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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES)
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS J
INDUSTRIAL

ACCIDENTS

AND

XT

*

*

*

*

HYGIENE

HO*

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE
PRINTING TRADES
1922 TO 1925
BY

FREDERICK L. HOFFMAN, LL. D.
Consulting Statistician, Prudential Insurance Co., Newark, N. J.




/y \

MARCH, 1927

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927

427

SERIES




ADDITION AL COPIES
Off THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED PROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
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AT

30 CENTS PER COPY

PREFACE

The International Joint Conference Council of the Commercial
and Periodical Branch of the Printing Industry, representing the
employers having contracts with the various printing trades-unions
through the Printers, League of America and the International Asso­
ciation of Employing Electrotypers, and the employees in the print­
ing trades-unions through the International Typographical Union,
the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants1 Union of North
America, the International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union,
and the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, in 1922 took up
the matter of undertaking a survey of the health conditions of the
printing industry. The International Photo-Engravers, Union,
though not a member of the International Joint Conference Council,
agreed to cooperate in carrying out such a survey. The local em­
ployers’ associations, the Typothetse of Washington, I). C., and the
Franklin Association of Chicago actively cooperated to make the
survey possible.
At the August 1, 1922, meeting of the International Joint Confer­
ence Council an agreement was drafted according to which Dr.
Frederick L. Hoffman, consulting statistician of the Prudential
Insurance Co., of Newark, N. J., was to assume full authority for
planning and carrying ‘out the investigation in coopera tion with the
various organizations listed above and in cooperation with the Bureau
of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor. The
findings were to be published, after having been submitted for ap­
proval to each of the cooperating unions and associations, as a bulletin
of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The purpose of this survey was to secure, as far as practicable, an
impartial up-to-date scientific appraisal of the status of health con­
ditions in the industry, with the object of correcting any conditions
which might need correction, in order to promote better health of
the people working in any department of the industry.
This survey was not undertaken as a governmental project by the
United States Department of Labor but under the auspices of the
International Joint Conference Council through the organized groups
of employers and employees represented by the various trade asso­
ciations and unions, employing Doctor Hoffman to be in charge of
and to carry on the investigation. The cooperation of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics was limited to general super­
vision, to assistance in putting on a special field man, and to the
preparation of the material for final publication.
Every effort has been made to secure a comprehensive, impartial
statement of the conditions of the industry and to bring such data
up to date for such use as may be practicable for promoting better
conditions in the industry.
F. A. S il c o x ,
Ja n u a r y

10, 1927.




Secretary Printers’ League of America.
hi




CONTENTS
Page

Introduction__________________________________________________________
1-11
Health conditions in the printing trades------------------------------------------------ 11-25
Employers’ returns_________________________________________ - _____ 11-15
Labor organizations’ returns______________________________________ 15-25
International Typographical Union____________________________ 15-19
International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union__________19, 20
International Photo-Engravers’ Union_________________________20, 21
International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union___________ 22, 23
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders_____________________23-25
25
Summary_____________________________ *______________________
Printing-plant inspections_____________________________________________ 26-28
Sanitary inspection of composing rooms--------------- --------------------------------- 28-67
Baltimore, Md____________________________________________________ 30, 31
Birmingham, Ala_____________________________________ ____________ 31-33
Buffalo, N. Y .................... ..........................................................................33, 34
Chicago, 111......... ....................................... . ______ ______________ _____ 34-36
Cincinnati, Ohio__________________________________________________ 36, 37
Cleveland, Ohio_______________________________ _________ _________ 38, 39
Denver, Colo_____________________________________________________ 39-41
Fall River, Mass__________________________________________________ 41, 42
Fort Wayne, Ind------------------------------------- -------------------------- ----------42-44
Hartford, Conn---------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------- 44,45
Houston, Tex_____________________________________________________ 45-47
Indianapolis, Ind_________________________________________________ 47, 48
Los Angeles, Calif_________________________ _____ _________________ 48-50
Milwaukee, Wis__________________________________________________ 50, 51
Minneapolis, Minn------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- 51,52
New York City______________________________ _____________________ 53, 54
Oakland, Calif____________________________________________________ 54-56
Omaha, Nebr_____________________________________________________ 56, 57
Philadelphia, Pa__________________________________________________ 57 59
Richmond, Va.^__________________________________________________ 59-61
Rochester, N. Y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 61, 62
San Francisco, Calif---------------------------------------------------------------------- 62-64
Washington, D. C ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64, 65
Montreal, Canada________________________________________________ 65-67
Sanitary conditions in photo-engraving plants__________________________ 67, 68
Health of aged workers in the printing trades___________________________69-75
Physical and medical examinations of printers_________________________ 75-79
Physique of printers______________________________________________ 75, 76
Medical examinations of printers at union homes___________________76-79
Vital statistics of printers_____________________ _____________ __________79-110
International Typographical Union________________________________ 81-91
International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union_____________ 91-96
International Photo-Engravers’ Union_____________________________ 97, 98
International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union...................... .. 98-103
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders_______________________ 103-106
American cities_________________________________________________ 106-108
National Society of Operati vePrintersand Assistants of Great Britain- 108-110
Lead poisoning------ — ..............................................................................— 110-116
Dust and fumes and their relation to lead poisoning__________________ 116-118
The tuberculosis problem____________________________________________ 118-123
Summary of conclusions_________ ___________________________________ 123-126
Bibliography________________________________________________________ 127-129
APPENDIXES
A ppendix A.— Questionnaires used in this survey.....................................130-148
A ppendix B.— Precautions necessary to safeguard the health of printers. _
149




y




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

MARCH, 1927

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES
1922 TO. 1925
INTRODUCTION
A health survey concerning some 300,000 workers in a particular
branch of industry of nation-wide extent and represented in practi­
cally every community, however small, suggests at the outset many
unusual difficulties, which preclude thoroughness and completeness in
matters of detail. The printing industry is unique in the extent of its
geographical distribution and m the great variety of processes and
plant conditions, which defy standardization. It would be a practical
impossibility to arrive at an inclusive descriptive definition of a
printing plant, which would be applicable to the industry as a whole.
As a matter of fact, the smaller printing plants are typical of the past
rather than of the present, and they represent labor conditions
affecting health and welfare quite essentially at variance with those
common to large and modern establishments. It is probably safe to
say that the large majority of the smaller plants have suffered from the
results of rapid business extension during recent years, being hindered
by structural plant conditions which do not admit of an effective
change without complete renovation and reconstruction. In fact,
most of the smaller printing plants were established at a time when no
substantial future growth in plant necessities was clearly apparent.
As a result, in countless instances, the mechanical equipment of print­
ing plants is arranged in an unsatisfactory order, or more or less op­
posed to effective and complete methods of lighting, ventilation, and
use of floor space. In countless other instances, printing and allied
>rocesses are carried on in the same room or under the same roof, space
imitations precluding separate arrangements. Thus, hand compo­
sition, as well as monotype and linotype composition, is often carried
on in crowded spaces, while the major portion of the room is taken up
with presses of ever-increasing size. Stereotyping and photo-engraving processes are often carried on under conditions opposed to
effective health control, particularly as regards ventilation, but the
structural situation is such that it uoes not admit of material change
or improvement. The hope for the future lies rather in the direction
of discontinuing old-style small-shop methods for methods typical
of the modern establishment on a larger scale. This trend, while
possibly in some cases an economic disadvantage, is unquestionably
in the right direction as regards better provisions for the health and
comfort of the employees.
The term “ printing plant, ” for the present purpose, includes all the
essential printing processes and allied methods, or trades, essential to
the manufacture and distribution of printed matter. As far as this has
been practicable, particular employments have been considered in some

f




1

2

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

detail, since in the final analysis health-injurious conditions affect
specific occupations rather than occupational groups. The investi­
gation has not included an inquiry into wages, and only to a very
limited extent has it been necessary to consider the question of hours.
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics has for a number of
years published comprehensive data on wages and hours, and similar
mformation has been gathered by the various labor organizations and
the United Typothetse of America. Health and welfare, to a great
extent, are conditioned by the wages and hours of work. It admits of
no contradiction that when wages are low and hours are long, disease
resistance diminishes and sickness and mortality increase more or less
proportionately. Conversely, a betterment in health conditions and
a lowering of the death rate almost invariably follow higher wages,
which provide better nutrition, and shorter hours, which eliminate
much harmful fatigue while providing a larger measure of leisure time.
Whatever credit may be given to medical science and sanitary
advances in promoting the health of the people, there can be no
question but that the fundamental elements, responsible for the
measurable reduction in the general death rate during the last 30
years have been higher wages and shorter hours, aided materially by
better and ever-improving shop conditions, and no definite conclu­
sions regarding health and longevity would be justified which ignore
the health aspects inseparably interwoven with the improved eco­
nomic status of persons employed in the various branches of the
printing trades.
Before 1921, printing plants generally were on a 48-hour working
week, but on May 1, 1921, or the date of expiration of contracts there­
after, the composing rooms of book and job shops on a union basis,
changed from a 48 to a 44 hour week, and this was true also for the
other mechanical departments in the union shops in certain cities.
The length of the working week at the present time is thus 44 to 48
hours a week, as contrasted with conditions 30 years ago, when at
least 10 hours a day was the rule and Saturday half holidays had not
been thought of. Without reviewing the question historically, it is
safe to say that working hours in the past generation averaged not
less than 60 a week, if indeed they did not average nearer 12 hours a
day for six days a week.
A review of weekly wages in book and job printing since 19141shows
that average wage scales in the four key occupations combined taking
May 15, 1914, as 100, were represented by 202 on May 15, 1924, and
205 on May 15, 1925. On the same base, the wages on May 15,
1924, were 199 for compositors, 194 for cylinder pressmen, 222 for
cylinder feeders, and 200 for bookbinders, and on May 15, 1925, were
202 for compositors, 197 for cylinder pressmen, 225 for cylinder
feeders, and 203 for bookbinders.
In actual figures, on May 15, 1914, the average wage scale for
cylinder feeders was $14.94; for bookbinders $20.40; for compositors,
$21.81; and for cylinder pressmen, $22.65. The scale for each craft
rose slowly through the years 1915 to 1917, and more rapidly during
1918 to 1920, reaching the peak in February, 1921. At that time,
the average wage scales were as follows: Feeders, $34.49; bookbinders,
* United Typothetse of America. Department of Research. Changes in union wage scales in the book
and job printing industry, 1914 to 1924. Chicago, 1924. 23 pp. The figures given for May 15,1924, in
this study are preliminary figures, but the figures here given for 1924 ana also for 1925 are later figures
supplied by the United Typothetse of America.




INTRODUCTION

3

$41.60; compositors, $43.97; and pressmen, $44.66. During the
period of depression which followed decreases lowered the average
for each of the foregoing craft by amounts of from $2 to $3 per week.
In May, 1922, scales were still, in spite of the depression, well above
the average of May, 1920. By May, 1923, scales had risen again,
and by May 1924, continued increases had carried the average scale
for compositors and pressmen well above the May, 1921, average,
and that for feeders and bookbinders nearly up to the 1921 level,
although for all crafts the scales were still somewhat below the Feb­
ruary, 1921, peak. The average scales in May, 1924, were: Feeders,
$33.18; bookbinders, $40.81; compositors, $43.34; and pressmen,
$44; and in May, 1925, they were: Feeders, $33.66; bookbinders,
$41.41; compositors, $44.04, and pressmen, $44.69.
An average of the scales of the four occupations referred to shows
an increase from $19.97 per week in 1914 to $41.18 in February,
1921, declining to $38.84 in May, 1922, and rising again to $40.33
by May, 1924.
Wages have risen approximately 100 per cent since 1914. Regard­
less of a lower cost of living, the actual wages previous to the war
were in many instances totally inadequate to maintain the normal
American standard of life. The rise in the cost of living in the mean­
time has, of course, done much to minimize the economic benefits
of higher wages, but the wage status of practically every branch of
printing labor has during the last 10 years undergone a decided
change for the better. All of these facts have an unquestionable
bearing upon the present health situation, which is in marked contrast
to that found in earlier investigations, representing a time when shop
conditions were far less satisfactory; when practically no serious
attention was given to sanitation and ventilation; when wages were
low and hours were long; when habits of intemperance and gross
intoxication were by no means of rare occurrence. It is these funda­
mental conditions that are primarily responsible for the improvement
in health conditions and in the longevity of the workers, as set forth
in subsequent sections of this report.
The magnitude of the printing industry is revealed by the various
census investigations which extend over a considerable period of time
The latest information is contained in the United States Census re<
port on the industry for 1923. The essential branches of the printing
industry as regards the nature of the material produced were in 1923
as follows:
T

able

1.— N U M BER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN THE P RINTING INDU STRY
AND AGGREGATE WAGES, 1923, BY BRANCH OF INDU STRY
[Data from United States Census of Manufactures, 1923]1
Wage earners
Branch of industry
Number

Per cent

Aggregate
wages

Book and job printing...........................................................................
Music printing................................... ......................................... ........
Newspaper and periodical........................................................... : ___
Bookbinding and blank-book making__________________________ _
Engraving and plate printing.......................................................... .
Lithographing............................... ......................................................

129,890
919
115,646
20,728
7,529
16,317

44.6
.3
39.7
7.1
2.6
5.7

$201,216,502
1,366,756
196,804,325
25,216,055
10,185,393
25,067,427

Total.............................................................................................

291,029

100.0

459,856,458

1 Census figures did not include plants with less than $5,000 annual production, or the Federal printing
plant.




4

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

According to this table, the 291,029 wage earners in 1923 earned
$459,856,458 in wages, or an average of approximately $1,580, which,
of course, includes every class or grade of employment in the industry.
For all practical purposes, it is probably safe to say that at the time
of this investigation there were over 300,000 persons connected with
the various branches of the printing trades in this country.
Some additional information regarding the growth of the printing
trades may be obtained from an extended study of the returns of
labor organizations. The International Typographical Union, under
date of August, 1925, reported a membership of 70,372. Compara­
tive data since 1891 for that organization are given in Table 2:
T

able

3.—M EM BERSH IP OF THE IN TERN ATION AL TYPOGR A PH IC A L UNION, 1891 TO
1925, BY YEARS
Year

1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897_............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901............. ...............
1902..............................

Member­
ship

Year

* 25,165 1903..............................
i 28,187 1904..............................
i 30,454 1905..............................
131,379 1906..............................
129,295 1907.............................
28,938 ! 1908..............................
28,096 1909..............................
28,614 1910..............................
30,046 1911..............................
32,105 1912..............................
34,948 1913..............................
238,364 1914..............................

Member­
ship
42,436
•46,165
48.734
44; 980
42,357
43,740
44,921
47,848
51,095
53,807
55,614
58,537

Year
1915..............................
i 1916.............................
' 1917..............................
! 1918..............................
I 1919...........................
' 1920.............................
i 1921..........................
{ 1922..............................
j 1923...........................
j 1924...........................
1925...........................

Member­
ship
59,571
60,231
61,350
62,661
65,203
70,945
74,355
68,748
68,144
68,944
70,372

i Including pressmen and bookbinders.
3 Including stereotypers and electrotypers, seven months,
s Including photo-engravers, seven months.

The foregoing membership does not include certain Canadian
members, the number of which is not clearly indicated.
The International Photo-Engravers’ Unipn has reported its mem­
bership for the period 1905 to 1923, which is shown in Table 3:
T a ble 3 .— M EMBERSHIP

Year
1905 ............................
1906
___
1907 ...........................
1908 ...........................
1909 .
.........
1910............................
1911............................

OF

Member­
ship

THE IN TERNATIONAL PHOTO-ENGRAVERS’ UNION,
1905 TO 1923, BY YEARS
Year

2,344 1912..............................
2,412 ! 1913..............................
3,010 1914.............................
3,016 1915..............................
3,224 1916..............................
3,577 1917..............................
3,805 1918..............................

Member­
ship
4,138
4,136
4,662
4,800
5,001
5,163
4,919

Year
1919..............................
1920..............................
1921..............................
1922..............................
1923..............................

Member­
ship
5,229
6,149
6,480
6,405
6,488

The membership in the International Stereotypers and Electro­
typ e^ Union is available for a period of 18 years, from 1904 to 1921,
as shown in Table 4:
T a bl e 4 .— M EM BERSH IP OF THE IN TERN ATION AL STEREOTYPERS A N D ELECTRO-

T Y P E R S ' UNION, 1904 TO 1921, BY YEARS

Year
1904..............................
1905 ...........................
1906 ............................
1907
...........
1908.............................
1909 .................




Member­
ship

Year

2,534 1910..............................
2,847 1911..............................
2,747 1 1912..............................
2,996 I 1913..............................
3,374 1914..............................
3,710 1915..............................

Member­
ship
3,953
4,220
4,310
4,603
4,864
4,958

Year
1916..............................
1917..............................
1918..............................
1919............... ..............
1920..............................
1921..............................

Member­
ship
4,941
5,210
5,282
5,819
6,072
6,138

INTRODUCTION

5

The membership of the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants' Union at the end of 1924 was 50,000. The membership
from 1904 to 1924 is given in Table 5:
T a b le

5 .— M EM BERSH IP

OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L PRINTIN G
ASSISTANTS’ UNION, 1904 TO 1924, BY YEARS

Year

1904.............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................
1908..............................
1909..............................
1910..............................

Member­
ship
16,000
17.000
16.000
16,600
17,200
17,800
18,600

PRESSM EN AND

Year

Member­ j
ship

Year

1911..............................
1912..............................
1913..............................
1914..............................
1915..............................
1916..............................
1917..............................

19.000
19.000
19.000
19,300
22,700
29.000
33.000

1918..............................
1919..............................
1920..............................
1921..............................
1922..............................
1923..............................
1924..............................

Member­
ship
34.000
34.000
35.000
37.000
37.000
37.000
50.000

The membership of the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders
is available for the years 1915 to 1923. The membership during
this period is shown in Table 6:
T

able

6.—M EM BERSH IP OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBIND­
ERS, 1915 TO 1923, BY YEARS

Year

1915..............................
1916..............................
1917..............................

Member­
ship
8,480
8,594
11,900

Year

1918..............................
1919..............................
1920..............................

Member­
ship
14,436
16,770
21,126

Year
1921..............................
1922..............................
1923..............................

Member­
ship
34,349
14,164
13,047

In connection with the foregoing it may be of interest to call
attention to the printing industry in Canada, since the international
labor organizations represent the printing trades on both sides of the
boundary line. In 1920 the number of printing establishments in
Canada was 1,795, employing 21,153 wage earners and representing
an invested capital of $76,610,000 and an annual product valued at
$103,411,000.
Aside from the foregoing official and semiofficial statistics of the
printing trades, indicative of the numerical importance of the in­
dustry, statistics of specific employments were obtained in the pres­
ent survey representing conditions in 1923 for 2,096 establishments
in 47 States, the District of Columbia, and parts of Canada, which
employ 100,704 wage earners. The essential occupations are given
in detail in Table 7.




6

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

T able 7.—N U M BE R

AN D PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN THE
PRIN TIN G TRADES, 1923, BY OCCU PATION1

A M ERICAN

[Data from employers’ returns]
Wage earners
Occupation
Number
Hand compositors......................
Linotype operators.....................
Monotype keyboard operators.Monotype casters.......................
Makers-up and stone hands___
Proof readers______________ _
Electrotypers________________
Stereotypers
Photo-engravers___ ___________
Plate printers........ ...... ..............

11,701
7,719
975
728
3,204
3,268
3,054
1,801
1,868
213

Per
cent
11.6
7.7
1.0
.7
3.2
3.2
3.0
1.8
1.9
.2

Wage earners
Occupation
Number

Per
cent

Lithographers.............................
Pressmen....................................
Press feeders and assistants.......
Other machine employees2.......
Bookbinders...............................
Apprentices________________
Miscellaneous___________ _

1,375
11,202
9,786
4,944
7,759
5,340
25,767

1.4
11.1
9.7
4.9
7.7
5.3
25.6

T o t a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___

100,704

100.0

* In considering this table the fact must be kept in mind that the voluntary returns of employers as a
matter of pure chance—for there was no selection—represent a much larger proportion of job shops than
of news and other printing establishments. Apparently owners of job shops were more interested in the
survey than owners of the other printing establishments.
* Includes engineers, firemen, carpenters, plumbers, machinists, etc.

This table emphasizes the relative importance of hand composition,
which gives employment to 11.6 per cent of all persons employed in
the printing trades. Regardless of the rapid increase of machine
composition, hand compositors still predominate. Of about equal
numerical importance are pressmen and press feeders and assistants.
Relatively, electrotypers, stereotypers, and photo-engravers are
numerically of less importance.
Since the present investigation is concerned only with health con­
ditions in the printing trades, it does not seem necessary to enlarge
further upon the economic aspects of the industry, but the foregoing
data may aid in the correct interpretation of the results presented.
Also it may serve a useful purpose to add rather interesting mortality
data derived from the experience of various labor organizations.
Table 8, taken from the Stereotypers and Electro typers’ Union
Journal, presents mortality statistics derived from the experience of
the mortuary fund of the organization for the period 1904 to 1924.
During this period the average age at death increased from 38.40 to
50.75 years. The death rate per 1,000 members did not undergo
very material changes. The most suggestive factor is the rapidly
increasing average duration of trade fife between 1918 and 1924—
from 11.43 to 21.70 years.




INTRODUCTION

7

T able 8 .— N U M BE R OF DEATHS, BENEFITS PAID, AVERAGE AGE A T DEATH, AND

DEATH RATES, IN TER N A TIO N A L STEREOTYPERS AN D ELEC TR O TYPE R S’ UNION,
1904 TO 1924, BY YEARS

Number Benefits
of
paid
deaths

Year

190 4
190 5
190 6
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
3912............
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
_
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4

$1,260
1,800
1,920
1,800
1,680
2,200

2.760
4.760
4.400
3.700
6.400
4.700
6.700
5,800
7,900
5.700
6.400
5,600
6,100

12,900
15,600
1,055

Total.

Average Number Deaths Average
per
years of
of
age at
1,000
death members members member­
ship
38.40
38.35
39.72
40.67
39.50
42.27
41. 56
42.81
42.00
44. 62
43.48
44.02
48.72
50.10
40.52
43.93
45.06
48.54
48.91
49.92
50.75

2,534
2,847
2,747
2,996
3,374
3,719
3,953
4,220
4,310
4,603
4,864
4,958
4,941
5,210
5.282
5,819
6,072
6,138
6.283
6,487
6,789

8.29
10.54
11.65
10.01
8.30
9.97
11.64
11.37
10.21

8.04
13.16
9.48
13.56
11.13
15.15
9.97
10.70
9.29
9.71
10.17
11.72

11.43
12.48
16.50
18.00
22.30
19.96
21.70

110,080

The foregoing is amplified by Table 9, which gives the ages at
death by single years of life for the period 1904-1923, representing
a tota! of 976 deaths, with an average age at death of 44.6 years.
AND ELEC TR O TYPE R S’ UNION, 1904 TO 1923

Age at death
20 years __
21 years.............
22 years_______
23 years_______
24 years_______
25 years.._____
26 years_______
27 years_______
28 years........ .
29 years...... ......
30 years........ .
31 y e a rs.........
32 years___. . . . .
33 years_______
34 years_______
35 years...........
36 years.............
37 years.............
38 years
39 years_______
40 years
41 years_______

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age
l
2
3
5
11
13
18
15
29
24
13
20
27
26
28
37
27
22
34
32
26
26

20
42
66
115
264
325
468
405
812
696
390
620
864
858
952
1,295
972
814
1,292
1,248
1,040
1,066

Age at death
42 years.._____
43 years_______
44 years____ . . .
45 years....____
46 years_______
47 years........ .
48 years_______
49 years_______
50 years.........
51 years.............
52 years____ . . .
53 years............
54 years.............
55 years_______
56 years...........
57 years...... ......
58 years...... ......
59 years.....___
60 years
61 years...... .
62 years
63 years_______

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age
37
25
82
31
30
25
29
16
21
18
17
14
20
22
13
15
16
12
20
9
12
7

1,554
1,075
1,408
1,395
1,380
1,175
1,392
784
1,050
918
884
742
1,080
1,210
728
855
928
708
1,200
549
744
441

Age at death
1 64 years_______
65 years_______
66 years_______
67 years........ .....
68 years...... ......
j 69 years........ .....
| 70 years_______
! 71 years______ _
i 72 years______ _
! 73 years........ .....
| 74 years___ I__
! 76 years.. _____ _
| 79 years______ _
; 80 years......__
1 82 years...........
i 83 years...........
: 84 years...........
85 years_______
Total
Average age

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age
15
13
9
6
7
8
4
6
3
6
2
4
1
2
1
1
2

960
845
594
402
476
652
490
284
432
219
370
152
316
80
164
83
84
170

976

43,497
44.6

In addition to the foregoing the Stereotypers and Electrotypers’
Union Journal contains an analysis of the 976 deaths by causes, but
unfortunately not in sufficient detail to serve the great variety of
purposes to which data of this kind can easily be applied. Table 10
presents this analysis.




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

8

T able 10.—N U M BER AN D P E R GENT OF DEATHS, IN TERN ATION AL STEREOTYPE R S AND E L E O TR O T Y PE R S' UNION, 1904 TO 1923, B Y CAUSE
Deaths
Cause of death
Number
Nervous diseases__________________________________________________________
___ _
Genitourinary diseases________________________ _____ _ _ _ _ _
Respiratory diseases___ ___________________________________________________
Miscellaneous diseases_________________________ ____________ ___
Accidents________________________________________ _______________________
Suicides_________________________________________________________________
War casualties_________________*
__________________________________________

Per cent

87
92
377
345
44
15
16
976

Total-------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- ------------

8,9
9.4
38.6
35. 4
4.5
1.5
1.7
100.0

The International Photo-Engravers’ Union has published a table
giving the deaths of its members from 1903 to 1924 by years and the
amount disbursed in mortuary benefits. The total number of deaths
in this period was 649 and the total amount paid out in mortuary
benefits $80,810, or an average claim of $124.51. The details are
given in Table 11:
T able 1 1 .— N U M BER OF DEATHS AND T O T A L FUNERAL BENEFITS, IN TER N A TIO N A L

PHOTO-ENGRAVERS' UNION, 1903 TO 1924, B Y YEARS

Year

Num­
ber of
deaths

1903 . . . . . ___
1904 ..............
1905________
1906................
1907 . _____
1908 ............
1909
1910 ..............

Total
funeral
benefits
$525
525
825
1*050
1,650
1,500
1,350
1,875

7
7

11
14
22
20
18
25

Num­
ber of
deaths

Year

1911................
1912................
1913...............
1914...............
1915................
1916...............
1917
1918................

26
19
25
23
39
34
44
38

Total
funeral
benefits
$2,125
1,885
2,500
2,300
3,900
3,350
4.400
3,750

Num­
ber of
deaths

Year

Total
funeral
benefits

1919...............
1920................
1921................
1922...............
1923...............
1924................

61
34
38
50
49
45

$6,000
5,100
7,500
9,900
9, g00
9,000

Total..

649

80,810

The International Typographical Union in 1925 published an
exceedingly interesting table giving the average age at death, the
membership, and the rate per 1,000 members for the period 1900-1925.
Table 12 reproduces this data:
T able 1 2 .— N U M BER OF DEATHS, AVERAGE AGE A T D EATH , N U M BER OF M EM BERS,

AND D EATH RATES, IN TER N A TIO N A L T YPOGRAPH ICAL UNION, 1900 TO 1925, BY
YEARS

Year

1900
...........
1901__ ................
1902
.........
1903 ...................
1904....................
1905 ...................
1906 — - ...........
1907 ______ ____
1908 . . .
.
1909
................
1910...................
1911
...........
1912...................

Num­
Num­ Aver­ ber of
ber of age age mem­
deaths at death bers

Deaths
per
1,000
mem­
bers

32,105
34,948
138,364
42.436
246,165
46,734
44,980
42,357
43,740
44,921
47,848
51,095
53,807

13.05
11.62
12.35
11.21
12.52
12.13
11.38
13.24
12.30
11.33
12.00
12.51
12.50

419
406
474
476
578
567
512
561
538
509
574
639
655

41.25
41.94
42.94
42.62
45.50
45.26
44.02
46.07
45.05
46.09
46.07
49.12
48.09

Year

1913.....................
1914.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1925.....................

i Including stereotypers and electrotypers, seven months.




Deaths
per
Num­ Aver­ Num­
ber of
ber of age age mem­ 1,000
deaths at death bers
mem­
bers
687
713
696
755
825
849
1,142
783
730
818
804
831
856

49.24
48.70
50.84
51.73
51.42
50.82
45.12
53.17
54.32
54.40
54.40
54.40
57.68

55,614
58,537
59,571
60,231
61,350
62,661
65,203
70,945
74,355
68,746
68,144
68,944
70,372

12.35
12.18
11.68
12.54
13.44
13.54
17.51
11.00
9.80
11.90
11.80
12.04
12.16

1 Including photo*engravers, seven months.

INTRODUCTION

9

The foregoing m amplified by a table giving by single years of life
the deaths for 1892-1920, numbering in the aggregate 16,554. The
average age at death for the entire period was 46.7 years. The
details are given in Table 13:
T a ble 1 3 .— DEATHS AND AGGREGATE

AGES, IN TERN ATION AL T Y P O G R A PH IC A L
UNION, 1892 TO 1920, BY AGE A T DEATH

Age at death
16 years_______
1R years____ ,__
19 years______ _
20 years_______
21 years.______
_______
23 vears_______
24 years_______
25 years_______
26 years______ .
27 years_______
28 years_______
29 years_______
30 years_______
31 years___ _ „
32 years_______
33 years_______
_
34 years_ ____
35 years_______
36 years_______
37 vears___ _ .
38 years_______
39 years...........
40 years
41 years_______
42 years.... ........
43 years
44 years_______

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age

Age at death

1
16 ! 45 years_______
2
36 i 46 years______ _
152 1 47 years_______
*
8
41
820 1 48 years_______
2,205 j 49 years_______
105
165 22 years 50 years_______
3,630
4,255 1 51 years_______
185
6,312 1 52 years_______
263
282
7,050 53 years____ . . .
7,956 54 years____ . . .
306
7,533 S 55 years_______
279
386
10,808 | 56 years_______
305
8,845 1 57 years_____ _
375
11,250 58 years_______
330
10,230 59 y e a r s . _
361
11,552 60 years_______
361
11,913 61 years_______
369
12,546 62 years_______
409
14,315 63 years_______
336
12,096 64 years_______
397
14,689 65 years_______
16,872 66 years____ . . .
444
12,792 67 years...........
328
463
18,520 68 years
334
13,694 69 years. . . . __ _
392
16,464 70 years.............
15,480 71 years
360
14,212 72 years_______
323

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age
406
318
316
362
324
378
294
315
281
339
326
264
279
269
293
304
237
238
205
232
229
209
213
170
147
183
132
154

18.270
14,628
14,852
17,376
15,876
18,900
14,994
16,380
14,893
18,306
17,930
14,784
15,903
15,602
17,287
18,240
14,457
14,756
12,915
14,848
14,885
13,794
14,271
11,560
10,143
12,810
9,372
11,088

Age at dea;h
73 y ea rs....___
74 years_ ____
_
75 years_______
76 years_______
77 years_______
78 years_______
79 years_______
80 years_______
81 years_______
82 years_______
83 years_______
84 y e a r s ........
85 years_______
86 years_____ _
87 years.______
88 years__ ____
_
89 years_ ____
90 years_______
91 years_______
92 years_______
93 years___ ___
94 years_______

Total Aggre­
deaths gate age
139
108
137
106
76
82
72
57
54
31
31
24
20
18
10
3
10
5
2
2
1
2
1

10,147
7,992
10,275
8,056
5,852
6,396
5,688
4,560
4,374
2,542
2,573
2,016
1,700
1,548
870
264
890
450
182
184
93
188
96

Total..— 16,318
Unknown_____
236

762,299

Grand total,. 16,554

The only strictly scientific study of the mortality of compositors
and pressmen for this country is a brief tabulation in the report of
the medico-actuarial committee, issued in 1913, on the Effect of
Occupation on Mortality.2
This investigation covered 24 years' experience and represents to
a considerable extent conditions of the past rather than of the present.
The investigation considers only those exposed to risk by divisional
periods of life, the actual deaths, the expected deaths, and the ratio
of the actual to the expected mortality.
The results, as to journeyman compositors and journeyman press­
men, are shown in Table 14. The actual number of deaths under
observation, however, is too small for strictly scientific conclusions.
There were 68 deaths among journeyman compositors and 70 deaths
among journeyman pressmen. The number exposed to risk for 1
year among the former was 11,378 and among the latter 9,987. The
ratio of actual to expected deaths was 102 per cent for journeyman
compositors and 117 per cent for journeyman pressmen. The details
are given in Table 14.
2 Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors and the Actuarial Society of America. Effect of occu­
pation on mortality. New York, 1914. 219 pp.




10

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

T able 14.— RATIO OF ACTU AL TO E X P E C TED DEATHS, M EDICO-ACTUARIAL COM ­

M ITTE E INVESTIGATION
Journeyman compositors

Age

15-29 years_______ ____ ___
30-39 years________________
40-49 years________________
50-59 years________________
60 years and over....................
All ages______________

Number Actual
exposed deaths
to risk

6,428
3,706
962
261
21
11,378

35
20
7
6
68

Journeyman pressmen

Ratio of Number
Ex­
pected actual to exposed Actual
deaths expected to risk deaths
deaths
29.64
21.23
9.58
4.95
1.04
66.44

Per cent
118
94
73
121
102

5,674
3,012
976
310
15
9,987

32
15
10
U
2
70

Ratio of
Ex­
pected actual to
expected
deaths deaths
25.99
17.02
9.29
6.93
.51
59.74

Per cent
123
88
108
159
392
117

While the foregoing data are insufficient for the purpose, the final
conclusions are, nevertheless, suggestive of somewhat unsatisfactory
health conditions in the past. This is made clear by comparing the
results with other occupations briefly as follows: For retail druggists
the ratio of actual to expected deaths in the same experience was 108
per cent; for glass blowers, hand, 121 per cent; for metal grinders, 117
per cent; for metal buffers and polishers, 101 per cent; for cigar
makers, 108 per cent; for journeyman jewelers, 76 per cent; for journey­
man millers, 106 per cent; for journeyman house painters, 111 per
cent; and for journeyman stonecutters, 214 per cent.
Broadly speaking, in normal risks the approximate ratio of actual
to expected deaths would be 85 per cent, but comparing strictly
industrial occupations with each other, conditions in the printing
trades show no very suggestive departure from the general average of
occupational hazards. More recent data would unquestionably
show a decided improvement.
The foregoing may be amplified by some interesting data regarding
group insurance, representing the experience of American life insur­
ance companies during the period 1913-1921. In the aggregate this
experience represents 68,233 years of life exposed to risk one year,
with 504 deaths from all causes. The ratio of actual to expected
mortality was 90.8 per cent for the textile industries; 98 per cent for
chemical and allied industries; 104.1 per cent for clay, glass, and
stone industries; 138.4 per cent for the mining industries; 103 per
cent for iron and steel industries; and 113.8 per cent for lead industries,
including white lead manufacturing, lead supplies, storage batteries,
etc. Thus, when compared with more dangerous industries, printing
employments come out reasonably well, but not so well when com­
pared with many other occupations free from obvious health-injurious
exposure. For illustration, the ratio of actual to expected mortality
was 74.8 per cent for the clothing industry and 80.5 per cent for clerical
and professional occupations. For all industries combined the ratio
of actual to expected mortality was 87.7 per cent which compares
with 90.8 per cent for printing, bookbinding, and publishing.
All of the foregoing, however, are limited to group-insurance
experience by industries or groups upon which the employer paid the
entire premium. The experience for employments in which the
employer and employee jointly paid the premiums seems too limited
to justify definite conclusions. But as a matter of record, the results
are given for the printing industry representing for the period 19131921, 4,993 years of life exposed to risk one year, with 29 deaths, or
a ratio of actual to expected mortality of 89.6 per cent, while for all



HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES

11

industries combined the corresponding ratio was 114.1 per cent.
Thus, viewed from either point of view, the principal industry yields
on the whole a fairly favorable mortality not indicative of particu­
larly hazardous conditions. Of the 504 deaths from all causes in the
group-insurance experience in which the employers paid the entire
premium, 53 of the deaths were from tuberculosis, 57 from nontuberculous respiratory diseases, 56 from genito-urinary diseases,
34 from cancer, 8 from diabetes, 19 from influenza, and 104 from
disease of the heart and the circulatory system. In addition there
were 32 deaths from accidents and 3 suicides. This statement also
is not suggestive of particularly unfavorable conditions which
would place the printing trades below employment subject to a fairly
normal mortality experience.
HEALTH CONDITIONS IN THE PRINTING TRADES
EMPLOYERS’ RETURNS

The employers’ questionnaire, a copy of which is given in the
appendix (see p. 130) was sent to a large number of employing printers
throughout the United States and Canada, the names being taken
from the Typo Credit Book. Since only a small number of replies
were received from Canada they have been included with the data
for the United States and are not separately considered. The num­
ber of tabulatable replies received was 2,096, representing 47 States,
the District of Columbia, and as stated before, certain portions of
the Dominion of Canada. The number of employees represented by
these reports was 100,704. The returns for the individual plants
represented conditions as of the date on which the report was made,
which was not identical in all cases, but this fact gives a more repre­
sentative aspect to the collective aggregates for the year under re­
view. The occupations of the 100,704 employees are given in Table
15, together with the number of employees at work, the number who
were reported absent on account of sickness, vacation, or other reasons,
and the number of employees in each occupation who were 60 years
of age and over.
T

15.—NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES AT WORK, N UM BER ABSENT ON ACCOUNT OF
SICKNESS, VACATION A N D OTHER CAUSES, PER CENT SICK, AND N UM BER OVER
60 YEARS, 1922-23, BY OCCUPATION

able

Occupation

Num­
ber at
work

Hand compositors____ ___________________
Linotype operators____ ______ ____________
Monotype keyboard operators____________
Monotype casters............. .............. ..............
Makers-up and stone hands................ .........
Proof readers_________________________. . .
Electrotypers___________________ ________
Stereotypers....... ............................................
Photo-engravers___ !____________________
Plate printerf___________ ________________
Lithographers................. ..............................
Pressmen.................. ....................................
Press feeders and assistants__________ ____
Other machine employees. _______________
Bookbinders_____ ______________________
Apprentices____________ ________________
Miscellaneous................... .............................
Total....................................................

11,359
7,468
930
601
3,135
3,167
3,009
1,777
1,851
208
1,351
11,009
9,595
4,875
7,554
5,282
25,071
98,332

16056°—27------2




Number absent on
account of—
Sick­
ness
110
48
8
9
19
26
17
8
7
1
11
64
68
29
54
21
197
697

Vaca­ Other
tion reasons
130
74
21
22
27
52
19
9
7
2
1
78
63
23
67
16
207
818

102
129
16
6
23
23
9
7
3
2
12
51
60
17
84
21
292
857

Total

11,701
7,719
975
728
3.204
3.268
3; 054
1,801
1,868
213
1,375
11,202
9,786
4,944
7,759
5,340
25,767
100,704

Per
cent
sick
0.9
.6
.8
1.2
.6
.8
.6
.4
.4
.5
.8
.6
.7
.6
.7
.4
.8
.7

Num­
ber
over 60
years
old
614
128
5
1
96
142
38
37
12
2
20
98
23
48
130
1
612
2,007

12

HEALTH SURVEY OP THE PRINTING TRADES

It may prove a matter of considerable surprise that out of 100,704
printing employees only 697, or 0.7 per cent, should have been absent
at the time on account of sickness. But the trustworthiness of this
figure is fully supported by other investigations, and particularly
by the corresponding returns furnished by labor organizations. (See
pp. 15 to 25.)
The current sickness rate of 0.7 per cent is a really extraordinary
low incidence of sickness, which must in part at least be attributed
to the satisfactory health conditions throughout the country at large
during the year under review. According to current reports of the
division of vital statistics of the United States Census, tabulating
the weekly death records of some 70 American cities, the average
death rate at the present time rarely exceeds 13 per 1,000, while it
is sometimes as low as 11 per 1,000. While sickness and mortality
can not be looked upon as equivalent terms, nevertheless, the death
rate, broadly speaking, is a fairly satisfactory indication of the pre­
vailing state of health of the general population and of special aggre­
gates of populations such as workers in the printing trades.
Considered by individual occupations it is shown that the two
most important employments are hand compositors and pressmen,
represented in each case by more than 10,000 workers. The actual
amount of prevailing sickness, as ascertained by the present method,
has been so low that it would serve no useful purpose to deal
exhaustively with individual groups of occupations, but it is certainly
suggestive that among 11,701 hand compositors there should have
been only 110 cases of absences on account of sickness, and that
among 11,202 pressmen the number of absences on account of sick­
ness should have been only 64. In a general way the indications ot
health, as represented by this method of inquiry, disclose a condition
which must be considered surprisingly satisfactory.
It is also of some significance in this connection that the predomi­
nating employment in the printing trades should still be hand com­
position, considering the enormous progress which has been made
in the direction of machine composition. Hand compositors, as
shown by Table 7 (p. 6), formed 11.6 per cent of the total number
of workers, followed by pressmen with a percentage of 11.1. Leaving
out of consideration the miscellaneous or unclassified employees, the
third most important occupation in the printing trade is represented
by press feeders and assistants, followed by bookbinders, linotype
operators, and other machine employees in the order named. The
relatively low number and proportion of electro typers, stereotypers,
and photo-engravers may be explained by the fact that no special
effort was made at the time to reach individual establishments
specializing in this line of work, but later a special questionnaire was
sent to the photo-engraving plants throughout the country as well
as to photo-engraving labor organizations, the returns of which are
summarized on pages 67 and 68.
Information as regards working hours was asked for in the ques­
tionnaire, but since this information is available in a much better
form through the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics and the
United Typothetae, it has not seemed necessary to tabulate the
results. It may be pointed out that of the 2,096 establishments,
1,039 reported one-half a day off weekty, 664 reported no lay-off, 30
reported all day Saturday off, while 39 grant lay-offs under certain
conditions. The establishments making no reports numbered 324.



HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADEH

13

It has been found rather difficult to summarize replies made in
response to the request for description of ventilating devices. The
information secured seems to indicate that, in a general way, most
of the plants under review were properly provided with ventilating
devices either in the nature of exhaust or other fans wherever required.
In about one-half the cases, however, the method of ventilation
was simply by open windows.
The reports received as to three particular forms of prevailing
sickness, namely, lead poisoning, tuberculosis, and eye affections, are
of special value only as regards lead poisoning. As regards tuber­
culosis and eye affections it is doubtful if the returns are correct and
complete. These forms of sickness, are, however, dealt with in more
detail on pages 76 to 79 of the report. It is of considerable interest
to note that according to the returns of employers upon health
conditions of more than 100,000 workers in the printing trades,
only 34 known cases of lead poisoning occurred, while there were
78 cases of tuberculosis and 67 cases of eye affections. The infor­
mation concerning lead poisoning is apparently entirely trustworthy,
being in conformity to results obtained by other methods of inquiry,
hereafter referred to. The prevailing rate of lead poisoning among
printing employees of all kinds is, therefore, only 34 per 100,000
workers. Although comparative data are not available for pre­
vious years the inference seems justified that there has been a material
improvement in the liability to lead poisoning in the printing trades
during the last few decades.®
Inquiry was made as to the number of times a plant had been
inspected either by a factory inspector or by some other person repre­
senting the State or local health authorities. As regards inspection
by a factory inspector, 1,316 plants reported in the affirmative and
361 in the negative, while 419 made no report. The number of
plants inspected by the local board of health and other authorities
was 929, while 584 had not been inspected, and 583 made no report.
Broadly speaking, therefore, the printing plants throughout the
country are subject to a reasonable measure of inspection by author­
ities more or less qualified for the purpose. Quite a number of
local health officers throughout the country cooperated in making
a special sanitary inspection of printing plants, with particular
reference to composing rooms, in a uniform manner upon tlie basis
of a standard blank recommended by the Board of Health of the
District of Columbia, the results of which are dealt with in a sub­
sequent section of the report (see pp. 28 to 67).
Some attention was given to the accident factor. While accidents
in printing plants are relatively rare and seldom of serious importance,
they nevertheless constitute a potential danger, requiring much
vigilance in the direction of safeguarding dangerous machinery. Of
the 2,096 plants covered, 1,215 reported no accidents during the year,
while 546 reported accident occurrences, mostly, however, of a trivial
nature. The number of plants making no report was 335.
In most of the States, workmen’s compensation laws provided
a reasonable measure of pecuniary indemnity in the event of acci­
dent occurrence. It has seemed worth while to inquire into the
extent to which such plants were protected by compensation insur­
ance. Of the 2,096 establishments, 1,825 reported that they were
• See in this connection X . S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 426: Deaths from lead poisoning, by
T
Frederick L< Hoffman. Washington, 1927.




14

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

protected by compensation insurance, while 191 reported they were
not, and 80 plants made no report. It is thus shown that in a
large majority of cases the interests of the employees were protected
and safeguarded by the required amount of compensation insurance.
It was also thought advisable to inquire into the question of group
insurance, which during recent years has made considerable progress,
particularly among printing plants, as a supplementary means of
safeguarding the interests of the dependents of deceased printing
employees. In practice, this form of insurance has been found
decidedly beneficial. It is therefore of some significance that out
of 2,096 establishments, 476 should carry group insurance, while
1,248 report in the negative, and 372 make no report.
Finally, inquiry was made as to whether the establishment provided
a sickness or accident fund for the benefit of employees, which funds are,
of course, mostly on a purely voluntary basis, though in some cases
supported by the joint contributions of employers and employees.
Out of 2,096 establishments, the number having such a fund or funds
was 363, while 1,551 had made no such provisions, and 182 made no
report. Of course, such funds, to be of a solvent character, are
advisable only in the cases of large establishments, where the number
of employees is sufficient to yield a fair average experience.
Summarizing the foregoing, it would appear that conditions affect­
ing the health of employees in American printing plants are much
better than had been assumed to be the case. The foregoing replies
represent the viewpoint of the employers or the experience under their
observation, but subsequent sections of the report, representing other
sources of information, will amply sustain the conclusion that health
conditions in American printing plants are to-day far in advance of
the conditions reported in the past.
The results of a similar questionnaire sent out during 1925, presented
in Table 16, when compared with Table 15 clearly emphasize that the
returns are thoroughly trustworthy, particularly as regards the pro­
portion of employees absent on account of sickness. The proportion
in both returns is precisely the same or 0.7 per cent, varying only in
minor matters of detail for the different occupations.
T a b l e 16.—NU M BER AND PER CENT OF EM PLOYEES AT W ORK, N U M BER ABSENT

ON ACCOUNT OF SICKNESS, VACATION, AND OTHER CAUSES, PER CENT SICK, AND
NU M BER OVER 60 YEARS, 1923, B Y OCCUPATION
At work
Occupation

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Number absent on
account of—
Sick­
ness

Vaca­
tion
106
71
5
3
20
25
10
15
4

3,826
2,660
279
202
1,105
1,046
981
580
603
88
586
3,505
3.092
1,337
2,879
1,730
7,872

11.9
8.2
.9
.6
3.4
3.2
3.0
1.6
1.9
.3
1.8
10.8
9.6
4.1
8.9
5.3
24.3

31
11

T o ta l-........................................ 32,367

100.0

218

Hand compositors_________________
Linotype operators________________
Monotype keyboard operators______
Monotype casters................................
Makers-up and stone hands________
Proof readers______________________
Electrotypers_____________________
Stereotypers______________________
Photo-engravers___________________
Plate printers.....................................
Lithographers.—_______________ . . . .
Pressmen................................ ............
Press feeders and assistants................
Other machine employees__________
Bookbinders___ ____ ______________
Apprentices_______________________
Miscellaneous_____________________




2
4
5
9
2
4
3
4
21
15
10
37
5
55

8
68
25
12
66
22
166
626

Per
cent
sick

Num­
ber
over
60
years
old

Other
rea­
sons

Total

35
83
1
1
3
6
3
3
2
2
1
16

0.8
.4

182
49

1.0
.4
.5
.9
.3
.6
3.2
.7
.6
.5

24
2
26

8,998
2,775
285
208
1,132
1,078
1,003
600
613
93
589
3,610
3,157
1,366
3,006
1,759
8,119

1
32
69
17
12
2
5
19
47
12
20
66

.3
.7

209

190

33,401

.7

742

HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES

15

The preceding table covers 754 printing plants, employing 33,401
workers, of whom 742 were 60 years of age and over.& The informa­
tion obtained with regard to ventilation, working time, etc., as well
as official inspections, conforms so closely to that obtained in the
larger investigation that it did not seem necessary to enter into matters
of detail. Of particular significance, however, is the information
concerning the number of cases of lead poisoning observed during
the year, which is given as 11. Based on the number of employees
this would give a rate of approximately 33 per 100,000. This cor­
responds almost exactly to the 34 cases of lead poisoning found among
100,000 printers in the general investigation. Thus, both as regards
the rate of sickness and the rate of lead poisoning, these two abso­
lutely independent investigations confirm each other. They empha­
size at the same time the great practical value of a continuous inves­
tigation. It would be to the interest of the printing trades if the
facts in the case were made a matter of annual or biennial tabulation
so that the trend of correct health conditions could be thoroughly
and impartially established.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS’ RETURNS

The labor organization questionnaire was sent to the secretaries
of the locals of all the great international unions, but particularly
the International Typographical Union of North America, the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of North America,
the International Photo Engravers’ Union of North America, the
International Stereotypers and Electro typers’ Union of North Amer­
ica, and the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders.
INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

Replies were received from 224 locals of the International Typo­
graphical Union, representing 34,817 members, on October 1, 1922,
or about that date. Since the total membership of the International
Typographical Union in 1923 was 68,144, the replies represent 51.1
per cent of the organization. Of the 34,817 members represented by
the 224 replies, the number of members out of employment was
1,368 or 3.9 per cent. In the case of a few unions the entire member­
ship was on strike. The number of members on sick pay at the
time was 333, or 1 per cent. This may be compared with the sick­
ness rate shown by the reports by the employers—0.7 per cent. The
two returns therefore confirm each other sufficiently to be consid­
ered representative of the printing trades at large. Of the 34,817
members, 1,141, or 3.3 per cent, were receiving old-age pensions.8
Inquiry was made regarding the duration of trade life of the mem­
bership by divisional periods—under 5 years, 5 to 10 years, 10 to 15
years and 15 years and over—but as in quite a number of returns this
6 The age return of employers and labor organizations are not comparable. It is probable that the
latter represent many members, age 60 and over, no longer at work but kept on the rolls of the organiza­
tion, including pensioners.
3 The mortuary and old-age pension fund of the International Typographical Union has been discussed
by the author in an article in the Spectator, of Nov. 29,1923.




