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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
CHAS. P. NEILL, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ * 1
W O M E N

IN

I N D U S T R Y

( WHOL E 1 1 £

} NUMBER 1 1 0

S E R I E S :

No .

1

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF
WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES




IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

APRIL 8, 1913

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1913




CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction and summary..................................................................................... 5-7
Scope of the investigation........................................................................................
7
Manner of living, ages, and occupations of women employees............................. 8-13
Department and other retail stores.................................................................. 8-10
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.............................................. 10-12
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.................................. 12,13
Women employed in department and other retail stores...................................... 13-22
Working hours.................................................................................................... 13-18
Overtime worked during Christmas season............................................. 13-15
Normal working hours............................................................................... 15,16
Saturday working hours............................................................................ 16,17
Working hours as reported by employers................................................. 17,18
Duration of employment.................................................................................. 18-20
Weeks employed during year.................................................................... 19
Vacations with pay.................................................................................... 19,20
Weekly earnings................................................................................................20-22
Earnings as reported by individuals compared with rates of pay as
shown by pay rolls..................................................................................20,21
Overtime earnings and earnings from commissions, premiums, etc........ 22
Women employed in manufacturing and mechanical establishments................23-33
Working hours................................................................................................... 23-28
Overtime worked during year...................................................................23,24
Working hours during overtime weeks..................................................... 24, 25
Normal working hours............................................................................... 25
Hours of short day.....................................................................................25,26
Working hours as reported by employers.................................................26-28
Duration of employment.................................................................................. 28,29
Weeks employed during year...................................................................28,29
Vacations with pay.................................................................................... 29
Weekly earnings................................................................................................30-33
Earnings as reported by individuals........................................................ 30
Effect of overtime on earnings.................................................................. 31,32
Rates of pay as shown by pay rolls.......................................................... 32,33
Women employed in hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments----33-37
Working hours.................. ................................................................................. 33-35
Average and maximum weekly hours...................................................... 33
The seven-day week.................................................................................. 34
Maximum working-day.............................................................................. 34
Working hours as reported by employers................................................. 35
Duration of employment.................................................................................. 36
Weekly earnings................................................................................................ 36,37
Detailed Table.—Hours of labor, earnings, and duration of employment of
wage-earning women, Washington, D. C............................................................ 38-65
Department and other retail stores.................................................................. 38-53
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.............................................. 54-61
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.................................. 62-65




3




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
w h o le n o .

116.

W A S H IN G T O N .

APRIL 8> 1913*

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF W AGEEARNING W OM EN IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN THE DISTRICT
OF COLUMBIA

.1

B Y M A R IE

L . O B E N A T JE R .

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

This report relates to the hours, earnings, and duration of employ­
ment of working women in the District of Columbia. Three classes
of employees are considered, viz, those in department and other retail
stores, those in manufacturing and mechanical establishments, and
those in hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.
The largest employment of women in the District of Columbia is
found in the retail^ stores. The pay rolls of 13 stores showed a total
of 2,670 female employees on December 1, 1912. Of these employees,
332 were visited in connection with this investigation and detailed
information was secured from 269. About 78 per cent lived at home;
of those reporting as to age, 37 per cent were under 20 and 36 per
cent from 20 to 25 years of age; of those reporting as to race and
conjugal condition, 75 per cent were American white and 86 per cent
were single.
Over four-fifths of these women in department and other retail
stores worked from 55 to 59 hours per week and nearly 4 per cent
worked 60 hours or over. The amount of overtime during the
Christmas holiday season is significant. Of those reporting on this
subject, 90 per cent worked overtime during the week preceding
Christmas, 34 per cent of these being on duty from 70 to 74 hours
and 35 per cent 75 hours or over.
i This Bulletin is in continuation of the series of studies on Women in Industry represented by the fol­
lowing reports already published, relating to other localities or industries: Wage-Earning Women in
Stores and Factories in Boston, Chicago, Minneapolis and St. Paul, New York City, Philadelphia, and
St. Louis (printed as Volume V of the Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-Eamers in the
United States, Senate Document No. 645,61st Congress, 2d session); Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Labor
No. 91, Working Hours of Wage-Earning Women in Selected Industries in Chicago; Bulletin of theU. S.
Bureau of Labor No. 96, Working Hours, Earnings, and Duration of Employment of Women Workers
in Selected Industries of Maryland and of California.




6

BULLETIN OF THE BTJBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Aside from the excessive overtime during the Christmas holidays
the most noteworthy fact concerning the work of women in the
department and retail stores is the prevailing long hours on Satur­
day. During the regular or normal season only 1 per cent worked
fewer hours on Saturday than on other days of the week, 37 per cent
had the same hours as on other days, and 62 per cent worked 11 hours
or over. Of those who worked overtime, 92 per cent received no
extra pay for such work, and for the small number who received extra
pay the amount in no case exceeded $15 for the whole season. Of
the women who reported an industrial experience of 1 year or more,
80 per cent were employed from 48 to 52 weeks during the year pre­
vious to December 1, 1912, and the average duration of employment
was 47.65 weeks.
The wages of nearly three-fifths of the store women reporting were
less than $7 per week. The average weekly earnings of 252 women
furnishing individual reports were $6.55, as against $6.75 for the
2,670 women on the pay rolls.
According to the census of 1910, 828 women in the District of
Columbia were employed in manufacturing and mechanical estab­
lishments, excluding laundries, and it is estimated that the laundry
workers would increase the total to about 1,500. Of these women,
164 were interviewed, of whom 74 per cent lived at home. Of those
reporting as to age, 28 per cent were under 20 and 36 per cent from
20 to 25 years of age; and of those reporting as to race and conjugal
condition, 64 per cent were American white, 18 per cent were American
colored, and 75 per cent were single.
Of the women in manufacturing and mechanical establishments
who reported as to hours of work, 55 per cent worked from 48 to 54
hours, 27 per cent from 55 to 59 hours, and more than 10 per cent,
worked 60 hours or over per week. Fifty per cent worked overtime
and of these nearly 43 per cent worked 65 hours or more during over­
time weeks and 32 per cent from 60 to 64 hours. In contrasting the
per cent who worked overtime in this industry group with the 90 per
cent working overtime in department and other retail stores, it should
be remembered that for the stores only the women reporting overtime,
during the Christmas holidays are included, the length of time during
which overtime prevailed never exceeding 2 weeks, while in manu­
facturing and mechanical establishments women reporting overtime
in any part of the year are included, over 40 per cent of these working
overtime from 2 to 6 weeks and a small proportion for a half year or
more. The average duration of employment during the year pre­
vious to December 1, 1912, was 45.29 weeks, and 59 percent of the
women worked from 48 to 52 weeks.
The average weekly wages of the women reporting in this industrial
group were $7.13, or 58 cents more than the average for those in de­



WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

7

partment and other retail stores, the difference being accounted for
in great measure by the fact that 61 per cent of the overtime workers
in manufacturing and mechanical establishments received extra pay
for overtime, while only 8 per cent of the overtime workers in stores
received extra pay. Pay roll data indicate an average wage rate
of only $5.74 in manufacturing and mechanical establishments, but
this is based upon a flat weekly wage and does not include over­
time pay nor wages of some of the better-paid employees, such as
those in the alteration rooms, which were included in the individual
reports.
Detailed information was secured from 50 women in hotels, restau­
rants, and miscellaneous establishments. Of these, 10 per cent were
under 20, 28 per cent from 20 to 25, and 36 per cent from 26 to 40 years
of age; 67 per cent of those reporting as to race were American white
and 19 per cent American colored; 44 per cent were single, 28 per cent
married, and 28 per cent widowed, divorced, or separated.
The chief features of the working conditions of this group are the
Sunday work and the frequency of night work. Thirty per cent
worked on the average from 55 to 59 hours a week and 28 per cent 60
hours or over. Seventy-two per cent worked 7 days in the week and
more than half of these reported no short day during the week.
Nearly one-third of all in this industry group reported maximum
working days of more than 12 hours. Eighty per cent of the women
reporting as to duration of employment worked from 48 to 52 weeks
during the year. Of those reporting as to earnings, 69 per cent
earned from $3 to $3.99, but it should be noted that nearly four-fifths
of these were getting room and board in addition to their wages.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION.

The data forming the basis of this report on hours, earnings, and
duration of employment of women at work in trade, manufacturing
and mechanical establishments, and in hotels, restaurants, etc., were
drawn both from employers and from employees or members of their
immediate families. The agents of the Bureau called at the homes
of approximately 550 women workers, and secured more or less com­
plete data for 468 of them. After these schedules were grouped
according to industries and occupations, and then according to work­
ing hours and weekly earnings, the employers were called upon for
pay-roll data and for the schedule of working hours. This informa­
tion is so arranged as to afford opportunity for comparison. The
wage earners and employing establishments are grouped under three
heads, viz: Department and other retail stores; manufacturing and
mechanical establishments; and hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous
establishments.



8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

MANNER OF LIVING, AGES, AND OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN
EMPLOYEES.
D E P A RTM E N T AND O TH ER R E TA IL ST O R E S.

The department and other retail stores are larger employers of
women than either the manufacturing and mechanical industries, or
the hotels and restaurants, the pay rolls for i3 establishments visited
showing on December 1, 1912, over 2,600 female employees.1 Be­
cause of the time of the year at which the pay rolls were copied, this
figure represents the maximum rather than the average number em­
ployed. The indications are that the average would be approxi­
mately 2,000.
Three hundred and thirty-two calls were made at the addresses of
these department and other retail store girls, and pertinent informa­
tion secured either from the girls themselves or members of their
immediate families. Practically complete schedules were secured
from 269, or 81 per cent, of the 332 women visited. The following
table indicates the number of women living at home and the number
boarding or lodging:
W OM EN IN DEPARTM ENT AND OTHER R ET AIL STORES BOARDING, LODGING, OR
LIVING AT HOME OR W IT H R ELATIV ES.
Number.

Per cent.

Women living at home or with relatives..............................................................................
Women boarding, lodging, or keeping house independently.............................................

268
74

77.7
22.3

Total women interviewed..............................................................................................

332

100.0

More than a third of the 269 women from whom industrial data
were secured were under 20 years of age and slightly more than a
fourth were over 25 years. The ages of four-fifths of these women
shown in the above table as boarding, lodging, or living independently
fell in the last two groups shown in the following table, summarizing
the ages:
AGE OF W OMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTM ENT AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES.
Age group.
Under 20 years.............................................................................................................................
20 to 25 years................................................................................................................................
Over 25 v«ars_________ ___________________________________________________________

Number. Per cent.
37.1
36.3
26.6

1267

Total number renortinff

99
97
71

100.0

1 Not including 2 women whose ages were not reported.

About 42 per cent of the women from whom industrial information
was secured are employed in the exclusive dry goods and specialties
stores or in department stores in which considerable experience on the




i See table on p. 21.

WAGE-EARHIHG W OM EH IK THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

9

part of the selling force is demanded. Over 50 per cent are employed
in the other large department and candy stores. Only about 5 per
cent were employed in the small neighborhood stores. Practically,
therefore, the information is not applicable to the small retail estab­
lishments either in the center of the city or in the outlying districts.
That the working hours in these small establishments are longer
than in the large department stores, and that the wages are as low
in the former as in the latter, seem to be indicated by the fact that
the dozen or more women from such establishments from whom data
were obtained show some of the longest hours and lowest weekly
wages listed in the detailed table at the close of this report.
The proportion of women scheduled from stores dealing exclusively in
dry goods and specialties and from higher grade department stores is a
fair weighting of the industrial data, according to the reports of the
proprietors of such establishments. The data submitted by employers
show that approximately 41 per cent were employed in this group of
stores, in which the 42 per cent of the women concerning whom the
Bureau secured personal and industrial data were at work.
It is important to know, further, that the proportion of women
employed in the several occupations, such as that of saleswoman,
cash girl, etc., is substantially the same in the group of women con­
cerning whom individual information was secured as that shown by
the data taken from the pay rolls. This appears in the following
table, which shows the per cent of women in each occupation:
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF W OM EN FURNISHING IN D IV ID U AL REPORTS IN EACH
OCCUPATION GROUP IN D EPARTM ENT AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES COMPARED
W IT H NUM BER AND PER CENT IN EACH OCCUPATION GROUP AS SHO W N B Y P A Y ­
ROLL D AT A SECURED FROM EM PLOYERS.
Women reported on—

Occupation.

Individual
schedules.

Pay rolls.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Cash girls, messengers, bundle wrappers, errand girls, etc...........
Inspectors (cashiers).............................................................................
Saleswomen............................................................................................
Office help (clerical)..............................................................................
Other employees, including department heads and buyers.........

19
7
192
30
20

7.1
2.6
71.6
11.2
7.5

267
45
1,760
252
346

0.0
1.7
65.9
9.4
13.0

Total.............................................................................................

1 268

100.0

2,670

100.0

1 Occupation of 1 of the 269 individuals scheduled not reported.

The data concerning individual women are therefore fairly repre­
sentative both as to skill and experience as reflected in the grades
of stores included and in the proportion of women employed in the
several occupations.
As might be expected, the large majority of the women employed
in the stores are American white, according to the individual reports.



10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The table below shows that less than 25 per cent were other than
American. As might be expected, too, from the larger proportion
of younger women in the stores, the table also shows that there is
a larger proportion of single women than in either of the other two
industrial classifications, 85.5 per cent of the women in the stores
being unmarried—if the number individually reporting is fairly
representative.
RACE OR N A T IO N A L ITY AN D CONJUGAL CONDITION OF W AG E-EAR N IN G W OM EN IN
D EPAR TM ENT AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES.

Single.

Widowed, divorced,
or separated.

Married.

Total.

Race or nationality.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number.

American, white........
Hebrew........................
Irish.............................
German........................
Other nationalities. . .
Not reported...............

155
28
14
10
6
17

84.2
96.6
100.0
90.9
85.7
70.8

16

8.7

13
1

7.1
3.4

1
1
3

9.1
14.3
12.5

Total..................

230

85.5

21

4

7.8

18

Per cent
of each
race or
nation­
ality.^
75.1
11.8
5.7
4.5
2.9

16.7

184
29
14
11
7
24

6.7

269

100.0

i Per cent based on total number reporting nationality.
M A N U F A C T U R IN G AN D M E C H A N IC AL E S T A B L IS H M E N T S .

The census for 1910 reports an average of 828 women at work in
the manufacturing and mechanical industries, exclusive of the women
in the steam laundries. The Census Bulletin1 dealing with manu­
factures in the District of Columbia does not group the wage earners
in steam laundries according to sex. It reports an average of 993
wage earners of both sexes. It is not, therefore, possible to say
how many women are employed in the 17 steam laundries reported
as operating in the District during 1909. However, basing an esti­
mate upon the proportion of women to men in steam laundries
generally, it is probably not far out of the way to assume that 650,
or nearly two-thirds of the wage earners, are women. In other
words, including the steam laundries, there are about 1,500 women
employed in the mechanical and manufacturing industries of the
District of Columbia.
One hundred and sixty-four, or over 10 per cent, of the women
employed in this group of industries furnished individual reports as
to manner of living, and 149 as to age, conjugal condition, and
hours, earnings, and duration of employment.
i Thirteenth Census, 1910, Manufactures: District of Columbia, p. 9. These figures can not be compared
with the figures in the forthcoming Bulletin from the Population Division of the Census because the infor­
mation for the Bulletin of Manufactures is secured in the establishments, while that for the Population is
Secured by the agents of the Census in house-to-house canvass.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

11

The table below shows how many were living at home and how
many were boarding, lodging, or living independently.
W OM EN IN

M ANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS
LODGING, OR LIVING A T HOME OR W IT H R ELATIVES.

BOARDING,

Number. Per cent.
Women liv in g at home or with relatives..............................................................................
Women boarding, lodging, or keeping house independently...,.......................................

122
42

74.4
25.6

Total women interviewed..............................................................................................

164

100.0

It will be observed from the foregoing table that over a fourth of
the women visited were boarding, lodging, or keeping house inde­
pendently, while the individual reports for department and other
retail store women showed but 22.3 per cent of those visited to be
living otherwise than at home or with relatives. This difference is
due probably to the fact that there are not so many women of maturer years employed in the department and other retail stores as are
found in the manufacturing industries. The older women are more
frequently found to be without homes than the younger ones, owing
to the normal disintegrating process of the family as a unit when the
children grow into maturity.
AGE OF W OM EN EM PLOYED IN MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTAB­
LISHMENTS.

Age group.

Number. Per cent.

Under 20 years.............................................................................................................................
20 to 25 years...............................................................................................................................
Over 25 years...............................................................................................................................

40
52
53

27.6
35.8
36.6

Total number reporting..................................................................................................

1145

100.0

i Not including 4 women whose ages were not reported.

The industries in which most of the women visited were employed
were steam laundries, manufacture of paper boxes, confectionery, and
patent medicine, printing and publishing, tailoring and dressmaking,
millinery, outing goods manufacture, and telephone exchange service.
The table below shows that 25, or 17.7 per cent, of the women in
this group of industries who personally reported were of the colored
race. It should be said that 24 of these were employed in the laun­
dries. In other words, 54.5 per cent of the 44 laundry women per­
sonally reporting were colored.




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RACE OR N A T IO N A L IT Y AN D CONJUGAL CONDITION OF W A G E -EAR N IN G W O M EN IN
M ANUFACTURING AN D MECHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

Single.

Widowed, divorced,
or separated?

Married.

Total.

Race or nationality.
Number. Per cent. Number. Percent. Number. Per cent. Number.

American, white........
American, colored . . .
German........................
Hebrew........................
Other nationalities. . .
Not reported...............

72
12
5
6
10
6

80.0
48.0
71.4
85.7
83.3
75.0

11
7

12.2
28.0

1
2
1

Total..................

111

74.5

22

7
6
2

7.8
24.0
28.6

14.3
17.7
12.5

1

14.8

16

Per cent
of each
race or
nation­
ality.1
63.8
17.7
5.0
5.0
8.5

12.5

90
25
7
7
12
8

10.7

149

100.0

1 Per cent based on total number reporting nationality.

H OTELS, R E STA U R A N T S, AND M ISCELLAN EO U S E STA B L IS H M E N TS.

The third group of women workers concerning whom information
was received are employed in the down-town hotels, restaurants, and
at cleaning in the public buildings. The figures apply to none of the
apartment-house hotels, but only to hotels in the heart of the city
catering to a strictly transient patronage. In none of these hotels
are women employed as waitresses, such work being done exclusively
by men. The work at which women are chiefly engaged is chamber
work and char work. Women are employed also as pantry and parlor
maids, glass washers, linen clerks, etc., but not in large numbers in
any one occupation. In the restaurants where popular prices prevail,
women are employed as waitresses. The total number of women
employed in the 12 establishments visited is 382. Fifty, or 13 per cent,
of these women were personally interviewed, and the information they
gave was supplemented by hours and earnings data secured from their
employers.
The information as to the proportion of women in this group who
are living at home or otherwise is not comparable with the same infor­
mation concerning the other groups because of the custom of giving
housing or meals or both in addition to wages for hotel and restaurant
service.
The ages of these 50 women are summarized in the following table:
AGE OF W OM EN

EM PLO YED

IN HOTELS, R ESTAU RAN TS, AND
ESTABLISHMENTS.

