is therefore 1,287 and the number housed 688, or 53.5 per cent. This
large percentage is due to one company’s housing about 90 per cent
of its men.
Table 48 contains data showing the number of employees, the
number housed, and the number and size of the dwellings provided
by the companies.
T a b l e 4 8 —N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S, N U M B E R H O U SED , A N D N U M B E R A N D SIZE OF

D W E LL IN G S P R O V ID E D —COAL-MINING TOW NS OF OHIO A N D IN D IA N A .
Average
Number Number number
of dw ell­ of rooms. of rooms
ings.
per
dwelling.

Number
of em­
ployees.

Number
of em­
ployees
housed.

Community No. 1 ............................................................
Community No. 2 ............................................................
Community No. 3 ............................................................

250
387
650

40
60
588

20
50
165 |

86
190
662

4.3
3 8
4.0

T otal............................... .......................................

1,287

688

235

938

4.0

Community.

T y p e s
o f h o u s e s .— Of the 235 dwellings built by these three com­
panies, 106, or 45.1 per cent, are the semidetached or mine type of
house and 129, or 54.9 per cent, single or detached houses, usually
of the small-cottage type, an illustration of which appears in Figure
34. All the houses are of frame construction, with weatherboarded
(sided) exterior and plastered interior; a few are also papered. All
houses are heated by stoves or grates. Of the 235 houses, 125 of
the cottage type have a lot frontage of 50 feet and over, while the
lots on which the semidetached houses are built are narrower—
from 25 to 40 feet frontage.
R e n t .— Of the 235 houses,
164, or 69 per cent, rent for $2 and
under $2.50 per room per month; 47 for $2.50 and under $3; 20 for
$3 and under $3.50; and 4 rent for less than $2 per room per month.

88




F ig . 33.— MINING TOW N IN OHIO.

Note the uniform type and arrangement of houses and rectangular street layout.

F ig . 34.—M INER’S COTTAGE IN A N OHIO TOWN.

Four rooms; rent $10 per month. Cost in 1912, $675. Electric lights, but no modern sanitary
improvements. Better than the average.




F

F ig. 35.—R AT H ER CRUDE W ESTERN MINING TOW N.
Note absence of walks and lack of parking.

F ig . 36—W ESTE RN MINING T OW N W ITH R UD IM EN TAR Y DRAINAGE SYSTEM.




C O A L -M IN IN G T O W N S OF OH IO AND IN D IA N A .

89

In the case of two companies rent includes water, and of one company water and light.
M o d e r n
im p r o v e m e n ts a n d
c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . — Only three houses
have modern sanitary equipment— three-piece bathroom— and elec­
tric lighting. Seventy-six, or 32.3 per cent, have only electric lights,
and 156, or 66.4 per cent, only outside privies. The three houses
with modern equipment are single or detached houses erected in
1912, having six rooms each. They are frame houses, plastered and
papered inside, cost $1,325 each, and rent for $16 a month. The
76 houses having electric lighting alone are frame cottages, clapboarded, plastered, and papered. Twenty of them having three
rooms each cost $600 apiece and 30 having four rooms each cost
$675; all were constructed in 1912. The remaining 26 are semide­
tached houses of four rooms to each family and cost $625 for each
family unit. The average rent per room for all of the houses com­
bined was $1.50 and under $3 per room.
A d m in is t r a tio n
a n d
m a i n t e n a n c e .—The usual mine-town practice
of deducting rents from wages prevails. Rent is collected monthly
by one company and semimonthly by two companies. These com­
panies defer rent collection if the employee is sick or if the mines
shut down.
The condition of these mining villages as to cleanliness of streets
was reported by the agent as fair. The foreign section in one town
was reported as very untidy, cans, rubbish, wash tubs, etc., being
scattered about. Piles of coal here and there and cans and rubbish
were observed in another town, where garbage cans and rubbish
receptacles were not in use.
C o s t o f m a i n t e n a n c e . —The original cost of the houses of two of the
companies amounted to $155,818 and their average annual rent re­
ceipts for the years 1911 to 1915 came to $12,124, or 7.8 per cent on
the housing investment, not including land. Charges by these com­
panies for maintenance include repairs, taxes, insurance, and depre­
ciation. The average annual charges for the five-year period amount­
ed to $3,973, or 2.5 per cent of the original house cost. This leaves a
net return of 5.2 per cent interest on the amount invested in houses,
not including land.




CHAPTER VIII.—BITUMINOUS-COAL CAMPS OF COLORADO
AND WYOMING.1
As elsewhere the housing of employees in the western coal fields
seems to have passed through more than one phase— an early one in
which almost any accommodations, however poor, would answer the
purpose, and the present one of an awakening to the necessity and
desirability of improved housing to attract and hold labor and to
meet the demands of an interested public.
In the old days scores of employees constructed their own shelters
or lived in discarded box cars, and the company houses were simple
frame structures, unfenced and unscreened, and with the most primi­
tive of sanitary arrangements. There has been a general improve­
ment in the average house; and the erection of concrete-block or
pebble-dash houses, with screens, fences, gardens, trees, and good
sanitary arrangements has gradually become the rule instead of the
exception.
There are still, of course, wide variations among the camps of dif­
ferent companies and even of the same company. During the present
study a community was visited which, though far from a model, had
housing accommodations so much superior to those of another com­
pany a short distance away that it might have been rated excellent
had it not been for the really model camp of still a third employer
an hour’s ride away.
Since the investigation was of actual housing conditions and not
of the causes which produced these conditions, this report is only
slightly concerned with the fact that the vast improvements in one
notable group of camps are largely the result of a collective agreement
between the particular company and its men. This agreement covers
house rent, water, lighting, fences, garbage removal, and prizes for
gardening. Under the agreement there were also established in the
various districts joint committees on sanitation, health, and housing.
This agreement has undoubtedly given an impetus to the construc­
tion and improvement of houses.
SCOPE OF SURVEY.

Sixteen camps were included in the survey of this region. Of the
4,644 employees reported, 67.8 per cent are housed by the employing
companies. At one camp only 6 of the 314 employees are housed;
on the other hand, only two camps, both isolated, report that they
1 The field work in this ~egion and th e writing of this chapter were done b y Miss E lizabeth A. Hyde,
of the Bureau.

90




CO AL-M IN ING CAMPS OF COLORADO AND W YO M IN G .

91

house all of their working force. In a few cases a small number of
employees come to work by private automobile or jitney, and in
other cases there are noncompany houses near at hand or within
reasonable distance. Transportation facilities ordinarily are poor,
trains being few and irregular and charging rather high rates.
Excluding from consideration the one-room houses, now compara­
tively few and rapidly being abolished (though 30 out of a total of
49 dwellings were reported for one camp), the four-room house is
found to be the prevailing one. Including boarding houses there are,
on the average, 2.4 employees to the house. No information is availa­
ble to show whether or not the keeping of boarders is compulsory in
this region.
THE COM PANY TOW N.

Of the 16 camps under consideration, all but one are located in
hilly or mountainous country. The roads necessarily follow the con­
tour of the site, except where fairly level spaces permit some use of
the checkerboard system. Ordinarily there is one main thorough­
fare, with roads going off at a tangent or straggling up the canyons.
In practically all cases the project consisted of laying out a town;
in two or three the development adjoins an old.er community. There
were no preliminary housing surveys other than the consideration of
such factors as drainage. Recently an improved drainage system,
with cement trenches, has been installed in some of the camps. (See
Fig. 36.)
Host of the roads are wide enough, but they are not improved.
Occasionally the main roadway is crowned, but in only rare cases are
there gutters, and even then the walks are simply beaten paths or are
capped with cinders.
In a few of the localities visited there are native and pretty ever­
greens, but, at the time of the investigation, shade trees had been
planted in only one or two of the camps. It is reported that in 1917
and 1918 thousands of trees and shrubs were set out in the 12 related
camps.
TYPES OF HOUSES.

Schedules were secured from 12 camps of one large company (these
cover less than one-half of its properties), which has been conduct­
ing housing from 8 to 26 years, and from 4 independent camps,
which have been carrying on such work from 8 to 12 years. The
oldest houses scheduled were built in 1890, and these are few in num­
ber. More than one-third of all are reported as having been built
during the five years, 1906 to 1910, and large numbers have been
constructed since 1915.
The houses reported by the four independent companies are all
frame dwellings with weatherboard exterior. The 12 camps belong­




92

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

ing all to one company report that about 74 per cent of their houses
are frame (five out of six being weatherboarded), about 10 per cent
plain cement blocks, and about 17 per cent pebble-dash finish. The
monotony of the gray cement or pebble-dash is pleasantly relieved
by roofs of contrasting and varied colors.
Semidetached houses are less commonly built now than in earlier
days, but many four and six room houses are of the type that may be
used by two families, two front and two back doors being provided.
Of the 1,234 dwellings reported, 93.8 per cent are detached, 4.4 per
cent semidetached, and 1.8 per cent in rows.
An interesting though perhaps undesirable arrangement was noted
in one camp of the large company, whereby two three-room semi­
detached houses can be made three dwellings. The front porch has
no partition, but the back porches are separate. The front rooms
of the two houses are connected by a door. In the event of its being
necessary to house three families in the building, one family w be
^ill
given these two front rooms and the front porch, and the others will
each have a middle and a back room and a back porch.
Of this village it should also be stated that at the time of the sur­
vey new workers were being taken on at such a rate that a number
were being housed in tents until permanent dwellings could be erected.
SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

Large houses are few in number. Of all dwellings reported in this
region less than 1 per cent have as many as seven rooms; 64.3 per
cent have four rooms and 21.7 per cent have fewer than four. The
most pleasing camp visited, data for which unfortunately are not
complete, has a number of eight-room houses, some of one story and
some of two stories. Of the latter it is said, “ The eight-room twostory buildings are quite impossible to rent excepting as a last resort.
If we have any empty houses they are always eight-room two-story
buildings. The three and four room cottages are always popular
and rentable and in demand.”
Only the large company was engaged in building extensively at
the time of the investigation. The new houses generally were of
hollow tile and the prevailing type was the four-room square house
with chimney in the middle. Practically all had porches at front and
back. Houses for minor officials in most cases were of six rooms and
bath. (Fig. 37.) The better types of houses have clothes closets and
pantries; on one schedule it is reported that every room in the camp
has a closet.
These new houses afford a striking contrast to the older frame cot­
tages and to such one-room shacks as are still standing. A notable
example of reconstruction is illustrated in Figures 38 and 39, showing
a canyon in the days of tenant-owned shacks, for which the company




Fig. 37.—PICTURE AND PLAN 6-ROOM B ETTER -TYPE COTTAGE OF PEBBLE DASH
ON HOLLOW TILE FOR FOREMAN OR OFFICIAL.
Only one built in village in question.




Two-piece bathroom.

Lot 50 by 100 feet.

Rent $15 per month.

F ig. 38—COLORADO MINING CAMP OF “ SHACKS” BUILT B Y TENANTS ON COMPANY
L AN D ; NO W DEMOLISHED AND REPLACED B Y COMPANY HOUSES SHOWN IN FIG 39.

F ig . 39— COLORADO MINERS’ HOUSES.

Three and four rooms; pebble dash; rent $2 per room per month; cost $712 for three-room, $S62 for
four-room type.




C O A L -M IN IN G CAM PS OF COLORADO AND W Y O M IN G .

93

was paid ground rent of a dollar a month per shack, and the same
canyon in the new days of decent company housing.
In 15 cases the interior finish of the houses is reported, all but one
describing this as plaster; the smallest and poorest camp visited
reports this feature as “ some composition board, some building
paper.’7
RENT.

Of the 1,234 houses for which complete information was received,
78.5 per cent rent at less than $9 a month and 20.9 per cent at less
than $7. Three-fourths of the houses rent for between $2 and $2.50
per month per room. It would appear that no higher rents are
charged for the newer than for the older houses. In the large company
investigated, it may be repeated, rents are established by the indus­
trial agreement between employer and employed.
Generally rent includes only house and water. In all of the 12
camps under one control it includes also the use of an electric light
on the front porch, since this is the only means of lighting the streets.
In three of these 12 camps the use of water is charged for, owing to its
scarcity; of the four independent camps it is charged for in two cases,
in one of them at the rate of $2 a month per house.
Three of the four independent companies report the charge for
electric lights; in one this is 35 cents a light per month, in another
50 cents, and in the third $1.50 to $3 a house, according to power
supplied. The company controlling 12 of the camps charges 25
cents a light per month, not including the one on the porch. In a
camp in Wyoming the charge is $1 a month for the first light and 75
cents each for the others.
The prevailing custom is for rent to be paid in advance and to be
deducted from the wages. As to the collection of rent in case of
sickness of the wage earner, on only one of the 16 schedules was it
stated definitely that rent is collected later; on all the others the
statement was made that the action depends upon the circum­
stances, except in one case where it was stated that the use of the
house is free at such times.




94*

HOUSING BY EMPLOYEES IN THE UNITED STATES.

The following table shows in detail the number and per cent of
dwellings of each specified number of rooms renting at each classified
amount per month:
T able 4 9 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IF IE D N U M B E R
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G A T EA CH C L ASSIFIED A M OUNT P E R M ONTH— BITUM INOUSCOAL CAMPS OF COLORADO A N D W YOMING.
N UM BER.
Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

Under $3..........................
. .
............
$4 and under $ 5 .................................................
$5 and under $ 6 .................................................
$6 and under $ 7 .................................................
$7 and under $ 8 .................................................
$8 and under $ 9 ___
$9 and under $10...............................................
$10 and under $ 11 ..
..............
$11 and under $ 12 .. .
..............
........................
$12 and under $14. ..
$14 and under $16 . .
.......................
$16 and under $18..............................................
Total.........................................................

Total.
r ' i
2 i 3
4
5
6
1 7
8
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. 5rooms, rooms. rooms.
1
22
11 :
18

51

I
l
158
58 1

217

84
10
1

4
1

1

22
.12
66
158
64
647
10
120
2
116
14
3

96

6

1

1, 234

48 ! .......
6
644 i
3
2
8
93 ;
26 i
1 1..........
1
32

794 I
1

69

1

i
1

1

PE R CENT.
!
Under $3.............................................................
$4 and under $5
$5 and under $6
Sfi ariri nndfir ft7
$7 and under $8
SS nnrl nnrffir ______
$9 and under $10
$10 and under $11 .
$11 and under $12
$12 and under $14............
HtUanH nnrlfir
anrJ nnrlfir SIS

43.1 '...........
21. 6
0. 5
35.3 !..........
___ ! 72. 8
2t>. 7

________ _______ _______

.8
81.1 ! 4.3
.3
11.6
11.7
37.7

...
.1 _____
.
.......................... , ......... !............ !............ 1 46. 4
___
__________ _______ 1
______ 1
_______

Total......................................................... 100. 0




........... !

100. 0

|
...........!
...........

6. i j...........

100.0 j 100.0

...........

..........

1.0

87.5
10.4
1.0

100.0

...........
16. 7 ...........
...........
66.7 ...........
16.7 100. 0

100.0

100. 0 i

1. 8
1.0
5. 3
12. 8

5. 2
52.4
.8

9.7
.2

9.4
1.1

.2
100. 0

95

C O A L -M IN IN G CAM PS OF COLORADO AND W Y O M IN G .

Table 50 shows the number of dwellings renting at each classified
amount per month, by type, material of construction, and size of
dwelling:
T a bl e 5 0 . — N U M B E R

OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED AM OUNT
PE R MONTH, B Y T Y P E , M ATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION, A N D SIZE OF D W E LL IN G —
BITUMINOUS-COAL CAMPS OF COLORADO A N D WYOMING.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.

Type, material of construction,
and size of dwelling.

$4
$5 ! $6
$7
U n­ and and I and and
der un­ un- j un­ un­
$3. der der ! der 1 der
$5. $6. [ $7. ! $8.

$9
and
un­
der
$10.

$8
and
un­
der
$9.

$10
and
un­
der
$11.

$11
and
un­
der
$12.

$12
and
un­
der
$14.

$14
and
un­
der
$16.

$16
and T otal.
un­
der
$18.

j

Detached, frame:
2 rooms...............................
3 rooms..................................
4 rooms..................................
5 rooms..................................
6 rooms..................................
7 rooms..................................
Detached, stone, 6 rooms..........
Detached, cem ent block:
4 rooms..................................
5 rooms..................................
6 rooms..................................
8 rooms..................................
Detached, pebble dash:
3 rooms..................................
4 rooms..................................
5 rooms..................................
6 rooms...................................
Semidetached, frame, 4 rooms
Row, frame, 2 rooms..................

22

Total...................................

22

11
1

18

14<8

58

437
3

2
8

93
24
1

1
82

10

66

1

125

1

158

64

647

10

120

1
1

6
4
1

13

1

10
126
25
7
54
22

3

116

2

82
1
13
1

1

24
4

14

6

48
12

8
67

1

29
307
532
43
75
6
1

3

1,234
x------

The following table contains figures showing the number of dwell­
ings renting at each classified amount per room per month, by type
of dwelling and material of construction:
T able 5 1 . —N U M BER OF D W ELLING S R E N T IN G AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PE R

ROOM PE R MONTH, B Y T Y PE OF D W ELLING AND M ATERIAL OF
TION—BITUMINOUS-COAL CAMPS OF COLORADO AND WYOMING.

CONSTRUC­

Number of dwellings renting at each
classified amount per room per month.
Type of dwelling and material of construction.

$1 and
under
$1.50.

$1.50 and i $2 and
under
under
$2.
! $2.50.
I

Detached:
Frame........................................................................
Stone..........................................................................
Cement block............................................................
Pebble dash...............................................................
Semidetached, frame......................................................
Row, frame......................................................................

48
22

6

Total......................................................................

70

20




14

693
97
141

931

Total.

$2.50 and
under
$3.
1
185
1
27

892
1
97
168
54
22

213

1,234

96

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN

T H E U N IT E D STATES.

M OD ERN IM PRO VEM EN TS.

This industrial group stands at the foot of the list as regards
sanitary equipment, no camp among the 16 scheduled having a
sewerage system and only about one in every 20 of the houses having
running water inside. All dwellings have dry privies; the custom
in a number of camps is to change the location of the privy period­
ically, while other camps have sanitary vault privies of a permanent
character.
In about 19 out of every 20 houses the water supply is distributed
through hydrants. In a number of camps the supply for drinking is
brought from a distance by train or wagon, water pumped from the
mines being used for all other purposes. Several of the 12 camps
under one control get their water supply from a neighboring city, the
city contracting for a long term of years to sell to the company a
supply of water for manufacturing, domestic, and other purposes.
In only 4.7 per cent of the houses has a bathtub been installed,
and in only 4 per cent is there provision for hot water. These are
the homes of mine officials. In a few camps a community bathhouse,
intended primarily for the miners, has compartments for the use of
the women and children of the camp and makes the absence of baths
in the houses less serious. All dwellings are heated by stoves pro­
vided by the tenants, or by open grates, usually the former.
No houses are supplied with gas. Electric lights, on the contrar}^
are'more general than in any other industry studied, 91 per cent of
the houses being equipped with this convenience.
COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

Of the 995 detached frame dwellings for which the original con­
struction costs were reported 63.1 per cent cost less than $150 per
room; of those of cement blocks or pebble-dash finish only 23.4 per
cent cost less than $ 150 per room, while 55.8 per cent cost $ 150 and under
$200, and 20.8 per cent cost from $200 to $300 a room. How much
of this difference in costs is due to the period of construction, the
expense of building, the later-constructed houses being affected by the
recent increases in costs of labor and materials, can not be ascertained.
Table 52 shows, for the 995 dwellings for which data were obtained,
the cost per dwelling, by type and material of construction:




97

CO AL-M IN ING CAMPS OF COLORADO AND W YO M IN G .
T

5 2 . —N U M B E R OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH C LASSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION,
B Y T Y P E OF D W E LL IN G A N D M A TE R IA L OF CONSTRUCTION—BITUM INOUS-COAL
CAMPS OF COLORADO A N D W YOM ING.

able

Number of dwellings costing each classified
amount.
Type of dwelling and material of construction.
Under
$250.

Detached:
Frame......................................
....
Cement block..............................................
Pebble dash..................................................
Semidetached, frame..........................................
T otal...........................................................

$250
and
under
$500.

$500
and
under
$750.

$750
and
under
$1,000.

$1,000
and
under
$1,250.

11

350

299
72
82

44
13
53

6

11

404

453

110

6

54

$1,250
and
under
$1,500.

!
11 !
i
11 '
1

Total.

710
85
146
54
1995

1 Not including 239 dwellings for which cost was not reported.

Construction costs per room by type of dwelling and material of
construction are shown in Table 53.
5 3 . —N U M BER OF D W ELLING S OF EACH C LASSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION
P E R ROOM, B Y T Y P E OF D W E LL IN G A ND M A TER IA L OF CONSTRUCTION—
BITUMINOUS-COAL CAMPS OF COLORADO A N D W YOMING.

T able

Number of dwellings costing each classified
amount per room.
Type of dwelling and material of construction.

Detached:
Frame............................................................
Cement block................................................
Pebble dash..................................................
Semidetached, frame..........................................
T otal...........................................................

$50
and
under
$100.

$100
and
under
$150.

$150
and
under
$200.

$200
and
under
$250.

5

3

147
67
62

43

48

512
18
36
6

37

11

710
85
146
54

51

572

276

80

11

1995

5

$250
and
under
$300.

Total.

Under
$50.

1 Not including 239 dwellings for which cost per room was n o t reported.

BOARDING HOUSES.

Boarding-house practice is not uniform. Of two camps of one
company it is reported that in one the men sleep two in a room, but
in separate three-quarter beds and that in the other an 18-room
house accommodates more than 40 men, double beds being used.
In the lobby of this second house there are washing facilities and a
few benches; there is no other sitting room. In an outbuilding there
are five shower baths.
At the most attractive camp visited, the boarding house, built to
accommodate 30 men, had only 15 at the time of inspection. A
sitting room downstairs was furnished with tables and chairs; a
pleasant dining room had three tables, each seating eight persons;
the wash room on the ground floor had liquid soap, five lavatories,
125882°— 20— Bull. 263-------7




98

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

and an abundance of individual towels. The beds were double, and
there was one bed to the room, with a big dressing table and ample
closet space. The house had a large porch with chairs. The force
consisted of the housekeeper, cook, dining-room girl, and dishwasher.
At all places visited rates were uniformly a dollar a day for room
and board. The meals served were good; for example, one dinner
consisted of steak, potatoes, corn, bread and butter, mince pie, and
tea or coffee.
Large numbers of single men, or foreigners whose wives are in
Europe, board with private families or form housekeeping groups of
members of one race. A boarding house for Austrians, under con­
struction at the time of the investigation, was to be steam heated
and have shower baths. Ordinarily the sleeping rooms of boarding
houses are not heated
ADM INISTRATION.

In every case it is reported that the housing is conducted as part
of the general business of the company, no special department— to
say nothing of a separate agency— having this in charge. The
agreement which the company operating the majority of the camps
has with its employees provides for joint committees of six persons,
three representing the employer and three the employees, in each
of the five or more districts, which may, of their own initiative,
“ bring up for discussion at the joint conferences, or have referred
to them for consideration and report to the president or other proper
officer of the company at any time throughout the year, any matter
pertaining to health, hospitals, physicians, nurses, occupational
diseases, tuberculosis, sanitation, water supply, sewage system, gar­
bage disposal, street cleaning, wash and locker rooms, housing, rents,
gardens, fencing, etc.”
Houses are generally rented to employees in the order of their
application. In a few instances preference has been given to a more
essential employee— electrician, fire boss, or foreman— the nature of
whose work is such as to require him to be available at all hours.
MAINTENANCE.

One of the properties visited is an incorporated town, and many
employees own their homes; the company owns only 9 houses in
the town proper, but has 40 new ones close by. In another com­
munity the company houses only six of its employees. With these
two exceptions, all the camps visited are so situated that public
utilities must, under present conditions, be provided by the employing
company, there being no other property holders, with the possible
exception of church congregations. As a consequence the company
provides police and fire protection, does the sanitary work, and es­




CO AL-M IN ING CAMPS OF COLORADO AND W YO M IN G .

99

tablishes all rules and restrictions. There are county schools in all
but two camps; also playgrounds, in some cases equipped by the
company.
The company controlling the large group of camps has a remark­
ably equipped hospital at a distance of several hours’ travel from
most of its properties; as circumstances permit, local dispensaries are
being built and equipped.
The companies are responsible further for the street cleaning and
lighting. Street arc lights are few, generally being Used only at an
abrupt turn or dangerous crossing; the 12 related camps, as already
stated, use the porch lights for purposes of street illumination. Not
being financially responsible for these lights some householders allow
them to burn throughout the day.
Where there are fences—and fences are becoming general— the
householders very often plant gardens. In a few camps the limited
water supply restricts this feature. In all the camps of the one large
company studied, grass seed is furnished free and prizes for the best
gardens are distributed. Gardening in such of these camps as have
an abundant water supply is a noticeable feature. Where there is
a scarcity of water, the prizes are awarded for general neatness and
cleanliness of yards. In one of the independent camps, cement for
the walks from house to street is provided free by the company, the
tenant laying the walk.
In the matter of fences it is reported of two of the independent
companies that there are none, of one that there are few (picket
fences have been tried but were torn down), and of one that attractive
fences are maintained to mark off the property only, the uniform
type being narrow horizontal boards at top and bottom between the
posts and two from corner to corner, crossed in the middle. The
lots in the 12 related camps are being fenced throughout with a
woven-wire fence about 4 feet in height. Because of the Govern­
ment’s encouragement of an increased supply of poultry and eggs,
the company controlling these camps is building chicken houses and
inclosing yards for employees who may care to undertake poultry
raising.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

For the 12 camps of the one large company, rent receipts and main­
tenance charges for the five years, 1911 to 1915, were reported. The
maintenance charges, which comprise all expenses of inspection, rent
collection, repairs to buildings and fences, fire-protection apparatus,
camp cleaning, and garbage removal, form 39 per cent of the total
rent receipts for the five-year period. This proportion increased
considerably in 1915, owing to the increased activities in construction
and repairs.




100

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a bl e 5 4 . —R E L A T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T RECEIPTS AND

E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAIN­
T EN A N C E OF 12 CAMPS OF ONE COAL COM PANY IN COLORADO, 1911 TO 1915.
E xpenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911.........................................................................................
1912......................................................................................... !
1913.........................................................................................j
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
Average..................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$70,448. 20
75,045.07
76,414.84
73,049,31 .
85,882.44

$29,100.80
23,190.02
24,220.32
25, 220.07
48,868.13

38
31
32
35
57

77,308.09 |

30,120.11

39

A Wyoming camp which reports rent receipts and maintenance
expense for 1913 to 1916, shows that the latter w 41 per cent of the
^as
former for the four-year period, but the company failed to state what
it included under “ maintenance.”
T able 5 5 .— R E LA T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E CE IPT S AND

E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAIN­
TEN ANCE OF ONE COAL COM PANY IN WYOMING, 1913 TO 1916.
E xpenditure for maintenance.
Year.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.............
1910.........................................................................................

SI2, 103. 24
12,153.96
14,700. 08
15, 289.13

$691.34
4, 790.10
7,076.05
9,539.31

0
39
48
02

Average.......................................................................

13,593. 25

5,524.20

41

Several companies report, for a term of years, their annual pay
roll and annual rent receipts. For two companies combined the
figures indicate that the original cost of the houses (which accom­
modate 61 per cent of the employees) comprises 27.3 per cent of the
average annual pay roll. For three companies combined, it appears
that the average annual rent receipts form 11.6 per cent of the original
cost of the houses.




CHAPTER IX.— ANTHRACITE REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Coal was first commercially shipped from the Lehigh Valley of
Pennsylvania in 1820; 365 tons constituted the shipment for the
year. The anthracite region occupies an area of about 500 square
miles in the northeastern part of Pennsylvania. The area being
compact and having become densely populated by reason of the
development of other industries both depending upon and con­
tributing to the anthracite industry, the isolation of the anthracite
mining town is at present not so great as that of other mining towns.1
Many of the present company-owned houses are, now situated in
populous cities like Scranton and Wilkes-Barre.
The early miner’s house was of the double or semidetached type
made of board and batten sides on the framing. A mere dugout
served for a cellar. While the type still persists, the appearance and
substantialness of the houses recently built have improved. The
early houses were neither ceiled nor plastered inside and rarely
painted on the outside. To each family, occupying half of the house,
was allotted “ three and one-half room s/’ so called, two on the first
floor, a fair-sized room on the second floor, and back of that, formed
by the pitch of the roof, the half room, more in the nature of a storage
room or attic than a sleeping room. The houses built in those
days— i. e., during Civil War times and up to the seventies—naturally
had no bath or even running water in the kitchen. “ The occupants
were fortunate if they .had a common hydrant within the distance of
an ordinary city block.” 2
Some of these early constructed houses are still in existence and in
use by the companies. One company has 20 semidetached houses,
built in 1857; another has 88, built in 1876; and still another has 137,
erected in 1885. A fourth company has houses dating from 1851.
Of the 1,323 houses for which the year of construction is known,
480, or 36.3 per cent, had been erected before 1881; and 753, or 56.9
per cent, before 1890, as brought out in the table on next page.
1 Parker, Edward W.: W orkmen’s Houses in the Anthracite Mining Region. Housing problems in
America. Proceedings of th e F ilth National Housing Conference, Providence, R. I., October, 1916,
pp. 54 to 56.
2 Idem, p. 56.




101

102

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 5 6 __ N U M B E R OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH S P E C IF IE D T Y P E A N D M A TE R IA L OF
CONSTRUCTION, B Y Y E A R OF CONSTRUCTION—A N T H R A C IT E R E G IO N OF P E N N ­
SY L V A N IA .

Detached.

Year of construction.

Before 1881.
1881-1890........................
1891-1900.
1901-1905. .
1906-1910...
1911.................................
1912...................
1913.................................
1914.................................
1915........................................
1916.................................
1917.................................
T otal.........................
1 Frame.

Semidetached.

Row.

N ot
re­ Total.
port­
Frame. Other. Frame. Brick. Other. Frame. Brick. Other. ed.
458
208
70
169
6

18
59
1
4
2
1
1
6

19

4

44
40

44

4
92

19

40
40

50

3
4

480
273
94
229
20

i 52

1
108
46

8

999

6
20
4
8

72

20
38

3

24

i 52

2

1,323

2 N ot including 5,530 dwellings for which year of construction was not reported.

Observation of some of the older houses showed them to be of sub­
stantial timber, fully an inch in thickness and free from knots. By
removing the battens, papering, and then weatherboarding, warm
and comfortable houses may be made out of them.
An interesting view of some housing conditions prevailing in 1898
is given in a report of the local resident engineer to the president of
a certain company operating in the Hazleton mining district.
Describing “ the present [1898] condition of the dwelling houses on
the propert}^,” the engineer states:
Many of the roofs do not leak very badly, but in attempting to patch an old shingle
roorf, such as those mentioned as requiring to be renewed, the work of repairing many
times will be found to cause new leaks.
The cellars (with exception of Nos. 90 to 99, inclusive, and all the houses recently
built) have been excavated under one-half, or along the one side of the block, gen­
erally under the front side, and have but one window of two panes of glass, with a
screen over the outside, so that the window can be taken out for ventilation. In some
cases the occupants have excavated the earth from the other half of the cellar. There
should be an additional window in the cellar, so as to afford proper ventilation and
aid in drying up dampness that we found to exist. In one case, No. 116 and 117,
there was a drain stopped up, causing about 2 to 3 feet of water standing in the cellar.
The privies, in all cases but where the new or recently built houses are located,
are in very bad shape; in most cases the appearances would indicate that the con­
tractor was obliged to put down the pits a certain depth and plank up the sides. In
sinking these pits rock probably was encountered and the regulation height of plank
curbing put in, thus bringing the floor of the privy several feet above the surface.
The privy wells are full up to the top of the ground, and the contents of the wells
flow out into surface ditches, new houses excepted. In the older houses the privy
buildings have the appearance of having been built by the tenants and are poor
apologies for the purpose. My opinion is that if these premises came under the
inspection of the health officer these affairs would be badly criticized.
Not many of the houses have any protection over the front doors, thereby permitting
the storm to drive into the houses under the doors, that do not fit very closely to the




A N T H R A C IT E REGION OF P E N N S Y L V A N IA .

103

floor. A weatherstrip on the bottom of the door in such cases would assist in remedy­
ing this; and a small porch would also be of service, which, if made, would prevent the
building of such porches by the tenants as is sometimes the case, and so built do not
always improve the external appearance.
If itis concluded to paint the houses— the old ones (the new ones have been painted)—
in most cases it will be necessary to new weatherboard one side only, and renail the
other three sides of these buildings. If, however, it is not expedient at this time
to expend so much money in painting, some patching and renailing of the siding
could be made to pass for a while longer, and probably too, some of the roofs might be
left untouched in the same way.
The chimneys, where they start from the third or attic floor, should be changed
so as to start from the bottom. As now, in these cases, the stovepipe is carried up
through the floors, enters the chimney in the attic, and is positively dangerous from
fire.
We found many of the houses clean and neat; others just the opposite. The best
houses are occupied by Americans, but the majority of the occupants are foreigners.
The age of the houses— their never having been painted, and, as a rule, no more
repairs having been made to them than absolute necessity required— will sufficiently
account for present condition.

Generally speaking, the same type of house prevails in the anthra­
cite coal region to-day as did in the sixties. At present, however,
larger houses than were in use in the early days prevail.
Mr. Parker, of the Anthracite Bureau of Information at WilkesBarre, Pa., has thus described the evolution of the miner’s house in
the region: 3
The first improvement of this house was the making of the half room into a full room,
or nearly so, by reducing the pitch of the back roof, until 4J feet were given at the rear;
otherwise the general character of the house was the same, except for more substantial
foundations and the addition of a cellar. Numbers of these houses are still in existence,
and when in repair are much desired by the workmen whose families are not too large
to be accommodated (save the word) in them. Houses of type No. 1 rented for $3.60
per month, $1 a room; type No. 2 at $5.60 per month. Most of the type No. 2 houses
were built about 1870 or shortly after.
The next step in the way of providing ampler quarters for the workmen was in the
construction of houses of a type shown in sketch 3. It will be noted that in this type
of house the gable roof is centered above the frame and the steep rear roof typical of the
first and second types is done away with. These houses were popular, and were amply
large for the young married miner, but as the sizes of the families increased (there is no
race suicide in the anthracite region) more room was demanded, and it became neces­
sary to add a kitchen in the rear of the house. The houses * * * were also made
more attractive and comfortable by the addition of front and side porches. The
former porchless houses were not built for artistic effect, and did not produce it.
Most of the houses of type No. 3 were also built about 1870. They rented for $5 a
month, while those of type No. 4 with the added kitchen and porches rented for $6 a
month.
SCOPE OF SURVEY.

The Bureau’s survey in the anthracite-coal region covered 24 com­
panies, employing altogether 116,208 men and operating 104 estab­
3 Parker, Edward W.: Workmen’s Houses in the Anthracite Mining Region. Housing problems in
America. Proceedings of the Fifth National Housing Conference, Providence, R. I., October, 1916, pp.
57, 58.




104

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

lishments or groups of mines. Taking those companies which re­
ported the number housed it appears that they employ 90,608 men
and house 20,660, or 22.8 per cent, of their entire force. The largest
company supplying information employs approximately 22,000 men.
One company employing 11,115 men houses only 2,400, or 21.6 per
cent; another employing 725 men houses only 76. The survey in
the anthracite region included 6,853 dwellings. Data from 19
companies supplying information on the point show that they
secure an average of 2.3 employees per dwelling. The company
dwelling averages 5.5 rooms.
THE ANTHRACITE TOW N.

The anthracite-coal town is almost always situated in close prox­
imity to the mine and along any natural highway passing through the
region. None have been scientifically planned, and practically all are
laid out in rectangular fashion.
As already stated, the towns are fairly compactly located and
almost without exception are accessible by rail or by electric lines.
They are almost all situated near larger cities. Consequently they
are not much more than groups of houses near the shafts and breakers ;
they are not complete towns in the sense of being self-sufficing, with
stores and means of recreation. In that respect they are depending
more and more upon the neighboring cities.
As a rule, no paved streets are provided in anthracite mining towns;
and no paved alleys were observed in any of those covered by the
study. Only a few communities of the 30 visited by the agents of
the Bureau were reported as having a street paved with tarvia,
macadam, or concrete. The principal street was frequently the
principal township highway. Dirt roads, covered in some instances
with coal dust waste, are the rule. There is a general lack of care for
alleys and roads, although a few notable exceptions are reported.
The streets are generally about 45 feet in width. In certain hill­
side towns the houses all face one way, and no question as to street
widths is involved. Alleys average about 17 or 18 feet in width.
There is no evidence of lot crowding in this region. Lots for each
family in the semidetached houses have a width of from 25 to 50
feet or even from 50 to 60 feet. For the single houses the width of
the lots varies from 50 to 60 feet.
TYPES OF HOUSES.

The type of house at present prevailing in the region has not
changed greatly from that of the days of the beginning of the indus­
try. The tendency has been to enlarge the original type of house.
The average size of the miner’s family quarters in the anthracite




F ig . 40.—DETACHED HOUSES FOR MINERS IN THE ANTHRACITE COAL REGION.

Fig. 41.—EIGHT-ROOM SEMIDETACHED HOUSES IN ANTHRACITE REGION, BUILT IN 1870.
Probable cost at time of survey (1916) SI,200 per dwelling (family unit); rent $8 per month per
dwelling. Stove heat, running water in kitchen, outside privies.




PO PCH
4 ‘ * |2 ‘

K it c h e n
IO' * 2 O'

B ed

B ed r
Ini Room

R o o m l 7i 1
4
10 *

B ed

L iv in g

R oom

R oom

13' * 13*

I0 '*i5 '

P orch

5' « lOKT
£ __ ._____ , . .a.

F irst F l o o r .

S econd F l o o r .

F ig . 4 2 —FIRST A ND SECOND FLOOR PLANS OF DETACHED FRAME HOUSE
FOR M INERS IN ANTHRACITE REGION.

ROOF

JC
BED
BE D
R oom

"ROOM
8 ' x 12

4 x iz

BED RO O M
I 0 'x i2 '

F ig. 43.—FIRST A ND SECOND FLOOR PLANS OF DETACHED FRAME
HOUSES FOR M INERS IN ANTHRACITE REGION.




A N T H R A C IT E REGION OF P E N N S Y L V A N IA .

105

region is 5.5 rooms, as already noted, as against 4.4 rooms in the
soft-coal region.
With few exceptions the houses are of frame, are weatherboarded,
have shingled roofs, and are plastered or ceiled inside. They differ
very slightly from the houses of the soft-coal region except as regards
their greater average number of rooms.
Of the 6,853 dwellings covered by the survey, 6,708, or 97.9 per
cent, are frame dwellings. Only 43, or less than 1 per cent, are of
brick, and 102, or 1.5 per cent, are of stone, tile, or concrete, or other
combination of materials.
There is a greater proportion of semidetached houses in the anthra­
cite region than in any other locality studied by the Bureau, 4,923, or
71.8 per cent, of the houses here being double or semidetached; 728,
or 10.6 per cent, single or detached, and 438, or 6.4 per cent, row dwell­
ings. The type is not reported for 764, or 11.2 per cent.
SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

The distribution of dwellings according to the number of rooms
shows that of the 5,320 for which this information has been furnished
the largest proportion— 1,724, or 32.4 per cent—have six rooms; that
the next largest proportion— 1,604, or 30.2 per cent—have five
rooms. The distribution of dwellings by number of rooms is as
follows:
Table 57.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S

H A VING EACH S P E C IF IE D
N U M B E R OF ROOMS—A N TH RA C ITE R EG IO N OF P E N N SY L V A N IA .
Size of dwelling.

Number of
dwellings.

2 rooms...........................................
3 rooms............................................
4 rooms............................................
5 rooms............................................
6 rooms............................................
7 rooms............................................
8 rooms............................................
9 rooms and over............................
T otal.......................................

37
247
920
1,604
1,724
479
237
72
'

5,320

Per cent
of total.

;
1

0.7
4.6
17.3
30.2
32.4
9.0
4.6
14
100.0

For 1,533, or 22.4 per cent of the total number of 6,853 reported,
no information has been furnished as regards number of rooms.




106

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

RENT.

Of the 5,303 dwellings for which rent per month in relation to
number of rooms has been reported the rent of 4,589, or 86.5 per
cent, is below 18 per month. Taking the dwellings which are typical
as respects the number of rooms, namely, five and six room dwellings,
it appears that of the former the largest proportion— 436, or 27.3
per cent— rent for S3 and under $4 per month, and of the latter the
greatest proportion— 517, or 30 per cent— rent for $6 and under $7 a
month. The details are contained in the following table:
5 8 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M BER
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED AM OUNT P E R M ONTH—A N TH RA C ITE
R EGION OF PE N N SY L V A N IA .

T able

NUM BER.
Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

9
7
2
4
5
6
rooms
8
3
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.

Under $ 3 ...............................................
$3 and under $4....................................
$4 and under $5....................................
$5 and under $6....................................
$6 and under $7....................................
$7 and under $8...
.......................
$8 and under $9....................................
$9 and under $10...................................
$10 and under $11..
.......................
$11 and under $12.................................
$12 and under $14.................................
$14 and under $16.
.......................
$16 and under $18
$18 and over.
....
. .

17
16
1

T otal...........................................

34

67
106
60
5
5

121
138
345
199
85
16
13

109
436
284
364
287
71
42
6

243

917

1,599

15
19
189
414
517
358
88
71
45
....... 2
3
1
1,722

3
57
3
55
70
50
31
10
65
8
89
2
25
11

1
2
3
5
61
26
72
22
17
2
5
13

479

0.6

Total.

8

1
1
1
2
3
1
13
9
19
1
7
9
2
3

334
775
886
644
1,028
522
259
112
146
17
103
27
28
22

237

72

15,303

0.4

1.4
1.4
1.4

6.3
14.6
16.7
19.7
19.4
9.8
4.9

P E R C ENT.
27.6
Under $3....................................................... 50.0
47.1
43.6
$3 and under $4..........................................
24.7
2.9
$4 and under $5..........................................
S5 and under
____ ________________
2.1
2.1
$6 and under $7..
.......................... ...............
$7 and under $8 .......................................... ...............
_____
SR and nndpr
$9 and under $ 1 0 ...
.......................... J
............. ! .............
$10 and under $11 ...................................... ..............................
$11 and under $12 ...................................... ...............i.............
$12 and under $14...................................... ...............1.............
$14 and under $16..
.....................................
$16 and under $18......................................................i.............
SI 8 and over__________________________ ________________

T otal...........................................

13.2
15.0
37.6
21.7
9.3
1.7
1.4

6.8
27.3
17.8

22.8
17.9
4.4

0.9

1.1
11.0

11.9

24.0
30.0

11.5
14.6
10.4
6.5

.6

.8

1.3

2.1

2.8

5.5

4 .2
1.4
18.1
12.5
26.4
1.4
9.7
12.5

3.4

4.2

.3
1.9
.5
.5
.4

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

2.6

20.8
5.1
4.1

2.6

.4

.1
.2
.1

2.1

13.6
1.7
18.6
.4
5 .2
2 .3

25.7

11.0
30.4
9.3
7.2

.8
2.1

2.8

iNot including 1,550 dwellings for which rent or number of rooms was not reported.




2.1
2.8

107

ANTHRACITE REGION OF PEN N SYLVANIA.

The rents charged for dwellings of each type and size are brought
out in the table below.
T vbi E 5 9 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH C L ASSIFIED AM OUNT
P E R MONTH, BY T Y P E A N D SIZE OF D W E L L IN G —A N TH RA C ITE REGION OF
PE N N SY L V A N IA .
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Type and size of
dwelling.

Dei ached, frame:
2 room s.....................
3 rooms....................
4 room s.....................
6 rooms..............
7 rooms__
8 rooms.....................
9 rooms.....................
10 room s....................
11 rooms. ...
12 room s....................
14 room s....................
15 room s....................
N ot reported...........

$4
$3
U n­ and and
der un­ un­
$3. der der
$5.
84.

5
20
40
27
13
2
1
1

7
15
10
10
49
1
1

1
13
20
5
2
1

$5
and
un­
der
$6.

$6
$7
$8
$9 $10
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
$8. $9. $10. $11.
$7.

$11
and
un­
der
$12.

$14
To­
and $16 tal.
un­ and
der over.
no.

j
5
15
16
9
14
6
2
2

1
1
16
11
8
2

18
18
1
1

1

2

6
2
1
2

4
4
2

1

13
1
2
4

16

30

19

47

47

46

4

Total...................... 113

109

72

88

87

85

59

14

25

6
1

5

l5etaehed, hollow tile:
4 rooms...........
5 rooms..................
6 rooms. . . .

10

Total......................
15
93
104
341
9
8
1

13
303
208
183
1
3

90
241
397
47
2

4
84
140
485
43
59
1
1

16
51
324
50
22

5

56

197

183

148

Total...................... 201

627

908

960

965

2
1
6

7

11

22

11

703

3
3
1
1
1

69
6
18
5

141
604

250

114

2
14

Semidetached, brick: 7
rooms................

45
48
12
6
6

2
14

11

12

27
144
666
1,100
1,586
235
193
20
9
4
829

12

4,813

2

4

2
7

40

4

4
8

12

Total......................




19

2
6
2
2

8

Semidetached,concrete:
7 room s.....................
Semidetached, stone: 4
rooms........................

T otal..........

|

40

Semidetached, hollow
tile:
7 rooms..................
8 rooms........

Row, frame:
3 rooms.....................
4 rooms...........
5 rooms. . .
6 rooms. . .
7 rooms. . .
8 rooms...........
N ot reported

10
6
3

2
2

26
143

!

3

6

2
39
70
9
65
6
2
2
55

2

3

6

10
12
34
67
80
2
1

6
2
2
1
2
1
1
7

6
33
85
107
72
103
26
13
8
4
8
3
2
233

1

4

Semidetached, frame:
2 rooms.....................
3 rooms..................
4 rooms.....................
5 rooms..............
6 room s. . .
7 rooms.....................
8 rooms........
9 rooms. . . .
10 rooms....................
12 rooms................
Not reported..........

$12
and
un­
der
$14.

12

40

40

3
13
14
2

6
16
85

3
4
25
56
1

37
29

8

68
3
2
1
1

144

94

75

16
9

2
3

3
7

7

3
3
11

18

1

406

6
2

32

1

23
55
232
26
2
10
58

2

2

..

108

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

Table 59.—NUMBER OF DWELLINGS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT
PER MONTH, BY TYPE AND SIZE OF DWELLING—ANTHRACITE REGION OF
PENN SYL V AN IA—Concluded.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
$3
$4
U n­ and and
der un­ un$3. der dor'
$4.
$5.

Type and size of
dwelling.

$5
and
un­
der
$6.

$6
$7
and and
un­ un­
der der
$8.
$7.
2

Row, brick: 6 rooms.......
R ow, hollow tile :7 rooms
Row, concrete block: 8
rooms............................

$8
and
un­
der
$9.

$9
and
un­
der
$10.

$10
and
un­
der
$11.

$11
and
un­
der
$12.

$12
and
un­
der
$14.

$14
To­
and $16 tal.
un­ and
der over.
$16.

1

20
4

Type not reported:
2 rooms..
...........
3 rooms.....................
4 rooms.....................
5 room s..................
6 room s_______ __
7 rooms.................. !
10 rooms
i
N ot reported............

1

Total...................... j

1

1

Grand to ta l........... 344

43
4 .

78
46

21

55

63

22

102

187

115
10
12

12

42 j 32

5
20
151

28

4

179

44

176

28

513

158

177

2
9

5

745

1
43
82
161
27
36

1

4
1

905 1,176 1,310 .1,265

3
20

3

6

3

411

11
17

6

3

764

116

42

59

16,827

1 N ot including 26 dwellings for which rent was not reported.

Considering the rent paid per room per month, it is seen that the
largest number (171, or 36.4 per cent, of the 470 for which data were
reported) of single or detached frame dwellings rent for from 50 cents
to less than SI; the next largest number (141, or 30 per cent) rent
for from $1 to less than $1.50. In the case of double or semidetached
frame dwellings, the largest number (1,998 out of 3,984, or 50.2 per
cent) range from $1 to less than $1.50 per room per month, and the
next largest number (1,563, or 39.2 per cent) from 50 cents to less
than $1. The fact that the single houses rent for relatively less per
room is explained by the fact that the semidetached houses cost more
per room, and therefore to bring the same return must be rented at a
higher rate.
Table 60, showing rents per room by type of dwelling and by ma­
terial of construction, follows:




109

A N T H R A C IT E REGION OF P E N N S Y L V A N IA .

6 0 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G A T EACH C LASSIFIED AM OUNT PE R
ROOM P E R M ONTH, B Y T Y P E OF D W E L L IN G A N D M A TER IA L OF CONSTRUC­
T IO N —A N TH RA C IT E R EG IO N OF P E N N SY L V A N IA .

T able

Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per room
per month.
Type of dwelling and material
50
Total.
of construction.
$2
$3
$1.50
$2.50
$4
$1
Under cents and
N ot
and
and
and
and
and under under and
50
re­
under under under under ported.
cents. under $1.50.
$2.
$2.50. $3.00. $3.50.
$5.
$1.
Detached:
Fram e.................................
Hollow tile ..........................
Semidetached:
Frame.................................
B rick...................................
Hollow tile..........................
Concrete..............................
Stone...................................
Row:
Frame.................................
B rick...................................
Hollow tile ..........................
Concrete blocks..................
Type not reported, frame........
T otal................................

107

171

141

48

3
19

67

1,563

1,998

334
40

14

3

4

8

40

3
2

194

146
3

3

2

709
19

840

4,824
40
12
40
7

4
1

5

63

411

411
3
20
4
764

1,557

6,853

20

i2
176

239

4
297

44

1,943

2,589

511

60

3

12

2

M OD ERN IM PROVEM EN TS.

Information as to conveniences and sanitary equipment provided
has been given concerning 4,034 dwellings, or 58.9 per cent of the
6,853 covered in the anthracite region. Of the 4,034 dwellings,
1,824, or 45.2 per cent, have gas or electric light, but in practically all
cases it is electricity and not gas which is used. All modern conven­
iences, including complete three-piece bathroom with sewer or cess­
pool connections, are found in 255, or 6.3 per cent of the total reported.
On the other hand, 1,813, or 44.9 per cent, have no modern conven­
iences at all, and have outside privies.
The 4,034 dwellings are distributed as to t y p e s of conveniences
provided, as follows:
T

able

6 1 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF D W ELLING S H A V IN G SP E C IFIE D M ODERN
IM PR O V EM EN TS—A N TH R A C IT E R E G IO N OF PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Improvements.

Number of
dwellings.

Per cent of
total.

Bath, water-closet, running water, and electric lig h t..........................................
Bath, water-closet^ running water.........................................................................
B ath, gas or electric ligh t........................................................................................
Water-closet, running water, gas or electric light................................................
Water-closet, running w ater...................................................................................
Running water, gas or electric lig h t ......................................................................
Running water o n ly ................................................................................................
Gas or electric light on ly.........................................................................................
Outside privies only . .
............ ..........................................................

1 234
21
62
170
360
418
16
940
1,813

5.8
.5
1.5
4.2
8.9
10.4
.4
23.3
44.9

T otal................................................................................................................

4,034

100.0




140 have combination bath and laundry tub in kitchen.

110

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

The data as respects the costs of houses in the anthracite region are
extremely unsatisfactory. Defective company records made it
impossible to secure a sufficient amount of data to make any reliable
inferences possible. Out of 6,853 dwellings included in this part of
the study, cost data were secured for only 915. The data for cost of
construction of the company dwellings in this district have therefore
been omitted.
ADM INISTRATION.

The larger coal companies in the region conduct their housing
through a separate land department; for all other companies the hous­
ing enterprise is a part of the general operating business, segregated
only in the accounting of the company. At each mine the local
superintendent oversees the housing and community activities con­
nected with the operation of the mine.
Rents for company houses are collected by deduction from the
employee’s wages, 8 companies of the 24 included in the survey
making deductions semimonthly and 16 monthly. Only two com ­
panies deduct rent in advance. A liberal policy appears to be ob­
served in the matter of deferring collection of rent during the illness
or unemployment of the worker. A few companies have no rule
in that respect, but decide each case on its merits as it arises.
Instances were found, too, where pensioners or widows of deceased
employees were living rent free in company houses.
MAINTENANCE.

Among clifferent features of company management it may be noted
that lawns are made and maintained by the tenant, while fences,
where provided, are built and maintained by the company. Only
four companies attempt to encourage gardening by giving prizes,
while practically all the companies have either written rules or an
unwritten agreement that tenants must either keep their houses in
fair and habitable condition or vacate. The enforcement of the
rule, however, depends largely upon the labor supply. One in­
formant observed that he would put up with tenants now that he
would not tolerate when the labor supply was abundant.
Ten of the 24 companies report that they undertake garbage collec­
tion for their tenants. However, as 3 of the 10 companies report
that collection is made every two months or less frequently, the state­
ment can apply only to rubbish and waste, certainly not to kitchen
and table waste. In one instance the duty rests with the city, as
the company houses are within an incorporated city.
Except in a few instances the open-vault privy is still used in the
region. With regard to the frequency of cleaning, three companies




I ll

ANTHRACITE REGION OF PEN N SYLV AN IA.

report this as annual, three as biennial, one as triennial, one as every
18 months, and two as semiannually; two companies report that the
matter is left to the tenant, and two report that the privies are moved
to a new place when necessary. Other companies report that all
privies are cleaned when necessary and not at any regular intervals.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

Seventeen out of 24 companies covered in the anthracite region
reported both rent receipts and annual expenses of maintenance of
company houses. These companies may be placed in two groups
according to the comparability of the data furnished. In the first
group have been placed those which charge to their maintenance
account not only ordinary labor and material for upkeep of the
company houses, but also insurance, taxes, and additions and im­
provements, remodeling, etc., of the houses; in the second group,
those which do not charge additions, improvements, and remodeling
to that account. For the first, group maintenance expenses absorb
69 per cent of the average annual rent receipts, and for the second,
32 per cent. The details are disclosed in the following table:
6 2 __ R E LA TIO N B E T W E E N E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AINTENANCE A N D TH E
AM OUNT IN V E ST E D IN HOUSING A N D R E N T R E CE IPT S OF C ERTAIN COMPANIES
IN T H E ANTHRACITE-COAL R EGION OF P E N N SY L V A N IA , 1911 TO 1915.

T able

Company.

Value
of
houses.

Expenditure for
maintenance.

Average
annual
rent
receipts,
1911 to
1915.

Amount.
i

Group A: 1
Company
Company
Company
Company
Company
Company
Company
Company

No. 1 ........................................ $311, 700
78,900
No. 2 ........................................
38,330
No. 3 ........................................
No. 4 ........................................ 203,400
77,000
No. 5 ........................................
No. 6 ........................................ 1,134,000
No. 7 ........................................ 1,469,000
No. 8 ........................................
(3)

Total.......................................................
Group B: 4
Company
Companv
Company
Company
Companv
Company
Company
Company
Company

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 ........................................
2 ........................................
3 ........................................
4 ........................................
5 ........................................
6 ........................................
7 ........................................
8 ........................................
9 ........................................

Total.......................................................

Return on invest­
ment after deduc­
tion of charges to
maintenance.

Per
cent of
rent Amount.
re­
ceipts.

Per
cent.
i

$16,564. 92
6,082.32
4,368.54
34,597.41
6,672.75
65,640.12
101,321.27
45,670.06

$18,108. 88
7,468.14
2,775.63
34,596.30
5,883.62
36,887.24
56,365.94
31,414. 72

109
123
64
100
88
56
56
69

(3)

280,917.39

193,500.47

69

87,416.92

(3)

553,138
(3)
( 3)
(3)
18,000
92,500
96,300
26,100
(3)

118,101.79
6,318. 39
7,189. 78
35,706.00
3,138. 59
11,826.74
5,904. 35
3,166. 44
10,726. 91

32,099.54
5,369.77
1,673.30
13,463.00
1,411.29
1,865.76
3,147.86
161.45
5,250. 72

27
85
23
38
45
16
53
5
49

86,002. 25
948.62
5,516.48
22,243.00
1,727.30
9,960.98
2,756.49
3,004.99
5,476.19

15.6
( 3)
(3)
(*)
9.6
10.8
2.9
11.5
(3)

(3)

202,078. 99

64,442.69

(2)
(2)
4.2
$1,592.91
1.11
789.13 '" 'i.'o
2.5
28,752. 88
44,955.33
3.1
14,255.34
(8)

i
32 137,636.30

1 Maintenance includes upkeep, insurance, taxes, additions, improvements, and remodeling.
2 Deficit.
3 Not reported.
4 Maintenance includes upkeep, insurance, and taxes.




(3)

112

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

SPECIAL ANTHRACITE COM MUNITIES.

The changes in housing in the anthracite-coal region have con­
sisted in remodeling and repairing existing structures. There has
been, as already stated, no building of extensive model communities
along lines of new and improved planning. Two exceptional groups
of houses have been built, very largely as an experiment, by one of
the larger corporations in the region. These developments, however,
have not had any very noticeable effect, because of their limited
size. Each group contains 40 semidetached dwellings, one group
consisting of concrete houses, the other of brick houses. Thus only
40 households are accommodated in each development, whereas at
one mine 2,100 men are employed, and at the other 1,500.
COMMUNITY A.

The group of concrete houses consists of 40 semidetached houses
or dwellings arranged along the sides of a rectangular area 375 by
430 feet, eight semidetached houses facing the short sides and twelve
facing the long sides of the rectangle. Between the rectangular space
and the houses there is a roadway about 25 feet wide, graveled and
provided with gutters; a strip of parking about 5 feet wide; and a
concrete sidewalk about 4 feet wide. The houses are set about 15
feet back from the sidewalk line. A strip of parking surrounds the
whole development.
The central area provides a playground and park space of approxi­
mately 3.5 acres. A few trees have been planted here, but as yet this
space has not been developed; it has been used as a playground
though unequipped for this purpose.
The lawns around all of the houses have been exceptionally well
maintained; flower pots and shrubbery have been tastefully arranged,
relieving the plain white painted concrete exterior of the houses.
(Fig. 44.) Gardens are planted on the rear lots between the dwell­
ings and the outhouses. The ground on which the development is
located is depressed in the center and rises to form a terrace behind
the houses. The lowest point of the site is the northwest corner,
from which point drainage is effected. On the whole the drainage
situation is not overfavorable and in the spring the cellars of the
houses are frequently flooded.
Each dwelling or family unit has a lot 40 by 150 feet.
The shell of the house is made of concrete poured into sectional
metal molds, a special patented system. The floors are of reinforced
concrete, as are also the stairs, stair casings, and all partitions. The
walls are without air spaces; since coal cinders were used in the con­
crete aggregate, it was believed that dampness would not develop.
This, however, has not been the case. One tenant interviewed com­
plained of dampness. The plaster in the three houses which have




F ig . 44—PICTURE AND PLANS OF GROUP OF POURED CONCRETE SEMI­




DETACHED HOUSES IN ANTHRACITE REGION.

'PoT?rti
6-14-'
o=a

I

P O R CM
G * 14*

□--------- =0

D = = C
—

0=0

FigsT F looi? P lan

S econd

F loor P l a n ,

45.—FIR ST A N D SECOND FLOOR PL A N S OF M ODERN IM PROVED HOUSES—GROUP
OF 40 SEM IDETACHED DW ELLING S, B U ILT IN 1910 IN THE A NTH RACITE REGION.

F ig .

?Phe water-closet is in the basement (not shown). The combination fixture in the kitchen is used as
a bath and laundry tub, as well as a sink.




ANTHRACITE REGION OF PEN N SYLVANIA.

113

been plastered on the inside has peeled off, and the paint both inside
and outside has blistered in spots, evidencing the condensation and
passing of moisture through the walls.
The roof is flat and is made of a concrete slab covered with slag
roofing. Rain gutters and down spouts are provided. A small con­
crete slab is suspended over both front and back doors. Flower boxes
are placed on either side of the front doors.
The plan (Fig. 44) of each dwelling is simple; there are three rooms
downstairs and four upstairs. One of the latter was originally planned
as a sleeping porch, but that feature was abandoned as not accepta­
ble to the class of labor to be housed. There is a cellar under part of
the house. The outside dimensions of each unit are 24 by 24 feet.
Each house is equipped with a water system in the kitchen and a hotwater tank connected to a water back in the range. A combination
laundry and bath tub is installed in the kitchen; this may also be used
as a kitchen sink. The kitchen is of fair size and is used also as the
dining room.
The outhouse is of concrete and contains both the toilet, with a
concrete vault, and the coal bin.
These houses were erected in 1911-12 and cost $2,033 per family
unit. The cost for improvements— grading and planting, drainage
lines and piping for water system in kitchen, fencing, concrete walks,
road work, electric light, etc.— cost about $456, which brings the
cost of each dwelling, not including land, to $2,489. The outhouses
cost in addition about $68.50 per dwelling.
The houses are rented only to English-speaking workmen. The
rate is $12 a month, which is 5.6 per cent on the investment, not in­
cluding cost of land. An additional charge of $1 a month is made
for water.
Backyard wire fences are provided by the company; gardening is
encouraged by giving prizes. The tenants maintain their own lawns.
These were in excellent condition at the time of the agent’s visit.
The interior of the house is not so attractive as the exterior. The
concrete floors are chilling and uncomfortable. A broken stair coping
remains broken, as it seems difficult if not impossible to repair it.
No wall finish appears to last long on account of the dampness.
COMMUNITY B.

The same company which erected as an experiment the 40 concrete
dwellings described also put up 40 semidetached dwellings of brick,
furred and plastered inside, for the foremen of another of its mines.
These houses were built along the curving brow of a hillside over­
looking a rather picturesque valley. They are modern houses having
125882°— 20— Bull. 263-------8 + 9




114

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

such improvements as a water-closet, and a combination fixture in
the kitchen adaptable as a two-tray laundry tub, kitchen sink and
drain board, and bathtub. The placing of the water-closet in the
basement is rather an undesirable feature. The houses are steam
heated. Each dwelling has a lot 40 by 150 feet.
These dwellings were erected in 1915-16, and each dwelling of
seven rooms and a cellar, cost $1,635. The outside improvements for
each dwelling, consisting of paving and street work, fencing, sewer,
septic tanks, water piping, concrete sidewalk, trees and planting,
amounted to $526, bringing the cost of each dwelling to $2,161. This
is $396.50 less per dwelling than the cost of the concrete semidetached
houses erected in 1911-12, which furnish the same amount o f room
space, but do not have steam heat and inside toilets as do the brick
houses described.
The rent for the brick houses is $12 a month, which is 6.7 per cent
on the investment, not including the cost of land.
Plans of these houses are shown in Figure 45. There are three rooms
downstairs and four upstairs; closet space is provided. There are
front and rear porches and rain gutter and down spouts, the latter a
very unusual feature on company houses anywhere.