16

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

question was left unanswered, the returns can not be considered
strictly satisfactory. The available returns are as follows:
Number

Under 5 years____________ ________________ ___
5 to 10 years_________________________________
10 to 15 years--------------------- ---- -------- ------------15 years and over____________________________

Per cent

7,632
3, 206
3, 802
4, 777

39.3
16. 5
19. 6
24. 6

Total.........- ......................................................19,417

100.0

It will be seen that of the entire membership reporting 24.6 had
been at work for 15 years or over. It is evident, therefore, that the
average trade life is relatively high, corresponding to a propor­
tionately high average age attained. This, considered by itself,
would yield a relatively high death rate, which, theoretically, might
be placed at about 15 per 1,000. In actual experience, however,
this rate has not prevailed during recent years in the experience of
the International Typographical Union. Reference to this matter,
on the basis of the published statistics of the International Typo­
graphical Union, as contained in the annual convention reports, is
made on pages 81 to 91 of this report.
Inquiry was also made as to the membership 60 years of age and
over. About 200 locals replied to this question, giving a total of
1,400 craftsmen who had attained to 60 years or more. To each
and every one of these, an individual questionnaire on aged printers
was mailed, and quite a fair proportion of replies were received.
These are dealt with on pages 69 to 75 of this report.
In reply to the question as to whether the union maintained a
sick-benefit fund, 175 answered in the negative and 48 in the affir­
mative, while 1 union made no reply. The urgency of such sickness
protection is, therefore, not apparent. As may safely be assumed
that labor organizations subject to an exceptional sickness rate
realize the advantage of some form of systematic sickness-insurance
provision, when such a provision is absent it is self-evident that
the need of pecuniary assistance in sickness is not considered great.
The necessity or advantage of a mortuary-benefit fund is much
more generally recognized, and the International Typographical
Union provides such benefits for all of its members on a plan well
adapted to the needs of the organization. Since the facts regard­
ing the mortuary experience of the union are generally well under­
stood, it did not seem necessary to give extended consideration to
the facts on this occasion. Similar conclusions apply to the recog­
nition of the value of a pension fund.
Inquiry was made as regards the number of deaths during the year
1921. It is doubtful whether the replies to this question were made
in all cases with the required accuracy. In the aggregate, returns
were made of 542 deaths among 34,817 members, equivalent to an
approximate death rate of 15 per 1,000.4 Information in detail was
furnished regarding deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, of which
49 were reported, and deaths from other respiratory diseases, returned
as 64. Of particular significance are the returns relating to deaths
from lead poisoning during the year 1921. The number of such
deaths reported by the 224 unions was 27, equivalent to a rate of 0.8
per 1,000 of the membership exposed to risk. This return is in reason­
* See pp. 81 to 91 for vital statistics of the International Typographical Union.




HEALTH CONDITIONS IN FEINTING TEADES

17

able conformity to the results of the questionnaire addressed to
employers. The number of serious accidents during* 1921 was 36,
equivalent to approximately 1 per 1,000 of the membership.
To the question as to whether “ any specific complaints could be
made regarding health conditions in the printing plants of the locality
reported upon by the local union,” 68 of the 224 unions replied in
the affirmative. Some of the detailed statements were as follows:
A newspaper plant lias refused to remedy evils complained of, claiming com­
pliance to State ordinances sufficient for the purpose.
Ventilation bad in several shops on account of low ceilings and overcrowded
conditions.
Objections raised to the melting of metal in plants where linotype and mono­
type machines are used while the men are at work. This is considered a grave
source of annoyance.
Unsanitary toilets, bad light, poor ventilation, metal pots of type, but in the
larger establishments the conditions are ideal.
Newspaper maintains insanitary plant. Type-setting machines not piped to
carry off gas fumes. Ventilation imperfect.
Plants need ventilation system. Type casters are not arranged to carry off
fumes.
The small print shops have poor ventilation and are absolutely unsanitary.
Insufficient heat in winter and always poor ventilation.
Suggest the removal of stereotyping plants from composing rooms.
Most printing offices do not provide for the piping of fumes of linotype machines.
Ventilation in one plant very bad as regards lead fumes from stereotyping pots
and linotype machines.
Newspaper located in old dilapidated building owned by railroad company,
refusing to make improvements.
Carelessness with regard to leakage of gas.
Ventilation bad on account of machines not being properly piped.
Not enough modern ventilation methods. Composing rooms overcrowded.
There is not enough proper attention given to fumes from melting pots.
Melting of metal in State printing office unsanitary, on account of there being
no proper facilities for the carrying off of fumes.
Ventilation and lighting could be much better.
Complaint has been made from time to time regarding smoke in composing
rooms in newspaper plants, due to the burning of dross from metal in stereotype
rooms on the same floor.
Sanitary conditions in four shops could not possibly be worse.
Two plants below street level have insufficient light.
Should urge better attention to ventilation of composing rooms.
Smoke and fumes from stereotype rooms of newspaper plants allowed to escape
into the composing rooms.
Workrooms should be kept cleaner and ventilated more often.
The shops should be kept in a more sanitary condition and there should be
more natural light and sunshine, in place of so much artificial illumination.
In two newspaper offices no hoods are provided on machines for the carrying
off of fumes. The composing rooms of both papers being upstairs, smoke from
the stereotyping machines is quite annoying. One paper has a suction plant,
but the other has no ventilating device, whatever.
Metal fumes from stereotyping rooms annoying and there is sweeping of rooms
during working hours.
Linotyping machines should have hoods.
Union had to insist on newspaper plant making provision for eliminating fumes
from machines.
Should have better system of ventilation.




18

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

No adequate system for carrying off lead and gas fumes from the linotyping
and monotyping machines in the plant of one of the local newspapers.
Spitting on the floor and lack of ventilation.
Highly unsatisfactory in majority of plants.
Would suggest piping linotype machines, to prevent the gases from escaping
into workrooms.
Skylights on morning paper would improve matters considerably.
Ventilating conditions could be considerably improved in many plants.
At two of the local newspapers the metal and gas fumes from ten linotyping
and monotyping machines escape into the work rooms. The men are also con­
siderably exposed to draughts.
Lack of provision to carry off fumes from gas-heated metal pots.
Old type casting machines should have exhaust pipes with blowers to carry
off deadly fumes.
Poor ventilation and open metal pots are common.
Metal pots are not properly piped.
Printing plants located in basement demanding consideration. There is lack
of suitable ventilation and poor methods of lighting.
There is need of considerable additional daylight illumination.
Small plants located in basement should be looked into.
One plant crowded and unsanitary. Stereotyping room near composing
room. Structural arrangements unsatisfactory.
Four shops located in basement with unsatisfactory conditions.
Newspaper plant has very unsatisfactory toilet and washroom accommodations.
Linotype melting pots of one plant are not piped for ventilation.
Two plants are very unhealthy.
One shop without outside windows.
Ventilation poor. Much of this caused by the lay-out of the building.

In contrast to the foregoing, many replies were to the effect that
conditions are excellent or improving. The replies represent every
State and most of the Provinces of Canada.
Additional returns were made in 1925 for 228 locals of the Inter­
national Typographical Union, which reported a membership of
34,263. For 217 locals, with 31,904 members, reporting on this point,
the number out of employment is given as 686 or 2,1 per cent. The
number of persons on the sick list was 194; the number receiving
old-age pensions was 1,265, or 3.8 per cent of 218 locals, with 33,414
members, reporting on this point. The returns made as regards the
duration of trade life in different locals may be summarized in the
following statement: The proportion of members less than 5 years
in the trade was 8.5 per cent; of those 5 to 10 years, 12.5 per cent;
of those 10 to 15 years, 17.5 per cent; and of those 15 years and
longer, 60.3 per cent. For 196 locals with 14,823 members reporting
on this point, the number of aged printers or persons 60 years and over
was reported as 1,742 or 11.8 per cent.
The total number of deaths during the year, in a membership of
34,088, was 424, equivalent to a rate of 12.5 per 1,000. Among
23,597 members reported upon on this point there occurred 30 deaths
from tuberculosis, equivalent to a rate of 1.3 per 1,000. For 209
locals, representing 21,210 members, information was furnished with
reference to lead poisoning, showing 19 cases or a rate of 0.9 per 1,000.
There were 18 serious accidents among a membership of 17,771,
representing 210 locals furnishing data on this point, equivalent to a
rate of 1 per 1,000.




HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES

19

The few comments made with reference to complaints as to sanitary
conditions were limited chiefly to poor ventilation, defective fume
control, and inadequate illumination.
INTERNATIONAL PRINTING PRESSMEN AND ASSISTANTS* UNION

Replies were received from 65 locals of the International Printing
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, representing 14,748 members, as of
October 1, 1922, or about that date. Since the total membership
of this international union for 1923 was 37,000 the replies represent
39.9 per cent of the organization. Of the 14,748 members reported
on, the number of members out of employment was 657 or 4.5 per
cent. The number of men on sick pay at the time reports were made
was only 63, or 0.4 per cent. None of the members were receiving
old-age pensions, at least not through the local unions.
Inquiry was made as regards the duration of trade life of the
membership by divisional periods of life, and return was made for
8,604 members as follows:
Number

Under 5 years--------------------- -------------- ..............
5 to 10 years_________________________________
10 to 15 years____________________ - _________
15 years and over________ ___________________
T otal.......... ...............................................

Per cent

1, 060
2, 503
3, 128
1, 913

12.
29.
36.
22.

3
1
4
2

8,604

100.0

It will be seen that of the membership reported, 22.2 per cent had
been at work for 15 years or more.
Inquiry was made as to the membership 60 years of age and over,
and the returns indicate only 199 aged pressmen, a surprisingly low
figure, which may possibly be changed by more extended returns.
Inquiry was also made as regards the number of deaths during the
year 1921 but it is doubtful whether replies to this question in some
cases were made with the required accuracy, as returns were made of
87 deaths, which indicate a mortality figure too low to be accepted
as conclusive.5 The number of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis
was 36, or 41.4 per cent of the mortality from all causes. This also
is a statement of doubtful accuracy and is given merely as a matter
of record. Deaths from other respiratory diseases numbered 19. Of
significance is the number of deaths from lead poisoning, which was
returned as 5, or 0.3 per 1,000 of the membership concerned. The
number of serious accidents was 31, which in a membership of 14,748
can not be considered a serious indication of occupational hazards.
Some of the detailed statements to the question as to whether “ any
specific complaints could be made regarding health conditions in the
printing plants of the localities reported upon by the local union,”
are as follows:
Ventilation in some plants could be improved.
A few plants bad poor ventilation.
One plant needs thorough cleaning, being located in a dark basement.
[Reference is made to Mexican print shops all in the southwest as follows:]
The majority of these shops work anywhere from 10 to 16 hours a day and in
a great many cases the proprietors live in back of the shop. The Mexican
shops work seven days a week and employ any kind of help they see fit which
in most cases mean that they have boys from the ages of 7 to 16 years working
for them. A special investigation of local conditions is urgently called for.
• See pp. 91 to 96 for vital statistics of Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union.




20

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Some two years ago one plant was complained of to the local health officer
but nothing had been done about it.
Conditions in newspaper plant ideal.
Five or six of the plants are poorly housed.
Plans for improvement are under consideration.
Usually poor ventilation and inadequate heating.
Ventilation poor in some plants.
Conditions poor in cellars; were not kept clean or properly ventilated.
Plants here are in very good condition.
A noticeable increase of infections as the result of ink poisonings has been
observed.
All of our plants are up to the standard in every respect.
Complaint limited to poor ventilation.
The worst of “ poor light,” bad for eyes which reacts on the nervous system.
Plants in this locality above the average.
Health conditions in a number of plants could be improved upon.
Four plants in this locality with normal condition.
One basement shop is in a very unhealthy condition.
Two plants in this town are not very sanitary.
Conditions are generally fair.
Conditions unsatisfactory since stereotyping rooms are on the same floor as
pressmen’s.
We have automatic machinery in which the men are compelled to climb stairs
with a load of probably 100 to 200 pounds on their shoulders and have no rails
to protect them in case they lose their balance and causes a number of accidents.
Poor ventilation in some of the shops. The ventilation and toilet accommo­
dations are very poor in some of the shops.

Additional information is available for 14 locals with a member­
ship of 1,782 as of March, 1925. The proportion out of employment
numbered 128, of which only 4 were on the sick list. As to dura­
tion of trade life the proportion in the divisional periods was as
follows: Less than 5 years in the trade, 6.5 per cent; 5 to 10 years,
46.6 per cent; 10 to 15 years, 16 per cent; 15 years and over, 31,9
per cent. The proportion of aged members of the printing press­
men and assistants’ union, 60 years and over, for 10 organizations
of 1,005 members was 61, or 6.1 per cent. The mortality from all
causes was reported for all 14 locals, there being 10 deaths from all
causes in 1924, equivalent to a rate of 5.6 per 1,000 members. There
were 3 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, equivalent to a rate of
3.8 per 1,000 members of the locals reporting on this point. There
were no cases of lead poisoning, but 2 serious accidents equivalent
to a rate of 0.8 per 1,000 members of the locals reporting on this
point. There were a few complaints in regard to conditions, partic­
ularly as to press rooms in basements.
INTERNATIONAL PHOTO-ENGRAVERS’ UNION

Returns were received from 27 locals of the International PhotoEngravers’ Union representing a membership of 4,872. The num­
ber out of employment was 163, or 3.3 per cent. The number of
members on sick pay at the time the reports were made was 105,
or 2.2 per cent. Only 6 of the members, or 0.1 per cent, were at
the time receiving old-age pensions.
Inquiry was made regarding the trade life of the membership by
divisional periods, and in most cases the information was furnished.
The available returns show the following as to duration of trade life:




HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES
Number

Under 5 years_________________________ - — __
713
5 to 10 years_________________________________ 1,115
10 to 15 years....... ................................................ 1, 414
15 years and over____________________________ 1, 258
Total........... ..........................................— - 4,500

21
Percent

15.
24.
31.
28.

8
8
4
0

100.0

It will be seen that of the entire membership 28 per cent had
been at work for 15 years or more. As with the members of the
International Typographical Union the average age attained is prob­
ably proportionately high, a fact which must not be overlooked in
considering the prevailing general death rate for this organization. ^
All of the 27 locals answered the inquiry as to the membership
60 years of age and over, 6 reporting 54 aged members or 1.1 per
cent of the total membership, which is considerably less than for
other branches of the printing trade.
Inquiry was made regarding the number of deaths during the
year 1921, but it is somewhat doubtful whether the replies to this
question were made in all cases with required accuracy and com­
pleteness. In the aggregate returns were made of 51 deaths from
all causes among 4,872 members, equivalent to an approximate
death rate of 10.5 per 1,000. There were 7 deaths from pulmonary
tuberculosis and 9 deaths from nontuberculous respiratory diseases.
There were no deaths from lead poisoning and no serious accidents.
The replies to the question as to any specific complaints regard­
ing health conditions in the printing trades of the locality reported
upon by the local union, were as follows:
None whatever.
Poor ventilation.
Lack of ventilation and crowding of the different departments.
Conditions generally satisfactory.
Acid fumes are most objectionable in most plants.
Some engraving plants need more light and ventilation.
No complaint; health conditions splendid.
Dark rooms poorly ventilated, etching machines do not carry off fumes of
nitric acid; bright arc lights injurious to eyes.
Most shops have good sanitary conditions. Some still lacking suction flues in
dark rooms.
Not enough ventilation in one or two shops.

Additional information as of 1925 was furnished for 20 locals,
representing a membership of 3,596. The proportion out of employ­
ment was 2.1 per cent while four persons were on the sick list. As
to duration of trade life the proportion in the divisional periods
was as follows: Less than 5 years in the trade, 11.9 per cent; 5 to
10 years, 23 per cent; 10 to 15 years, 36.5 per cent; 15 years and
over, 29.8 per cent. For 18 locals with 3,409 members, the number
of photo-engravers 60 years and over was 137. The number of
deaths from all causes in 1924 for 19 locals with a membership
of 3,589 was reported as 30, equivalent to a rate of 8.4 per 1,000.
There were 6 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, equivalent to
a rate of 1.7 per 1,000. There were 2 deaths from lead poisoning,
equivalent to a rate of 0.5 per 1,000. There were a few complaints
as regards sanitary conditions, chiefly with reference to inadequate
ventilation, defective illumination, and inadequate sanitary facilities.




22

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

INTERNATIONA! STEREOTYPERS AND ELECTROTYPERS* UNION

Returns were received from 32 locals of the International Stereo­
typers and Electro typers’ Union representing a membership of 1,438
on October 1, 1922, or about that date, which is considered reason­
ably representative. The number of members out of employment
was only 16 or 1.1 per cent. The number of members on sick pay
at the time the reports were made was only 4 or 0.3 per cent. This
may be compared with the sickness rate for the International Typo­
graphical Union, given as 1 per cent.
Of the 1,438 members only 4, or 0.3 per cent, were receiving
old-age pensions. Most of the unions answered the question regard­
ing the duration of trade life, the available returns being as follows:
Number

Under 5 years________________________________
5 to 10.............. ........................... ......................... ..
10 to 15_____________________ _______________ _
15 years and over____________________________

Per cent

157
201
273
498

13. 9
17.8
24.2
44. 1

Total__________________________________ 1, 129

100. 0

Of the entire membership reporting, 44.1 per cent have thus
been at work for 15 years or more. It is evident, therefore, that
the average trade life is relatively high, approximately corresponding
to a proportionately high average age attained.
Inquiry was made also as to the membership 60 years of age
and over. Thirty-two locals reported a total of 43 members who
had attained age 60 years or over. To each of these locals a separate
questionnaire was sent and a number of returns were received,
which are considered in another section of this report (see pp. 98 to
100). All the unions belong to the mortuary fund of the inter­
national association, which, in a few instances, is supplemented by
local sickness societies. The number of death returns is of some­
what doubtful accuracy, but as a matter of record it may be said
that among the 1,438 members there were reported 11 deaths during
the year under observation, equivalent to a rate of 7.6 per 1,000.6
As regards deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis only two were
reported. There were two deaths from respiratory diseases. Of
particular significance are the returns relating to lead poisoning,
during the year 1921. The number of such deaths reported by the
32 unions was 5, equivalent to a rate of 3.5 per 1,000 of the member­
ship exposed to risk. The number of serious accidents during the
year was 3, equivalent to approximately 2.1 per 1,000 of the mem­
bership reported upon.
Some of the detailed statements regarding whether any specific
complaints could be made regarding health conditions in the plants
of the locality reported upon by the local union were as follows:
Some plants very bad, others very good.
Stereotyping rooms in cellars should be prohibited. All workrooms should be
thoroughly ventilated and the burning of metals should be forbidden.
While sanitary conditions in this business have much improved during the
past few years, owing to the installation of blower systems for the removal of
noxious fumes from melting metal, etc., the washing and dressing conditions are
about as they were when I first entered the business 20 years ago.
« See pp. 98 to 103 for vital statistics of International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union.




HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES

23

A large proportion of the men must strip practically to the skin in order to
keep clothing presentable enough to appear in public; no clean dressing rooms
are available and in all shops i n ------ •
the men wash up in the sinks that are used
in handling vitriol or other acids and chemicals used in the electrotyping pro­
cesses, a condition, we understand, which is not tolerated in most cities.
Complaint is made against conditions in 3 shops but no details are given.
Metal pots should have covers to carry fumes out of the room.
Conditions unusually good on account of plant locations. There is plenty of
light and air and most plants use power fans for keeping air pure.
One plant is poorly lighted and badly ventilated.
Plenty of room for improvement.
Elimination of smoke and fumes while melting would be desirable. Com­
plaint has been made of a newspaper plant in this regard, but conditions have been
modified lately.
Stereotypers in this locality are a healthy lot.
All members agree that dross pots or refiners should not be allowed to be burned
in a room where men are compelled to work.

Additional returns were furnished in 1925 by 60 locals repre­
senting a membership of 2,782. The proportion out of employment
was 3.2 per cent, while only 18 were on sick pay. As to duration
of trade life, the proportion in the divisional periods was as follows:
16.2 per cent for less than 5 years in the trade, 18.8 per cent for 5
to 10 years, 23.0 per cent for 10 to 15 years, and 42.0 per cent for 15
years and over.
The mortality from all causes during the year 1924 in 58 locals,
with 2,747 members, was 19, equivalent to 6.9 per 1,000. There
were only 2 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, equivalent to a
rate of 0.7 per 1,000. In 56 locals, reporting 2,357 members, there
were 6 cases of lead poisoning, a rate of 2.5 per 1,000. The few
complaints made as regards sanitary conditions were chiefly on
account of poor ventilation. In two cases there was a complaint
of fume trouble from the vats and in one case complaint of the want
of bathing facilities.
INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS

Returns were received from 27 locals of the International Brother­
hood of Bookbinders, representing 2,379 members, on October 1,
1922. The number of members out of employment was 173, or
7.3 per cent. None were reported absent on account of sickness
at the time the report was made. The number receiving old-age
pensions was only four.
Inquiry was made regarding the duration of trade life of the mem­
bership by divisional periods of life with the following results:
Number

Under 5 years_________________________________
5 to 10 years____________________________ _____
10 to 15 y e a r s ..................................................... j .
15 years and over_____________________________

496
588
671
585

Total..............................................................2,340

Per cent

21. 2
25. 1
28.7
25. 0
100.0

The number of bookbinders 60 years of age and over was 67, or
2.8 per cent. The number of deaths from all causes during 1921
was 15, or 6.3 per 1,000 members. Of these deaths 2 were from
tuberculosis and 3 from nonrespiratory diseases, there being none
from lead poisoning or from serious accidents.




24

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Particular comments regarding plant conditions were made in a
few letters as follows:
Everything is satisfactory.
There have been two deaths from tuberculosis since I knew of this union: One
lad that served his apprenticeship here. He grew too fast and did not get out­
side enough. His brother, a pressman, is at the pressmen’s home now. The
last report was that he was getting better. Another, an Englishman, never seemed
very robust. Went overseas, came back here, then went east, I think, into
your State. We heard later that he had died. Both were paper rulers.
Conditions satisfactory except as to insanitary toilet facilities and no sani­
tary drinking cups. The ventilation also is poor.
The city has grown so fast that it is difficult to give trustworthy information.
Local conditions are changing rapidly. We had a splendid sick-benefit system
which worked admirably, but the membership did not keep it up, so it was dis­
banded. Our death benefit is paid by the international union. In this climate
colds are far more frequent than in more favored parts of the country, but our
people do not seem to suffer to any greater extent from respiratory diseases than
the general public. Our serious accidents are negligible. The one great general
complaint that could be made regarding conditions is the one of ventilation,
especially in winter. Most of the bindery girls wear thin clothing indoors and
can stand considerable heat. The men working on the bench and on the cutting
machines have their bodies in continual heat. If windows are opened a little
for air, the girls usually complain, and often some of the men, thus I have often
seen men freely perspiring, almost alongside girls, who sat down, complaining of
the coldness of the room. This muscular activity, however, tends to keep the
men more healthy, but when they quit work and go outside to stand in the cold
waiting for the street cars they quickly chill off and frequently contract a cold
which proper ventilation indoors would, have obviated.
In summer there is little to complain of from this source, but the fumes from
gas stoves, glue pots, printers' ink, etc., give a typical odor to such places. In
the winter they get this along with the shut-in, dried-up, vitiated atmosphere
of artificial heat and the always present dust-laden air (paper dust).
The only suggestion for improvement likely to be adopted that I could make
would be to place thermometers at various points in the workrooms, keeping
a uniform temperature of 70 degrees in the winter months. This would do away
with the frequent arguments as to whether it was hot or cold in the shop.
When there is a dispute as to whether it is early or late the best answer is a
look at a correct timepiece; the same applies to heat. It can be measured;
ascertain the best degree and maintain it.
An insurance agent gave me a little enlightenment on the trade. He said
that a typesetter of my age would have to pay a higher premium than I would
because the compositors’ statistics proved a higher mortality rate than myself,
a paper cutter, operating a very dangerous machine with considerably more
muscular energy than a typesetter used.
One phase of local conditions is the tendency for some firms to overburden
their floors with excess weight. Several of them are housed in very old build­
ings or ramshackle constructions. I quit one place because the floors used to
sway and vibrate to a dangerous extent. If not remodeled, this place will prob­
ably collapse, and I don't want to be killed in that manner, and, as a one-time
sailor and Navy man, I claim at least the average courage.
Taken all together, I think our working conditions are a trifle better than
those of many other trades due to organized effort on the part of the workers.
I find it difficult to answer your questions.
The most striking fact is the frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms
in young men and a large percentage of underweight men engaged in our trades.
It seems to me of importance that clean toilets should be supplied every day and
that the work place should be whitewashed once a year. I also favor a contrib­
utory system of old-age pensions, either through the Federal or State Govern­
ment. I also believe that it would be an advantage to have State-owned hos­
pitals or sanitariums supported by compulsory system. By this means cancer
and pulmonary tuberculosis might be dealt with in a better way.
No serious objections except that the work place should be kept a little cleaner
and better ventilated.




HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PRINTING TRADES

25

All the work places here are in fairly good condition and no serious complaints
can be made.
Inadequate factory inspection and the crowding in small placets of machinery
and workers. All poor ventilation.
Shops here are in fairly good condition.
The dust from concrete floors is probably a health menace.
Better system of ventilation should be insisted upon.

Additional information is available as of 1925 for 46 locals, with
a membership of 5,256. The proportion out of employment was
5.5 per cent, and the number on sick pay was only 3. As to duration
of trade life, the proportion in the divisional periods was 22.5 per
cent for less than 5 ygars; 25.7 per cent for 5 to 10 years; 28.3 per
cent for 10 to 15 years, and 23.5 per cent for 15 years and over.
For 44 locals, representing a membership of 5,227, information
was furnished as regards the number of deaths from all causes for the
year 1924. There were 52 deaths, equivalent to a rate of 9.9 per
1,000 members. There were only 4 deaths from pulmonary tuber­
culosis, equivalent to a rate of 0.88 per 1,000 members. There were
no cases ox lead poisoning, but there were 12 serious accidents, equiva­
lent to a rate of 2.61 per 1,000 members reported upon.
There were few complaints as regards deficient illumination,
structural defects, particularly as regards basement locations, and
inadequate sanitary facilities for women.
SUMMARY

Summarizing the foregoing, it appears that the sickness rate in 1922
of the International Typographical Union was 1 per cent; of the
International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union, 0.3 per cent;
of the International Photo-Engravers’ Union, 2.2 per cent; of the
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, none; and of the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, 0.4 per cent.
The preceding percentages indicate merely the proportion of men
who were absent on account of sickness at the time the questionnaire
was filled in. While it might have been more desirable if the returns
could all have been made of a precisely uniform date, the results
have the advantage that they harmonize seasonal effects which might
otherwise have become too apparent.
The sickness rate is so low that it may be challenged on the ground
of accuracy, but the corresponding returns made by so many local
unions prove that serious errors are not likely to have occurred.
They are furthermore confirmed by the low sickness rate from dif­
ferent unions and employers. The sickness rate reported by employ­
ers was 0.7 per cent. Hence the conclusion would seem fully justified
that the present health conditions among printing employees may
safely be considered in every way satisfactory.
Like considerations apply to the relatively low incidence of lead
poisoning. In the International Typographical Union, the propor­
tion of such cases was 0.8 per 1,000 of the membership exposed to
risk. For electro typers and stereotypers the proportion was higher,
3.5 per 1,000. There were no deaths from lead poisoning among
photo-engravers, nor among bookbinders, Among printing press­
men and assistants, the rate of lead poisoning was 0.3 per 1,000.
Hence the conclusion that the lead-poisoning risk in all branches of
the printing trades is now one of decidedly minor significance.



26

HEALTH STJKVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

PRINTING-PLANT INSPECTIONS
The printing-plant inspections made in connection with the health
survey of the printing trades have already been presented in detail in
Bulletin No. 392 of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. It would
therefore serve no useful purpose to enlarge upon the results of this
part of the survey. That study covered 536 printing plants, of which
339 were located in the eastern group of States, 147 in the southern
group, and 50 in the western group (it was not found feasible to extend
the field investigations beyond Denver, Colo.). The character of the
work performed in the establishments investigated is illustrated by
Table 17:
T a b l e 17.—N U M BE R OF

ESTABLISHM ENTS IN EACH GEOGRAPHICAL GROUP OF
STATES DOING SPECIFIED KIN D OF W ORK

Kind of work
Composition, hand..... .................................. ............... ................
Composition, macliine,-..............................................................
Photo-engra ving. ......... ........... .....................................................
Stereotyping..................................................................................
Electrotyping.................................................................................
Presswork..... ................ ...... ........................................................
Binding, book .............................................................................
Binding, miscellaneous.—............ ........................................... .

Eastern
group
233
164
97
58
47
254
61
178

Southern Western
group
group
122
79
33
32
12
127
30
73

40
30
12
13
3
44
12
39

Total

400
273
142
103
62
425
103
290

Different types of work are, of course, performed in different estab­
lishments. It is shown for illustration that hand composition was
carried on in 400 of the 536 plants, while machine composition was
carried on in 273. Presswork was carried on in 425, or the large ma­
jority of the plants, while photo-engraving was carried on in 142,
stereotyping in 103, and electro typing in 62. Bookbinding was carried
on in 103 and miscellaneous binding in 290 others.
The report gives a detailed description of operations, which will be
found extremely useful for a thorough understanding of printingplant process and conditions. The observations include ink grinding,
which was not considered in the present investigation. Of the 536
plants inspected 221 were located in buildings adapted for the purpose.
One of the serious problems of many printing plants is that they are
frequently located in premises not suitably adapted for the purpose.
The general appearance of plant conditions at the time of inspection
was good in 129 plants, fair in 253, and bad in 154. Of course such
findings may be criticized on the ground that they represent merely a
personal impression, but no method could be adopted which would
eliminate the personal element, since most of the objections that could
be raised to plant conditions are a matter of opinion. Like consider­
ations apply to the question as to adequacy of working space. Ac­
cording to the report referred to working space was ample in 377
plants and crowded in 159. This would conform to personal investi­
gations made by the author of this survey, which in many instances
showed a very crowded condition due to the rapid expansion among
printing plants during recent years without adequate provision for
increased working space.
The motive power was individual in 411 plants, collective in 19,
and of a mixed character in 106. Much of the motive power is elec­
tric, but in many of the plants it is from steam or gas engines. As



PRINTING-PLANT INSPECTIONS

2?

regards safeguards or protective devices against accident occurrences,
these were reported as good in 308 plants, fair in 169, and bad in 59.
The plants reporting bad conditions, a relatively small portion, are
in all probability small establishments not under adequate supervision
from factory inspection departments.
Natural lighting conditions were good in 216 plants, fair in 213,
and bad in 99. Lighting conditions in most printing plants could,
it is believed, be materially improved. Illuminating engineering has
only of recent years attained to the proportions of an exact science,
and a vast amount of illumination in most industrial plants at the
present time is far from being properly adapted to the purpose.
Natural lighting conditions in all cases require to be amplified by
artificial lighting, but, unfortunately, too often opportunities for
natural lighting are neglected as the result of occupancy of premises
ill adapted to the purpose. The artificial lighting conditions were
good in 150 plants, fair in 287, and bad in 99.
The natural ventilation was good in 157 plants, fair in 142, and
bad in 62. Ventilation, like illumination, has only of recent years
attracted adequate scientific attention. Efficient ventilation devices,
not prohibitive as regards cost of operation or methods of installation,
are as yet met with in only a fraction of printing establishments. All
plenum artificial ventilation was practiced in 30 plants, in 24 of which
ventilation was good and in 6 fair. All exhaust artificial ventilation
was practiced in 20 plants, in 11 of which the ventilation was good, in
7 fair, and in 2 poor. Part plenum artificial ventilation was prac­
ticed in 30 plants, in 14 of which the ventilation was good, in 15 fair,
and in 1 bad. Part exhaust artificial ventilation was practiced in the
majority of plants with artificial ventilation, 95, in 26 of which the
ventilation was good, in 57 fair, and in 12 bad.
The ventilation of plants is of course separate and distinct from,
although closely interwoven with, the ventilation of equipment.
There were 2,314 typecasting machines using gas and 1,262 using
electricity. Ventilation of equipment in composing rooms was good
in 113 plants, fair in 77, and bad in 83; in photo-engraving rooms good
in 42 plants, fair in 68, and bad in 32; in stereotyping rooms good in
41 plants, fair in 32, and bad in 30; in electro typing rooms good in
10 plants, fair in 33, and bad in 19. The ventilation of other equip­
ment was good in 22 plants, fair in 55, and bad in 70. “ Other equip­
ment,” it may be said, represents so large a variety of operations
and conditions that individual ventilation is necessarily more dif­
ficult. In a general way, the results of the investigation regarding
ventilation of equipment are decidedly suggestive. They indicate in
most cases a relatively large proportion of badly working ventilating
devices on equipment which should admit of remedial measure with­
out prohibitive expense.
As to cleanliness, the plants inspected reveal the following con­
ditions: Floors—good in 219 plants, fair in 187, and bad in 130;
windows—good in 328 plants, fair in 80, and bad in 128; equipment—
good in 353 plants, fair in 120, and bad in 63; type cases—good in
271 plants and bad in 130. The latter, it may be pointed out, is one
of the most obvious indications of censurable neglect, for unclean
type cases are the source of much needless lead poisoning, as well
as, possibly, of tuberculosis. Toilets were in good condition in 357
16056°— 27------ 3



28

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

plants and in bad condition in 176 plants. This also is evidence of
inexcusable neglect for which the employer is primarily responsible.
Sanitary facilities and medical attention, etc., were as follows:
Dressing rooms were provided in 220 plants for both sexes, and
in 45 for women only. No dressing rooms were provided in the
remainder. Individual lockers, which are considered a sanitary
essential, were provided in 295 plants and collective lockers in 28.
Hot water was provided in only 329 of the 536 plants investigated.
Shower baths were provided in only 115 plants. Separate lunch
rooms were provided in only 26 plants and restaurant facilities in only
35. It must, of course, be considered that many of the printing
plants are small and that no necessity exists for separate lunch rooms,
shower baths, etc. Hospital facilities were provided by 58 plants,
rest rooms for females by 49, and first-aid kits were found in 326
of the 536 plants inspected.
The investigation included 81,314 workers employed in the 536
establishments inspected. Of this number 1,363 or 1.7 per cent were
60 years of age and over. The proportion of women employed in
the different plants inspected was 21.4 per cent. The number of
cases of lead poisoning known to have occurred during the year
under review was 14, or at the rate of 0.2 per 1,000 employees. This
figure is possibly a more trustworthy figure than that reported by dif­
ferent labor organizations in their mortality returns, and conforms
to the rate reported by employers given in the first section of the
present investigation as 0.3 per 1,000. There were 29 cases of tuber­
culosis and 15 cases of other occupational diseases, aside from 139
accidents.
The foregoing data are decidedly instructive, but for full con­
sideration the report published in Bulletin No. 392 should be con­
sulted. They confirm the point of view that while health conditions
in matters of detail are often far from what they should be, in a general
way they are better now than in former years, although exact com­
parative data are wanting. They do not reveal definite evidence
that would justify serious apprehensions, but are indicative of many
directions in which a material improvement is easily obtainable.
SANITARY INSPECTION OF COMPOSING ROOMS
The sanitary conditions of composing rooms necessarily have a
most important bearing upon health conditions of the employees
therein. It requires no extended familiarity with the facts, however,
to emphasize the great practical difficulty of finding conditions suffi­
ciently standardized to admit methods of statistical inquiry suitable
for qualified analysis. Printing plants fail greatly in the arrange­
ment of mechanical equipment and in countless matters of detail,
which can not possibly be reduced to a single basis of exact com­
parison. The responsibility for conformity to accepted sanitary
standards rests, as a rule, upon the local boards of health, although
in some States this duty has been transferred to the industrial com­
mission or the labor department.
In this phase of the investigation, the following plan of procedure
was decided upon: Letters were sent to the health officers of quite a
large number of cities, requesting that they cooperate in the survey
by undertaking special sanitary investigations of a number of repre­




SANITARY INSPECTION OF COMPOSING ROOMS

29

sentative printing plants in their respective communities upon the
basis of the schedule used in the inspection of composing rooms by
the board of health of the District of Columbia and approved by the
local typographical union. The questionnaire used covers a large
number of items, some of which do not admit of being tabulated for
statistical purposes, nor can the replies be very well summarized,
largely on account of the wide variance in different localities, and this
has not been done here except for strictly comparable items. It
seemed best to present the facts for each locality separately.
In the aggregate this part of the health survey represents 24 cities,
for which 303 reports were made. No particular rule was followed*
it being left entirely to the judgment, time, and ability of the
local health officers to determine the type of plant to be investigated
and the number of persons to be reported upon. For certain cities
the number of reports is exceptionally small, while for others they
are sufficiently representative.
The most important cities reporting upon local conditions are
Baltimore with 36 reports, Washington with 33 reports, Richmond
with 30 reports, San Francisco with 26 reports, New York with
25 reports, Chicago with 20 reports, Cleveland with 15 reports,
Philadelphia with 12 reports, and Milwaukee with 12 reports. The
remainder of the cities, sending in 10 reports or less were Birmingham,
Buffalo, Cincinnati, Denver, Fall River, Fort Wayne, Hartford,
Houston, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Oakland, Omaha,
Rochester, and Montreal. The 303 establishments investigated rep­
resent 14,886 workers, of which 2,231, or 15 per cent, were women.0
This number would seem sufficient for present purposes. Only those
who are thoroughly familiar with the practical difficulties of such
investigations can appreciate the generosity of the local health officers
in having these investigations made. They involved, in many cases,
a considerable amount of time, which was freely given in the effort
to show the true state of present-day health conditions in composing
rooms in the printing trades.
There are two fundamental elements of such investigations which
may be dealt with briefly on general principles. The average amount
of floor space per employee and the amount of air space in cubic
feet bear unquestionably upon the general health of the worker,
although in practically all cases modified by local conditions, espe­
cially artificial ventilation. The factor of floor space, of course,
in a measure determines the air space, but it also affects profoundly
the accident hazard, which is greater in overcrowded establishments
than in plants which have a sufficient amount of floor space available
for the machinery used. As a matter of fact, however, the precise
ascertainment of floor space and air space and their relation to
individual employees is a difficult matter. Structural conditions,
machinery, etc., may determine the resulting averages. Hence there
are a few variations the nature of which cannot be determined on
the basis of individual descriptive accounts. Large modern plants,
it goes without saying, have as a rule a larger proportion of floor
and air space than the smaller plants, which are representative
of conditions common in the past.
In the first place, of course, the air space per employee is determined
by the air space available at the plant. This in the nature of the
• Of th* 14,886 employees, $,22*, or 39.1 per oeat, were hand oompositors.




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

30

case varies widely; for instance, the average air space of the plants
investigated in Minneapolis was 78,331 cubic feet and in Los Angeles,
79,465 cubic feet, while it was only 21,804 cubic feet in Fall River,
28,346 cubic feet in Richmond, and 39,471 cubic feet in Baltimore.
The average air space per employee was as high as 4,682 cubic
feet for Birmingham, based upon 6 plants, and 4,308 cubic feet
for Indianapolis, based on 10 plants, but it was as low as 680 cubic
feet for New York City based on 25 plants, and 684 cubic feet for
Rochester, based on a single plant.
The average floor space per employee was as high as 404 square
feet in Milwaukee and as low as 40 square feet in New York, but
the Milwaukee figures are based upon only 12 plants which can
hardly be considered representative for that city.
From the foregoing it is apparent that no safe conclusions can
be drawn from the data given, other than in the most general way,
conditions in printing plants varying entirely too much to permit
of a typical average for the country at large or even for the localities
considered in the present investigation. It may be safely asserted,
however, that the amount of floor space and air space per employee
is as low in New York City as anywhere in the country.
Of the 24 cities investigated 13 gave an average floor space of
from 100 to 199 square feet per employee, while 12 gave an average
amount of air space per employee of from 1,000 to 1,999 cubic feet.
Ten cities reported an average plant floor space of 50,000 square
feet or less, while 6 reported an average of from 50,000 square feet
to 74,999 square feet and 8 reported 75,000 square feet or more.
BALTIMORE, MD.

For Baltimore, Md., the local health officer furnished 36 reports.
Of this number of establishments, 33 were of brick construction and
3 of concrete or other materials.
The installations regarding fire protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers
Fire hose___________
Extinguishers______

_ 6
. 10
. 32

Plants
not having

30
26
4

In 32 cases the plant was reported to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition and in 4 as not being so.
The total air space of the 36 plants was 1,420,977 cubic feet, giving
an average air space of 39,471 cubic feet to a plant.
The plenum system of artificial ventilation was used in 1 plant and
the exhaust system in 9 plants. In only 1 of the plants were odors
observed at the time of inspection.
The natural lighting conditions were considered adequate for 33
)lants and inadequate for 3, but the question as to whether artificial
ighting made up for the deficiency in natural lighting was answered
in the affirmative in all of the 36 cases. The methods of artificial
lighting in use were tungsten and nitrogen.
The heating was by hot water in 1 plant, by hot air in another
plant, by direct steam in 22 plants, and by miscellaneous methods in
12 plants. Heating facilities were considered satisfactory in all of
the 36 plants. Thermometers were used in 6 plants and automatic
heat regulators in 1 plant. The removal of surplus heat from

1




SANITARY INSPECTION— BIRMINGHAM

31

machinery was practiced in 11 plants. Not all the plants in question
have machines in operation.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T able 1 8 .— N U M BER OF M ACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF HEAT

AN D GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines
Number
of plants
having

Kind of machines

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total
Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory

Linotype machines............ ..........................................
Monotype machines.....................................................
Casters...........................................................................
Remelting furnaces.......................................................

14
8
8
18

Total....................................................................

20
11
10
18

ee
12
10
3

86
23
20
2i

78
12
10
3

59

91

150

103

With reference to specific mechanical conditions the reports were
as follows:
There were remelting furnaces in composing rooms in 5 plants.
Linotype pots could be closed in 13 plants but could not be in 1 plant.
They were found closed at the time of inspection in 5 plants. Scrap
lead was found on the floor in 15 plants. The bottoms of cases were
flush with the floor in 23 plants and not flush with the floor in 13
plants. Sanitary leg bases for cases were provided in 15 of the
plants. The space under the cases was reported clean in 31 plants
and not clean in 5. Type was cleaned in 21 plants by benzine, in
5 by gasoline, in 2 by alcohol, and in 8 by methods not reported.
Bubble fountains for drinking purposes were not provided in any
of the plants, but ice coolers were provided in 26. The common
drinking cup was in use in 23 plants but individual drinking cups
were provided in 20.
Washing of the hands was compulsory in 28 plants. Sanitary
rules were not posted in any of the plants, nor were medical examina­
tions required nor medical supervision over sanitary conditions
exercised.
BIRMINGHAM, ALA.

For Birmingham, Ala., six reports were secured, all of which have
reference to plants of brick construction. The information regarding
fire protection was as follows:
Plants
Plants
having not having

Automatic sprinkler___________________________________ 1
Fire hose_____________________________________________ 0
Fire extinguishers_____________________________________ 2
Fire-alarm system_____________________________________1
Fire escapes___________________________________________5

5
6
4
5
1

In all of the 6 cases, the plant inspected was reported as in a
clean and generally satisfactory condition. The total air space of
the 6 plants was 538,500 cubic feet, giving an average of 89,750 cubic
feet to a plant.




32

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Artificial ventilation was not practiced in any of the plants in­
spected, and odors were observed in only 1 plant. Natural light was
considered adequate in the 6 plants, though the following methods of
artificial lighting were reported as used in the different plants: Gas
(mantle), electric arc and tungsten, 1 plant; gas (open flame) and elec­
tric arc, 1 plant; electric arc, 1 plant; tungsten and nitrogen, 1 plant;
tungsten, 1 plant; not reported, 1 plant. All replies to the question
as to whether artificial lighting made up for any deficiency in natural
lighting were in the affirmative.
Heating was by hot air in 1 of the plants, by stoves in 2 of the
plants, by direct steam in 1 plant, by combined direct and indirect
steam in 1 plant, and for 1 plant no information was available.
Heating facilities were considered adequate in all the plants, while
facilities for carrying off surplus heat from machinery were consid­
ered adequate in 4 of the plants. Thermometers or other heatrecording devices were used in only 1 plant, while automatic heat
regulators were not in use in any of the plants.
The 6 plants in question had 21 machines of various types, each
of which was considered as in a satisfactory condition as to carry­
ing off heat and gases, being piped for the elimination of gases and
fumes. The number and land of machines in the plants were as
follows:
Number
of plants
having

. Linotype machines________________________________
Monotype machines_______________________________
Casters____________________________________________
Remelting furnaces_________ _____ _________________

Number
of machines

5
3
3
5

6
5
5
5

With reference to specific mechanical conditions the replies were
as follows:
In 4 of the 5 plants having a remelting furnace the furnace was
in the composing room. In 5 plants the linotype pots could be
closed, while in 1 plant they were closed at the time of inspection.
The pots were heated by gas in 5 of the plants.
Scrap lead was found on the floor in 1 of the plants. The bot­
toms of the composing cases were flush with the floor in 1 plant
and not flush in 1 plant, information for the others not being secured.
Type was cleaned with benzine in 4 plants and with potash in 1
plant, and both methods were used in another plant. The space
underneath the cases was clean in all 6 plants.
With reference to the water supply for general purposes, the 6
plants were provided with 17 spigots, or an average of 2.83 spigots
to a plant. Only one plant reported having a shower bath, while
4 plants reported dressing rooms for males and 5 reported dressing
rooms for females. None of the plants investigated had lockers and
none provided lunch rooms. As regards drinking water, common
drinking cups have been done away with in all of the plants, while
5 plants provide individual drinking cups.
Washing of the hands was compulsory in 1 of the plants. Sanitary
rules were not posted and medical examinations were not required in
any of the plants reporting. There was no professional supervision
over sanitary conditions in any of these plants.




SANITARY INSPECTION— BUFFALO

33

The number of employees at the time of investigation, by sex and
class of work, was as follows:
T abl e 1 9 .— N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF SIX PRINTING

PLANTS IN BIRM IN GH AM , ALA., B Y SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males ____________ _____ __________________________ ____ __
Females_______ _____ ___ ____ ___ ______________ ___ ____ __

34
3

10
1

48
19

92
23

Total........................ —.........................................................