Age group.
Under 20 years..........................
20 to 25 years.............................
26 to 40 years.............................
Over 40 years............................
Total number reporting




MISCELLANEOUS

Per cent.

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

13

The small per cent of women under 20 years and the large per cent
of women over 25 as compared with the women at work in the stores
and in the manufacturing industries constitute the striking feature of
this table. A corollary of this fact which is not apparent in the table
is the much larger proportion of married, divorced, or deserted women
among those employed in hotels, restaurants, etc., than among the
other two groups of women wage earners.
Of the 50 women employed in hotels, restaurants, etc., and per­
sonally reporting, 9, or nearly a fifth, were colored. More significant,
however, is the conjugal condition of this group of 50 women, as
shown in the following table. Only 44 per cent compared with 85.5
per cent in the stores, and 74.5 per cent in the manufacturing in­
dustries, were single. The difference is due perhaps to the fact that
hotel and restaurant work is more akin to domestic labor, and the
married women overtaken by misfortune more readily find a field for
service there than in organized trade or manufacture.
RACE OR N A T IO N A L IT Y AND CONJUGAL CONDITION OF W A G E -E A R N IN G W O M EN IN
HOTELS, R ESTAURANTS, AN D MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS.

Widowed, divorced,
or separated.

Married.

Single.

Total.

Race or nationality.
Number. Per cent. Number. Pot cent. Number. Per cent. Number.

American, white........
American, colored
Other nationalities...
Not reported...............

17

53.1

5
8

15.6
88.9

4
1

57.1
50.0

1

50.0

Total.................

22

44.00

28.00

Per cent
of each
race or
national­
ity.1

10
1
3

31.3
11.1
42.9

32
9
7
2

66.7
18.7
14.6

14

28.00

50

100.0

i Per cent based on total number reporting nationality.

WOMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES.
W O R K IN G HOU RS.
O V E R T IM E

W ORKED

D U R IN G

C H R IS T M A S

SEASON.

The significant feature of the working hours in Washington depart­
ment stores is the overtime during the week or more before Christmas.
As this information was gathered previous to the Christmas of 1912,
the overtime appearing in the tables and tabulations applies to the
Christmas season of the year 1911. While there were evidences of
some improvement this year in specific instances, interviews secured
with individual women after Christmas, 1912, indicate no considerable
reduction in the overtime compared with that demanded a year ago.
The overtime season in the department stores, except in the alteration
rooms, is confined largely to the week before Christmas, but for this



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

week the working hours are impressively long and should be taken
into consideration with the fact that they come as a climax to a busy
season of four to six weeks when the tension of service is steadily
increasing though the working hours have remained practically the
same.
The overtime in the alteration and manufacturing rooms of the
department stores is more extended as it is an adjunct of the suit and
millinery divisions, where the busy season is not concentrated in the
Christmas season but extends over a number of weeks in the spring and
fall. Because the demands of such work are rather those of a manu­
facturing industry than of a retail trade, the women employed in the
alteration rooms of the department stores and personally interviewed
have been classified, as have other fitters and sewing women in this
report, with women at work in manufactures. Less than 15 per cent
of the women in the stores are employed in the alteration rooms.
Overtime in the selling departments during other than the holiday
season is occasioned by the preparation for or by the aftermath of
special sales and by stock taking. That neither is considerable when
compared with the working hours of the Christmas season or the regular
Saturday night work throughout both the normal and busy seasons,
is shown by individual tabulations at the end of this report.
The prevalence of overtime work during the holidays is shown by
the fact that 188, or 90 per cent, of the 209 women reporting worked
overtime during the week preceding Christmas. The overtime work
of these 188 women is summarized in the following table:
SUMMARY OF OVERTIME W O R K E D IN DEPARTM EN T AN D OTHER R E T A IL STORES
DURING CHRISTMAS SEASON OF 1911, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L REPORTS.

Period of overtime worked during Christmas season, 1911.

W o m e n working
overtime during
Christmas season.
Number. Per cent.

Less frhan i week.........................................................................................................................
1 to 2 weeks..................................................................................................................................

19
169

9.1
80.9

Total working overtime.....................................................................................................
U88
90.0
21
Women working no overtime.............................................................................................
10.0
Total number reporting..................................................................................................

209

100.0

i Not including 5 who reported overtime but not during the Christmas season.

The detailed table at the close of this report shows that of the
269 women for whom detailed industrial data were secured 109, or
approximately 40.5 per cent, worked 72 hours or more the week
before Christmas, making 12 hours or more a day for 6 consecutive
days. More than one-fourth of these worked an average of 13 hours
a day. However, the detailed tabulations referred to show that the
working hours were not evenly divided, but rose frequently the day



WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

15

before Christmas to 14 or 15 hours. The number reporting a 14 or
15 hour “ day before Christmas” explains the large number of reports
to the Bureau’s agents indicating that Christmas was a day of rest
rather than of festivity.
Twenty-one, or 10 per cent, of the 209 women individually reporting
and at work during the Christmas season, did no overtime work at
all during this period. Nearly two-thirds, however, report 70 hours
or more as the maximum week. The table below, which is based only
upon reports from the 188 women working overtime during the
Christmas season, summarizes the information contained in the
detailed tabulation concerning the working hours during this season.
W O R K IN G HOURS OF W OM EN W O RK ING OVERTIME IN D EPAR TM EN T AN D OTHER
R E T A IL STORES DURING CHRISTMAS SEASON OF 1911, AS SHO W N B Y IN D IV ID U AL
REPORTS.

Women
working
specific d weekly
hours.

Classified weekly working hours.

Number. Per cent.
Less
60 hOUTS................................................................................................................................................
60 to 64 hours...............................................................................................................................
65 to 69 hours...............................................................................................................................
70 to 74 hours...............................................................................................................................
75 to 79 hours ...............................................................................................................................
80 to 82 hours...............................................................................................................................

4
20
35
64
59
6

2.1
10.6
18.6
34.1
31.4
3.2

Total women working overtime...................................................................................

188

100.0

N O R M A L W O R K IN G

HOURS.

The working hours during the normal season for more than fourfifths of the women from whom information was secured ranged be­
tween 55 and 59 per week, as shown by the following table:
SUMMARY OF NORMAL W ORKING HOURS IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER R ETAIL
STORES, AS SHOWN B Y INDIVIDUAL REPORTS.

Classified weekly working hours.

Women
working
specified weekly
hours.
Number. Per cent.

48 to 54 hours...............................................................................................................................
55 to 59 hours...............................................................................................................................
60 to 64 hours...............................................................................................................................
65 to 69 hours...............................................................................................................................
70 hours or over...........................................................................................................................
Total women reporting...................................................................................................

43
1216
24

16.0
80.3
1.5

46

2.2

269

100.0

(3
)

1 Including 7 who worked shorter hours a part of the time, but for the greater part of the normal season
their hours ranged between 55 and 59 hours, inclusive, a week.
2 Including 1 who worked less than 60 hours for part of the normal season.
3 Five worked 70 hours or more for 50 per cent or more of the normal season, working between 65 and 69
hours for the rest of the season.
« Including 1 who worked in 2 establishments, in 1 of which 50 per cent of her season was over 70 hours
and the rest 63 hours per week.




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The cases of 60 hours and over shown in the foregoing table are
largely due to work in small retail stores which require service alter­
nating Sundays or every third Sunday. As stated before, this grade
of stores is very slightly represented in this study.
SATURDAY

W O R K IN G

HOURS.

Aside from the long hours during the Christmas season, the most
impressive thing about the working hours in department and other
retail stores in Washington is the prevailing long Saturday during
the normal seasons.
The proportion of individual reports showing a long Saturday
during the normal season is revealed in the following summary.
According to this, 62 per cent of the women were working from 11
to 12 hours and more on Saturday all during the normal or regular
season.
SA T U R D A Y W O R K IN G HOURS DU RING NO R M AL SEASON IN D EPAR TM EN T AND
OTHER R E T A IL STORES, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L R EPORTS.

Classified hours worked on Saturday.

Women reporting
specified working
hours on Satur­
day.
Number. Per cent.

More than 12 hours......................................................................................................................
11 to 12 hours................................................................................................................................
Same as other days.....................................................................................................................
Working shorter hours than other days.................................................................................

11
156
99
3

4.1
58.0
36.8
1.1

Total number rp.pnrt.ing..................................................................................................

269

100.0

A number of the stores report two dull seasons, one immediately
following Christmas and the other during July, August, and frequently
a part of September. During the summer dull season a number of
the women individually scheduled reported a half holiday, or rather
a 1 o’clock closing hour which allowed nearly a half holiday, if not
quite. In a large number of these cases, however, the Saturday
working hours for the other dull season were longer than the regular
working hours. The tabular summary below reveals the number
and per cent of women reporting shorter working hours on Saturday
during one dull season.




WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

17

NUM BER OF W OM EN EM PLOYED IN D EPAR TM EN T AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES
ACCORDING TO TIME W O R K E D ON SA T U R D A Y DURING D U L L SEASONS.

Number. Per cent.
Women who reported having a Tig-if holiday during summer dull season1....................
Women who reported as working usual dull-season day on Saturday............................
Women who reported as working more than regular schedule on Saturday of at least
one dull season and having no h holidays during the other season...........................
yt-if

2 80
18

34.6
7.8

133

57.6

Total number reporting................................................................................................

231

100.0

1 All those reporting a 1 o’clock closing hour have been counted as enjoying a half holiday, even though
the working hours were a little more than half the regular day.
2 Including 1 who reported working less than regular hours on Saturday, but did not receive a half holiday.
W O R K IN G

HOURS

AS

REPORTED

BY

EM PLOYERS.

The working hours as reported by employers show some discrepan­
cies when compared with the individual reports, principally with
reference to the working hours for the week before Christmas. These
are due largely to differences in reports concerning the time allowed
for lunch and the time of closing one or more nights before Christmas.
The employers generally emphasized the 9 or 10 o’clock closing hour,
but as customers are usually in the store when the doors are closed
against newcomers, some of the saleswomen at least stay beyond
the exact closing hour. Frequently, too, a girl is not able to get
her stock in such order as to permit her to leave promptly and such
overtime did not figure in the employers’ report, though it did
naturally in the individual’s own report. The lunch hour was ordi­
narily a half or three-quarters of an hour, but many individual
reports showed that, during Christmas week especially, time allowed
for meals was materially shortened. In some instances employers
themselves stated that when rushed, employees were asked at times
to take “ no more time for meals than was absolutely necessary,”
but emphasized the half or three-quarters of an hour lunch period.
All these differences in emphasis account for the discrepancies
between the working hours shown in the individual reports and those
shown on the following summary of working hours reported by
employers.

84525°—13-----2




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

18

HOURS OF LABO R OF WOMEN EM PLO YED IN D EP AR TM EN T A N D O THER R E T A IL
STORES DUR ING N ORM AL PERIODS AN D DU R IN G RUSH SEASONS OF Y E A R P R E­
VIOUS TO DECEM BER, 1912, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLO YER S.

Working period during
Christmas season only.

Working period, exclusive of Christmas season.2

Num­
When hours were
ber of
Normal season.
extended for
Dull season.
wo­
stock taking.
men
Es- emtabWorking
Working
Working
lish- P T
le
hours.
hours.
hours.s
ment dur­
num­ ing
ber. week
Num­ Aver­
Num­
of
Num­
Sat­
ber of age
ber of Sat­
Dec. ber of
ur­ Aver­ weeks. num­ Max­ weeks. ur­ Aver­
Usu­ day, age
ber imum
day, age
1912.1
al
over­ week­
or week­
or weekday. long
time ly.
short lylyday.
per
day.
week.

1
,

51*

}l2*

152

28

11*

478

33*

11*

13

4*
8
3*
2

789

8

36§

419

3*
1

95

32|

37

5f
0

3

I lf
9

9*

25

n

64
79
36

42*

9

200

19
4
28*

u4

80*

21

57f
39 \
None.
57 /
None.
54 None.

57f

15*

57

64

17*

57
i

16#

2
2

None.

78
5*

1255*

None.

54 None.
561 None.
55*
54

18*
13

2
1
1

None.

12*

1

78

13

1

76*

14

3*

75*

13

1

74*
70*
70*

131

8 74*

11
2

1 70*
0

70*

13

70*

67*

13§

61
7

621

11*

60

11

None.
61f

571

1 * ii56|
1
if } 5 4

575

13 13

464* None.

Num­
ber of Working hours.
weeks
in
which
work­
ing
hours
were
ex­ Aver­ Day Max­
tend­ age before imum
ed. week­ Christ­ week­
mas.
ly.
ly-

54f
50*
54f
50*

(“4
9
1

551
50f
50
54
47*
511
49*

n

None.
3*

25*

?
<“ )
23*

ii
l
H

49*
52*
46*
44f
50*
*48*
51
45

> i

8

»78
76*
75*

7
12* 9 1

621
9 60

►
None,

1 Or nearest representative week.

2 Exclusive of hours prevailing in workrooms.

3 Bracketed hours indicate two or more dull seasons.
* Work 9 hours per day 3 days in the week and 12* hours 3 days, 2 employees working 9 hours on Sunday,
making the weekly hours 73* every fourth week for each employee.
&Two women employed in the office reported 81 and 82 hours, respectively.
6 Day and night snift. Three work 6* nours each day on night shift, each employee taking turns by
weeks, making the weekly hours 39 every fourth week instead of the 57 hours when on the day shift.
7 Work 9* hours on Monday.
s Twenty-three women scheduled reported a maximum week from 31 to 6 hours in excess of 74*.
• Two women scheduled reported from 5 to 7 hours in excess of hours reported by firm.
i° Four women scheduled reported from 41 to 5* hours in excess of the hours reported by firm.
1 Not including 1 hour per week allowed for shopping.
1
12 For 2 weeks prior to Christmas lunch hour is cut from f to * hour, making 9* hours per day, 57 hours
per week.
1 No report for months prior to July 1,1912; records destroyed,
3
w No report for months prior to Oct. 1,1912; records destroyed.

DU RATIO N OF E M PLO Y M E N T.

To judge fairly of the steadiness of employment afforded in the
department and other retail stores of Washington, it is necessary to
eliminate from consideration those who had gone to work for the first
time during the period covered by this investigation, i. e., one year
previous to December 1, 1912.



WAGE-EARNING WOM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
WEEKS

EM PLOYED

D U R IN G

THE

19

YEAR.

Of the 269 women concerning whom detailed information was
secured, 212, or nearly four-fifths, had been wage earners for a year
or more. An interruption in the year’s employment was occasionally
due to illness or other cause not chargeable to the industry. Because
these causes were so inconsiderable they have not been taken into
account in the following summary:
NUM BER OF W E E K S EM PLOYM ENT DURING Y E A R REPO R TED B Y W OM EN HAVING
ONE OR MORE Y E A R S ’ IND USTR IAL EXPER IEN CE IN DEPAR TM EN T AND OTHER
R ETAIL STORES.
Women reporting
specifieid number
weeks’ employment.

Classified weeks of employment.

Number. Per cent.
48 to 52 weeks..............................................................................................................................
44 to 47 weeks..............................................................................................................................
40 to 43 weeks..............................................................................................................................
36 to 39 weeks..................................................................................... ^.......................................
32 to 35 weeks..............................................................................................................................
26 to 31 weeks..............................................................................................................................
Less than 26 weeks.....................................................................................................................

170
16
5
7
3
5
6

80.2
7.5
2.4
3.3
1.4
2.4
2.8

Total...................................................................................................................................

212

100.0

Average number of weeks employed.....................................................................................

47.65

It will be observed from the above summary that approximately
four-fifths were employed for from 48 to 52 weeks during the year
previous to December 1, 1912. It is important to take this fact into
adequate consideration when comparing the weekly earnings of the
women employed in department and other retail stores with the
earnings of other groups of women workers.
V A C A T IO N S

W IT H

PAY.

Attention should be called here also to the fact that in some of the
stores the women who have been employed continuously in the same
establishment for a year, and in some instances for a year and a half,
are granted a vacation of a week or more with pay. In such instances
the vacation has not, of course, beeji deducted from the total weeks of
employment, as it does not represent a loss of earnings. A footnote,
however, marks every such case in the individual tabulations.
A summary of the vacations with pay reported for the women indi­
vidually scheduled ajid at work for more than a year in the same
establishment is presented in the following table, from which it ap­
pears that 47.2 per cent of those at work m the same establishment
for one year or more had vacations with pay. In the two cases for
which more than three weeks’ vacation with pay was reported the
workers were granted additional leave with pay because of illness.
In one case the custom was to grant one week’s vacation with pay
and in the other, two weeks. As the workers credited the manage­



20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ments with a disposition to be liberal toward old employees when ill,
and the purpose of these individual schedules was to set forth the
actual facts for the period covered by this study, both cases have been
listed as having more than two weeks7vacation with pay during the
year previous to December 1, 1912.
VACATIONS W IT H PAY FOR W OM EN IN D IV ID U A LL Y REPORTING AND AT W O R K IN
THE SAME STORE FOR A Y E A R OR MORE.
Women reporting
specified number
of weeks’ vacation
with pay.

Classified weeks of vacation with pay.

Number. Per cent.
1 week............................................................................................................................................
2 weeks.........................................................................................................................................
3 weeks..........................................................................................................................................
More than 3 weeks.....................................................................................................................

64
32
2
2

64.0
32.0
2.0
2.0

Total granted vacation with pay...................................................................................
W omen granted no vacation with pay.....................................................................................

100
112

47.2
52.8

Total number reporting..................................................................................................

212

100.0

W EE K LY EARN INGS.
E A R N IN G S A S R E P O R T E D
PAY

BY

AS

IN D IV ID U A L S

SHOW N

BY

COM PARED

PAY

W IT H

RATES

OF

ROLLS.

Without exception the system of payment shown by the individual
schedules and returns from employers alike was a flat weekly rate.
The average weekly earnings during the period of employment is
noted in the detailed tabulations for each woman scheduled, except
where such information was not obtainable or was not sufficiently
definite for other than footnote entry. Arranged in wage groups the
data from individual schedules and pay rolls show the following dis­
tribution of weekly earnings and weekly rate of pay:
CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF W OM EN EM PLOYED IN DEPARTM EN T AND
O THER R E T A IL STORES, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L REPORTS AND B Y ESTABLISH­
M ENT P A Y ROLLS, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

Data from individual reports.
Women whose weekly earnings were within each
classified amount.
To­
tal.

Aver­
age
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

14
3

19
6
179
29

$2.93
7.16
6.36
6.53

15

18

13.15

32 3 252

6.55

Occupation.
$2 to $3 to $4 to $5 to $6 to $7 to $8 to $10
and
$2.99. $3.99. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $9.99.
over.
Cash girls, bundle wrappers, errand girls,
etc................................................................
Inspectors and cashiers...............................
Saleswomen..................................................
Office help (clerical)....................................
Other employees, including department
heads and buyers1...................................
Total....................................................