CHAPTER X.—NORTHERN IRON AND COPPER MINING
REGION.
S c o p e
o f
s u r v e y .— The northern iron and copper mining region,
including the States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, has been
taken as a unit because of the similarity of housing conditions pre­
vailing in the district. Climatic conditions have undoubtedly
determined this similarity, and availability of timber as material has
led to the construction of frame houses only. The one-family
house is the characteristic dwelling of the region. The company
house, moreover, differs in no particular from the houses erected
by individuals for their own use. A few log houses, however, are
still in use by some of the copper-mining companies.

T able 6 3 . —SCOPE OF HOUSING S U R V E Y IN THE N O R T H E R N C O PPE R A N D IRO N
R EG IO N , B Y IN D U S T R Y G ROUP.

Industry group.

E m ployees housed.
Number Number Number
of
of com­ establish­ of em ­
panies.
ments. ployees. Number. Per cent.

Copper m ining.................................................................
Iron m ining......................................................................

3
10

3
33

7,964
5,433

2,640
1,447

33.1
26.6

T otal.......................................................................

13

36

13,397

4,087

30.5

The following table gives figures showing the extent of company
housing in four of the iron-mining communities in Minnesota and
Michigan:
6 4 . —N U M B E R OF E M PL O Y EE S, N U M B E R H O U SE D , A N D N U M B E R A N D SIZE OF
D W E L L IN G S P R O V ID E D IN FO U R IRON-M INING COM M UNITIES—N O R T H E R N COP­
P E R A N D IR O N R EG IO N .

T able

Community.

Number
of em ­
ployees.

Average
Number
number
Number of dwell­ Number of rooms
housed.
of rooms.
ings.
per
dwelling.

1 ...........................................................
2 ...........................................................
3 ........................................................... ;
4 ........................................................... 1

592
587
783
1,067

100
156
500
370

86
98
187
158

467
496
1,063
725

5.4
5.1
5.7
4.6

T otal....................................................................... j

3,029

1,126

529

2,751

5.2

Community
Community
Community
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.

T h e c o m p a n y
t o w n .— In the copper and iron region of Minnesota,
Wisconsin, and Michigan one model mining town (Fig. 4, p. 29) has
been disclosed by the Bureau’s survey, a town carefully laid out by a
technical town planner, the streets, houses, and recreational facilities




115

116

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

of which were planned in advance to meet certain conditions of com­
munity life so far as these may be roughly forecast. This planned
community is also interesting because of the introduction in it of the
semidetached mine type of house so common in the Eastern coal
fields and some of the iron and steel towns. Aside from the model
town the other company towns in this region have grown up un­
planned, much like other communities. The houses are of a type
common in other towns and cities of the region— one-family, gableroofed, frame dwellings, usually papered and plastered inside. Curi­
ously enough all company houses throughout the region are painted
some light or pale color— white, gray, or drab— as contrasted with
the uniform dark red color of houses in the bituminous coal and coke
region, for instance. Boardwalks r,nd rail fences are characteristically
common in the district. Streets are usually unpaved, though covered
with iron-ore screenings or rock surfacing, which appears fairly
satisfactory for the traffic over them.
The copper-mining towns are by no means isolated, but are located
in an old and settled region near cities of over 5,000 population.
(One of the copper companies included was organized in 1866.)
The iron-mining towns, somewhat more recent, are more isolated,
but still along main lines of railroads and in the midst of a mixed
timber and farming country. In the case of Minnesota, however, the
iron-mining region is now centered around moderately populous
cities. Throughout the region, therefore, community activities
have not had to be provided so extensively by the companies, and
educational facilities have been provided somewhat independently
of company control. The chief element of company control has come
through the ownership of the land, with a further weight resulting
from being the principal taxpayers of the region as owners of most
of the wealth upon which the economic life of the region is dependent.
T y p e s
o f h o u s e s .—The houses are built as substantially as other
houses in the region. They are sheathed, papered, and clapboarded
on the outside and plastered and papered on the inside; roofs are of
shingle with paper laid on the roof boarding. The houses for the
most part are stove heated.
S i z e o f d w e l l i n g s .—The largest proportion of the dwellings (727, or
46 per cent) contain five rooms, and the next largest (259, or 16.4 per
cent) six rooms. This is indicated in the following table:




F ig .

46;—M INERS’ COTTAGES AND VILLAGE STREET IN N O RTH ERN MINNESOTA TOW N.
Three, four, and five rooms.

F ig .

Rent for $2 per room.

47.—MINERS’ COTTAGES IN NORTH ERN MINNESOTA TOW N.




Three, four, and five rooms.

Rent $2 per room.




48 — PICTURE AND PLAN OF TYPICAL 4-ROOM
COTTAGE W IT H W A TE R AND ELECTRIC LIGHT.

F ig .

Cost before the w ar, $722; rent $8 per m onth.

F ig, 49.—PICTURE AND PLANS OF TYPICAL 5-ROOM HOUSE W IT H W A T E R
AND ELECTRIC LIGHT.




Cost before the w ar, $930; re nt $10 per m onth.

117

NORTHERN IRON AND COPPER M IN IN G REGION.

T able 6 5 .—NUM BER AND PER CENT OF D W ELLIN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER
OF ROOMS, B Y IN D U ST R Y GROUP—NO R TH ER N COPPER AND IRON REGION.

Copper mining.

Total.

Iron mining.

Size of dwelling.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
3 rooms . . .
4 rooms..................................
...................
5 rooms...............................................................
6 rooms...............................................................
7 rooms...............................................................
8 rooms...............................................................
9 rooms and o v e ",............................................

312
63
26
110

61.1
12.3
5.1
21.5

Total........................................................

511

100.0

9.6
3. 2

7
223
727
259
118
213
34

0. 4
14. 2
46.0
16.4
7.4
13.5

100.0

i 1,581

100.0

7
223
415
196
92
103
34

0. 7
20. 8
38.8
18.3

i 1,070

8.6

2.1

1 Not including 8 dwellings for which number of rooms was not reported.
R e n t .—The situation as respects rent of company houses in the
copper and iron mining region of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne­
sota discloses nothing new. More than half (52.3 per cent) of the
company houses in the region are rented for less than $7 per month
per dwelling, indicating the relatively low rentals charged.
The number and per cent of dwellings renting at each classified
amount per month, by industry group, is shown in tne following
table:

T a b l e 6 6 .—N UM BER

AMOUNT PER
REGION.

AND PER CENT OF DW ELLING S RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED
MONTH, B Y IN D U STR Y GROUP—NORTH ERN COPPER AND IRON

Copper mining.

Iron mining.

Total.

Classified amount of rent per month.
J Num­
ber.
$3 and under $4...........................................................
$4 and under $5...........................................................
$5 and under $6 ...........................................................
$6 and under $7........................................................
$7 and under $8 ...........................................................
$8 and under $9...........................................................
$9 and under $10.........................................................
$10 and under $11 ........................................................
$11 and under $12 .......................
. . .
$12 and under $14...............
$14 and under $16...............
$16 and under $18...................
$18 and over..........................................................
Total............................................................

191
147
37
70
62
4

Per
cent.

37.4
28. 8
7.2
13.7
12.1
.8

Num­
ber.
29
70
208
182
118
167
35
228
3
7
16

15.6
3.3
21.3
.3
.7
1. 5

U,070

100.0

1
6

511

100.0

Per
cent.
2.7
6.5
19.4
17.0
11.0

.1
.6

Num­
ber.
29
70
399
329
155
237
97
232
3

Per
cent.
1.8

4.4
25.2
20. 8
9.8
15.0
6.1

14. 7
.2
.5

16

1.0
.1

11,581

100.0

1
6

.4

1 Not including 8 dwellings for which rent was not reported.

Table 67 shows, by industry group, the relation between the size
of dwellings in the copper and iron region of the North and the amount
of rent charged per month.




118

H OUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

T able 6 7 —NUM BER AND PER CENT OF DW ELLING S OF EACH SPECIFIED NUM BER OF
ROOMS, R ENTING A T EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT PER M ONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y
GROUP—NO R TH ER N COPPER AND IRON REGION.
Iron mining.
Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

3

4

5

6

j

9

8

7

rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms, rooms. rooms.

Total.

rooms
and
over.

i
NUM BER.

1
6
$7 and under $8

.

.

..........................

$8 and under $9......................................................

12

$9 and under $10

...........................................
$10 and under $11
..........................................
$11 and under $12
........................................
$12 and under $14
........................................
$14 and under $16...............................................
$16 and under $18
..........................................
$18 and over ..........................................................
Total

.........................................................

28
41
89
53

..

18
113
37
70
102
13
62

5
5
46
32
22
10

6

34
3
2
2
1

196

92

7 0

____

7

223

415

per

$3 and under $4
$4 and under $5

........................................
...........................................

cvnrl lin H flr

$6 and under $7
$7 and under $8
$8 and under $9
iRQ a n d ii n r l p r S1D

$10 and under $11
$11 and under $12
$12 and under $14
$14 and under $16
$18 and over

39
6
5

14.3
85.7

.
...........................................
........................................... 1...........
............................................. .............
_____ _______________
___I..............
........................................
........................................
........................................
........................................

12.6
18.4
23.8
5.4

c e n t

5
2

7 ;
10
6
2

7

3

6
1
2

16
1
6

103

34

i 1,070

.

2.6
2.6
23.5
16.3
11.2
5.1
35.7
3.1

100.0

100.0

2.9

17.6
2.9
5.9

2.7
6 .5
19.4
17.0
11.0
15.6
3.3
21.3
.3
.7
1.5
.1
.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

i 100.0

42.4
6.5
5.4
37.0
3.3
2.2
2.2

1 Not including 8 dwellings for which data were not reported.




20
12
60

29
70
208
182
118
167
35
228
3

1.1

4.3
27.2
8.9
16.9
24.6
3.1
14.9

......................................................

Total ............................................................ 100.0 ' 100.0

:

1

1.0
19.4
11.7
58.3
4.9
1.9

20.6
29.4
17.6
5.9

119

NORTHERN IRON AND COPPER M IN IN G REGION.

6 7 .—NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF
ROOMS, R E N TIN G A T EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUN T PER M ONTH, B Y IN D U ST R Y
GROUP—N O R T H E R N COPPER AN D IR O N R E G IO N —Concluded.

T able

Copper mining.
Classified amount of rent per month.

Grand
total.

Dwellings having—
Total.
5 rooms. 6 rooms. 7 rooms. 8 rooms.

n u m b e r

.

-----------$3 and under $4............................................................
$4 and under $5............................................................
$5 and under $6 ............................................................
183
$6 and under $7............................................................
129
$7 and under $8 ............................................................
$8 and under $9__________ ______________________
$9 and under $10..........................................................:................
$10 and under $11
____ ________________
1
___ ___
$11 and under $12 ........................................................
$12 and under $14........................................................
$14 and under $16........................................................
$16 and under $18........................................................
$18 and over.................................................................
Total...................................................................

312

t

29
70
399
329
155
237
97
232
3
7
16

1

j

8

18
37
44
62
4

26

191
147
37
70
62
4

1
6

63

26

110

511

i 1,581

P E R CENT.

$3 and under $4...........................................................
$4 and under $5...........................................................
$5 and under $6 ...........................................................
$6 and under $7...........................................................
$7 and under $8 ...........................................................
$8 and under $9..........................................................
$9 and under $10.........................................................
$10 and under $11 ........................................................
$11 and under $12
................................................
$12 and under $14
..................................................
$14 and under $16........................................................
$16 and under $18
..................................................
$18 and over.................................................................
Total...................................................................

1.8

58.7
41.3

12.7
28.6
58.7
100.0

40.0
56.4
3.6

4.4
25.2

37.4
28.8
7.2
13.7

20.8

9.8
15.0
6.1

12.1
.8

14.7
.2

.5
1.0
.1

.4
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

i 100.0

1 Not including 8 dwellings for which data were not reported.

Table 68 contains data showing the number and per cent of dwell­
ings renting at each classified amount per room per month, by industry
group.
T a b l e 6 8 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF DW ELLING S RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT PER ROOM PER MONTH, B Y IN D U S T R Y GROUP—NO RTH ERN COPPER AND
IRON REGION.
Copper mining.

Classified amount of rent per room per month.

50 cents and under $1 ...............................................
$1 and under $1.50.......................................................
$1.50 and under $2 ..................................................
$2 and under $2.50 ..................................................
$2.50 and under $3 ..................................................
$3 and under $3.50 ..................................................
$3.50 and under $4 ..................................................
T otal..................................................................

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Iron mining.
Num­
ber.

Total.

Per
cent.

11.0

1.6

98.4

119
604
267
78
7

56.1
24.8
7.2
.7

1

8

503

.1
.1

1
1

i 1,077

100.0

i 1,588

1

511

100.0

1 Not including 1 dwelling for whieh rent per room was not reported.




Num­
ber.
127
1,107
267
78
7

Per
cent.
8.0

69.7
16.8
4.9
.4
.1
.1
100.0

120

H OUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

M o d e r n
i m p r o v e m e n t s .— So far as reported, modem sanitary im­
provements in company houses in the region are not very general.
Thus, over three-fifths (312, or 61.1 per cent) of the 511 company
dwellings in the copper country of Michigan have outside privies,
and in the iron mining towns the same is true of 746, or 70.6 per
cent, of the 1,057 for which such data have been reported.
M a i n t e n a n c e .— The towns of the iron and copper region of the
Northwest are generally well maintained. All of the 13 companies
make regular collections of garbage or trash for their tenants, some as
frequently as every day in summer time and every week during the
winter months. One company reports merely an annual clean-up
day in its community. A large iron company in northern Minnesota
has devised a systematic method of garbage and trash collection, has
provided cans for its tenants and placed these in the alleys back of
the houses on stands so elevated that the receptacle can be easily
removed from a wagon without necessitating the driver’s getting out
of the wagon. (See Fig. 7, p. 30.) A large copper-mining company
in Michigan has not laid out alleys in its community, and the result
has been that tenants have placed their ash and trash barrels out in
front of the houses, detracting much from the appearance of the com­
munity. (See Fig. 8, p. 30.)
C o s t o f m a i n t e n a n c e .— Expenses for maintenance differ very con­
siderably as between the companies in this region. One iron-mining
company, for instance, has been able to maintain a very neat and
attractive community at one of its mines, at the same time expending
for maintenance only 20 per cent of its average annual rent receipts
for a period of five years, while a large copper-mining company
reports charges to maintenance for a similar period of years as 24
per cent in excess of its rent receipts for those years. Table 69
shows the relation between the average annual rent receipts
(1911-1915) of the iron-mining company above mentioned and
the average annual charges to maintenance and repairs covering
labor and material only. The expenditures for street cleaning,
garbage, and ash collection, and cleaning up of premises are not
included, a fact which explains the unusually low proportion of the
rent receipts charged to maintenance.




NORTHERN IRON AND COPPER M IN IN G REGION.

121

T able 6 9 .—R ELATIO N B E T W E E N R EN T RECEIPTS AND E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAINTE­
NANCE (LABOR AND M ATERIAL FOR REPAIRS O NLY) OF ONE IRON-MINING COM­
P AN Y IN MICHIGAN, 1911 TO 1915.

Expenditure for mainte­
nance.
Y ear.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911....................... ......................................................................
1912
......................................................................................
1913 ............................................................................................
1914 ............................................................................................
1915..............................................................................................
Average

........................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$16,803.66
16,915.45
16,712.13
16,783.41
16; 330.49

$2,563.89
4,396.46
2,036.33
2, 688.20
4,876.58

15
26

16,709.03

3,312.29

20

12

16
30

The next table shows the relation between the average annual rent
receipts of an iron-mining company in Minnesota and the charges to
maintenance, which, in addition to labor and materials for repairs,
include also general upkeep, cleaning up of premises, and garbage
and sanitary collection. The inclusion of all these items accounts
for the larger proportion of the rent receipts absorbed by charges to
maintenance.
7 0 .—R ELATION B E T W E E N R EN T RECEIPTS AND E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AINTE­
NANCE (LABOR AND MATERIALS FOR REPAIRS, GARBAGE, AND SAN IT AR Y COLLEC­
TION) OF AN IRON-MINING COMPANY IN MINNESOTA, 1911 TO 1915.

T able

Expenditure for mainte­
nance. '
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911..............................................................................................
1912..............................................................................................
1913
......................................................................................
1914
......................................................................................
1915
......................................................................................
Average

........................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$9,436.50
12,524.61
9,389.86
10,092. 78
10,608.31

$2,335.14
4,136.07
3,925.88
9,686.73
10,109.98

25
33
42
96
95

10,410.41

6,038. 76

58

Tables 71 and 72 show the relation between the rent receipts and
expenditures for maintenance of two copper-mining companies. In
the first instance the company charged to its maintenance account
only labor and material for repairs and consequently only 26 per cent
of its rent receipts were required to meet those charges. The com­
pany represented in the second table charged to the maintenance
account expenditures for labor, supplies, lumber, etc., teaming work,
water, garbage collection, remodeling and replacing of premises, and
insurance.




122

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

7 1 .— R ELATIO N B E T W E E N R E N T RECEIPTS AN D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AIN TE­
NANCE (LAB O R AND REPAIRS O N LY) OF ONE COPPER-MINING COM PANY IN
MICHIGAN, 1911 TO 1915.

T a b le

Expenditure for m a i n t e ­
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911
1912
1913
1914
1915

......................................................................................
......................................................................................
..........................................................................................
......................................................................................
......................................................................................
Average

........................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$15,391.58
15,500.72
14,385.00
15,320.22
17,518.05

$3,968.56
4,035.51
4,443.89
4,046.02
3,988.66

26
26
31
26
23

15,623.11

4,096.53

26

7 2 —RELATION B E T W E E N R ENT RECEIPTS AND EX PEN D IT U R E FOR MAINTE­
NANCE (LABOR AND M ATERIAL, W A T E R , G ARBAG E, AND SA N ITAR Y COLLECTION)
OF ONE COPPER-MINING COMPANY IN MICHIGAN, 1911 TO 1915.

T able

Expenditure for mainte­
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911
1912
1913
1914
1915

......................................................................................
......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
......................................................................................
......................................................................................
Average

........................................................................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$69,721.61
70,635.41
72,876.69
72,599.04
72,540. 76

$107,195.93
98,519.32
74,019 76
75,073.44
89,243.17

154
139

71,674.70

88,810.32

124

102

103
123

From data relating to 628 dwellings, cost of which amounts to
$692,409, it appears that the rents fixed for these dwellings indicate
a gross return of 9.3 per cent of the amount invested. The amount
invested includes only the cost of the dwellings, exclusive of land,
and furthermore the annual rent receipts are calculated as though all
the houses were rented during the entire year. This is, however, a
fairly safe assumption as very rarely are company houses vacant, so
great is the demand for them. The data are given in Table 73:
T able

7 3 .— R ELATION OF R EN TA L TO THE COST OF HOUSES (NOT INCLUDING LAND)
OF IRON-MINING COMPANIES IN MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, AND M INNESOTA.
Annual rent.
Company and type of house.

Number of
Cost of
dwellings. dwellings.
Amount.

Per cent o f
cost.

Company No. 1:
Detached, frame...............................................................
Semidetached, frame..................................................
Company No. 2: Detached, frame......................................
Company No. 3: Semidetached, frame...............................
Company No. 4: Detached, frame.......................................

41
96
353

$207,840
4,400
60,021
79,200
340,948

$16,464
264
4,536
9,216
33,960

11.6
10 0

All companies combined:
Detached, frame...............................................................
Semidetached, frame.......................................................

530
98

608,809
83,600

54,960
9,480

9.0
11.3

Total................................................................................

628

692,409

64,440

9.3




136
2

7 Q
6.0

7A
4,0

C H A P T E R X I .— M E T A L - M I N I N G

R E G IO N

OF TH E

SOU TH W EST.

In this region the Bureau’s survey covered only six communities—
two in Colorado, two in Arizona, and one each in W yom ing and New
Mexico. None of these communities were more than 18 years old.
The m ost recent is a model town begun in 1914.1
The ruggedness of the country makes town planning difficult,
yet in two instances town planning has been made use of. The
thoroughfares are unpaved roads; this, however, is not very objec­
tionable, as the region is com paratively dry the year round. The
streets are quite clean and well kept.
Scope of survey.— Altogether there were employed at these six

establishments or companies 5,398 men, of whom 857, or 15.9 per
cent, were in company houses. Those in company houses were
almost exclusively technical and office men and skilled mechanics.
The unskilled labor, mostly Mexican, is not housed by the companies
in this region except in one— the model town above mentioned—
where houses are provided for a small proportion of this class of
labor.
The following table gives figures showing the extent of com pany
housing in five of the communities studied:
Table 74.—N U M B E R

O F E M P L O Y E E S , N U M B E R H O U S E D , A N D N U M B E R A N D S IZ E O F
D W E L L I N G S P R O V I D E D — M E T A L -M I N I N G R E G I O N O F T H E S O U T H W E S T .

C om m u n ity.

C o m m u n ity
C o m m u n ity
C o m m u n ity
C o m m u n ity
C o m m u n itv

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

N u m ber
o f em ­
ployees.

1 ..................................................... ................
2 .....................................................................
3 .....................................................................
4 .....................................................................
5 .....................................................................

2,500
225
290
922

T o t a l...................................................................................

5,137

1 ,2 0 0

N u m ber
housed.

N um ber
N um ber
o f d w e ll­
o f room s.
ings.

235
80

183
80

8

8

290
230
843

A v era ge
num ber
o f room s
per
d w ellin g.

107
43

505
273
33
505
160

3.4
4.1
4.7
3.7

421

1,476

3.5

2 .8

Types of houses.— The houses are prevailingly two or four room
cottages or bungalows; 3.5 is the average number of rooms to each
dwelling. A ctually they m ay be said to be larger than this because
of the prevalence of porches, which are practically additional rooms,
since they are screened in and used for sleeping purposes. The
typical bungalow is of frame, clapboarded directly on the frame,
and plastered or ceiled inside. D ouble roofs made to create an air
1
A d etailed d escrip tio n o f th is m o d e l to w n , loca ted in N ew M e x ico , w as g iv e n in th e S eptem ber, 1918,
issue o f the M on th ly L a b o r R e v ie w o f th e B ureau o f L a b o r Statistics (p p . 278-283).




123

124

H OUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

space and thus keep the houses cool in the hot summer months are
very com m on. W hat is termed an k'Arizona bungalow is frequently
made of tongue-and-groove material laid up and down on the inside
of the framework of the cottage. This makes a bungalow look rustic
and, when painted the prevailing gray, not at all inartistic. In the
extreme heat which prevails gray paint seems to last better than
paint of any other color.
Many of the cottages are of extremely light construction, such as
might be used in seashore cottages. Cellars are uncommon. Stove
or grate heating is the rule; and over two-fifths (44.2 per cent) of
the houses have modern sanitary plumbing in them, for, as noted,
com pany houses in this region are occupied only by the better-paid
technical and office men and the skilled mechanics.

Rent .— Rent in this region includes water, and three companies
also furnish electric light as a part of the rental; one company also
includes garbage collection as a part of the rent charge. Of the 612
dwellings for which rent is reported, 70, or 11.4 per cent, rent for less
than $6 a month, and 87, or 14.2 per cent, for $18 and over per month.
The largest number (109, or 17.8 per cent) rent for between $10 and
$11 a month. Further details as to rentals are set forth in Tables
75 and 76:
T a b le 7 5 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F D W E L L I N G S O F E A C H S P E C I F I E D N U M B E R
O F R O O M S R E N T IN G A T E A C H C L A S S IF IE D A M O U N T P E R
R E G IO N O F T H E S O U T H W E S T .

M O N T H — M E T A L -M I N I N G

NUMBER.
D w ellings h a vin g Classified a m ou n t of rent per m on th .

T o ta l.
1

room . 2 room s. 3 room s. 4 room s. 5 room s. 6 room s.
1

1

13
$5 and u n d er $ 6 ...........................................................
S fi and lindfir $7 _______________________________
K
$8 a n d u n d er $ 9 ............................................................................
£9 and nndflr SM _______________________ ______ _________
Q
$ 1 0 a n d u n d er $ 1 1 ........................................................ !
96
1 and nndfirS12 _____________________________
11
$12 a n d un d er $14........................................................ ' ...............
$14 a n d u n d er $16........................................................ 1...............
Slfi and nndftr $18 ________________
_____ 1________
$18 an d o v e r ................................................................... l

57
105

109

196

T o t a l.....................................................................

70
105

12

4

16

12

1

7
13
50
7
9
16

9
9
46

24

118

143

33

3.4

5

50
25
4

66
1

1
2

4

1

7
5 1
1!
13

53
109
14
52
32
24
87
1 612

PER CEN T.
$5 a n d u n d er $ 6
.....................................................
a n d u n d er $7
.......................................................
a n d u n d er $9.............................................................
$9 a n d u n d er $10..........................................................
$ 10 a n d u n d er $ 1 1 .......................................................
$ 11 a n d u n d er $ 1 2
...................................................
$12 a n d u n d er $14
...................................................
$14 a n d u n d er $16.........................................................
$16 a n d un d er $18
...................................................
$18 a n d o v e r ...................................................................

11.9

$6
$8

T o t a l ...................................................................

29.1
53.6

11 4
17.2

6 .1
8 .2
8 8 .1

1 0 .2

35.0
17.5

.5

5.9

2 .8

1 0 .8

42.4
5.9
7.6
13.6

6.3
6.3
32.2

3.0
72.7

53.8
38.5
7.7

8.7
17.8
2.3
8.5
5 .2
3.9
14.2

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

3.0
3.0

1 1 .0
2 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

6 .1
1 2 .1

i N o t in clu d in g 30 dwellings for w hich re n t was n ot reported.




125

M E TA L-M IN IN G REGION OF TH E SOUTHWEST.

T a b le 7 6 .— N U M B E R O F D W E L L I N G S R E N T I N G A T E A C H C L A S S I F I E D A M O U N T P E R
M ONTH , B Y T Y P E
SO U TH W E ST.

AND

S IZ E

OF

D W E L L I N G — M E T A L -M I N I N G R E G I O N

OF

TH E

N u m ber of dw ellings ren tin g at each classified am ou n t per
m on th .

T y p e an d size of dw elling.

$5
and
un­
der
$6

D eta ch ed , fram e:
2 room s ...................................................
3 room s
...............................................
4 room s
...............................................
5 room s ...................................................
6 room s ...................................................
D eta ch ed, b rick :
3 room s ...................................................
4 r o o m s .....................................................
D eta ch ed , ad ob e: 4 room s ......................
D eta ch ed , h ollow tile:
3 room s ...................................................
4 room s ...................................................
5 room s
.................................................
S em idetached, a d ob e: 2 r oom s
..........
S em idetached, h o llo w tile:
2 room s ...................................................
3 r o o m s .....................................................
4 room s
..............................................
R o w , fram e: 1 r o o m ....................................
R o w , tile:
2 room s 1 ..................................................
4 r o o m s 2 ...................................................
T ota l

............................................

3

$6

$8

and
un­
der
$7

and
un­
der
•9
1,

9

$9
and
un­
der
$10

16
4
50 "2 5 *

$10

$12

$ 11

a n d and
un­ un­
der der
$11. $12.

and
un­
der
$14.

1

$14
an d
un­
der
$16.

1

7
4

13

1

1

46
2

5
9
4
7

T o ta l
$16
and $18 N o t
u n ­ and re­
p o r t­
der over.
ed.
$18.

........

I

1

9
38

11

30
84
137

11
1

5

20

11

|

11

13

9

9

9

9

4

7

3
8
2

4

12

2

4
54

54
4

12
12

j

16
18

4

2

2

........ i.........
I

96
96
57

105

1
66

53

109

14

52

........ 1.........
87
32
24

2

96
96
11

11

30

3 629

1
1
2
3

S pecially designed 6 -fam ily house.
Specially designed 3-fam ily hillside house.
N ot in clu d in g 13 one-room dw ellings.

Cost of construction.— The details as to costs of construction of
thoroughly modern tile and stucco houses built in a com pany town
in New M exico are set forth in a special article in the Monthly
Labor Review for September, 1918 (pp. 278-283). The small
frame bungalow characteristic of the region, made of one thickness
of tongue-and-groove material, costs approximately $1,000, includ­
ing inside modern plumbing, but without a cellar. Plans,with state­
ments as to costs, are shown for two types of dwellings in Figures
50 and 51.
Administration.— The housing work of the companies in this region
is made part of the general business. Rent is deducted monthly
from wages.
Maintenance.— The towns of the region are far better maintained
than the average coal-mining town of the East. Four of the six
communities provide and maintain fences for the tenants. Garbage
is collected daily in one community, semiweekly in one, and weekly
in one. Special receptacles are*
£or lt.*;*QnJy one of the
communities, however, .provMes £& privies *mstfea*d. orf ;V€iillt privies.
□.•
Conditions in the, ;Maxi(ian *sections of the towns kre/djsilliQtly
inferior to conditions’ in the American quarters. Mexican *tabj4*&*s.




126

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

lease land from the companies and build their own ushacks ’1 of
waste lumber, b ox materials, and scraps of corrugated iron. Many,
too, build adobe houses. The houses are crowded close together as a
rule, space being greatly limited in the small valleys and defiles of a
rugged country. Yards and streets are not so scrupulously policed
as in the American quarter.
On account of the isolation of the towns the employees are entirely
dependent upon the companies for measures relating to community
recreation and health. It is claimed, however, that in spite of that
fact there is a considerable
shifting of labor in the re­
gion. It is principally to
stabilize this shifting labor
that the companies are
giving more attention to
housing. One com p a n y
pointed out that b y con­
trolling housing the em­
ployer can keep out the
agitator among the em­
ployees.
C o s t

o f

m

a in te n a n c e

.—

As to the financial side of
their housing work only
two companies were able
to give satisfactory and
comparable d a t a . T h e
com pany designated as A
in Table 77 had invested
$206,778 in houses and
improvements
(lighting,
street surfacing, etc., and
F IG . 5 0 — B E T T E R -C L A S S F R A M E H O U S E O F A N
A R IZ O N A C O P P E R C O M PA N Y .
drainage and sewer con­
Plastered; m od ern sanitary e q u ip m e n t. Cost, in 1913, $1,862;
struction) and com pany B
rent $26.50 per m o n th . N o te p o o r lo ca tio n o f b a th room .
had similarly i n v e s t e d
$85,340. Charges to maintenance here do not include taxes, insur­
ance, and depreciation. After the average charges for maintenance
during the five-year period (1912-1916) had been deducted from rent
receipts for a similar period, com pany A showed a sum ($15,174.56)
sufficient to return a net 7.3 per cent on the housing investment, not
including land, and during, 3 four-year period (1912-1915) com pany
a
B showed a s^*l®*®4.9®,:sTB^laeiltp to net 1.1 per cent.

Coippany\A«kpent‘ 48‘ per cent* of-it^-ienA-receipts for maintenance
* and/upkeep, including garbage and sanif&r^;c<$lf ction, furnishing of
c
e
and light, and street cleaning, while qompany B spent 93 per




orch

P
creened

S
C oncrete fou n dation , plastered, m o d e m san itary im p rov em en ts, sto v e h eated .
$1,500; rent $13.50 per m o n th .




C ost in 1916, a b o u t

%

l

'

I . '1

, _____ W 11
+
■

Fig. 52.— H O U S E S I N M E X I C A N V I L L A G E O N C O M P A N Y L A N D .
N ote h illy lo ca tio n .

N ote re ce p ta cle for ru b b ish in fro n t o f house.

Fig. 53.— C H A R A C T E R I S T I C H I L L S I D E H O U S E S I N M E X I C A N
V I L L A G E I N S O U T H W E S T E R N C O P P E R -M I N IN G T O W N .




127

M E T A L -M IN IN G REGION OF TH E SOUTHW EST.

cent; the average for both companies is 57 per cent.
showing details by years follows:

The table

7 7 .-R E L A T IO N B ETW EEN REN T RECEIPTS AND E XPE N D ITU R E FOR MAINTE­
NANCE OF ONE COPPER COMPANY IN ARIZONA AND ONE IRON-MINING COMPANY
IN COLORADO.

T a b le

Expenditure for maintenance.
Company and year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Company A:
1912...............................................................................
1913.......................
1914...............................................................................
1915...............................................................................
1916...............................................................................
Average..............................................

....

Company B:
1912................................................................................
1913.........
1914...............................................................................
1915...............................................................................
Average. . .

.

. . . .

...

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$26,360.92
29,363.85
27,839.14
30,055.44
31,082.66

$6,344.76
13,157.05
11,576.13
16,515.62
21,235.66

24
45
42
55

68

28,940. 40

13,765.84

48

13.717.75
13.840.75
13,668.73
11,848.95

11,684.63
15,806.53
12,422.96
7,991.85

85
114
91
67

13,450.39

12,515. 46

93

Companies A and B combined:
1912................................
...................................
1913..............................................
......................
1914...............................................................................
1915...............................................................

40,078.67
43,204.60
41,507.87
41,904.39

18,029.39
28,963.58
23,999.09
24,507.47

58
58

Average.....................................................................

41,673.88

23,874.88

57




45

CH APTER

X I I .— N E W

ENGLAND

T E X T IL E

TO W N S.

Company housing in New England has an especial interest because
of its historical connection. Some of the large present-day cities of
New England were originally company towns founded by business
interests which saw the possibilities of water power for manufactur­
ing purposes. Paterson, N. J., founded by a company organized by
Alexander Hamilton,1 is an instance of this kind.
In Massachusetts the cities of Lawrence, Lowell, Ludlow, and Wal­
tham are examples of early company-organized towns, “ the owner­
ship of extensive real-estate holdings being a not unusual feature of
early industrial organizations in New England.” 3 Lowell dates from
about 1820, when the group of proprietors who controlled power and
land sites at Waltham began quietly to buy up the farms at the
locality desired. The farms were bought secretly one by one, in the
name of the agent of the founders, until about four farms were pur­
chased, conveying about 400 acres of land.3
The first houses established by the mill owners were boarding
houses, occupied principally by unmarried employees, although some
families were accommodated in them. Multiple tenements or bar­
rack dwellings were also constructed.
Senator Benton, of Missouri, in 1857 refers in glowing terms to
these “ large, stately, elegant houses,” having parlors as well fur­
nished as similar rooms for Congressmen in Washington. He com­
ments also on the cleanliness of the kitchen and its arrangements.
An earlier observer, on the other hand, writing in 1846, states
that on the average, the young women slept six in a room, three beds
to a room, that privacy was lacking, and that some of these boarding
houses did not even provide tables on which to write.4 A later
observer, in 1849, confirmed to some extent the above statement of
conditions, and noted the lack of closet and shelf space and the
smallness of the rooms, with a consequent lack of pure air under the
crowded conditions prevailing.5
A spirit of extreme paternalism prevailed. Elaborate rules were
formulated regarding the coming and going of tenants, their conduct,
and social pleasures.6 Church attendance was required of the tenant
1 Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the United States, 1607 to 1860, Washington, Carnegie
Institution, 1917, p. 387.
2 Idem, p. 405.
a Lowell: A City of Spindles (Lowell, Trades and Labor Council, 1900), p. 22.
* The Harbinger, Nov. 14, 1846. (Reproduced in Commons’ Documentary History of American Indus­
trial Society, vol. 7, p. 366.)
&Lowell Offering, May, 1849, p. 100.
6 Dr. Bartlett’s Vindication (Lowell Offering, Dec., 1843, p. 47).
128




129

N E W ENGLAND TEXTILE TO W N S.

employees. The following regulations for the boarding house of the
Hamilton Manufacturing Co.7 may be cited as of historical interest.
The boarding houses, it may be observed from the regulations, were
let to third parties by the company, which exercised control over
rates and conditions in the houses.
The tenants of the boardinghouses are not to board, or permit any part of their
houses to be occupied b y any person, except those in the employ of the com pa n y/
without special permission. They will be considered answerable for any improper
conduct in their houses, and are not to permit their boarders to have company at un­
reasonable hours. The doors must be closed at 10 o ’clock in the evening, and no
person admitted after that time, without some reasonable excuse. The keepers of
the boarding houses must give an account of the number, names, and employment
of their boarders, when required, and report the names of such as are guilty of any
improper conduct, or are not in the regular habit of attending public worship. The
buildings and yards about them must be kept clean and in good order; and if they
are injured otherwise than from ordinary use, all necessary repairs will be made, and
charged to the occupant. The sidewalks, also, in front of the houses, must be kept
clean, and free from snow, which must be removed from them immediately after it
has ceased falling; if neglected, it will be removed b y the company at the expense of
the tenant. It is desirable that the families of those who live in the houses, as well
as the boarders (all employees are required to be vaccinate d—see rules of company)
who have not had the kinepox should be vaccinated, which will be done at the ex­
pense of the company, for such as wish it. Some suitable chamber in the house must
be reserved, and appropriated for the use of the sick, so that others may not be under
the necessity of sleeping in the same room.

• Of the six companies taken by the Bureau as representative of
New England textile companies which house their employees to any
extent one dates from 1835, while the remaining five were founded
at various times— 1838, 1848, 1857, 1860, and 1909, respectively.
Of the houses included in the survej' two-thirds were constructed
before 1910, and 250, or 38.5 per cent, were constructed between 1906
and 1910. It is significant that even the semidetached and row
houses date from an early period, and apparently are not a modern
development resulting from dear land.
T a b l e 7 8 . -N U M B E R

OF DW ELLINGS OF EACH SPECIFIED TYP E AND M ATERIAL OF
CONSTRUCTION, B Y Y E A R OF CON STRU C TION -N E W ENGLAND T E X T IL E TOWNS.

Year of construction.

Before 1881........
..............
1881-1890..........................................
1891-1900..........................................
1901-1905 ........
...............
1906-1910.........................................
1911
.
. . .
1914..................................................
1915
.....................................
Not reported...................................
Total..

...............

Semidetached.
Row.
j Miscellaneous.
De­
tached,
Total.
frame. Frame. Brick. Other. Frame. Brick. Frame. Brick.
3

64

24

2

8

18

65

1
0

24

28

10

62
36

36

42

36

24
34

28

101

152

9

8

34

63

50
145

86

118
36
28

36

250
36
24
36

60

649

121

7 Handbook to Lowell (1848), pp. 45, 46. (From Commons’ Documentary History of American Indus­
trial Society, 1910, vol. 7, p. 137.)

125882°— 20— B u ll. 263-------9




130

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

SCOPE OF SURVEY.

The present housing survey in the New England textile region
covered only six communities controlled by as many companies, five
located in Massachusetts and one in Rhode Island. These com­
panies employed 10,624 operatives and of that number housed 2,047,
or 19.3 per cent.
Data furnished by four companies show that the average number
of employees secured per dwelling house is 3.2. One company has
a rule requiring three employees from each house or dwelling; if the
average falls below that the tenant must take boarders. This is
community No. 3 in the table below. This company secures 5.3 em­
ployees per dwelling.
T a b le 79.—NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES, NUMBER HOUSED, AND NUMBER AND SIZE OF
DW ELLINGS P R O V ID E D —NEW ENGLAND T E X T ILE TOWNS.

Number
of em­
ployees.

Community.

Community
Community
Community
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.

1........................................................
2..........................................................
3..........................................................
4..........................................................

Total...................................................................

750

Number
housed.

Number
of
dwell­
ings.

Number
of
rooms.

Average
number
of rooms
per
dwelling.

1,200

120
1,200
300

119
48
227
176

847
248
1,605
894

7.1
5.2
7.1
5.1

10, 265

1,817

570

3,594

6.3

1,815
6,500

197

THE COMPANY TOW N.

There is a general prevalence of contour planning in these little
communities, and very considerable regard is had for the use of trees
and vegetation as elements of beauty. In some instances, however,
the streets are unnecessarily wide and lack both gutters and sidewalk.
The towns of these companies are generally well maintained;
lawns are quite prevalent, and the presence or absence of fences
seems to make little difference in the securing of sightly premises.
Where fences have been provided they are of the picket type. The
immigrant unskilled labor section of the towns here, as is generally
the case elsewhere, is decidedly less neat and orderly than the other
parts where the higher-paid labor force is housed. In one com­
munity where no fences had been provided in the Italian quarter
the tenants have erected their own fences, using waste material. In
this section those front yards which have no fences have not been
cared for.
In one community it was stated that the houses had been kept in
good repair until several years ago, when the class of employees
changed from English and French to Polish, at which time repair
and upkeep became greatly neglected. These houses are now
badly in need of paint. (Fig. 54.) Another company built un-




F ig . 54.—E A R L Y T Y P E OF COMPANY HOU SES IN N EW
EN G LA N D COTTON-MILL COMMUNITIES.
Four-family rows.

Few trees and no grass. Houses need paint.

F ig . 55.—E A R L Y T Y PE OF D ETACHED BRICK HOUSE IN
N E W E N G LA N D COTTON-MILL COMMUNITIES, W ITH
FENCE A N D Y A R D .




Fig. 56.— SEM IDETACHED

H OUSES IN N E W EN G LA N D
COTTON COMMUNITY.

B uilt in 1906 at cost of SI,891 per dwelling unit. Six rooms and
cellar,inside closets, and running water. Thirty-two rent at $5 per
month, and 8, having bath also, at $6.




131

N E W ENGLAND TEXTILE TO W NS.

sightly frame rows at the time of a strike several years ago in order
to accommodate families of Italian operatives. In these rows the
toilets have been placed in the interior of the house and are without
outside windows and without ventilation. Overcrowding has also
been fostered, as indicated by the relatively higher rents in some of
the Italian rows, making it probable that the tenants take boarders
to help out with the rent. Thus in one row the rent for a six-room
dwelling is only $5.25 a month, and in another row the rent for a
dwelling similar in every way is $8.75 per month.
TYPES OF HOUSES.

There is more than the ordinary variety in housing in New England
textile towns, as shown in the fairly uniform distribution among the
different types of houses— detached, semidetached, and row. The
semidetached and the row houses predominate.
T able 8 0 . —N U M B E R A N D PE R CENT OF D W E LLING S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D T Y P E —NEW
E N G LA N D T E X T IL E TOWNS.
Number of
dwellings.

Per cent of
total.

D etached...................................... .
Semidetached................................
R o w ................................................
Flat, apartment, and other..........

101
194
208
146

15.6
29.9
32.0
22.5

T otal.....................................

649

100.0

Type of dwelling.

Most of the houses are of frame construction—402, or 61.9 per cent
of the total; 213, or 32.8 per cent, are brick; and only 34, or 5.2 per
cent, are of varying combinations of stucco on frame or brick veneer
on frame, etc.
SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

The company dwellings of the New England textile mills are larger
than the average for company dwellings as a whole, excepting only
those in the anthracite-coal region of Pennsylvania. The average
size as shown for the dwellings of five of the six companies included
is 5.2 rooms per dwelling. Data from five companies show that the
largest proportion of company houses have six rooms, the distribution
being as follows:
T able 8 1 . —NUM BER A N D PE R CENT OF D W ELLING S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D NUM BER
OF ROOMS—NEW E N G LA N D T E X T IL E TOWNS.




Number of
dwellings.

Per cent of
total.

3 rooms ........................................
4 rooms........................................
5 rooms...........................................
6 rooms...........................................
7 rooms...........................................
8 rooms...........................................
9 rooms and over...........................

12
55
155
209
108
20
90

1. 8
8.5
23.9
32. 2
16.6
3.1
13.9

T o ta l.....................................

649

100.0

Size of dwelling.

132

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

RENT.

The variety in the quality and character of the houses is strikingly
brought out in the wide dispersion of the dwellings among different
classified amounts of rent. No great proportion of the dwellings is
found in any particular rental group. Thus the greatest proportion
shown in any rental group is 15.7 per cent, found in two instances—
namely, in the groups “ Under $3 per m onth” and “ $5 and under $6
per month.”
The distribution of dwellings according to classified amount of rent
per month is shown in Tables 82 and 83, Table 82 showing rent per
dwelling by number of rooms per dwelling, and Table 83 rent per
month according to the type of the dwelling.
T able 8 2 . —N U M BER A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLING S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D NUM BER
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G AT EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT PE R M ONTH—NEW ENGLA N D
T E X T IL E TOWNS.
N U M B ER .
Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

9
Total.
3
4 i 5
6
7
8
rooms
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms.
or
over.

Under $3..............................................................
12
S3 and under $ 4 ..................................................
$4 and under $ 5 ..................................................
$5 and under $ 6 .................................................. i_____
$6 and under $ 7 ..................................................
$7 and under $ 8 ..................................................
$8 and under $9
.............................................
$9 and under $10 .............................................
$10 and under $11
.......................................... .......... j
$11 and under $12...............................................
$12 and under $14 .............................................
$14 and under $16...............................................
$16 and under $18 .............................................
$18 and over........................................................
T otal..........................................................

12

3
4

23
1
23
35
5

10

54

9
48
19
21
6

9 !
14
8
10
6
5

40

2
26
8
32

2
18
12
52
12

1

1

155

209

108

14.8
.6
14.8
22.6
3.2

4.8

50.0

7.3

72.7

1.3
16. 8
5.2
20.6

4.3
23.0
9. 1
10.1
2.9

8.3
13.0
7.4
9.3
5. 6
4.6

1.0
8.6
5.7
24.9
5.7

.9

100.0

100.0

8

55

1

1

102
1
49
102
52
69
37
11
74
12
59
13
53
14

19

90

1 648

10.5
10.5
10.5
15.8
42.1

2.2
3.3
20.0
38.9
18.9
4.4
7.7
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

15. 7
.2
7.6
15.7
8.0
10.6
5.7
1.7
11.4
1.9
9.1
2.0
8.2
2. 2

100.0

100. 0

2
2
2
3
8
1

1

2
3
18
35
17
4
1
1
1

PER CENT.
Under $ 3 . . . ...........................................
100.0
$3 and under $ 4 ..................................................
$4 and under $ 5 ..................................................
$5 and under $ 6 ..................................................
$6 and under $ 7 ..................................................
$7 and under $ 8 ..................................................
$8 and under $ 9 ..................................................
$9 and under $10.................................................
$10 and under $11 ...........................................
$11 and under $12...............................................
$12 and under $14...............................................
$14 and under $16...............................................
$16 and under $18...............................................
$18 and over........................................................
T otal.......................................................... 100.0




5.5

14.5

100.0

100.0

.9

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which rent was not reported.

5.3

5.3
100.0

133

N E W EN G LA N D TE X TIL E T O W N S .

8 3 . - N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED AM OUNT P E R
MONTH, B Y T Y P E A N D SIZE OF D W E L L IN G -N E W E N G LA N D T E X T IL E TOW NS.

T able

Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Type and size of
dwelling.

$4
$5
$6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $11 $12 $14 $16
To­
$3
U n­ and and and and and and and and and and and and $18 tal.
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
$3.
$4.

Detached, frame:

$5.

2

1

7 rooms ..........

2

10 rooms
13 rooms
14 rooms

$6.

$7.

1
1
1

2

3

Semidetached, frame:
4 rooms , ,

8 rooms

2

34

10

74

3

36

$14.

$16.

$18.

6

1
1

1

12
1
1

1
3

6

2
66
2
1
1
8
4
4

1
2

1

1

53

14

100
4

22

2
1

46
71
5

3

5
5

152

4

10

2

1

2

1

2
3

1

2

1

2

1
8

10

2

10
1

8

8
i

20
6

i

—— ■

21

16

16

24
41
16

6

4

3

3
29

8
8

8

-----

-----

25

6

6

3

63
34

8

1
10

28

10

3

2

52

13

3

8

Total

1

1

1
2

1

1

3

29

34
9
39
5
48
4
5

8

21

5

10

15 rooms . .
17 rooms . .




4

2
11

$12.

2

Row, brick:
4 rooms
5 rooms
6 rooms..
9 rooms .
10 rooms...
12 rooms

Total

7

4

2

2

Total

Total

3

I

Row, frame:
5 rooms...
6 rooms
7 rooms

Two-flat, s e m i d e ­
tached, brick:
5 rooms
7 rooms

4

2

Semidetached, frame,
stucco:
4 rooms.
5 rooms

Two-flat, frame:
5 rooms..
7 rooms
8 rooms

1

8

2

Total.

Total

3

$11.

1

3

3

3

4

54

Semidetached, brick:
6 rooms..........
7 rooms .
9 rooms..
12 rooms...

Semidetached, brick
veneer: 6 rooms...

3

4

20

9 rooms..........
T otal............

$10.

2

.

5 rooms
6 rooms..........
7 rooms

$9.

52

1

1

T otal...................

*8.

1

1

1

1

34

8

145
3

6

6

1

3

6

1

12

8
8

4
4

12
12

16

8

....... .........

24

134

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T able 8 3 . —N U M B E R OF D W E L L IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH CLASSIFIED A M OUNT P E R
MONTH, B Y T Y P E AND SIZE OF D W E L L IN G —N E W ENGL/VND T E X T IL E T O W N S—
Concluded.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Type and size of
dwellings.

Apartment, frame:
3 rooms
4 rooms..
. .
5 rooms..................
6 rooms...................
7 rooms...................
10 rooms__
Total

............

Apartment, brick:
5 rooms
6 rooms..
Total.

So
$3
Si
Un- and and and
der un- un­ un­
$3. der der der
$4. S5. S6.

12
1 ;
2 1

2

S6
and
un­
der
17.

4

6

49

S ll
and
un­
der
$12.

69

$16
To­
and $18 tal.
un­ and
der over.
$18.

12
7
28
18
8
1
74

24

;

52

$14
and
un­
der
$16.

18

24
|
i

j
102

S12
and
un­
der
814.

18

6
18

7
|

1

S10
and
un­
der
Sll.

6
1

I
. ^ ...........1■•_ -.
. 1 __
.

Grand 102
........ total

S9
and
un­
der
S10.

1

6

2
15

$8
and
un­
der
S9.

S7
and
un­
der
$8.

'

36

24

12

59

74

37

13 | 53
S

1 12

1 11

24
12

12 I .. .

14

i 648

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which m onthly rental was not reported.

The rents charged per room per month for dwellings of each type
and material of construction are as follows:
8 4 . —N U M B E R OF DW ELLING S RENTIN G A T EACH C L A SSIFIE D AM OUNT P E R
ROOM P E R MONTH, BY T Y PE OF DW ELLING A N D M ATERIAL OF C O N ST R U C T IO N N EW EN G LA N D T E X T IL E TOWNS.

T able

Number of dwellings renting at each classified
amount per room per month.
Type of dwelling and material of construction.

Detached, frame....................................................
Semidetached:
Frame..............................................................
Brick................................................................
Brick veneer...................................................
Frame, stucco................................................
Row:
Frame..............................................................
Brick...........................................
...........
Two flat, frame.....................................................
Two flat, semidetached, brick............................
Apartment:
Frame.............................
...
Brick................................................................
Total............................................................

50
$2
$4 Total.
$1.50
$2.50
$3
U n­ cents $1
der and and and and and and and
under under under under under under
50
cents. under $1.50. $2. $2.50. $3. $3.50. $5.
$1.
4

15

13

2

74

47
4

26
4

5

4

33
67
12
12

30
32

8

12

12

100

202

129

10

1

12

53

8

8

8

34

36

6
36

53

137

8
1

12

7

100
152
8
10
24
63
145
12
24
74
36

8

12

i 648

1 Not including 1 dwelling for which rent per room was not reported.

The rent charged by five of the companies covers only the use of
the house and water; one company does not report on this point.
Three companies also include garbage collection as a part of the
service furnished. In three communities the local municipal authori­
ties provide for garbage collection.




Fit;. 5 7 —PICTURE AN D PLANS OF BETTER-CLASS COMPANY HOUSE IN N E W EN G LA N D .
Electric light; stove heat. Rent, $16.50 per month.




Lot, 50 by 105 feet.

135

N E W EN G LA N D TE X TIL E T O W N S .

M OD ERN IM PRO VEM EN TS.

A very inconsiderable percentage of the 643 dwellings for which
information has been secured are without some or all present-day
sanitary conveniences. Only 19, or 3 per cent, are dependent upon
outside vault privies, while 242, or 37.6 per cent, have all the con­
veniences of a three-piece bathroom, running hot and cold water,
and electric lighting, and an additional 188, or 29.2 per cent, have
water-closet, sewer or cesspool, running water inside, and lights^
while 56, or 8.7 per cent, have water-closet, sewer or cesspool, and
running water inside. Of the total number, 213, or 33.1 per cent,
are without electric lights.
T able 8 5 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF DW ELLING S HAVING SPEC IFIE D SA N ITA R Y
EQ U IPM E N T —N EW EN G LA N D T E X T IL E TOWNS.

Sanitary equipment.

Number of '1 Per cent of
dwellings.
total.

Bath, water-closet, sewer or cesspool, water system, and gas or electric light..
Bath, water-closet, sewer or cesspp^ol, and water system ....................................
Water-closet, sewer or cesspool, running water inside, and gas or electric
lig h t.......................................................................................................................
Water-closet, sewer or cesspool, running water inside..........................................
No modern conveniences except running water in sid e.......................................
No modern conveniences (outside privies)...........................................................

242

37.6

9
188
56
129
19

1.4
29.2
8.7
20.1
3.0

Total...............................................................................................................

i 643

100.0

1 Not including 6 dwellings for which data are not reported.

COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

With one exception the six textile establishments included in this
part of the Bureau’s survey either refused or were unable to furnish
any useful information as regards the cost of their houses.
The company which has reported the cost of its tenements has
erected none but multiple houses, three groups of semidetached
‘ two-flatters” housing four families in each group, and two groups
of apartment houses, each four stories high and containing four
families on each floor. Plans are shown for one of the “ two-flatter”
groups constructed of stucco on frame. (Figs. 58 and 59.) The
houses are plastered and painted, not papered, inside. The cost per
family unit in this group was $1,063, or $213 per room, at the time of
construction in 1914. Each family has a five-room unit having all
the modern improvements except heating equipment other than a
stove. The arrangement of the interior can not be said to be desirable
since the bath is located off the kitchen and is not conveniently
accessible from the bedrooms. The parlor is rather small, having only
an area of 99f square feet— about the minimum for a standard bed­
room. The second-floor plan is identical with that of the first floor.
The rent of these tenements is $13 per month per family.







FLOOR

PLAN

O 4-FAMILY
F

HOUSE

ERECTED

B A COTTON-MILL
Y

COMPANY

I NW
N E

ENGLAND.

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

F i g . 58.— FIRST

136

I FIG.
N
SHOWN
HOUSE
O 4-FAMILY
F
PLAN
YiQ. 59.—SECOND-FLOOR

T 0 KCH
>



137

N E W EN G LA N D TE X TIL E T O W N S.

The cost and rentals of this and other tenements of this company
are indicated in the table below. All have three-piece batiirooms
for each family, but are stove heated. Storage space for each family
is provided in the cellar.
Table 8 6 . —COST A N D R E N T A L S OF TH E T EN E M EN T D W E LL IN G S OF A C E R T A IN
COTTON MILL IN NEW E N G LA N D .

Type of dwelling.

Semidetached “ two-flatter,” 2-story stucco on fra m e..
D o .................................................................................
D o .................................................................................
Apartment, 4-story, 4 families each floor, brick..............
D o ..................................................................................

Num­ Year
ber of of con­
dwell­ struc­
ings.
tion.

4
4
4
16
16

1914
1914
1914
1915
1915

Cost of con­
struction.
Num ­
ber of
rooms
per
Per
Per
family. dwell­ room.
ing.
5
5
4
5
0)

$813
1,063
975
2,375
(*)

$163
213
244
475
446

Rent
per
week.

$2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
(3)

1 Eight apartments have 5 rooms per suite and 12 have 6 rooms.
2 The 5-room apartments average 12,232 and the 6-room $2,679.
3 The 5-room apartments rent at $3 and the 6-room at $3.60 per week.

To house its unskilled labor, this company has remodeled a
school building into a five-family tenement containing two 5-room
apartments, two 7-room apartments, and one 9-room apartment.
The sanitary accommodations consist of a water-closet placed
in a small compartment at the rear of each apartment, and a sink
with running water in the kitchen. It may be noted that the halls
are used in common by the several families; the central halls are
without direct light and ventilation except for a glass scuttle, about
26 by 30 inches in the roof.
Each apartment is larger than the average dwelling provided for
raw immigrant labor as a rule. This fact very probably encourages
the taking of roomers beyond a desirable number, since an examina­
tion of the rent list shows over five employees to each apartment or
dwelling.
ADM INISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE.

Two of the companies covered carry on housing as a special depart­
ment of their business, while with the remaining four companies hous­
ing is an integral part of their main business.
Rent is collected weekly in four of the six communities and semi­
monthly and monthly in the other two. In all instances rent is de­
ducted from the pay of the operative. In three instances collection
is deferred in case of the sickness of the employee or in time of shut­
down of the mills. Rent here includes only use of house and water.
Regular garbage collection is made in three cases by the companies
themselves and in an equal number of instances by the local city
authorities.




138

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

Two of the companies encourage gardening, one by assisting in the
maintenance of a horticultural society. This society has a greenhouse
and the company has furnished various kinds of flowers and shrubs.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

Two companies report both annual rent receipts and the expendi­
ture for maintenance over a period of five years. In the case of one
company, which, in addition to ordinary repairs and maintenance,
garbage and ash collection, and insurance, also charged to the main­
tenance account the expense of upkeep and electric power for the
water plant supplying the houses, these charges amounted to 73.6
per cent of the rent receipts during the five-year period 1911 to 1915.
In the case of the second company, whose charges to maintenance
were similar to the above except as respects garbage collection, which
in this case is performed by the local municipality, and maintenance
and power for a water plant, the maintenance charge for the five-year
period 1911 to 1915 was 49.1 per cent. The details, by years, are
shown in the tabulation following, each company being shown
separately because of the difference in their respective accounts.
T able 8 7 . —R E LA TIO N OF CHARGES FOR M AINTENANCE, R E P A IR S , ETC., TO
R E C E IPT S OF TWO NEW E N G LA N D COTTON MILLS, 1911 TO 1915.

R ENT

Charges to maintenance, re­
pairs, etc.
Year.

R ent receipts.
Amount.

Establishment No. 1 :1
191 1
191 2
.
191 3
.
191 4
191 5
Average.
Establishment No. 2: 2
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Average.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$12,007
15,750
13,260
13,960
12,932

$8,897
12,362
11,337
9,265
8,150

74.1
78.5
85. 5
66.4
63.0

13,582

10,002

73.6

20,561
20,392
20,299
19,758
19,784

9,590
12.703
9,873
8,706
8,646

46.6
62.3
48.6
44.1
43.7

20,159

9,904

49.1

1 Maintenance includes all charges for repairs and maintenance, garbage and ash collection for tenants,
maintenance and electric power for water system supplying houses and insurance, but not taxes.
2 Maintenance includes all charges for repairs and maintenance, street cleaning, ash collection for tenants
(the city collects the garbage) and insurance, but n o t taxes.




CH APTER

X I I I .— S O U T H E R N

C O T T O N -M IL L

V I L L A G E S .1

By the early thirties of the nineteenth century, power spinning
and some factory weaving— probably on hand looms only— were
established in the South, but the real development of cotton manu­
facturing in that section may be said to date from 1846, when Wil­
liam Gregg, in association with Charleston capitalists, established at
Graniteville, S. C., the finest, and probably at that time the largest,
factory south of Mason and Dixon’s line. Mr. Gregg had familiar­
ized himself with the methods of the great corporations of Lowell,
Mass., and his operatives, all native whites, “ were housed, shep­
herded, and schooled in a comfortable village, with welfare institu­
tions, on the Lowell plan.” This enterprise was followed almost
immediately by the digging of a power canal at Augusta, Ga., 10
miles distant, and there even larger factories were built. Before the
middle of the century the manufacturers of the South added sheet­
ings and other coarse cloths to their yarn shipments to New York
and Philadelphia, and the product of the Southern mills became
mainly sheetings, shirtings, and drillings, as that of the New England
mills had been for a decade after the close of the war of 1812.2
The growth of manufacturing in the cotton-growing States was
not particularly rapid at first (in 1860 New England had nearly 14
spindles for every one in the South), but the industry has made
great strides within more recent years and South Carolina now stands
next to Massachusetts in the number of spindles.
In the housing of its people, as in the product of its looms, the
southern cotton mill is to-day where its northern competitor was in
the first and second generations of its existence. In the North the
operatives have largely gotten away from company control of living
conditions, due, among other factors, to the higher wages received
for the finer classes of work done in the North, which enables them
to live in other than company houses.
Of the 10,609 dwellings covered in this study the date of con­
struction was reported for 7,480. Of the latter number, 7.3 per cent
were built before 1881, 12.4 per cent were built from 1881 to 1890,
35.1 per cent were built during the next decade, and 28.5 per cent
during 1901-1910. One thousand and ninety-eight (about 15 per
cent) were built in 1916 or early in 1917, about two-thirds of them
iT h is chapter was written by Miss Elizabeth A. H yde,of the Bureau.
2 Clark, Victor S.: History of Manufactures in the U nited States, 1607 I860, Carnegie Institution of
Washington, 1916, pp. 540, 542, 557, 558.




139

140

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

in the latter period, due to the actual or anticipated increase in the
demand for cotton goods of various kinds.
Before 1881 more brick row dwellings were built, for use singly or
as flats, than either detached or semidetached frame houses. Since
that time, however, almost no brick rows have been erected, in the
present study none whatever being reported as built since 1890.
Only 24 dwellings in frame rows are listed among the 10,609 houses.
During the decade 1891 to 1900, one-third of the houses erected
were semidetached frame houses; fewer of this class were built
during the years following until 1916 and 1917, when somewhat
more than one-third were of the two-family type.
On the subject of the two-family house it may be stated that the
leading contractors advocate its abandonment, and the best of the
new enterprises visited were putting up considerable numbers of
single-family bungalows. Where new two-family houses were re­
ported by the better mills inspection generally showed that they
were adapted to meet the needs of newly married couples or small
families, requiring only two or three rooms. They follow the pre­
vailing and convenient custom of having one or more connecting
doors so that they can be thrown into one dwelling for the use of
larger households. The best two-family houses are of superior con­
struction. The statement was made by a contractor in March, 1917,
that to make soundproof the wall between two 3-room dwellings
added approximately $30 to the cost. This simple expedient does
away with one of the tenant’s greatest objections to the semide­
tached house.
The following table shows the date of construction of the different
kinds of houses:
T able 8 8 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D T Y P E A ND M ATER IA L OF
CONSTRUCTION, B Y Y E A R OF CONSTRUCTION.
Semidetached.

