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1965

HANDBOOK
on

WOMEN
WORKERS

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T OF

LABOR

W. W i l l a r d Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN'S
Mary
Bulletin

290




Dublin

BUREAU

Keyserling,

Director

A N ACT TO ESTABLISH IN THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR A
BUREAU TO BE KNOWN AS

THE WOMEN'S BUREAU
Be it mooted by the Senate and Home of Representatives
of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Lh*t
there shall be established in the Department of Labor a
bureau to be known as the Women's Bureau.
SEC 2 That the said bureau shall be m charge ot a director, a woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $5,000/ It shall be the duty of said
bureau to formulate standards and policies Which shall
promote the welfare of wage-earning women, improve their
working conditions, increase their efficiency, and advance
their opportunities for profitable employment. The said
bureau shall have authority to investigate and report to the
said department upon all matters pertaining to the welfare
of women in industry. The director of said bureau may
from time to time publish the results of these investigations
in such a manner and to such extent as the Secretary ot
Labor may prescribe.
.
SEC 3 That there shall be in said bureau an assistant
director, to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who
shall receive an annual compensation of $3,500 1 and shall
perform such duties as shall be prescribed by the director
and approved by the Secretary of Labor.
SEC. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by
said bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants,
clerks, and other employees at such rates of compensation
and in such numbers as Congress may from time to time
provide by appropriations.
SEC. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to
furnish sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment
for the work of this bureau.
SEC. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from
and after its passage.
Approved June 5,1920.
Public Law No. 259,66th Congress (H.K. 13229).
X Amount Increased by Reclassification Act of March 4, 1923, as amended
and

supplemented.




1965
HANDBOOK
on

WOMEN
WORKERS
Women's Bureau
Bulletin No. 290

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
W . Willard Wirtz, Secretary




W O M E N ' S BUREAU
M a r y Dublin Keyserling, Director
Washington : 1965

United States Government Printing Office, Washington : 1966

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.00




PREFACE
Illumined by values transmitted through home and school
and church, society and heritage, and informed by present
and past experience, each woman must arrive at her contemporary expression of purpose, whether as a center of home
and family, a participant in the community, a contributor to
the economy, a creative artist or thinker or scientist, a citizen
engaged in politics and public service.




American Women
Report of the President's Commission
on the Status of Women, 1963




FOREWORD
This handbook on American women workers is published periodically by the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor. The
handbook assembles factual information covering the participation
and characteristics of women in the labor force, the patterns of their
employment, their occupations, their income and earnings, their education and training, and the Federal and State laws affecting the
employment and the civil and political status of women.
The handbook is designed as a ready source of reference. Part I
deals with women in the labor force; Part I I is concerned with the
laws governing women's employment and status; Part I I I tells about
the Interdepartmental Committee, the Citizens' Advisory Council, and
the State Commissions on the Status of Women; Part I V lists organizations of interest to women; and Part V consists of a selected bibliography on American women workers.
This 1965 edition includes information that has become available
since 1962 and is more comprehensive than earlier editions. Social
and economic developments in recent years have had far-reaching
effects on the place of women in the economy. For this reason, knowledge about the work women do, the circumstances of their working,
and the direction of changes in their work is essential for an understanding of American society today.




MARY DUBLIN

Director,

KEYSERLING

Women's

Bureau

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Women's Bureau acknowledges with appreciation th& assistance
given by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Office of Manpower, Automation and Training, and the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
of the U.S. Department of Labor; the Bureau of the Census of the
U.S. Department of Commerce; the National Science Foundation;
the Office of Education and the Social Security Administration of the
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; the Defense
Advisory Committee on Women in the Services ( D A C O W I T S ) of the
U.S. Department of Defense; and the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
The Women's Bureau also wishes to thank the many private
organizations and individuals without whose cooperation the information given in the handbook would be less complete.
The handbook was prepared under the general direction of Mary N.
Hilton, Deputy Director of the Women's Bureau.
Part I, Women in the Labor Force, was prepared by Helen O. Nicol,
Chief of the Branch of Labor Force Research, and Isabelle S. Streidl.
Members of the Women's Bureau staff who contributed to this part
were Catherine S. East, Janice N*. Hedges, Beatrice Rosenberg, Pearl
G. Spindler, Rose R. Terlin, and Muriel B. Wool, who also prepared
the bibliography (Part V).. Statistical assistance was provided by
Thelma H. Brown, Grace R. Hipp, and Harriet G. Magruder.
Part II, Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status, was
prepared by Mary C. Manning, Regina M. Neitzey, and Laura Lee
Spencer, under the supervision of Alice A. Morrison, Chief of the Division of Legislation and Standards.
Part I I I , Commissions on the Status of Women, was prepared by
Catherine S. East, Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Committee
on the Status of Women, and Marguerite I. Gilmore, Chief of the Field
Division.
Other assistance, including preparation of the list of organizations
of interest to women, was provided by Lillian Barsky of the Division
of Information and Publications, Eleanor M. Coakley, Chief, and
Laura T. Danley, Ruth Erskine, and Jane M. Newman.

vi




CONTENTS
Page

Preface
Foreword
Acknowledgments

iii
v
vi

P A R T

I — W O M E N

IN

T H E

L A B O R

F O R C E

Section

Highlights

2
CHAPTER

1—WOMEN

AS

WORKERS

Toward Economic Equality and Opportunity
1 Why Women Work

3
5

Numbers and Trends
2 Twenty-six Million Women Workers
3 Nonwhite Women in the Labor Force
4 Employment and Unemployment
5 Most Women Are Homemakers
6 Geographical Distribution of Women Workers
7 Annual Growth in Labor Force of Women and Men, 1947-64
8 Rise in Median Age of Women Workers

6
6
7
7
8
9
11
12

Labor Force Participation of Women
9 Variations in Labor Force Participation by Age Group, 1940-65
10 Rise in Labor Force Participation of Mature Women
11 Labor Force Participation of White and Nonwhite Women
12 Labor Force Participation of Women 18 to 64 Years Old

13
13
15
16
17

Marital Status of Women Workers
13 Nearly 3 Out of 5 Women Workers Are Married
14 Labor Force Participation of Women by Marital Status

19
19
21

15

Labor Force Participation of Women by Age and Marital Status. .

Family Status of Women Workers
16 Types of Families in the Population
17 Unrelated Individuals in the Population
18

Labor Force Participation of Women in Different Types of Families.

23
24
24
25
25

Employment Status of Husband-Wife and Female-Head Families
19 Husband-Wife Families
20 Female-Head Families

25
25
26

Working Wives
21 Labor Force Participation of Wives by Income of Husband
22 Contribution of Wives to Family Income
23 Job-Related Expenses of Working Wives
24 Occupations of Husbands and Wives

26
28
30
32
33




vii

viii

Contents

Section

Page

Working Mothers
25 Number and Proportions of Working Mothers
26 Labor Force Participation of Mothers
27 Trends in Labor Force Participation of Mothers
28 Children of Working Mothers
29 Labor Force Participation of White and Nonwhite Mothers
30 Labor Force Participation of Mothers by Income of Husband
31 Part-Time and Part-Year Work Patterns of Mothers
Mothers (husband present)
Mothers (husband absent)
White and nonwhite mothers
32 Education of Working Mothers
33 Occupations of Working Mothers
34 Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers
Federal and State tax treatment regarding child care expenses.
35 Maternity Benefits

36
36
36
36
38
40
40
43
44
45
45
46
47
48
50
51

Working Life of Women
36 Work Experience of Women
Reasons given for part-year work
Changes in work experience of women since 1950
Work experience by age
Work experience by marital status
Work experience by occupation
Work experience of white and nonwhite women
37 Employed Women by Part-Time and Full-Time Status
Part-time and full-time employment by selected characteristics.
Unemployment among part-time and full-time women workers.
38 Labor Turnover and Absenteeism
Labor turnover
Absenteeism
39 Dual Jobholders
40 Unemployed Women
Trends in unemployment rates
Unemployment by marital status
Unemployment by age
Special unemployment problems of teenagers
"Hidden" unemployment and "underemployment"
Unemployment of white and nonwhite women
Unemployment by occupation
41 Women as Members of Unions

53
53
54
54
55
56
58
61
61
64
64
65
65
69
69
71
71
71
71
74
75
76
77
80

Womanpower Reserve

83

C H A P T E R 2 — W O M E N ' S E M P L O Y M E N T BY OCCUPATIONS

AND

INDUSTRIES

Principal Occupations of Women
42 Type of Work
Changes in women's employment since 1940
43 Major Occupational Groups
Occupational differences between women and men
44 Proportion of Workers Who Are Women




85
85
86
86
88
90

Contents

ix

Section

Page

Detailed Occupations of Women
45 Women in Professional Occupations
46 Women Proprietors, Officials, Managers
47 Women in Clerical Occupations
48 Women in Service Occupations

91
93
96
96
97

Occupations by Selected Characteristics
49 Occupations of Women by Marital Status
50 Occupations of Nonwhite Women
51 Occupations of Young Women
52 Occupations of Mature Women

98
98
101
102
104

Industry Groups of Women
53 Distribution of Women by Industry
Changes in women's employment by industry
Women as percent of all workers
54 Women as Nonfarm Workers
Factory workers
Nonmanufacturing workers
55 Women on Farms

105
105
107
107
107
108
108
111

Women in Public Administration
56 Women in Federal Civilian Service
Legislative branch
Judicial branch
Executive branch, general
Executive branch, Foreign Service
57 Women in the Armed Services
58 Women in State Office
CHAPTER 3 — W O M E N ' S

INCOME

113
113
113
113
113
115
117
120
AND

EARNINGS

Factors Affecting Earnings

123

Income of Families and Women
59 Family Income
Income of husband-wife families
Income of female-head families
60 Income of Women Compared With That of Men
Differences in income received
Trends in income differences
Occupational income differences
61 Income of Women by Work Experience
62 Wage or Salary Income of White and Nonwhite Women
63 Income by Age
64 Income by Occupation
65 Income and Education
66 Women Receiving Benefits Under Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI)
67 Women as Stockholders

124
124
125
125
125
125
126
127
129
130
131
132
133
134
137

Earnings of Nonprofessional Women Workers
68 Salaries of Office Workers

139
139




x

Contents

Section

69

70

71

Page

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries
Cotton textiles
Synthetic textiles
Women's and misses' dresses
Earnings in Selected Service Industries
Hotels and motels
Laundry and cleaning services
Eating and drinking places
Earnings in Nonprofessional Hospital Occupations

141
141
142
142
143
144
145
146
147

Salaries of Professional Women Workers
72 Salaries of School Teachers
Elementary and secondary school teachers
College and university teachers
Junior college teachers
73 Salaries of Professional and Technical Workers in Private Industry.
74 Salaries in Professional Hospital Nursing Occupations
75 Salaries of Professional and Technical Hospital Personnel (Nonnursing)
76 Salaries of Scientists

151
151
151
153
154
154
154
159
159

Salaries of Federal Employees

162

Salaries of College Graduates
77 Starting Salaries of Recent College Graduates
78 Salaries of College Graduates: 5 Years Later
Bachelor's degrees
Master's degrees

163
163
167
167
170

CHAPTER

4—EDUCATION,

TRAINING,

AND

EMPLOYMENT

OF

WOMEN

Education of Women in the Population and Labor Force
79 Rise in Educational Attainment

171
172

School Enrollments
80 Types of Schools

174
176

Growth in Secondary Education
81 High School Retention Rates
82 School Dropouts

177
178
178

Women and Higher Education
83 High School Graduates Entering College
84 College Enrollments
Types of institutions attended by women
Full-time and part-time students
College enrollments and marriage
85 Women Earning Degrees
Number and types of degrees
Comparison of degrees earned by women and men
Fields of study in which women earned degrees
Bachelor's and first professional degrees
Master's degrees
Doctor's degrees

179
180
180
182
183
183
184
184
184
185
185
187
188




Contents

xi

Section

85

Women Earning Degrees—Continued
Changes in women's majors between 1956 and 1964
Bachelor's and first professional degrees
Master's degrees
Doctor's degrees
Educational Attainment and Labor Force Participation
Educational Attainment and Occupations
86 Occupations of High School Graduates and School Dropouts
87 College Majors and Occupations

Page
190
190
192
192
192
196
200
200

Educational Attainment and Unemployment

202

Educational Attainment and Hours of Work

203

Training Programs for Women
88 Federally Aided Vocational Training
89 Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act
(MDTA)
90 Training Under the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA)
91 Training and Other Programs Under the Economic Opportunity ActJob Corps
Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC)
Work-study program
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
Community action programs
92 Training of Handicapped Women
93 Apprenticeship Training

205
206
208
212
212
213
214
214
215
215
216
217

Special Program for Private-Household Workers

218

CHAPTER 5—OUTLOOK

FOR W O M E N

Outlook for Women Workers
P A R T

I I — L A W S

WORKERS

221

G O V E R N I N G
A N D

W O M E N ' S

E M P L O Y M E N T

S T A T U S

Highlights

226

C H A P T E R 6 — R E C O M M E N D E D S T A N D A R D S FOR E M P L O Y M E N T O F W O M E N

Development of Standards
94 Variations in Standards
95 Methods of Establishing Standards

227
227
228

Wages and Hours
96 Wage Standards
97 Hours Standards

228
228
229

Health and Safety
98 Health Standards
99 Safety Standards

230
230
230

Other Standards
100 Industrial Homework

231
231




Contents

xii
CHAPTER

7—STATE

LABOR

LAWS

FOR

WOMEN

Section

Page

Minimum Wage
101 Historical Record
102 Roster of Minimum Wage States

233
234
235

Equal Pay
103 Historical Record
104 Roster of Equal Pay States

237
237
'238

Hours of Work
105 Maximum Daily and Weekly Hours
106 Day of Rest
107 Meal Period
108 Rest Period
109 Nightwork

238
239
240
241
242
242

Other Labor Legislation
110 Industrial Homework
111 Employment Before and After Childbirth
112 Occupational Limitations
113 Seating and Weightlifting

243
243
243
244
245

CHAPTER

8—POLITICAL

AND

CIVIL

STATUS

OF

WOMEN

New Trends

247

Political Status
114 Citizenship
115 Voting and Public Office
Federal
State
Civil service positions
Courts—jury service
116 Domicile

249
249
249
249
250
250
250
251

Civil
117
118
119

Status—Family Relations
Marriage
Divorce
Parent and Child
Unmarried parents
Inheritance by parents from children

252
252
252
253
253
253

120

Family Support
Unmarried parents
Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act

254
254
254

Civil Status—Contract and Property Law
121 Power To Make Contracts
122 Ownership, Control, and Use of Property
General
Property acquired by joint efforts after marriage
Disposition of property after death

255
255
257
257
257
258

P A R T

I I I — C O M M I S S I O N S

O N

T H E

S T A T U S

OF

W O M E N

Federal

260

State

262




Contents
P A R T

xiii
I V — O R G A N I Z A T I O N S

OF

I N T E R E S T

T O

W O M E N

Section

Page

Social, Civic, and Religious Organizations
Professional and Business Organizations
General Service Organizations of Business and Professional Women
Educational Organizations
Political and Legislative Organizations
Patriotic Organizations
Farm and Rural Organizations
Labor Organizations
Alphabetical List of Organizations
P A R T

V — B I B L I O G R A P H Y

O N

A M E R I C A N

270
274
281
282
284
285
286
287
288

W O M E N

W O R K E R S

Bibliography on American Women Workers

292

INDEX

315

Tables
Table

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

14
15
16
17
18

Women in the Labor Force, Selected Years, 1890-1965
Employment Status of Women and Men, April 1965
Women in the Population and Labor Force, by Age, 1940 and 1965__ _
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women, by Age, Selected Years,
1940-65
Women in the Civilian Labor Force, by Age, 1940 and 1965
Women as Percent of Total Labor Force, by Age and Color, 1954
and 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women 18 to 64 Years of Age,
Selected Years, 1947-64
Women in the Population and Labor Force, by Marital Status,
March 1940 and 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women, by Marital Status,
Selected Years, 1940-64
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women, by Age and Marital
Status, March 1964
Employment Status of Female Family Heads, by Employment Status
of Other Family Members, March 1964
Labor Force Status of Female Family Heads, by Age, March 1964_
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Wives (Husbands Present), by
Income of Husband in 1963 and Presence and Ages of Children,
March 1964
Percent Distribution of Married Women (Husband Present) in the
Labor Force, by Income of Husband in 1963, March 1964
Percent of Family Income Accounted for by Wives' Earnings in 1963_
Occupations of Wives, by Occupation of Husband, March 1964
Mothers in the Population and Labor Force, by Marital Status and
Ages of Children, March 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Mothers and of All Women,
Selected Years, 1940-64




Page

6
8
14
15
16
18
19
20
23
24
27
28

29
30
31
34
37
38

xiv

Contents

Table

19
20

21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Page

Labor-Force Participation Rates of White and Nonwhite Mothers
(Husband Present), by Ages of Children, March 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates and Percent Distribution of Mothers
(Husband Present), by Income of Husband in 1963 and Ages of
Children, March 1964
Work Experience in 1963 of Mothers (Husband Present), by
Ages of Children, March 1964
Full-Time and Part-Time Work Status of Mothers Employed in
Nonagricultural Industries, by Marital Status and Ages of Children,
March 1964
Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers With Children Under
14 Years of Age, by Ages of Children, February 1965
Work Experience of Women, 1950, 1960, and 1964
Percent of Women and Men With Work Experience in 1964 by Age_
Work Experience of Women in 1964, by Age
Work Experience of Women in 1964, by Marital Status
Work Experience of Women in 1964, by Major Occupational Group.
Work Experience of Women in 1964, by Color and Age
Women at Work in Nonagricultural Industries, by Full-Time and
Part-Time Status and Selected Characteristics, 1964
Unemployed Women Looking for Full-Time or Part-Time Work,
by Age, 1964
Women With Two or More Jobs, by Occupation of Primary and
Secondary Jobs, May 1964
Unemployment Rates of Women and Men, 1947-64
Unemployment Rates of Women and Men, by Age, 1964
Unemployed Women and Men Looking for Full-Time or Part-Time
Work, 1964
Percent Distribution of Experienced Unemployed Young People, by
Sex and Type of Work of Last Job, February 1963
Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Color, and Age, 1959-64
Unemployment Rates of Women, by Principal Occupation, 1960
Women Members in Labor Unions, 1964
Employment, by Sex and Type of Work, 1940, 1950, and 1965
Major Occupational Groups and Selected Occupations of Employed
Women, April 1965
Major Occupational Groups of Employed Women, 1940, 1950, and
1965
Detailed Occupations in Which 100,000 or More Women Were Employed, 1960
Occupations in Which Women Were Three-fourths or More of Total
Employed, 1960
Major Occupational Groups of Employed Women, by Marital
Status, March 1964
i
Marital Status of Employed Women, by Major Occupational Group,
March 1964
Major Occupational Groups and Selected Occupations of Employed
Nonwhite Women, April 1965
Major Occupational Groups of Employed Girls 14 to 19 Years
of Age, 1964




40

42
44

46
49
55
56
57
58
59
62
63
65
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
82
86
87
89
92
94
99
100
103
104

Confenfs
Table

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

xv
Page

Major Occupational Groups of Employed Women 45 Years of Age
and Over, 1964
___
___
Major Industry Groups of Employed Women, 1940, 1950, and 1965__
Women in Manufacturing Industries, 1950 and 1965
Women in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries, 1960 and 1965
Employment Status of Women Living on Farms, 1960 and 1964
Women in the Federal Service, Selected Years, 1923-64
Foreign Service Personnel, by Sex and Rank, 1965
Women in the Armed Services on Active Duty as of December 31,
1964
Income of Families, by Type of Family, 1964
Income of Women and Men, 1964
Women's Median Wage or Salary Income as Percent of Men's, by
Selected Major Occupational Group, 1956-64
Median Income of Women Workers, in 1964, by Work Experience-Median Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Time Workers,
by Sex and Color, 1939 and 1956-64
Median Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Time Workers,
by Major Occupational Group and Sex, 1964
Number of Women Receiving OASDI Benefits and Average Monthly
Benefits Received, by Color, at End of 1963
Weekly Earnings of Women in Selected Office Occupations, 17
Metropolitan Areas, July 1963-June 1964
Average Hourly Earnings in Selected Occupations in the Cotton Textile
Industry, by Sex, United States and Southeast Region, May 1963Average Hourly Earnings in Selected Occupations in the Synthetic
Textile Industry, by Sex, United States and Southeast Region, May
1963
Average Hourly Earnings in Women's and Misses' Dress Industry,
by Sex, 12 Metropolitan Areas, March-April 1963
Average Hourly Wages of Women in Selected Hotel Occupations, 23
Metropolitan Areas, June 1963
Average Hourly Earnings in Power Laundries, by Sex, 24 Metropolitan Areas, June 1963
Average Hourly Wages of Women in Selected Occupations in Eating
and Drinking Places, 24 Metropolitan Areas, June 1963
Median Earnings of Women in Nonprofessional Hospital Occupations, 15 Metropolitan Areas, Mid-1963
Estimated Average Annual Salaries of Classroom Teachers, by Area,
1964-65
Median Annual Salaries of Teaching Staff in Colleges and Universities, by Sex, 1963-64
Median Weekly Salaries of Women in Selected Hospital Nursing
Occupations, 15 Metropolitan Areas, Mid-1963
Women Professional Registered Nurses, by Field of Employment,
1962
Median Weekly Salaries of Women Industrial Nurses, 59 Metropolitan
Areas, 1963-64
Median Weekly Salaries of Women in Selected Nonnursing Professional and Technical Hospital Occupations, 15 Metropolitan Areas,
Mid-1963




105
106
109
110
112
115
116
117
124
126
128
129
130
132
136
140
141

143
144
145
147
148
150
152
153
155
156
157

160

xvi

Contents

Table

78
79
80

81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

Page

Number of Women Scientists, by Field and Highest Degree, 1964...
Median Annual Salaries of Full-Time Employed Women Civilian
Scientists, by Field, 1964
Average Annual Salaries of Women Full-Time White-Collar Workers
in the Federal Service, All Areas, by Occupational Group, October
31, 1962
Starting Saalries of Women With Bachelor's Degrees Employed in
1964, as Reported by 92 Companies
Employment Status in 1963 of Women Who Earned a Bachelor's or
Master's Degree in 1958
Median Annual Salaries of Women Who Earned a Bachelor's or
Master's Degree in 1958, by Full-Time Occupation in Summer 1963.
Educational Attainment of the Population and of Workers, by Sex,
March 1964
School Enrollment of the Population 5 to 34 Years of Age, by Sex,
October 1950 and October 1964
Types of School Attended by Students 5 to 34 Years of Age, by Sex,
October 1964..
Main Reasons for Dropping Out of School or Leaving College, by
Level of School, Sex, and Color, February 1963
High School Graduates and First-Time College Enrollments, by Sex,
Selected Years, 1950-64
Enrollments, by Type of Institution, Fall 1964
Earned Bachelor's and First Professional Degrees Conferred on
Women, by Selected Fields of Study, 1956 and 1964
Earned Master's Degrees Conferred on Women, by Selected Fields
of Study, 1956 and 1964
Earned Doctor's Degrees Conferred on Women, by Selected Fields
of Study, 1956 and 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women, by Educational Attainment and Marital Status, March 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates of Women, by Educational Attainment and Age, March 1964
Major Occupational Groups of Employed Women, by Educational
Attainment, March 1964
Educational Attainment of Employed Women, by Major Occupational Group, March 1964
Major Occupational Groups of Employed Girl High School Graduates
and School Dropouts, by Color, October 1963
Unemployment Rates of Women, by Educational Attainment and
Color, March 1964
Educational Attainment of Women in the Labor Force, by Employment Status and Color, March 1964
Hours of Work of Women Employed in Nonagricultural Industries,
by Educational Attainment, March 1964
Women Enrolled in Public Vocational Courses, 1963-64
Occupations for Which Women Were Trained Under M D T A Institutional Training Programs, 1964
Characteristics of Trainees in Selected M D T A Institutional Training Programs, 1964
Women Enrolled in M D T A Institutional Training Programs, by
Age, Education, and Color, 1964




161
162

164
165
168
169
172
175
177
179
181
182
186
189
193
194
195
197
199
201
202
204
205
207
210
211
212

Contents

xvii

Table

105
106

Page

Characteristics of Women Enrolled in A R A Courses, by Age
Handicapped Persons as a Percent of All Enrollees in M D T A Institutional Projects, by Sex and Age, 1964
Labor-Force Participation Rates, by Sex and by Age of Women,
1964 and Projected to 1980

107

213
217
222

Charts
Chart

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V

Page

Women's Place in the Population and Labor Force
Women Workers in the United States, 1960
Women's Employment Has Increased Faster Than Men's
Percent of Women Workers Over 45 Is Rising
Women Are Most Likely To Work in Their Middle Years
Most Women Who Work Are Married
Number of Married Women in the Labor Force Has Grown Rapidly.
More Mothers Work Today Than Ever Before
A Greater Proportion of Nonwhite Working Mothers Have Young
Children
Mothers of Young Children Are Less Likely To Work at All Income
Levels
Less Than 2 Out of 5 Women Work Full Time the Year Round
Unemployment Has Been Rising Among Younger Women
Unemployment of Nonwhite Workers Exceeds That of White Workers.
7 Out of 10 Clerical Workers Are Women
A Larger Proportion of Nonwhite Than White Women Are in Service
Work
The Earnings Gap Between Women and Men Is Widening
Education and Earning Power Go Together
Most Women Workers Are at Least High School Graduates
The Difference in the Educational Attainment of White and Nonwhite
Workers Is Narrowing
More Than 2 Out of 5 Women College Graduates Major in Education
Labor Force Participation Increases With Education
Jobs Women Hold Reflect the Education They Have Had

NOTE
Because of rounding, percentages in the statistical tables do not necessarily add to 100.

779—555 O—-66




2

9
10
12
17
18
21
22
39
41
43
54
73
77
90
101
127
134
173
174
188
193
198




Part I
Women in the Labor Force




HIGHLIGHTS
EMPLOYMENT IN 1965
Number—About 26 million women are in the labor force.
This is 37 percent of all women of working age.
Women are 35 percent of the labor force.
A g e — H a l f of the women workers are over 40 years of age.
Almost two-fifths are 45 years or older.
One-half of all women 45 to 54 years old are in the labor force.
Marital Status—Almost 3 out of 5 women workers are married (husband
present).
O f all married women (husband present) in the population, 34
percent are working.
Family Status—About 9.5 million mothers with children under 18 years of
age are working—3.6 million mothers with children under 6.
Working mothers are 38 percent of all women in the labor force.
Employment Patterns—About 37 percent of all women workers work full
time the yeqr round.
About 32 percent work part time the year round or part of the year.
Occupations—About 32 percent of all employed women are clerical
workers. They include 2.7 million stenographers, typists, and secretaries.
Sixteen percent are service workers (except private-household).
Fifteen percent are operatives, chiefly in factories.
Almost 14 percent are professional and technical workers. They
include 1.4 million teachers.
R s K O M E I N 1964

Median Income in 1964—$3,710 was received by year-round full-time
women workers,- $1,449, by afl women with income.

EDUCATION IN

1964-65

School and College Enrollment—There were almost 25 million girls and
women between 5 and 34 years of age enrolled in school in the fall of 1964.
Education Completed—Almost 15 million women workers are at least high
school graduates, and 4.9 million of these have some college education.
Almost three-fifths of college graduates, but less than one-third of
women who have completed grade school only, are in the labor force.

2




I
WOMEN A S WORKERS
Toward Economic Equality and Opportunity
Womanpower is one of our country's greatest resources. Women's
skills and abilities are being used more fully and more creatively than
ever before—in the home, in the community, and on the job.
Since 1940 American women have been responsible for the major
share in the growth of the labor force. They accounted for more
than 60 percent of the total increase from 1940 to 1964, and their
representation in the labor force has risen from one-fourth to more
than one-third of all workers.
The growing contribution made by women to the economic life of
the country has developed largely as a result of many social and
economic changes of the last 25 years. Women have been freed for
work outside the home by scientific and technological advances that
have simplified home chores. The growth of new industries in a
dynamic economy and expanded activities in others, as in commerce
and trade, have opened new doors for women in business, the professions, and the production of goods and services.
The increased demand for women as workers has been accompanied
by broadened opportunities for their education and by girls' and
women's increasing awareness of the need for more training. The
great emphasis in recent years on completion of high school, on occupational training, on university education, and on continuing education
for mature women has encouraged women to seek better preparation
for jobs. This has facilitated their integration into the working
world.
Women have made significant progress in the last 4 years and have
found many new doors opened to them. Many of these gains can be
credited to the President's Commission on the Status of Women, established in 1961 by President Kennedy.1 The Commission studied the
1 See Part I I I for additional information on the President's Commission on the Status
of Women and developments stemming from this Commission.




3

4

Women as Workers

role of women in American life, examined their needs, and evaluated
their potential contribution to the country's economic, social, and
political development. The Commission's Report, American Women,
contained many far-reaching recommendations that envisioned full
partnership for women in the affairs of the Nation. A t the Federal
level the Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory
Council on the Status of Women have followed through on the work of
the original Commission. A t the State level 45 Commissions on the
Status of Women have not only made the full recognition and utilization of the Nation's womanpower a matter of wide concern but have
achieved many gains for women. A t all levels greater interest has
been aroused in- educating, counseling, and training women for their
responsibilities as homemakers, mothers, and workers.
Women are promised equality and greater economic opportunity
under Government programs that mark the beginning of a new national effort to eradicate discrimination based on sex, race, and age. The
Civil Eights Act of 1964 is of particular interest to women, since its
employment provisions prohibit discrimination in employment on the
basis of sex, as well as race, color, religion, or national origin. The
Equal Pay Act of 1963, which became effective in 1964, promises better
wage protection for women by prohibiting wage discrimination on the
basis of sex. Executive Order 11141, issued February 12, 1964, is
helping older women by the broad implications of the order, which
prohibits Federal Government contractors and subcontractors from
arbitrary discrimination against older workers in recruitment and
employment.
The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 commits the Nation to
remove the causes and consequences of poverty. 2 The act affects
women as it does men. It is designed to help develop the potentialities
of the most severely disadvantaged of our people, many of whom are
women.
A society that aspires toward greatness must make use of every
individual's talents and abilities, and it must give each and every one
the opportunity to participate fully in the social and economic life
of the country. President Johnson said, in connection with his search
for talented women for Federal Government jobs:
My whole aim in promoting women and picking out more
women to serve in this Administration is to underline our
profound belief that we can waste no talent, we can frustrate
no creative power, we can neglect no skill in our search for an
open and just and challenging society.
3

The programs of this act are discussed in section 91.




Women in the Labor Force

7. Why

Women

5

Work

The social, economic, and cultural factors that have led to these
important milestones have been at work for decades shaping a new
pattern for women's lives. One of these factors is greater longevity,
especially for women. The baby girl born in 1900 had a life expectancy of only 48 years, but the baby girl born today can expect to live,
on the average, to the age of nearly 74 years. The factors that have
extended the lifespan have reduced the incidence of disease and have
given women greater vitality for fuller enjoyment of their added
years.
Women are marrying young today—half of them marry by age 20.5,
and more marry at age 18 than at any other age. They bear their
children younger—half of them have borne their last child at about
age 30. By the time the majority of women reach their midthirties,
their children are in school and they can anticipate at least another 30
or 35 years of active life to fill with enriching experience. It is not
surprising then that so many women search for new interests beyond
the home; about 9 out of 10 women work outside the home some time in
their lives.
Whether or not a particular woman will look for employment
depends on various economic, social, and psychological factors at the
time in her life when she debates the decision. But financial reasons
are the strongest motivation for most women. At least, this is the
explanation usually given by women in surveys that have attempted
to probe their motivation for working. Economic necessity is, of
course, the overriding reason for employment among mothers of young
children, among women who have to support themselves, among wives
whose husbands have inadequate or no income, and among women
who have to support dependents without the help of a husband.
The majority of women in the labor force are married. They are
concentrated in families in low- and the lower range of middle-income
brackets. These wives work to supplement inadequate family income,
to raise the family's standard of living in general, or to help pay for a
home or their children's education.
Financial remuneration is, however, not the sole reason that so
many women are in the labor force. It is significant that the more
education a woman acquires, the more likely she is to seek paid employment, irrespective of her financial status. The educated woman
desires to contribute her skills and talents to the economy not only for
the financial rewards, but even more to reap the psychic rewards that
come from achievement and recognition and service to society.




6

Women as Workers

Numbers and Trends
2. Twenty-six Million

Women

Workers

A b o u t 26.1 million women were in the labor force in A p r i l 1965.
This figure exceeds by nearly 5.7 million the wartime employment
peak reached in July 1944 during W o r l d W a r I I , when there were 20.4
million women workers. I t compares with about 5 million at the turn
of the century and with the prewar figure of slightly less than 14
million in 1940 (table 1 ) .
There has been a striking advance in this century in the proportion
that women are o f all workers. In 1900 women were only 18 percent
o f the total labor f o r c e ; in 1940, about 25 percent. The proportion
reached a high of 36 percent during W o r l d W a r I I and then dropped
sharply to 28 percent with the return of male veterans to civilian jobs,
before starting to climb again. Today 35 percent of all workers arewomen.
T a b l e 1 . — W O M E N IN THE L A B O R FORCE, SELECTED Y E A R S ,

1890-1965

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Year

Number

As percent
of all
workers

As percent of
woman
popvlaHon

35. 0
33.3
31. 2
30. 6
29. 0
27. 6
36. 1
25. 4

37. 3
36.3
33. 8
33. 1
32. 1
30. 0
37. 0
27. 6

21.
20.
18.
17.

23.
22.
20.
18.

HIGHLIGHTS

April 1965
Start of the sixties (April 1960)
Midfifties (April 1955)
Korean conflict (April 1953)
Pre-Korean conflict (April 1950)
Post-World War ] I (April 1947)
World War 11 (April 1945)
Pre-World War II (March 1940)
LONG-TERM TRENDS

1930
1920
1900
1890

(April)
(January)
(June)
(June)

26, 108, 000
23,239,000
20, 154, 000
19, 296, 000
18, 063, 000
16, 320, 000
19, 570, 000
13, 840, 000
2

10,
8,
4,
3,

396,
229,
999,
704,

000
000
000
000

9
4
1
0

6
7
0
2

1 Civilian labor force.
2 Decennial census (totallabor force).
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965
and 1960. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Annual Report on the Labor Force,
1940-55. Social Science Research Council: "Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960." 1948.




7

Women in the Labor Force

The remarkable rise in the numbers and proportions of women in
the labor force is due to a combination of demographic, economic, and
social developments. Among demographic factors, the most important were the overall increase in population and the changed ratio
of women to men in the population, resulting from the greater longevity of women. Economic and social factors included (1) the increasing demand for labor as the Nation changed first from an agriculture-based to an industry-based economy and then to a service-based
economy and (2) the resultant trend toward urban living. To these
factors were added more recently the widespread use of labor-saving
equipment in the home, rising aspirations toward a higher standard
of living and a higher level of education, and increased job opportunities for women in rapidly expanding clerical, service, and sales occupations. Finally, an evolution in social attitudes and values encouraged
women to develop their abilities and talents to the fullest in paid work.
Between 1900 and 1965 the female population 14 years of age and
over increased nearly threefold. During the same period the ratio
of men to women in the population changed considerably. In 1900
men outnumbered women by over 1.3 million, but today there are about
4 million more women than men of working age (14 years and over).
The female labor force increased more than fivefold during this
period. The percentage of women workers among all women of
working age advanced from 20 percent in 1900 to 28 percent in 1940
and to 37.3 percent in 1965.
3. Nonwhite

Women

in the Labor Force

The civilian labor force in April 1965 included 3.4 million nonwhite
women. They represented 13 percent of the civilian woman labor
force and 41 percent of all nonwhite workers. More than 90 percent
of the nonwhite women in the population in 1960 were Negro according
to the decennial Census of Population, but the geographical distribution of Negro women ranged from less than 10 percent of all nonwhite
women in some Western States to almost 100 percent in some Southern
States.3
4. Employment

and

Unemployment

Over 24.6 million women were employed in April 1965, and an
additional 31,000 were in the Armed Forces (table 2).
Unemployed women—those seeking work—numbered 1.5 million.
3 For detailed information on Negro women in the labor force, see "Negro Women Workers in 1 9 6 0 . " Bull. 287, Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.
1964.




8

Women as Workers

This means that there were about 18 women who had jobs for every
woman who was unemployed. While 35 percent of all workers were
women, 41 percent of all unemployed persons were women.
T a b l e 2 . — E M P L O Y M E N T STATUS OF W O M E N AND M E N , A P R I L 1 9 6 5
(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Women

Men

Percent
Number distribution Number

Employment status
Population

Percent
distribution-

69, 994, 000

100.0

65, 817, 000

100.0

In the labor force

— .

26, 139, 000

37.3

51,168, 000

77.7

Civilian labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Armed Forces
Not in the labor force

....

37.3
35.2
2.1

____

26, 108, 000
24, 648, 000
1, 460, 000
31, 000
43, 855, 000

48,
46,
2,
2,
14,

000
000
000
000
000

73.7
70.5
3.2
4.0
22.3

— .

35, 284, 000
6, 662,000
1, 910, 000

50.4
9.5
2.7

148, 000
6, 385, 000
8,116, 000

.2
9.7
12.3

Keeping house
In school
Other 2
1
2

O
62.7

513,
422,
091,
655,
649,

Less than 0.05 percent.
Includes 607,000 (0.9 percent) women and 1,109,000 (1.7 percent) men unable to work.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965.