9

9

1

1

13
2

36
6

34
4

1
27
2
1

1

1

10

24

244

38

31

30

43

4
19
6

1
36
5

1 Not including workshop women, tabulated under manufacturing industries.
2 Including 1, occupation not reported.
* Including l, occupation not reported; but not including 17, earnings not reported.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

21

CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EAR NING S OF W OM EN EM PLO YED IN D E P A R T M E N T AN D
OTHER R E T A IL STORES, AS SHO W N B Y IN D IV ID U A L REPO R TS AN D B Y ESTAB.
LISHM ENT P A Y ROLLS, B Y OCCUPATIONS—Concluded.

Data from establishment pay rolls.
Women whose weekly earnings were within each
classified amount.
To­
tal.

Aver­
age
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

267
45
3
225 1,760
52
44

$3.20
7.30
6.55
7.57

Occupation.
$2 to $3 to $4 to $5 to $6 to $7 to $8 to $10
$2.99. $3.99. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $9.99. and
over.
Cash girls, messengers, bundle wrappers,
errand girls, etc........................................
Inspectors and cashiers...............................
Saleswomen1.................................................
Office help (clerical)....................................
Other employees, including department
heads and buyers.....................................
Total....................................................

44

186

26

95
14

361
45

7
5
358
23

3
18
300
42

1
11
195
37

8
226
47

12

18

14

5

43

62

73

56

313

446

398

406

306

354

346

11.76

391 2,670

119

2 6.75

1 Including the workshop women of one large department store, which included them with saleswomen
in their pay-roll data.
2 In this average 9 buyers whose average wage was 180.75 a week were not included, as among the indi­
viduals scheduled there were none of this grade. With these 9 buyers included the average wage would be $7.

It will be observed that the earnings for nearly three-fifths of the
women individually reporting fall below $7; that the largest single
group falls in the $4 to $4.99 class. A few women individually
reporting and employed in combination candy and restaurant estab­
lishments received meals in addition to wages. These cases are shown
in the detailed table (p. 38), but are not taken into consideration in
the foregoing summaries because they are not considerable in number.
The average weekly earnings—$6.55—is 20 cents lower than the
general average rate of pay as shown by the pay-roll data. The
difference is undoubtedly due to the fact that the information
secured from employers included the rates of pay for women in the
alteration and other work rooms of the stores, where higher rates
prevail, while the average earnings of the alteration hands indi­
vidually reporting are not included in the average of $6.55, as these
women have been grouped with those employed in manufacturing
and mechanical establishments. Also it should be remembered that
a rate of pay does not account for any losses, and the earnings
account for all losses within the period of employment.
It is noteworthy that a slightly larger proportion of women are
getting less than $7 a week according to the pay rolls than according
to the individual schedules, the difference in percentage being 2.2.
Furthermore, the table shows that the largest single group of women
according to the pay rolls, as well as according to individual reports,
are paid between $4 and $4.99 a week. A careful reading of the
table will show that the pay-roll data furnish a substantial corrobo­
ration of the reports of individual workers.




22

BtfLLETttf OF ^H E B U R lA tf O f LABOR STATISTICS.
O V E R T IM E

E A R N IN G S

AND

E A R N IN G S

FROM

C O M M IS S IO N S ,

PRE­

M IU M S , E T C .

While the prevailing system of payment in the department and
other retail stores of Washington is a flat weekly rate, there are
some instances of payment for overtime and for commissions and
premiums on special sales. These commissions are indicated in
footnotes in the detailed table at the end of this report, bat are not
figured into the average earnings, except in one case where the
commissions continued throughout the year without reference to
overtime and were considerable enough to be regarded as an impor­
tant part of the wage. Direct and definite payment for overtime
is so rare among the 269 department and other retail store women
individually scheduled in the selling and clerical occupations as to
be entirely insignificant as a wage factor. Even if premiums, occa­
sional commissions, and “ presents’9 be all regarded as indirect
compensation for overtime work whenever it may be required, the
result is not impressive, as the following summary will show. Of the
269 women scheduled, 193 or 71.7 per cent reported overtime work
during the period covered by this investigation. Only 16, or less
than 6 per cent of the 269, reported direct or indirect compensa­
tion for overtime work. In seven of these cases no definite estimate
of the amount thus earned could be secured because it was so scat­
tered and uncertain. The largest figure named for any of these 16
was $15 for the whole season.
It should be remembered that this statement does not apply to
women working overtime in the alteration rooms. There all over­
time is paid for, but less than 15 per cent of the force is employed
in such rooms.
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF W OM EN IN DEPAR TM EN T AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES
REPORTING NO COMPENSATION IN EXCESS OF FLAT W E E K L Y R ATES OF W AG ES
A N D OF THOSE W HO R EPORT DIRECT OR INDIRECT COMPENSATION FOR OVER­
TIME W O R K , ETC.

Number. Per cent.
Women reporting no earnings beyond flat weekly wage....................................................
Women reporting direct or indirect compensation..............................................................

177
16

91.7
8.3

Total...................................................................................................................................

193

100.0

Women reporting overtime payment..............................................................................
Women reporting “ presents ...........................................................................................
Women reporting commissions on sales and bonuses..................................................
Number reporting amount.......................................................................................
Largest amount received by an individual during whole season.......................

3
2
11
4
$15.00




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

23

WOMEN EMPLOYED IN MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL
ESTABLISHMENTS.
W O R K IN G HOU RS.

The essential difference between the working hours in manufac­
turing and mechanical establishments and the hours in the retail
stores lies in the fact that such overtime as is required of the first
group is more or less irregular, spread over one or more seasons, and
is more closely associated with the fluctuation of earnings.
O V E R T IM E W O R K E D D U R IN G Y E A R .

In the department and other retail stores the long working hours
usually fall in the two weeks before Christmas and regularly on Satur­
day throughout the whole year except for 8 or 10 weeks in the sum­
mer. In the manufacturing and mechanical industries Saturday is
not ordinarily a long day, the tendency on the contrary being to make
that day shorter than other days. If the prevailing long Saturday,
which the store managers and employees alike regard as a part of
their “ regular working hours,” is classified as normal because it is
a part of the regular schedule, then the women employed in the man­
ufacturing and mechanical industries show a greater number of weeks
during which overtime hours occurred than the individual schedules
for women in the stores show.
The following table summarizes the individual reports concerning
the number of weeks during which overtime work occurred:
SUMMARY OP OVERTIME W O R K E D DURING Y E A R , AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U AL
R EPORTS OP W OM EN EM PLOYED IN M ANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTAB­
LISHMENTS.

Classified weeks of overtime.

Number. Per cent.

Less fhfyn 2 weeks.......................................................................................................................
16
21.3
2 but under 4 weeks...................................................................................................................
20.0
4 but under 6 weeks...................................................................................................................
16
21.3
5
6 but under 8 weeks....................................................................................................................
6.7
8 but under 10 weeks..................................................................................................................
10
13.3
9
10 but under 19 weeks................................................................................................................
12.0
20 to 43 weeks..............................................................................................................................
4
5.4
Total working overtime..................................................................................................
Women working no overtime...................................................................................................

i 75
74

50.3
49.7

Total women reporting...................................................................................................

149

100.0

i Excluding 22 who worked overtime in holiday weeks, but because of half time on the holiday their
weekly hours are equal to or less than on normal weeks.

Before the table can be fairly compared with the analogous table
on page 14, it should be noted that here women reporting overtime
in any part of the year are included, while in the other table only
women reporting overtime during the Christmas season are in­
cluded. According to* the footnote to that table, there were five



24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

others reporting overtime during other periods of the year. Also
it should be remembered that the prevailing long Saturday in the
department stores is not called “ overtime,” and therefore is not
included in that table, although the working hours for such Satur­
days are shown on the tabulations and summarized in special tables.
In other words, there are more long-hour days in the department
stores than the table referred to shows. However, the summary as
it stands shows that 90 per cent of the women employed in the stores
worked overtime during the rush season, while the foregoing table
shows that of the women working in manufacturing and mechanical
establishments but a little over 50 per cent worked beyond the usual
hours at any time in the year. But the length of time during which
overtime prevailed in the stores never exceeded two weeks, while this
table shows that over 10 per cent of those working overtime in manu­
facturing and mechanical establishments worked from two to six
weeks and that a small proportion worked overtime for a half year
or more. The extreme cases, however, are reported by women who
worked only during busy seasons in two or three different establish­
ments. These firms did the same kind of work, but, catering to a
different patronage, had their busy season at different times of th .3
year. But such cases aside, the demand for overtime work covers a
longer period, though the hours of the maximum week appear to be
less extreme than the maximum weeks of women at work in the de­
partment and other retail stores.
W O R K I N G H O U R S D U R IN G O V E R T IM E W E E K S .

The individual tabulation sheets for the two groups of wage earners
show a maximum week of 82 hours for one woman employed in the
department and other retail stores, while the other group shows 79^
hours as the longest week worked by any woman. There are some
other things to be considered, however, in the accompanying table
summarizing the working hours during overtime weeks.
SUMMARY OF W O R K ING HOURS DURING OVERTIME W E E K S IN MANUFACTURING
AND MECHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L REPORTS.

Classified working hours during overtime weeks.

Women
working
specified weekly
hours.
Number.

Per cent.

Less thftn 55 hours......................................................................................................................
55 to 59 hours...............................................................................................................................
60 to 64 hours...............................................................................................................................
65 to 69 hours...............................................................................................................................
70 to 74 hours...............................................................................................................................
75 to 80 hours...............................................................................................................................

5
14
24
U
19
2

6.7
18.7
32.0
14.7
25.3
2.6

Total working extended hours......................................................... * ..........................

75

100.0




WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

25

The table on page 15 shows that over two-thirds of the women
working overtime worked 70 or more hours in the maximum week.
The table above shows that but 27.9 per cent worked such hours.
This is further evidence that though there are more weeks of overtime
in the manufacturing and mechanical industries than in the stores,
overtime demands are not so sharp in that fewer workers are affected
by the long hours. The largest group are working between 60 and 64
hours and nearly two-thirds work between 55 and 69 hours.
NORMAL

W O R K IN G

H OU RS.

The difference existing between the overtime seasons of the two
groups of women wage earners has an analogy in the difference be­
tween their normal seasons. According to the table on page 15, fourfifths of the women in the department stores work normally from 55 to
59 hours per week. These hours include the long Saturday dis­
cussed in connection with the table. The table below shows that
over 55 per cent of the women in the mechanical and manufacturing
establishments work between 48 and 54 hours, and that an addi­
tional 7.5 per cent work less than 48 hours per week. On the other
hand, over 10 per cent of the women employed in these establish­
ments are working from 60 to 70 hours per week normally, while less
than 4 per cent of the women employed in department and other
retail stores worked over 60 hours in the normal season.
SUMMARY OF NORMAL W ORK ING HOURS IN M ANUFACTURING AN D MECHANICAL
ESTABLISHMENTS, AS SH OW N B Y IN DIVID U AL R EPORTS.

Classified weekly working hours.

Women
working
specified weekly
hours.
Number. Per cent.

Under 48 hours............................................................................................................................
48 to 54 hours...............................................................................................................................
55 to 59 hours...............................................................................................................................
60 to 64 hours...............................................................................................................................
65 to 69 hours...............................................................................................................................
70 hours and over........................................................................................................................

ill
2 81
3 40
« 11
3
1

7.5
55.1
27.2
7.5
2.0
.7

Total number reporting................................................................................. r..............

147

100.0

1 Including 1 who worked 49 hours every fourth week.
2 Including 2 who worked 47£ hours part of the time; 1 worked 57f hours every third week; 1 worked 42
hours every fourth week; and 1 worked 47 hours every other week.
s Including 7 who worked between 48 and 54 hours weekly in other establishments; 1 worked 51 hours
every third week.
< Including 1 who worked 54 hours every other week.
HOURS

OF

SHORT D A Y .

As stated before, the long Saturday is not a feature of the working
hours during the normal season as it is in the department and other
retail stores. On the contrary, there is a marked tendency to shorter



26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

hours on one day in the week, and in the case of steam laundries on
two days in the week. With the laundries this tendency is due
purely to the exigencies of the business. But whatever the purpose,
the effect is the same. The table below shows that over one-third
get a short day each week during the normal season. Among the
department and retail store group of women the short day appears
only in the dull season, during which time about one-third of the
women individually scheduled enjoyed the half holiday.
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF W OM EN IN MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTAB­
LISHMENTS REPORTING A W O R K IN G W E E K OF EQ U AL HOURS EACH D A Y , REPORT­
ING A LONG D A Y , AND REPORTING A SHORT D A Y , ETC.

Number. Per cent.
182
10
55

100.0

22
33

40.0
60.0

2 15
3 37
*3

Total............................................................
Women reporting—
Two short days.................................................
One short day....................................................
Women reporting short days of—
Under six hours.................................................
Six to eight hours.............................................
Nine to ten hours..............................................

55.8
6.8
37.4

147

Women reporting same hours throughout week.
Women reporting a long day.................................
Women reporting short days.................................

27.3
67.3
5.4

1Including 4 who had a longer day in another establishment; 1 worked a longer day in alternate weeks.
2 Including 7 who reported another short day, but in excess of 6 hours.
3Including 4 who reported another short day of 9 to 10 hours.
«Including 2 who had another short day of 11 hours.

The individual tabulations at the end of this report do not show so
long a “ dull season” in the manufacturing and mechanical industries
as in the department and other retail stores. This, however, is only
apparent, because in the manufacturing and mechanical industries
the dull season results more frequently in “ lay-offs” than do the dull
seasons in the other employment. Consequently there are a large
number of “ no dull season” reports on the individual tabulations
which the column giving the number of weeks of employment and
showing much less than a year explain.
W O R K IN G

HOURS

AS

REPORTED

BY

EM PLO YERS.

The discrepancies between the working hours as reported by em­
ployers and as reported by women at work in the manufacturing and
mechanical establishments are not more serious, except in the case of
the laundries, than the differences shown between the reports of store
employers and those made by women employees, where the discrep­
ancies were due more to the natural tendency among employers to
emphasize the regular periods allowed for lunch and the regular time
for closing and to slight the flexibility usual in busy seasons. There
is also the tendency here to overlook the occasionally excessive hours



WAGE-EARNIN'G W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

27

during rush periods which are an impressive part of the individual's
working experience. In the case of the laundry employers, however,
there is a more serious discrepancy, as the subjoined tabulation of
establishment reports will show if compared with the individual tabu­
lations of laundry workers. The individual reports were secured from
workers or members of their immediate families by agents of the
Bureau who visited the homes, sometimes after working hours. There
was no chance for collusion in the reports nor danger of the report of
one woman influencing the report of another, since the information
was secured by a number of agents working in different parts of the
city at the same time. As these reports showed overtime and substan­
tially to the same degree and for the same causes, they are accepted
as correct by the Bureau in preference to the reports of the employing
laundrymen. Another circumstance which strengthened this con­
viction was the fact that while all other employers cooperated willingly
in giving data for this report and, with one exception, in permitting
access to original records when such access was requested, some of
the laundrymen, and particularly those whose reports are at greatest
variance with the reports from individual workers, were very reluc­
tant to give information, one declining outright to do so. In one
laundry whose manager consented finally to give the Bureau’s agent
his schedule of working hours, stating that the women never worked
more than 54 hours, there were 15 women individually scheduled who
reported from 55 to 72 hours as their maximum weeks. In fairness it
should be said that two of the laundry proprietors interviewed showed
no such reluctance, and that the interviews were sought only with
laundrymen who employed women from whom individual schedules
had been secured. Seven of the steam laundries were represented in
the list, some of them among the largest in the city. As one of these
refused outright to state the working hours for the women in his
establishment, only six appear on the subjoined tabulation of estab­
lishment schedules. The reluctance described, therefore, should not
be ascribed to the laundrymen as a whole, but only to those inter­
viewed, and then with the two exceptions noted.
It should be said further that the hours shown in the table which
follows for all employers, whether in manufacturing or mechanical
establishments, particularly for the maximum weeks, do not neces­
sarily nor ordinarily affect all the employees, sometimes less than
half of the total number employed being affected.




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

28

W O R K ING HOURS OF W OM EN EM PLOYED IN M ANUFACTURING AND M ECHANICAL
ESTABLISHM ENTS, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLOYERS.

Establishment
num­
ber.

Industry.

Dull season.
Busy season.
Normal season.
Num­
ber of
wom­
en
Working
Working hours.
Working hours.
em­
hours.
ployed
dur­
Num­
Num­
ing Num­
ber of
week ber of
Aver­ ber of
Aver­
Aver­
weeks.
weeks. Sat­ age weeks. age Maxi­ Maxi­
of
Usual Short age
ur­ week­
Dec.
week­ mum mum
day. day. week­
day.
day. week.
lyly.
ly1912.1

1
,

Paper b oxes...
Engraving.......

19
49
43
32
48*
25*
29
34

Laundry..........
Paper boxes....
Confectionery..
Outing goods...
Printing........... .
Laundry..........
Printing........... .
Tailoring..........
Laundry..........
Tailoring..........
B a k e rjr and
confectionery
Confectionery..
Fur goods........
Laundry..........
....... do...............
Printing...........
Supply house..
Laundry..........
Supply house..

94
1

9 35*

13
06
93
9
49
5
50
15

11

139

100
3

52
34*
43
45
34*
43
52
43

8*
None.

{ill }

4*

27
5
8*

None.

7*

None.
None.
4
None.

53*
54 None.
52*
61
13
48

4*
9

12

36f

21
53*
48 None.

3 <5
6 7

47

3

14
3*

20
10

9

11

8
7

ill

?

[54| None.

13
2

54

None.

None.
None.
4

54
54
49
4
6* 1 54
5
None.
48
None.
48

None.

9f
9 None.
9
9
9

10

n

8

8
7*

75
8
44
54

None.
None.

m

15
60

6

None.

51

None.

36

13*

76*

12
13*

71
69
667*
62*

1| 76*
2
12* 57
5

58£
69

66§

57f
58
51f
56

12

13*
10

51§

34

None.
None.
9
1 7
5
177
None.
None.
None.
None.

55
8

56*
56
5 54f

(13)

None.

None.
19
None.