Detached.
Year of construction.
Frame. Brick.
Before 1 8 8 1 ....
1881 to 1890..
1891 to 1900.. .
1901 to 1905..
1906 to 1910..
1912. .
1913...............
1916
1917. . . .
Not reported.. .
T otal................




147
668
1,693
980
879
20
121
162
544
2,144

36

7,358

40

Row.

Total.
*— » , Brick. Frame. Brick.

Oth­
er. Frame. Brick. T
i
1

4

120
244
898
200
52

Miscellaneous.

6

8

119

98
14
23

13

26

8
222
170
794

56

2 i

3

6

2,708

62

2 |

24

125

197

547
930
2,622
1,203
931
20
129
384
714
3,129

66

10,609

62

27

48
18

141

SOUTHERN COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.

SCOPE OF SURVEY.

Of the 48 southern cotton mills scheduled in the present study12 are in North Carolina, 11 in South Carolina, 12 in Georgia, 9 in
Alabama, and 3 in Tennessee. One Delaware mill is included here
because its conditions resemble those of the South rather than of the
New England group. Between 15 and 20 other mill communities
were visited; at least one-half of these were of more than average
interest and are excluded from the statistical study only because of
important omissions or defects in the schedules.
In regard to the danger of drawing conclusions from so limited
a survey, the following, compiled from the State industrial reports,
is of importance: The mills investigated in Georgia comprised only
8.8 per cent of the cotton mills in the State as reported in 1915,
but their employees comprise 31.3 per cent of all the cotton mill
employees; the mills visited in North Carolina constitute about 3.9
per cent of all the mills, but their employees are about 13.3 per cent
of all the employees; and the mills visited in South Carolina consti­
tute 6.6 per cent of all the mills, but their employees are 14.6 per
cent of all the employees.
The 48 establishments scheduled in this study employed at the
time of the investigation a total of 35,643 persons, and of these
25,289, or 71 per cent, were housed by the employing companies.
Twenty-eight of the mills housed more than 80 per cent of their
workers, 19 housed 90 per cent or more, 12 housed 95 per cent or
more, and 6 housed all.
The following table shows figures as to the housing done by six
mills:
T able 8 9 . — N U M B E R OF EM PLO Y EES H O U SED , AND N U M B E R AND SIZE OF D W E LL IN G S
P R O V ID E D B Y SIX MILLS— SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.

Mill and location.

Mill No.
Mill No.
Mill No.
Mill No.
Mill No.
Mill No.

1 (South Carolina)................................................
.....
.......
2 (A labam a).........
3 (South Carolina)................................................
4 (A labam a)......................................................
5 (North Carolina).....................................
6 (T ennessee)......................................................

Number
of
employees
housed.

N umber
of
dwellings.

700
700
275
275
G24
625

332
265
117
75
311
308

Number
of
rooms.

1,265
1,211
455
300
1,169
1,139

Average
number
of rooms
per
dwelling.
3.8
4.6
3.9
4.0
3.8
3.7

Remarks made at some of the mills visited indicate that the num­
ber of hands a family can supply for the mill is still a factor in deter­
mining the allotment of housing accommodations. This condition
is, of course, closely bound up with the question of child labor.
In three cases the mill-village population is reported. All three
are mills on the outskirts of cities. No. 1 houses 1,500 persons in
878 rooms, equivalent to 0.59 room per person and 1.7 persons per




142

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

room; No. 2 houses 3,431 persons in 2,638 rooms, or 0.77 room per
person and 1.3 persons per room; No. 3 houses 1,000 persons in 465
rooms, or 0.47 room per person and 2.15 persons per room.
The last mentioned was one of the worst cases seen. Eighty new
four-room bungalows are largely used by two households each; the
three-room houses in many cases contain more than one family; and
the 10-room tenements (five-room semidetached houses, but “ so cut
up by families that we call them tenements” ) are occupied each by a
number of households, one noted by the agent housing a total of
30 or more persons. This company is said to be building constantly
in an effort to do away with this crowded condition. However, it is
one of the three companies reporting the rule that a family must
provide one hand for each room.
Even where the rule of one employee per room does not obtain and
where experienced welfare workers are making every effort to raise
the standards of living, it is said that some families still sleep all in
one room “ as they did in the mountains.” The opposite practice
of using all rooms for sleeping purposes, results in a condition also
deplored by social workers in the mill communities, since the young
people have no sitting room in which to entertain guests.
It is true of most cotton-mill villages in the South, as it is of the
average mining or iron and steel community, that their isolated loca­
tion necessitates the providing of houses for the employees. Situated
with a view to the availability of power and the cheapness of land,
mills generally are constructed at a distance from towns, and housing
accommodations for the working force are as necessary a feature as
the mill itself.
This results, unavoidably, as things are at present, in the undemo­
cratic system of company control, which has played so large a part in
certain notorious industrial disturbances.
The consensus among the agents who conducted this investigation
agrees with that of a study made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
in 1907 and 1908, namely, that living conditions in the typical cottonmill villages compare very favorably with those in other industrial
communities housing a similar or comparable class. Living condi­
tions alone are under consideration, the evils of long hours, low wages,
and deleterious working conditions having no part in the present
study.
The following is an extract from the report of the earlier investiga­
tion : 3
In a number of villages conditions are reported as excellent and superior to those
in the surrounding country. The consensus of the different reports indicates clearly
that the mill companies take more and greater sanitary precautions than usually are
3 Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-Earners in the U nited States, vol. 1, Cotton Textile
Industry, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1910. (Sen. Doc. 645, Gist Cong., 2d sess.)




SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAGES.

143

taken in the average village or on the average farm * * * [p. 535] * * * while the
housing accommodations are far from being ideal among cotton-mill operatives, if they
are compared with those prevailing among other laboring people having about the
same income, it is found that they are at least not inferior, and the rents are lower.
The sanitary conditions prevailing among cotton-mill operatives, especially in the
South, are generally better than the average among other laboring people [p. 536].
It may be questioned whether it is best in the long run for the development of the
people to have the amount done for them that is done b y the mill companies in some
of the villages. Still there can be no question that the present living conditions are
much better in the villages of this type than in many of the larger towns where mills
are located. The people in such villages usually enjoy more comfort and convenience
and the provisions made b y the mill companies for the educational and moral uplift
of the community are in some instances equal or superior to the facilities afforded to
the citizens of incorporated towns in the same section of country where the companies
do not exercise control [p. 538].

The isolated location of the village is one cause of the evil of over­
crowding, since the housing activities of the company do not always
keep pace with an increase in spindleage or the erection of an addi­
tional mill. The best employers anticipate such a condition, and
several of the communities visited in 1917 were putting up scores of
new houses in preparation for the influx of labor due to the increased
activity in the industry. Quite commonly the oldest employees are
given the preference in the allotment of new houses; not infrequently,
however, they ask to be allowed to stay in the houses they have occu­
pied for years and to which they are accustomed. Where a shortage
of houses exists the families are compelled to take boarders or to
occupy fewer rooms, both of which are resented by all but the least
desirable among the workers.
In cotton manufacturing, as in other industries, where the factory
is near a town or city, some employees prefer to live outside of the
mill community, and in spite of the cheaper rents in the village and
the long hours of work go back and forth each day. The mills visited
at Augusta and Columbus, Ga., Knoxville, Tenn., and some other
places of considerable nonmill population, house a comparatively
small part of their working force; but two companies at Columbia,
S. C., and Atlanta, Ga., despite the fact that their properties are
actually or practically within the city limits, house 85 and 60 per cent,
respectively, of their employees.
THE MILL VILLAGE.

Except for the dominating mill, the general appearance of the
more common type of village is not very unlike that of a mining or
steel town, w^ith its rows of small houses of the same design and size,
the unimproved streets and gutters and walks, the struggling young
trees, the absence from the streets of vehicles, children, and dogs.
Almost invariably in the mill village,, however, there are one or more
churches, a substantial school building, a good-sized store, and the




144

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

better homes of the mill officials. A community cottage for welfare
activities, a moving-picture hall, a playground, and a park are be­
coming more and more common.
The topography of the mill villages is described as level, entirely or
partly hilty, and entirely or partly rolling in about equal proportions
of the cases. In 28 cases the checkerboard plan of laying out the
streets was used in part or exclusively; in 16 cases all streets follow the
contour of the site.
Various reasons were given for following the checkerboard instead
of the contour plan which lends itself to variety and picturesqueness
and does not result in the monotony of row on row of houses: To
economize space; to be more convenient and to facilitate the layout;
to follow the plan of cities; to give each house the same size of lot.
In no instance had any preliminary housing survey been made,
other than the necessary consideration of the probable number of
persons to be housed, and the segregation of Negroes. As a general
rule the mill occupies a commanding position and the houses are
clustered about it as closely as practicable, the employees generally,
it is said, preferring the houses that are nearest the mill.
In 25 of the 48 communities the company laid out a whole town, in
12 a subdivision, and in 9 a suburb. One mill built on lots already
laid out, and one did not report on this subject.
In only 10 of the 48 villages was the average width of the streets
less than 40 feet; in 13 it was 40 to 49 feet, and in many it was 55 or
more, being as much as 90 in one or two cases. Thus narrow thorough­
fares can not be said to be a feature of cotton-mill towns. Ordi­
narily there is plenty of ground and it is laid out liberally. In one case
of reconstruction the new houses have been built between the old
ones, the lots being of such generous widths that building operations
were conducted without difficulty.
In spite of a number of examples of excellent road work, both in
old and m new communities, the average village street is little more
than a country road, except in the matter of gutters, which ordinarily
are deep and well cared for. In perhaps one-fourth of the places
visited the streets were excessively muddy, impassable except at
crossings and in a number of cases impassable there.4 In all the
better villages, efforts are being made, with sand, clay, or other top­
ping, to improve the roads. Macadam streets were reported in two
cases. The walks are of sand, clay, gravel, occasionally asphalt or
cement, but more generally cinders. Miles of stone curbing are
being put in.
Grass and trees at the sides or in the middle of the streets are re­
ported in only about one-third of the cases.

4The survey of th is region was made d u rin g th e firs t three m onths of 1917.




F ig .

60.— COTTON-MILL

VILLAG E

IN

SOUTH

CAROLINA.

DETACHED

FRAME

COTTAGES.

Fig. 61.—AN U N U SU A L L Y W ELL-K EPT COTTON-MILL VILLAGE IN T E N N E SSE E .







F ig . 62.—LAYOUT OF TYPICAL SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL VILLA G E.

SOUTHERN COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.

145

Young trees set out for the purposes of shade or fruit or both are
reported in one-fourth of all cases, their distribution as to location
between lot and walk and between walk and road being about equal.
Large trees line the streets in some of the older villages; one company
was uprooting, by machine, fine grown trees that were to be planted
elsewhere under direction of the landscape gardener. In one-half of
the schedules no mention is made of trees, or they are reported as few
or none. Complaint of damage was voiced by a number of the offi­
cials giving information; young trees quite commonly are guarded by
boxes, though vehicles in mill villages are comparatively few.
Where the community has electricity for mill or residence purposes,
the streets usually have an occasional arc light, and in the best
villages the lighting is adequate.
Functions ordinarily a part of the municipal government are neces­
sarily performed by the employing companies in isolated commu­
nities. Of the 48 mill villages reporting in the present study, the
only examples of other than company provision are where the mill
is actually or practically within the city limits. Such being the
case, it is perhaps not surprising to find that of the 48 villages 18
have no sanitary sewers (and many more, naturally, no sewer con­
nection in the operatives’ houses), 25 no storm sewers, 20 no paving,
15 no sanitary rules, 41 no gas, 10 no electricity, 35 no hospital, and
18 no playground. The companies acknowledge their responsibility
for street cleaning, street lighting, garbage and other sanitary col­
lection, and fire and police protection. The county, in many cases
assisted by the company, provides for the schools. Company sup­
port of kindergarten and night schools is quite common. The people,
in most cases assisted by the company, provide and maintain their
churches.
TYPES OF HOUSES.

Almost all of the mill-village houses are of frame, only 3 per cent
of all reported being of other materials. The 293 brick houses are
confined to four of the communities visited, and 191 of them are in
one city in Georgia.
The prevailing type of three-room house has two rooms at the
front, with chimney between and an L at the rear, with a somewhat
primitive smoke pipe. The four-room house is almost invariably
“ square, or approximately so, with one central chimney providing
for fires in all rooms or a chimney between the front and back room
on each side.”
Each of the 48 companies reports some or all of the houses as
weatherboarded. Three companies erecting houses of various types
are using shingle or other novelty siding with pleasing effect. In
125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 10




146

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

two cases somewhat inferior houses, such as Negro quarters, are of
board and batten or boxed, and in one old village visited, but not
included in the tabulation, practically all the dwellings are so
constructed.
Fifteen of the companies report all roofs as shingle; eight report
some tin and some composition roofing. In four cases a compo-

F ig . 63.—PLA N OF 3-ROOM BU NG ALOW EREC TED B Y A COTTON-MILL COMPANY IN
SOUTH CAROLINA.

sition roofing such as fiber tile, fiber shingle, Neponset rubber, or
imitation slate is being used.
In comparatively few cases is the space between ground and first
floor inclosed by lattice or boarding, though such addition con­
tributes largely to the good appearance and somewhat to the warmth
of the house. Where tenants use the uninclosed area beneath the
house for discarded trash or the storage of fuel, the result is very




SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAG ES.

147

unsightly, especially if the ground is uneven and some of the sup­
porting piers ar'e several feet in height.
In only 20 cases are porches mentioned, but this feature is so gen­
eral that probably it was overlooked in reporting instead of being

F ig . 64.—PL A N OF TYPICAL SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL FRAM E COTTAGE.
Thirty erected in 1907, on lots 50 x 170 feet, at an average cost of $1,100, not including land.
contains 4 rooms, and rents for $5 per month. Grate heat.

Ecch

absent. Outside blinds are not often provided. Four of the com­
panies report that they supply screens free and five others that they
install them at cost. In one case the householder bears 60 per cent
of the cost of screens and the company bears 40 per cent.




148

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Of 36 mills reporting on the exterior finish of their houses, 17 say
that they are painted a variety of colors, 3 that one color with a
contrasting trim is used, and 16 mention only one color, in most
cases white. Only six schedules speak of the alternation of style or
color of house to prevent monotony, but in many other cases the
roofs differ in color where the walls do not, affording a pleasing
variety. As described elsewhere in this report (p. 28), a row of detached
houses all of one type may be made to appear of several styles by
facing them in different ways.
In 11 cases the houses are ceiled inside, in 14 plastered, in 17 some
are ceiled and some plastered, in the remaining 6 paper or beaver
board is used. Two have double doors for warmth, and one makes
special mention of lined walls.
In the better villages and the better houses of most villages closet
space is provided between rooms or beside a chimney. In some
cases every room has such provision. One official remarked as to
the exceptional fact that even his new houses had no closets, that
this gave “ less chance to hoard trash.” If sincere and not an excuse
for their accidental or economical omission from the plans, this was
a sad commentary on his mill people, since the fact that closet room
makes decent housekeeping easier is incontrovertible.
Ordinarily the employing company supplies grates for the fireplaces
but does not provide the cookstove.
In one village the new type of house happens to have very narrow
stairs, turning back on themselves after a small landing, and because
of the impossibility of getting bedsprings and such pieces around the
bend it has been left open between the two flights.
SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

As appears from Table 90, the four-room dwelling is the most
common of the 10,609 dwellings covered by the survey, 4,585, or
43.2 per cent, having four rooms. The three-room house follows,
forming 20.4 per cent of the total number of dwellings. Among the
7,358 detached frame dwellings those of three and four rooms pre­
dominate, forming 26.7 and 50.9 per cent, respectively.
RENT.

Of the 10,609 houses reported upon, the monthly rental of 2,655
(25 per cent) is less than $3; of 2,970 (28 per cent), $3 but less than
$4; and of 2,893 (27.3 per cent), it is $4, but less than $5. Thus
8,518 houses, or 80.3 per cent of all, cost their tenants less than $5
a month for rent. Of these 8,518 dwellings, 3,981 (46.7 per cent)
have four rooms and 3,003 (35.3 per cent) have three rooms.




149

SOUTHERN COTTON-M ILL VILLAGES.

T able 9 0 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D N U M BER
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G AT EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT OF R E N T P E R M ONTH—SOUTH­
E R N COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.
NUM BER.

Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

9
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
rooms Total.
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.

Under S3.................................................
S3 and under $4......................................
$4 and under $ 5 .....................................
$5 and under $ 6 .....................................
S6 and under $7......................................
$7 and under $8......................................
$8 and under S9......................................
S9 and under S10....................................
$10 and under S ll
............................
$11 and under $12 ............................
S12 and under $14 ............................
$14 and under $16 ............................
$16 and under $18 ..............................
$18 and over.........................................

788
149
4

T otal.............................................

941

1,056
1,679
268
159
3

719
874
2,388
163
404
37

92
75
16
596
13
74
57
41
20
1

5

2

15

1
1

2,655
2,970
2,893
954
711
145
89
64
69
15
20
1
18
5
10,609

8
3

5

21
6
11
1

185
205
36
291
13
10
11
24
15
5

16
1

4

24

1
3,165

4,585

7
1
2
3

796

63

42

32

23.2
25.8
4.5
36.5
1.6
1.3
1.4
3.0
1.9
.6

12.7
4.8

11.9

12 5

33.3
9.5
17.5
1.6

38.1
2.4

985

PER CENT.

33.4
53.0
8.5
5 0
.1

9.3
7.6
1.6
60.5
1.3
7.5
5.8
4.2
2.0

83.7
15.8
.4

T otal.............................................

100.0

15.7
19.1
52.1
3.6
8.8
.8

11.1
1.6
3 .2
4.8

11.9

6.3

.1

Under $3
.
$3 and under $ 4 .....................................
$4 and under $5 ...................................
$5 and under $6......................................
$6 and under $7......................................
$7 and under $8 .................................
$8 and under $9 ...................................
$9 and under $ 1 0 ...................................
$10 and under $11...................................
$11 and under $12 .............................
$12 and under $14 ..............................
$14 and under $16 ...............................
$16 and under $18...................................
$18 and over...........................................

35.7

3.1
3.1

25.0
28.0
27.3
9.0
6.7
1.4
.8
.6
.7
.1
.2
0)
.2
.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

75.0

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Details as to the relation between the type and size of dwellings
and the rent charged per month are given in the table below:
T able 9 1 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G A T EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT P E R
MONTH, B Y T Y P E A N D SIZE OF D W E L L IN G —SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.*
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Type and size of
dwelling.

Detached, frame:
2 rooms..........................
3 rooms
4 rooms..........................
5 rooms..........................
6 rooms
...............
7 rooms.. .*.....................
8 rooms
9 rooms..
..............
10 rooms........................
14 rooms..
............

$3
U n­ and
un­
der
$3.
der
$4.
181
693
521
74

$5
$6
$7 $8 $9 $10 $11 $12 $14 $16
$4
To­
and and and and and and and and and and and $18 tal.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der over
$6. $7. $8. $9. $10. $11. $12. $14. $16. $18.
$5.

4
37
956
193
808 1,883
74
16
155
205
8
3
5
3

Total.......................... 1,469 2,038 2,312

119
133
330
28

3
362
13
283

37
52
12
21

19
10
6
15

5
11
8
1

20
13 'i4*
1

661

122

50

25

35

7
5

1

14

14

2

1
3

4

7,358

1

1

1
610

1

222
1,964
3,744
604
732
60
26
4
1
1

1

3

i This table does not include 5 boarding houses and hotels, also 127 houses free to officials and employees
and 77 with cost or number of rooms not reported.




150

R O U S IN G B Y E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

__ N U M B E R OF D W E L L IN G S R E N T IN G AT EACH C L A SSIFIE D A M O U NT P E R
M ONTH, B Y T Y P E A N D SIZE OF D W E L L IN G —SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL V IL L A G E S1
—
Concluded.

ta b le 9 1

Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per month.
Type and size of
dwelling

Detached, stone:
2 rooms..........................
4 rooms .................. .......

$3
Un­ and
un­
der
$3.
der
$4.

1

$5
$4
$6
$7 $8 $9 $10 $11 $12 $14 $16
To­
and and and and and and and and and and and $18 tal.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der der over
$9. $7. $8. $9. $10. $11. $12. $14. $16. $18.
$5.

16

1ft rnnmf!

1
Detached, brick:

16

8
8

1

1

1

1
1

8 rooms..........................
1ft rnnms, .

3

11

1

1
16
9
1

1

1

27

” i"

2
17
3
16
1

1

40

5
15

1

I

T otal..........................

1

Semidetached, frame:
2 r o o m s .......................
3 rooms
4 rooms.. .
__
5 rooms..........................
6 room s...........................

605
362
194
16

104
633
66
1
30

26
364

40
20
227

12
8

709
1,061
656
244
38

1,177

834

390

287

20

2,708

Total

...........

1

Semidetached, brick:
4 rooms
5 rooms..........................

6

T o t a l........................

2

6

Semidetached, stone: 5
rooms................................
Detached, flat, frame:
3 rooms..........................
4 rooms......................
5 room s...........................

1
4
1

32

6

32

1

56

11

1

5

15

20

36

6
56

20

36

62

1

T otal..........................

3

48

Semidetached, flat, frame:
3 rooms.............................
Semidetached, flat, brick:
5 rooms.............................
Row, flat, brick: 4 rooms
Tenement, frame: 10 rooms'
Row, frame:
2 rooms..........................
3 rooms......................
4 rooms..........................
Total..........................

2

31

24
1

1

2

8
2
10

34
4
32

31

70
104

8
10

24

8
58
23

23

13

9
2
13

13

24

Row, brick:
4 rooms..........................
5 rooms..........................

82

Total..........................

82

Grand total............... 2,655 2,970 2,893

6
6
954

711

88
37

37
37
145

89

125
64

69

15

20

1

18

5 1
10,609

1 This table does not include 5 boarding houses and hotels, also 127 houses free to officials and employees
and 77 w ith cost or number of rooms not reported.

Table 92 below contains figures showing the distribution of dwell­
ings of each type and material of construction according to the rent
per room per month:




151

SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAGES.

T able 92.—NUMBER OF DWELLINGS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER
ROOM PER MONTH, BY TYPE OF DWELLING AND MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTIONSOUTHERN COTTON-MILL VILLAGES.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount
per room per month.
Type of dwelling and material of
construction.

Detached:
Frame.............................................
Stone...............................................
Brick...............................................
Semidetached:
Frame.............................................
Brick...............................................
Stone...............................................
Detached, flat, frame..........................
Semidetached:
Flat, frame.....................................
Flat, brick.....................................
............................
Row, flat, brick
Tenement, frame ..............................
Row:
F r a m e ............................................
Brick...............................................
T otal...........................................

50
$1.50
$2
$1
$2.50
$3
$4
Under cents and
and
and
and
and
50
and under under and
under under under under
cents. under $1.50.
$2.
$2.50.
$3.
$3.50.
$5.
11.

18

2,607
8
1

3,842
15
4

856
4
13

679

1

1,859
26

1

1

170
36

2
6

30

3

20

1

Total.

7,358
27
40
2,708
62
2
70

48
24

104
8
58
23

16
82
3,303

1

56
8
34
23

19

63

8
43

24
125

6,028

1,203

50

4

1

1

10,609

The house rent covers house and water in 46 of the villages report­
ing and includes also electric light in 17 of these. In a number of
cases the use of pasture for cattle is allowed free, and occasionally
the use of stalls. A unique condition is the free provision of electric
current for household appliances in a village having a practically
unlimited supply of power.
M OD ERN IM PRO VEM EN TS.

Of the 10,609 dwellings in the villages under consideration, infor­
mation as to the water supply was furnished in 10,197 cases. Of
these about 62 per cent used hydrants and 20 per cent used wells,
while in 24 per cent water was in the house. In about 6 per cent of
the cases, as the combined figures indicate, more than one source of
supply was available.
Of the 8,269 dwellings the toilet arrangements of which are reported,
only about 22 per cent were provided with water-closets at the
time of the investigation, but these were being installed in many
hundreds of houses and the figure to-day doubtless would be much
higher than 22 per cent. Approximately 37 per cent were provided
with can privies, and 10 per cent with vaults; the remainder still have
surface toilets of one sort or another. Some half-dozen companies re­
ported that they had installed, or were trying out, the systems of Kaustine privies or septic tanks recommended by various governmental
agencies. At one of these villages a school-teacher volunteered the
information that she “ never saw such an improvement, and con­




152

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

ditions used to be pretty b ad” ; at another the investigator was told
that “ people don’t know whether they like them or not; certainly
the mosquitoes have been very much worse.” A mill in Tennessee
which experimented with the sytem of can privies reported that the
cans froze in severe weather, making cleaning almost an impossibility.
Of one modern village, each of whose 372 houses, new and old, is
provided with a water-closet, it is said that the damage in the case of
the 82 “ old ” houses from carelessness has not amounted to $100 in the
five years of the village’s existence. To prevent damage to the
plumbing toilet paper is supplied without charge in villages having
improved toilet facilities. The cost of repairs necessitated by care­
lessness generally is charged against the householder.
Less than 4 per cent of all the houses have bathtubs, though in
some of the newest developments space has been left for them to be
installed later if desired. Twelve of the 48 communities report
bathtubs in some houses, but in 11 of these the number of dwellings
having tubs ranges from 2 to 24 only. The twelfth village is a striking
exception to the rule, 272 of its 372 houses being provided with this
feature. All of these houses were built in 1916 and 1917. Employers
who complain that the bathtubs installed are used as coal bins, or not
used at all, probably overlook the fact that in most cases water must
be heated and carried to the tub in the old-fashioned way and that
bathrooms built on porches are likely to be cold.
In several villages the community bathhouse, built in the vicinity
of the mill, and heated by steam therefrom, is intended for use by the
families and not exclusively by the operatives.
Sinks are by no means as uncommon as bathtubs, 21.4 per cent of
all houses being supplied with them. Only 49 houses have hot-water
provision.
Of the 9,883 houses whose lighting facilities are reported, 4,078, or
41.3 per cent, are electric lighted. Gas is almost nonexistent, being
reported in only seven towns, in six of these being supplied by the
city. In most of the mill villages the custom is to burn oil, as is
done in the country districts not reached by electric power.
The president of one of the most interesting places visited, whose
aim is to have “ the best mill, the best village, and the best people in
the South,” considers the improvements in the housing and living
conditions the greatest contributory factor in the successful operation
of the mill. His people like these improvements; some move away,
of course, but generally they come back, explaining that the women­
folk could not get along without the household and other conveniences.
In this village all the houses have sewer connections and waterclosets; all have running water, and only the Negro tenements are
without sinks; about three-fourths of the houses have bathtubs; all




153

SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAG ES.

but the Negro quarters have electric lights, and electric power is sup­
plied free for fans, irons, etc.
Prices at the stores (a fine grocery, a drug store, and a white-tiled
meat market) are kept as low as possible. The streets are being
paved, walks laid, and trees planted. The new mill is of fireproof
construction and has as much glass as the walls will stand. There is a
$20,000 school building. The president believes that all this is “ good
business,” and that money invested in getting a permanent, highclass labor force is well spent.
COST OF CONSTRUCTION.

Under the changing market conditions any statement as to costs of
recent improvements is worth little or nothing. At the time of t h e
investigation (January-March, 1917) it was quite generally asserted
that houses that had formerly cost but $100 a room were costing
$150. However, in view of the simplicity and general uniformity of
construction, certain average costs may be hazarded as a rough
statement of the amount of investment in company housing in this
region. The costs quoted include, as throughout the report, only
bare house cost, without land, but with such primitive inside improve­
ments as are afforded.
The following table gives details as to costs of construction:
T able 9 3 . —N U M BER OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH C L A SSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION,
B Y T Y PE OF D W E L L IN G A N D M ATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION—S O U T H E R N COTTONMILL V ILLAGES.
Number of dwellings costing each classified amount.
Type of dwelling and ma­
U n­ $250
terial of construction.
der and
$250. under
$500.

$500
and
under
$750.

$750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500
and and and and
under under under under
$1,000 $1,250 $1,500 $1,750

Detached:
Fram e.............................. 73 2,169 1,724 1,225
2
B rick................................
1
4
20
Stone................................
Semidetached:
846
254
499
Fram e.............................. 123
56
B rick................................
Stone................................
1
5
Detached, flat, fra m e...........
Semidetached:
Flat, frame......................
Flat, brick.......................
23
Tenem ent, fram e..................
Row:
Fram e..............................
B rick................................
6
Total.............................

196 2,689 2,585 1,561

331
12

76

42
20

$1,750 $2,000 $2,250 $3,250 Total.
and and and and
under under under over.
$2,000 $2,250 $2,500

25

7

5

1

2
2

5,679
36
26
1,722
56
2
6

2

23
6
343

78

62

25

8

5

4 17,556

1 N ot including 3,053 dwellings for which price was not reported.

Classified costs per room for dwellings of specified type and material
of construction are contained in Table 94.




154

H O U S IN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T a b le 9 4 .— NUM BER

OF D W E L L IN G S OF EACH C L ASSIFIED COST OF CONSTRUCTION
PE R ROOM, B Y T Y P E OF D W E L L IN G A N D M ATER IA L OF C O N ST R U C T IO N SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL V IL LA G ES.
Number of dwellings costing each classified amount per room.

Type of dwelling and ma­
terial of construction.
U n­
der
$50.
Detached:
Fram e..............................
Stone................................
Brick................................
Semidetached:
Frame............................
Stone................................
B rick................................
Detached, flat, frame..........
Tenement, frame...................
Row, brick...........................

4

$100 $150
and and
under under
$150. $200.

556 2,427 1,459
20
5
12

$200 $250
and and
under under
$250. $300.

$300
and
under
$350.

939
1
17

168

144

120

601 2,825 2,592 1,101

293

$400
and
under
$450.

131

23

392 1,052
2
56
6

119

$450
and
under
$500.

$550
and
under
$600.

1

5

$600 Total.
and
under
$650.

1

12

2

4

T otal...........................

$50
and
under
$100.

1

5

i

5,679
26
36
1,722
2
56
6
23
6

6
1

6

1

l 17,556

i Not including 3,053 dwellings for which cost of construction per room was not reported.

The relation between the cost oi construction per room and the
rent per room is brought out in the following table:
T a b l e 9 5 . — R ELA T IO N

OF COST P E R ROOM TO R E N T P E R ROOM—SO U T H E R N COTTONMILL VILLAGES.
Number of dwellings renting at each classified amount per
room per month.

Classified cost per room.

Under $50...............................................
$50 and under $100.................................
$100 and under $150...............................
$150 and under $200...............................
$200 and under $250...............................
$250 and under $300...............................
$300 and under $350...............................
$400 and under $450...............................
$450 and under $500...............................
$550 and under $600...............................
$600 and under $650...............................
N ot reported..........................................
T otal.............................................

50
Total.
$1.50
$2
$3
$2.50
$4
$1
Under cents and
and
and
and
and
and
50
and under under under under under under
cents. under
$2.
$3.
$1.

18

3
551
1,134
387
182

1
50
1,518
1,612
613
287
108

1

1,046

1
1,838

19

3,303

6,028

155
592
283
6
5

22
6
16

162

50

1
1

1
i

6

1,203

1
1

4

1

1

4
601
2,825
2,592
1,101
293
131
6
1
1
1
3,053
10,609

HOTELS AND LODGING HOUSES.

Hotels for unmarried officials, school-teachers, traveling salesmen,
and transients are found in most of the good-sized or better-class
villages, and boarding houses for unmarried operatives exist prac­
tically everywhere. Ordinarily both hotels and boarding houses are
simple frame structures of 10 to 30 rooms, managed well or ill, like
such places elsewhere.
Among the Georgia mill towns for which schedules were secured but
not included in the tabulation because of incompleteness of data is




SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAGES.

155

one having such an interesting plan for housing unmarried operatives
that the information may well be included in this section of the report
and is here summarized:
There were large numbers of single women in the surrounding
country who lived with relatives, did all the housework, even to
woodchopping, and brought up the children, yet were taunted with
being dependent on their relatives. Few could enter employment
in the mills because people objected to taking women boarders.
Some of these persons were “ drummed u p ” by mill agents and the
inn was built to house them.
The inn is a wide-fronted building of two stories and attic on the
edge of the pine woods, approximately three city blocks from the
mill. It is of frame painted white, with shingle roof. A 12-foot
porch with big pillars extends the width of the house, and upstairs
is a railed but uncovered balcony of the same size. There is a back
porch also.
The first floor has 17 rooms, as follows: Parlor, reading and re­
creation room, office and library, dining room, butler’s pantry,
kitchen, cook’s pantry, matron’s suite (2 rooms and bath), 4
double bedrooms, 2 bath and toilet rooms, linen closet. The second
floor has 13 double bedrooms, 1 single bedroom, 1 larger bedroom,
servants’ quarters (2 rooms and toilet), 2 bath and toilet rooms, 2
linen closets. Storage for trunks is provided in the attic. The
halls up and down stairs are wide enough for recreational purposes,
even dancing. Washbowls, tubs, and showers are liberally pro­
vided. The house is steam heated, electric lighted, and screened,
and the furnishings are unusually pretty. The servants’ quarters
are entirely shut off, being approached by outside stairs only. Laun­
dry facilities are in a separate building in the rear.
The inn was built to accommodate 38 or 40 persons besides the
matron, her two daughters, and the servants. Originally intended
for single women only, the house now includes among its occupants
several married couples without children. Four or five months of
attempting to operate the inn for single women only proved that
plan a failure, but with a few married women as chaperones, the
house is a great success. Changes among the boarders are becoming
less in number as they become acquainted and accustomed to better
methods of living; many who leave to live elsewhere soon return to
the inn. The house is the scene of a great many of the social ac­
tivities of the village.
The matron, formerly engaged in mission and welfare work,
receives $75 a month and board and lodging for herself and daughters.
Much of the inn’s success, which is so pronounced that the house
has been duplicated at two other properties of the same company,
is said to be due to the system of management.




156

H O U SIN G BY E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

For the single men there is another inn, somewhat similar to the
one described. Its use is given without charge to a competent
woman manager, who makes what she can out of it, but must pro­
vide satisfactory service and board for the employees. The purpose
of this house was to “ corral the hobo la b o r /7 described as boarding
around, sleeping three in a bed, and staying at a mill for one-pay
period only. The mill found that it hired the same men about
twice a year. These floaters are good workers and the mill wants
to hold them.
Still a third and a fourth building for special classes of employees
exist in this village— a house for the school teachers and another for
the young men in the office departments. The former is filled to
capacity and an addition is under consideration; the latter has not
succeeded, owing to the enlistment and the selective draft, and is
practically closed.
ADM INISTRATION.

Contrary to the improved method which is growing in favor in the
other industries, under which the housing activities are separate and
distinct from the production departments, it is the almost invariable
rule among southern cotton-mill villages that the housing of the
operatives is done “ as part of the general business.7 In only one of
7
the 48 villages is there a special department having this function. In
most cases there is a “ house man” charged with the maintenance
and allotment of the dwellings and the collection of rents.
In all the villages reported upon, the rent is deducted from the wages.
It is collected weekly in 25 cases, biweekly or semimonthly in 20 cases,
and monthly or every four weeks in 3; it is not collected in advance.5
On the question of the collection of rent during unemployment or
sickness, 10 mills report that the rent is collected later, in easy in­
stallments; 4 mills, that it is deducted from the pay of other em­
ployees in the same house; 5, that it is crossed off the books; and 18,
that the policy is lenient, depending on circumstances. Nine report
that no rent is charged during a mill shutdown, and one states that
only half rent is collected at such time.
None of the 48 companies reported that houses were sold. In a few
cases it was reported that lots were sold on easy terms to employees
who desired to build, and in a number of cases it was stated vaguely
that “ many of the employees own their homes.”
MAINTENANCE.

In 15 of the 48 communities lawns are maintained by the tenant,
in 1 they are maintained by the company, and in 13 they are main­
tained “ jointly,” the expression probably meaning that the company
» The practice of withholding ] week's or 2 weeks’ pay, not made up until the worker leaves the m ill’s
employ, was not inquired into. Where this obtains the collection of rent is, of course, 1 or 2 weeks behind.




SOUTHERN COTTON-M ILL VILLAGES.

157

furnishes seed, and perhaps plowing, but interests itself no further
than that. In more than one-third of the cases it is reported that
grass plots are few or altogether lacking.
Prizes for gardening are given by one-third of the companies re­
porting. Even at the time of the investigation (January to March)
many yards showed signs (generally only beds marked off by half
bricks, stones, or cans) that in season they are different from the
baked-clay door yards adjoining. In a few cases the statement was
made that the villages themselves are veritable gardens in summer,
and indeed the existence of community plots and greenhouses to
provide seedlings and cuttings, and the practice of caring for potted
plants in the mill or greenhouse all winter lends credence to this
assertion. One mill in Georgia has 1,000 feet of violet borders,
tended by children, about school, church, and community cottage.
Cooperation with Federal and State agricultural authorities is re­
sponsible for the many tomato and canning clubs among the chil­
dren. In a number of villages company land at a distance from the
homes is allotted to adults or children or both for vegetable growing.
In one case reported this worK is supervised by the landscape gardener
in charge of the village improvement.
Closely related to the subject of gardening is that of fencing. In
17 villages, it is reported, the company provides the fences, in 13 the
tenants provide them, and in 2 there is an arrangement for joint
provision. In one of these last two the company pays 60 per cent
and the tenant 40 per cent of the cost. In another case where an
unusually fine type of wire fencing is used it is stated that the company
provides the materials and the tenant pays for the labor. In onethird of the towns there are no fences. The cases in which information
is given as to kind of fence in use may be classed as follows: Wire, 10;
picket, 4; board, 1; various, 14. In two villages seen hedges take the
place of the less picturesque fence. In most places the condition of
the fences is reported as good.
Substantial outbuildings for fuel, occasionally intended also for
other storage purposes, were seen at the rear of the lots in a few of the
villages. These are said to pay for themselves in saving wear and
tear on porch and house.
The collection of garbage is attended to by the company in 33
cases, by the city in 9, and by city and company jointly in 2. In 4
cases no information is given on this point, but in one of these the
statement is made that the company collects tin cans. The fre­
quency of garbage collection varies considerably among the 40
villages for which this information was obtained, collection being daily
in 3 cases, semiweekly in 8, weekly in 17, and monthly in 1. In the
last named the reply can have reference only to rubbish, not kitchen
waste. Four mills report that collections are made weekly in winter




158

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

and semiweekly in summer. In 7 cases the information is not spe­
cific, but in none of them are collections less frequent than “ every
week or 10 d a ys/’ and in most of them the reports indicate that this
important matter receives attention two or three times a week.
Aside from the general appearance of a village, which, it is probably
true to say, depends wholly on the employing company, neatness of
the premises depends, as in other communities, on the individual
householder; of adjoining houses one may be neat indoors and out,
and the other may have every appearance of being utterly disreputa­
ble. Ordinarily, however, such contrasts do not exist long. The
better class workers object to shiftless neighbors. They make applica­
tion for the next vacant house that is more fortunately situated and
move away, this being one explanation of the continual removal from
one house to another complained of by some superintendents. It
may be said that houses with a somewhat larger lot than the average
are in great demand among the householders who attempt gardening.
Only in cases of gross mistreatment of property, it appears, are
tenants forced to leave on that account. Most of the mills reply
that this action would be taken “ if necessary,” or if the bad house­
keeping were “ malicious.” Some mills report that in exaggerated
cases of disorder premises are cleaned up by the company’s men and
the expenses therefor are deducted from the tenant’s pay. The custom
of withholding one pay period’s wages and of paying only when the
operative quits employment enables the company to exact that
premises be left in good condition when they are vacated.
COST OF MAINTENANCE.

On the subject of repairs and maintenance the figures secured from
the 48 mills under discussion are very unsatisfactory. Ordinarily
the house repairs are made by the men employed to do the mill work
of this character, and only in rare cases is it possible to separate the
costs. Sixteen of the mills investigated report for the year 1916
maintenance charges and the rent receipts, and give the original cost
of all dwellings. These figures indicate for the 16 mills that the rent
receipts minus the maintenance charges were about 3.6 per cent of
the original cost of the dwellings. Taken over an average of three
to five years, this percentage is somewhat higher.
The maintenance of the property has a great deal to do with the
general appearance of individual houses and of the community. Of
the 300 houses of one South Carolina village, more than 50 are reported
as having been built in 1845 and 18 or 20 others during the Civil War;
yet they have been so well kept up that the community is one of the
most pleasing of the many visited. Another village, whose cottages
were built largely in 1850 and 1860, is reported by the investigator as
“ not attractive, but the absolute cleanliness of the town makes it




159

SO U T H E R N C O T T O N -M IL L VILLAG ES.

appear so” ; a third, in which 1850 was a year of great building activity,
presents, through lack of fresh paint, a decidedly dreary appearance.
Two cotton mills in Georgia, which charge to maintenance the
necessary labor and material for the upkeep of the houses and the
streets, lights, garbage collection, etc., report data showing that
68 per cent of the rent receipts for the four-year period 1912 to 1915
were spent for that purpose. These charges, it is noted, do not
include interest, insurance, or depreciation. Taxes are virtually
included, since the companies themselves perform, as part of main­
tenance and repair, functions ordinarily performed by the com­
munity and supported by taxes, such as care and cleaning of streets,
lighting, water supply, garbage collection, and policing. Deprecia­
tion may also perhaps be eliminated, as the extent of the repair and
maintenance may well be taken to cover that element. Perhaps,
too, increase in land value may more than cover depreciation in the
value of the houses.
The amount left as return on the investment, after deducting the
expenses of maintenance from the rent receipts, is $7,580. This
represents a return of 4.4 per cent on the value, reported as $174,100,
of the houses of both companies combined.
T a b le

9 6 . — RELA TIO N

B E T W E E N R E N T R E CE IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AIN­
TENANCE OF TWO COTTON MILLS IN GEORGIA, 1912 TO 1915.
Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.

Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1912.........................................................................................
1913
.................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

$22,037.17
24,936.77
24,174.35
24,877.58

$8,515.66
28,473.57
9,511.38
19,206.91

39
114
39
77

Average.......................................................................

24,006.47

16,426.88

68

Two companies in Tennessee, which state that they charge to
maintenance and repairs only necessary labor and material (that is,
this expense does not include taxes, insurance, interest, or deprecia­
tion), show, on the other hand, that only 30 per cent of their rent
receipts are absorbed for that purpose, as indicated in the following
table:
T a b l e 9 7 . — RELATIO N

B E T W E E N R E N T R ECEIPTS A ND E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M AIN­
TENANCE OF TWO COTTON MILLS IN T E N N E SSE E , 1912 TO 1916.
Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.

Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
1916........... l ...........................................................................

$22,494.30
23,007. 76
23,766.32
25,408.81
26,482.47

$8,546.38
7,490.38
8,267.69
4,371.85
7,434.04

38
33
35
17
28

Average.......................................................................

24,231.93

7,222.07

30




160

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The combined value of the houses of these two Tennessee com­
panies is $257,575. The amount remaining from rent receipts, after
expense of maintenance is deducted, is $17,010, or 6.6 per cent of the
value of the houses, exclusive of land.
Three Alabama companies show expenditures for maintenance
and repairs as 50 per cent of their average yearly rent receipts for
the three-year period 1913 to 1915. This leaves for the fixed
charges— insurance, interest, depreciation— about $32,871 annually,
or 5.4 per cent of the original cost of the houses of these companies,
reported as $608,990.
T a b l e 9 8 . — R E LA TIO N

B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AINTE­
N ANCE—T H R E E COTTON MILLS IN ALABAM A, 1911 TO 1915.
Expenditure for m ainte­
nance.
Rent receipts.

Year.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

Amount.

1911.........................................................................................
1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

i $29,963.00
2 51,611.00
59,386.40
68,977.80
67,969.50

i $16,659.00
2 18,048.00
43,633.08
26,113.14
27,974.68

56
35
73
38
41

Average........................................................................

3 65,444.57

3 32,573.63

3 50

1 One establishment only.

2 Two establishments only.

3 Average for 1913, 1914, and 1915.

A comparison of the figures supplied by six mills shows striking
differences in some of the factors most closely related, such as rents,
costs, return on investment, etc. The tabular statement following
makes such comparisons.
T a b l e 9 9 . — COST

OF D W ELLING S, R E N T R E CE IPT S, 1916, A N D R E T U R N ON IN V E ST ­
M ENT, 1916, FOR SIX MILLS—SO U T H E R N COTTON-MILL V ILLAGES.

Mill and location.

Mill
Mill
Mill
Mill
Mill
Mill

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 (South Carolina)..........................
2 (Alabam a).....................................
3 (South Carolina)..........................
4 (A labam a)...................................
5 (North Carolina)..........................
6 (Tennessee)...................................

Original
cost of
dwellings.

2

$192,800
190,140
48,120
83,500
146,025
222,275

1Covers interest, insurance, and depreciation.




Average
cost per
dwelling.

$660
718
4 tl
1,113
470
722

2

R ent
receipts
in 1916.

2 $10,799

14,325
2,726
4,356
8,631
23,587

Average
rent per
dwelling
in 1916.

2

$37
54
23
58
28
77

Return on
investm ent
(exclusive
of land).1
Per cent.

J Not including 40 houses, rent free.

25.6

7.5
5.7
5.2
5.9
10.6

CH APTER

X I V .— I R O N

AND

STEEL

TO W N S

OF

TH E

N ORTH .

Housing conditions in the iron and steel towns of the northern
district, including the States of Maryland, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Minnesota, present such a variety
of conditions as to make it almost impossible to give a true word
picture. The towns range in type from high-class towns, laid out
according to town-planning principles, to undeveloped and neglected
communities. The houses present a considerable variety in type,
material of construction, number of rooms, and sanitary equipment.
Housing conditions in the iron and steel towns of Pennsylvania
and Maryland, New York, and Ohio are closely similar to those
prevailing in the anthracite and bituminous coal region of Pennsyl­
vania. The semidetached mine type of house is frequently found.
In the more settled cities row houses have been built. In order to
show the different varieties of houses in this region a few con­
trasting pictures are given here (see Figs. 65-72).
Historically, the earliest town disclosed by the Bureau’s survey
was one located in Pennsylvania, which dated from 1850. This
particular town is one of the earliest steel towns established in the
State and is another illustration of the fact that a large number of
industrial cities are the product of business enterprises which have
found it necessary not merely to organize industrial plants but also
to provide whole communities.
SCOPE OF SURVEY.

Employers in the iron and steel region of the Eastern and Middle
West States house about three employees to each company dwelling,
and 0.6 employee per room. This calculation is based on informa­
tion from nine different communities, where 45,075 men are employed
and 5,528 are housed by the companies. The data relate to 1,882
dwellings having an average of 5.3 rooms per dwelling.
T able 1 0 0 . —N U M BER OF EM PLO Y EES, N U M B E R H O U SE D , A ND N U M B E R A N D SIZE OF
DW ELLING S PR O V ID ED IN N IN E COMMUNITIES—N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L
TOW NS.
Number
of
em­
ployees.

Number
of em­
ployees
housed.

Number
of
dwell­
ings.

Number
of
rooms.

Average
number
of rooms
per
dwelling.

1
..................................................
2 ..........................................................
3 ......... .................................................
4 ...........................................................
5 ............................................................
6 ...........................................................
7
......................................................
8
....................................................
9
......................................................

21,783
7,230
7,631
1,955
1,200
521
2,155
600
2,000

150
250
2,920
700
138
350
200
20
800

103
151
555
250
42
154
78
15
534

618
1,004
2,938
600
225
820
486
75
3,182

6.0
6.6
5.3
2.4
5.4
5.3
6 .2
5.0
6.0

T o t a l......................................................................

45,075

5,528

1,882

9,948

5.3

Community.

Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 11




161

162

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

SIZE OF DWELLINGS.

The figures in Table 101 show that the prevailing size of company
dwellings in the northern iron and steel district is four, five, or six
rooms, houses of these sizes forming, respectively, 27, 25.2, and 28.5
per cent of the total 5,722 houses.
Table 101.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S HA V IN G EACH CLASSIFIED
N U M B E R OF ROOMS—N O R T H E R N IRO N A ND ST E E L TOWNS.
Number of
dwellings.

Number of rooms.

Per cent of
total.

2 rooms............................................
3 rooms............................................
4 rooms............................................
5 rooms............................................
6 rooms............................................
7 rooms............................................
8 rooms............................................
9 rooms and over............................

274
125
1,547
1,442
1,629
245
239
221

4.8
2.2
27.0
25.2
28.5
4.3
4.2
3.8

Total.........................................

5,722

100.0

RENT.

Table 102, giving rent per month, classified by size of dwelling,
shows that 16.4 per cent rent for $6 and under $7 per month.
It may be noted that a very considerable proportion (14.3 per cent)
rent for $18 and over per month. This is a larger proportion at such
high rental than is found in the case of company houses in other
regions and is accounted for by the fairly large proportion of betterclass houses for the more skilled laborers and members of the super­
visory staffs who are accommodated in company houses in this
region.
T able 1 0 2 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W ELLING S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF
ROOMS R E N T IN G AT EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT P E R MONTH—N O R T H E R N IR O N
A N D ST E EL TOW NS.
NUMBER.

Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

Under $ 3 ...............................................
$3 and under $4..
. . .
$4 and under $5....................................
$5 and under $6 ....................................
$6 and under $7....................................
$7 and under $8.....................................
$8 and under $9....................................
$9 and under $10...................................
$10 and under $11.................................
$11 and under $12.................................
$12 and under $14.................................
$14 and under $16.................................
$16 and under $18.................................
$18 and over..........................................
Total...........................................




9
4
rooms Total.
2
3
5
6
8
7
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms.
or
over.

8
66
200

1
6
1
17
17
69
1

is

274

125

1
4
237
9
446
14
65
222
116
8
128
12
245
40

25
203
37
30
200
113
47
216
2
70
159
99
241

218
247
34
255
5
74
172
179
61
80
304

46
11
1
62
26
3
27
12
57

6
1
153
20
1
48

17
70
129

2
35
450
347
940
300
518
276
477
209
546
296
507
819

1,547

1,442

1,629

245

239

221

5,722

1
6
3

2
3

F ig. 65.—HIGHER CLASS HOUSES IN A PEN N SYLVANIA
STEEL TOW N. NOTE FENCE AN D TREES.

Fig. 66 .—PENNSYLVANIA STEEL T O W N .
FRAME HOUSES.

DETACHED

Note close placement of houses, neat woodsheds and
well-kept alleys.

F ig. 67.—STEEL TO W N IN PENN SYLVA NIA . NOT COM­
P A N Y HOUSES. PREMISES ILL-K EPT.




Fig. 69.—ST E E L TOW N IN PEN N SY L V A N IA .




H ILL SID E HOUSES.

Much too closely placed and unattractive.

163

IRON AN D STEEL T O W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

Table 102.—NUMBER AND PERCENT OF DWELLINGS OF EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF
ROOMS RENTING AT EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER MONTH—NORTHERN IRON
AND STEEL TOWNS—Concluded.
PER CENT.
Dwellings having—
Classified amount of rent per month.

Under $ 3 ................
$3 and under $4___
$4 and under $5___
$5 and under $6___
$6 and under $7___
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9___
$9 and under $10...
$10 and under $11..
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $14..
$14 and under $16..
$16 and under $18..
$18 and over..........

3
4
2
5
rooms. rooms. rOoms. rooms.

2.9
24.1
73.0

10

Total.

100.0

100.0

9
rooms
or
over.

7
. rooms.

Total.

0.1
.3
15.3
.6
28.8
.9
4.2
14.4
7.5
.5
8.3
.8
15.8
2.6

1.7
14.1
2.6
2.1
13.9
7.8
3.3
15.0
.1
4.9
11.0
6.9
16.7

13.4
15.2
2.1
15.7
.3
4.5
10.6
11.0
3.7
4.9
18.7

18.8
4.5
.4
25.3
10.6
1.2
11.0
4.5
23.3

*2.* 5*
.4
64.0
8.4
.4
20.1

7 .7
31.7
58.4

C
1)
0.6
7.9
6.1
16.4
5.2
9.1
4.8
8.3
3.7
9.5
5.2
8.9
14.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

0 .4
2 .5
1.3
1.4

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Nearly one-fourth (24.1 per cent) of the houses in the district rent
for $1.50 and under $2 per room per month. Houses renting for $1
and under $1.50 and $2 and under $2.50 per room per month appear
to be in about equal proportion— 17.4 and 16.2 per cent, respectively,
as is shown in the following table:
T able 1 0 3 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S R E N T IN G A T EACH CLASSIFIED
AM OUNT P E R ROOM P E R M ONTH—N O R T H E R N IR O N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.
Classified amount of rent per room
per month.

Number of
dwellings.

Per cent of
total.

50 cents and under $1....................
$1 and under $1.50..........................
$1.50 and under $2..........................
$2 and under $2.50..........................
$2.50 and under $3..........................
$3 and under $3.50..........................
$3.50 and under $4..........................
$4 and under $ 5 ..............................
$5 and under $ 6 ..............................
$6 and over......................................

461
995
1,382
927
528
499
155
691
78
6

8.1
17.4
24.1
16.2
9.2
8.7
2.7
12.1
1.4
.1

T otal.........................................

5,722

100.0

M O D ER N IM PRO VEM EN TS.

As respects equipment it may be noted that over one-half of the
dwellings in the region are lighted by electricity— that is, 2,885, or
50.4 per cent, of the 5,722 included in the survey. Over seven-tenths
have running water inside—4,250, or 74.3 per cent of the total. A
very considerable proportion have three-piece bathrooms and gas and
electric light connections— namely, 2,259, or 39.5 per cent of the total.
On the other hand, 1,410, or 24.6 per cent, have no modem conven­
iences of any kind.




164

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

COST OF MAINTENANCE.

Only two companies of the 25 iron and steel companies covered
by the investigation have reported the amount they expended for
repair and upkeep of company houses. These companies have,
however, reported roughly comparable data in that respect. The
charges to the maintenance account include only labor and material
for ordinary repairs, omitting the fixed charges of taxes and insur­
ance, and expenditures for outside upkeep such as street cleaning,
garbage collection, and general sanitation. From the data reported
by these two companies, which are engaged in the manufacture of
railroad cars, it appears that the average charges for ordinary repairs
and maintenance of the houses have amounted to 24 per cent of the
rent receipts for the 5-year period 1911 to 1915. The range has
been from 12 per cent in 1911 to 32 per cent in 1914.
The total original cost of the houses of these companies, not
including land, is $258,688. The average annual rent receipts,
which amount to $21,376.42, yield, therefore, a gross return of 8.3
per cent on that investment.
T able

1 0 4 . —R E L A T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E
M AINTENANCE, TWO STEEL-CAR COM PANIES, 1911 TO 1915.

FO R

Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1911.........................................................................................
1912 .......................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

$18,642.00
17,566.07
22,177.77
24,445.71
25,050.56

$2,252.09
3,019.98
6,822.37
7,903.78
5,603.76

12
17
31
32
23

Average.......................................................................

21,376.42

5,120.40

24

Below are given descriptions of four communities in the iron and
steel region. Another community, Morgan Park, which is omitted
from this report, was described at length in the April, 1918, issue of
the Monthly Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (pp. 1-25).
SPECIAL COMMUNITIES.
COMMUNITY C.

This community is a noteworthy example of a company town
planned, constructed, and controlled by a steel company in the
northern iron and steel district, which includes Minnesota, Illinois,
Indiana, and Ohio, and the eastern States north of Virginia. The
town in question is in one of the eastern States and shows an
unbroken history of company ownership of about 30 years. It is
as old as Pullman, 111., which has passed into history as a company




F ig . 70.—STEEL T OW N IN PENN SYLVANIA. CHEAPER
T YP E OF SEMIDETACHED HOUSE SOLD B Y COM­
P A N Y ON TERMS.

F ig. 71.— ST EEL
TO W N
IN
PENNSYLVANIA.
SEMI­
DETACHED HOUSES.
Rent for $10 per month for each
family. No grass o r trees; cinder
courts.




F ig . 72.— STEEL TO W N IN
PENN SYLVANIA. SUB­
STANTIAL H O LLO W TILE
AND BRICK HOUSE.
Note poorly kept yard.




FIG. 73.— E A S T E R N S T E E L T O W N , C O M M U N IT Y C.
P ic tu r e s a n d p la n s o f s e m id e t a c h e d h o u s e s .

IR O N AN D STEEL T O W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

165

town. During all that time it has been owned by only two
companies— the steel company which founded it in 1887-88 and the
present corporation, which acquired it in 1916. Very much the
same individuals have been managing it for a number of years, so
that it presents a continuity in policy of management. A con­
spicuous feature of that policy has been the absence of self-gov­
ernment, characteristic of company-town ownership almost without
exception.
The company owns every acre of the 2,000 acres occupied by its
plant and the community, and will sell no land or houses; conse­
quently no private building has been undertaken.
The broad scope of company ownership in this community is
explained as due to the remoteness of the’ plant from any large
city. From 1887, when the plant started, up to 1889 the only means
of communication with the plant was by boat. The plant is situ­
ated 12| miles from a large city, with which it is at present connected
by both steam and electric lines. The travel time for an employee
living in the nearby city varies from 20 minutes to an hour, de­
pending on the location of his home in the city. The cost of the
round trip is 60 cents by railroad and 25 cents by the electric cars.
While remoteness from a labor supply was the principal motive
for the construction of a complete town and the provision of houses,
certain incidental results have come from the maintenance of com­
plete control, although such control, it should be noted, extends
only to one-third of the company force.1 Stability is given to the
labor force, it is declared, and probably a better class of workmen is
secured. Labor troubles are greatly reduced, because the force is
not interfered with by persons outside the community, and the
landlord and employer relation combined naturally carries with it
authority which would not be possible if the relationship were sev­
ered. The tenancy of the employee, it is specified in the lease, is “ for
and during the time he continues in the employment” of the com­
pany. If the employee on his own motion severs his contract of
employment no notice to vacate the premises is required to be given
by the company. In case of a strike, therefore, the employee is
automatically, as it were, left without a home. He must vacate
the premises at once.
A complete population census is made by the police department
and kept up to date. This shows, for every individual in every
company house, his name, relationship to head of family, sex, color,
age and conjugal condition, place of birth, place of birth of parents,
1 Out of 5,618 employees only about a third are accommodated in company houses. Tho total popula­
tion in the company houses, not including th e “ barrack” population, was about 3,500men, women, and
children.




166

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

status as to citizenship, ability to speak English, occupation, length
of residence, and previous residence, etc.
Practically every person in the community is directly or indirectly
an employee of the company. The school-teachers, the superin­
tendent of schools, and the ministers live in rented company houses.
The company provides all the different community facilities— water,
sewers, electric light, paving, gutters, and sidewalks. It provides
the school building and rents it to the community for the nominal
sum of $1 a year, and it rents the ground for the churches and par­
sonages for the same nominal sum per year. It performs the various
community functions, such as street cleaning, sanitary collection, and
fire and police protection. All police officers are deputized company
employees.
The village in question practically depends upon the neighboring
city for most of its social life. Only one clubhouse is provided, and
that is for the technical and office staff. There is a tennis court in
connection with the clubhouse. Opportunities for boating and bath­
ing in summer are plentiful. There is an extensive park east of the
village. What was once a playground has been allowed to go to
ruin. There is, however, plenty of space in the village where children
may play.
The town also depends upon the neighbor city for hospital arrange­
ments. First aid only is given at a hospital room maintained within
the establishment.
Several churches of various denominations have been erected in
the village. The only store in the town is the company store. A
bank has been established.
TH E T O W N PLAN .

The town, situated on level ground, is laid out along rectangular
lines, with streets 60 feet wide, 20 feet of which is set aside for park­
ing. Certain sections are set aside for business streets and other
sections for staff houses and those of better-paid, skilled workmen.
Other parts are set aside for the barracks, a long row of frame or hollow
tile, rented only to single men. These barracks are in two principal
groups; one group, immediately back of the Negro section of the town,
is contained within a high barbed-wire fence. A guarded gateway
is the only entrance to this inclosure; the other group is within the
plant yards, the works having expanded so as to surround them.
Some of the older medium class houses are also within the plant
confines, which has greatly militated against their proper upkeep.
Thus plant policy .and housing policy have not been coordinated,
and where conflict has arisen plant extension has taken place at the
expense of housing. Trees are plentiful, the streets are clean, and
concrete walks have been laid in the better residence section. The




IR O N A N D STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

167

town as a whole gives one the impression of a small country town
rather than that of a residential suburb.
In the better residence district the alleys are flanked by well-kept
hedges, which are 22 feet apart. A cinder roadway in the center is
12 feet wide. Garbage cans are set close to the hedge and are there­
fore inconspicuous. The alleys present a remarkably neat, clean, and
generally attractive appearance.
The barracks streets are of dirt, are somewhat littered with debris
and waste, and present on the whole a dreary and desolate picture.
The streets around the new boarding houses erected in 1916 have
not yet (1918) been put into shape, but still remain muddy roads
piled high, in some places, with excavated material.
HOUSES OF TH E B E T T E R CLASS.