The unemployment rate has been higher for women than for men
in recent years, and the gap between the two rates has been widening.
Following the recession of 1960-61 and the high unemployment rates
prevailing in 1961 (7.2 percent for women and 6.5 percent for men),
the rates for both women and men declined, but the employment
situation did not improve for women as much as it did for men.
Women's unemployment remained fairly high at 6.2 percent for 1964,
while the rate for men dropped to 4.7 percent. (For a more detailed
discussion of women's unemployment, including the unemployment of
nonwhite women, see section 40.)
5. Mosf Women

Are

Homemakers

The majority of women continue to be homemakers, whether or not
they also have jobs (chart A ) . In April 1965, 44 million women
were not in the labor force, and 35 million of these devoted their full
time to housekeeping. One-third of all married women and many
single women as well are both homemakers and workers. During a




9

Women in the Labor Force
Chart A

WOMEN'S PLACE IN THE POPULATION AND LABOR FORCE*
(WOMEN 14 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER)
IN MILLIONS

30

20

10

I

I

0

10
1

20
1

30
1

40

50

!

I T E L B R F RE
N H AO OC

SN L
I GE

E E - A RE
V RM R I D

\mvn\u\

OTHT3

N
O
WH
I
T
C ID E
HL R N C I D E BWITIKHILDRENWBNOTHILDRENM
HL R N
JDEM^J^^JNDEMJ
U D R 18 U D R 18
NE
NE

" D a t a are for March 1964.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

workweek in April 1965, 50 percent of all women were keeping house
full time, and about 37 percent were either full- or part-time workers.
Most of the remainder were girls 14 to 20 years of age who were in
school.
6. Geographical

Distribution of Women

Workers

Geographically, women in the labor force are concentrated most
heavily in the Middle Atlantic and North Central States and in California and Texas (chart B ) . Six States each had over a million
women in the labor force in 1960, according to the decennial Census of
Population. These States, in descending order of the number of
women workers, were New York, California, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Ohio, and Texas.
A comparison of 1950 and 1960 decennial censuses shows a slight
shift in the geographical distribution of women workers from Northeast and North Central States to the South and the West.4 These
4 See "Women Workers in 1 9 6 0 : Geographical Differences" Bull. 284. Women's Bureau,
U.S. Department of Labor.
1962.




WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1960

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




Women in the Labor Force

11

changes reflect population migration patterns and, related to these,
the movement -of industry into the South and the West.
Women's representation in the labor force varies considerably
throughout the country. According to the 1960 census, the highest
percentages of women among all workers were found in the urban
District of Columbia (44 percent) and in New Hampshire (36 percent). The lowest ratios of women to all workers were found in
North Dakota (27 percent) and Alaska (24 percent). These percentages are related to the ratio of women to men in the population and to
the existence of industries that employ relatively large numbers of
women.
The percentage of women workers among all women 14 years of
age and over in the population (the labor-force participation rate)
was between 32 and 36 percent in a majority of the States in 1960.
It was highest in the District of Columbia (52 percent), followed by
Nevada (41 percent) and Alaska, Hawaii, and New Hampshire (40
percent each); it was lowest in Kentucky (27 percent) and West Virginia (24 percent). These variations in labor-force participation
rates are related to the availability of jobs as well as to family tradition, local customs, and social attitudes.
Most Negro women in the labor force live in the South. States with
the largest number in 1960 were Texas, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, Alabama, and Louisiana. Outside the South those with the
largest number were New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and California. Negro women constituted more than 90 percent of all nonwhite
women workers in a majority of the States in 1960. In most Western
States, however, their representation among nonwhite women workers was lower, ranging from less than 1 percent in Hawaii to 82 percent in Colorado.
Labor-force participation rates of Negro women are traditionally
high. Among States with at least 1,000 Negro women in the population in 1960, the percentage who were in the labor force was highest
in Alaska (59 percent), followed by Nevada (54 percent) and the
District of Columbia and Florida (53 percent each). It was lowest in
Mississippi (34 percent), Louisiana and Oklahoma (36 percent each),
and Michigan (37 percent).
7. Annual
64

Growth in Labor Force of Women and M e n ,

1947-

The important advances in employment that women have made
since World War I I are brought out clearly by comparing their annual
average number in the labor force between 1947 and 1964 with that of
men. Such a comparison shows that the number of women in the civ-




Women as Workers

12

ilian labor force increased by 53 percent (from 16.9 million to 25.8
million), while the number of men rose only 12 percent (from 43.3 million to 48.4 million) (chart C ) . Consequently, in 1964 women were 35
percent of the total civilian labor force compared with only 28 percent
in 1947.
Chart C

WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT HAS INCREASED FASTER THAN MEN'S
(RELATIVE GROWTH OF THE LIBOR FORCE, BY SEX, 1947-64)

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

8. Rise in Median

Age

of Women

Workers

Since the turn of the century there has been a continuous rise in
the median (half above/half below) age of women workers. In 1900
their median age was 26 years; in 1940, 32 years; in 1945, 34 years; and
in 1950, 37 years. By 1965 it had risen to 41 years compared with 40
years for men workers. Nonwhite women in the labor force were
somewhat younger. In 1964 their median age was about 38 years.
The median age of workers was influenced not only by the changing
age and sex composition of the population, but also by such developments as reforms in child labor and school attendance laws, changing
social attitudes, and the manpower demands of two World Wars. In
1938, for example, the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act established
a minimum age of 16 years, generally, for employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.




13

Women in the Labor Force

Nearly all States have passed compulsory school attendance laws
establishing a minimum age at which pupils are permitted to leave
school, usually 16 years. This trend, combined with efforts to keep
pupils from dropping out of school and to prepare them for jolbs by a
variety of training and counseling programs, has tended to delay the
entrance of young people into the labor force.
Prior to World War I the typical woman worker was young and
unmarried. Traditional social patterns discouraged the employment
of married women unless dire economic necessity required them to
support the family. Today, in contrast, the typical woman worker
is 41 years old and married. She is, in fact, an accepted member of
the labor force, irrespective of her marital status or her age. Two
World Wars, with their exceptional demand for production workers,
encouraged large numbers of adult women to enter employment to
help with the war effort. After World War I I the manpower needs
and consumer demands of an expanding economy caused many mature
women to remain on the job and inspired others to join them. These
various developments tended to raise the median age of women workers—and at an accelerated rate after 1940.
A comparison of the distribution of the woman labor force in 1940
and 1965 by age group clearly illustrates the shift toward the employment of more mature women (table 3). In 1940 more than 2 out of
5 women workers were 35 years of age or over. In 1965, in contrast,
more than 3 out of 5 women in the labor force were 35 years or over.

Labor Farce Participation of Women
9. Variations
7940-65

in Labor Force Participation

by Age

Group,

The labor-force participation rate of women is the percent of all
women in the population 14 years of age and over who are working
or seeking work. It therefore includes the unemployed.
In past decades the highest labor-force participation rate of women
was traditionally among those 18 to 24 years old. In 1940, for example, from a high of 46 percent for this age group the rate was
successively lower for each older age group (table 4). By 1960, however, this pattern had changed, as women developed a two-phase
lifetime working cycle—taking a job when first out of school, withdrawing from the labor force for marriage and motherhood, and
returning to paid work in later years when the children are in school
or on their own. In recent years the proportion of mature women in
the labor force actually has exceeded the proportion of young women.




14

Women as Workers
Table 3.—WOMEN

IN

THE

POPULATION
1 9 4 0 AND

AND LABOR F O R C E , 1

BY A G E ,

19652

(Women 14 years of age and over)
Percent
distribution
Number
1965

Age

1965

1940

Percent
increase
1940-65

POPULATION
Total

69, 9 6 3 , 0 0 0

14 t o 17 years __

_ _

100. 0

100. 0

39. 5

45 to 54 years.__

_ _

16. 6

__

11,240,000

16. 1

21. 5

4. 5

12, 4 3 6 , 0 0 0

17. 8

18. 2

36. 4

__

11,187,000

16. 0

14. 9

49. 7

12. 4

10. 2

70. 2

9, 742, 0 0 0

_

44. 0

8, 705, 0 0 0

3 5 t o 4 4 years___

9. 5
16. 7

_ _

_

9. 8
14. 0

13. 9

9. 0

116. 0

100. 0

100. 0

88. 6
176. 4

_

25 to 34 years.__

6, 887, 0 0 0
9, 770, 0 0 0

18 t o 2 4 y e a r s . _ _

_
_

55 to 64 years.__
6 5 y e a r s a n d over

__

LABOR FORCE
Total

26, 108, 0 0 0
1, 0 7 8 , 0 0 0

4. 1

2. 8

4, 658, 0 0 0

17. 8

28. 1

19. 7

_

4, 295, 0 0 0

27. 6

12. 4

_ _

5, 816, 0 0 0

16. 5
22. 3

19. 4

117. 0

5, 632, 0 0 0

21. 6

13.2

207. 8

__ _

3, 607, 0 0 0

13. 8

6. 6

292. 1

_

1, 0 2 4 , 0 0 0

3. 9

2. 2

230. 3

14 t o 17 years
1 8 t o 2 4 years

_

2 5 to 3 4 years.
35 to 44 years._
4 5 to 54 years. _

_

5 5 t o 6 4 years
6 5 years a n d o v e r

-

1 Civilian noninstitutional population and civilian labor force.
2 Data are for March 1940 and April 1965.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-50, Nos. 22 and 32.

Between 1960 and 1965 the number of girls 14 to 19 years old in
the population increased by about 2 million as a result of the World
War I I "baby crop." However, in spite of the larger number of young
women and girls in the population today, their labor-force participation rate shows little change between 1940 and 1965. Two factors are
primarily responsible: first, the tendency for girls to extend their training and schooling before taking a job; second, the early age at which
they marry and have children, thus being kept out of the labor force by
family responsibilities.
The labor-force participation rate for girls aged 14 to 17 years increased from 8 percent in 1940 to 17 percent in 1950 and remained




15

Women in the Labor Force
T a b l e 4 . — L A B O R - F O R C E PARTICIPATION R A T E S OF W O M E N , BY A G E ,
YEARS, 1940-65

SELECTED

1

(Women 14 years of age and over)
Age

1965

1960

1950

1940

37.3

36. 3

32. 1

14 t o 17 years

15. 7

16. 6

16. 8

8. 2

18 t o 2 4 years

47. 7

46. 2

44. 8

46. 4

2 5 t o 3 4 years

38. 2

35. 9

33. 6

35. 5

3 5 to 4 4 years

46. 8

44.3

38.2

29. 4

4 5 t o 5 4 years

50.3

49. 5

37. 1

24. 5

5 5 t o 6 4 years

41.4

37. 4

27. 6

18. 0

6 5 years and over

10. 5

10. 8

9. 7

6. 9

Total

27. 6

i Data are for March 1940 and April in other years, and are based on civilian noninstitutional population.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965,
and Special Labor Force Report No. 14. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current
Population Reports, P-57, No. 94, and P-50, Nos. 22 and 32.

stationary until 1965, when it dropped to 16 percent. The rate for
young women aged 18 to 24 years rose slightly, from 45 percent in 1950
to 48 percent in 1965, but this was only about 1 percent higher than the
rate in 1940. And the rate for women 25 to 34 years old rose from 34
percent in 1950 to 38 percent in 1965—only about 3 percent higher than
in 1940.
70. Rise in Labor Force Participation of Mature

Women

The increasing tendency of women to return to the labor force after
their family responsibilities have lessened is illustrated by the changes
since 1940 in the labor-force participation rates of mature women.
While the rate for all women 14 years and over increased by 35 percent between 1940 and 1965, and that for women 35 to 44 years old
rose by 59 percent, the rate for women 45 to 64 years of age increased
considerably more. Among women 45 to 54 years of age, for example,
the labor-force participation rate was twice as great in 1965 as it was
in 1940, and among women 55 to 64 the rate increased from 18 to 41
percent—a rise of 130 percent. Even among women 65 years of age
and over there was increased labor force participation—11 percent in
1965 compared with 7 percent in 1940, or an increase of 52 percent.
The dramatic increase in the number of mature women in the labor
force is illustrated in table 5. In age group 35 to 44 years the number
of women workers more than doubled between 1940 and 1965. In age
group 45 to 54 years their number more than tripled, and in age group
55 to 64 years their number increased almost fourfold. Even among
the oldest group of women, 65 years and over, the number of women
workers rose almost Sy2 times during that period.
77£M>55 O — 6 6




3

16

Women as Workers

The corresponding increase in the woman population between 1940
and 1965 was substantially less. T h e highest rise was f o r age group
65 years and over.
T A B L E 5 . — W O M E N IN THE CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE, BY AGE, 1 9 4 0 1 AND 1 9 6 5
(Women 14 years of age and over)

Number in the
labor force
Age
Total
14
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

years
years
years
years
years
years
and over

1965

1940

26,108,000

13,840,000

2, 463, 000
3, 273, 000
4, 295, 000
5, 816, 000
5, 632, 000
3, 607, 000
1,024,000

1,
2,
3,
2,
1,

460, 000
820, 000
820, 000
680, 000
830, 000
920,000
310,000

Percent
increase
in the labor force
1940-65

Percent
increase
in the
population
1940-65

88.6

39.5

68. 7
16.1
12. 4
117. 0
207. 8
292.1
230.3

36. 7
14.1
4. 5
36. 4
49. 7
70. 2
116.0

i Data are for March 1940 and April 1965.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-50, No. 22.

The significant extent to which women aged 45 and over have moved
into the labor force in recent years is indicated by chart D. I n 1940
such women were only 22 percent of all women in the labor force,
but by 1965 they constituted 39 percent. During the same period the
proportion of the under-25 age group dropped from 31 to 22 percent,
and that of women in the central years (25 to 44) dropped f r o m 47 to
39 percent.

7 7. Labor Force Participation of White and Nonwhite

Women

A comparison of labor-force participation rates f o r white and nonwhite women in 1964 shows that, except among teenagers, relatively
more nonwhite than white women were in the labor force (chart E ) .
The difference is most striking in age group 25 to 34 years, where 53
percent of nonwhite women, but only 35 percent of white women, were
in the labor force. This compares with an overall average labor-force
participation rate of 46 percent f o r nonwhite and 36 percent f o r white
women. A m o n g both white and nonwThite women, the highest laborforce participation rate was in age group 45 to 54 years—62 percent f o r
nonwhite women, and 50 percent f o r white women.
Traditionally a much higher proportion of nonwhite than white
women are in the labor force. T h e main reason f o r this difference




17

Women in the Labor Force
Chart 0

PERCENT OF WOMEN WORKERS OVER 45 IS RISING
(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN WORKERS, BY AGE, 1940, 1950, AND 1965 y ]
PERCENT

100 ~

UNDER 25 YEARS
80

-

25-44 YEARS

60 -

40 -

45 YEARS A N D OVER

20 -

0 _
1940

1950

1965

J / D a t a are for M a r c h 1 9 4 0 a n d April 1 9 5 0 and 1 9 6 5 .
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

is that economic responsibility f o r maintaining the family often falls
more heavily on nonwhite than on white women. I n recent years,
however, mature white women have entered the labor force in such
large numbers that the difference has been reduced slightly.
A comparison of proportions of women in the labor force by age
and by color f o r 1954 and 1964 shows the changes that took place in
the female labor force during that decade (table 6 ) .

72. Labor Force Participation of Women

18 to 64 Years Old

Labor-force participation rates usually are computed f o r ages 14
years and over, the standard working ages used by the Bureau of
the Census. A more appropriate rate f o r women, however, is one calculated f o r ages 18 to 64 years, the age group at which employment
is most likely. Girls under 18 years of age, f o r example, preferably
should be in school or in training, and women over 65 should be free
to retire f r o m the labor force and not under economic compulsion to
work.
Data are not available f o r computing labor-force participation
rates f o r all women 18 to 64 years of age prior to 1947 or f o r nonwhite




18

Women as Workers

(CIVILIAN LABOR-FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WOMEN,
BY AGE AND COLOR, 1964)

PERCENT
100r

40

14-19
YEARS

20-24
YEARS

25-34
YEARS

35-44
YEARS

T a b l e 6 . — W O M E N AS PERCENT OF T O T A L

45-54
YEARS

LABOR

55-64
YEARS

65 YEARS
A N D OVER

FORCE, BY A G E AND COLOR,

1954 AND 1964 i
(Women 14 years of age and over)

All women as per- White women as
cent of total
percent of white
labor force
labor force
Age
Total
14 to 19 years__
14 and 15 years
16 and 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years— _ 25 to 34 years
35 to 44 years __
45 to 54 years.55 to 64 years
65 years and over
1

1964

_

34. 8
41. 7
36. 0
38. 8
46. 4
40. 3
29. 7
33. 5
36. 3
33. 8
31. 3

1954
30. 9
40. 3
30. 7
37. 7
45. 5
44. 3
28. 1
30. 9
30. 5
26. 2
20. 9

1964
34. 0
42. 1
36. 7
39. 2
46. 7
40. 7
28. 1
32. 3
35. 5
33. 3
31. 0

1954
30. 0
40. 9
29. 3
38. 1
46. 7
44. 1
26. 7
29. 7
29. 7
25. 5
20. 6

Nonwhite women
as percent of nonwhite labor force
1964
41. 3
38. 9
30. 1
35. 0
44. 4
41. 9
40. 9
42. 6
43. 3
38. 9
33. 7

1954
38.
36.
37.
34.
36.
45.
38.
40.
37.
33.
24.

4
0
3
9
2
2
7
7
6
4
0

Annual averages.

Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources,
Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor." March 1965.




Women in the Labor Force

19

women prior to 1954, but figures for each year from 1947 to 1964 for
all women show the steady increase in women's entry into the labor
force during that period (table 7). In 1947,35 percent of women 18 to
64 years old were either working or seeking work. In 1964 this
proportion had risen to 45 percent.
Nonwhite women in this age group had a labor-force participation
rate about 10 percent higher than that for all women. Their rate
rose from 51 percent in 1954 to 55 percent in 1964 as compared with
the rise for all women from 39 percent to 45 percent.
Table

7.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

RATES

OF A G E , SELECTED Y E A R S ,

Year
1964
1963
1962
1960
1958
1956
1954
1952
1950
1948
1947

OF W O M E N

All women

-

18

TO 6 4

YEARS

1947-64

Nonwhite women

44.7
44.2
43. 5
42. 7
41. 8
41. 1
38. 6
38.3
37.2
35. 6
34.8

55. 1
54.3
53.9
53.5
53. 0
51. 6
50. 7

«

P)
0)

«

i Data not available.
Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources,
Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor." March 1965.

Marital Status of Women Workers
13. Nearly 3 Out of 5 Women Workers Are

Married

The increasing tendency of married women to go to work has
been the most important factor in the growth of the woman labor
force. Fifty-seven percent of all women in the labor force in March
1964 were married (husband present), and 23 percent were single
(table 8). An additional 5 percent were married (husband absent), 9
percent were widowed, and 6 percent were divorced.
This is a remarkable change from 1940, when only 30 percent of
all women workers were married (husband present) and 48 percent
were single (chart F ) . The number of married women (husband
present) in the labor force increased by 10 million between 1940 and
1964. This represented a rise of 244 percent, an increase substantially larger than their 47-percent rise in the population.




20

Women as Workers

T a b l e 8 . — W O M E N IN THE POPULATION AND L A B O R F O R C E , 1 BY M A R I T A L S T A T U S ,
MARCH

1 9 4 0 AND

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Number
1964

Marital status

Percent
distribution
1964

Percent
increase
1940-64

194-0

POPULATION

Total

69,503,000

100.0

100.0

37.5

Single
Married

14,132,000
44,754,000

20.3
64.4

27.6
59.5

1.4
48.7

Husband present
Husband absent
Widowed
Divorced

42, 045, 000
2, 709, 000
8,535,000
2,082,000

60. 5
3. 9
12. 3l
3. Oj

56. 4
3. 1

47. 4
72. 1

LABOR

Total

2

2

2 fi2 R

FORCE

25, 399, 000

100. 0

100. 0

Single
Married

5, 781, 000
15, 790, 000

22. 8
62. 2

48. 5
36. 4

3

Husband present
Husband absent
Widowed
Divorced

14, 461, 000
1, 329, 000
2,355, 000
1,473,000

56.
5.
9.
5.

30. 3
6. 1
-

244. 3
58. 2
2 qq o

9
2
3l
8J

2

L

83. 5
13. 8
213. 3

1

1 Civilian noninstitutional population and civilian labor force.
2 Not reported separately in 1940.
3 A percent decrease instead of an increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-50, No. 22.

In contrast, the number of single women in the labor force declined
by almost a million between 1940 and 1964, and the proportion of all
women workers who were single dropped from 48 percent to only 23
percent. Higher marriage rates contributed to this decline in the
number of single women workers. Marriage rates started to rise
during World War I I and reached their peak during 1946-48. By
1964, about 60 percent of all women in the population 14 years of age
and over were married and living with their husbands compared with
56 percent in 1940. Currently at least 9 out of 10 girls can expect to
marry.
The other group of women in the labor force—those widowed,
divorced, or separated from their husbands for other reasons, including those whose husbands are in the Armed Forces—remained at the




Women in the Labor Force

21

same proportion (approximately one-fifth) during the period 194064 (chart G). In actual numbers, however, they almost doubled.
Mart F

MOST WOMEN WHO WORK ARE MARRIED

S o u r c e : U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor S t a t i s t i c s ;
U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e , B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

14. Labor Force Participation of Women by Marital Status
As was indicated previously, the most significant change between
1940 and 1964 in the labor-force participation rates of women occurred
among married women (husband present) (table 9). In 1940, 15
percent of these women were workers; by 1964 this proportion had
more than doubled—to 34 percent. As might be expected, this rate was
still much lower than that of single girls, married women not living
with husbands, or divorced women, although married women outnumbered the other categories combined.
The labor-force participation rate of married women (husband
present) showed a steady increase between 1940 and 1964. In contrast,
that of single women rose from 48 percent in 1940 to 51 percent in 1950,
dropped to 44 percent in 1960, and then declined further to 41 percent
in 1964—the lowest for the period.
Women in marital status other than single or married (husband
present) characteristically have high labor-force participation rates.




22

Women as Workers

Almost half (49.1 percent) of the 2.7 million married women (not
widows or divorcees) whose husbands were absent from home were
workers in 1964. This group included about 100,000 women whose
husbands were in the Armed Forces, but consisted largely of those
whose husbands were absent for such reasons as employment away
from home, residence in an institution, separation by choice, or
desertion.




23

Women in the Labor Force
Table 9.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

R A T E S OF W O M E N , BY

STATUS, SELECTED Y E A R S ,

MARITAL

1940-641

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Marital status
Total
Single
Married
Husband present _ _
Husband absent
Widowed
Divorced

1964
36.5
40.9
35.3
34. 4
49.1
27. 6
70.7

I960
34.8
44.1
31.7
30.5
51.8
29. 8l
71.6J

1950

1940

31.4
50.5
24.8
23. 8
47.4
2

36. 0

27.4
48.1
16.7
14.7
53.4
2

32. 0

1 Data arc for March of each year.
> Not reported separately in 1950 and 1940.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report Nos. 50 and
26. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-50, Nos. 29
and 22.

Of the 8.5 million widowed women in the population in 1964, 28
percent were in the labor force; of the 2.1 million divorced women, 71
percent. The labor force participation of these two groups combined
had increased slightly since 1940. However, a much smaller percentage of widows than of divorcees were workers, mainly because widows
represent an older age group.
75. Labor Force Participation of Women
Status

by Age and

Marital

When labor-force participation rates of single and married women
(husband present) are analyzed according to age, it is evident that
the probability of a woman's working is influenced more by marital
status than by age. Differences in participation are particularly
noticeable among women 25 to 29 years old, the age group in which
married women are most likely to have young children who need their
care (table 10). In this age group 88 percent of single women, but
only 29 percent of married women living with their husbands, worked
in 1964. In the age group 30 to 34 years, the difference was still pronounced—86 percent of single women, but only 32 percent of married
women (husband present), were in the labor force.
The peak in labor force participation of single women (88 percent)
was in the age group 25 to 29 years; the peak of married women
with husband present (45 percent ) was in the age group 45 to 54 years.
For each age group starting with 20 to 24 years, the highest rate of
participation in the labor force was among single women and the
lowest rate was among married women living with their husbands.




24

Women as Workers

Table

10.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

MARITAL

STATUS,

RATES
MARCH

OF W O M E N ,

BY A G E

AND

1964

Marital status

Age

14
20
25
30
35
45
55
65
70

Total
to 19 years
to 24 years
to 29 years
to 34 years
to 44 years
to 54 years
to 64 years
to 69 years
years and over
1

Single
40. 9
23. 5
74. 0
87. 6
86. 3
83. 0
75. 0
67. 0
37. 0
9. 2

,

Married
(husband
present)
34.
31.
36.
28.
32.
39.
44.
31.
12.
3.

4
1
6
8
3
4
8
3
2
5

Other1
38.
28.
50.
67.
54.
63.
70.
53.
21.
6.

7
7
3
0
2
7
2
1
9
3

Widowed, divorced, or separated or husband absent for other reasons.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

The percentage of widowed, separated, and divorced women in the
labor force fluctuated, with a high of TO percent for those between
the ages of 45 and 54 years.

Family Status of Women Workers
16. Types of Families

in the

Population

There were almost 47.5 million families in the United States in
March 1964, with the 41.3 million husband-wife families forming 87
percent of the total.5 Ten percent of the families had a woman as the
head, and the remaining 3 percent were headed by a man without a
wife.
Husband-wife families usually are larger than those headed by a
woman or by a man without a wife. In March 1964 there were four
or more members in nearly half of the husband-wife families, but in
only about one-third of the families headed by a woman and about
one-fifth of those headed by a man without a wife present.
About three-fifths of all husband-wife families had one or more own
children under 18 years of age, about one-tenth had at least one additional family member 18 years of age or over, and three-tenths had no
children under 18 years of age and no other family member 18 years of
age or over. In the latter group were many older couples whose chil5 Current Population Reports, P - 2 0 , No. 139.
Commerce.




Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of

Women in the Labor Force

25

dren were grown and no longer living with them and many childless
young couples.
Families headed by a woman had a somewhat different composition.
Of the 4.9 million such families in 1964, more than two-fifths consisted of two members, almost one-fourth consisted of three members,
and the remainder consisted of four or more members. Nearly half
of the women were widows, and two-fifths were separated or divorced.
More than half of the women had no own children under 18 years
of age, but 17 percent had one own child and 31 percent had two
or more own children. Moreover, more than half of the women family heads had children under 18 years living with them who were
related to them but were not their own. About 18 percent of those
with own children had children under 6 years of age. Twenty-two
percent of all women family heads were nonwhite; they numbered
1.1 million.
77. Unrelated

Individuals

in the

Population

In addition to these family groups of related individuals, there
were about 7 million women and 4.4 million men classified as "unrelated individuals," who were not living with relatives. About 5.8
million of these women had their own homes or apartments and were
living independently as "primary individuals." As a group, these
were older women (median age over 60 years), and most were widows.
The other 1.2 million women in this classification, most of whom were
in their thirties and single, were mainly roomers, boarders, hotel
guests, and resident employees.
78. Labor Force Participation of Women
Families

in Different Types of

The labor-force participation rates of women vary among the different types of families. Obviously, women who do not have husbands are more likely to work than are those with husbands. Half
of the women family heads were in the labor force in 1964, in contrast
to only 34 percent of the wives living with their husbands.

Employment Status of Husband-Wife
and Female-Head Families
79. Husband-Wife

Families

In 36.3 million husband-wife families the husbands were in the labor
force in March 1964. In 48 percent of these families another member
of the family also was in the labor force. About 1.2 million of the




Women as Workers

26

husbands were unemployed (an unemployment rate of 3.4 percent),
and about 5 million were not in the labor force.
20. Female-Head

Families

Fifty percent of the women who had families but no husbands in
March 1964 were in the labor force (table 11). In 47 percent of
the 2.4 million families whose women heads were workers, another
member of the family group also was in the labor force. However, 1.3
million female family heads were the sole breadwinners for their
families and 151,000 were unemployed. Their unemployment rate
of 6.2 percent was considerably higher than that for husbands in
liusband-wife families. The remaining 2.5 million female family
heads were not in the labor force.
An analysis of the labor force status of female family heads by age
reveals that in 1964 the labor-force participation rate was highest for
those 45 to 54 years old (71 percent) (table 12). These women accounted for only 29 percent of all female family heads in the labor
force and 20 percent of all female family heads in the population.
In the next younger age group (35 to 44 years old), nearly 64 percent
of the women were workers; in the next higher age group (55 to 64
years old), 53 percent.
Although the youngest age group (14 to 24 years old) was numerically the smallest and represented only 5 percent of all female family
heads in the population and 4 percent in the labor force, about 40 percent were in the labor force. At the other extreme women 65 years
of age and over represented the second largest group of female family
heads in the population, but only 12 percent were in the labor force.
Significantly, families headed by women were the most economically
deprived—in 1964 over two-fifths of such families lived in poverty,
with a family income of less than $3,000. They were also the most persistently poor—it is estimated that 76 percent of these families who
were poor in 1962 were also poor in 1963.6

Working Wives
The growing tendency for married women to go into paid work is
reflected in the number and proportion of working couples in the
Nation.
Of the 14.5 million wives (husband present) in the labor force in
March 1964, about 13.5 million had husbands who were also in the labor
force. These working couples represented 32 percent of all couples in
6

Economic Report of the President.




January 1&65.

Table

1 1 . — E M P L O Y M E N T STATUS OF FEMALE FAMILY H E A D S , BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF OTHER FAMILY M E M B E R S , M A R C H

1964

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Female family heads
Labor force
Employment status of other family members
Number,
Percent

_

__

_ _
_

Some other member in the labor force..
Some other member employed 1
Some other unemployed, none employed... _ _
No other member in the labor force

Population
_

Total

Employed

Percent
in labor
force

4, 882, 000
100.0

2, 427, 000
100.0

2, 276, 000
100.0

151, 000
100.0

6.2

49.7

46.6
41.2
5.4
53.4

46.6
41.5
5.2
53.4

47.0
41.8
5.2
53.0

41.4
36.2
5.3
58.6

5.6
5.5
6.3
6.9

49.8
50.0
47.9
49.7

i Includes families with one member or more employed regardless of the employment status of other members.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.




Unemployed

Unemployment rate

Women as Workers

28
Table

12.—LABOR

FORCE

STATUS

OF

MARCH

FEMALE

FAMILY

HEADS,

BY

AGE,

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Percent distribution

Number
Age
Total
14 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 years

years
years
years
years
years
and over

Labor
force

Percent
in labor
.force

Population

Labor force

Population

4,882,000

2,427,000

100.0

100.0

49.7

257,000
640,000
1,100,000
984, 000
818,000
1,083,000

104,000
362,000
702,000
697, 000
435,000
127,000

5.3
13.1
22.5
20. 2
16.8
22.2

4.3
14.9
28.9
28. 7
17.9
5.2

40.5
56.6
63.8
70. 8
53.2
11.7

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report Np. 50.

the population. Their number had increased by 5.5 million since 1950,
when working couples numbered 8 million and represented 22 percent
of all married couples. Before World War I I their number and proportion were still smaller—in 1940 working couples numbered 3 million
and their proportion of all couples was only 11 percent.
In 19 million husband-wife families the husbands were the only
earners in March 1964. In 3.5 million such families the wives were not
in the labor force, but other family members as well as the husbands
were working. The labor force also included almost a million working
wives whose husbands were not in the labor force, mainly because they
were retired or disabled. In half a million families neither the husbands nor the wives worked, but other family members did, and in 3.5
million families no one worked.
27. Labor Force Participation of Wives by Income of

Husband

The percentage of wives in the labor force in March 1964 was highest
where the husbands' incomes were between $3,000* and $5,000 (39 percent) (table 13). The next highest was where the husbands' incomes
were between $5,000 and $7,000 (38 percent).
Where the husbands' incomes were at the poverty level, the laborforce participation rate of wives varied from 31 percent where the
husbands' incomes were between $1,000 and $2,000 to 36 percent where
they were under $1,000. Where the husbands' incomes were just under
the poverty line—$2,000 to $3,000—33 percent of the wives were in
the labor force.




29

Women in the Labor Force

At the upper end of the income scale, only 25 percent of the wives
whose husbands' incomes were $10,000 or more were in the labor force.
The labor-force participation rates of wives, therefore, are highest
where the husbands' incomes do not represent poverty levels, but rather
the lower range of middle-income levels. The rate then declines as
the husbands' incomes reach higher levels.
T a b l e 13.—LABOR-FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WIVES (HUSBAND PRESENT), BY
INCOME OF HUSBAND IN 1 9 6 3 AND PRESENCE AND AGES OF CHILDREN, MARCH

1964
(Women 14 years of age and over)

Presence and ages of children
Income of husband
Total
Under $1,000
$1,000 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $6,999
$7,000 to $9,999
$10,000 and over

Total
34.4
35. 6
31. 2
33. 4
39. 1
38. 2
31. 2
24. 8

No children
under 18
37.
34.
28.
30.
41.
45.
43.
34.

8
1
6
6
5
4
0
1

Children
6-17 only
43.
47.
48.
50.
50.
48.
38.
25.

0
6
9
2
2
9
5
5

Children
under 6 1
22.
30.
28.
28.
28.
23.
15.
13.

7
6
9
9
9
2
0
4

i May also have older children, in addition to one or more under 6.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

When a wife decides whether or not to seek paid employment, the
presence of young children in the family seems a more important
consideration than her husband's income. (For a detailed discussion of
working mothers, see sections 25-35.) Among married women (husband present) the labor-force participation rate in March 1964 varied
from 23 percent for those who had preschool children to 43 percent for
those with school-age children only. On the other hand, wives (husband present) who had no children under 18 years of age had a
relatively low labor-force participation rate of 38 percent. This is
explained by the fact that this group includes many older women who
are retired or unable to work.
A percent distribution of all working wives shows that in March
1964 more than half had husbands wThose incomes were $5,000 or more
(table 14). More working wives (about 28 percent) were found where
the husbands' incomes were between $5,000 and $7,000 than at any
other income level. At the extremes, 23 percent of working wives had
husbands whose incomes were below $3,000; 8 percent, $10,000 or more.




Women as Workers

30
Table

14.—PERCENT

DISTRIBUTION

OF M A R R I E D

WOMEN

(HUSBAND

PRESENT)

IN T H E L A B O R F O R C E , BY INCOME OF H U S B A N D IN 1 9 6 3 , M A R C H

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Wives in the
labor force

Income of husband
Number
Percent

14,461,000
100. 0

Under $1,000
$1,000 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $6,999
$7,000 to $9,999
$10,000 and over

-

5.
7.
9.
24.
28.
16.
8.

9
8
0
2
5
5
1

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

22. Contribution

of Wives

to Family

Income

A special study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics throws light on
the contribution made to family income by married women who
worked some time during 1963.7 These statistics include women who
worked full time the year round and also those who worked part time
and part of the year.
They show that wives' earnings generally constituted a smaller
proportion of family income in low-income families than in higher
income families (table 15). For example, in almost three-fifths of
the families with income below $2,000, but in only about one-fifth of
the families with income between $10,000 and $15,000, the wives' earnings accounted for less than 10 percent of family income.
In families with incomes below $2,000, about half of the working
wives contributed less than 5 percent to family income. In the income
class $2,000 to $3,000, more than one-third of the wives who worked
contributed less than 5 percent. In more than one-fourth of the
families in this income class, the wives' earnings accounted for 10
to 30 percent of family income.
In higher income brackets wives generally contributed a greater
share to family income. Wives' earnings accounted for 30 percent or
more of the income in almost half of the families with incomes between
$10,000 and $15,000. They accounted for 20 percent or more in over
half of the families with incomes of $15,000 or more.
7 Special Labor Force Report No. 50.
Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of

T a b l e 1 5 . — P E R C E N T OF FAMILY INCOME ACCOUNTED FOR BY W I V E S ' EARNINGS IN 1 9 6 3

Family income
Under $2,000
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $6,999
$7,000 to $9,999
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 and over
Median family income

Median
percent
of family
income
accounted
for by
wives'
earnings
5.6
14. 4
15. 9
16. 8
25. 6
28. 4
21. 9

Percent
.

distribution

of wives by percent of family
earnings

Total

Less
than
5.0

5.0
to
9.9

100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0

49.
35.
32.
29.
17.
15.
23.

6.
9.
9.
10.
7.
5.
5.

3
0
5
4
9
3
3

$7, 338 $5, 960

accounted for by wives1

10.0
to
19.9
5
0
3
4
0
9
4

$6,545

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.




income

20.0
to
29.9

80.0
to
39.9

Ifi.O
to
49.9

50.0
to
7^.9

75.0
and
over

11.
13.
13.
15.
15.
12.
16.

4
7
8
1
4
9
9

8. 8
13. 7
10. 8
11.0
17. 4
19. 0
24. 0

7. 4
5. 3
9. 6
10.9
20. 4
23. 5
17. 4

3. 6
7. 7
7. 4
10.0
13. 3
17. 6
8. 9

7.0
5. 9
12.0
10. 2
8. 3
5. 5
3.9

6. 1
9. 9
4. 6
2. 9
.3
.3
.4

$7,433

$8,531

$8,840

$8,578

$6,507

$3,840

32

Women as Workers

The median family income was highest ($8,840) in families where
wives' earnings accounted for from 30 to 40 percent of family income.
It was lowest ($3,840) in families where wives obviously were the
principal earners, accounting for 75 percent or more of family income.
23. Job-Related

Expenses

of Working

Wives

Working wives, and particularly working mothers, have many expenses related to their working that reduce the income available to
them from their earnings. The principal costs involved are for clothing and personal care, food, transportation, child care and household
help arrangements, and taxes. Studies reveal that these work-related
expenses may absorb between one-fourth and one-half of a wife's
earnings.8 If she has children, her expenses vary according to their
number and ages.
Working wives tend to spend more for clothing, beauty care, and
other personal grooming needs than nonworking wives do. They
may spend more for food because they tend to buy more of the timesaving "convenience foods" and to eat more meals in public eating places. They have transportation expenses to and from work.
Working mothers, in addition, may have considerable expenses for
day care for their children. This may involve private or public day
care centers or babysitters. Working wives and mothers often pay
for household help such as maids or cleaning women, and they may
increase their expenses by sending their household laundry to commercial establishments.
There are other job-related expenses, such as purchased lunches, required uniforms, dues for professional organizations or union membership, professional publications, or even continued education—
depending on the requirements of the job. Federal and State income
taxes and social security taxes must be paid. In addition, the earnings of the wife often place total family income in a higher income
tax bracket.
On the other hand, there are benefits from working outside the home,
in addition to the obvious one of increased family income. A few are
tangible; most are intangible but personally significant. Among the
measurable benefits may be employee pension plans, health insurance
8 " T h e Working W i f e and Her Family's Economic Position," In Monthly Labor Review,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, April 1962, and "Marital and
Family Characteristics of Workers," Ibid.j January 1962.
Ann H. Candle, "Financial and
Management Practices of Employed and Nonemployed Wives," In Journal of Home Economics, December 1964.
See also Special Labor Force Report No. 40, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.