37

11

67

115

Sex

Other
work

Total

On the basis of information furnished, the floor space per em­
ployee was 352 square feet and the air space per employee was 4,682
cubic feet. The sanitary accommodations were apparently consid­
ered sufficient and satisfactory. None of the 6 plants reported
tuberculous employees at the time of the inspection,
BUFFALO, N. Y.

For Buffalo, N. Y., 4 reports were secured. The buildings were
all of brick or stone construction. The installations regarding fire
protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinkler_______________________________ ___3
Fire hose__________________________________________ ___1
Extinguishers---------------------------------------------------- --------- 4
Fire-alarm system_________________________________ ___0
Fire escapes----------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1

Plants
not
having

1
3
0
4
3

Three of the plants were found in a clean and generally satisfatory
condition, while 1 was not. The total air space was 225,690 cubic
feet, giving an average of 56,423 cubic feet to a plant. Artificial
methods of ventilation were practiced in 1 plant, using the exhaust
system with 2 fans. Odors were found present in 2 of the plants, and
1 was inadequately ventilated.
In 1 plant the natural lighting was inadequate. The methods of
artificial lighting in use in different plants were as follows: Tungsten,
2 plants; tungsten and nitrogen, 2 plants. Artificial lighting made
up for any deficiency in natural lighting in 3 out of the 4 plants.
Heating was by direct steam in 3 plants and by hot water in 1 plant.
The heating facilities were adequate in all plants. The facilities for
carrying off surplus heat were also adequate in all plants. Ther­
mometers were used in 3 plants, while automatic heat regulators were
found in 1 plant.
The machinery equipment of the different plants, which was all
piped and satisfactory as to the elimination of heat and gases, was
as follows:
Number
of plants
having

Linotype machines_________________________________
Monotype machines________________________. . . ____
Casters-------------------------- ---------------- ----------------------Remelting furnaces________________________________




2
3
3
4

Number
of ma*
chines

15
7
12
4

34

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room of 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in 2 plants, and were found
closed at the time of inspection in 1 plant. Scrap lead was found on
the floor in 3 plants. Linotype pots were heated by gas in 2 plants
and also by electricity in 1 plant. Bottoms of the composing cases
were flush with the floor in 2 plants, and not flush with the floor in 2
others, sanitary leg bases being used in these 2. The space was clean
beneath the cases in all of the plants. The type was cleaned by
benzine in 3 plants and by unknown methods in 1 plant.
The total number of spigots was 20, an average of 5 spigots to a
plant. Dressing rooms were provided for male employees in 1 plant
and for females in 2 others. Lockers were provided in 2 plants and
lunch rooms in 1 plant. Drinking water was from bubble fountains
in 1 plant, and ice coolers were provided in 2. Common drinking
cups were used in 2 plants, and individual drinking cups were provided
in 3. In none of the plants was the washing of hands and face com­
pulsory; neither were sanitary rules posted in any of the plants nor
medical examinations required. No professional supervision of sani­
tary conditions was carried on in any of the plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b l e 3 0 .— NUM BER

OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 4 PRINTIN G
PLANTS IN BUFFALO, N. Y., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
Machine
composi­ composi­
tion
tion

Sex

Other
work

Total

Females _____ __ ________________ _________________________

61
4

31
3

23
12

115
19

Total......... ...........................................................................

65

34

35

134

The average floor space per employee was 112 square feet and the
average air space 1,684 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
CHICAGO, ILL.

For Chicago, 111., 20 reports were secured. All of the buildings
were of brick or stone construction. The installations regarding fire
protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinkler________________________________
Fire hose__________________________________________
Extinguishers______________________________________
Fire-alarm system .------------------------------------------------Fire escapes------------------------------------------------------------

14
9
18
10
20

Plants
not
having

6
11
2
10
0

All the 20 plants were reported to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition.
The total air space was 1,738,396 cubic feet, with an average
of 86,920 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 7 plants. The plenum sys­
tem was used in 7 plants and the exhaust system in 7 plants.
Odors were found present in 18 plants at the time of inspection,
but the ventilation was considered adequate in all plants.



SANITARY INSPECTION— CHICAGO

35

The following methods of artificial lighting were in use in differ­
ent plants: Tungsten, 3 plants; tungsten and nitrogen, 10 plants;
other, 1 plant. As regards whether the artificial light made up
for any deficiency of natural lighting, the reports were in the affirm­
ative in all cases.
Heating was by direct steam in all the plants and without excep­
tion considered adequate. The facilities for carrying off surplus heat
were considered adequate in 13 plants and inadequate in 2, while
5 had no machinery. Thermometers were used in 10 plants and
automatic heat regulating devices in 5.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T

able

21.—N U M BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF H EAT
AND GASES, B Y KIN D OF M ACHINES
Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters_________________________________________
Remelting furnaces______________________________
T o ta l..................................................................

13
10
9
11

61
51
45
12

3

64
51
45
12

4

169

3

172

4

With reference to specific mechanical conditions the reports were
as follows:
Three plants reported that remelting furnaces were in the com­
posing rooms and 8 that they were not. In 10 plants linotype
pots could be closed and in 3 they could not. In three plants
linotype pots were found closed at the time of inspection, while
in 10 plants the pots were not found closed. Scrap lead was found
on the floor in 9 plants. Pots were heated by gas in 9 plants and
by electricity in 4.
The bottoms of the cases were found flush with the floor in 16
plants and not flush in 3 plants, while for 1 plant no report was
made. Sanitary leg bases for composing cases were provided in 3
plants and not provided in 15, while no report was made for 2.
The space beneath the cases was found clean in 19 plants, while
for 1 plant no report was made. Type was cleaned by benzine
in 14 plants, gasoline in 1 plant, and parkaline in 2 plants, while
the method was not stated for 3 plants.
Spigots to the extent of 141 were used in different plants, giving
an average of 7.05 spigots to a plant. Bubble fountains were provided
in 13 plants and ice coolers in 10. Common drinking cups were
found in 5 plants, and individual drinking cups were observed
in 6 plants. Shower baths were provided in 2 plants.
Separate dressing rooms were provided for male employees in
4 plants and for female employees in 3. Lockers were provided
in 9 plants, while no lunch rooms were provided in any of the plants.
The compulsory washing of hands was observed in 1 plant and
likewise the compulsory washing of the face. Sanitary rules were



36

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

not posted and medical examinations were not required in any of
the plants, but professional supervision of some kind over sanitary
conditions was exercised in 17 plants.
The number of employees, according to sex and kind of work,
was as follows:
T able 33.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 20 PR IN TIN G

PLANTS IN CHICAGO, ILL., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W O R K

Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males _____________________ ___ ___________________ _____
Females_________________ ______________ ____________ _____

487
4

162
8

178
75

827
87

T o ta l...................................................................................

491

170

253

914

Sox

Other
work

Total

The average floor space to each employee was 163 square feet
and the average air space per employee 1,902 cubic feet. There
were no cases of tuberculosis among the employees at the time
of inspection.
CINCINNATI, OHIO

For Cincinnati, Ohio, 8 reports were secured, all of which represent
plants of brick or stone construction. The installations regarding
fire protection were found to be as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________ ___7
Fire hose_______________ ___________________________ ___4
Extinguishers______________________________________ _ 6
_
Fire-alarm system_________________________________ _ 8
_
Fire escapesl______________________________________ _ 6
_

Plants
not
having

1
4
2
0
2

All the plants were reported to be in a clean and generally satisfac­
tory condition.
The total air space in all the plants was 445,530 cubic feet, or an
average of 55,691 cubic feet to a plant. The plenum system was
used in 2 plants, having 5 fans, and the exhaust system in 1 plant,
having 1 fan. Odors were found present in 3 plants, Eight plants
were adequately ventilated, but the natural lighting conditions were
inadequate in one plant.
The methods of artificial lighting used in the different plants were
as follows: Tungsten, 6 plants; nitrogen, 1 plant; tungsten and ni­
trogen, 1 plant. All plants reported that artificial lighting made up
for any deficiency in natural lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 6 plants and by steam and hot
water in 2. The heating facilities were adequate in all the plants and
the facilities for carrying off heat were adequate in 6 plants. Ther­
mometers were used in 2 plants, but automatic heat regulators were
not used in any.




SANITARY INSPECTION— CINCINNATI

37

The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T able 33.—N U M BER OF M ACHINES AN D CONDITIONS AS TO ELIM INATION OF H EAT

AND GASES. BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
factory
tory
Linotype machine_______________________________
Monotype machine______________________________
Casters_________________________________________
Remelting furnaces__________ _____ ______ _______

7
5
3
8

Total___________ . . . __ . . . . _____________ ;___

19
23
15
6
63

11

2

25
25
15
8

10

73

12

6
2

I

With reference to specific mechanical conditions, reports were as
follows: Remelting furnaces were found in composing rooms in 3
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in 4 plants while they could
not be closed in 3 plants; they were found closed at the time of
inspection in 4 plants and .open in 3. Scrap lead was found on the
floor in 6 plants. Linotype pots were heated by gas in 4 plants and
by electricity in 3.
The bottoms of the cases were flush with the floor in 5 plants,
while sanitary leg bases were provided in 3. The space beneath the
cases was reported clean in 7 plants. Type was cleaned by benzine
in all the plants.
The total number of spigots in different plants was 59, giving an
average of 7.38 spigots to a plant. Shower baths were provided in
only 1 plant. Dressing rooms for males were provided in 5 plants
and for females in 3. Lockers were provided in 5 plants and lunch
rooms in 2. Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 7 plants.
Ice coolers were provided in 2 plants. Common drinking cups were
not found in any plant and individual drinking cups were provided
in 2 plants. The washing of hands and face was not compulsory in
any of the plants. Sanitary rules were found posted in 1 plant; med­
ical examination was not required in any plant; and professional
supervision over sanitary conditions was exercised in 1 plant.
The number of employees according to sex and kind of work was
as follows:
T able 3 4 .— N U M BER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 8 PRINTIN G

PLANTS IN CINCINNATI, OHIO, BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males____________________________________________________
Females__________________________________________________

99

56
6

24
1

179
7

Total................................................................... ..................

99

62

25

186

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee was 191 square feet and the
average air space 2,395 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees at the time of inspection.



38

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

CLEVELAND, OHIO

For Cleveland, Ohio, the local health officers furnished 15 reports.
Of this number of establishments, 2 were of frame construction and
13 of brick. The installations regarding fire protection were as
follows:
Plants
not
having

Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose__________________________________________
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes________________ ______ _______ ________

6
6
7
12

9
9
8
3

All the plants were reported to be in a clean and generally satis­
factory condition.
The total air space for all the plants was 911,772 cubic feet, or an
average of 60,785 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 6 plants. The plenum sys­
tem was used in 2 plants, having 8 fans, and the exhaust system in
4 plants, having 5 fans. Odors were observed in 8 plants and not
found present in 7. The ventilation was adequate in all plants.
The natural lighting conditions were adequate in 9 plants and
inadequate in 6. The methods of artificial lighting in use in differ­
ent plants were as follows: Tungsten, 10.plants; tungsten and nitro­
gen, 3 plants; mercury tubes, 1 plant; tungsten and electric arc, 1
plant. Artificial lighting was sufficient to make up for any deficiency
in natural lighting in all plants.
Heating was by direct steam in 11 plants and by indirect steam
in 4.
Heating facilities were sufficient in all plants but the facilities for
carrying off heat were adequate in only 11 plants. Thermometers
were used in 4 plants and automatic heat regulators in 2 plants.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T able 35.—N U M BER OF M ACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF H EAT

AND GASES, BY KIN D OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination
of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines______________________________
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters_____________ ____________________________
Remelting furnaces____. . . . . . . . _____ . . . . . . . . . _____
Total.......................................................................

7
9
5
10

16
20
10
10

1
6
1
1

17
26
11
11

2
4

66

9

65

6

With reference to specific mechanical conditions the reports were
as follows: In only 1 plant were the remelting furnaces in the
composing room. Linotype pots could be closed in 4 plants and
could not be closed in 3. Linotype pots were closed at the time of
inspection in 3 plants and open in 4. Scrap lead was found on the
floor in 6 plants at the time of inspection. The bottoms of cases



SANITARY INSPECTION— DENVER

39

were flush with the floor in 13 plants and not flush in 2. Sanitary
leg bases were observed in only 2 plants. The space beneath the
cases was clean at the time of inspection in 3 plants, no information
being furnished as to the remainder of the plants.
Type was cleaned with benzine in 10 plants, with potash in 1
plant, with gasoline in 2 plants, with benzine and lye in 1 plant, and
by other methods in 1 plant.
The number of spigots in different plants was 181, giving an aver­
age of 12 spigots to a plant. There were no shower baths in any
of the plants. Dressing rooms were provided for males in 3 plants
and for females in 11. Lockers were provided in 8 plants and lunch
rooms in 1.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 7 plants, and ice
coolers were provided in 10 plants. Common drinking cups were
used in 6 plants and individual drinking cups were provided in 10
plants. Washing of the hands was compulsory in 12 plants and
sanitary rules were posted in 1 plant. Medical examinations were
not required in any of the plants but professional inspection of sani­
tary conditions was made in 1 plant.
The number of employees according to sex and kind of work was
as follows:
T

able

26.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 15 PR IN TIN G
PLANTS IN CLEVELAN D, OHIO, BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males________________________________________ ___________
Females__________________________________________________

165
7

35
12

574
253

774
272

Total_______________________________________________

172

47

827

1,046

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee was 59 square feet, and the
average air space 871 cubic feet. There were no tuberculous em­
ployees in the plants at the time of inspection.
DENVER, COLO.

For Denver only 3 reports were furnished, representing structures
of brick or stone construction. The methods of fire protection for
the different plants were as follows:
Plants
having

Plants
not
having

Automatic sprinkler________________________________ __0
Fire hose___________________________________________ __2
Extinguishers_______________________________________ __0
Fire-alarm system__________________________________ __0
Fire escapes________________________________________ __1

3
1
3
3
2

All the plants were found to be in a clean and generally satisfactory
condition. The total air space was 150,036 cubic feet, or an average
of 50,012 cubic feet to a plant. Artificial ventilation was practiced
in 1 plant and not practiced in 2 plants. The exhaust system was
used in 1 plant, having 3 fans. Odors were not present in any of the
plants and all were adequately ventilated, but in 2 the method of
natural lighting was inadequate. For artificial lighting purposes



40

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

tungsten lamps were used in the 3 plants. In all of the plants arti­
ficial methods of lighting made up for any deficiency in natural
lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in all cases, and the heating facilities
were adequate in all. Facilities for carrying off surplus heat were
inadequate in 1 plant. Thermometers and automatic heat regula­
tors were not used in any plant. The machinery equipment of the
different plants was as follows:
T able 2 7 .— N UM BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS T O ELIM INATION OF H EAT

AND GASES, BY KIN D OF M ACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination
of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­
tory
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines.....................................................
Casters___________ __________________________ ___
Remelting furnaces______________________________

3
2
2
2

Total...................................................................

Unsatis­
factory

24
4
5
3

31
4

55
8
5
3

31
4

36 I

35 '

71

36

1

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room in 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in 2 plants and were so found
closed at the time of inspection, while they were open in 1 plant.
Scrap lead was found on the floor of all the plants. All the linotype
pots were heated by gas. All the bottoms of cases were flush with
the floor. The space beneath the cases was reported clean in all the
plants. The type was cleaned by gasoline in 1, by oakite in 1, and
by potash and benzine in another. The total number of spigots in
all the plants was given as 20, averaging 6.67 spigots to a plant.
Dressing rooms for either males or females were not provided in any
of the plants. Lockers were provided in all; no lunch rooms were
provided. Drinking water was from bubble fountains in all of the
plants. In none of the plants was the washing of the hands compul­
sory. Sanitary rules were not posted in any of the plants, nor were
medical examinations required, while no professional sanitary inspec­
tions were provided.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T able 28.—NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 3 PRINTIN G

PLANTS IN DENVER, COLO., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK

Sex

Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Other
work:

Total

i
Females _______________________________________ ___ . ____ I

70

78
3

23
9

171
12

Total—.......... ....................................................................—1
i

70

81

32,

183




SANITARY INSPECTION---- FALL RIVER

41

The average floor space per employee was 67 square feet, and the
average air space was 820 cubic feet.
There were 5 tuberculous printers in 1 plant employing a total of
100 persons.
FALL RIVER, MASS.

There were 8 reports for Fall River, representing 3 plants of brick
construction and 5 of concrete, steel, etc. The installations regard­
ing fire protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers_______________________________
Fire hose___________________________________________
Extinguishers_______________________________________
Fire-alarm system__________________________________
Fire escapes________________________________________

Plants
not
having

1
2
3
1
2

7
6
5
7
6

All the plants were reported to be in a clean and generally satis­
factory condition.
The total air space was 174,433 cubic feet, or an average of 21,804
cubic feet to a plant. Artificial ventilation was practiced in 2 of the
plants, 1 employing the plenum system with 1 fan and 1 the exhaust
system with 2 fans. No odors were observed in any of the plants.
All plants were adequately lighted and in only 1 plant was the natural
light inadequate. Artificial lighting was provided by the following
methods: Tungsten, 6 plants; gas lamp, 1 plant; electric arc ana
tungsten, 1 plant; and made up for any deficiency in natural lighting
in the plants.
Heating facilities were inadequate in only 1 plant, and facilities
for carrying off surplus heat were adequate in 3 plants. Automatic
heat regulators were not used in any of the plants.
The machinery equipment of the different plants wa3 as follows:
T

able

39.—NUM BER OF M ACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF HEAT
AND GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES
Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases

Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines______________________________
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters................. ........................................................
Remelting furnaces______________________________
Total_________________________________ ____

7
2
3
2

34
2
4
2

34
2
4
2

24
2

42

42

26

With reference to specific mechanical conditions, reports were as
follows:
Remelting furnaces were in the composing room in only 1 plant.
Linotype pots could be closed in 7 plants, and were found closed at
the time of inspection. Scrap lead was found on the floor of all the
plants. Linotype pots were heated by gas in 7 of the plants. Com­
posing cases were flush with the floor in 3 of the plants and not so
in 5. Sanitary leg bases were not used in any of the plants and the



42

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

space beneath the cases was clean in 3 and not clean in 2. Type
was cleaned by benzine in 7 plants, the method not being specified
for 1 plant.
The total number of spigots was 10, giving an average of 1.25
spigots to a plant. There were no shower baths in any of the plants.
Dressing rooms were provided for males in 1 plant and for females
in another. Lockers were provided in 1 plant, but there were no
lunch rooms in any of the plants. The water supply for drinking
purposes was through bubble fountains in 1 plant, and ice coolers were
provided in 3 plants. The common drinking cup was found in 6 plants
and individual drinking cups were provided in 5. Washing of the
face and hands was not required in any of the plants, nor were sani­
tary rules posted nor medical examinations required in any of the
plants. Professional sanitary inspection was required in 7 of the
plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T

able

30.—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 8 PRINTIN G
PLANTS OF FALL RIVER, MASS., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
Machine
composi­ composi­
tion
tion

Sex

Other
work

Total

Males_______ ___ ___ ______ ___ _______________ ___________
Females_________________________________ - _______________

28

41
10

10
4

79
14

Total-...................................................................................

28

51

14

93

The average floor space per employee was 103 square feet, while
the average air space was 1,876 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous printers in any of the plants.
FORT WAYNE, IND.

For Fort Wayne 8 reports were secured, representing brick struc­
tures exclusively. The installations regarding fire protection were
as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose_______________________________ ___________
Extinguishers______________________________________
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes_______________________________________

4
1
6
5
5

Plants
not
having

4
7
2
3
3

All plants were in a clean and generally satisfactory condition.
The total air space was 359,808 cubic feet, giving an average air
space of 44,976 cubic feet to a plant. Three of the plants had arti­
ficial ventilation, 2 having the exhaust system with 5 fans and 1 the
plenum system with 2 fans. Odors were found present in 4 of the
plants.
Ventilation was adequate in all of the plants. In one of the plants
the natural light was inadequate. For artificial lighting purposes
tungsten lamps were used in all of the plants. Artificial lighting
was found sufficient to make up for any deficiency in natural lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 7 plants and by indirect steam in
1 plant. The heating facilities were adequate in all but 1 of the



SANITARY INSPECTION— FORT WAYNE

43

plants. Without exception the facilities for carrying off surplus heat
were adequate. Thermometers were used in 4 plants but automatic
heat regulators were not used in any of the plants.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b l e 3 1 .— N U M BE R

OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF HEAT
AN D GASES, B Y KIND OF MACHINES
Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
haying

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases

Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines. ____________________________
Casters...........................................................................
Remelting furnaces_______________________ _______

7
4
4
7

Total........................................ ...................... —

35
12
5
7

1

36
12
6
7

2

1

59

2

61

7

4
1

With reference to specific mechanical conditions reports were as
follows:
Remelting furnaces were found in composing rooms in 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in only 5 of the 7 plants hav­
ing linotype installations, pots being found closed at the time of
inspection in 3 of the plants. Scrap lead was found on the floor in
1 plant. Linotype pots were heated by gas in 7 of the plants. Com­
posing cases were flush with the floor in all plants, and sanitary leg
bases were used in none. The space beneath the cases was reported
clean at the time of inspection in all of the plants. The cleaning
of the type was done by benzine in all plants.
The total number of spigots in different plants was 32, giving an
average of 4 spigots to a plant. There were no shower baths. No
reports as to dressing rooms were made. Lockers were found in
2 of the plants but lunch rooms in none. The water supply for
drinking purposes was from bubble fountains in 4 plants. Ice coolers
were provided in 4 plants. Common drinking cups were used in 3
plants and individual drinking cups were provided in 3 others.
Washing of the hands was compulsory in all of the plants, but the
washing of the face was compulsory in only 3. There were no sanitary
rules posted anywhere, medical examinations were not required, nor
was there any professional supervision over sanitary conditions.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b l e 3 ^ . — N U M BER

OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 8 PRINTING
PLANTS IN FORT W AYN E, IN D., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males___________ ________________________ . . . _____________
Females______ ____ ____ ______ __ _______ ______ . . . . ________

77

62
4

162
68

301
72

Total.....................................................................................

77

66

230

373

Sex

16056°—27------ 4



Other
work

Total

44

HEALTH SURVEY OF TH E PRINTING TRADES

The floor space per employee was 65 square feet, the air space
being 965 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
HARTFORD, CONN.

For Hartford 6 reports were furnished, all representing struc­
tures of brick or concrete construction. The fire protection of the
different plants was as follows:
Plants
having

Plants
not
having

Automatic sprinklers_______ ________________________ 5
_
Fire hose__________________________________________ _ 4
_
Extinguishers______________________________________ _ 4
_
Fire-alarm system______________ _______ ______ ____ _ 1
_
Fire escapes_______________________________________ ___3

1
2
2
5
3

All the plants inspected were found to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition. The total air space was 398,140 cubic feet,
giving an average of 66,357 cubic feet to a plant. Artificial venti­
lation was practiced in 3 plants and not practiced in 3 others. The
exhaust system was used in 3 plants, each having 1 fan. Odors were
found present in 1 plant. All of the 6 plants inspected were found
adequately ventilated and the natural lighting was adequate.
The methods of artificial lighting in use in different plants were
as follows: Tungsten 3 plants; carbon filament and tungsten, 1
plant; electric arc, carbon filament, tungsten and nitrogen, 1 plant:
electric arc and tungsten, 1 plant. In all of the plants the artificial
methods of lighting made up for any deficiency in natural lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 5 plants, information not being
given for 1 plant. Heating facilities were adequate in all cases, as
were also facilities for carrying off surplus heat in all the plants
having machines. Thermometers were used in 2 plants, and artificial
heat regulating devices in 1 plant.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T

able

33.—N U M BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF HEAT
AN D OASES, B Y KIN D OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases

Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory ;
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines.....................................................
Casters..........................................................................
Remelting furnaces_________________________ . ___ j
Total....................................................................

3
3
3
4

36
15
9
4

6
3
1

42
18
10
4

0
3
1

64

10

74'

10

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room in 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in 3 plants, but none of the
pots were found closed at the time of inspection. Scrap lead was
found on the floor in 3 plants. Linotype pots were heated by gas in
3 plants. Composing cases were flush with the floor in 4 plants and



SANITARY INSPECTION— HOUSTON

45

sanitary leg bases were used in 5. The space beneath the cases at
the time of inspection was reported clean in all the plants. The type
was cleaned by benzine in all plants.
The total number of spigots was 47, giving an average of 7.67
spigots to a plant. One plant had a shower bath, 1 provided a dress­
ing room for males, and 4 provided dressing rooms for females. Lock­
ers were provided in 4 plants and not provided in 2. Drinking
water was from bubble fountains in 4 plants. Ice coolers were pro­
vided in all plants. Common drinking cups were not observed in
any plant, while individual drinking cups were found in 3 plants.
The washing of the hands and also of the face was compulsory in
only 1 plant. No sanitary rules were found posted in any of the
plants, but medical examinations were required in 1 and professional
supervision over sanitary conditions was exercised in 2 others.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a s l e 34.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN TH E COMPOSING ROOMS OF 6 PRINTING

PLANTS IN H A RTFO RD , CONN., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Sex

Machine ! Other
compo­
work
sition

Total

Males________ ____ . . . __________. . . . . . . . . . . ____ . . . . . . __
Females_______________________. . . . ____________ _____ _____

112

74
7

32
27

218
34

Total.....................................................................................

112

81

59

252

The floor space per employee was 132 square feet, and the air space
1,580 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
HOUSTON, TEX.

For Houston, Tex., 10 reports were furnished, all representing
plants of brick or stone construction. The facilities for fire protection
were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose__________________________________________
Extinguishers_________________ _______________ ;_____
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Escapes___________________________________________

Plants
not
having

0
3
10
1
5

10
7
0
9
5

All of the plants were found to be in a clean and generally satisfac­
tory condition. The total air space per plant was 41,104 cubic feet.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 6 plants, 5 using the plenum
system, with 21 fans, and 1 the exhaust system, with 1 fan. Odors
were found present in none of the plants, all having been adequately
ventilated. In 4 plants the conditions as to natural lighting were
found inadequate.
The methods of artificial lighting in use in the different plants were
as follows: Tungsten, 8 plants; nitrogen, 1 plant; tungsten and
nitrogen, 1 plant. Lighting facilities were adequate in 9 plants, while
facilities for carrying off surplus heat were adequate in f i r .
Heating yras by direct steam in 3 of the plants, by coal stoves in 4,
by gas radiators in 1, and by miscellaneous methods in 2. Ther­
mometers were used in 2 plants, and automatic heat regulators in 2.



HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

46

The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b l e 35.—N U M BE R OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF H E A T

AND GASES, B Y KIN D OF M ACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
haying

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Total

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines______ _____ ___ __________ ____
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters___________ ______________________________
Remelting furnaces_______ ___ __ ________________

8
2
1
6

Total....................... ............................................

61
4
2
6

51
4
2
6

7

63

63

7

Concerning details of the machinery equipment it was found that
remelting furnaces were in composing rooms in 1 plant and linotype
machine pots could be closed in 8 plants. The pots were found
closed in 3 of the plants and not closed in 5. Scrap lead was found
on the floor in 7 plants. Pots were heated by gas in 5 plants, and
by electricity in 2 plants, and for 1 plant the method was not specified.
Composing cases were flush with the floor in 4 plants and not
flush in 4 others, 2 having no cases. Sanitary leg bases were used in
4 of the plants. The space beneath the cases was reported clean in 8
plants. Type was cleaned by benzine in 7 plants, by potash and
benzine compounds in 1 plant, and by benzine and typewash in
1, the method in the other plant not being specified.
The total number of spigots in the different plants was 30, giving
an average of 3 spigots to a plant. Shower baths were found in 6
plants. Dressing rooms for male employees were provided in 9
plants and for female employees in 6. Lockers were provided in 5
plants and not provided in 5 others. Lunch rooms were not pro­
vided in any of the plants. The water supply for drinking purposes
was by bubble fountains in 4 plants. Ice coolers were provided in
8 plants. The common drinking cup was used in 7 plants, while
individual drinking cups were provided in 5. Washing of the
hands was compulsory in 6 plants, while washing of the face was
compulsory in only 1 plant. Sanitary rules were posted in 6 plants,
but medical examination was not required nor professional supervi­
sion over sanitary conditions exercised in any of the plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 36.—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 10 PRINTING

PLANTS IN HOUSTON, T E X ., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK

Sex

Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Others

Total

Males________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ _____ ______ _________________
Females__________________________________________________

70
1

89

82
27

231
28

Total.....................................................................................

71

89

109

259




SANITARY INSPECTION— INDIANAPOLIS

47

The floor space per employee was 106 square feet and the air space
1,687 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

For Indianapolis 10 reports were secured, 9 representing structures
of brick and 1 of frame. The facilities for fire protection in the
different plants were as follows:
Plants
baying

Plants
not
having

Automatic sprinklers_____ *_________________________ 0
Firehose-;____________________ ;______- - - - - ________ _2
Extinguishers_______________________________________ _4
Fire-alarm system_____ ______ ______________________ _0
Fire escapes___________ i____________________________ _4

10
8
6
10
6

All of the plants were in a clean and generally satisfactory condi­
tion. The total air space was 348,988 cubic feet, giving an average
of 34,898 cubic feet to a plant. Artificial ventilation was practiced
in 2 of the plants, the plenum system being used in 1 plant, with
1 fan. Odors were found present in 8 of the plants, but the ventila­
tion was considered adequate in all. Natural lighting was inadequate
in 2 of the plants. The methods of artificial lighting used in the
different plants were as follows: Tungsten, 8 plants; tungsten and
nitrogen, 2 plants. In all of the plants artificial lighting methods
made up for any deficiencies in natural lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 8 of the plants, by hot air in 1,
and by hot water and direct steam in another. The facilities for
carrying off surplus heat were adequate in 6 plants, 4 having no
machinery. Thermometers were used in 3 of the plants, but auto­
matic heat regulating devices were not used in any.
The machinery equipment of the different plants, all of which was
piped and satisfactory as to the elimination of heat and gases, was as
follows:
Number
of plants
having

Linotype machines__________ - _________ - - - - - - - Monotype machines__________ ______________- ___
Casters__________________________________________
Remelting furnaces______________________________

5

1

2
5

Number
of machines

7
2
3
5

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room in 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots could be closed in all of the plants having
linotype machines, being found closed in 3 at the time of inspection.
In 3 plants scrap lead was found on the floor. Pots were heated by
gas in 3 plants and by electricity in 2. Composing cases were flush
with the floor in 4 plants, and in 6 plants the cases had sanitary leg
bases. The space beneath the cases was found clean in 8 plants,
while for 2 plants the information was not furnished. Type was
cleaned by lye in 1 plant, by benzine in 8, and by gasoline in 1.
The total number of spigots in the different plants was 22, giving
an average of 2.2 spigots to a plant. There were no shower baths in
any of the plants. Dressing rooms were provided for males in 3
plants and for females in 1 plant. Lockers were provided in 1 of
the plants and not provided in 9. Lunch rooms were provided in
1 plant.




48

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Bubble fountains were not found in any of the plants. Ice coolers
were provided in 5 plants. Common drinking cups were used in 8
plants and individual drinking cups were provided in 6. The wash­
ing of the hands was compulsory in 3 plants, and washing of the
face was compulsory in 3 plants. Sanitary rules were posted in 2
of the plants; medical examinations were not required in any; and
professional supervision over sanitary conditions was exercised in 2
plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a bl e 3 7 .— NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 1# PRINTIN O

PLANTS IN INDIANAPOLIS, IND., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

S&
K

Machine
compo­
sition

38
3

11

27
2

76
5

41

11 -

29

81

Males____________________________________________________ ;
Females
_________
_______
—
.Toted__ _______

_____________________

Other
work

Total

The floor space per employee was 368 square feet, and the air
space 4,308 cubic feet. There were no tuberculous employees in any
of the plants at the time of inspection.
LOS ANGELES, CALIF.

For Los Angeles, Calif., reports were furnished for 5 plants, but
for only 1 as regards the nature of the structure, that being con­
structed of brick. The installations regarding fire protection were
as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers_____________________________ __1
Fire h ose.._______________________________________ - 2
Extinguishers______________________________________ _4
Fire-alarm system_________________________________ _3
Fire escapes-------------- ---------------- ---------------------------- -- 1

Plants
not
having

4
3
1
2
4

In 3 cases the plant was reported to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition and in 2 cases not so. The total air space
of all the plants was 397,323 cubic feet, giving an average of 79,465
cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 2 of the plants, the exhaust
system being used, with 2 fans. Natural ventilation was used exclu­
sively in 3 plants. Odors were present in 2 of the plants. Only one
of the 5 plants was inadequately ventilated and in 3 the natural light
was inadequate.
The methods of artificial lighting in use in the different plants
were as follows: Tungsten, 4 plants; electric arc, 1 plant. In all of
the plants artificial lighting made up for any deficiency in natural
lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 1 plant, by stove in 1, and by hot
water in 1, and the methods were not given for 2 plants. Heating
facilities were inadequate in 1 plant and for 1 the information was
not given. Facilities for carrying off surplus heat were adequate in



49

SANITARY INSPECTION— LOS ANGELES

ail of the plants having machines. Thermometers were used in 1
plant and automatic heat regulators in another.
The mechanical equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a bl e 3 8 .— NU M BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF H E A T

AND GASES, BY KIN D OF MACHINES
*

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination
of
heat and gases

Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
factory
tory
Linotype machines. ______________________________
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters_________________________________________
Remelting furnaces_______ i _______ _____________
_

4
3
2
3

Total....................................................................

89
6
4
3

3

92
6
4
3

3

102

3

105

3

Remelting furnaces were found in composing rooms of plants hav­
ing such furnaces or equipment. Linotype pots could be closed in all
the plants having linotype machines, but they were found closed at the
time of inspection in only 1 plant. Scrap lead was found on the
floor of all the plants having linotype machines. Linotype pots were
heated by gas in 2 of the plants, and by both gas and electricity in
2 others. Bottoms of composing cases were flush with the floor in 4
of the plants. The space beneath the cases was clean in 3 of the
plants and not elean in 2. Type was cleaned by gasoline and kero­
sene in 1 plant, benzine in 2 plants, and gasoline in 1 plant, and the
method was not stated for the other.
There were 28 spigots in all the plants, an average of 5.6 spigots to a
plant; Dressing rooms were provided for males in 2 plants and for
females in 4, while lockers were provided in 3, and lunch rooms were
provided in 1.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 5 plants. Ice coolers
were provided in 3 plants. Common drinking cups were found in 3
plants and individual cups were provided in 1 plant. Washing of the
hands and face was not required in any of the plants. Sanitary rules
were posted in 1 plant but medical examinations and professional
inspection of sanitary conditions were absent in all of the plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was as
follows:
T a b le 39*— NUM BER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF FIVE PRINTING

PLANTS IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK

Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males.............................................................................................
Females_ _______________________________ . . . ___ _________
_

93

120
8

115
46

328
54

Total..................... ............................................. ......... ........

93

128

161

382

Ses




Other
work

Total

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

50

The average floor space to each employee was 100 square feet, and
the average air space 1,040 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
MILWAUKEE, WIS.

For Milwaukee reports were furnished for 12 plants, all being of
brick or stone construction. The installations regarding fire protec­
tion were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose------------- ------------------------ - .........................Extinguishers ______________________________________
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes_______________________________________

Plants
not
having

5
0
10
6
11

7
12
2
6
1

All but one of the plants were found to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition. The total air space was 578,544 cubic feet,
an average of 48,212 cubic feet to a plant. Artificial methods of
ventilation were used in 7 plants, having the exhaust system, with 12
fans. Odors were found present in 2 of the plants; 11 plants were
found adequately ventilated.
In 2 plants the natural light was adequate and in 10 inadequate.
The methods of artificial lighting in use in the different plants were as
follows: Nitrogen, 5 plants; tungsten, 4 plants; gas mantle and tung­
sten, 1 plant; gas mantle, tungsten and nitrogen, 1 plant; gas (open
flame and mantle), tungsten and nitrogen, 1 plant. Artificial lighting
made up for any deficiencies in natural lighting in 11 of the plants, and
for 1 of the plants no information was given.
Heating in all the plants was by direct steam. Facilities for heat­
ing were adequate in all of the plants. The facilities for carrying off
surplus heat was inadequate in 6 plants. Thermometers were used
in 1 plant and automatic heat regulators in none.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b le 4 0 .— NUM BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF HEAT

AND GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
factory
tory

Monotype.....................................................................
Casters..........................................................................
Remelting furnaces.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____ _____
Total....................................................................

11
5
4
12

35
7
3
11

74
8
11
1

109
15
14
12

74
8
11

56

94

150

93

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room in 5 of the
)lants. The linotype pots could be closed in all 11 plants having
inotype machines. The pots were found closed at the time of in­

!




SANITARY INSPECTION— MINNEAPOLIS

51

spection in 5 of the plants and not closed in 6. Scrap lead was found
on the floor in 11 of the plants, but absent in 1. Linotype pots were
heated by gas in 5 of the plants, by electricity in 3, and by both
methods in 3 others. Composing cases were flush with the floor in
11 of the plants, and not flush in 1. Sanitary leg bases were used in
10 of the plants and not used in 2. The space beneath the cases was
clean in 10 of the plants, and not clean in 2. Type was cleaned by
benzine in 10 of the plants, by lye and benzine in 1, and by lye and
gasoline in 1.
The total number of spigots in all of the plants was 64, giving an
average of 5.33 to a plant. Dressing rooms were provided for male
and female employees in 5 of the plants, while lockers were provided
in 7, but there were no lunch rooms in any of the plants.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 10 plants. Ice cool­
ers were provided in 3 plants. Common drinking cups were not
found in any plants and individual drinking cups were provided in 5
plants. Washing of the face and hands was insisted upon in only 1 of
the plants. Sanitary rules were posted in 2 plants, but medical
examination and professional inspection over sanitary conditions were
not required in any.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 41.—NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 12 PRINTING

PLANTS IN M ILW AU KEE, WIS., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males_________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____________ ______ ___ . . . . . .
Females_______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _______ ___________ _____ . . .

184
3

142
7

81
18

407
28

Total.....................................................................................

187

149

99

435

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee was 404 square feet, the
average air space being 1,330 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

For Minneapolis, Minn., only 2 reports were furnished, both rep­
resenting plants of brick construction. The installations regarding
fire protection were as follows:
Pn
la ts
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers________________________ ______
Fire hose__________________________________________
Extinguishers...................................................................
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes......................... .............................................

1
0
1
0
1

not
having

1
2
1
2
1

In both cases the plants were reported to be in a clean and gener­
ally satisfactory condition. The total air space of both the plants was
156,661 cubic feet, giving an average of 78,331 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in none of the plants. Odors were
present in 1 plant. Both plants were adequately ventilated. Natural




52

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

lighting was inadequate in 1 of the plants, and the artificial method of
lighting was by tungsten and nitrogen lamps. Artificial lighting made
up for any deficiency in natural lighting in both of the plants. Facil­
ities for heating were adequate in both plants. The facilities for
carrying off surplus heat were inadequate in the plant having
machinery installation. Thermometers were used in 1 plant, while
automatic heat regulators were used in the other.
The machinery equipment of the plants, which was piped and satis­
factory as to elimination of heat and gases, was as follows:
Number
of plants
baving

Linotype machines________________________________
Monotype machines______________________ ________
Casters___________________________________ ________
Remelting furnaces________________________________

Number
of machines

1
0
0
1

5
0
0
I

Remelting furnaces were in the composing room in 1 of the plants.
The linotype pots in the 1 plant where there were linotype machines
could be closed, but were not found closed at the time of inspection.
Scrap lead was found on the floor in one of the plants. The linotype
pots were heated by gas. The bottoms of composing cases were flush
with the floor in both of the plants. The space beneath the cases was
clean in both plants. The type was cleaned by benzine in both.
There were 7 spigots in the 2 plants, giving an average of 3.5
spigots to a plant. No dressing rooms were provided for either male
or female employees in either of the plants, nor were lockers or lunch
rooms provided. Neither of the plants had bubble fountains for
furnishing drinking water. Ice coolers were provided in both.
Common drinking cups were found in 1 plant, while individual
drinking cups were provided in both. Washing of the hands was
required in 1 of the plants but the washing of the face was compul­
sory in neither. No sanitary rules were found posted in either of
the plants, nor was medical examination required, nor professional
supervision over sanitary conditions exercised in either of the plants.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a ble 4 2 . —N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 2 PRIN TIN G

PLANTS IN MINNEAPOLIS, M INN., B Y SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK

Sex

Hand Machine
composi­ composi­ : Other
work
tion
tion

Total

Males__ _________. . . . . . . . _____________ . . . . ___________ ____
Females*.__________ . . . . . _______________________ ______ ____

23

10
1

40
15

73
Id

Total.....................................................................................

23

11

55

80

The averag<e air space per employee was 1,760 cubic feet and the
average floor space 187 square feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in either of the plants.




53

SANITARY INSPECTION— NEW YORK 0IT Y

NEW YORK CITY

For New York City 25 reports have been furnished* All of the
buildings were of brick construction. The installations regarding
fire protection were as follows:
Plants
Plants
not
having having

Automatic sprinklers_________________________________ 18
Fire hose_____________ ________ _______ _______________ 22
Extinguishers_________________________________________ 24
Fire-alarm system------------------------------------------------------- 19
Fire escapes__________________________________________ 24

7
3
1
6
1

In 20 cases the plant was reported to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition and in 5 cases only fair.
The total air space was 4,461,348 cubic feet, with an average ak
space to a plant of 178,453 cubic feet.
Artificial ventilation was used in 9 plants. The plenum system
was used in 4 plants, the exhaust system in 6 plants and other types
in 3. Odors were found present in 22 of the plants and not present
in 3. The ventilation was considered adequate in 21 plants and
inadequate in 4.
The natural lighting conditions were considered adequate in 18
plants and inadequate in 7. The methods of artificial lighting in
use in different plants were as follows: Tungsten, 18 plants; nitrogen,
1 plant; tungsten and nitrogen, 6 plants. The replies to the question
as to whether the artificial lighting made up for the deficiency in
natural lighting were in the affirmative in 24 cases and in the nega­
tive in 1.
Heating was by direct steam in 10 plants, by indirect steam in 14,
and by both methods in 1. The facilities for heating were considered
inadequate in only 1 plant, while the facilities for carrying off surplus
heat from machines were unsatisfactory in only 1 plant. Thermom­
eters were used in 4 plants, and automatic heat regulators were used
in 1.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b l e 43.—N UM BER OF MACHINES AN D CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF HEAT

AN D OASES, B Y KIN D OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines.
Monotype machines..
Casters...................... .
Remelting furnaces...
Total-




324
42
63
21
440

410
65
58
23
116

556

202
23

t

227

54

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

With reference to specific mechanical conditions reports were as
follows:
In 5 plants the remelting furnaces were in the composing rooms.
Three plants reported that linotype pots could not be closed. In
the case of 4 plants, linotype pots were found closed at the time of
inspection, but for 5 plants no report was made. Linotype pots
were heated by gas in 15 plants, by electricity in 4 plants and by both
gas and electricity in 1 plant. Scrap lead was found on the floor in
13 plants. The bottoms of the cases were found flush with the floor
in 17 plants and not flush in 8. Sanitary leg bases for composing
cases were provided in 8 plants and not provided in 17. The space
underneath the cases was reported to be clean in 20 plants and not
clean in 5. Type was cleaned by benzine in 16 plants, potash in 4,
gasoline in 2, and unknown or miscellaneous compounds in 3.
The average number of spigots to a plant was 27, and the total
number of shower baths provided was 22, or an average of 0.88 to a
plant. Dressing rooms were provided for male employees in 25
plants and for females in 10. Lockers were provided in 19 plants
and lunch rooms in 5.
Bubble fountains provided drinking water in 12 plants, while ice
coolers were provided in 22. Common drinking cups were used in
9 plants and individual cups provided in 24. Washing of hands and
face was not compulsory in any of the plants. Sanitary rules were
posted in 6 plants, while medical examinations were not provided in
any. Professional inspection of plants for sanitary purposes was
provided in 14 plants.
The number of employees, according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b l e 44.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 25 PR INTIN G

PLANTS IN N EW Y O R K OITY, BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Sex

Machine
compo­
sition

Other
work

Total

Males_______ ___ ________________________ ________________
______ _____________________ . . . . . . . . . . ____________
Females

2,416
252

1,656
47

1,568
472

5,640
771

Total— —_______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______________ . . . . . . .

2,668

1,703

2,040

0,411

The average floor space per employee was 40.44 square feet. The
average air space was 680 cubic feet per employee.
There were no known tuberculous employees at the time of in­
spection.
OAKLAND, CALIF.

For Oakland, Calif., 10 reports were furnished. As regards struc­
ture, 2 were of frame, 6 of brick, and 2 of other material. The
installations regarding fire protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Sprinkling system_____________________________________0
Fire hose___________________________________________ __3
Extinguishers___________________ ______________ _____ __6
Fire-alarm system---------------------------------------------------- ---4
Fire escapes_________________________ _____ ____________4




Plants
not
having

10
7
4
6
6

SANITARY INSPECTION— OAKLAND

55

In 8 cases the plant was reported as in a clean and generally satis­
factory condition and 2 as not being so.
The total air space of the 10 plants was 1,040,880 cubic feet, giving
an average air space of 104,088 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 2 of the plants, 1 using the
plenum system and 1 the exhaust system. Odors were not present
in any of the plants. The ventilation in all 10 plants was reported as
adequate.
The natural lighting conditions were considered inadequate in 1
plant. The methods of artificial lighting in use in different plants
were as follows: Tungsten, 4 plants; nitrogen, 1 plant; tungsten and
nitrogen combined, 5 plants.
The heating was by direct steam in 1 plant, by hot water in another,
and by other methods in 8 plants. Heating facilities were considered
inadequate in 1 of the plants, while the facilities for carrying off
surplus heat from machinery were considered adequate in all. Ther­
mometers were used in 2 plants and automatic heat-regulation devices
in 2.
There were 55 machines of various types, all of which were con­
sidered in a satisfactory condition as to the elimination of heat and
gases, only 1 not being piped. The number and kinds of machines
were as follows:
Number
of plants
having

Linotype machines________ _______ ____ ________ ____
Monotype machines____- __ *
__________________
Casters_____________________________________ ______ _
Remelting furnace_____ _____ _____________ ______ . . .

5

1

3
4

Number
of
machines

44
2
4
5

With reference to specific mechanical conditions reports were as
follows:
In 1 plant the remelting furnace was in the composing room. In
5 plants the linotype pots could be closed, but in 3 they were not
found closed at the time of inspection. The heating was by gas in
the case of 5 plants and also by electricity in the case of 2. Scrap
lead was found on the floor in 3 plants. The cases were flush with
the floor in only 2 plants. In 6 plants the cases were provided with
sanitary leg bases. The space underneath the cases was clean in 9
plants and not clean in 1 plant. Type was cleaned by gasoline in 7
plants, by benzine in 2 plants, and by lye in 1 plant.
The number of spigots in wash rooms was 23, or an average of 2.3
to a plant. Shower baths were provided in 2 plants. Dressing
rooms were provided for male employees by 2 plants and for female
employees by 2 others. Lockers were provided in 3 plants and
lunch rooms in 2.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 3 plants, and ice
coolers were provided in 4. Common drinking cups were in use in
4 plants, while individual drinking cups were provided in 5. The
washing of hands was compulsory in 2 plants, but sanitary rules
were not posted in any of the plants. Medical examinations were
not required in any of the plants, but professional inspection of
sanitary conditions was provided in 1 plant.




56

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE POINTING TRADES

The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T abl e 4 5 . — N U M BE R OF EM PLOYEES IN T H E COMPOSING ROOMS OF 10 P R IN TIN G

PLANTS IN OAKLAND, CALIF., B Y SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Sex

Machine
eom po-,
sition

Other
work

Total

Males:______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ ——_______ . . . . . . ________
Females.__________ ;______________________________________

60

55

a

317
109

432
112

Total.....................................................................................

60

58

426

544

The floor space per employee was 108 square feet. The average
air space per employee was 1,913 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees reported in any of the plants
inspected.
OMAHA, NEBR.