14
90

7
7

63
76*

54
52|
41§

9
12i
11*

54
5 54
650
(18)

1 Or nearest representative week.
2 Work 9 hours on Sunday.
s A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks, and plant was in operation the whole day.
* One woman scheduled reported a maximum week of 79 hours.
5 Maximum week occurs in normal season.
6 One woman scheduled reported a maximum week of 74 hours.
* Hours somewhat irregular. Proprietor states he is entitled to require employees to work 60 hours
per week if necessary, but thinks they have never worked full 60 hours. When their work is done they
are at liberty to go.
s A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 1 holiday was in operation the whole day; on 2, * day; in
addition worked 2 hours’ overtime for 4 nights during 2 of these weeks, and 2 hours' overtime for 2 nights
during another week.
9 Establishment employs no women for the weeks not accounted for.
i° The 13 weeks not reported were under a different management.
11 Occurring alternate weeks on Monday; 8£ hours on Saturday.
12 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks, and plant was in operation half of each holiday.
13 Three women scheduled report overtime, their maximum weeks being 75,61*, and 58 hours, respectively.
14 The longest set of hours reported by employer for any group of employees is given; 15 women scheduled,
however, report hours in excess of 54, the maximum being 72 hours per week.
15 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 6 holidays plant was in operation an average of 5 hours
in addition to 2* hours’ overtime for 2 nights in each of the 7 weeks.
16 The longest set of hours reported by employer for any group of employees is given; 3 women scheduled,
however, reported hours in excess of 50, the maximum being 58 hours weekly.
w A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 1 holiday plant was in operation * day, and in addition
2 hours' overtime on 1 night in each of the 7 weeks.
One woman scheduled, however, reported 12 weeks’ overtime, of 6 hours per week.
19 The longest set of hours reported by employer for any group of employees is given; 1 woman scheduled,
however, reported a normal week of 52* hours.

D U R A TIO N OF E M PL O Y M E N T .

WEEKS EMPLOYED DURING YEAR

The table below shows that the average number of weeks of employ­
ment reported by the women individually reporting and at work in
the manufacturing and mechanical industries for a year or more was
a little more than 45 weeks in the year previous to December 1, 1912.
This is approximately two weeks less than that reported by women



WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

29

at work in the stores (see table on p. 19). But the significant dif­
ference lies in the fact that while over 80 per cent of the women
employed in stores report from 48 to 52 weeks of employment, less
than 60 per cent of the women in the manufacturing and mechanical
industries show the same number of weeks, and over 22 per cent lost
from three to six months and more compared with less than 10 per
cent in the other group of wage earners.
NUMBER OF W E E K S ’ EM PLOYM ENT DURING Y E A R IN M ANUFACTURING A N D ME­
CHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS REPOR TED B Y W OM EN H AVING ONE OR MORE
YE A R S’ IN D U STR IAL E X PER IEN CE.

Classified weeks of employment.

Women reporting
specified number
of weeks’ employment.
Number. Per cent.
66
10
8
12
4
7
3

60.0
9.1
7.3
10.9
3.6
6.4
2.7

Total number reporting..................................................................................................

110

100.0

Average number of weeks employed.....................................................................................

45.29

48 to 52 weeks...............................................................................................................................
44 to 47 weeks...............................................................................................................................
40 to 43 weeks...............................................................................................................................
36 to 39 weeks...............................................................................................................................
32 to 35 weeks...............................................................................................................................
26 to 31 weeks..............................................................................................................................
Less than 26 weeks.....................................................................................................................

VACATIONS WITH PAY.

The following table shows the extent to which women employed
in manufacturing and mechanical establishments were granted
vacations with pay:
VACATIONS W IT H P A Y IN M ANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS
REPORTED FOR W OM EN IN D IV ID U A L L Y REPORTING AND AT W O R K IN THE SAME
ESTABLISHMENT FOR A Y E A R OR MORE.

Classified weeks of vacation with pay.

Women reporting
specified number
of weeks’ vaca­
tion with pay.
Number. Per cent.

8
7.9
1 to 2 weeks.................................... ............................................................................................
14
2 to 2§ weeks................................................................................................................................
13.7
21.6
22
Total granted vacation with pay..................................................................................
Women granted no vacation with pay...................................................................................
78.4
80
Total number reporting..................................................................................................

102

100.0

It will be observed by comparing the foregoing table with the corre­
sponding table on page 20 that the percentage of women in the stores
who report vacations with pay is 47.2, or nearly half, compared with
21.6 per cent, or but little over one-fifth of the women employed in
the manufacturing and mechanical industries who reported the same
privilege. Moreover, none of the women in the latter group reported
as much as three weeks vacation with pay, while the table on page 20
shows a few of the women in the stores enjoying three weeks
,



or more.

30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W EE K LY EAR N ING S.

Unlike the department and other retail stores, the employers in
manufacturing and mechanical industries pay frequently on a piecerate basis. This fact becomes an important factor in the earnings
reported during the various seasons. For even though no overtime
may be required, the demands of a busy season result frequently in
increased earnings because the supply of material permits or neces­
sitates working under high pressure.
EARNINGS AS REPORTED BY INDIVIDUALS.

On the same principle, a dull season may not mean shorter hours
but only a slackening of orders or loosening of the working tension,
reduction of output, and consequent limitation of earnings. Of
course, where the hours are lengthened the earnings are automatically
increased, even if the rate is the same for overtime as for regular
hours. In a number of cases the rate was increased 50 per cent and
in a few it was doubled. The average earnings shown in the following
table include overtime earnings, which in turn account probably for
the fact that they are nearly 60 cents more per week than the aver­
age earnings of the store women individually reporting. It should
be remembered, as shown on page 22, that extra pay for overtime
work in stores is unusual and the amount small. Also it should
be remembered that the average duration of employment is shorter
in the manufacturing and mechanical industries than in the stores.
This difference in duration of employment means that the real dif­
ference in earnings is approximately but $11 during the year. There
is the further consideration that a large group in the manufacturing
and mechanical industries fall well below the average in duration of
employment, while among the store women a much larger group
reported more than the average duration of employment.
AVER AG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF W OM EN EM PLOYED IN MANUFACTURING AND
MECHANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

Classified average weekly earnings.

Women e a r n i n g
specified weekly
amounts.
Number. Per cent.
2
7
l 24
*34
14
18
20
324

1.4
4.9
16.8
23.8
9.8
12.6
13.9
16.8

Total...................................................................................................................................

143

100.0

Average weekly earnings...........................................................................................................

$7.13

$2 to $2.99.....................................................................................................................................
$3 to $3.99......................................................................................................................................
$4 to $4.99.....................................................................................................................................
$5 to $5.99......................................................................................................................................
$6 to $6.99......................................................................................................................................
$7 to $7.99......................................................................................................................................
$8 to $8.99......................................................................................................................................
$10 or more...................................................................................................................................

1 Seventy-five per cent were employed by laundries and drug companies.
2 Fifty-five ana nine-tenths per cent were employed by laundries.
3 Thirty-seven and jfive-tenths per cent were employed by tailoring establishments.




WAGE-EARNING WOM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

31

EFFECT OF OVERTIME ON EARNINGS*

While the overtime earnings are included in the general average
weekly earnings the table below shows the number affected by such
earnings and the prevailing rate of pay for overtime. Also it affords
opportunity to compare the effect of overtime on earnings of women
employed in manufacturing and mechanical establishments with its
effect on the earnings of women in the stores, as shown on page 22.
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF W O M EN IN MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL ESTAB­
LISHMENTS W H O W O R K E D OVERTIME W ITH O U T ADD ITIO N AL COMPENSATION
AND OF THOSE W H O R EPOR TED OVERTIME PAYMENT AT V A R Y IN G RATES OF
COMPENSATION.
Number. Per cent.
Women who work overtime but who report no earnings beyond flat weekly wages...
Women reporting overtime payment.....................................................................................

129
2 46

38.7
61.3

Total...................................................................................................................................

75

100.0

Women reporting overtime payment at—
Regular rate..........................................................................................................................
Time-and-a-half rate...........................................................................................................
Double rate...........................................................................................................................
Rate not reported................................................................................................................

3 18
15
46
7

39.1
32.6
13.1
15.2

1 Includes 1 not reporting whether or not pay was received.
2 Includes flat rates which approximate given rates.
* Includes 1 who received double pay for Sunday work only.
4 Includes 1 who worked in 2 establishments, receiving no pay for overtime in the second.

The above table shows that 75, or a little over 50 per cent of the 149
women reporting, worked overtime. Twenty-nine of these reported
no earnings for overtime beyond the regular flat weekly wage. Fortysix, or more than 61 per cent of those working overtime, reported pay­
ment for overtime, compared with 8 per cent reporting such compen­
sation among the women in the department and other retail stores, as
shown in the table on page 22.
A peculiar situation presents itself in connection with the overtime
required among laundry workers. As stated in another report,1 “ the
work of a steam laundry is ordinarily not seasonal, unless an estab­
lishment specializes in work that is itself seasonal or depends for pat­
ronage on a locality whose residents go away in large numbers for the
summer. In laundry work a ‘ rush’ period may be precipitated any
week by the advent of a large convention * * * or an unex­
pected hotel order. Naturally such emergencies do not affect all
laundries at the same time * * *. Aside from these emergencies
all laundries doing hotel, restaurant, or Pullman car work run under
more or less pressure during the weeks in which a holiday occurs, as
there can be no delay in delivering the goods promptly to such
patrons.”
Laundries in Washington, D. C., do not differ in these respects from
laundries in other large cities, except for the adjustment necessary to
meet the demands when Congress is in session and patronage is mate­
1Bulletin No. 91, U. S. Bureau of Labor, pp. 882 and 883.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

32

rially increased. The peculiar feature of the overtime during weeks
in which holidays occur is that the long days occasioned thereby rarely
result in a week that is longer than the normal week. This happens
because a woman frequently works a number of evenings during a
holiday week to make up for a part or the whole of the time she takes
off on the holiday. According to reports, both from employers and
employees interviewed during this investigation, the custom of requir­
ing overtime to make up for a part or all of the time taken off on the
legal holidays prevailed in all of the establishments visited except one,
and was reported by a majority of the women laundry workers indi­
vidually scheduled.
RATES OF PAY AS SHOWN BY PAY ROLLS.

While information concerning rates of pay was secured from
employers in the manufacturing and mechanical industries, it is not
possible to use it with entire satisfaction for comparison with individ­
ual reports on earnings, owing to the different systems of payment
prevailing in this group of industries. Where the flat weekly rate of
pay prevailed comparison, of course, was possible. With an average
of but 828 women1 employed in the manufacturing and mechanical
industries of Washington, the pay-roll data from establishments
employing 326 women, as shown on this table, are ample for purposes
of comparison.
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF W OMEN IN SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES RECEIVING COM­
PENSATION W IT H IN EACH CLASSIFIED RATE OF W E E K L Y W AG ES.

Laundry.
Classified weekly
earnings, etc.

Establishments r e"Dorthur.....................
Women reporting___

Tailoring.

Supply
house.

Per
No. cent.

No.

3
67

2
14

1
139

3
22

8

2
57

11.94
59.70
16.42
8.96

1
23
22

1.75
40.35
38.60

11

19.30

22 100.00
2.98

Total.................. 67 100.00
Average weekly earn­
ings............................

Confec­
tionery.

Per
Per
Per
No. cent. No. cent. No. cent.

Women r e c e i v i n g
classified weekly
rates of pay of—
Under $4...............
$4 to $4.99.............
$5 to $5.99............. 40
$6 to $6.99............. 11
6
$7 to $7.99.............
to $9.99.............
$10 and over......... 2

$
8

Printing.

$5.47

22 100.00

57 100.00

$8.16

$7.14

1
3
10

7.14
21.43
71.43

94
15
7
6
9

Per
cent.

Total.

8

67.62
10.79
5.04
4.32
6.47
5.75

$5.25

Per
No. cent.

No.

1
27

14 100.00 139 100.00

$9.86

Paper
boxes.

12
326

7
9
2
5

25.93
7
33.33 111
7.41 58
18.52 46
35
37
3.70 32

2.14
34.05
17.79
14.11
10.74
11.35
9.82

27 100.00 326

100.00

’ Y ’ii.'ii*
1

$5.30

Per
cent.

$5.74

The foregoing table shows an average weekly rate of pay of $5.74,
or $1.39 lower than the average earnings shown by the individual
schedules. The difference is easily accounted for by the fact that
the individual schedules include women in the alteration rooms of
the department stores where higher rates of pay prevail, by the over­



i Thirteenth Census, 1910, Vol. I X , Manufactures, p. 185.

WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

33

time earnings included in the individual schedules, and by the fact
that this table is based upon a flat weekly wage only which excludes
any overtime earnings.
WOMEN EMPLOYED IN HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, AND MISCELLANE­
OUS ESTABLISHMENTS.
W ORKIN G HOURS

The individual table at the close of this report, and the summary
tables here presented tell their own story for the women employed
in hotels and restaurants. The salient features in the working con­
ditions of this group of women are the Sunday work, the frequency
of night work, and the fact that in addition to wages most of the
women in hotels get both meals and housing. In some of the restau­
rants meals and not housing are given in addition to the wage.
As might be expected, there is no recurring period in the year when
overtime falls as in the other two groups of employments. Sunday
work and night work are a part of the lot of women employed in
many of the hotels and restaurants. For these women other over­
time is ordinarily required when there are banquets, balls, or other
social or public functions. Such functions differ greatly in the ex­
tent of service required, and any attempt to present it in tabular
form would result in statistical fiction. The hours shown in the
tabulations and summarized in the following tables, therefore, have
tc^do with the regular working hours, overtime due to balls, banquets,
etc., being indicated only in footnotes to establishment schedules.
AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM W EEKLY HOURS.

The accompanying table, which summarizes the average and maxi­
mum weekly hours, serves but to emphasize the fact that long hours
are not confined to short seasons. For example, 8 women reported
maximum weekly working hours as between 60 and 64, but 8 women
not necessarily of the same group worked an average of between 60
and 64 hours per week. Four reported an average of 70 hours or
over, and the same number reported maximum weeks of equal length.
AVERAGE AND M AXIMUM W E E K L Y HOURS OF W OMEN A T W O R K IN HOTELS, RES­
TAURANTS, AND MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS.
Women working classified—
Classified weekly hours.

Average hours.

Maximum hours.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Under 48 hours......................................................................................
48 to 64 hours.........................................................................................
55 to 59 hours........................................................................... T...........
60 to 64 hours.........................................................................................
65 to 69 hours.........................................................................................
70 hours and over..................................................................................

11
10
15
*8
2
4

22.0
20.0
30.0
16.0
4.0
8.0

11
6
16
8
5
4

22.0
12.0
32.0
16.0
10.0
8.0

Total number reporting............................................................

50

100.0

50

100.0

1 Including 1 who worked 55 hours per week in another establishment

84525°—13----- 3




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

34

THE SEVEN-DAY W EEK .

As stated before, the salient feature in the working hours of women
in this group is the prevailing Sunday work. This is clearly revealed
in the table below, which shows that over 70 per cent of the women
individually scheduled report a seven-day week. The table also
shows, however, that nearly half of the women working seven days a
week have a short working-day during the week.
NUM BER AN D PER CENT OF W OM EN IN HOTELS, R ESTAU R A N TS, AN D MISCELLA­
NEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS W O R K IN G 6 AND 7 D A Y S A W E E K , AN D N UM BER AND
PER CENT IN EACH GROUP REPOR TING A SHORT W O R K IN G -D A Y D U RING TH E
W EEK.

Women working—
Total.
Six days.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Seven days.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Women affected....................................................................

14

28.0

136

72.0

50

100.0

Women in each group reporting a short day of—
Under 6 hours................................................................
6 to 8 hours.....................................................................
Women in each group reporting no short day................

14

100.0

26
11
19

16.7
30.5
52.8

6
11
33

12.0
22.0
66.0

Total.............................................................................

14

100.0

36

100.0

50

100.0

-----—
1Including 1 who worked a 6-day and a 7-day week alternately.

2 Including 5 who had a second short day of

or 8 hours.

MAXIMUM W O RKIN G -D AY.

Nearly one-third of the women scheduled reported a long day of
more than 12 hours. The longest day reported in this group was 16J
hours, as shown in the table at the end of this report.
M AXIMUM W O R K IN G -D A Y R EPO R TED B Y W OM EN EM PLO YED IN HO TELS, R E ST A U ­
RAN TS, AND MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS.

Classified working hours per day.

Women reporting
days of specified
hours.
Number. Per cent.

More than 12 hours.....................................................................................................................
i l to 12 hours...............................................................................................................................
Under 11 hours............................................................................................................................

16
8
26

32.0
16.0
52.0

Total number reporting..................................................................................................

50

100.0




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

35

WORKING HOURS AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS.

Because the regular and maximum weekly working hours of women
engaged in the several occupations differ for each group, it is not pos­
sible to construct a table w:hich will represent anything like the
prevailing hours for the majority of women and which at the same
time will show to what extent long hours are required. Inasmuch
as it is desirable to so arrange the information secured from employers
as to afford a comparison with the extreme hours reported by individ­
uals, there has been entered in the following table the longest set of
hours required of any occupation group, the number of women
affected also being entered. In case such group does not contain
the greatest number of women wage earners in the establishment,
the working hours for the largest group are entered as a footnote.
By this arrangement it is possible to know whether the extreme
hours reported by individuals are ever exacted, according to the re­
ports of employers.
R EG U LAR W O R K IN G HOURS THROUGHOUT THE Y E A R OF W O M EN EM PLO YED IN
HOTELS, RESTAU RAN TS, AN D MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS, AS R EPO R TED
B Y EM PLOYER S.

Establishment
num­
ber.

Industry.

1 Hotel............................
2 ........do...........................
3 ........do..........................
4 ....... do..........................
5 Restaurant.................
6
7 Transportation...........
8 ........d o ..........................
9 Restaurant..................
10 Hotel............................
11 ....... do...........................
12 Restaurant..................

Num­
ber of
women
em­
Usual
ployed. day.

Working hours.1

Short
day.

37
10* None.
64
None.
11
/ 8 9 J-None.
64
\ 5 11
17
None.
10
10
8 10
None.
6
10
None.
65
46
24
24

10
10
9*

{ ‘ of
Y
/ 5 5
18 \ 6 12
7
5

None.
None.
None.
1 5*
0
108 }

j Ne
-o .
n
None.

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of Maxi- Num­
ber of
days nights mum
Aver­ worked worked weekly women
Long
affect­
age
per
per
hours.
day. weekly.
ed.
week. week.
/ 2 63
\ 2 78
77
/ 2 69
\ 2 71
10
70
10
70
/ 9 60
10 \ » 70
10 / 2 60
i 2 70
10
70
66*
9*
/ 263
io* \ 2 64
12 / 256
1 2 63
5
30

26
27
7

15

11
11

}
'

7
7
7
26
27
26
37
7

23
24 }
7
7
None.
None.

j-oe
N.
n
j Ne
-o .
n
None.
None.
None.

}

7

}

.** }
7 {
6 None.

78
77
71
70
70
70

32
<7
«6
71
10
2

70
70
66*
66

60
46
6
112

63

12
2

30

7

1 The longest hours worked by any set of women is given. Occasional overtime, occurring on special
occasions, as banquets, balls, etc., is not included in tabulation.
2 Alternate weeks.
s Twenty-four, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 54 hours, with a maximum
week of 62* hours occurring every sixth week.
4 Twenty-seven, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 56 hours, with a maxi­
mum week of 57 hours occurring every fourth week.
5 Alternate days.
e Thirty-two, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 60 hours, with a maximum
week of 62* hours every fourth week.
* Eight, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 66f hours, with a shorter week
of 63 hours every fourth week.
8 Every tenth week have 6$ hours per day or a 45*-hour week.
• Have every tenth day off.
1 Saturday and Sunday, alternately.
0
1 Fifteen, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 50* hours, with a maximum
1
week of 54* hours.
1 Ten, the largest group of women employed, have an average week of 53 hours, with a maximum week
3
of 59 hours.