33

Women in the Labor Force

benefits, paid sick leave and vacations, profit-sharing plans, and discount privileges, as well as social security benefits and retirement
income above those the nonworking wife can count on. Often the
intangible benefits are equally or more important to the working wife.
These include the opportunity to widen her horizons and the benefit
of being able to develop new skills and discover new aptitudes. Many
working wives feel that they become more effective members of their
own families and contribute more to their community and to society
in general by combining paid employment with homemaking.
24. Occupations

of Husbands

and

Wives

A comparison of the occupations held by husbands and wives in
March 1964 indicated that less than one-fourth of working couples
pursued similar lines of work.
The highest correlation between the husband's and the wife's jobs
existed among clerical workers (44.1 percent) ; however, it was apparent that within this major occupational group many husbands and
wives did not do the same work (table 16). Over two-fifths (42.3
percent) of the wives of professional and technical workers were in
the same major occupational group as their husbands. Correlation
between farm jobs was also relatively high (41.0 percent)—not surprising since most farm wives have few job opportunities other than
farmwork.
Two-fifths of the wives of service workers had service jobs, and
approximately three-tenths of the wives who were operatives had
husbands in these occupations; about one-seventh of the wives in managerial and almost one-sixth of those in sales work had husbands in
the same occupations.




T a b l e 16.—OCCUPATIONS OF W I V E S , BY OCCUPATION OF HUSBAND, M A R C H 1 9 6 4

Occupation of husband

Occupation of wife
Number (in thousands) .
Percent
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Medical and other health
workers
Teachers (except college).
Other professional
workers,
Managers, officials, proprietors
(except farm)
_ _
Salaried
Self-employed
Clerical, kindred workers




Total

Professional,
technical,
kindred
workers

Managers,
officials,
proprietors
(except
farm)

Clerical,
kindred
workers

Sales
workers

Craftsmen,
foremen,
Operatives,
kindred
kindred
workers
workers

All
service
workers

Farm
workers

Nonfarm
laborers

12, 017
100. 0

1, 368
100. 0

2, 036
100.0

923
100. 0

621
100. 0

2, 441
100. 0

2, 443
100. 0

921
100. 0

642
100. 0

622
100. 0

13. 5

42. 3

13. 8

12. 6

18. 0

9. 1

5. 7

8. 2

12. 8

3. 0

3.0
6. 7

6. 1
22. 0

2. 8
7.0

2. 6
5. 7

4. 8
9. 2

3. 1
3. 8

2. 1
2.0

2. 9
4. 1

1. 9
9. 0

. 6
1. 6

3. 8

14. 2

4. 0

4. 3

4. 0

2. 2

1. 6

1. 2

1. 9

. 8

5. 5

5.0

13. 7

5. 3

4. 3

4. 1

3. 2

3. 3

2. 2

3. 3

3. 3
2. 2
31. 1

4.0
1. 0
35. 4

6. 6
7. 1
39. 2

3. 8
1. 5
44. 1

2. 4
1.9
41. 9

2. 7
1. 4
31. 2

2. 2
1.0
26. 2

2. 6
.7
22. 2

1. 1

1. 1

1. 9
1. 4
18.0

9. 5

Stenographers, typists,
secretaries
Other clerical workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred
workers
Operatives, kindred workers _ _
Service workers (except private-household)
Waitresses, cooks, bartenders
Other service workers
Private-household workers
Farm workers
Nonfarm laborers

10. 4

14. 8

13. 0

16. 7

15. 3

10. 0

7. 4

20. 7

20. 6

27. 4

26. 6

21. 2

18. 8

8. 1

5. 5

26. 2
12. 8

6. 8

16. 3

9. 5

6. 4

4. 3

1. 3

1. 3

17. 1

5.4

7.9

12. 9

6. 0

1. 8
22. 0

29. 8

19. 7

15. 4

5. 1

9. 8

14. 4

8. 2

17. 0

19. 2

29. 7

1. 1

5. 4
10. 0

. 4

1. 1

. 9

1. 4

3. 8

4. 9

3. 4

5. 4

7. 6

9. 0

6. 0

9. 5

4. 8

11. 6

11. 6

20. 7

2. 3

3. 1

4. 2

6. 9

11. 1

. 6

. 9

. 8

. 4

. 3

. 3

. 6

. 2

5. 1

. 3

1. 2

2. 8

. 5

. 1

. 4

1. 2

3.7

. 3

. 2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.




6. 3
15. 9

36

Women as Workers

Working Mothers 9
25. Number

and Proportions of Working

Mothers

Working mothers with children under 18 years of age numbered
9.5 million in March 1964 (table 17). They represented 35 percent
of all such mothers in the population and 38 percent of all women
workers. Nonwhite working mothers (husband present) with children of these ages numbered 923,000 and represented 12 percent of
all working mothers (husband present).
Working mothers as a group are not as young as might be expected.
Their median age in March 1964 was 38 years—only 3 years less than
the median age for all women workers.
26. Labor Force Participation of Mothers
The presence or absence of a husband has a strong influence on a
mother's decision to work. Thus in March 1964 the proportion in
the labor force of mothers whose husbands were present was only
32 percent compared with 56 percent for other mothers.
Working mothers with husband present numbered 7.9 million in
1964 and represented 83 percent of all working mothers. Of these
mothers, more than 3 out of 10 (32.0 percent) were in the labor force.
In contrast, of the mothers not living with their husbands—the
widowed, divorced, separated, or deserted, who were rearing children
in fatherless homes—almost 6 out of It) (56.2 percent) were in the
labor force. These mothers have, of course, a compelling need for
earnings: probably two-thirds of them are rearing children in
poverty.10
27. Trends in Labor Force Participation of Mothers
Between 1940 and 1964 the labor-force participation rate of mothers
increased about three times more than did the labor-force participation rate of all woman (table 18). In 1940 only 9 percent of all
mothers with children under 18 years of age worked outside the home,
but by 1964 this proportion had increased to 35 percent. The corresponding rise in the proportion of all women in the labor force was
much smaller—from 28 percent in 1940 to 37 percent in 1964.
9 The term
"working mothers," as used in this bulletin, refers to workers who have
children under 18 years of age, unless otherwise designated.
1 0 Mollie Orshansky, "Counting the Poor: Another Look at the Poverty Profile."
In
Social Security Bulletin, Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, January 1965.




T a b l e 17.

M O T H E R S IN THE POPULATION AND L A B O R F O R C E , BY M A R I T A L STATUS AND A G E S OP C H I L D R E N ,

MARCH

1964

(Mothers 14 years of age and over)

Number
Marital status and ages of children

Population

Mothers with children under 1 8 years

27,609,000

9,527,000

Married, husband present
Other women ever married >
Mothers with children 6 to 17 (none under 6)

24,741, 000
2,868,000
12, 952, 000

7,916,000
1,611,000
5, 934, 000

Married, husband present
Other women ever married >
Mothers with children 3 to 5 (none under 3)

11,316,000
1,636,000
5,291,000

Percent

Labor force

Married, husband present

2

distribution

Population

Labor force

faborforte

100.0

100.0

34.5

8q7
10.4
46. 9

83T
16 9
62^ 3

32 0
56 2
45. 8

4,866,000
1,068,000
1,550,000

41 0
5.9
19.2

ll'2
16^3

430
65 3
29^3

'

4> 7 9 2 , 0 0 0

1, 279,000

17~4

13~4

26 7

Other women ever married "
Mothers with children under 3 years2

499,000
9,366,000

271,000
2,043,000

1.8
33.9

'

2 8
2L4

54 3
21. 8

Married, husband present
Other women ever married >

8,633,000
733,000

1,771,000
272,000

3L3
2.7

18^6
2.9

20 5
37^1

1 Refers to women who are widowed, divorced, or separated or whose husbands are absent for other reasons
' May also have older children, in addition to one or more under 6.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 60.




u>
—I

Women as Workers

38

T a b l e 1 8 . — L A B O R - F O R C E PARTICIPATION R A T E S OF M O T H E R S AND OF A L L W O M E N ,
SELECTED Y E A R S ,

1940-64

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Year

Mothers1

All women2

1964

34. 5

1960

30.4

37. 4
36.7

1958

29. 5

36. 0

1956

27. 5

35.9

1954

25.6

33. 7

1952

23.8

33.9

1950

21. 6

33. 1

1948

20. 2

31. 9

1946

18.2

31.2

1940

8.6

28.2

i Data are for March of each year except 1946,1948,1952, and 1954, when they are for April.
* Annual averages.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau
of the Census.

Since 1946 the percentage of working mothers with children under
18 years has steadily increased at a rate of about 1 percent a year
(chart H ) . The percentage with children under 6 years of age rose
somewhat less between 1946 (the first year for which these data
are available) and 1960, but since then has kept pace with that of
all working mothers. Between 1960 and 1964 both percentages rose
by almost 5 percentage points, so that by 1964,35 percent of the mothers
with children under 18 years of age and 25 percent of those with
preschool children were in the labor force.
28. Children

of Working

Mothers

Working mothers had an estimated 15 million children under 18
years of age, with 4 million under 6 years old and 5 million between the
ages of 6 and 11 years.11
Because more mothers tend to be in paid work if their children are
of school age and if there is no father in the home, the highest laborforce participation rate in March 1964 was among those not living
with their husbands and with school-age children only (table 17).
The lowest rate, on the other hand, was among mothers with husband
present and with children under 3 years of age.
In families in which the fathers were at home and all the children
were over 6 years old, 43 percent of the mothers worked. If in families
11

Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.




Women in the Labor Force

39

in which the fathers were at home there were children 3 to 5 years
old, 27 percent of the mothers worked; and if there were still younger
children, only 21 percent of the mothers worked.
In fatherless homes, on the other hand, much higher proportions
of mothers worked, reflecting their greater financial need—65 percent
of the mothers with school-age children only and 54 percent of the
mothers with children 3 to 5 years old were in the labor force. Even
if they had children under 3 years of age, 37 percent of these mothers
worked.




Women as Workers

40

29. Labor Force Participation of White and Nonwhite

Mothers

A comparison of the labor force participation of nonwhite with
white mothers (husband present) shows that proportionately more
nonwhite mothers are in the labor force. About 58 percent of nonwhite mothers of children 6 to 17 years old were in paid work in
March 1964 compared with 42 percent of white mothers with children these ages (table 19). Among mothers with children under 6
years of age, 34 percent of the nonwhite mothers, but only 21 percent
of the white mothers, were in the labor force.
Table

19.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

RATES

OF

WHITE

AND

NONWHITE

M O T H E R S (HUSBAND PRESENT), BY A G E S OF CHILDREN, M A R C H 1 9 6 4
(Mothers 14 years of age and over)

Mothers in the labor force
Ages of children

White

Nonwhite

Nonwhite
as percent of
all working
mothers

NUMBER

Total

6, 987, 000

923, 000

11.7

PERCENT

Children 6 to 17 years only
Children under 6 years1
None under 3 years
Some under 3 years

41.9
21.4
25. 0
19.3

57. 7
33.7
44. 6
29.3

9.4
15.4
13.8
16.5

i May also have older children, in additiDn to one or more under 6.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

A percent distribution of white and nonwhite working mothers
(husband present) by ages of children shows that relatively more
nonwhite had children 3 to 5 years old and relatively more white
had older children (chart I ) .
30. Labor Force Participation of Mothers by Income of

Husband

When the labor-force participation rates of mothers (husband
present) are correlated with the income received by their husbands,
it is apparent that mothers work primarily because of economic need.
Among mothers with husband present, the largest proportion (39 percent) was in the labor force in March 1964 when the husbands' incomes
were below $1,000 a year (table 20). As the husbands' incomes increase, the percentage of mothers in the labor force generally declines.




41

Women in the Labor Force

Chart i

A GREATER PROPORTION OF NONWHITE
WORKING MOTHERS HAVE YOUNG CHILDREN
(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF MOTHERS (HUSBAND PRESENT] IN THE LABOR FORCE,
BY COLOR AND AGE OF CHILDREN, MARCH 1964)
PERCENT

100|-

80 -

49
63
MOTHERS WITH
CHILDREN

6 TO 1 7
YEARS ONLY
40

3 TO S
YEARS
(none under 3)

NONWHITE

WHITE

Source: U.S. Department of tabor. B u r e a u of tabor Statistics

Irrespective of her husband's income, a mother with younger children is obviously less willing or able to work than one with older
children. A t all income levels of husbands, a smaller proportion of
mothers worked in March 1964 if their children were not yet in school
(chart J ) .
For example, as is apparent from table 21, 37 percent of the mothers
worked if their husbands' incomes were between $2,000 and $3,000,




Table 20.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

RATES

H U S B A N D IN

AND

PERCENT

DISTRIBUTION

OF

MOTHERS

1 9 6 3 AND A G E S OF C H I L D R E N , M A R C H

(HUSBAND

P R E S E N T ) , BY

INCOME OF

1964

(Mothers 14 years of age and over)

Percent of mothers in labor force
with children—
Income of husband

Under 18
years

6-17 years
only

Under 6
years1

Percent distribution of mothers in
labor force with children—
Under 18
years

6-17 years
only

Under 6
years 1

Total

32.0

43.0

22.7

7, 916, 000
100.0

4, 866, 000
100.0

3, 050, 000
100.0

Under $1,000
$1,000 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $6,999. _
$7,000 to $9,999
$10,000 and over

38.7
37.6
37.0
37.4
34.8
26.4
20.3

47.6
48.9
50.2
50.2
48.9
38.5
25.5

30.6
28.9
28.9
28.9
23.2
15.0
13.4

3.7
5.1
8.0
24.8
32.1
18.1
8.2

3.5
4.7
6.7
21.5
33.2
20.8
9.6

3.9
5.8
10.1
30.0
30.4
13.7
6.1

1

May also have older children, in addition to one or more under 6.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.




Women in the Labor Force

43

Chart 1

MOTHERS OF YOUNG CHILDREN ARE LESS LIKELY
TO WORK AT ALL INCOME LEVELS
(LABOR-FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF MOTHERS, BY INCOME
OF HUSBAND AND AGE OF CHILDREN, MARCH 1964]
MOTHERS 14 YEARS OF A6E AND OVER

PERCENT

$,0
70 0

UNDER
$1,000

TO
9,999

$10,000
AND
OVER

Source: U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

but this proportion rose to 50 percent for those with school-age children only, and it dropped to 29 percent for those with children under
6 years of age. Similarly, in families where the husbands' incomes
were between $5,000 and $7,000, 35 percent of all the mothers were
in the labor force, but only 23 percent worked if they had preschool
children. A t yet higher income levels (between $7,000 and $10,000),
26 percent of the mothers were in the labor force, but only 15 percent
worked if they had young children.
37. Part-Time and Part-Year

Work Patterns of

Mothers

Mothers are likely to work part time (less than 35 hours a week)
or part of the year (less than 50 weeks of the year) or both. Mothers
with husbands present and mothers of very young children, in particular, tend to prefer part-time and part-year work. Many mothers
who can work only part of the time must make a special effort to find
a job with a work schedule flexible enough so that they can combine
working outside the home with care of their children.




Women as Workers

44

Most mothers work full time (35 hours a week or more) work only
part of the year. Many mothers may take full-time seasonal jobs during periods of peak business, such as are available in retail trade during the Christmas season, in laundries during the summer, or in canneries and other food processing plants during the harvest season.
Mothers who are teachers may work only part of the year, and so may
mothers in the hotel and resort business. (For other information on
part-time and part-year work of women, see sections 36 and 37.)
Mothers {husband present).—Among mothers with husbands present and school-age children only, 63 percent worked full time in 1963,
but only 36 percent worked full time the year round (table 21).
Twelve percent of the mothers who worked full time were on the job
from 1 to 26 weeks only.
Table 2 1 . — W O R K

E X P E R I E N C E IN

1 9 6 3 OF M O T H E R S

BY A G E S OF C H I L D R E N , M A R C H

(HUSBAND

PRESENT),

1964

(Mothers 14 years of age and over)

Mothers with children—

Work experience

3-5 years
6-17
(none
years only under 3) 1

Under
3 years 1

51.9

38. 1

35.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

62.5

60.5

64.6

35.7
14.7
12. 1
37.5

24.5
14.2
21.8
39.5

13.8
19. 1
31.7
35.4

23.3
14. 1

20.0
19.5

14.3
21.2

Percent with work experience2. __ .
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Total
Full time 3
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
Part time 4 _

__

27 weeks or more
1 to 26 weeks. _

1 May also have older children, in addition to one or more under 6.
Refers to civilian noninstitutional population.
3 Worked 35 hours or more a week.
* Worked less than 35 hours a week.
2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

Mothers (husband present) who had preschool children were even
less inclined to work full time or the year round. Sixty-one percent
of the mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children and none younger worked




Women in the Labor Force

45

full time, but only 25 percent worked full time the year round and 22
percent worked from 1 to 26 weeks.
A higher proportion of mothers with children under 3 years was
on full-time schedules than of mothers who had school-age children
only or children 3 to 5 years old but none younger. Sixty-five percent
of the mothers with children under 3 years worked full time, but only
14 percent worked full time the year round and 32 percent worked
from 1 to 26 weeks.
The proportion of mothers (husband present) who worked part
time was highest (40 percent) for those who had children 3 to 5 years
old but none younger and lowest (35 percent) for those who had children under 3.
Mothers (husband absent).—Typically,
a mother who is raising
children without the help of a husband is more likely to work full
time than is the mother whose husband is at home. Economic necessity is obviously the main reason for the former's work pattern.
Eighty-three percent of all mothers (husband absent) who were
employed in nonagricultural industries in March 1964 were on fulltime schedules (table 22).
White and nonwhite mothers.—Data on work experience of mothers
by color, marital status, and ages of children are available for 1959
from the 1960 Census of Population.
These data indicate that relatively more nonwhite than white mothers worked part time, but the differences were not significant for
mothers whose husbands were present. Among mothers whose husbands were absent, however, much larger proportions of nonwhite
mothers than of white mothers worked part time.
A comparison, by detailed marital status, of the number of weeks
worked in 1959 by 14- to 59-year-old white and nonwhite mothers generally confirms the work patterns shown for all mothers. Whether
white or nonwhite, a smaller proportion of mothers than of all women
workers worked the year round, and mothers whose husbands were
present worked fewer weeks in the year than did widowed or divorced
mothers or mothers whose husbands were absent for other reasons.
Moreover, mothers of preschool children worked fewer weeks in the
year than did mothers of school-age children, whether white or nonwhite.
About 2 out of 5 of both white and nonwhite working mothers of
school-age children, if living with their husbands, worked the year
round. But if their husbands were absent, one-half of them worked
that much. Among widowed and divorced mothers with school-age
children, relatively more white mothers than nonwhite mothers worked
the year round.



Women as Workers

46
Table 22.—FULL-TIME

AND P A R T - T I M E W O R K

IN N O N A G R I C U L T U R A L INDUSTRIES,

BY

STATUS OF M O T H E R S

MARITAL STATUS

EMPLOYED

AND A G E S

OF

CHIL-

DREN, M A R C H 1 9 6 4
(Mothers 14 years of age and over)

Percent
Number (in
thousands)

Marital status and ages of children

distribution

Total

Full
time1

Part
time2

Mothers with children under 18 years.

8, 587

100. 0

72. 1

27.9

Married (husband present)
Other women ever married3
Mothers with children 6 to 17 only

7, 150
1, 437
5, 475

100.0
100. 0
100.0

69.8
83.2
73.1

30.2
16.8
26.9

Married (husband present)
Other women ever married3
Mothers with children 3 to 5 years
(none under 3)4

4, 485
990

100. 0
100. 0

70.7
83.7

29.3
16.3

1, 348

100.0

73.0

27.0

Married (husband present)
Other women ever married 3__
Mothers with children under 3 4

1, 124
224
1, 764

100.0
100.0
100. 0

70.6
85.7
68. 1

29.4
14.3
31.9

1, 541
223

100.0
100.0

66.6
78.5

33.4
21.5

Married (husband present)
Other women ever married3

1 Worked 35 hours or more a week.
Worked to 1 to 34 hours a week.
3 Refers to women who are widowed, divorced, or separated or whose husbands are absent for other
reasons.
* May also have older children, in addition to one or more under 6.
2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.

Whether the husbands of working mothers with preschool children
were present or absent, a higher proportion of nonwhite than of white
mothers worked the year round. Among widowed or divorced
mothers with young children, the reverse was true: the proportion was
slightly higher for white mothers.
Fifty-two percent of the white mothers (husband present) with
preschool children, but only 47 percent of the* nonwhite mothers,
worked 26 weeks or less in the year.
32. Education

of Working

Mothers

Working mothers with preschool children only were generally high
school graduates or had at least from 1 to 3 years of high school in
I960.12 Three-fifths of the mothers had some high school but no col13 This analysis is based on the 1960 Census of Population and is concerned only with
mothers 25 years of age and older who had children under 6 years of age.




Women in the Labor Force

47

lege. Less than one-fifth had from 1 to 4 years of college. At the
extremes, about 3 percent of the mothers had less than 5 years of schooling and about 2 percent had 5 years or more of college.
Working mothers living with their husbands generally had more
education than did mothers whose husbands were absent. At least
1 out of 5 mothers (husband present) had some college compared with
1 out of 8 mothers (husband absent).
A comparison by educational levels of the labor-force participation
rates of mothers with children under 6 years of age and those of all
women in 1960 confirms that mothers of preschool children generally
prefer to stay home with them. On the other hand, it also shows that
highly educated mothers, even if they have young children, tend to
be more motivated to work outside the home than are mothers with
less schooling.
At each educational attainment level of elementary school, high
school, or 4 years of college or less, about 1 out of 5 mothers was
in the labor force. This proportion dropped to less than 1 out of
6 among mothers who had no schooling. Conversely, at the highest
level of educational attainment—5 years or more of college—1
out of 3 mothers was in the labor force. This represents the
highest labor-force participation rate of mothers with preschool children and is considerably above the average (about 1 out of 5)
for all mothers with preschool children. It is also significant that
a higher percentage of the mothers in the labor force than of the
mothers who wrere not working had done graduate work or had earned
advanced degrees (5 years or more of college). As shown in section
87, women trained for the professions characteristically make use
of their skills.
33. Occupations

of Working

Mothers

Working mothers 14 years of age and over are concentrated in
the same occupational groups as are all women workers generally.13
(See chapter 2 on occupations of women workers.) Of the mothers
(husband present) employed in 1960, close to 3 out of 10 were clerical
workers (mainly secretaries), 1 out of 10 was an operative (mainly in
factories), and 2 out of 10 were service workers. In addition, about
1 out of 10 was a sales worker, and 1 out of 8 was a professional or
technical worker.
Working mothers not living with their husbands were found in
relatively greater numbers in the less skilled occupations, such as
13 This discussion is based on the 1960 Census of Population and is concerned with
employed mothers with own children under 18 years of age.

779-555 O—(66——5




Women as Workers

48

private-household worker, operative, or service worker other than
in private households.
Nonwhite mothers who had jobs in 1960 were also mainly in less
skilled occupations. Almost two-thirds of those living with their
husbands were operatives, service workers (outside private households), and private-household workers. One out of 10 was a clerical worker, and about 1 out of 10 was a professional worker. Nonwhite mothers without husbands in the home predominantly had
low-skilled jobs. More than 1 out of 3 was a private-household
worker, 1 out of 4 was a service worker (outside private households) , and 1 out of 8 was an operative.
34. Child

Core Arrangements

of Working

Mothers

The arrangements working mothers make for the care of their
children are of vital importance to the welfare of their families and
to the interests of their communities. To obtain current information,
the Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare and the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of
Labor cosponsored a national survey of child care arrangements of
working mothers.14 The survey was limited to women who worked 27
weeks or more in 1964, either full or part time, and who had at least
one child under 14 years of age living at home. It was conducted by
the Bureau of the Census in February 1965.
According to the preliminary findings, the 6.1 million mothers
covered by the survey had 12.3 million children under 14 years of age,
of whom 3.8 million were under 6 years.
While these mothers were at work, 46 percent of the children were
cared for in their own homes, with 15 percent looked after by their
father, 21 percent by another relative, and 10 percent by a maid,
housekeeper, or babysitter (table 23).
An additional 15 percent of the children were cared for outside
their own home, about half by a relative. Thirteen percent of the
children were looked after by their own mothers while they worked,
and 15 percent had mothers who worked only during school hoursEight percent of the children were expected to care for themselves,
while only 2 percent of the surveyed children were in group care,
such as in day care centers, nursery schools, and after-school centers.
These preliminary findings, as did the findings of a survey undertaken by the Children's Bureau in 1958, emphasize the urgent need
14 This survey was partially supported under the research
program of the Office of
Manpower, Automation and Training, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of
Labor.




Women in the Labor Force

49

T a b l e 2 3 . — C H I L D CARE ARRANGEMENTS OF WORKING MOTHERS 1 W I T H
UNDER 1 4 YEARS OF AGE, BY AGES OF CHILDREN, FEBRUARY

CHILDREN

1965

(Percent distribution)

Ages of children
Total

Type of arrangement
Number (in thousands)
Percent.. _ _ _

_ __

Under 6
years

6 to 11
years

12 or 13
years

12, 291
100

3, 778
100

6, 100
100

2, 413
100

Care in child's own home by—_

46

47

47

38

Father_
___
Other relative.
_ _
Under 16 years
16 to 64 years
__
65 years and over
Nonrelative who only looked
after children
_
Nonrelative who did additional
household chores (maid,
housekeeper, etc.)
Care in someone else's home by—__

15
21
5
13
4

15
18
2
13
3

15
23
6
13
4

14
21
5
13
3

5

8

4

2

5
15

7
30

4
11

2
5

Relative
Nonrelative. _ _
Other arrangements

8
8
39

15
15
23

5
6
43

3
2
57

2
8

6
1

1
8

13

15

12

11

15
1

1
1

21
1

24
1

__
_

Group care (day care center,
etc.)
Child looked after self _
Mother looked after child while
working
Mother worked only during
child's school hours _
Other arrangements __
1
2

(2)

20

Refers to mothers who worked 27 weeks or more in 1964 either full or part time.
Less than 0.5 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau,
and U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau: "Child Care Arrangements of the Nation's Working
Mothers—A preliminary report." 1965.

for additional day care facilities. Licensed public and private day
care facilities available in October 1965 could provide for about
290,000 children. This represented, unfortunately, only a small percentage of the children who needed day care services, but public and
voluntary agencies are working actively to close the gap.
A major advance in providing day care services was made possible by the child welfare provisions of the 1962 Public Welfare




50

Women as Workers

Amendments to the Social Security Act, which authorized Federal
grants-in-aid to State public welfare agencies for day care services.
To qualify for Federal aid, a State must have an approved child
welfare services plan requiring, among other things, that day care
will be provided only in facilities (including private homes) which
are licensed by the State or meet the standards of the State licensing
authority and that priority will be given to children from low-income
homes.
Since the adoption of these amendments, the States have been moving forward rapidly to provide adequate day care services for children
who need them. As of June 1965, 47 States and 3 jurisdictions had
federally approved plans for day care services.15
In addition to Federal grants for day care programs under the
1962 Public Welfare Amendments, financial assistance for such programs is now available under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964.
Under this act, community action programs are encouraged to develop day care centers and nursery centers for young children. (Other
provisions and regulations under the act, such as those relating to
migrant workers, also encourage the development of day care programs for special groups.)
Federal and State tax treatment regarding child care expenses.—
Since its adoption in 1913, the Federal income tax law has made
an allowance for the circumstances of the individual taxpayer through
personal exemptions. In the Revenue Act of 1954 a deduction was
allowed for child care expenses incurred by working women and widowers 16 if such child care enabled them to be gainfully employed.
Under that act an allowance of up to $600 was permitted for care
of a child under 12 years of age or a dependent physically or mentally
incapable of caring for himself. Widows, widowers, and separated
and divorced persons could deduct the full amount regardless of income. However, a married woman claiming the deduction was required to file a joint return with her husband, and if the combined
adjusted gross income exceeded $4,500 the deduction was reduced $1
for each dollar above that amount. These restrictions regarding the
working wife did not apply if her husband was incapable of selfsupport because of mental or physical disability.
A 1963 amendment provided for allowing the deduction for child
care expenses to a deserted wife who could not locate her husband.
The President's Commission on the Status of Women recommended
that tax deductions for child care expenses of working mothers should15
10

Idaho, Nevada, New Hampshire, and Guam did not have such plans.
The term "widower" includes divorced and legally separated men.




Women in the Labor Force

51

be kept commensurate with the median income of couples when both
are engaged in substantial employment; that the limitation on joint
income should be raised; that additional deductions, of lesser amounts,
should be allowed for children beyond the first; and that the age limit
for child care deductions should be raised.
The Revenue Act of 1964 increased the maximum deductible allowance to $900 for two or more children or dependents and raised to
$6,000 the income limitation that applies to married women. The
act allows a married man to deduct the cost of child care if his wife
is in an institution for at least 90 consecutive days or for a shorter
period if terminated by her death. A married man whose wife is at
home but unable to care for herself is eligible for the deduction,
subject to the $6,000 income limitation applicable to married women.
The act also raised the age of children covered by the deduction to
include those under 13 years.
In addition to Federal laws governing deductions for child care
expenses, a number of States permit employed taxpayers to take such
deductions from State income taxes. Some of the State laws are
identical to the Federal law; others have variations as to who can
claim the deduction, the amount of the deduction, the age limit of
children for whose care the deduction can be claimed, and the income
limitation of taxpayers eligible to claim the deduction.
35. Maternity

Benefits

Large numbers of women workers in this country, as well as wives
of men workers, are eligible to receive maternity benefits. These
benefits are provided generally through voluntary health and insurance plans or by legislative action. Voluntary health plans include
those negotiated between unions and management, those offered by
commercial insurance companies, those operated by associations of
hospitals or physicians, and those operated cooperatively by groups.
The principal types of maternity benefits available to women workers
through voluntary plans are maternity leave and provisions for job
security, allowances for medical care or direct medical services, and
cash payments to compensate for loss of wages. The cost of these
benefits may be paid entirely by the employer, shared by the employer
and employee, or—least frequently—paid entirely by the enwloyee.
In 1962 the Bureau of Labor Statistics summarized 100 selected
healtli and insurance plans,17 all of which had maternity provisions.
17 "Digest of One Hundred Selected Health and Insurance Plans Under Collective -Bargaining, Winter 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 . "
Bull. No. 1330. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department
of Labor. June 1962.




52

Women as Workers

Some of these applied only to women employees; others, to dependent
wives of men workers; and still others, to both. There was a wide
variation in allowances for maternity hospitalization and for surgical
and medical care; for example, the surgical allowance ranged from
$35 to $150. Many plans provided for the full cost of specified services in addition to hospital room and board allowances.
In more than half of these plans the company paid the full costs
of maternity benefits for both employees and dependents of employees.
In more than two-fifths the employer and employee shared the costs
in various ways; for example, when costs of the employee's benefits
were paid by both the employee and employer, costs of the dependent's
benefits were paid by the employer under some plans and by the employee under others.
Women workers in the railroad industry are entitled to maternity
benefits under a Federal law. Cash sickness benefits for maternity
leave also are provided to women workers under laws of New Jersey,
Rhode Island, and Puerto Rico. Six other States and Puerto Rico
prohibit employment for specified periods before and/or after
childbirth.
Many State and local governments allow women employees to use
their sick leave as maternity leave, and some also provide insured
medical care. In 1962, 14 States and Puerto Rico 18 offered health
benefit programs with maternity provisions to employees of these
jurisdictions who wished to participate. In 2 of these—New York
and Massachusetts—local governments were authorized to participate
voluntarily in the program. Under all these programs enrolled
employees and the jurisdiction contributed toward the plans. A few
of the plans were designed to cover the entire cost of combined hospital
and physician's charges for a confinement. Five plans had lower
benefits for dependent wives than for female employees. Differences
in allowances ranged from separate allowances for hospital charges
and physician's fees to a combined lump sum allowance toward both
kinds of charges.
Though Federal law does not refer to maternity leave as such for
Government civilian employees, Public Law 233 (1951) does make
paid sick leave available to them, and a Civil Service Commission
regulation permits sick leave to be used as maternity leave. In addition, under the Federal Employees Health Benefit Act of 1959, Government employees may elect to participate in one of several health
insurance plans that include maternity medical care for women em18 "State Employees' Health Benefit Programs," Health Economics Series No. 2, Public
Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, December 1963, and
"Maternity Care Utilization and Financing," Ibid., No. 4, January 1964.




53

Women in the Labor Force

ployees as well as for wives of male employees. Both the Government
and the employee contribute to the cost of such plans.
Wives of servicemen are eligible for maternity care at Government
expense. Although women members of the Armed Forces who become
pregnant are separated from the service, they are eligible for Government-paid maternity care.

Working Life of Women
36. Work Experience

of

Women

The number of women and men in the labor force is obtained by a
regular monthly survey of the population.19 A similar survey, conducted once a year, yields the number of women and men who worked
at some time during the previous year.
The number of persons who work some time during the course of
a year is naturally greater than the average (mean) number in the
labor force in that year. In 1964, 33.1 million women had some w^ork
experience, but the average number in the labor force was 25.8 million—a difference of 7.3 million.
Many women cannot work full time (35 hours or more a week)
the year round (50 to 52 weeks) because of home responsibilities,
school attendance, or other reasons. In addition, there are women
who would like to work throughout the year but are unable to find
this type of job due to lack of skills or education or because such
jobs are not available in the community in which they live. As a
result, women are more likely than are men to work part time or
part year. Only 37 percent of the women who worked at some time
in 1964 were employed full time the year round (chart K ) . In contrast, 66 percent of all men with work experience in 1964 were full-time
year-round workers. Another 9 percent of the women with work
experience wTorked throughout the year on a part-time basis. Thirtytwo percent of the women with wTork experience, but only 13 percent
of the men, had part-time jobs.
The percentage working part time increases as the number of weeks
worked declines. Thus in 1964, 20 percent of the women who worked
50 to 52 weeks and about 30 percent of those who worked from 27 to
49 weeks were employed part time, but about 50 percent of those
who worked half a year or less had part-time jobs.
19 The survey is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the
Census through its current population survey. It consists of interviewing a scientifically
selected sample of about 35,000 households, designed to represent the civilian noninstitutional population 14 years of age and over.




Women as Workers

54

(WORK EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN, BY FULL TIME AND PART-TIME STATUS
AND WEEKS WORKED, 1964]
PERCENT
40i—

fcl
15

50-52 WEEKS

YEAR-ROUND

16

27-49 WEEKS

16

(35 hows
or more)

PART-TIME
(Less than
35 hours]
1-26 WEEKS

PART YEAR

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

Reasons given for part-year work.—The major reasons given by
women and men for working only part of the year in 1964 differed
considerably. About half of the women stated that taking care of their
homes was the principal reason; another 20 percent said attendance
at school limited their work. Only 15 percent claimed unemployment
as the reason for working less than a full year. In contrast, half the
men 25 years of age or over mentioned unemployment as the major
reason for part-year work. Among men under 25 years of age, however, about two-thirds reported school attendance as the principal
reason, and less than one-fourth claimed unemployment.
Changes in work experience of women since I960.—The number of
women with work experience rose 9.8 million from 1950 to 1964 (table
24). The number who worked part time rose 4.4 million. This
increase of 71 percent was considerably greater than the increase of
31 percent registered by women full-time workers. Most of the increase in part-time workers, however, came between 1950 and 1960.
From 1960 to 1964 the number of women part-time workers increased
by only 7 percent compared with an increase of 9 percent among
full-time workers.




55

Women in the Labor Force

Another change in the composition of the group of women with
work experience was that a somewhat larger proportion worked a
full year in 1964 (47 percent) than in 1950 (45 percent). This was
due mainly to a larger proportionate increase in the number of women
who worked part time for 50 to 52 weeks.
Table 2 4 . — W O R K

EXPERIENCE

OF W O M E N ,

1950,

1 9 6 0 , AND

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Number (in thousands)
Work

Total
Year round:
50 to 52 weeks:
Full time 1
Part time 2
Part year:
27 to 49 weeks:
Full time 1
Part time 2
1 to 26 weeks:
Full time 1
Part time 2

distribution
1950

1964

1960

23, 350

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

11, 299
3, 060

8, 592
1, 916

37. 5
9. 4

36. 9
10. 0

36. 8
8. 2

4, 968
2, 154

4, 479
2, 023

4, 171
1, 210

15. 0
6. 5

14. 6
6. 6

17. 9
5. 1

5, 126
5, 376

4, 899
4, 825

4, 377
3, 088

15. 5
16. 2

16. 0
15. 8

18. 7
13. 2

1964

1960

1950

_

33, 146

30, 585

-

12, 418
3, 104

-

_

experience

Percent

1 Worked 35 hours or more a week.
2 Worked less than 35 hours a week.
Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources,
Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor," March 1966.

Work experience by age.—As might be expected, women between
18 and 64 years of age are more likely to work some time during the
year than are younger girls or older women. In 1964 almost twothirds of all women 18 to 24 years of age, almost three-fifths of those
45 to 54 years of age, and over half of those 35 to 44 years of age
had work experience (table 25). In contrast, about one-third of the
girls 14 to 17 years old and only one-seventh of the women 65 years
of age and over worked some time during that year.
A t all age levels, a larger proportion of men than of women had
work experience in 1964. For men the percentage was highest among
those 25 to 54 years of age (97 or 98 percent) and lowest among those
65 years of age and over (37 percent).
In the principal working age groups (18 to 64 years) the proportion
of all women who worked some time during the course of 1964 was
55 percent as compared with 95 percent for men.