For Omaha, Nebr., only 3 reports were secured, all of which repre­
sented plants of brick construction. The installations regarding fire
protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose.............. ......................... ............................. —
Extinguishers______________________________________
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes_________ . . . __________________________

1
1
0
1
2

Plants
not
having

2
2
3
2
1

All the plants were in a clean and satisfactory condition at the
time of inspection. The total air space was 179,390 cubic feet,
giving an average of 59,797 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 1 plant. Odors were pres­
ent in none of the plants, and all were adequately ventilated and
lighted. Artificial light used was of a mixed type, including gas,
electricity, and tungsten lamps, and in all of the plants was found
adequate to make up for any deficiency in natural lighting.
Direct steam was used for heating purposes in all plants and the
facilities for heating were adequate in all plants. The facilities for
carrying off surplus heat were adequate in all plants and thermom­
eters were used in 2 plants but automatic heat regulators were
not used in any.
The machinery equipment of the different plants, all of which
was piped and satisfactory as to the elimination of heat and gases,
was as follows:
Number
of
plants
having

Linotype machines________________________________
Monotype machines________ _______________________
Casters ___________ _______ ______ ____ ___________
Remelting furnaces------------------------------------------------11 plant had a small heating pot on Elrod machine.




3
0

1

3

Number
of
machines

17
®
2
4

SANITARY INSPECTION— PHILADELPHIA

57

With reference to specific mechanical conditions replies were as
follows:
Linotype pots could be closed in all plants and were found closed
at the time of inspection. Remelting furnaces in composing rooms
were not observed, but scrap lead was found on the floor in 2 plants.
Linotype pots were heated by gas. None of the cases were flush
with the floor and sanitary leg bases were used in only 1 plant. The
space under the cases was clean in all 3 plants. The type was cleaned
by benzine in 1 plant and by gasoline in 2 plants.
The total number of spigots was 14, giving an average of 4.67
spigots to a plant. Shower baths were provided in 1 plant, dressing
rooms for males in 1 plant and for females in 3 plants. Lockers
were provided in 1 plant, but lunch rooms were not provided in any
of the plants. Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 2
plants. Ice coolers were provided in 2 plants. Common drinking
cups were found in 1 plant and individual drinking cups were pro­
vided in 1. The washing of the hands and face was compulsory in
all 3 plants. Sanitary rules were posted in 1 plant. Medical exam­
inations were not required in any plants, but professional supervi­
sion over sanitary conditions was exercised in all 3 plants.
The number of employees, according to sex and class of work
was as follows:
T a b le 46.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 3 PRINTIN G

PLANTS IN OMAHA, N E B R ., BY SEX A N D CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males___________ _____ ___ ——__________ ________________ _
Females__________________ ___ _______________________

6
2

77
4

27

110
22

Total.....................................................................................

8

81

43

132

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average air space per employee was 1,359 cubic feet, and the
average floor space 123 square feet.
Tuberculous employees were observed in none of the plants at
the time of inspection.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.

The health officer of Philadelphia, Pa., furnished 12 reports, all
the plants being of brick or concrete construction. The installa­
tions regarding fire protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Plants
not
having

Automatic sprinklers__________________________________ 8
Fire hose__________________________________________ ___ 6
Extinguishers______________________________________ ___ 12
Fire-alarm system_____________________________________ 11
Fire escapes______________________________ ______ _____ 11

4
6
0
1
1

All the plants were found to be in a clean and generally satisfac­
tory condition. The total air space was 1,261,100 cubic feet, giving
an average of 105,092 cubic feet to a plant.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 1 plant, using the plenum
system with 6 fans. Odors were found present in 9 plants. Yenti


58

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

lation and natural light were adequate in all 12 plants. Artificial
lighting was of a mixed type, including electric, arc, tungsten and
nitrogen. In all of the plants artificial lighting made up for any
deficiency in natural lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 10 plants and by stoves in 2
plants. The facilities for heating and for carrying off surplus heat
were adequate in 11 plants. Thermometers were used only in 2
plants, and automatic heat regulators were not used in any.
The machinery equipment of different plants was as follows:
T a b l e 4 7 .— N U M BE R OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF H EAT

AN D GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases

Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
factory
tory
Linotype machines................. .....................................
Monotype machines________ ____ ________________
Casters____________________ ____________________
Remelting furnaces________ _____ ________________
Total........................................... ..........

5
5
6
6

25
13
19
9

4

29
13
19
9

29
12
7

66

4

70

68

Regarding specific mechanical conditions reports were as follows:
Linotype pots could be closed in 3 plants and were found closed at
the time of inspection in 2. Remelting furnaces were found in com­
posing rooms in 5 plants and scrap lead was found on the floor in 4.
Linotype pots were heated by gas in 4 plants and by electricity in 1
plant.
The bottoms of the cases were flush with the floor in 6 plants and
sanitary leg bases were used in 7. The space beneath the cases was
reported clean in 11 plants and otherwise in 1 plant. The type was
cleaned with benzine in all 12 plants.
The total number of spigots in the different plants was 103, giv­
ing 8.58 spigots to a plant. Shower baths were not found in any
plants, but dressing rooms for males were found in 1 plant and for
females in 3 plants. Lockers were provided in 3 plants and not
provided in 9. No lunch rooms were provided in any of the plants.
No bubble fountains were found in any of the plants, but ice
coolers were provided in 10. No common drinking cups were found
but individual drinking cups were provided in all. Washing of the
hands was compulsory in all the plants but in none was washing of
the face required. Sanitary rules were not posted nor medical ex­
aminations required in any of the plants, and professional supervi­
sion over sanitary conditions was exercised in only 1 plant.




SANITARY INSPECTION— RICHMOND

59

The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 48.—N U M BE R OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 12 PRINTING

PLANT’S OF PHILADELPHIA, PA., BY SEX A N D CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males__________________ _________________________________
Females__________ ___________ __________ _________________

310
1

44
6

185
76

539
83

Total.....................................................................................

311

50

261

622

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee was 134 square feet and the
average air space 2,027 cubic feet.
No tuberculous employees were found in the plants at the time of
inspection.
RICHMOND, YA.

The health officer of Richmond, Ya., furnished reports on 30
plants. Of these 2 were of frame construction and 28 of brick. The
installations regarding fire protection were as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers_______________________________
Fire hose__________________________________ ;________
Extinguishers_________________________________ _____
Fire-alarm system__________________________________
Fire escapes________________________________________

6
2
14
6
14

Plants
not
having

24
28
16
24
16

Twenty-eight plants were reported to be in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition and 2 plants were not so considered. The
total air space was 850,374 cubic feet, giving an average of 28,346
cubic feet to a plant. Artificial ventilation was practiced in 3 plants,
using the exhaust system, with 3 fans. Odors were present in 10
plants, and not present in 20. The rooms were adequately ventilated
in 20 plants, and inadequately ventilated in 10. The natural light
was adequate in 12 and inadequate in 18. For artificial lighting
purposes tungsten Mazda lamps were used in all of the plants.
Artificial lighting made up for any deficiency in natural lighting in 19
of the plants, while it was inadequate in 1 plant, no report being
made for 10 plants.
Heating was by direct steam in 12 plants, by stoves in 13 plants,
by hot air in 3 plants, and by other methods in 1 plant. Heating
facilities were adequate in 29 plants and inadequate in 1 plant. Facili­
ties for carrying off surplus heat were adequate in only 5 plants and
inadequate m 12, while 13 used no machines. Thermometers were
used in 2 plants, and automatic heat regulators were not used in any.
16056°—27------ 5




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

60

The machinery equipment of different plants was as follows:
T a b le 49.—N U M BER OF M ACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM INATION OF HEAT

AND GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­
tory
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines.....................................................
Casters........................................................ - ................
Remelting furnaces____ . . . . . . . . ___________________
Total....................................................................

15
8
3
12

Unsatis­
factory

20
12
3
14

30
4
2

. 50
16
5
14

30
4
2

49

36

85

36

With reference to specific mechanical conditions, reports were as
follows :
Remelting furnaces were in composing rooms in 5 plants and not
present in 7. Linotype pots could be closed in 13 plants and could
not be closed in 2. They were found closed at the time of inspection
in 5 plants and open in 10. Scrap lead was found on the floor in 14
plants and not so found in 3. Linotype pots were heated by gas
in 13 plants, by electricity in 1 plant, and by both methods in 1
plant.
Bottoms of cases were flush with the floor in 19 plants and not
flush in 10, while 1 plant had no cases. Sanitary leg bases were
used in 10 plants and not used in 19, no report being made for 1
plant. The space beneath the cases was clean in 22, and not clean
in 7, no report being made for 1 plant.
Type was cleaned by benzine in 9 plants, gasoline in 10 plants,
potash in 1 plant, potash and gasoline in 4 plants, potash and ben­
zine in 5 plants, and potash and kerosene in 1 plant.
The total number of spigots was 72, giving an average of 2.4
spigots to a plant. Only 1 plant reported a shower bath. The
number of dressing rooms for males was 9 and for females 13,
Lockers were provided in 4 plants and not provided in 26. Lunch
rooms were not provided in any of the plants.
Bubble fountains were used in 2 plants. Ice coolers were provided
in 26 plants. The common drinking cup was found in 11 plants,
while individual drinking cups were provided in 21. Washing of the
face was not compulsory in any plant, and washing of the hands
was required in only 1 plant. Sanitary rules were posted in 1 plant;
medical examinations were not required nor professional inspection
of sanitary conditions carried on in any of the plants.




SANITARY INSPECTION— ROCHESTER

61

The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T able 5 0 .— N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OP 30 PRIN TIN G

PLANTS OF RICHM ON D, VA., BY SEX AN D CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males_________ _________ ______________ ______ ___________
Females__________________________________________________

100

72
4

191
110

363
114

Total.................................................................................. .

100

76

301

477

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee was 142 square feet and the
average air space 1,783 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in the plants at the time of
inspection.
ROCHESTER, N. Y.

For Rochester, N. Y., only 1 report was secured, representing a
building of brick construction. The installations regarding fire pro­
tection were as follows: Automatic sprinklers, fire extinguishers, firealarm system, and fire escapes.
'The plant was in a clean and generally satisfactory condition,
having a total air space of 39,648 cubic feet. The ventilation was by
natural methods and adequate, no odors being found present. The
natural lighting was adequate. For artificial lighting purposes tung­
sten and nitrogen lamps were used.
Heating was by direct steam and the heating facilities were ade­
quate. Facilities for carrying off surplus heat were adequate. No
thermometers nor automatic heat regulators were used.
The machinery equipment of the plant, which was piped and
satisfactory as to the elimination of heat and gases, was as follows:
Number
of plants
having

Linotype machines_________________________________
Monotype machines________________________________
Casters________________________________________ ____
Remelting furnaces_________________________________

1
0
1
1

Number
of machines

19
0
3
1

No remelting furnaces were found in the composing room, and
linotype pots were found closed at the time of inspection. There was
no scrap lead on the floor. Linotype pots were heated by gas. The
bottom of cases were flush with the floor in all instances. The space
beneath the cases was found clean. Type was cleaned by benzine.
The total number of spigots in the plant was four. Dressing rooms,
lockers, and lunch room were provided for both male and female
employees. Drinking water was from bubble fountains and ice
coolers were provided. There were no common drinking cups and
individual drinking cups were not provided. Washing of hands and
face was not required in the plant. No sanitary rules were posted
and no medical examinations were required, but professional super­
vision over sanitary conditions was carried on.




62

HEALTH STTRVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 51.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOM OF A PRINTING

PLAN T IN ROCHESTER, N. Y ., B Y SEX AND CLASS OF W O R K
Hand
Machine
composi­ composi­
tion
tion

Sex

Other
work

Total

Males____________________________________________________
Females_________________________ ________________________

32

23
3

66
3

Total__________________ ........._____ - _________________

32

26

58

The average floor space per employee was 57 square feet, and the
average air space 684 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in the plant.
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

For San Francisco, Calif., 26 reports have been provided. The
structure of the buildings was of frame in 2 cases, of brick in 9, and
of concrete in 15. The installations regarding fire protection were
as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers______________________________
Fire hose__________________________________________
Extinguishers________________________ _____________
Fire-alarm system_________________________________
Fire escapes_______________________________________

5
4
17
6
8

Plants
not
having

21
22
9
20
18

All the plants were reported to be in a clean and generally satis­
factory condition.
The total air space of the 26 plants was 3,393,700 cubic feet or an
average of 130,527 cubic feet to a plant.
The plenum system of artificial ventilation was not used in any
plant but the exhaust system was used in 4 plants. No plants were
iound to have odors at the time of inspection.
The natural lighting conditions were reported to be adequate in
2 of the plants and inadequate in 2. The methods of artificial lighting
in use in different plants were as follows: Electric arc, 4 plants; tung­
sten, 24 plants; nitrogen, 11 plants. Artificial lighting sufficient to
make up for any deficiencies in natural lighting in the plants inspected
was reported.
The heating was by hot air in 4 plants, by hot water in 1 plant,
by direct steam in 2 plants, and by other methods in 19 plants.
Heating facilities were considered adequate in all the plants and the
carrying off of surplus heat was considered satisfactoiy in 20 plants
and unsatisfactory in 6. Thermometers were not used in any of the
plants nor were there automatic heat-regulating devices.




SANITARY INSPECTION— SAN FRANCISCO

63

The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b le 5 2 .— N U M BER OF MACHINES A N D CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF HEAT

A N D GASES, B Y KIN D OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination
of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines....... ..............................................
Casters_________________________________________
Remelting furnaces______________________________

12
3
1
4

Total....................................................... .............

15
4
19

9
8
2

24
8
2
4

9
8
2

19

38

19

With reference to specific mechanical conditions the reports were
as follows:
As regards the presence of remelting furnaces in composing rooms
the answer was in the negative in all cases making reply to this
question. As to whether linotype pots could be closed, 11 plants
answered in the affirmative and 1 in the negative. In 5 plants the
pots were not closed at the time of inspection. Scrap lead was found
on the floor in 10 plants. Sanitary leg bases were furnished in 15
plants and not in 11. Type was cleaned by benzine in 20 plants, by
benzine and potash in 4, and by other methods in 2.
The number of spigots in wash rooms in 25 plants reporting upon
the question was 68, or an average or 2.72 spigots per plant. Shower
baths were not provided in any of the plants. Dressing rooms were
provided for males in 9 plants and for females in 12. Lockers were
provided in 5 plants and lunch rooms in 1 plant.
The drinking water was from bubble fountains in 9 plants, and ice
coolers were provided in 5. Common drinking cups were found in
use in 5 plants, while individual drinking cups were provided in 12.
The washing of hands was compulsory in 3 plants, but no sanitary
rules were posted in any of the plants. Medical examinations were
not required in any of the plants, nor was there professional super­
vision over sanitary conditions of any kind.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 53.—NUM BER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 26 PRINTING

PLANTS IN SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., BY SEX AND CLASS OF WORK

Sex

Males_____________________ ______________________________
Females__________________________________________________
Total_____ . . . . . . _________ ________________ . . . . . . ____

Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

134
2

61

306
137

501
139

136

61

443

640

Other
work

Total

The average air space per employee was 5,303 cubic feet, and the
average floor space 304 square feet.



64

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

There were no tuberculous employees in any of the establishments
inspected.
WASHINGTON, D. C,

For Washington, D. C., 33 reports were secured. The buildings
in nearly all cases were of brick construction, only one being of frame
and one of stone. The installations regarding fire protection were
as follows:
Plants
having

Automatic sprinklers_______________________________
Fire hose__________________________________________
Fire extinguishers_________________________________
Fire-alarm systems________________________________
Fire escapes_______________________________________

Plants
not
having

4
1
16
4
7

29
32
17
29
26

In 29 cases the plant was reported as in a clean and generally
satisfactory condition and in 4 as not.
The total air space of the 33 plants was 478,626 cubic feet giving
the average air space of a plant as 14,504 cubic feet.
Artificial ventilation was practiced in 3 of the plants and odors
were observed in 7. For 1 plant the ventilation was reported as
not adequate.
The natural lighting conditions were considered adequate in 30 of
the plants and inadequate in 2, but the following methods of artifi­
cial lighting were reported as in use in different plants: Tungsten,
11 plants; nitrogen, 8 plants; tungsten and nitrogen combined, 9
plants; gas mantles, 1 plant; gas mantles and tungsten combined,
2 plants; gas, open flame, 1.
Heating was by direct steam in 17 of the plants, by coal stoves in
2, by indirect steam in 3, by hot water in 4, by vapor in 2, and by
miscellaneous methods in 4 others. Heating facilities were consid­
ered adequate in 32 of the plants, while the facilities for carrying off
surplus heat were considered adequate in 29. Thermometers were
used in 3 plants and automatic heat regulators in 1 plant.
The machinery equipment of the different plants was as follows:
T a b le 54,—NUM BER OF MACHINES AND CONDITION AS TO ELIMINATION OF HEAT

AND GASES, B Y KIND OF MACHINE

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­ Unsatis­
tory
factory
Linotype machines_____ . ________________________
Monotype machines_____________________________
C asters._________ ______________________ __ ___ _
Remelting furnaces____- __ _______ ______________
T ota l............................................ ....................

11
2
1
13

25
2
2
13

4
1

29
3
2
13

6

42

5

47

7

2

According to this table the 33 plants in question had 47 machines,
including casters and remelting furnaces, of which 42 were found in
a satisfactory condition and 5 in an unsatisfactory condition, while




SANITARY INSPECTION— MONTREAL

65

7 were not piped. The proportion of machines not piped must be
considered as remarkably low.
With reference to specific mechanical equipment, the following
reports were received:
In 4 plants remelting furnaces were in the composing room and
in 9 they were not. Linotype pots could be closed in 8 plants but
could not be in 3 others. They were found closed at the* time of
inspection in 6 plants and not closed in 5 others. The pots were
heated by gas in 11 plants, and scrap lead was found on the floors
at the time of inspection in 11. The bottoms of cases were flush
with the floor in 26 instances, while in 11 cases the composing cases
were furnished with sanitary leg bases.
The space under type cabinets was found to be unclean in 2 cases
and in a fairly good condition in 8 others. Spigots for washing
hands were provided in 32 plants, to the number of 62, an average
of 1.9 spigots per plant. Separate dressing rooms for males were
provided in 5 plants. None of the plants provided lunch rooms and
only 1 plant provided lockers.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 1 plant, and indi­
vidual drinking cups were provided in 32 plants, while in 3 plants
common drinking cups were found to be still in use. Ice coolers were
provided in 10 plants. Sanitary rules were posted in 2 plants, medical
examinations were made in none, and professional supervision over
sanitary conditions was exercised in only 1 plant. Washing the
hands was compulsory in 5 plants and washing the face in 2 others.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was as follows:
T a b le 55.—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 33 PRINTIN G

PLANTS IN WASHINGTON D. C., BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males,:_____________ _______ ___________________________ __
Females________ „_____________ _____ ________________ ____

73
4

45
2

125
67

243
73

Total____ __________________ _______________ «.___ ____

77

47

192

316

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space per employee in 32 plants was 120 square
feet, and the average air space per employee was 1,336 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees reported in any of the 32
plants answering the question.
MONTREAL, CANADA

For Montreal, 10 reports were furnished, all representing structures
of brick or stone construction. Methods of fire protection for the
different plants were as follows:
Plants
' having

Automatic sprinklers
Fire hose----------------Extinguishers_______
Fire-alarm system_
_
Fire escapes-------------




Plants
not
having

4
1

6
9

10

0

4
9

6
1

66

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

All the plants were found in a clean and generally satisfactory
condition. The total air space for 8 plants was 392,912 cubic feet,
giving an average air space to a plant of 49,114 cubic feet. Arti­
ficial ventilation was practiced in 1 of the plants, the exhaust system
being used with one fan. No odors were present in any of the plants
and all were found adequately ventilated.
In one of the plants methods of natural lighting were inadequate.
For artificial lighting purposes in the different plants the methods
were as follows: Tungsten, 3 plants; tungsten and nitrogen, 7 plants.
In all cases artificial lighting made up for any deficiencies in natural
lighting.
Heating was by direct steam in 7 plants and by hot air and hot
water and direct steam in 1 plant, and for the others the methods
were not given. Heating facilities were adequate in 8 of the plants,
2 making no report. Facilities for carrying off surplus heat were
adequate in 3 of the plants, 2 making no report, and 5 having no
machines. Thermometers were used in 3 plants and automatic heat
regulators in 2. The machinery equipment of the different plants
was as follows:
T a b le 5 6 .— NU M BER OF PLANTS AND CONDITION AS TO ELIM IN ATION OF HEAT

AND GASES, BY KIND OF MACHINES

Number of machines

Kind of machines

Number
of plants
having

Condition as to
elimination of
heat and gases
Total

Number
of ma­
chines
not
piped

Satisfac­
tory
linotype machines.......................................................
Monotype machines_____________________________
Casters..........................................................................
Remelting furnaces.......................................................
Total....................................................................

3
3
5
2

Unsatis­
factory

5
5
10
2

34

39
5
19
5

34

9
3

22

46

68

46

9
3

Remelting furnaces were found in the composing room in 1 of the
plants. Linotype pots were found closed at time of inspection in 3
plants in which there were linotype machines. There was scrap lead
on the floor in 1 of the plants. Pots were heated by gas in 1 plant
and by electricity in another, and the methods were not given for
the other. Composing cases were flush with the floor in 3 plants
and not flush in 5; for 2 information was not given.
Sanitary leg bases were found in 6 plants, not found in 1 plant, and
for 3 plants the information was not given. The space beneath the
cases was clean in 4 of the plants. Type was cleaned by benzine in
9 plants, the method not being given for the other. The total number
of spigots in all of the plants was 77, giving an average of 7.7 spigots
to a plant. Dressing rooms were provided for males in 6 plants and
for females in all. No lockers were provided in any of the plants,
while lunch rooms were provided in 2.
Drinking water was from bubble fountains in 4 plants. Ice coolers
were provided in 8 plants. Common drinking cups were used in 1
plant and individual drinking cups in 9 others. Washing of the hands




SANITARY CONDITION IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING PLANTS

67

was compulsory in all, but in none was the washing of the face compul­
sory. Sanitary rules were found posted in 4 plants, but medical ex­
aminations were not required in any; professional supervision of
sanitary conditions was exercised in all.
The number of employees according to sex and class of work was
as follows:
T a b le 57.—N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN THE COMPOSING ROOMS OF 10 PRINTIN G

PLANTS IN M O N TR E A L, CANADA, BY SEX AND CLASS OF W ORK
Hand
compo­
sition

Machine
compo­
sition

Males__________________________ '_________________________
Females__________________________________________________

91

51
19

316
143

458
162

T o ta l--.................................................................................

91

70

459

620

Sex

Other
work

Total

The average floor space to an employee in 8 plants was 72 square
feet and the average air space 847 cubic feet.
There were no tuberculous employees in any of the plants.
SANITARY CONDITIONS IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING PLANTS
A special inquiry was made into sanitary conditions in photo­
engraving plants by means of a questionnaire, 161 of such question­
naires being returned more or less completely filled out. These 161
plants employed 2,603 workers, of whom 2,500 were men and 103
were women. By specific occupations the distribution of employees
of the 157 plants reporting as to occupation was as follows:
T a b le 58.—NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING PLANTS, BY SEX AND

OCCUPATIONS

Number of employees

Number of employees
Occupation

Occupation
Males Females Total
Photographers and strip­
pers........................... .
Half-tone etchers and
printers________ _____
Line etchers and printers.
E ngravers
Routers and blockers____

548
378
228
314
233

7

555
378
228
314
233

Males Females Total
1

Color artists___________
Proovers.........................
Offset and photogravureOthers1......................... .
All-round workers_____

158
175
27
387
52

94
1

159
175
27
481
53

Total.......................

2,500

103

2,603

i Majority no doubt are office workers.

As regards the construction of buildings occupied for photo­
engraving purposes, it appears that 91 were of brick, 31 of concrete,
11 of brick and concrete, 10 of brick and stone, 8 of stone, and the
remainder of other types of construction.
The flooring in 98 plants was of wood, in 40 of concrete, in 7 of
wood and concrete, in 6 of wood over concrete, and in the remainder
of miscellaneous forms.
Information was obtained regarding the floor area, the ceiling
height, the approximate air space, and the number of employees for
122 plants. For these plants the average height of ceiling was 12.4




68

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

feet, the average number of square feet of floor area per employee
was 265.3, and the average number of cubic feet of air space per em­
ployee was 3,011.9, based on a total of 2,063 employees, a total floor
area of 547,351 square feet and a total air space of 6,213,562 cubic feet.
In regard to ventilation, 146 plants reported that the rooms seemed
to be adequately ventilated and 8 reported that they did not. One
plant reported that the ventilation was bad in the morning and also
during the winter months, and the reports for 4 plants were more
or less indefinite.
As to lighting, in 135 plants the natural light seemed adequate and
in 8 plants it did not, while for the remainder the reports were
qualified. It may safely be assumed that in all of the plants not
reporting specifically in the affirmative or negative, there was suffi­
cient reason to question the adequacy of natural light during ordinary
business operations.
With reference to use of gas masks for any part of the work the
reports were as follows: In 137 plants, no; in 10 plants, yes; in 3
plants, for emergency use only; in 1 plant, for glass washing; in
I plant, during the breaking the bulk of acids; in 1 plant, in zinc
etching rooms and when using dragon’s blood; in 1 plant in the dark
rooms; in 1 plant, provided but not used; in 1 plant, used when needed;
and 5 plants did not report. In 128 plants gas exclusively was used
for heating equipment such as silver baths, hot plates, drying cabi­
nets, and twirlers, in 6 plants electricity exclusively, in 15 plants
gas and electricity, and in 1 plant natural steam heat, while for
II plants the report was not definite.
The drinking facilities for employees’ use provided the following
accommodations: At 58 plants individual drinking cups were pro­
vided by the employer, and at 16 plants they were provided by the
employees; at 30 plants common drinking cups were used; at 40
plants there were bubble fountains; and 17 plants made no report.
Sanitary facilities were in good condition in 144 plants, in poor
condition in 6, in fair condition in 4, and for 7 the condition was not
reported.
Rules were posted for the sanitary guidance of employees in 35
plants, and not posted in 97 plants; in 2 plants employees follow the
rules of the international union, which constantly trains and inspects
its men; 1 plant posts rules as required by statute; no report was
made for 26 plants.
Medical examinations of employees were not required in 120
plants; in 5 plants such examination was obligatory, and in 4 for
apprentices only; in 3 plants medical examinations were required by
the union; in 1 plant they were limited to eye test, while in 1 plant
they were given where sickness lasted over a certain period; in 1 other
plant when employees are assumed to be suffering from some form
of disease; and for 26 plants no report was made.
The information secured is general in character but suggestive of
reasonable conformity in most of the establishments to modern sani­
tary requirements. It should be read in connection with the descrip­
tion of operations given in Bulletin No. 392 of the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Hygienic Conditions in the
Printing Trades (pp. 20-24).




HEALTH OF AGED WORKERS

69

HEALTH OF AGED WORKERS IN PRINTING TRADES
This section of the health survey of the printing trades concerns 728
aged workers in the printing trades, 60 to 86 years old, who are still
at work or who have retired. The returns were obtained in all cases
through the cooperation of local labor organizations and as the result
of personal inquiry during an inspection of printing plants. They
therefore represent entirely the viewpoint of the men themselves,
and in most cases the questionnaire was filled out by the person con­
cerned. The questionnaire was made as simple as possible to elicit
fundamental facts of practical importance.
Of the 728 printing employees, representing every branch of the
trade and including a few women, 600 were under 70 years of age,
120 were from 70 to 79 years of age, and 8 were 80 years of age and
over. The average age of the total number was 65.2 years. The
average duration of the trade life to date of the 724 employees report­
ing on this point was 44.4 years, ranging from a minimum of 1% years
to a maximum of 70 years. The men had worked in the aggregate
32,135 years.
Details as to the duration of the trade life of these 724 workers,
related to their age, are shown in Table 59:
T a b le 59.—NUM BER OF AGED WORKERS IN THE PRINTING TRADES B Y CLASSIFIED

YEARS OF TR AD E LIFE AND AGGREGATE AND AVERAGE YEARS OF TR AD E LIFE,
B Y AGE

Age

Number of workers whose trade life
had lasted—
Aggre­ Aver­
gate
age
Num­
ber of
years of years of
workers 1 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 years trade trade
and
life
life
years years
years
years
over

60 years___________________________
61 years___________________________
62 years___________________________
63 years___________________________
64 years___________________________
65 years__________________________
66 years___________________________
67 years__________________________
78 vears___________________________
69 years___________________________
70 years___________________________
71 years___________________________
72 years___________________________
73 years___________________________
74 years___________________________
75 years___________________________
76 years___________________________
77 years___________________________
78 years___________________________
79 years___________________________
80 years___________________________
81 years___________________________
83 years___________________________
84 years___________________ _______
85 years___________________________
86 years___________________________

61
79
72
84
61
63
58
59
38
28
32
26
18
11
8
5
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
1

Total..........................................

724

Per cent_____ _______ . . . ___

1
2
1

4
4
6
1
3
2
3
3
4

39
35
26
22
17
14
9
9
4
1
4
3
2

2
1
1

6
6
6
5
3
5
5

1
1

1
1

18
34
34
55
36
43
39
39
20
21
16
13
6
6
2
2
1
1
1
1

1

2,550
3,038
3,067
3.581
2.581
2,796
2,522
2,554
1,564
1,363
1,529
1,339
873
600
443
279
347
234
230
175
105
63
40
137
70
55

41.8
38.5
42.6
42.6
42.3
44.4
43.5
43.3
47.4
48.7
47.6
51.5
48.5
54.6
55.4
55.8
57.8
46.8
57.5
58.3
52.5
63.0
40.0
68.5
70.0
55.0

32,135

44.4

1
2
3
5
5
9
10
8
5
6
3
6
3
3
2
1
1

41

32

187

388

76

5.7

4.5

25.8

53.4

10.5

As to the present health of the persons concerned, it was reported
as good in 585 cases, or 80.4 per cent of the total, as fair in 118 cases,
or 16.2 per cent, and as bad in 25 cases, or 3.4 per cent. This result
confirms the general impression resulting from the health survey of the



70

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

printing trades, that the various occupations in printing^ are at the
present time of relatively minor effect in producing serious conse­
quences, traceable in prolonged sickness or incapacity in old age. Of
course the result might have been a little different if the men could all
have been subjected to a thorough medical examination. The state­
ments made are merely the opinions of the men themselves, but it
may be assumed that they would be more inclined to overstate than
to understate their present physical condition.
Specific inquiry was made as regards past record of tuberculosis.
This was answered in the affirmative by only 2 persons, or 0.3 per
cent of the total reporting. The fact must not be overlooked, of
course, that few persons suffering or having suffered from tuberculo­
sis would attain an age beyond 60 years, and such cases would most
likely be found in the union homes. The question was asked as to
whether the person concerned attributed any health injurious conse­
quences to the occupation. Out of the 728 making answer to the
questionnaire, 125, or 17.2 per cent, indicated that they had suffered
in some manner or form from occupational exposure.
Details as to the present health and the past record of tuberculosis
and trade sickness of these aged workers are shown in Table 60:
T able 6 0 .— PRESENT

HEALTH, AND TUBERCULOSIS AND T R A D E SICKNESS
RECORDS OF AGED W ORKERS IN PRINTING TRADES, B Y AGE

Age

Num­
ber of
work­
ers

Good

60 years___________________________
61 years___________________________
62 years_________________ ____ ____
63 years___________________________
64 years__ . ___ ____________________
_
65 years________________________ _
66 years__________________________
67 years__________ ____ ___________
68 years___________________________
69 years........................................... .
70 years_________________ _________
71 years___________________________
72 years.............................. .................
73 years........................................... .
74 years................. ..............................
75 years........................................... .....
76 years.............................. .................
77 years................................................
78 years................................................
79 years................................................
80 years................................................
81 years. ...................................... .
83 years................................................
84 years................................................
85 years................................................
86 years......................... .......................

63
79
72
84
61
63
58
59
34
28
32
26
18
12
8
5
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
1

54
69
60
62
52
51
45
49
32
23
20
17
12
9
7
2
6
4
3
3
2
1

Total____ __________. . . . _____

. 728

585

Per cent....................... ........................

Tuberculosis
record

1

Fair

2
2
3

7
8
9
22
7
10
11
7
2
4
8
9
4
3
1
2

2
2
2
3
1
4
2
1

1
1

____ !____
1
1

1

80.4

Bad

|

____
1

118 j
16.2

1

Trade sickness
record

No

Present health

No

63
79
72
83
61
63
58
59
34
28
32
26
18
12
8
4
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
1

Yes

1

1

51
62
56
69
51
57
47
49
31
26
26
23
12
11
6
3
3
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
1
1

Yes
12
17
16
15
10
g
11
10
3
2
g
3
0
1
2
2
3

25

726

2

603

125

3.4

99.7

0.3

82.8

17.2

The replies to the inquiry regarding particular diseases from which
the men had suffered, other than pronounced tuberculosis, indicate
that in only a few cases was present sickness of such a nature
as to be apparently directly traceable to the occupation followed
or to insanitary or otherwise injurious plant conditions.




HEALTH OF AGED WORKERS

71

ble 61 gives a list of typical diseases from which the men had
ed at some time or other during their lives:
T a b l e <SI,—SOME T Y P IC A L DISEASES REPO RTE D B Y AGED W ORKERS IN PR INTIN G

TRADES, BY AGE

Age .
(years)
60.........
60.........
60........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
60.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
61.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62.........
62_____
62.........
62........
63........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63.........
63_____
63.........
63.........
64.........
64.........
64.........
64.........
64.........

Disease
Brain fever.
Flu.
Infantile ailments.
Measles, catarrh.
Typhoid,' asthma.
Rheumatism.
Rheumatism.
Indigestion, biliousness.
Locked bowels.
Rheumatism, gout.
Bronchial trouble, cough.
Typhoid, malaria fever—piles.
Rheumatism, varicose veins.
Slight attack bronchial pneumonia.
Influenza, 3 months.
Whooping cough, measles, etc., in
childhood.
Grippe.
Dysentery, malaria, minor ailments.
Bright’s disease.
Grippe.
Typhoid fever.
Grippe and pneumonia.
High blood pressure.
Bronchitis, several breakdowns.
Sick a number of times in past 3 years.
Appendicitis, pneumonia.
Children’s diseases.
Operation for rupture, right side.
Rheumatism.
Typhoid, pneumonia, malaria, german
measles.
Stomach trouble in early manhood.
Gall stones removed.
Indigestion.
Flu.
Appendicitis.
Pneumonia.
Pneumonia.
Typhoid, malaria.
Slight stroke apoplexy.
Pleurisy, bladder and kidney.
Tonsillitis, constipation.
Rheumatism.
Bronchitis, slight heart trouble.
Typhoid, acute indigestion, appendi­
citis.
Flu. .
Nervous breakdown.
Occasional attacks of pneumonia.
Injured in street-car accident.
Stomach trouble.
Typhoid, pneumonia.
Usual children’s ailments, smallpox.
Rheumatism.
Stiff knee (accident).
Operation for piles, ptomaine poisoning.
Bad cold in 1921.
Influenza.
Typhoid, bronchitis.
Grippe.
Stroke, paralysis.
Lumbago, gout.
Rheumatism.
Rheumatism.
Injuries.
Flu.
Flu.
Rheumatism.
Alleged tuberculosis in 1882; recovery
in Colorado in 1M years.
Pneumonia.
Malaria fever, hay fever.
Typhoid fever.
Children’s diseases only.
Eyesight only trouble.
Partial paralysis.




Age
(years)

66..

Pneumonia.
Blood poisoning from infection or wound.
Pain in the sacro iliac joint result of
fall.
Pneumonia.
Trouble with stomach.
Heart trouble.
Rheumatism.
Inflammatory rheumatism and paral­
ysis.
Scarlet fever.
Stomach trouble.
Indigestion.
Pneumonia, appendicitis.
Tonsillitis, grippe, hay fever. •
Slight colds.
Typhoid fever.
Flu.
Grippe twice, flu three times.
Piles, flu.
Intermittent fever.
Smallpox, pneumonia, measles.
Rheumatism.
Has been sick about 1 year.
Typhoid fever, pneumonia.
Slight trouble with lungs.
Lead poisoning, rheumatism, neuralgia.
Measles, chicken pox, whooping cough,
smallpox, etc.
Smallpox.
Vertigo.
Influenza.
Pneumonia, colds, grippe.
Typhoid fever.
Rheumatism.
Grippe, pneumonia.
Typhoid fever.
Pneumonia, ulcerated stomach.
Grippe, indigestion, blood poisoning.
Flu.
Flu, accident to leg.
Rupture.
Nervous attack.
Nervous breakdown in 1915, wreck ever
since.
Grippe.
Tonsillitis, bronchial trouble, high fol­
lowed by low blood pressure.
Heart disease.
Severe cold.
Occasional gallbladder pain.
Typhoid, appendicitis.
Operation for varicose veins.
Pleurisy, blood clots on brain.
Acid stomach 25 years ago, high blood
pressure.
Pneumonia.
Grippe.
Typhoid fever.
Malaria fever.
Operation (female worker).
Typhoid fever, grippe.
Indigestion.
Diphtheria.
Operation for appendicitis.
Light typhoid fever.
Bronchitis.
Typho-malaria, lumbago, nervous attack.
Pleurisy, rheumatism.
Pneumonia.
Flu.
Pleurisy.
Heart trouble, bowel trouble.
Typhoid fever.
Hernia (operation).
Pneumonia, flu, some bad bruises.
Periodical catarrh, habitual constipation.

72

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

T a b le 6 1 .-S 0 M E T Y P IC A L DISEASES R E PO R T E D B Y AGED W ORKERS IN PRJKTING

T R AD ES, BY AGE—Continued

Age
(years)
67.........
68........
68.........
68_____
68.........
68_____
68.........
68.........
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69 .
69
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70

Disease
Pneumonia.
Bronchial pneumonia, infectious eye.
11H years rectal trouble.
Grippe.
Fever.
Flu.
Flu.
Brain fever, typhus fever, acute articular
rheumatism.
Children’s disease.
Flu.
Eye trouble.
Typhoid fever.
Little stomach trouble.
Typhoid fever.
Influenza.
Influenza.
Broken leg, fall on icy sidewalk, broken
arm and collar bone, cold, 2 carbuncle
• operations.
. Stomach and heart trouble.
Stomach operation for ulcers, erysipelas.
Flu, high blood pressure.
Torpid liver, lumbago.
Rheumatism.
Rheumatism.
Colds, lung congestion, renal colds.
Scarlet fever, bronchitis.
Measles, flu.
Typhoid, billious and malaria fever.
Rheumatism, pleurisy.
Children’s diseases.
Rheumatism.
Rheumatism.

Age
(years)

Disease

70
71
71.........
71
71
71
! 71.........
. 71
i 71.........
i 71

High blood pressure.
Pneumonia.
Fever.
Typhoid.
Operation for hernia.
Typhoid.
Appendicitis.
Congestion of brain, hardening of arteries.
Appendicitis, mastoid, neuritis.
Typhoid, carbuncle, major operation re*
1 moval of prostate gland.
i 72
Bleeding of lungs, pneumonia, bronchitis.
1 72
Rheumatism.
; 72
Grippe.
, 72......... Smallpox.
, 72......... Nervous breakdown.
! 72
Paralyzed.
Erysipelas, pneumonia.
I 73
Rheumatic fever, catarrh, pleurisy.
; 73
73
Typhoid fever, gastritis, grippe.
Asthma, typhoid fever.
73
74
Right kidney removed by operation.
75
Lame back, sciatica, grippe.
75
Billious fever.
Cataract on both eyes.
76
Acute rheumatism.
76
Rheumatism.
77
Rheumatism.
78
78
A couple of accidents.
78
Smallpox.
79
Fever and cold.
81_____ Attack of indigestion.
C ancer on neck.
83
Pneumonia.
86

The largest group had at one time or another experienced an attack
of influenza, frequently referred to as grippe, of which there had been
52 cases, often complicated by pneumonia and occasionally by high
blood pressure. The second most important group represented in the
list was typhoid fever, of which there had been 47 cases, occasionally
complicated by malaria, pneumonia, and rheumatism. The third
most important group concerns rheumatism, of which there had been
45 cases, uncomplicated in all but a very few cases. The fourth in the
order of importance was pneumonia, of which there had been 29
cases, occasionally complicated by pleurisy or influenza. Follow­
ing these in the order of their importance were intestinal complica­
tions, chiefly indigestion, constipation, and stomach trouble.
Most of the other diseases had been of comparatively minor im­
portance. There were 10 cases of bronchitis, 1 complicated by scarlet
iever, 10 cases of malaria, 8 cases of appendicitis, 7 cases of heart
trouble, 7 cases of renal diseases, other than Bright’s disease, 7 cases of
hernia, 7 cases of smallpox, 6 cases of gall-bladder infections, includ­
ing gallstones, 6 cases of neurasthenia, 5 cases of common colds, 4
cases of paralysis, 4 cases of pleurisy, 3 cases of cataract, 3 cases of
abscesses, 3 cases of blood poisoning, 3 cases of high blood pressure,
2 cases of apoplexy and brain fever, 2 cases of tuberculosis, 1 case
of diabetes, 2 cases of asthma, 1 case of cancer of the neck, 1 case
of diphtheria, 1 case of vertigo, 1 case of concussion of the brain,
1 case of skin trouble, 1 case of jaundice, 1 case of billiousness, 1 case
of meningitis, 1 case of Bright’s disease, 1 case of operation for en­
larged prostate, 1 case of erysipelas, 1 case of operation for varicose
vein, and 1 case of tracheitis.



HEALTH OF AGED WORKERS

73

The foregoing does not, include cases of lead poisoning, which are
dealt with separately (see p. 74), nor does it bear directly upon visual
impairments, loss of vision, etc., other than the occurrence of the
cases of cataract referred to.
In a general way, results are suggestive of the conclusion that
printing employees who have survived to old age have, broadly
speaking, been workers who have suffered comparatively little from
the numerous affections which terminate in early death. The pre­
dominating importance of influenza is, of course, readily attributable
to the epidemic of 1918-19. This, being a passing phase, may not
repeat itself, at least to a similar extent, for many years to come.
Influenza in fatal form during the last epidemic affected relatively a
larger number of young men than of men far advanced in years,
differing in this respect materially from the preceding epidemic of
1889-1891.
Typhoid fever also represents conditions rather of the past than
of to-day. The disease has diminished very considerably in fre­
quency throughout the country and is now of relatively small impor­
tance, both as to morbidity and mortality, in the experience of labor
organizations. Of much greater importance is rheumatism, which
is unquestionably often the result of sanitary conditions or neglect
of personal hygiene, which obviously admit of being improved.
Damp workshops are no longer common, but in many cases much
may be done to improve the floors by a better covering. With
diminishing habits of excessive alcoholic indulgence, rheumatism and
gout are now becoming a matter of passing importance. How far
erroneous dietary habits bear upon the frequency of these diseases is
still an open question, but they may be understood to represent for
practical purposes an important factor concerning the health of aged
printers who but for rheumatism infections might anticipate a much
longer life than is usually the case.
Similar observations apply to the incidence of dietary disorders as
made manifest in stomach troubles, inflammation of the bowels,
indigestion, and most of all constipation. How far the occurrence
of the latter is complicated by lead absorption is, of course, not
known, but there is unquestionably such a relation, however diffi­
cult it may be to measure its relative incidence. It is significant,
however, that among 728 aged printers only 5 should specifically
mention constipation. The importance of the latter is a contri­
butory cause or condition, especially in cancer, and should not be
underrated. With an increasing average age proper attention to
dietary habits in daily life assumes an increasing importance.
Improvements in matters of personal hygiene in various directions
are, therefore, of the very first importance and matters which lie
largely with the workmen themselves rather than with outside agen­
cies concerned chiefly with questions of public or factory hygiene.
Hence it may safely b$ asserted as the result of the present inquiry
as to health experience of aged printers that those who live long,
and have been long at work, are usually men who have suffered
relatively little from the ordinary infectious diseases and not exces­
sively from the organic diseases of later life. Since the frequency of
such diseases in the general population is either diminishing or prac­
tically stationary, it may safely be anticipated that there will be a
further improvement in the health and mortality of workers in the
different branches of the printing trades.



HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

74

Inquiry was made into the present condition as to eyesight, the
same being reported as either good, fair, or bad. Of the 728 print­
ing employees answering the question, 451 reported their present
eyesight as good and 224 as fair, while 53 reported their condition
as bad. The number of employees of each age having good, fair,
and bad eyesight is shown in Table 62:
T a b le 6 3 .— N U M BER OF AGED W ORKERS IN THE PRIN TIN G T R AD ES H AVING GOOD,

FAIR, AND BAD EYESIGHT

Age

Num­
ber of
work­
ers

Eyesight or vision
Age
Good

Fair

Bad

60 years.
61 years.
62 years.
63 years.
64 years.
65 years.
66 years.
67 years.
68 years.
69 years.
70 years.
71 years.
72 years.
73 years.
74 years.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers

Eyesight or vision
Good

Fair

Bad

years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
years..
Total..
Per cent.......

728

451

224

53

62.0

30.8

7.3

It goes without saying that the men’s information regarding their
eyesight can not be accepted as conclusive. While they would be
reasonably competent to. pass upon clearness of vision, they would,
of course, have no means of determining the existence of astigmatism,
causing eye strain, with more or less serious consequences to health
generally. There are many reasons for believing that the general
effect of employment in the printing trades upon the eyes is a matter
deserving of much more consideration than is generally given to it.
Certainly the medical examination, which is much more trustworthy,
reveals a considerable amount of visual impairment, which if early
corrected would prove relatively harmless. The investigation con­
firms the view, based upon various lines of inquiry, that impaired
eyesight is one of the most important and serious consequences of
printing employments.
The questionnaire made specific inquiry as to past attacks of lead
poisoning. Out of the 728 persons making replies only 27, or 3.7 per
cent, at one time or another during their trade experience have
suffered from lead poisoning. The age distribution of these cases is
as follows: Cases

60
61
63
64
65
66
67

years_________________________
years--------------------------------------years__________________________
years__________________________
years--------------------------------------years--------------------------------------years__________________________

1
5
6
1
3
3
1

Cases

68
70
72
79

years__________________________ __1
years__________________________ _1
years___* ______________________ _4
years__________________________ __1
Total-

27

The length of trade life and the age attained for each one of the
27 cases in which lead poisoning had occurred are shown in Table 63.
It is felt that the results are in strict conformity to other facts and
observations, and to the conclusion that lead poisoning is not as



PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

75

common in the printing trades as has frequently been assumed to b©
the case. Here again, of course, a very thorough medical examina­
tion mights have revealed unsuspected cases of lead absorption, but
for practical purposes the foregoing data may be considered conclu­
sive. It is certainly suggestive in this connection that the 27 persons
reporting themselves as having suffered from lead poisoning had an
average trade life of 45 years. The evidence in this respect, of course,
should be carefully considered in the light of other data on lead
poisoning presented elsewhere in this report. (See pp. 110 to 116.)
T a b le 63.—LEN GTH OF TR AD E LIFE AND STATE OF HEALTH OF AGED WORKERS

IN THE PR IN TIN G TR AD ES WHO HAD SUFFERED FROM LEAD POISONING, B Y AGE
Trade
Health
life
(years)

Age

_
60 years______________ _ ______
61 years_______________________
61 years_______________________
61 years______________ ____
61 years.... .....................................
61 years_______________________
63 years______________________ _
63 years_______________________
63 years_______________________
63 years_______ ____ ___________
63 years__________ *___________
63 years
64 years_______ ____ __________
65 years
65 years_______________________
65 years_______________________

34
45
44
47
50
40
47
46
43
46
40
47
53
48
48
45

Bad.
Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Good.
Fair.
Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Good.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.

Age

Trade
life
Health
(years)

66 years______________ _________
66 years_______________________
66 years........................................ .
67 years_______________________
68 years.... .....................................
70 years_____________ __________
72 years_____________ __________
72 years_____________ __________
72 years........... ..............................
72 years_______________________
79 years_____ ______________ ___

26
49
50
50
47
34
38
53
51
54
50

Total.................. .................

1,225

Average. ______________ ____ ___

45.4

Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Good.
Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.
Good.

PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF PRINTERS
PHYSIQUE OF PRINTERS

There are few useful references to the physique of printers, while
such as are available hardly extend beyond the mere fact of height and
weight. The subject is very briefly referred to and discussed in
Bulletin No. 209 of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Hygiene of the Printing Trades, by Hamilton and Verrill, which
includes a tabulation derived from the experience of the Prudential
Insurance Co., based, however, only on deaths. It therefore seemed
advisable in this survey to go somewhat more thoroughly into this
matter and quite a number of measurements have been secured for
different occupations in the printing trades, including several im­
portant bodily proportions concerning which no previous information
is available. It may be said in this connection that vitality, for
practical purposes, is best indicated by chest mobility, while the
nutritional condition is clearly suggested by the abdominal circum­
ference and the weight. Physical strength is ascertainable only by a
complex method of measurement which was not available for the
present purpose.
There were 1,215 printing employees examined, who were of an
average age of about 40 years and with an approximate trade life
of 20 years, possibly somewhat longer. The average height was 169
centimeters (66 ^ inches). The average weight was about 150 pounds,
which would give about 2.3 pounds to the inch, which must be
considered a satisfactory indication of nutritional development. Nor160560—27------ 6



76

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

mally it is safe to assume that undernutrition is represented by a
weight of less than 2 pounds to the inch, while hypernutrition is
represented by a weight in excess of 3 pounds to the inch; perhaps
a satisfactory average would be 2.5 pounds but no arbitrarily fixed
standard is advisable. The chest circumference was 89 centimeters
or about 35 inches. The chest circumference of soldiers on discharge
subsequent to the great war was 34.94 inches, or 88.74 centimeters—
practically the same.7
Here, then, is evidence that the physical condition of printers con­
forms reasonably well to the average of healthy young men acceptable
for military services.
The abdominal circumference was about 83.5 centimeters, or not
quite 33 inches. No comparative figures are available which would
justify a definite conclusion as to whether this conforms to the normal
of healthy men of corresponding ages but my own investigations
would seem to confirm this point of view. The arm length was about
77 centimeters (30.3 inches) and the hip height, or the height from the
crest of the iliac to the floor, was about 101 centimeters (39.8 inches).
The knee height was about 48.5 centimeters (19.1 inches). All of the
foregoing figures are approximate averages. The measurements were
not secured in precise conformity to modern anthropometric meas­
urements, since exact instruments for this purpose were not available,
nor would it have been possible to secure the measurements with more
painstaking attention to matters of small detail in view of the working
conditions under which they were usually obtained.
That the foregoing averages are reasonably trustworthy is indicated
by a supplementary examination of 89 printing employees at the
printing plant of the Prudential Insurance Co., Newark, N. J. The
average height was 66.9 inches and the average weight 150.6 pounds,
or approximately 2.3 pounds of weight to the inch, precisely the
same as for other printing employees. The chest expansion was found
to be 35 inches, which compares with 34.96 inches for white troops
examined on demobilization.8 The chest at inspiration was 36.4
inches and on expiration 33.8 inches, a difference of 2.6 inches or about
7 centimeters. This is apparently somewhat less than what might be
expected of thoroughly well developed men of corresponding age,
but the difference is not sufficiently pronounced to be suggestive of
men of a decidedly inferior physique seeking employment in the
printing trades. The data are not sufficiently numerous for ex­
haustive analysis by occupations.
MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF PRINTERS AT UNION HOMES

The medical examinations made in connection with the present
survey of the printing trades are also unfortunately of rather limited
extent, although apparently of a fair degree of intrinsic value. They
consist of examinations of: 1. Tuberculous printers at the Union
Printers* Home of the International Typographical Union; 2. Nontuberculous printers, including old-age pensioners at the same insti­
tution; 3. Patients at the Union Pressman's Home.
7 U. S. Surgeon General’s Office. The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World
War, Vol. X V , Medical Statistics of the War. Part 1, Army Anthropology. Washington, 1921, p. 140.
8 Idem, p. 141.




PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

77

The number of tuberculous printers examined at the Union Printers’
Home was 109, who were of an average age of 41 years, ranging from
23 to 74 years. The average duration of trade life of these printers,
practically all of whom were, of course, compositors and machine
operators, was 18.3 years, ranging from 2 to 47 years.
The average known previous duration of the disease, as deter­
mined by the condition on admission, was 5.6 years, ranging from less
than 1 to 20 years. The prognosis of the disease on admission was
favorable in 78 out of the 109 cases, or 71.6 per cent. The condition
was considered to have improved in 48 cases, or 44 per cent of the cases
under observation.
The average height without shoes was 67.8inches, the range in height
being from 61 to 75 inches. The average weight in ordinary clothing
was 131.2 pounds. The relative weight or the amount of body weight
per inch of height was 1.9 pounds, which contrasts with about 2.3
pounds for employed printers generally.
The average circumference of the chest at rest was 85.1 centimeters,
or approximately 33.5 inches. This compares with 34.96 inches for
white soldiers in the Army and 35 inches for printers generally. The
average circumference of the chest on inspiration was 89.1 centi­
meters (35.1 inches) and of the chest at expiration 82.9 centimeters
(32.6 inches). This would give an average chest mobility of 6.2 centi­
meters (2.4 inches), fairly characteristic of the tubercular type. As
these results are based on small numbers they can not of course be
accepted as conclusive. As said before, in healthy men the chest
expands about 8 centimeters or 3 inches. There can be no question
that printers by their working habits are preeminently predisposed
to pulmonary diseases, irrespective of the sanitary condition of their
surroundings. A curious factor involved here is that the average
height of tuberculous printers is probably somewhat greater than
that of nontuberculous printers, and that it is probably the tall men
who are primarily predisposed to respiratory afflictions of the tuber­
cular type. In such cases exceptional care in health supervision is
obviously called for.
Out of the 109 tuberculous printers examined, 51, or 46.8 percent,
had a stooping posture, and 67, or 61.5 per cent, gave indications of
spinal curvature, which under certain conditions may have serious
pathological significance. This indicates the great practical impor­
tance of the physical development of young persons in the printing
trades, and supervision thereof during the period of apprenticeship
is urgently called for in the furtherance of health conservation efforts.
The situation is often made worse or complicated by improper
seating arrangements, especially at type-setting machines, and by
ill-adjusted composing cases, which, in proportion to the stature of
the person concerned, may either be too high or too low. The sug­
gestion may therefore be made that all printing apprentices should
undergo an annual examination. This examination should include
the ascertainment of possible visual errors. There are reasons for
believing that in many cases the glasses worn by compositors and
machine operators are not only ill-fitted for the exacting needs of the
occupation but also that in fact they do more harm than good.
The average systolic blood pressure of tuberculous printers was 118.4
millimeters, while the diastolic blood pressure was 77.6 millimeters,
giving a resulting pulse pressure of 40.8 millimeters. Low blood




78

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

pressure is characteristic of tubercular patients, as is clearly indicated
by the fact that among the nontuberculous printers examined in
the Union Printers’ Home the systolic blood pressure was 150.7
millimeters, while the diastolic blood pressure was 88.8 millimeters.
This, then, is another indication of the direction in which healthpromoting efforts could be made successful, for a periodical medical
examination would in many cases clearly establish the early evidence
of a condition which if promptly dealt with might be passed over
without serious results. Of the 109 tuberculous printers only 6 gave
evidence of cardiac trouble or heart impairments on admission and
only 10 of renal impairments, which are frequently assumed to be
closely related to the after effects of lead absorption. In not a
single case did the tuberculous printers present evidences of lead
poisoning, although it may be said that special efforts were made
to discover traces of lead absorption. Nor was there evidence of a
single instance of malignant disease in a tuberculous printer, which
conforms to the general viewpoint that cancer and tuberculosis
rarely coincide.
Of nontuberculous printers at the Union Printers' Home 119 cases
were examined, of an average age of 62.6 years, the ages ranging
from 34 to 82 years. Most of these men were old-age pensioners
or otherwise permanently disabled. The average duration of trade
life of these nontuberculous cases was 35.7 years, ranging from .11 to
60 years. Of the 119, 41 gave a history of disease based on condi­
tion on admission of an average known previous duration of 7.6 years.
The prognosis on admission was favorable in 19 cases and unfav­
orable in 69 cases. An improved condition after admission was
shown in 50 of the cases observed. The impairments reported in­
clude such a wide variety of diseases that they can not with ad­
vantage be dealt with here.
The average height of the nontuberculous printers, without shoes,
was 67.5 inches, which compares with 67.8 inches for the tuberculous
cases. The average weight was 146.2 pounds, which contrasts with
131.2 pounds for tuberculous printers. The relative weight was,
therefore, 2.2 pounds to the inch, which compares with 1.9 pounds
per inch for tuberculous cases and 2.3 pounds for noninstitutional
printers. The chest expansion or chest mobility was not ascertained.
This is much to be regretted, but considering the circumstances under
which the examinations were made was apparently unavoidable.
A stooping posture was observed in 43, or 36.1 per cent, of the 119
cases. This compares with 46.8 per cent for tuberculous printers.
There was spinal curvature in 29 of the 119 cases. The proportion
of scoliosis for nontuberculous printers was therefore 24.4 per cent,
while for tuberculous printers the proportion was 61.5 per cent.
As to vision, errors of refraction were ascertained in 100 out of the
119 cases. This is so large a proportion that on first consideration
the results may seem not acceptable, but the examinations were made
by qualified physicians and under conditions which would demand a
reasonably perfect diagnosis. It must be considered, of course, that
the average duration of trade life was relatively long, being 35.7
years. What has been said as to tuberculous printers regarding
injurious results of ill-adjusted seating arrangements and ill-adjusted
composing cases as regards visual disturbances holds true as to non­
tuberculous printers. In all of these cases, of course, improper



VITAL STATISTICS OF PRINTERS

79

methods of artificial lighting also have a most important effect and
possibly a more serious one than improper seating arrangements.
There was evidence on admission of cardiac trouble in 28 cases
and of renal trouble in 30. There was no evidence of lead poisoning
nor of malignant disease found in a single one of the 119 cases examined.
Corresponding information was obtained for 40 patients at the
Union Pressmen’s Home. These were all tuberculous cases, of an
average age of 36.8 years, and of a trade life of 18.1 years. The num­
ber of cases is, however, too small for a thoroughly trustworthy con­
clusion. The pressmen were found to be slightly taller and slightly
heavier than the printers. The average chest at rest was also dimensionally somewhat larger, but the chest mobility was practically the
same as for printers. As regards vision errors of refraction were
found in 52.5 per cent of the cases. The blood pressure was dis­
tinctly lower among pressmen, but the numbers are too small for a
safe generalization.
Summarizing the foregoing, the following conclusions would seem
to be justified: 1. Both nontuberculous printers and tuberculous
pressmen are of a better physique than tuberculous printers; 2. The
tuberculous printers show a lesser development of the chest and a
lower degree of chest mobility than the tuberculous pressmen; 3. The
tuberculous printers show a distinctly lower blood pressure than the
nontuberculous printers and also a distinctly larger proportion of
men with a stooping posture and with evidence of spinal curvature;
4. All of the foregoing strongly suggests the value of a periodical
medical examination, particularly in the case of printers’ apprentices.
VITAL STATISTICS OF PRINTERS
The vital statistics of printing employees secured in connection
with this survey have been derived chiefly from the actual experi­
ence of printers’ labor organizations, supplemented, for comparative
purposes, by data secured through the cooperation of the registrar
of vital statistics of a number of representative American cities.
The United States Census Office does not classify the American
mortality by occupations, and efforts which have been made to
Utilize such data have, as a rule, led to inconclusive results. It
would, of course, have been preferable to have included specific
death rates calculated on the basis of the number of persons exposed
to risk for each year, or group of years, with due regard to the partic­
ular occupations followed, but such an investigation, to be of prac­
tical value, would need to be extended over a period of years and
would require exceptional facilities for securing the ages of the living
as well as those of the dead and in each case the specific occupation.
Such information, unfortunately, is not available.
Something in this direction might be feasible if some of the large
labor organizations having complete membership data as well as
mortality returns could be induced to initiate extended actuarial
investigations, but this would involve considerable expense which
the probable results would hardly justify. At the same time this
feature of the investigation is unquestionably one of first impor­
tance, and it is to be hoped that in the future some investigations in
this field will become feasible.



80

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

As a compromise I have for many years utilized the so-called
proportionate mortality method, which requires the calculation of
specific percentages of deaths, for divisional periods of life, due to im­
portant selected causes of death. While this method is not applicable
to the calculation of precise contingencies as common in insurance
practice, it is nevertheless an extremely suggestive method and often
quite conclusive regarding the practical utility of such data in con­
nection with health-promoting agencies.
Tables limited to four specific causes essentially important in the
consideration of the possible health injurious aspects of the printing
trades are hereafter presented, supplemented by tables giving de­
tails for each cause of death. It should be pointed out in this con­
nection that for practical purposes the number of deaths considered
must, of course, be sufficiently large to yield trustworthy averages.
Hence it has not been considered feasible to deal with particular
occupations other than those represented by certain trade organi­
zations. The present investigation consists of the records of the
International Typographical Union, the International Printing Press­
men and Assistants^ Union, the International Photo-Engravers'
Union, the International Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Union, and
the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders.
For purposes of comparison there is also presented experience of
the National Society of Operative Printers and Assistants of Great
Britain and original returns of vital statistics of printing employees
generally in certain American cities. The latter data, of course,
include many of the deaths represented in the returns for the inter­
national labor organizations.
It became apparent after the inquiry had proceeded to a measur­
able degree that entire completeness of the returns was out of the
question, as many of the death certificates or published mortuary
returns were incomplete either as regards age at death or cause of
death, and sometimes both. The tendency apparently is not in the
direction of material improvement in this respect. For instance,
the vital statistics of the International Typographical Union for
1912-1918 include 3,338 tabulatable returns and 74 which did not
properly specify the age or cause of death. The proportion of such
cases was very much larger during the subsequent period, 1919-1923,
when there were 3,447 tabulatable deaths and 719 which could notr
be properly utilized for all purposes.
In the case of the International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union, during the period 1912-1917 there were 793 tabulatable
deaths and 162 which could not be tabulated chiefly on account of
the lack of information regarding ages at death. During the year
1918 there were 303 tabulatable deaths and 70 which could not be
fully utilized. During the period 1919-1923 there were 598 tabulat­
able deaths and 98 additional deaths which could not be included in
the detailed tabulations for the reasons stated.
In the experience of the International Photo-Engravers' Union
during the period 1919-1923 there were 206 tabulatable deaths and
18 which had to be excluded. In the experience of the International
Stereotypers and Electro typers' Union for the period 1919-1923
there were 275 tabulatable deaths while 20 were incomplete as re­
gards the information required.




VITAL STATISTICS---- TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

81

Equally incomplete were the returns for the International Brother­
hood of Bookbinders. For the period 1920-1923 there were 189 male
deaths which were tabulatable, while 67 could not be completely
utilized. In the case of females there were 104 deaths which could
be utilized, while 56 were incomplete.
By way of contrast, the returns for American cities, representing 775
deaths from all causes, were, with the exception of a single death
complete as regards age and cause. This clearly emphasizes the fact
that incompleteness in the returns of trade organizations is largely a
matter of lack of appreciation of the importance of the data, since
official death certificates in each and every case contained all the in­
formation needed as to age and cause.
The foregoing observations might at first seem to justify the con­
clusion that the results of the present investigation are open to serious
question as to completeness and it is frankly admitted that to a certain
extent this conclusion is justified. But the facts being what they are,
there is no alternative to excluding such data altogether but that of
using them in their present but imperfect form. After giving the
matter extended thought and viewing the situation in the light of
other evidence, I am reasonably satisfied that resulting conclusions
may safely be accepted as approximately correct.
The returns of the various trade organizations here utilized have
been obtained by somewhat different methods. The returns for the
International Typographical Union have been obtained by a tran­
script of the union mortality returns given from month to month in the
Typographical Journal, including, of course, deaths reported from the
Union Printers’ Home. A similar method has been followed with
reference to the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union. The returns for the International Stereotypers and Electro­
type^ Uniond have been furnished through the courtesy of that
organization, as was the case with the returns for the International
Brotherhood of Bookbinders. The information regarding the mortal­
ity of the International Photo-Engravers’ Union has been derived
from the convention reports of that organization. The vital statistics
of American cities were furnished from the official returns of the regis­
trars of vital statistics and local and State boards of health. The
statistics for the National Society of Operative Printers and Assist­
ants of Great Britain were obtained through the courtesy of its
honorary secretary.
INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

Table 64 briefly presents the essential facts as to the mortality
experience of the International Typographical Union. The table is
amplified in considerable detail in Table 67, which gives a complete
analysis of the entire mortality in conformity to the international
classification of the causes of death. Granting the inherent limitations
of the data presented, the tabulations will serve the useful purpose of
calling attention to deficiencies which could easily be overcome in the
future, while suggesting a standardized method of presenting returns,
which would greatly aid in the correct interpretation of occupational
mortality tendencies.
d Original death certificates were furnished by this organization.




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

82

T a b le 64.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AMONG THE M EM BERS OF THE

IN TERN ATION AL TYPO G R A PH IC A L UNION, 1912 TO 1918, BY AGE GROUPS

Tuberculosis Cancer—all
forms
Age at death

15 to 19 years_________________________
20 to 24 vears_________________________
25 to 29 years_______________________ _
30 to 34 years_________________________
35 to 39 years_________________________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years_________________________
50 to 54 years_________________________
55 to 59 years_________________________
60 to 64 years................... ......... ..............
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 vears_____ ____________________
75 to 79 vears_________________________
80 to 84 years______ ________ __________
85 to 89 years_________________________
90 years and o v e r ___________________
Total................................................

All
causes

Bright’s
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
cent
ber
cent
ber
ber
ber cent
cent

1
3
118
43
202
91
117
257
344
112
402
125
89
399
396
56
349
31
21
265
4
207
4
183
127
66 ....... 2
1
16
4
3,338

Pneumonia

697

33.1
36.4
45.0
45. 5
32. 6
31.1
22.3
14.1
8.9
7.9
1.9
2.2
” §.~6"
6.3
20.9

3
1
2
9
10
10
29
22
20
14
11
5
3

2.5
.5
.8
2.6
2.5
2.5
7.3
6.3
7.5
6.8
6.0
3.9
4.5

5
11
16
26
32
30
32
26
29
16
15
15
11
2

4.2
5.4
6,2
7.6
8.0
7.5
8.1
7.4
10.9
7.7
8.2
11.8
16.7
12.5

2
5
11
23
29
45
41
38
26
32
23
16
3
1

1.7
2.5
4.3
6.7
7.2
11.3
10.4
10.9
9.8
15.5
12.6
12.6
4.5
6.3

139

4.2

266

8.0

295

8.8

As appears by Table 64, during the period 1912-1918 there were
3,338 tabulatable deaths among the members of the International
Typographical Union of which 697, or 20.9 per cent, were from
tuberculosis. The proportionate mortality was highest during the age
period 30 to 34 years, when the rate was 45.5 per cent of the mortality
from all causes. This must be looked upon as excessive and suggestive
of the urgency of sanitary and other measures of improvement.
In this connection reference may be made to an extended investi­
gation of health conditions in the printing trades included in my
report on Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in Dusty Trades
(Inorganic Dusts), published as Bulletin No. 231 of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics. That discussion includes a table
(p. 138) which gives the proportionate mortality of printers, lithog­
raphers, and pressmen in the United States registration area for
the period 1908-1909. While the deaths are limited to pulmonary
tuberculosis, other forms of tuberculosis are so extremely rare among
printers that the omission does not impair the conclusions stated.
In that period there were 2,847 deaths from all causes, of which 840,
or 29.5 per cent, were attributable to pulmonary tuberculosis. This,
when compared with 20.9 per cent shown for the experience of the
International Typographical Union during the period 1912-1918,
shows a decided improvement.
It has been thought worth while to give some special attention to
the mortality from cancer, which in the general experience of the
population at large is rapidly on the increase. The proportionate
mortality from cancer in the aggregate experience of the International
Typographical Union for 1912-1918 was 4.2 per cent. The highest
proportionate mortality rate occurred at ages 60 to 64, or 7.5 per cent.
The proportionate mortality from pneumonia in the experience
of the International Typographical LTnion for the period 1912-1918
was 8 per cent. During 1908-1909 it was 6.8 per cent, a somewhat
higher rate, largely due however, to the epidemic of influenza and its
resulting complications.




VITAL STATISTICS— TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

83

It has also seemed advisable to give special attention to the Mor­
tality from Bright's disease, especially in view of the close relation
which exists between chronic lead poisoning and renal impairments,
a large proportion of the deaths from chronic lead poisoning being
always complicated by chronic or acute nephritis. In the experience
of the International Typographical Union for the period 1912-1918
the proportionate mortality from Bright's disease was 8.8 per cent.
Though it is somewhat hazardous in this connection to utilize insur­
ance experience data which are more or less affected by selection,
it may be stated that in the experience of the industrial department
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. for 1911-1913,9 the propor­
tionate mortality from Bright's disease for compositors and printers
was 8.9 per cent, or practically the same as the proportion observed
in the experience of the International Typographical Union. The
proportionate mortality in the experience of the latter was highest
at ages 65 to 69, being 15.5 per cent, while in the experience of the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. at ages 65 and over it was 13.4
per cent.
Table 65 presents the mortality experience of the International
Typographical Union for the period 1919-1923:
T a b le 65.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AMONG M EM BERS OF THE IN­

TE RN A TIO N A L TYPO G R A PH IC A L UNION, 1919 TO 1923, BY AGE GROUPS
Tuberculosis Cancer—all
forms
Age at death

All
causes

Pneumonia

Bright's .
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent

20 to 24 years_________________________
25 to 29 years....... .....- ...... ...................... .
30 to 34 years___________________ _____
35 to 39 years____ ____________________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years....................... ......... ...........
50 to 54 years_________________________
55 to 59 years____________ ____ _______ _
60 to 64 years_________________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years_________________________
75 to 79 years_________________________
80 to 84 years____ ____________________
85 to 89 years_________________________
90 years and over_____________________

73
197
243
218
281
361
412
416
399
357
211
167
78
27
7

24
54
89
68
73
77
68
29
13
11
4
2

32.9
27.4
36.6
31.2
26.0
21.3
16.5
7.0
3.3
3.1
1.9
1.2

Total................................................

3,447

512

14.9

6
2
4
21
37
38
47
51
32
27
14
2

3.0
1.8
1.8
7.5
10.2
9.2
11.3
12.8
9.0
12.8
9.4
2.6

12
59
48
52
43
37
55
38
40
35
27
14
2
1

16.4
29.9
19.8
23.9
15.3
10.2
13.3
9.1
10.0
9.8
12.8
8.4
2.6
3.7

3
6
4
11
19
29
46
39
37
19
13
6
1

1.5
2.5
1.8
3.9
5.3
7.0
11.1
9.8
10.4
9.0
7.8
7.7
3.7

. 281

8.2

463

13.4

233

6.7

Contrasting the data for the period 1919-1923 with the earlier data
it appears that during the years under review there were 3,447 deaths
from all causes, of which 512, or 14.9 per cent were from tuberculosis,
as compared with 20.9 per cent in 1912-1918. There has, therefore,
been a decided decrease which can not be looked upon as other­
wise than reflecting progress in sanitation and personal hygiene.
The highest proportionate mortality from tuberculosis during 19191923 occurred at ages 30 to 34, being 36.6 per cent, as compared with
45.5 per cent during 1912-1918. In the light of extended occupa­
tional disease investigations, I am absolutely satisfied that the indi­
cated reduction in the proportionate mortality from pulmonary tuber­
culosis from 20.9 per cent during 1912-1918 to 14.9 per cent during
9 See U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 231: Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty tradeg
(organic dusts), p. 140. Washington, 1918.




84

HEALTH SURVEY OP THE PRINTING TRADES

1919-1923, may be safely accepted as conclusive evidence of the
downward tendency of the tuberculosis death rate in the experience
of the printing trades.
While during 1912-1918, the proportionate mortality from cancer
was 4.2 per cent, during 1919-1923 it was 8.2 per cent. The highest
proportionate death rate during 1912-1918 occurred at ages 60-64,
being 7.5 per cent, which by 1919-1923 had increased to 12.8 per
cent. In view of my many years’ experience with cancer statistics
and my active connection with the cancer movement, I am thoroughly
convinced that this increase in the liability to cancer on the part of
members of the International Typographical Union is a real increase
and not due to improvement in diagnosis or changes in methods of
death certification. The increase suggests the supreme importance
of educational methods which emphasize to those concerned the im­
perative necessity of the earliest possible diagnosis and the value of
qualified methods of treatment.
The proportionate mortality from pneumonia during 1919-1923
was 13.4 per cent against 8 per cent during 1912-1918. The increase,
which affects particularly the younger years of life, is primarily
accounted for by the epidemic of pneumonia during 1918-19, the
results and after effects of which have not as yet entirely disappeared.
It is decidedly significant that the proportionate mortality for ages
70 and over should have been much higher during the earlier period
than during later years.
Mortality from Bright’s disease, which is frequently assumed to
represent a residuum of mortality from lead posioning, so masked by
renal affections as not to admit of a definite diagnosis of lead colic, has
slightly declined. The proportionate mortality from Bright's disease
in the experience of the International Typographical Union during
the period 1919-1923 was 6.7 per cent as against 8.8 per cent during
1912-1918.
It would not be practicable to consider in detail the many other
causes of death, which are tabulated in accordance with the nearly
200 subdivisions of the international classification. Full details of
the number of deaths from every important cause, classified by age,
are given in Table 66. For the present purpose, however, it may be
advantageous to mention a few of the more important causes without
extended observations, keeping in mind the fact that the number of
deaths for each of the two periods is practically the same, 3,447
during the first period and 3,338 during the second. No percentages
are used in Table 66, which presents the mortality from specified
causes for the two periods:
T a b le 6 6 . — M O R TA LITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG THE M E M B E R S O F THE

INTERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 1912 TO 1918 AND 1919 TO 1923
Cause

Typhoid fever____ ____ _________
Influenza______ ____ . . . ___ __ . . .
Syphilis________ ___________ ___
Diabetes______ ________________
Anemia, chlorosis_______________
Chronic lead poisoning_________ _
Locomotor ataxia. ............... .........
Paralysis of the insane.... ..............
Organic diseases of the heart_____
Angina pectoris...................... ........
Diseases of the arteries__________




19121918
47
3
2
45
19
6
14
36
54
11
37

19191923
11
80
3
77
26
15
13
11
419
33
113

Cause
Ulcer of the stomach____________
Appendicitis___________________
Hernia_________________________
Cirrhosis of the liver____________
Biliary calculi_____________ - ____
Suicides.................. ........... ......... .
Food poisoning_________________
Other acute poisonings__________
Gas absorption_________________
Miscellaneous accidents_________
Homicides____ _________________

19121918
10
36
21
71
3
61
6
8
33
56
6

19191923
20
44
15
33
6
9
1
2
4
40
1

VITAL STATISTICS— TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

85

The foregoing comparison affords a wide range of data for extended
consideration. Foremost among the gratifying evidences of sanitary
progress is the extraordinary decrease in the actual mortality from
typhoid fever which, of course, corresponds to the observed decrease
in the disease practically throughout the country.
Particularly suggestive is the relatively slight incidence of syphilis.
Of considerable importance, however, is the heavy increase in the
recorded mortality from diabetes, which in the case of printers falls
heaviest upon those of the older ages. The increase in anemia and
chlorosis is not sufficient to require extended consideration, being
probably the result in part of changes in death classification.
Deaths from chronic lead poisoning are shown to have increased
from 6 to 15, but during the earlier period there were also 33 deaths
from other chronic poisonings while there were none during the period
1919-1923. Combining the two returns as possibly covering the same
affliction due to metallic substances, there were 39 deaths during
the earlier period as against 15 in the latter period. In the light of
other data based upon a nation-wide inquiry, I feel satisfied that the
conclusion that lead poisoning during recent years has very materially
diminished in practically every branch of the printing trades is entirely
justified by the facts.
Most gratifying is the return of the mortality from general paralysis
of the insane, which shows a decrease from 36 to 11.
Of vastly greater importance is the heavy increase in the mortality
from organic diseases of the heart—from 54 to 419. In part, this is
the result of improved methods of death classification. There is also
to be considered the increasing average age of printers, which would
account in part for mortality changes. However, the matter is one
well worthy of serious and more detailed consideration. It will also
be observed that there was an increase in diseases of the arteries,
arteriosclerosis, etc.—from 37 deaths during the first period to 113
deaths during the second.
Recalling what has been said regarding the increase in cancer, it
is suggestive that ulcers of the stomach during the first period caused
only 10 deaths and during the second period 20 deaths.
There were 36 deaths from appendicitis during the first period and
44 during the second. In general experience, appendicitis has also
shown a slight increase during recent years, so that the experience of
the International Typographical Union in this respect is in conformity
with facts derived from other sources. The causative factors of
appendicitis are unquestionably in many cases the result of intestinal
disturbances, which, by inference, are of a similar nature to those in
cancer causation.
Especially gratifying is the considerable decrease in the mortality
from cirrhosis of the liver, which was reduced from 71 deaths during
the first period to 33 deaths during the second. This affliction is in
most cases the result of chronic alcoholism, the actual mortality from
which, however, in the experience of the International Typographical
Union is represented by a single death during each of the two periods
under review. This would seem to justify the conclusion that chronic
alcoholism, as well as the more serious consequences of venereal dis­
ease, are of decidedly less importance in recent mortality experience
than in the experience of the past.




86

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

The decline in suicides—from 61 to 9—is rather extraordinary, but
the data has been gone over with exceptional care and there seems to
be no possibility of serious error. In the experience at large for
American cities the suicide rate has practically been stationary dur­
ing recent years.
Most gratifying, perhaps, are the returns as to the relative infre­
quency of homicides in the experience of the International Typo­
graphical Union.
There were only six deaths from this cause during the earlier
period and only one death during the later one. This is in marked
contrast to the relative increase in homicides throughout the country,
which during recent years has reached startling proportions.
The foregoing vital statistics of the International Typographical
Union, on the whole, show that the tendencies concerning preventable
diseases are all in the direction of a decided improvement. The
increase observed in the mortality from cancer, diabetes, and organic
diseases of the heart are deserving, however, of extended and thorough
consideration. All the evidence is apparently conclusive that, meas­
ured by specific causes, the present-day mortality of the International
Typographical Union is in gratifying contrast to that of the past.
Supplementary to the foregoing is a special return of the mortality
of the International Typographical Union for the year 1925, based
on the data furnished in the 12 monthly issues of the Typographical
Journal. This experience covers 877 deaths, of which 87 or 9.9 per
cent, were from tuberculosis. There were 66 deaths from cancer
(7.8 per cent), 12 deaths from diabetes (1.4 per cent), 68 deaths from
cerebral hemorrhage (8.0 per cent), 121 from organic diseases of the
heart (13.8 per cent), 32 from diseases of the arteries, including
arteriosclerosis (3.6 per cent), 74 from pneumonia (8.4 per cent), 6
from appendicitis (0.7 per cent), 8 from cirrhosis of the liver (0.9
per cent), and 55 from Bright’s disease (6.3 per cent). As far as it
is possible to judge there was only a single suicide and no homicides,
but there was 1 death due to firearms which may possibly have been
a murder. There were two deaths from chronic lead poisoning and
one death from alcoholism.
Table 67 presents detailed figures for the mortality of the Inter­
national Typographical Union, by causes, for the three periods,
1912-1918, 1919-1923, and 1925:
T able 67.—M O R TA L IT Y OF IN TER N A TIO N A L T Y P O G R A PH IC A L UNION, 1912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1925, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS
1913 T O 1918
Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber i
1
4
5
7
10
14
18

Cause of death

All 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
to to to
to to to to to to
to to to
ages to 24 29 34 39 44 49 to 59 64 69 to 79 84 89 and
74
over
19
54
!
1

____________
Typhoid fever
Malaria________ ___ ____ . . . . __
Smallpox______________________
Scarlet fever ______ __________
Influenza _ . . . _____________
Dysentery__ ______ __ __ __ „__
Erysipelas.....................................

1United States Bureau of the Census.
1916. 309 pp.




47 . . . ! 6
i
3
i
3
4
2
3
i
2
15 . l .

7 8
1 1
2
1

4

1 ...

8
I

3

1
2 2

6

4

1

1

2

5

1

2

1—

!
I—
1

1
1!
i
! 1

Manual of the International List of Causes of Death. Washington,

VITAL STATISTICS— TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

87

T a b le 6 7 .—M O RTALITY OF INTERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 1912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1925, B Y CAUSES AN D AGE GROUPS—Continued
1913 TO 1918—Continued
Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
list
num
ber

Cause of death

Purulent infection and septicae­
mia
_ ___ .
Tetanus_______________________
Mycoses______________________
Pellagra_______________________
Tuberculosis of lungs ...
Acute miliary tuberculosis______
Tuberculous meningitis________
Abdominal tuberculosis________
Pott’s disease__________________
Tuberculosis of other organs____
Syphilis..... ........................... ........
Cancer of stomach and Jiver_____
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
rectum_______________ ___ _
Cancer of other organs or of organs
not specified................ ..............
Other tumors____________ _____
Acute articular rheumatism.........
Diabetes................. —____ ______
Addison’s disease..........................
Leucaemia_______ _____________
Anemia, chlorosis.........................
Alcoholism (acute or chronic)___
Chronic lead poisoning.................
Other chronic poisonings..............
Encephalitis..................................
Meningitis______ _____________
Locomotor ataxia................... ......
Other diseases of spinal cord........
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy__
Softening of the brain...................
Paralysis without specified cause.
General paralysis of the insane—
Other forms of mental alienation.
Epilepsy___ __________________
Convulsions (nonpuerperal) (5
years and over).................... .
Neuralgia and neuritis.................
Other diseases of nervous system.
Acute endocarditis.......................
Organic diseases of heart--...........
Angina pectoris......... ...................
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc______________________
Embolism and thrombosis...........
Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem_________________________
Diseases of larynx.........................
Diseases of thyroid body_______
Acute b r o n c h itis_____________
Chronic bronchitis_____________
Broncho-pneumonia___________
Pneumonia_____________ __ __ _
Pleurisy................ ........................
Pulmonary congestion_____ ____
Asthma______________________ _
Other diseases of respiratory sys­
tem________________________ 100 Diseases of pharynx___________ _
Ulcer of stomach...................... .
103 Other diseases of stomach_______
105 Diarrhoea and enteritis (under 2
years)______________________ _
108 Appendicitis and typhlitis______
1 Hernia________________________
(&
Intestinal obstruction__________
110 Other diseases of intestines______
113 Cirrhosis of liver____________ __
114 Biliary calculi_________ ___ ____
115 Other diseases of liver__________
116 Diseases of spleen_____________ _
117 Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal).
118 Other diseases of digestive system 119 Acute nephritis.............................

102




55
75
35
All 15 20 25 30 to 40 45 50 to 60 65 70 to 80 85 90
to to
to to to
to
to to
ages to 24 29 34 39 44 49 to 59 to 69 to 79 84 89 and
64
74
54
over
19

17
3
1
5
697
1
3
6
5
3
2
15

2 3 2 1 1
1
1
""I
1
1 2 1
1 43 91 117 112 125 89 56 31 21 4 4
1
1
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
5 2 1 2 1
3
2

1

1

1

1
1

1

2
3
122
1
10
8
45 1 1
2
4
19
1
6
3
33
4
4
29
14
"’ I
4
162 — 2
9
107 . . . 3
36
17
3
2
5
19
67
54
11

1 2
1
2

3
1

2

1

1 3
2 2
2 1
1 6
1
2 1
2
5 3

1

2
2 2
1

10
4
10
43
5
36
21
14
16
71
3
7
1
25
2
3

"
1
1 6
3 9
1

I
I
i
10
3
2

2

1

18 12 9 4
1
1
1 ” 1 ”’ I
5 4
"I
4
1

1

1
3
1

1
1

1

1

2

1
1
26 18 14 15

2

2
2

15 ”l3 ’ il "li
3 1 1 2
1

1

1

1
1
4 2
6 2
1 1

l

‘

I
2
4 3 2
9 5 13 3 ”
8 6 2 15
5
1

4
7
1

1
2

5 12 17 27 40 43 49 45 36 39 35 15
1
1
"i
1
.1

8

1

2

2

41
1 2” 1

5

1
” 1

4

37
8
373
2
a
1
16
2
266
13
18
22

9 7 10 24 20
2
2 2
1
iir
3
5"1 6‘ ‘6 7
1
2 1 1
1 3 3 4
1
1 2 3
5 3 6 4 2
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7 8 14 ’ 21 27
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6 7i 11 'l2 ’ n
4 7,i i o 4 2
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5 11 16 26 32 30
1
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1
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2
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6
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1 2 1 2 1 4
1
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32 26 29 16 15 15 11 2
3 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
5 2 2 1
2 2 5 2 3 1 1

1
2
""2 2
5 10
2

2

2
4 ""2
5 3
2 2”
2 4
5 13
2
1
l

4
1

4

1

2

1
1
2" I

1
8 2 3
4 1 1
4
3 1 1
9 10 18
1
1 1 2"
5

2

1
1

1
1
l
1
5

1
2
1
2
4

1
1

2
3

1
2
1
1
1

1

3

1
1
1

2
2

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

88
T

able

67.—M O R TA L IT Y OF IN TERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION. 1912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1925, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS—Continued
1912 TO 1918—Continued
Age at death (years)

Intertional
list
num­
ber

Cause of death

All 15 201» ! *>! 35 40 45 50 55 i 60! 65 70 75 80 85 90
to to to to to to
to to
to to to
ages to 24 ; 29 i 34; 39 44 49 to t o ; 64!j 69 74 79 84 89 and
54 59;
19
over
i

Total...................................

2 5 I1 23!
'.
i 1 3’
!|
j
i__j
1
1
! |
I 1 1
1 1
!
{ lj

295:
1}
.6
1
1
10
ll

120 Bright’s disease___________ ____
122 Other diseases of kidneys_______
123 Calculi of urinary passages______
124 Diseases of bladder_____________
125 Diseases of urethra____________
142 Garsgrp.np, .......... . ... .. ___
144 Acute abscess_________________
154 Senility_______________________
163 Other suicides_________________
164 Poisoning by food______________
165 Other acute poisonings..... ......... .
167 Burns________________________
168 Absorption of deleterious gases...
169 Accidental drowninc..... ..............
170 Traumatism by firearms.. . .........
175 Traumatism by other crushing
(vehicles, etc):
Tifiilrnnri awidonf.
_ _
Street car accident_________
178 Excessive cold_________________
179 Effects of heat....................... ......
181 Electricity (lightning excepted)..
184 Homicides by other means..........
185 Fractures (cause not specified). . .
186 Other external violence_________
187
188 Sudden death_________________

I!
59
61!
6i
8!
1
33
35
9

3;

""il
i:
2: 2 3i 3 10] 3 2
1 j
5: 61 3i 4 o! ; 4
1 lj 1 4.
|
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1
1

12
2
1
1
1
6” i
10
56i

2
;

S 2 2j 1
i
2; 3! 3 1
lj

i
3

1
1 2
;

1
2
|

lj

.

1

]!
lj

!
i !
1 1'
1 1
i V 2 3 3
i
7 5 6 6 5 O! 3 5
4;
9i 2; 2
2' 21 4
■n !
I 2j
1

16
1

1

3

1

15 18

6
i
1
|
i

1

1

1

1
j
!
!

2j
1

3
3,338

8
29 45 41 38s 2 1 32 23
1
2 4 2: 1
1
1
1 ...! 1 1
2j 1 2
1
1
3; 1' 1
li__ I 1
lj .
5 14
;v: li 7! 10: 6
1 2
1
j
1, 1
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! 3J | 1
lj 1:
1

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r*

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3i 3
ll 1

I*
1

1
!
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i............
i
!

1

>9
3 us: ■ 0 ;257 345 402 399 396 3-i9l265207i 1831127
1
" 1
! i i
1
1

4

6 fi: I n i

1 1

1019 TO 1933

J

1 Typhoid fever_________ ____ _____
4 Malaria_______________________!
____ _______ i
5 Smallpox. _
6 Measles _____________________ j!
7 Scarlet fever_____ _______ ________ _ J1
9 Diphtheria and c ro u p .________ i
10 Influenza........... ........................... 1
14 Dysentery . ________________
18 Erysipelas____________________ 1
20 Purulent infection and septicaemia
23 Rabies........................................... 1
25 Mycoses_____________ _________ i
_______________
26 Pellagra____
28 Tuberculosis of lungs....................
29 Acute miliarv tuberculosis....... ..
30 Tuberculous meningitis________
32 Pott’s desease_________________
.
. ________
37 Syphilis
39 Cancer of buccal cavity......... ......
Cancer of stomach and liver........
40
41 Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
rectum ....................................
44 Cancer of skin.... ........... .... .........
45 Cancer of other organs or of or­
gans not specified......................
46 Other tumors............... ................
47 Acute articular rheumatism_____
50 Diabetes________________ ____ _
53 Leucaemia__ _______ __________
54 Anemia, chlorosis..___________
55 Other general diseases..................
56 Alcoholism (acute or chronic). ..
57 Chronic lead poisoning.......... ......
60 Encephalitis____ ______ ____ ___
61 Meningitis____________________
62 Locomotor ataxia____________ _
63 Other diseases of spinal cord.
64 Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy..
65 Softening of the brain. . . _____
66 Paralysis without specified c$use.
67 General paralysis of the insane___




i
11
2
1
1
2
3
80
4
6
T -1
1
512
2
8
2
3
2
19
5
1
2.54
8
4
77
5
26
4

1
15
13
22
]:]
2

222
4

177

11

11 !
! 1

4: 3
1

_

6

3

**

2i 1 2!

1 4

1

i 1•
! ,

1 1
1 1
6; 16 19 ll 6
1 1

i

1 i
1 3
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!

2

i 1 2
4i -2
■
1

j

1j 61
—
2
2

1

1

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• _____ 1' _

1
1
24 54 8Si 6S: 72; 77 68 2Ji ia!
:
1 1i
1
;
1
2 1 2
■ a
I .. j
i
i j
1 2
1
i 1
3! 4i 3 2 4
!
1
! .; 1

i

11

4

1
2 1
| 1
1, 1
I
1
11 1 — ' ---------i
1
i

2
i

1
1
2

1

2
1

8\
2. 4 1 33; 33- 43 47 27 26 13 2
............
1
1 1
l! l! 2
I 1 1
1
i 1 "I | 1
1 !
1
1
:
4 4 4 1 f5 :r! 5 9 16i 11 4= ^ 1 1
1
;
.!
i
1
i 2 2
1] 6 2
li 2 j 2 ei 6
i
i
J 3
i 1

—

6

:

1
2
1”

1
5

ai

3

!

i l
t
2; 4

1
L

1i 2
1! 3

2

4j

1 2: 4 1
2
1S 2 2
'
1.
1' i2 1 5i a1 1

i
!

i!

i

l'
I! 1
i r
.
8: <) 2xi 2f5 3 3 i 4 4 2 f \ 23. 12
j
1 I..
1
1 3: 2 lftl 211 Ifi 23 2 5 Ml I 2 ) 2(
r
.
C
1 2, 1
—
a1 11 .1 1

. 1

7i 1
1

1

i i ....

1

VITAL STATISTICS— TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION

89

T able 67.—M O R TA L IT Y OF IN TERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 1912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1926, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS—Continued
1919 TO 1933—Continued
Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

Cause of death

1 Other forms of mental alienation. _
' Epilepsy...... .................................
Convulsions (nonpuerperal) (5
years and over)...................... .
73 Neuralgia and neuritis................
74 Other diseases of nervous system.
76 Diseases of ears. ...........................
77 Pericarditis__ ______ __________
78 i Acute endocarditis_____________
79 I Organic diseases of the heart_____
80 1 Angina pectoris________________
81 jj Diseases of arteries, arterioscler! osis, etc .
_ _________
82 Embolism and thrombosis_____
85 Other diseases of circulatory sysi tom
____________
87 i Diseases of larynx______________
!
90 ! Chronic bronchitis_____________
91 i Broncho-pneumonia___________
i Pnonmonia .
............. .
; Pleurisy______________________
i
94 ! Pulmonary congestion__________
96 • Asthma
;
98 i Other diseases of respiratory
j
j system______________________
100 Diseases of pharynx____________
102 i Ulcer of stomach_______________
103 Other diseases of stomach_______
105 i Diarrhoea and enteritis (2 years
i and over)_____ ___ _________
108 ' Appendicitis and typhlitis______
109 Hernia___ ____________________
110 ; Other diseases of intestines______
113 Cirrhosis of liver........................
114 Biliary calculi_________________
115 Other diseases of liver__________
116 ; Diseases of spleen______________
117 ! Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal).
118 Other diseases of digestive system.
110 Aeute nephritis________________
120 Brights disease________________
122 Other diseases of kidneys...........
123 Calculi of urinary passages______
124 ; Diseases of bladder_____________
•
126 I Diseases of prostate......................
142 Gangrene_____________________
143 Furuncle........................ ..............
144 Acute abscess__________________
145 Other diseases of skin.................
146 Diseases of bones______________
149 Other diseases of organs of loco­
motion______________________
150 Congenital malformations.......... .
154 Senility..........................................
163 Other suicides..................... .........
164 Poisoning by food_____ ________
165 Other acute poisonings.................
167 Burns.................... .......................
168 Absorption of deleterious gases...
169 Accidental drowning............. ......
170 Traumatism by firearms..............
175 Traumatism by other crushing
(automobile accidents)_______
179 Effects of heat........... ...................
180 Lightning............................ .........
184 Homicide by other means............
185 Fractures (cause not specified). . .
186 Other external violence_________
187 Ill-defined organic disease______
_
188 Sudden death____ •____________
70

!