36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
DU RATIO N O F E M PL O Y M E N T .

The table following summarizes the information as to the steadi­
ness of employment as reported by women at work in the hotels,
restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments. It will be noted that,
while the proportion of those at work for a year or more who reported
from 48 to 52 weeks of employment is no larger than that reported
by the wage-earning women in the department stores, the average
number of weeks is greater by over a week. This is a factor of
course in the wage problem. Six, or 20 per cent, of the women who
were at work in the same establishment for a year or more were
granted from one to three weeks vacation with pay.
NUM BER OF W E E K S ’ EM PLOYM ENT IN HOTELS, RESTAU RAN TS, AND MISCELLANEOUS
ESTABLISHMENTS DURING Y E A R R EPORTED B Y W O M EN HAV IN G ONE OR MORE
Y E A R S ’ EXPE R IE N C E .

Classified weeks of employment.

Women reporting
specified number
of weeks’ employ­
ment.
Number. Per cent.

48 to 52 weeks..............................................................................................................................
44 to 47 weeks...............................................................................................................................
40 to 43 weeks...............................................................................................................................
38 to 39 weeks...............................................................................................................................

24
3
1
2

80.0
10.0
3.3
6.7

Total number reporting..................................................................................................

30

100.0

Average number of weeks employed......................................................................................

49.3

W E E K L Y EARN ING S.

The subjoined table, summarizing the information contained in the
detailed table as to the earnings of women employed in hotels, res­
taurants, and miscellaneous establishments, takes account of the food
and housing included as partial payment for services. It will be
observed that nearly two-thirds of the women get both housing and
food in addition to cash earnings. The quality of either housing or
food is not taken into account in this report. A number of cases are
noted on the individual table which show that women did not avail
themselves of this perquisite. Sometimes the worker had a home in
the city and preferred to stay there. In one or two instances the
food or housing was rejected on the ground of quality. Quality aside,
however, it should be noted that while a larger proportion of women
in this group than in either of the two other groups earn between $3
and $4, nearly four-fifths of them are getting room and board in
addition to wage. The pay-roll data secured from hotel employers
consisted in a statement that the rates of pay of given occupations
were $10, $14, $15, and in some cases $25 a month in addition to
board and housing. Reduced to a weekly basis this report agrees
substantially with the reports of individuals.



WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

37

W OM EN EARNING CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y AMOUNTS IN HOTELS, RESTAU RAN TS, AND
MISCELLANEOUS ESTABLISHMENTS, AND NUM BER IN EACH W A G E GROUP RECEIV­
ING BOARD OR ROOM OR BOTH IN ADDITION TO SPECIFIED W A G E .
Number of women receiving-

Classified weekly earnings.

$2 to $2.99..................................................................................
$3 to $3.99..................................................................................
$4 to $4.99..................................................................................
$5 to $5.99..................................................................................
$6 to $6.99..................................................................................
$7 to $7.99..................................................................................
$8 to $8.99..................................................................................

One or
Board and
more meals
room in ad­
Cash earn­
dition to only in ad­ ings only.
dition to
wage.
wage.
2
26
3

2
1

5
1
3
1
2
2

Total.

2
33
1
6
2
2
2

Total...............................................................................

31

3

14

148

Per cent....................................................................................

64.6

6.2

29.2

100.0

i Not including two of the women individually scheduled, who did not report earnings.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOY
Department and other retail stores.
[Unless otherwise indicated, bracketed hours signify two dull seasons.]

naidual
um­
ber.

Conjugal condition.

Occupation.

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
ence in
year
weekly
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

1
2

Single.......
Married...

Saleswoman...............................

3

Single.......

Saleswoman and bookkeeper—

2
6

4

....d o ....

Clerical.......................................

3

5

.. ..d o ____

Cashier.......................................

6

Married...

Saleswoman...............................

7

Single------

----- do.........................................

4
*
U
7
1

....d o ....

----- do.........................................

5

Widowed.

...... do.........................................

6
*

Married...

___ do.........................................

7

8 19
9 36
1 25
0
0
11 2
12 24

Clerical.......................................

4*

____d o ...

Saleswoman...............................

------d o ...

Department head.......................
Errand girl............... *...............

lA
H
«

.. ..d o ...

Saleswoman...............................

7

16

17 ------d o ...

...... do.........................................

17

2 ------d o ...
0

...... do.........................................

18

— d o ...

...... do.........................................

19

Married.

Department head......................

13

24

14

17 ------d o ...

15

(u)

2
0
2
1
2
2

Single.. .

Saleswoman...............................

....d o ...

...... do.........................................

6
2
*
10
2
2
i
if
2
*
9f
10
a

. ...d o ...

...... do.........................................

23

— do...

...... do.........................................

24

.. ..d o ...

Department head......................

25

------do...

Saleswoman...............................

26

.. ..d o ...

27

.. ..d o ...

28

____do...

...... do.........................................
Clerical.......................................
.......do.........................................

29

____do...

Saleswoman...............................

1

30

....d o ...

.......do....................................... .

7

i Inc
2 Wc
aturc
®In <
<W(
ours:
«M a
6 Inc
*N o

3
3

week’s vacation with pay.
lours 4 days and 13£ hours 2 days a week and 12 hours every third \
>urs.
f meals
iirs 3 days and 13J hours 2 days a week and 12 hours every other Sundi
therefore no time for meals deducted,
week of 81 hours occurs in normal season.
! overtime weeks, 1 of 66 hours and 1 of 60J hours,
ing premiums on special sales not exceeding $10.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

39

tfENT OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Department and other retail stores,
[Unless otherwise indicated, bracketed hours signify two dull seasons.]

Dull season.

Normal season.

12

19*
0

em­
ploy­
ed.

8

>oe
N.
n
N.
n
«81 |oe
*»

13*

13*
9

Other employ­
ment.
Indivict­
ual
Weeks
num­
em­
ber.
Aver­ ploy­ Aver­ Day Maxi­
Satur­ age
ed.
age before mum
day. week­
week­ Christ­ weekmas.
lylylyWorking
hours.

Working hours.

Aver­
Usual Satur­ age
day.
day. week­
ly.

Christmas holidays only.

1*
3
1
0

15

621

9*

HI

591

10
*
2
2

91

11!

581

13

91

HI

591

16*

91

lii

58

12

9
1

HI

58

16

91

i ll

581

16*

9*

Hi

591

16*

9
*

121

59|

17*

91

Hi
91
11*

581
55*
57|
581

14

91

1
0

91

111

91

HI

581

15

91

HI

581

HI

581

ill

1
0

57|

6
6
{i378*

16*

16

jNn.
oe

15
15*

1
2
3

14

81

4

141

80*

5

141

801

6

141

80

7

15

79*

8

13|

79*

14

79*

14

79*

9

141

14

79

15

14

79

16

14

Ne
o.
n

13

79

13*

81

791
791

14

551
461
50|
551
50|
551

10
11
12

141

57i
50|

16*

91

54|
591
52
56*
50|
551
51}
561
47*
54
50*
55
50|
551
52
56|
52

16*

91

Ne
o.
n

81

81

(8
)

52

«79
69

121

9*

Working hours.

79

17

13|

78|

18

121

78|

19

91

ll*

58

16*

14f

78*

9
*

1
2

59|

14*

13*

78*

2
0
2
1
2
2

91

I

16*

13*

78*

23

13

}

13

(“)

HI

581

91

ll!

581

16*

13*

78*

24

91

ill

57*

17

14|

78*

25

9
*

HI

591

16*

13*

78*

26

9

9

54

9

13

78

27

91

ll*

58

16*

151

78

28

91

ll*

58

16*

151

78

29

91

m

58

17*

14

78

30

8 Including 6 overtime weeks of 62 hours each in normal s
•Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
io Employed in 2 establishments,
u Over 25 years.
1 Not reported.
2
13 Works 10 hours 4 days and 13 hours 2 days a week and 12* hours every third Sunday; every other
Saturday 10 hours.
u Maximum week of 78* hours occurs in normal season.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATIST]

IS OF LABOR, EABNINGS, AND DURATION OF 1
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

m
-

Conjugal condition.

Occupation.

>r.

31

Saleswomen...........

32

.. . . d o ......................

33

. . . . d o ......................

34

— do......................

35

. . . . d o ......................

36

Cashier.....................

37

Saleswoman.......... .

38

Bundle wrapper. . .

39

Saleswoman.......... .

40

. . . . d o .....................

41

.. . . d o .....................

42

------ do.....................

43

____do.....................

44

Clerical...................

45

Cashier...................

46

Saleswoman...........

47

Cashier...................

48

Saleswoman..........

49

....... do.....................

50

....... do.....................

51

Department head.

52

Saleswoman...........

53

........do.....................

54

Bundle wrapper. .

55

Helper in office___

56

Saleswoman...........

57

........do.....................

58

........do......................

59

........do......................

60

........do......................




1 Not more than $5.
2 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
®Not reported.
< Estimated at $5.69.
6 Employed in 2 establishments.

Average
weekly
earnings.

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

41

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Christmas holidays only.

Working
hours.

Working hours.

Weeks
Weeks
em­
em­
Aver­
Aver­ ploy­
ploy­
Satur­ age
Usual Satur­ age
ed.
ed.
day. week­
day.
day. week­
ly.
ly*

Other employ­
ment.
Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.
Aver­ Day Maxi­
age before mum
Amount
week­ Christ- week­ Weeks earned.
ly.
ly.
Working hours.

em­
ploy­
ed.

58

18$

14

78

None.

31

58

16$

15

78

None.

32

58*

17

13*

771 None.

33

58*

17

13*

77f None.

34

58*

2$
0

13f

77f

None.

35

57|

9

14

77| None.

36

31§

58

17

131

77$ None.

37

30*

16$

13

77$ None.

38

None.

13|

77$ None.

39

2
0
37

$

9*

38

9
13f

58*
54
60

32$

12
*

57|

17$

14*

77* None.

40

3$
2

58*

16$

13$

77

None.

41

23

58*

14

13$

77

None.

42

30$

58*

16$

13$

77

None.

43

30$

60|

14$

14

77

None.

44

32$

58

17$

14

77

None.

45

30$

58*

16$

14*

76$

None.

46

12
|

76$

None.

47

13

76$ None.

48

12
*

76*

None.

49

14

76

None.

50

«32§

58

17

28§

59$

17

32

58*

17

32$

58

15$

28$

58$

16$

32$

58

16$

32$

58

16$

32$

59*

16$

32$

59*

16$

32$

58

16$

32$

58

16$

32$

9

58

14$

32$

9
:

58
58
69
77

16$

18 J

n
gf 9
\ $}
12

►
None.

55*
50$
55
50$
55
50$
55
50$
55
51
55$
50$
55
50$
55
52
5
1
50|

13

52

76

None.

53

76

None.

54

13

76

None.

55

13$

76

None.

56

14

76

None.

57

14

76

None.

58

14
None.

51

None.

13

50$
55
50$
55
50$
55
50$
55

None.

76

13$

5i_
5

76

13$

76

None.

59

None.

60

6 Including 1 week with 1 day of 4 hours* overtime.
7 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
8 Not including premiums on special sales not exceeding $2.,40.
» Works 9 and 12$ hours a day alternately, except every othe Sunday 4$ hours.
other




42

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OP LABOB STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

Indi­
vidual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal condition.

41

Occupation.

Saleswoman...................... .

2
0

Single..

. . ..d o .................................

36
23

— do.
....d o .

Cashier................................
Saleswoman.......................

0
23

2
1

(7 ....
)

Cashier and bookkeeper .

Single..
___ do.
.. ..d o .

Department head........... .
Saleswoman.......................
Clerical.............................. .

___ do.

32

Floorwalker.......................

35

.. . . d o . . ,

Department head.

18
25

.. . . d o . . ,
Married.

(7 ................
)

35

....d o .

17

Single..

2
1

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
ence in
weekly
year
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

5
*
10
5
10
12

28

$7.50

13
* 49

18.00

«50
*52

(5)
5.00

3*
if

*50£
50
652

0)
9.50
6.08
7.20

8

<52

10.00

15

6 51

20.00
4.00
8.00

Saleswoman...........

A
5

12
*52

___ do.............................................

4

<48

6.00

___ do.............................................

4

®52

5.00

------do.

___ do.............................................

7

49

5.96

19 ------do.

Clerical...........................................

5

451

8.00

2
0

.do.

. . ..d o .............................................

2i

852

4.76

25

.do.

Saleswoman..................................

6

«49

6.49

17

..do..

....d o .............................................

2

51

3.50

2
2

..do..

Department head........................

7

*52

7.00

26
23
16

..do..
..do..
..do..

Saleswoman..................................
Assistant advertisement writer.

■
>
8

Saleswoman..................................

1

*50
50
50

5.16
10.00
4.00

26
19

.do..

.....d o ..................

(T
)
7.00

18

.do..

Clerical................
Saleswoman------

9
4

451

.do..

28

.do..

n 12.00

.do..

3
14
2

50
«52

19

Clerical................
Saleswoman------

50

5.00

.do..

____do..................

5

5.00

.do..

____do...................

7i

37
452

18

.do..

.......do...................

1-h

50

4.26

34

,.do..

Assistant buyer.

2
0

..do..

Saleswoman____

2
0
2
0

15
8)

50*

450
450$

5.00

4.56

(1 )
2
7.00

1 In addition, 2 meals.
2 Works 10 hours 3 days and 12£ hours 3 days a week and 8J hours every other Sunday; no time deducted
for lunch.
* Maximum week of 76 hours occurs in normal season.
« Including 1 week's vacation with pay.
#16.50 or $7.
« Including 2 weeks' vacation with pay.




WAGE-EAKNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

43

OF WAGE-EABNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Christmas holidays only.

Other employ­
ment.
Indi­
vid­
ual
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks
num­
em­
em­
em­
ber.
Aver­ ploy­
Maxi­
Aver­ ploy­ Aver­ Day
ploy­
Satur­ age
age before mum
ed.
Usual Satur­ age
ed.
Amount
ed.
week­ Christ- week­ Weeks earned.
day. week­
day. week­
day.
Working
hours.

Working hours.

91

13
40
32J

1 io
/
{ %
9i

44
0

9§

58
674
76
58
58
58
57f

114

10
m

114
9§

Hi

31
42
37

ly*

ly*

ly.
16$

Working hours.

104

91
114

55f

\ 1

76

134

None.
7
144
9
164

w 51
!

/ 9
1

61
62

None.
None.
None.
None.

63
64
65

13
124

75f
75
75

124

75

70
71

11 { f

63

25

75

5
9

None.
None.

14

75
72

7

76
(3)
76
76
76

76
76
76
75f

58
54

?

ly.

14

12
|
15

None.

6
6
6
8

None.

69

N
on^

67

11

104
n
9i

324

91

nf

154
58i
581 None.
58i
174

134

74* None.
$15.00
74f
74f None.

304

9i

HI

581

154

74f

134

74f

None.

73

32

9i

Hf

58

17

744

13f

744

None.

74

9i

lif

58i

154

744

131

744 None.

75

n

Hf

58i

164

744

13

744

None.

76

9

9

54

744

131

744 None.

77

7|
4

78

32|

13

f

t 9i

34
2

104
H
I
lif

58 | 9 35

lif

74f
74f
74f

134
13

2

72

Ilf

58i

144

74J

141

33

H

9i

554

17

74i

13f

741 None.

79

33

91

9*

554

17

741

13f

741

None.

80

304

91

n

lif
Hf

51
8

174
164

71
4

141
134
134

74i
74
74

None.
None.
None.

81
82
83

74
74

84
85
87

9i

114

324

91

n

Hf

40
284
39
324

9i

Hf

9i
9i

11*

(7
)

9i

Hi
H
I

41

91

m

32

H

31§
26

581
57f
58i
57f
584
57f
57f

114

2
2

74
73f

None.

164
9

74
74
74

131

74

None.
None.
None.

9

71f
73f

134
134

73f

None.

73f

None.

204

164

124
12f

8
6
8
8

(7
)

724

13

73f

None.

89

Hi

57f
57f
574

17

71f
73f

134
131

73f
73f

None.
None.

90
91

9i

Hi

574

16

734

124

734

None.

92

9i

114

57f

214

72f

134

734 None.

93

8

7 Not reported.
s Including 3 weeks’ sick leave with pay; 2 establishments.
»3 dull seasons in 2 establishments,
w 5 or 6 years.
1 In addition received Christmas present of $25.
1
m A t least $18.
1 Several years.
3




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

Indi­
vidual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal condition.

Occupation,

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
ence in
year
weekly
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

7

50

$8.00

20 ........do................................. ....... do................................................

2

39

16.00

________
16 ........do................................. Bundle wrapper.. . -. T
22 ........do................................. Sfllpswnman - 22 ....... do................................. ....... do................................................

1

46§
52

20

Single

............................ Saleswoman...........- ...........

_________

50

(*)
8.00

45

3.28

l

&52

4.45

49

48

6 7.00
5.76
5.00
6.00
3.50
4.00
8.00

1 25
2

6.75

17 ....... do................................. B undle wrapper............................
100

20 .

. .do................................

101
102
103
104
105
106
107

21 ........do.................................
23 ........do...............................
19 ........do.................................
24 ........do.................................
16 ........do.................................
18 ........do.................................
25 ........do...............................

108

25

Married.............................

26

Saleswoman......... . . . ___ _____

Single...............................

109

110

........do...............................................
........do...............................................
Clerical.............................................
Saleswoman....................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................

3
1
n
5
<1
(u)
8

550
» 52
50
26
49

5

111
112
113

Married...........................
Buyer...............................................
(4)
Clerical.............................................
18 Single...............................
22 ........do................................. ........do...............................................
18 ........do................................. Timekeeper.....................................

114

27 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................

115
116
117

21 ........do................................ Timekeeper.....................................
(19) Married............................. Saleswoman....................................
33 ........do................................. ........do...............................................

2.97

2
1

50

<1 )
4

1552

9.00

52

(!6)
5.00
7.00
6.00

10*

i? 52

14.26

6
7
5

47
51
6 52

6.00
15.00

46

(al
2

552

6.00

4
2

120

23 ........do................................. ........do...............................................
22 ........do................................. ........do...............................................

7

6 51

121

33 ........do................................. ........do...............................................

12

1 52
5

122

37

Widowed.......................... ........do...............................................

5

652

123

25

Married............................. ........do...............................................

10.00

30 Single................................. ........do...............................................
23 ........do................................ Clerical.............................................

10
9

50

124
125

50

9.00

9

48

126

25 ....... do.............................

Saleswoman..................................

12

50

127

20 ........do................................ ........do...............................................

4

50

5.00

128

22 ........do.................................

4

49

7.00

25

50*
41

(4)

Single................................. ........do...............................................