Women as Workers

56
Table 25.—PERCENT

OF W O M E N AND M E N

W I T H W O R K E X P E R I E N C E IN 1 9 6 4 ,

BY A G E
(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Age

Total

Women

Men

47.5

82. 5

1 4 t o 1 7 years

34. 0

47. 2
84. 9

1 8 a n d 1 9 years

63. 4

2 0 t o 2 4 years

65. 6

92. 5

2 5 t o 3 4 years

50. 1

97. 8
97. 9

3 5 t o 4 4 years

55.1

4 5 t o 5 4 years

57. 9

96. 6

5 5 t o 6 4 years

48. 3

88. 9

6 5 y e a r s a n d over
1 8 t o 6 4 years

14. 4

37. 3

55. 3

94. 8

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 62.

Women 45 to 64 years of age are the most likely to work full time
the year round. About 49 percent of the women in this age group wrere
full-time year-round workers in 1964 (table 26). In contrast, only
6 percent of girls 14 to 19 years of age were on full-time schedules
throughout the year.
Teenage girls and women 65 years of age and over are the most
likely to work primarily at part-time jobs. In 1964, 3 out of 5
girls 14 to 19 years of age and more than half of women 65 years of
age and over were part-time workers. In fact, more than 2 out of 5
of the teenagers worked at part-time jobs for 26 weeks or less. A t the
other end of the scale, less than 1 out of 5 women 20 to 24 years of age
worked primarily at part-time jobs.
Work experience by marital status.—About 58 percent of the 33.1
million women with work experience in 1964 were married women
living with their husbands (table 27). Another 24 percent were
single, and the remaining 18 percent were widowed, divorced, or living
apart from their husbands.
Single women were the most likely to have worked at some time in
1964. Their work experience rate was 56 percent compared with 45
percent for widowed, divorced, or separated women and 46 percent
for married women (husband present).
Women who are widowed, divorced, or with husband absent are
more likely to work full time the year round than are single women




3

T a b l e 2 6 . — W O R K EXPERIENCE OF W O M E N IN 1 9 6 4 , BY A G E

o
3

(Women 14 years of age and over)

5"
Age

&

Total

14-19
years

20-24
years

25-34
years

35-44
years

45-54
years

55-64
years

65 years
and over

33,146, 000
100. 0

4, 249, 000
100. 0

4, 363, 000
100. 0

5, 632, 000
100. 0

6, 851,000
100. 0

6, 458, 000
100. 0

4,195, 000
100. 0

1,398, 000
100. 0

Worked at full-time jobs

67.9

37. 2

81. 5

73. 4

70. 1

73. 9

72. 1

46. 0

50 to 52 weeks.
27 to 49 weeks _
1 to 26 weeks. _ __
Worked at part-time jobs 2

37.5
15.0
15.5
32.1

5.
6.
24.
62.

7
8
7
8

34. 9
20. 5
26. 1
18. 5

37.
17.
18.
26.

43.
15.
11.
29.

48.
15.
9.
26.

9
6
5
1

49. 4
14. 5
8.2
27. 9

25. 6
9.2
11. 2
54. 0

9.4
6. 5
16. 2

8. 9
9. 2
44. 7

3. 2
4. 2
11. 1

6. 5
5. 5
14. 5

10. 8
6. 0
9. 3

12. 4
6.2
9.2

20. 5
13. 0
20. 4

Work

experience

Number _
Percent

_

_ _
_ __

50 to 52 weeks.
27 to 49 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
1
2

3
7
5
6

3
3
6
9

10. 5
6. 2
13. 2

Worked 35 hours or more a week.
Worked less than 35 hours a week.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 62.




Ln

58

Women as Workers
T a b l e 2 7 . — W O R K EXPERIENCE OF W O M E N IN 1 9 6 4 , BY M A R I T A L STATUS
(Women 14 years of age and over)

Marital status

Work experience

Number
Percent with work
experience2

Total

Single

Married
{husband
present)

Other

1

33, 146, 000

7, 966, 000

19, 276, 000

5, 908, 000

47. 5

55. 5

45. 5

45. 1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Total

,

Worked at full-time jobs: 3
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
Worked at part-time jobs 4_

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

37. 5
15. 0
15. 5
32. 1

33. 8
10. 8
17. 0
38. 4

35.
16.
15.
32.

48. 5
15. 6
12. 5
23. 4

6
6
8
1

1 Widowed, divorced, or separated, or husband absent for other reasons.
Refers to civilian noninstitutional population.
* Worked 35 hours or more a week.
4 Worked less than 35 hours a week.
2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 62.

or married women living with their husbands. As a result, in 1964, 49
percent of the women with other marital status were full-time yearround workers compared with 36 percent of the single women and 34
percent of the married women (husband present). Conversely, widowed, divorced, or separated women are less likely to work on parttime jobs. Thus only 23 percent of these women were working less
than 35 hours a week in 1964 compared with 38 percent of the single
women and 32 percent of the married women (husband present).
Work experience by occupation.—Certain
occupations require
continuity of performance and seldom are connected with seasonal
activities. Women employed in these occupations are therefore usually full-time year-round workers. For example, in 1964 a majority
of women employed in three major occupational groups—nonfarm
managers, officials, and proprietors (66 percent), clerical workers (51
percent), craftsmen and foremen (50 percent)—were on the job 50
to 52 weeks for 35 hours a week or more (table 28).
Other jobs provide employment opportunities for part-time work at
peak periods during the day or certain days during the week. This is




T a b l e 2 8 . — W O R K EXPERIENCE OF W O M E N IN 1 9 6 4 , BY M A J O R OCCUPATIONAL

GROUP

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Percent distribution

of women with work

Worked at full-time jobs

Major occupational

Number
with work
experience

group of longest job

Total
Professional, technical, kindred workers.
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers _
Sales workers _
____
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
__
Operatives, kindred workers
_ __ __
Nonfarm laborers—
Private-household workers._
_
__
Service workers (except private-household) _
Farmers, farm managers _ _
_
Farm laborers, foremen
1
2

Total

33, 146, 000

.
.
_ _

3, 899,
1, 221,
9, 763,
2, 626,
315,
4, 747,
157,
3, 278,
5, 085,
163,
1,892,

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

Worked 35 hours or more a week.
Worked less than 35 hours a week.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 62.




50-52
weeks

27-49
weeks

experience

1

26 weeks
or less

Worked at
part-time
jobs 2

100.0

37. 5

15.0

15.5

32. 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

41. 3
65. 8
51. 2
26. 6
49. 8
40. 8
28. 7
14. 0
29. 6
29. 4
8. 5

24.3
12.0
12.0
8.4
16.2
25.3
5.7
6.4
17.7
2.5
6.0

12.2
7.6
14.4
14.2
14.9
21.5
17.8
10.9
19.5
4.9
17.0

22.3
14.6
22.4
50.8
19.0
12.4
47.8
68.8
33.2
63.2
68.6

60

Women as Workers

typical of farm work, private-household work, and sales work. As a
result, in 1964 half or more of the women with work experience in
four major occupational groups—farm laborers and foremen, privatehousehold workers, farmers and farm managers, and sales workers—
worked less than 35 hours a week. In fact, among private-household
workers and farm laborers and foremen, the ratio working part time
was as high as 7 out of 10.
Information on part-year or part-time employment of w-omen by
detailed occupations is available only from the decennial census.20
Among women with work experience in 1959, at least some worked
part of the time, part of the year, or a combination of the two in most
detailed occupations. However, part-time or part-year employment
was more frequent in certain occupations.
Some occupations are typically both part year and part time. For
example, women giving dancing and music lessons or teaching in
special schools such as kindergartens, nursery schools, adult education
centers, and driver-training schools, often work only a few hours a
day or in the evening and usually work only part of the year. Moreover, women working as demonstrators and door-to-door salesmen
usually work less than a full week and often work seasonally.
In other occupations part-year work is prevalent. Two-thirds or
more of the women working in 1959 as elementary and secondary
school teachers; operatives in canning and preserving of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; counter and fountain workers; and waitresses,
among others, were employed less than 50 weeks a year. Most schools
operate on a 9-month schedule, and canneries and packing plants employ most of their operatives only for the harvesting season. Moreover, work in eating and drinking places and in hotels and motels is
often seasonal.
Finally, there are some detailed occupations in which women usually
work less than 35 hours a week. These include attendant and assistant in libraries, babysitter, laundress, and charwoman and cleaner.
More than half of all attendants and assistants in libraries worked less
than 35 hours a week in 1960. Women in this occupation work at peak
periods—after school hours and in the evening—or as replacements for
full-time workers in libraries open 6 days a week. Two-thirds of the
babysitters worked less than 35 hours a week in 1959, and half worked
less than 15 hours a week. Much of the work done by charwomen and
cleaners is performed after office hours and does not require an 8-hour
day.
20 " U . S .
Census of Population: 1960.
Occupational
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.




Characteristics,

P C ( 2 ) — 7A."

61

Women in the Labor Force

Work experience of white and nonwhite women.—A larger proportion of nonwhite than of white women seek and hold jobs—57 and 46
percent, respectively, had work experience in 1964 (table 29). In
addition, nonwhite women are more likely to work part time or part
year. To some extent this is due to the difficulty they experience in
finding full-time year-round work. Of the women who worked in
1964, 35 percent of nonwhite women were on part-time schedules compared with 32 percent of white women. Conversely, relatively more
white women than nonwhite women were on the job full time the year
round (38 and 32 percent, respectively).
There were also variations in the work experience of white and nonwhite women workers by age group. Among women 25 years of
age and over, relatively more nonwhite women than white women
worked at some time in 1964. The proportions were about equal among
women 20 to 24 years of age, but among teenagers relatively fewer
nonwhite than white girls had some work experience. In every age
group a larger proportion of white women than nonwhite women
were full-time year-round workers. Except among girls 14 to 19 years
of age, relatively more nonwhite women than wThite women held parttime jobs.
37. Employed

Women

by Part-Time and Full-Time Status

The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes another series of figures
(both monthly and annual averages) on part-time and full-time employment of women and men based on the current household survey.
These figures differ from those shown under work experience, since
they relate solely to nonagricultural employment. Moreover, only
persons working on part-time and full-time schedules at the time of
the monthly survey are counted. Persons who worked less than 35
hours a week because of bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation,
illness, holiday, or other noneconomic reasons are included with those
on full-time schedules who worked 35 hours or more a week. Persons
on part-time schedules are divided into three groups—those who usually work full time and worked part time for economic reasons (slack
work, material shortages, repairs to plant or equipment, start or termination of job during the week, and inability to find full-time work),
those who usually work part time and worked part time for economic
reasons, and those who usually work part time for other reasons (also
called voluntary part time).
Nearly 74 percent of the 21,927,000 women employed in nonagricultural industries in 1964 were on full-time schedules (table 30).




T a b l e 2 9 . — W O R K EXPERIENCE OF W O M E N IN 1 9 6 4 , BY COLOR AND A G E
(Women 14 years of age and over)

Women in the

population

Percent distribution

of women with work

Worked at full-time jobs
Color and age

Number

White
14
20
25
65

to 19 years--__
to 24 years
to 64 years
years and over„_
Nonwhite

14
20
25
65

to 19
to 24
to 64
years
1
2

years
years
years
and over. _

Percent
with work
experience

27-49
weeks

1

26 weeks
or less

Worked at
part-time
jobs 2

62, 227, 000

_

46.4

100.0

38.2

14.8

15.3

31.7

8, 609,
5, 844,
38, 798,
8, 776,
7, 546,

000
000
000
000
000

43.9
65.6
51.6
13.9
56.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6. 1
36.8
45.3
27.3
32.2

6.7
20.9
15.6
9.2
16.1

23.6
25.0
12. 1
11.4
16.8

63.7
17.4
27. 1
52.0
35.0

1, 287, 000
809,000
4, 716, 000
734,000

36.5
65.8
66.0
20.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.0
21.4
39.5
10.7

7.4
17.7
17.3
11.3

33.6
33.6
11.7
8.7

56.0
27.3
31.5
69.3

Worked 35 hours or more a week.
Worked less than 35 hours a week.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 62.




Total

50-52
weeks

experience

T a b l e 3 0 . — W O M E N AT W O R K IN NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES, BY F U L L - T I M E AND P A R T - T I M E STATUS AND SELECTED
CHARACTERISTICS, 1 9 6 4

1

3

(Women 14 years of age and over)

o
3

Percent distribution of women at work
On part-time schedules for—
Economic reasons

Characteristics
Total

Number
of women

Total

On
full-time
schedules

Usually
work
full time

Other
reasons

2

Usually
work
part time

Usually
work
part time

21, 927, 000

100. 0

73. 9

1. 8

2. 7

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

16. 7
71. 0
84.4
77. 9
75. 5
77. 6
53. 0

.6
1. 9
1.7
1. 8
2. 0
1. 8
.9

5. 2
4. 4
2.2
2. 1
2. 4
2. 7
3. 7

77. 5
22. 7
11.7
18. 2
20. 1
17. 8
42. 5

5, 247,000
12, 149, 000
4,530,000

100. 0
100. 0
100.0

70. 9
73. 3
78.9

1. 1
2. 0
1.8

3. 0
2. 1
4.1

24. 9
22. 6
15.2

19, 244, 000
2, 682, 000

100. 0
100. 0

74. 6
68. 6

1. 7
2. 4

1. 9
8. 4

n

21. 6

1, 048, 000
1, 101, 000
2,744,000
3, 545, 000
4, 823, 000
7, 860, 000
806, 000

Q
cr
o

21. 8
20. 6

Age:
14 to 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years
35 to 44 years
45 to 64 years
65 years and over
Marital status:
Single
Married (husband present)
Other3
Color:
White
Nonwhite

1 Annual average.
2 Includes women who worked less than 35 hours during the survey week because of slack work, job changing during the week, material shortages, inability to find full-time
work, etc.
3 Widowed, divorced, or separated or husband absent for other reasons.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, January 1965.




O

UJ

64

Women as Workers

About 22 percent were employed part time by choice, and the remainder
worked part time involuntarily. In contrast, 91 percent of the men
were on full-time schedules, and only 6 percent worked part time
voluntarily.
Part-time and full-time employment by selected characteristics.—
Full-time employment is characteristic of most women 18 to 64 years
of age. In 1964 at least 70 percent of all women in this broad age
group were on full-time schedules. Full-time work was most prevalent (84 percent) among women 20 to 24 years of age. On the other
hand, girls under 18 years of age and women 65 years of age and over
are the most likely to seek part-time work—78 percent of girls under
18 years of age and 43 percent of women 65 years of age and over
worked part time by choice in 1964.
Women who are widowed, divorced, or separated from their husbands are the most likely to work full time—79 percent were on
full-time schedules in 1964, and only 15 percent worked part time
voluntarily. On the other hand, 25 percent of the single women
worked part time by choice. It must be remembered, however, that
this group includes most of the more than 800,000 girls under 18 years
of age who worked part time voluntarily.
Relatively fewer nonwhite women than white women were on fulltime schedules in 1964—69 percent compared with 75 percent. However, 11 percent of the nonwhite women worked part time for economic reasons compared with only 4 percent of wThite women. As
a result, the proportion of white women working part time voluntarily
(22 percent) was slightly higher than the proportion of nonwhite
women (21 percent).
Unemployment among part-time and full-time immen workers.—
Women and teenagers are more inclined to seek part-time work than
are men 20 years of age and over. Of the 1,605,000 women looking for
work in 1964, 21 percent sought part-time jobs (table 31). The percent looking for part-time work was almost twice as high for girls
under 20 years of age (33 percent) as for women 20 years of age and
over (17 percent). But the proportion looking for part-time work
was highest among teenage boys (42 percent). In contrast, only 6
percent of men 20 years of age and over wanted part-time work in
1964.
Nearly 70 percent of all girls under 20 years of age who were attending school and looking for work in 1964 looked for part-time jobs.
Many unemployed women 55 years of age and over also preferred
part-time work—23 percent. On the other hand, only 13 percent of
unemployed women 20 to 24 years of age sought part-time work.




65

Women in the Labor Force

Another measure of unemployment in relation to part-time and
full-time work comes from a special study made by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics.21 One of the most significant findings reported in
this study is that the unemployment rate among women part-time
workers is very low.

T a b l e 3 1 . — U N E M P L O Y E D WOMEN LOOKING FOR F U L L - T I M E OR P A R T - T I M E W O R K ,
BY A G E , 1 9 6 4

1

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Women looking for—
Age
Total
14 to 19 years
Major activity:
Attending school
All other
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over
1

Full-time
work

Part-time
work

Looking for parttime work as a
percent of all
unemployed
women

1,268,000

337,000

21.0

273,000

137,000

33.4

41,000
231,000
241,000
636,000
118,000

91,000
45,000
35,000
129,000
35,000

68.9
16.3
12.7
16.9
22.9

Annual average.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, January
1965.

The unemployment rate for adult women (20 years of age and
over) working part time in the combined 10-month period January
to October 1964 was only 4.4 percent. In contrast, the unemployment rate among adult men on part-time jobs was 6.4 percent. Like
adult women, teenagers who were part-time workers had a lower unemployment rate (11.8 percent) than those who usually worked
full time (17.6 percent). On the other hand, adult men wTho were
full-time workers had a much lower unemployment rate (3.8 percent)
than did adult women on full-time jobs (5.5 percent).
38. Labor Turnover and

Absenteeism

Labor turnover.—Labor turnover rates are influenced more by the
skill level of the job, the age of the worker, and the worker's record
of job stability than by the sex of the worker. A recent survey showed
that changing jobs was more frequent among younger workers than
21 Monthly Report on the Laobr Force, October 1964.
Department of Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.

66

Women as Workers

among older ones, among unskilled and semiskilled workers than
among those in skilled and professional and technical occupations,
and among workers with few years of employment than among those
with long eihployment records.22
Naturally, however, the working life pattern of women—with many
working for a few years after finishing school, leaving the labor force
for marriage and child-raising, and returning to the labor force after
their children are grown or reach school age—does produce in general
higher labor turnover rates for women than for men.
Information on the comparative turnover rates of women and men
is difficult to obtain. According to a study of such rates for factory
workers during the period January 1950 to January 1955, the average
quit rate for women employees was only slightly higher than that for
men employees (24 out of 1,000 compared with 18 out of 1,000).23
The U.S. Civil Service Commission made a study of the relative
voluntary separation (turnover) rates of women and men full-time
career employees in the Federal Government during the period December 16,1962, to February 2, 1963.24 On an overall basis the separation rate for women was about 2y2 times greater than that for men.
The higher rate for women is explained in part by the large number
of women in Federal civil service who (1) are under 25 years of age,
(2) are in lower grade clerical jobs (particularly in the occupations
of stenographer and typist, which have the highest turnover rates),
and (3) have few years of Federal service. These groups have higher
turnover rates than others regardless of sex. When the data for
women and men are compared by age group, by broad occupational
group, and by length of service, the differences in their relative turnover rates decrease.
A study of job mobility in all industries made by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics in 1961 indicated that men tend to move from one
job to another somewhat more often than do women.25 Eleven percent
of men workers, but only 8.6 percent of women workers, changed jobs
in 1961. (This study may understate the job mobility of the labor
force, and especially of women, since it included only those persons
who moved from one job to another and excluded those persons who
left a job and did not find another.)
22 Special Labor Force Report No. 35.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor.
23 "Labor Turnover of Women Factory Workers, 1 9 5 0 - 5 5 . "
In Monthly Labor Review,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, August 1955.
24 Report of the Committee on Federal Employment, Appendix F.
President's Commission on the Status of Women. October 1963.
25 See footnote 22.




Women in the Labor Force

67

Although job-changing was highest among young workers regardless of sex, the turnover rate was somewhat less for girls than for boys.
About 1 out of 4 boys 18 and 19 years of age and an equal ratio of
young men 20 to 24 years of age who worked in 1961 changed jobs at
least once. About 1 out of 5 girls 18 and 19 years old and about 1
out of 6 young women 20 to 24 years of age changed jobs during the
year. Many such young people shop for jobs as they start their work
careers. Others are laid off because they lack the skills to command
steady jobs or the seniority to protect them against involuntary
separation.
The most important reason women 20 to 54 years of age gave for
changing jobs in 1961 was to secure a better one. In contrast, men
over 35 stated loss of jdb as the most important reason for jobchanging.
By major occupational group the rate of job-changing for women
was highest among service workers (except private-household),
followed by nonfarm laborers and clerical workers. Among men jobchanging was most frequent among nonfarm laborers, followed in
descending order by farm laborers and foremen, operatives, craftsmen and foremen, and sales workers. The job-changing rates for
women and men professional and technical workers were about the
same—less than 1 out of 10.
Another measure of job stability is job tenure. A special study
made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics explored the length of time
that workers had been employed continuously on the job each held
in January 1963.26 It showed that on the average (median) women
had spent 3 years on their current job compared with 5.7 years for
men. The study further showed that job tenure increased with age,
but somewhat less for women than for men. In general, both women
and men workers under 25 years of age had averaged less than 1 year
on their current job. Among workers 25 to 44 years old, women had
been with the same employer about 3 years on the average compared
with 5 years for men. Among those 45 years old and over, the average
job tenure for women was about 7 years—still considerably less than
the 13 years for men.
By marital status it was found that single women had about the
same job tenure as did men in the same age groups. After age 45
single women tend to stay even longer with the same employer than
do single men. However, relatively few women remain single, and
the job pattern of married women dominates the overall employment
28 Special Labor Force Report No. 36.
of Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department

68

Women as Workers

pattern for women. The average tenure in January 1963 for married
women (3.4 years) was much higher than that for single women (1.8
years). The difference reflects the greater proportion of married
women in age groups (35 years and over) with longer job tenure and
the overwhelming percentage of single women in the youngest age
groups, where job tenure is very low. The average time on the current
job was much longer for full-time w^omen workers (3.4 years) than
for part-time women workers (2.0 years).
The average job tenure was about the same for nonwhite and white
women, and also about the same proportion (20 percent) of nonwhite
and white women had held their current job for more than 10 years.
A greater proportion of nonwhite women than of white women are
in service occupations where work is less steady than in the clerical
occupations where white women are concentrated. This might be
expected to result in a shorter average job tenure for nonwhite women,
but this factor is offset by the more continuous association of nonwhite women with the labor force because of economic need, as reflected in their higher labor-force participation rates.
A comparison of job tenure in January 1963 by major industry
group showed that women workers in transportation and public utilities had been with the same employer the longest on the average
(about 6 years). The shortest average job tenures for women (about
2.5 years) were among those employed in service industries and in
finance and trade. Women factory workers had an average of 4 years
of continuous job attachment. Among them, workers in nonelectrical
machinery and fabricated metals industries had the longest average
job tenures (6.0 and 5.5 years, respectively). On the other hand,
women employed in the apparel industry had one of the shortest
average job tenures for women in the goods-producing industries (3.5
years).
By occupation the study indicated that the women who had the
greatest job stability were in occupations that require the most training or experience or that provide the least opportunity to make a
move. Among the latter, for example, were women farm laborers and
foremen, who had the highest average number of years (9.9) with
the same employer. Many of them were unpaid workers on family
farms, and one-third had spent over 15 years on the current job. The
numbers were, of course, small. Also, characteristically they were an
older group. Equally small were the numbers of women managers,
officials, and proprietors, who had the next longest average tenure
(5.8 years) ; and they were also an older group. Women craftsmen
had spent an average of 4.8 years on the job; operatives and kindred
workers, 4.1 years.




Women in the Labor Force

69

Professional and technical workers, of whom almost 3 out of 5
had spent 5 years or less with the same employer, had a relatively low
average job tenure of 3.7 years, partly because they were a somewhat
younger group and partly because they had more opportunities for
job changes. Clerical workers, also a younger group, averaged 3 years
on the current job; service workers, including private-household workers, less than 2 years. Service jobs are likely to be part time and
part year in nature. It is not surprising, therefore, that more than
7 out of 10 women in private-household and other service jobs had
spent 5 years or less on their current job.
Absenteeism.—Labor turnover is one factor of labor costs. Another
important factor is absenteeism. On the average women lose more
workdays because of acute conditions than do men, but the reverse is
true for chronic conditions such as heart trouble, arthritis, rheumatism, and orthopedic impairment. According to a study made by the
U.S. Public Health Service, employed persons 17 years of age and
over lost an average of 3.25 days in the period July 1963 to June
1964 because of acute conditions (3.3 for women and 3.2 for men).27
When both types of conditions were counted, the worktime lost by
persons 17 years of age and over because of illness or injury showed
an average of 5.4 days for women and 5.6 days for men over the
same period.28
39. Dual

Jobholders

More than half a million women (511,000), or about 2 percent of all
employed women, held more than one wage or salary job in May 1964
(table 32). The highest proportion of these "moonlighters" (2.3 percent) were in age group 25 to 44 years, the same age group in which
men show the highest proportion of multiple jobholding. These are
typically the years in which financial obligations are heavy. Among
women the lowest proportions were for age groups 14 to 24 years
(1.8 percent) and 65 years and over (1.7 percent). Women are much
less likely to hold more than one job than are men. More than 3 million men, or 6.9 percent, were dual jobholders in May 1964.
On their second job women averaged 8 hours a week compared
with 13 hours for men. On their primary jobs women moonlighters
were mainly clerical, professional and technical, or service workers.
27 Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 15.
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare.
28 Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 13.
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare.




Public Health Service, U.S. DepartPublic Health Service, U.S. Depart-

Women as Workers

70
Table 3 2 . — W O M E N

W I T H T W O OR M O R E JOBS, BY OCCUPATION
AND SECONDARY JOBS, M A Y 1 9 6 4

OF

PRIMARY

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Women with two or
more jobs
Occupation.

A l l occupations

Professional, technical, kindred
workers
Medical and other health
workers
Teachers (except college) _ _
Other professional, technical, kindred workers
Managers, officials, proprietors
(except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers
Sales workers
Retail trade
Other sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred
workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Private-household workers
Service workers (except privatehousehold)

Number

Percent

distribution

As percent of Primary
total employed1
job

Secondary
job

511,000

2. 1

100.0

100.0

107, 000

3.4

20.9

17.8

12, 000
48, 000

1.5
3.4

2.3
9.4

1.8
4. 1

47, 000

5.0

9.2

11.9

19, 000
141, 000
22, 000

1.7
1.9
1.3

3.7
27.6
4.3

6.8
18.8
12.9

18, 000
4, 000

1.2
1.8

3.5
.8

10.6
2.3

7, 000
42, 000
32, 000

2.8
1. 1
1.4

1.4
8.2
6.3

2. 5
10.2

96,000

2.5

18.8

19. 2

48,000

3.3
2.0
3.3
5.2

9.4
9.4
1.0
7.8

6.7
12. 5
6.5
5. 3

Waitresses, cooks, bartenders

Other service workers
Farmers, farm managers
Farm laborers, foremen

48, 000
5, 000
40, 000

* Persons with two or more jobs as percent of all women employed in occupational group.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 51.

Most dual jobholders worked in a different industry or occupation on
their secondary jobs.
The question is often raised whether moonlighters are depriving
the unemployed of job opportunities. The analysis of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics indicates that this is not the case. Comparatively
few unemployed persons could or would take the secondary jobs held
by dual jobholders. Most of these jobs are part time, and many require special qualifications or skills.




Women in the Labor Force

40. Unemployed

71

Women

Unemployed women—those in the labor force but not able to find
work—averaged 1.6 million in 1964. The unemployment rate for
women 14 years of age and over was 6.2 percent. This was substantially higher than the 4.7 percent unemployment rate among men.
Women not only have a higher unemployment rate than men, but the
gap has been widening in recent years.
One of the reasons for women's continued high unemployment rate
is that they move in and out of the labor force more frequently than
men do. But the higher rate among women is also the result of the
more restrictive and discriminatory hiring practices that affect
women—whether they are low-skilled workers with only limited education or highly skilled professionals with much education. Unemployment is a problem for women in almost all occupations and
at all ages, but for some groups it is a far more serious problem than
it is for others. For girls and women who are members of families
living in poverty or for those who must support themselves and others,
unemployment is as tragic as it is for male heads of families.
Trends in unemployment rates.—Beginning with 1948, women's unemployment rates have been generally higher than those of men,
except in 1958 when the rates for both sexes were the same—at a high
of 6.8 percent, reflecting the 1957-58 recession (table 33). During the
next recession, 1960-61, the unemployment rate of men reached 6.5
percent (1961)—below their 1958 high. Women's unemployment
rate (7.2 percent), in contrast, was above their 1958 rate and was
substantially higher than that of men. From 1958 on, the unemployment rate has declined less for women than for men. In 1964 the
differential was 1.5 percentage points—the greatest gap between the
two rates since 1951.
Unemployment by marital status.—From the standpoint of marital
status, the highest unemployment rate in 1964 was that of single
women (8.7 percent). The rates were 5.1 percent for married women
(husband present) and 6.4 percent for the group of widowed, divorced,
or separated women.
Unemployment by age.—By age group the highest unemployment
rate for women in 1964 occurred among those 14 to 19 years old. The
rates then progressively declined for each age group, with the lowest
rate prevailing for women 65 years old and over (chart L ) (table 34).
Although teenagers' unemployment was the highest, it was generally
of short duration. Few girls were unemployed longer than 4 weeks,
but some might have had several periods of unemployment in the year.




72

Women as Workers
T a b l e 3 3 . — U N E M P L O Y M E N T R A T E S OF W O M E N AND M E N ,

1947-64

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Year

1964
1963
1962
1961
1960
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947

Women

6.2
6.5
6.2
7.2
5.9
5.9
6.8
4.7
4.3
4.3
5.4
2.7
3.1
3.9
5.3
5.4
3.6
3.2

Men

4.7
5.3
5.3
6.5
5.4
5.3
6.8
4.1
3.5
3.9
4.9
2.4
2.4
2.6
4.9
5.5
3.3
3.7

N O T E . — D a t a for years prior to 1960 are not strictly comparable, since they exclude Alaska and Hawaii
and because of the introduction of decennial censuses into the estimation procedure in 1953 and 1962.
Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources,
Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor." March 1965.

Older women's unemployment, in contrast, was of longer duration; and
the older the women were, the longer they had to search for a job.
In the youngest age group, 14 and 15 years old, 24,000 girls on
the average were looking for jobs in 1964.29 This was an unemployment rate of 5.9 percent compared with 9.0 percent for boys of the
same age.
Most of these young girls were seeking their first job, usually a
part-time job to fit in with school attendance. Normally, only about
12 percent of girls this age have jobs, and most of these girls are
babysitters. Whether school dropouts or not, their limited schooling
and their lack of skills and experience make it difficult for them to find
regular employment.
This problem is equally great for 16- to 19-year-old girls, although
their educational and skill level is higher. Girls in this age group have
29 Employment and Earnings, January 1965.
ment of Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Depart-

W o m e n in the L a b o r Force

73

Chart L

UNEMPLOYMENT HAS BEEN RISING AMONG YOUNGER WOMEN
(UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF WOMEN, BY AGE, 1947-64)
PERCENT
UNEMPLOYED

Source: U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

T a b l e 34.—UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF WOMEN AND MEN, BY AGE, 1 9 6 4

Age
Total
14 to 19 years __
14 and 15 years._
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years.
25 to 34 years
35 to 44 years
45 to 54 years.. _
55 to 64 years
65 years and over.

Women
6.2
15.0
5.9
16.7
8.6
6.3
5.0
3.9
3.5
3. 4

Men
4.7
14.5
9.0
15.8
8. 1
3.5
2.9
3.2
3.9
4. 0

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, January
1965.




74

Women as Workers

the highest unemployment rate among women of all ages—16.7 percent in 1964, when 386,000 of these girls were looking for jobs. (The
unemployment rate for boys in this age group was 15.8 percent.)
There were differences in the percentages in the labor force between
the 16- and 17-year-old girls, however, and those aged 18 and 19 years.
Because school attendance laws keep many of the 16- and 17-year-old
girls out of the labor force, their labor-force participation rate was
not more than 27.4 percent in 1964. On the other hand, girls 18 and
19 years old had about a 50-percent labor-force participation rate.
The unemployment rate of young women in the 20- to 24-year-old
group wTas 8.6 percent in 1964, when 276,000 of them were unemployed.
This compares with 8.1 percent for young men these ages. Only in
the last 3 years have unemployment rates been higher for women
than for men in this age group. In every year from 1947 to 1961,
women in their early twenties had relatively less unemployment than
the young men had. However, since 1962 the unemployment rate for
women aged 20 to 24 has been higher than that for men of the same
age.
Unemployment rates were significantly higher for women than for
men in the age bracket 25 to 44 years. However, at ages 45 to 54,
when women's participation rate in the labor force is greatest, their
unemployment rates were not much higher than men's until 1963,
when the pattern changed. Women 55 years of age and older have
slightly lower unemployment rates than do men in this age group.
Special unemployment problems of teenagers.—Among the 410,000
girls 14 to 19 years old who were unemployed in 1964, 1 out of 3 was
looking only for part-time work (table 35). This was a greater proportion than the 1 out of 5 of all unemployed women 14 years of age
and over and 1 out of 7 of all unemployed men who were seeking parttime employment in that year. Teenagers, of course, seek part-time
work mainly to fit in with school atendance. Almost 7 out of 10 of the
unemployed girls who were in school were seeking less than full-time
employment. Of those not in school, only 1 out of 6 was looking for
part-time work.
Finding an employer who has part-time job vacancies may present
some difficulties. In addition, many of the girls are looking for their
first steady job, which also presents more than the usual obstacles,
and these first jobs may turn out to be transitory. Thus a special study
made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated that of a group of
16- to 21-year-old unemployed young women, 2 out of 5 had never
worked before. 30 Among those who had worked, 1 out of 4 had lost
30 Special Labor Force Report No. 47.
Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of

75

Women in the Labor Force
Table 35.-

- U N E M P L O Y E D W O M E N AND M E N L O O K I N G FOR F U L L - T I M E OR P A R T TIME WORK,

1964

1

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Sex and age
Total number women and
men
Percent
Men
Women
Total number women
Percent
14 to 19 years
Major activity:
Attending school
All other
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over
1

Looking for
full-time
work

Looking for
part-time
work

Looking for
part-time work
as percent of unemployed in
each group

3, 201, 000
100. 0

676, 000
100. 0

17.4

60.4
39. 6
1,268, 000
100. 0

50. 1
49. 9
337,000
100. 0

14. 9
21. 0
21. 0

21. 5

40. 7

33.4

3. 2
18. 3
19. 0
50.2
9. 3

27. 0
13. 6
10. 4
38.3
10. 4

68. 9
16. 3
12. 7
16.9
22. 9

Annual average,

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, January
1965.

her job through circumstances beyond her control, such as slack
work, no more work available, or the firm had moved or gone out of
business. A little more than 1 out of 5 of these girls had left her
job voluntarily for household responsibilities, and another 1 out of
7 had left voluntarily to find a better job.
It is of some interest to examine the types of jobs young people
16 to 21 years old had prior to being unemployed. It appears that
young women and men had been in quite different types of work (table
36). About 2 out of 5 of the girls had been either white-collar workers
or service workers in 1963, and only 1 out of 5 had been a blue-collar
worker. In contrast, more than 3 out of 4 of the boys had been bluecollar workers, only 1 out of 10 had been a service worker, and less
than 1 out of 16 had been a white-collar worker.
"Hidden" unemployment and "under employment—In
addition to
reported unemployment, there is also concealed unemployment at all
ages, but especially among older age groups. Women who are no
longer seeking work are considered outside the labor force statistically
and not counted among the unemployed. Since no account is taken




76

Women as Workers

T a b l e 36.—PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF EXPERIENCED UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE,
BY SEX AND TYPE OF WORK OF L A S T JOB, FEBRUARY 1 9 6 3
(Persons 16 to 21 years of age)

Type of work
Total
White-collar work
Blue-collar work
Service work
Farm work

Girls

Boys

100.0

100.0

39. 8
19. 3
40. 9

5.
76.
9.
8.

7
0
8
4

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 46.

of the many who have given up jobhunting because it seemed hopeless,
unemployment rates of older women may be deceptively low. Of
the almost 400,000 women 45 years of age and over who were unemployed in 1964, about 16 percent had been looking for work for 6
months or longer. Many more thousands may have given up looking.
The "hidden" unemployed among women are probably the least
employable in terms of education, skills, industry attachment, or job
vacancies in their communities. Yet unemployment could bear
particularly hard on them. And it must be remembered that in many
rural and generally depressed areas of this country, job opportunities
may not exist.
There are still other women who have jobs but do not work as many
hours or weeks as they would like. They are the "underemployed"—
those who work part time or part year, but would prefer full-time
year-round steady jobs if they could find them. These, too, are disadvantaged in terms of employment.
Unemployment of white and nonwhite women.—Compared with the
unemployment rates of all women, those of nonwhite women present
special aspects of severity and hardship (chart M ) (table 37). Not
only are the unemployment rates of nonwhite teenagers and women
considerably higher than those of white at each age group, but also
unemployment is typically of longer duration. While the laborforce participation rate of nonwhite teenage girls (23 percent) in
1964 was lower than that of white girls (29 percent), their unemployment rate was more than twice that of white girls—30.6 percent of
nonwhite girls 14 to 19 years old were looking for work compared with
13.2 percent of white girls. The difference was even larger in the age
group 16 and 17 years old—36.5 percent of nonwhite girls and 17.1
percent of white girls were unemployed.




77

Women in the Labor Force
Chart M

UNEMPLOYMENT OF NONWHITE WORKERS
EXCEEDS THAT OF WHITE WORKERS
(UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF WORKERS, BY COLOR AND SEX, 1964)
PERCENT
UNEMPLOYED

11
5—

5.5
4.2

NONWHITE

WHITE

WOMEN

MEN

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, B u r e a u of t a b o r Statistics.