Total____________________




i
25
15
90
70 75
All to 20 to 301: 35 40 45 50155 60 65 to to 80 85 and
t o to to to to |to to to
to
to to
ages 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54!
59 64 69 74 79 84 89. over
i
3
5

1

3
6
17
1
3
15
419
33

1
1

1

1

1 2

1
2
1
4'
•
j
ll
1
. j
i
3 4 2 4 2
.
41
8 7 7 9 23 38 59 63 66 69 3 23 7
2; 1 8; 8 5 6 li 1 — i
i 2; 2 8’ 181 1 21 6: 21 17,
15
12
1
l! 1; 3' 3 3
|
1
!
24
1 1
4j 2 2 2 3 3 4! 1 1
s
1
1
2
1
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]
i 1
|
12;
2
2 2
ii 3
!
1
1 "’ l 1 2
6! J
1
-0 5
.8
4631...I 12 59 4 1"52 *43."37 n/v 38 4 3 . 27,‘ l4 2.
:
;
10' i i 1: i
1 2 1 1 1
2
17
! I l1
3 I 2 1
i; 2 3! 3
1 1
1' 4
19
"2 1 3
4i
i
1 j
14
1
|
2 ii
! 3j
i 3 4i
1
1 2 .1 li 31 5; 5
;
1 1 1
20
i ! 2 2 4; 2' 3 11 ""4 5 3 2 l!1
39
1
I I
j
1
1
! ,
1
4
44
1
4 5 5 6 fi:: 4i 5 1 4 2 li 1
15
j 1 3 1 ll 2i 1 i 2i i| 2 ll1 j 1
—
1
1
2~"
i li 1
i 1 1 2 5! 2 6! 9! 3 2 1i 1
33i „! ..
|
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i
1i 2 2 li
6!
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1 3 1i ll 2 3 1 1 1
14
i 1
i
1
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! 1! i 1
1 2 3! 6 3 6 2 1
I
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1i 1 1
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7:
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6i ! 4> 11' 19 29 4fi 3Q 37i 10 13 6
21
i 2 2 11 2j li| 1i 4 2 3 2 i
1
i
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9
! 11
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ii!
ii ! 1 2r 2 2 1
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0
I
i 1
3
1
f ‘ 2:
I
1
9 . 1 l i 1 3 1! 1 ) 1
1
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3:
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! 1! l 1
1 1
1
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li
1
1
1
1
1
12
2 2 3
J
! .
J " I."
1 3 7 13 18
50
1
i i 2 1
1
9
1 2'
1
1
1
!
2
i
1 1!
2
i
4
i 2 1
1 5
1 2! 1
i _
16
1
1
| 1
5
3
1
1
20
401 .
20i
5i

. 3 , 447j__

1
"l 4
1
1

1
2

1

1 3

1

1

"i

4

2
2
i
j
1

2
3

2
2
i
i

3‘
3
3

i

li
ii ” 2

1
1
1

1

3

2

1

2j.......
1
2

V

7

1

1
i

1
1
3 "5
3 5|-3
1

r -_

1

1! 1
1! 2
i
!
i

73 197i24:V218 281l36l |412j416j399 357 211 167! 78 27
1

1

1

1

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1

1
4 2 1
fi1 6 3
11 3'1 2
1 2; 2
1

3
1

I

1

I

7

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

90
T

able

67.—M O R TA LITY OF IN TERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 2912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1925, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS—Continued
1925

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

85

100
102

103
105
108
109
209
110

111

113
114
115
117
119
120
122

124
125
126
142
143
144
147
154
163
165

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

Typhoid fever..........................
Smallpox..................................
Influenza.... .............................
Erysipelas................................
Purulent infection and septicaemia
Tuberculosis of lungs....................
Pott’s disease....... . .............. ........
Cancer of stomach and liver........
Cancer of other organs and organs
not specified-.............................
Other tumors...........: ...................
Acute articular rheumatism.........
Diabetes........................................
Addison's disease........................
Anemia, chlorosis.........................
Other general diseases..................
Alcoholism (acute or chronic)___
Chronic lead poisoning_______
Encephalitis.............................
Meningitis................................
Locomotor ataxia.....................
Other diseases of spinal cord____
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy...
Softening of the b rain .............
Paralysis without specified cause.
General paralysis of the insane—
Other forms of mental alienation
Epilepsy.....................................
Neuralgia and neuritis................
Other diseases of nervous system.
Pericarditis...................................
Acute endocarditis_____ : ______
Organic diseases of the heart____
Angina pectoris........................... .
Dise ses of arteries, arterioscler­
osis, etc......................................
Embolism and thrombosis......... .
Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem......................... ................. .
Diseases of thyroid body.......... .
Chronic bronchitis.......................
Broncho-pneumonia__________
Pneumonia................................ .
Pleurisy....................................... .
Pulmonary congestion............... .
Asthma........................................ .
Emphysema............ ................... .
Other diseases of respiratory sys­
tem............................................
Diseases of pharynx.__________
Ulcer of stomach.................. .......
Other diseases of stomach............
Diarrhea and enteritis (2 years
and o v e r )............................... .
Appendicitis and typhlitis_____
Hernia..........................................
Intestinal obstruction..................
Other diseases of intestines........ .
Acute yellow atrophy of liver___
Cirrhosis of liver...........................
Biliary calculi...............................
Other diseases of liver__________
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)
Acute nephritis.............................
Bright’s disease_______ ________
Other diseases of kidneys.............
Diseases of bladder.......................
Diseases of urethra.......................
Diseases of prostate...... ................
Gangrene.......................................
Furuncle........................................
Acute abscess................................
Diseases of joints...........................
Senility..........................................
Other suicides..............................
Other acute poisonings....... .........




i

i

3 0 j 35
t o | t.0
34 i 39

25
to
29

15 20
to to
19 2 4

All
ages

1
i
|
|
i

I
i

45
to
49

40
to
44

55
to
59

50
to
54

2

65
to
69

60
to
64

1
1

2

7

j

!

i

;
i

i I 1
i

2

13

8

3

2

2

1

1
2

2

2
1
1

1

I

8

2
2

2
2

12

2

2
6

5

4
2

2

1
2
21

22

9

2

1

i

!:
1!|

!

1

j

6

3
1
1
14! 18 2 7
lj . . .
3
I
7! 8
4
2I

3
14
1

6

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14

20

J

i

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11
; 2
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i —
i

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2

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1

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i

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- j —
!

-

!

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4

3
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I
l

i
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2

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.

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1

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41

2

i

2
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6

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'

23

j
. . . . . I. . . . . .
i
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2
2
22

7

6

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. . . j1 . . .

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23

— L I—
. . . 1 .........
i
2
4

2

7
1
1
3

12

2

* 1!

n
- !
1
!

i

!
!
i
4!

1
1!
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i
i

2

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10
1
1

1

i
1!

i

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1
8
1

5

1
1

2

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1
19

1

1

;
•

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j

— 1

2
1
1

1

1

1
1

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i

3
2
2

1
2

i
!

2

2
2

1
1

1

j 1
I,■ 1

!

i
i

3

1

2
2

1 1

j ___

2
2

2

2|

I

2

1
1
1

I
j

5

2

j
i

;
i

2

8

9
1

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4

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3

5

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12

20

10
1

3: 11
; 1

85
90
to a n d
89 o v e r

2

” l
1
1
1
11 12

75 80
to to
79 84

70
to
74

.

.

.
!

I

1<

4

—

6

3

1

91

VITAL STATISTICS---- PRESSMEN’ S UNION
T

able

67.—M OR TA LITY OF INTERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 1912 TO 1918,
1919 TO 1923, AND 1925, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS—Continued
1925—Continued

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

All 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
to
to
to
ages to 24 to to to to 49 to to to to to to to 89 and
19
54 59 64 69 74 79 84
29 34 39 44
over

185
186
187
188
189

1

2
2
3
1

Burns.................... - ......................
Absorption of deleterious gases...
Accidental drowning..................
Traumatism by firearms_______
Traumatism by other crushing
(railroad accident)......... ...........
Fractures (cause not specified)...
Other external violence____ ____
Ill-defined organic diseases..........
Sudden death_______ ____ ; .......
Not specified or ill defined-........

2
3
20
4
1
112

Total...................................

167
168
169
170
175

877

1

1

1 2
1

1
2
2 2 2
1

1 2

1

1

2
1

1

1

7

6 10 15

1
2 3

9 20

1
1

1
1

7 15

8

1 1
1
1
8 5

8 23 31 46 50 74 92 136 117 110 90 57 27 11
1

4

INTERNATIONAL PRINTING PRESSMEN AND ASSISTANTS’ UNION

The experience of the International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union has been divided into three periods— 1912-1917, 1918,
and 1919-1923. During the first period there were 793 tabulatable
deaths from ail causes, of which 245, or 30.9 per cent, were from
pulmonary tuberculosis. The proportionate mortality was highest
at ages 20 to 24, being 46.1 per cent which must be considered exces­
sive. Other data for pressmen are included in Bulletin No. 231
of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, entitled “ Mortality
from respiratory diseases in dusty trades/’ in which is included
the industrial experience of the Prudential Insurance Co. (p. 146).
This experience covers the period 1897-1914 and represents 523
deaths from all causes, of which 207, or 39.6 per cent, were from
pulmonary tuberculosis. In this experience, the proportionate mor­
tality from pulmonary tuberculosis for ages 25 to 34 was 47.7 per
cent. The details of the mortality experience of the International
Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union for 1912-1917 are given
in Table 68:
t a b l e 68.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG THE M EM BERS OF THE

IN TERN ATION AL PRIN TIN G PRESSMEN AND ASSISTANTS’ UNION, 1912 TO 1917,
BY AGE GROUPS

Age at death

13 to 19 years_________________________
20 to 24 years___ ____ ________________
25 to 29 years_____ ____________________
30 to 34 years__________________ ______
35 to 39 years____ ____ __ _____ ________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years_________________________
50 to 54 years___________ ______ „______
55 to 59 years.._____________________ _
60 to 64 years_________________________
65 to 69 years____ __________ __________
70 to 74 years_________________________
75 to 79 years_________________________
85 to 89 years_________________________
Total______ ____ _______________

16056°—27------7



Bright’s
Pneumonia
Tuberculosis Cancer—
all forms
disease
All
causes Num­
Num­ Per Num­ Per
Per Num­ Per
cent
ber
ber
ber cent
cent
ber cent
6
89
132
88
104
115
85
58
50
38
9
14
4
1

1
41
60
35
37
33
22
7
6
1
1
1

16.7
46.1
45.5
39.8
35.6
28.7
25.9
12.1
12.0
2.6
11.1
7.1

1
1
3
9
4
4
1
6
1

0.8
1.1
2.9
7.8
4.7
6.9
2.0
15.8
11.1

793

245

30.9

30

3.8

1 16.7
7.9
7
13 9.8
6
6.8
12 11.5
9
7.8
7 8.2
8 13.8
5 10.0
4 10.5
1 11.1
1 7.1
2 50.0
1 100.0
77

9.7

1

1.1

1

1.0

1

2.0

3

0.4

92

HEALTH SURVEY OP THE PRINTING TRADES

Cancer, in the experience of this organization during 1912-1917,
formed 3.8 per cent of the mortality from all causes, pneumonia
9.7 per cent, and Bright’s disease 0.4 per cent. It must not, of course,
be overlooked that pressmen and assistants are possibly and perhaps
in all probability of a somewhat younger average age than compositors
and machine operators. Bright’s disease was apparently of decide
edly minor importance, there having been only 3 deaths, equivalent
to 0.4 per cent. The experience of 1918 is considered separately
on account of the heavy incidence of pneumonia complicated with
influenza in that year. There were 303 deaths from all causes,
of which 46 or 15.2 per cent were due to tuberculosis. The pro­
portionate mortality for cancer was 2.0 per cent, and that for pneu­
monia 21.5 per cent as against 9.7 per cent during the previous
period. Bright’s disease formed 1.0 per cent of the mortality from
all causes. Details of this experience are given in Table 69:
T a b le 69.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG M EM BERS OF THE IN-

TERN ATION AL PRINTIN G PRESSMEN AND ASSISTANTS’ UNION, 1918, BY AGE
GROUPS
i

Age at death

15 to 19 years______________________ . . .
20 to 24 years_________________________
25 to 29 years_________________________
30 to 34 years_________________________
35 to 39 years.___________ ____________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years_________________________
50 to 54 years_________________________
55 to 59 years___ ___________ ________ _
60 to 64 years_________________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years__ ______ ________________
Total................................................

Tuberculosis

All
causes

C ancerall forms

Pneumonia

Bright’s
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent
ber
cent
ber cent
ber
cent

2
4 8.2
49
8 13.1
61
55
10 18.2
47
9 19.1
8 26.7
30
3 11.5
26
16 i
12.5 . . .2 .
7 :L . . . . . . . . . . .
1 25.0
4
l 25.0
4 !
2
303 j

46

15.2

1
2

2.1
6.7

. 2 . .‘ .l2.T
.

1

2.0

16.3
26.3
34.5
17.0
20.0
11.5
12.5
28.6
25.0

65

21.5

25.0

6

8
16
19
8
6
3
2
2
1

2

3.3

1

3.3

3

1.0

i

In the experience of the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union during 1919-1923, presented in Table 70, there
were 598 deaths, of which 111, or 18.6 per cent, were from tuber­
culosis. This is in marked contrast to the first period, when the
mortality from that cause was 30.9 per cent. The decline conforms
to the results revealed by the analysis of the vital statistics of the
International Typographical Union.




VITAL STATISTICS— PRESSMEN'S UNION

93

T a b le TO.—M O R T A L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AMONG M E M B E R S OF THE IN ­

TERN ATION AL PRIN TIN G PRESSMEN A N D ASSISTANTS' UNION, 1919 TO 1923, BY
AGE GROUPS

Age at death

Bright’s
Tuberculosis Cancer—all Pneumonia
forms
disease
All
causes Num- Per Num- Per Num­ Per Num- Per
ber cent
cent
ber
cent
ber
cent
ber

18 to 19 years----20 to 24 years___
25 to 29 years___
30 to 34 years___
35 to 39 years___
40 to 44 years___
45 to 49 years.
50 to 54 years----55 to 59 years----60 to 64 years___
65 to 69 years___
70 to 74 years___
75 to 79 years___
80 to 84 years----85 to 89 years----90 years and over.

29.4
25.4
29.7
28.6
21.3
14.1
15.5
4.3
3.1

16.7
17.6

2.9

22.2

2.7

9.5
9.5
9.3
5.6
6.9
6.5
9.4
8.0
5.3

6.0

4.0
11.3
3.4
13.0
12.5
4.0
5.3
25.0

5.3

3.2
1.4
1.4
3.4
4.0

100.0

Total.........

Ill

18.6

35

60

5.9

10.0

1.3

The proportion of deaths from cancer during 1919-1923 was 5.9
per cent, as against 3.8 per cent during the first period. This also
is within a fair degree of conformity to the corresponding experience
of the International Typographical Union. It would not, of course,
be permissible to carry such a comparison too far and anticipate
entirely identical results, if only because of the variations in the age
composition of the two groups of employees.
The proportionate mortality from pneumonia was 10 per cent, as
against 9.7 per cent during the first period. This slight increase is
partly accounted for by the aftereffects of the influenza epidemic.
The proportionate mortality from Bright's disease was 1.3 per cent,
still remaining a relatively unimportant element in the mortality of
this group of employees. The proportion is in marked contrast to
the much higher figures for the International Typographical Union,
which during the period 1919-1923 was 6.7 per cent. Here again
the age factor may be of decided influence.
Detailed data of the mortality experience of the International
Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union for the three periods,
1912-1917, 1918, and 1919-1923 are given in Table 71:
T a b le 71.—M O R TA L IT Y E XPE R IE N C E OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L PRIN TIN G PRESS­

M EN AND ASSISTANTS’ UNION, 1912-1917, 1918, AN D 1919-1923, BY CAUSES AND AGE
GROUPS
1913 T O 1917

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber1

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

Typhoid fever..........................
Malaria.....................................
Measles.....................................
Influenza-................................
Erysipelas................................
Purulent infection and septi­
caemia--................................
Pellagra.....................................
Tuberculosis of lungs...............
Tuberculous meningitis..........

All

15 20 25 30 35 40 45! 50 ! 55 60 65 70 75180 85 90
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to and
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 over

... 3 5 1
1
— 1 1
1
1
1
1
“ i 41 60 35| 37 33
1
1

1

1
2

1

22 7! 6
1 .. J

1

1

1

1 United States Bureau of the Census. Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.
ton, 1916. 309 pp.




Washiz g-

HEALTH SURVEY OP THE PRINTING TRADES

94
T

71.—M O R TA LITY E X P E R IE N C E OF THE IN TERN ATION AL P R IN T IN G PRESS­
M E N A N D ASSISTANTS' U N ION , 1912-1917, 1918, AN D 1919-1923, BY CAUSES AND AGE
GROUPS—Continued
1 9 1 2 T O 1917—Continued

able

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber
31
34
37
39
40
41
45
46
47
48
50
51
52
53
54
56
61a
62
63

67
70
73
74
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

87
91
92
93
94
103
108
109
110

113
115
117
119
120
121
122

124
142
145
147
148
154
156
157
159
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

Abdominal tuberculosis.........
Tuberculosis of other organs..
Syphilis..
Cancer of buccal cavity...............
Cancer of stomach and liver........
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
rectum........................................
Cancer of other organs or of or­
gans not specified......................
Other tumors................................
Acute articular rheumatism.........
Chronic rheumatism and gout.
Diabetes......................................
Exophthalmic goiter....................
Addison’s disease.........................
Leucaemia.....................................
Anemia, chlorosis.........................
Alcoholism (acute or chronic)___
Cerebrospinal meningitis.............
Locomotor ataxia.........................
Other diseases of the spinal cord
(acute anterior poliomyelitis) ~.
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy..
Paralysis, without specified cause.
General paralysis of the insane..
Other forms of mental alienation.
Epilepsy.......................................
Convulsions (nonpuerperal) 5
years and over....... ...................
Neuralgia and neuritis.................
Other diseases of nervous system.
Pericarditis...................................
Acute endocarditis.......................
Organic diseases of the heart.......
Angina pectoris___ ____ _______
Diseases of arteries, arterioscler­
osis, etc....................................
Embolism and thrombosis..........
Diseases of veins...........................
Diseases of lymphatic system___
Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem............................................
Diseases of nasal fossae.................
Diseases of larynx.........................
Broncho-pneumonia....................
Pneumonia...................................
Pleurisy........................................
Pulmonary congestion.................
Other diseases of stomach............
Appendicitis and typhlitis..........
Intestinal obstruction..................
Other diseases of intestines..........
Cirrhosis of liver......................... .
Other diseases of the liver.......... .
Simple
peritonitis (nonpuer­
peral).........................................
Acute nephritis........................... .
Bright’s disease........................... .
Chyluria.................... _................ .
Other diseases of kidneys.............
Diseases of bladder.......................
Gangrene..................................... .
Other diseases of the skin............
Diseases of joints......................... .
Amputations............................... .
Senility........................................ .
Suicide by asphyxia.................... .
Suicide by hanging.......................
Suicide by firearms..................... .
Other suicides...............................
Poisoning by food.........................
Other acute poisonings................
Conflagration...............................
Burns............................... ........... .
Absorption of deleterious gases...
Accidental drowning............ .......
Traumatism by firearms.............




15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to and
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 over

All

1
1

1
1

1
1 4

1
3

1
1

1

2

2 4
3 1 ~"2
1
1
2

2

3
2

1
1
2

1 1
5 4
2
2
1

1
“ i

1

1

2

2
1

3
2
2

2

1

2
1 3
1
1 1
3
2

3
1

1
5
1

5

1

1

"i
1

1

1

1

2 1
6
2
6 ~*6 " 4 10
1

1
4 1
9 8
1
1

1
4
2 "4
2
1

1
2
1

1

3

2

2

1

1
1

1
1

1

3

1
1

1

1
2

1
1

1

1
1

2
1

1

2

1
1

1 1
1
6 12 9 7 8 5
1
1 1 1
1 2
1
1
1
2
i 3
~’ l
1
2 1
1
2 4 1
1

7 13

4

1

8.

1
1
1

1

1

.

1

77

1

.

3.
8

3.
3.
9.
2

i

2
4 5
1

1
6
1

1
7 13
1
1
1

2

5

8

1
2
1

1

1

1
1
4
1

2
1

2

3

1

1

6

1
1

1
1

1

1

1
1 2
1

1

2
2

1

3
1

1

1
1
1
1
1

1

1

1
1

1

8
1

1

1

1

2 ...

1

VITAL STATISTICS— PRESSMEN'S UNION

95

T A B L E 7 1 . — M O R TA L IT Y

E XPE R IE N C E OF THE IN TERN ATION AL PR INTIN G PRESS­
M E N AND ASSISTANTS' UNION, 1912-1917, 1918, AND 1919-1923, B Y CAUSES AND AGE
GROUPS—Continued
^
1913 T O 1917—Continued

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber
172

175

179
182
183
185
186
187

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

90
and
over

All

Traumatism by fall.................... .
Traumatism by fall down eleva­
tor shaft.................. ................. .
Traumatism by fall from height..
Traumatism by other crushing:
Street-car accident-...................
Automobile accident.............. Motorcycle accident------ ------Effects of heat............................. .
Homicides by firearms................
Homicides by cutting or piercing
instruments...............................
Fractures (cause not specified)
Other external violence.............. .
Ill-defined organic diseases......... .
Killed in action........................... .
89jl32 88 104115 85 58 50 38
i

Total....................................

9 14

1913
Influenza.......................................
Tuberculosis of lungs.................. .
Tuberculous meningitis.............. .
Abdominal tuberculosis...............
Syphilis.........................................
Cancer of buccal cavity.............. .
Cancer of stomach and liver........
C ancer of other organs or of organs.
not specified............................. .
Other tumors.............................. .
Diabetes...................................... .
Anemia, chlorosis.........................
Chronic lead poisoning............... .
Meningitis....................................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy...
Paralysis without specified cause
General paralysis of the insane..

99
105
109
110
113
119
120

142
143
156
157
163
165
170
175

185

Acute endocarditis.......................
Organic diseases of the heart.......
Angina pectoris--------------- ------Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc....... ................................
Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem.............................................
Broneho-pneumonia.....................
Pneumonia...................................
Pleurisy........................... ...........
Asthma.........................................
Diseases of mouth and annexa...
Diarrhea and enteritis (2 years
and over)...................................
Hernia...........................................
Intestinal obstruction..................
Other diseases of intestines..........
Cirrhosis of liver...........................
Acute nephritis............................
Bright’s disease............................
Gangrene......................................
Furuncle......................................
Suicide by asphyxia.....................
Suicide by hanging.......................
Other suicides...............................
Other acute poisonings................
Absorption of deleterious gases.. .
Accidental drowning..................
Traumatism by firearms............
Traumatism by other crushing:
Railroad accidents...............
Automobile accidents......... .
Fractures (cause not specified)..
Killed in action....................
Total.




43
46

1 4 14 11 9
4 8 10 9
1

3
8

1
3 2

1

1

2

1

17
1

1

1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
2
3
13
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
4
36
303

1

2

1
1
1
""i
1 ""I
l
1

3

l

3
2
9
65
3
1
1

1

1

1
1

1

l

2
2

2

2
6
1

1
1 2

1

1

1

l

1 l
4 1 1 1
1 1
8 16 19 8 ’ ’ 6 3 2 2
1
1
1
1
1

1

l

1
1
1

1
2
4

3
2

1
1
” i

1

1
1
1
1

1

1

3

1

1

1

4

2

1
1

1
l

1

1

1

18 11

2 1
5 2

1

2 49 61 55 47 30 26 16

7

4

4

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES
71.—M O R TA L IT Y E X P E R IE N C E OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L PRIN'l
A N D ASSISTANTS’ UNION, 1912-1917, 1918, AN D 191^-1923, B Y CAUSI
) UPS—Continued
1919 TO 1923
Age at death (years)
La­

ma]
1st
im»er

1

6
10
18
20

24
28
30
31
34
39
40
41
45
46
47
50
51
53
54
61
62
64
65

66

67

68

69
78
79
80
81
82
83
85
89
91
92
94
96
97
98
LO
O
102

103
108
109
110

113
L15
117
118
119

120

122

124
146
155
163
168
175
179
184
185
186

Cause of death

Typhoid fever...............................
Measles..........................................
Influenza.......................................
Erysipelas...................... ..............
Purulent infection and septicaemia
Tetanus.........................................
Tuberculosis of lungs....................
Tuberculous meningitis...............
Abdominal tuberculosis________
Tuberculosis of other organs........
Cancer of buccal cavity. ..............
Cancer of stomach and liver..___
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
rectum........................................
Cancer of other organs or of
organs not specified...................
Other tumors................................
Acute articular rheumatism.........
Diabetes........................................
Exophthalmic goiter.....................
Leucaemia.............................. .......
Anaemia, chlorosis................. ......
Meningitis.....................................
Locomotor ataxia..........................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy. _
Softening of the brain...................
Paralysis without specified cause
General paralysis of the insane...
Other forms of mental alienation.
Epilepsy...................................... .
Acute endocarditis.......................
Organic diseases of the heart____
Angina pectoris...........................
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc........................................
Embolism and thrombosis......... _
Diseases of veins...........................
Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem.............................................
Acute bronchitis...........................
Broncho-pneumonia.....................
Pneumonia....................................
Pulmonary congestion.................
Asthma..........................................
Pulmonary emphysema...............
Other diseases of respiratory sys­
te m ............................................
Diseases of pharynx......................
Ulcer of stomach...........................
Other diseases of stomach............
Appendicitis and typhlitis...........
Hernia............................ ..............
Other diseases of intestines..........
Cirrhosis of liver...........................
Other diseases of liver...................
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)
Other diseases of digestive system
Acute nephritis.............................
Bright’s disease............................
Other diseases of kidneys.............
Diseases of bladder.......................
Diseases of bones..........................
Suicide by poison.........................
Other suicides...............................
Absorption of deleterious gases. __
Traumatism by other crushing
(automobile accidents)............ .
Effects of heat..............................
Homicide by other means............
Fractures (cause not specified)
Other external violence............
Capital punishment................
Killed in war...........................
Total...............................




All
ages

1
1

9
3
10

1

22

111

3

2
2

11

3

1
1
1
6
1

9

2
2

20

4

11
1
1

17
78
13
9
1

1
1
'i

6

7
1

8
60
3
4.

i..:
—
i
.

1.

.
ij:::

2

1.

‘t :::
io|::
?i:::

4

5! 3

36*11'
8---.
3j~.

- 4i f :

1~.

2 ...

i0j : : :
1—

1

2—

1
L!
1
!
598

34

74j 84 75 71 58j 46 32 25
i

VITAL STATISTICS---- PHOTO-ENGRAVERS* UNION

97

INTERNATIONAL PHOTO-ENGRAVERS’ UNION

The experience of the International Photo-Engravers' Union is
available only for the period 1919-1923. This organization also
represents a much larger proportion of younger persons than does
the International Typographical Union. For 1919-1923 there was
a total of 206 deaths from all causes, of which 41, or 19.9 per cent,
were attributable to tuberculosis. The proportionate rate was
highest at ages 35 to 39, being 33.3 per cent, but it was 32.4 per cent
for ages 30 to 34. On account of the variation in the age distri­
bution, a strict comparison with other groups of printing employees
is not admissible. Details of the experience for the period under
review are given in Table 72:
72.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG THE M EM BERS OF THE
IN TERN ATION AL PHOTO-ENGRAVERS’ UNION, 1919 TO 1923, B Y AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Tuberculosis
Age at death

i
All 1
causes j

20 to 24 years.................................... ........
25 to 29 years.............................................
30 to 34 years____ ____________________
35 to 39 years____ ____________________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years............ ...................... .........
50 to 54 years.............................................
55 to 59 years___________ _____________
60 to 64 years_________________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years________________________ _
75 to 79 years______ ___________________
80 to 84 years____________________ ___

16
37
34
18
25 !
20 i
20 :|

Total_________ ____ _____ _______

206 !

u i

13 !
6i
3
2j

Cancer—
all forms

Pneumonia

Bright’s
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
cent
ber cent
ber
ber
cent
ber
cent
3
7
11
6
6
2
4
2

18.8
18.9
32.4
1
2.9
33.3
24.0 .......... 2 ~8.~6"
10.0
1 5.0
20.0
2 10.0
18.2
2 18.2
2 15.4
1

33.3

11

5.3

1 6.3
12 32.4
1
7 2a 6
3 16.7
2
4 16.0
3 15.0 .......... l"
3 15.0
3 27.3
3
1

2.9
11.1
5.0
23.1
16.7

i !

41

19.9

36

17.5

8

3.9

1

The proportionate mortality from cancer was 5.3 per cent, which
must be considered relatively high considering the small number of
deaths at ages 65 and over. The corresponding proportion for the
International Typographical Union was 8.2 per cent, while for the
International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union it was 5.9
per cent. The actual number of deaths from this disease is, however,
too small for extended consideration.
The proportionate mortality from pneumonia was 17.5 per cent,
which is relatively high but is partly accounted for by the peculiar
age distribution of the experience under consideration. It is well
known that the influenza epidemic of 1918-19 fell most heavily upon
ages under 40. The proportionate mortality by different periods
of life for pneumonia was highest at ages 25 to 29—32.4 per cent.
At this age period the corresponding proportionate mortality from
pneumonia in the experience of the International Typographical
Union was 29.9 per cent and the International Printing Pressmen
and Assistants7 Union 22.2 per cent. Hence the conclusion that,
broadly speaking, the pneumonia-influenza epidemic affected more
seriously the International Photo-Engravers’ Union than the Inter­
national Typographical Union and the International Printing Press­
men and Assistants' Union. The proportionate mortality from
Bright's disease was 3.9 per cent. This can not be looked upon as



98

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PBINTING TRADES

excessive, considering the age distribution of the organization. It
is higher than that in the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union but lower than that in the International
Typographical Union.
Table 73 presents detailed data of the mortality experience of the
International Photo-Engravers’ Union:
T a b le

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber1

7 3 .— M O R TA LITY

EXPE R IE N C E OF THE IN TERN ATION AL PHOTO-ENGRAV­
ERS’ UNION, 1919 TO 1923, BY CAUSES AND AGE GROUPS
Age at death (years)

Cause of death

Influenza
29
30
39
40

1
1

45
50
54
60
61
63
64
66

67
68

74
79
80
82
91
92
94
102
103
108
109
117
120
124
142
143
144
146
155
163
164
165
168
169
184

20
to
24

All
ages

_

___

Tuberculous meningitis________
Canrw of buccal cavity
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
and rectum._________________
Cancer of other organs or of or­
gans not specified ..
_____
Diabetes ____________________
Anemia, chlorosis_____________
Encephalitis__________________
Meningitis
. ______
Other diseases of"spinal cord____
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy..
Paralysis without special cause..
General paralysis of the insane...
Other forms of mental alienation.
Other diseases of nervous system.
Organic diseases of the heart.......
Angina pectoris_______________
Embolism and thrombosis_____
Broncho-pneumonia___________
Pneumonia .
_________i _____
Pulmonary congestion_________
Ulcer of stomach______________
Other diseases of stomach _______
Appendicitis and typhlitis_____
Intestinal obstruction__________
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)_____________________
Bright’s disease_______________
Diseases of bladder................ ....
Gangrene_____________________
Furuncle_____________________
Acute abscess_________________
Diseases of bones___ ___________
Suicide by poison_____________
Other s u i c i d e s __________
Poisoning by food_____________
Other acute poisonings................
Absorption of deleterious gases..
Accidental drowning. _ . _____
Homicide by other means______
Total....................................

2
11 ~~2
3
41
1 1
2
1
2
3

25 : 30
to Sto
29 j 34
il
6 !
*i
J
1

11

35 40 1 45
to to ; to
39 44 49

50
to
54

55
to
59

1
2

4

2

6

2
6

i

1i
1

1

2

j

1 ....

2
1

1

j 1

1
1

1 |
1
1 !
.

1

3

4

i
11 3
12 i 7
i j

1
1

1

1
1
37

34

l
__ I
1 i

i

—

i

2
2

1

1
1

I

1
2

I

i

!..

! 3
i
1

2

1

1
I ...
i
,

1

i

i
i

!

1

1

L. .
"f —
!
1
L_
' ____

1

1
1

!

1

i

i

1

206 ! 16

:

1
1

3
8
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1 i
1 i
i
4
1

|

i
t
!

f
!
!
1 1 i
11
i
1
...J 1 ! 1 ; 2
1 I
i
i
i
i
! 2 |
j. . . .
!
1_
..:.i
iT !
f
1
__ 1 4 : 1 !' 2 !I
i
2
1
3 I 4
i
i i
i
1
1|
1
!
i
]
f T
3 4 3 3
3
i
!
1

1
i

1

1
l•
i
!
1

|

i!

5
3
1
2
1
1
8 ....
1
4 .. ,
2
1
i
27 2 !
2
2
6 ....
36
2
1
1
1
2
4
2

80
to
84

1

i
1
!
i
1
1

i
i 1

1

75
to
79

65 70
to to
69 74

60
to
64

i
i

i

1
1

1

___ i ___

1
1

18

25

20

20

11

13

6

3

2

1

i

i United States Bureau of the Census.
ington, 1916. 309 pp.

Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.

Wash­

INTERNATIONAL STEREOTYPERS AND ELECTROTYPERS’ UNION

The available experience of the International Stereotypers and
Electrotypers’ Union has been divided into two periods, 1914-1918
and 1919-1923. During the first period, as will be seen in Table
74, there were 288 deaths from all causes, of which 62, or 21.5 per
cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. This proportion compares
with 20.9 per cent for the International Typographical Union during



VITAL STATISTICS— STEREOTYPER’ S UNION

99

1912-1918 and 30.9 per cent for the International Printing Pressmen
and Assistants' Union for 1912-1917. The experience is, of course,
affected by the age distribution of the organization, there being a
relatively large proportion of deaths at ages 25 to 54.
74.—M O R T A L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG M EM BERS OF THE IN­
TERN A TIO N A L STEREOTYPERS AND ELEC TR O TYPE R S’ UNION, 1914 TO 1918, BY
AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Tuberculosis
Age at death

All
causes

20 to 24 years_____ .___________________
25 to 29 years_________________________
30 to 34 years......... ..................................
35 to 39 years_________________________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years_________________________
50 to 54 years____ ____________________
55 to 59 years____ ____________________
60 to 64 years.............................................
65 to 69 years.............................................
70 to 74 years......... .............. ................... .
75 to 79 years....... .....................................
80 to 84 years........................................ ....

2
28
34
47
46
43
26
22
19
8
6
4
3

Total................................................

288

Cancerall forms

Pneumonia

Bright’s
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent
ber
cent
ber cent
ber
cent
1
9 32.1
8 23.5
19 40.4
7 15. 2
11 25.6
5 19.2
2 9.1
1 5.3

62

21.5

2
2

5.9
5.9
4.3

.....3

~"Y.b~
1 3.8
2 9.1
4 21.1

14

4.8

6
7
9
9
10
7
3
2
1
1
1
1

21.4
20.6
19.1
19. 6
*23.3
26.9
13.6
10.5
12.5
16; 7
25.0
33.3

50.0

.....2

” ~5.9
2.1
13.0
7.0
3.6
4.5
26.3

57

19.8

1
6
3
1
1
5
1

16.7

1

33.3

22

7.6

The proportionate mortality from cancer was 4.8 per cent, which is
a little higher than the corresponding mortality for the International
Typographical Union. The proportionate mortality from pneumonia
was 19.8 per cent and from Bright's disease 7.6 per cent.
During the 1919-1923 experience of this organization, as will be
seen in Table 75, there were 275 deaths from all causes, or about the
same as during the previous period. The proportionate mortality
from tuberculosis has slightly declined, being 18.2 per cent, while the
proportionate mortality from cancer increased to 8.7 per cent. The
proportionate mortality from pneumonia was 13.8 per cent as against
19.8 per cent during the previous period, which, of course, includes the
larger portion of the influenza epidemic. The proportionate mor­
tality from Bright's disease was 6.2 per cent.
75.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG THE M EM BERS OF THE
IN TERN ATION AL STEREOTYPERS AN D E LEC T R O T YP E R S’ UNION, 1919-1923, BY
AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Tuberculosis
Age at death

Cancerall forms

Pneumonia

Bright’s
disease

All
causes
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent

20 to 24 years.............................................
25 to 29 years...... ......................................
30 to 84 years.............................................
35 to 39 years................... ..........................
40 to 44 years______ __ ____ ___________
45 to 49 years___________ __________ _
50 to 54 years.............................................
55 to 59 years______________ __________
60 to 64 years................... ..........................
65 to 69 years................................. ..........
70 to 74 years.............................................
75 to 79 years,............................L
.............
80 to 84 years............ ................................
85 to 89 years.............................................

3
19
31
42
30
35
30
23
27
21
11
1
1
1

Total................................................

275




1 33.3
6 31.6
9 29.0
13 31.0
9 30.0
6 17.1
2 6.7
2 8.7
1 3.7
1 4.8

50

18.2

1
1
3
4

2.4
3.3
8.6
13.3

.....Y

~25.9~
2 9. 5
4 3.6

24

8.7

1
12
7

5.3
38.7
16.7

.....5 ’ llT
~
3
4
1
1
3

10.0
17. 4
3.7
4.8
27.3

I
1 I100.0
[
1
38 13.8

2
2

3
2
2

6.5
4.8
3.3
11.4
3.3
13.0
7.4
9.5

17

6.2

X
4
1

100

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Some additional observations as to the experience of this organi­
zation may serve a useful purpose. The mortality from typhoid fever
was the same for both periods, which is practically true also of
influenza complicated with pneumonia. There were no deaths from
chronic lead poisoning during the first period but there was one
death during the second. Deaths from diabetes increased from no
recorded mortality in the first period to three deaths in the second.
Organic diseases of the heart diminished from 51 during 1914-1918
to 34 during 1918-1923. The mortality from ulcers of the stomach
remained the same during both periods. There were five deaths
from appendicitis during the earlier period, and six deaths during
the later one. Suicides increased from two to three and miscellaneous
accidents diminished from nine to two. As far as it is possible to
judge, the mortality of this organization during recent years has
undergone an improvement, keeping in mind the fact that the number
of deaths in each period is about the same, 288 and 275, respectively.
The mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis diminished from 62
to 50, while the mortality from cancer increased from 14 to 24.
Deaths from pneumonia, largely complicated by influenza, however,
declined from 57 to 38. There were comparatively few deaths from
other respiratory affections. The one death from lead poisoning
is of no importance. The general conclusion would seem justified
that the mortality from almost all important causes is diminishing.
Since the foregoing analysis was prepared original death certifi­
cates have been furnished covering the period 1904-1924, repre­
senting in the aggregate 1,044 tabulatable deaths from all causes, of
which 203, or 19.4 per cent were from pulmonary tuberculosis, while
there were 6 deaths from other forms of tuberculosis, a total of 209.
All forms of cancer caused a mortality of 63 deaths, aside from which
there were 2 deaths from nonmalignant tumors. There were 6 deaths
from diabetes, 2 deaths from chronic alcoholism, and 3 deaths from
chronic lead poisoning. Among the diseases of the nervous system
there were 38 deaths from cerebral hemorrhage and apoplexy. There
were 99 deaths from organic diseases of the heart and 12 deaths from
diseases of the arteries and arteriosclerosis. There were 132 deaths
from pneumonia, or 12.6 per cent of the total.. Among the deaths
from diseases of the digestive system mention may be made of 8
from ulcers of the stomach and 14 from appendicitis. There were
also 13 deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. There were 77 deaths from
Bright’s disease, or 7.4 per cent of the total. There were 10 deaths
from suicide and 60 deaths from accidents of all kinds. In the
entire experience there is only 1 homicide. The details of this
experience, as well as of that for the two periods 1914-1918 and
1919-1923, are given in Table 76:




VITAL STATISTICS— STEREOTYPER'S UNION

101

T a b le 76.—M O R TA L IT Y EXPE R IE N C E OF THE IN TERN ATION AL STEREOTYPERS
AND E LEC TROTYPERS’ UNION, 1914 TO 1918, 1919 TO 1923, AND 1904 TO 1924, BY CAUSE
AND AGE GROUPS
1914 TO 1918
Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber i

Cause of death

20 |25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 i 75 80 85
to ! to to to to to to to to to to : to to to
24 i 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 •79 84 89

All

Typhoid fever............................................
Influenza.................................................... .
Purulent infection and septies&mia............
Tuberculosis of lungs__________ _________
Tuberculous meningitis. __.........................
Cancer of stomach and liver......................
Cancer of other organs or of organs not spec-

102

103
108
109
113
115
117
120122 !

142 j
154 '
163 j
185
186
187 i

Other tumors............................................. .
Encephalitis............................................. .
Meningitis...................................................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy................. .
Paralysis without specified cause...............
General paralysis of the insane..................
Organic diseases of the heart.....................
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclerosis, etc___
Chronic bronchitis................................
Pneumonia.............................................
Other diseases of respiratory system___
Ulcer of stomach.....................................
Other diseases of stomach......................
Appendicitis and typhlitis.....................
Hernia.....................................................
Cirrhosis of liver.....................................
Other diseases of liver............................
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal).........
Bright’s disease.....................................
Other diseases of kidneys......................
Gangrene................................................
Senility...................................................
Other suicides.........................................
Fractures (cause not specified)________
Other external violence_______________
Ill-defined organic diseases____ _______
Killed in war...........................................

2

3

_ ""9

1

1

1 ___
1
1

1

1

1 2
1

4

I

1
1
1

1 1
lj 2

2

3 7
1

5! 3

4

2

3

1

lj

1

1

7

9 9 10
1
1
1 1 1
2 2
1
1 1
;
I —
1
J 1
2 lj 6 3 1
1 2
1

i
i

!~ i 1
I— r 1
!

1

l

_.

1

Total-

2! 2
l1
lj

1

3

1

i
!

0

1

" !'
i! i

1

2

|

1

i

1

—

...

1

—

i
i

2‘ 28 34 47j 46: 43 26 22 19
_

1 ...

i

1|

l!
li
i

1

1

l

i
i

l

I
...

!
i
!
I
i

1
7 3; 2
1
2

2

1
4 30

6

!
__; 6
i

1

1 3
4

!

2

1—

1

2

1

1 2—

1
i
j

1
11 5

...

1

8

6

i

...
i 3

1919 TO 1933
1 j Typhoid fever.........................................
10 I Influenza..................... ...........................
is; Erysipelas...............................................
20 ! Purulent infection and septicaemia........
Tuberculosis of lungs................ .............
Pott’s disease_______________________
40 j Cancer of stomach and liver........... ...........
41 i Cancer of peritoneum, intestines, rectum..
45 ; Cancer of other organs or of organs not spec­
ified..........................................................
47 I Acute articular rheumatism.......................
50 Diabetes......................................................
53 ! Lucaemia......................................................
54 i Anemia, chlorosis.............. ........_____.........
57 j Chronic lead poisoning...............................
61 ' Meningitis...................................................
62 Locomotor ataxia........................................
64 Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy.................
66 Paralysis without specified cause...............
67 General paralysis of the insane...................
68 Other forms of mental alienation...............
74 Other diseases of nervous system............
78 Acute endocarditis......................................
79 Organic diseases of the heart......................
80 Angina pectoris............................... ..........
81 Diseases of arteries, arteriosclerosis, etc___
90 Chronic bronchitis......................................
92 Pneumonia..................................................
93 Pleurisy........................................................
96 Asthma........................................................

1

1
3
1

3

6

9 13

i

i
1

1

1

9

6

2

2

1

1
|

1

1
1

1
1

1

3

4-J 7
i
X

2

1
1—
1

1

!
1

1!

1i—

1

2

1 ...

1

1...

5

4

3
1
1—

1
1

3 4
^
! 1

2

4

7

1

1

1

1
1

1

1...

1
2 5
1
1 3

7

5

5

4

j •
i

1
1

2

3

2

1 2

1

1

—

1 12

“ i

3

4

1

1 3

* United States Bureau of the Census. Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.
ington, 1916. 309 pp.




1

1
Wash­

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

102
T

76.—M O R T A L IT Y E X P E R IE N C E OF THE IN TE R N A T IO N A L STER E OTYPE R S
AN D E L E C T R O T Y P E R S ’ UNION, 1914 TO 1918, 1919 TO 1923, A N D 1904 TO 1924, B Y CAUSE
A N D AGE GROUPS—Continued
1919 T O 1923—Continued

able

Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

Cause of death

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89

All

98 Other diseases of respiratory system___
102 Ulcer of stomach.....................................
103 Other diseases of stomach......................
105 Diarrhea and enteritis (2 years and over)
108 Appendicitis and typhlitis.....................
110 Other diseases of intestines....................
114 Biliary calculi.........................................
115 Other diseases of liver.............................
116 Diseases of spleen...................................
117 Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)..........
120 Bright’s disease............ . ........................
122 Other diseases of kidneys.......................
325 Diseases of urethra..................................
144 Acute abscess.........................................
163 Other suicides.........................................
168 Absorption of deleterious gases..............
186 Other external violence..........................
187 Ill-defined organic diseases.....................
Killed in war...........................................

1
1

...

...

2

1
2

1

1
2
1

...

2

3

1
2

...

T

1
4

1
1

1

1

1

1

Q
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1

1

1

1
1
3

2

2

2
1
1

3 19 31 42 30 35 30 | 3 27 21 jll
2
I

Total.

...

1

1

1

i ...

1

1904 TO 1924

1

5
10

14
18

20

24
28
29
30
31
32
34
40
41
45
46
47
48
50
53
54
56
57
60
61
62
63
64

Typhoid fever.............................................
Smallpox......................................................
Influenza.....................................................
Dysentery...................................................
Erysipelas...................................................
Purulent infection and septicaemia............
Tetanus.......................................................
Tuberculosis of lungs..................................
Acute miliary tuberculosis.........................
Tuberculous meningitis..............................
Abdominal tuberculosis..............................
Pott’s disease..............................................
Tuberculosis of other organs.......................
Cancer of stomach and liver............. .........
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines, rectum..
Cancer of other organs or of organs not
specified...............................................
Other tumors.........................................
Acute articular rheumatism..................
Chronic rheumatism and gout..............
Diabetes..................................................
Leucaemia...............................................
Anemia, chlorosis...................................
Alcoholism (acute or chronic)....... .......
Chronic lead poisoning...........................
Encephalitis...........................................
Meningitis................................. ....... . . .
Locomotor ataxia...................................
Other diseases of spinal cord.................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy.............
Softening of the brain............................
Paralysis without specified cause..........
General paralysis of the insane..............
Other forms of mental alienation...........
Convulsions (nonpuerperal) (5 years and
over).......................................................
Other diseases of nervous system..............
Pericarditis................................................
Acute endocarditis....................................
Organic diseases of the heart....................
Angina pectoris.........................................
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclerosis, etc. _
Embolism and thrombosis.......................
Other diseases of circulatory system........
Diseases of thyroid body..........................
Chronic bronchitis....................................
Broncho-pneumonia..................................
Pneumonia................................................




3 : i

—J 2

8

1

4:

11

2

203

1
1
1
1

2

1

2

3

7 2
1

2

1
1
1 1
1 2 3

2 3
1!
1
7 31 39 48 36 24 8 7
1
1 1
1
1
1
1 2 3
5 3

1
i

1

3

1
1

7 11
1
1

3

i

i

T

1 I
I
i
L

3

4

5

i

!

i1

| i|

1

I

:1

2

l
! ! ;1
1 !l

;1
1 i2

...

1
3

1
1

2

1
5

1

6

1

1
1

1

1 3
1

1 3 2 3 6 7
1
1 2 7 4 4 2
2 1 1 1 2
1 !— 2 1
.

1
1
7 5

1

5

2

2
2

1
1
2
1
1
1
2 T
*7" 10 17 11 10 12 10 10 5
1 1
1
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1
1
1
i
2
23 2<f 12 20* 14* io'
!2

T

y

i

It

4
1

1

1

i’

1

1
10

T

y

r

u

-

1

TT

i

1 l

VITAL STATISTICS— BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS
T

103

76.—M O R T A L IT Y E X P E R IE N C E OF THE IN T ER N A TIO N A L STER E OTYPE R S
A N D E L E C T R O T Y P E R S ’ UNION, 1914 TO 1918, 1919 TO 1923, AND 1904 TO 1924, B Y CAUSE
AN D AGE GROUPS—Continued
1904 TO 1924—Continued

able

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

Pleurisy....................................................
Pulmonary congestion.............................
Asthma.....................................................
Other diseases of respiratory system.......
100 Diseases of pharynx.................................
102 Ulcer of stomach......................................
103 Other diseases of stomach............ ..........
105 Diarrhea and enteritis (2 years and over)
108 Appendicitis and typhlitis......................
109 Hernia....................................................
110 Other diseases of intestines.......... ..........
113 Cirrhosis of liver......................................
114 Biliary calculi..........................................
115 Other diseases of liver..............................
116 Diseases of spleen.....................................
117 Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)...........
119 Acute nephritis........................................
120 Bright’s disease........................................
122 Other diseases of kidneys.........................
124 Diseases of bladder..................................
144 Acute abscess...........................................
147 Diseases of joints......................................
154 Senility.....................................................
155 Suicide by poison.....................................
159 Suicide by firearms..................................
163 Other suicides..........................................
165 Other acute poisonings............................
168 Absorption of deleterious gases...............
169 Accidental drowning................................
170 Traumatism by firearms.........................
172 Traumatism by fall.................................
174 Traumatism by machines.......................
175 Traumatism by other crushing:
Street-car accidents..............................
Automobile accidents...........................
177 Starvation................................................
179 Effects of heat....... ..................................
185 Fractures (cause not specified)...............
186 Other external violence............................
184 Homicides by other means......................
187 Ill-defined organic disease........................
189 Not specified or ill-defined......................
190 Disappearance (war)................................
94
96
98

Total................................................

All

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89

1

1

2
1

1
1 3

2
1
1

— 1 ...
2 2 2
1
1
1
1 T 3
1
1 1
1

1
1 3
1
2 1
3 2 ~2
1
4 2
2 i"
2
2 1 l
1
2 1

9

1 2
3 1

T
TT
T 2 1

1
1
8 12 15
2 2

l
l
6
1

1

2 5

1

1

1
2

1
4

3~ T

T

l

1
3

1

2

1
1

T

1
1 ...

2
1
3
1

1

1
1
6 8

3

1
1

TT

1
1
1

3
1

1

1

1

5

2

1
1 2

1

1
2
1
3 3
i

3

2
5

1
3

1

2
T

1
1
4

1 4 1 3
2 6 8 5
1 1

i"

1
3

1

i
5

9

4

1
6 2

1,044 24 99 124-154 157 138 95 96 69 47 28

2
6

•

INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS

The experience of the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders
is too limited for extended consideration. For the present purpose,.
male and female workers are considered separately, the experience
covering the period 1920-1923. For male bookbinders the deaths
from all causes, as shown in Table 77, were 189, of whom 37, or
19.6 per cent, were from tuberculosis. The proportionate mortality
from cancer was 7.9 per cent, for pneumonia 11.6 per cent, and
from Bright’s disease 13.2 per cent.