Large, commodious, detached houses and ample lots (all lots are
125 feet deep) are provided for the high-salaried employees holding
supervisory positions and comfortable houses and cottages are built
for the skilled employees. In nearly all cases the better-class dwell­
ings are plastered inside. The houses built in the early days are
clapboarded and painted; the newer ones are hollow tile with stucco
exterior and present an attractive appearance.
Back of all these houses are neat flower gardens. Cash prizes for
gardens and general appearance of premises have had a stimulating
effect. All householders are required to keep the garbage in cans
having tight covers. These cans are kept at the rear of the lots and
are collected daily by an efficient garbage collection department.
Furthermore,the keeping of attractive premises is greatly facilitated
by certain clauses in the rental lease, which prohibit the keeping of
horses, cattle, sheep, swine, or goats or any other animals that will
be dangerous to persons or prejudicial to a clean, tidy, and proper
use of the premises; also, the keeping of any geese or ducks or chickens,
unless confined, or dogs without permission of the company, is for­
bidden.
The elimination of board fences in some instances and the sub­
stitution of wire ones has also added to the attractiveness of these
premises. In the better residences front fences are permitted.
Lawns are well trimmed.
At the time of this inquiry, data were secured concerning 639
dwellings of the better and medium class houses. Of this total there
are 27 detached houses, 274 semidetached houses, and 338 row
houses. The houses, even the row houses; are for the most part of
frame construction. These company houses are prevailingly sixroom houses; the rent of the largest proportion of houses of this size
ranges from $5 to $6 a month.




168

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The two tables following give the details as to type of construction,
size, and rent of these dwellings:
105.— NU M BER OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF ROOMS, BY
T YP E OF D W E L L IN G AND M A TE R IA L OF CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNITY C—N O R TH ­
ERN IRON AND ST E E L TOW NS.

T a b le

Number of dwellings having—
Type of dwelling and material of
construction.

5
6
7
8
4
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms.

9
rooms
and
over.

3

1

3

27

10

10

8
6
2

244
6
6
18

128

12
10

272
56
10

143
22.4

41
6.4

639
100.0

Detached, frame..................................................
Semidetached:
Frame.............................................................
Brick..............................................................
Concrete block...............................................
Hollow tile ....................................................
Row:
Frame.............................................................
Brick..............................................................
Hollow tile ....................................................

10

T otal...........................................................
Per cen t......................................................

10
1.6

T

20
216

4

18
20

112
8

38

40
6.3

336
52.6

69
10.8

Total.

1 0 6 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF ROOMS
R ENTIN G AT EACH C LASSIFIED AMOUNT P E R MONTH, IN COMMUNITY C—NO R TH ­
E R N IRON A N D ST E E L TOWNS.

able

Number of dwellings having—
Rent per month.

$4 and under $5...................................................
$5 and under $6...................................................
$6 and under $ 7 ...................................................
$7 and under $ 8 ...................................................
$8 and under $ 9 ...................................................
$10 and under $11...............................................
$12 and under $14...............................................
$14 and under $16...............................................
$18 and over........................................................
Total..........................................................

Total.
9
4
5
6
7
8
rooms
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.
20
io

20

24
14
24
7

10

40 '

3.1
26.3
23.2
1.6
8.8

15

14
27

20
168
148
10
56
70
80
38
49

143

41

639

100.0

168
128
32
8

336

69

Per
cent.

48
80

11.0
12.5
5 9
7.7

A large proportion of the houses (236, 36.9 per cent) have no inside
modern conveniences except gas or electric light, and 124, or 19.4
per cent, have only running water inside. There are 279, or 43.5 per
cent, which have water-closet and sewer and water system. The
following table shows details as to modern improvements of the 639
dwellings:




169

IRON AND STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .
T

1 0 7 . —N U M B E R OF D W E LL IN G S H A VING SP E C IFIE D SA N IT A R Y E Q U IPM E N T , B Y
T Y P E OF D W E LL IN G , IN COMMUNITY C—N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.

able

Type of dwelling.

Bath,
WaterwaterBath,
watercloset,
closet,
sewer or
closet,
sewer or
cesspool, sewer or cesspool,
water
and
cesspool,
system,
and
running
water
water
and gas
or elec­ system.
inside.
tric light.

No
No
modern modern
conven­ conven­
iences
iences
except
except
gas or
running
electric
water
inside.
light.

D etached........................................................
Semidetached. .
...................................
R o w ................................................................

7
58
16

188

10

124

T otal.....................................................

81

188

10

124

Total.

20
216

27
274
338

236

639

Typical Houses.

The typical semidetached frame house erected by the company has
a lot frontage of 28^ feet with a depth of 125 feet, six rooms and
cellar, hydrants in the yards for water, stove heat, and outside vault
privies. There are three rooms on the first floor, two on the second,
and one on the third under the roof. Ninety-six of these houses were
built in 1890 at a cost of $710 each. The present rent is $5.50 per
month. Two groups of 24 each were erected in 1901, the first group
at a cost of $847 each, the present rent of which is $6 per month per
dwelling; the second group cost $878 each and are rented for $6.50
per family per month. These are the cheapest grade of family houses.
The shed extensions on the rear, it may be noted, have invited fur­
ther makeshift extensions by the tenants. This has reduced the yard
area and led to insanitary and unsightly cluttering of back yards.
A row of brick dwellings was erected in 1891. Each dwelling has
a lot frontage of 14 feet with a depth of 125 feet. The family occu­
pies six rooms and cellar for a rent of $10 per month. Bathtub,
water-closet, sink, sewer and hot-water connections, and stove heat
are provided. The average cost per dwelling was $1,348. A frame
row providing identical equipment for each family rents for $8.50 per
dwelling per month and cost $1,121 per dwelling.
Figure 73 shows pictures and plans of semidetached frame houses
erected on lots 25 by 125 feet and providing seven rooms and cellar
for each family, together with all modern sanitary conveniences and
furnace heat. There are three rooms on the first floor, three on the
second, and one on the third floor under the roof. A group of 10 of
these frame houses erected in 1901 cost $1,520 per dwelling and
rents for $18 per dwelling per month.
• A similar group of four semidetached houses built in 1907 of con­
crete blocks cost $2,854 per dwelling and rents for $22.50 per dwelling
per month.
A typical detached high-class frame house of seven rooms and
cellar, erected in 1888 at a cost of $3,126, rent? for $23 per month.




170

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

It is placed on a lot 65 by 105 feet and has all modern inside sanitary
conveniences, as well as furnace heat.
Another high-grade one-family frame house erected in 1888 at a
cost of $2,473 has 13 rooms and a cellar, all modern conveniences,
and furnace heat, and rents for $22.50 per month. It is placed on a
lot 83 by 125 feet.
Figure 74 illustrates a group of the recently erected (1916) hollowtile dwellings. Eighteen houses of this type have seven rooms each,
are without cellar, but have all modern sanitary improvements.
They are heated by stove. They cost $1,800 and rent for $15 per
month each. Thirty-six other houses were provided having seven
rooms with cellars. These also have all modern improvements and
are furnace heated. The addition of the cellar and the modern heat­
ing equipment brought the cost of these latter dwellings to $2,400
each. They rent for $20 per month.
SH A NTIES OF TH E U N SK ILLED W O R K M E N .

The foregoing account relates entirely to the houses of the betterpaid skilled workmen and supervisory staff. For its unmarried,
unskilled immigrant and Negro labor the company has erected oneroom row dwellings or “ barracks” and boarding houses. The row
dwellings are designated as “ shanties.” They have existed at the
plant since its establishment, with additions from time to time, the
latest having been erected in 1916.
There are some 500 of these shanties built in rows of ten 1-room
dwellings. Each room is about 10 by 14 feet, with the comb of
the roof 12 feet and the sides 8 feet from the floor. In 400 of them
the construction is of ordinary rough pine 1-inch boards, weatherstripped on the outside, commonly described as board and batten.
Similar material is used for flooring, the floors being about 2 feet
above the ground surface. The building is not ceiled. The roofing
is either of shingles or tarred paper. The windows are small. Ten
rows of 10 rooms each were erected in 1916 out of hollow tile. The
tile is a hollow block of terra cotta with 5 by 12 inch outer face and
8 inches thick, which determines the thickness of the wall. These
rows are cemented inside, both floor and walls. The Negro occu­
pants do not like these barracks, and complain of dampness, the
management states, and declare that living in them induces rheuma­
tism.
The number of occupants varies with the productive activity of the
plant. When the plant is operating with full force, four men are
allotted to a shanty. Here the men used to be permitted to eat,
sleep, cook, and do their washing; now, however, these quarters are
exclusively for sleeping purposes.
The furnishings are primitive in the extreme. For sleeping pur­
poses there are two 2-high bunks, the space between the lower and







F ig . 74.—EA ST ER N ST E EL TOWN, COMMUNITY C. R ECEN TLY CONSTRUCTED HOLLO W-TILE, SEM IDETACHED HOUSES.
Pictures taken at time of construction, which accounts for condition of street.




F ig .

75.—MODERN HOLLOW-TILE BARRACKS, W ITH CONCRETE FLOORS.

IR O N A N D STEEL T O W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

171

upper being slightly larger than required for a man of ordinary size
to crawl in. The men provide not only mattresses and bedding, but
also the stove and the necessary fuel. Meals can be had at a reason­
able price in the several mess houses located among the several groups
of shanties. These mess houses are not operated by the steel com­
pany, but it exercises supervision over them as to charges and as to
conduct. Some of these mess houses are operated by men employed
in the company’s office. The water supply for these shanties is
obtained from outside hydrants. The newer hollow-tile barracks
contain each a lavatory sink. The company has installed a shower
bath in a small house adjacent to the shanties, and all employees are
privileged to use it. Both hot and cold water are supplied at the
newer groups of barracks.
The company does not keep the surroundings of the barracks as
clean and tidy as the rest of the village, nor does it provide janitor
service for keeping the inside of the barracks clean and sanitary.
The cost of each frame shanty of one room is $50, and the rent is
$39 per person per year, which almost makes up the total cost. The
cost of each room in the hollow-tile rows is $250, and the possible $39
received for each would represent 15.6 per cent on the investment.
Inasmuch as four men ordinarily occupy each shanty the possible
rental would be four times the sum indicated above, or $156 a year
for each one-room shanty.
A view of the barracks is shown in Figure 75.
On the whole, the barracks are not a satisfactory method of
housing single men. The superintendent of the housing and real
estate department of the company stated that boarding and rooming
houses with good janitor service and careful supervision would
probably be the best method for housing that class of men.
BOARDING HOUSES.

There are 13 large detached houses used as boarding houses. Three
date from the early days of the plant, two of which are of frame con­
struction and the third of brick. The latter is located in the betterkept section of the village and is used by the office and technical staff
and the school-teachers. Ten boarding houses were erected in 1916,
being of hollow tile with stucco exterior. These will be occupied
by skilled mechanics. Four of them, having 14 rooms each, cellar,
modern equipment, i. e., plumbing, hot and cold water, but stove
heated, cost $16,250 each. Each house is rented at $30 a month to a
separate family, which operates it. Six houses containing 18 rooms
each have all modern equipments and furnace heat. For each of
these rental is $45 a month. The charges for board and room in
these boarding houses are supervised by the company. Each lodger
is charged from $9 to $10 a week for board and room. One or two




172

H O U SIN G BY E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

persons are accommodated in each room. Each house can take as
boarders, however, considerably more men than it can accommodate
in rooms.
The picture and plans of one of the recently constructed boarding
houses are shown in Figure 76.
COST OF M AINTENAN CE.

The company which controls community C had at the time of the
inquiry invested in its houses about $875,000. This amount is 29.8
per cent of its average annual pay roll for the five years 1911 to 1915.
The company accommodates about one-third of its employees in its
houses.
The rent receipts in 1914 amounted to $87,309; in 1915, $92,371.
Hence the gross return on the investment of $875,000 was 10 per
cent in 1914 and 10.6 per cent in 1915. Charged against the rent
receipts in 1914 was a sum of $86,979 and in 1915, $86,100. These
charges included all expense, except interest on the capital invest­
ment, that is, repairs to dwellings, house management, charges to
unoccupied property, town improvements and management, water
supply, streets, sewers, fire and police protection, and schools. The
excess of the rent earned over and above expenditures for the above
items amounted in 1914 to $330 and in 1915 to $6,271. This would
have left a net return in each year of less than one-tenth of 1 per
cent on the investment in 1914 and seven-tenths of 1 per cent in 1915.
An examination of the distribution of the different items of 1915
shows that 59.2 per cent of the expense was for house repairs, onetenth of 1 per cent for house management, and 36.8 per cent for
community expenses, which would be ordinarily shown by taxation,
including such items as town management, water supply and sewers,
street care and improvements, police and fire protection, and schools.
The distribution of expenses per month in 1915 is as follows:
T

1 0 8 . — D IS T R IB U T IO N OF E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M A IN TEN A N C E, R E P A IR S , ETC.,
A V ER A G E PE R MONTH, 1915, IN COM MUNITY C—N O R T H E R N IR O N A N D ST E EL
TOW NS.

able




Item of expense.

Amount.

Per cent.

Repairs to dw ellings......................
House managem ent.......................
Charges to unoccupied property..

$4,248.05
10.18
276. 94

59.2
.1
3.9

T otal.....................................

4,535.17

63.2

Town, general......................
Water su p p ly..........................
Streets.............................................
Sewers.....................
Fire departm ent.........................
Police departm ent.........................
Schools....................
. .

681. 34
907. 89
228.14
82. 21
212. 21
250. 39
277. 74

9. 5
12.6
3 .2
1.1
3.0
3.5
3 .9

T otal......................................

2,639. 92

3 6.8

Grand to ta l...........................

7,175. 09

100.0

IRO N A N D STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

173

COMMUNITY D.

This company, which has long been established in one of the eastern
States, did not begin housing its employees until 1906. The purpose
was to have the employees live near the works, as the nearest town
was several miles away, and it had been found that by frequently
being late employees were losing time in starting work. This draw­
back has now been obviated, and it is felt that a more efficient labor
force has been secured.
At the time of this survey, late in September, 1916, the company
employed approximately 2,000 men and housed 800, or 40 per cent,
of that number.
Although situated in rolling country presenting artistic possibili­
ties for layout, the town is nevertheless laid out in rectangular
fashion. The company notes as an advantage the fact that by
using the rectangular plan of layout every house can be given a
southern exposure. Wide streets have been provided, the main
street being 100 feet wide from lot line to lot line, and other residence
streets are 80 feet wide. There is a central parking on the two main
streets. Hedges have been planted by many tenants in the better
part of the town, the company paying half the expense. In the rear
of the row houses gardens are cultivated. The town on the whole
has made excellent use of trees, vegetation, and natural growth for
its beautification.
By reason of the fact that it owns all land and improvements, pro­
vides playgrounds and hospitals, shares the expense of the erection
of schools, and performs such functions as street cleaning, street
lighting, and police and fire protection, the company completely
controls the community. For much of its recreational activity,
however, the town depends upon two cities, one about 4 miles away
and having a population of 6,000, the other about 10 miles away
and having a population of 100,000.
HOUSES OF TH E COM M UNITY.

As a company town the community is interesting as having con­
structed practically none but permanent fire resisting buildings of
brick or brick and tile combined. The result has been, as shown
below, an extremely low maintenance cost. All houses are plas­
tered and papered inside. The lower rental houses for the less
skilled labor are stove-heated, are equipped with sink and running
water in the kitchen and a water-closet, and are lighted by gas.
The better-class houses have three-piece bathrooms; some also are
equipped with laundry tubs and have both gas and electrical con­
nections. The details concerning the houses of the community are
contained in the table below.




174

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

109.—N U M B E R , SIZE, A N D COST OF D W E LL IN G S, A N D R E N T P E R M ONTH, B Y
T Y P E OF D W E L L IN G A N D M ATER IA L OF CONSTRUCTION, IN COMMUNITY D—
N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.

T able

Type and material of construction.

Brick:
R O W ........................................................................................

D o................................................................
D o................................................................
Semidetached............................... ....................
D o ................................................................
D o................................................................
D o................................................................
D o................................................................
Do .............................................................
D o................................................................
Brick and tile:
R ow ....................................................................
Semidetached....................................................
D o................................................................

Per cent
Number
annual
Number Year of of rooms Cost per R ent
rental
con­
dw ell­
per
of dwell­ struc­
per
forms of
month. house
dwell­
ing.
ings.
tion.
ing:
cost.

46
48

1906
1909
1914
1906
1907
1907
1909
1909
1910
1910

4
10
5
6
9
6
9
9
9
9

$1,545
3,530
1,600
1,590
2,660
2,400
4,100
3,470
3,400
3,360

$9.50
18.00
10.00
10.50
16.00
13.00
22.00
1900
18.00
19.00

7.4
6.1
7.5
7.9
7.2
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.8

6 60
5 20
5 24

1913
1913
1913

6
8
6

1,950
2,500
2,100

11.00
15.50
14.00

6.8
7.4
8.0

1,942

11.57

7.2

1 146
28
1 114
i 48
3 24
s 64
46

44

Average...........................................................
1 W ith
2 W ith
3 W ith
4 W ith
• W ith

water-closet, sink, sewer connection, gas.
bathtub, sink, sewer connection, hot water, laundry tub, gas, electric light.
bathtub, water-closet, sink, sewer connection, hot water, gas.
bathtub, sink, sewer connection, hot water, gas, and electric light.
bathtub, water-closet, sink, sewer connection, hot water, gas, electricity.
ADM INISTR ATIO N AND M AINTENANCE.

The company has invested in its housing undertaking approxi­
mately $1,500,000, of which $1,040,000 represents the cost of the
houses, the balance being the cost of outside improvements, such as
sewers, grading, paving, gas, water, electric light, etc. An additional
$20,000 should be added as the cost of the land devoted to housing,
making a total investment in housing of $1,520,000. The average
annual rent receipts for the five-year period 1911-1915 amounted to
$61,012, a gross return of 4 per cent of the investment. As stated
before, on account of the substantial construction of the houses the
maintenance cost appears to be extremely low. The average charges
to maintenance for the five-year period 1911-1915 absorbed only
10 per cent of the average annual rent receipts for that period.
These expenses of maintenance include repairs to houses and fences
and general administration, but not interest or insurance. The
company carries no insurance on its houses.







T h ir d -flo o r p la n s im ila r t o s e c o n d .

F ig . 77.— E A S T E R N S T E E L T O W N .
O F L O W -R E N T A L R O W

C O M M U N IT Y D , F R O N T
H OU SES.

T re e s p u t in b y c o m p a n y .

F ig . 78.— E A S T E R N S T E E L T O W N .
R e a r o f F ig . 77.

C O M M U N I T Y D.

N o t e e ffe c t o f u n ifo r m fe n c in g .

F i g . 79.— A L L E Y I N E A S T E R N S T E E L T O W N .




A bout

C O M M U N IT Y D .

fe e t w id e , w i t h 1 9 -in ch g r a v e l w a l k o n e it h e r s id e .

175

IKON AND STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .
T able

110.—R ELA TIO N OF R E N T R E CE IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AINTENANCE,
1911 TO 1915, IN COMMUNITY D —N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E EL TOWNS.
Expenditure for maintenance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911.........................................................................................
1912...........................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................
A verage............................

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$47,698.90
57,179.25
64,478. 50
67,810.61
67,891.50

$6,056.45
5,910.68
5,901.52
5,615.05
6,878.49

13
10
9
8
10

61,011.75

6,072.44

10

As already indicated, the company provides houses for its higher
officials and for both skilled and unskilled workers, the rents being
fixed to meet the ability of the different classes of tenants to pay.
Contrary to most company practice, this company collects its rent
monthly at its real estate office and does not deduct it automatically
from the wages of an employee unless he so requests. The rent of
the houses includes, besides the use of the house, provision of water.
This company secures proper maintenance of its properties and
premises by itself performing such work as the maintenance of lawns,
provision and upkeep of fences, the provision of garbage pails in
the rear alleys, and regular collection of the contents. The company
does not think that prizes for gardening help very materially, but
the company itself has done the work of putting out trees, ever­
greens, and shrubs.
Certain rules contained in its rental lease are probably also in­
strumental in securing good maintenance of the premises.
The
following is copied from the company's rental lease:
And the said tenant hereby agrees and consents to rent said house subject to the
following rules and regulations:
1. He will provide a galvanized-iron garbage can and place all kitchen and table
refuse therein. Ashes, tin cans, waste paper, and rags to be placed in a separate
galvanized can. These cans to be put in the alley daily before the regular time of
collection.
2. No kitchen refuse or solid matter of any kind to be emptied into water-closet.
He will provide a suitable toilet-paper rack, to be fastened to side of toilet room,
and keep same provided with toilet paper. The expense of repairing any damage
to or stoppage of toilet caused by violation of this rule may be charged to him.
* 3. Any need of repairs, such as broken windows, broken doors, frozen water pipes,
or stoppage of toilet, or any other damage, to be reported to the office of the company
within five (5) hours after such breakage or stoppage shall occur.
4. Said house may be inspected at any time by a representative of the company.
5. For a violation of any of these rules and regulations, the tenancy hereby created
shall cease, determine, and end, and said company, by itself or its authorized agent,
shall be the sole judge of any such violation.

No house may be occupied by more than seven adults.
chickens is prohibited.




Keeping

176

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

COMMUNITY E.

In this com m unity housing was begun in 1901, two years after the
establishment of the plant. Two housing districts were established
about a mile apart, but in close proxim ity to the plant itself, one for
the unskilled, low-paid workers and the other for the higher-paid
and more skilled employees. The com m unity is situated about 3
miles from a populous city, with which it is connected by regular
and frequent trolley service, the trip consuming about 25 minutes
each way.
The blocks are laid out in rectangular fashion, that being in the
com pany’s opinion the most natural way. The streets are ample in
width, 100 feet from building line to building line, a width of 30 feet
being paved. The sidewalk is 4 feet wide and a 3-foot strip is
left between the curb and the sidewalk for parking. The building
line is 35 feet back from the curb.
The steel-manufacturing com pany which controls the community,
employed in October, 1916, 7,631 workmen and housed 2,920, or
38.3 per cent of its total force.
Practically all of the houses which the com pany has erected are
brick rows. All houses have cellars. W ith the exception of 61
dwellings heated b y hot water in the new village where the higherpaid employees are housed the houses are heated b y stoves. The
houses in the new village have three-piece bathrooms and are lighted
b y electricity. The houses in the old village where the low-paid,
unskilled workmen are housed are equipped with water-closets and
sewer connections only.
The principal data concerning the houses of the two villages are
contained in the following tabulation:
T able

1 1 1 . —N U M B E R , COST, A N D R E N T A L OF D W ELLING S IN
N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOWNS.

Description and type of dwelling.

New village:
Row, brick, two story1................................
Detached, frame, two story and attic 1. . . .
Semidetached, frame, two story and attic
Old village:
Row, brick, two story 3................................
........ ......................................

N um ­
ber of
dwell­
ings.

Dimensions
of dwelling.

COMMUNITY

E—

Per
N um ­
cent
ber of
Cost
Rent annual
per
rooms
per
per
dwell­ month. rental
forms
dwell­ ing.
of house
ing.
cost.

60
15
46

17 by 30 feet..
26 by 30 feet..
17 by 48 feet..

8
9
29

$2,000
3,000
4,000

$12.50
19.50
16.50

7.5
7 .8
4 .9

142
291

17 by 30 feet..
17 by 25 feet..

5
4

1,500
1,200

7.50
6.50

6 .0
6.5

i Plastered, papered or ealcimined, and natural pine finish inside, frame verandas, wood houses clapboarded outside,
a Eighteen of the 46 dwellings have 10 rooms.
3 Plastered, papered or calcimined3 and painted white trim inside.




IRO N A N D STEEL T O W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

177

The com pany reports the total original cost of all its houses as
$880,734. Improvements, such as grading and filling, sewer and
water system, paving, fire protection, installation of lighting system,
etc., cost an additional $76,556. The total original cost of the land
devoted to housing developm ent is $77,934.
The cost per lot of all improvements installed was $132. Lots of
row houses are 100 feet deep and 17 feet wide; single detached houses
have lots 40 feet wide.
D ata furnished b y the com pany concerning the cost of maintain­
ing its housing property indicate that for the five-year period, 1O H 1915, 45 per cent of the annual average rent receipts have been ex­
pended for labor and material for repair and upkeep of the houses,
garbage collection, sewage disposal, furnishing of electric power and
water, and payments for taxes and insurance. The outlay for each
year is shown in the following table:
T

able

1 1 2 . —R E LA T IO N OF R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R M A INTENANCE,
1911 TO 1915, IN COMMUNITY E —N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.
Expenditure f or maintenanc<
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

1911.........................................................................................
1912.........................................................................................
1913.........................................................................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915.........................................................................................

$45,305.11
48,152.97
54, 578. 34
56,469.92
55,992.04

$21,712.15
23,011. 74
26,868. 54
24,313.44
22,096.91

48
48
49
43
39

Average.......................................................................

52,099.68

23,600. 56

45

The average annual rent receipts for the five-year period in question
represent a gross return of 5.9 per cent on the original cost of the
com pany’s houses ($880,734). Calculated on the original cost of the
houses, cost of improvements, and land costs, the rent receipts for
the same period represent a return of 5 per cent.
On the whole the com pany's properties are well maintained;
effort is made to encourage gardening and practically all of the
tenants respond. The local city authorities collect the garbage once
a week.
COMMUNITY F.

This com m unity is one of two communities established b y the same
company to house the employees of its two plants. These plants are
located in different States. It is one of the few companies disclosed
by the Bureau survey which has given attention to the housing of the
low-paid unskilled workers. A t the time of the survey the company
housed only a small proportion of the labor force of each of its plants.
125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 12




178

H O U SIN G B Y EM P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

At its plant in Indiana, for instance, it accommodated in company
houses 700 employees out of a total of approximately 2,000 — that is,
35 per cent. A t its plant in Pennsylvania it housed approximately
2,500 employees, or 35.7 per cent of the total of 7,000.
The company has given little attention to the social phase of its
community work. Neither playground nor hospital is provided at its
Indiana plant; at the Pennsylvania establishment the playground has
been allowed to deteriorate. No street cleaning is attempted at its
Indiana plant, where the houses are located in the immediate vicinity
of the plant. The courtyards are uncared for; no fences are pro­
vided to encourage gardening, and streets are left unpaved.
On the other hand, at its plant in Pennsylvania, maintenance is
very much more carefully looked after. Each of the detached houses,
which are provided for the somewhat better class of employees, has
been furnished with a garbage can. A t least once a week the company
collects all rubbish and garbage. Rubbish is raked up regularly.
In the row houses the garbage and rubbish are deposited in a box
placed in the rear of alternate rows. At each weekly cleaning the
boxes are limed and thus kept more or less sanitary.
There are two distinct parts of the village of the com pany located
in Pennsylvania: (1) The better-class residence section, where single
or detached houses have been constructed, paved streets laid out,
with sidewalks and considerable parking, and lots 50 feet wide pro­
vided; (2) the foreign quarter, in which no definite lot areas have
been laid out with a street 48 feet wide from building line to build­
ing line. Here the entire section has been cindered and no gardens
are allowed.

The houses of the district provided for the skilled American
employees are provided with sink, hot and cold water, and watercloset in the cellar. This is true of 125 five-room dwellings, while
75 other five-room dwellings are provided with three-piece bathrooms
with hot and cold water. The houses in this section of the village
are heated by gas grates. They are located on lots 25 by 100 feet.
All these are frame houses constructed in 1902 at costs and rentals
shown in Table 113.
Illustrations of the above houses may be seen in Figures 81, 82,
and 83.
The houses in the foreign quarter may be described as shanties,
some built of board and batten and some of matched siding ceiled
inside with ordinary flooring. Some of the houses have been papered
by the tenants. All these are row houses. The accommodations
in these houses consist of a water hydrant in the yard and a stove for
heating purposes.







F ig .

80.—EASTER N STEEL TOWN. COMMUNITY E. U NIFORM BRICK ROWS.
Effect of vegetation offset by lack of uniform fencing.

F ig .

81.—EA ST ER N STEEL TOWN.
MU NIT Y F.

COM-

F ig .

82.—R E A R OF ROW SHOW N IN FIG. 81.

Front view of foreign laborers’ row houses

F ig .

83.—E A ST ER N ST E EL TOWN. COMMUNITY F. FR O N T
VIE W B E T T E R CLASS ONE-FAMILY HOUSES.

There are 264 dwellings of rows shown in Fig. 81, and 200 single houses in
Fig. 83; 206 row dwellings built in 1904, 58 in 1902; single houses built in
1902. Rows have 4 rooms per family, 2 up and 2 down; no inside con­
veniences; cost $330 per dwelling or family unit; rent $4 per month per
family for those built in 1904, and $6 for those built in 1902. Single
houses have 5 rooms and cellar;125 have kitchen sink, sewer connections,
water-closets in cellar, and hot-water connections; 72 renting for $10 a
month and 53 for $12 per month, and each costing $1,150; 75 have bath­
tubs, water-closets, and sewer connections, kitchen sinks and hot-water
connections, each renting for $14 per month and costing $1,500. Row
houses heated with stoves; single houses with gas grates.




179

IRO N AN D STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .
T a b le 1 1 3 .— NUM BER,

COST, A N D R E N T A L S OF D W E L L IN G S, B Y CLASS OF LA BO R
H O U SE D A N D SIZE A N D T Y P E OF D W E LL IN G , IN COM MUNITY F—N O R T H E R N IRON
A N D ST E E L TOW NS.

Class of labor, and size and type of
dwelling.

Number of Year of con­ Cost per
dwellings. struction.
dwelling.

American labor:
Frame dwellings—
5 room s..............................................
D o...............................................
D o...............................................
Foreign labor:
Row dwellings—
4 room s..............................................
D o...............................................

Per cent
annual
Rent per rental forms
month.
of house
cost.

72
53
75

1902
1902
1902

$1,150
1,150
1,150

$10
12
14

10.4
12.5
14.6

206
58

1904
1902

330
330

4
6

14.5
21.8

COMMUNITY G.

The housing conducted b y the com pany at its Indiana plant is
distinctly inferior to that at its establishment in Pennsylvania. In
Indiana only a single type of house has been provided— namely,
row dwellings of frame of the “ tw o-flat” type— that is accom ­
modating one family on the ground floor and another on the second
floor. As a matter of fact, the second-floor dwellings have not been
occupied except in rare instances. The houses have not been kept
in repair and are very much in need of paint. The tar roofs have
not proven satisfactory, the heat of the sun melting the tar and
leaving the paper exposed. The interior of the houses is ceiled and
generally painted. A few of the tenants have papered their own
houses.
The streets in the community have no gutters and few sidewalks;
courtyards are bare and uncared for; in many places the sand has
drifted badly. On the whole, the community has an air of extreme
desolation.
The rents charged are unusually high. Each two-room flat rents
for $6 per month, or $3 per room. This rental applies to the dwell­
ings of 10 “ tw o-flat” rows accommodating 20 families to the row.
The four-room dwellings, of which there are 100, rent for $10 a month.
Hydrants are provided in the yards. Each hydrant supplies
several houses. The rows of privies at the rear of the dwellings, only
one to every two families, are dilapidated and unsightly. The
privies are so-called “ sewer” privies, connected with the sewer b y
an 8-inch pipe, which is flushed every four or five hours by water
from the community water system. For the purpose for which it is
designed the sewer pipe should be at least 18 inches in diameter.
The soil of the region is ill adapted for gardening, and, furthermore,
gardening is not encouraged b y the company. Many tenants have
built fences around their gardens and have constructed duck, chicken,




180

H O U SIN G BY E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

and hog yards. But this, being uncontrolled and unregulated, has
added to the unsightly as well as insanitary condition of the com ­
munity.
COST OF M AINTENANCE.

The same subsidiary com pany conducts the housing work at
both establishments of the company. It has reported its financial
operations covering both establishments in a single statement.2
From the statement the following items of interest are noted:
Original cost of land devoted to housing.......................................... $33, 000
Original cost of dwellings (not including outside improvements). 190,181
Cost of outside improvements:
Grading............................................................................... $4,673
Sewers and drains............................................................. 7, 400
Sidewalks...........................................................................
1, 575
--------— 13,648
Total.............................................................................................. 236,829

The relation of maintenance and rent receipts for the years 19111915 are shown in the following tabulation:
T

able

1 1 4 . —R E LA TIO N OF R E N T R ECEIPTS TO E X P E N D IT U R E FOR M AINTENANCE,
1911 TO 1915, IN COMMUNITY G—N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.

Expenditure for
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1911
1912
1913
1914
1915

..............................................................................
.................................................................................
.....................................................................................
...............................................................................
.....................................................................................
Average

................................................................

mainte­

Per cent of
rent
receipts.

$11,351.40
12,759.60
20,690.50
21,990.35
16,562.00

$15,032.12
17,137.48
12,800.59
10, £62. 62
8,582.13

132.4
139.2
61.9
48.0
51.8

16,670.77

12,947.41

77.7

2 Cost of water lines included in the property count of the principal company and not reported by the
subsidiary land and improvement company.




181

IR O N AN D STEEL TO W N S OF T H E N O R T H .

The distribution of maintenance expense among the different
items which are included in that expense is as follows:
T

1 1 5 . —D IST R IB U T IO N OF A N N U A L CHARGES A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAINTENANCE, 1911 TO 1915, IN COMMUNITY G—N O R T H E R N IRO N A N D ST E E L TOW NS.

able

1911
Item of expenditure.

T axes........................
Insurance.................
L ighting...................
Legal expense..........
Office expense..........
W ater........................
Cleaning...................
Salaries.....................
Incidentals...............
Police........................
Repairs:
Houses...............
Miscellaneous. . .
Interest.....................

1912

1913

1914

1915

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent.
$1,412.76
1,610.84
1,407.36
47.25
5.89
739.94
329.25
510.00
4.70
950.60

9.4 $1,246.92
10.7 1,607.74
9.4 1,605.95
.3
173.25
.1
42.50
650.55
4.9
2.2
322.15
3.4
525.00
11.81
0)
6.3 1,000.90

7.3 $1,667.66
9.4 1,614.51
9.4 2,679.67
1.0
25.15
.2
18.24
3.8
530.43
480.44
1.9
3.0
540.00
.1
4.30
5.8
963.75

25.2
6.9
1.4

26.1
18.8
23.5
1.0
.1
8.6
4.0
10.4
4.3
3.2

T otal............... 15,032.12 100.0 17,137.48 100.0 12,800.59 100.0 10,562.62 100.0 '8,582.13

100.0

1.6
4.4
47.3

1,820.26
388.74
7,741.71

10.6
2.3
45.2

1,007.68
625.27
35.69

16.3 $2,240.20
15.3 1,611.42
25.9 2,018.90
82.10
.7
.6
9.93
738.47
7.5
3.7
341.00
5.1
.1
9.1
896.10
365.73
278.28

245.48
658.45
7,109.60

3,223.47
877.08
175.89

13.0 $1,724.57
12.6 1,611.28
20.9 2,735.36
.2
70.50
.1
63.20
4.2
796.17
3.8
391.50
4.2
540.00
5.00
0)
956.40
7.5

9.5
5.9
.3

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

W ith a total original investment of $236,829, including land and
improvements, and with average rent receipts for the five-year period
(1911-1915) of $16,670.77, the gross return on the investment has
been 7 per cent. This gross return was not sufficient to meet all
maintenance expenses in 1911 and 1912, due to the heavy interest
charges as indicated in Table 116. For the five-year period (19111915) taxes, insurance, and maintenance items have absorbed almost
four-fifths (77.7 per cent) of the returns from rent.




CHAPTER XV.— MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES.
As already brought out, a certain group of miscellaneous indus­
tries have been considered together, since housing conditions in each
have been represented b y only a single community. Housing in
these industries is of a much higher quality on the whole than in
those industries where com pany housing is a characteristic feature,
as, for instance, the mining, the iron and steel, and the textile indus­
tries. The houses are on the whole larger, have greater variety and
individuality, are more permanent and substantial, cost more, and
rent at higher rates. A relatively larger proportion have bath and
running-water facilities.
The employees catered to are the more skilled and higher-paid
workers and office staff. There are fewer employees per house than
in the other industries; the maintenance .of premises and houses is
somewhat more careful; the housing business on the whole is some­
what more specialized.
Table 116 shows for certain communities the number of employees
housed and the number and size of the dwellings provided.
T

1 1 6 . —N U M B E R OF E M PLO Y EES, N U M B E R H O U SED , AND N U M B E R A N D SIZE OF
D W E LL IN G S P R O V ID E D , IN SIX COMMUNITIES—M ISCELLAN EO U S IN D U S T R IE S .

able

Number
housed.

1 ...........................................................
2 ...........................................................
3 ...........................................................
4 ...........................................................
5 ...........................................................
6 ...........................................................

1,800
2,700
2,475
10,885
2,500
1,600

500
900
1,000
1,157
600
1,600

237
663
260
758
262
264

1,273
4,249
1,706
3,884
1,276
1,063

5.4
6.4
6.6
5.1
4.9
4.0

Total. -...................................................................

21,960

5,757

2,444

13,451

5.5

Community
Community
Community
Community
Community
Community

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

i

N umber Number
of dwell­ of rooms.
ings.

Average
number
of rooms
per
dwelling.

Number
of em ­
ployees.

Community.

RENT.

In the following table is shown the number of dwellings of specified
size renting at each classified amount per month:

182




183

M ISC E LLA N E O U S IN D U ST R IE S.

1 1 7 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D W E LL IN G S OF EACH SP E C IFIE D N U M B E R
OF ROOMS R E N T IN G A T EACH CLASSIFIED A M OUNT P E R M ONTH—M ISCELLANEOUS
IN D U ST R IE S.

T able

NUM BER.

Houses havingRent per month.

9
Total.
2
4
5
rooms
6
7
8
3
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
over.

Under $ 3 .................................................
$3 and under $4......................................
$4 and und6r $5......................................
$5 and under $6......................................
$6 and under $7......................................
$7 and under $8......................................
$8 and under $9......................................
$9 and under $10....................................
$10 and under $11..................................
$11 and under $12..................................
$12 and under $14..................................
$14 and under $16..................................
$16 and under $18..................................
$18 and over...........................................
T otal.............................................

1

3
2

176

5

3
9
5
39
46
365
79
109
28
18
2
10

10
30
229
23
59
72
13
49
126
13
2
30
2
188

177

889

846

802

11.2
4.5
6.5
.7
5.7
2.4
1.0
.5
29.2
7.1
8.4
22.8
100.0

3
20
93
31
10
15

6

90
36
52
6
46
19
8
4
234
57
67
183

64
37
3
42
32
2
18
9
34
13
18
132

17
94
1
10
4
1
11
83
2
33

2
1
9
4
3
14

17
39
390
160
271
610
182
189
201
46
295
199
92
726

404

258

35

3,417

15.8
0.8
9.2
.7 " ’$.6 " '2 . 9
36.4
10.4
7.9
.4
2.9
.5
3.9
4.5
1.6
5.7
2.2
.4
2.9
4.3
8.4
25.7
3.2
32.2
11.4
4.5
.8
8.6
32.7
12.8
40.0

0.5
1.1
11.4
4.7
7.9
17.9
5 3
5.5
5.9
1.3
8.6
5.8
2 7
21.2

2
1
1

PER CENT.

Under $ 3 .................................................
$3 and under $4......................................
$4 and under $5......................................
$5 and under $6......................................
$6 and under $7......................................
$7 and under $8......................................
$8 and under $9......................................
$9 and under $10....................................
$10 and under $11...................................
$11 and under $12...................................
$12 and under $14...................................
$14 and under $16..................................
$16 and under $18..................................
$18 and over...........................................

16.7
83.3

T otal............................................. 100.0

i.7
1.1

0.3
1.0
.6
4.4
5.2
41.1
8.9
12.3
3.1
2.0
.2
1.1
19.8

1.2
3.5
27.1
2.7
7.0
8.5
1.5
5.8
14.9
1.5
.2
3.5
.2
22.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.7
11.3
52.5
17.5
5.6
8.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

COST OF MAINTENANCE.

No general statement can be made as respects the financial phases
of company housing in this group of miscellaneous industries, as no
data were given b y these companies on that point. However, the
methods of a certain New England company which employs about
4,500 workmen and owns 210 houses may be of interest. The realestate department of the company is run on a “ business ” basis.
An economic rent— that is, one fixed to give a desired profit on the
investment— is placed on each house, and if for any reason, as in case
of accident or illness, this rental is not collected from the tenant
himself, it is charged against the productive department of the estab­
lishment where the tenant is employed. The company has a special
fund from which such noncollected rent is paid, the real estate depart­
ment being credited with the rent as if duly received.
In addition to the usual charges for maintenance, repairs, manage­
ment, expenses, taxes, and insurance, there is charged against the




184

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

rent receipts interest on a capitalization of the rent receipts at 8 per
cent. No depreciation account is set up, as it is figured that the main­
tenance and repair sufficiently offset this. The com pany observes
that interest charges absorb about one-half the rent receipts, repairs
about one-fourth, and fixed charges— management, insurance, taxes—
the remaining one-fourth.
Because of this m ethod of accounting, actual rent receipts have not
equaled the above charges to the maintenance account. During the
five-year period 1911-1915 the maintenance charges constituted 119
per cent of the rent receipts, the lowest they ever reached being 102
per cent in 1911. Year b y year the result has been as follows:
1 1 8 . —R E LA T IO N B E T W E E N R E N T R E C E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FO R MAIN­
TEN A N C E OF A M ANU FA C TU R ING COMPANY IN TH E N E W E N G LA N D DISTRICT,
1911 TO 1915.

T able

Expenditure for maintenance.
Rent.

Year.

Amount.

Per cent
of rent
receipts.

$35,825
43,317
39,872
40,903
45,057

Average....................................................................

$36,440
50,723
52,332
52,812
51,260

102
117
131
129
114

40,995

1911.........................................................................................
1912.........................................................................................
1913.. ..................................................................................
1914......
............................................................
1915.........................................................................................

48,713

119

1

SPECIAL COMMUNITIES.
COMMUNITY H.

The housing work of this com pany is of particular value as showing
the possibilities of the use of simple architecture in conjunction with
careful town planning. The com m unity is located about 35 miles
from Boston and is not easily accessible. The establishment upon
which it depends has about 2,500 employees and houses only 826, or
about one-third of that number. The com m unity is organized as a
New England town, and has a municipal water and sewer system and
electric light furnished by a public-service corporation, public school,
public playgrounds, and a hospital. The com pany as such attends
only to such matters in connection with its housing as garbage and sani­
tary collection. Company control is indirect and lies in the fact that
almost all of the taxable property in the com m unity belongs to the
company. Practically all male inhabitants of voting age in the vil­
lage are employees of the company, and elections are thus wholly
within the control of the company. The management of the com ­
m unity is paternalistic, a fact to which strong objection was taken
b y some of the employees interviewed.




.S e c o n d

Floor.

Plan

Fig. 85.—COMMUNITY H.

F ir _ j t

Plan

SPECIAL CORNER FRAME HOUSE.

Semi-detached, 5 rooms and bath, cellar, and furnace.




Floo r.

Cost in 1914, $2,400 a side; rent $11.60 per month.

F i r _.s t

Floor.

Pl a n

Fig. 86.—COMMUNITY H.

J e .c o n d

TYPICAL SEMIDETACHED FRAME HOUSE.

6 rooms, bath, cellar, and furnace.

Fig. 87.—COMMUNITY H.

F L o o r . P l a *1

Cost in 1914, $3,300 a side; rent $16.40 per month.

GROUP PICTURE OF HOUSES IN THE COMMUNITY.

Variation secured by rooflines, porch design, and arrangement and use of stucco work.




Fig. 88.—COMMUNITY H. STUDY IN PORCH VAR IATIO N TO R EL IE VE MONOTONY OF
UNIFORM TYPE AND PLAN OF HOUSE.




F ig. 89.—COMMUNITY H.

FLAT ROW FOR FOREIGN LABORERS.

Brick construction. Accommodates 8 families, 4 rooms to the family; modern improvements
and electric light; stove heat. Rent $5 to 86 a month per family.

F ig . 90.—COMMUNITY I.

PLANS OF 5-ROOM MILL-CUT FRAME BUNGALOW S.

Stove heat; sink and hot-water back to stove in kitchen, water-closet addition, built off kitchen, not
shown. Cost in 1915, $927; rent $7 per month.




F ig. 91.—COMMUNITY I. FLOOR PLANS O*
MILL-CUT BUN GALOW OF 5 ROOMS AND
CELLAR.
Electric light, stove heat, hot water back in
kitchen, water-closet in addition off kitchen,
not shown. Cost in 1915 SI,382; rent $10 per
mont h.

M ISC E LLA N E O U S IN D U STRIES.

185

TH E COM PANY T O W N .

English garden city town planning has been carried out in the
community, and the landscape gardening has been particularly well
done. The streets follow the natural contour of the site, and efforts
have been made to avoid any tendency toward uniformity of archi­
tecture. Residences are restricted to certain parts of the community
and houses of a special type erected. The section inhabited by
Polish operatives is situated at one edge of the community.
The streets are almost uniformly 50 feet wide and laid with sand
and gravel; some are macadamized. Sidewalks are of a rough
asphalt composition. Generous provision has been made for park­
ing, and trees are very plentiful. In some parts of the residence
section no alleys have been provided, but open green spaces have
been left back of the houses. The appearance of back yards and
alleys is further improved by the fact that no outhouses, garages,
fences, or gardens are permitted on the lot. Allotment gardens are,
however, given in various parts of the community.
T Y P E S OF HOUSES.

There are two distinct classes of houses— semidetached frame dwell­
ings of either the modernized or the early style of colonial architecture
(located in the better residence section), and row houses of the brick
“ two-flat” style, accommodating eight families in each row.
Better-class Houses.

It has not been possible to secure complete data on the houses of
this community. The information which follows is therefore only
partial. Most of the houses are of frame with exterior of weather
shingles and are plastered and papered inside. Houses of the earlier
colonial type are of white-painted matched boarding (not siding).
The frame part of all houses is painted. In some cases, following the
English style, the houses have ornaments of woodwork or stucco
work near the eaves. Great variety in appearance is secured by the
use of different styles of porches, as many as six different types being
employed. (See Fig. 88.)




186

H O U SIN G BY E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The principal data concerning the houses of the better residence
section are contained in the following tabulation:
T a b le

119.—COST AND RENTALS OF BETTER-CLASS SEMIDETACHED DWELLINGS IN
COMMUNITY Ii—MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES.

Num­
Percent
annual
Num­ Cost ber of
Rent
rental
Type of dwelling and year of ber of per rooms Cost
per
per forms of
construct,ion.
dwell­ dwell­ per room. month.
ing. dwell­
ings.
house
cost.
ing.

Sanitary equipment.

D w e llin g s co n stru cted 1910.

Frame, semidetached..............
Brick, semidetached................

10 $ 2 ,6 5 0
2 .6 5 0
io
20
C
1)
20
0)

6
6

20
10
42
20
10
10

r
1
/
\

6
5
5
6
6
6

4

$442

442

5

$16.00
16.40
5.00
4.00

7.2 IBathtub, w a t e r -c lo s e t ,
7.4 f sink, electricity, gas.
\ Bathtub, w a t e r -c lo s e t ,
/ sink, and gas.

12.60
11.60
7.40
8. 10
16.00
16.40

5.7
5.8 (Bathtub, w a t e r -c lo s e t ,
3.9 j sink, and electricity.
3.8
5.8 \ Bathtub, water-closet,sink,
5.9 J electricity, gas, furnace.

D iv e llin g s co n s tru cte d 1914.

Frame, semidetached..............

2 .6 5 0
2 ,4 0 0
2 ,2 5 0
2 .6 5 0
3 .3 0 0
3 .3 0 0

442

480
450
442
550
550

1 Not reported.
Row Houses of the Polish Operatives.

As already stated, the dwellings in which the Polish employees are
housed are located on the outskirts of the modern residential part of
the village. This part of the development is decidedly inferior to the
residence section just described. Altogether 64 dwellings are pro­
vided, in rows of eight dwellings to the row. These are two-story
“ flat” rows, accommodating one family on each floor. These rows
were constructed in 1910 along the lines of English plans for row houses.
Each family has four rooms, the upper flat renting for $5 per month,
the lower one for $6 per month. The conveniences consist of a bath­
room and water-closet compartment, kitchen sink, and electric
lighting. These houses are heated by stoves. Plans of these houses
could not be secured. The lots on which the houses stand are 75 feet
deep and 16 feet wide.
The lack of fences has militated against the maintenance of neatappearing back yards. The streets of this neighborhood are not so
well maintained as those of other parts of the village.
COMMUNITY I.

The company which has established community I has undertaken
housing work at three establishments, one in Virginia and two in
New Jersey. Its housing work is characterized by the erection of
both permanent and temporary war-time houses, by the use on a
small scale of mill-cut or so-called ready-cut houses, and by careful
maintenance. The housing work of the company has been consider­
ably subordinated to its regular business, a fact which is said to find




Fig. 92.—COMMUNITY I.

PICTURE AND PLAN OF MILL-CUT BUNGALOW OF 5 ROOMS
AND CELLAR.

Cost in 1915, $2,032; re nt $13 per m o nth .




L o t 30 x 120 feet.

A ll modern im provem ents, furnace heat.

! |rp’T"'1 1 .......
1
'f

p ip fts lillB i

27//Y///C- /P

L/\//HG-fr

/ xS
O '

/ x8
O

/? 0 \ x 6 -

Fig. 93.—COMMUNITY I. PICTURE (IDEAL RENDERING) AND PLAN OF MILL-CUT
BUNGALOW OF 4 ROOMS AND CELLAR.
Addition, on kitchen, for water-closet not shown.

Cost in 1915, $7(59; rent $8 per month.

FIG. 94.—COMMUNITY I. PLAN OF STORY AND A HALF MILL-CUT
HOUSE OF 6 ROOMS, BATH, AND CELLAR




Cost in 1915, $2,964; re nt $20 per m onth.

FIG. 95.—COMMUNITY I. PICTURE (ID E A L R E N D E R IN G ) A N D PLAN
BUNGALOW OF 5 ROOMS, BA TH , A N D CELLAR.




Cost in 1915, $2,507; re n t $15.25 per m o nth .

OF MILL-CUT

F ig .

9 6 —COMMUNITY




I.

MILL-CUT HOUSE (ID E A L R E N D E R IN G ) OF 7 ROOMS,
BATH, AND CELLAR.
Cost in 1915, $3,650; re n t, $26 per m onth.

M ISC E LLA N E O U S IN D U ST R IE S.

187

its justification in the necessarily temporary character of most of the
company housing. A t its Virginia plant the land for housing was
not bought as a part of the company’s original plant development,
but was purchased after the plant was started and somewhat as
an afterthought. Consequently a speculatively developed town
stands to-day in the midst of three distinctly separated village settle­
ments built and maintained by the company. However, it should
be pointed out that the company developments compare more than
favorably with the privately exploited community in point of at­
tractiveness of the houses, provision of sanitary conveniences, care
and maintenance of streets and alleys, provision of parked roadways,
and quality and character of the houses.
This may be described as a war-born community, although it was
started as a permanent scheme of development in 1912. The village
has been erected on undeveloped ground, generally level, but having
a few ravines made by creeks. The community has much the aspect
of a frontier town, a boom development where money is earned easily
and spent fast. The location of the company’s plant here attracted
private land speculators, and local owners of what had been unde­
veloped agricultural land began to realize high prices on their hold­
ings. Streets and lots were hastily laid out on improvised maps
and stakes were placed to mark the location of streets and avenues of
high-sounding names. And this remains to-day the stage in which
most of this speculative development still finds itself.
The company itself at first bought a limited amount of land, only
a trifle in excess of its plant requirements. It intended to house at
first only its constructional force. It would have been quite possible
for the company, it was stated, to have obtained its labor supply
without any provision of cottages for married employees? but in
order to reduce floaters and to secure a permanent and contented
labor force it was decided to proceed with the construction of houses
for married employees. To such extent has its housing work con­
tinued that out of a total working force of 12,225, early in 1918,
the company housed about 4,200 married employees and 2,600 single
men— that, is, 6,800 altogether, or 55.6 per cent of its entire force, a
proportion higher than is generally found in manufacturing towns as
distinguished from mining localities.
So far as holding its men is concerned, the company has been
successful. Several instances were cited by the manager to show
that the relatively better housing the company has provided has
added to the efficiency of its men. Without housing in the immediate
vicinity of the plant, the employees would have been forced to travel
a considerable distance to and from work, since the nearest city is 9
miles distant. The round trip by street car or train costs 45 cents
and consumes 70 to 80 minutes. A “ jitney” service at 50 cents one




188

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

way is available; it shortens the time of travel, however, only about
five minutes each way.
T O W N -SIT E ARRAN GEM EN TS.

In laying out the town no attempt at scientific layout was made;
the ground is level and permanence was not looked forward to for any
considerable part of the development. The company town really
consists of three distinct villages on the point of land formed by the
confluence of two rivers. In addition there is a village just outside
the barbed-wire fence surrounding the plant.
Few building rules are necessary, as the buildings are all owned by
the company. The keeping of chickens is prohibited. While ostensibly
there are no racial restrictions, it is to be observed that one village of
the development is built up with free standing cottages for officials and
staff employees; another contains less pretentious houses for plant
employees; and a group of barrack rows is provided for single men.
One end of the group of barracks is for American employees, the
middle for immigrants, and the other end for Negroes. These bar­
racks have not proved popular and many rooms in them are vacant.
It was found after a time that some of these employees preferred
to live in the city, where amusements and recreational facilities were
more plentiful.
Water and sewer systems have been installed by the company in its
villages; on the other hand these are not found generally in outlying
privately-developed sections of the community. There is an electriclight system. The streets are unpaved except in the village of betterclass houses where they are graveled with the exception of a width
of 16 feet in the center of each street, which is paved with concrete.
Sidewalks are of board, where laid, except in the better village, where
concrete has been used.
Street cleaning, street lighting, fire protection, police protection,
collection of garbage and rubbish, and enforcement of sanitary rules
are all functions of the company. All policemen in the community
are deputized company employees wearing the insignia of the
company.
The schools for the children of company employees have been
built by the company, but are managed and supported by the county,
which will also eventually pay the capital expenditure. Churches are
furnished land, water, and electricity for lighting without charge.
The company supports a hospital, which is run by a charitable
institution.
VILLAGE OF D E T A C H E D HOUSES.

In the village where the officials, superintendents, technical staff,
and higher-salaried employees live, there are 156 houses, having from
five to seven rooms, most of which contain a cellar large enough to




M ISCE LLAN E O U S IN D U STRIES.

189

accommodate a hot-air furnace. Most of the houses have all the
modern improvements of bath, hot and cold water, and electric
lighting. Only 13 are without bathtub and are heated by stoves
instead of furfiaces.
The houses are placed on lots 25 by 120 feet, except four houses
for superintendents, two of which are on lots 100 by 150 feet and
two on lots 50 by 100 feet.
The houses appear attractive and comfortable, and of fairly sub­
stantial construction, being sided (clapboarded) or shingled on the
outside and plastered inside. The streets are well paved, trees have
been planted, lawns prevail, and in the yards are bushes and flowers.
For salaried employees without family connections the company
maintains a hotel. This hotel accommodates about 365, of whom
325 are provided for in separate rooms for one or two persons, and
40 sleep in dormitories. Board and room cost $6 to $8 per week.
R U BBER O ID VILLAGE.

While the houses of this village are semipermanent, they are not so
substantial and durable as those of the village already sketched.
Here the houses are covered outside with a patent tar-paper material
called rubberoid, calculated to last about seven years. The large
majority of the houses are of four and five rooms and are heated by
stoves. Practically all, however, have baths, sewer, and water con­
nections, and are lighted by electricity. The lots, as a rule, are larger
than in the village above described and allow plenty of space for
gardening. They vary from 63 to 75 feet in width and are 100 feet
deep. Each row dwelling has a lot of 21 feet in width and 68 feet in
depth.
During 1918 five dormitories for men were erected in this village.
These are all of temporary construction. Four of these dormitories
house 92 men each; the fifth accommodates 32 men.
W o m e n ’ s
lo d g in g
h a l l .—In the village described the company has
erected a lodging hall or dormitory for white women employees and
for the teachers in the community. This is a frame structure of 43
ordinary sized rooms. It is in charge of a matron.
B A R R A C K VILLAGE.

This village was built in 1914-15, inside the barbed-wire fence sur­
rounding the plant, and consisted of bunk houses for the construction
workers. These were remodeled in 1916 into one-story rows for colored
families, providing two rooms for each family. During 1917-18 the
company erected an additional 484 dwellings in similar rows. These
are wooden, rubberoid-covered rows, having an average of 16 family
apartments to the row. Each row of “ apartments” consists of two
lines of single rooms placed back to back, only one room of each pair
of rooms on each side of the row having a door to the outside. Each




190

H O U SIN G B Y EM P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

room has one exposure, one of the rooms having only a small window
in it, the other having a window and the outside door. Each room
is 10 feet long and 10 feet wide, with a 9J-foot ceiling. Over each pair
of doors there is a small porch to be used in common by*two families.
Each porch has a sink for the use of the families. Altogether there
are 580 apartments provided. In addition to these rows there are
48 one-room cottages renting for $3 per month each.
The houses are all heated by stoves furnished by the company and
are lighted by electricity. No sanitary conveniences are provided.
Can privies are used, these being emptied daily.
Bunk and barrack houses have been added recently for colored and
immigrant labor. The quarters provided are sufficient to accommo­
date about 1,500 unmarried colored workers and 220 foreign laborers,
who are accommodated in bunks placed about six to each room.
The rooms are about 9 feet wide and 12 feet long and average about
10 feet in height. Rarely are the rooms fully occupied.
Cottages for Negro Workmen.

Additional cottages were in course of erection in the spring of 1918.
These were hastily constructed two-room affairs, built of sheathing
on frame, covered with rubberoid, ceiled up inside, and having one
door and two windows each. A carpenter and a helper could erect
them at the rate of one every eight days. They were meant to be
used by young married Negro workmen. They are located within
a wire fence just outside the plant.
Housing of Female Colored Employees.

The company began taking on colored girls in May, 1918, when a
group of 12 was hired. Special row houses within the barrack village*
are occupied by some of the 113 on the rolls of the company. There
are three groups of rows— one of 10 so-called “ apartments” of two
rooms each, a second of 12 two-room apartments, and a third of
16 two-room apartments, making 76 rooms altogether. No rent is
charged for these.
A matron living near these apartments, who looks after the needs
of the girls, is in charge. In each row two rooms are set aside as a
sort of sitting room and office. Men friends of the girls will have to
be entertained on the porches in the summer. The problem of
entertainment in winter had not been solved at the time of the
bureau's survey.
VILLAGE OF SEM IDETACH ED HOUSES.

On the opposite side of the works from the barrack village and
outside of the barbed-wire inclosure is another village, exclusively for
white employees. Here there are 80 houses of two 3-room dwellings
each, which were remodeled in 1916 from frame rubberoid-covered
barracks erected in 1914-15. A washhouse, two outside toilets, and




191

M ISC E LLA N E O U S IN D U ST R IE S.

a wash room are provided for every four dwellings. Each family pays
a rent of $5 a month, which also includes steam heat from the plant.
In 1917 and 1918 an additional group of 32 dwellings of the barrack
type were provided. These, however, are equipped with plumbing
and are heated by stoves. In addition the company has 33 bachelor
houses of six rooms each. Each man pays 50 cents per room per
month— i. e . j $3 is returned for each house per month.
POPULATION CENSUS.

The racial composition of the community may be of interest.
The following table shows the distribution of the population as
white, colored, or European, by sex and age, and discloses conditions
as of May 31, 1918.
T able

1 2 0 . —PO PU L A T IO N CENSUS OF COMPANY D W E LL IN G S AT COMMUNITY I —MIS­
C ELLANEO US IN D U ST R IE S.
Item.

White.

Dwellings for families:
Number of dwellings occupied..

Colored.

1,949

515

W om en..
Children.

3,637
2,492
3,352

515
499
840

Total..

9,481

1,854

2

1,052
102

1,540
56

2

1,154

1,596

2 10,635

3,450

Occupants—

Dwellings for unmarried persons:
Number of dwellings occupied..
Occupants—
Men..............................................................................................................
W omen.......................................................................................................
Total........................................................................................................
Total number of occupants...................................................................
LNot including 12 dwellings occupied by Europeans.

2 Not including 209 Europeans.

A D M IN IST R ATIO N .

The administration of the housing work is committed to a special
department, which is subordinate to the manager of the local works.
A single manager is in charge; subordinate to him are three func­
tional departments— a renting-house department, a supply depart­
ment, and a sanitary department, the names of which more or less
adequately characterize them. The house-renting department has
101 employees. The supply department looks after the hotels,
lunch rooms, and restaurants in and about the works and is not
strictly concerned with housing. The sanitary department is con­
cerned with both plant and housing sanitation.
That part of the work of the sanitary department staff concerned
with village sanitation, as distinguished from plant saitantion, occupies
the partial time of a chief sanitary inspector, an inspector and time-




192

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

keeper, a foreman and inspector in one and the same person, a
janitor, and 24 laborers. This department attends to garbage and
rubbish collection and street cleaning in the villages.
Houses are rented only and none sold. Therefore it will be simple
for the company to divert all excess rents into maintenance and to
keep the premises neat and attractive. Rent includes water, electric
lights and necessary lamps, and collection of garbage; coal and wood
are sold at actual cost. Rent is collected monthly. In the case
of employees hired at daily rates monthly deductions are made from
the wages; salaried employees pay at the office as in ordinary houserenting practice, because their checks are not made out at the plant,
but are issued from the head office of the company located in
another city.
In event of the illness of an employee collection of rent is deferred
or in special cases use of the house is given free.
The rental lease signed by each tenant employee stipulates that
it is “ to continue from month to month thereafter while the said
party of the second part continues in the employment of the said
party of the first part, at the same monthly rent and payment.”
Single workers and transient laborers sleeping in bunks or living in
barracks are not required to sign any leases.
At first applicants for houses were encouraged to take roomers,
and one who would take roomers was given preference over another
who did not intend to take roomers. At present, however, appli­
cants for houses are taken on the basis of their length of service
with the company. No application for a house is filed now unless
the applicant has completed a three months’ period of satisfactory
service. The application for a house must be made on an approved
form and be signed by the plant superintendent or department
head. It then goes to the village superintendent’s office.
This policy of assigning houses by length of service has worked
out so that employees who now secure company houses have been
with the company a year or more.
M AINTENANCE.