118
119

5.00
8.00
9.00
(<)

7.00

(20)

1 In addition to 3 meals each day; $10 for 3 months, no meals furnished.
2 Works 10 hours 3 days and 11 hours 3 days a week and 10* hours every other Sunday. Meals taken
when not busy and no time deducted.
3Maximum week of 73J hours occurs in normal season.
* Not reported.
5 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
« Receives percentage on sales for 1 week.
7 Including 13 weeks’ overtime of 57* hours each.
s This week and 2 weeks of the normal season not recorded belong to another establishment.
» Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay and 2 weeks’ sick leave with pay.
1 At least 1 year.
0




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Working
hours.

Working hours.
Weeks
em­

ploy­
ed,

Usual Satur­
day.
day.

12

4*
1

9
1
8
*

32*

n

I lf

27

9
1
9i

HI

58*

17

Hi

57*

17*

58

15*

53
51

9
11
11

39
34§

in

91

}

*
I lf

8
*

n*
8

8
*

36
37§
24*
38*
29*

9*

9*

32*

?
9i
9i

if
Hi
n*

31*

9*

9*

91

1
1

57|
57
57

U*

3

57
1 25*
8

12
89

57*
58

1§
0
9
16*

91

n*
ii*

58i

32*

9
1
9
1
9i
9i

32*

91

36
40
29*
31
32
33

9
9*

/ 9i

| oe
« n.
N

Hi

9£

ii?

9
17

16*

50*
55
48
50*
551
48
55*
51|

1
Nn.
oe
*

\

*

73*

73*

(3
)
72|
72
731

13f
13
12*

73*
73*
731

731

12|

731

73

12*

73

12*

55

73
73
73
72
71*
71*
72

73
73
73
72f
72*
72*
72

49*

51
5
49*

72

I
9
5
5
5

72
72
72
72
72
72

Hi
12

13*
13*
13*

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

72
72
72
72
72
72
72

71f
71*
71*'

12A
12f
11*

71*

18

70|

13*

57*
57f

16

71*
71i

131
11*

71*
71*
711

57f

16*

71i

57|

17*

711

57f

16*
9

711
71

14*

71

8

9i

Hi
11*
11*
11*
11*

9*

9*

32*

9i

9i

57
55*

32*

9i

9i

55*

16*

71

32*

9i

9i

55*

16*

71

32*

9i

9i

55*

15*

71




121

49

li

Nn. 111
oe

8
f
tt

%

50*
55

jNe
^o .
n

57
17
57
9
57
9
57
9
49
50* [ 11
54
9
9
58

1840

Other employ­
ment.

Weeks
Weeks
em­
em­
Aver­ ploy­ Aver­ Day Maxi­
ploy­
Satur­ age
ed.
age before mum
ed.
Weeks Amount
day. week­
week­ Christ­
earned.
mas.
ly.
ly*
ly-

58
r 63
t 73*
58
51
58*

I lf

n

1
0

Working hours.

Ar
ve
iy.

37

Christmas holidays only.

11*
1*
1
11*
11|

12
*
12
*
12
*
1*
2

1 Over 1 year.
1
1 Employed in 3 establishments.
2
1 Worked 3 days each week.
3
1 Several years.
4
16 Including 2 weeks' vacation with pay.
i« $25 or more.
1 Employed in 4 establishments.
7
m Hours for 4 different establishments.
1 Over 40 years of age.
9
A t least $10.

7U
711
711
71
71
71
71
71

Ne
o.
n
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
1

9

idial
um>er.

94
95
96
97
98
99
100

$6.00

101
102
103
104
105
106

10
r
108
109

110
111
112
113

None.

Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe

iai-

114
115
116
117
50.00

118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATIST

RS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

■ge.

Conjugal condition.

Occupation.

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
year
weekly
ence in
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

24

Saleswoman.........

1
0

2
0

Clerical...................

4

19

Saleswoman.;___

40

Department head.

18

2
1

Saleswoman..........

3

1*

1
8
6

18

____do.......................

26
23

Department head.
Saleswoman..........

26

____do......................

3

30

Buyer.....................

13

26

Saleswoman..........

If

n

16

Timekeeper ..

18

Saleswoman..

23

....... do.............

3

30

------ do.............

35

____do............

18

____do............

3i
(8
)
4i

28

Head cashier..

19

Saleswoman..,

26

(6
)

14

6

.do.

33

____d o ..

2
i

23

------d o ..

5

27

Clerical.

24

Saleswoman..

18
18

Clerical..........
Stock girl___
Saleswoman..

19
17




.do.

3
3

1A
M
r

1 Not reported.
2 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
8 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
* Not including occasional premiums, amount not reported.
6 Over a year.
6 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay; employed in 2 establishments.

WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

OP WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

7 Employed in 2 establishments,
s Many years.
9 Including 2 weeks with 1 day each of 3 hours of overtime.
Works 8J hours 3 days and 9 hours 3 days a week in this establishment.
1 Including 3 weeks’ vacation with pay.
1




47

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

Indi­
vidual
num­ Age.
ber.

Conjugal condition.

Occupation.

157

Widowed.

158
159
160
161

Single........
Widowed.
Single........
....d o ....

....... do..................
Assistant buyer.
Saleswoman.......
....... do....................

162

....d o ....

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
ence in
weekly
year
present previous
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

10

15
3

2$10.44

12
10

38
8 39
48§

8.00

....... do....................

Saleswoman.

163

....d o ....
....d o ....

Saleswoman.........

165

....d o ....
Divorced..

U6

8

8 51

Bundle wrapper.

164

U
A

166

Single____

51

....... do....................

35
2

....... do....................

3

8 52

5.00
9.00
1014.00

5

51
50
15
50

7.00
9.48
5.00
6.00

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

------do.

171

------d o ..

Buyer.............

172

....d o ..

Saleswoman.

173

____d o ..,

------do............

3

174
175
176
177

------d o ..,
. . ..d o ..,
. . ... d o ..
Married.

30|

1*
11
2
0

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

178

3.00

5
32

167
168
169
170

Single.,

4.50

n o . oo

7
f

12

(1)
8

15
5

»52

9.00

50

1*6.00

50
*51
i®52

8.00
7.00
8.00

9 51§

i*3 |
8

(16)

(u)

50

80
.0

is8 0
.0

179

.do.

Assistant buyer.

*51

15.00

180

.do.

Saleswoman..,

»50

9.00

181

.do.,

.do.

1 52

6.00

182
183

.do.
..do..

.do.
.do..

184

..do..

.do..

185

.do..
.do..

..do..

1714

5.00

..do..

8 52

8.50

186




(»)
(ffl)

8 51
3 51

6
8

8 51

1 Employed in 3 establishments.
2 In addition received commissions during 9 weeks; amount not reported.
3 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
* Over $18.
6 $8 or over.
8 Including 1 weeks' vacation with pay.
? Also $5 at Christmas.
« Works 8£ hours 3 days and 9£ hours 3 days a week.
9 Including 2 weeks with 1 day each of overtime.
i° Premiums in summer for a few weeks.
ii Not reported.

3*
8.00

WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA.

OP WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

1 This includes commissions on sales paid by a manufacturing company, amounting to $1.
3
1812 or 14 years.
1 Includes 1 week with 1 day overtime.
4
16 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay and 5 weeks’ sick leave with pay.
w Over 4 years.
i* Employed in 2 establishments.
Not including commissions for 29 weeks; amount not reported,
i® Including 2 weeks of 6 days each of one-half to three-quarters of an hour overtime.
80 3 or 4 years.
3 Several years.
1

84626°—13------1




49

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Department and other retail stores—Continued.

Indi­
vidual Age.
num­
ber.

187

20

Conjugal condition.

Occupation.

Married.............................

Saleswoman.................................

188

Singly__________ ______20 ........do...............................................

189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196

........do................................. ........do...............................................
........do.................................
........do................................. Bundle wrapper.............................
........do................................. Clerical.............................................
........do................................. Saleswoman....................................
........do................................. ........do...............................................
........do................................. Cash girl..........................................
15
....... do................................. Saleswoman....................................

(4)
15
16
17
20
18
18

197

21 ........do................................. Mail-order clerk.............................

198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207

19 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................
........do................................. Clerical.............................................
16
16 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................
19 ........do................................. ........do...............................................
19 Married............................. ........do...............................................
16 Single................................. ........do.............................................
19 ........do................................ ........do...............................................
17 ........do.................................
16 ........do................................. Errand girl......................................
18 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................

208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217

18
17
35
15
16
20
25
18
35
17
20
15
16

218
219
220
221
222

........do.................................
........do*................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
Widowed..........................
Single.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................
........do.................................

........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
Cash girl..........................................
Clerical.............................................
Saleswoman....................................
........do...............................................
Errand girl......................................
Saleswoman....................................
........ do...........................................
........do...............................................
Bundle wrapper............................
Saleswoman....................................

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
weekly
ence in
year
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

3t*s

151

3

151

(6)
1
*
i
i
i
$.
5

* 51
11
3
8
13
12$
12
8
7 52

*
V
1
9
21
|
Jl
2
£
$
5
■h
I
3
1
7
|
■s
h
1

3
4
15$
22
4
13
13
3
845
8
22
4
2
24
26
14
18
28
»16
5
13
13
8 31

2 $6.00
6.00
6.00
3.77
2.50
4.00
4.65
(#)
2.50
4.00
8.00
(6)
2.50
3.87
4.50
5.00
3.95
4.50
3.44
2.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
12.00
2.50
3.00
(10)
4.86
2.00
7.00
3.43
3.60
3.00
4.00

15 ........do................................ Bundle wrapper............................
16 ........do................................. ........do...............................................

A

223

17 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................

*

843

3.40

224
225

18 ........do................................. Clerical............................................
21 Married............................. Saleswoman....................................
16 Single................................. ........do...............................................
17 ........do................................. Bundle wrapper.............................
16 ........do................................. ........do...............................................
16 ........do................................. Saleswoman....................................

i
3$

Hi
1 44
8

40.0
5.80
4.00

227
228
229
230
231
232

29
17
28
30

Widowed..........................
Single.................................
Divorced............................
Single.................................

........do...............................................
Cash girl..........................................
Saleswoman....................................
Clerical.............................................

13

*
i
1
?
(13)
$
6*

25§
22
34
24
i«51
8
23
21

3.00
2.77

3.20
2.63
4.00
(15)
2.50
4.00
9.00

i Including 1 week’s vacation with pay. Employed in 2 establishments.
* In addition to board; earnings do not include 4 weeks when she received $5 exclusive of board.
* Works 9 hours 3 days and 10 hours 3 days a week.
4 Over 20 years.
* 4 or 5 years.
* Not reported.
7 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
8 Employed in 2 establishments.




WAGE-EABNING WOMEN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

51

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Christmas holidays only.

Other employ­
ment.
Indi­
vid­
ual
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks
num­
em­
em­
em­
ber.
Aver­ ploy­ Aver­ Day Maxi­
Aver­ ploy­
ploy­
ed.
Satur­ age
Amount
ed.
age before mum
Usual Satur­ age
ed.
week­ Christ­ week­ Weeks earned.
day. week­
day.
day. week­
mas.
ly.
ly.
ly.
ly.
Working
hours.

Working hours.

1$

None.

48*

Working hours.

591

60

None.

187

11

60

None.

188

11

60

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

190
191
192
193
194
195
196

4$
8

None.

1$

591

48$
11
3
8
13

1$
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

591

8

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

3
4
13$
22
4
13
6$
13
3

None.
None.
2
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

8

|None.
9
None.
None.
9
None.
None.
5

12
$
12

2$
4

IP
H
i

} “
13
4
2
15
26
14
13
20
16
5
13
13
26

None.
None.
None.

!
■

5
None.

13
24f

} 11
8

11$
34

None.
10

12
$

13

11
26
15

8
9

49
8
14
12

None.
None.
9
9

9i

58$

1|
0

58$ None.

11|

28
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

None.
None.
55J None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Ne
o.
n
5 * Ne
0 o.
n
Nn.
oe
Ne
oe
n.
Ne
o
Nn.
o.
n
Ne
o.
n
Ne
oe
n.
Ne
o
n
N.
o.
n
Nn.
oe
Ne
o.
n
jNe
-o.
n
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
jNn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
1
Nn.
oe
o.
n.
51i N e
Ne
o
n

581

None.
None.
42
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

50f

None.

9i

461
49$
52

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
57$

11*

57$ None.
None.
None.
None.

9 Works 9$ hours on Monday in this establishment,
w Not more than $5.
u 1 morning (5 hours) off each week.
12 Employed in 2 establishments; hours in 1 establishment not reported.
18 7 or 8 years.
u Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
Estimated to be $7.50.
i® Works 8$ hours 3 days and 9 hours 3 days a week.




198
199
200
201
202
203

s

206
207
208
$4.20

15.00
3
26 121.00
None.
None.
None.

461

47$

581

197

(*)

210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
221
222
223
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OF LABOR STATISTICS.

52

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Department and other retail stores—Concluded.

In
di-

vidual Age.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Conjugal condition.

Weeks
Years of employed
experi­
during Average
ence in
year
weekly
present previous earnings.
industry. to Dec. 1,
1912.

234

Single..

Saleswoman.........

3

235
236
237
238

------do..
------do..

Bundle wrapper..

*
4

------ do...
Married.

239

Single.. .

240
241
242
243
244
245

....... do...
Married.
Single...
------ do...
....... do...

Saleswoman.........
Demonstrator___
Saleswoman.........
.do..

A
(5)

(3)

652

2

150
9
2 51
17*
30*

(0

$7.00
4.00

1 .0
10
60
.0

Married...

.do.

4

3f
14f
33
16
50
®51

246

Single........

.do.

1

850

247

------ do____

.do.

11

650

5.00

248

____d o . . . .

.do.

U

49

96.12

249

____do____

.do.

5.68

Divorced..
Single........
____do____

.do.
.do.
.do.

2
*
( 10)

48

250
251
252

6*

2*

2 51
26
651

ii 8.00
7.00

253

------ do____

Department head.

5

650

254

____do____

Saleswoman..........

3*

650

255

____do____

____do.....................

7*

247

256
257
258
259
260

Widowed.

1
2
1

40
13
13
52
1 26
4

261
262

.do.

.do.

H

.do.

.do.

*

...d o ....
Divorced..

.do.

263
264
265
266
267
268

....... d o ...
Married.




____do....................
....... do....................
....... do....................
Bundle wrapper..
Saleswoman.........

.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

.do.
....... do............
Clerical..........
Saleswoman.
....... do............
Cashier.........
Saleswoman.

A
*

2
*
1

i

m

A

247
8*

7

651

1

50
26
13

A
f

I

*

A

1 Not including 2 weeks’ vacation; no report as to pay for same.
2 Including 1 week's vacation with pay.
a Estimated to be $6.50.
4 Works 8 hours 3 days and 9 hours 3 days a week.
6 Over 8 years.
• Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
* Not reported.
e Including 2 weeks* sick leave with pay.

11
9

i*27|

5.00
5.50

60
.0

3,00
7.00
(7)

6.48

80
.0
16.00
(12)

80
.0
(13)
5.50
5.84
8.63

60
.0
7.00

80
.0
<
7)
6.00

4.00

80
.0

(7)

7.00

1 .0
20

WAGE-EABNING WOMEN IN THE DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA.

53

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Department and other retail stores—Concluded.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Christmas holidays only.

Other employ*
ment.
Indi­
vid­
ual
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks
num­
em­
em­
em­
ber.
Aver­ ploy­ Aver­ Day Maxi­
Aver­ ploy­
ploy­
Satur­ age
ed.
ed.
ed.
Usual Satur­ age
age before mum
Amount
week­ Christ- week­ Weeks earned.
day. week­
day.
day. week­
ly.
ly.
ly.
ly.
Working
hours.

Working hours.

33

45
48

17
None.
None.

9
13
19*

(
i
I

n*

29
11
41
32

JNone.
None.

1

i?

28

Working hours.

9
9*
6
8i
8§

49 None.
51
None.
46*
49* j-None.
52*
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
^None.

56

10

56

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

234
235
236
237
238

None.
32 $166.30
None.
None.
None.
None.
None,

240
241
242
243
244
245
246

32

54

[•None.

None.

31

54

•None.

None.

247

32

54

•None.

None.

248

27*

54

None.

None.

31*
13
27

54
54
54

None.
None.
•None.

None.
None.
None.

250
251
252

54

►
None.

None.

253

54

•None.

None.

254

31

54

[■None.

None.

255

29
13
13
41
13

54
54
54
54
54

►
None.
None.
None.
None.
)-None.

None.
37
None.
None.
None.

256
257
258
259
260

31

54
54

)-None.
None.

None.
None.

8*
28

53*

50
17
13
11
9
27§

53
51
52*
52*
51
48

13

21

None.
46*

None.
None.
None.
4
8.00
39 179.00
None.

261

None.

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

9 Not including premiums amounting throughout year to $15.
10 About 3 years.
1 Not including premiums on special sales, the amount of which was not reported,
1
i* $8 or $8.50 a week.
is Over $20 a week.
14 Not including 1 week’s vacation; no report as to pay for same.
1 Employed in 2 establishments.
6




(7)

264
265
266
267

54

BULLETIN OF TH E BUEEAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.
[Unless otherwise specified, bracketed hours signify two dull seasons.]

Indi­
vid­
ual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal con­
dition.

24 Widowed........
33 Single...............
34 ....... do..............
35 ....... do..............
19 ....... do..............
21 ........ do..............

Industry.1

Occupation.

Laundry....................
Tailoring....................
........do.........................
Outing goods.............
Paper boxes..............
........do.........................

Skirt maker...............
Head fitter.................
Seamstress.................
Box maker.................
General helper..........

Shaker........................

Weeks
Years of employed
during Average
experi­
ence in year pre­ weekly
previous vious to earnings.
industry. Dec. 1,
1912.

A
7$
11

29

$5.14

39$

9.96
15.00

26 ....... do.............. Millinery.................... Trimmer....................
18 ....... do.............. Confectionery............ Chocolate dipper___
21 ....... do.............. ........do......................... Candy maker............

2

51
40
48
30
47
4
50

42

*
1
6
9

8.07
5.05
5.16
12.55
(2)
6.06

Married...........

Tailoring....................

Coat alterer................

8

828|

10.14

45 ....... do..............
28 Widowed........

Dressmaking.............
Laundry....................

Embroiderer.............
Sorter..........................

*
6

24
51

7.34
7.78

8

48

5.00

10

43
30
30
51
4

21

.do.

Body ironer...............

639

6.00
5.58
3.07
5.00
5.00
8.89

Milliner and designer

7

46

16.00

.do..
Paper boxes..
Millinery.......
Tailoring.......

Trimmer....................
Box maker.................
Trimmer....................
Alteration hand........

5
6
10

46
43
34
9 52

10.57
5.09
(7
)
8.00

Laundry___
Paper boxes.
Tele^

Flat-work ironer___
Forewoman...............
Local operator..........
........do..........................
Sewing-machine op­
erator.

7
2
3
2
5

37
9 52
9 50
9 51
51

6.35
7.06
5.00
5.00
(i°)

.do.........
.do.........

Laundry.................... Collar ironer..............
Printing.....................