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

104

T a b l e 7 7 .— M O R TA L IT Y

FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AM ONG THE M ALE M EM BERS
OF THE IN TER N A TION A L BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS, 1920 TO 1923, BY AGE
GROUPS
Tuberculosis Cancer—all
forms
Age at death

All
causes

_ _____________
15 to 19 years -20 to 24 years_________________________
25 to 29 years_________________________
30 to 34 years_________________________
35 to 39 years_________________________
40 to 44 years___________ _____ ____ ___
45 to 49 years_________________________
50 to 54 years_________________________
55 to 59 years_________________________
60 to 64 years_________________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years_____________ -__________
75 to 79 years____________ ____________
80 to 84 years_________________________
85 to 89 years_________________________
90 years and over_____________________

1
7
10
22
21
19
14
22
29
18
12
4
6
2
1
1

Total____________ - ___ . . . . . . . ___

189

Pneumonia

Bright's
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent
ber cent

2
3
9
8
5
2
2
3
2
1

2
3 14.3
1 5.3
1 7.1
3 13.6
3 10.3
1 5.6
3 25.0

19.6

15

7.9

28.6

4
2
2
6

! 18.2
I 9.5
! 10.5
142.9

2
3

6.9
16.7

1

37

28.6
30.0
40.9
38.1
26.3
14.3
9.1
10.3
11.1
8.3

16.7

22

11.6

1
1
3
1
1
1
8
3
1
1
1
2
1

14.3
20.0
13.6
4.8
5.3
7.1
36.4
10.3
5.6
8.3
25.0
33.3
50.0

25

13.2

The mortality for female bookbinders includes only 104 jieaths, as
shown in Table 78, of which 19, or 18.3 per cent, were from tubercu­
losis, 9, or 8.7 per cent, from cancer, 9, or 8.7 per cent, from pneu­
monia, and 10, or 9.6 per cent, from Bright’s disease.
78.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AMONG FEM ALE M EM BERS OP
THE IN TERN ATION AL BOOKBINDERS' UNION, 1920 TO 1923, BY AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Tuberculosis [ Cancer—all
forms
Age at death

All
causes

15 to 19 years_________________________
20 to 24 years____ ____________________
25 to 29 years_________________________
30 to 34 years_________________________
35 to 39 years_____ ___ _____ __________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years_________________________
60 to 54 years_________________________
55 to 59 years_________________________
60 to 64 years____ ____________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years_________________________
75 to 79 years_________________________
J80 to 84 years_________ __________ ____

4
11
16
8
3
9
9
10
7
10
6
4
6
1

Total____________ ______________

104

Pneumonia

Bright's
disease

Num­ Per i Num- Per Num­ Per Num­ Pot
ber cent j ber
cent
ber cent ber cent
i
1 25.0
6 54.5 I..........
7 43.8 |
1
2 25.0
1 33.3
1 11.1
2
4
j
1
1 14.3
i

10.0

18.3

25.0

3 42.9
1 10.0
1 16.7
1

9

8.7

25.0
6.3
11.1
11.1
30.0

2
1

20.0
16.7

10

9.6

9.1

22.2
44.4
10.0

1
19

2

1
1
i
l
3

1
6.3

16.7

9

8.7

It is thus shown that in the experience of male bookbinders the
proportionate mortality was higher for pulmonary tuberculosis,
pneumonia, and Bright’s disease than in that of female bookbinders,
and slightly lower for cancer. It should be kept in mind that book­
binders, both men and women, represent largely persons below the
age of 50.
For all bookbinders the numbers considered are rather small but
they seem to justify the conclusion that tuberculosis in this group of




VITAL STATISTICS-— BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS

105

employments is still relatively of a high degree of frequency. The pro­
portionate mortality from tuberculosis at ages 20 to 24 was 28.6 per
cent for men and 54.5 per cent for women. At ages 30 to 34 it was 40.9
per cent for men and 25.0 per cent for women, but the numbers are rather
too small for a safe generalization. No workers in the printing trades
are at the present time deserving of more extended consideration
than female bookbinders, who are frequently of inferior physique
and required to work in an unnatural posture which is inimical to
health.
The bookbinding trade is often carried on in connection with
printing establishments and not under the best conditions. Limited
observations have forced the conclusion that much remains to be
done to raise the standards of health and physical efficiency in this
group of occupations.
The details of the mortality experience of the International Book­
binders’ Union are given in Table 79:
T a b le

79.—M O R TA L IT Y E XPERIEN CE OF THE IN TERN ATION AL B ROTHERHOOD
OF BOOKBINDERS, 1920-1923, B Y CAUSE AND AGE GROUPS
MALES

Inter­
na­
tional
lis t

Age at death (years)
Cause of death

num­
ber1

All

15 j 201
to t o !
19,24:

50155 60! 65
to! to t o ! to
54j 59 64 69

1 1
!

10
28
45

Influenza.......................................
Tuberculosis of lungs....................
Cancer of other organs or of organs
not specified..............................
50 Diabetes.............................. .........
64 Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy . .
67 General paralysis of the insane . . .
68 Other forms of mental alienation.
78 Acute endocarditis.......................
79 Organic diseases of the heart.......
80 Angina pectoris........................... .
81 Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc........................................
85 Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem........................................... .
87 Diseases of larynx.........................
90 Chronic bronchitis.......................
92 Pneumonia...................................
103 Other diseases of stomach..........
108 Appendicitis and typhlitis..........
109 Intestinal obstruction....... ...........
1 0 Other diseases of intestines______
1
117 Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)
120 Bright’s disease............................
143 Furuncle.......................................
163 Other suicides..............................
167 Burns..........................................
169 Accidental drowning...................
170 Traumatism by firearms..............
185 Fractures (cause not specified)...
186 Other external violence...........
Total...............................
1 United States Bureau of the Census.
ington, D. C. 309 pp.




2; 3

90
and
over

1, 3

3i 6

tO ! tO i tO

79! 84

2 1
'

3 3
|

75180 j 85

I: 4

1 1 1 1
'
5

1
!

.

.

.

1
ii

6"! 2 3
1

3 1

189

10 22 21 19 14 22 !9‘ 18 12

Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.

Wash­

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

106
T

able

79.—M O R T A L IT Y E X P E R IE N C E OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L BROTHERHOOD
OF BOOKBIN DERS, 1920-1923, B Y CAUSE AND AGE GROUPS—Continued
FEMALES
Age at death (years)

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber

1

10
28
45

50
54
61
64
67
78
79
81
83
92
96
103
108
109
110

117
120

154
163
169
185
186

Cause of death

All

ihoid fever.........................
Typh
uenza..................................
Influe
Tuberculosis of lungs...............
Cancer of other organs or of organs
not specified........................
Diabetes...................................
Anemia, chlorosis....................
Meningitis................................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy...
General paralysis of the insane...
Acute endocarditis.......................
Organic diseases of the heart.......
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc........................................
Diseases of veins..........................
Pneumonia...................................
Asthma.........................................
Other diseases of stomach............
Appendicitis and typhlitis..........
Hernia...........................................
Other diseases of intestines..........
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)
Bright’s disease........................... .
Senility....................................... .
Other suicides............................. .
Accidental drowning....................
Fractures (cause not specified).
Other external violence.............
T o ta l..

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to and
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 over
1
1

1
7

6

1
...

....

1

1

1

2
1

1

1

1

1

2

1

3

2—

3

1
1

1—

1

!

i

11

1

1
1 ""i

1

1

i
1
1
3 ...

: 4 11j 16

8; 3

2

1
1

1
2

2
I

1

1

1i

2
1...

1

ii
i
4;__
1

1...

i’
!

|

1

1

i 1

1
1

1
1
1

f

1!

i

1

ii

1
1 ...

4

1...

1
1 2

1|__.

1

1
2

1
1...

1

1
9

9 10

7 10

6

4

6

1

AMERICAN CITIES

In the returns for certain American cities, representing all types of
printing employees, and covering the period 1919-1923, there were
775 deaths from all causes, of which 89 or 11.5 per cent were from
tuberculosis. There were 60 deaths from cancer, or 7.7 per cent of
the mortality from all causes, and 41 from pneumonia, or 5.3 per
cent. The mortality from Bright's disease was 64, or 8.3 per cent
from all causes. The experience in a general way would seem to
conform to the corresponding returns for the printers' labor organiza­
tion, and emphasizes the fact that tuberculosis to-day is of relatively
diminishing importance, while cancer is gaining steadily and becom­
ing of even greater importance at certain age groups than tuberculosis
of the respiratory organs. It is certainly suggestive that against 89
deaths from tuberculosis there should have been 60 deaths from all
forms of cancer. The data for this experience are given in Table 80.




VITAL STATISTICS— AMERICAN CITIES
T

able

107

80.—M O R TA L IT Y OF PRINTIN G EMPLOYEES IN AM ERICAN CITIES, 1919-192?,
BY CAUSE
Deaths
Cause of death

Influenza.--..............................
Pulmonary tuberculosis............
Cancer........................................
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy
Organic diseases of the heartBronchopneumonia.................
Pneumonia...... ..........................
Bright’s disease.........................
All other causes.........................

10
0 .0

Total................................

The detailed data for the mortality among printers in American
cities are given in Table 81:
T a b le

Inter­
na­
tional
list
num­
ber!

81.—M O R TA L IT Y AM ON G PR IN TIN G EM PLOYEES IN A M E R IC A N CITIES
1919 TO 1923, B Y CAUSE AND B Y AGE GROUPS
Age at death (years)
Cause of death

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
to to to to to to to to to to to to to 1to to and
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 over

All

1

Typhoid fever..
Diphtheria and croup..............
Influenza................ .................
Dysentery................................ ___
E r y s i p e l a s ....... .................
Purulent infection and septi-

31
32
37
89
40
41
42
44
45
47
60
53
54
55
56
60
61
63
64
65
66
67

Tuberculosis of the lungs..
Tuberculous meningitis...
Abdominal tuberculosis...
Pott’s diseases...................
Syphilis..
Cancer of buccal cavity..............
Cancer of stomach and liver........
Cancer of peritoneum, intestines,
rectum...................................... .
Cancer of female genital organs...
Cancer of skin......... ..........._........
Cancer of other organs or of organs
not specified...............................
Acute articular rheumatism.........
Diabetes........................................
Leucaemia......................................
Anemia, chlorosis.........................
Other general diseases...................
Alcoholism (acute or chronic)___
Encephalitis.............................
Meningitis................................
Other diseases of spinal cord____
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy...
Softening of the brain...................
Paralysis without specified cause.
General paralysis of the insane...
Other forms of mental alienation.
Other diseases of nervous system.
Pericarditis...................................
Organic diseases of the heart....... .
Angina pectoris......................... .
Diseases of arteries, arteriosclero­
sis, etc........................................
Embolism and thrombosis_____

.

1
! 2

1
2

2

2

I
> 1 1
►11 14 14 11 10
1 2
i 2

9

1

1

1

1
1L~
1

1

•1 1 1
1
1
4 "~2 2
1

2
1

2

2

1
1

1

1 1
7 3

2

3

1
1‘

3

1

2

1
J1

2

1

1
1

1

1

3
ll
1

1

2
9

4

1

1

3

1 4

7

”’ l '"2
1
1
1
1

1
1 3

1
5

2
1
1

1

1

1

1
1 1 1
1
1
3 11 10 8 7
1

1

1

1 2

1

1

143
7

5

1
1
I1
'
1
2
i
3 4 5

1

1

1
4 2

5

1

1

6 8
I
1




3

1

1

1
I
1
7 15 10, 21 26 16 13 10
1 1 3
1 1
1—

6
*
•j” 2
2

4 4 4
1 1;

1

1

3 4
1

1

* United States Bureau of the Census, Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.
ton, 1916. 309 pp.

16056°—27------8

2

2

1

Washing-

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

108
T

able

Inter­
na­
tiona]
list
num­
ber
85
91
92
93
94
96
98
102
103
105
108
109
110
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
122
123
124
126
142
143
144
146
154
155
156
157
159
160
163
164
165
167
168
169
170
175

182
184
185
186

81.—M O R T A L IT Y AM ON G PR IN TIN G EM PLOYEES IN AMERICAN CITIES,
1919 TO 1923, B Y CAUSE AN D BY AGE GROUPS—Continued
Age at death (years)
Cause of death

Other diseases of circulatory sys­
tem.............................................
Broncho-pneumonia....................
Pneumonia....................................
Pleurisy.........................................
Pulmonary congestion..................
Asthma..........................................
Other diseases of respiratory sys­
tem........................................... .
Ulcer of stomach.........................
Other diseases of stomach............
Diarrhea and enteritis (2 years
and over)...................................
Appendicitis and typhlitis...........
Hernia...........................................
Other diseases of intestines..........
Cirrhosis of liver........................__
Biliary calculi....... ........................
Other diseases of liver.................
Diseases of spleen.........................
Simple peritonitis (nonpuerperal)
Other diseases of digestive system.
Acute nephritis.............. .............
Bright’s disease.............................
Other diseases of kidneys.............
Calculi of urinary passages..........
Diseases of bladder.......................
Diseases of prostate......................
Gangrene.......................................
Furuncle.......................... .............
Acute abscess................................
Diseases of bones...........................
Senility.........................................
Suicide by poison.........................
Suicide by asphyxia.....................
Suicide by hanging.......................
Suicide by firearms.......................
Suicide by cutting or piercing in­
struments...................................
Other suicides...............................
Poisoning by food.........................
Other acute poisonings....... i ........
! Bums............................................
! Absoption of deleterious gases___
Accidental drowning....................
Traumatism by firearms________
Traumatism by other crushing:
Railroad accidents.................
Street-car accidents................
Automobile accidents............
Homicide by firearms..................
Homicide by other means...........
Fractures (cause not specified)___
Other external violence.................
Total-

All

15 20 25 30 35; 40 45 50 55 60 65 70! 75 80 85 90
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to and
19 24 i 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74179 84 89 over
!
i
i
I
i
I
1
1
1
1 4
2! 2 1 1
1 2i 3 1 3 2 3
li 4 1 2 5 4 “ 4 1 6 2
2
t 8
III 2 1
i
i
___f__ » | 1
__ !
i
I
1
|
' ! !
j
1
i
1 1
— j._.
!
1 1 1— i 1 1
1
I
j
! 1
2 2 1 1 2
2 1 ... 1
...
!
2 __
2 ...: 2 2
l
1
1
1
; j
1
11 1 1 . . . i 1
_. j_. ,
1;
!
J
I
2 ... 1
|
1
!
1
1
. . . lj 3
J
1 ..J 1
i
1
1
1
1
_
ii
2 1 1 3 8, 9 10 7 6 9 5 2 _ i
l!.— l|
i
1
i
i 1
1!
1
1 1
2! 3
1
1
1
I 1
j
1
1
1
1
1 1
!
| 1
!
lj 1
!
1
1 1 1
. —i—
j
i
li 1 2 1
j
1
1
i
1
1
2 1 1
1
1
1
1 2
!
1
2
!
1
1
” l 3 1 1 1
j
1
1
2 1
1
H
i
1
i
"2

"
l

1
1

1
1
1

2 2
; 1

1

1

1
1
1
1

!
I
i

1:
i

:

i
l i...

1
1
1
32 39 44 39 47 55 79 78 79 90! 59! 57! 44 22
1 1 i
i
1

8

3

NATIONAL SOCIETY OF OPERATIVE PRINTERS AND ASSISTANTS OF
GREAT BRITAIN

For purposes of comparison with the American data, information
concerning the National Society of Operative Printers and Assist­
ants of Great Britain has been obtained. This organization, how­
ever, consists chiefly of pressfeeders and their assistants and is not
typically representative of other branches of the printing trades.
In the experience of this organization during 1909-1922 there were
640 deaths from all causes, of which 171, or 26.7 per cent, were from
pulmonary tuberculosis. This compares with 14.9 per cent for the




VITAL STATISTICS— BRITISH PRINTERS

109

International Typographical Union for the period 1919-1923. At
ages 35 to 39 the proportionate mortality from tuberculosis in the
experience of the International Typographical Union was 31.2 per
cent as against 38.5 per cent for the National Society of Operative
Printers. In contrasting the tuberculosis mortality as it prevails
among British printing employees, the fact must not be overlooked
that the latter suffer very much more from chronic bronchitis. This
is clearly shown by the fact that there were 47 deaths from chronic
bronchitis and 7 deaths from acute bronchitis, both of which causes
of death hardly ever figure to a serious extent in the mortality of
American printers. For illustration, in the experience of the Inter­
national Typographical Union during 1919-1923, there were only 12
deaths from chronic bronchitis among a very much larger mortal­
ity from all causes. No satisfactory explanation has ever been ad­
vanced for the high mortality from chronic bronchitis not only among
British printers but in Great Britain generally. It may possibly be
attributable to climatic conditions which are widely different from
those which prevail in this country.
Broncho-pneumonia has also been much more common among
British printers, 15 deaths, or 2.3 per cent, having been attributed
to this cause out of a mortality of 640 deaths from all causes. There
were only 6 deaths from this cause in the International Typo­
graphical Union out of a total of 3,447 deaths from all causes. The
details of the experience are given in Table 82:
T a b le 8 3 .— M O R TA LITY EXPERIEN CE OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF OPERATIVE

PRINTERS AND ASSISTANTS OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1909 TO 1922, BY CAUSES AND AGE
GROUPS

Tuberculosis
Age at death

All
causes

Cancer—
all forms

Pneumonia

Bright's
disease

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber
cent ber cent
ber
cent

15 to 19 years_________________________
20 to 24 years_________________________
25 to 29 years_________________________
30 to 34 years_____ ___________________
35 to 39 years_________________________
40 to 44 years_________________________
45 to 49 years____ ____________________
50 to 54 years____ . ______ ___ ____ _____
55 to 59 years_________________________
60 to 64 years____ _____________________
65 to 69 years_________________________
70 to 74 years_________________________
75 to 79 years_________ ____________ __
80 to 84 years____ ____ ______________

14
24
39
69
78
87
121
71
74
33
21
7
1
1

7
8
14
17
30
28
44
9
10
4

50.0
33.3
35.9
24.6
38.5
32.2
36.4
12.7
13.5
12.1

T ota l..............................................

640

171

26.7

4.2
2.6
2.9
3.8
1.1
7.4
21.1
16.2
24.2
14.3
14.3

56

8.8

3 21.4
2 8.3
2
3 7.7
14 20.3 ....... l"
6
3
7.7
7 8.0
4
16 13.2
5
1
12 16.9
2 2.7
2
1 3.0
1
1
3 14.3
1

i.4
3.8
4.6
4.1
1.4
2.7
3.0
4.8
14.3

1

1
1
2
3
1
9
15
12
8
3
1

100.0

22

3.4

69

10.8

8.3

The proportionate mortality from cancer was 8.8 per cent as
against 8.2 per cent in the experience of the International Typo­
graphical Union. There were no deaths from lead poisoning in the
experience of this organization during the period under observation.
The detailed tables of mortality among printing employees (see
Tables 67, 71, 73, 76, 79, and 81) provide much new material for a
more extended study of health problems in the printing trades. They
are the first comprehensive compilation on the subject. While




110

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

limited in completeness they nevertheless provide a basis for certain
definite conclusions. They seem clearly to establish a diminishing
incidence of tuberculosis and a rising frequency of cancer. They
are suggestive of the conclusion that lead poisoning in fatal form is
now of decidedly minor, if not negligible, importance. This con­
clusion is supported by the fact that renal diseases are also diminish­
ing or in any event not seriously increasing. Finally, they emphat­
ically sustain the point of view that social or venereal diseases are
relatively infrequent, that chronic alcoholism is of no importance,
that suicides are not excessive, and that homicides are extremely
rare. On the whole, they provide an illuminating contrast with
observations regarding health conditions in the printing trades of a
generation or two ago. They support in all essentials the conclu­
sions arrived at on the basis of the questionnaire addressed to em­
ployers and to labor organizations and the study of aged workers in
the printing trades.
LEAD POISONING
The problem of lead poisoning in the printing industries is prac­
tically as old as the industry itself. Many prevailing views upon
the subject, however, represent reflections and conclusions of an
earlier period, the conditions of which have long since been replaced
by modem shop conditions in marked contrast to those of the past.
It would hardly serve a useful purpose to review the extended liter­
ature on the subject, which, broadly speaking, represents chiefly
conditions in foreign printing plants rather than in the printing plants
of the United States. The problem has at all times been complicated
by the economic conditions of printers, for it is now generally accepted
that low wages and long hours are among the most serious predis­
posing causes of ill health and premature mortality. The shorter
hours now prevailing in printing plants are lessening industrial fatigue,
which is now clearly recognized as an important factor in industrial
health, and together with the higher wages are yielding better nutri­
tion, thereby producing a decidedly higher degree of disease resistance.
Furthermore, there is the factor of a considerable diminution in habits
of gross intoxication, as well as a more general conformity to standards
of personal hygiene. All of these combined have materially diminished
evils which in former days formed a very just cause of complaint. In
other words, the potential dangers of ill health, and especially the lia­
bility to lead poisoning, are always present, while the actual danger,
as the result of the changes indicated, is now decidedly less. Sir
Thomas Oliver, one of the ablest and foremost authorities on chronic
lead poisoning, in his treatise on Lead Poisoning in 1914 (pp. 83-88),
wrote as follows:
Another occupation in which the dangers of lead poisoning are frequently
observed is that of printing, also type founding. In addition to plumbism,
printers are peculiarly liable to tuberculosis, owing to the work being carried
on in close, warm, and ill-ventilated rooms, whereby the possibility of infection
is favored. Some writers maintain that lead poisoning of itself predisposes to
tuberculosis. The only way in which it can do so is by reducing the general
vital resistance of the individual. When tuberculosis develops in a lead-poisoned
person the phthisis usually runs a rapid course. Between 1900 and 1909 there
were notified 200 cases of plumbism in printers, and of these 17 were fatal. Con­
sidering the large number of printers in this country, it can not be said that lead
poisoning is extremely prevalent among them, and yet when the malady develops




LEAD POISONING

ill

the symptoms are unusually severe and persistent. In the dust given off by
British type 14 per cent of lead was found, but this is only one-third of what has
been found in continental printing shops. Type founders and linotypists suffer
from plumbism through inhalation of the fumes of the molten metal.
If we take the statistics of the London Society of Compositors, it will be observed
that there are fewer cases of plumbism among the members than of tuberculosis.
Professor Hahn of Munich has shown, taking the figures for Vienna and Berlin
from 1901 to 1907, that the number of cases of plumbism and the mortality from
tuberculosis run concurrently. In Vienna the sickness from plumbism per 100
members of one of the sick-clubs during eight years declined 48 per cent, and
during the same period the deaths from tuberculosis declined 57 per cent. In
Berlin during the years 1901 to 1907 lead poisoning declined 46 per cent, and
the deaths from tuberculosis 40 per cent. Comparing the polygraphic trades one
with another, it was noticed that, while the highest figures "for plumbism were
given by printers and type founders, the highest death rate from tuberculosis also
occurred in printers and type founders. Hahn is of the opinion that the predis­
position to pulmonary tuberculosis on the part of printers is the result of chronic
lead poisoning, but if this alone were the cause, why should the relationship be
so noticeable in printers, to the exclusion of other trades? We do not find, for
example, pulmonary tuberculosis prevalent to any abnormal extent in white-lead
workers, and yet they are exposed to a form of dust finer and richer in lead than
are printers. Printers, file cutters, and potters succumb to pulmonary phthisis
in large numbers, a circumstance less due to the chemical than to the physical
qualities of the dust inhaled and the conditions under which it is inhaled. Other
factors than lead, therefore, are probably in operation to explain the high mor­
tality rate of tuberculosis in printers. Infection, and the fact of the work being
carried on too frequently in overheated, ill-ventilated, and artificially lighted
rooms, are the more likely causes.
* * * As a contribution to the relationship of tuberculosis and lead poisoning
experiments carried out by G. Loriga may be mentioned. To 10 guinea pigs he
gave for one month nitrate of lead in food, to 10 guinea pigs sulphate of lead was
given, while another group of 10 were fed normally. Of each group 8 were
infected with tuberculosis. The animals which received lead declined in weight
more rapidly than those fed normally. The nitrate-of-lead-fed animals lost
weight more quickly than those which received sulphate. One of the nitrate-fed
animals died of lead poisoning, and 7 of the tuberculosis group after an average of
79 days. Those of the sulphate group died after an average of 91 days, and the
nonlead animals after 92 days. Loriga maintains, as a result of these experiments,
that plumbism creates a predisposition to tuberculosis. It should be remem­
bered, however, that there is only one day’s difference as regards the date of
death between the sulphate-fed animals and those which received no lead at all.
Among printers and lead smelters, as in all dusty occupations, the effect of dust
and tuberculosis combined is always greater than the influence of either separately;
but, as already stated, there are, as regards printers, other circumstances in oper­
ation, such as the influence of overheated and ill-ventilated workrooms.

It has seemed advisable to give the foregoing observations of Sir
Thomas Oliver in full since there is nothing that could be added
thereto that would have greater weight, except the actual facts as
ascertained from our American experience and by somewhat different
methods though yielding substantially the same results.
Reference should also be made to the report on the Hygiene of the
Printing Trades, by Dr. Alice Hamilton and Charles H. Yerrill, pub­
lished by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1917 as its
Bulletin No. 209. Dr. Hamilton has since published an elaborate
work on Industrial Poisons in which there are also numerous references
to the printing trades. There can be no question but that since
Bulletin No. 209 was published substantial progress has been made in
the gradual elimination of the lead-poisoning hazard. There are,
however, a number of exceedingly useful references in the report,
from which I quote the following (p. 24) based upon investigations by
Dr. Earl B. Phelps of the United States Public Health Service who, at
the request of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, made tests of the air in




112

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

the Government printing plant amplified by experiments suggestive of
the potential danger:
There is no detectable volatilization of lead within the range of temperature
used at the Government Printing Office nor at a considerably higher temperature,
but even at the lowest temperature used there is a formation of oxide upon the
surface of the molten metal, this oxide film being in the form of finely divided dust.
It is more or less affected by mechanical agitation and may quite readily be carried
away by currents of air. It is frequently in practice skimmed off as dross.
Under the conditions of these tests and, it is believed, under conditions as ob­
served in the printing office, this last effect is the only one deserving of serious
attention. It is primarily a matter of mechanical agitation rather than of the
temperature of the metal, which determines the pollution of the surrounding air
with this fine metallic dust.

The report observes in this connection that molten lead as used in
printing is at a temperature below the volatilization point, and lead
fumes in the strict sense of the word are not given off, but stirring or
skimming or ladling or otherwise disturbing the film of oxide con­
stantly forming on the surface of the lead detaches it and allows it to
be carried into the air so that there is, as shown by actual tests, a
contamination of the air with lead. This is the reason why it is con­
sidered safer to have all melting pots provided with hoods, and most
of the foreign authorities, who do not believe that lead fumes are a
danger in printing, nevertheless, to be on the safe side, advise this
precaution. The results of an analysis of dust specimens of the Gov­
ernment Printing Office as furnished by Doctor Phelps are given as
follows:
Sample
No.

Per cent
of lead

1. Newspaper office______________________________________ 0. 51
2. Newspaper office_____________________ ________________ .8 0
3. Newspaper office______________________________________ 2. 80
4. Commercial printing office._______ ____________________
. 20
5.
D o _______________________________________________ 5.68
Government Printing Office:
6.
Open type case___________________________________ 5. 68
7.
Empty case 2 feet from floor______________________
.6 4
8.
Monotype case-___________________________________5. 12
9.
Galley rack 4 feet high____________________________ .72
10.
Old type case 4 feet from floor____________________
.3 2
11.
Tops of cabinets__________________________________
. 64

These samples indicate the enormous range in lead contamination of
different printing plants and different portions of the same plant, which
makes it hazardous to conjecture on the probable average contamina­
tion of general air conditions. But the samples conclusively prove
that lead is a potential danger, the effects of which can be guarded
against only by the utmost care in matters of attention to sanitary
conditions.
With particular reference to linotype machines the report states as
follows (pp. 38, 39):
To prove that there are no lead fumes from linotype pots is not to prove that
work on these machines is without risk to health nor even that there is no risk
from lead poisoning. There are many sources of possible lead poisoning in ma­
chine composition as it is usually carried on, and it is not hard to find justification
for the disappointment that was experienced when it was found that the intro­
duction of mechanical typesetting and the displacement of hand work had not
resulted in the abolition of lead poisoning as had been claimed.

As regards monotype casting it is said (p. 45) that “ as a usual thing
the casting is carried on in a separate room and whatever the risks they




LEAD POISONING

113

are confined to the few men who do the actual work.” This, of course,
is true of practically all dangerous occupational processes. The risk,
broadly speaking, never falls upon employees as a whole but often upon
a small and sometimes a very small group of the workers. On the
whole my own conclusions in respect to the foregoing observations
coincide with those of the report.
As regards stereotyping, the report points out that this is, as a rule,
done under poor conditions and that the workers are imperfectly
safeguarded. The danger is increased by the tendency to place the
foundry in the basement although there are certain advantages as re­
gards ventilation. The same conclusions apply to electrotyping, in
which the two chief dangers are lead dust and lead oxide from the
pot and the backing tables. It is suggested “ that some method should
always be adopted to carry off fumes, either by installing a hood
with a strong up-draft or placing a fan in the outer wall close to the
kettle. As a usual thing there is no hood over the pot, and when
there is, it is rarely adequate to serve its purpose. * * * This
danger [of fumes], not only from the pot but also from the backing
table, is recognized in all the better-class plants.”
As regards the actual effects of lead poisoning the preceding
sections of this health survey clearly emphasize that the hazard in
fatal form is now extremely small. Contrasting the present with a
generation ago, there has unquestionably been a very material im­
provement due to better shop conditions and, as pointed out, to an
increased disease resistance on the part of the employees inconsequence
of better wages, shorter hours, and better habits as regards personal
hygiene. The most striking definite evidence of the gradual decline
of lead poisoning in printing plants is furnished by an analysis of the
entire mortality from chronic lead poisoning in the registration area*
during the 10 years ending with 1923. According to this experience,
out of 1,442 deaths from chronic lead poisoning in all industries in
the population at large, only 64 were deaths of printing plant em­
ployees, who died at an average age of 45.7 years, as compared with
49.4 years for all deaths from lead poisoning. There was an average
of 6.4 deaths of printers per annum. The mortality of printing em­
ployees since 1914, by age at death is shown in Table 83:
T a b le

8 3 —DEATHS OF PRINTING EM PLOYEES FROM LEAD POISONING, UNITED
STATES REGISTRATION AREA, 1914 TO 1923, BY AGE A T DEATH

Age at
death

19 years____
20 years___
21 years. —
22 years
23 years.
24 years___
25 years_
26 years
27 years___
28 years___
29 years
30 years ___

Num­
ber of
deaths
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

Age at
death

31 years___
32 years----33 years
34 years___
35 years
36 years___
37 years___
38 years—
39 years
40 years___
41 years----42 years___

Num­
ber of
deaths
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
4
3

Age at
death

43 years—
44 years----45 years___
46 years----47 years___
48 years—
49 years
50 years___
51 years
52 years___
53 years___
54 years.

Num­
ber of
deaths
1
1
4
5
1
3
1
3
1

Age at
death

55 years___
56 years----57 years—
58 years—
59 years___
60 years—
61 years___
62 years
63 years----64 years
65 years
66 years..

Num­
ber of
deaths
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
1

Age at
death

67 years
68 years
69 years
70 years___
71 years—
72 years
73 years
74 years___
75 years
76 years___
77 years
78 years.

Num­
ber of
deaths

2
1
1
1

• The original death certificates for lead poisoning were furnished by the division of vital statistics of
the United States Bureau of the Census.




114

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

The number of deaths from chronic lead poisoning during the five
years ending with 1918 was 26, while during the five years following
it was 38, but during 1924 only 3 deaths occurred. In 1925 there
were 5 deaths. Of course, in considering such data as this the
increased extent of printing plant operations must not be over­
looked, for it is quite probable that the plants were more active
during the last five years of the decade than during the first five years.
But the actual number of deaths is so small in proportion to the total
number of persons employed in connection with printing plants that
the frequency rate is of negligible importance. The census of manu­
factures for 1923 estimates the total number of persons employed in
printing and publishing and allied industries at 291,029 wage earners,
as against 272,092 in 1914, and, making allowance for persons not
included in the census of manufactures, it is probably a safe assump­
tion that the actual number of persons exposed directly or indirectly
to the risk of chronic lead poisoning in the printing industry is
over 300,000. On that basis the frequency rate for 1924 would
be approximately 1 death per 100,000 workers. That the statistics
presented are approximately correct is indicated by the close con­
formity of the average age at death, which for the first five years was
45.6 years as against 45.8 years during the last five years of the decade
ending with 1923. A careful analysis of the 64 death certificates
indicates that the only important complicating disease in connection
with chronic lead poisoning in the printing trades was acute and
chronic nephritis, represented by 19 cases, or 29.7 of the total.
In a corresponding statement for Great Britain for the period
1914-1925, furnished by the Chief Inspector of Factories, the number
of cases and deaths from lead poisoning in the printing industry in
that country were given as follows:
T a b le

84.— NU M BER OF OASES OF LEAD POISONING AND DEATHS T H E R E FR O M
IN BRITISH PRINTIN G PLANTS, 1914 TO 1925, BY YEARS
Year

1914......................
1915......................
1916
1917......................
1918................. .

^ I
Cases Deaths
23
27
12
6
8

1
3
3
1

Year
1919......................
1920......................
1921
1922......................
1923......................

Cases Deaths
10
9
12
11
6

l

Year

Cases Deaths

1 1924......................
1925......................

6
8

1

Total..........

138

12

1

It is shown by this table that the cases of lead poisoning in the
British printing industry diminished over one-third during the five
years ending with 1923 as compared with the previous five years,
while the deaths were proportionately reduced at even a greater
rate. During the entire 12 years there have been 138 cases of
lead poisoning in the British printing industry, with 12 deaths,
or approximately 11.5 cases to every death. If this proportion is
applied to the three deaths which occurred in American printing
industries during 1924 the probable number of cases of lead poison­
ing that year would be 35. Making allowances for a possibly
somewhat higher case rate in this country, and also for the section
of the United States not represented in the registration area, it
is a safe assumption that the annual number of cases of lead poison­
ing in the American printing industry does not now exceed 50.
Out of 707 cases of lead poisoning reported to the New York State
Department of Labor from January, 1912, to January, 1925, there




LEAD POISONING

115

was not a single case of a printing employee, but it is frankly admit­
ted that the returns are incomplete. For the State of Massachusetts,
however, the returns for the five years 1921-1925 show that 14
cases of lead poisoning in the printing industry occurred in that
State during the period under review. These cases occurred in the
following order: Two in 1921, 7 in 1922, none in 1923, 3 in 1924,
and 2 in 1925. In the entire State of New York, according to a
consolidated report of the Department of Labor for the period
September 1, 1911, to June 30, 1925, there were reported 21 cases
of lead poisoning in the printing trades, with 5 deaths. This would
give 4 cases to a death, instead of the British average of 11.5. If
the Massachusetts ratio prevailed throughout the United States
the result would be a materially reduced figure from the one
previously estimated.
On page 13 of the present report, the statement is made that
among more than 100,000 workers there occurred 34 known cases
of lead poisoning. This would give a case rate of approximately
34 per 100,000 workers. On the basis of the previous estimates,
this return would seem approximately correct but indicative of a
larger proportion of cases to a death than is shown by the Brit­
ish and the Massachusetts experiences. It is not possible to har­
monize these conflicting results, which are due, of course, in part
to the smallness of the numbers involved, but they all yield the
same conclusion that fatal chronic lead poisoning in the printing
trades is at the present time a health factor of relatively small
importance.
Of particular significance are the returns of aged printers. Of
728 such reports received from individual printers or printing employ­
ees 60 years of age and over the number who during their entire
trade experience had suffered from chronic lead poisoning was only
27. But since the average trade life of these printers was 44 years
and the lead poisoning experience covered the whole of the working
life, these statistics must not be compared with other returns giving
current rates of frequency occurrence. The statistics would seem
to prove that lead poisoning is relatively of small importance as
a factor seriously detrimental to health and in nonfatal form.
In the section of this report on the vital statistics of printers
(pp. 79 to 110) are some very interesting data giving the relative
frequency of lead poisoning in proportion to the total mortality
from all causes. In the experience of the International Typograph­
ical Union during 1912-1918, out of 3,338 deaths from all causes
6, or 0.18 per cent, were from chronic lead poisoning. During the
period 1919-1923, out of 3,447 deaths from all causes 15, or 0.43
per cent, were from chronic lead poisoning. During 1925, out
of 877 deaths from all causes only 2, or 0.23 per cent, were from
chronic lead poisoning. In the entire experience of the International
Stereotypers and Electro typers7Union covering the period 1904-1924,
represented by 1,044 deaths from all causes only 3,. or 0.29 per cent,
were from chronic lead poisoning. In the experience of the Interna­
tional Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union for the years 19121917, out of 793 deaths from all causes none were from lead poisoning.
In the experience of the year 1918 out of 303 deaths 1 was from lead
poisoning. In the experience of 1919-1923 out of 598 deaths from
all causes none were from chronic lead poisoning. According to




116

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

the tabulated results of deaths of printing employees in certain
American cities, numbering in the aggregate 775 deaths from all
causes, none were from chronic lead poisoning. Hence it is a safe
assumption from all of the foregoing evidence combined that chronic
lead poisoning in the printing trades at the present time, when
considered in fatal form, is a factor of comparatively small impor­
tance and, even when considered in nonfatal form, is not of very
serious importance.
DUST AND FUMES AND THEIR RELATION TO LEAD
POISONING
It has not been feasible to make an exhaustive technical study of
the dust and fume problem and its relation to lead poisoning. The
Bureau of Mines, however, has made for me certain special investiga­
tions at the Government Printing Office in Washington which are
covered by the following reports and observations. The report of
the chief surgeon of the Bureau of Mines, Dr. R. R. Sayers, reads as
follows:
The lead dust in the air samples from the Government Printing Office was
collected by the electric precipitation method similar to the Cottrell method.
The total volume of the air collected was from 75 to 150 cubic feet. The method
of collection retains practically all the dust in the air sampled.
Sample No. 1 was collected in the metal room between the two pots when
both were in operation and represents the worst condition that occurred. This
condition lasts from one to two hours.
Sample No. 2 was collected in the molding section of the casting and platemaking division two feet from the metal pot.
Sample No. 3 was collected six inches directly above the metal pot in the
monotype room with the hood removed.
Sample No. 1 contained 0.0549 milligram lead per cubic feet of air; sample
No. 2, 0.0049 milligram lead per cubic feet of air; sample No. 3, 0.0212 milli­
gram lead per cubic feet of air.

This report is amplified by the following observation:
In some studies carried out by the Bureau of Mines, it has been found that
animals breathing air containing from 0.03 to 0.08 milligrams of lead per cubic
foot for 10 months develop no symtoms of lead poisoning but when the animals
are kiUed for examination, lead can be found stored in the body of some species.
Another species of animals, exposed simultaneously, has shown no lead storage
or symptoms. The animals were exposed in two groups, one group for 3 hours,
the other for 6 hours daily. Similar exposure of animals to air containing from
0.002 to 0.007 milligram for several months causes neither storage nor symp­
toms. Ten months is probably not long enough to determine whether chronic
lead poisoning will or will not develop, but the fact that lead is found to be
stored in the bodies of some of the animals would indicate that it is possible.
Dr. T. M. Legge has made some estimations and compared them with other
estimations made by Mr. Duckering and concludes that about 2 milligrams of
lead is the lowest daily dose, inhaled in the form of dust or fumes in the air,
which in the course of years will cause chronic lead poisoning. If this estimate
is correct, there is but little if any danger of lead poisoning among the employees
of the Government Printing Office, with the possible exception of those in the
metal room. With constant attention to adequate ventilation and to cleanli­
ness, its occurrence can easily be prevented at this point. If the lead fumes
in the monotype room or in the molding section of the casting and plate-making
division were allowed to escape directly into the room, the hazard, of course,
would be increased.

The report also includes the following as to the investigations
made at the Government Printing Office:
Carbon monoxide in air breathed by men in monotype, linotype, and melting
room less than 0.005 per cent. Gas fumes carried off by hoods and draft vents.




DUST AND FUMES AND LEAD POISONING

117

With reference to the method of collecting dust samples the state­
ment from the associate chemist, W. P. Yant, appended to the re­
port, reads as follows:
AU the samples reported herewith were collected by the Cottrell precipitator
method using a total volume of air of 75 to 150 cubic feet. The dust precipi­
tated within the tubes was washed with nitric acid and chemical analysis made
for lead content.

As a matter of record there are here included some observations
on the presence of lead dust, also in printing plants in Washington,
determined as the result of investigations made by Dr. Earle B.
Phelps, of the United States Health Service, for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and included in Bulletin No. 201 of the bureau on Hygiene
of the Printing Trades (p. 27):
The specimens were examined in accordance with a procedure which involved
the extraction of the sample by shaking for one hour at common temperature
with 1,000 times the sample weight of aqueous hydrochloric acid containing
0.25 per cent of H. Cl. The results are recorded in percentage of lead by weight.
In each case, also, a qualitative test was obtained for antimony, and a distinct
qualitative test was obtained for arsenic in the case of sample No. 6.
Samples of dust numbered 1, 2, and 3 were taken from three newspaper print­
ing offices in Washington and contained, respectively, 0.51, 0.80, and 2.80 per
cent of lead.
Samples numbered 4 and 5, which were from two commercial printing offices,
showed, respectively, 0.20 and 5.68 per cent of lead.
Samples Nos. 6 to 11, inclusive, were all taken from the Government Print­
ing Office and the original description of sources has been retained in the follow­
ing paragraphs:
No. 6. Dust from open type case. Contained 5.68 per cent of lead.
No. 7. Dust from empty case, at a level of 2 feet from floor. Fine flocculent,
mainly organic dust. Contained 0.64 per cent of lead.
No. 8. Dust from a “ b ox ” or compartment in a lower case, monotype. This
dust contains microscopic particles of lead, as do all cases wherein monotype
products are “ laid.” These particles of lead are too heavy to be air borne,
except when (as occasionally occurs) the case is agitated. Fingers are soiled by
such dust, and chewers of tobacco may convey such metal-contaminated fingers
to the mouth. Contained 5.12 per cent of lead.
No. 9. This dust came from a “ galley” rack, covered at top and exposed
only at the front. This rack is about 4 feet high. The dust came from the two
top shelves. This is fairly representatives of the air-borne dusts in a modern
composing room. The cabinet had been well cleaned about 10 months previous.
Contained 0.72 per cent of lead.
No. 10. Dust from an old type case (lifted from the case and not shaken
therefrom) at about 4 feet from the floor. This dust does not contain the heavier
bits of lead usually found in type cases under the hand system. Contained
0.32 per cent of lead.
No. 11. Dust from cabinet tops, at or about 5 or 6 feet from floor. Such
dust rises from sweeping and is not the result of abrasion of metal. Contained
0.64 per cent of lead.

It is necessary, of course, to draw a distinction between the pres­
ence of lead in dust and in fumes in printing plants. The latter
phase of the question has been dealt with in the above report, giving
not only the results of foreign investigations, but also those of the
study by Doctor Phelps in this connection, which are included in the
present discussion as of use for future consideration:
There is no detectable volatilization of lead within the range of temperature
used at the Government Printing Office, nor at a considerably higher temperature
but even at the lowest temperature used there is a formation of oxide upon the
surface of the molten metal, this oxide film being in the form of finely divided
dust. It is more or less affected by mechanical agitation and may quite readily
be carried away by currents of air" It is frequently in practice skimmed off as
dross.




118

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

Under the conditions of these tests, and it is believed under conditions as
observed at the Printing Office, this last effect is the only one deserving of serious
attention. It is primarily a matter of mechanical agitation rather than of the
temperature of the metal which determines the pollution of the surrounding air
with this fine metallic dust.

On the basis of the foregoing and with due consideration of foreign
investigations, the report states:
In other words, molten lead as used in printing is at a temperature far below
the volatilization point, and lead fumes, in the strict sense of the term, are not
given off, but stirring or skimming or ladling out the metal disturbs the film of
oxide constantly forming on the surface of the lead, and this is carried into the
air so that there is a contamination of the air from lead as shown by actual test.
This may be one reason why most of the foreign authorities who do not believe
that lead fumes are a danger in printing, nevertheless, to be on the safe side,
advise that all melting pots be provided with hoods. Legge and Goadby in
Great Britain, Hahn in Germany, and the Austrian commission all consider this
a desirable precaution. The Swiss law requires it.

The report also makes some observations with regard to acrolein
fumes which are generally considered injurious. Such fumes, how­
ever, are apparently only likely to arise in connection with stereo­
typing, as to which it is said that, “ The fumes which arise
when old plates are being melted down, or burned off as it is usually
called, * * * come from the ink and contain acrolein.” As far
as I have been able to ascertain, there is little risk of this fume being
very troublesome. Of course, in linotype and monotype machines
fumes are general and under certain conditions may involve a serious
risk of lead poisoning. That this risk is now reduced to a small pro­
portion is clearly indicated by the relative infrequency of lead poison­
ing, but it is a potential risk which at all times requires the utmost
vigilance if far-reaching evils are to be avoided.
It does not fall within the present discussion to consider at length
the highly technical problem of adequate ventilation and dust and
fume control. Such investigations as have been made by me clearly
indicate that in many instances, but especially in the case of small
plants, both ventilation and dust removal are quite inadequate to
secure the best results. But it is equally convincing that great prog­
ress in this respect has been made, particularly in the case of the
larger printing plants during recent years.
THE TUBERCULOSIS PROBLEM
That pulmonary tuberculosis was of common occurrence in the
printing trades in the past admits of no question. Many years ago
Thackrah called attention to the diseases of printers, and in his opinion
“ few appeared to be enjoying good health.” In my report on
Mortality from Consumption in Dusty Trades, published in Bulletin
No. 79 of the United States Bureau of Labor in 1908, are given,
among other data, statistics for the Prudential Insurance Co. for
the period 1897-1906, according to which out of 1,590 deaths of
printers, including all branches of the occupation, 613, or 38.6 per
cent, were classified as being due to pulmonary tuberculosis. The
corresponding percentage for the registration area at about the same
time was 14.8 per cent. The proportionate mortality was highest
at ages 25 to 34, being 56.3 per cent, while the corresponding propor­
tionate mortality for males in the registration area was 31.3 per cent.
These are about the only trustworthy comparable data for past years




THE TUBERCULOSIS PROBLEM

119

which are useful for the present purpose. Detailed statistics for
compositors, pressmen, and photo-engravers were not numerically
sufficient for safe generalization.
In the present investigation data have been collected for all of the
principal branches of the printing industry as represented by the mor­
tality experience of the printers' labor organizations. (See pp. 79 to
110.) Of this the most important is that of the International Typo­
graphical Union, which, briefly summarized, is as follows: For the
period 1912-1918 the investigation includes 3,338 tabulatable deaths
from all causes, of which 697, or 20.9 per cent, were from pulmonary
tuberculosis. Corresponding statistics for 1919-1923 represent tabu­
latable returns of 3,447 deaths, of which 512, or 14.9 per cent, were
from pulmonary tuberculosis. Aside from the foregoing tabulatable
deaths data for the year 1925 were obtained. The total mortality
was 877 deaths from all causes, of which 87, or 9.9 per cent, were
from pulmonary tuberculosis. The distribution of deaths by divi­
sional periods of life for the different periods of years is shown in
Table 85:
85.—M O R TA LITY FROM PULM ONARY TUBERCULOSIS AM ONG M EM BERS OF
THE IN TERN ATION AL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 1912 TO 1918, 1919 TO 1923, AND 1925,
BY AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Pulmonary
tuberculosis

Age at death
All
causes

Num­
ber

1925

1919-1923

1912-1918

Per
cent

Pulmonary
tuberculosis
All
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Pulmonary
tuberculosis
All
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Under 25 years.....................
25 to 34 years......... ...............
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over...................

121
459
746
2,012

44
208
237
208

36.4
45.3
31.8
10.3

73
40
499
2,435

24
143
141
204

32.9
32.5
28.3
8.4

9
54
96
718

3
22
19
43

33.3
40.7
19.8
6.0

Total............................

3,338

697

20.9

3,447

512

14.9

877

87

9.D

In the experience of the International Photo-Engravers' Union for
1919-1923 there were 206 deaths from all causes, with 41 deaths from
pulmonary tuberculosis, or 19.9 per cent of the total deaths, as will be
seen in Table 86:
86.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM PULM ONARY TUBERCULOSIS AM ONG THE M EMBERS OF THE INTERN ATION AL PHOTO-ENGRAVERS’ UNION, 1919 TO 1923, BY AGE
GROUPS

T a b le

Age at death

All
causes

Pulmonary
tuberculosis
Number Per cent

Under 25 years............................................ .......... •____
25 and under 34 years............. ......... ................
35 and under 44 years............................................. .....................................
45 years and over_............................................................................