While the company has lacked a coherent housing policy, it has
excelled in the care of its community. Trees have been planted in
the better residence section; the houses are well spaced, on lots 120
feet long and generally 30 feet wide, though in some instances 50
feet wide.
Various methods are employed by the company in order to stimu­
late and provide neat surroundings. Fences have not been put up
because of the belief that unfenced lawns are more pleasing. The
company offers prizes for the best kept premises and encourages
gardening by supplying fertilizer at less than the haulage cost and




193

M ISC E LLA N E O U S IN D U ST R IE S.

selling seed at cost. An employee of the company who is a florist
gives instructions to those interested. He is encouraged in his work
by being allowed a company house at a rental based on net cost.
Garbage is collected daily in the village of the better houses, and in
the other principal villages four times a week. The tenants are
required to buy ash and garbage cans either from the company,
which sells them at cost plus hauling expense, or elsewhere.
COST OF M AIN TEN AN CE.

By 1916 the company had invested in its housing enterprise at
community I about $1,250,000. This does not include outside im­
provements nor cost of land. Outside improvements, sewers, streets,
walks, parking; etc., are charged to the general construction of the
Virginia plant. These improvements have been estimated at about
$250 per lot or house. During 1916 rent receipts amounted to
$112,813, or a gross return of 9 per cent on the investment. In
the same year, after charges to maintenance had been paid, $74,799
remained to pay for taxes, interest on investment, and depreciation.
This is a net return of 6 per cent on the housing investment, exclusive
of land and permanent improvements. As time goes on maintenance
and depreciation charges will increase rapidly. In its first year of
operations, when the enterprise was in its beginnings and only a
few houses were erected, charges to maintenance, which includes only
upkeep, repairs, and remodeling, came to $326 and rent receipts
amounted to $524. For the years 1913 to 1916 repair and mainte­
nance charges and rent receipts have been as follows:
T able

1 2 1 . —RELA TIO N B E T W E E N R E N T R EC E IPT S A N D E X P E N D IT U R E FOR MAIN­
TENANCE OF COMMUNITY I. 1913 TO 1916—M ISCELLANEOUS IN D U ST R IE S.
Expenditure for m ainte­
nance.
Year.

Rent receipts.
Amount.

1913
..
.............................................
1914.........................................................................................
1915 .......................................................
1916.........................................................................................
Average............

...............................................

Per cent of
rent
receipts.

$524
1,964
23,931
112,813

$326
250
4,498
38,014

62.2
12.7
18.8
33.7

34,808

10,772

30.9

W E LF A R E W O R K .

As the war progressed the company had to expand its force to
meet the additional requirements of war manufacture. At the
time of the investigation' it found itself short of houses with no
prospect of private builders stepping in to meet a situation admit125882°— 20— Bull. 263-------13 + 14




194

H O U SIN G BY EM P LO Y E R S JH T H E U N IT E D STATES.

tedly temporary in its requirements. The cost of building, the man­
agement estimated, was at least double what it was in 1915 and 1916,
when most of its houses were put up. The rubberoid cottages have
not been warm enough for winter weather, and the row houses have
not been popular. Furthermore, a considerable extension of its wel­
fare and recreational work, particularly among the Negroes, is being
considered as highly advisable.
At present the recreational work of the company is carried on
through three Y. M. C. A. organizations, one at each of the three
villages where are housed most of the mechanical force, and at the
village of the office staff there is a club organization of staff and
clerical employees. Considerable extension work is carried on by
these Y. M. C. A. organizations and three playgrounds are super­
vised and managed by them. Three kindergartens are conducted
by the women’s clubs organized among the wives and friends of
Y. M. C. A. members. Trained teachers have charge of these kinder­
gartens. The dues are $1 a month for one child, or $1.50 for two.
Classes in English for foreigners have also been instituted under the
direction of Y. M. C. A. teachers.
The company maintains 44 change or wash houses at different
points about its works, at which are provided bathing and toilet
facilities and in many instances locker accommodations. Special em­
ployees have charge of these houses, and sanitary inspection is made
from time to time. Also within the plant area are mess halls and
lunch rooms open to accommodate all the shifts. (The plant operates
on three shifts of eight hours each.)
The company has installed a filtration plant from which water for
both the village and the plant is supplied. Bubble fountains have
been installed at proper places about the works. Ice for the com­
munity is manufactured in the company’s own plant.
The company hospital is located within the plant yard; it is
equipped with an emergency room, an ether room, an operating room,
a complete X -ray outfit, four wards, and necessary domestic acces­
sories such as kitchen, dining room, and laundry and storage rooms.
The four wards consist of a ward for white patients with 22 beds, a
ward for colored patients having 10 beds, an open-air ward, and a
ward for contagious cases. On the staff of the hospital are 35 per­
sons, including 11 doctors, 5 female nurses, 3 male nurses, a number
of orderlies, and others. All treatment is at the company’s expense.
The company has gone to very considerable expense in connection
with its general recreational work at this establishment. The club­
house of the staff and clerical employees cost approximately $40,000
and the welfare buildings for Y. M. C. A. organizations over $100,000.




Street view.

Alley view.
F ig . 97.— COMMUNITY J. BEST R ESIDENCE DISTRICT
W H E R E STR EETS AND A LLEY S ARE MACADAMIZED
A N D CURBED.

Y ig . 98.—COMMUNITY J.

DETACHED TEM PO R AR Y FRAME
HOUSES OF 5 ROOMS AN D BATH.

Composition exterior; ceiled inside with tongue-and-groove material.
Cost in 1915, $1,500; rent $6 per month.




2o'-ro'\-l

P O .S T S

F ig . 99.—COMMUNITY J. FR O N T A N D R E A R V IEW A N D PLAN OF TEM PORARY
ROW FRAME HOUSES OF 4 ROOMS A N D BATH.
Composition exterior, ceiled inside with tongue-and-groove material.
dwelling unit; rent $5.50 per month.




Cost in 1916, $995 per

M ISCE LLAN E O U S IN D U ST R IE S.

195

COMMUNITY J.

The housing work at this community was done by the same
company as at community I. The housing at this plant, which is
one of the two New Jersey plants, was begun and completed in 1915,
and may roughly be divided into three groups: (1) The permanent
community; (2) the temporary community; (3) the barracks. The
first and second form a single village; the barracks are erected within
a barbed-wire fence just outside the plant.
Out of approximately 14,000 employees in September, 1916, the
company housed 4,880 in its village development and 4,650 in the
barracks. Altogether, then, 68 per cent of its labor force was housed
by the company at this works. The remainder of the company’s
force houses itself at a village and a city not far away, the former con­
nected with community J by special workingmen’s train, the latter
by a ferry.
The village has been laid out foursquare on level ground. Most of
the streets, have a central cinder roadway 15 feet wide. In the per­
manent community trees have been planted along both sides of the
streets. The streets are kept exceptionally clean. The lots here are
everywhere 50 by 100 feet. As a rule there are no fences, although
some tenants have put up very attractive ones as a part of their
gardening work. Gardening is stimulated by prizes given by the
company.
T H E P E R M A N E N T D EV ELO PM EN T.

The permanent community consists largely of so-called mill-cut
houses of frame construction, sided or clapboarded on the outside
and plastered on the inside. They are rather attractive in appear­
ance and cost as much, if not more than, houses built in the ordinary
fashion. All of the houses here have modern conveniences of bath,
running water in the kitchen, and electric lighting. Most of them
are also furnace heated. There are 194 houses in this section.
T H E T E M P O R A R Y D EV ELO P M EN T.

This section consists of 152 single or detached houses of frame,
whose parts were cut at the mill and erected on the location. The
houses were erected in 1915 at an average cost of $1,500 each. In
1918, 800 temporary 6-room bungalows and 20 houses of a perma­
nent type were erected. Each house stands on a lot 50 by 100 feet,
and has six rooms and bath, kitchen sink, electric light, and stove
heat, and rents for $6 a month.
In the village are also two groups of multiple houses erected in 1916;
the first contains 330 four-room one-story dwellings, in rows of six
dwellings each; the second 300 six-room two-story dwellings, also in
rows of six dwellings each.




196

H O U SIN G BY E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The four-room dwellings cost $925 each and rent for $5.50 a month,
and the six-room dwellings cost $1,050 each and rent for $8 a month.
Shower baths, toilet connections, and kitchen sink are provided for
the four-room houses, and bathtubs, toilet connections, and kitchen
sink in the six-room houses. All are lighted by electricity and heated
by stoves.
Although this is considered a temporary community and built as
such according to plans furnished by the engineering department of
the company, the houses are well designed and as well built as many
of those intended for permanent use. They have certain minor
inconveniences which the permanent houses do not have. The win­
dows, for instance, instead of being double hung, are equipped with
the old-fashioned window bolts for raising and keeping them open.
TH E B AR RACK S.

The barracks built in 1915 and placed within a 10-foot-high
barbed-wire fence just outside the powder works, may roughly be
divided into three groups: (1) The big bunk house for the foreigners;
(2) barracks for the ordinary help; and (3) rooming quarters provided
for the skilled help. Within these barracks are housed 6,684 men.
The company also provided a hotel and clubhouse, the hotel accom­
modating 70 men and the club 124.
The barracks are rough, frame, one-story structures covered with
tar paper. The hotel and club quarters are frame, clapboarded.
The big bunk houses for the foreign laborers are given free of
rent, and a special house is erected nearby where men can do their
own cooking. In this house open fires are provided, and each man is
given a locker where he can keep his food and dishes. The bunks are
placed in tiers of three, which is not considered the best sanitary
practice. The bunks have the merit, however, of being of iron frame.
On the whole the bunk house is overcrowded. There are massed
within 13 bunk houses, 2,228 bunks, an average of 171 bunks to each
house. Every bunk house is electric lighted and has a washhouse in
connection with it.
A better class of foreigners' bunk houses are four houses divided
into 15 rooms each, each room accommodating two men. Otherwise
the accommodations are the same as for the 13 larger houses.
In the American camp there are 28 one-story bunk houses of six
rooms each, 25 having 24 rooms each, and 7 having 26 rooms each.
There are four men assigned to each room; thus there are 3,800 men
accommodated in this group of houses. Each man pays 50 cents a
week for his quarters. The bunk houses are heated by steam from
a central plant and are lighted by electricity. Washhouses with
water and toilet connections are adequately provided*




PORCH

I DINING

=
n

SI

Iz s M 3 1
y
-

■j

<

■J,
LIV1NC ROOM
I $?■■
zi x iy '

f 1
Eg i
r

1 22JL 1

^

F ig . 100.—COMMUNITY J. FRONT A N D R E A R V IE W A N D
PLAN OF TEM PO R AR Y FRAME ROW HOUSES OF 6 ROOMS
AN D BATH.
Composition exterior, ceiled inside with tongue-and-groove material.
Cost per dwelling in 1916,11,050; rent $8 per month.




Six-room barracks of better type.

Long barracks.
Fig. 101.—COMMUNITY J.

BARRACKS FOR SINGLE MEN.

Four men to a room. Heated by central plant. Note arrangements in roofs for ventilation.




M ISCE LLAN E O U S IN D U STRIES.

197

Bachelor quarters of a better class are also provided for American
help, in which the men live two in a room. There are 15 buildings,
having altogether 690 rooms.
HOUSING OF W OMAN W O R K ER S.

The company has erected lodging halls for housing the woman
employees taken on in the spring of 1918. Each dormitory contains
50 rooms, but three rooms are set aside for other purposes— two for
the matron, and the third to serve as a trunk room. Two girls can
be accommodated in each of most of the rooms, the 47 rooms usually
housing, therefore, 94 girls. Altogether the halls accommodate 564,
or almost two-thirds of the nine hundred and odd employed at the
plant at the time of the investigation.
The lodging halls are temporary structures of frame, ceiled inside
with tongue-and-groove material, which is stained a brown. Each
hall has a central entrance room with a desk for the matron on
duty, and three workrooms or sitting rooms on the second floor. In
each of the latter are provided a table and chairs and in one there is
also a sewing machine for use of the girls. Attached to each hall is
a laundry and several bathrooms for the use of the occupants of the
hall. On each of the two floors there is a bath and wash room.
Each bedroom contains one or two beds, according to the number
of occupants, a dresser, and a small closet and two chairs. There is
one window in each room, but the door has a transom at the top, so
as to permit of thorough circulation of air. On account of the brown
walls the rooms looked a little dark and small. The dimensions of
each room are 11 by 13 feet and the distance from floor to ceiling
9J feet. As far as possible it is deemed best to permit one occupant
to a room. Some of the girls prefer to room together; others prefer
to be alone. Three women’s dormitories accommodating 95 women
each, with rooms large enough for but one person were completed in
1918.
A room is provided in each dormitory for entertainment and recre­
ational purposes.
The cafeteria where the girls take their meals is also in the Y. W.
C. A. building. Prices are reasonable and everything looked clean
and orderly. Gymnasium and bathing facilities are provided in the
building.
Arrangements in the dormitory have been complicated by the fact
that the girls work three shifts. Girls coming in between 12 and 1
o'clock at night disturb those who are asleep at that time. No ar­
rangement has yet been made to meet this obviously unsatisfactory
situation.




198

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.
AD M IN ISTR ATIO N AND COST OF M AIN TEN AN CE.

The policy and management of the company at this plant is essen­
tially the same as at community I and will not therefore be detailed
again at this point. The extent of the work of management at this
place may be noted, however, from the fact that 580 persons are
employed in the so-called quartermaster department, which has
charge of the housing, feeding, and welfare of the company’s em­
ployees.
W ELFARE W ORK.

A community house has been erected by the company to serve as
the center of social life, and a Y. M. C. A. building has been erected
and subsidized by the company. The Y. M. C. A. building contains
the usual features of such an organization— gymnasium, recreation
rooms, and library. Membership rates in the organization range
from $2.50 a year to $7.50 for full-privilege membership. The re­
ported membership is nearly 3,000.
The local community house contains an auditorium, also used as a
dance hall, seating between 400 and 500 persons; the hall is equipped
with a stage and accommodations are provided for serving refresh­
ments. A library is maintained in the building. A charge of 5
cents is made for each person joining the reading dub and of 2 cents
for each book taken out. The library is open twice a week from
3 to 5 p. m., and once a week from 7 to 9 p. m. About 500 persons
avail themselves of the library privileges.'
The company furnishes janitor service for this community club­
house. The welfare worker, who is also the visiting nurse, is in charge
of the house.
Two clubhouses, in the nature of boarding clubs, are provided at
the permanent community. In the old clubhouse, for the foremen,
the rate is $7 a week for room and board, and in the new clubhouse,
for the supervising officials and technical men, $8 a week. Reading
and writing rooms are provided at each club and everything is made
as homelike as possible.
The office men and officials who live outside community J in family
quarters and do not care to go home to lunch have arranged for the
services of excellent noonday lunches in a building adjoining the
administration building. The men manage this themselves, and an
assessment is levied to cover the exact cost of maintenance.
At the plant are wash and change houses equipped with lavatories
having bath and hot and cold water connections. Liquid soap and
paper towels are furnished by the company. 11 Lockers” are placed
in these change houses, but as they are merely built-in receptacles,
open and without doors, they are not generally used by the men.
Eight tables at each change house provide places where the men
may eat lunches or dinners which they bring. .




M ISCE LLAN E O U S IN D U STRIES.

199

Through a visiting nurse the families of the plant employees are
reached. The visiting nurse acts as a welfare secretary, leader of
the local women's clubs, and the Camp Fire Girls, and acts as adviser
to the Boy Scouts. She gives lessons in cooking and sewing. Her
office is open at all times to those who may want her advice. Acci­
dent cases treated at the four emergency hospitals at the different
plants of the company are turned over to her for dressing. Extended
hospital treatment for company employees is given at the hospital
in the city near by.
A Young Women's Christian Association building, containing a
cafeteria, has been recently provided near the center of the perma­
nent community, for the pleasure and recreation of the woman
employees who were hired as a war-time necessity.
COMMUNITY K.

In 1915 the company which established communities I and J con­
structed 102 dwellings for employees of its other works in New
Jersey. In 1918 an additional 115 dwellings in two-story rows of tem­
porary construction were erected, having 6 rooms per family and 6
families to the row. Five dormitories for men, accommodating 92
men each; and two for women, one housing 100, two in a room, and
the other 95 women, each in a separate room, were also provided,
as well as three permanent staff houses.
The community, which is about 12 miles from the nearest city,
has been completely developed b y the company; a water and a sewer
system have been put in, streets paved, gutters and sidewalks in­
stalled, and the maintenance and protection from fire provided for
the community by the company.
The houses are two-story single or detached frame structures,
plastered and papered inside, with painted woodwork. All houses
have modern sanitary equipment, three-piece bathrooms and kitchen
sinks, and are lighted by electricity. Each house has a lot 65 by
100 feet.




CHAPTER XYL— METHOD OF FINANCING.
H O W THE EM PLOYER CONDUCTS HOUSING.

With few exceptions the housing work was conducted as a general
part of the employer’s business; the accounting and administrative
work connected with it was done in the general office of the employer
and by a staff which had other duties to perform. In some instances
a special department was created for the conduct of the work, usually
termed the land department or land agent. Where the housing was
conducted by a subsidiary company the housing enterprise usually
became more elaborate and was found more generally in connection
with a model-village development. Altogether 15 of 213 companies
reporting had organized subsidiary housing companies, and 3 had
organized real estate companies controlled by the employer.
It was characteristic of the coal operators to conduct the housing
work as a part of the business, each local superintendent being the
house and real estate man as well as the manager of the operations.
Reports from the superintendents at the mines were transmitted
either through the district manager, where there was one, or directly
to the comptroller or treasurer of the corporation. The drafting and
construction work was a part of the engineer’s office.
Eleven companies engaged in iron and steel manufacturing and in
allied industries and four companies engaged in certain miscellaneous
industries are the only companies reporting the financial method of
the subsidiary company. In only three instances was the housing
done by a real estate company the stock of which was owned b y the
stockholders of the employing concern. It is frequently difficult to
classify the housing operation as being strictly employer’s housing.
In one of the three instances referred to the real estate company was
financed by bonds held by the employing company. The vice presi­
dent and secretary of the real estate company were officials of the
principal employing company, and the bookkeeping employees of
the real estate company were paid jointly by the employer company
and by the real estate company. It was also stated that the real
estate company did nothing without the approval of the general em­
ploying company, although this was denied by an officer of the latter.
In one instance a peculiar relationship had been created as a result
of change of control. A former mining company had owned and oper­
ated the property and built the usual company houses on it. When
this company ceased operating it leased the property, but retained
200




M ET H O D S OF F IN A N C IN G .

201

title and control over the former company houses. At the time of the
investigation these houses were rented to the employees of the oper­
ating company which collected the rent, while the maintenance and
repair of the houses remained the duty of the owner. The employer
or lessee in this case, however, was to be held responsible for the
housing conditions as he had authority to order repairs and proper
maintenance.
It has already been noted how early colonial mills were established
at the sources of water power; how, for instance, Paterson, N. J., was
organized as a company town by a power and land company created
by Alexander Hamilton. The power and land companies in turn
leased or sold land and power to the manufacturer. A survival of
such an arrangement has been discovered in connection with a cotton
mill in South Carolina. The original site of the cotton-mill com­
munity in question had been owned by a water power and land com­
pany. The cotton-mill operator bought land for his establishment
from this company; but the power and land company has agreed to
erect houses and to lease them to the cotton-mill owners. The latter
in turn sublet to their employees at the same rate at which they lease
the houses. The cotton-mill owners, under their license, pay the
rent stipulated, whether or not the houses are occupied. The arrange­
ment has not proved satisfactory to the employee tenants, because
of the difficulty of securing repairs from the land company as its con­
nection with and interest in the housing is so indirect. The employ­
ing company— the principal lessee—furthermore, being in the posi­
tion of a tenant, is unwilling to expend money to make repairs which
will eventually accrue to the benefit of the owners of the houses.
Although the largest proportion of company housing is still done
directly by the employer as a general part of his principal business,
there is discernible a slight tendency toward the indirect method of
the subsidiary company or the real estate company controlled by
stock ownership of the employer. The earliest housing enterprise
reported as conducted through a subsidiary company dated from
1899; there were three from 1900; one from 1901; one from 1904;
five from 1906; two from 1907; one each from 1912 and 1913, and two
from 1915.
COLLECTION OF RENT.

In most cases rent is collected every month or every half-month;
of 205 companies 89, or 43.4 per cent, report making monthly collec­
tion, and 80, or 39 per cent, semimonthly collection. By 36 com­
panies rent is collected every week; of this number 24, or two-thirds,
are Southern cotton-mill operators. Where there is a variation in
policy and rent is collected both monthly and semimonthly, the longer




202

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

' period between collections is applicable to the higher staff and office
force. Weekly collection is practiced where there is a considerable
proportion of colored labor hired.
'
As regards the manner of collection, 187 companies out of 205, or
91.2 per cent, collect rent by deducting it from wages due, and 18
collect at the office, such collection being usually for higher office men.
Of the 18 companies collecting at the office, that is, without deduction
from wages due, seven are iron and steel companies and nine are
among the miscellaneous industries where a larger proportion of
high-class skilled employees is found. A few employers are offering
their men a choice as to the manner of collections. There is little
difference, in fact, between making the use of the house a part of
the employee’s remuneration, a perquisite of his employment, as
under a pure truck system of payment, and of automatically deduct­
ing the rent from the wages due him. It might, in fact, simplify
bookkeeping for the company to return to the undisguised truck
system by dispensing with the formal process of rent collection on the
company books.
A representative of a company in Connecticut recently expressed
himself very emphatically in the matter: “ We do not take any
money out of any employee’s envelope. We early settled that phase
of the question, that we would treat him like a man and expect him
to come to the office and pay his rent when it was due. If he doesn’t
do it, I get after him.”
The facts disclosed by the survey as to the method and manner of
rent collections are summarized in the statement following:




203

M ETH O D S OF F IN A N C IN G .
T a b le

1 2 2 .—F R E Q U E N C Y AN D M ETHODS OF COLLECTING R E N T , B Y IN D U ST R Y
AND STATE.

Frequency of collection.
Industry and State.
W eekly.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and W est Virginia...........
Ohio, Illinois, and Tndiarift .

Semi­
monthly. Monthly. Total.

1

_ .

Manner of collection.

27

32
3
24
5

1

7

17
5

T otal........................................................

36

28

32
3
24
4

1

5

64

5

2

Alabama, Tennessee, and K entucky___
Colorado and W vom ing...........................

Deduc­
At
tion
from office. Total.
pay.

63

1

64

4 24

32
3
24

Anthracite-coal m ining...................................

28

3 16

24

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
Alabama.....................................................

2

3
3

*5

5

3

5

3

3

Total........................................................

2

6

8

8

2

5

5

5

6

5

65

4

1

2 10
1

13

7 24
3

17

93

7

1

11

14

27

20

7

2

2

2

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona,
New Mexico, and Colorado.........................
Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district.......................................
Southern district.......................................
T otal........................................................

24

21
81

2

Manufacture of explosives..............................
Textile manufacture:
Northern district......................................
Southern district.......................................

24

20

3

21

4

53
17

12 8

205

187

4

T otal.......................................................

28

Miscellaneous industries.................................

6

Grand to ta l............................................

36

1

2
80

1

89

n

6
47

ii

5
75
7

24
3
21
2

53

9~

8

I

6
47

ii

6
47

53
17

139

18 |

205

i

1 Including 1 company, with 2 establishments, reporting m onthly collection at one establishment and
sem imonthly collection at the other.
2 Including 1 company reporting part m onthly and part sem imonthly collection.
3 Including 3 companies each reporting sem im onthly collection at some, but monthly collections at the
majority of establishments.
4 Including 5 companies reporting “ partly .’’
5 5 companies did not report on inquiry in question.
6 1 company did not report policy.
7 1 company did not rent any houses, but only sold lots.
8 W eekly for Negro employees, m onthly for others.
9 2 companies collected partly at the office.
10 Including 1 company which collected m onthly from office staff.
111 company did not report.
121 company collects partly at office, i. e., m case of superintendents.
13 Including 1 firm reporting “ by billing.”

LIM ITATION OF RENT TO PERCENTAGE OF WAGES.

Limiting rent to a per cent of the employee’s wages was practi­
cally unknown among the employer companies covered by this
housing study. It was quite evident that the question was new to
the companies and had not been raised before. It generally brought
the response that the houses were all within the means of the. em­
ployee or that a general understanding was in effect not to rent beyond
the employee’s means. Altogether 13 companies of the 205 covered
by this feature of the study reported that they limited the amount




204

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

that the employee should pay for rent to a certain proportion of his
wages, but, except in two cases, no definite percentage was stated.
A copper-mining company in Michigan limited the proportion to 10
per cent. This limitation was the conclusion reached by the houserenting agent as a result of his observations and study of conditions
in England. A steel company limited rent to 25 per cent of the
employee’s wages.
On the general point in question it should be said that the com­
pany agent having charge of the renting of the houses usually knows
the wages in each occupation in the establishment, and therefore
can judge the employee’s ability to pay any given rental. Further­
more, the question rarely arises, as this investigation shows that com­
pany house rents are not excessive and are frequently in effect sub­
sidies to wages, because uneconomic in that they do not yield com­
mercial interest on the capital invested.
FREE RENT.

A very considerable portion of the companies permit their employ­
ees to continue living rent free in company houses during sickness
or during shutdowns of the plant. Practically all other employers
defer the collection of rent in time of sickness, unemployment, or
shutdowns. Many also take reduced rent at these times. It is
quite common also to find disabled former employees or widows of
employees occupying company houses free. Thus 33 houses of one
company are occupied by former employees who are either aged or
disabled or widows of such employees. The amount of rent charged
to the pension account of the company for these 33 houses amounted
to $227 per month.
Another company furnished information to the effect that during
a 15-year period (1898-1912) about $15,106 had been charged off as
charity rent, an average of $1,007 a year.




CHAPTER XVII.— SALE OF COMPANY HOUSES.1

Selling of houses is not the customary method by which the
employer houses his employees; it is as yet a comparatively untried
experiment. Out of 213 different employers canvassed in this inquiry
only 33 report constructing and selling houses to their employees.
The practice of selling is not limited to any particular industry; it
is, however, less common in the mining industry and is finding its
limited practice among the more highly specialized and permanent
industries. Mine operators do not, as a rule, encourage their em­
ployees to buy houses, because the industry is not permanent and
mines become worked out after a period of years.
The few companies of those reported which sell houses to their
workmen are distributed among the different industries as follows:
Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia........................................................
Alabama, Tennessee, and K entucky.................................................
Iron mining: Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota...............................
Textiles: New England................................................................................
Iron and steel manufacturing:
Pennsylvania and Illinois....................................................................
Southern district....................................................................................
Miscellaneous industries...............................................................................
Total......................................................................................................

2
2
2
21
13
1
12
33

The term mortgage is the method by which the sale of houses is
usually conducted. In one instance the company builds the house
for the employee and takes cash payment for it, leaving the employee
to secure his money from a local building and loan association. The
maximum number of years stated as permitted for the completing
of payments is 22, the minimum term 3 years, while the average is
approximately 10 years. Fourteen companies report the term as
being 10 years and over, and five companies as being below 10 years.
Thus, out of a total of 33 employers wiio sell houses to their employ­
ees, 19 have reported the period for which payments run, and in the
remaining cases the period has been stated as varying according to
agreement entered into or as indefinite in time.
The amount of the first payment is reported either as a certain
fixed sum or as a percentage of the sale price. Where the latter is
1 This chapter appeared also in the M onthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for April,
1919 (pp.-227-232).
* Since this has been written report has been received of the adoption by two other cotton mills in the
New England district of the plan of selling houses to employees. Plan No. 4 (described below) is the plan
adopted by one of these companies.




205

206

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

reported, it appears to vary around 10 per cent. The highest pro­
portion (reported in one instance) is 50 per cent, and the lowest
(reported in two instances) is 1 per cent. Where reported in abso­
lute amounts, the maximum reported is $400 (one instance), the
minimum $10 (one instance), and the average $130, so that on a
house costing $2,500 the average first payment will be about 5 per
cent.
The rate of interest on the balance of the payments is fixed at 6
per cent by 21 companies or loan associations through which the
companies operate out of 30 reporting on this point, at 5 per cent
in 7 instances, and at 7 per cent in 1. In one case no interest is
charged by the company.
Payments are almost invariably collected monthly, only one
employer reporting weekly collections and one semimonthly, while
one reported “ at convenience of purchasers.” In 10 cases the install­
ments are collected by deducting them from the wages due, and in
all other instances they are payable at the office of the building and
loan association or of the subsidiary real-estate company conducting
the housing. In some instances it is stated that the purchasers
prefer to have collections made on the pay roll, as it is the least
trouble to them, as well as certain. The companies usually let the
purchaser choose his method of payment.
M ANAGEM ENT OF FUNDS.

The whole management of the building and selling scheme is with­
out exception in the hands of the employing company or the sub­
sidiary real estate company, as the case may be. Of the 33 companies
which report the practice of selling houses to their employees five
operate through a subsidiary or stock-controlled company. The
attention of the Bureau was called to one projected scheme under
which the company proposed to organize a joint trusteeship com­
posed of representatives of the company and of the employees who
are purchasing the houses. By this means the company hopes to
prove the bona fide nature of the scheme and thereby to satisfy the
employees of the nonprofit-making character of the undertaking and
of its being wholly in the interest of the employee.
ABILITY TO PAY.

In practically all cases the sales are regulated in some way according
to the ability of the employee to purchase, while in others judgment
as to that fact is left to the employee. In two instances a definite
relation has been established between the monthly wages and the
monthly payments on the house—in one case installments must not
exceed one-fifth of the wages, in another one-third. It was pointed
out that a failure to adjust payments to income would defeat the




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H OU SES.

207

purpose of the whole scheme of getting permanent and efficient em­
ployees, as it would overburden the employee, cause him worry, and
hence make him less efficient. In one case the company assumes
that the employee has additional sources of income when he tries to
buy what seems a somewhat expensive house. In most cases the
question of whether the employee has boarders, who bring additional
income, and his standing and credit among his fellow employees are
looked up. The amount of his earnings is always open to inspection
as a gauge of his ability to buy a house.
INSURANCE TO GUARANTEE PAYM ENT OF LOAN.

One employer has been found who encourages the purchaser of a
house to take out a life insurance policy to guarantee the payment
of his loan in the event of death prior to the final payment. Such a
plan is of advantage to the family of the purchaser should he die
before making all payments, and it is obviously also of advantage to
the selling company although it also holds the mortgages on the
property for its own protection.
The arrangement provides for a lump-sum payment of the pre­
mium by the employer to the insurance company. The employee
purchaser can then liquidate this premium by periodic inclusion in
his semimonthly payments of principal and interest of the purchase
price. The amount of such a premium is not great. Thus, for the
15-year term, which is allowed for the payment of the purchase
price of a house, the amount of the premium for each $1,000 of in­
surance for a purchaser 21 years of age at the time of the purchase
would amount to $57.94, if paid in a lump sum in advance; and if
paid semimonthly in installments, each installment would amount to
30 cents. At age 35 the lump-sum payment in advance on $1,000 of
insurance would be $69.07, or 36 cents in semimonthly installments.
For $3,000 of insurance the above amounts would be trebled— e. g.,
at age 35 the semimonthly installments would be $1.08.
The result of the recommendations of the particular company
whose scheme of protection is described above is shown by the fact
that a trifle over half (51 per cent) of the purchasers took out policies,
and of those doing so 95 per cent took out policies covering the full
value of the house, and 5 per cent took out policies covering part
value. Of the men who bought houses from the company, 82 per
cent are factory workmen, 12 per cent work in the factory office, and
6 per cent work in the general office of the company.
Another employer while not demanding insurance to guarantee
future payments, requires what is in effect a term insurance policy, the
risk of which is assumed by the company. The employee signs an
agreement to purchase, in a cooperative bank approved by the em­
ployer, shares of stock and to continue payment thereon until the




208

H O U SIN G BY E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

deposits amount to $1,000. This sum matures in about 12 years
under this plan and becomes the security for the payment of a 12year note of that face value on the property. If at any time before
the 12 years expire the employee becomes disabled or dies the real
estate company through which the employer conducts his housing
agrees to accept the surrender value of the shares in the cooperative
bank in full payment of the 12-year note. The employee must make
his monthly payments on the cooperative stock and continue his
monthly payments of interest; in consideration therefor the real
estate company agrees not to make a call on the demand note which
is given for the remainder of the purchase price.
Though not technically an insurance policy, the whole arrange­
ment is, as has been said, in the nature of a term insurance scheme,
the real estate company and not an outside insurance company
assuming the risk of death or disability of the purchaser within the
12-year term of the note.
Table 128 shows, for various ages, the amount of single premium
paid in advance by the company, and the semimonthly payment
made by the purchaser, per $1,000 of insurance.
Table 123.—AM OUNT OF SINGLE PR EM IU M IN ADVANCE AT V A R IO U S AGES A N D
AM OUNT OF SEM IM ONTHLY
W ITH IN T E R E S T .

Age.

21 years.
22 years.
23 years.
24 years.
25 years.
26 years.
27 years.
28 years.
29 years.
30 years.
31 years.
32 years.
33 years.
34 years,
35 years,
36 years.
37 years
38 years

PA Y M ENTS R E Q U IR E D

Semi­
Single
monthly
premium payment
per $1,000 per $1,000
paid by made by
company. purchaser.
$57.94
58.39
58.87
59.37
59.93
60.54
61.18
61.88
62.65
63. 49
64. 40
65. 41
66.52
67.72
69.07
70. 56
72.23
74.19

$0.30
.30
.30
.30
.31
.31
.31
.32
.32
.33
.33
.34
.34
.35
.36
.36
.37
.38

TO PA Y SUCH PREMIUM,

Age.

39 years
40 years
41 years
42 years
43 years
44 years
45 years
46 years
47 years
48 years
49 years
50 years
51 years
52 years
53 years
54 years
55 years

Single
premium
per $1,000
paid by
company.
$76.16
78.48
81.08
83.98
87.26
90.95
95.08
99.73
104.90
110. 68
117.09
124.15
131.93
140.45
149. 76
159.93
170.98

Semi­
monthly
payment
per $1,000
made by
purchaser.
$0.40
.41
.42
.44
.46
.48
.50
.53
.56
.59
.62
.67
.71
.76
.82
.88
.95

PROVISIONS TO PREVENT SPECULATION.

In selling their houses three companies have tried to prevent specu­
lation. One large manufacturer in Ohio aims to have the speculative
increase accrue to the employee. This is done by basing the monthly
installments of the purchase price for the first five years on the
present real estate value of the property, which is placed at 25 per
cent above the actual cost price to the company; and if at the end of




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

209

the five years the employee is still with the company there is returned
to him the difference between the two values and the interest thereon.
All payments thereafter are then made on the actual cost price of the
property.
Another method of preventing speculation is to require the erec­
tion within a limited time, usually less than a year, of a house upon the
lot sold to an employee. A certain steel company in Pennsylvania,
which encourages the housing of its employees by selling them land,
refunds 20 per cent of the purchase price of a lot if a house is built
within six months or a good start made on it. A New England tex­
tile mill, not covered in the original investigation, reports to the
Bureau that it gives the employee the lot if at the end of 10 years he
has erected a house on the lot and is still with the company.
Some employers, however, have in fact encouraged the element of
speculation in offering their houses to the workmen. Possibilities of
the future growth of the company town are pointed out, “ whether
you buy to hold out for an increase or to build a home to live in or
to rent.” The buyer is lured by “ S3 cash and $2 per week until paid,
no interest, no taxes for three years.” 3
OPTION TO REPURCHASE.

In some deeds provisions are found for the repurchase of property
being sold to an employee, should he for any reason desire to discon­
tinue his purchase agreement. In such cases of repurchase by the
company it is customary to return to the employee an amount equiva­
lent to the difference between the sums paid on installments and the
amount of a reasonable rent of the premises for the period for which
the house has been occupied, crediting the difference on future rent
should the occupant care to remain.
One manufacturing company in Pennsylvania figures the rent on
the house as 10 per cent of its purchase price. This amount, plus all
taxes, insurance, unpaid interest, and repairs, is deducted from the
total amount of the payments made and the balance returned in
cash.
The following, from the purchase agreement ol a structural steel
company in Pennsylvania, may be taken as typical:
It is further agreed that if the purchaser, before the delivery of the deed, shall be
discharged from, or shall voluntarily leave, the em ploy of t h e ------ company, a cor­
poration created and existing under the laws of the State of New Jersey, the land com­
pany agrees to purchase said property upon the following terms, if requested in writing
by him so to do before the expiration of 60 days after the termination of his service
with said------ company:
(a) If the purchaser shall be discharged from the em ploy of s a id ------ company, the
land company shall pay to the purchaser when he shall have surrendered all his right,
3 See, also, “ Housing and the land problem,” in M onthly Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
June, 1918, pp. 268-277.

125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 14




210

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

title, interest, and estate in and to said property to the land company, an amount
equal to said purchase price, less a discount at the rate of 1 per centum of said purchase
price for each year or fraction thereof that this agreement shall have continued in force
(but the rate of said discount shall never be less than 3 per centum nor more than 10
per centum of the said purchase price), and less also all sums still owing b y the pur­
chaser to the land company under this agreement.
(b) If the purchaser shall voluntarily leave the employ of s a id ------ company, the
land company shall pay to the purchaser when he shall have surrendered all his right,
title, interest, and estate in and to said property to the land company, a sum equal to
said purchase price, less a discount of 2 per centum of said purchase price for each year
or fraction thereof that this agreement shall have continued in force (but the rate of
said discount shall never be less than 6 per centum nor more than 20 per centum of the
said purchase price), and less also all sums still owing b y the purchaser to the land
company under this agreement.
It is further agreed that if the purchaser shall die while in the em ploy of sa id -----company, the land company agrees to purchase said property from the heirs, executors,
or administrator, of the purchaser if requested b y them in writing so to do before the
expiration of 60 days from the date of said purchaser’s death, for a sum equal to the
aforesaid purchase price, less such amount as may be necessary to restore said property
to good condition and repair, and less also all sums still owing to the land company by
the purchaser under this agreement at the time of his death; provided, however, that
not more than 10 years shall have elapsed from the date of this agreement, in case
the purchaser shall have received a deed to said property at the time of his decease.
SALE TO NONEM PLOYEES.

While a few employers (14 altogether) sell houses to nonemployees
in their locality, the terms of sale are generally not so favorable as to
employees; either a discount is made for employees or cash is re­
quired on sales to nonemployees, and not to employees.
When there is sale to nonemployees, it is frequently dictated by
necessity; the company may own the whole community, but at the
same time need to provide for tradesmen and artisans in the locality
other than its own employees. These usually form the class of out­
siders to whom sales are made.
CONCLUSION.

None of the plans of selling houses to employees as outlined above
prevents ultimate speculation or realization of an unearned increment
in the property. Some of them appeal to the speculative instinct
of the purchaser. Obviously no plan which permits out-and-out sale
and parting with title in fee simple will prevent speculation. The
very most that the plans do may be to prevent speculation for the
period covered by the terms of the installments where there is a re­
purchase agreement; if there is no such agreement, speculation is not
prevented even temporarily. Plans of sale, however, clearly increase
the number of those who will enjoy any accruing unearned increments
and distribute that form of wealth more widely.
From the employer’s point of view the gain in selling houses to
his employees comes from securing a certain amount of permanent




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

211

labor and thereby reducing labor turnover. In fact, some employers
calculate roughly that they can afford to sell a house to a workman
below cost in an amount equal to the per capita cost of labor turnover.
Looked at from that point of view, it may well be worth while to the
employer to give to the workman who has purchased a house a lot
worth, say $300 or even $500, if the workman has remained in the
employ of the company for 10 years, as noted in plan of purchase
submitted by a certain New England textile concern. On the basis
of turnover studies which had been made for a certain company, it
was proposed to return to the workman who had purchased a house
$700 of the price thereof provided he were still in the employ of the
company at the end of the 15-year period, which was the period of the
second mortgage provided in the plan. The employer sees in the
plan of sale the possibility of securing a stable work force. In no
case, however, as suggested, can he expect a permanent labor force
such as might be maintained under renting conditions which might
be made more attractive than purchase.
From the employee’s point of view, the buying of a home is the
giving of hostages to the future and thereby reducing the mobility of
his capital— his earning capacity. Whether or not this will seriously
impair his bargaining capacity is a moot question, as the factors
determining bargaining power are numerous and manifold. At the
same time the buying of a home satisfies certain acquisitive instincts
of the employee and yields him a return in a feeling of independence
within his own group or class. Tradition and habit also play a large
part in all these matters.
PLANS OF PAYM ENT.
PLAN NO. 1.

The subsidiary land company will sell to its own employees or to
those of the principal company a house already built, or it will build
on plans furnished by the applicant. In the purchase price is
included the cost of the house and lot, grading, fencing, and sewer
and water connections.
The first payment is fixed at 10 per cent of the total purchase
price. Within 43 months (three years and seven months) the pur­
chaser is required to pay off 35 per cent of the purchase price by equal
monthly installments of principal and interest. After paying 35 per
cent of the purchase price in this manner and 10 per cent in the
initial cash payment, he is given a warranty deed, subject to a
mortgage, for the remaining 55 per cent of the purchase price. This
mortgage must be paid at the end of a further five-year term, with
interest semiannually at 4 per cent. During the time of the mort­
gage, payments in multiples of $50 will be accepted on the mortgage
and the interest charges on the remainder reduced accordingly. If




212

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

the purchaser defaults on his payments, he is charged at a rate of
10 per cent of the purchase price per year for the time he has
occupied the house, the difference between this and the amount
paid being refunded to him. If he dies during the continuance
of the agreement the land company will take back the prop­
erty and after deducting the cost of necessary repairs, unpaid
taxes, and interest, return to the purchaser’s heirs all money paid 011
the purchase of the house plus 5 per cent interest; or the heirs may
continue the agreement with the company.
Seventy-four employees of the company out of a total of about
3,000 on the rolls in October, 1916, have purchasing contracts of the
kind described with the land company.
The details of the plan are as follows:
R in d
o f h o u s e .— Under the terms of this agreement the land com­
pany will sell to an employee a house already built, or it will build
and sell him a new house constructed 011 his own plans, subject, how­
ever, to the approval and inspection of the land company.
F ir s t
p a y m e n t .— The
method of payment can perhaps be best
explained by a specific example. We will therefore suppose that
John Jones wishes to buy the four-room cottage on the south side of
Lehigh Avenue, between Fifth and Sixth Streets, known as No. 139,
which costs one thousand dollars ($1,000), including grading, fencing,
sewer and water connections. Jones will pay down ten per cent
(10%) of the purchase price, one hundred dollars ($100), upon sign­
ing the agreement.
M o n t h l y p a y m e n t s .— For three years and seven months thereafter,
a total of forty-three (43) months, he will pay the sum of ten dollars
and seventy-seven cents ($10.77) to the land company each month.
This monthly payment is made up as follows:
Payment on purchase of house............................................................... $5. 00
Other charges:
Interest to land company on cost of house, $ 1,000 at 5
per cent per year................................................................ $4. 17
Water rent....................................................................................... 59
Sewer rent....................................................................................... 21
Fire insurance and taxes, about................................................. 80
—------ 5. 77
Monthly paym ent........................................................................... 10. 77
I n t e r e s t .—The land company will allow and credit
to Jones on
account of purchase price, interest at the rate of five (5) per cent per
year, on all sums paid on the purchase price of the dwelling.
At the end of the three years and seven months Jones will have
paid three hundred and fifty dollars ($350) toward the purchase of
the house, made up as follows:




213

SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O USES.

Payment on signing agreement
$100. 00
Forty-three monthly payments, at $5............................................... 215. 00
Interest credited by land company on above payments at 5 per
cent per year.
35.00
350.00
D e f a u l t i n m o n t h l y p a y m e n t s .— Should John Jones fail to make pay­
ments as provided for in the agreement, rent would be figured on his
house at the rate of ten per cent (10%) per year, or eight dollars and
thirty-three cents ($8.33) per month for the entire time he occupied
the house. This amount plus all taxes, insurance, unpaid interest,
and repairs will be deducted from the total amount of payments made
and the balance wiU be returned in cash.
M o r t g a g e .— The payment of the above three hundred and fifty
dollars ($350), which is thirty-five per cent (35%) of the purchase
price, entitles Jones to a warranty deed, subject to a mortgage for
the balance of six hundred and fifty dollars ($650) still to be paid.
The mortgage runs for five years, interest being at the rate of four
per cent (4% ) per year, payable semiannually on the first days of
January and July. Fifty dollars or more will be received at any
time toward the payment of the mortgage, and the interest charge
will be proportionately reduced from the beginning of the following
1st of January or July, as the case may be.
Employees are urged to complete the payments on their properties
during the five (5) years which the mortgages cover. If the interest
should not be paid on a mortgage, or the principal when due, the law
provides that the property may be sold by the sheriff. Any amounts
realized on such sale above the principal still due, plus the interest
and costs, will be returned to Jones.
D e a th
b e n e f i t .— If Jones should die during the continuance of the
agreement and before the mortgage is fully paid, the land company
will take back the property, after deducting the cost of necessary
repairs, unpaid taxes, and interest, and return to Mr. Jones’s heirs
all money paid on the purchase of the house, plus five per cent (5% )
interest, or the heirs may continue the agreement in the same manner
as though Mr. Jones were still living.
C o n c l u s i o n .— Purchasing
agreements made for larger or smaller
amounts carry proportionately higher or lower monthly payments.
Men desiring to take advantage of the opportunity offered to buy
their own homes under the terms of a purchasing agreement are
urged to apply to the land company for any further information.
The land company is glad to work out the payments involved
for any agreement in a manner similar to the illustration used above.




214

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

PLAN NO. 2.

Plan No. 2, like plan No. 1 already described, makes use indirectly
of the system of equal monthly installments in the payment of a
part of the purchase price and of the ordinary mortgage system for
the other part, usually the greater part.
There is required from the purchaser an initial payment of 10 per
cent of the purchase price, whereupon a conveyance of the property
is made. For the balance of the purchase price the purchaser gives
two notes, one for $1,000, payable in 12 years at 5 per cent, and
another for the remainder of the purchase price payable on demand
with interest at 5 per cent, both notes being secured by a purchasemoney mortgage to the subsidiary real-estate company.
The purchaser gives also a supplementary agreement to the effect
that he will purchase in a cooperative bank approved by the sub­
sidiary real-estate company, five shares, and will continue payments
thereon until his deposits shall have amounted to the sum of $1,000,
which in the local banks, at the prevailing rate of interest, takes
place in about 11 years and 10 months. This insures the payment
of the 12-year note according to its terms.
In consideration of this agreement v
the real-estate company agrees
not to make call upon the demand note so long as the purchaser
continues to make monthly payments to the cooperative bank in
accordance with his agreement. It is further agreed that if the
purchaser dies or becomes incapacitated within 12 years, provided
that at that time he is not over 60 years of age, the real-estate com­
pany will accept the surrender value of his cooperative bank shares
in full payment of the time note. The result of this agreement is
the assurance to the purchaser that at the end of 12 years or upon his
death prior thereto, a sufficient proportion of the purchase price will
have been paid so that he or his estate will then own the property
free of all encumbrance except a first mortgage for not over 60 per
cent of the value of the property, and so that at his option or that
of the company he may go to a bank for a mortgage and be entirely
independent of the company.
In the case of a few of the higher-priced houses the carrying out of
this arrangement does not reduce the purchase price to a point where
a bank mortgage could be secured to take care of the balance, but
such houses are sold to men of higher earning power who may be
expected to make payments on the purchase price in excess of their
obligations, which will enable them to be independent of the company^
at the end of 12 years. Even in these cases, if the company so desires
it may at that time make demand on the demand note and thus
force them to reduce their indebtedness to an amount which can be
met by the proceeds of a first bank mortgage.




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

215

Sales have been made so recently that no extending accounts
that will be interesting as an illustration are available. The form
given to a certain employee at the time he purchased a house, which
is illustrative of the actual operation of the plan, is as follows:
Total purchase price.......................................................................... $3,851. 50
385.15
First payment, 10 per cen t..............................................................
Balance borrowed on mortgage.......................................................
3,466. 35
Interest at 5 per cent.........................................................................
173. 32
Monthly interest during first 12 years...........................................
14.45
Amount due in 12 years, secured b y time note..........................
1, 000.00
2,466. 35
Balance secured b y demand note..................................................
Interest at 5 per cent.........................................................................
123. 32
Monthly interest payment after 12 years......................................
10.30
Monthly payment to cooperative bank.........................................
5. 00
Total monthly payments during first 12 years............................
19. 45

The purchase price represents the actual cost of the house and
land, without profit to the company. The original purchase price
of the entire area was divided by the number of feet in the tract to
determine the base price per foot. To this was added a pro rata
proportion of the cost of improvements such as sewers, highways,
and sidewalks, of the engineering expense, and of the architect’s fees.
In the case illustrated above the cost of the land was $685 for a lot.
containing 6,850 square feet. To this figure was added the actual
price of the house, without profit. This price included the expense
of construction, heating, lighting, plumbing, piping, hardware,
fixtures, papering, window shades, screens, concrete cellar floor,
granolithic walks, rough grading, finish grading, planting, and
clothes reel.
PLAN NO. 3.

This is a plan on the principal of the building and loan association
system except that the purchaser is not required to make any initial
payment greater than his monthly installments. If he owns a lot
the company builds his house on it, but if he does not, it requires
him to have $100 paid on it before building the house. The com­
pany then assumes the mortgage for the balance of the price of the
lot.
The company’s description of the plan is substantially as follows:
Two mortgages may be placed upon a property. The first mortgage is for about
one-half the value of the property, and is carried b y t h e ------ insurance company,
with whom arrangements are made so that the purchaser makes the payments due
direct to t h e ------ company, and covers the balance of the purchase price. It is not
necessary to make any payment down when property is purchased. The semi­
monthly payments will pay off the second mortgage in 12 years and pay off the first
mortgage in three years more, the rate of interest being 6 per cent per annum. These
periods are the maximum time allowed in which to pay for the property, but pro­
vision is made to allow extra payments to be made. The purchaser can also make a
payment down if he likes, as well as pay up the balance of any payments due, at any




216

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

time. Of course all paid over and above the specified semimonthly payments will
help reduce the interest charges and the time required to clear the property. An
amount will be collected semimonthly which will provide for the taxes when due .4
T h e ------ company wants the purchaser to obtain his home at the actual cost price
to the company, but, to prevent speculation, the semimonthly payments for the
first five years have been figured on the real-estate value of the property, rather
than on the cost value. The real-estate value is 25 per cent higher than the cost
value, and at the end of the fifth year, if the purchaser is still in the employ of the
company, and still retains the property, and has made the semimonthly payments as
agreed, the difference between the two values and the interest thereon is canceled
and credited to the purchaser. All payments after that are made on the basis of the
cost price of the property.
The following statement shows how the first and second'mortgages on a property
costing $2,288 and having a real estate value of $2,860 may be paid off:
Reduction o f first and second mortgages on a property costing $2,288 (real estate value,
$2,860.)

Second mortgage, $1,430:
A t end of 1st year (payment $6.98 sem im onthly). . ............
2d year (payment $6.98 semimonthly) .. ............
3d year (payment $6.98 semimonthly) . ............
4th year (payment $6.98 semimonthly) ............
5th year (payment $6.98 semimonthly) . ............
Less one-half of $572.................................................. 286. 00
Interest......................................................................... 119. 69
----------6th year (payment $4.01 semimonthly) ............
7th year (payment $4.01 sem im onthly).. ............
8th year (payment $4.01 sem im onthly).. ............
9th year (payment $4.01 semimonthly) . ............
10th year (payment $4.01 sem im onthly).............
11th year (payment $4.01 semimonthly) ............
12th year (payment $4.01 semimonthly) ............

$60. 80
64. 44
68. 42
72. 66
77. 14
286. 00
60. 31
64. 07
68. 03
72. 26
76. 63
81. 35
86. 40
91. 73
97. 34
102. 42

$1, 369.
1, 304.
1, 236.
1,163.

84. 12
89. 31
94. 86
100. 70
106. 89

1, 345.
1, 256.
1,161.
1, 061.
954.

405. 69
65. 24
69. 30
73. 58
78. 11
82. 94
88. 06
91. 20

548.
483.
413.
340.
262.
179.
91.

<It has worked out, however, that the purchasers usually pay their own taxes.




Balance
due.

20
76
34

68

oo
05

54
800. 54
740. 23
676. 16
608. 13
535. 87
459. 24
377. 89
291. 49
199. 76
102. 42

o

A t end of 1st year (payment $6.03 sem im onthly).. ............
2d year (payment $6.03 sem im onthly)... ............
3d year (payment $6.03 sem im onthly)... ............
4th year (payment $6.03 sem imonthly).. ............
5th year (payment $6.03 sem im onthly).. ............
Less one-half of $572............................................. ............
6th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) ............
7th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) . ............
8th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) . ............
9th year (payment $4.44 sem im onthly).. ............
10th year (payment $4.44 sem im onthly). ............
11th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) ............
12th year (payment $4.44 sem im onthly.. ............
13th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) ............
14th year (payment $4.44 sem im onthly).............
15th year (payment $4.44 semimonthly) ............

Principal
reduced by—

j-*

First mortgage, $1,430:

88
57
71

01
12

43
19
89
31

20
26

20

217

SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

The table below shows what amount must be paid semimonthly
in order to pay for properties of certain stated values in a term of 15
years.
T able

1 3 4 . —PAY M ENTS R E Q U IR E D ON PR O P E R T IE S OF GIVEN VALUE.
Semimonthly payment.
Cost of
property.

Real estate
value of
property.

$1,984.00
2,682.00
2,288.00
2.699.00
2.801.00
2,808.00
2.845.00
2.896.00
2.998.00

$2,840.00
3.352.00
2.860.00
3,373.75
3.501.25
3.510.00
3.556.25
3.620.00
3,747.50

First
five
years.

N ext
seven
years.

Last
three
years.

$11.27
15.25
13.01
15.34
15.92
15.97
16.16
16.54
17.06

$7.31
9.86
8.45
9.88
10.24
10.26
10.47
10.67
11.03

$3.86
5.19
4.44
5.22
5.43
5.43
5.53
5.22
5.75

As to insurance the company states:
Fire loss and the contingency of death have been thoroughly considered, and the
company has decided to carry the fire and tornado insurance on all homes at its own
expense, for its own protection: To protect the home owner and his fam ily while the
payments are being made the owner has the option to take diminishing life insurance
with t h e ------ company, which in the event of death w ill pay one or both of the mort­
gages, depending upon the amount of insurance taken.
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

If 100 applicants can be massed and passed upon at one time, there w ill be no addi­
tional expense in connection with medical examinations, etc.
The owner, b y adding a little to his payments each time * * * can, in case of
death, secure the payment of all or a part of the indebtedness on his home. This
arrangement is entirely optional with the purchaser, but just as the company has
provided protection against fire loss, so it believes each owner should protect himself
and his family against the contingency of death.

The amount of single premium, at the various ages, which the com­
pany will advance and add to the second-mortgage note, and the
amount of the semimonthly payments required by the owner to
repay the single premium advanced, with interest, has already been
presented in Table 128.




218

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Following is a sample of the application card which must be pre­
sented by the employee who desires to purchase a house from this
com pany:
CARD

OF A P P L IC A T IO N T O B U Y

PRO PERTY

I N ---------A L L O T M E N T .

Date................................................
Application of..................................................Dept. No................ Ck. No.........................
Age............. Married or single.................. Number dependent on me for support...........
Length of service................................... Average wages per month $................................
Are you now renting............. Boarding...................Living in your own property...........
Approved
. Foreman or superior officer.

Disapproved
Approved
Disapproved

.Asst. Supt.

Approved
Disapproved

......................................................Supt.

If disapproved, please state reason........................................................................................

The land contract of this company is reproduced below:
LAND

CONTRACT.

This agreement, made a t ----- , Ohio, t h i s ------day o f -------in the year of our Lord
one thousand nine hundred a n d ___ by and b e tw e e n ................. of the city o f ____ _
county o f ___ , and State of Ohio, party of the first part, a n d ................ o f _____
Ohio, party of the second part:
Witnesseth, that the said first party hath this day agreed to sell unto the second
party, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, the following described
premises:
Situated in the township o f ___ , county o f ------ , and State of Ohio, and known as
lot No. . . of t h e ___ allotment, as recorded in Plat Book 16, pages 23, 24, 25, 26,
and 2 7 ___ County Records of Plats, together with all hereditaments and appur­
tenances thereunto belonging but subject to all legal highways.
And the said second party does hereby agree to pay to the said first party, his heirs,
executors, administrators, or assigns for the land aforesaid the sum o f ___ ($____ ),
being the value of said premises, payable as fo llo w s :----- dollars ($-------) on the first
day a n d ___ dollars ($____ ) on the fifteenth day of each and every month from and
after the date of this agreement until the entire consideration aforesaid is paid,
together with interest thereon at the rate of 6 per cent per annum, payable annually
from the date hereof, interest if not paid when due to bear interest at the same rate as
the principal, and the said second party also agrees to pay all taxes and assessments
of every description whatsoever that may be due and'payable upon said property
from and after these presents.
It is expressly agreed by and between said parties that if any one of said install­
ments or the interests accruing thereon shall not be paid within thirty (30) days after
falling due then all of said installments remaining unpaid shall at once become due
and payable at the election of first party.

It is furthermore understood and agreed that the said first party who holds the
title to the aforesaid premises, may mortgage said premises to the Metropolitan Life




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H OUSES.

219

Insurance Co. of New York or such other person or corporation with whom he may
be able to negotiate a loan, and that upon the making of such loan the said
first party hereby agrees to receive from t h e ............... Realty Co. a deed of the afore­
said premises with restrictions as hereinafter set forth and agrees to assume said first
mortgage as a part of the consideration of said premises and to execute and deliver to
t h e ............... Realty Co. a second mortgage securing a note for the balance of the
purchase price unpaid upon the same general plan as is now being carried out by the
s a id ............... Realty Co. in the sale of its allotment, it being understood that the
said first party in the carrying out of the general plan shall convey the aforesaid
premises to t h e ............... Realty Co.
In case default shall be made by the second party, his heirs, executors, adminis­
trators, or assigns, in any of the conditions above stipulated to be performed by him,
it shall and will be lawful for the first party, if he so elects to treat this contract as
thenceforth void, and to reenter upon said premises at any time after such default,
without serving on the second party, or any person holding under him, a notice to
quit said land; and in case this contract shall be so treated as thenceforth void, the
second party, or those claiming under him, shall thenceforth be deemed mere tenants
at will under the first party and be liable to be proceeded against without notice to
quit under the provisions of the law regulating proceedings in cases of entry and
detainer; and the first party in such case shall be at liberty to sell the land and prem­
ises to any person whatsoever, without being liable in law or in equity to the second
party or any person claiming under him for any damages in consequence of such sale,
and shall be entitled to hold out of the payments made hereon by the second party,
the sum of $ ___ per month, for and during the time the said second party may have
had possession of said premises under and by virtue of this contract, as payment for
the use of the same, and also an amount sufficient to cover all damages sustained by
the first party b y reason of the nonperformance of this contract by the second party,
and shall not be required to return any of said payments until all such claims are
adjusted and settled in full. And if said payments are not sufficient to cover all
claims and demands which the first party may be legally entitled to make by reason
of the forfeiture or nonperformance of this contract, the said first party may sue for,
and in an action at law, recover from the second party any balance of such claims
that may remain due and unpaid.
It is further expressly understood and agreed that whenever said second party shall
be entitled to a deed of said premises, that the deed of conveyance shall contain the
restrictions as now contained in the printed deed of s a i d ............... Realty Co. and
used in conveying other of said lots to other purchasers, to the end that all of said
deeds may be uniform and all purchasers may be bound by like restrictions and
conditions.
Now, if the said second party, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, shall
well and truly pay the said purchase money, interest, taxes and assessments, named
in this agreement, as the same become due, the first party or his heirs, will well and
truly make, execute and deliver unto the said second party, or his legal representa­
tives, a good and sufficient deed of the premises aforesaid. But on failure of the
second party to pay the purchase money, or any part thereof, or the interest, taxes or
assessments as above mentioned then this agreement shall be void, as it regards the
first party at his option.
In witness whereof we hereunto set our hands t h is ___ day o f ____ in the year of our
Lord one thousand nine iiundred a n d ----Signed and acknowledged in presence of—
.........................................................




220

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Below is given the purchaser’s agreement:
A G R E E M E N T FO R

PURCH ASE

BY

LAND

CONTRACT.

Date.....................................................................
This agreement, made by and betw een --------------o f ------- , Ohio, first party, a n d ----------- o f ------- , second party, witnesseth:
Whereas first party has this day b y land contract sold to second party, lot No. — of
t h e --------------allotment, and
Whereas such contract provides for semimonthly payments upon the same and the
second party is in the employ of t h e ------ Co., and t h e ------- Co. is the owner of t h e ------------ Realty Co., which company is directly interested in said allotment, and
Whereas it is desired to provide a means b y which the payments may be made
agreeable to all the parties.
Now, therefore, it i 3 agreed that the said t h e ------ Co. shall be permitted to retain
from the semimonthly payments due to second party as one of its employees an amount
sufficient to make the semimonthly payments due said first party under said land
contract hereinbefore referred to, and the said t h e ------ Co. may retain such payments
and substitute therefor a receipt specifying the amount retained and how the same is
to be applied, or it may credit the same in a pass book provided for that purpose, and
this agreement shall be construed to be an order upon t h e ------ Co. to pay t o --------------or th e --------------Realty Co., as the case may be, the sum or sums of money so retained
from the semimonthly payments due said second party, and when retained shall be
applied to the payment of the payments due under said land contract, including also
any taxes and assessments.
It is furthermore understood and agreed that at any time within one year upon the
written request of said second party said t h e -------------- Realty Co. will erect or
cause to be erected upon said lot a residence, the cost of which shall be in an amount
agreeable to all parties, but subject to the restriction thereon and to be built of such
material and such design as may be agreeable to th e --------------Realty Co., and when
so constructed the premises shall be conveyed to said second party and second party
shall be permitted to pay for the same b y assuming the first mortgage if any thereon
and executing and delivering a second mortgage to t h e -------------- Realty Co. under
the said general plan as is now being carried out in the sale of lots and houses to the
employees of said t h e ------ Co., to which general plan reference is hereby made; the
consideration for the entire premises to be the cost thereof plus 25 per cent with a
provision for a discount provided the purchaser remains in the employ of t h e ------ Co.
for five years, all in accordance with the general plan as to payments and otherwise
heretofore referred to.
It is furthermore understood, however, that the purchaser may finance and erect
his own residence, providing that the same shall be built in accordance with the
restrictions contained in the deed and the architecture and material entering into the
construction is approved by the architect of t h e -------------- Realty Co.
In witness whereof the parties hereto have hereunto affixed their signatures on the
day and year above written in duplicate.