For nonwhite girls in the age group 16 to 21 years who had dropped
out before completing high school (55 percent in February 1963),
unemployment was severe.31 (Unemployment rates by educational
attainment are discussed in chapter 4.) The unemployment rate in
February 1963 was 26.7 percent. This is understandable because high
school dropouts are least qualified for the jobs of today's complex
society. Less easily explained is the fact that nonwhite girls who were
high school graduates had an even higher unemployment rate—35.6
percent. It is assumed that this unusually high rate is the result of the
difficulty these girls have in obtaining the white-collar jobs to which
they aspire and for which they may have been trained in high school
commercial courses.
Unemployment by occupation.—A look at women's unemployment rates by principal occupation as shown in the 1960 Census of
Population reveals the wide range among different types of jobs
(table 38).
a Special Labor Force Report No. 46.
Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of

T a b l e 3 7 . — U N E M P L O Y M E N T R A T E S , BY S E X , COLOR, AND A G E ,

1959-64

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

1964
Sex and age

White

1963

Nonwhite

White

1962

Nonwhite

White

1961

Nonwhite

White

1960

Nonwhite

White

1959

Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

Women.. _ _ .
14 to 19 years, __ _ __
14 to 17 years
.
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years
35 to 44 years
45 to 54 years _ _ _ _
55 to 64 years
65 years and over

5
13.
13.
13.
7,
5.
4.
3.
3.
3.

5
2
2
2
1
2
5
6
5
4

10.
30.
32.
29.
18.
11.
7.
6.
3.
2.

8
6
5
2
3
2
8
1
8
2

5.
13.
14.
13.
7.
5.
4.
3.
3.
3.

8
6
1
2
4
8
6
9
5
0

11.
33.
34.
31.
18.
11.
8.
6.
4.
3.

3
1
4
9
7
7
2
1
8
6

5.
11.
11.
11.
7.
5.
4.
3.
3.
4.

5
5
7
3
7
4
5
7
4
0

11.
28.
24.
31.
18.
11.
8.
7.
3.
3.

1
2
1
2
2
5
9
1
6
7

6.
13.
13.
13.
8.
6.
5.
4.
4.
3.

5
5
3
6
4
6
6
8
3
7

11.
26.
24.
28.
19.
11.
10.
7.
6.
6.

9
6
5
2
5
1
7
4
3
5

5.
11.
12.
11.
7.
5.
4.
4.
3.
2.

3
9
2
5
2
7
2
0
3
8

9.
22.
20.
24.
15.
9.
8.
5.
4.
4.

5
7
7
5
3
1
6
7
3
1

5-. 3
10. 6
10. 5
11. 1
6. 7
5. 0
4. 7
4. 0
4. 0
3. 4

9.
24.
20.
29.
14.
9.
7.
6.
5.
2.

5
9
0
9
9
7
6
1
0
3

Men
_
14 to 19 years __
14 to 17 years _
.
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years
_ _
35 to 44 years
45 to 54 years
55 to 64 years
_ _
65 years and over

4.
13.
13.
13.
7.
3.
2.
2.
3.
3.

2
4
4
4
4
0
5
9
5
6

9.
23.
23.
23.
12.
7.
6.
5.
8.
8.

1
3
3
1
6
7
2
9
1
3

4.
14.
14.
14.
7.
3.
2.
3.
4.
4.

7
2
3
2
8
9
9
3
0
1

10.
25.
23.
27.
15.
9.
8.
7.
7.
10.

6
4
1
4
5
5
0
1
4
1

4.
12.
12.
12.
8.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.

6
3
1
7
0
8
1
5
1
1

11.
20.
19.
21.
14.
10.
8.
8.
9.
11.

0
7
9
8
6
5
6
3
6
9

5.
14.
13.
15.
10.
4.
4.
4.
5.
5.

7
1
3
1
0
9
0
4
3
2

12.
24.
25.
23.
15.
12.
10.
10.
10.
9.

9
7
4
9
3
9
7
2
5
4

4.
12.
12.
13.
8.
4.
3.
3.
4.
4.

8
9
5
5
3
1
3
6
1
0

10.
22.
19.
25.
13.
10.
8.
8.
9.
6.

7
0
3
1
1
7
2
5
5
3

4.
12.
12.
13.
7.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.

6
5
2
0
5
8
2
7
2
5

11.
22.
18.
27.
16.
12.
8.
7.
8.
8.

5
8
8
2
3
3
9
9
7
4

Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources, Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor."
1965. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Reports Nos. 52, 43, 31, 23,14, and 4.




March

Women in the Labor Force

79

The highest unemployment rates (9 to 13 percent) were those of
assemblers in factories, packers and wrappers, operatives in electrical
machinery manufacturing, and checkers and examiners in manufacturing. In contrast, there was almost no unemployment (less than
1 percent) among elementary and secondary school teachers and
very little (less than 2 percent) among secretaries, professional nurses,
and hairdressers and cosmetologists. Unemployment rates of women
in other principal occupations fell between these extremes. Kates
were about 5 percent for saleswomen and private-household workers
(n.e.c.) (occupations in which more than a million women were employed in 1960) and 8 percent for waitresses (of whom 715,000 were
employed in 1960).
T a b l e 38.—UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF WOMEN, BY PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION,
(Women 14 years of age and over)

1900

Employed women

Occupation

Total

1

...

Secretaries
Saleswomen (retail trade)
_
Private-household workers (n.e.c.)
Teachers (elementary school)
_
Bookkeepers
_ _ _ _
Waitresses
_ _ _ _
Nurses (professional). __
Sewers and stitchers (mfg.)
_
Typists
__
Cashiers
_
Cooks (except private-household)
Telephone operators. _ _ _
_
Babysitters. _ _
. . .
Attendants (hospitals and other institutions) _
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives. _
Assemblers. _ _ _
Operatives (apparel and accessories) _ _
Hairdressers and cosmetologists
Packers and wrappers (n.e.c.)
Stenographers..
_ _ _ _ _
Teachers (secondary school) _ _
Office machine operators
_ _
Checkers, examiners, and inspectors
(mfg.)
See footnotes at end of table.
779—555 0 — 6 6 i — — 7




Number

As percent of
total
employed

21,172, 301

Unemployment
rate 2

5.1
97
54
96
86
84
87
98
94
95
78
64
96
98

1.9
5. 1
5.3
.7
2.5
8.0
1.6
7.8
3.9
4.9
5. 1
4.0
6.5

268
396
769
619
050
935
554
452
849

74
72
44
75
89
60
96
47
74

4.2
6.4
12.9
8.1
1.7
12.4
2.1
.6
3.6

215, 066

45

9.1

1, 423, 352
1, 397, 364
1, 162, 683
860, 413
764, 054
714, 827
567, 884
534, 258
496, 735
367, 954
361, 772
341, 797
319, 735
288,
277,
270,
270,
267,
262,
258,
243,
227,

80

W o m e n as W o r k e r s

Table 38.—UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF WOMEN, BY PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION, 1960—
Continued
(Women 14 years of age and over)
Employed women

Occupation1

Number

Practical nurses._
_
__ _
Kitchen workers (n.e.c.) (except private-household)
Chambermaids and maids (except private-household) __ _
_ _ _ _
Housekeepers (private-household)
Operatives (electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies)
_
Receptionists
Charwomen and cleaners _
Housekeepers and stewardesses (except
private-household)
Dressmakers and seamstresses (except
factory).
Counter and fountain workers
File clerks _
Musicians and music teachers
Operatives (yarn, thread, and fabric
mills)
1
2

percent of
total
employed

Unemployment
rate2

197, 115

96

5.0

179, 796

59

8. 1

162, 433
143, 290

98
99

8.0
3.8

138, 001
131, 142
122,728

48
98
68

9.8
4. 1
5.6

117, 693

81

3.4

115,
112,
112,
109,

252
547
323
638

97
71
86
57

3.6
5.5
5.5
1.4

103, 399

44

8.4

Individual occupations in which 100,000 or more women were employed in 1960.
Experienced civilian labor force.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: " U . S . Census of Population: 1960.
Detailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary, P C ( 1 ) — I D . "
1963.

4 7 . Women

as Members

of

Unions

An estimated 3,413,016 32 women were members of national and
international labor unions in the United States in 1964, according
to a survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This was an increase of about 141,010 since 1962. Almost 1 out of 5 union members in
1964 was a woman.
About 1 out of 8 women in the Nation's labor force, but more than
1 out of 4 men workers, belonged to a union. The relatively low proportion of women who are union members reflects to some extent the
nature of women's employment and the industries in which they work.
Women who expect to remain in the labor force only a few years or
who are part-time or part-year workers may feel less inclined to join
a union than do men who expect to work during most of their lives.
38

M a y include a f e w members living outside the United States.




Women in the Labor Force

81

Moreover, the largest number of women in the labor force are clerical
and service workers and thus are in industries in which union organization is less extensive than among the blue-collar workers of manufacturing industries.
Among 189 unions participating in the 1964 survey, 142 indicated
that they had women members (table 39). The highest membership
figures for women were reported by unions which have collective bargaining contracts in industries that normally employ large numbers of
women. About 19 percent of all women members, for example, were
in two unions in the apparel industry (International Ladies' Garment
Workers and Amalgamated Clothing Workers). Other unions that
reported a sizable female membership were the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, the Hotel & Restaurant Employees, and
the Retail Clerks.
In addition, there were relatively large numbers of women members
in several big industrial and transportation unions, although women
represented only a small portion of their total membership. This
group of unions included automobile and machinery manufacturing.
There are no unions exclusively for women. In 5 unions women
constituted at least 80 percent of the membership, and their combined total in these unions amounted to 402,000. In 101 unions
women's membership ranged from none to less than 10 percent. On
the other hand, women formed at least one-half of the membership in
26 unions, which in turn accounted for more than two-fifths of women's
union membership.
In terms of affiliation, it is estimated that 89 percent of the women
members belonged to the A F L - C I O and 11 percent belonged to unaffiliated unions.




82

Women as Workers
Table 39.—WOMEN MEMBEKS IN LABOR UNIONS, 1 1964

Approximate
number of

American Federation of Labor and Congress
of Industrial Organizations:
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
Retail Clerks International Association
Hotel & Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International
Union
Communications Workers of America
International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
Building Service Employees' International Union
International Union of Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
Textile Workers Union of America
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union
American Federation of Teachers
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express and Station Employes
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North
America
Office Employes International Union
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders
United Federation of Postal Clerks
American Federation of Government Employees
United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America
United Packinghouse, Food and Allied Workers
United Shoe Workers of America
American Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International Union
International Leather Goods, Plastic and Novelty Workers' Union
Unaffiliated:
Alliance of Independent Telephone Unions
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America
1
2

353,
282,
241,
213,

854
750
800
778

200, 061
161, 645
151, 849
96, 000
90,190
80, 807
70, 800
66, 800
60, 000
48, 600
44,378
42, 250
36, 234
34, 750
34, 661
32, 932
30, 595
28, 050
27, 964
27, 750
50, 425
41, 250
(2)

Unions reporting 2 5 , 0 0 0 or more women workers.
D a t a not reported, but number of women believed to be significant.

S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics : "Directory of National
and International Labor Unions in the United States, 1 9 6 5 . "




Women in the Labor Force

83

Womanpower Reserve
Women 14 years of age and over not in the labor force make up a
womanpower reserve—a potential source of additional workers who
might be needed in an expanding economy or in time of national
emergency. Some of these are highly educated, and many have received on-the-job training during previous work experience.
Women not in the labor force numbered 36.4 million in 1963 and
were over three-fourths of all persons who did not work or look for
work in that year.33 A majority (73 percent) of women not in the
labor force in 1963 gave home responsibilities as their reason for not
working. Other reasons given by such women were going to school
(14 percent) and illness or disability (6 percent). Less than 2 percent
did not work in 1963 because of inability to find work.
The number of women who did not work in 1963 and the reasons
they gave for not working were as follows:
Women not in the labor force
Number

Total
Household responsibilities
Attending school
Illness
Could not find work
All other reasons

Percent

36, 430, 000

100. 0

26, 427, 000
5, 205, 000
2, 156,000
552, 000
2, 090, 000

72. 5
14. 3
5. 9
1. 5
5. 7

Of the 36.4 million women who did not work in 1963, 22.8 million, or
63 percent, were 20 to 64 years of age. Their main reason for not
working was home responsibilities. In contrast, 89 percent of the
5.6 million teenage girls who did not work gave going to school as
their reason for not working, while 14 percent of the 8.1 million
women 65 years of age and over without work experience indicated
illness or disability as the reason for not working.
A more practical estimate of the supply of women actually available
for increasing the Nation's work force would exclude teenagers and
young adults who are attending school, mothers of young children,
and elderly women who may not be able to work because of illness or
disability. Even if these groups are excluded, the number of women
in the labor reserve exceeds that of men—making women the largest
single source for labor force expansion.
3 3 Special L a b o r F o r c e R e p o r t N o . 4 8 .
Labor.




B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics, U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of




2
WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES
Principal Occupations of Women
The considerable rise in women's employment in recent years has
been accompanied by an increase in the number and variety of women's
occupational opportunities. Although women are still concentrated
in relatively few occupations, the number in new fields of employment is expanding. In fact, women were reported in all of the 479
individual occupations listed in the 1960 decennial census. To many
women some of these occupations would not be attractive or suitable.
Nevertheless, women were found working as blasters and powdermen,
boilermakers, longshoremen and stevedores, roofers and slaters, and
locomotive firemen and engineers, to name just a few.
Occupations of persons in the labor force may be classified according to the type of work performed or by broad occupational categories.
Both are significant in any discussion of the current employment of
women and the shifts in women's working patterns.
42. Type of

Work

The wide disparity between the concentration of women and men
workers by type of work has contributed to the difference in their
earnings, in the rate of growth of their employment, and in the relative number working part time or part year. Of the 24.6 million
women employed in April 1965, 14.1 million, or almost three-fifths,
were employed in white-collar jobs (table 40). Another one-fourth
were in service work. Of the remainder, 4.1 million were blue-collar
workers, and about 675,000 were farm workers. In contrast, almost
one-half of the men were employed in blue-collar work, and two-fifths
were in white-collar jobs. The remainder were about equally divided
between farm work and service work.
The fact that 24 percent of the women and only 7 percent of the
men were employed in service work means that women are concen-




85

86

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

trated in the low-paying jobs typical of this type of work. In recent
decades employment has risen at a more rapid rate in white-collar and
service work than in any other type of work. Since 81 percent of
all women work in these types of jobs, women's employment has increased faster than men's. The employment of a relatively large
segment of all women workers in service work and in certain kinds
of white-collar work—jobs that are often part time or part year—
accounts to some extent for the fact that women are more likely than
men are to work less than a full week or less than a full year.
Table

4 0 . — E M P L O Y M E N T , B Y S E X A N D T Y P E OF W O R K , 1 9 4 0 , 1 9 5 0 , A N D 1 9 6 5

1

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Number (in thousands)

Women
White-collarwork

Blue-collar work
Service work
Farm work
Men

1965

1950

1940

1965

1950

24, 648

Sex and type of work

Percent distribution

17,176

11, 9 2 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1940

14,066

8,858

5,380

57.1

51.6

45.1

4, 0 5 3

3,464

2, 4 0 0

16.4

20.2

20.1

5,854

3,939

3,450

23.8

22.9

28.9

2.7

5.3

5.8

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

674
46, 422

916
41, 492

690
34, 180

White-collarwork

18,022

13,522

9,710

38.8

32.6

28.4

Blue-collar work
Service work
Farm work

21, 730

19, 108

14, 390

46. 8

46. 1

42. 1

3,208

2,757

2, 1 6 0

6.9

6.6

6.3

3,463

6,104

7,920

7.5

14.7

23.2

i Data are for April of each year.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census.

Changes in women! s employment since 19Jfi.—The proportion
of all women workers engaged in white-collar work was larger in 1965
than in 1940—reaching more than one-half by 1950. On the other hand,
the proportion engaged in blue-collar work declined from 20 to 16 percent ; in service work, from 29 to 24 percent. And the proportion who
were farm workers wTas cut in half. Among men, the biggest changes
were an increase in the proportion engaged in white-collar work and a
tremendous drop in both the number and the proportion employed as
farm workers.
43. Ma\or

Occupational

Groups

The occupations of persons in the labor force are divided into 11
broad categories in monthly employment figures collected by the Bu-




87

Women in the Labor Force

reau of the Census and published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
More women (32 percent) were employed in clerical work in
April 1965 than in any other major occupational group (table 41).
The next largest group was service workers (except private-household), followed by operatives. Professional workers were the fourth
largest group, with private-household, sales, and managerial workers
following in that order. The remaining group (about 4 percent)
included farm workers, craftsmen, and nonfarm laborers.
Table

41.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL
EMPLOYED

GROUPS

AND

SELECTED

WOMEN, APRIL

OCCUPATIONS

OF

1965

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Major occupational group or selected
occupation

Total
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Medical, other health workers
Teachers (except college) __
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm) _
Clerical, kindred workers. _ _
__
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Sales workers _ _ _
__
Retail trade
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers _
Durable goods manufacturing
_ _
Nondurable goods manufacturing
_
Laborers (except farm, mine)
__
Private-household workers. _
Service workers (except private-household) _ _
Waitresses, cooks, bartenders __
Farmers, farm managers
Farm laborers, foremen. _ __ _
Paid workers
Unpaid family workers
1

Number
(in
thousands)

Percent
distribution

As percent
of total
employed

24, 648

100.0

34.7

3, 3 2 3

13.5

37.4

1

933
1,381

3. 8

61.0

5.6

69.2

1, 1 0 6

69.9

11.2

98.2

1, 8 8 1

7.6

40.6

6.7

57.8

281
1

14.8

31.5

1,659

1

4.5

7, 7 5 6
2, 7 4 9

1

1.1

3.2

3, 6 5 6

14.8

27.7

980

23.0

7.7

51.9

116

.5

3.2

2, 0 2 5
1

4.0

1,896

8.2

97.5

3, 8 2 9

15.5

54.8

1,385

5.6

72.2

140

.6

6.0

534

2.2

29.5

124

.5

11. 8

410

1. 7

53. 9

Includes women in occupations not shown separately in this category.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, May 1965.

Women's employment has expanded in nearly all of the major
occupational groups since 1940. The greatest growth has been in
the number of women clerical workers—from 2.5 million in 1940 to




88

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

7.8 million in 1985, a threefold increase (table 42). The rising demand for clerical workers has resulted from the remarkable expansion of business and industry, the development of all types of services
to the community, and the burgeoning activity of government at all
levels—local, State, and Federal. The clerical workers of 1965, however, differ in many respects from the clerical workers of 1940. The
application of technological developments to many clerical jobs has
raised the level of skill required and the educational training needed.
Opportunities for unskilled workers have narrowed, and there is an
increasing demand for workers with the broad education and training
that allow for flexibility.
Outstanding expansion has likewise occurred among women service
workers (except private-household). Sixteen percent of all women
workers are now engaged in a service occupation as compared with
13 percent in 1950 and 11 percent in 1940. There have been many
reasons for the tremendous growth in women's employment in service occupations. Included among these are the increase in the population, especially among older people who require more medical care
and other services, and the building of many new restaurants, hotels,
and motels with the accompanying need for maids, waitresses, cooks,
kitchen workers, and other service personnel.
About 3.7 million women worked as operatives, and 3.3 million
as professional and technical workers in April 1965. But the rate
of growth, especially since 1950, in these two major occupational
groups varied widely. The increase of 1.5 million among professional women over the 15-year period illustrates the rising demand
for workers with higher educational achievement or specialized skills.
On the other hand, the addition of only 440,000 among women operatives demonstrates the dwindling demand for workers with less skill
and little formal training, as recent technological developments permit increased production of goods without a commensurate rise in
employment.
The relative importance of four other major occupational groups
has declined since 1940. Although the number of women employed
as private-household workers increased between 1950 and 1965 after
dropping between 1940 and 1950, they represented only 8 percent of
all women workers in 1965 as compared with 18 percent in 1940. The
number of women employed in two other major occupational groups—
farmers and farm managers and farm laborers and foremen—actually
decreased between 1940 and 1965.
Occupational differences between women and men.—The major
occupational groups in which women are concentrated differ from




f
3
Table

42.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

GROUPS

OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN,

1940,

AND

1950,

1965

1

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Major occupational group

1965

1950

As percent of total
employed

Percent
distribution

Number
(in thousands)
1940

1965

1950

1940

1965

1950

Q
cr

o

1940
o

Total
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Private-household workers
Service workers (except private-household)
Farmers, farm managers
Farm laborers, foremen

24,648
3,
1,
7,
1,

323
106
756
881
281
3, 656
116
2, 025
3, 829
140
534

17,176
1,862
941
4, 539
1,516
181
3,215
68
1,771
2, 168
2531
663 J

11,920

100.0

100.0

100.0

34.7

29.3

25.9

1,570
450
2, 530
830
110
2, 190
100
2, 100
1,350

13.5
4.5
31.5
7.6
1. 1
14.8
.5
8.2
15. 1
.6
2.2

10.8
5.5
26.4
8.8
1. 1
18.7
.4
10.3
12.6
1.5
3.9

13.2
3.8
21.2
7.0
.9
18. 4
.8
17.6
11.3

37.4
14.8
69.9
40.6
3.2
27.7
3.2
97.5
54.8
6.0
29.5

41.8
14.8
59.3
39.0
2.4
26.9
2.2
92. 1
45.4
5.5
27.4

45.4
11.7
52.6
27.9
2.1
25.7
3.2
93.8
40. 1

!

690

2

5.8

2

8.0

Data are for April of each year.
2 Not reported separately prior to 1950.

1

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




oo
O

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

90
Chart K

7 OUT OF 10 CLERICAL WORKERS ARE WOMEN
(MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS OF EMPLOYED WOMEN AND MEN, APRIL 1965]
WOMEN
MILLIONS OF WORKERS
MEN

10
l — i

8
r

i

6
i

i

WORKERS
H B ^ H
SERVICE WORKERS
(except private-household)

4
i
^

2
i

i

i

0

i

2
i

i

4
i

H ^ ^ H
H H B B
• • • • ^ • M

W//////M
W/////M

i

i

6
i

i

8
i

i

10
i

Y/mmwm

H
^

OPERATIVES
PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
WORKERS

^

H

H

PRIVATE-HOUSEHOLD WORKERS

W////M

SALES WORKERS
MANAGERS, OFFICIALS, PROPRIETORS
(except farm)

• •

FARM LABORERS. FOREMEN
CRAFTSMEN, FOREMEN
FARMERS, FARM MANAGERS

W///A

LABORERS (except farm, mine)

Source. U . S Department of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

those of men (chart N ) . In contrast to the predominance of clerical
workers among women, almost 40 percent of all men workers were
about evenly divided between craftsmen and operatives in April
1965. In addition, a larger proportion of all men workers than of
women were employed as nonfarm managers, nonfarm laborers, and
farm workers. On the other hand, a relatively larger proportion of
women than of men had jobs in sales work, private-household work, and
service work outside the home.
44. Proportion

of Workers

Who

Are

Women

The diversity in the employment of men and women is again illustrated by the varying proportions women are of all workers in the
different major occupational groups. As might be expected, women
accounted for nearly all private-household workers in 1965 (table
41). They also predominated among clerical workers—holding 70
percent of these jobs. In only one other major occupational group—
service workers (except private-household)—did women make up
more than half of all workers. However, the proportions that women




Women in the Labor Force

91

were of all professional and technical workers (37 percent) and sales
workers (41 percent) exceeded the average for all occupations (35
percent). At the other end of the scale, women held relatively few of
the jobs as craftsmen, nonfarm laborers, and farmers and farm
managers.
The rise in women's representation among all workers from 26 percent in 1940 to 35 percent in 1965 was not spread equally among the
major occupational groups. A large gain occurred among clerical
workers—from 53 to 70 percent. Above-average advances were also
found in the proportion that women were of all service workers (except private-household) and sales workers. On the other hand, there
was a significant decline in the proportion that women were of all
professional and technical workers from 45 percent in 1940 and 42
percent in 1950 to 37 percent in 1965. Although the number of women
employed in professional and technical occupations rose sharply over
the 25-year period, men moved into these occupations at a much
more rapid pace, and as a result women's representation among all
workers dropped. After World War I I and the Korean conflict,
many men were able to attend institutions of higher learning under
the veterans' benefit programs and thus qualified for professional
openings. Moreover, many of the new professional positions were in
science and engineering—fields in which women constitute only a small
minority.

Detailed Occupations of Women
The principal source of information on the detailed occupations
of employed persons is the decennial census. The latest census showed
that in 1960, as in previous census years, women were concentrated in
a relatively small number of occupations. Nearly one-fourth of all
employed women were secretaries, saleswomen in retail trade, privatehousehold workers (n.e.c.), and teachers in elementary schools.
In each of the top three of these occupations more than a million
women were employed. About one-third of all working women were
in seven occupations—the four listed previously and bookkeeper,
waitress, and professional nurse. In fact, nearly two-thirds of the
21.2 million women employed in 1960 were in 36 individual occupations, each of which engaged 100,000 or more women (table 43).
About two-fifths of these occupations were white collar, one-fourth
were manual, and the remainder were service. The list includes four
professional occupations—teacher in elementary schools, teacher in
secondary schools, professional nurse, and musician and music teacher.




Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

92
Table

4 3 . — D E T A I L E D O C C U P A T I O N S IN W H I C H
WOMEN W E R E EMPLOYED,

100,000

OR

MORE

1960

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Occupation
Secretaries
Saleswomen (retail trade)
Private-household workers (n.e.c.)
Teachers (elementary school)
Bookkeepers
Waitresses
Nurses (professional)
Sewers and stitchers (mfg.)
Typists
Cashiers
Cooks (except private-household)
Telephone operators
Babysitters
Attendants (hospitals and other institutions)
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives
Assemblers
Operatives (apparel and accessories)
Hairdressers and cosmetologists
Packers and wrappers (n.e.c.)
Stenographers
Teachers (secondary school)
Office machine operators
Checkers, examiners, and inspectors (mfg.)
Practical nurses
Kitchen workers (n.e.c.) (except private-household)._
Chambermaids and maids (except private-household)
Housekeepers (private-household)
Operatives (electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies)
Receptionists
Charwomen and cleaners
Housekeepers and stewardesses (except privatehousehold)
Dressmakers and seamstresses (except factory)
Counter and fountain workers
File clerks
Musicians and music teachers
Operatives (yarn, thread, and fabric mills)

Number

As percent of
total employed

1, 423, 352
1, 397, 364
1, 162, 683
860,413
764,054
714,827
567,884
534,258
496,735
367,954
361,772
341,797
319,735
288,268
277, 396
270,769
270,619
267,050
262, 935
258,554
243,452
227,849
215, 066
197, 115
179,796

97
54
96
86
84
87
98
94
95
78
64
96
98
74
72
44
75
89
60
96
47
74
45
96
59

162,433
143,290

98
99

138,001
131, 142
122,728

48
98
68

117,693
115,252
112,547
112,323
109,638
103, 399

81
97
71
86
57
44

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: " U . S . Census of Population: 1960.
Detailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary, P C ( 1 ) — I D . " 1963.




93

Women in the Labor Force

The number of occupations in which 100,000 or more women were
employed had increased since 1950, when there were only 29. The
seven occupations added during the decade were babysitter, charwoman and cleaner, counter and fountain worker, file clerk, housekeeper and stewardess (except private-household), musician and music
teacher, and receptionist. Nearly all of these jobs were for clerical
workers or for service workers (except private-household)—the two
major occupational groups in which the number of employed women
had increased the most since 1950.
Another measure of the major occupations of women is an examination of those in which women were three-fourths or more of all
workers. In more than half of the 36 occupations in which 100,000
or more women were employed, at least 3 out of 4 workers were women;
in at least one-third, 9 out of 10 were women. Table 44 shows the
detailed occupations in which 75 percent or more of all workers were
women in 1960.
45. Women

in Professional

Occupations

There were 3.3 million women—1 out of 7 employed women—in
professional and technical occupations in April 1965. About 1.5 million more women were engaged in professional or technical work in
1965 than in 1950, and almost 1.8 million more than in 1940. The
sharp rise in the number of women professional workers, especially
since 1950, may be attributed to a variety of social and economic
developments of the period. The tremendous need for better educated workers, as well as the sizable increase in the population, stimulated the expansion of educational systems and facilities. The continuing concern for the health of all, and especially of older people
as the lifespan increases, resulted in enlarged medical facilities and expanded health programs. The growth of business and industrial
firms and of government operations increased the need for accountants and personnel workers. The large increase in the number of
young people in the population and a growing awareness of their
special needs brought about an expansion in services, both public
and private, to youth.
Teaching continues to be the most popular profession among women.
The 1,381,000 women teachers (except college) in April 1965 equaled
42 percent of all professional women, according to the monthly report
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This number of women teachers
(considerably above the 768,000 recorded in the 1940 census and
the 839,000 in 1950) gives some indication of the rapid expansion of
of our educational systems. Seven out of 10 of the women teachers




94
Table

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries
4 4 . — O C C U P A T I O N S IN W H I C H W O M E N W E R E THREE-FOURTHS OR M O R E OF
TOTAL

EMPLOYED, 1 9 6 0

Occupations with 100,000 or more women

Occupations with less than 100,000 women

WOMEN WERE 90 PERCENT OR MORE OF TOTAL

Housekeepers (private-household)
Nurses (professional)
Receptionists
Babysitters
Chambermaids and maids (except
private-household)
Secretaries
Dressmakers and seamstresses (except
factory)
Private-household workers (n.e.c.)
Telephone operators
Stenographers
Practical nurses
Typists
Sewers and stitchers (mfg.)

WOMEN WERE 80 TO 89 PERCENT OF TOTAL

Hairdressers and cosmetologists
Waitresses
Teachers (elementary school)
File clerks
Bookkeepers
Housekeepers and stewardesses (except
private-household)

EMPLOYED

Nurses (student)
Laundresses (private-household)
Attendants (physicians' and dentists'
offices)
Dietitians and nutritionists
Demonstrators
Milliners

EMPLOYED

Boarding and lodging house keepers
Librarians

WOMEN WERE 75 TO 79 PERCENT OF TOTAL EMPLOYED

Cashiers
Operatives (apparel and accessories)

Spinners (textile)
Dancers and dancing teachers
Attendants and assistants (library)
Operatives (knitting mills)
Midwives

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: "U.S. Census of Population: 1960.
tailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary, PC(1)—ID." 1963.

De-

employed at the time of the 1960 census were in elementary education;
2 out of 10 taught in secondary schools.
The number of women teaching in junior high and high schools
has not increased as rapidly as has the number of men. There has
been a concerted and fairly successful effort to attract more men
into this profession. As a result, women were less than half of all
secondary school teachers in 1960, after being in the majority in 1950.
Some characteristics of public school teachers in March 1963 were
obtained in a special survey made by the National Education Asso-




95

Women in the Labor Force

ciation.1 Although men were in the majority in secondary schools,
about two-thirds of all teachers were women. Two-thirds of the women
teachers were married, about one-tenth were widowed or divorced,
and the rest were single. The average age of women teachers was
41.9 years. In fact, only 42 percent were under 40 years of age.
Women teachers, on the whole, were somewhat older and had less education than their male counterparts. Fifteen percent of all women
teachers, but only 3 percent of the men, held less than a bachelor's
degree. At the other end of the scale, only 19 percent of the women
teachers, compared with 37 percent of the men, had obtained a master's
or other advanced degree. About half of all the teachers in the sample
had taught less than 10 years.
Another large group of professional women are employed as medical and other health workers (the only other category of professional
workers for whom employment figures are reported regularly by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics). In April 1965 they numbered 933,000
and were over one-fourth of all women professional workers. The
largest single occupation in this group is that of professional nurse:
a total of 567,884 women were employed as professional nurses at the
time of the 1960 decennial census. Another important occupation in
this group is medical or dental technician. More than 86,000 women
worked as technicians in laboratories, hospitals, clinics, and physicians'
or dentists' offices in 1960—twice as many as in 1950. Other women
medical and health workers employed in 1960 were student nurses
(56,540), dietitians and nutritionists (24,237), therapists (19,752),
and physicians and surgeons (15,513).
Women also hold a wide variety of professional jobs outside the
teaching and health fields. In 1960 relatively large numbers of women
were musicians and music teachers, accountants and auditors, social
and welfare workers, librarians, and editors and reporters. Moreover,
the growing diversity of women's employment in professional positions is illustrated by the fact that in at least five additional occupations the number of employed women doubled or more than doubled
between 1950 and 1960: mathematician, personnel and labor relations
worker, public relations worker and publicity writer, recreation and
group worker, and sports instructor and official. On the other hand,
women hold only a small proportion of the positions as engineers,
technicians (other than medical and dental), and scientists, despite
the numerous job openings created by the tremendous interest in
research and development.
1 "Characteristics
of Public-School Teachers."
National Education Association. December 1963.

7179-5? 3 O — 6 6 — — 8




Research

Bulletin,

Vol.

41,

No.

4.

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

96

46. Women

Proprietors, Officials,

Managers

More than 1 million women were employed as proprietors, managers,
and officials (except farm) in April 1965. This group of women workers had more than doubled in number since 1940, with most of the
increase occurring prior to 1950. However, this is a relatively small
occupational group for women; they are still outnumbered by men
7 to 1.
Three-fifths of the women employed in this major occupational
group in 1965 were salaried workers. (In contrast, at the time of the
1950 census only about half of the women managers or proprietors
were salaried workers.) Many small individually owned enterprises
have been replaced in recent years by supermarkets, large discount
houses, and branch operations of large companies, thus limiting opportunities for the individual proprietor.
At the time of the 1960 census about two-thirds of the self-employed
women were proprietors in retail trade, operating mainly eating and
drinking places, food and dairy product stores, and apparel and accessories stores. Another large group operated establishments offering
personal services. Many of the salaried managers were likewise in
retail trade and personal services; others worked as buyers and department heads in stores, officials in public administration, managers
and superintendents in buildings, and postmasters. The employment
of both women and men managers and proprietors has been expanding
rapidly in the fields of banking and other finance, insurance and real
estate, and business services.
47. Women

in Clerical

Occupations

Of the nearly 7.8 million women employed in April 1965 as clerical
and kindred workers—the largest occupational group for women—
2,749,000, or over one-third, were stenographers, typists, or secretaries.
(This was considerably above the number employed in these occupations at the time of the 1960 census (2,179,000) and the 1950 census
(1,508,000).) The growth of business and industry, of all kinds of
services, and of government operations has brought a rising demand
for workers in these occupations to handle correspondence, interoffice
communications, and other forms of paperwork. On the other hand,
the number of women employed to handle communications other than
by mail remained almost unchanged between 1950 and 1960. Thus
there were about 342,000 women telephone operators at the time of
both the 1950 and 1960 censuses, although the number almost doubled
between 1940 and 1950. The installation of automatic dialing equip-




97

Women in the Labor Force

ment permitted the telephone industry to expand its services without
increasing the number of operators.2
Another large group of women clerical workers are bookkeepers.
The number of women bookkeepers increased by over 200,000 between
1950 and 1960—to a total of 764,000, according to the 1960 census.
These additional bookkeepers were employed mainly in retail trade,
professional and related services, and finance, insurance, and real
estate. The rapid expansion of these industries also brought about
increases in women's employment as cashiers, bank tellers, bill and
account collectors, and insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators. The rise in women's employment as bank tellers was particularly striking—a better than threefold increase between 1950 and
1960. In fact, women's employment in this occupation increased more
rapidly than did men's; and as a result 7 out of 10 bank tellers in
1960 were women compared with less than 5 out of 10 in 1950. Other
clerical occupations in which women's employment doubled or more
than doubled between 1950 and 1960 wTere library attendant and assistant, payroll and timekeeping clerk, receptionist, stock clerk and
storekeeper, and ticket, station, and express agent.3
48. Women

in Service

Occupations

The second largest group of employed women (3.8 million) in April
1965 were service workers (except private-household). More than
1 out of 3 of these were waitresses, cooks, and bartenders. (The 1.4
million women working in these occupations in 1965 exceeded the 1.1
million similarly employed at the time of the 1960 census and the
800,000 in 1950. Of the women in these occupations in 1960, about
2 out of 3 were waitresses.) Many more workers have been needed to
prepare and serve food in new and expanding restaurants and other
eating and drinking places as personal incomes rise and as more
women work outside the home. Most of these jobs have been filled
by women, since employment is often part time or part year. If
kitchen workers (180,000) and counter or fountain workers (113,000)
are added to waitresses, cooks, and bartenders (1,096,000), about half
of all women service workers in 1960 were employed in occupations
associated with the preparation and serving of food.
Two other large groups of women service workers at the time of
the 1960 census were in the health field—attendants in hospitals and
2 For further information on women in the telephone industry, see " W o m e n Telephone
Workers and Changing Technology."
Bull. 286. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of
Labor.
1963.
3 For further information on clerical occupations, see "Clerical Occupations for W o m e n —
Today and Tomorrow." Bull. 289. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. 1964.




98

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

other institutions (288,268) and practical nurses (197,115). The
construction and expansion of hospitals, nursing homes, mental institutions, and other health facilities brought an increasing demand for workers in these occupations. Here again, most of the new
openings have been filled by women. As a result, the number of
attendants in hospitals and other institutions had more than doubled
since 1950, and the number of women practical nurses increased by
one-half.
One service occupation in which the rise in the employment of
women has been outstanding, even though the numbers are small, is
that of crossing watchman and bridgetender. Although most protective service workers are men, women's employment in this occupation increased from 5 percent of all workers in 1950 to 46 percent in
1960 (a numerical increase from 458 to 11,575). In 1960 nearly all
these women were in local public administration. About 9 out of 10
were employed less than 30 hours a week, most of them probably as
school crossing guards before and after school hours and at lunch
time.
In addition, large groups of women workers were employed in personal services as hairdressers and cosmetologists; in housekeeping
services as chambermaids, maids, housekeepers, and stewards; and in
building and custodial services as charwomen, cleaners, janitors, and
sextons.