3

51

5.00

3

.do..............

24

Laundry....................

47$
46

16
17
50
23
20

____do____
____do____
____do____
Widowed.
Single........
....... d o . ...

23

.do.,

24
.do..
32
.do..
.do..
(6)
30 ....... do...
Married.
.do___
------d o ....
------d o ....

....d o ............
___ do.............
Paper boxes.
Laundry........
Paper boxes.
Millinery........
.do.

Outing goods.

Flat-work ironer___
Gluer..........................
Machine ironer.........
Lacer and trimmer..
Maker.........................

*
2
7
(<)

(8)

(6) ................................

(u)

Telephone exchange. , Local operator..........
____do.........
Paper boxes..............
------ do.........
Laundry.................... Hand ironer...............
Widowed..
....... do............... ........do......................... ........do..........................
Outing goods............ Forewoman...............
Millinery.................. . . Maker.........................
.do..

(6)

.do..

Telephone exchange.. Operator....................
....... do......................... . Local operator..........

.do..

Laundry.................... . Starcher.....................

.do..

3
4
2
7$
i

(6)
50
52
39
48

1332

8.86
(6)
(6)
2.54
5.77
5.80
12 13.50
3.68

(•>
2$

1 52
4

5.60

u 52

i$

7.00
5.00

46$ 1

1 Includes women employed in alteration and millinery departments of mercantile establishments.

2 A t least $4.75.

8 Employed in 3 establishments.
* 1$ years at least.
6 Employed in 3 establishments; 2 with 58 hours, 1 with 55$ hours.
* Not reported.
* Over $20 per week,
s Over 1 year.




WAGE-EARNING W OMEN IN THE DISTBICT OP COLUMBIA.

55

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. 0.—Continued.
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.
[Unless otherwise specified, bracketed hours signify two dull seasons.]

Normal season.

Busy season.

Dull season.

Weeks
at other
em­
Weeks
Weeks
ploy­
em­
em­
em­
Aver­ Maxi­
Aver­ ploy­
ment.
Maxi­
ploy- Usual Short age
Satur­ Aver­ ploy­
age
ed.
age
ed.
week­ mum mum
day.
day. week­
day. weekly.
day. week.
Working hours.

Working hours.

Working hours.

25

30
43
25
m
3

63*
54

I,
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
j-None.

22
36

None.
9
9*
10
11
11
10
None.
None.

None.

4

None.

57f
54
54
57
57f
70
59
56
54
57
60
61*

14*
9
None.
None.
10*
None.
7

52

1*
1*
1
5
5
1
1
20

50*

2*

72

2

72
72

N *

I■
*

10*

7

8

None.

68

8*

None.

35*
38
33
29

None.
None.
None.
None.

58
9*
None.
54
57| None.
58
17*

25
32*
39
40
30*

( e
|

53f

None.
None.
None.
7*

51
55*
57*
52*

35
28*

J>N
one.
None.

48

None.

36
(6)
35
39
26
37
31
50
39*
40*

7

56

68
58*
51
68

35*

17
28
40
None.

50*

None.
16*
9
9
16*

13
2
11
4
1
50*
55
50*
55 \

f 1

m

W 1

50f
551

1
5
1

79*
75
74
74
74
73*
73
72*
72

None.
None.
None.
2 $15.00
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

12

72

None.

10

12
13

72
72

None.
None.

12

72

9i
11
5

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
55* j-None.
58
58
9*

35

78
75

13*

72

None.

13

72
68|
71
68§
71
70*

13*

72

13

111

71*
71
71
71
70*

None.
13
None.
None.
None.
None.

70*

Ilf

70*

None.

20

70*

Ilf
12
11*
11*

70*

None.
None.
None.
None.

21
22
23
24

681

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

25
26
27
28

73&
74
70
m
73
721
64|

\

13f
12*
14*
12*
13
121
13*
12*
12

F
123

661

47*
46J
50*
50

12
2
1
1
4

8
59*

57

8

13

11
2

45
54*

8

11
13

66

121
131
131
12*
I lf

63f

64* None.
•None.
None.
54
11
None.
9
None.
9
52*
5
7*
None. f 55* J-None.
{ 58
1
None. I 5 54 [•None.
L5 63
1
None.
9
57
None.
} m

{ II

66

67*
67*
67*

8

12
HI
Hi
12

68*

67*
67*
67*

4
4
4
6
1

63f
631
631
60*
63

63

None.
1*
6

4
5
6
7
8
9

11

58.50

14
15
16
17
18
19

None.
None.

31

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

33
34
35
36
37

None.

65*

None.
45
45
45
50

1
2
3

None.

38

None.
63
62f

11*
12*

63

None.
None.

9 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
1 As pieceworker, $12 to $15 per week; as time worker, $9.50 per week.
0
1 Several years.
1
1 Not including overtime pay, amount not reported.
2
1 Employed in 3 establishments; 1 with 91 hours, 2 with I lf hours.
3
1 Including 2 weeks* vacation with pay.
4
is Works Sundays, alternate week, throughout year.




Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.

ly*

ly-

38
35*

Total
earn­
ings at
other
em­
ploy­
ment.

40
41

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

56

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Continued.

Indi­
vid­ Age.
ual
num­
ber.

Conjugal con­
dition.

Industry.

1912.

Married.
____d o ...

Laundry
....... d o ..
Oui
..d o .............. Paper
.do.........
Telephone exchange
Widowed..
Tailoring....................
.. ... d o .............. Outing goods............
Separated.,
Single____
------ do____
------ d o ..

Laundry..........
Confectionery.
Laundry..........
____do..............

....d o
Married.
Tailori
Single.........
------ do.........
.do.
____do.........
____do.............. ....... do.........................
Tailoring..............
------ do.........
____do.........
Fur goods.............
....d o ....
Millinery..............
Widowed.
Printing................
Single........
Laundry...............

63

Occupation.

.do..

22

,.do..

Head ironer...............
Hand ironer..............
Cutter....................... .
Machine operator. . .
Operator....................
Skirt maker..............
Lining machine op­
erator.
Head ironer............. .
Chocolate dipper. . .
Mat-work ironer___

Bosom ironer—
Skirt maker------Alteration hand.
....... do...................
....... do..................
Fitter...................
Finisher.............. .
Folder.......................
Bookkeeper.............
/H and and machine
\ ironer.
Marker and sorter.. .
Sewing-machine op­
erator.
Compositor................
Machine operator... .
Hand sewer and
sewing - machine
operator.
Helper......................
Alteration hand____
Flat-work ironer___
____do.....................
Skirt maker..........
Clerical..................
(1 ) .........................
0
Maker....................

....d o ..............
Outing goods..

Divorced..
Single........
Widowed.

Printing..........
Paper boxes...
Outing goods..

Single........,
Married...,
Single.........
Married....
Single........
Separated.
Single.........

Tailoring..
....... do.......
Laundry..
....... do.......
Tailoring..
Laundry..
Millinery.,

....... do........
,.do.........
.do...............
.do...............

....... d o .....
Outing goods.......
Forewoman.........
....... do.......................... Assistant forewoman
Paper novelties..
Packer...................

(? 8

37

43
44
49
50
»51

(2
)

$4.50
5.00
6.45
7.31
7.00
0 10.00

36

(2)

5.19

17
«48
40
52

Machine ironer........

20 ....... do........
50 ....... do........

67

Weeks
Years employed
of experi­ during Average
ence in year pre­ weekly
previous vious to earnings.
industry. Dec. 1,

7.00
7.00
4.00
5.00

31|
27

(10)

5.00
10.24

3 49

3 49
50
3 37
2

241

If
31

29

8
15.00
(” )

*

48
8

7.00
6.75
5.50

i

4.67

50
50

5.00
8.58

5

(17)

12

n

48
49
49|

12.77
3.46
8.56

n

17

11

13
12

14

17
3 51
13
26

1

2 41
2

*52
»52
»52

3.05
8.19
3.00
4.00
7.04
4.50
2 18.00
0
2.95

86.00

1A legal holiday fell in all but 4 of these weeks; on all but 1 holiday she worked an average of 5 hours
in addition to 2J hours overtime for 2 nights during each holiday week.
2 Over 1 year.
8 Including 2 weeks vacation with pay.
* Every third Sunday works 8| hours.
« Exclusive of overtime earnings, which were not reported.
6 A legal holiday occurred in each of these weeks, on which she worked 5 hours per day.
7 Maximum week occurs in normal season.
8 A legal holiday fell in each of 4 weeks on which she worked an average of 5 hours in addition to 2Jhours
overtime for 2 nights in each holiday week.
• A legal holiday occurred in each of these weeks; on 6 she worked an average of 5 hours in addition to
2§ hours overtime for 2 nights during the 7 weeks.
i° Not reported.
1 A t least $7.
1
12 About $9.
18 Employed in 3 establishments—9 hours in 1 ,9i hours in 2 others.
u Employed in 2 establishments.
11A legal holiday fell in this week on which she worked 5 hours; 1 night during the week she worked 1
hour overtime.




WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Weeks
at other
em­
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks
ploy­
em­
em­
em­
Aver­ Maxi­ Maxi­ ment.
Aver­ ploy­
Aver­ ploy­
ploy­ Usual Short age
age mum mum
ed.
ed. Satur­
age
ed.
week­
day.
day. week­
day. weekly.
day. week.
lyly.
Working hours.

10
10

15

9
9

10
10*
9
10
11

t
\

45
19
45
27§

I
21 { S 9
41
9
41
9
41
9
24
9
19*
8*
189
28 ( it (ft
\
None.

8

n

11

t

61* None.
54 None.
58
8

None.

8

I
I

$
7

f
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
jNone.
None.

6

6
6

5
5

54
56
50
47*

8

61
60
59§

84

60

«2
1

5
5

45*
50

1

43
None.

9
9

11

44
45
47*

9
H

None.
None.

9
9*
*9*

9

8
11

None.
None.
None.

54
55*
58
58
54
58
57f

None.
None.
None.
None.
9
None.
None.
j-None.

5

8
8
11

5
5

10
10

/

38 ^
38
36*

8

8
8

>None. I 48
I 57J
9*
52*
7*
52]
9
7*
9 None.
54

56*

12*
11*
12
12
10*
11*
12
10*
12*
13*
14

60
60
60
60
60
60
60

12
11
11
11
11
10
11

38

14

»1
50

14*

6
6
6
2
2

5

4
5
5

13

61*
60|

813
87

5

8

61*

54

48
54
52*

9

25
36
10*

2

59*
59
62
59§

25

None.
None.
7*

10

ill
4
8*
3

50

\ 60| None.
None.
2
54 None.
54 None.
54
None.
54
7
54
9
51
None.
/ 54
\ 57f jNone,
None.
2 9 jNone.
48*

110

5

I 53* j-None.
f 59
1 ?
59
7
None.
54
None.
7

w

43
39

15
38
13
26
41

8
8

None.
None.

j-None.

Working hours.

Working hours.

58
4
58
8
54
7
54
15*
/ <51 j-None.
84 None. 1 <59*
9 None.
54 None.
2
52*
9
7*

29
25
38
26
46
36
9

55
58*
59

134
11*

57*
58*
54|

12
104
12

2

58
58
58
52*
54

2

57*
57*
57*

10
2

24*

2

451

50
50
48

624
624
62
62

614
61*
614
(7)
61
61
(7)
(7
)
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

11

167
4

5
1 1
8
1 2
8

8

57

None.
None.
None.
4
4

Total
earn­
ings at
other
em­
ploy­
ment.

Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.

42
43
44
45

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

46

None.
None.

47
48

None.
None.
None.
None.

49
50
51
52

None.

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
26 $130.00

11

66.00

None.
None.
36

61
62
96.50

63

59

None.
None.

64
65

584
584
584

None.
None.
None.

66
67
68

11
111
12*
12
11

58
58
(7)
(7)
58

None.
None.
None.
14
49.50
None.
274 ’m o o *
None.

114
11*
lOf

574
574
574

None.
None.
None.
None.

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79

16 A legal holiday fell in each of the 7 weeks; on 6 of these she worked an average of 5 hours and in addition
worked 24 hours overtime on 2 other nights for the 7 weeks.
» 6 or 7 years
18 A legal holiday fell in this week on which she worked 5 hours; on 2 nights during the week she worked
2* hours overtime.
19 A legal holiday fell in each of the 2 weeks; on 1 holiday she worked 5 hours; on 1 night during each of
the 2 weeks she worked 2 hours overtime.
*> Earned this for 3 months; earnings during other 3 months not reported.
» Hours reported are for 13 weeks worked in 1 establishment; hours for second establishment not reported.
» Employed in 3 establishments.
» Over 13 years.
* Estimated at 125.
85 5 or 6 years.
** Estimated at $20 .
” Including 2 § weeks' vacation with pay.




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Continued.

Indi­
vid­
ual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal con­
dition.

Industry.

Weeks
Years employed
of experi­ during Average
ence in year pre­ weekly
previous vious to earnings.
industry. Dec. 1,

Occupation.

1912.

Dressmaking............. Alteration hand..
Laundry.................... Cashier..................
....... do.............
____do.......................... Flat-work ironer.
....... do.............
Married......... . ____do......................... Hand ironer.........
Single.............
Telegraph office........ Clerk.....................
Married......... . Dressmaking............. Dressmaker.........
Single............. . Millinery.................... Trimmer...............
. . . . . d o ........... . Laundry.................... Sorter....................

84
87

.do.
Married.
....d o ...

19

21

110
111
112

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

121

122

123

(5
)
12

.do.

750

Fitter......................
Shaker and folder.

11

6.00

25.44
9.07
27.07
7.00
7.00

6

14.00
4.00

7 39

3i

4.50

.do.

Collar starcher___

.do.

Collar ironer.

51§

5.00

........do...........
F itter....................
,...d o .....................
Seamstress.............
Hair dresser...........
Alteration hand.. .
Clerical...................
Binder....................
Packer....................
Department head.
Skirt maker...........
Fitter......................
Operator...............
Binder..................
Finisher................
File clerk..............
Box maker...........
Skirt maker.........
Seamstress...........
Forewoman..........

49
43

5.00
6.26
15.00
4.00
10.00
8.00

....... do...............
Dressmaking..
........d o ............
(6)
Tailoring.........
18
19 Married.
Hair dressing..
Dressmaking..
24 Single...
Drugs...............
18 ------ d o ...
Printing..........
30 Married.
25 ____d o ...
Confectionery.
Tailoring.........
38 Single...
25 Single.. .
....... do...............
....... do...............
18 ....... do...
Telephone exchange
18 ------do.........
Printing.....................
Married___
34 ------do.........
Fur goods..................
Drugs.........................
18 Single.........
16 ____do............... Paper boxes..............
Tailoring....................
20 ____do.........
........do.........................
....d o .........
(6
)
30 W idowed..
Laundry....................
........do.........................
29 Single.........

27

100

Dressmaking...
Laundry.........

£

20

$8.18
5.00
3.90

.do.,

21

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

.do.

(8
)

51
52
5
48
<52
30$
41
50

.. ..d o . .
------ d o ...
Married.

17

do............... Telephone exchange

23 ........do............... Cigar...........................
21 ........do............... Laundry....................
do.........................
25 Single............... Outing goods.............
19 Married........... Laundry....................
16 Single......................... do.........................

f
13
50
52
39
39
47$
H52

52
18
25
17
34
37
41
13

Flat-work ironer.
Operator.
Bander.
Collar ironer.
Collar starcher
Machine operator___
Starcher.
Helper

16 ........do............... Paper boxes.............. Box maker.
18
do............... Drugs.......................... File clerk
36 Married........... Fur goods................... Collar maker,
signer.

de­

12

24$
49
51
52
52
50
13
28
39

(5
)

6.09
5.00
22.50
12.00
6.00

7.02
8.46
10.91
4.00
4.00
9.00
8.00
7.81
4.00
5.33
7.50
7.50
5.00
10.00
4.98
4.00
4.00
4.00
10.00

1A legal holiday fell in this week on which she worked 5 hours; on 2 nights during the week she worked
2$ hours overtime.
2 Maximum week occurs in normal season.
8 Several years.
4 Including 1§ weeks’ vacation with pay.
8 Not reported.
* A legal holiday fell in each of the 7 weeks; on six of these holidays she worked an average of 5 hours,
and in addition worked 2$ hours overtime on 2 other nights for the 7 weeks.
7 Employed in 2 establishments.
8 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; she worked a half day on each in addition to 2$ hours over­
time on 2 other nights in each week.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

59

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Continued.
Dull season.

Normal season.
Working hours.
Weeks
em­
ploy­ Usual Short
ed.
day.
day.

29*
52
4
48
41*
15
40
43
45

11

5

None.
9*

Busy season.

10

54

18*
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
55* None.

9*

None.
il
None.
9
15*
1

?

«7

12*

(2
)

None.

85

55*

12*

(2)

None.

None.
n

52f

10*

(2)
(2)

None.
None.

90

•None.

85

54*

12

(2)

None.

91

«7

53

(2)

None.

92

(2)
(2)

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
17*
None.
None.
None.
36

93

44§

10

55

None.

42
41

10

55

None.
2
None.
None.
None.
9
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
5
j-None.

7*

«?
13
47
52
39

39

42*
50

9
9
9*
9*
8

45

43
50

11

28
26
39

8*

10

22

None.
4
None.
None.
None.
None.
8

None.
7
9
None.
None.
None.
None.

7*

? }
5*
None.

( if

67
45 None.
None.
None.
None.
50 None.
None.
3
None.
None.
None.
48 None.
None.
12
46*
50
50

53

7
None.
None.
9
None.
None.

iNone.
‘ |}

None.
13

10

53

*
12*
12*

(2)
54

10

“ 54*

(2)
54
54

11

None.
None.
None.
None.

137

141

53
53*

12
12

(2)
(2)

47*

2

137

1 7
8
*49*' None.
None.
1 2
6
45

None.
None.
None.

94
95
96
97
100

101
102

52.50

103
104
105
106
107
108
109

110
111

112
113

None.

None.

(•None.

?
1 10
5
9*
8*

87

i?
13

55

8

80
81
82
83
84
85
86

12*

Jno

H

8

*)
56
56
55*

None.
None.
45 $202.50
None.
None.
None.
None.

57

57

10

40
44

10*

56
55*
55*
55

34

34
37
34

57

48
45

10

18

Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.

Working hours.

None.
None.

10
10

30

Total
earn­
ings at
other
em­
ploy­
ment.

Weeks
at other
em­
Weeks
Weeks
ploy­
em­
em­
Aver­ Maxi­ Maxi­ ment.
ploy­ Satur­ Aver­ ploy­
age mum mum
ed.
age
ed.
week­
day. weekly.
day. week.
ly*
Working hours.

53
52
51*

12*
12

47f

n*

53
(2)
(2)
(2)

114

None.

115

None.

116

None.
None.
None.

117
118
119
5.00

(2)
•(ij*

None.
None.
None.