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

221

Samples of other form s used by this com pany are given below:
MEMO

OP S T A T E M E N T S

MADE

A T T IM E

OP P U R C H A S IN G

LO T N O . — .

(A) Cost price of lot $------ .
Real estate value $------ .
• (B) One hundred dollars ($ 100) to be paid on purchase price of lot before company
will begin construction of house.
(C) Lot is bought as it lies. All grading b y owner.
(D) Cost of lighting fixtures, private walks around house, grading yard and topsoiling may be added to cost if so desired.
(E) Lot payments and interest are payable as above until such time as house is
entirely completed ready for occupancy, when lot payments cease and payments are
made on whole property, which payments also include interest.
LO T A P P L IC A T IO N .

Name.....................................................................................Date.................................................
Age......................................Card No................................... D ep t................................................
Dependents (give age and sex of children).............................................................................
_ f ..................Applicant.
Average wage per monthj
pay roll
Employment record................................................. Physical examination............................
Total service..............................Lot No.................................... P rice.........................................
Statement of assets and liabilities............................................................................................
Approved:
Pres. -------------- Realty Co.
H O U SE

A P P L IC A T IO N .

Date................................................................
House plan No................. Building b id .................. Monthly pay’t est.
Architectural approval:
Extras est................... .. Wages per mo.........
........................................ Due on l o t .....................
Additional............
........................................ Total c o s t ...................... In c o m e ................
........................................ It. E. v a lu e ........................................................
Additional employment record........................................................................
Statement of assets and liabilities...................................................................
Approved:
Pres. --------------Realty Co.
C H A R A C T E R IN V E S T I G A T I O N .

N a m e .............................................................................
Card N o.....................
City address......................................................... .......
Length of time at present address..................... *....................................................................
Other addresses in c i t y ...............................................................................................................
Length of time m a rried .....................................
Location prior to coming t o ....... ................................................................................................
Names and addresses of references in this or other cities (responsible business or pro­
fessional people, not rela tives)..............................................................................................
Special n o te s .................................................................................................................................




222

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

D a t e ..............................................
The--------- Realty C o . , ------- , Ohio.
G e n t l e m e n : 1 hereby make application to have no property payment taken ou t
of m y wages o n ------ for the reason as stated herewith.
Sickness or accident (give particulars)...............................................................................
Short work (give figures)........................................................................................................ •
N a m e .........................................................

A P P L IC A T IO N

FOR A P P R O V A L

OF O U T B U IL D IN G

OR

A L T E R A T IO N .

Name ..............................................................................................................................................
Address ..........................................................................................................................................
Location (if outbuilding) ...........................................................................................................
Nature of alteration .....................................................................................................................
M aterial........................................................................................................................................
Design ..........................................................................................................................................
S i z e .................................................................................................................................................
Color ...............................................................................................................................................
What will it be used for? .........................................................................................................
PLAN NO. 4.

Following is the com pany’s statement of its plan:
The employment department assists families not only in seeking a home, but in
building their own houses. Although the company has about 600 well-kept houses,
which operatives may rent at from $4 to $7 per month, no employees need live in
any of these. The company has made an offer to its helpers of five years’ stand­
ing, who desire to build houses for themselves, a lot of land 50 b y 100 feet n e a r -----Park, a park of almost 5,000 acres presented to the city o f ------ b y the company.
The land is high and healthful, overlooking the ------ River and the com pany’s
plant. A deed, with ordinary restrictions, is given to the employee, limiting the
house to be built to a two-family house in order that only suitable dwellings may be
erected. The company accepts first and second mortgages, each for one-half the pur­
chase price of the land, and, should the employee erect a house in accordance with
the restrictions, he may secure the plans for a suitable home from the company without
expense; these mortgages will be allowed to remain without interest so long as the
mortgagor remains in the employ of the company and continues to occupy the house.
At the end of five years, provided the operative is still with the company and occu­
pying the house, the second mortgage will be surrendered for a consideration of $ 1.
At the end of 10 years, should the operative continue with the company and in the
occupancy of the house, the first mortgage will be surrendered for the further con­
sideration of $ 1. In case of death the heirs of the holder succeed to his rights under
the agreement. The company arranges to give any savings bank in the city a first
lien on the entire property should the operative desire money to pay for the erection
of a suitable house on the land.
HOUSES SOLD UNDER PLAN NO. 2.

The housing organization selling houses according to plan No. 2
differs little from the ordinary real estate development, except that
the com pany conducting it is a subsidiary of the principal em ploy­
ing company, the officers of the two companies being the same group




flEO T

f-L.OO&

pL.i'M'i

JtCONO

f*l_OOC

F ig . 102.—HOUSES SOLD UNDER PLAN NO. 2.
Detached, frame houses of 6 rooms, bath, and cellar. Exterior of shingle, clapboard, or stucco.
in 1915. Cost varies with finish and ranges from $3,167 to $4,254.




E rected

fL O O C

O t -C O N P

f"L002i

pL-AfM

Pj-AtH

^

F ig . 103.— HOUSES SOLD U NDER PLAN NO. 2.

Detached frame houses of 5 rooms, bath, and cellar. Exterior of shingles,
clapboard, or stucco. Erected in 1915. Cost varies with finish and ranges
from $3,550 to $3,955.




SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

223

of individuals. The development has consisted in the opening of a
subdivision about 20 minutes’ travel from the center of a large city
in one of the New England States. The city has put in the water
and sanitary sewer mains, while the development com pany has in­
stalled storm sewers, paving, gutters, and sidewalks. Public utility
companies supply electric current and gas.
Before starting operations the real estate com pany ascertained the
prevailing rent paid b y employees of the principal com pany and made
inquiry as to the number who might be willing to bu y houses. An
expert town planner was engaged to lay out the subdivision; park­
ing and playground area was set aside and residences were located
on various streets according to the fixed schedule of costs.
The houses are of a class beyond the means of the low-paid un­
skilled workmen and are designed to attract the high-paid class of
skilled employees. The cost of the houses ranges' from $2,400 to
$4,500. As com pared with the total number employed b y the prin­
cipal company, only a fraction of the workmen are affected b y the
housing work. The com pany has altogether 45 houses, capable of
accommodating not over 80 or 90 employees. Most of the purchasers
of houses thus far have been Swedish mechanics, observed by the
com pany to be thrifty and conservative.
The houses are chiefly detached frame dwellings with clapboard,
shingle, or stucco exterior. The New England style of architecture
has been observed in their design and plan. All of the houses are
plastered, and many are papered inside; all have cellars, hot and
cold water connections, and electric fixtures. They are heated by
individual steam plants.
The floors are of hardwood and the inside trim is of pine. The
houses range in size from five to seven rooms. Closet space is pro­
vided in each house.
The lots provided for individual houses range in area from 4,010
to 9,460 square feet. The cost per square foot averages approxi­
mately 10 cents.
Details concerning the different types of houses erected are con­
tained in the following tabulation, while the arrangement of rooms
and general character of the houses m ay readily be observed from
the plans and pictures shown.




224
T a b le

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.
1 2 5 . —D E T A IL S OF H O U S E S SOLD TO E M P L O Y E E S U N D E R P L A N NO.

Type of dwelling.

Num­
ber of
dwell­
ings.

Type A, single, frame, shingle............................................

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Type A, single, frame, clapboard......................................

Type A , frame, stucco..........................................................
Tvpe B, single, frame, clapboard......................................

1

Type B, single, frame, shingle............................................

1
1
1

Type C, semidetached, frame, shingle..............................
Type D, single, frame, clapboard.....................................

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Type E, single, frame, clapboard.......................................
Type F, single, frame, shingle............................................
Type G, single, frame, shingle...........................................
Type H. single, frame, shingle...........................................
Type H , frame, clapboard...................................................
Type H , frame, stucco..........................................................
Type I, single, frame, shingle.............................................

Type I, single, frame, clapboard.......................................

1
1
1
1

Type I, single, frame, stucco..............................................

1
1
1
1
1
I

Cost Rooms
per
per
dwell­ dwell­
ing.
ing.

$3,308
3,382
3,537
3,406
3,267
3,212
4,091
4,110
3,309
3.389
3^402
3,632
3,342
3,166
3,930
4,008
4,243
4,254
4, 245
2,915
2, 870
2,930
2,888
3,010
2,919
3,584
3,582
3,580
3,234
3,384
3,219
2,862
2,804
2,791
3,010
4,109
4,518
4,067
4,025
3,971
4,154
3,636
3,800
3,955
3,674
3,628
3,596
3,564
3,581
3,550
3, 947
3,796
3,852
3,739
3,585

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
7
7
7
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

2.

Average size and
cost per lot.
Cost
per
room.

$552
564
599
568
544
535
682
685
552
565
567
605
557
528
565
668
707
709
708
583
574
586
578
602
584
512
512
511
539
577
537
572
561
558
602
822
753
678
671
662
692
727
760
791
735
726
719
713
716
710
790
759
770
748
717

Area
(square
feet).
5,000
4,500
5,450
5,100
5,100
6,900
6,565
4,370
5,800
7,740
4,800
5,365
5,063
6,850
7,600
5,070
6,200
5,960
7,360
4,700
4,740
5,334
6,000
4,330
5,730
6,100
8,670
6,480
4,670
4,470
4,310
4,010
4,550
4,380
5,470
4,900
6,480
5,000
7,370
5,920
4,040
6,750
5,100
5,060
7,500
4,600
6,440
7,700
9,460
6,990
5,720
5,240
3,830
7,695

Cost.

$475
427
599
510
510
690
656
437
522
696
480
590
506
685
750
507
527
5%
730
423
426
517
600
387
573
48S
693
648
467
447
431
401
455
43S
387
601
490
648
500
737
592
404
675
510
506
750
460
644
770
946
699
572
524
383
769

HOUSES SOLD U ND ER PLAN NO. 3.

The com pany whose method of selling is described above as plan
No. 3 organized a subsidiary com pany to undertake real-estate devel­
opment to meet an acute housing famine in the locality. The com ­
pany was convinced that much of its labor turnover was due to lack
of housing accommodations.
The real-estate com pany proceeded in much the usual fashion of
regular real-estate procedure. Land was purchased in a subdivision
of the city and laid out by an expert town planner. The city water
system was extended to the subdivision. The com pany installed




2 a -6

Fig . 104.—HOUSES SOLD UNDER PLAN NO. 3.
Detached house of 6 rooms and bath.

F IR S T

F L °o R

Exterior of stucco on hollow tile.

PL A N

Cost in 1917, $3,750.

S E C O N D f lP b R

PLW

F igl 105.—HOUSES SOLD U NDER PLAN NO. 3.

Semidetached house of 6 rooms and bath.




Exterior of stucco on hollow tile.

F ig . 106— H O U S E S S O L D U N D E R P L A N N O . 3.
D e ta ch e d b r ic k h ou ses o f 5 ro o m s a n d b a th .

C o s t in 1917, $3,840.

oECQNDfLOQRPUK
Fig. 107.— H O U S E S S O L D U N D E R P L A N N O . 3.
D eta ch ed h ou se o f 6 ro o m s a n d b a th .




E x t e r i o r o f s t u c c o o n h o llo w tile .

0

F i g . 108. H O U S E S S O L D U N D E R
D e t a c h e d b r ic k h o u s e s o f 6 r o o m s a n d b a t h .

S e con d f L 0 0 H p l a n

5

10

15

P L A N N O . 3.
C o s t in 1917, $3,860.

ri_ o P l a n
o&

F ig . 109.—HOUSES SOLD U N D E R PLAN NO. 3.
D eta ch ed h ou se o f 7 ro o m s a n d b a th .
C o s t i n 1913, $2,434.




E x t e r i o r o f s t u c c o o n b r ic k .
L o t 65 x 98 fe e t ; c o s t $400.

F u rn a ce h ea t.

F ig . 110— H O U S E S S O L D U N D E R P L A N N O . 3.
D e ta ch e d h ou se o f 5 ro o m s a n d b a th .

fiR 5 T tLooa. PLA/1

E x t e r i o r o f b r ic k o n h o llo w t ile .

C o s t i n 1917, S3,865.

*5eco/id Floor Plan

F ig . 111.— H O U S E S S O L D U N D E R P L A N N O . 3.
D e t a c h e d h o u s e h a v in g
s t u c c o o n h o llo w t ile .




5 r o o m s , b a t h , c e lla r , a n d fu r n a c e . E x t e r i o r
C o s t i n 1913, S I ,753. L o t 50 x 113 fe e t , c o s t $ 2 8 0 0

of

SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.

225

sanitary and storm sewers, put in gutters and sidewalks, and paved
streets. Gas and electricity were brought to the subdivision through
the gas and electric company’s mains. Inasmuch as the develop­
ment is a subdivision of the organized municipality the company’s
responsibility does not extend to such matters as street cleaning and
lighting nor to police and fire protection.
The first part of the subdivision to be opened up is located 2 J miles
from the center of the large and thriving municipality of which it is
a part and a quarter of a mile from the factory of the company. It
comprises 300 acres of land and cost about $30,000.
The subdivision has been carefully planned. Park and playground
area has been provided to the extent of 28 acres, or 10.7 per cent of
the total area of the subdivision. Residences classified according to
cost and type have been erected in the special residential section, and
a business center has been set aside. The streets are generally 50 to
60 feet wide, but the paved roadway is considerably narrower. The
principal avenue is 70 feet wide. The average lot is 50 feet wide by
115 feet deep. No alleys have been established, on the ground that
they lessen space for lots, add to the cost of construction and main­
tenance, and are conducive to unsightly conditions.
The average price paid for the ground in the subdivision was
slightly less than $300 per acre. Eliminating the space necessary
for streets, sidewalks, parks, and playgrounds, it is found that about
four lots are contained in an acre. This makes the value of each
lot $75.
The following table shows the cost of various improvements nec­
essary before the construction of houses was commenced. The data
applies to 430 lots contained in the first half of the subdivision laid
out for building purposes:
Cost o f outside improvements fo r 430 lots.
Cost of property................................................................................ $30, 000. 00
Excavating, 100,000 yards..............................................................
69,175.00
Curb for brick pavement, 11,796 linear feet..............................
3, 538. 00
Tarvia, 36,078 square yards...........................................................
46, 235. 00
Curbs and gutters for gravel roads, 35,958 feet (estim ated)...
21, 574. 00
Sanitary sewer system.....................................................................
21,000.00
Storm-water system ........................................................................
8, 000. 00
Main drain .........................................................................................
8, 510. 74
Bridge (concrete).............................................................................
9, 729. 66
Planting trees and shrubs...............................................................
3, 500. 00
Office and engineering expense, architects, e tc ........................ 5 21,000. 00
2, 932. 00
Pond drain.........................................................................................
Instruments.......................................................................................
445. 00
Sidewalks, 265,531 feet...................................................................
23,153. 00
Grading about houses, topsoil, and seeding...............................
18, 000. 00
Miscellaneous (ditches, surveyors’ monuments, e tc .)..............
1, 882. 60
Total........................................................................................ 288,675.00
5

Covers approxim ately first two years of developm ent work.

125882°— 20— Bull. 263------ 15+16




226

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

The houses in the subdivision are of frame with an exterior of
brick veneer, stucco, or shingles, or a combination of these three.
The company at present is using an oil stucco, which is proving very
satisfactory. The first houses completed had slate roofs, but those
of recent construction have been roofed with a patent tar-paper
shingle. The interior finish, both floors and trim, is pine. All
houses are plastered. Houses built by employees themselves with
money advanced by the company have hardwood floors and finish
and are in some ways better and more substantial than those erected
for sale by the company. All houses have three-piece bathroom
equipment and kitchen sinks, are lighted by electricity, and heated
by hot-air furnaces.
The data shown in the table below refer to the houses built by the
company in its first subdivision during the years 1913 to 1916. As
noted above, this part of the subdivision contains 430 lots. The
new part of the subdivision, developed in 1917 for the most part,
contains 1,500 lots. Details regarding company housing in this new
subdivision have not been secured.
The table below shows the number, type, and cost of construction
of houses built by the company in its first subdivision:
Table

1 2 6 . —D E T A IL S OF H O U SE S SOLD TO E M PL O Y EE S U N D E R P L A N NO. 3.
Average s:ize and
Num ­ Cost Rooms
cost p e r lot.
ber of
per
per Cost per
dw ell­ dw ell­ dw ell­ room.
ing.
ings.
ing.
Size (feet). Cost.

Type of dwelling.

Single, frame, stucco (type A )...................................

Single, frame, stucco and shingle.............................




2 $2,377
4
1,753
1,808
1
2,250
4
2,260
1
2,165
4
2,414
3
2,330
2
2,287
3
2,265
1
2,465
1
2,000
3
2,080
1
2,013
1
2,150
1
2,500
3
2
2,430
2,435
1
2,434
4
2,400
1
2,217
2
2,300
1
2,309
2
3
2,310
2,496
1
2,500
2
2,424
1
2,375
3
4
2,330
2,330
2
1
2,370
2,511
2
2,640
1
2,640
1
2,635
1
2,535
1
1
2,357

1 Irregular.

7
5
5
7
7
6
7
6
6
7
7
5
5
5
5
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
7
7
7
6
6
6
7
7

$340
351
362
321
326
361
345
388
381
324
352
400
416
403
430
357
347
348
348
343
370
300
330
330
357
357
346
396
388
333
339
359
440
440
439
362
337

64 by 105
56 by 104
50 by 116
51 by 103
71 by 120
50 by 105
50 by 104
59 by 109
50 by 100
50 by 100
50 by 110
50 by 103
50 by 120
50 by 120
50 by 120
53 by 117
50 by 105
50 by 120
54 by 114
50 by 133
50 by 110
50 by 100
50 by 140
53 by 118
50 by 124
50 by 130
50 by 110
0)
50 by 127
60 by 104
0)
53 by 117
50 by 125
60 bv 110
50 by 123
50 by 124
50 by 130

$440
260
240
440
480
380
413
460
333
440
440'
333
300
320
300
413
440
480
420
320
400
440
500
347
600
360
480
372
425
580
480
400
520
280
320
520
240

227

SALE OF C O M P A N Y H O U SES.
T a b le

126.—DETAILS OF HOUSES SOLD TO EM PLOYEES UNDER PLAN NO. 3—Concluded.
Average size and
Num­ Cost
Rooms
cost per lot.
ber of
per
per Cost per
dwell­ dw ell­ dw ell­ room.
ings.
ing.
ing.
Size (feet). Cost.

Type of dwelling.

Single, frame, stucco (type B ) .................................

Semidetached, frame, stucco.....................................
Single, brick veneer and shingle...............................

Single, brick veneer and stucco.................................

Single, brick veneer....................................................




2
1
1
1
7
5
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1

* Irregular.

$2,130
2,420
2,300
2,290
2,565
2,270
2,125
2,500
2,515
2,585
2,386
2,881
2,533
2,650
3,050
2,478
2,630
2,475
2,623
2,452
2,350
2,223
2,583

7
7
6
6
6
7
6
7
7
7
6
6
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6

$304
346
383
382
428
324
354
357
359
369
398
480
362
378
508
354
376
354
375
350
392
371
431

55 by
50 by
60 by
50 by
50 by
50 by
50 by
53 by
50 by
60 by
60 by
0)
50 by
60 b y
50 by
0)
0)
106 by
50 by
65 by
50 by
52 by
50 by

93
109
109
119
112
106
110
113
112
127
100
112
100
129
73
120
100
142
167
120

$300
300
300
280
434
408
440
660
640
400
680
720
640
680
720
680
680
680
640
680
500
480
610

CHAPTER X V m .— MAINTENANCE.1

Maintenance and upkeep are the most important problems
connected with company housing. Employers are practically one in
their belief that problems of maintenance are the ones most important
for the success of any housing undertaken. Good company housing
developments have been found to be greatly marred by failure to
maintain the houses and their surroundings properly. On the other
hand, relatively poor housing conditions are redeemed to some
extent by a good system of upkeep. There are several points which
arise for discussion in connection with the problem of maintenance.
These are (1) the provision of special sanitary departments in connec­
tion with the housing enterprise; (2) provision of a staff of regular
clean-up men; (3) issuance of circulars and notices to tenants and
residents in the community in order to encourage proper upkeep of
premises; (4) provision of lawns, encouragement of gardening, and
construction of fences; (5) provision of alleys; and (6) the placing of
restrictions on the keeping of domestic animals.
In the largest and most successful housing enterprises provision is
made for the creation of a special sanitary department in connection
with the housing work. Two of the largest of these departments in
connection with company housing projects in Minnesota and a large
company operating plants in Virginia and New Jersey have been
described elsewhere,2 and will not therefore be further taken up in
this connection.
The repair and upkeep of company houses are generally committed
to the repair department of the establishment, with the result that
house repairs are given secondary consideration to general plant
repairs. On the other hand, the maintenance of a separate repair
department in connection with the real estate or housing department
means that the houses are given the proper attention, regular men
having charge of the repair and maintenance. In fact, the establish­
ment of a separate repair and maintenance department has been
reported to be more economical than leaving the work to the plant
repair department.
The issuance of circulars and notices to tenants and for posting
about premises is a valuable aid in arousing the interest of tenants
and is fairly universal among the companies engaged in housing.
1 The greater part of this chapter has already appeared in the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics for January, 1919 (pp. 289-299), under the title “ Sanitary aspects of company housing.,,
2 See pages 120,192, and 193.

228




M A IN T E N A N C E .

229

Lawns.— In practically all company towns the provision and care
of lawns is left to the tenants. Occasionally a company supplies
grass seed and prepares the surface, but the upkeep of the lawn is left
to the tenant. This is a quite natural procedure; the difficulty lies in
seeing that the tenants perform their part of the obligation.
As a rule lawns in company towns are confined to the better section
of the community where the houses of higher rental or value are
found. There is a distinct contrast in conditions between the houses
of the lower-paid unskilled workmen and those of the better-paid
mechanics and office employees.
Gardening.— Generally speaking, employers find it necessary to
offer some sort of inducement to gardening in order to start the
movement. This has been done most generally by a system of prizes
or by distribution of handbooks and information on the subject.
Free seeds and free plowing are other inducements suggested and
practiced by some employers. During the spring of the year that
gardening was started at Bridgeport, Conn., the employees of a
certain company there kept coming in a pretty steady stream to the
real-estate department of the company to inquire after their garden
allotments, how much they could get and when the ground would be
plowed.
Gardening work by employees was successful, it was observed, in
the company towns where the companies took up the problem
systematically and in earnest. Once the gardening movement was
started, it tended to maintain itself.
A prerequisite, however, in inaugurating the garden movement has
usually been found to be the provision of fences for each yard. Where
a company did not provide fences, it was observed that those em­
ployees who attempted gardens erected fences of their own, very
frequently makeshift and nondescript. The importance of fences in
stimulating gardening has been recognized in the industrial agree­
ment between the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. and its employees, to
the effect that, “ to encourage employees to cultivate flower and
vegetable gardens, the company agrees to fence, free of charge, each
house lot owned by it.” 3
It may be interesting to note the conclusions in the matter of
gardening of the Scottish Royal Commission of Housing, whose re­
port appeared in 1917. The scarcity of gardens, the commission
concludes, can not be attributed to the disinclination of the workers
for the extra work involved; the lack is more likely due to other
factors, such as (1) short tenure of the dwelling and garden; (2) in­
adequate fencing; (3) remoteness of the garden from the house.
The length of the working-dav (including therein the time of going
* For full text of agreement see Monttuy Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,for December, 1915,
pp. 12-22.




230

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

to and coming from work) is also a prime factor in determining an
inclination for gardening. There is this to be said, however, that
the women of the household are sometimes the ones who take the
most interest in the gardening and do much of the actual work con­
nected with it.
AUeys.— In all mining towns alleys are recognized as essential. The
survey disclosed only one company mining town where it was proposed
to eliminate alleys. Where inside sanitary plumbing is not in use
and where hydrants and outhouses must be used, alleys facilitate
the proper care and maintenance of these. Garbage and rubbish
may readily be collected by use of these thoroughfares. It may be
noted, however, that one company town in New England instead
of using up space for the provision of alleys provided for each of its
tenants a stone box at the rear of the house in which all rubbish was
deposited and burned from time to time. This, however, was a town
where inside sanitary plumbing was in use.
Keeping of domestic animals.— One of the commonest difficulties
connected with maintaining company towns in a clean and sanitary
condition has been the lack of restrictions on the keeping of domestic
animals. Very frequently, however, this matter is regul ated by State
law and is therefore beyond company control. Strict regulations,
furthermore, against the practice create an element of hardship for the
low-paid unskilled workman who may desire to eke out his income with
a cow or chickens. While the keeping of such domestic animals as
cows and chickens is generally allowed, rules, when issued, are usually
directed against the keeping of pigs.
Disorderly tenants.— While a great many companies have rules
requiring the tenant to leave the company house if his conduct is
disorderly or if he fails to keep his premises in sightly condition, the
enforcement of such rules depends very largely upon the state of the
labor market. Thus in a time of shortage of labor the employer would
modify his rule in order to keep his labor at the plant. It may be
observed that as a general practice the rule was more frequently
relaxed than observed.
Sanitation.—Garbage collection in the majority of company towns
is provided by the companies themselves, except where the housing
development lies within an organized city where municipal collection
is maintained. Weekly collections are most common but several
companies reported making annual collections. This can only mean
an annual clean-up, and not garbage collection.




231

M A IN T E N A N C E .
T a b le

1 3 7 .— FR E Q U E N C Y

OF

GARBAGE COLLECTIONS IN
IN D U ST R Y AND STATE.

COMPANY T O W N S, B Y

Towns in which collection of garbage was made—
Industry and State.

Towns in
which no
Bi­
garbage
Semi­
monthly collection Total.
Semi­
Daily. weekly. Weekly. m onthly. Monthly. and less was pro­
vided.
fre­
quently.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West
Virginia,.......................
Alabama, Tennessee, and
K entucky......................
Colorado and W y o m in g ..

2

3

16

1

32
1

*3

3

4

5

61

T otal..............................

7

9

Anthracite-coal m ining.........

r

2
i
3

3

Copper mining: Michigan and
Tennessee.............................
Other copper and gold min­
ing..........................................

11 3

4

7

2 26

6

6

5

24
7 3

1 03

T otal..............................

1

84

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and
Minnesota......................
Alabama............................

3

13

53

16

9 24

1

1

3

1
1

10
3

4

1

8

1

2

1

Iron and steel and allied in­
dustries:
Northern district..............
Southern district..............

3

124

13 e
3

T otal..............................

3

4

Textile manufacture:
Northern district..............
Southern district..............

18 3

19 15

16 4
17

1
1

12 2

9

T otal..............................

3

17

3

4

15

41

54

5

2

1

6

14 22
15 3

2 l

1

6

25

4

17 6
2 040

4

46

7

Grand to ta l...................

1

1

21

Miscellaneous industries.........

_

1

4
8

5

16

18

45

184

I “ Weekly in summer” reported by one company; none in winter.
* Five other companies reported as follows: “ When notified by tenants” ; “ As required” ; “ Disposed
of by drain in back yard, which is flushed ” ; company did not know; and “ every two months.”
3 One continually; 1 man on job all the time.
4 One semiweekly in summer, weekly in winter.
8 Including 1 biweekly in summer, weekly in winter, and 1 weekly in summer only, and 1 continually,
on job all the time.
6 There are 12 localities operated by this one company.
7 Two other companies reported, “ When necessary” ; “ constantly.”
8 Includes one company collecting garbage semiweekly in summer.
• Another company reports “ Man on job all the time.”
10 Two companies collect only semimonthly in winter.
II One in winter; daily in summer.
1 In two cases by municipalities.
8
1 In two cases by municipalities; 1 company collects only in summer.
3
u Eight other companies within dty or borough where municipal collection is provided.
1 One other company reports “ Man on job all the time.”
6

1 In one case by municipality.
6

1 Three companies within city.
7
w One other reports “ Constantly.”
1 Including 2 by municipalities and 5 reporting semiweekly in summer and weekly in winter.
8
2 Four other companies within city, where municipal collection is provided.
0

Where only outside sanitation was provided the prevailing type of
privy was the open-vault kind. A few companies (15 out of 213) have
adopted a water-tight concrete vault, and in twenty-odd communities
the can type has been installed. Where the can type is used a man
with a team has to make regular weekly rounds for the disposal of the




232

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

contents. In one of the towns of the Birmingham, Ala., district, op­
erated by one of the largest companies in that region, the can type of
privy has been adopted quite generally. This company also care­
fully protects its outhouses by screening, and disposes of the contents
by a system of water decomposition.
In the coal-mining region of Pennsylvania, both bituminous and
anthracite, the old-fashioned method of scavenging prevails. Only
in rare instances, however, was the practice reported of moving the
privies from place to place as the vaults became full. The great ad­
vantage of the can type of privy is that it makes frequency of dis­
posal absolutely necessary, and it is only in those communities where
frequency of cleaning is reported as weekly or semiweekly that that
type of privy is found. The practice as to frequency of cleaning
privies is noted in the statement below for 150 companies which
reported on that point.
T able

1 2 8 . —FR E Q U E N C Y

OF CLEANING P R IV IE S IN COMPANY TOW NS.

Frequency.

Number of Per cent of
towns.
total.

Semi w eekly...........................................
W eekly..................................................
Sem im onthly........................................
M onthly.................................................
Sem iannually........................................
A nnually................................................
Irregularly.............................................

13
18
7
4
11
29
68

8.6
12.3
4.6
2.6
7.3
19.3
45.3

T otal............................................

150

100.0

C o n d i t i o n o f y a r d s a n d p r e m i s e s .— The condition of yards and houses
in company towns differs so markedly in the same locality and among
the same class of employees that it seems reasonable to conclude that
the differences in care and upkeep are due to the care and attention
given the matter by the company and not, as has been frequently
asserted, to the tendency of the workmen to keep their premises in an
unsightly condition. Adjacent mining towns, for instance, in the
Pennsylvania soft-coal region, each owned by a different company,
differ very greatly in matters of maintenance. Generally speaking,
where the company observes system in keeping streets and alleys
clean and in repairing houses and has a regular man or corps of men
to do that work, yards, too, as a whole are observed to be in better
condition of upkeep. A factor in the case is the provision by the
employer of rubbish and garbage cans for the use of the tenants. It
is the experience of the general superintendent of one of the largest
coal and coke companies in western Pennsylvania that once the com­
pany provides an adequate house and sightly premises the employees,
and particularly the wives of employees, take a new interest in the
house and its maintenance. Continuance of the improvements is




M A IN T E N A N C E .

233

desired, even demanded. A standard of comfort and decency of
surroundings has been created, and a desire for its continuance per­
sists. The employer is in an advantageous position to secure and
maintain that standard of comfort and decency in surroundings of
his tenants because his regulations in that respect are backed by the
authority to discharge from employment. In spite of that fact,
however, there is at times a tendency on the part of the employer
to connive at unsightly premises and to be careless in regard to en­
forcing rules whenever there is a shortage of labor or difficulty in
securing it. This would seem to be a shortsighted policy, since in
the long run the reputation of a company town for cleanliness, sight­
liness, and availability of recreational features is bound to attract
labor, if one may rely on the opinions of those closest to the situation.
On the side of the employee it may be observed there is frequently
a reluctance to make any demands for proper maintenance and im­
provements in the house, particularly when labor is plentiful and
competition for jobs is keen, because of the inevitable control which
the employer has over the employee by reason of owning the house
and holding over him the threat of eviction.




CHAPTER XIX.— RESULTS OF HOUSING.
PRO PO RTIO N OF LABOR FORCE AFFECTED.

Employers house about one-third of their employed force. Thus,
considering the 213 companies covered by the Bureau’s survey it ap­
pears that they housed 160,645, or 34.4 per cent, out of a total of
466,991 employees, as brought out in the table below. The largest
proportion housed in any industrial group is 80.4— 15,035 out of a
total of 18,694— in the bituminous-coal mining region of the South,
which here includes Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky; the next
largest proportion, or 71 per cent, is found in the cotton mills of
Alabama, Georgia, and North and South Carolina, followed in
order by bituminous-coal mining in Colorado and Wyoming (67.8
per cent) and in Pennsylvania and West Virginia (56.1 per cent).
The lowest proportion housed is in the mining region of the South­
west, where 857, or 15.9 per cent of a total of 5,398, are housed, as
reported by six companies in that region. It should be explained,
however, that in this region practically none of the unskilled la­
borers (who are Mexican) are accommodated in company-owned
houses; they are left to provide their own houses and shelters upon
company-owned land, inasmuch as the companies in this region, as
elsewhere in mining districts, own all land immediately surrounding
that occupied by the mines. The Mexican settlements upon com­
pany land in this region are controlled and policed by the mining
companies, who therefore become responsible for housing and sani­
tary conditions in those settlements.1
T able

1 2 9 . —N U M B E R A N D

P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S H O U SE D , B Y IN D U S T R Y
A N D ST A T E .

Number of
employees.

Industry and State.

Bituminous-coal mining:
Pennsylvania and West Virginia.......
Ohio and Indiana..................................
Alabama, Tennessee, and K entucky..
Colorado and W yoming........................

78,218
1,287

a 18,694

4,644

Number of
employees
housed.

Per cent of
employees
housed.

43,877

688

a 15,035
3,148

56.1
53.5
80.4
67.8

102,843

62,748

61.0

Anthracite-eoal m in ing...............................

b 90,608

6 20,660

22.8

Iron mining:
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
A labam a........................................ . —

c 5,433

1,497

c 1,447
805

26.6
53.8

6,930

2,252

32.5

Total.

Total.

a Not including 1 company w ith 500 employees; number housed was not reported.
& Not including 1 company w ith 25,600 employees; number housed was not reported,
c Not including 1 company w ith 1,450 employees; number housed was not reported.

1 See pages 123 to 127.
234




235

RESU LTS OF H O U SIN G .
1 2 9 .—NUM BER

T a b le

AND

PER CENT OF EM PLO YE ES
A N D S T A T E —Concluded.

HO U SED , B Y

IN D U ST R Y

Number of
employees.

Number of
employees
housed.

10,064

3,290

32.7

5,398

857

15.9

Iron and steel and allied industries:
Northern district.....................................................................
Southern district......................................................................

a 116,904
3,180

a 20,625

17.6
29.2

Industry and State.

Copper mining: Michigan and Tennessee...................................
Other copper and gold mining: Arizona, New Mexico, and
Colorado...............................................................................

Per cent of
employees
housed.

930

T otal......................................................................................

120,084

21,555

17.9

Manufacture of explosives.............................................................

28,777

10,840

37.7

Textile manufacture:
Northern district..................................................................
Southern district......................................................................

b 10,624
35,643

b 2,047
25,289

19 3
71.0
59.1

T otal......................................................................................

46,267

27,336

Miscellaneous industries................................................................

c 56,020

c 11,107

19.8

Grand total................................................................. ..........

466,991

160,645

34.4

a Not including 7 companies w ith 21,050 employees; number housed was not reported.
b N ot including 1 company w ith 700 employees; number housed was not reported.
c N ot including 2 companies w ith 2,460 employees; number housed was not reported.

On the whole the largest proportion of employees housed in com­
pany dwellings is found in the mining industry, where conditions of
isolation and inaccessibility make it imperative for the employer to
do housing work. The comparatively low proportion housed in the
anthracite-mining industry as compared with the bituminous-coal
region is accounted for most probably by the greater settled condi­
tion of the neighboring communities in that region.
From a geographical point of view it is quite evident that em­
ployers in the South who are engaged in housing work provide ac­
commodation for a larger percentage of their employees than do
employers in the Northern States. Taking those industry groups
where sufficient data were secured to make geographical segregation
feasible, the result is as follows:
T able

1 3 0 . —N U M B E R A N D P E R C ENT OF E M PLO Y EES H O U SED IN SPEC IFIE D IN D U S­
T R IE S, B Y GEOGRAPHICAL D IVISIONS.
Number em ­
ployed.
Industry group.

Number housed.

Per cent housed.

South­
ern
group.

North­
ern
group.

South­
ern
group.

North­
ern
group.

Southem
group.

North­
ern
group.

Bituminous-coal mining.........................................
Iron m in in g...
..................................................
Iron and steel and allied industries......................
T extile manufacture................................................

18,694
1,497
3,180
35,643

84,149
5,433
116,904
10,624

15,035
805
930
25,289

47,713
1,447
20,625
2,047

80.4
53.8
29.2
71.0

56.7
26.6
17.6
19.3

Total...............................................................

59,014

217,110

42,059

71,832

71.3

33.1




236

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

OVERCROW DING.

In only a few instances was the actual population in company
houses reported. The village population was reported by three
companies in the southern cotton-mill region. All three villages
are in mill districts on the outskirts of cities. Mill No. 1 houses
1,500 persons in 878 rooms. Mill No. 2 houses 3,431 persons in
2,638 rooms. Mill No. 3 houses 1,000 persons in 465 rooms.
The last mentioned was one of the worst cases of overcrowding
seen. Eighty new four-room bungalows are largely used by two
households each; the three-room houses in many cases contain more
than one family, and the 10-room tenements (five-room semide­
tached houses, but “ so cut up by families that we call them tene­
ments” ) are occupied each by a number of households, one noted
by the agent housing a total of 30 or more persons. This company
is said to be building constantly in an effort to do away with this
overcrowded condition. However, it is one of the companies report­
ing the rule that a family must provide one hand for each room.
The companies in the cotton-mill region generally insist that each
room in the house shall provide one operative for the mill. The
number of hands a family can supply for a mill is a factor in deter­
mining the allotment of housing accommodations. This condition,
it is observed, is closely bound up with the question of child labor.

Even where the rule of one employee per room does not obtain and
where experienced welfare workers are making every effort to raise
the standards of living it is said that some families still sleep all in
one room, “ as they did in the mountains.” The opposite practice
of using all rooms for sleeping purposes results in a condition de­
plored by social workers in the mill communities, since the
young people have no sitting room in which to entertain guests.
The use of couches instead of beds in the front rooms is an innova­
tion being urged by one welfare secretary.
The isolated location of the villages is one cause of the evil of
overcrowding, since the housing activities of the companies do not
always keep pace with an increase in spindleage or the erection of
additional mills. The best employers anticipate such a condition,
and several of the communities visited in 1917 were putting up
scores of new houses in preparation for the influx of labor due to
increased activity in the industry. Quite commonly the oldest em­
ployees are given the preference in the allotment of new houses; not
infrequently, however, they ask to be allowed to stay in the houses
they have occupied for years. Where a shortage of houses exists,
the families are compelled to take boarders or to occupy fewer rooms,
both of which measures are resented by all but the least desirable
among the workers.




RESULTS OF H O U SIN G .

237

A certain company town in Virginia gave a very complete state­
ment of the population of its houses by race, sex, and age. From
the data furnished by this company it appears that 9,481 white per­
sons occupied 1,949 houses, making an average of 4.9 persons, in­
cluding men, women, and children, per dwelling. As the average
number of rooms per dwelling as reported by this company works
out to between five and six, the average number of persons per room
appears to be somewhat less than one.
In the southern company towns a certain feature of the houses
tends to encourage overcrowding. The small four-room bungalow
dwelling £j characteristic of the region has two doors opening upon
a front porch and inside doors connecting each pair of front and
back rooms. By closing the inside doors the pair of rooms on each
side may be made into a two-room dwelling. In times of housing
shortage this has been done, but recently the companies more scru­
pulous in such matters have frowned upon the practice. While this
particular feature of house construction can not be said to be a cause
of house crowding, it is none the less an incentive to it.
Company housing in general is defective in so far as no rules are
made against the keeping of boarders and roomers. Nor is the lack
of such a rule offset, except in rare cases, by the provision of houses
especially constructed for keeping roomers and boarders. Frequently
the keeping of roomers and boarders is encouraged. A mining com­
pany in West Virginia encouraged the keeping of boarders by offering
a bonus for each boarder in a company house. In a certain town
owned by a steel-car-manufacturing company many of the detached
houses were occupied by two families, and no restrictions had been
placed on boarders. The relatively high rents in the Polish section
of a certain New England textile town were evidence of the fact that
the occupants were understood by the company to be taking in
roomers and boarders to eke out their income. The houses had not,
moreover, been specially constructed with a view to such a con­
tingency.
In short, the whole system of company housing can readily lead
to a connivance on the employer’s part toward overcrowding. The
employee is frequently ready to take an excessive number of lodgers
to secure the additional income. Likewise it is to the interest of the
employer to use his housing investment to its maximum capacity.
And in a time of high production and a boom market the temptation
to use the houses to the limit of capacity is greatly increased.
CLASS OF EMPLOYEES HOUSED.

Generally speaking, over three-fourths (76.7 per cent) of the 213
companies covered by this study rent company houses exclusively to
their employees; a trifle over one-fifth (22.2 per cent) also rent their




238

H O U SIN G BY E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

houses to outsiders. Among nonemployees are included those who
fqllow certain supplementary occupations in the community, par­
ticularly as petty tradesmen; also former employees or their widows,
renting to these being very largely a matter of charity. In one cottonmill community in the South houses are rented to the storekeeper,
the doctor, the minister, and the mission workers at one-half the
usual rental rate. Houses rented to outsiders are very frequently
surplus houses the employer may have, although surplus houses are
rarely available. In any case employees are always given the
preference.
As no effort was made to ascertain definitely what proportion of
tenants in company houses were outsiders, little information was
secured on that point; one steel company, however, reported that
5 per cent of its houses were occupied by nonemployees.
Employers are not sufficiently emphasizing the matter of providing
houses for the unskilled or immigrant laborers. Seven companies
of the 213 report that they provide houses for unskilled workers only,
while two report that they do not house that class of workmen at all.
Both of the latter are companies in the copper region of Arizona,
where the unskilled labor is largely Mexican and lives in segregated
villages on company land. The Mexican laborers build their own
hovels from lumber ends, dry goods boxes, and patched-up pieces
of corrugated roofing, adobe, and old bricks. Frequently they
burrow in the hillside.
The general result of the inquiry as to the class of employees
housed is as follows:
Number.

Total number of companies.................................................
Number renting company houses to employees o n ly . . .
Number renting to all classes of em ployees.....................
Number renting company houses to nonemployees. . . .
Number renting to skilled and unskilled workmen only
Number renting to unskilled workmen on ly ...................
Number renting to higher officials and nonemployees
on ly........................................................................................

Per cent.

213
165
161
48
27
7

100. 0
77. 5
75.6
2 22. 5
12. 7
3.3

2

.9

Tenants for company houses are not selected so much on the basis
of whether they are skilled or unskilled men as on the basis of their
indispensability and faithful and loyal service with the company.
As already indicated, only about one-third of the employees of the
different companies are provided with company houses, and there is
necessary, therefore, a careful selection of tenants. A certain large
mining company operating in one of the North Central States gives
preference in housing to its foremen, bosses, mining captains, me­
chanics, and skilled labor generally, and after an application has been
submitted for a house inquiry is made as t o the length of service of
2 Two companies rent to higher officials and nonemployees only.




RESULTS OF HOUSING.

239

the applicant with the company and the likelihood of his becoming a
permanent employee. Another company requires a minimum of
three months’ satisfactory service before granting a request to rent a
house. Another company in considering an application for a house
looks into the matter of the condition in which the employee kept
the house he formerly lived in.
Sometimes certain types or classes of men are excluded from com­
pany houses. One company representative reports that Russian
Finns as distinguished from Swedish Finns are not given company
houses because of their socialistic tendencies. The more drifting
undesirable type of labor is not taken into company houses.
In looking up the record of an applicant for a house the companies
usually utilize the services of the bosses or foremen and accept their
recommendations regarding men already in the employ of the com­
pany. Sometimes the visiting nurses, the welfare worker, or the
safety inspector is in possession of information concerning the appli­
cant for the house. New men are required to fill out formal employ­
ment cards detailing their past record of employment and positions
held, and then to file a formal application for a company house.
CLASS OF EM PLOYEES HOUSED, BY INDUSTBIES.

Of 32 bituminous coal companies in Pennsylvania and West
Virginia only two do not rent to their higher officials— i. e., mine
superintendents and bosses— and one does not rent to its skilled
employees; but all of them rent to their unskilled men. In the case
of one company the policy differed at its two establishments; in
one case it does not rent to its skilled men, while in the other it
includes all classes of employees. Only five companies rent to
nonemployees. Such nonemployees usually include local store­
keepers, teachers, ministers, doctors, and others who follow supple­
mentary occupations in the community.
When a mine is abandoned it is the policy to dismantle the houses
or to rent or sell to anyone who may desire to buy.
Of three companies in the soft-coal fields of Ohio and Indiana
only one rents to its higher-paid staff. In the southern coal field
one company out of a total of 24 rents only to its unskilled labor
force, while another has a few additional houses reserved for some
of its higher staff. Nonemployees are very generally excluded,
among those few included being some railroad men, the school­
teachers, ministers, and doctors.
In the Colorado and Wyoming bituminous-coal field one company
out of five rents only to unskilled men; no nonemployees are included
in any case.
In the anthracite-coal region four companies out of a total of 24 do
not provide houses for their higher staff; one company, which in




240

H O U SIN G B Y EM P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

most of its establishments provides houses for the staff men, in two
localities has provided improved semidetached houses of brick and
concrete construction for its skilled and unskilled labor force ex­
clusively. These two localities, it should be said, however, accom­
modate only a very small proportion of the men; at the time of
the survey there were only 40 semidetached houses (80 dwellings)
thus available, while the number employed at the shafts to be
accommodated was about 3,600.
In the anthracite-coal region it is characteristic that those out­
siders to whom company houses are rented have been former em­
ployees; of 14 companies renting to outsiders, 10 rent to former
employees or their families. One company reports 158 houses out
of 1,134 as being rented to nonemployees; and another 227 out of
1,469. One company reports a charity rental to an outsider or
nonemployee.
In the iron district of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota all
employers reporting (seven covered altogether, of whom two do
not report) rent houses to all classes of their labor force, but do not
rent at all to nonemployees; the same is true for southern mine
operators (three companies).
In the copper districts, comprising Michigan and Tennessee (five
companies altogether reporting), the employers provide houses
for all types of employees; in no cases are houses rented to out­
siders, except that one company stated that any surplus of houses
might be let to nonemployees. On the other hand, in the copper
and gold region of the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) two
companies do not rent at all to unskilled employees— that is, the
Mexican laborers— all except one of six companies reporting rent
to the higher staff men. As to renting to the unskilled workers it
should be said that all the companies in the Southwest rent land
to Mexican laborers, usually a separate section where Mexicans only
are allowed. These villages the companies police, and provide for
their sanitary inspection (for a description of such a community
see Monthly Labor Review for September, 1918, pp. 278-283), and
are in every way responsible for conditions found in them.
These companies rent only land to outsiders, but in one case a
house was rented to a petty tradesman in the village; and any sur­
plus houses may also be rented to outsiders.
There were 24 companies engaged in the iron and steel and allied
industries which furnished information on the point in question.
One of these companies does not rent but sells its houses. Of the
24, 2 do not rent to unskilled laborers, but only to the staff and
skilled men, while 8 do not rent to staff men; all the other com­
panies rent to all classes of employees.




RESULTS OF HOUSING.

241

Although in the Bureau’s inquiry the question was not asked as
to what proportion of the number housed belong in the three classes
of employees considered— namely, higher officials, skilled and un­
skilled workers— one large steel company in New York State, em­
ploying about 7,600 men, reports that it houses 40 higher officials,
204 skilled workers, and 310 unskilled men. Unfortunately the
different proportions of these classes of workers in the labor force
of this company are not known.
In the group of 25 iron and steel companies one company which
does not rent any houses to its unskilled men, does, on the other
hand, rent to nonemployees; and seven other companies also rent
to outsiders. In one case it is stated that 5 per cent of the renters
are nonemployees. The outside renters here are of the same type
as already mentioned in other industry groups— namely, persons
following the petty trades and supplementary occupations in the
community.
Instead of renting to its higher officials, one company of three
reporting sells them houses and rents to other classes of employees.
All iron and steel companies rent to both skilled and unskilled
workers.
The two companies manufacturing explosives covered in the in­
quiry rent to all classes of employees; this is true also of the six
New England textile manufacturers, with the exception of one case
where no houses are rented to higher officials. In one case among
these companies 10 per cent of the company renters were outsiders;
the other companies reported that they rented some houses to
nonemployees.
All the 48 cotton-manufacturing companies of the southern dis­
trict comprising Alabama, Georgia, and North and South Carolina
rent company houses to both skilled and unskilled workers, while
33 rent also to higher staff men. Except in two instances no houses
are rented to nonemployees. In the exceptions noted the houses
are rented to the local doctor, some railroad men, the teachers, and
the storekeeper. One company reported that the storekeeper,
doctor, and mission worker are given houses at one-half the regular
rental rate.
Among the 17 miscellaneous industries (including manufacture of
chemicals, chocolate, electrical supplies, zinc smelting, rubber goods,
plumbers’ and steam fitters’ supplies, cordage, cotton machinery,
and aluminum ware) one company rents only to higher officials and
outsiders, one only to skilled and unskilled men, while the others
rent to all classes of employees, except two, which do not rent but
sell houses. Five of the 17 companies rent also to nonemployees.
125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 16




242

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

RESULTS ARISING FR O M LOCATION OF COM PANY TO W NS.

Proximity of the employee to his work has naturally been secured
by company housing. On the other hand, nearness to larger com­
munity life has not generally been secured. This is particularly true
of mining towns, where the remoteness of the mineral deposits takes
the towns away from settled or community life. Manufacturing
company towns are, as a rule, quite accessible to larger communities
and group themselves on the outskirts of the metropolitan cities.
In the mining districts the greatest distance between any company
town and the mine was a mile and a quarter. In most instances the
towns are within walking distance of the mine. The failure to pro­
vide recreational activities in the company towns or to locate the
company towns in the neighborhood of larger cities, where recreation
may be secured, has very frequently caused difficulty in retaining
the labor supply. Workmen are likely to leave unless means of
recreation are reasonably near at hand. In some instances in the
bituminous-coal region of Pennsylvania workmen were found to be
willing to commute from the larger cities to the mines, even as far
as 6 or 7 miles, rather than live in company houses.
EFFECTS OF PROVISIONS IN LEASES.

The provisions of the lease which the employee tenant agrees to
observe have a potent influence in times of strikes or other disturb­
ances of the relation of employer and employee. Analysis of the
notice to vacate and of the restrictions placed upon the employee
with regard to allowing third parties access to the premises brings
out this point, as does also the failure in some cases to use any formal
lease whatever.
Provisions contained in the leases for the care and
maintenance of the houses are of minor importance.
Very few employers use any formal written lease in letting com­
pany houses to their employees. Such informal lettings without a
lease constitute what are termed “ tenancies at will,” terminable at
the pleasure of either party, without notice, or upon such notice as
may be fixed by law in the different States. Where, as is usually
the case, it is understood that the tenancy continues for the term of
the employment and terminates upon discharge or voluntary with­
drawal from service, no notice to vacate the premises has been held
to be required.3
It was stated by some employers that the formal leases, when used,
were merely records of the tenancy and rarely enforced in their de­
tails, particularly those provisions relating to the upkeep of the
premises on the part of the tenant employee.




* Hackett v. Marmet Co., 8 U. S. App. 149.

RESU LTS OF H O U SIN G .

243

Of 57 leases which were secured for analysis in 8 no notice to va­
cate is called for; 6 require notice of less than 5 days; 12 of 5 days;
1 of 6 days; another of 7 days; 13 of 10 days; 5 of 15 days; and
1 of 30 days. In the other 10 the period of notice is not specified.
Furthermore, about half of the leases contain provisions to the effect
that the tenancy is to be considered coincident with employment4
and this, as has been seen, nullifies the effect of the period of notice
to vacate. On the whole, therefore, both the formal leases and the
informal lettings show that the landlord and tenant relation of em­
ployer and employee is severed upon short notice or upon no notice
at all; it is quite informal.
In addition to the brevity or lack of notice required, the provisions
of leases as to the rights of third persons to have access to the premises
become of great importance in times of strikes.
Such a provision as the following is contained, in effect, in 5 of
the 57 leases received for examination:
Necessary ingress and egress over the adjoining premises of the lessor to reach the
nearest public highway is hereby given to the lessee and members of his fam ily living
with him. A way of ingress and egress may, however, be designated b y the lessor
to the enjoyment of which lessee and his fam ily w ill thereafter be restricted; and the
lessor may at any time forbid ingress and egress over adjoining premises of the lessor
to reach the leased premises to any or all persons other than the lessee and members
of his family living with him.
And it is also understood that the party of the first part, its successors and assigns,
reserves the right at any and all times to prevent the use of and eject and remove
from a lf the streets, lands, alleys, open places of the town of which the above premises
are a part of the mining town and from all other property of the company, any person
or persons disorderly or objectionable to its successors or assigns; and whether said
person or persons have or have not been invited thereupon by the occupant or occu­
pants of said premises.
[The tenant agrees] not to use, allow, suffer, or permit the use of said land, or any
part thereof, or any way or road upon the same, or any way, road, or approach thereto
upon lands of lessor, for any other purpose than that of ingress and egress from and to
the public road for said lessee and the members of his family, and not to do any act
or thing, or suffer or cause the same to be done, whereby the public, or any person
or persons (other than the lessee and members of his fam ily), may be invited or allowed
to go to or trespass upon lands of the lessor adjoining or near the lands herein let, or
ways leading thereto, or to or upon said lands so let.
The lessee agrees not to use, suffer, or permit the use of other lands or private way
or road through or over other lands of the lessor to said premises or for any purpose
other than that of ingress and egress to and from the public road for the lessee and
members of his family, and to do no act or thing nor suffer nor cause or permit the
same to be done whereby the public may be invited or allowed to go or trespass upon
the land of the lessor.
<A definite and clear-cut provision of one lease to that effect is the following: “ This iease is made for the
purpose only of providing the lessee w ith a temporary dwelling place for himself and family during his
employment b y the lessor, subject to the absolute right reserved by the lessor to terminate the same and
all rights of the lessee hereunder at will.” In another lease it is declared that the premises were rented as
“ an incident to such [employment] and for the better performance of the service,” while another reads:
“ This lease is to continue from m onth to m onth thereafter while the said party of the second part continues
in the employm ent of the said party of the first part.”




244

H O U SIN G B Y E M PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

[The lessee agrees not to] invite, harbor, or allow any tramp or character who is
objectionable in any way * * * or permit any improper or suspicious person to
come upon or remain upon the said premises.

The implication of a lease in regard to a strike is not usually di­
rectly brought out in its terms. An exception to this general rule,
however, is noted in a specific statement contained in a certain
“ license for occupancy , ” as it is termed, to the effect that the tenant
agrees “ to leave peaceably within five days after work has been
suspended * * * in consequence of a strike.”
Finally, it may be observed, a company town is private property
and all persons entering it are technically trespassers. Notices to
that effect are frequently posted in the towns.
Provisions of the leases are not of importance in relation to the
housing as such, as distinguished from the housing problem as a
social question. Very few leases contain specific restrictions for the
upkeep and care of the house. An occasional lease contains a pro­
hibition against keeping certain domestic animals upon the premises,
particularly hogs; also prohibitions against erecting any or additional
buildings on the rear of the lot, one comprehensive provision reading
that no sheds, shanties, bake ovens, chicken coops, or cow stables
shall be erected on the rear of the lot. Another lease prohibits the
cultivating of gardens on the lot, excepting only flower gardens and
ornamental shrubbery. Only a few companies prohibit the keeping
of boarders, but as all of them prohibit subletting without consent
of the lessor it is therefore quite within their power to prevent ex­
cessive crowding because of roomers. One company expressly pro­
hibits occupation of its four-room houses by more than 10 persons,
while another permits boarders, but requires that they be company
employees.
The restrictions noted above are usually inserted in separate rules
and regulations which are made part of the contract of employment
rather than of the lease.
The following shows some rules contained in the lease of a certain
cotton mill :
1. Tenements are rented b y the week, the rent being collected twice a month from
the wages of any of the family or boarders that are working. A t least three steady
workers are necessary in order to get or keep a tenement. Tenements shall be vacated
on seven days’ notice given b y the company. No tenant will be allowed to relet
any part of their tenement. Changes in the list of boarders must be reported to the
person having charge of the tenements.
2. All tenements must be kept clean, and when vacated must be delivered up clean
and in good condition.
3. In houses with one tenement above another it is the duty of the lower tenants
to shut off the water in the cellar in cold weather, at night, and they will be held re­
sponsible for any damage which may occur from failure to do so.
4. Swill must be put in cans with covers, and ashes must be put in barrels, and
in no case shall they be deposited in the house or cellar.




RESU LTS OF H O U SIN G .

245

5. No one w ill be allowed to keep swine, fowls, pigeons, or rabbits at the blocks
in the center. Fowls and pigeons may be kept on the terrace, but not in the houses.
6. Tenants must remove the snow from the sidewalks in front of their tenements
as soon as possible after it stops snowing, and ice as soon as possible after it is formed,
or cover it with ashes.
7. No repairing of any kind shall be done, or nail or any other thing driven or put
up, or anything taken down in the houses without the consent of the agent of the
company.
8. Tenants must pay for any damage done to their quarters beyond ordinary wear
and tear, and for any failure to com ply with these regulations.
9. When tenements are vacated, the keys of the same must be returned to the
office, when the tenements w ill be examined, and if found clean and in good order
a settlement will be made and deductions will be made for want of cleanliness or
damage.
10. The overseer of the paint shop has general supervision of the com pany’s houses,
including all matters of cleanliness and repairs, and tenants must com ply with his
instructions.
11. Rule concerning care of water-closets: ( 1) No foreign substance, such as glass,
crockery, metal, waste, cloth, etc., should be put into the bowl, trap, or pipe, so as
to cause stoppage; ( 2) the seat must not be used to stand on, or for any other purpose,
so as to get it out of place and cause leakage of joints; (3) lead pipe or traps must not
be tampered with in any way; (4) every precaution must be taken in cold weather to
prevent freezing. Rooms must be kept warm, and on very cold nights a handful or
more of salt put into the bowl, and water shut off in cellar b y each tenant.
12. A compliance with the foregoing rules and regulations is the only condition
upon which any person can obtain a tenement from the company or continue their
occupancy.

Frequently employers rent to their employees land upon which the
latter build houses for themselves. This is true of practically all
mine operators, and less frequently so of manufacturing employers.
As the formal leases obtained were few, no general conclusions can
be drawn from them. Those land leases secured, however, are char­
acterized by impermanency of tenure; they run for a short period,
such as a year; a few are for five years. In some instances the term
clause reads “ while in the employ of the said party of the first part.”
Generally speaking, the employer grants nothing more than a license
to occupy.
While some land leases provide for compensation for the building
erected at an appraised valuation at the end of the term or upon
vacation of the premises, others provide for no compensation, the
building becoming the property of the employer landowner if not
removed from the premises. This condition is something of a hard­
ship in the case of mine locations, as all the adjoining land is usually
owned by the operator.
SU M M ARY O F RESULTS O F H OUSING.

Although the primary result of company housing is the supplying
of accommodations for an existing labor force, several incidental
results have flowed from it. Speaking broadly, it has been a factor




246

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

in the control of the labor situation by employers and has had a
certain influence upon the social and health conditions surrounding
employees. But such results are not capable of statistical measure­
ment, and unfortunately are not always clear in the minds of the
employers; they are largely a matter of deduction from close-athand study of conditions secured by actual residence in a community.
In such an inquiry as this these indirect results must at best be
inferred from casual observation, conversation with residents and
direct replies of employers; physical living conditions in particular
being observable in the conditions of streets and alleys, courtyards^
prevalence of gardens, and the surroundings in general.
Of the 213 different companies included in this investigation, 180,
or 84.5 per cent, reported as to results obtained. Considering the
180 who replied to the inquiry, 175, or 97.2 per cent, reported the
results on the whole as satisfactory both to the employee and to the
company, while five companies, or 2.8 per cent of those reporting,
declared the results to be unsatisfactory, or at least not positively
satisfactory.
T a b l e 1 3 1 .—

R E SU LT S OF E M PL O Y ER S’ HOUSING IN TH E U N IT E D STA TES, B Y
IN D U S T R Y .
Companies the result of
whose housing work
was—

Result of housing work
reported as—
Total.

J. Ultti.

Industry.

Reported.

Doubtful
or unsatis­
factory.

N ot
reported.

Satisfac­
tory.

N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Bituminous-coal m ining___
Anthracdte-coal mining.......
Iron m ining..........................
Copper m i n i n g ...........................
Otner copper and gold
m in i n g .........................................

Iron and steel and allied
industries..........................
Manufacture of explosives..
Textile m anufacture...........
Miscellaneous industries.. . .
Total...........................

58
12
11

90.6
50.0
84.6
100.0

6
12
2

9.4
50.0
15.4

83.3

1

16.7

25 89.3
2 100.0
48 88.9
14 82.4

3

10.7

6
3

11.1
17.6

33

15.5

5

5

180

84.5

64
24
13
5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2
1

3.4
8.3

1

20.0

6 100.0
28
2
54
17

56 96.6
11 91.7
11 100.0
4 80.0

58
12
11
5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5 100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1

2.1

213 100.0

5

2 .8

5

100.0

25 100.0
2 100.0
47 97.9
14 100.0

25
2
48
14

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.2

180

ioo.o

175

It may, then, be positively stated that employers are almost unani­
mous in the opinion that housing is a beneficial factor in their work.
As one or more favorable results were reported by each company, a
total of 348 replies were received. These replies have been somewhat
arbitrarily, but at the same time quite obviously, grouped under
different heads by a simple process of paraphrasing the exact replies
as given by the representatives of the different companies. The
replies might be further consolidated so as to produce even fewer




247

RESU LTS OF H O U SIN G .

heads, but this has not been done because it was desired to avoid
interpretation as much as possible in the classification of replies from
so many different sources. The list of replies here shown, therefore,
involves a minimum of classification and interpretation.
Arranged in the order of the frequency with which certain results
have been mentioned, we have the following for all industries com­
bined :
1. Secured better class of workm en........................................................
2. Find greater stability in the labor force............................................
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Secured necessary h elp .........................................................................
Reduced number of floaters.................................................................
Secured better living conditions.........................................................
Secured greater loyalty and cooperation from labor.............. .......
Have more contented labor force........................................................
Have more efficient labor force...........................................................
Better control of the labor situation...................................................
Raised standard of liv in g ......................................................................
Married men attracted...........................................................................
Greater regularity of em ploym ent......................................................
Men supplied better houses for less m oney......................................
Profitable to com pany...........................................................................
Very satisfactory.....................................................................................
Facilitated part tim e.............................................................................
Value in advertising...............................................................................
Control of drinking.................................................................................