Occupations by Selected Characteristics
49. Occupations

of Women

by Marital

Status

The occupations of women vary to some extent with their marital
status. More women were employed in clerical work than in any
other major occupational group in March 1964, whether they were
single, married (husband present), or with other marital status
(table 45). But the concentration of women in this occupational
group differs according to their marital status. Thus a larger proportion of all single women (40 percent) than of either married women
(30 percent) or women with other marital status (25 percent) were
clerical workers. There are several reasons for the larger proportion of single women in clerical jobs. Many are under 25 years of
age and completed their education with high school. Thus they often
hold low-paying entry jobs that require little training or experience.
Moreover, many single girls prefer clerical work because it is usually
full time the year round.




99

W o m e n in the L a b o r Force
T a b l e 4 5 . — M A J O R O C C U P A T I O N A L G R O U P S OF E M P L O Y E D W O M E N ,
STATUS, M A R C H

BY

MARITAL

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Marital status

Major occupational group
NumberPercent

_

Professional, technical,
kindred workers _
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers. _
Sales workers. _ _ _ _ _ _
Operatives, kindred workers
Private-household workers.
Service workers (except
private-household)Other 2
1
2

Total

Single

Married
(husband
present)

Other 1

23, 786, 000
100. 0

5, 366, 000
100. 0

13, 626, 000
100. 0

4, 794, 000
100. 0

13. 1

16. 2

13. 3

9. 0

4. 9
31. 2
7. 1

2. 1
39. 6
4. 5

5. 6
30. 2
8. 2

5. 9
24. 6
7. 1

15. 1
9. 6

9. 2
14. 7

17. 3
5. 5

15. 6
15. 5

15. 4
3. 5

11. 1
2. 5

15. 8
4. 1

19. 2
3. 0

Widowed, divorced, or separated or husband absent for other reasons.
Includes craftsmen, farm workers, and laborers.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special I^abor Force Report No. 50.

Another large proportion of the single women (16 percent) were
employed in professional and technical occupations. Unmarried
women who recently have completed college or graduate work often
qualify for these positions more easily than do older married women
workers who lack continuity in job experience. However, more married women are beginning to qualify for and to obtain professional
positions, especially in fields where shortages exist. As a result, in
March 1964, 13 percent of all married women workers were in professional and technical occupations.
Two other major occupational groups—operatives and service workers (except private-household)—each accounted for about one-sixth of
all married women workers. Many operative occupations pay relatively well and at the same time require little or no previous work
experience. Moreover, married women who prefer part-time work
or work conveniently located near their homes often find such opportunities in service occupations.
Among women who were widowed, divorced, or with husband absent, the largest group after clerical workers were in service work




100

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

outside the home (19 percent). Many of these were older women who
did not have the skills and training required in other types of jobs
or who, because of financial need, had to take whatever jobs were
available. In addition, large groups of women with other marital
status were operatives (16 percent) and private-household workers
(16 percent).
Just as married women (husband present) constituted well over
one-half of all women workers in March 1964, they were also well
over one-half of the workers in each of the major occupational groups,
with the exception of private-household workers (table 46). In this
group they were only one-third of the total. Especially high proportions of married women workers were in three occupational groups:
sales workers, operatives, and nonfarm managers, officials, and proprietors. Many married women prefer part-time employment and
thus take jobs as saleswomen; other married women work as salaried
managers, especially in retail outlets, or as self-employed proprietors
in their own or a family business.
Table

46.—MARITAL

S T A T U S OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN,

GROUP,

1964

MARCH

BY

MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Percent distribution by marital status

Major occupational group

Total
Professional, technical,
kindred workers
_
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm) _
Clerical, kindred workers
Sales workers
Operatives, kindred workers. _
Private-household workers
Service workers (except
private-household)
Other 2

Number

Total

Single

Married
(husband
present)

Other i

23, 786, 000

100.0

22.6

57.3

20.2

3, 193, 000

100.0

27.9

58.2

13.8

1, 133, 000
7, 443, 000
1, 669, 000
3, 593, 000
2, 242, 000

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

9.7
28.6
14.2
13.7
34.6

65.8
55.5
65.8
65.5
32.8

24.4
15.9
20.0
20.8
32.6

3, 665, 000
851, 000

100.0
100.0

16.2
16.0

58.7
66.8

25.1
17.2

1 Widowed, divorced, or separated or husband absent for other reasons.
Includes craftsmen, farm workers, and laborers.

2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 50.




101

Women in the Labor Force

50. Occupations

of Nonwhite

Women

4

Of the 26.1 million women in the civilian labor force in April
1965, 3.4 million were nonwhite. They represented 45 percent of all
nonwhite women 14 years of age or over in the population. Of the
nonwhite women in the labor force, 3,078,000 were employed and
307,000 were unemployed. Thus about 1 out of every 10 nonwhite
women in the labor force was looking for work. Moreover, 4 out
of 10 employed nonwhite women worked less than 35 hours a week.
These characteristics of nonwhite women workers are interrelated
with the types of jobs they hold. Whereas 3 out of 5 white women
workers were engaged in white-collar work in April 1965, almost
3 out of 5 nonwhite women were in service work (chart O ) . Since
service work is often intermittent or part time, this tends to influence the nature of nonwhite women's employment. In contrast,
approximately the same proportions of both white and nonwhite
women were employed in blue-collar work or farm work in that month.
* For further information on the occupations of nonwhite women workers, see "Negro
Women Workers in 1 9 6 0 , " Bull. 287. Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. 1963.

Chart 0

A LARGER PROPORTION OF NONWHITE
THAN WHITE WOMEN ARE IN SERVICE WORK
(DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE AND NONWHITE WOMEN WORKERS,
BY TYPE OF WORK, APRIL 1965)
NONWHITE WOMEN WORKERS

WHITE WOMEN WORKERS

3,078,000

21,570,000

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics




M 1

102

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

Nonwhite women constituted about 1 out of 8 women workers in
April 1965. Consequently, they were only a small proportion of
all women workers in most major occupational groups. However,
more than 2 out of 5 private-household workers and 1 out of 5
service workers (except private-household) were nonwhite. In addition, almost 1 out of 3 paid women farm laborers or foremen was
nonwhite.
Nonwhite women are concentrated in certain major occupational
groups as they are in certain types of work. Thus about one-third
of all nonwhite women were employed as private-household workers
in April 1965 (table 47). Another one-fourth were employed as
service workers outside the home. The third largest group of nonwhite women workers was operatives (471,000), followed by clerical
workers (397,000). But nonwhite women's employment was much
more diversified in 1965 than in 1940, when three-fifths of all employed nonwhite women were private-household workers. World War
I I stimulated their entry into many new kinds of jobs—particularly
clerical, sales, professional, and service. As a result, 15 percent of all
nonwhite women were employed in clerical or sales work in 1965
compared with 6 percent in 1950 and 2 percent in 1940. Similarly,
9 percent of the nonwhite women workers in 1965 were in professional
and technical occupations compared with 6 percent in 1950 and 4
percent in 1940.5
51. Occupations

of Young

Women

There were 2.3 million young women 14 to 19 years of age employed
in 1964 (table 48). The largest concentration of those young workers
was in the clerical field (32 percent). Another large group were
employed as private-household workers (27 percent) ; a somewhat
smaller group were service workers outside the home (15 percent). In
only three other major occupational groups—sales workers, operatives,
and farm laborers—were there a considerable number in this age
group.
Detailed information on the occupations of young women workers
was obtained during the 1960 census. The 14- to 19-year-old girls
working in the clerical field were principally secretaries, stenographers,
typists, cashiers, bookkeepers, and telephone operators. Of those
employed as private-household workers, 66 percent were babysitters.
The chief occupation among girls in service work outside the home was
waitress. Of the sales workers, 90 percent were in retail trade.
6

Data for 1940 and 1950 are from the decennial censuses.




103

Women in the Labor Force
Table 47.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

EMPLOYED

GROUPS

NONWHITE

AND

WOMEN,

SELECTED
APRIL

OCCUPATIONS

OF

1965

(Nonwhite women 14 years of age and over)

Major occupational group or selected
occupation

Number

3, 078, 000

Total
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Medical, other health workers
Teachers (except college) _ _ Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm) _
_
Clerical, kindred workers

100.0

12. 5

i 268, 000

8. 7

8. 1

62, 000
160, 000

2. 0
5. 2

6. 6
11. 6

49, 000
397, 000

1. 6
12. 9

4. 4
5. 1

92, 000
65, 000

3. 0
2. 1

3. 3
3. 5

58, 000
15, 000
471, 000

1. 9
.5
15. 3

3. 5
5.3
12. 9

89, 000
172, 000
22, 000
920, 000
782, 000

2. 9
5. 6
.7
29. 9
25. 4

9. 1
9. 1
19. 0
45. 4
20. 4

185, 000
15, 000
74, 000

6. 0
.5
2. 4

13.4
10. 7
13. 9

39, 000
35, 000

1. 3
1. 2

32. 3
9. 0

1

Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Sales workers
_

1

Retail trade
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers-- _

1

Durable goods manufacturing. _
Nondurable goods manufacturing. _ _
Laborers (except farm, mine)
_ _ _
Private-household workers. _
_
Service workers (except private-household) _
Waitresses, cooks, bartenders
Farmers, farm managers
Farm laborers, foremen. __
_
Paid workers
_
Unpaid family workers
1

As perPercent cent of total
distribu- employed
tion
women

_ _

_ __

_ _

1

Includes women in occupations not shown separately in this category.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, M a y 1965.

Another measure of the types of jobs held by teenage girls is their
representation among all employed women in the various major occupational groups. Thus, although girls 14 to 19 years of age accounted for less than 10 percent of all employed women, they were
27 percent of private-household workers, 16 percent of nonfarm laborers, and 17 percent of farm laborers and foremen. On the other
hand, they were only a very small proportion of managers, both farm
and other, and of professional and technical workers.




104
Table

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries
48.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

GROUPS
OF A G E ,

OF E M P L O Y E D

Major occupational group

Number

Total

14

TO 1 9

YEARS

Percent
distribution

As percent
of total
employed
women

2,316,000

100.0

9.6

60,000

2.6

1.9

7,000
747, 000
214,000
9, 000
168,000
15, 000
354,000
618,000
Q)
115, 000

.3
32.4
9.3
.4
7.3
.7
15.3
26.8

.6
10.0
12.2
3.6
4.6
16. 5
9.5
27.4

5. 0

16.7

Professional, technical, kindred workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm)
Clerical, kindred workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Service workers (except private-household).
Private-household workers
Farmers, farm managers
Farm laborers, foremen
1

GIRLS

1964

Not available.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 52.

52. Occupations

of Mature

Women

There were about 9.7 million women 45 years of age and over at
work in 1964 (table 49). Of these, about 2.3 million, or 24 percent,
were in clerical occupations. These occupations are not as popular
for mature women as they are for all women workers generally. The
next two largest occupational groups for mature women were service
workers employed outside the home (16 percent) and operatives (15
percent). An additional 13 percent were working in professional and
technical occupations. In this occupational group, mature women
held proportionately as many positions as did women of all ages—
a clear indication of the rising demand for workers with higher educational achievement irrespective of their age. In only one other
major occupational group—private-household workers— were as many
as 10 percent of women 45 years of age and over employed.
Additional information on the types of jobs held by mature women
may be obtained by comparing the number of women 45 years of age
and over with the total number of employed women in each major
occupational group. Thus, although mature women constituted only
40 percent of all employed women in 1964, they were 77 percent of
farmers and farm managers and 64 percent of nonfarm managers,




105

Women in the Labor Force
Table 49.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL
AGE

G R O U P S OF E M P L O Y E D W O M E N
AND O V E R ,

Major occupational group

Number

Total

45

YEARS

OF

1964

Percent
distribution

As percent
of total
employed
women

9,709,000

40.1

1, 274, 000

13. 1

41.0

708, 000
2, 326, 000
838, 000
117, 000
1, 499, 000
36, 000

7.3
23.9
8.6
1.2
15.4
.4

63.8
31.2
47.9
46.8
41. 1
39.6

1, 574, 000
987, 000
102, 000
274, 000

Professional, technical, kindred
workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm)
__ _
Clerical, kindred workers _ _ _
Sales workers __
___
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers. _
Operatives, kindred workers
_
Laborers (except farm and mine) _ _
Service workers (except privatehousehold)
_ _
Private-household workers
Farmers, farm managers. __
Farm laborers, foremen

100.0

16.2
10. 1
1.0
2.8

42.2
43.7
77.3
39.8

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 52.

officials, and proprietors. In these two major occupational groups,
however, the total number of women employed is small. Women in
this age group were nearly half of the craftsmen and foremen (47
percent) and of the sales workers (48 percent). Older and more
experienced women workers normally hold many of the jobs in these
occupational groups. On the other hand, women 45 years and older
were a relatively small proportion of clerical workers (31 percent).

Industry Groups of Women
S3. Distribution

of Women

by

Industry

Nearly 98 percent of all employed women 14 years of age and over
were working in nonagricultural industries in 1965, and almost twothirds of these were engaged in the distribution of goods and services
(table 50). Among the 10.3 million women providing services, 6
million were employed in professional and related services, such as
schools, hospitals, other medical and health facilities, and welfare
or religious agencies. About 3.7 million women provided personal
services either in private households or in establishments such as




O
o
Table 5 0 . — M A J O R

I N D U S T R Y G R O U P S OF E M P L O Y E D W O M E N ,

1940, 1950,

AND

1965

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Number (in thousands)
Major industry group

Total
Agriculture, forestry, fisheries.
_
__
Mining
__
Construction _ __
__
__ _ _
Manufacturing
Transportation, communication, other public utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
_
Finance, insurance, real estate
Services
__
Business and repair
_
Personal.
Entertainment and recreation
Professional and related
Public administration

1965

_

-

_
-

1950

1940

Percent distribution
1965

1950

1940

1965

1950

1940

o

24, 494

16, 674

11,920

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

34. 9

29. 0

25. 9

3

578
24
208
4, 892
714
470
4, 633
1, 581
io, 282

692
15
68
3, 765
663
452
3, 403
856
6, 019

533
12
37
2, 540
377
199
2, 021
497
5, 334

2. 4
.1
.8
20. 0
2.9
1.9
18. 9
6. 5
42. 0

4. 5
1
3
21. 3
3. 2
1. 7
17. 0
4. 2
44. 7

84
3, 145
87
2, 018
371

1. 8
15. 0
.6
24. 6
4. 5

10. 2
1. 8
2. 2
25. 4
14. 9
19. 3
36. 2
42. 7
55. 2
13. 4
70. 7
24. 4
55. 2
25. 4

3

159
3, 000
125
2, 735
743

14. 1
4. 8
4. 9
25. 7
15. 5
19. 7
42. 0
47. 3
59. 7
23. 6
75. 1
29. 6
60. 5
30.0

6. 2
1. 3
1. 8
23. 2
11. 8
16.0
30.7
32. 5
58. 6

449
3, 667
142
6, 024
1, 112

4. 2
1
4
22. 6
4. 0
2. 7
20. 4
5. 1
36. 1
1. 0
18. 0
7
16. 4
4. 5

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-60, Nos. 7 and 47.




As percent of
total employed

7
26. 4
7
16. 9
3. 1

9. 5
73. 2
21. 3
57. 4
20. 5

3
H.

o
•
<
3
o

cr
o

n
c
•a
Q

o"
3
V)
Q
3
Qu
=T"
CL.

c

107

Women in the Labor Force

hotels, laundries or drycleaners, and beauty shops. The remainder,
about 600,000 women, were engaged in business and repair services
or recreation and entertainment services. Of the women engaged in
the distribution of goods, 4.6 million were employed in retail trade
and almost half a million in wholesale trade.
Another 4.9 million, or 20 percent of all employed women, were
engaged in manufacturing industries. In only two other industries—
finance, insurance, and real estate and public administration—were as
many as 1 million women employed.
Changes in women!s employment by
industry.—Proportionately
more women were employed in 1965 than in 1940 in construction;
wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
public administration as these industries expanded with the growing
economy. On the other hand, smaller proportions of all employed
women were in agriculture; manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; and the service industries. Twenty
percent of all employed women were in manufacturing in 1965—down
from a high of 23 percent in 1950. In the service industries the proportion of women employed in professional and related services rose
significantly—from 17 percent in 1940 to 25 percent in 1965—while the
percentage in personal services dropped from 26 to 15 percent.
Women as a percent of all workers.—Only in service industries were
women more than 50 percent of all workers in 1965. Within this industry group women held 61 percent of all jobs in professional and related services and 75 percent in personal services, compared with only
24 percent in business and repair services and 30 percent in entertainment and recreation services. Women were also well represented
among all workers both in retail trade and in finance, insurance, and
real estate. In fact, in the latter two industry groups the proportion
of all workers who were women rose sharply between 1940 and 1965.
About 47 percent of all employees in finance, insurance, and real estate
in 1965 were women compared with only 33 percent in 1940. Similarly, 42 percent of the workers in retail trade in 1965 were women
compared with 31 percent in 1940.
5 4 . Women

as Nonfarm

Workers

Women's employment in certain detailed industries is tabulated
quarterly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The figures for women
employed in manufacturing have been issued since October 1940 (with
a few breaks in continuity). Those for women in selected nonmanufacturing industries date only from January 1960. Because these




108

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

figures are based on payroll data, they may differ somewhat from the
Bureau of the Census figures.6
Factory workers.—More than 4.6 million women were working in
manufacturing industries in April 1965 (table 51). They constituted
about one-fifth of all employed women and one-fourth of all manufacturing employees. Some of these women worked in factory offices;
others were production workers. The relative importance of these
two groups varies considerably from industry to industry. In many
of the heavy manufacturing industries, less than half of the women
employees had production jobs in 1960. In other lighter manufacturing industries, such as apparel and some textile mills, as many as fourfifths of the women were production workers.
Manufacturing industries are divided into those producing durable
goods and those producing nondurable goods. Women are more
likely to be employed in nondurable than in durable goods. Thus 60
percent of all women in manufacturing in April 1965 were employed
in plants producing "soft" goods. Nevertheless, the concentration
in this field in April 1965 was not as great as it had been in 1950 (67
percent). Of the women working in industries in the nondurable
division, more than 1 million were in apparel and related products.
T w o other large employers of women were textile mill products and
food and kindred products. Despite an overall increase in the number
of women employed in the manufacture of nondurable goods since
1950, the number of women workers declined substantially in plants
producing textile mill products and tobacco manufactures. In these
two industries many processes have been automated.
Women's employment increased considerably more in plants producing durable goods—from 1,245,000 in April 1950 to 1,836,000 in
April 1965. One-third of all women employed in durable goods manufacturing in April 1965 were in the electrical equipment and supplies
industry. This includes firms manufacturing radio and television
sets, telephones, electric lamps, electric measuring instruments, and
household appliances.
Nonmanufacturing workers.—Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey covers only 70 nonmanufacturing industries, it does
include all employees in retail trade, wholesale trade, and finance,
insurance, and real estate. In April 1965 there were slightly more
women employed in wholesale and retail trade (4.7 million) than in
manufacturing (4.4 million) (table 52). Only 710,000 were in wholesale trade. Of the women in retail trade, about 1.3 million were
8 The two surveys cover different time periods; the Bureau of the Census survey includes
the self-employed and unpaid family workers; and the Bureau of Labor Statistics figures
m a y include .some duplication in the case of persons employed by more than one firm.




W o m e n in the L a b o r

Force

Table 5 1 . — W O M E N

340

IN M A N U F A C T U R I N G I N D X ) S T R I E S ,

1 9 5 0 AND 1 9 6 5 *

( W o m e n 14 years of age and over)

1965

Industry

Number

Total

4, 624, 000

Percent
increase
from
1950
23. 1

Percent distribution

As percent
of total
employed

1965

1950

1965

1950

100. 0

100. 0

26. 1

25.9

66. 9

37. 4

36. 6

N O N D U R A B L E GOODS

Subtotal

2, 788, 000

Apparel and related products. _
Textile mill products _
Food and kindred products
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries
Leather and leather products. _
Chemicals and allied productsRubber and miscellaneous plastic p r o d u c t s . . . . _
Paper and allied products
Tobacco manufactures
Petroleum refining and related
industries _

11. 0

1, 064, 600
406, 700
371, 100

24. 0
2 23. 1
2.4

23. 0
8. 8
8. 0

22. 9
14. 1
9. 9

79. 5
44. 2
22. 7

74. 0
43. 3
22. 3

280, 200
184, 800
166, 200

37. 8
5. 5
46. 2

6. 1
4.0
3. 6

5. 4
4. 7
3. 0

28. 9
52. 7
18. 4

27. 4
46. 1
18. 0

132, 700
130, 900
34, 700

55. 6
16. 3
2 32. 8

2. 9
2. 8
. 8

2. 3
3. 0
1. 4

29. 4
20. 6
47. 1

29. 0
24. 0
56. 1

16, 000

53. 8

. 3

. 3

8. 8

5. 0

47. 5

39. 7

33. 1

17. 9

16. 4

612, 700
216, 400
208, 100
167, 300

82.
47.
28.
56.

0
2
9
4

13.
4.
4.
3.

3
7
5
6

9.
3.
4.
2.

0
9
3
8

37.
12.
16.
9.

8
7
6
6

36.
12.
17.
9.

0
6
6
6

128,
94,
74,
74,

500
000
500
100

66.
15.
30.
10.

0
5
9
4

2.
2.
1.
1.

8
0
6
6

2.
2.
1.
1.

1
2
5
8

34. 1
15. 2
17. 8
5.7

33.
15.
16.
5.

0
6
1
6

44, 100
41, 700

2 17.

60. 3

D U R A B L E GOODS

Subtotal

_

_ __

1, 836, 000

Electrical equipment and
supplies
Machinery (except electrical) _ _
Fabricated metal products
Transportation equipment
Instruments and related products.
Stone, clay, glass products
Furniture and fixtures
Primary metal industries
Lumber and wood products
(except furniture)
Ordnance and accessories
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries.

174, 300

3
826. 7

1. 0
. 9

1. 4
.1

7. 6
17. 3

7. 0
16. 1

14. 3

3. 8

4. 1

42. 4

40. 3

1 Data are for April of each year.
A percent decrease instead of an increase.

2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, July and
August 1965, and "Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-64." Bulletin 1312-2
(issued December 1964).




Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

110
Table 5 2 . — W O M E N

IN SELECTED N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G INDUSTRIES,

1960 AND 19651

(Women 14 years of age and over)

1965

Industry

Retail trade _ _ _

_ _

General merchandise stores.
_ _ _
Eating and drinking places
Food stores _
Apparel and accessories
Furniture and appliance stores.
Other retail trade.
_ _
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Banking _ _
_ _ .
Insurance carriers. _
_ _
Real estate
Credit agencies (except banking)
Insurance agents, brokers, and services. _
Security dealers and exchanges. ._ _ _
Other finance, insurance, and real estate.
Wholesale trade. _
. . . .
Mining
_ _
Service and miscellaneous:
Hospitals _ _ _ _ _
Laundries and cleaning and dyeing
_
_ _
plants __
Hotels, tourist courts, motels _
Motion pictures _
_
Advertising
_
_ _
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities:
Communication.
_
_ _
Electric, gas, and sanitary services
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Air transportation. _ . . .
Local and interurban passenger transit. _
Pipeline transportation _

Number

Percent
increase
from
1960

As percent of
total employed
1965

1960

4, 017, 000

10. 3

43. 5

43. 3

1, 253, 200
1, 024, 700
488, 600
452, 500
117, 000
681, 400
1, 479, 000

11. 6
14. 9
8. 7
2. 4
1. 4
9. 9
11. 4

69. 5
55. 6
33. 2
65. 4
28. 7
22. 5
49. 5

72.
54.
33.
65.
28.
22.
50.

465, 500
429, 100
198, 700
176, 400
128, 600
40, 400
40, 200
710, 000
34, 000

15. 2
3. 9
5. 3
25. 6
15. 8
17. 1
12. 0
6. 3
2 5. 6

60. 3
48. 3
35. 7
53. 4
55. 9
31. 4
50. 0
21. 7
5. 5

61. 0
50. 0
36. 5
54. 4
57. 2
30. 5
46. 5
22. 5
5. 0

1, 134, 500

25. 3

81. 1

81. 0

360, 200
274, 500
56, 700
42, 300

5. 3
16. 0
14. 9
14. 9

66. 4
48. 0
33. 0
37. 7

65. 2
50. 9
35. 4
33. 6

. 1
.4
11. 8
24. 9
13. 0
2 5. 9

49. 5
15. 2
8. 5
23. 3
8. 4
8. 2

51. 4
15. 2
8. 6
21. 9
7. 2
7. 4

430, 100
92, 600
81, 500
52, 100
23, 500
1, 600

2

2

2

3
4
2
0
8
2
2

1 Data are for April of each year.
A percent decrease instead of an increase.

2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Earnings, July and
August 1965; and "Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-64." Bulletin 1312-2
(issued December 1964).




Women in the Labor Force

111

working in general merchandise stores and 1 million in eating and
drinking places. An additional 1.5 million women were employed in
finance, insurance, and real estate, mainly in banks and in certain
insurance companies.
Among the few service industries surveyed, large numbers of women
were employed in hospitals (1,134,500) and in laundries and cleaning
and dyeing plants (360,200). Women's employment in hospitals had
increased by about one-fourth since 1960, but in laundries and cleaning
and dyeing plants was only slightly higher in 1965 than in 1960.
The only industry with more than 100,000 women workers in the
transportation and public utilities group surveyed was communications. In April 1965, 430,100 women were working in this industry—
about the same number as were employed in 1960.
Women generally constitute a higher proportion of all employees
in nonmanufacturing than in manufacturing industries. In April
1965 women held 81 percent of the jobs in hospitals, 70 percent in
general merchandise stores, 66 percent in laundries and cleaning and
dyeing plants, and 65 percent in apparel and accessories stores. On
the other hand, women were only a small proportion of all workers in
mining (6 percent), passenger transit (8 percent), motor freight
transportation and storage (9 percent), and pipeline transportation
(8 percent).
55. Women

on

Farms

About 4.4 million women—only 6 percent of the women 14 years of
age and over in the United States—were estimated to be living on
farms in the year centered on April 1964, according to a survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census (table 53). This was 701,000 less
than in April 1960 (monthly figure), the earliest date for which comparable figures are available. The migration of the population from
farms to towns or urban areas, however, has been a long-term trend,
arising partly from the lack of job opportunities in agriculture because of mechanization and other technological advances and partly
from the increased opportunities in better paying nonagricultural
positions.
In contrast, the number of farm women in the labor force has decreased only slightly since 1960. Moreover, a somewhat larger proportion of all farm women were employed or seeking work in 1964 than
in 1960—34 percent compared with 30 percent. On the other hand,
the labor-force participation rate of men living on farms has declined from 85 percent in 1960 to 82 percent in 1964.

779-555 <




112

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

Table 53.—EMPLOYMENT

S T A T U S OP W O M E N

L I V I N G ON F A R M S ,

1 9 6 0 AND

1964

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Percent distribution

Number
Employment status

Total
In the labor force.
Employed
Agriculture
Nonagriculture
Unemployed
Not in the labor force

1964

1960

1964

1960

4, 375, 0 0 0

5, 0 7 6 , 0 0 0

1,481,000

1, 5 2 3 , 0 0 0

33.9

30.0

1,421,000

1, 4 4 9 , 0 0 0

32.5

28.5

100.0

100.0

640, 000

637, 000

14.6

12.5

781, 000

812, 000

17.9

16.0

60, 000

74, 000

1.4

1.5

2, 894, 0 0 0

3, 553, 0 0 0

66. 1

70.0

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-27, No. 35.

Less than half of the 1.4 million employed women residing on farms
in 1964 were working in agriculture; a majority of these were unpaid
family workers. Another 264,000 women who were nonf arm residents
were employed in agriculture in 1964. There is an increasing tendency
for agricultural workers to live away from the farm and to commute to
work. In fact, nonf arm residents constituted 29 percent of the women
employed in agriculture in 1964 compared with 22 percent in April
1960.
More recent figures on employment published by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics show there were 735,000 women working in agriculture in April 1965.7 Of these, 140,000 were farmers and farm managers and 534,000 were farm laborers and foremen. The remainder
were performing a variety of clerical, sales, or service operations for
agricultural firms. One distinguishing characteristic of these agricultural workers was that they tended to be older than workers
in nonagricultural industries. Half of the women employed in
farm work in April 1965 were 45 years of age or over, and 7 percent
were 65 years of age or over.
The April figures are fairly low for agricultural employment,
as the peak periods of farm activity come in late spring and fall.
During 1964 women's agricultural employment reached a maximum of
1,243,000 in June and a secondary peak of 1,149,000 in September.
Fluctuations in farm employment are much greater than in nonagricultural employment and are one of the primary reasons for the
seasonal pattern of the labor force as a whole.
7

Employment and Earnings, M a y 1 9 6 5 .

of Labor.




Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.

Department

Women in the Labor Force

113

Women in Public Administration
5 6 . Women

in Federal

Civilian

Service

Legislative branch.—In the legislative branch of the Federal Government, 2 women were in the Senate and 10 were in the House of
Representatives in the 89th Congress, the smallest total in years. Congresswomen were about evenly divided between the two political
parties.
Judicial branch.—Women occupied the following Federal judgeships by Presidential appointment in 1965: District Courts, two;
U.S. Customs Court, one; and U.S. Tax Court, two. In addition,
three women were serving in District of Columbia courts by Presidential appointment.
Executive branch, general.—As a result of action initiated by the
President's Commission on the Status of Women, on July 23, 1962,
the President directed
. . that the Federal career service be maintained in every respect without discrimination and with equal opportunity for employment and advancement." Agencies were instructed
to make appointments and promotions without regard to sex
. .
except in unusual situations where such action has been found justified
by the Civil Service Commission on the basis of objective nondiscriminatory standards." Regulations issued by the Civil Service Commission to give effect to this directive provided that the following conditions of employment would not of themselves be a basis for permitting
exceptions:
. . travel, including extensive travel, travel in remote
areas, or travel with a person or persons of the opposite sex; rotating
assignments or other shift work; geographical location, neighborhood
environment, or outdoor work; contact with public or a particular
group or groups; exposure to weather; living or working facilities,
except where the sharing of common living quarters with members
of the opposite sex would be required; working with teams or units
of opposite sex; monotonous, detailed, or repetitious duties; or limited
advancement opportunities." 8 Exceptions are allowed on the basis
of physical requirements only when it can be shown that the candidate
is not physically able to perform the duties of the specific job in
question. In other words, no job is closed to all women because of
physical requirements.
A t the request of the President's Commission on the Status of
Women, in 1963 the Civil Service Commission made a study of the
8 Report of the Committee on Federal Employment.
Status of Women.
October 1963.




President's Commission on the

114

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

relative advancement rates of men and women in the Federal service
at grades GS-5 and above. A comparison was made in a number of
occupations of the median grades of men and women, by length of
service and education. The median grades of women were lower than
those of men in each of the occupations studied; the least difference
was in the legal field. The educational level was higher for women
than for men in all grades GS-7 and above. Full results of this study
may be found in the report of the Committee on Federal Employment
of the President's Commission on the Status of Women.9
The highest ranking women in the executive branch of the Federal
service, including the Foreign Service, in June 1965 were in the following positions: Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor Standards and
Special Assistant to the President for Consumer Affairs; Assistant
Secretary of Agriculture for International Relations; Assistant Administrator for Human Resources and Social Development, Agency
for International Development; Ambassador to Denmark; Ambassador to Norway; Ambassador to Luxembourg; U.S. Representative on
the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations; Member, Interstate
Commerce Commission; Member, Federal Trade Commission; Member, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; Member, Board
of Directors, Export-Import Bank of Washington; Deputy Assistant
Secretary of Agriculture for Marketing and Consumer Services;
Deputy Director, Office of Civil Defense, Department of the Army;
Commissioner of Welfare, Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare; Commissioner of Vocational Rehabilitation, Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare; Commissioner, Public Housing Administration, Housing and Home Finance Agency; Treasurer of the
United States; Director, Office of Territories, Department of Interior;
Director, Women's Bureau, Department of Labor; Chief, Children's
Bureau, Welfare Administration, Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare.
In 1964 more than 600,000 women were working in the executive
branch of the Federal Government, the largest single employer in the
Nation (table 54). This number, slightly over half as high as the
World War I I peak, was considerably above the prewar level of about
173,000 women. The gain was related largely to the Government's
need for more employees to carry out the increased responsibilities
resulting from an expanding economy as well as from defense
requirements.
® Ibid.

Appendix E.




115

Women in the Labor Force

Table 54.—WOMEN IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE, SELECTED YEARS, 1 9 2 3 - 6 4 1

Year

1964
1961
1958
1956
1954
1952
1950
1947
1944
1939
1923

(estimated)

Number

601, 358
560, 593
533, 001
533, 318
521, 945
601, 215
410, 327
444,194
1, 110, 545
172, 733
81, 486
3

(Korean conflict)
(return of war veterans) _
(World War II peak)

2

percent
of total
employees

25
25
24
24
24
25
23
24
37
19
16

Percent in
District of
Columbia
area

17
17
17
18
19
19
24
22
15
29
34

1 Data are for June of each year except 1944 (July) and 1956,1958,1961, and 1964 (December).
Refers to civilian employees in continental United States.
3 The total number of women Federal employees in the United States and foreign countries was 593,579
in 1961.
2

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

The majority of women employed by the Federal Government are
white-collar workers, mainly clerk-typists, clerk-stenographers, and
secretaries. Others are technicians and specialists. About 1 out of
10 women in white-collar employment in 1964 had professional
or scientific jobs requiring either a college degree or its equivalent,
and a smaller proportion of women held high-level policy-determining
or administrative management positions. Most of the women bluecollar workers were engaged in service operations, such as laundering
and drycleaning or food preparation. Others were assigned to manual
work; fabric, fur, and textile work; and printing and reproduction.
The women blue-collar workers were employed mainly by the Military
Establishment or the Veterans' Administration.
Executive branch, Foreign Service.—In the international field, in
June 1965 the United States was represented by a woman on the Trusteeship Council, the highest rank ever held by a woman representing the
United States in the United Nations. Women have represented the
United States regularly as delegates in the U.N. General Assembly,
the U N E S C O General Conference, U N I C E F , the Organization of
American States, and other bodies. In 1965 women served as representatives of the United States on the Social Commission and the
Status of Women Commission, and women served in various capacities
in the U.S. Permanent Mission to the United Nations. The United




116

W o m e n ' s Employment b y O c c u p a t i o n s a n d Industries

States is a member of the Inter-American Commission of Women, and
a woman represents the United States in the Inter-American Children's Institute. In addition, U.S. delegations to international conferences usually include women among their advisers and in other
technical capacities.
A total of 2,614 women were in the Foreign Service of the United
States in 1965 (table 55). They equaled 28.1 percent of all Foreign
Service employees of the State Department. The Ambassadors to Denmark, Norway, and Luxembourg were the only women among 104
chiefs of missions. Other Foreign Service officers included 330 women,
less than one-tenth of the total. Most of the women in this group
were consular officers, secretaries, and political officers in embassies
and legations.
About half of the staff positions in the Foreign Service of the State
Department were held by women. They were employed in a variety of
specialized occupations, including clerk, stenographer, typist, and
secretary, as well as assistant attache, liaison officer, fiscal officer,
consular attache, administrative assistant, librarian, and political and
research analyst.
Table 55.—FOREIGN SERVICE PERSONNEL, BY SEX AND RANK, 1965
Women
Rank
Total
Foreign Service Officers: 1
Chief of Mission
Career Ambassador,
Career Minister, and
Class 1
Class 2 and 3
Class 4 and 5
Class 6 to 8
Foreign Service Staff:
Class 1 and 2
Class 3 to 5
Class 6 to 8
Class 9 and 10
Consular agent.
Unclassified

Total

Men

Percent
Percent
Number distribution Number distribution

9, 309

2,614

100. 0

6, 696

100. 0

104

3

. 1

102

1. 5

343
1, 433
1,744
1, 387

6
41
177
106

. 2
1. 6
6. 8
4. 1

337
1, 392
1,567
1, 281

5.
20.
23.
19.

0
8
4
1

128
648
2, 533
975
12
2

8
276
1, 240
757

. 3
10.6
47. 5
29. 0

120
372
1, 293
218
12
2

1.
5.
19.
3.
.
(2)

8
6
3
3
2

.
.

1 Includes 1,339 Foreign Service Reserve Officers (73 women).
» Less than 0.05 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of State: Summary of Employment, February 28,1965.




117

Women in the Labor Force

A study by the President's Commission on the Status of Women
showed less discrepancy in promotion rates of men and women in the
Foreign Service than in the civil service generally.10 The turnover
among women Foreign Service officers is quite high because of the
difficulty of combining marriage and a career in the Foreign Service,
which requires frequent changes in assignments.
57. Women

in the Armed

Services

Women in the Armed Forces of the United States are an integral
part of our armed services. They are on an interchangeable (noncombatant) basis with their male counterparts and provide a well-trained
nucleus that could be expanded rapidly in event of mobilization.
At the end of December 1964 there were 30,534 women on active duty
in the Armed Forces (table 56). They included 10,587 officers, who
represented one-third of all the women and were 3.0 percent of all commissioned officers in the armed services. About four-fifths of the
women officers were nurses and other medical personnel. The 19,947
enlisted women constituted about 1 percent of total enlisted personnel.
Women have been given permanent status in the Armed Forces by act
of Congress. In June 1965 women officers served in the grades of second lieutenant to colonel in the Women's Army Corps, Air Force, and
Marine Corps, and from ensign to captain in the Navy. While on
active duty both officers and enlisted women receive medical and dental
care, annual vacations, educational and training opportunities, and
social security protection.
Programs for women in the armed services are divided into two
broad categories—medical and line. Requirements for medical personnel are based on professional needs and are not limited. However,
Table 56.—WOMEN

I N T H E A R M E D S E R V I C E S ON A C T I V E D U T Y AS OF

DECEMBER

31, 1964
Branch of service

Total
Army
Air Force
Navy
_
Marine Corps 1
1

Total

Officers

Enlisted

30, 534
___
_

_

_ _ _ _
___
_ __
_ _
__

10, 587

19, 947

12, 358
8, 807
7, 944
1,425

3, 780
4, 078
2, 585
144

8, 578
4, 729
5, 359
1,281

Supported by Navy for their medical needs.