16
71
43
76

3
18
12
8

18.8
25.4
27.9
10.5

Total.................... .................................................................................

206

41

19.9

For the International Stereotypers and Electro typers' Union diata
were obtained for two periods, 1914-1918 and 1919-1923, and also for




120

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

1904-1924, the entire period for which data are available. While the
last period overlaps the two former ones, the data are, nevertheless,
of great usefulness because of the relatively large mortality experi­
ence. During 1914-1918 there were 288 deaths from all causes, of
which 62, or 21.5 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The
corresponding mortality for 1919-1923 includes 275 deaths from all
causes, of which 50, or 18.2 per cent, were from pulmonary tubercu­
losis. The mortality for the entire period 1904-1924 represents 1,044
deaths from all causes, of which 203, or 19.4 per cent, were from pul­
monary tuberculosis. The mortality by divisional periods of life for
the different periods of years is shown in Table 87:
87.—M O R TA L IT Y FROM PULM ONARY TUBERCULOSIS AM ONG THE M E M ­
BERS OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L STEREOTYPERS AND E LE C T R O T YP E R S’ UNION,
1914 TO 1918, 1919 TO 1923, AND 1904 TO 1923, BY AGE GROUPS

T a b le

1914-1918

1919-1923

Pulmonary
tuberculosis

Age at death
All
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

1904-1923

Pulmonary
tuberculosis
All
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Pulmonary
tuberculosis
All
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Under 25 years___ _________
25 to 34 years..........................
35 to 44 years..........................
45 years and over...................

2
62
93
131

17
26
19

27.4
28.0
14.5

3
50
72
150

1
15
22
12

33.3
30.0
30.6
8.0

24
223
311
486

7
70
84
42

29.2
31.4
27.0
8.6

Total.............................

288

62

21.5

275

50

18.2

1,044

203

19.4

The available experience of the International Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union begins with the period 1912-1917, during which there
occurred 793 deaths from all causes, of which 245, or 30.9 per cent,
were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The experience of this organi­
zation for 1918 was shown separately on account of the influenza
epidemic. There were 303 deaths from all causes, of which 46, or
15.2 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The experience
for 1919-1923 includes 598 deaths from all causes, of which 111, or
18.6 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The mortality by
divisional periods of life for the different periods of years is shown in
Table 88:
88.—M O R TA LITY FROM PU LM ON ARY TUBERCULOSIS AM ONG THE M E M ­
BERS OF THE IN TER N A TIO N A L PRINTIN G PRESSMEN AND ASSISTANTS’ UNION,
1912 TO 1917, 1918, AND 1919 TO 1923, BY AGE GROUPS

T a b le

1912-1917

Ail
causes

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Pulmonary
tuberculosis

Pulmonary
tuberculosis

Pulmonary
tuberculosis

Age at death

1919-1923

1918

All
causes

All
causes
Num­
ber

Per
cent

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Under 25 years.......................
25 to 34 years..........................
35 to 44 years..........................
45 years and over...................

95
220
219
259

42
95
70
38

44.2
43.2
32.0
14.7

51
116
77
59

4
18
17
7

7.8
15.5
22.1
11.9

40
137
159
262

10
38
40
23

25.0
27.7
26.2
8.8

Total.............................

793

245

30.9

303

46

15.2

598

111

18.6




THE TUBERCULOSIS PROBLEM

121

The experience of the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders
is rather limited but has been given separately for males and for
females. The latter, of course, form an insignificant proportion of
the total in all of the printing trades. Among the males there were
in the period 1920-1923 189 deaths from all causes, of which 37, or
19.6 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. There were 104
deaths from all causes among female bindery workers, of which 19,
or 18.3 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The mortality
by divisional periods of life for the two sexes separately is given in
Table 89 :
89.—M O R TA LITY FROM PULM ONARY TUBERCULOSIS AM ONG THE M EM BERS
OF THE IN TERN ATION AL BROTHERHOOD OF BOOKBINDERS, 1920 TO 1923, B Y SEX
AND AGE GROUPS

T a b le

Males

Age at death
All causes

Females

Pulmonary tuber­
culosis

All causes

Number Per cent

Pulmonary tuber­
culosis
Number Per cent

Under 25 years.............................................
25 to 34 years..............................................
35 to 44 years...............................................
45 years and over........ ................................

8
32
40
109

2
12
13
10 i

25.0
37.5
32.5
9.2

15
24
12
53

7
9
2
1

46.7
37.5
16.7
1.9

Total...................................................

189

37

19.6

104

19

18.3

Before reviewing the foregoing data, the results of my investigation
as to mortality from respiratory disease in dusty trades, published
by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in its Bulletin No. 231
in*1918 will be dealt with briefly. In that investigation many details
were quite thoroughly gone into but it would serve no useful purpose
to enlarge upon them since they are readily available in the report
referred to. Certain statistics were there published for the United
States registration area for the years 1908-1909, representing 2,847
deaths from all causes for persons employed in the different printing
trades, of which 840, or 29.5 per cent, were from pulmonary tubercu­
losis. A table was also included based on the experience of the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. for the years 1911-1913, represent­
ing 1,056 deaths from all causes, of which 360, or 34.1 per cent,
were from pulmonary tuberculosis. The foregoing data were ampli­
fied by the industrial experience of the Prudential Insurance Co. for
the period 1897-1914, representing 3,863 deaths from all causes, of
which 1,420, or 36.8 per cent, were from pulmonary tuberculosis.
There is, therefore, a fair measure of basic data useful for comparative
purposes.
Summarizing the present situation, the proportionate mortality
from pulmonary tuberculosis for the entire labor organization expe­
rience, representing 10,899 deaths from all causes and 1,998 from
pulmonary tuberculosis, has been 18.3 per cent, in contrast to a
proportionate mortality of 38.6 per cent approximately 20 years ago.
The evidence available has been derived from all accessible sources
and fully supports the conclusion that pulmonary tuberculosis at the
present time is about 50 per cent less common among printing employ­
ments than a score of years ago. But the actual situation is even
better than as indicated, since the average of 18.3 per cent is based




122

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

upon some data as far back as 1904. More significant for the present
purpose are the really extraordinary proportionate mortality changes
in the experience of the International Typographical Union, in which
the percentage of deaths due to pulmonary tuberculosis has decreased
from 20.9 per cent during 1912-1918 to 14.9 per cent during 19191923, and to only 9.9 per cent during 1925. For the white male
population of the registration area of ages 15 and over for the year
1923 the corresponding mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis was
7.9 per cent. The present proportionate mortality of the Inter­
national Typographical Union is indicative of a marked and measur­
able decline in the frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis in the speci­
fic occupations represented by this organization. That the Inter­
national Typographical Union’s percentage of deaths from tubercu­
losis is approximately representative of all of the printing trades is
illustrated by the returns of deaths from the printing trades for
American cities covering the period 1919-1923, showing 775 deaths
from all causes, of which 89, or 11.5 per cent, were from pulmonary
tuberculosis. Hence, it is concluded that this disease to-day by no
means holds the deplorable position given it in earlier discussions on
the printing trades.
Sir Thomas Oliver, in a brief discussion on dust diseases of the lungs,
contributed to Industrial Health by Kober and Hayhurst (p. 1076),
observes:
To the prevalence of pulmonary diseases in printer.] in the United States
Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman has drawn attention. It has for long been known that
printers as a class exhibit a high death rate from phthisis. In Great Britain
this was the case 40 years ago more than it is to-day. I have generally attributed
the circumstance to the men working in overheated and ill-ventilated rooms, to
the inhalation of dust and the possibility of infection by diseased workmen, but
Dr. E. Halford Ross, while admitting the influences of the above, attributes the
malady mostly to inhalation of the dust which collects in the boxes which hold
the type. This dust is rich in silica and iron. It has been examined and found
sterile as far as tubercle bacilli are concerned. The opinion advanced by Ross
is that printers’ phthisis is in its incidence a silicosis. The statement has been
subjected to hostile criticism by several observers. Since at the present time
no decision has been arrived at it is sufficient perhaps just to raise the question
of the causation of printers’ phthisis, and to await the results of further observa­
tion and experiment.

But the best authorities on the subject who have thoroughly stud­
ied the question are of the opinion that silicosis, if it occurs at all in
the printing trades, is of relatively rare occurrence and that the dust
is not as serious a factor in this respect as has been assumed by Dr.
Ross. Since I have fully discussed this question in an article in the
Monthly Labor Review for September, 1922, on “ Dust phthisis in the
printing industry/’ its highly specialized aspects will not be here
enlarged upon except to draw attention to a letter by Dr. Edgar L.
Collis quoted therein and to some observations by Major Greenwood
of the Lister Institute there summarized in the statement that—
How much of this mortality is erroneously diagnosed as tubercular or nontubercular respiratory diseases instead of what may possibly have been a true form
of silicosis is, of course, a matter of conjecture, but the evidence is abaolutely
conclusive that the tuberculosis mortality of English printers, throughout life,
is relatively enormously in excess of an occupation generally assumed to be the
healthiest of all occupations [clergymen]. While the comparison is a severe one,
it is, nevertheless, strictly admissible.

In other words, specific occupational effects are best emphasized
when compared or contrasted with employments practically free




SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS

123

from injurious occupational consequences. But from a practical
point of view a general average is a more rational method of procedure
in that it emphasizes the attainable rather than the ideal. The pre­
ceding statistical observations confirm the conclusion that the mortal­
ity from pulmonary tuberculosis among printing employees is ap­
proaching, if it does not already conform to, the general average
degree of incidence of the disease in the white adult male population
of this country. Further progress is possible and within reach. Bet­
ter ventilation, more effective methods of dust prevention, better
conditions of employment generally, aside from the higher wages and
shorter hours of the present period, will unquestionably further
accelerate the downward tendency of the tuberculosis death rate in
the printing trade.
SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS
Briefly summarizing, the resulting conclusions of the present sur­
vey as based upon the evidence collected may be stated as follows:
1. General health conditions in the printing trades were found to
have been decidedly more satisfactory than had been anticipated.
This conclusion is based primarily upon the low rate of sickness inci­
dence as revealed by returns made by employers and labor organiza­
tions, which practically confirm each other and are fully supported
by the vital statistics of the printing trades.
2. Sanitary inspections of printing plants made by sanitary officials
throughout the country in a sufficient number of representative cities
reveal only minor defects and deficiencies as regards conformity to
modern sanitary requirements. They are suggestive of material imrovement during recent years particularly in the direction of larger
oor and air space for employees, thus providing sufficient room for
working and reasonably adequate ventilation. The defects which
are occasionally pointed out are such as would naturally be expected
in a large variety of plants, many of which operate under structural
difficulties, increased by a rapidly expanding business. The condi­
tion in this respect is naturally least satisfactory in New York City
where sufficient room and floor space is difficult to secure.
3. The returns of labor organizations imply, occasionally, sanitary
conditions in need of improvement. Personal inspections have re­
vealed that insanitary conditions are chiefly inherent in old printing
plants which only with great difficulty can be adapted to modern
requirements, but this type of plant is rapidly passing.
4. The returns of employers and employees regarding the incidence
of tuberculosis must be accepted with reserve, for it was not feasible
to make a medical examination of the employees to make sure of
the facts, but, accepting the returns as they have been made from
two independent sources, they indicate that tuberculosis is no longer
a menace of serious proportions in the printing industry.
5. The incidence of lead poisoning was also found to have been
much lower than had been anticipated. In this respect also the
returns of employers and labor organizations confirm each other and
are subsequently amplified by a detailed study of the vital statistics
for the printing trades, presently to be referred to.
6. The special returns for aged printers, concerned with some
728 workers aged 60 years and over and an average trade life of 44

E

10056°—27------9




124

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

years, prove conclusively that long, continuous employment in the
printing trades is not incompatible with reasonably good health.
The specific ailments revealed by the investigation are such as
would normally be expected among any group of aged wageworkers
and are not peculiar to the printing trades. Here, again, the incidence
of chronic lead poisoning is surprisingly small.
7. The printing-plant inspections reported on in detail in Bulle­
tin No. 392, which represent an important phase of the present
investigation carried on in cooperation with the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics, reveal defects in many instances sug­
gestive of improvements, but the conclusions on the whole are not
in contradiction to the conclusions independently arrived at as the
result of the survey comprehending the larger aspects of the problem.
8. A special study of the photo-engraving plants proved incon­
clusive in view of the highly technical nature of the problems that
would require consideration. In a general way, however, such plants
as were inspected and reported upon conform to printing plants
generally in meeting reasonably satisfactory sanitary requirements.
9. The physical and medical examination of printing employees
revealed nothing of particularly striking importance. The men ex­
amined were apparently of good normal physique, their measure­
ments corresponding to those of the soldiers discharged at the close
of the World War. Tubercular printers, however, were generally
found to be of somewhat inferior physique, suggestive of the great
practical value of a periodical medical examination, particularly of
young printers, for the purpose of eliminating persons physically
unsuitable for the work required.
10. The physical and medical examinations brought out a fairly
common occurrence of visual defects, probably in many cases the re­
sult of ill-adjusted posture. Printers who are above the average in
stature, unless properly provided with suitable seating facilities, may
develop spinal curvature, which is fairly common and closely corre­
lated to eye strain and other visual defects. This result of the survey
is perhaps one of the most important, in that it admits of remedial
measures easily within the reach of even small printing plants, upon
whom should fall the duty of adequately protecting workers in this
direction. Periodical eye examinations are urgently called for as a
measure of prevention of eye injuries causing not only much physical
discomfort and related ills, but also an early decline in working ca­
pacity. The conservation of eyesight in the printing trades is, in
my judgment, one of the most pressing needs of the present situation.
11. It was not feasible to make an extended technical study of the
conditions of artificial illumination, but such investigations as were
made conformed to the foregoing conclusions. Fortunately, in many
modern printing plants adequate provision for artificial lighting is
now the rule rather than the exception, but there are reasons for be­
lieving that many modern installations fall short of what is actually
required and most important. Some special studies for this purpose
were made in connection with the survey of the Nela Park Labora­
tories, but it has not been thought advisable to give extended con­
sideration to those studies, because of the relatively small number of
plants considered.
12. Like observations apply to the question of dust and ventilation.
It was not feasible, in view of the large amount of information dealt




SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS

125

with, to go thoroughly into this highly specialized phase of the situ­
ation. Some investigations as to the nature of the dust in printing
trades were made for the survey through the courteous cooperation
of the United States Bureau of Mines, but here again the number of
plants inspected was too small for a safe generalization. Neverthe­
less, the conclusion would seem justified that conditions as to dust
and ventilation in most modern printing plants are at least reason­
ably satisfactory.
13. Special attention was given to the question of lead poisoning,
but the evidence in this respect was mostly in the negative. The
statistics presented, derived from widely different sources, seem to
prove conclusively that chronic lead poisoning, while always a grave
potential danger, demanding painstaking attention to all matters
that bear upon its successful prevention, is now, at least in fatal
form, of minor importance. The foregoing is confirmed by an inde­
pendent study of deaths from lead poisoning which will shortly be
available through the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, repre­
senting an analysis of every death from lead poisoning reported to
the division of vital statistics of the United States Census Office for
the 10 years ending with 1924. For 1925, that office reports only
five deaths from chronic lead poisoning among persons in the print­
ing trades out of an aggregate of some 300,000 printers employed in
different capacities. The deaths represent one proof reader aged 62,
one typesetter aged 62, one printer aged 54, one electrotyper aged
56, and one printer aged 57. These deaths occurred in Toledo;
Philadelphia; West Warwick, R. I.; Somerville, Mass.; and Monona,
Iowa. While the evidence is therefore most gratifying as regards a
substantial reduction of the liability of chronic lead poisoning in the
printing trades, conditions of the plants otherwise inspected clearly
suggest the necessity of every mode of precaution to prevent its
occurrence, since it is an ever-present potential risk.
14. Finally, the question of tuberculosis naturally received ex­
tended consideration. Perhaps the most significant statistics are
those of the International Typographical Union for 1912-1923.
Dividing this period into two, it appears that during 1912-1918 the
proportionate mortality from tuberculosis was 20.9 per cent, while
during 1919-1923 it was only 14.9 per cent. Particularly gratifying
is the reduction in the proportionate mortality during the early years
of life or, say, ages 20 to 24, and the greater reduction during ages
25 to 29. During 1912-1918, the percentage deaths from tuber­
culosis were of deaths from all causes during the age period 20 to 24
years was 36.4, while during 1919-1923 it was only 32.9; during
1912-1918 the percentage for the age period 30 to 34 was 45.0, while
during 1919-1923 the percentage was only 27.4. The tables pre­
sented afford every opportunity for a thorough study of the mortality
situation. It should be said in this connection that the decline in
tuberculosis among persons employed in the printing trades conforms
in a general way to the observed decline in the population at large.
It was unfortunately not feasible to calculate precise rates of in­
cidence by age on the basis of the number of employees, but this
may be possible some time in the future, now that the mortality
data are available in a consolidated and strictly comparable form.
But the evidence would appear to be incontrovertible that tuber­
culosis has not at present the significance attached to it which it




126

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

had in former years. The risk of tuberculosis as the result of un­
satisfactory working conditions, defective posture, and possible dust
exposure is an ever-present one, suggestive of the advisability of a
periodical medical examination of all persons in the printing trades,
and particularly of compositors and machine operators.
15. The mortality analysis reveals one striking phase of the present
health situation, and that is the higher proportions of deaths from
cancer at the present time compared with the past. According to
the statistics of the International Typographical Union, during
1912-1918 the proportion of deaths from cancer was 4.2 per cent,
while during 1919-1923 it was 8.2 per cent. In this respect the
mortality of printers conforms to that of the general population,
among whom cancer has been persistently on the increase for a long
period of time. While cancer can not be prevented in most cases, it
is possible by means of an early diagnosis and an early operation or
other methods of qualified treatment to prolong the life of cancer
patients for a number of years. Here again the value of periodical
medical examinations is obvious, but it should be amplified by cancer
instructions to adult printers on the basis of the best judgment of the
medical and surgical profession.
16. In the case of the International Typographical Union the
mortality data have been brought down to the end of 1925. It is
regrettable that in quite a number of deaths the information is so
indefinite both as to age and cause of death as not to permit of tab­
ulation and analysis. It can not be too strongly urged upon labor
organizations maintaining mortuary funds that they insist in all
cases upon official standard death certificates and give the resulting
information in detail in their monthly or annual reports. The
organizations do not seem to realize the great practical value of this
information, especially when it extends over a long period of years.
17. An attempt was made to ascertain the extent of occupational
skin disease among printers, but the results were inconclusive for
the purpose. It is quite probable that such affections are fairly
common in certain highly specialized occupations of the printing
trades and it may be possible to go further into this matter in the
future. In any event the affliction is not one of very serious signifi­
cance in its bearing upon the general health of printing plant employ­
ees. According to an investigation by the United States Public
Health Service preventive measures should be easily applicable to
conditions under which the affliction may arise.
18. The foregoing observations indicate in a general way a satis­
factory state of health in the printing trades, suggestive of very
material progress in sanitary conditions in those trades and the con­
trol of conditions likely to give rise to objectionable features bearing
upon health and longevity. But at best such an investigation is
largely a cross section, the value of which becomes apparent only
when comparison is made with more recent data which should be
collected and brought together in a similar manner. In other words,
if such a survey were continuous, it would reveal the trend or the
tendency toward better or worse, as the case might prove to be, with
reasonable accuracy. It is, therefore, to be hoped that further
investigations will be authorized by the various interests concerned
so that the printing trades and the labor organizations affected may
be in full possession of current facts useful for current purposes.




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K ober, G eorge

L o w y , J u l iu s .

Die Klinik der Berufskrankheiten. Vienna, Emil Haim & Co., 1924.
J.
Industrial dermatosis among printers. Washington, 1921. (Reprint No.
656 from Public Health Reports of U. S. Public Health Service.)
N ew Y ork .
Factory Investigating Commission.
Second report. Vol. 2. Albaiw, 1913.
O h io .
State Board of Health.
A survey of industrial health hazards and occupational diseases in Ohio,
by Emery R. Hayhurst. Columbus, 1915.
O l i v e r , Sir T h o m a s .
Dangerous Trades. London, John Murray, 1902.
------ Diseases of Occupation. London, Methuen & Co, 1908.
------ The Health of the Workers. London, Faber & Gwyer (Ltd.), 1925.
------ Lead Poisoning. London, H. K. Lewis, 1914.
P a n n w i t z , G.
Arbeiten aus den kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamt, Vol. 12, 1896, p. 686.
P a r r y , L e o n a r d A.
The Risks and Dangers of Various Occupations and Their Prevention.
London, Scott, Greenwood & Co., 1900.
M c C o n n e ll, W illia m

P r e c a u t io n s n e c e s s a r y t o s a f e g u a r d t h e h e a l t h o f p r in t e r s .

Monthly Review, Washington, December, 1915.
R oos, C. B.
Dust in printers’ workrooms.
(In Great Britain. Factory Inspectors’ Office.
London, 1921.)

Annual report, 1920.

Reprinted in Journal of Industrial Hygiene, January, 1922, Boston.
R o s e n f e l d , S.

Die Morbiditat im Wiener Buckdruckgewerbe.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, No. 3, January 18, 1912.
San g er, So ph y.

Hygiene in the Printing Trade.

London [1912?].

Report presented to seventh delegates’ meeting of International Association for Labor Legislation.
British section, Zurich, September 9-11,1912.
S ic k n e s s a n d d e a t h r a t e s a m o n g G e r m a n p r in t e r s .

International Labor Review, Geneva, November, 1921.
R.
Die Krankheiten der Buchdrucker.
(In Handbuch der Arbeiterkrankheiten, herausgegeben von Th. Weyl.
Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1908.)

SlLBERSTEIN,

S m it h , E d w a r d .

Report on the sanitary circumstances of printers in London.
(In Great Britain. Privy Council. Medical Department.
. port, 1863. London, 1864.)

Sixth re-

SOMMERFELD, THEODOR.

Handbuch der Gewerbekrankheiten. Bd. 1. Berlin, 1898.
A.
Health conditions in the printing trade.
(In New York. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Twenty-fourth annual report, 1906. Albany, 1907.)

S te v e n s, G e o r g e

S u l l i v a n , J. W .

The printer’s health.
IIn Commons, John R. Trade Unionism and Labor Problems. Bos­
ton, Ginn & Co., 1905.)
------ The printer’s health.
The Typographical Journal, Indianapolis, Ind., November and December,
1903.




BIBLIOGRAPHY

129

C. T u r n e r .
The Effects of Arts, Trades, and Professions, and of Civic States and Habits
of Living, on Health and Longevity. London, Longman, etc., 1832.
2d ed.
U n i t e d S t a t e s . Department of Commerce and Labor. Bureau of Labor.
Industrial hygiene, by George M. Kober. Washington, 1908. (Bulletin
No. 75.)
---------------------- Industrial lead poisoning, with descriptions of lead processes in
certain industries in Great Britain and the Western States of Europe, by Sir
Thomas Oliver. Washington, 1911. (Bulletin No. 95.)
---------------------- The mortality from consumption in dusty trades, by Frederick
L. Hoffman. Washington, 1908. (Bulletin No. 79.)
------ Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Causes of death by occupation. Occupational mortality experience of the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., Industrial Department, 1911-1913, by
Louis I. Dublin. Washington, 1917. (Bulletin No. 207.)
---------------------- Hygiene of the printing trades, by Alice Hamilton and Charles
H. Verrill. Washington, 1917. (Bulletin No. 209.)
-----------------------Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic
dusts), by Frederick L. Hoffman. Washington, 1918. (Bulletin No. 231.)
---------------------- Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades, by S. Kjaer.
Washington, 1925. (Bulletin No. 392.)
------ Public Health Service.
Tuberculosis among industrial workers: Report of an investigation made in
Cincinnati, with special reference to predisposing causes, by D. E.
Robinson and J. G. Wilson. Washington, 1916. (Public Health Bulletin
No. 73.)
T h ackrah ,

W eyl, T heodor.

Handbuch de Hygiene, Vol. 8, Jena, 1894, pp. 713, 718.
ZELLNER AND WOLFF.

Causation of skin diseases of printers.
Zeitschrift fur Hygiene, 1914, p. 69.




APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
IN COOPERATION WITH THE
INTERNATIONAL jo in t co n f eren ce c o u n cil of t h e print ing in d u s t r y

HYGIENE OF THE PRINTING TRADES
EMPLOYER'S QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Name of firm________________ ___ __________________________ _________________________
^

(No. and Street.)

*

(City.)

(State.)”

3. Person furnishing data....................... .........................................................................................
4. Kind of printing done................................. -.............................................................. .... ..... ........
5. Wage earners in mechanical department on............................ ......................., 1922.
(Date.)

actually
working this
dt3e.

Occupation.

TTnnrt tvnnnnaitorfi

____

__ .

Regular wage earners absent on this date <n
account of—
Sickness.

Vecaiisn.

Other seasons.

Total regular
wage earners
working
and absent.

Wage earner*
agea 60 years
or over.

____i
....................... i.....................
i

M o n o t y p e operators . . . . . ................. . ......... ................................ j._.................

!
M o n o t y p e c a s te r s _____________________________ __________ !.........................
Wnlrpra-nn a n d fltnna h an ds
P r o o f read ers

.

.

__

„

__________ 1
_____

____

.

1

............................
i

"E le c tro ty p e r s ____. . . . . . . ______ ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________

................. 1

S t c r c o t v p c r s ..................................................................................

|

'

*

P h oto -e n g ra v ers................................................... . . . . . ...... .........
P la te p r in te r s ________ _________ . . . . . . . . . ____ . . . . . . . . . _____

Lithographers.......................................... nrir....r,T.
i

Pressmen______________ ______ ...______ __ ___
Press feeders and assistants___________________ __

---------------

Other machinery employees.......... ...........................
--------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------

----------------

Apprentices.. • • • •
•• • _......................................
Other employees.......................................... ......... — ______________

. . . . . . . . . __ . . . . ______________

....

, ,
(CVKB)

130




APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SUBVEY

131

6. Regular working hours per day:
(a) Day work—Mon-------- - Tu-------- - Wed-------- - Th...___

Fri.......... . Sat_____ _ Sun.___ _

(b) Night work—Mon........... Tu.......... . Wed........... Th— ____ Fri........... Sat.____ , Sun_____
(c) If hours vary in the several trades, please report__________ ......................... .........................

7. Explain provision for regular lay off one day (or more or less) per week, for each trade.

8. Name and describe ventilating devices in use in your plant.

9. How many wage-earning employees have been ill (to the extent of losing any time) in the past year—
(a) From lead poisoning 9 ....................
(b) From tuberculosis?........................
(c) From eye trouble 1 ..... ..................
10. How many times in the past year has your plant been inspected—
(a) By factory inspector?______________________
(b) By State or local health authority?___________
11. Specify the accidents (causing loss of any time) that have occurred in-plant to wage earners during the
past year, stating character of injury and cause:

12. Do you carry compensation insurance ? .
13. Do you carry group insurance? _______
14. Do your wage-earning employees have a sick or accident fund? .

Assistants’ Union, International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, International Stereotypers tad Etotrotjpers Union. The International Photo-Engravers Union
thoufb not a member of the International Joint Confer***, is also cooperating.




132

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
tfc OOOPCRATION WITH THB
INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE COUNCIL OF THE PRINTING INDUSTRY

HYGIENE OF THE PRINTING TRADES
LABOR ORGANIZATION’S QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Name of organization ...................................................................................................................... ..... ..
2. Date when organized............................................................................................. ...............................
3. Number of members October 1, 1922.............................................................. .....................................
4. Number of members out of employment October 1, 1922....................... ..........................................
5. Number of members on side pay..... .........................................................................................................
6. Number of members receiving old-age pensions............................................................ ...........................
7. Number of members less thad five years in the trade................................................................................
8. Number of members five and less than ten years in the trade............................................................... .
9. Number of members ten and less than fifteen years in the trade..............................................................
10. Number of members fifteen years and longer in the trade.................................... ................................. ..
11. Number of members sixty years of age and over............................ ..........................................................
12. Have you a sick-benefit fund I .............................. ................................................................. ............
13. Have you a mortuary benefit or insurance fund 9 ................................................................................. ...
14. Have you a pension fund and system 1....................................................................................................
15. Number of deaths among your members during 1921.................... ...........................................................
16. Number of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis during 1921.......................... ..........................................
17. Number of deaths from other respiratory diseases during 1921____________________________________
18. Number of cases of lead poisoning during 1921------------------- -----------------------------------------------------19. Number of serious accidents during 1921----------------------------------------------- -------------------------------20. Have you any specific complaint to make regarding health conditions in the printing plants of your

Signature..
Address..

N on.—This Investigation ct the health condition* in the Printing Industry is being undertaken la cooperation with the International Joint Conference Council of
the Printing Industry, which represents both employer and employee organization* as follows: Emploper Orttntatfoni: Closed Shop Branch of the United Typothet*
of America, International Association of Employing Electrotypers;
Organltatton*: International Typographical Union, International Printing Pressmen'sand
Assistants' Union, International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, International Stereotypers and Electrotypers Union. The International Photo-Engravera Union*
though not a member of the International Joint Conference, toalso oooperatlng.




Epy*
me
l
o

APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY

133

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
IN OOOPKRATION WITH THE
INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE COUNCIL OP THE PRINTING INDUSTRY

(Form prepared and oaed by the Health Deportment of the District e! Columbia in the sanitary inspection of printing establishments.)

I n s t r u c tio n s to t h e In s p e c to r .— The inspector will devote bo much time to the filling in of this schedule as the circumstances
of the case require. His work should be done with the least possible interference with the work of the establishment. I t is not
expected that he will in any case be able to fill in this schedule at a single visit. The inspector will ask instructions from the Health
Officer, the Assistant Health Officer, and the Chief Sanitary Inspector from time to time as his work progresses, whenever he deems
it desirable

Establishment named.........................................................................................................................
Located a t............................................................................................ .................... .................
Owned by....................................................................................................................................
Managed by______________________________________________________..._______________
I. BUILDING.

Structure: Frame_____________

Brick, stone, or concrete - ........ .............

Kind of floors____ _

Stories high________________________________ ..._________________________________________
Fire protection:
Automatic sprinkler system _______ _______________
Fire hose...............................

Where located_______________ ....___________________

Fire extinguishers: Kind...............................................................................

Number....

Where located..............................................................................................................
Fire alarm system: Kind............. .......................................................................................
Are stairways walled against fire?.......................................................................................
Fire escapes ........................................................................................................................
To what use is the portion of building put which is not used for this printing establishment?.

Is it clean and in a generally satisfactory condition?...

Remarks




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

134

n. COMPOSING ROOM

Where located ?.................................................
What varieties of work are done in this room? .
Cleaning.
Material.

Structural condition.

Method.

{

Condition as to cleanliness.

Frequency.

Walls____ ___

Floor area...........

...square feet,

Height of ceiling

...feet.

Air space

...cubic feet.

.......

Ventilation:

Artificial ventilation: Yes___________

No..
Number of tens.

Plenum system__
Exhaust system ...

Other mechanical contrivances..
Nature and extent of odors.....................
Does room seem adequately ventilated? .
Remarks.




j
j

--------------------------------

{
i

......................................

i
1

---------------

Ceiliags............

I

Floors________

APPENDIX A.---- QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY

135

3
Lighting:
Windows and doors.

(See also Ventilation.)

Condition of windows as to cleanliness
Are window shades provided ? .........
Are awnings provided?......................

(Report should cover at least three inspections, avoiding the same hour and day of same type.)

Artificial light:
G as:.................................

Open flame?___________________

Electricity: Arc?.............

Carbon filament?_______

I

Mantle?.......................

Tungsten?_______

Nitrogen?

Number of burners or globes ? ......................................................................................................
Location of lights?____________________________________________ _____________________
Total candle power .....................................................................................................................
What is done to obtain proper distribution of light?..................................................................

What is. done to prevent glare?_______________________________________
Does artificial light satisfactorily make up for deficiencies of natural lighting?
To what extent is night work done?______________________________ ____
Remarks...........................................................................................................

Heating:
Hot air ? _______

Hot water ? _______

Steam: Direct -___ ___ , indirect,_______ _ combined_____

Are facilities for heating adequate?_____________________________ ___________________________
Are facilities for carrying off surplus heat from machines, etc., adequate?...............................................
Are thermometers in use for regulating temperature?............................................................................
Is automatic heat regulation in use ? .................................. ...................................................................
Remarks..............................................................................................................................................




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

136

4
m . EQUIPMENT.
Piped to carry off beat and gases.
Number
satisfactory.

Number
unsatisfactory.

i
Not piped.

Total.

j
Linotvpe machines...................................................
i

Monotype machines------------------------------ w---------.................._

j l _

" ........I .

............................ ------------------------

Remelung furnace......................................— ..........
!

Is remelting furnace in composing room?........................................................................
Can linotype pots be closed ? .................

Were they found closed at times of inspections ?

How are linotype pots heated: Gas?................................*........ Electricity?.................
How are linotype plungers cleaned?............ ...................................................................

Was scrap lead found on floor about machines at times of inspections ?

Keyboards: Number______ _____

Kind....................................................................................................

Cases: Number.............................. Band.................... ................................................. ........................... .
Are bottoms of cases set flush with floor?.............................................................................................
On sanitary leg base? .......................................................

If not, how high is bottom of case above

floor?..................................................................................................................................................
How are cases cleaned ? .............................. -................................... ....................................................

Condition as to cleanliness at times of inspections ?

Was space under cases clean at times of inspections ?...
How are type cleaned: Potash?....................

Benzine?__

Remarks...............................................................................




APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SUKVEX

IV. SANITARY PROVISIONS FOB EMPLOYEES.

Toilet accommodations:
For males:
Location______
Number.

Structural conditions.

Condition as to cleanliness.

„ ...
Urinals----------------------

Spigots for washing hands, etc.:
Location.............................................
Number___________

Cold water?..

Hot water ?..

Shower baths?___________ ___________
Toweb:
Number_________

Kind------------

Frequency of changing.

Condition as to cleanliness).
Spittoons:
Number_________

Kind..

How cared for ...

For females:
Location_____________________
Number.

Structural conditions.

Condition as to cleanliness.

Spigots for washing hands, etc.:
Location............................................
Number....................

Hot water?..

Cold water?..

Shower baths ? .........................................
Towels:
Number___________

Kind...........

Condition as to cleanliness?..............
Are toilet accommodations adequate?.... ...............
Are toilet accommodations in good condition?......
Remarks.................................................................




Frequency of changing..

137

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

138

6
IV. SANITARY PROVISIONS FOR EMPLOYEES—C«Bduded.

Is a dressing room provided—
For males ?..................... .

For females ?

Are lockers provided:
Number............

Bond

Location............

Condition as to cleanliness

Is a lunch room provided ? .................................. .................................................................
Location......................................................................................... ,..............................
Is it screened?.................................................................................................................
Nature of accommodations ? ................... ........................................................................
Drinking water—How secured:
Bubbling fountains 1......................................................................................
Ice coolers?

.................

Number....................

Number

Kind?.......................................

How cleaned ? ................................................. ........................................................
How frequently cleaned ? .......................................................................................
Common drinking cups........................ Number....................

Kind?..................... .

How cleaned ? .................................... ...................................................................
How frequently cleaned ? ....................................................................................... .
Individual drinking cups?...............................................................................................
Remarks.................................*.................................................................. *..................
Is washing of hands compulsory?............................................. Of face? ...........................
Are rules posted for sanitary guidance of employees ? ............................................................
If so, how enforced?.......................................................................................... ............
If not, are recommendations posted ? ..............................................................................
Obtain a copy of any such regulations or recommendations, if practicable.
Are medical examinations of employees reqUifed?.................... ............................................
If so, how are they provided fo r ? ...................................................................................
Is there any professional supervision over sanitary conditions of the establishment?.............
If so, what?............................... ....................................................................-...... .......
Remarks




APPENDIX A .— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY

139

7
V. EMPLOYEES.
Hand composition.

Machine composition, j

Oth»r work.

|

Number of

........................................ —
.............

J

TotaL

1

...................................... !..................................... 1
j

T o t a l ..........................................................................................

i

i

Number of females_____________________________

!

State, per employee:
Floor space...............square feet. Air space................cubic feet. Window area.............. square feet.
Lockers..... ..................

Drinking cups........................ Towels........................

Water-closets for males, per male employee....................

Urinals, per male employee .................. ..

Water-closets for females, per female employee....................
Number of tuberculous employees, known to the manager as such 9 -........................................................ .....
Precautions taken against the spread of the disease ................................................................................... ...

Remarks.

VI. RECOMMENDATIONS.
(N ote .— E mbody each recommendation in a separate paragraph and number the paragrapus socially.)

Sanitary Inspector*

Date..............................

10050°—27------ 10




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

140

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

IN000P A I0N W HT C
8R T
IT H
INTERNATIONAL jo in t c o n f e r e n c e o ounoil o p t h e pr in t in g in d u s t r y

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PHOTO-ENGRAVING PLANTS

Name of firm.
Located at-- ----------------------------------- --- --------------------(Number tad street)

(City)

Person furnishing data....____________________ ________
I. BUILDING

Structure: Frame.......... ............

Brick, stone, or concrete____________

Kind of floors___

Floor or floors on which establishment is located________________________________________

Fire protection:
Automatic sprinkler system.......................................
Fire hose................................. Where located_____________________________________
Fire extinguishers: K ind................. .................................................................

Number..

Where located _________ _____________________________________________________

Are stairways walled against fire?._________________________________________________
Fire escapes.................................................................... - -----------------------------------------To what use is the portion of building put which is not used for photo-engraving establishment!.

Is it dean and in a generally satisfactory condition)




APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY

2
Do surrounding buildings obstruct light or ventilation!.

A. SEPARATION OF DEPARTMENTS

Extent of separation 1 ............................................................................

What varieties of work are done in each room, if several departments are together!

C tenlag
Mstbod

WftH#

, , -

Condition &s to cfo&nUsdfis

FreQtwnoy

,

Floors. .....___
Ceilings----------

Floor area......................................... square feet.
Height of ceiling............................... feet.
Air space------------------------------------cubic feet.
Ventilation:
Number

Location

Total area

Number

Location

Total area

Windows...........




Total..... -

TotaL.......

141

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

142

3
Describe method of artificial ventilation in:
Galleries....... ...........................................................
Dark rooms..................................................... ......
Chemical mixing rooms...........................................
Printing rooms........................................................
Glass washing rooms.....................^
........................
Twirler rooms.........................................................
Zinc etching rooms..................................................
Copper etching rooms..............................................
Finishing rooms.....................................................
Blocking rooms........................................................
Proving rooms...... ..................................................
Are windows opened regularly to air shop?................................. If so, state when.

Describe style of special heat exhausts or fume exhausts, if any, on:
Arc lamps...................................................................................
Silver baths................................................................................
Hot plates...................................................................................
Drying cabinets........................................................................
Twirlers......................................................................................
Etching machines........................................................................
Etching tubs...............................................................................
Sinks...................................... ....................... .......___________
Are dark rooms located by outside walls or in center of rooms!....................

Are gas masks provided, and used, for any part of workt If so, state where.

Nature and extent of odors




APPENDIX A.— QUEST10NNAIKES USED IN THIS SURVEY

143

4
Do ro m se m adequately ventilated?..................
o * e

Lighting:
W
indow and doors. (S e also Ventilation.)
s
e
Condition of w
indow as to cleanliness—
s
Are w
indow shades provided?............
Are aw
nings provided)_ _ _______
_
D
oes natural light seemadequate?_____
Time of inspection
Day

Condition of atmosphere

Hour

Bright

Don

Renurits
Dark

--------------__________________
(Report should cover at least three inspections, avoiding the same boor and day of tame type.)

Artificial light:
Gas:.......................... Open flame?.......................

{

Mantle?.................
. .

Electricity: Arc?.........

Carbon filament?.........

Tungsten?........

Nitrogen?

Num of burners or globes?...........................................................................
ber
Location of lights?..................................................................................................................
Total candlepow
er..........................................................................................
What is done to obtain proper distribution of light?.................................................
What is done to prevent glare?.......................................................................
Does artificial light satisfactorily m
ake up for deficiencies of natural lighting?...............
To w extent is night w done?......................... .......................................
hat
ork
Heating:
Hot air?_____

Hot w
ater? .........

Steam Direct______ indirect______ com
:
bined

Are facilities for heating adequate?............. .................... ......_____________ __




HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

144

6
Heating— Concluded.
Is equipment such as silver baths, hot plates, drying cabinets, and twirlers heated by electricity or gas I

Are facilities for carrying off surplus heat from machines, etc., adequate)
Are thermometers in use for regulating temperature?...............................
Is automatic heat regulation in use?.........................................................
HI. SANITARY PROVISIONS

How is dragon’s blood kept and handled for use?............................................

Describe equipment used to prevent scattering, if any_____________________________________________-

Describe equipment used for taking care of dust from machinery in routing and blocking rooms________ .....

Are sinks properly flushed at all times) .
Are footboards provided by sinks?____
Toilet accommodations:
Location..........................................
Source of ventilation........................
Number

Structural conditions

Condition as to cleanliness

Water-closets

Urinals

Spigots for washing hands, etc.:

Number________




— Hot water?_____________________Cold water?

APPENDIX A.---- QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SURVEY

Toilet accommodations—Concluded.
Shower baths?..................................... ............................................................................
Towels:
Number.................

K ind.............................

Frequency of changing_________

Condition as to cleanliness?........................................................................................
Spittoons:
Number__..._______

Kind .....................................

How cared for.....................

Are toilet accommodations adequate?....... ..........................................
Are toilet accommodations in good condition?....................................
Is a dressing room provided?...............................................................
Are lockers provided:
Number...................

Kind........................................................

Location.........................................

Condition as to cleanliness.

Is a lunch room provided!...................................................................
Location....................................................................................... .
Is it screened?..............................................................................
Nature of accommodations?..........................................................
Drinking water:
How secured?..................................... ..........................................
Bubbling fountains ?.......... .............................................................................
Ice coolers?.........................

Number...................

Number..

Kind................,...........................

How cleaned?..............................................................................................................
How frequently cleaned?...*.............................................................. .........................
Common drinking cups?_____________

Number...................

Kind..

How cleaned?..................................................................................
How frequently cleaned?.
Individual drinking cups?___




145

HEALTH SUBVEY OF THE PiUNTING TRADES

146

7
Drinking water—>
Concluded.
Remarks................................................................

Is washing of hands compulsory ?..............................................

Of face ?_______ ___

Are employees permitted to eat in workrooms?...............................

Is rule enforced?

Are employees permitted to smoke in workrooms?..........................

Is rule enforced?

Are rules posted for sanitary guidance of employees?....................................................
If so, how enforced?........ ......................... ..............................................................
If not, are recommendations posted?.....................................................................
(Furnish a copy of any such regulations or recommendations, if practicable.)
Are medical examinations of employees required?................................. .......................
If so, how are they provided for?............................................................................
Explain any professional supervision over sanitary conditions of the establishment ? .....

IV. EMPLOYEES
PIlOtographers
and
strippcra

Sex

Number of mftlw

Halftone
etchers
and
printer*

Line
etcbers
and
printers

Engravers

Routers
and
blockers

Color
artists

Prooferg

Offset and
photo­
gravure

------...

Number of females----------------T o t a l -----------------------------------

V. GENERAL HEALTH

Is cyanide work performed in dark rooms or by sinks outside of these ?

Are rubber gloves provided, and used, for any part of work? If so, state where......
Have there been any cases of cyanide poisoning in plant during past 5 years?______
Have there been any cases of bichromate poisoning in plant during the past 5 years?
Have there been any cases of tuberculosis in plant during past 5 years ? ___________




Others

ToUJ

APPENDIX A.— QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THIS SUKVKY

Hare there been any.cases of other occupational diseases in plant during past 5 years? _

147

....... ............ —

Describe accidents in plant during past 5 years, if a n y .............................................. .................................

How is acid drawn from carboys?_______________________________ *---------------------------- --------------Are carboys kept on stands? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------Is mouth of carboy closed after drawing acid?---------------------- ~-----------------------------------------------------Are proper remedies on hand in case a carboy of acid is broken, and are all employees instructed how to
proceed in such event?________ — - -------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------

How are benzine and other inflammable rags kept? .

Date




148

HEALTH SURVEY OF THE PRINTING TRADES

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
IN COOPERATION WITH THS
INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE COUNCIL OP TH E PRINT!HO INDUSTRY

HYGIENE OF THE PRINTING TRADES
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AGED PRINTERS

1. Name..................................- ............................................................................
2. Address........... .................................................................................................
3. Year of birth..................................... ~...................................................... .......
4. Place of birth....... .................. - ........................................................................
5. Years in the printing trade................................................................................
6. Specific occupation now followed......................................................................
7. Present condition of health................................................................................
8. Record of past cases of sickness.........................................................................
9. If formerly dr now afflicted with tuberculosis, state details...........................

10. If any sickness attributable to the trade, state details.

11. Present condition of eyesight.......... ................. ...... .................................................................................
12. Ever suffered from lead or other industrial poisoning? ........................................ ....................................
N ote .—This Investigation of the health conditions in the Printing Industry is being undertaken in cooperation with the International Joint Conference Council ol
the Printing Industry, which represents both employer and employee organizations as follows: Employer Organisations: Closed Shop Branch of the United Typoiheta
of America, international Association of Employing Electrotypers; Employee Organization*: International Typographical Union, International Printing Praiamen’s an<i
Assistants’ Union, international Brotherhood of Bookbinders, International Stereotypers and Electrotypers Union. The International Photo-Eogravors Union,
though not a member of the International Joint Conference, is also cooperating.




APPENDIX B.— PRECAUTIONS NECESSARY TO
HEALTH OF PRINTERS

SAFEGUARD

THE

The New York City department of health, through its division of
industrial hygiene, issued a placard prepared to show the precautions
for printers necessary to safeguard the health. The placard was
generally distributed to all union printing shops in New York City
by the printers’ organizations. The placard is here reproduced in
full:
PRECAUTIONS FOR PRIN TERS
Hoods must be placed over linotype metal pots and have pipes connecting.
Remember, pig lead used in linotyping is softer than lead of type. Handle it as
little as possible.
Drop pig lead carefully into melting pot. Splashings of molten lead dry later
and become lead dust.
Do not shake crucible in order to blend molten lead better. It will blend of
itself.
Plungers on linotype machines should never be cleaned in the workroom. Clean
them in boxes in the open air. Avoid inhaling the dust.
Graphite used for lubricating is not poisonous, but all dust is irritating to the
lungs.
Avoid lead dust as much as possible when trimming and mitering, or when
sawing.
Remove lead dust from type cases in the open air, or by means of & vacuum
cleaner.
Never put type into the mouth, or moisten fingers to get better hold of type.
Benzine and lye are skin irritants. Use them with care.
Insist upon having good ventilation in the office or factory, and insist that floors
should not be swept during working hours.
Suggest to your employer that walls and ceilings of workroom, if not of smooth,
washable surface, should be limewashed once a year; that close-fitting floors
which can be cleaned by moist methods are desirable; and that type cases
should fit closely on the floor or have legs high enough to brush under.
Eat a good breakfast before beginning work. Food in the stomach, especially
milk, helps to prevent lead poisoning.
Do not eat food, or use tobacco, while at work unless your hands are first care­
fully washed, because of the danger of getting lead into the mouth. Do not
use a “ common” drinking cup; such a cup may be employed by a tubercu­
lous or otherwise infected person. Wash hands thoroughly with warm water
and soap. Have your own towel and soap. Rinse the mouth and clean the
finger nails before eating.
Don’t spit on the floor. Use cuspidors and see that they are cleaned daily.
Eat your lunch outside the workroom.
Do not wear working clothes too long without change.
Hang street clothes where they will not be exposed to the dust of the workroom.
Gas and electric lights should be shaded to prevent a glare. The eyes should
be examined from time to time by a competent physician. Avoid ruining
your sight by giving early attention to eyestrain. Headaches, blurred vision,
red and inflamed eyes, dancing spots before the eyes, twitching of the eyelids,
are some of the first signs of eyestrain.
Insufficient light may impair the general health.
Bathe frequently, and brush the teeth each night.
Avoid alcohol. It increases the danger of lead poisoning.
Have a good bowel movement each day.
Exercise in the fresh air as much as possible.
Be examined by a doctor occasionally to protect yourself against the effects of
your trade.




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