75
47
43
42
32
24
24
19
9

8
6
5
4
3
3

2
1
1

Total......................... ............................................................................ 348

An examination of these replies shows with only a few exceptions
that the more general results were the more frequently stated, and
that as the results get more specific the less frequently were they
mentioned. This phenomenon is probably an indication that most
employers had not had the question as to the results of their housing
work raised to them before and were therefore relatively unprepared
to answer. The natural consequence would be that only a vague and
general reason would be given, while those who had given the matter
consideration would be prepared to give a specific reply. The more
specific replies are the more interesting and illuminating.
Some of the specific replies which were grouped under a general
heading may be noted. Among the nine replies obviously grouped
under “ Better control of the labor situation ” it was noted that com­
pany housing tends to decrease labor troubles and that it has made
it possible to keep out labor agitators. Under a system where only
company houses are available the employer is able to select the class
and type of workman he desires. This facility, however, is limited
by the existing state of the labor supply, and at the time this inves­
tigation was in progress there was, as some operators noted, a tend­
ency to engage almost anyone who offered himself as a workman,
because of a general shortage of help.




APPENDIX I.— LIST OF REFERENCES CONCERNING HOUSING
BY EMPLOYERS IN THE UNITED STATES.
GENERAL REFERENCES.
The Aladdin Co. Aladdin plan of industrial housing. 1918. 88 p. illus. plans.
Allen, L. H. Home building for wage earners; a financial and economic problem.
1920. 56 p. illus. plans.
This book is published b y Fred T. Ley & Co. (In c.), general contractors,
Springfield, Mass. The appendix consists of forms indicating the methods used
b y various employers in selling or renting to employees.
------ Industrial housing problems. 1917. 31 p. plates, plans.
Summarized in U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, Feb., 1918,
v. 6: 208-209. table.
Also appeared in—
Alpha Portland Cement Co. Alpha aids. no. 10, p. 2-4, 7. illus.
American builder, Jan., 1918, v. 24: 46-49, 130, 132; Feb., 1918, v. 24: 84-86,
186, 188, 190, 192; Mar., 1918, v. 24: 32-34, 130, 132, 134, 136. illus. plans.
Iron age, Bee. 27, 1917, v. 100: 1530-1533. plans.
Abridged in Engineering and contracting, Dec. 26, 1917, v. 48: 529-531.
------ Problem of industrial housing.
Industrial management, D ec., 1917, v. 54: 396-404. illus. plans.
Atterbury, Grosvenor. Model towns in America.
Scribner’s magazine, July, 1912, v. 52: 20-35. illus.
Illustrations of Hopedale, Mass.; Gary, Ind.; and Whitinsville, Mass.
Printed also as National housing association publication no. 17. 1913. [16 p.]
Bliss, W. D. P., ed. Encyclopedia of social reform. 1908. p. 578, 706, 773-775.
References include articles on Draper Co., N. O. Nelson Co., Ludlow Manu­
facturing Associates, and Model villages in the U. S.
Buffington, E. J. Making cities for workmen.
Harper’s weekly, May 8,1909, v. 53:15-17. illus.
Tells of company housing in Pullman, 111.; Vandergrift, Pa.; Ambridge, Pa.;
and Gary, Ind.
Cardullo, F. E. A study of safety and welfare work in manufacturing and selling
organizations.
Machinery, Nov., 1915, v. 22: 193-195.
Housing b y the Draper Co., Hopedale, Mass., and Ludlow Manufacturing
Associates, Ludlow, Mass.
Close, C. L. Housing of employees at industrial plants.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1913, v. 3: 63-67.
Discussion, p. 158-172.
Clough, A. F. Planning and financing the industrial housing project.
American architect, May 15, 1918, v. 113: 583-587; May 22, 1918, v. 113: 653-656.
Concrete for industrial housing—a review.
Concrete, Jan., 1918, v. 12: 30-31. illus.
Brief mention of use of concrete b y the following companies in housing opera­
tions: American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Gary, Ind.; American Steel & Wire Co.,
Donora, Pa.; Walpole Rubber Co., Walpole, Mass.; Ludlow Manufacturing
Associates, Ludlow, Mass.; U. S. Portland Cement Co., Denver, Colo.; Minnesota
248




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

249

Steel Co., Morgan Park, Minn.; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., Nanti­
coke, Pa.
Discusses: What has been done with concrete in building suitable industrial
houses wholesale.
Conzelman, J. E. Ready-made houses.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1917, v. 6: 81-88.
Cotter, A. Steel towns.
Moody, Nov., 1915, v. 18: 513-519. illus.
Short account of housing at Gary, In d., and at Morgan Park, Duluth, Minn.
Darlington, Thomas. The sanitary aspects of housing.
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 241-264.
Davison, R. L. The architecture of row houses for workingmen.
Architectural review, Jan., 1917, v. 5: 39-41. illus. plans.
Illustrations include some examples of company housing.
------ A check list of the principal housing developments in the United States.
Architectural,review, Apr., 1917, v. 5: 83-91. illus. plans.
Also in
Nolen, John. A good home for every wage earner. 1917. p. 14-23.
------ More houses for Bridgeport. 1916. p. 47-57.
The design of small houses for coal mining towns.
Engineering and mining journal, Dec. 11, 1909, v. 88: 1174. plans.
General plan and elevation of a three-room house designed for a coal camp.
Details and design of a six-room house for Colorado coal miners.
Draper, E. S. Mill village planning for Southern mills.
Textile world journal, Dec. 15, 1917, v. 53: 2489, 2491, 2493.
Ellis, A. R. Housing as a war problem.
American architect, Aug. 14, 1918, v. 114: 190-196. illus. plans.
Tells of foreign experience with government aid in housing and gives cost of
company housing in this country. Also reasons for company housing.
Ford, James. The housing problem; a summary of conditions and remedies prepared
to accompany the housing exhibit in May, 1911, of the Harvard Social museum.
1911. 39 p. (Publications of the Department of social ethics in Harvard university,
no. 5.)
“ A selected list of books and articles on housing and city planning” : p. 32-39.
------ Residential and industrial decentralization.
In Nolen, John, ed. City planning. 1916. p. 333-352.
Bibliography, p. 350-352.
French, W. K. In a typical mill town; how the congestion evil may be remedied.
Common cause, Apr., 1913, v. 3: 289-296.
Gilman, N. P. A dividend to labor; a study of employers’ welfare institutions.
1899. 400 p.
Bibliography, p. 389-392.
Going, C. B. Village communities of the factory, machine works, and mine.
Engineering magazine, Apr., 1901, v. 21: 59-74.
Mentions housing projects of Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co., Draper Co., Ludlow
Manufacturing Associates, N. O. Nelson Co., Peacedale Manufacturing Co.
Gordon-Van Tine Co., Davenport, Iowa. Housing labor; a book written b y business
men for business men and dealing with housing as a means for getting and holding
labor to meet today’s need for increased production. 1918. 39 p. illus. plans.
Gould, E. R. L. The housing of the working people.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of labor.
1895. p. 321-335. illus. plans, tables.




250

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E E S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Gives information concerning housing projects of the following concerns: How­
land Mills Corporation, Merrimac Manufacturing Co., Pullman Palace Car Co., S.
D. Warren & Co., and Wiilimantic Linen Co.
Groben, W. E„ M odem industrial housing. 1918. 24 p. illus. plans.
Describes housing operations of The North American Lace Company at South
Langhorne, Pa., and of The Viscose Co. at Marcus Hook, Pa.
Hamlin, W. A. Low-cost cottage construction in America; a study based on the
housing collection in the Harvard social museum. 1917. 30 p. illus. charts.
(Publications of the Department of social ethics, no. 7.)
Reviewed in U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, Mar., 1918,
v. 6: 205-206.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people in the United States b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1191-1243. illus.
plans.
Describes housing developments of the following companies: American Wal­
tham W atch Co., Waltham, Mass.; Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., Denver Colo.;
J. B. & J. M. Cornell Co., Cold Spring, N. Y .; The Draper Co., Hopedale, Mass.;
Ludlow Manufacturing Associates, Ludlow, Mass.; Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows
Point, M d.; N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Co., Leclaire, 111.; Niagara Develop­
ment Co., Niagara Falls, N . Y .; Peacedale Manufacturing Co., Peacedale, R . I.;
Pelzer Manufacturing Co., Pelzer, S. C.; Plymouth Cordage Co., North Plymouth,
Mass.; John B. Stetson Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; S. D. Warren & Co., Cumberland
Mills, Me.; Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Wilmerding, Pa.
Hoggson, N. F. Problem of industrial housing.
Bankers’ magazine, Feb., 1918, v. 96: 248-249.
Houses that make workmen want to stay.
Factory, Jan., 1917, v. 18: 40-41. illus.
Illustrations, with brief explanatory notes, of houses built for employees by
Cheney Silk Mills, Norton Co., Viscose Co., Bush Terminal, Goodyear Tire &
Rubber Co.
[Housing conditions in the iron and steel industry.]
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 225-240.
Housing of workmen.
American machinist, Nov. 29, 1917, v. 47: 937-938.
Tells when company housing is advisable.
Housing the working crew of a mining enterprise.
Mining science, May, 1915, v. 71: 44-46.
Housing their employees interests many concerns.
Square deal, Apr., 1914, v. 14: 243-244.
Cement houses for workmen have been constructed b y Philadelphia & Reading
Coal & Iron Co., at Pottsville, Pa.; Loyal Hanna Coal & Coke Co., at Johnstown,
Pa.; U. S. Steel Corporation at Pittsburgh, Pa., and Gary, Ind.; Ford Co.,*at
Detroit, Mich.
Huebner, A. F. Houses for mine villages.
Coal age, Oct. 27, 1917, v. 12: 717-720. illus. plans.
Ihlder, John. Better living conditions for employees and their relation to stability
in employment.
Annals of the American academy of political and social science, Jan., 1917, v. 69:
58-65.
------ Housing for wage-earners.
National municipal review, May, 1917, v. 6: 429.
Also in Survey, Feb. 24, 1917, v. 37: 595-597. illus. plans.




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

251

Industrial housing for employees.
Engineering and cement world, Feb. 15, 1918, v. 12: 32-33.
Shows advantages of concrete buildings. Describes various types of mono­
lithic houses and houses of precast units.
International housing congress. Reports.
Papers on company housing, published in these reports, will be found listed
in this bibliography.
Johnson, F. H. Homes for the workingman.
Common cause, Aug., 1913, v. 4: 100-102.
Explanation of how land may be purchased by a company, houses erected, and
sold on a monthly payment basis.
Kellor, F. A. The application of Americanization to housing.
Architectural review, Jan., 1917, v. 5: 1-2.
Believes company house is not the answer to the industrial housing problem.
Kenngott, G. F. The record of a city; a social survey of Lowell, Massachusetts.
1912. p. 45-63. illus. maps, plans.
Labor problem solved by housing.
Iron trade review, Dec. 27, 1917, v. 61: 1392-1393.
Lohmann, K. B. A new era for mining towns.
Coal age, Nov. 13, 1915, v. 8 : 799-800. plan.
On the application of scientific treatment to mining towns. B y a landscape
architect.
Lowell, Mass. Trades and labor council. Lowell, a city of spindles. [1900] p. 136,
189-190.
MacNeille, P. R. Housing workmen in plants which are located in isolated commu­
nities.
Realty, D ec., 1917, v. 4: 22-23, 31.
------ New ideas in industrial housing.
Town development, Sept., 1915, v. 16: 7-8; Oct., 1915, v. 16 : 57, 63.
------ Ways and means of providing workingmen’s houses.
American city, May, 1917, v. 16: 508-511. plans.
------What types of houses to build.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1916, v. 5: 67-79.
Advice to industrial concerns on housing workingmen.
Magnusson, Leifur. Company housing in anthracite region of Pennsylvania.
In U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly labor review, May, 1920, v. 10:
186-195. illus. tables.
------Company housing in the bituminous coal fields.
In U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly labor review, April, 1920, v. 10:
215-222. illus. tables.
------ Employers’ housing in the United States.
In U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, Nov., 1917, v. 5: 35-60.
illus. tables, plans.
Also reprinted as a separate: Housing by employers in the United States, 1917.
21 p. illus. tables, plans.
Read before the Sixth National Housing Conference, Chicago, Oct., 1917, and
printed in its proceedings with some changes, but without illustrations and tables,
p. 106-129; discussed p. 249-257.
Summarized or reviewed in the following publications: Manufacturers’ news,
Oct. 25, 1917, v. 12: 11- 12, 27. Realty, Feb., 1918, v. 6 : 26-29; Engineering
news-record, Nov. 15, 1917, v. 79 : 933.
------ Housing and the land problem.
In U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, May, 1918, v. 6 : 268-277.




252

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Magnusson, Leifer. Sanitary aspects of company housing.
In U .S . Bureau of labor statistics. M onthly labor review, Jan.,1919, v. 8 : 289-299.
------ Summary of report of investigation of company housing in the United States.
In U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, N ov., 1917, v. 5: 35-60.
illus. tables.
Also published separately.
Manning, W. H.
Step towards solving the industrial housing problem.
1910.
(American city pamphlet no. 131.)
May, C. C. Industrial housing; notes on the Sixth conference of the National hous­
ing association.
Architectural forum, N ov., 1917, v. 27: 129-132; D ec., 1917, v. 27: 147-150.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories and villages: Ideal conditions of labour and hous­
ing. 1905. 480 p. illus. plans.
Miller, G. H. Plan your town as carefully as you would your plant.
Coal age, July 20, 1918, v. 14: 130-132. plans.
Suggestions for mining-town planning.
Mitchell, John. Miners’ life and aims.
Cosmopolitan, Oct., 1901, v. 31: 622-630.
National housing conference. Proceedings.
Various papers on Company housing, which have been presented at the con­
ventions of the National housing conference, and appear in its proceedings, are
included in this bibliography.
Nolen, John. A good home for every wage-earner.
American civic association. Committee on country planning. [Bulletin] 2d
series, Apr., 1917. 23 p.
p. 14-23. List of low-cost housing developments. Based on R. L. Davison’s
list.
------ More houses for Bridgeport, report to the Chamber of Commerce, Bridgeport,
Conn. 1916. 62 p. illus. map.
Mr. Davison’s list of low-cost housing developments in the United States,
p. 47-57.
Illus., plans, details of house and lot—Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R.
Coal Co., Nanticoke, Pa.; Goodyear Heights Realty Co., Akron, Ohio; Mount
Union Refractories Co., Kistler, Pa.; Norton Grinding Co., Worcester, Mass.;
Scoville Manufacturing Co., Waterbury, Conn.
Operators cannot sell sites for homes.
Coal age, May 1, 1915, v. 7: 774-775.
Discusses question of whether it is a good thing for the miner to own his house.
Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce. E xhibit on housing conditions, at the Western
Pa. Exposition, Aug. 28-Oct. 19, 1912. [Pittsburgh, Chamber of Commerce, 1912]
22 p.
Portland cement association. Solving industrial housing problems with concrete.
1917. 18 p. illus. plans.
Illustrations of American Steel & Wire Co. development at Donora, P a .; Witlierbee-Sherman Mining Co. development at Mineville, N. Y .; and the Minnesota
Steel Co. development at Morgan Park, Minn.
Rindsfoos, C. S. Building frame houses for miners as a contract job.
Engineering news-record, Dec. 27, 1917, v. 79: 1191-1193. illus.
Field methods used. An average of 100 men were employed at each of three
sites and an average of two houses per day were constructed.
Roberts, Peter. The anthracite coal industry; a study of the economic conditions
and relations of the cooperative forces in the development of the anthracite coal
industry of Pennsylvania. 1901. 261 p.




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

253

Roberts, Peter. Mine employees at home.
In his Anthracite coal communities. 1904. p. 120-136.
Brief mention made of houses built b y Coxe Bros. & Co.; Cross Creek Coal Co.;
Delaware & Hudson; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R . R . ; Dodson Coal Co. ;
Erie Oo.; Hillside Coal & Iron C o.; Lehigh & Wilkesbarre C o.; Lehigh Coal &
Navigation Co.; Lytle Coal Co.; Markle Co.; Millcreek Coal Co.; Pa. R. R . Co.;
Philadelphia & Reading C o.; Susquehanna Coal C o.; and Van W ickle Estate.
Roy, Andrew. A history of the coal miners of the United States, from the develop­
ment of the mines to the close of the anthracite strike of 1902. 3d ed. rev. and enl.
[1907] 465 p.
Saposs, D. J. Self-government and freedom of action in isolated industrial commu­
nities. 1915. 52 p.
Typewritten manuscript from files of the U. S. Commission on industrial rela­
tions on file in U. S. Bureau of labor statistics.
Shuey, E. L. Factory people and their employers. 1900. 224 p. illus. (Hand­
book for practical workers in church and philanthropy; ed. b y S. M. Jackson.)
Shurick, A. T. Colliery dwelling construction.
Coal age, Oct. 21, 1911, v. 1 : 38-41; Nov. 25, 1911, v. 1 : 211-214. illus. plans.
Sociological conditions in W. Va., b y a West Virginia engineer.
Coal age, Nov. 23, 1912, v. 2 : 733-734.
Southern pine association. Homes for workmen; a presentation of leading examples
of industrial community development. [c1919.] 250 p. illus. plans.
The problems of industrial housing are considered b y various well-known
authorities. The housing projects of many companies are described in some
detail.
Steel and concrete mine houses.
Engineering and mining journal, June 5, 1915, v. 9: 987-988.
Description of process of steel and concrete construction.
The story of Pullman. [1893] 30 p.
#
Strike investigation, b y the committee of the Copper country commercial club of
Michigan, 1913. [1913] p. 12-30.
Contains table showing the number of houses owned by employees paying
ground rent to the company, the usual size of the lots, and the annual ground rent
charged b y the following companies: Ahmeek Mining Co., Allouez Mining Co.,
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., Centennial Copper Mining Co., Copper Range Con­
solidated Co., Franklin Mining Co., Hancock Consolidated Mining Co., Isle Royale
Copper Co., La Salle Copper Co., Laurium Mining Co., Mohawk Mining Co., Oneco
Copper Mining Co., Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Quincy Mining Co.,
Superior Copper Co., Tamarack Mining Co., Winona Copper Co., Wolverine
Copper Mining Co.
Tarbell, I. M. Good homes make good workers.
In her New ideals in business. 1916. p. 134-162.
Housing developments of the following companies are mentioned: Fairbanks
Morse Co., Frick Coke Co., Nelson Co., Norton Co.
Taylor, C. S. The industrial hope of America.
Realty, May, 1918, v. 3: 26-27. illus.
Illustrations of Standard Steel Car Co., Hammond, Ind., and Root & Vanderwoort Engineering Co.’s homes at East Moline, 111.’
------ Industrial housing as an investment.
Hoggson magazine, Mar., 1918, v. 4: 74-76. illus.
Emphasizes the fact that the kind of industrial housing that really pays is
investment in good homes, and that the community must be maintained after
the development has been built. Gives reasons why a well-housed working
force offers financial advantages to the manufacturer.




254

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Taylor, G. R. Satellite cities; a study of industrial suburbs. 1915. 333 p. illus.
(National municipal league series.)
Also in Survey, Oct. 5, 1912, v. 29:13-24; Nov. 2, 1912, v. 29:117-131 (Pullman);
Dec. 7, 1912, v. 29: 287-301 (Norwood & Oakley); Feb. 1, 1913, v. 29: 582-589
(St. Louis “ East S id e” ); Mar. 1, 1913, v. 29: 781-798 (Gary); June 7, 1913,
v. 30: 337-350.
Deals with the civic consequences of forcing factories to city limits ai*d beyond
and the opportunity in these outskirts for community development in accordance
with the new science of city planning. Various cities, such as Pullman, Granite
City, Gary, and Fairfield are discussed in detail. Jane Addams has a chapter on
the Pullman strike, and the final chapter describes a practical plan for the devel­
opment and maintenance of an efficient community.
Discussion of Satellite cities series of articles in Survey, June 7, 1913, v. 30:
350-354, 364.
------ and others. Smelting iron ore and civics.
Survey, Jan. 6, 1913, v. 27: 1451-1556. illus.
(Published as a separate b y the Russell Sage Foundation.)
Account of company housing conditions in Avondale, Ensley, and Fairfield,
Ala.
Tolman, W. H. Social engineering; a record of things done b y American industrial­
ists, employing upwards of one and one-half millions of people. 1909. 384 p. illus.
------ Workmen’s cities.
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1: 1074-1088.
Describes housing operations of the following companies: American Bridge Co.,
Apollo Iron & Steel Co., J. Bancroft & Sons, Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., Draper
Co., Gary Land Co., Maryland Steel Co., N. O. Nelson Co., Niagara Falls Power
Co., Plymouth Cordage Co., Postum Cereal Co., J. A. Roebling’s Sons Co., Sayre
& Fisher Co., John B. Stetson Co., Westinghouse Airbrakes Co.
Towson, C.^R. A needed supplement to industrial housing.
American architect, May 15, 1918, v. 113: 616-621; May 22, 1918, v. 113: 667-672.
illus. plans.
Part I tells how Y . M. C. A . proves of great value as a supplement to the housing
system in industrial communities where recreational, social, religious, and educa­
tional agencies are limited or wanting. Part II is called Specimen requirements
for a Y . M. C. A. building for community of from 200 to 500 families.
U. S. Bureau Of labor. Report on strike of textile workers in Lawrence, Mass., in
1912; prepared under the direction of Chas. P. Neill, commissioner of labor. 1912.
p. 143-162; 477-485.
-------------- Report on the miners’ strike in bituminous coal field in Westmoreland
County, Pa., in 1910-11. 1912. p. 202-216.
------ Bureau of labor statistics. Working conditions and the relations of employers
and employees.
In its Report on conditions of employment in the iron and steel industry in the
United States. 1913. v. 3: 415-445. tables.
Veiller, Lawrence. Industrial housing developments in America. Architectural
record, Mar., 1918, v. 43: 231-256; Apr., 1918, v. 43: 344-359; May, 1918, v. 43:
447-469. illus. plans.
Part I. E clipse Park, Beloit, Wis.
Part II. Governm ent’s standards for war housing.
Part III. A developm ent of group houses: Sawyer Park, Williamsport, Pa.
Walpole town planning committee. Town planning for small communities. 1917.
492 p. illus. plans.
Selected bibliographies at end of most of the chapters.




255

LIST OF REFERENCES.

White, J. H. Houses for mining towns. 1914. 64 p. (U. S. Bureau of mines. Bul­
letin no. 87.)
------Sanitation of mining towns.
Engineering and mining journal, July 12, 1913, v. 96: 73-74.
Whiting, R. S. Housing and industry. 1918. 24 p. illus. plans.
Tells of housing developments of these companies: Eclipse Homes Co., Fire­
stone Tire & Rubber Co., Norton Co.
Wilk, Benjamin. Planning a housing developm ent for an industrial plant.
Industrial management, Oct., 1918, v. 56 : 282-283. charts.
Suggestions for determining the housing needs of a community of workers and
for preparing to supply these needs.
Winslow, R. E. Workingman’s home from the workingman’s point of view.
House beautiful, Apr., 1918, v. 43: 265-266, 314. illus. plans.
Wood, E. E. The housing of th e unskilled wage earner. 1919. 321 p.
The subject of industrial housing b y employers is discussed on pp. 114-129.
There are brief descriptions of the housing accomplished b y the following com­
panies: Peacedale Manufacturing Co., Peacedale, R . I .; Pullman Co., Pullman,
111.; N. 0 . Nelson Co., Leclaire, 111.; Goodyear Heights Realty Co., Akron,
Ohio; Indian H ill Co., Worcester, Mass.; Draper Co., Hopedale, Mass.; J. A.
R oebling’s Sons Co., Roebling, N. J.; Mt. Union Refractories Co., Kistler, Pa.;
Viscose Co., Marcus Hook, Pa.; Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., Hauto & Nanticoke, Pa.; Morgan Park Co., Duluth, M inn.; Eclipse Home Makers, Inc., Beloit,
Wis.
Woodbridge, D. E. Sanitation at mining villages in the Birmingham district, Ala.
U. S. Bureau of mines. Technical paper, no. 33. 1913. 26 p. illus.
REFERENCES CLASSIFIED BY COM PANIES.
A cme C o al C o ., A c m e , W y o .:

Simmons, Jesse. The Acm e Co.’s plant in Wyoming.
Coal age, May 11, 1912, v. 1: 998-1001. plans.
A lp h a P o r t la n d C em en t C o ., M anh eim , W. V a .:
Alpha Portland Cement Co. Permanent homes being erected by Alpha Portland
Cement Co.
In its Alpha aids. no. 10, p. 9-11. illus. plan.
Houses b y the precast system. Types from five-room semibungalow
type to the cottage type of six rooms and bath.
A m erica n B r a k e S h o e

&

F o u n d r y Co., E r ie , P a .:

How Erie is solving the housing problem.
Iron age, May 30, 1918, v. 101: 1385-1389.

illus.

plan.

A m e r ic a n B r a s s C o ., W a t e r b u r y , C o n n .:

Nolen, John. Low cost houses for employees.
American industries, N ov., 1916, v. 17: 13-17. diagr.
A m e rica n R o l l i n g M i l l Co ., M id d le t o w n , O h io :
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, June-July, 1916, v. 4:
184-194, 207, 211. illus.
American Rolling M ill Co. Its 'publication Armco bulletin. See various issues.
American Rolling M ill Co.
Pamphlet published b y the company.
Cowgill, C. C. Discussion on industrial housing.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1916, v. 5: 249-250.
Danford, M. E. Housing of employees at industrial plants.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1913, v. 3: 162-165.
National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1912, v. 2 : 162-165.




256

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

& T in P l a t e Co .:
See CARNEGIE LAND CO., PITTSBU R GH , P A .; G A R Y LAND CO., G ARY ,
IN D .; Y A N D E R G R IF T LAN D & IM PROVEM ENT CO., VANDERGRI-FT,
PA.
A m erica n S h e e t S t e e l Co ., V a n d e r g r i f t , P a .:
American Sheet Steel Co. Vandergrift, its homes and industries.
Pamphlet, published b y the company.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 393-395.
A m erica n S t e e l & W i r e Co., D o n o r a , P a .:
Building 100 concrete houses as one job.
Alpha Portland Cement Co. Alpha aids. no. 10, p. 5-7. illus. plans.
“ Details taken largely from an article published in the Engineering newsrecord. ”
Dennison, L. G. Building one hundred concrete houses for workingmen.
Building age, Jan., 1918, v. 40: 19-21. illus. plans.
Standardized designs and steel forms used to facilitate the work. De­
tails of the operation.
Gilbert, C. D. Group of concrete houses for steel m ill employees.
Concrete, Jan., 1917, v. 10: 21-27. illus. diagrs. plans.
100 concrete dwellings bu ilt at Donora, Pa.
American builder, D ec., 1917, v.'24: 42-43, 156, 158. illus. plans.
Organization and methods used b y Aberthaw Construction Co. on hous­
ing project for American Steel & Wire Co.
Wilmer, S. G. Regular towns must be built to adequately house industrial
armies.
Manufacturers record, Feb. 21, 1918, v. 73: 68. illus.
See also CARNEGIE LAN D CO., M UNHALL, P A .; G A R Y LAND CO.,
G A R Y , IN D .; TENNESSEE LAND CO., F A IR F IE L D , ALA.
A m erica n V is c o s e Co., M a r c u s H o o k , P a .:
See VISCOSE CO., MARCUS HOOK, PA.
A m erica n W a lth a m W a tc h Co., W a lth a m , M a s s .:
American Waltham Watch Co.
Its pamphlet Workers together. 1916. p. 4, 30, 31, 32.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the Working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904. p. 1194-1198.
Waltham Watch Co., Waltham, Mass. {In Gilman, N. P. Dividend to labor.
1899. p. 207-208.)
A m o s k e a g M fg . Co., M a n c h e s t e r , N. H .:
Amoskeag Mfg. Co. Fibre and Fabric.
Pamphlet published b y the company.
A m erica n S h e e t

B a n c r o f t (Josep h)

&

S o n s .: W ilm in g to n , D e l .:

Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y J. Bancroft & Sons.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1:
1086-1087.
B e ld i n g B r o s . & Co., B e ld i n g , M ich .:
Calvert, B. T. Story of a silk m ill. 1914. 28 p.
B e th le h e m S t e e l Co .:
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 248-249.
Describes building project at South Bethlehem, Pa.
Bethlehem Steel Co. lm proyed housing at Sparrows Point, Md,
Pamphlet published b y the company.




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

257

B e t h le h e m S t e e l C o .— Concluded.

Em ployees’ houses.
American iron .and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1:
260-261. illus.
Illustrations of houses at Sparrows Point, Md., with brief descriptive
notes.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people by employers.
Jn U . S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1214-1215. illus.
plans.
A t Sparrows Point, Md.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 395-396.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the Maryland Steel Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1:10851086.
B ir d

&

S on , E a s t W a l p o l e , M a s s .:

W alpole town planning committee. Town planning for small communities.
1917. 492 p. illus. plans.
B r ig h t o n M i l l s Co., P a s s a ic , N. J.:
Warner, R . F. All wood; an American “ garden village” near Passaic, N. J.
Architectural review, Feb., 1918, v. 6 : 21-24. illus. £lans.
B u c k e y e L a n d Co., Y o u n g s t o w n , O h io :
Community planning for peace-time industries.
American architect, May 15, 1918, v. 113: 635-638. illus. plan, table.
Whipple, Harvey. 146 unit-built concrete dwellings at Youngstown.
Concrete, Jan., 1918, v. 12: 5-9. illus. plans.
------ Unit-built concrete dwellings at Youngstown, Ohio.
Coal age, May 11, 1918, v. 13: 862-865. illus. plans.
C a lu m e t & H e c l a M in in g Co., C a lu m e t, M ic h .:
Engineering and mining journal, Sept. 26, 1914, v. 98: 576.
Rice, C. T. Labor conditions at Calumet & Hecla.
Engineering and mining journal, Dec. 23, 1911, v. 92: 1235-1239. illus.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Michigan copper district strike. Bulletin,
no. 139, pp. 113-122.
C a r n e g ie L a n d Co., P it t s b u r g h , P a .:
Byington, M. F. Homestead; the households of a mill town. 1909. 292 p.
illus.
In Pittsburgh survey.
Crowell, F. E. Painter’s R ow ; the company house.
In Pittsburgh survey: The Pittsburgh district, civic frontage, p. 130-136.
illus.
Also appeared in Charities, Feb. 6, 1909, v. 21: 899-910.
Holdsworth, J. T. Report of the econom ic survey of Pittsburgh. 1912. p.
50-55.
C a r n e g ie S t e e l Co., P it t s b u r g h , P a .:
See CARN EGIE LAN D CO., PITTSB U R G H , PA.
C e n t r a l I l l i n o i s P u b lic S e r v ic e Co., K in c a id , I I I .:
Building an industrial town [K incaid] in Illinois.
Engineering news, Jan. 8, 1914, v. 71: 89-90. plan.
Model mining town of Kincaid, 111.
Engineering record, Dec. 6, 1913, v. 68: 639-640. map.
C h e n e y B r o s . S il k M il l s , S o u t h M a n c h e s t e r , C o n n . :

Howland, Edward. An industrial experiment at South Manchester.
Harper’s magazine, Nov., 1872, v. 45 : 836-844. illus.
125882°— 20— B u ll. 263-------17




258

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO Y E E S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

Clapp (E. H .) R u b b e r C o ., H a n o v e r , M a s s .:

Architectural review, Apr., 1917, v. 5: x x v ii-x x x .
Two illustrations of houses built for this company.

.

C l e a r f i e l d B itu m in o u s C o a l C o r p o r a tio n , C l e a r f i e l d , P a .:

Ashmead, D. C. Recent dwelling construction in Pennsylvania.
Coal age, Apr. 20, 1918, v. 13: 726-731. illus. plans.
C l e v e la n d -C l i f f s I r o n Co ., Ish pem in g, M ic h .:
Manning, W . H . Villages for workingmen and workingmen’s homes.
In 2d National conference on city planning. Proceedings, 1910, p. 99-103.
Also appeared in Western architect, Aug., 1910, v. 16: 84-88. illus. plans.
Shows how city slum conditions may be im proved b y constructing manufac­
turing villages. Many useful details. The example used is Gwinn, Mich.
Shuey, E. L. Factory people. 1900. p. 156-158.
Coal R u n M in in g Co ., Coal R u n , P a .:
Ashmead, D. C. New plant and mines of the Coal Run Mining Company
Coal age, Apr. 6, 1918, v. 13: 616-620. illus.
------ Recent dwelling construction in Pennsylvania.
Coal age, Apr. 20, 1918, v. 13: 726-731. illus. plans.
C o a l V a l l e y M in in g Co ., M a t h e r v i l l e , I I I .:
Coal Valley Mining Co.’s village.
Coal age, June 14, 1913, v. 3: 934. illus. plan.
C o lo r a d o F u e l & I r o n Co .:
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. Its publication, Camp and plant, Apr. 9, 1904, v. 5,
no. 13.
This is a housing number.
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. mining villages.
Coal age, Oct. 23, 1915, v. 8 : 681-682. illus.
Housing of miners at Lime, Frederick, and Segundo, Colo.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1198-1206. illus.
Industrial democracy in the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company.
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Aug., 1916, v. 4: 216223, 225, 242.
Meakin* Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 389-390.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1: 10811082.
------ Social engineering. 1909. p. 246-247.
U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1198-1206.
W orld’ s work, Mar., 1905, v. 9: 5944-5945.
C olu m bia S t e e l Co ., P it t s b u r g , C a lif .
The West’s largest steel foundry.
Pacific marine review, June, 1918, v. 15: 108-111.
C o n n e c tic u t M i l l s Co ., D a n i e ls o n , C o n n .:
Caldwell, R . J. The village beautiful; why good housing for m ill operatives pays.
Realty, Feb., 1918, v. 6: 4-5. illus.
Connecticut Mills Company. Take your choice: home or hovel, n. d. [ 10] p.
illus. plans.
------ The village beautiful for m ill operatives; it pays and why. n. d. [14] p.
illus. plans.
Cottage no. 18.
American architect, June 5,1918, v. 113: 767.
No text; illustration of exterior, with plans of first and second floor.




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C o n n e c tic u t M i l l s Co., D a n ie ls o n , C o n n . — Concluded.

Cox, W. H. Housing developm ent at Danielson, Conn.
American architect, May 22,1918, v. 113: 677-685. illus. plans.
Stuart, J. D. Making the operative more efficient.
Textile world journal, Nov. 3,1917, v. 53: 1865,1867,1869. illus.

plans.

C o n s o lid a tio n C o a l C o ., J e n k in s , K y .:

The Consolidation Company in K entucky.
Coal age, Sept. 28, 1912, v. 2 : 428-429. illus.
Copper R a n g e C o .:
Labor conditions at Copper Range.
Engineering and mining journal, D ec. 28, 1912, v. 94: 1229-1232. plans.
C o r n e l l (J. B. & J. N .) C o ., C o ld S p rin g, N. Y .:
Hanger, G W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
r.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1206-1207. illus.
plan.
Nolen, John. More houses for Bridgeport; report to Chamber of Commerce. 1916.
p. 49.
C r u c ib le S t e e l Co. op A m e r ic a , P it t s b u r g h , P a .:
R ice, W. C. Midland: a new town.
Survey, Dec. 12, 1914, v. 33: 296-297. illus.
Midland was developed b y Midland Improvement Company, a subsidiary
of the Crucible Steel Company of America.
Forms Part II of Community contrasts in housing mill-workers.
Square deal, Apr., 1914, v. 14: 243-244.
D a n R i v e r C otton M il l s , S c h o o l f ie l d , V a .:

See R IV E R S ID E & DAN R IV E R COTTON M ILLS, SCHOOLFIELD, VA.
D e la w a r e , L ack aw an n a & W e s t e r n R . R .:
Architectural review, May, 1916, v. 4: 79-80.
Build model concrete village for coal miners; work being done at Truesdale mines
an example in sanitary housing of operatives.
Concrete, Feb., 1912, v. 12: 40, 66-67. illus. plans.
Concrete poured houses.
Scientific American supplement, Apr. 27, 1912, v. 73: 260. illus. plans.
About Nanticoke, Pa.
Concrete city: town for Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Company mine work­
ers.
Colliery engineer, N ov., 1914, v. 35: 201- 202. illus.
Concrete homes for mine workers.
Concrete-cement age, Apr., 1913, v. 2 : 173-174. illus. plan.
About Nanticoke, Pa.
Concrete houses at Lackawanna mine.
Coal age, May 31, 1913, v. 3: 851-854. illus. plans.
Davison, R. L. Problem of low-cost housing.
Architectural review, May, 1916, v. 4: 79-80.
Nolen, John. More houses for Bridgeport; report to Chamber of Commerce, 1916.
p. 36, 52. illus.
D o d s o n C o a l C o .:

Modernizing Morea.
Coal age, Aug. 21,1915, v. 8 : 305-306.

illus.

D r a p e r C o ., H o p e d a l e , M a s s .:

Brown, F. C. Workmen’s housing at Hopedale, Mass.
Architectural review, Apr., 1916, v. 4: 64-67.
Engineering magazine, Apr., 1901, v . 21: 63, 71. illus.




260

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

D r a p e r Co ., H o p e d a l e , M a s s .— Concluded.

Hanger, G . W . W . Housing of the working people by employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1207-1209. illus.
plans.
International housing congress, 10th, The Hague, 1913. Rapports, pte. 3: 127-129.
Jones, E. D. Administration of industrial enterprises. 1916. p. 306-307.
Living conditions of Draper employees in Hopedale.
Published b y the Republican Club of Massachusetts.
Machinery, N ov., 1915, v. 22: 194, 201. illus.
Massachusetts Bureau of statistics of labor. 37th annual report. 1906. p. 523-524.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 404-409.
Shad well, Arthur. Industrial efficiency, v. 2 : 182-183.
Smith, P. R. Instance of practical and esthetic industrial housing.
American city (Town and county ed.), Dec., 1915, v. 13: 474-476. illus.
plans.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing at Hopedale, Mass.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1: 10741076.
------ Industrial betterment. [1900] p. 74-75.
------ Social engineering. 1909. p. 234-236.
D u P o n t d e N e m o u rs P o w d e r Co., W ilm in g to n , D e l .:
Ihlder, John. Hopewell [Va.], a city eighteen months old.
Survey, Dec. 2, 1916, v. 37: 226-230.
Potter, Zenas L. War boom towns: Penn’s Grove. Survey, Feb., 1915, pp.
539-546, 563-566.
E clipse H om e M a k e r s ( I n c .), B e l o it , W i s .:

Eclipse Park; preliminary information and general description of houses with
terms of sale. n. d. 19 p. illus. plan.
Tar bell, I. M. Good homes make good workers.
In her New ideals in business. 1916. p. 135-136.
Veiller, Lawrence. Industrial housing developments in America.
Architectural record, Mar., 1918, v. 43: 231-256. illus. plans.
Also 'published by the National housing association as Publication no. 46.
1918. [26] p.
Warner, R. F. A wage-earners’ community development at Beloit, Wisconsin.
American architect, May 22, 1918, v. 113: 657-666. illus. plans.
Whiting, R. S. Housing and industry. 1918. p. 12-15. illus. plans.
E r ie F o r g e Co.:
How Erie is solving the housing problem.
Iron age, May 30, 1918, v. 101: 1385-1389. illus. plan.
F a ir b a n k s M o r s e Co, B e l o i t , W is .:
See ECLIPSE HOME M AK ERS, INC., BE LO IT , WIS.
F e d e r a l C o a l & C o k e Co., G r a n t T o w n , W. V a :
Herstine, A. W. Welfare work at Grant Town, W. Va.
Colliery engineer, July, 1914, v. 34: 724-725.
F ir e s t o n e T ir e & R u b b e r Co ., A k r o n , O hio:
Whiting, R. S. Housing and industry. 1918. p. 4-7. illus. plans.
Includes a plan of Firestone Park, and a four-page panoramic view of this ^
town, where 725 frame houses were built in 12 months.
F r ic k (H . C.), Coke Co., P itts b u r g h , P a .:
Better living conditions for coke workers; improved relations between the
H. C. Frick Coke Co. and its employees. Iron age, Jan. 7, 1915, v. 95: 48-49.




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

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F r ic k (H . C.), C o k e Co., P it t s b u r g h , P a . — Concluded.

Housing the employee; pictures.
System, Oct., 1914, v. 26: 433-435.
Illustrations only.
International housing congress, 10th, The Hague, 1913. Rapports, pte. 3: 133-135.
Iron age, Jan. 7, 1915, v. 95: 48-49.
Tar bell, I. M. Good homes make good workers.
In her New ideals in business. 1916. p. 137-144.
G a r y L a n d C o ., G a r y , I n d .:

American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 233-234.
Illustrations, with some description.
Burton, C. P. Gary—a creation.
Independent, Feb. 16, 1911, v. 70: 337-345. illus.
Flower, Elliott. Gary, the magic city.
Putnam’s magazine, Mar., 1909, v. 5: 643-653.
Fuller, H. B. An industrial Utopia; building Gary, Ind., to order.
Harper’s weekly, Oct. 12, 1907, v. 51: 1482-1483, 1495. illus.
Gary Land Co., Gary, Ind. The Indiana Steel Co.
Pamphlet issued b y the company.
Gary—the new steel city.
Bankers magazine, Nov., 1909, v. 79: 744-748. illus.
Goodnow, M. N. Concrete houses versus tenements: model dwellings for work­
ingmen.
Scientific American, Oct. 19, 1912, v. 107: 324-325. illus.
Built b y the American Sheet & Tinplate Co. and the U. S. Steel Corpora­
tion.
Harding, W. M. Civic interest in workmen’s houses.
American builder, June, 1918, v. 25: 21-24. illus. plans.
Harper’s weekly, Oct. 12, 1907, v. 51: 1482-1483, 1495.
Houses of practically all concrete built satisfactorily at Gary.
Concrete, Jan., 1912, v. 12: 35-36, 72. illus.
Housing the employee; pictures.
System, Oct., 1914, v. 26: 433-435.
Illustrations only.
Independent, Feb. 16, 1911, v. 7: 337-345. illus.
Moore, W. H. “ If I had know n” about Gary in 1909. [c1909] 118 p. illus.
map.
The municipal works of Gary, Ind.
Engineering record, July 20, 1907, v. 56: 60-63. illus.
Survey, Mar. 1, 1913, v. 29: 785-788; Apr. 3, 1909, v. 22: 20-26.
Taylor, G. R. Creating the newest steel city.
Survey, Apr. 3, 1909, v. 22: 20-36.
An abridgment of this article appears in Moore, W. H. “ If I had know n”
about Gary in 1909. [c1909] p. 39 ff.
------ Satellite cities. 1915. p. 165-230.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing at Gary, Ind.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1:
1077-1078.
G e n e r a l E lectric C o ., E r i e , P a .:

See LAW RENCE P A R K R E A L T Y CO., E R IE , PA.
G o o d ric h (B. F .) C o ., A k r o n , O h io :

Its periodical The circle, Aug., 1916, p. 6.
Tells of work of the Housing department.




262

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

G o o d y e a r H e ig h t s R e a l t y Co ., A k r o n , O h io :

American city, Apr., 1915, v. 12: 321-325.
Automobile, June 26, 1913, v. 28: 1319.
Frankel, L. K. How insurance companies can help housing. [1913] 6 p.
tables.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. Goodyear Heights. 1913. 25 p.
Preliminary information regarding houses to be built b y the Goodyear
Tire & Rubber Co. for sale to employees of the company and general descrip­
tion of houses with terms of sale.
--------------Goodyear Heights, 2d development. 1917. 26 p. illus. tables.
plans, maps.
Preliminary information and general description of houses with terms of
sale.
------ Specifications for houses, [n. d.] 24 p.
------ Its periodical The wingfoot clan.
See various issues.
Hey wood, Johnson. One way to build labor good w ill; housing plans that you
can use.
Factory, Jan., 1918, v. 20 : 42-44. illus.
Johnson, C. R. Housing of employees at industrial plants.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1913, v. 3: 158-162.
Manning, W. H. A step toward solving the industrial housing problem.
American city, Apr., 1915, v. 12: 321-325.
Methods adopted for heating Goodyear Heights, Akron, 0 .
Metal worker, June 30, 1916, v. 85: 881-882; July 21, 1916, v. 86: 69-70.
illus. plans.
National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1913, v. 3: 158-162.
Nolen, John. More houses for Bridgeport; report to Chamber of Commerce, 1916.
p. 29, 47. illus.
Sinsheimer, A. Goodyear builds city for its workers.
Automobile and automotive industries, Mar. 1, 1917, v. 36: 478-481. illus.
plan.
Taylor, G. R. Satellite cities. 1915. p. 278-279.
Warner, R. F. Goodyear Heights; a garden suburb for wage-earners at Akron,
Ohio.
Architectural review, Mar., 1918, v. 6: 41-44. illus. plans.
G o o d y e a r T ir e

&

R u b b e r C o ., A k r o n , O h io :

See G O O D YEAR HEIG H TS R E A L T Y CO., A K RO N , OHIO.
H e r s h e y C h o c o la t e C o ., H e r s h e y , P a .:
Hershey—the chocolate town. n. d. p. 6, 7.
Pamphlet issued b y the company.
H o w l a n d M ills Co r p o r a t io n , N e w B e d f o r d , M a s s .:

Gould, E. R. L. The housing of the working people.
In IT. S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of
labor. 1895. p. 325-327. illus. plan, table.
I llin o is M id l a n d C o a l C o ., C h ic a g o , I I I .:

See M IDLAND COUNTIES COAL CO., CHICAGO, ILL.
I llin o is S t e e l C o ., G a r y , I n d .:

See G A R Y LAND CO., G A R Y , IND.
I n d ia n H ill C o ., W o r c e s t e r , M a s s .:

Freeland, W. E. New housing development at Worcester.
Iron age, May 18, 1916, v. 97: 1187-1190. illus. plans.
Norton Co.’s plan, under which its employees may own houses in an
unusual environment. Group of 30 to be built annually.




263

L IS T OF REFERENCES.
In d ia n H i l l Co ., W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . — Concluded.

Housing plans of the Norton companies; community development plan affords
employees easy method to purchase homes.
The review, Aug., 1916, v. 13: 353-365.
May, C. C. Indian H ill: an industrial village. 1917. 18 p. illus. tables,
plans.
Also 'published in Architectural record, Jan., 1917, v. 41: 21-35. illus.
Nolen, John. More houses for Bridgeport; report to Chamber of Commerce.
1916. p. 30, 31. illus.
Norton Co., Worcester, Mass. Indian Hill—an ideal village, n. d. [11] p.
illus. plans.
Its periodical The Norton spirit.
See various issues.
Tarbell, I. M. Good homes make good workers.
In her New ideals in business. 1916. p. 155-159.
Whiting, R. S. Housing and industry. 1918. p. 9-11. illus. plans.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ship B u ild in g Co ., P a s c a g o u la , M iss.:
Gulf Coast shipyard solves housing problem.
International marine engineering, Mar., 1918, v. 23: 129-130. illus.
J e f f e r s o n & C l e a r f i e l d C o a l & I r o n C o., E r n e s t , P a .:
Harris, G. W. The Ernest plant.
Mines and minerals, May, 1904, v. 24: 465-473. illus. plans.
Jo n es

&

L a u g h lin S t e e l C o., W o o d la w n , P a .:

American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 225-228.
Pittsburgh. Chamber of Commerce. E xhibit on housing conditions at Western
Pennsylvania exposition. 1912. p. 20- 22.
K a u l L u m b e r Co ., K a u l t o n , A l a .:
A model industrial village.
Coal age, Aug. 18, 1917, v. 12: 288. illus. plans.
K im b e r ly

&

C la r k P a p e r M i ll s , K im b e r ly , W is .:

Dodge idea, Apr., 1915, v. 31: 146-147; D ec., 1915, v. 31: 466.
Kimberly Clark Paper Mills. Kim berly—a village with a future. 1913-1914.
1914-1915. 32 p.
L a c k a w a n n a S t e e l C o ., B u f f a l o , N. Y .:
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 243-245.
Survey, Oct. 7, 1911, v. 27: 929-945.
L a w r e n c e P a r k R e a l t y C o ., E r ie , P a .:

H ow Erie is solving the housing problem.
Iron age, May 30, 1918, v. 101: 1385-1389.
L e h ig h

&

illus.

plan.

W i l k e s -B a r r e C o a l C o ., W i l k e s -B a r r e , P a .:

Parker, E. W. Workmen’s houses in the anthracite regions.
In National conference on housing. Proceedings, 1916, v. 5: 54-66.
Poggi, E. H. Housing developments at Lee Park and Wanamie.
Coal age, Dec. 8, 1917, v. 12: 962-965. illus. plans.
Forty double houses miners built at each of the above towns in Pa.
L e h ig h C o a l & N a v ig a tio n C o ., L a n s f o r d a n d H a u t o , P a .:
Kellogg, E. L. Dwelling houses at the L. C. & N. Co.’s new Hauto plant.
Coal age, Mar. 28, 1914, v. 5: 521-522. illus.
Bungalows, five-room and six-room houses built of hollow tile.
------ Improved housing in a mining town.
American city (Town and county ed.), Feb., 1915, v. 12: 165,167,169. illus.
plans.
The town is Hauto. A schedule of cost and rentals of houses for work­
ingmen is included.




264

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

L e h ig h Co a l & N a v ig a t io n Co ., L a n s f o r d a n d H a u t o , P a .— Concluded.

Model village and a new building material.
Craftsman, June, 1914, v. 26: 349-351. illus.
[New type of miners’ homes that are rapidly replacing frame structures.]
Coal age, Jan. 22, 1916, v. 9: 167. illus.
Illustrations of new dwellings. No text.
Also an illustration of old types of miners’ homes that are rapidly disap­
pearing.
Suender, E. H. Welfare for mine workers.
Coal age, Dec. 6, 1913, v. 4: 862-865. illus.
$300,000 spent on new houses in five years. Includes clubhouse for single
men.
Warriner, J. B. Precast and field-cast concrete houses built at Lansford, Pa.
Coal age, Feb. 2, 1918, v. 13: 228-230. illus. diagrs. plans.
Describes process of erecting houses by Simpson-craft construction method,
Wilmer, S. G. Regular towns must be built to adequately house industrial
armies.
Manufacturers’ record, Feb. 21, 1918, v. 73: 66- 68. illus.
Wood, concrete, and masonry dwellings were built, according to the need.
Gives many details of constructing concrete houses.
L e h ig h V a l l e y C o a l C o ., L ib e r t y B l d g ., P h il a d e l p h ia , P a .:

Roberts, Peter.

Anthracite coal industry.

1901.

p. 132-133.

L e h ig h V a l l e y R a il r o a d Co.:

Railway review, Mar. 18, 1916, v. 58: 389-391.
L ocust M o u n t a in C o a l C o ., S h e n a n d o a h , P a .:

Model anthracite village.
Coal age, Sept. 11, 1915, v. 8 : 429-430.
Young, C. M. Locust Mountain village.
Coal age, Feb. 26, 1916, v. 9: 383-384. illus.
L u d l o w M f g . A s s o c ia t e s , L u d l o w , M a s s .:

Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people by employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1209-1213.
illus. plans.
Ludlow Mfg. Co. Showing where Ludlow goods are made.
Pamphlet b y the company.
Machinery, N ov., 1915, v. 22: 193-194.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 401-404.
National civic federation. Conference on welfare work. 1904. p. 62-67.
Titus, E. K. Instructive factory village.
W orld’s work, Jan., 1905, v. 9: 5752-5754.
Tolman, W. H. Industrial betterment. [1900] p. 51-53, 54.
------ Social engineering. 1909. p. 236-238.
L u k e n s I r o n & S t e e l C o ., C o a t e s v i l l e , P a .:
Coatesville’s holy experiment.
Literary digest, Feb. 7, 1914, v. 48: 262-263.
L u n d a l e C oal C o ., L u n d a l e , W. V a .:
Beddow, W. W. Plant of the Lundale Coal Co., Lundale, W. Va.
Coal age, Sept. 22, 1917, v. 12: 482-484. illus.
M a in I s l a n d C r e e k C o al C o ., Ch a r l e s T o w n , W. V a .:
Jones, W. T. Main Island Creek Coal Co.’s plant at Omar, W. Va.
Coal age, Oct. 21, 1916, v. 10: 682-683. illus.
Nearly 500 houses were completed at time of writing.




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M a r k l e (G. B .) C o ., J e d d o , P a . :

Young, C. M. Making a coal town livable.
Coal age, May 13, 1916, v. 9: 851-852. illus.
M a r y l a n d St e e l Co., Sp a r r o w s P o in t , M d .:
See BETHLEHEM STEEL CO.
M e r c h a n t s ’ S h ip b u il d in g C o r p o r a t io n , B r is t o l , Pa.:
Taylor, C. S. Bristol, America’s greatest single industrial housing development.
American architect, May 15, 1918, v. 113: 599-615. illus. plans.
M e r r im a ck M f g . Co., L o w e l l , M a s s .:
Gould, E. R. L. The housing of the working people.
In U.S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of labor.
1895. p. 333-335. plans.
M ich el in T ir e Co., M il l t o w n , N. J.:
Housing employees of the Michelin Tire Company.
American builder, June, 1918, v. 25: 25. illus. plan.
In the summer of 1916, 53 houses were built for this firm in 56 working
days, at a cost of $1,125 each.
M id l a n d C o u n t ie s C o al C o ., Ch ic a g o , III.:
Peltier, M. F. A modern coal mine.
Engineering and mining journal, Dec. 29, 1906, v. 82: 1212-1215.
M id l a n d I m p r o v e m e n t Co., M id l a n d , Pa.:
Rice, W. C. Midland: a forerunner of modern housing development for indus­
trial sections.
Survey, Dec. 12, 1914, v. 33: 295-297. illur, plan.
Also to be found in Wage-earning Pittsburgh. 1914. p. 410-413. (Pitts­
burgh survey.)
Spahr, A. H. The town of Midland, Pa.
Architectural review, Mar., 1916, v. 4: 33-36.
Wright, J. E. An industrial town that’s fit to live in.
American city (Town and county ed.), Nov., 1915, v. 13: 388-390.
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See M IDLAND IM PROVEM ENT CO., M IDLAND, PA.
M in n e s o t a S t e e l Co., D u l u t h , M i n n .:
See MORGAN P A R K CO., DULUTH, MINN.
M o r g a n P a r k C o ., D u l u t h , M i n n .:

American city, Feb., 1916, v. 14: 150-153. illus. plan.
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, N ov.-D ee., 1916, v. 4:
341-347. illus.
Illustrated world, Apr., 1916, v. 25: 181-184.
McCarthy, G. D. Morgan Park—a new type of industrial community.
American city, Feb., 1916, v. 14: 150-153. illus. plan.
Mackintosh, C. H. Morgan Park: a model village: the story of the steel corpo­
ration’s efforts to improve industrial efficiency b y improving the environment
of their industry at Duluth.
Minnesota, Nov., 1916, v. 2 : 25-27.
Magnusson, Leifur. A modern industrial suburb.
U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly review, Apr., 1918, v. 6 : 729-753.
illus. plans.
Also published separately.
Metal worker, May 5, 1916, v. 85: 606-609. illus. diagrs. plans.




266

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

M o r g a n P a r k C o ., D u l u t h , M i n n . — Concluded.

Minnesota Steel Co.’s model town near Duluth, Minn., where 170 concrete houses
for employees at the near-by steel works are ready for occupancy.
Engineering and mining journal, Mar. 7, 1914, v. 97: 528-529.
Illustration only; no text.
Model city near steel plant—Morgan Park.
Iron trade review, Sept. 30, 1915, v. 57: 647-649. illus. plan.
Morgan Park—a beautiful steel-mill town.
Iron age, Jan. 6, 1916, v. 97: 48-52. illus. plans, map.
Morgan Park, Minn.
American architect, June 5, 1918, v. 113: 743-758, 761. illus. plans.
Sawhill, R. V. Model city near steel plant; Morgan Park.
Iron trade review, Sept. 30, 1915, v. 57: 647-649. illus. plan.
Stowell, C. R. Industrial city of the steel workers of Duluth.
Realty, Mar., 1918, v. 4: 27-28.
Warm air heating in a northern city; Morgan Park, Minn.
Metal work, May 5, 1916, v. 85: 606-609. illus. diagrs. plans.
M t . U n io n R efr a c to r ie s C o ., K is t l e r a n d M o u n t U n io n , P a .:

Model factory town is planned in Pennsylvania.
Christian Science monitor, May 24, 1916, p. 13.
Nolen, John. More houses for Bridgeport; report to Chamber of Commerce, 1916.
p. 35, 51. illus.
M u n r o e C o a l C o ., R e v l o c , P a .:

New mining town of R evloc, Penn.
Coal age, Sept. 29, 1917, v. 12: 529-530.
N a t io n a l Ca s h R e g is t e r C o ., D a y t o n , O h i o :

Tolman, W. H. Industrial betterment.
economics, no. 16.)

[1900] p. 43-45.

(Monograph on social

N a t io n a l T u b e C o ., L o r a in , O h i o :

American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, N ov.-D ee., 1916, v. 4:
302-307. illus.
Manufacturers’ news, Mar. 8, 1917, v. 11: 8-9.
N elso n (N. O.) C o ., L e c l a ir e , II I .:
Bartlett, D. W. Better city. 1907. p. 194-197.
Eads, G. W. N. O. Nelson, practical cooperator, and the great work he is accom­
plishing for human upliftment.
Arena, Nov., 1906, v. 36: 463-477. illus.
Also builds homes for employees of his factory in Bessemer, Ala.
Engineering magazine, Apr., 1901, v. 21: 65, 72-73. illus.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1215-1218.
illus. plans.
Independent, Feb. 21, 1901, v. 53: 423-424.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 382-385.
Nelson, N. O. Experiments in cooperation.
Independent, May 27, 1909, v. 66: 1136-1137.
Describes cooperative tenants’ association.
------ Leclaire—an existing city of the future.
Independent, Jan. 19, 1914, v. 77: 100.
N. O. Nelson Mfg. Co.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1215-1218, illus.
------ Pamphlet published b y the company.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the N. O. Nelson Company.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1:1080-1081.




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

267

N e l s o n (N. O.), Co ., L e c l a ir e , I I I .— Concluded.

Tolman, W. H.

Social engineering.

1909.

p. 243-244.

N estl ^ F ood C o ., F u l t o n , N . Y .:

Stone & Leeming, Architects. Low priced and artistic homes.
Social service, Apr., 1903, v. 7: 82-85. illus.
N e w Je r s e y Z in c C o ., P a l m e r t o n , P a .:

See PALM ER LAND CO., PALM ERTON, PA.
New Y o r k S h ip b u il d in g C o r p o r a t io n , Ca m d e n , N. J.:
Housing development for New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, N. J.
American architect, June 5, 1918, v. 113. plan, plates.
No text. Not paged; opp. p. 764 and ff.
May, C. C. Yorkship village.
Architectural forum, June, 1918, v. 28: 205-210. illus. plans.
N e w h o u s e M in es & S m e lt e r s Co.:
Tolman, W. H. Social engineering. 1909. p. 247-248.
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t Co., N ia g a r a F a l l s , N . Y .:
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1218-1220, plans.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the Niagara Development Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1:1084-1085.
N ia g a r a F alls P o w e r Co., N ia g a r a F a l l s , N. Y .:
See N IA G A R A DEVELOPM ENT CO., N IA G A R A FALLS, N. Y .
N o rto n Co., W o r c e s t e r , M a s s .:
SeemIN D IAN H IL L CO., W ORCESTER, MASS.
N orton G r in d in g Co., W o r c e s t e r , M a s s .:
Sec INDIAN H IL L CO., W ORCESTER, MASS.
O l iv e r I r o n M in in g Co., D u l u t h , M i n n .:
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1 : 256.
illus.
Illustrations and brief description of miners’ homes in Taconite, Minn., and
Coleraine, Minn.
U. S. Steel Corporation. Bulletin, no. 4, Nov., 1913, p. 45, 46. illus. plan.
O l iv e r -S n y d e r Co., O l iv e r , P a .:
Reynolds, Sim. A model plant in the coke region.
Coal age, Jan. 4, 1913, v. 3: 8-9. illus.
P a l m e r L a n d C o ., P a l m e r t o n , P a .:

Hughes, Florence. Community life in an industrial village.
American city (Town and county ed.), May, 1915, v. 12: 395-399.
Palmerton, Pa. Citizens Cooperative Association. Palmerton, Carbon County,
Pa. [1913] 20 p.
Stone & Leeming, Architects. Low-priced and artistic homes.
Social service, Apr., 1903, v. 7: 82-85. illus.
P e a b o d y C oal C o ., K in c a id , I I I .:
Building an industrial town [K incaid] in Illinois.
Engineering news, Jan. 8, 1914, v. 71: 89-90. plan.
Model mining town of K incaid, 111.
Engineering record, Dec. 6, 1913, v. 68: 639-640. map.
P e a c e d a l e M f g . C o ., P e a c e d a l e , R . I.:
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1221-1223, illus.
P e l z e r M f g . Co., P e l z e r , S. C.:
Ellis, L. B. Model factory town.
•
Forum, Sept., 1901, v. 32: 60-65.




268

H O U SIN G BY EM PLO YE RS IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

P e l z e r M f g . Co., P e l z e r , S. C.— Concluded.

Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people by employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept. 1904, p. 1224-1226, illus.
U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 31, 1900, p. 1151-1152.
P e n n s y l v a n ia C e m e n t Co., B a t h , P a .:
Two all-concrete house designs.
Coal age, June 29, 1918, v. 13: 1193-1194. illus. diagrs.
Two new designs of houses of concrete throughout.
Engineering news-record, May 16, 1918, v. 80: 947-948. illus. diagrs.
P e n n s y l v a n ia C o a l & C o k e C o .:

Houses of employees at the mines.
Mines and minerals, June, 1904, v. 24: 566-567. plans.
P h e l p s , D o dge C o r p o r a t io n , T y r o n e , N. M e x .:
Goodhue, B. G. The new mining community of Tyrone, N. M.
Architectural review, Apr., 1918, v. 6 : 59-62. illus. plans.
Magnusson, Leifur. A modern copper mining town.
U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Monthly labor review, Sept., 1018, v. 7:
278-284. illu s. plans.
P it t s b u r g -B u ffalo C o a l C o ., M a r i a n n a , P a .:

See UNION COAL & COKE CO., PITTSBU R G H , PA.
P it t s b u r g h C r u c ib l e S t e e l Co., P it t s b u r g h P a .:

See M IDLAND IM PRO VEM EN T CO., M IDLAN D , PA.
P it t s b u r g h R e d u c t io n Co., M a s s e n a , N. Y .:

Workingmen’s houses at Massena, N. Y .
Brickbuilder, D ec., 1916. v. 25: 331-333. illus. plans.
Houses to accommodate 105 fam ilies completed at average cost per
single house of $2,076. Brief description of project. Over 2J pages of
illus. and plans.
P l y m o u t h C o r d a g e C o ., P l y m o u t h , M a s s .:

Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1226-1234.
illus. plans.
National civic federation. Annual report, 11th. 1911. p. 361-362.
National civic federation. Conference on welfare work. 1904. p. 7-9.
'f'olman, W. H . [Housing b y the Plymouth Cordage Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1 :
1083-1084.
------ Social engineering. 1909. p. 252-253.
P o stu m C e r e a l Co., B attle C r e e k , M ic h .:
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the Postum Cereal Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1 :
1087-1088.
P u l l m a n Co., P u l l m a n , III.:
Ashley, W. J. The railroad strike of 1894, the statements of the Pullman Company
and the report of the Commission, together with an analysis of the issues. 1895.
100 p.

Bibliography on R . R. strike of 1894: p. 13-15.
Association of officials of bureaus of labor statistics of America. Report of Com­
missioners of the State bureaus of labor statistics on the industrial, social, and
econom ic conditions of Pullman, Illinois. Sept., 1884. [1884] 23 p.
“ A full and exhaustive investigation of the economic experiment con­
ducted b y Pullm an’s Palace Car Company on the plan projected b y Mr.
George M. Pullman, the president.”




L IS T OF REFERENCES.

269

P u llm an C o., P u l l m a n , I I I . — C on cluded.

Cook, E. W. Betterment, individual, social, and industrial. 1906. p. 264-265,
268.
Ely, R . T. Pullman: a social study.
Harper’s magazine, Feb., 1885, v. 70: 452-466. illus. plan.
Gilman, N. P. A dividend to labor. 1899. p. 239-244.
Gould, E. R . L. The housing of the working people.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of labor.
1895. p. 328-333. table.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 385-389.
The story of Pullman. [1893] p. 18-30.
Survey, Nov. 2, 1912, v. 29: 117-123.
Taylor, G. R . Satellite cities. 1915. p. 28-67.
Also appeared in Survey, Nov. 2, 1912, v. 29: 117-131. illus.
U . S . Strike commission. Report on the Chicago strike. 1895. 681 p.
R em in g t o n A r m s -U n io n M etallic C a r t r id g e Co., B r id g e p o r t , C o n n .:
Bossom, A. C. The housing of employees.
Architectural forum, A ug., 1917, v. 27: .45-52. illus. plans.
The illustrations and plans are of Bridgeport houses.
Heating the homes of Remington City.
Metal worker, plumber and steam fitter. Jan. 5, 1917, v. 87: 37-38. illus.
plans.
Potter, Z. L. War boom towns: Bridgeport.
Survey, Dec. 4, 1915, v. 35: 237-242. illus.
Tells of the problems to b e met in providing homes, schools, and recreation
for the hundreds of people brought to the town to make war supplies.
Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Company. A Remington guide to
Bridgeport, n. d. p. 7, 8.
The Remington housing development.
Architectural forum, Aug., 1917, v. 27: 53-54. illus. plans.
Two views of Remington housing development at Bridgeport, Conn.
Architectural forum, Aug., 1917, v. 27: 44.
Illustrations only; no text.
R e p u b lic I r o n & S t e e l Co., Y o u n g s t o w n , O h io :
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1:262-263.
Illustrations with short general description.
W ilcox, L. L. Mesabi company location.
Engineering and mining journal, Apr. 25,1914, v. 97: 841-843. illus. plans.
R iv e r s id e & D a n R i v e r Co tton M il l s , S ch o o lfield , V a .:

Home for women operatives to be erected by cotton mill company at Schoolfield,
near Danville, Ya.
Manufacturers record, Feb. 21, 1918, v. 73: 73. illus.
R o e b l in g ’s (J. A .) S o ns Co., R o e b l in g , N. J.:
International housing congress, 10th, The Hague, 1913. Rapports, pte. 3: 129.
Tolman, W . H. [Housing b y R oebling’s Sons.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil 1: 1082-1083.
------ Social engineering. 1909. p. 346-347.
R om e B r a s s &

Copper C o ., R om e, N . Y . :

Standard buildings, Inc., N. Y . Riverdale; a village for the employees of the
Rome Brass & Copper Co., Rome, N. Y . 1916. 20 p. illus. plans.
Contains prospectus of this town in English, Hungarian, Italian, and Polish.




270

H O U SIN G B Y .E M P L O Y E E S IN T H E .UNITED STATES.

S aco - L o w e l l Sh o p s , B o s t o n , M a s s .:

Banfield, S. M. Better homes to make better workmen: hotel for employees of
Saco-Lowell shops.
Industrial engineering, June, 1914, v. 14: 221-223. illus.
U. S. Bureau of foreign and domestic commerce. The cotton-spinning machinery
industry. 1916. p. 71-72.
S coville M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., W a t e r b u r y , Conn.:
Nolen, John. Low cost houses for employees.
American industries, N ov., 1916, v. 17: 13-17. diagrs.
S o u t h e r n A l u m in u m Co., B a d in , N. C.:
Factory city beautiful at low cost, Badin, N. C.
Iron age, Apr. 8, 1915, v. 95: 782-786. illus. plans.
S t e a r n s C oal Co . (L t d .), S t e a r n s , Ky. :
K entucky before and after development of mines.
Coal age, May 27, 1916, v. 9: 936-937. illus.
Illustrations, with brief description.
S t e t so n (J o h n B.) Co, P h il a d e l p h ia , P a .:
Hanger, G. W . W . Housing of the* working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904. p. 1234-1239.
illus.
S to n e g a C o a l &

C o k e C o .:

Prehn, Martin. The Stonega Coal and Coke Co.’s operations in Virginia.
Coal age, Apr. 3, 1915, v. 7: 598-599. illus.
S u p e r io r & B o s t o n Co.:
The Superior and Boston mine.
Mines and minerals, Sept., 1910, v. 31: 112-116. illus. plans.
No text.
T a l b o t M il l s , N. B il l e r ic a , M a s s .:
Talbot Mills.
Pamphlet issued b y the company.
T e n n e s s e e C o a l , I r o n & R. R . C o ., B ir m in g h a m , A l a .:
American iron and steel institute. Monthly bulletin, Mar., 1913, v. 1: 87-89;
Sept., 1913, v. 1: 236-237. illus.
[Fairfield, Ala.] (In Taylor, G. R. Birmingham’s civic front.)
Survey, Jan. 6, 1912, v. 27: 1467-1468.
Fairfield, Alabama, the South’s model industrial city.
Iron tradesman, Feb., 1915, v. 73: 1-5.
Housing the employee; pictures.
System, Oct. 1914, v. 26: 433-435.
Illustrations only.
International housing congress, 10th, The Hague, 1913. Rapports, pte. 3:130-133.
Miller, G. H. Fairfield, a town with a purpose.
American city, Sept., 1913, v. 9: 213-219. illus. plans.
Survey, Jan. 6, 1912, v. 27: 1467, 1535, 1539. illus.
Taylor, G. R. Satellite cities. 1915. p. 236-258.
U. S. Steel corporation. Bulletin, no. 4, N ov., 1913, p. 33-36, 43- 44. illus.
plan.
See also TEN NESSEE LAN D CO., F A IR F IE L D , ALA.
T e n n e s s e e L a n d C o ., F a ir f ie l d , A l a .:

Fairfield, Alabama, the South’s model industrial city.
e
Iron tradesman, Feb., 1915, v. 73: 1-5. illus.
Miller, G. H. Fairfield, a town with a purpose.
American city, Sept., 1913, v. 9: 213-219. illus. plans.




271

L IS T OF REFERENCES.
T e n n e s s e e L a n d Co., F a ir f ie l d , A l a .— Concluded.

Stark, C. J. Steel corporation’s industrial community development.
Iron trade review, Jan. 1, 1914, v. 54: 74-83. illus. plans.
Reprinted as a separate b y the Iron trade review under the title Industrial
community developmeut with particular reference to creation of Fairfield,
Ala. illus. plans.
Survey, Jan. 6, 1912, v. 27: 1467-1468; June 7, 1913, v. 30: 341. illus.
The latter reference contains a plan of the town.
Taylor, G. R. Satellite cities. 1915. p. 237-258.
See also TENNESSEE COAL, IRO N & R A IL R O A D CO., BIRM IN GH AM , ALA.
U n io n Co al a n d Co k e C o ., P it t s b u r g h , P a .:

Pittsburg-Buffalo company. 1911. 203 p. illus. map. tables, diagrs.
Contains plans and illustrations, but no description. Probably unavailable at
present, as company has been dissolved.
U n io n M etallic Ca r t r id g e Co., B r id g e p o r t , C o n n .:
See REMINGTON ARM S-UNIO N M ETALLIC CA RTRID G E CO., B R ID G E ­
PO RT, CONN.
.U n ite d S h o e M a c h in e r y Co., B e v e r l y , M a s s .:
Story of three partners, n. d. 50 p. illus.
Pamphlet issued b y the company.
U. S. C o a l & C o k e C o., G a r y , W. V a .:
Housing coal miners.
Coal age, July 24, 1915. v. 8: 137-138.
Price, W. Z. Steel corporation mines at Gary [W. Va.].
Colliery, Mar., 1914, v. 34: 471. illus.
T ype of company houses.
Coal age, Sept. 22, 1917, v. 12: 502.
An illustration; no text.
U. S. C o a l & O il C o .:
A description of the Island Creek mines of the U. S. Coal & Oil Co., Holden,
Logan Co., W. Va. [1906] [24] p.
Lyman, R. H. Coal mining at Holden, W. Va.
Engineering and mining journal, Dec. 22, 1906, v . 82: 1170-1173. illus.
U . S. St e e l C o r p o r a t io n :

See AM ERICAN IM PROVEM ENT CO., CARNEGIE LAND CO., G A R Y
LAND CO., MORGAN P A R K CO., O L IV E R IRON M INING CO., TENN.
COAL, IRON & R. R. CO., TENN. LAND CO., V A N D E R G R IF T LAND
& IM PROVEM ENT CO.
U n iv e r s a l P o r t l a n d C e m e n t Co.:
See G A R Y LAND CO., G A R Y , IN D .; MORGAN P A R K CO., DULUTH,
MINN.
V a n d e r g r if t L a n d & I m p r o v e m e n t Co., V a n d e r g r if t , P a .:
Goodnow, M. N. Concrete houses versus tenements: model dwellings for work­
ingmen.
Scientific American, Oct. 19, 1912, v. 107: 324-325. illus.
Sheet metal center a model municipality; Vandergrift, Pa.
Metal worker, June 26, 1914, v. 81: 896-900. illus.
Vandergrift Land Co. Vandergrift— its homes and industries. 1900. 3 p.
plates.
Plates with descriptive text.
V isco se Co ., M a r c u s H o o k , P a .:

An industrial village, n. d. 19 p. illus. plans.
Industrial village at Marcus Hook, Pa.
Brickbuilder, D ec., 1916, v. 25: 329-330. illus.




plans.

272

H O U SIN G B Y E M P LO YE R S IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

V is co se Co., M a r c u s H o o k , P a . — Concluded.
Tarbell, I . M . Good homes make good Workers.

- -

In her New ideals in business. 1916. p. 146-155.
Viscose Co. Discussion on garden cities.
Pamphlet b y the company.
W a lth a m W atch Co., W a l t h a m , M a s s .:
See AM ERICAN W ALTHAM W ATCH CO., W ALTHAM , MASS.
W a r E a g le Co al C o ., W a r E a g l e , W . V a .:

Ready-made miners’ houses in West Virginia.
Coal age, Feb. 19, 1916, v. 9: 332. illus.
This company has stopped building houses with open grates. Now. puts
up ready-cut houses.
W a r r e n (S . D .) & Co., Cu m b e r l a n d M il l s , M e .:
Gould, E. R. L. The housing of the working people.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of labor.
1895. p. 321-324. plans, table.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the Working people b y employers.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1239-1241.
illus. plan.
W e s t in g h o u s e A ir b r a k e Co., W il m e r d in g , Pa.:
Ford, F. G. Improved housing for wage earners.
Social service, Apr., 1903, v. 7: 85-90.
Hanger, G. W. W. Housing of the working people b y employers.
In TJ. S. Bureau of labor. Bulletin, no. 54, Sept., 1904, p. 1241-1243.
illus. plans.
Jacobsen, E. B. Housing and the foreign born in Wilmerding. n. d. 8 p.
National civic federation. Conference on welfare work. 1904. p. 49-50.
Social service, Apr., 1903, v. 7: 88-90. illus.
Tolman, W. H. [Housing b y the Westinghouse Airbrake Co.]
In International housing congress, 9th, Vienna, 1910. Bericht, teil: 1,10761077.
------ Industrial betterment. [1900] p. 56-58.
U. S. Bureau of labor statistics. Bulletin, no. 123, 1913, p. 20- 21.
W h it in M a c h in e W o r k s , W h it in s v il l e , M a s s .:

U. S. Bureau of foreign and domestic commerce. The cotton-spinning ma­
chinery industry. 1916. p. 70-71.
W illim antic L in e n Co., W il l im a n t ic , Co n n .:
Bliss, W. D. P. ed. Encyclopedia of social reform. 1908. p. 774.
Gilman, N. P. A dividend to labor. 1899. p. 258-262.
Gould, E. R. L. The housing of the working peQple.
In U. S. Bureau of labor. Eighth special report of the Commissioner of labor.
1895. p. 327-328. illus. plans.
Meakin, Budgett. Model factories. 1905. p. 400-401.
W is co n sin S t e e l Co., B e n h a m , Ky.:
Coal trade bulletin, May 1, 1914, v. 30: 47-48. illus.
W it h e r b e e -S h e r m a n M in in g C o., M in e v il l e , N. Y .:
American iron and steel institute. M onthly bulletin, Sept., 1913, v. 1: 246-247.
. Lefevre, S. Housing and'sanitation at M ineville.
American institute of mining engineers. Bulletin, Feb., 1915, no. 98, p.
227-238. illus. diagrs. plans.
Also published as a pamphlet by the company.
Y o u n g s t o w n S h e e t & T u b e Co., Y o u n g s t o w n , O h io :
See BU CK EYE LAND CO., YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO.
Z e ig l e r Co al Co ., Z e ig l e r , III.:
Parsons, F. W. A modem coal-mining town.
Engineering and mining journal, Nov. 3, 1906, v. 82: 830-832. illus.




APPENDIX O.— LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES
CONDUCTING HOUSING OF EMPLOYEES.
M INING COMPANIES.
[Almost all m ine operators of every kind find it necessary to house all or p^rt of their employees. A com­
plete list of those who do housing would therefore be a catalogue of practically all the mining establishments
in the U nited States; but, this being impracticable, only a very brief selected list of operators has been
given.]
B e r w in d W h it e C o a l M in in g C o ., Windber, Pa.
B r o o k e (E. & G .) I r o n Co. See Brooke (E. & G .) Land Co., Birdsboro, Pa.
B r o o k e (E. & G :) L a n d Co., Birdsboro, Pa.
B u rr o M o u n t a in Copper Co., Tyrone, N. Mex.
C a lu m e t & H b c la M in in g Co., Calumet, Mich.

Subsidiary companies:
Ahm eek;

A llouez;

C e n t e n n ia l ;

Cl if f ;

G r a t io t ;

I sle

L a S a l l e ; L a k e S u p e r io r S m e l t in g ; L a u r i u m ; O s c e o l a ;
T a m a r a c k ; W h it e P in e C o a l .

R oyale;
S u p e r io r ;

Cle a r f ie l d B it u m in o u s C oal C o r p o r a tio n , Clearfield, Pa.
Cl e v e l a n d -C liffs I ro n Co., Ishpem ing, M ich.
C o lo r a d o F u e l & I r o n C o., Denver, Colo.
Co n e m a u g h S m o k e l e s s Coal Co., Robindale, Pa.
C o n s o l id a t io n C o a l C o ., Jenkins, K y.; Van Lear, K y.; Somerset, Pa.; Fairmpnt,

W. Va.
Copper Q u e e n C o n s o l id a t e d M in in g Co., Bisbee, Ariz.
Copper R a n g e C o ., Painesdale, M ich.
D e la w a r e , L a c k a w a n n a & W e s t e r n R. R. Co., Scranton, Pa.
D odson C o al C o ., Enola, Pa.; Morea, Pa.; Shenandoah, Pa.
E ll s w o r t h C o llie r ie s C o ., Ellsworth, Pa.
F rick (H. C.) Coke Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
L e h ig h & W i lk e s -B a r r e C o a l C o., Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
M a d iso n Co al C o r p o r a t io n , Dewmaine, 111.; Glen Carbon, 111.
M ia m i C opper C o ., Miami, Ariz.
N e w J e r s e y Z inc C o . (of Pennsylvania), Franklin, N. J.

See Palmer Land Co., Palmerton, Pa.
O l iv e r I ron M in in g C o ., Duluth, Minn.
P a l m e r L a n d C o ., Palmerton, Pa.

Subsidiary housing company for the mines and plant of the New Jersey Zinc
Co. of Pennsylvania, located at Palmerton, Pa., which latter company is owned
b y the New Jersey Zinc Co., New York City.
Penn Mary Coal Co., Heilwood, Pa.
P h ila d e lp h ia & R e a d in g C o a l & I r o n C o., Pottsville, Pa.
P r o v i d e n t Coal Co ., St. Clairsville, Ohio.
R a in e y (W. J.), Uniontown, Pa.
Ray C o nso lid a te d C opper Co ., Ray, Ariz.
R e p u b lic I r o n & S t e e l Co., Youngstown, Ohio.
St in e m a n C o a l & C o k e Co ., South Fork, Pa.
T e n n e s s e e C o a l , I r o n & R. R. Co., Birmingham, Ala.
See also T e n n e s s e e L a n d C o ., Fairfield, Ala.
125882°— 20— B u ll. 263------- 18




273

274

H O U SIN G B Y EM PLO YE ES IN T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T e n n e s s e e L a n d Co., Fairfield, Ala.

Subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation, conducts housing for the following
subsidiaries of the latter located at Birmingham, Ala., and Fairfield, Ala.,
namely: Iron and steel works departments of the Tennessee Coal, Iron &
R. R. Co., and the American Steel & Wire Co., Fairfield, Ala.
See also T e n n e s s e e C o a l , I r o n & R. R. C o., Birmingham, Ala.
U. S. C oal & C o k e C o ., Gary, W. Ya.
V e sta C o al Co ., California, Pa.
W i t h e r b e e -S h e r m a n & Co., Mineville, N. Y .
MANUFACTURING COMPANIES.
A b b e v il l e Cotton M il l s , A bbeville, S. C.
A cme F o u n d r y Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
A e t n a Ch e m ica l C o . of M a i n e .

See A e t n a E x p l o s iv e s C o . ( I n c .); New York City.

A e t n a E x p l o s iv e s C o . ( I n c .), New York City.
A i k e n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Bath, S. C.
A l a b a m a Co., Lewisburg, Ala.
A l b a n y Ca r W h e e l Co., Albany, N. Y .
A l l e n t o w n W o o le n Co., Allentown, R. I.
A lph a P o r t l a n d C e m e n t C o ., Manheim, W. Va.
A l u m in u m Co . of A m e r ic a , Massena, N. Y.
A m erican B r a k e S h o e & F o u n d r y Co., Erie, Pa.

See also A m erica n L a n d

& Im p ro v e m en t

Co., West Mahwah, N. J.

A m e r ic a n B r a ss Co., Waterbury, Conn.
A m er ican B r id g e Co.

See A m e r ic a n I m p r o v e m e n t Co ., Ambridge, Pa.; G a r y

L a n d Co., Gary, Ind.
A m erican C a r &
A m erican
A m erican
A m e r ic a n
A m e r ic a n

F o u n d r y C o ., Berwick, Pa.

C a r & S t e e l Co. See A m erica n C a r & F o u n d r y Co., Berwick, Pa.
C a s t I r o n Pipe Co., Acipco, Ala.
C e m e n t P l a s t e r Co ., Lawrence, Kans.
H ar d R u b b e r Co., New York City, N. Y.

A m e r ic a n I m p r o v e m e n t Co., Ambridge, Pa.

Housing company for plants of the American Bridge Co., located at Ambridge,
Pa. The latter company is a subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation.
A m erica n L an d & Im p rov em en t Co., West Mahwah, N. J.
Subsidiary housing company of the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co.
Plants at West Mahwah, N .J .
A m er ican M e tal Co. (L t d .), New York City.
A m er ic an R e f r ac to r ies Co., Chicago, 111.
A m e r ic a n R o lling M ill Co., Middletown, Ohio.
A m e r ic a n S e w e r P ipe Co., Akron, Ohio.
A m er ic an S h e e t & T in P l a te Co. See C a r n e g ie L a n d Co., Munhall, Pa.; G a r y
L a n d Co., Gary, In d.; V a n d e r g r if t L a n d & I m p r o v e m e n t Co., Vandergrift,
Pa.
A m e r ic a n S h e e t St e e l Co., Vandergrift, Pa.
A m erica n S m e ltin g & R e fin in g Co., Hayden, Ariz.; Cokedale, Colo.; E l Paso,
T ex.; Garfield, Utah.
A m erica n S t e e l & W ir e C o ., Donora, Pa.
See also Ca r n e g ie L a n d Co., Munhall, Pa.; G a r y L a n d Co., Gary, In d.; T e n ­
n e s s e e L a n d Co., Fairfield, Ala.
A m e r ic a n T h r e a d Co., New York City.
A m e r ic a n V iscose Co. See V isco se Co., Marcus Hook, Pa.




LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES.

275

A m e r ic a n W a l t h a m W atch Co., Waltham, Mass.
A m e r ic a n W o o l e n C o ., Boston, Mass.
A m erica n Z in c & C h em ica l Co. See A m erica n M e t a l Co. (L t d .), New York City.
A m erica n Z in c, L e a d & S t e e l Co., Carterville, Mo.
A m o s k e a g M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Manchester, N .H .
A n d e r s o n Co tton M il l s , Anderson, S. C.
A n n is t o n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Anniston, Ala.
A r c h a m b e a u l t (G e o . N.), Pascoag, R. I.
A rctic M il l , Arctic, R. I.
A s h a w a y W o o l e n Co., Ashaway, R. I.
A sh to n M il l , Ashton, R. I.
A tlan tic M ills ( I n c .), O lneyville, R. I.
A tlas P o w d e r Co., Wilmington, Del.
A u g u s t a F a c t o r y , Augusta, Ga.
A u s t in A u t o m o b ile Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
B a k e r Ch ocolate C o ., Attleboro, R . I.
B a l d w in L ocom otive W o r k s , Eddystone, Pa.
B a n c r o f t (Joseph) &

S on s, Wilmington, Del.

B a n t a m B all B e a r in g Co ., Bantam, Conn.
B a r n e s - K in g D e v e l o p m e n t Co., M arysville, M ont.; Kendall, Wyo.
B a r r e W ool Co m b in g Co., Barre, Mass.
B e a c o n F alls R u b b e r Co., Beacon Falls, Conn.
B e e c h -N u t P a c k in g Co., Canajoharie, N. Y.
B e l d in g B r o s . & C o ., Belding, Mich.
B e n n (J o s e p h ) & S o n s , Greystone, R. I.
B e r k e l e y Co., Berkeley, R. I.
B e r n o n M il l s , Georgiaville, R. I.
B e t h l e h e m S t e e l Co., Sparrows Point, M d.; Bethlehem, Pa.; Steel ton, Pa.
B ib b M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Porterdale, Ga.
B ickford M ac h in e Co., Greenfield, Mass.
B ird & S o n , East Walpole, Mass.
B ir d s b o r o S t e e l F o u n d r y &

M a ch in e Co.

See B r o o k e (E. & G.) L an d Co.,

Birdsboro, Pa.
B l o e d e l -D o n o v a n L u m b e r M il l s , Bellingham, Wash.
B o r d e n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Goldsboro, N. C.
B osto n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Waltham, Mass.
B o s to n W o o l e n H o s e & R u b b e r Co., Cambridge, Mass.
B radfo r d D y e in g A s s o c ia t io n , Bradford, R. I.
B r a n d o n M il l s , G reenville, S. C.
B riarcliff F a r m s , Briarcliff Manor, N. Y.
B r ie r H ill S t e e l C o ., Youngstown, Ohio.
B r ig h to n M il l s , Allwood, N. J.; Passaic, N. J.
B ristol B r a ss Co., Bristol, Conn.
B r o o k sid e M il l s , K noxville, Tenn.
B r u n s w ic k -B a l k e -C o l l e n d e r C o ., Chicago, 111.
B u c k e y e L a n d Co., Youngstown, Ohio.

Subsidiary housing company for the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.
B uick M otor Co ., Flint, Mich.
B u n k e r H i l l & S u lliv a n Co., Kellogg, Idaho.
B u s h L a n d Co. See B u s h T e r m in a l B u il d in g s Co., New York City.
B u sh T e r m in a l B u il d in g s Co., New York City.
Ca b a r r u s C otton M il l s , Concord, N. C.
C a lifo r n ia & H a w a iia n S u g a r R e fin in g C o., San Francisco, Calif.
Ca l if o r n ia P a c k in g A s s o c ia t io n , San Francisco, Calif.




276

H OUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

C a m b r ia St e e l Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
C a r n e g ie L a n d Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation; conducts housing Work for
the following subsidiaries of the latter: American Steel & Wire Co.; American
Sheet & Tin Plate Co., and Carnegie Steel Co., which have plants in the vicinity
of Pittsburgh— e. g., at Homestead, Clairton, Farrell, and Munhall, Pa.
Ca r n e g ie St e e l C o ., Pittsburgh, Pa.
See Ca r n e g ie L a n d Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
C a r o l in a M il l s , Carolina, R. I.
Ca sp a r is S t o n e Co., Columbus, Ohio.
Ce n t r a l I llinois P u b lic S e r v ic e Co., K incaid, 111.
C e n t r e d a l e W orsted M il l s , Centredale, R. I.
..Ch a d w ic k -H a s k in s Co., Charlotte, N. C.
Ch a s e M etal W o r k s , Waterbury, Conn.
Ch a t t a n o o g a R y. Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.
Ch e n e y B r o s . Sil k M il l s , South M anchester, Conn.
Cin c lare C e n t r a l F a c t o r y , Cinclare, La.
Clapp (E. H .) R u b b e r Co., Hanover, Mass.
Cla r k T h r e a d Co., Newark, N. J.
Cl a y P roducts Co ., Brazil, Ind.
C le v e la n d C r a n e & E n g in e e r in g Co., W ickliffe, Ohio.
C o l u m b ia Ch e m ic a l Co., Barberton, Ohio.
C o l u m b ia P late G l a ss Co., Blairsville, Pa.
C o l u m b ia St e e l Co., Pittsburg, Calif.
C o lu m b u s M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Columbus, Ga.
C onn ec tic u t M ills Co., Danielson, Conn.
C o n s o lid a te d G a s, E l e c t r i c L ig h t & P o w e r Co., Baltimore, Md.
C o r n e l l (J. B. & J. M.) Co., Cold Spring, N. Y .
C o r o n e t W o r s te d C o ., Mapleville, R. I.
C o v e n t r y C o ., Anthony, R . I.
C r a d d o c k T e r r y Co., Lynchburg, Ya.
C r a n s t o n B o x M f g . Co., Cranston, R. I.
C r a n s t o n P r in t W o r k s , Cranston, R . I.
C r a n s t o n W o rsted M il l s , Bristol, R. I.
C rom pton Co., Crompton, R. I.
C r o s se t t L u m b e r Co., Crossett, Ark.
Cr o s se t t W e s t e r n L u m b e r Co., Wauna, Oreg.
Cru c ib le S t e e l Co. o f A m e r ic a , Pittsburgh, Pa.
C u d a h y R e f in in g Co. See Sin c l a ir R e f in in g Co., Chicago, 111.
C u m b e r l a n d M il l s , Westbrook, Me.
D al l a s M fg. C o., Huntsville, Ala.
D a n R i v e r C o tto n M i l l s . See R iv e r s id e & D a n R iv e r C o tto n M i l l s , School­
field, Ya.
D a v is v il l e W o o l e n Co., Davisville, R . i
D e n n is o n M f g . Co., Framingham, Mass.
D e v l in (T h o m a s ) M f g . C o ., Philadelphia, Pa.
D ia m o n d M a tc h Co., Chico, Calif.
D odg e B r o s ., Detroit, Mich.
D il l o n ’ s (E .) S o n s . ( I n c .), Indian Rock, Va.
D ow C h e m ic a l Co., Midland, M ich.; Mount Pleasant, Mich.
D r a p e r Co., Hopedale, Mass.
D u l u t h , M is s a b e & N o r t h e r n R. R ., Proctor, Minn.
D u P o nt D e N e m o u r s P o w d e r Co., Carneys Point, N . J .; Hopewell, Va.
D w ig h t M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Alabama City, Ala.




LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES.
E a g le &

277

P h o e n ix M i ll s , Columbus, Ga.

E a g l e L ock Co., Terryville, Conn.
E a g l e M il l s , Woonsocket, R. I.
E a s t e r n S t e e l Co., Pottsville, Pa.
E clipse H om e M a k e r s ( I n c .), Beloit, Wis.
E d ison E lectric Co., L os Angeles, Calif.
E l b e r t o n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Elberton, Ga.
E lgin W atch C o ., E lgin, 111.
E l iz a b e t h M il l s , East Greenwich, R . I.
E m pire S t e e l & I r o n C o ., Oxford, N. J.
E n d ic o t t J o h n so n &

Co., Endicott, N. Y . ; Johnson City, Tenn.

E n t e r p r is e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Augusta, Ga.
E n t w is t l e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Rockingham, N. C.
E r ie F o rg e C o ., Erie, Pa.
E r w in C otton M ills C o ., West Durham , N. C.
E sm o n d M il l s , Esmond, R. I.
F a ir b a n k s (E. & T .) & Co., St. Johnsbury, Vt.
F a ir b a n k s M orse C o .

See E clipse H om e M a k e r s (In c .), Beloit, Wis.

F a l e s & J e n c k s , Pawtucket, R. I.
F a lls R iv e t &

M a c h in e r y C o ., Kent, Ohio.

F e d e r a l R ef r a c t o r ie s Co., Alexandria, Pa.
F ir e s t o n e T ir e & R u b b e r Co., Akron, Ohio.
F o r b e s L ith og r aph ic Co., Forbes, Mass.
F o r e s t d a l e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Forestdale, R . I.
F o ur ch e R iv e r L u m b e r C o ., Bigelow, Ark.
F u lto n B a g C otton M il l s , Atlanta, Ga.

G. G. G. M e t a l S ta m p in g Co., Warren, Pa.
G a in e s v il l e C otton M il l , Gainesville, Ga.
G a l l o w a y (W m .) Co ., Waterloo, Iowa..
G ar l o c h -F r a z e e L a u n d r y Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
G a r y L a n d Co., Gary, Ind.
Subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation; conducts housing work for the fol­
lowing subsidiaries of the latter located at Gary, Ind.: American Sheet & Tin
Plate Co.; American Bridge Co.; Gary Heat, Light & Power Co.; Illinois Steel
Co.; Elgin, Joliet & Eastern R y .; and Universal Portland Cement Co.
G e n e r a l C h e m ic a l C o ., Wilmington, D el.; Marcus Hook, Pa.; Pulaski, Va.
G e n e r a l E lectric C o . See L a w r e n c e P a r k R e a l t y C o ., Erie, Pa.
G e n e r a l F ir e p r o o f in g C o ., Youngstown, Ohio.
G e n e r a l R e fr a c to r ie s Co., Chester, Pa.
G l e n d a l e E lastic F a b r ic Co., Easthampton, Mass.
G l e n d a l e M il l s , Spartanburg, S. C.
t
G l e n g a r y M ill ( I n c .), W hipple, R. I.
G l e n l y o n D y e W o r k s , Saylesville, R. I.
G off (D .) & S o n s , Pawtucket, R. I.
G ood rich (B. F.) C o ., Akron, Ohio.
G o o d y e a r C otton M il l s , Killingly, Conn.
G o o d y e a r H e ig h t s R e a l t y C o ., Akron, Ohio.

Subsidiary housing company of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio.
See G o o d y e a r H e ig h t s R e a l t y
Co., Akron, Ohio.
G r a n it e v il l e M f g . Co., Granite ville, S. C.
G r e e n e & D a n ie l s Co., I n c ., Pawtucket, R. I.
G r e e n w ic h B l e a c h e r y , East Greenwich, R. I.
G r e e n w o o d C otton M il l , Greenwood, S. C.

G o o d y e a r T ir e & R u b b e r Co., Akron, Ohio.




278

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

G r o n d e l C otton M il l s , Greenwood, S. C.
G r o s v e n o r -D a l e Co., North Grosvenor Dale, Conn.
H a m ilto n W eb Co., Hamilton, R. I.
H a n e s (P. H .) K n ittin g Co., Hanes, N. C.
H a n n a h P ic k e t M il l s , Rockingham, N. C.
H a r r is o n -W a l k e r R efr a c to r ie s C o ., Pittsburgh, Pa.
H a r t -P a r r Co., Charles City, Iowa.
H e n d e r s o n Cotton M il l s , Henderson, K y
H er cules P o w d e r Co ., Wilmington, Del.
H e r s h e y Chocolate Co ., Hershey, Pa.
H iett ( I r v in g B .) Co., Toledo, Ohio.
H illside Cotton M il l s , La Grange, Ga.
H o c h s c h ild , K o h n &

Co., Baltimore, Md.

H om e r L a u g h l in Ch in a Co., Newell, W. Va.
H ope W e b b in g C o ., Providence, Jl. I.
H orlick M alted M il k Co., Racine, Wis.
H o w a r t h (A n d r e w ) &

S o n s, Leicester, Mass.

H o w l a n d M ills C o r p o r a t io n , New Bedford, Mass.

See G a r y L a n d C o ., Gary, In d .
F in ish in g C o ., Bellefonte, R. I.
I n d ia n H e a d M il l s , Cordova, Ala.
I n d ia n H ill Co., Worcester, Mass.
Subsidiary of the Norton Co., which conducts the housing Work for the Norton Co.
and the Norton Grinding Co., Worcester, Mass.
I n d ia n a S te e l Co. See G a r y L a n d Co., Gary, Ind.
I n l a n d S t e e l Co., Indiana Harbor, Ind.; Crosby, Minn.
I n t e r l a k e n M il l s , Arkwright, R. I.; Harris, R. I.
I n t e r n a t io n a l C o tton M ills C o r p o r a t io n , Boston, Mass.
I n t e r n a t io n a l S hip B u il d in g C o ., Pascagoula, Miss.
Ja c k so n F ib e r Co., Bemis, Tenn.
Je n c k e s S p in n in g Co., Pawtucket, R. I.
Jo n es & L a u g h lin S t e e l Co. See W o o d la w n L a n d C o ., Woodlawn, Pa.
Joslin M f g . Co., Richmond, R . I.
Ju illiar d (A. D .) & Co., New York City.
K a u l L u m b e r Co., Kaulton, Ala.
K e l l e y I s la n d Lime Sc T r a n s p o r t a t io n Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
K e m m e re r (M. S.) Sc Co., Sandy Run, Pa.
K e n t M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Centreville, R. I.
K im b e r l y C l a r k P a p e r M il l s , K im berly, Wis.
K in g (Jo h n P.) M f g . C o ., Augusta, Ga.
K in g P hillip M il l s , Fall River, Mass.
K n o w le s , T a y l o r & K n o w le s , E ast Liverpool, Ohio.
K n o x v il l e Cotton M il l s , K noxville, Tenn.
K o h le r Co., Kohler, Wis.
K oppel L a n d Co., K oppel, Pa.
Subsidiary housing company of the Orenstein-Arthur K oppel Co., K oppel, Pa.
L a c k a w a n n a I r o n & S t e e l Co. See L a c k a w a n n a S t e e l Co., Lackawanna, N. Y .
L a c k a w a n n a S t e e l Co., Lackawanna, N. Y .
L a n g l y M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Langiy, S. C.
L a r k in Co., Buffalo, N. Y .
L a w r e n c e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Lowell, Mass.
L a w r e n c e P a r k R e a l t y Co., Lawrence Park, Pa.
Housing company for the General Electric Co., Erie, Pa.
L a w t o n C otton M ills C o r p o r a t io n , Plainfield, Conn.
I llinois S t e e l Co .

Im p e r ia l P r in tin g &




LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES.

279

L e a k , W all a n d M cR a e , Rockingham, N. C.
L er ch B r o t h e r s , Baltimore, Md.
L ib b y , M cN e il & L i b b y , Chicago, 111.
L in e n T h r e a d Co., New York City.
L ippitt W oo le n Co., Woonsocket, R. I.
L is k M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Canandaigua, N. Y .
L iv in g s t o n e W orsted C o ., Washington, R. I.
L ocustville W o o l e n C o ., Hope Valley, R. I.
L odge &

S h ip le y M a ch in e T o o l Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

L o n s d a l e Co., Lonsdale, R. I.
L o r a y M il l s , Gastonia, N. C.
L o r r a in e M a n u f a c t u r in g C o ., Pawtucket, R. I.
L o w n e y (W alte r M.) Co., Boston, Mass.
L u d l o w M a n u f a c t u r in g A s s o c ia t e s , Ludlow, Mass.
L u d l u m St e e l Co ., Watervliet, N. Y.
L y m a n s v il l e Co., Lymansville, R. I.
L y n c h b u r g Co tton M il l , Lynchburg, Va.
L y n c h b u r g T r a c t io n &

L ig h t Co., Lynchburg, Va.

L y n d o r a L a n d & I m p r o v e m e n t C o ., Lyndora, Pa.

Subsidiary housing company for the Standard Steel Car Co. plants at Lyndora,
Pa. and Hammond, Ind.
M a d e i r a H ill Co., Pottsville, Pa.
M a n h a s s e t t M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Providence, R . I.
M a n u f a c t u r e r s ’ L ig h t & H e a t Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
M a n v i l l e Co., Manville, R. I.
M a r k M a n u f a c t u r in g Co. See S h e e t a n d T u b e Co. of A m e r ic a , Indiana Harbor,
Ind.
M a s s a c h u s e t t s M il l s , Lindale, Ga.
M a x w e l l M otor Co., Newcastle, Ind.
M e r c h a n t s ’ S h ip b u il d in g C o r p o r a t io n , Bristol, Pa.
M e r r im a c k M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Huntsville, Ala.; Lowell, Mass.
M ic h el in T ir e C o ., Milltown, N . J.
M ich ig an T a n n in g &

E x t r a c t C o ., Petoskey, M ich.

M id l a n d I m p r o v e m e n t C o ., Midland, Pa.

Subsidiary of the Crucible Steel Co. of America; conducts the housing work of
the Pittsburgh Crucible Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., which is controlled b y the
former through stock ownership.
M id l a n d S t e e l C o . See M id l a n d I m p r o v e m e n t C o ., Midland, Pa.
M id v a l e S t e e l & O r d n a n c e C o ., New York City.
M il e s T ile M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., L os Angeles, Calif.
M il s t e a d M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Milstead, Ga.
,
M in n e s o t a S t e e l Co. See M o r g a n P a r k Co., Duluth, Minn.
M o l l o h a n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Newberry, S. C.
M o n a g h a n M il l s , Greenville, S. C.
M o r g a n E n g in e e r in g Co., Alliance, Ohio.
M o r g a n P a r k C o ., D u luth, M inn.

Subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation; conducts housing for the following
subsidiaries of the latter located at Duluth, Minn.: Duluth, Missabe & Northern
R. R .; Minnesota Steel Co., and the Universal Portland Cement Co.
M o rr is & Co., Baltimore, Md.
M o u n t U n io n R e f r a c t o r ie s Co., Kistler, Pa.; Mount Union, Pa.
M o w r y (H. E. & E. A .), Farkiln, R. I.
M ystic W o o l e n M il l s , Hope Valley, R . I .
N a tic k M il l , N atick , R. I.




280

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES6

N a t io n a l A cme Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
N a t io n a l Ca s h R e g is t e r C o ., Dayton, Ohio.
N a t io n a l T u b e C o ., New York City.
N a u m k e a g S t e a m C o tton C o ., Salem, Mass.
N e lso n (N . 0 .) C o ., Leclaire, 111.
N e lso n V a l v e Co., Wyndmore, Pa.
N e stle F ood C o ., F ulton , N. Y.
N e w D e p a r t u r e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Bristol*, Conn.
N ew Y o r k E d iso n C o ., New York City.
N e w Y o rk S h ip b u il d in g C o r p o r a t io n , Camden, N . J.
N e w b e r r y C otton M il l , Newberry, S. C.
N e w p o r t N e w s S h ip b u il d in g Co., Newport News, Va.
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o ., Niagara Fajls, N . Y.
N i a g a r a F alls P o w e r Co. See N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t Co., Niagara Falls, N . Y.
N ia n tic M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., East Lynn, Conn.
N orth A m e r ic a n L ace Co., South Langhorne, Pa.
N o rto n Co. See I n d ia n H ill Co., Worcester, Mass.
N o rto n G r in d in g Co. See I n d ia n H ill Co., Worcester, Mass.
O a k l a n d W o r s t e d Co., Oakland, R. I.
O il W ell S uppl y C o ., Pittsburgh, Pa.
O l iv e r -S n y d e r Co., Oliver, Pa.
O ly m p ia C otton M il l s , Columbia, S. C.
O n e id a C o m m u n it y (L t d .), Oneida, N. Y .
O r e n s t e in -A r t h u r K oppel Co. See K o ppel L a n d Co., K oppel, Pa.
O rr C otton M il l , Anderson, S. C.
O rr el l M il l s , Glendale, R . I.
O s b o r n e (F. E .) & Co., Derby, Conn.
P acific M il l s , Lawrence, Mass.
P a c ol et M a n u f a c t u r in g C o ., New Holland, Ga.
P e a c e d a l e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Peacedale, R. I.
P e a r l C otton M il l s , Durham , N. C.
P e e D e e M a n u f a c t u r in g C o ., Rockingham, N. C.
P ell Cit y M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., P ell City, A la.
P e l z e r M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Pelzer, S. C.
P e n n -M a r y St e e l Co., Newark, N .J .
P e n n s y l v a n ia C e m e n t C o ., Bath, Pa.
P e n n s y l v a n ia R. R. C o ., Philadelphia, Pa.
P e n n s y l v a n ia S a lt M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Natrona, Pa.
P e r fe c t i o n T ir e & R u b b e r Co., Fort Madison, Iowa.
P e r t h -A m b o y D r y D ock Co ., Perth Am boy, N. J.
P h e l p s , D o dge C o r p o r a t io n , Tyrone, N. Mex.
P h o e n ix R e f in in g Co., Tulsa, Okla.
P ic k a n d s , M a t h e r & Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
P it t s b u r g h Cr u c ib le S t e e l Co. See M id l a n d I m p r o v e m e n t Co., Midland, Pa.
P it t s b u r g h P late G l a ss Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
P it t s b u r g h R e d u c tio n Co., Massena, N. Y.
P l y m o u t h C o r d a g e Co., Plym outh, Mass.
P l y m o u t h R u b b e r Co., Canton, Mass.
P o c as se t W o r s t e d Co., Providence, R. I.
P o rte r F u e l Co., Porter, Ohio.
P o r t e r d a l e M il l s . See B ib b M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Porterdale, Ga,
P o stu m C e r e a l Co., Battle Creek, Mich.
P r e n d e r g a s t (W. H .), Bridgeton, R. I.
P r in c e s s F u r n a c e Co., Glen Wilton, Va.




LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES.
P o c asset W o rsted Co., Thornton, R. I.
P roctor E llison Co., Elkland, Pa.
P r o x im it y M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Greensboro, N. C.
P u g e t S ou n d T r a c t i o n , L ig h t &

P o w e r Co., Seattle, Wash.

P u llm a n Co., Richm ond, Calif.; Pullman, 111.
P u r it a n W o o le n M il l s , Plymouth, Mass.
R alsto n S t e e l Ca r Co., Columbus, Ohio.
R ed R iv e r L u m b e r C o ., Westwood, Calif.
R e g a l S h o e C o ., Boston, Mass.
R e m in g t o n A r m s -U n io n M etallic C ar t r id g e C o., Bridgeport, Conn.
R epublic C otton M il l s , Great Falls, S. C.
R epublic M otor T r u c k Co., Alma, Mirh.
R epublic R u b b e r C o ., Youngstown, Ohio.
R ich m on d L ace W o r k s , Alton, R. I.
R iv e r s id e &

D a n R i v e r C o tto n M i ll s , Schoolfield, Va.

R iv e r s id e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Anderson, S. C.
R o b e r d e l l M a n u f a c t u r in g C o ., Rockingham, N. C.
R o d m a n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Lafayette, R . I .; Shady Lea, R . I .
R o e b l in g ’ s (J. A .) S o n s Co., Roebling, N. J.
R o g e r s W ir e W o r k s , Belleville, N. J.
R o m e B r a s s & C opper C o ., Rome, N. Y.
R oot & V a n d e r w o o r t E n g in e e r in g C o ., E ast Moline, 111.
R o s l y n F u e l C o ., Beekman, Wash.
R o ss -M e e h a n F o u n d r y C o ., Chattanooga, Tenn.
R o y a l M il l , Riverport, R . I.
T h e R o y c r o f t e r s , East Aurora, N. Y.
R u m fo r d C h e m ic a l W o r k s , Rumford, R . L
S aco -L o w e l l S h o p s , Boston, Mass.

St. L a w r e n c e P y r it e s Co., De Kalb Junction, N . Y.
S t. L o u is S m e ltin g & R e fin in g C o., St. Louis, Mo.
S a m o s e t W o r s te d C o ., Woonsocket, R. I.
S au co n L a n d &’ I m p r o v e m e n t Co ., Bethlehem, Pa.
Subsidiary land company of Bethleh -m Steel Corporation.
S a v a n n a h & A t l a n t a R. R ., Port Wentworth, Ga.
Sa y l e s B l e a c h e r ie s , Saylesville, R. I.
S a y r e & F is h e r Co., Sayreville, N. J.
S ch u tte & K o e r t in g Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
S c h w a r z e n b a c h H u b e r Co., West Hoboken, N. J.
S co ville M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Waterbury, Conn.
S e l b y S h oe Co., Portsmouth, Ohio.
S em in o l e M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Clearwater, S. C.
S e x t o n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co ., Fairfield, 111.
S h e e t & T u b e Co. o f A m e r ic a , Indiana Harbor, Ind.
S h e n a n g o F u r n a c e Co ., Duluth, Minn.
S h e r m a n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Sherman, Tex.
S ib l e y M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Augusta, Ga.
S im o n d s M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Fitchburg, Maas.
S in c l a ir R e f in in g Co., Chicago, 111.
S la te r s ville F in is h in g Co., Slatersville, R . I.
S l o s s -S h e f f ie ld S t e e l & I r o n C o., Birmingham, Ala.
S m u g g l e s L e a s in g Co., Aspen, Colo.
S n o q u a l m ie F a lls L u m b e r Co., Snoqualmie Falls, Wash.
S o l v a y P rocess Co ., Syracuse, N. Y .
S o u t h P enn. O il Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.




281

282

HOUSING BY EMPLOYERS IN TH E UNITED STATES.

S o u t h e r n A l u m in u m Co., Badin, N. C.
Sp a r t a n M il l s , Spartanburg, S. C.
Sp e n c e r W ir e Co., Spencer, Mass.
Sp r a y C otton M il l s , Spray, N. C.
S p ro u t, W a l d r o n &

Co., M uncy, Pa.

Stam fo r d R o lling M il l s , Springdale, Mass.
St a n d a r d B l e a c h e r y Co., Carleton Hill, N. J.
St a n d a r d Sil k Co., Phillipsburg, N. J.
St a n d a r d St e e l Ca r C o ., Hammond, Ind.; Butler, Pa.; Lyndora, Pa.

See L y n d o r a L an d

&

Im p ro v e m en t C o ., Lyndora, Pa.

St e e l e M il l s , Rockingham, N. C.
S te in w a y &

S o n s, New York City.

S te r lin g Ir o n &

R y . C o ., Sterlington, N. Y .

St e tso n (Jo h n B .) C o ., Philadelphia, Pa.
St il l w a t e r W o rsted C o ., Harrisville, R. I.
St r a t h m o r e P a p e r C o ., Mittineague, Mass.
S w if t ’ s M il l s , Elberton, Ga.
T a g g a r t ’ s P a p e r Co., Watertown, N. Y.
T a l b o t M il l s , North Billerica, Mass.
T a y l o r I n s t r u m e n t C o m p a n ie s , Rochester, N. Y .
T id e -W a t e r P ipe L in e Co . (L t d .), T itusville, Pa.
T i m k e n -D etr oit A x l e Co., Detroit, Mich.

T o x a w a y M il l s , Anderson, S. C.
T r a y l o r S h ip b u il d in g C o r p o r a t io n , Cornwall, Pa.
T r u m b u l l -V a n d e r p o e l E lectr ical M f g . C o ., Bantam, Conn.
U n io n F a b r ic Co., Derby, Conn.
U n io n M etallic C a r t r id g e C o .

See R e m in g t o n A r m s -U n io n

M etallic

Ca r ­

C o ., Bridgeport, Conn.
U n io n P o w d e r C o . See H er c u l e s P o w d e r C o ., Wilmington, Del.
t r id ge

U n io n St o n e Co ., Brokaw, Ohio.
U n io n St r e e t R y . C o ., New Bedford, Mass.
U n it e d Cig a r e t t e M a c h in e C o ., Lynchburg, Y a.
U n ite d E n g in e e r in g & F o u n d r y Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Vandergrift, Pa.
U n it e d S h o e M a c h in e r y Co., B everly, Mass.
U n it e d Sta t e s M e ta ls R e f in in g Co., New York City.
U. S. P ortl and Ce m e n t Co., Concrete, Colo.
U. S. St e e l C o r p o r a t io n . See A m e r ic a n I m p r o v e m e n t C o ., Ca r n e g ie L a n d C o .,
G a r y L a n d C o ., M o r g a n P a r k C o ., V a n d e r g r if t L a n d & I m p r o v e m e n t C o .
U n iv e r s a l P ortlan d C e m e n t C o . See G a r y L a n d C o ., Gary, I n d .; M o r g a n
P a r k C o ., Duluth, M inn.
V a l l e y F alls Co., Albion, R. I.
V a l l e y M o u ld & I r o n C o ., Sharpsville, Pa.
V a l l e y Q u e e n M il l , Riverpoint, R . I.
V a n B r u n t M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Horicon, Wis.
Im p ro v e m en t Co., Vandergrift, Pa.
Subsidiary housing company of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., for plants
at Vandergrift, Pa. The latter company is a subsidiary of the U .S . Steel Corpora­
tion.
V a n W ick le (E . S., E state of ), Hazelton, Pa.
V ictor M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Greers, S. C.
V icto r ia M il l s , Thornton, R . I.,
V iscose C o ., Marcus Hook, Pa.
W a l k e r L u m b e r Co., Westwood, Calif.
W a l t h a m W atch C o ., See A m e r ic a n W a lth a m W atch C o ., Waltham, Mass.
V a n d e r g r ift Land &




U S T OF REPRESENTATIVE COMPANIES.

283

W a n s k u c k Co., Nasonville, R. I.
W a r e S h o a l s M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., Ware Shoals, S. C.
W a r r e n A x e & T o o l C o ., Warren, Pa.
W a r r e n M a n u fa c t u r in g C o., Warren, R . I
W a r r e n (S. D .) & C o., Cumberland M ills, Me.
W a r r io r -P r att C o ., Porter, Ala.
W a r w ic k M il l s , Centerville, R. I.
W a t e r b u r y T ool Co., Waterbury, Conn.
W a y n e K n ittin g M il l s , Fort Wayne, Ind.
W e n t z (J. S.) & Co., Hazelton, Pa.
W est B o ylsto n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., East Hampton, Mass
W e s t in g h o u s e A ir b r a k e Co., Wilmerding, Pa.
W estsid e L u m b e r C o .', Torrance, Calif.

:

W h e e l w r ig h t (G e o . W .) P a p e r C o ., Hardwick, Mass.
W hite (E. E .) Coal Co., Glen White, W . Va.
W hite R ock M il l s , W hite R ock, R . I.
W h itin M a c h in e W o r k s , Whitinsville, Mass.
W ie r t in T in -P late Co., W iertin, W . Va.
W illim antic L in e n Co., Williraantic, Conn.
W illim antic T h r e a d C o ., Willimantic, Conn.
W in c h e s t e r R e p e a t in g A rms Co., New Haven, Conn.
W in d h a m M a n u f a c t u r in g C o ., Quidnick, R . I .
W in s lo w B r o t h e r s &

Smith C o ., Norwood, Mass.

W isca sse tt M ills Co., Albemarle, N. C.
W is co n sin St e e l Co., Benham, K y.
W oco B r aid Co., Black Rock, R. I.
W o l f R iv e r P a p er &

F ib r e Co., Shawano, Wis.

,
*

W olf R u n M a n u f a c t u r in g Co., W olf Run, Ohio.
W ood (R . D .) Co., Millville, N. J.
W o o d l a w n L a n d Co., Woodlawn, Pa.

Subsidiary housing company of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
W oodstock C otton M il l , Anniston, Ala.
W oronoco P ap e r Co ., Russell, Mass.
W orth B r o t h e r s C o ., Coatesville, Pa.
Y o u n g s to w n S h e e t & T u b e Co. See B u c k e y e L a n d Co.




Youngstown, Ohio.




SERIES OF BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
[The publication of the annual and special reports and of the bimonthly bulletin was dis­
continued in July, 1912, and since that time a bulletin has been published at irregular inter­
vals. Each number contains matter devoted to one o f a series o f general subjects. These
bulletins are numbered consecutively beginning with No. 101, and up to No. 236 they also
carry consecutive numbers under each series. Beginning with No. 237 the serial numbering
has been discontinued. A list of the series is given below. Under each is grouped all the
bulletins which contain material relating to the subject matter of that series. A list of the
reports and bulletins of the bureau issued prior to July 1, 1912, will be furnished on
application.]
Wholesale Prices.
B ui. 114. W holesale prices, 1890 to 1912.
B ui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1913.
B ui. 173. Index numbers of wholesale prices In the U nited States and foreign countries.
B ui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914.
Bui. 200. W holesale prices, 1890 to 1915.
B ui. 226. W holesale prices, 1890 to 1916.
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
B ui. 105. R etail prices, 1890 to 1911: P a r ti.
R etail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part II—General ta b les.
B ui. 106. R etail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part I.
R etail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part II—General tables.
B ui. 108. R etail prices, 1890 to A ugust, 1912.
B ui. 110. R etail prices, 1890 to October, 1912.
B ui. 113. R etail prices, 1890 to December, 1912.
B ui. 115. R etail prices, 1890 to February, 1913.
B ui. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer.
B ui. 125. R etail prices, 1890 to April, 1913.
Bui. 130. W heat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer.
Bui. 132. R etail prices, 1890 to June, 1913.
B ui. 136. R etail prices, 1890 to August, 1913.
B u i. 138. R etail prices, 1890 to October, 1913.
B u i. 140, R etail prices, 1890 to December, 1913.
B ui. 156. R etail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.
B u i. 164. B utter prices, from producer to consumer.
B ui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
B ui. 184. R etail prices, 1907 to June, 1915.
B ui. 197. R etail prices, 1907 to December, 1915.
B ui. 228. R etail prices, 1907 to December, 1916.
Wages and Hours of Labor.
B ui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employm ent of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the D istrict of Columbia.
B ui. 118. Ten-hour maxim um working day for women and young persons.
B ui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
B ui. 128. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890 to 1912.
B ui. 129. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1890 to 1912.
B ui. 131. U nion scale of wages and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912.
B ui. 134. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit-goods industries, 1890 to
1912.
Bui. 135. Wages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and 1912.
B ui. 137. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1890 to 1912.
B ui. 143. U nion scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1913.
B ui. 146. Wages and regularity of em ploym ent in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
B ui. 147. Wages and regularity of em ploym ent in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
B ui. 150. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1913.
B ui. 151. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steelindustry in the U nited States, 1907 to 1912.
B ui. 153. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 154. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and underwear industries, 1907
to 1913.




Wages and Hours of Laborr—
Continued.
B ui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of wom en in Indiana mercantile establishm ents and
garment factories.
B ui. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
B ui. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913..
B ui. 168. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the U nited States, 1907 to 1913.
B ui. 171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1,1914.
Bui. 177. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the m en’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1914.
Bui. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
B ui. 194. U nion scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1915.
B ui. 204. Street railway employm ent in the U nited States.
B ui. 214. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1916.
B ui. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915.
Bui. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
Bui. 232. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916.
B ui. 238. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1916.
B ui. 239. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing and finishing, 1916.
Bui. 245. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1917.
Bui. 252. Wages and hours of labor in slaughtering and meat-packing industry.
B ui. 259. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, 1918.
B ui. 260. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1918.
B ui. 261. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1918.
Bui. 262. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing and finishing, 1918.
Employment
B ui. 109.
B ui. 172.
B ui. 182.
B ui. 183.
Bui. 192.
B ui. 195.
B ui. 196.
B ui. 202.
B ui. 206.
Bui. 220.
B ui.
Bui.
B ui.
B ui.
B ui.

223.
227.
235.
241.
247.

and Unemployment.
Statistics of unem ploym ent and the work of employm ent offices in the U nited States.
U nem ploym ent in New York City, N . Y. •
U nem ploym ent among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass.
Regularity of employm ent in the wom en’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
Proceedings of the American Association of Public Em ploym ent Offices.
Unem ploym ent in the U nited States.
Proceedings of the Em ploym ent Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis, January, 1916.
Proceedings of the conference of the Em ployem ent Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass.,
held May 10, 1916.
The British system of labor exchanges.
Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Employ­
m ent Offices, Buffalo, N . Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
Em ploym ent of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Proceedings ofthe Em ploym ent Managers’Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., A p r il2 a n d 3 ,1917.
Em ploym ent system of the Lake Carriers’ Association.
Public employm ent offices in the U nited States.
Proceedings of Em ploym ent Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May 9-11,1918.

Women in Industry.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the D istrict of Columbia.
B ui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
B ui. 118. Ten-hour maxim um working-day for women and young persons.
B ui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
B ui. 122. Employm ent of women in power laundries in Milwaukee.
B ui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and
garment factories.
B ui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
B ui. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
Bui. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon.
B ui. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
B ui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass
B ui. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts.
B ui. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts.
Bui. 223. Employm ent of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 253. Women in the lead industry.
Workmen’ s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
B ui. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany.
Bui. 102. B ritish N ational Insurance Act, 1911.
Bui. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland.
B a l. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany.
B ui. 126. Workmen’s compensation laws o fth e U nited States and foreign countries.




(n)

Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto)—Concluded.
Bui 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States,

Bui. 185. Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915.
Bui. 203. Workmen’s compensation laws of the U nited States and foreign countries.
Bui. 210. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children.
Bui. 240. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the U nited States up to December 31,1917.
Bui. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the U nited States and foreign countries, 1917and 1918.
Bui. 248. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
B ui. 264. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
Bui. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories.
Bui. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade.

Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

127.
141.
157.
165.
179.
188.

Bui. 201.
Bui. 205.
B ui. 207.
B ui. 209.
B ui. 216.
B ui. 219.
Bui. 221.
Bui. 230.
Bui. 231.
Bui. 234.
Bui. 236.
Bui. 251.
B ui. 256.

Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection.
Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead.
Industrial accident statistics.
Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries.
Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry.
Report of British departmental committee on danger in the use of lead in the painting of
buildings.
Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [ Limited edition.]
Anthrax as an occupational disease.
Causes of death, by occupation
Hygiene of the printing trades.
Accidents and accident prevention in machine building.
Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Hours, fatigue, and health in B ritish m unition factories.
Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades.
Safety movement in the iron and steel industry. 1907 to 1917.
Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters.
Preventable death in the cotton manufacturing industry.
Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. (Revised.)

Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
Bui. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
Bui. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements.
Bui. 139. Michigan copper district strike.
Bui. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
Bui. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry.
Bui. 198. Collective agreements in the m en’s clothing industry.
Bui. 233. Operation of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of Canada.
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
Bui. 111. Labor legislation of 1912. •
Bui. 112. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912.
Bui. 148. Labor laws of the U nited States, w ith decisions of courts relating thereto.
Bui. 152. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913.
Bui. 166. Labor legislation of 1914.
Bui. 169. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1914.
Bui. 186. Labor legislation of 1915.
Bui. 189. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1915.
Bui. 211. Labor laws and their adm inistration in the Pacific States.
Bui. 213. Labor legislation of 1916.
Bui. 224. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916.
Bui. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the U nited States.
Bui. 244. Labor legislation of 1917.
Bui. 246. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1917.
Bui. 257. Labor legislation of 1918.
Bui. 258. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1918.




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Foreign Labor Laws.

B ui. 142. Adm inistration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.
Vocational Education.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation n the dress and waist industry of New York City.
Bui. 147. Wages and regularity of employm ent in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment,
Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va.
Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn.
Labor as Affected by the War.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 223. Em ploym ent of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain.
Bui. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers Com­
mittee.
Bui. 255. Joint standing industrial councils in Great Britain.
Miscellaneous Series.
Bui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
B ui. 118. Ten-hour maxim um working day for women and young persons.
Bui. 123. Em ployers’ welfare work.
Bui. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
Bui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
BuK 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Bui. 174. Subject index of the publications of the U nited States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to May 1,
1915.
Bui. 208. Profit sharing in the U nited States.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 242. Food situation in Central Europe, 1917.
Bui. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the U nited States.
Bui. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations.




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