Source: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Armed Services,
1965.
10

Ibid., p, 4 5 .




118

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

the number of women in the "line" services may not exceed 2 percent
of the total military strength.
Women's peak participation in the Armed Forces was reached in
May 1945, when there was a total of 266,184 women in the four military services. Of these, 183,484 were enlisted women, 67,507 were
nurses and other medical personnel, and 15,193 were nonmedical officers. In addition, there were about 10,000 enlisted women and 1,000
women officers in the Coast Guard ( S P A E S ) . In peacetime S P A R S
are under the Treasury Department.
The direct commission program is the major source of officers. With
few exceptions the requirement for a direct commission as a second
lieutenant or ensign is a bachelor's or higher degree from an accredited college or university. Most newly appointed officers attend
officer training programs in order to undergo military orientation and
other training. At the end of their training period these officers are
assigned to a specialization, usually determined by their major field
of study in college.
Enlisted women must have a high school diploma or its equivalent.
Highly qualified enlisted women or noncommissioned officers may
qualify for officer candidate programs conducted by each of the four
services. Upon successful completion of these programs, they are
commissioned as officers in their respective services.
The minimum age of enlistment, as well as the length of enlistment
period, varies not only from service to service but also between officers and enlisted personnel.11 Members of the Women's Army Corps
( W A C ) have a minimum duty obligation of 2 years for officers and
from 2 to 6 years for enlisted women. Women in the Navy ( W A V E S )
are obligated for a minimum of 2 years if they are officers and 3 years
if enlisted. Women in the Air Force ( W A F ) have a minimum service
period of 4 years for both officers and enlisted personnel, while the
Women Marine officers have a duty obligation of from 2 to 4 years
and the enlisted women from 3 to 4 years.
Of all women officers on active duty at the end of 1964, almost 80
percent were in the health professions. They were assigned to work
within the medical areas of the Forces—Medical Corps, Nurse Corps,
and the Medical Specialist and/or Service Corps. Nurses alone accounted for over 72 percent of all women officers, constituting the
largest single professional group of all women in the Armed Forces.
11 See current Fact Sheets prepared for the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in
the Armed Services by the following : Women's Army Corps, Army Nurse Corps, Army
Medical Specialist Corps; Women in the Navy, Nurse Corps, U.S. N a v y ; Women in the
Air Force, Air Force Nurse Corps, Air Force Medical Specialist Corps ; and Women Marines.




Women in the Labor Force

119

Doctors, dentists, pharmacists, optometrists, dietitians, and physical
and occupational therapists, as well as others in allied medical scientific fields, accounted for the additional medical officers.
The remaining 20 percent of the women officers were nonmedical or
"line" officers. They performed a wide variety of duties, ranging from
staff positions at Department level to unit commanders in the field.
Depending upon existing military requirements and their training,
these women were employed as logisticians and operations officers,
information experts, finance and disbursing officers, personnel
managers, scientists, and lawyers.
Most of the enlisted women were in military positions that are closely
related to women's occupations in civilian life. Of all enlisted women
on active duty at the end of 1964, about one-fourth were assigned to
clerical and administrative positions such as clerk-typist, administrator, payroll clerk, personnel supervisor, and keypunch operator. An
additional one-fourth of the enlisted women were employed as medical technicians, that is, X-ray technicians, dental technicians, laboratory technicians, and medical corpsmen. Other enlisted women were in
occupations that also have direct civilian counterparts, such as
meteorologist, draftsman, photographer, data programer, air traffic
controller, lithographer, electronic technician, and cook. However,
many other enlisted women were employed in work that had no direct
counterpart in civilian life. Examples of these are missile master
console operator, intelligence specialist, cryptographer, and communications specialist.
The military services maintain an educational establishment ranging from indoctrination courses for newly enlisted personnel to postgraduate degree courses at universities throughout the country. Many
pf these courses are aimed at training enlisted women to gain a skill
either on the job or in one of the service schools operated by each of
the services. Selected personnel also may enroll in civilian colleges in
degree-completion programs for the purpose of acquiring a bachelor's
or higher degree. Officers selected on a best qualified basis are trained
at civilian institutions at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
For example, the nursing education program is open to qualified enlisted women of any rank and rating, and provides training leading to
a bachelor's or master's degree and a commission in the Navy Nurse
Corps. Naval postgraduate education is available to women officers
in all the professional fields to which they have been assigned. In
addition, off-duty college courses for credit toward a degree are conducted by civilian universities at most military installations for the
benefit of all military personnel.




120

Women's Employment by Occupations and Industries

Because of the nature of the military service almost all of the officers
and enlisted women, unlike women in the civilian labor force, are
required to devote a certain proportion of their working time to duties
not related to their work: inspection, housekeeping duties, and training activities. These duties vary by service and rank, but they are
characteristic of all the military services.
The Veterans' Administration estimates that in the spring of 1965
there were approximately 414,000 women veterans, almost 2 percent of
all war veterans. Of the total number of women veterans, about
22,000 were veterans from World War I, 317,000 from World War II,
and 75,000 from the Korean conflict. In addition, there were 400
nurses from the Spanish-American War. In 1965, however, less than
1 percent (about 27,200) of all veterans receiving compensation or
pensions were women. Both women and men veterans are entitled
to the same benefits, as for example, life insurance coverage, reemployment rights, and educational benefits. Qualified women may
also apply for Reserve service. Women reservists, depending upon
their Reserve status, participate in weekly drills and summer training with their units. They may be called to active duty in the event
of a national emergency, the same as men reservists.
58. Women

in State Office

In 1965, 370 women were in the State legislatures—35 in upper
houses, 333 in lower houses, and 2 in Nebraska's unicameral legislature. In Vermont about 19 percent of the 246 seats in the House of
Representatives were held by women; in New Hampshire about 16
percent of 400 seats were held by women. Ten to fifteen percent of
the seats in the lower house of the following States, in descending
order of their percentages, were held by women: Connecticut, Oregon",
Arizona, Nevada, and Washington. About 21 percent of the members
of the New Hampshire Senate were women; in Delaware and Connecticut women accounted for about 11 and 8 percent, respectively, of the
members of the upper houses. There was at least 1 woman in the legislature of every State except South Carolina. In New York 4 out of
208 seats were held by women; in California, 1 out of 120.
Women in 23 States had achieved statewide elective positions other
than in the legislature, including 10 on boards of education and 7 as
secretary of state or secretary of internal affairs. Others served as
treasurer, auditor, superintendent of public instruction, chief and associate justices of supreme courts, trustee of State institutions of higher
education, and register of State land office. In Alabama 5 of a total of




Women in the Labor Force

121

18 statewide elective posts were held by women; in Wyoming, 2 of 9;
in Nevada, 3 of 17; in Arizona, 3 of 18; in Connecticut and in Delaware, 1 of 6; in Pennsylvania, 1 of 12; and in Utah, 2 of 15. Neither in
New York nor in California did women hold statewide elective posts
other than in the legislature.







2
WOMEN'S INCOME AND EARNINGS
One of the primary measures of a woman's economic status is her
income and earnings. For an increasing number of women, these factors are strongly influenced by their employment pattern and the kinds
of jobs they have obtained.
Income statistics, as reported by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Department of Commerce, include income from all sources—not only
wages, salaries, earnings from self-employment, rents, and returns
from investment such as dividends and interest, but also income from
pensions, insurance policies, old-age and survivors insurance benefits,
and aid to dependent children, as well as other forms of public
assistance.

Factors Affecting Earnings
The most important form of income reported by women is payroll
earnings—compensation received in the form of wages, salaries, piecerate payments, tips, and cash bonuses. Payroll earnings vary widely
among individuals, influenced by such factors as type of job, skill
requirements of the job, character of the employing industry, geographical location of the plant or office, size of the company, and extent
of unionization.1 In addition, of course, all types of earnings are affected by the state of the economy at any period of time.
Women tend to receive lower income and lower earnings than do
men. This results from differences in types of jobs, in job training,
and in continuity of work experience. Large numbers of women work
in traditionally low-paying occupations and low-wage industries.
A significant difference between women workers and men workers
is the intermittent nature of women's lifetime work pattern. Nearly
all women workers interrupt their employment at some time for marriage and for bearing and rearing children. When they return to the
1 For information on wages and salaries paid by employers for a specific job, the nearest
local public employment service office should be consulted. There are more than 1,900 of
these offices in the Nation.




123

W o m e n ' s Income a n d Earnings

124

labor force, many can work only part time or part of the year because of
continued home responsibilities. Thus—whether clerical workers,
operatives, or professional workers—they will have lost ground in
terms of job seniority and work experience to qualify for promotions
at the same rate as men.

Income of Families and Women
59. Family

Income

The 47.8 million families in the Nation had a median income of
$6,569 in 1964 (table 57). About one-tenth of the families received
less than $2,000, almost one-fifth received less than $3,000, and well over
two-fifths received $7,000 or more. The median income of families
has been rising steadily. In 1964 it was 151 percent more than in
1945 ($2,621).
One factor responsible for the higher family income was the increase in the proportion of families with more than one wage earner.
At the same time there was no change in the proportion of families
without a wage earner. In 1964, 43 percent of all families had one
earner, 37 percent had two earners, 12 percent had three or more earners, and 8 percent had no earner. By comparison, in 1945, 59 percent
of all families had only one earner, 34 percent had two or more earners,
and 8 percent had none.
The earnings of family members provide the sole income for a
majority of families, and most earnings are in the form of wages
Table 57.—INCOME

OF F A M I L I E S , B Y T Y P E OF FAMILY,

1964

Median income

Type of family
All families

Number
47, 835, 000

Percent
distribution

Total
families

Families
headed by
year-round
full-time
worker

100. 0

$6, 569

$7, 720

Male head.

42, 829, 000

89. 5

6, 883

7, 826

Married (wife present)
Wife in labor force
Wife not in labor force.
Other marital status
Female head

41, 647, 000
13, 647, 000
28, 000, 000
1, 182, 000
5, 006, 000

87.
28.
58.
2.
10.

6, 932
8, 170
6, 338
5, 792
3, 458

7,
9,
7,
7,
5,

1
5
5
5
5

838
045
296
122
079

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-60, No. 47.




125

Women in the Labor Force

and salaries. Only a small proportion of families depend on earnings
from self-employment.
Income of husicmd-wife families.—Median income in 1964 for all
the 41.6 million husband-wife families was $6,932. For the 13.6
million families in which the wife worked, the median income was
$8,170. This was considerably more than the $6,338 median income
for families in which the wife was not in the labor force. Sixty-two
percent of the families with working wives had incomes of $7,000 or
more compared with 43 percent of those with wives not in the labor
force. A n undetermined, although small, percentage of husbandwife families had some income from the earnings of other family
members. In a very small percentage of families the husband was
not working.
Income of female-head families.—One-tenth of all families were
headed by a woman in 1964. Their median income was only $3,458—
just above the $3,000 poverty line. Families in which the woman
head was a year-round full-time worker did better—their median income was $5,079, still substantially below the $7,296 median income
of male-head families in which the wife did not work. However,
in only 29 percent of the families headed by a woman was the family
head a full-time breadwinner compared with 70 percent of the malehead families. Nineteen percent of the families with a female head
had incomes of $7,000 or more. More detailed data from the 1960 census indicate that female-head families depend to a larger extent than
do husband-wife families on income from other family members. (For
other characteristics of female-head families, see section 20.)
60. Income

of Women

Compared

With That of

Men

Differences in income received.—During
1964, 60 percent of the
women 14 years of age and over in the population and 91 percent of
the men received some income of their own. The median income received by women, however, was substantially below that received
by men. The 41.7 million women who had income of their own had a
median income of $1,449 (table 58). The 58.5 million men, in contrast, had more than three times as much ($4,647). Among those
whose income consisted of wages and salaries only, the median income
of women was $1,909 and that of men was $5,015. The difference was
not as great—but was still substantial—among year-round full-time
workers. In 1964 women year-round full-time workers had a median
wage or salary income of $3,690, which was only 60 percent of that of
men ($6,195).




Women's Income and Earnings

126

Equally striking differences between total money income of women
and men are revealed when the percentages are compared at various
income levels. For example, in 1964, 40 percent of the women, but
only 14 percent of the men, had an income below $1,000; and 59 percent of the women, but only 25 percent of the men, had less than
$2,000. A t the upper end of the income scale, only 10 percent of the
women, but 47 percent of the men, had an income of $5,000 or more.
Table 58.—INCOME

OF W O M E N A N D

MEN, 1964

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Total
money income
Women

Wage or salary
income

Men

Women

Men

58, 533
91. 4
$4, 647

29, 453
42. 2
$1, 909

47, 389
74. 0
$5, 015

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

40.
18.
13.
10.
7.
9.

14. 2
10. 9
8. 9
9. 4
9. 8
46. 8

35. 7
15. 6
14. 8
13. 3
9. 6
11.0

15.
7.
6.
9.
10.
50.

TOTAL INCOME RECIPIENTS

Number (in thousands)
Percent of population
Median income

41, 704
59. 7
$1, 449
Percent distribution

Total
Under
$1,000
$2,000
$3,000
$4,000
$5,000

$1,000
to $1,999
to $2,999
to $3,999
to $4,999
and over

0
8
3
6
6
7

5
6
7
6
5
2

YEAR-ROUND FULL-TIME WORKERS

Percent of total income recipients
Median income

28. 2
$3, 710

59. 5
$6, 283

38. 3
$3, 690

65. 9
$6, 195

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-60 ,
No. 47.

Trends in income differences.—It is not unexpected that women
receive a smaller average annual income than do men when total wage
and salary incomes are compared, since a much smaller proportion
of women than men work full time the year round. In 1964, for
instance, only 37 percent of the women, but 66 percent of the men,
were full-time year-round workers. (For a discussion of women's
part-time and part-year work patterns, see sections 36 and 37.)
However, a comparison of median wage and salary incomes of fulltime year-round women and men workers reveals that the incomes of




127

Women in the Labor Force

women are not only considerably less than those of men, but that the
gap between the two has widened in recent years (chart P ) . In
1956, for example, among full-time year-round wage and salary workers, women's median income of $2,719 was 64 percent of the $4,252
received by men. Women's median wage and salary income rose to
$3,690 in 1964, while men's rose to $6,195. Both sexes had significant
increases in income, but women's income increased at a slower rate
than that of men and as a result was only 60 percent of that of men
in 1964.
Occupational income differences.—A comparison of wage and salary income of full-time year-round women workers in selected occupational groups with that of men shows that women's relative income
position deteriorated in most occupations during the period 1956 to
1964 (table 59).
The median wage or salary income of women clerical workers
dropped from 72 percent of that of men in 1956 to 66 percent in
1964; that of women operatives, from 62 to 58 percent, after reaching
a peak of 63 percent in 1959; and that of women sales workers, from
a peak of 45 percent in 1957 to 40 percent in 1964. Income of women
Cfeart f

THE EARNINGS GAP
BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN IS WIDENING

MEDIAN WAGE
OR SALARY INCOME
$6,000

(WAGE OR SALARY INCOME OF YEAR-ROUND
FULL-TIME WORKERS, BY SEX, 1956-64]

$5,000
$4,000
$3,000

$2,000
$1,000
1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce. B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

779-555 O— 66




10

1962

1963 1964

K>
00

Table 59.—WOMEN' s

M E D I A N W A G E OR S A L A R Y I N C O M E AS P E R C E N T OP

BY S E L E C T E D M A J O R O C C U P A T I O N A L G R O U P ,

MEN'S

1956-64

(Year-round full-time workers 14 years of age and over)

Year
Selected major occupational group
Professional and technical workers
Managers, officials, and proprietors (except f a r m ) . .
Clerical workers
Sales workers
Operatives
Service workers (except private-household)

1964

1963

1962

1961

1960

1959

1958

1957

1956

64. 3
55. 5
66.2
40.4
57.8
53. 7

64. 8
55. 2
67.7
39. 0
57. 4
57. 5

66. 1
57. 8
68.6
43. 6
59. 4
51. 8

67. 6
53. 2
69.5
39. 1
57. 3
56. 1

64. 0
57. 6
68.3
42. 2
59. 7
59. 1

64. 2
56 9
68.1
42. 2
63. 3
56. 0

63. 7
58 6
70.0
43 8
61. 5
53 2

63.
63
72
44
59.
55

62 4
59 1
71*7
41 8
62 1
55 4

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Keports, P-60, Nos. 47, 43, 41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 30, and 27.




6
7
0
5
4
3

^
3
3

O
o
3

to
Q
3*

tQ

129

Women in the Labor Force

managers, officials, and proprietors also worsened relative to that of
men—from 64 percent in 1957 to 56 percent in 1964. The wage and
salary income of professional and technical women workers in 1964
was 64 percent of men's, after reaching a peak of 68 percent in 1961.
Similarly, women service workers not in private households were
worse off relative to men in 1964. Their wage and salary income
reached a peak of 59 percent of men's in 1960, but was 54 percent in
1964.
67. Income of Women

by Work

Experience

Although it does not affect the comparison of full-time year-round
earnings for men and women, women's part-time and part-year employment is one of the reasons accounting for the differences in median
incomes between men and women. This type of work pattern necessarily reduces average annual earnings substantially. During 1964,
for instance, 21.1 million women employed in full-time jobs had a
median income of $2,894 (table 60). In contrast, the median income
of the 8.3 million women with part-time jobs amounted to only $649.
About half the women in this group worked for less than 27 weeks
during the year.
Table

6 0 . — M E D I A N I N C O M E OF W O M E N W O R K E R S IN 1 9 6 4 , B Y W O R K

EXPERIENCE

(Women 14 years of age and over)

Women with fulltime jobs 1

1

3

Number

$2, 894

8, 341, 000

$649

11, 806, 000
2,436,000
2,331,000
2, 378, 000
2,109,000

3, 710
2, 846
2, 053
1, 293
444

2, 268, 000
878, 000
1, 061, 000
1, 646, 000
2, 488, 000

1, 276
1, 238
892
542
337

Number

Total

2

Median
income

21, 060, 000

Work experience

50 to 52 weeks
40 to 49 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
14 to 26 weeks __
13 weeks or less _

Women with parttime jobs 2

___
___
___

3

3

Median
income

Worked 35 hours or more a week.
Worked less than 35 hours a week.
Refers to number of women with income.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-60,
No. 47.

It is significant for the computation of median annual incomes of
women workers that there is a very wide income differential between
women who work full time the year round and those who work part




130

Women's Income and Earnings

time the year round. Thus in 1964 the median income of the 2.3
million women in the latter group was $1,276, while that of the
11.8 million who worked full time the year round was $3,710. Equally
significant is the proportion of women who work part time and part
of the year: half of those with part-time jobs in 1964 worked less than
27 weeks.
62. Wage

or Salary Income of White and Nonwhite

Women

The median wage or salary income of nonwhite full-time yearround women workers in 1964 was $2,674 (table 61). This was 69
percent of the median income of white women. Although this percentage was an improvement over the years 1956-59 and 1961-63, it
was just short of the peak 70 percent that nonwhite women workers'
income was of that of white women workers in 1960.
Table

6 1 . — M E D I A N W A G E OR S A L A R Y I N C O M E OF Y E A R - R O U N D F U L L - T I M E W O R K E R S ,
BY S E X A N D COLOR, 1 9 3 9 A N D 1 9 5 6 - 6 4
(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Median wage or salary
income
Year

White

Nonwhite

Nonwhite
income as
percent of
white income

WOMEN

1964
196 3
196 2
196 1
196 0
195 9
195 8
195 7
195 6

$3,859
3, 723
3, 601
3,480
3,410
3,306
3,225
3, 107
2,958

$2, 674
2,368
2,278
2,325
2,372
2, 196
1,988
1,866
1,637

69. 3
63. 6
63. 3
66.8
69. 6
66. 4
61. 6
60. 1
55. 3

863

327

37. 9

196 4
196 3
196 2
196 1
196 0
195 9
195 8
195 7
1956

$6,497
6,277
6,025
5,880
5,662
5,456
5,186
4,950
4,710

$4,285
4, 104
3,799
3,883
3,789
3,339
3,368
3,137
2, 912

66.0
65. 4
63. 1
66.0
66. 9
61. 2
64.9
63.4
61. 8

1939

1,419

639

45. 0

1939
MEN

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-60, Nos.
47, 43, 41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 30, and 27.




Women in the Labor Force

131

In the light of the longer period 1939-64, nonwhite women workers
made considerable progress in their income position relative to white.
In 1939 nonwhite women's wage or salary income had been only 38
percent of that of white women.
The gap between the income of nonwhite and white women workers
is explained largely by the greater occupational concentration of nonwhite women in low-wage and low-skill jobs and their geographical
concentration in Southern States, where incomes are lower than in
other regions of the country. For Negro women, in particular, opportunities at all levels of employment are more limited in the South than
in other regions.2 Some progress has been made, however, in raising
the educational and skill levels of nonwhite girls and in opening up
employment opportunities to them.
Nonwhite women were also in an unfavorable income position relative to nonwhite men. In 1964 nonwhite women's median wage or
salary income was 62 percent of that of nonwhite men. This was, however, slightly better than the 60 percent that the wage or salary income
of all women who worked full time the year round was of that of all
men in this category.
63. Income

by

Age

When women's income is analyzed in terms of the ages of the
women involved, important differences are found in the proportions
we receive income as well as in the amount received.
In 1964 the age group with the greatest proportion receiving income (82 percent) was that of women 65 years of age and over.3 This
high proportion, which increased sharply during the 1950's and early
1960's, reflects the rising number of women who receive social security
benefits and private or public pensions. In the group of women 25
to 64 years of age, the proportion receiving income in 1964 ranged
from 52 to 63 percent. Among girls 14 to 19 years of age, many of
whom were in school, only 43 percent received some income.
In amount, the median income of women rose sharply from $384
for girls 14 to 19 years old to $1,951 for the young adult group 20
to 24 years old. Among women 25 to 54 years of age, it increased
only moderately, to a peak of $2,410 for women 45 to 54 years old;
then it dropped to $1,910 for women 55 to 64 years old and, finally,
to $952 for women 65 years and over.
2 For a discussion of Negro women's income and nonwhite women's earnings, see "Negro
Women Workers in I 9 6 0 . "
Bull. 287.
Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.
1963.
3 Current Population Reports, P - 6 0 , No. 47.
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department
of Commerce.




Women's Income and Earnings

132

The variation in income from one age group to another was much
less for women than for men, probably because of women's relatively
less continuous employment over their working life. Women's different lifetime working pattern also explains why their peak income
($2,410) was attained in the age group 45 to 54 years old, whereas
men's peak income ($6,500) was attained by the younger age group
35 to 44 years old.
Among year-round full-time workers, women reached their peak
income ($3,893) at age 25 to 34 years, while men reached theirs
($6,969) at age 35 to 44 years. However, in the peak income groups
of women and men the proportions of year-round full-time workers
differed greatly—34 percent and 81 percent, respectively.
64. Income

by

Occupation

The wage or salary income of women and men is obviously influenced by the type of job they hold. Occupations that require greater
skills and more knowledge naturally pay better than those that involve only routine duties. Among women who were year-round fulltime workers in 1964, the highest paid were professional and technical
workers ($5,150) and nonfarm managers, officials, and proprietors
($4,369) (table 62). In the clerical field, where 3 out of 10 women
workers find jobs, the median wage or salary income in 1964 was
still relatively high ($4,060). On the other hand, women working as
operatives made less than two-thirds as much as women professional
Table

62.—MEDIAN

W A G E OR S A L A R Y

INCOME

OF

YEAR-ROUND

W O R K E R S , B Y M A J O R OCCUPATIONAL G R O U P AND S E X ,

FULL-TIME

1964

(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Major occupational group

Professional, technical, and kindred workers
Farmers and farm managers
Managers, officials, and proprietors (except farm)
Clerical and kindred workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
Operatives and kindred workers
Private-household workers
Service workers (except private-household)
Farm laborers and foremen
Laborers (except farm, mine)

Women

$5,150
(1)
4, 369
4, 060
2, 719
(J)
3, 271
1, 082
2, 525
P)
(*)

Men

$8, 004
754
7, 870
6, 134
6, 733
6, 538
5, 659
(*)
4, 701
2, 160
4, 436

i Median not shown where base is less than 200,000.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P - 6 0 ,
No. 47.




Women in the Labor Force

133

workers, and women sales and service workers outside the home
earned about half as much as the most skilled group of women.
At the low end of the wage or salary income scale, women privatehousehold workers averaged only $1,082 even when they worked full
time the year round.
In every major occupational group the median wage or salary
income of women was less than that of men. Women's earnings relative to men's were highest among clerical workers (66 percent) and
professional and technical workers (64 percent). Women operatives
and service workers (except private-household) earned proportionately less (58 and 54 percent, respectively). And the group with the
lowest earnings compared with men's were women sales workers (40
percent).
65. Income

and

Education

There is a definite correlation between income and educational accomplishment among both women and men: those with the least
schooling have the lowest incomes, and those with the most formal
education have the highest. The pattern shown previously, however, when the income and earnings of women and men were compared is repeated here: the median income received by women is
substantially below the median income of men. This is true at all
levels of educational attainment.
Among the nearly 33 million women 25 years of age and over who
received some money income in 1964, those with 5 or more years of college had the highest median income ($5,518) (chart Q ) . Women who
had completed 4 years of college had only 71 percent ($3,931) of the
median income of those with graduate study, and women high school
graduates had only 60 percent ($2,369) of the median income of those
who had completed 4 years of college. Women with 8 years of schooling had only 55 percent ($1,297) of the median income of high school
graduates.
A comparison of the median income received by women and men
with equal amounts of schooling shows that the more education
women have, the more nearly their income approaches the income of
men. For example, among women and men who had completed 8
years of school, women's median income was only 33 percent of men's ;
among those with 4 years of high school (no college), women's median
income was 38 percent of men's. Women who had completed 4 years
of college received 47 percent as much income as men. The income
of women with 5 or more years of college came closest (59 percent) to
that of men.




Women's Income and Earnings

134

flsart Q

EDUCATION AND EARNING POWER 60 TOGETHER
(MEDIAN INCOME IN 1964 OF WOMEN, BY YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED, 1965)
MEDIAN INCOME

WOMEN 25 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER

$6,000
5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000
°

LESS 8 YEARS
THAN
8 YEARS

1 - 3 4 YEARS
YEARS

S o u r c e : U . S . Department of Commerce, B u r e a u of the

1 - 3 4 YEARS 5 YEARS
YEARS
OR MORE

Census.

There is, however, one exception to this general rule. Women
with less than 8 years of schooling received nearly as high a proportion of men's income (35 percent) in 1964 as did women who had
completed high school (38 percent). This exception may be accounted
for in part by the fact that many women who have not finished elementary school are 65 years of age and over and are probably eligible
for and receiving social security benefits. (See section 66.) Of the
women with less than 8 years of education at the time of the 1960
decennial census, more than 2 out of 5 of those 25 years of age and
over who had income were at least 65 years old.
66. Women
Disability

Receiving

Benefits Under Old-Age,

Insurance

Survivors,

and

(OASDI)

The Social Security Act of 1935, as amended, provides for partial
replacement of income lost when employment is cut off because of age,
disability, or death. Women may benefit from the act in their own
right as workers, or they may benefit as aged wives of retired or disabled workers, as widows, as dependent mothers of deceased workers,




Women in the Labor Force

135

or as young wives or widows if they have children of insured workers
in their care. Certain divorced women are also eligible for benefits.
The current programs cover almost all types of workers; Federal
employees are the principal exceptions.
A woman qualifies for retirement benefits if she is fully insured.
How long she must work to be fully insured depends on when she
was born—the older she is, the less time she needs to have worked under
social security. A woman born in 1929 or later needs a total of 10
years' work under social security to qualify for retirement benefits.
The minimum requirement is three-fourths of a year of work under
social security for a woman born before 1893. The period over which
her average earnings are computed can begin in 1937 or 1951, depending upon which results in a higher benefit.
The social security program is financed through a tax on workers
and their employers and on self-employed persons, and is administered
by the Federal Government. A series of amendments to the original
act has extended its coverage, increased benefit amounts, expanded the
classes of dependents who qualify as beneficiaries, protected the benefit rights of certain workers who suffer long-term disability, and
added health insurance (Medicare) benefits beginning in July 1966.
Disabled insured workers whose disability is expected to last for at
least 12 months are eligible for disability benefits for themselves and
their families, beginning with the seventh month of their disability.
Retired workers (both sexes) under 72 years of age generally receive
their benefits if they earn less than $1,500 a year, an increase from
the $1,200 limit in effect prior to January 1, 1966. Beginning with
age 72, benefits are paid without regard to current earnings.
About 9.2 million women received benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance programs of the Social Security
Administration at the end of 1963 (table 63). Male beneficiaries were
fewer in number (7.1 million). Among the 16.3 million adults who
received some type of benefit, women accounted for 56 percent of
the total.
About 3.8 million women beneficiaries were retired workers 62 years
of age and over, who received average monthly benefits of $63.42.
Another 2.4- million beneficiaries were wives of retirees 62 years and
over, without dependent children, who received average monthly benefits of $40.66. The third largest group of beneficiaries were widows
62 years and over, without children; they numbered a little more
than 2 million and received average benefits of $66.85.
Nonwhite women were less than 7 percent of all women beneficiaries
and numbered 629,000. Their average benefits ranged from $20.94 to
$65.13; those of white women beneficiaries, from $31.62 to $80.99.




Table 63.—NUMBER

OF W O M E N R E C E I V I N G O A S D I B E N E F I T S A N D A V E R A G E M O N T H L Y B E N E F I T S R E C E I V E D , B Y C O L O R , A T E N D OF

Number

Beneficiaries

Total

_ . _

__

Retirees 62 years and over__
_
_ _ _ _ _
Wives of retirees, with dependent children 1
__ _
Wives 62 years and over of retirees, without dependent
children 2
_ _
_
_
_
—
Widows, without children 3 _ _ _
_
_____
Mothers (divorced or widowed) __
_
__
Parents 4 .
__ _ _ _
_
_
Disabled :
Own disability _
_
__
—
Wives of disabled workers, with dependent children
Wives of disabled workers, without dependent children.

Average
monthly
benefits

Number

Average
monthly
benefits

Number

Average
monthly
benefits

629, 019

8, 574, 117

9, 203, 136
3, 765, 959
170, 047

$63. 42
29. 94

3, 492, 479
143, 245

$64. 44
31.62

2, 397, 589
2, 008, 102
461, 675
34, 001

40. 66
66.85
59.43
69.69

2, 292, 470
1,909,811
389, 347
30, 645

41. 11
67.44
62. 17
70. 56

197, 976
141, 112
26, 675

78. 87
31.66
35.80

171,514
120, 323
24, 283

80. 99
33.03
36. 16

273, 480
26, 802

$50. 39
20. 94

119
291
328
356

30. 82
55.31
44. 68
61.74

26, 462
20, 789
2, 392

65. 13
23.72
32. 16

105,
98,
72,
3,

1 Dependent children are children under 18 years or disabled children of any age whose disability began before their 18th birthday. A wife with dependent children may be
under 62 years and receive her full benefit, which is 50 percent of the retiree's amount.
2 If a wife without dependent children is under 65 years at the time of her husband's retirement, she receives reduced benefits; if she is 65 at the time of her husband's retirement, she receives full benefits, which are 50 percent of the retiree's amount.
3 A widow receives 82H percent of the deceased worker's benefit amount.
4 The dependent parent of a deceased insured worker may receive benefits at age 62 or over. If there is only one surviving parent, he or she gets 8 2 ^ percent of the benefit
amount; if both parents survive, each gets 75 percent of the benefit amount.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Administration.




u>

O

Nonwhite

White

Total

1963

o
3
o
3

3

n
O
3
Q
3
Q_

m

Q
3
3*

C
O

Women in the Labor Force

137

At the end of 1963, 198,000 disabled women workers were receiving
an average monthly benefit of $78.87. In addition, about 170,000 wives
of disabled workers were receiving benefits. About 84 percent of these
beneficiaries were mothers; their monthly benefits averaged $31.66.
As a result of the 1956 amendment to the Social Security Act that
lowered the retirement age for women from 65 to 62 years, there has
been an increase in the number of women applying for benefits even
though early retirement means permanently reduced benefits. By
the close of 1963, 36 percent of the women aged 65 and over who were
drawing benefits as retired workers and 44 percent of the retired
women beneficiaries aged 62 and over had taken an actuarially reduced
benefit. Of the women drawing benefits as dependent wives of retired
workers at the end of 1963, the proportion with actuarially reduced
benefits was 39 percent for those aged 65 and over and 48 percent for
the entire group aged 62 and over.
As of January 1, 1964, 114.9 million workers then living, including
52.5 million women, had accumulated social security credits toward
insurance benefits.
A recent survey of the aged undertaken by the Social Security
Administration showed that old-age, survivors, and disability insurance benefits are a very substantial part of retirement income of women
beneficiaries.4 For example, in 1962 these benefits accounted for 46
percent of the total income of retired women, 52 percent of the total
income of widows, and 40 percent of the total income of married
couples.
67. Women

as

Stockholders

Women's participation in stockownership is another indicator of
their economic status. The 9,430,000 women estimated to have one or
more shares of stock in publicly owned corporations in early 1965
represented 47 percent of 20,120,000 individual shareholders, according
to a study made by the New York Stock Exchange.5
About 1 out of 6 women and men in the adult population (21 years
of age and over) was estimated to be a shareowner. Sixteen percent
of all adult women were shareowners compared with 17 percent of
adult men.
Women constituted 33 percent of the total stockholders of record
reported by public corporations. The number of shares owned individually by women stockholders equaled 18 percent of the total
4 Lrenore A. Epstein, "Income of the Aged in 1962 : First Findings of the 1963 Survey
of the Aged."
In Social Security Bulletin, Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, March 1964.
5 "Shareownership U . S . A . : 1965 Census of Shareowners" New York Stock Exchange.
June 1965.




138

Women's Income and Earnings

as compared with 24 percent owned individually by men. The remaining shares (58 percent) were held or owned by institutions,
brokers and dealers, persons with joint accounts, nominees (who hold
shares for others), and foreign owners. The estimated market value
of the stock registered in women's names was 18 percent of the total,
compared with 20 percent registered in men's names.
According to a New York Stock Exchange study, in 1962 American
women stockholders wrere slightly older than men stockholders.6 The
median age of women stockholders was 49 years, while that of men
was 48. There were proportionately fewer women than men among
shareowners under 21 years of age (minors) and among people 21 to 34
and 45 to 54 years old. However, the proportions of women shareowners were greater than those of men in the 35- to 44-year and
65-year-and-over age groups. In the latter age group women outnumbered men by nearly half a million. It is possible that many of these
women shareowners acquired their stock through gifts or inheritance,
since 1 out of 6 women shareowners was a widow.
The likelihood of shareownership increases with the amount of formal education completed by adult stockholders. In 1965 only 1 out
of 18 adults with 3 years of high school or less was a shareowner. In
contrast, 1 out of 7 adult high school graduates and 3 out of 5 adult
college graduates were shareowners. Among women shareowners, 1
out of 4 had graduated from college.
The highest incidence of shareownership in 1965 occurred among
people employed in professional and technical occupations—in this
group almost 2 out of 5 were shareowners. Among those employed as
clerical and sales workers, more than 1 out of 5 owned shares. For
women, however, the highest incidence of shareownership (1 out of 2)
occurred among those employed as clerical and sales workers. This is
not surprising, since in April 1965 nearly 2 out of 5 women who worked
were employed in clerical or sales jobs.
The largest single group of shareowners were women not in the labor
force; that is, housewives, retired women, widows, and other women
living alone. The nearly 6.4 million such women who wTere shareowners in 1965 accounted for about 35 percent of the total number of
individual shareowners and about 17 percent of women not in the
labor force.
Among adults who became shareowners for the first time between
1962 and 1965, about 52 percent were women. Twenty-nine percent
of all the new shareowners were women not in the labor force.
The 1962 Stock Exchange study also provided a comparison of the
manner in which women and men first acquired stock. It disclosed
6 " T h e 17 Million : 1962 Census of Shareowners in America."
June 1962.




New York Stock Exchange.

Women in the Labor Force

139

that 52 percent of the women purchased their first share through a
broker, 18 percent inherited their shares or received them as gifts,
and 16 percent made their initial stock acquisition through company stock purchase plans. More than twice as many women as
men inherited their first shares of stock or received them as gifts.
Women on the whole seem to be more concerned with long-term
investments than are men. A study conducted by the New York Stock
Exchange in 1963 7 indicated that even though slightly more than half
of the adult shareowners in the country were women, they accounted
for only one-fourth of the volume in trade (buying and selling).

Earnings of Nonprofessional Women Workers
68. Salaries of Office Workers
For the 7.5 million women engaged in clerical work, the main source
of salary information is the Bureau of Labor Statistics' community
wage surveys conducted regularly in 80 important centers of business
and industry. These area wage surveys show straight-time earnings
for a regular workweek, excluding any premium pay for overtime or
nightwork. In addition to the average (arithmetic mean) earnings
summarized here for major office occupations, the full reports show
the number of workers by specified salary groupings.
Wage surveys covering 14 different office jobs in 17 selected standard
metropolitan statistical areas during the fiscal year July 1963 to June
1964 are discussed here (table 64). Among women clerical workers
surveyed, secretaries received the highest salaries—their average
earnings ranged from $81 in Memphis to $108.50 in Los Angeles-Long
Beach. Average earnings of class A accounting clerks ranged from
$87.50 a week in Minneapolis-St. Paul to $105.50 in Los Angeles-Long
Beach. Stenographers' weekly salaries averaged a low of $82 in
Minneapolis-St. Paul and Boston and a high of $98 in Los AngelesLong Beach. Office girls were among the lowest paid, clerical workers
studied, with weekly salaries ranging from $54.50 in Minneapolis-St.
Paul to $69 in Los Angeles-Long Beach. The widest spreads in average weekly salaries were among switchboard operators—from a low
of $53 in Memphis to a high of $84.50 in Los Angeles-Long Beach—
and Comptometer operators—from a low of $65 in Birmingham to a
high of $96.50 in Los Angeles-Long Beach.
7 "Public Transaction
1964.