120

121

122
123

9 A legal holiday fell in this week, on which she worked one-half day, and in addition worked 1£ hours
on 2 other nights in this week.
i° Including 2 weeks' vacation with pay.
11 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay; worked 7 hours on Sunday every other week in normal season.
i* Worked 7 hours on Sunday every other week.
1 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 6 of these she worked an average of 5 hours and in addition
8
worked 2* hours overtime on 2 nights of the 7 weeks.
1 A legal holiday fell in this week, on which she worked one-half day, and in addition worked 2* hours
4
overtime on 2 nights during the week.
1 Employed in 2 establishments, hours for second establishment not reported.
5
1 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 1 she worked 5* hours and in addition she worked 2 hours
0
overtime for 2 nights in each week.




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOUES OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Concluded.

Indi­
vid­
ual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal con­
dition.

Industry.

Occupation.

Weeks
Years
Luring Average
of experi­
ence in year pre­ weekly
previous vious to earnings.
industry, Dec. 1,
1912.

124

Widowed-

Laundry.

Hand finisher.

52

125

Single........

___ do___

Starcher...........

52

126

____do —

.. ..d o ....

Collar ironer...........

50

Telephone exchange.
Printing................... .
___ do.........................
Drugs.........................

Operator.................
Binder....................
. . . . d o .....................
Mailing clerk..........
Filing clerk............
Department head.

.d o .
.do.
.d o .
.d o .
.d o .
.d o .

127
128
129
130
131
132

134
135
136
137
138
139
140

....d o ..
___ d o ..
....d o ..
------d o ..
Married.
Single.. .
------d o ..
. . . . d o ..

141
142

....d o ........................
___ do.........................
Printing....................
Drugs........................ .
Printing 8. .................
Drugs........................ .
Printings...................
....... do....................... .
Soda fountain sup­
plies.
.....d o .........................
Printing...................
Laundry....................

6 51$
52
36
17

I

39
51
51$
51
5 52

Clerical....
Binder___
File clerk.

Family hand ironer.
Attendant.................
Stripper and packer.
File clerk ana tele­
phone operator.
File clerk...................
Typist........................

n
19$
20
$
A
5

143

.do..
.do..
.do..

144
145
146
147

Widowed.
Single........
....... do........
____do........

.do..
Tailoring..
Tobacco...
Drugs.......

148
149

....... do........
Widowed.

Trade school.
Drugs.............

Packer........................
Press feeder...............
Linotype operator...
Machine operator... .

12

(10)

....d o ..
Folder.
Sorter..........................

10
7 52

11

52
7 51

$4.50
5.00
(8)
8.00

8.10
8.10
4.00
5.00
5.98
5.00
8.10
4.17
4.00

(9)

4.00

(9
)

6.00

740
32

(12)

5.97
3.30
5.00

52
47
50
45

6.00

12$

5 52

9.00
4.63
i*5.91
4.00

1 6.00
4

1 Maximum week occurs in normal season.
2 Including 1 week in which occurred a legal holiday on which she worked a half day.
* $4.50 or $5.
4 A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on 1 she worked 4$ hours and in addition worked 2 hours
overtime in each of the 6 holiday weeks.
5 Including 2 weeks' vacation with pay.
• Every fourth Sunday, 7 hours.
7 Including 1 week's vacation with pay.




WAGE-EABNING W OM EN IN THE DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA.

61

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments—Concluded.
Busy season.

Dull season.

Normal season.

Weeks
at other
em­
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks
ploy­
em­
em­ Aver­
em­
Aver­
Aver­ ploy­
Maxi- Maxi­ ment.
ploy­ Usual
ploy­
age
age
Satur­
Short age
mum- mum
ed.
ed.
week­
day. weekly. ed.
day. week­
day.
day. week.
ly.
ly.
Working hours.

Working hours.

45
44

( 10
i

44

i?
9$

Working hours.

50

None.

7

49$

None.

46}

«8

12$
11$

0)
50

125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
46$ None.

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
$66.50
18
None.
None.

133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140

32
32
23

8
8$
9

47
46$
46

7
None.
None.

46$ None.
None.

52

8

None.

47
50
45

7$
8
7

45
45
45
42

None.
None.
None.
None.

12$
44

7
6

u

124

None.

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

S»
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

22
2

None.

None.
46$ None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

{
39
{
34$
42$
42
39
11
52
41

7
8
8
8
8

Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.

None.

None.
49
42 ■None.
49
48
48
None.
48
None.
48
48 -None.
47$
48 ►
None.
47$
16$
48
48
48
11
48
None.
48
None.
48
47
9

49$
30
34
17
10
51

Total
earn­
ings at
other
em­
ploy­
ment.

11$

C
1)

46$
47$
47$
47$

113

None.
None.
None.
None.
34

None.
None.

0)

40§

11

10

(l)

(*)

42
$
151.20
18
None.

141
142

None.
None.
None.
None.

C
1)

144
145
146
147

None.
None.

148
149

143

8 In specialty supply house.
9 Not reported,
i® Over 2 years.
u A legal holiday fell in each of these weeks; on one she worked a half day and in addition 2 hours over­
time for 1 night for the 3 weeks.
iJAt least 20 years.
i* Received $2.50 in addition for Christmas.
1 In addition, room and board.
4




62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.
Indi­
vidual Age.
num­
ber.

Conjugal condition.

sitigip.

Industry.

Occupation.

_____ Hotel.............................. Linen clerk...................

........do.........................
........do.........................
Married......................
Separated...................
........do.........................
SinglA_____________

........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
Restaurant....................

Pantry girl....................
Maid...............................
........do ...........................
........do ...........................
........do.............................
Waitress........................

Married......................

Transportation............. Charwoman.................

SinglA._____________

Hotel.............................. Maid...............................

Weeks
em­
ployed.

Average
weekly
earnings.

51

$5.77

3 44*
44
49
48
13
8 50

3.46
3.23
(5)
3.23
3.46
7.00

38

9.23

.i°42*

3.27

Married...................... ........do............................. ........do.............................
SinglA______________ ........do............................. Linen clerk...................

52

3.46

9

5.76

........do.............................

26
13
50
48
1 51
4

5.76
3.23
3.23
3.23
6.00

is 50

7.00
2.26
2.31
5.00
3.23
3.46

Married...................... ___ do .............................
........do......................... ........do.............................
SinglA .................................. ........do.............................
........do......................... ........do.............................
........do......................... Restaurant...................

Charwoman...................
Maid...............................
........do.............................
Waitress........................

........do......................... ........do............................. ........do...........................
Married...................... Hotel.............................. Charwoman.................
Widowed................... ........do............................. ........do.............................
Single.......................... Restaurant.................... Waitress......................
........do......................... Hotel.............................. Maid...............................
Married...................... ........do............................. ........do.............................

33
48
48
52
26

Single..........................
Separated...................
Single..........................
Married......................
Single..........................
Widowed...................
........do.........................
........do.........................
........do.........................
Married......................
........do.........................

........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
Single.......................... Restaurant....................

........do.............................
........do...........................
........do.............................
........do.............................
Linen clerk...............
........do.............................
Maid...............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
Waitress......................

9
52
49
43i
52
i»52
52
51
34
6*
52
5

5.40

........do.............................
Hotel..............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do......................... ........do.............................

........do.............................
Maid.............................
Charwoman...................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................
........do.............................

17
47
39
52
4
45
1 52
5

4.50
3.23
3.23
3.46
3.46
3.71
3.46

Single.......................... Office building............. ........do............................
Widowed................... ..Restaurant.................. Waitress........................
Married...................... ........do............................. Dishwasher...................
........do.........................
........do.............................

50
13
52
17

8.00
3.00
3.04
3.00

........do.........................
........do.........................
Separated..................
Widowed...................
Married......................
Widowed...................

26

3.46
3.23
3.23
3.23
6.92
(5)
3.46
3.46
3.46
3.23
3.19

i Work between 10 p. m. and 6 a. m. is termed night work.
* Alternate weeks.
* Including 10 days’ vacation with pay.
« Every fifth night works to 1 a. m.
* Not reported.
« Once a week till midnight.
* Reports some overtime; this is not taken account of in the average hours per week, but is used in the
mfyrimnm weekly hours.
* Including 2 weeks with pay (1, vacation; 1, sick).
* Except supper when working evenings in holiday season.




WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

63

OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Continued.
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.
Working hours.
Num­
ber of Hous­
meals ing in­
Maxi­
cluded. Usual Short mum
in­
day.
day.
cluded.
day.

Y e s ...

3
3
3
3
9None.

Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
N o ....

None.

N o ....
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...

2
3
3

9oe
Nn.
s oe
N.
n
3
i« 3

9oe
Nn.
3

Y e s ...
N o ....
Yes12..
Y e s ...
N o ....
N o ....
Yes12..
Yes12..
N o ....
Y e s ...
Yes12..

Nn.
oe
j Ne
-o .
n
Nn.
oe
Nn
o
Nn.
oe
Nn.
oe
e
.
• oe
N.
n
Nn.
oe

Night or
day work.1

Aver­
age
weekly
hours
(nor­
mal)
worked.

4

Alternate..

{

4
4
4
4
4
None.

....... do.........

73*

........Day.4..
........d o ........
........do.6___
........do.®___
........do.........

71|
70
7 69

Sun­
days
worked
per
month.

16*

11

11

10
15*
14
13*

2 ........do.........

9*

P

14

1 6*
1

13

8

10

?

10*

12

*

}

‘

4
4
4
4
None.

»6
13 g

(-None.
►
None.
None.
None.
►
None.

6

None.

64*

None.

64

22

64

None.

63
62
62

17
None.
None.
None.

I

Hi

4 ........do.17. . .
4 ........d o ........

58*

58*

12*
12

None.
4
4
4
4
4

3
None.

N o ....

2

N o ....
N o ....
N o ....

None.
None.
None.
None.




65*

62f

6
6
6

None.

$75.00

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

8*
8*

9*
7
7
7
7
7|

None.
None.

None.

60
59*
59*
58|

9*

3
3
3
3
1

*

66

63|
55 }

7 54
7 59*
7 59*
7 51

-None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

None.

Ys
e...

}

........d o ........

N o ....
Yes12..
Yes12..
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...

Yes12..
N o ....
Yes12..
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Y e s ...
Yes12..
No___

3

67*

68

7 53
/ 2 57

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

None. ........do.........
4 ....... do.........
4 Night.
None.

13

12*
14
14
14

1 3
6
3
3
3
3
3
3
16 3
None.

None.
74
72
70
69*
68

63*
63
60*
60*
54

9*
14
14
11

4
None.
None.
None.
6
6
-None.

3

Total
Weeks earn­ Indi­
at other ings at vid­
em­
other ual
num­
ploy­
em­
ment.
ploy­ ber.
ment.

12

5*

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
None.

Y e s ...
Y e s ...

3

........do.6 . . .
.

4 ........do.........
4 ........do.........

Maxi­
mum
weekly
hours
worked.

14
14

8*

12
12

........do.........
....... do.........
........do.6___
........do.6. . . .

60

55

57*

55
7 55*
7 55*
57
56*
56*
56
56
56
55*
55*
54

57*
57*
57*
57
57
56*
56
56
56
55*
55*
54

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
3
None.
None.

........do.........
........do.........
........do.........
....... do.........
........do.........
Night.........

54
49
49
49
49
45*
42

49
49
49
49
45*
42

None.
None.
None.
48
None.
None.

4
I Night
None. / — do........
\Day.............
None. ........d o ........
None. ........do.........
None. ........do.........

10

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

None.

........do.........
........do-1 . . . .
7
........do.17. . .
........d o ........
........do.........
........do.®___
........do.6____
........do.6____
........do.6. . . .
........do.17. . .
........do.17. . .
........d o ........

42.50

10
11
12

30.00

21.00
18.00

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

9.00

154.00

37
38
39
40
41

42

None.

42

39
’ 28*
36

None.
None.
30

43
44

10 Employed in 2 establishments.
1 Every fourth Sunday works nominal hours.
1
12 Lodging included, but prefers to live outside.

13 Every fourth Sunday works 14 hours.
14 Including 2 weeks' vacation with pay.
16 Including 1 week's vacation with pay.
i»3 included, but takes 1 at home.
1 Every sixth night till 11 p. m.
7
is Including 3 weeks' vacation with pay.
1 And meals.
9

38*
36

1 135.00
9

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

HOURS OF LABOR, EARNINGS, AND DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments—Concluded.
Indi­
vidual Age.
num­
ber.

46
47
48
49
50

Conjugal condition.

Separated...................
Married......................
25 ........do..........................
26 ........do.........................
27 ........do..........................

20
38

Industry.

Occupation.

Hotel..............................
Office building.............
Restaurant....................
........do.............................
........do.............................

ffliarwoman
........ d o ............................
Dishwasher...................
Pantry girl....................
Dishwasher...................

__ _ _
_

Weeks
em­
ployed.

Average
weekly
earnings.

6
26
8
52
52

3.54
5.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

i Reports some overtime; this U not taken account of in average hours per week, but is used in the
maximum weekly hours.
* For 12 weeks worked 3 days per week in scattering days; for 2 weeks worked 6 days per week.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

65

OP WAGE-EARNING WOMEN, WASHINGTON, D. C.—Concluded.
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments—Concluded.
Working hours.
Num­
ber of Hous­
meals ing in­
Maxi­
cluded. Usual Short mum
in­
day.
day.
cluded.
day.

3
None.
None.
None.
None.

Y e s ...
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o .. . .

5
5f
5$
5*
Sk

None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

6$
4
5$

Sun­
days
worked
per
month.

Night or
day work.

Aver­
age
weekly
hours
(nor­
mal)
worked.

4 Night...........
36$
135
None. ........do...........
34*
34$
None. Day............... / 2 16| \ 33
\ 2 33
None. ........do...........
31$
31$
None. ........do...........
31$
31$

3 Also charwoman in another establishment.
* Not reported.

84525°—13----- 5




Maxi­
mum
weekly
hours
worked.

Total
Weeks earn­ Indi­
at other ings at vid­
em­
other ual
ploy­
em­ num­
ment. ploy­ ber.
ment.
None.
None.
None.
None.
»52

(<)

46
47
48
49
50




INDEX.
Age, conjugal condition, earnings, occupation, and working hours of women employees:
Page.
Department and other retail stores.............................................................................................................38-53
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments...........................................................................62-65
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................54-61
Age, manner of living, and occupation of women employees:
Department and other retail stores............................................................................................................. 8-10
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments...........................................................................12,13
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................10-12
Christmas or holiday season, overtime work during, in department and other retail stores.................13-15
Commissions, premiums, etc., and overtime earnings from, in department and other retail stores. .
22
Conjugal condition, age. earnings, occupation, and working hours of women employees:
Department and otner retail stores.............................................................................................................38-53
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments...........................................................................62-65
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................54-61
Conjugal condition and race of women employees:
Department and other retail stores.............................................................................................................
10
Iotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments..........................................................................
13
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................
12
Department and other retail stores women employees in:
Age, conjugal condition, occupation, earnings, and working hours..................................................... 38-53
Age, mar ner of living, and occupation...................................................................................................... 8-10
Duration or steadiness of employment....................................................................................................... 18-20
Earnings as reported by individuals compared with rates of pay as shown by pay rolls............. 20,21
Earnings from commissions, premiums, etc., and overtime..................................................................
22
Overtime during Christmas season............................................................................................................. 13-15
Race and conjugal condition........................................................................................................................
10
Vacations with pay........................................................................................................................................ 19,20
Working hours as reported by employers................................................................................................. 17,18
Working hours during normal season.........................................................................................................15,16
Working hours on Saturday.........................................................................................................................16,17
Earnings, weekly, of women employees:
Department and other retail stores.................................................................................................. 20-22,38-53
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments............................................................... 36,37,62-65
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments............................................................................. 30-33,54-61
Employment, duration or steadiness of, for women employees:
Department or other retail stores................................................................................................................ 18-20
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments..........................................................................
36
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................28,29
Holiday season, overtime work during, in department and other retail stores........................................ 13-15
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments, women employees in:
Age, conjugal condition, occupation, earnings, and working hours......................................................62-65
Age, manner of living, and occupation...................................................................................................... 12,13
Duration or steadiness of employment......................................................................................................
36
Earnings........................................................................................................................................................... 36,37
Race and conjugal condition........................................................................................................................
13
Seven-day week, and women reporting a short day...............................................................................
34
Working hours as reported by employers..................................................................................................
35
Working hours, average and maximum number of, per week..............................................................
33
Working hours, maximum number of, per day.......................................................................................
34
Hours of labor. (See Working hours.)
Industries represented in the manufacturing and mechanical establishments studied...........................54-60
Manner of living, age, and occupation of women employees:
Department and other retail stores............................................................................................................. 8-10
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments........................................................................... 12,13
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments....................................................................................... 10-12
Manufacturing ana mechanical establishments, women employees in:
Age, conjugal condition, occupation, earnings, and working hours..................................................... 54r-61
Age, manner of living, and occupation...................................................................................................... 10-12
Duration or steadiness of employment.......................................................................................................28,29
Earnings as reported by individuals..........................................................................................................
30
Earnings, effect of overtime on.................................................................................................................... 31,32
Industries represented................................................................................................................................... 54-60
Overtime worked during year................................................................................................................ 23-25,31
Race and conjugal condition........................................................................................................................
12
Rates of pay as shown by pay rolls.............................................................................................................32,33
Vacations with pay........................................................................................................................................
29
Working hours as reported by employers................................................................................................. 26-28
Working hours during normal season.........................................................................................................
25
Working hours during overtime weeks...................................................................................................... 24,25
Night work and Sunday work of women employees in hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous estab­
lishments........................................................................................................................................................ 33,63-65
Occupations, age, and manner of living of women employees:
Department and other retail stores............................................................................................................. £-10
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.......................................................................... 12,13
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................10-12




67

68

INDEX.

Occupations, conjugal condition, earnings, age, and working hours of women employees:
Page.
Department ana other retail stores.............................................................................................................38-53
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments.......................................................................... 62-65
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments........................................................................................54-61
Overtime work of women employees:
Department and other retail stores....................................................................................................... 13-15,22
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments..........................................................................
33
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.................................................................................. 23-25,31
Premiums, commissions, etc., and overtime, earnings from, in department and other retail stores..
22
Race and conjugal condition of women employees:
D epartment and other retail stores.............................................................................................................
10
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments..........................................................................
13
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments............................................................ ...........................
12
Restaurants. (See Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments, women employees in.)
Saturday workmg hours in department and other retail stores................................................................... 16,17
Scope of the investigation....................................................................................................................................
7
Seven-day week in hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments..............................................
34
Stores, retail. (See Department and other retail stores, women employees in.)
Sunday work and night work of women employees in hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous estab­
lishments........................................................................................................................................................ 33,63-65
Vacations with pay of women employees:
Department and other retail stores............................................................................................................. 19,20
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments.......................................................................................
29
ages. (See Earnings.)
Working hours of women employees:
Department and other retail stores.................................................................................................. 13-18,39-53
Hotels, restaurants, and miscellaneous establishments................................................................ 33-35,63-65
Manufacturing and mechanical establishments............................................................................. 23-28,55-61