Study,

Oct. 16, 1 9 6 3 . "

New York Stock Exchange.

January

Table

6 4 . — W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S OF W O M E N IN S E L E C T E D O F F I C E O C C U P A T I O N S ,

Metropolitan area
Atlanta
Birmingham
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cleveland
Dallas
Kansas City
Los Angeles-Long
Beach
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
New York City
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Portland (Oreg.)
San Francisco-Oakland
Seattle

Secretaries

Bookkeeping
Acmacountchine
ing
opSteclerks, erators, nogclass
class
raA
A
phers

Payroll
clerks

Typists,
class
A

Comptometer
operators

17

Keypunch
operators,
class
A

METROPOLITAN AREAS, JULY

Bookkeeping
Acmacountchine Switching
opboard
clerks, erators,
opclass
class
eraB
B
tors

Typists,
class
B

Office

File
clerks,
class
B

$96. 00 $97. 00 $80. 50 $94.50 $83.00 $71.50 $78.00 $89.00 $75.50 $73.00 $75.50 $62. 50 $59. 00 $62.50
93. 50 90. 00 85. 50 94.00 79.50 71.50 65.00 86.00 72.50 61.50 67.50 60. 50 60.00
58. 50
92. 00 88. 50 83. 00 82.00 77.00 73.50 73.00 75.50 70.50 68. 00 75.50 63. 00 56. 50
61.50
99. 50 99. 00 84. 50 94.50 82.00 80.00 75.00 87.00 75.50 64.00 76. 50 63. 00 60. 50 t 59. 50
104.00 100.50 95.00 94.00 91.50 82.50 81.50 88.00 81.00 77.00 80.50 70. 50 65. 00 ' 70. 00
103.50 100.00 90.00 95.00 89.00 83.00 81.50 87.50 79.50 72.00 79.50 68. 50 62.00
67.00
92.50 87.50 76.50 89.50 79.00 70.50 71.50 77.00 70.00 69.00 69.00 59. 00 57.00
60. 00
96. 50 89. 50 87. 00 88.50 83.50 78.50 79.50 84.50 71.00 66.50 70.50 63. 50 64. 50
60. 50
108.50 105.50
81.00 89.00
91. 00 87. 50
104. 50 99. 50
96. 50 90. 50
100.00 99.00
94.50 91.50

98.50
76.00
84. 00
91. 00
79. 00
86.00
92.50

98.00
93. 00
82. 00
95.00
86.50
91.50
90. 00

99.50
72. 50
80. 50
91.50
78. 50
87.00
89. 50

86.00
71.00
72.00
82.00
80. 00
78.00
77. 00

96.50
66.00
76.00
85. 00
75. 00
80. 50
86. 50

94. 50
75. 50
77.50
86. 50
82. 50
91.00
81.00

83.50
65. 50
70. 50
79.00
70. 50
78.50
79.50

75. 00
62.50
64. 50
77.50
67. 50
70. 50
75. 50

84. 50
53.00
71. 50
83.50
74. 00
79.50
76.00

75. 50
56. 00
62. 50
71.00
62.00
67.50
65. 00

69. 00
58.00
54. 50
63.00
58.00
63.00
58. 50

69. 50
63.00
60. 50
72.00
60. 50
67.00
71.50

106.00
103.50

99.50
88.50

95.50 100.50
90. 00 92. 00

83. 50
82.50

94. 00
89.50

90. 00
86.00

86.00
79. 50

81.50
76.00

84. 00
81.50

72.50
68.50

68. 50
63. 50

67. 50
72. 00

99.50
94.00

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Wages and Related Benefits, Part 1: 80 Metropolitan Areas, 1963-64."




1963-JUNE 1964

Bull. No. 1385-82.

December 1964.

141

Women in the Labor Force

69. Earnings

in Selected Manufacturing

Industries

Detailed information on a nationwide basis or on an area basis is
available on women's earnings in selected manufacturing and service
industries recently surveyed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Areacentered wage surveys rather than industrywide surveys are sometimes conducted in manufacturing industries that are highly concentrated in a few areas of the country.
Cotton textiles.—The largest of the textile industries, cotton textiles,
in May 1963 employed 85,538 women, who constituted 38 percent of
all workers in that industry (table 65). Since 93 percent of the
workers were located in the Southeast, women's average hourly earnings in the Nation ($1.47) were almost the same as in the Southeast
($1.46). The 4,000 women workers located in New England averaged $1.55 in hourly earnings. Numerically, the major jobs held in
this industry were those of ring-frame spinner, yarn winder, and
weaver. Almost all of the ring-frame spinners, yarn winders, and
battery hands were women. Their average hourly earnings were
about the same as those of men. Weavers were the highest paid—
Table

THE

COT-

TON T E X T I L E I N D U S T R Y , B Y S E X , U N I T E D S T A T E S AND S O U T H E A S T R E G I O N ,

65.—AVERAGE

HOURLY

EARNINGS

IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

IN

MAY

1963

Women
As percent
Region and selected occupation

United States

Number

employed

Average hourly
earnings 1
Women

Men

85, 538

37.9

$1.47

$1.56

Battery hands
Inspectors, cloth, machine
Spinners, ring-frame
Warper tenders
Weavers
Winders, yarn
Southeast

9, 869
4, 472
20, 039
1, 061
9, 950
16, 772
79,167

94.3
84.4
99.1
56.9
48.7
98.1
37.8

1.36
1.42
1.48
1.48
1.73
1.44
1.46

1.38
1.48
1.48
1.55
1.77
1.51
1.56

Battery hands
Inspectors, cloth, machine
Spinners, ring-frame
Warper tenders
Weavers
Winders, yarn

9,197
4, 048

95.1
85.5

1.36
1.42

1.37
1.49

945
9, 174
* 15, 684

55.4
48.8
98.5

1.49
1.73
1.43

1
2

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

1.52
1.75
1.44

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Not available.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Cotton
Textiles, May 1963." Bull. No. 1410. August 1964.




142

Women's Income and Earnings

women weavers averaged $1.73 (men, $1.77) nationwide and $2.00
(men, $2.35) in the Middle Atlantic Region.
Differences in average pay levels between women and men result
partly from variations in the sex composition of the work force in
plants and in jobs with different pay levels. Three-fifths of the
women, for example, were employed in four occupations (battery
hand, cloth inspector, spinner, and winder) that require less skill than
the jobs typically men's (card grinder, loom fixer, and machinist).
Synthetic textiles.—The 32,825 women employed by plants engaged
in the manufacture of synthetic textiles in May 1963 were 39 percent
of all workers in this industry. Women averaged $1.47 an hour (men,
$1.63) (table 66). Sixty-nine percent of the women in this industry
were located in the Southeast. Their main occupations were yarn
winder, ring-frame spinner, and weaver. Most of the yarn winders
and ring-frame spinners were women. Women's hourly earnings were
either a little lower than or the same as men's, with one exception:
women twister tenders in the Southeast (57 percent of all the women
in this occupation on a nationwide basis) had hourly earnings of
$1.38 an hour compared with $1.37 for men. The highest paid ocTable

66.—AVERAGE HOURLY

THETIC
MAY

TEXTILE

EARNINGS

INDUSTRY,

BY

IN

SEX,

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS

UNITED

STATES

AND

SYN-

REGION,

1963

Women

Region and selected occupation

Number

United States

32, 825

Battery hands.
Inspectors, cloth, machine __
Spinners, ring-frame __
Twister tenders, ring-frame - _
Weavers-__
Winders, yarn_
..
Southeast
__ _

Average hourly
earnings 1

percent
of total
employed

Women

39.0

$1.47

$1. 63

Men

1,981

82.7

1.35

1. 4 3

2, 101

81.3

1.43

1. 5 3

3, 2 5 9

92.2

1.44

1. 5 2

1,847

65.6

1.39

1. 3 9

3, 101

32.5

1.86

1. 9 1

9, 6 5 2

96.7

1.42

1. 4 2

22, 719

Battery hands _
Inspectors, cloth, machine __
Spinner, ring-frame __
Twister tenders, ring-frame _ _
Weavers
Winders, yarn _ _
1

IN THE

SOUTHEAST

36.8

1.44

1. 5 7

1,653

91. 1

1.35

1. 3 6

1,401

79. 1

1.41

1. 5 1

2, 9 2 2

93.5

1.42

1. 4 9

1,049

55.3

1.38

1. 3 7

1,925

31. 1

1.79

1. 8 0

6,439

98.4

1.42

1 44

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Synthetic
Textiles, May 1963."

Bull. No. 1414.




August 1964.

143

Women in the Labor Force

cupation was weaver. Women weavers in the Nation averaged $1.86
(men, $1.91).
As a group, women averaged 16 cents an hour less than men. The
difference was 13 cents in the Southeast, 22 cents in New England, and
34 cents in the Middle Atlantic Region. Differences in average pay
levels between women and men are partly the result of variations in
the sex composition among plants and among jobs with divergent pay
levels.
T V o m e n ' s and misses'
dresses.—Wage data were collected in MarchApril 1963 from plants manufacturing women's and misses' dresses
in 12 metropolitan areas. Nearly three-fifths of the estimated 93,000
production workers (both sexes) covered in the wage survey were in
New York City. Women production workers in New York numbered 40,150 and received the highest hourly earnings—$2.24; about
one-third were paid $2.50 or more an hour (table 67). They received
their lowest earnings in Dallas and Cleveland—$1.47 and $1.49, respectively. The proportions of women paid less than $1.25 an hour
were far larger in these 2 areas than in the other 10 centers surveyed:
in Dallas it was 24 percent and in Cleveland 22 percent.
Table

67.—AVERAGE
INDUSTRY,

HOURLY

BY S E X ,

Metropolitan

area

Boston
_
Chicago
Cleveland
Dallas
_ _
Fall River and New Bedford.
Los Angeles-Long Beach
_
Newark and Jersey City__
New York City
__ . _
Paterson-Clifton- Passaic
Philadelphia.
St. Louis
Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton
1

EARNINGS

IN

1 2 METROPOLITAN
Number of
women
production
workers

1,731
2, 351
650
2, 4 1 7
5, 225
5, 1 3 7
4, 193
40, 1 5 0
1,801
3, 803
2, 033
6, 5 6 1

WOMEN'S
AREAS,

AND

Average hourly
earnings 1
Women

$1.91
1.82
1.49
1.47
1.76
1.93
2.00
2. 24
2. 1 5
1.87
1.84
1.72

MISSES'

MARCH-APRIL

Men

$3.12
2. 7 4
2. 03
1.78
1.88
2. 62
3.07
3.27
4. 33
2. 42
2. 33
1.82

DRESS

1963

Percent of women
receiving—
Under
$1.25

7.5
4.5
22. 1
23.7
4.4
8.9
6.4
2.8
1.4
4.2
2.9
6.5

$2.60
and over

17.0
10.4
2.4
1.6
8.8
18.6
21.2
32.6
28.3
13.5
10.5
7.3

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Women's and
Misses' Dresses, March-April 1963." Bull. No. 1391. January 1964.

About three-fourths of the workers in the dress manufacturing industry in New York City were women. In the other areas studied
the proportions ranged from five-sixths in Boston to more than ninetenths in six areas.
77i9-5'55—66




11

Women's Income and Earnings

144

Women had lower average earnings than men had in all 12 centers
surveyed.
Differences were smallest in Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton
(women, $1.72; men, $1.82) and greatest in Paterson-Clifton-Passaic
(women, $2.15; men, $4.33). Women's lower average earnings reflect
the employment of numerous women in the lower paid jobs of examiner, sewer, section system operator, and thread trimmer, while
most men were employed in the higher paid jobs of cutter, marker,
and presser. The wage variations among the areas partly reflect
differences in market influences and manufacturing processes. In New
York, for example, the single hand tailor system of sewing is predominant, while in Dallas and Cleveland—areas which had the lowest
average earnings—the section system is predominant.
70. Earnings

in Selected Service

Industries

In addition to its area-centered wage surveys in manufacturing
industries, the Bureau of Labor Statistics made wage surveys in June
1963 in three major service industries employing large numbers of
women: hotels and motels, laundries and cleaning services, and eating
and drinking places. In contrast to the geographical concentration of
the manufacturing industries discussed previously, service industries
are located in almost every city and town. Wage information, however, was obtained only for selected metropolitan areas. Generally,
occupational averages were highest in Pacific Coast States and lowest
in Southern States.
Hotels and motels.—The wage survey of employees in selected hotel
occupations in 23 metropolitan areas indicated that the largest numbers of women were employed as chambermaids, elevator operators,
and waitresses. Average hourly wages of chambermaids ranged from
51 cents in Memphis and New Orleans to $1.70 in San FranciscoOakland (table 68).
For women elevator operators, the range was from 32 cents an hour
in Memphis to $1.83 in New York City and San Francisco-Oakland.
Elevator operators usually had higher average wages than maids did,
but in a majority of the areas the difference was less than 10 cents
an hour. In 9 of the 14 areas for which comparisons of the average
hourly wages of men and women elevator operators could be made,
the difference amounted to 5 cents or less.
Waitresses had an average hourly wage of 22 cents in Atlanta and
$1.50 in San Francisco-Oakland. In New York City the average was
80 cents. Waitresses receive tips in addition to wages, and the majority reported that they received one or more free meals a day.
As a group all nonsupervisory women employees had average hourly
wages of $1.04, while men as a group averaged $1.32. In the South




Women in the Labor Force
Table

145

6 8 . — A V E R A G E H O U R L Y W A G E S OF W O M E N IN S E L E C T E D H O T E L
TIONS, 2 3 M E T R O P O L I T A N A R E A S , J U N E

Elevator
operators

Chambermaids

Metropolitan area

Northeast:
Boston
_
Buffalo
Newark and Jersey
City
New York City
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
South:
Atlanta
Memphis
_
Miami
_
New Orleans
North Central:
Chicago
Cincinnati.- _
Cleveland . .
Detroit
__ —
Indianapolis
Kansas City. _
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St.
Paul
St. Louis
West:
Denver
Los Angeles-Long
Beach
_
Portland.
__
San FranciscoOakland-

Number

Average
hourly
wages2 Number

725

$1. 2 4

265

1. 2 0

170

1

OCCUPA-

1963

Waitresses

Average
hourly
wages 2 Number

.

Average
hourly
wages2

404
19

$0. 9 3

$1. 2 8

200

.90

10

. 96

580

1. 0 0

6, 148

1. 5 1

217

1. 8 3

115

.80

493

1. 1 3

94

1. 1 5

183

. 75

609

1. 3 9

33

1. 6 2

532

. 72

527

. 53

95

. 48

84

. 22

277

. 51

13

. 32

96

. 29

67

. 85

812

. 51

208

.32

.98

1, 2 7 7

.85

549

. 51

3, 0 1 4

1. 2 0

204

1. 4 3

617

. 88

258

1. 0 7

33

1. 1 5

193

.80

.

547

1. 1 5

64

1. 2 2

295

. 80

659

1. 1 3

56

1. 4 1

233

.94

273

. 84

42

. 82

169

.39

529

.93

47

. 93

253

.63

244

1. 2 5

214

. 85

519

1. 2 9

35

1. 3 7

557

1. 0 6

832

1. 0 5

52

1. 2 1

169

. 83

527

1. 0 7

16

1. 0 5

358

. 89

1, 4 8 2

1. 2 6

47

1. 5 3

457

1. 1 5

252

1. 3 4

12

1. 4 2

245

1. 2 4

1, 1 1 3

1. 7 0

23

1. 8 3

413

1. 5 0

.

1

Refers to ? ear-round hotels, tourist courts, and motels.

2

Excludes tips and the value of free meals, room, and uniforms, as well as premium pay for overtime.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Hotels and
Motels, June 1963." Bull. No. 1406. July 1964.

nonsupervisory women employees as a group were paid 17 cents an hour
less than men; in the North Central Region, 24 cents less; and in the
Northeast and West, about 30 cents less.
Laundry and cleaning services.—Women employed in this industry
in 24 metropolitan areas in June 1963 received hourly wages ranging
from 79 cents in Memphis to $1.76 in San Francisco-Oakland (table
69). A t least three-fifths of the women earned less than $1.00 an hour




146

Women's Income and Earnings

in Atlanta, Memphis, Miami, and New Orleans. In all 24 major areas
women's average earnings were less than men's. Occupations in which
women predominated were retail receiving clerk, flatwork machine
finisher, and machine presser of shirts and laundered wearing apparel.
Flatwork finisher was numerically the most important occupation of
women. Average hourly earnings of women in this occupation ranged
from 67 cents in Memphis and 68 cents in New Orleans to $1.62 in San
Francisco-Oakland. Operators of shirt-pressing machines averaged
more than flatwork finishers in all areas except Minneapolis-St. Paul,
where both averages were $1.46 an hour.
Eating and drinking places.—A wage study made by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in June 1963 indicated that nearly three-fifths of
the industry's nonsupervisory employees were women and more than
half of these were waitresses. Among all workers, women were seventenths in the North Central Region, three-fifths in the South, about
half in the West, and two-fifths in the Northwest. Within each region
the proportions of women were substantially higher in nonmetropolitan areas.
Average hourly wages of women cashiers employed in eating and
drinking places of the 24 areas studied ranged from 97 cents in Memphis to $2.13 in San Francisco-Oakland (table 70). In Los AngelesLong Beach and in New York City—both areas in which more than
a thousand were employed—their average wages were $1.75 and $1.67,
respectively.
Women counter attendants averaged 76 cents an hour in Atlanta and
$1.94 in San Francisco-Oakland. Areas with the greatest number
(over a thousand) employed were New York City, Chicago, and Los
Angeles-Long Beach, where their average hourly wages were $1.46,
$1.30, and $1.20, respectively.
About 21,000 waitresses were employed in Los Angeles-Long Beach;
11,000, in Chicago; and 10,000, in New York City. Their average
hourly wages in these areas w^ere $1.11, 71 cents, and 99 cents, respectively. The highest paid waitresses were in San Francisco-Oakland
($1.66 an hour) ; the lowest paid, in Miami (38 cents an hour). Over
nine-tenths of the establishments surveyed indicated that most of the
waitresses received tips in addition to the employer-paid wages, and
at least a majority of the waitresses were provided free meals.
Pantrywoman was the most important kitchen occupation for
women. Average hourly wages of pantrywomen ranged from 68
cents an hour in Memphis to $2.03 in San Francisco-Oakland. The
largest numbers of them were in New York City (637), Detroit (619),
and Chicago (594), where their hourly earnings were $1.52, $1.22,
and $1.43, respectively.




Women in the Labor Force
Table

69.—AVERAGE

HOURLY

147
EARNINGS

IN

POWER

LAUNDRIES,1

BY

SEX,

24

METROPOLITAN A R E A S , J U N E 1 9 6 3

Metropolitan

area

Northeast:
Boston
Buffalo
Newark and Jersey City___
New York City_
Philadelphia __
_ _ _
Pittsburgh
__
South:
Atlanta
Baltimore
—
Memphis
Miami
New Orleans
—
North Central:
Chicago
Cincinnati. _
_ _
Cleveland
_
_ _ _ _
Detroit
Indianapolis- _ — __
Kansas City
Milwaukee
Minneapolis-St. Paul___ _
St. Louis __ _ _ _ _
West:
Denver/--- __ _
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Portland__ ___ _
_ _
San Francisco-Oakland

Average hourly
Number of
earnings 2
women plant
workers Women
Men

2, 751
1,287
4, 093
9, 057
4, 610
2, 425

$1. 37
1. 34
1. 36
1. 38
1. 33
1. 20

$1. 80
1. 79
1. 80
1. 70
1. 73
1. 55

2, 288
2, 366
1,485
1, 920
884

. 84
1. 06
. 79
1. 01
. 85

10, 558
1, 271
2, 684
5, 008
1, 572
1,476
1, 883
1, 812
2, 837
1, 360
7, 483
855
3, 067

Percent of women
receiving—
Under
$1.00

$1.50 and
over

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

.3
2. 2

21. 0
17.7
22. 1
21. 1
17. 5
8.9

1. 38
1. 50
1. 13
1. 50
1. 33

76. 0
34. 0
90. 0
59. 9
77. 9

1. 5
6.4
.9
6. 5
2.6

1. 33
1. 37
1. 21
1. 35
1. 17
1. 19
1. 27
1. 51
1. 18

1. 92
1. 78
1. 71
1. 70
1. 53
1. 62
1. 70
2. 01
1. 47

(3)

1. 24
1. 46
1. 55
1. 76

1. 71
1. 94
2. 04
2. 62

3. 4
19. 4
5. 4
23. 4
41. 6
5. 1

(3)

29. 4
6. 5

(3)
(3)
(3)

22. 5
22. 4
13. 5
27. 6
8. 3
13. 6
15. 3
38. 5
10.8
11. 0
32. 1
68. 8
99. 3

1 Includes linen supply and industrial launderers and dyeing and cleaning plants (except rug-cleaning).
2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
a Under $1.05: Boston (1.1), Chicago (2.0), Minneapolis-St. Paul (1.3); under $1.10; Portland (0.4); under
$1.15: Buffalo (0.2), Newark-Jersey City (0.6), New York City (0.7), Los Angeles-Long Beach (1.4); and
under $1.50: San Francisco-Oakland (0.7).
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Laundry
and Cleaning Services, June 1963." Bull. No. 1401. June 1964.

77. Earnings

in Nonprofessional

Hospital

Occupations

A survey of earnings and employment conditions of selected hospital personnel was conducted in 15 large metropolitan areas in mid1963 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The occupations for which
wage information was obtained included both professional and non-




00

Table 70.—AVERAGE HOURLY WAGES OF WOMEN IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN EATING AND DRINKING PLACES, 24
AREAS, JUNE 1963
Counter attendants

Cashiers

Metropolitan

Number

area

Average
hourly
wages 1

Number

Average
hourly
wages 1

Pantrywomen

Waitresses

Number

METROPOLITAN

Average
hourly
wages 1

Number

Average
hourly
wages 1

Northeast:

N e w York City _
—
N e w a r k and Jersey City
Philadelphia. _
Pittsburgh.
.
_

_

7, 4 7 9

$0. 8 2

275

1. 14

2, 0 6 8

. 94

125

1. 27

1. 6 7

1, 3 3 6

1. 46

10, 0 2 8

637

1. 52

251
352

1. 3 3

130

1. 23

3, 179

. 99
. 73

104

1. 35

1. 2 7

551

1. 16

7, 856

. 68

1. 2 6

189

1. 09

3, 9 0 7

. 72

481
156

1. 28
1. 31

1. 27

547

175

1. 26

344

. 76
1. 0 6

128

..

791
142

$1. 33

1. 21

201

—

$1. 4 2

1, 128

—

Buffalo

.97

41

. 88

275

1. 0 9

183

. 88

115

1. 0 4

85

South:
Atlanta
Baltimore

__
_ __

Memphis.

_ .
__ . .

Miami
N e w Orleans




$1. 33

783
104

310

Boston.

—
_.

.94

1, 7 7 4

. 48

369

. 90

3, 0 8 2
967

. 47

126

.98

. 42

113

3, 3 4 9
1, 3 3 2

. 38

69

. 68
1. 08

. 42

122

. 76

o

3

3
3
n
O
3
o
Q
3
Q_

m

Q
3
3
C
Q

North Central:
Chicago _ _
Cincinnati
__
Cleveland
_
Detroit
IndianapolisKansas City
_
Milwaukee
_
Minneapolis-St. Paul
St. Louis.
West:
Denver
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Portland
San Francisco-Oakland

_ _
__

787
126
371
302
103
195
35
157
84

1. 58
1. 28
1. 34
1. 59
1. 14
1. 19
1. 39
1. 39
1. 06

1, 104
214
182
383
346
220

1. 30
1. 22
1. 11
1. 29
1. 00
1. 12

98
588

185
1, 332
87
283

1. 19
1. 75
1. 48
2. 13

97
1, 073
184
293

1. 26
1. 25

11, 029
1, 932
4, 202
5, 236
1, 669
1, 943
1, 954
4, 941
1, 482

. 71
.79
. 73
. 92
. 56
. 76
. 87
1. 08
. 93

594
151
551
619
165
165
211
304
205

1. 43
1. 27
1. 22
1. 22
.98
1. 11
1. 33
1. 48
1. 33

1. 05
1. 20
1. 37
1. 94

2, 394
20, 698
1, 907
3, 842

.
1.
1.
1.

173
156
109
138

1. 29
1. 72
1. 54
2. 03

87
11
25
66

i Excludes tips and the value of free meals, rooms, and uniforms, as well as premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Eating and Drinking Places, June 1963."




Bull. N o . 1400.

June 1964.

$
3
o
3

Q

cr
o
o

o

150

Women's Income and Earnings

professional staff. Salaries received by professional hospital personnel are discussed in sections 74 and 75 in this chapter.
Among the nearly million workers (both sexes) covered by the scope
of the survey, nearly half were nonprofessional employees other than
clerical workers. Their main occupations were nurses' aide, practical
nurse, housekeeping and food service worker, maintenance worker,
and laundry worker. Among women workers studied in the survey,
nurses' aide was numerically the largest single occupation (111,196).
Practical nurses numbered 58,435; laundry flatwork finishers, 9,754;
•kitchen helpers, 29,941; and maids, 38,650.
In the metropolitan areas surveyed, median weekly earnings of
women nurses' aides ranged from $36.50 in Memphis to $72.50 in San
Francisco-Oakland (table 71). For practical nurses the range was
from $52.50 to $76 in the same areas.
T a b l e 7 1 . — M E D I A N EARNINGS OF W O M E N IN NONPROFESSIONAL H O S P I T A L 1
OCCUPATIONS, 15 METROPOLITAN AREAS,

Metropolitan

area

Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
_
_ _ _ _
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul
New York City
Philadelphia
Portland (Oreg.)
San Francisco-Oakland

Median weekly
earnings 2
——
—
Nurses'
Practical
aides
nurses

MID-1963

Median hourly earnings 2
—
Laundryfinishers,
Kitchen
flatwork
Maids
helpers
(machine)

$37. 00

$53. 0 0

$0. 6 7

$0. 6 6

$0. 5 8

46. 0 0

57. 0 0

1. 0 5

1. 0 7

1. 0 5

54. 0 0

66. 5 0

1. 2 8

1. 2 9

52. 0 0

65. 5 0

1. 3 0

1. 2 9
1. 2 8

54. 5 0

70. 0 0

1. 3 2

1. 3 1

1. 2 8

47. 5 0

64. 0 0

1. 18

1. 14

1. 14

52. 5 0

67. 5 0

1. 2 7

1. 2 5

1. 2 7

42. 5 0

53. 0 0

. 79

1. 0 2

61. 0 0

72. 5 0

1. 4 3

1. 3 8

1. 4 0

36. 5 0

52. 5 0

. 70

. 74

. 69

65. 0 0

69. 5 0

1. 6 5

1. 6 4

1. 6 4

1. 3 1

58. 5 0

72. 0 0

1. 5 1

1. 4 8

1. 5 1

43. 5 0

53. 5 0

1. 0 7

1. 0 1

1. 0 5

60. 5 0

64. 0 0

1. 4 9

1. 5 2

1. 5 1

72. 5 0

76. 0 0

1. 8 3

1. 7 3

1. 8 1

Covers those in nongovernment hospitals.
2 Weekly and hourly earnings are straight-time earnings, excluding extra pay for work on late shifts, as
well as value of room, board, or other perquisites. Weekly earnings are rounded to the nearest half dollar.
1

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Hospitals,
Mid-1953." Bull. No. 1409. June 1964.

Laundry flatwork finisher, kitchen helper, and maid are occupations
requiring relatively few skills and were among the lowest paid in
hospitals. Among the 15 metropolitan areas studied, the lowest hourly earnings in these three occupations were in Atlanta and the highest
were in San Francisco-Oakland.




Women in the Labor Force

151

Salaries of Professional Women Workers
Salary studies are not available for women in all types of professional work, but some salary surveys have been made by professional
associations for their own membership, or by research organizations,
college alumnae associations, or women's organizations. Among
salary studies periodically available are those made for school teachers and registered nurses.
72. Salaries of School

Teachers

Over two-fifths of the 3.3 million women employed in professional
and technical occupations in April 1965 were school teachers. The
1.4 million women teachers (except in colleges and universities) represented 69 percent of all noncollege teachers. In elementary schools
almost nine-tenths of the teachers were women, and in secondary
schools almost half were women.
Teachers' salaries reported by the National Education Association,
while not always showing separate averages for men and women, are
considered representative of women's salaries because of the sizable
proportion of women teachers and because salary differentials based
on sex have largely been eliminated. Men teachers, however, may receive higher salaries in some instances, partly because of the subjects
they teach and partly because there are relatively more men teachers
in high schools than in elementary schools and high school teachers
may be paid higher salaries than elementary school teachers.
Although differentials between different levels of the school system
have existed in the past, most school districts now have a single salary
schedule, based on education and experience, for all teachers in their
area. Some, however, pay higher salaries to teachers of vocational
education, physical education, and other special courses.
Elementary and secondary school teachers.—Salaries of classroom
teachers (both sexes) were estimated by the NationaJ Education Association to average (arithmetic mean) $6,235 during the school year
1964-65, with elementary school teachers receiving $6,035 and secondary school teachers $6,503. By comparison, the average salaries
of classroom teachers in 1963-64 were: total, $5,995; elementary
schools, $5,805; and secondary schools, $6,266. Thus both elementary and secondary school teachers earned about 4 percent more in
1964-65 than in 1963-64.
Detailed information on the number of women classroom teachers
and the average salaries paid to all classroom teachers is available
by selected geographical areas for the year 1964-65 (table 72).




383

Women's Income and Earnings

Women classroom teachers numbered 1.1 million and represented 09
percent of all classroom teachers in the Nation, but their proportion
varied from 03 percent of all teachers in the Far West to 77 percent
in Hawaii. Compared with the $0,235 average salary of all classroom teachers in the Nation, the average salary ranged in the contiguous United States from $5,030 in the Southeast to $7,524 in the
Far West, In Alaska it was $8,300; in Hawaii, $0,000.
Table

72.—ESTIMATED

AVERAGE

TEACHERS,

2

1

ANNUAL

BY

AREA,

SALARIES

OF

CLASSROOM

1964-65

Percent of all
Average classroom teachers
receiving—
annual
A s percent
salary
(men and
Under
$6,500
of
total
women)
$4,500 and over

Women

Area
50 States and D.C
New England
Mideast
Southeast
Great Lakes.
Plains
Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Far West.
Alaska
Hawaii.

Number
1, 123, 717

68. 6

60, 415
215, 599
272, 393
210, 709
102, 617
99, 458
31,811
124, 908
1, 617
4, 190

66. 6
67. 6
76. 3
66. 0
68. 6
68. 6
64.4
62. 7
65. 3
77. 2

$6, 235
6,
7,
5,
6,
5,
5,
5,
7,
8,
6,

592
049
036
467
669
587
821
524
360
060

14. 3

33. 8

5. 0
.4
40. 7
6. 3
20. 7
17. 5
11. 3
.1

42. 6
50. 6
6. 7
44. 6
21. 4
11. 1
18. 1
62. 5
93. 3
42. 8

5. 5

1 Arithmetic mean.
2 Elementary and secondary teachers.
Source: National Education Association: "Estimates of School Statistics, 1964-65." Research Report
1964-R 17. December 1964. (Copyright 1964 by the National Education Association. All rights reserved.)

Fourteen percent of all teachers received less than $4,500, with
the highest proportion of classroom teachers in this category in the
Southeast (41 percent). In contrast, 34 percent of the teachers
received an average salary of $0,500 or more, with the highest proportion for the contiguous United States in the Far West (03 percent), and for the noncontiguous United States in Alaska (93
percent).
Minimum and maximum salaries of teachers differ considerably
among the various school systems. In a survey of minimum and
maximum salaries of teachers employed for the school year 1904-05
in systems with enrollment of at least 1,200 pupils, the National
Education Association found that median salaries of beginning
teachers with a bachelor's degree were $5,000 (enrollment of 100,000




Women in the Labor Force

153

or more pupils), $4,780 (enrollment of 50,000 to 99,999), $4,800 (enrollment of 3,000 to 49,999), and $4,700 (enrollment of 1,200 to 2,999). 8
The median minimum salaries of teachers with a master's degree were
$5,270 (enrollment of 100,000 or more), $5,175 (enrollment of 25,000 to 99,999), $5,200 (enrollment of 6,000 to 24,999), $5,100 (enrollment of 3,000 to 5,999), and $5,000 (enrollment of 1,200 to 2,999).
The 1964-65 maximum salaries paid "in recognition of experience"
to teachers with a bachelor's degree were about 40 to 60 percent above
minimum salaries. For those with a master's degree the maximum
salaries exceeded the minimums by 46 to 61 percent. The medians
of the maximum salaries obtained by noncollege teachers with the
highest level of preparation ranged from $7,586 to $9,410.
College and university teachers.—Women represented 18 percent
of the faculties in colleges and universities and numbered 23,200 in
1963-64 (table 73). As computed by the National Education Association, the median annual salary received by women college teachers
for 9 months of full-time teaching was $6,940, and the range was from
$5,802 for instructors to $9,787 for professors. Differences in
medians from one major teaching level to the next were at least

$1,200.
Table

73.—MEDIAN

ANNUAL

S A L A R I E S OF T E A C H I N G

UNIVERSITIES, BY S E X ,

S T A F F IN

Women

AND

Median annual
salary

Number
Teaching staff

COLLEGES

1963-64

Women

Men

Men

Total

23,163

102, 331

$6, 940

$8, 342

Professors
Associate professors
Assistant professors
Instructors

3, 043
4, 877
7, 648
7, 595

29, 475
25, 426
30, 646
16, 784

9, 787
8, 229
7, 021
5, 802

11, 240
8, 998
7, 573
6, 209

Source: National Education Association: "Salaries Paid and Salary Practices in Universities, Colleges,
and Junior Colleges, 1963-64." Research Report 1964-R 3. February 1964. (Copyright 1964 by National
Education Association. All rights reserved.)

A higher median salary ($7,642) was received by women teachers
in public universities with enrollment between 5,000 and 9,999 than
in any other type of institution of higher learning. State colleges
paid the next highest median salary ($7,331), and small private colleges with enrollment of less than 500 paid the lowest ($5,549).
Salaries for administrative positions in colleges and universities
were not reported separately for women. Among 26 positions listed
8 "Salary
Schedules f o r Classroom Teachers,
National Education Association.
1964.




1964-65."

Research Report 1 9 6 4 - R

13.

154

Women's Income and Earnings

for administrative officers, deans of women received the second lowest median salary ($8,216). Also low were the salaries of registrars
($8,142) and head librarians ($8,883). Among deans of professional
and graduate schools were deans of home economics ($15,250) and
of nursing ($13,000)—two posts usually held by women. All administrative salaries covered a full 12 months (1963-64).
Jvmior college teachers.—Junior colleges also were surveyed for
salary information iu 1963-64. The 3,991 women teachers employed
by public junior colleges had a median salary of $7,522; the 1,005
women teachers in private junior colleges, $5,346. With salaries
computed on the basis of 9 months of service in 1963-64, women's
medians were lower than men's by $393 in public junior colleges and
by $685 in private junior colleges.

73. Salaries of Professional and Technical Workers in Private
Industry
A survey of selected professional, administrative, technical, and
clerical salaries paid by private industry, made by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics in February-March 1964, indicated variations in
salaries among different occupations.9
In all these occupations
women were a relatively small proportion of the total employed—
at the most between 30 and 34 percent of tracers and at the least less
than 10 percent of class I directors of personnel and class I I accountants, engineering technicians, and managers of office services. The
highest median salary ($9,732) was received by directors of personnel
(class I ) ; the lowest ($4,275), by tracers. Job analysts (class I ) ,
of whom women constituted from 20 to 24 percent of those employed,
had a median salary of $6,828. Job analysts (class I I ) , of whom
women constituted from 10 to 14 percent of those employed, had a
median salary of $7,380.

74. Salaries in Professional Hospital Nursing

Occupations

Hospital occupations cover a wide range of skills and functions.
Full-time registered professional nurses and other professional and
technical employees accounted for about one-fifth of all hospital
personnel in mid-1963. About one-tenth were office clerical employees ; and, as shown in section 71, about one-half were other nonprofessional employees. The remainder were part-time workers and
those employed in executive and administrative positions.10
9 " N a t i o n a l Survey of Professional, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Technical, and Clerical P a y .
February-March 1964."
Bull. No. 1 4 2 2 .
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of
Labor.
1964.
10 " I n d u s t r y
Wage Survey—Hospitals, Mid-1963."
Bull. No. 1 4 0 9 .
B u r e a u of L a b o r
Statistics, U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Labor. June 1 9 6 4 .




Women in the Labor Force

155

Of the women in hospital nursing professions in the 15 areas surveyed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in mid-1963, highest median
salaries were received by directors of nursing (table 74). In most of
the areas supervisors of nurses received the second highest salaries,
followed by nursing instructors, head nurses, and general duty nurses.
For supervisors of nurses, nursing instructors, and head nurses, the
lowest weekly reported salaries were received in Atlanta and the highest in San Francisco-Oakland. Directors of nursing and general duty
nurses were paid highest salaries in New York City. In general,
salaries were higher in State, and local government hospitals than in
private hospitals. Also, they were higher in large cities than in small
ones and in the California centers than in other areas. Salaries were
the lowest in the South—general duty nurses in the South received
21 percent less weekly, on the average, than those in the West.
Hospital nurses worked 40 hours a week in most areas surveyed.
For work after 40 hours, they usually received either compensatory
time off or straight-time pay. Nurses on late shifts generally were
paid a shift differential.
Table 74.—MEDIAN
NURSING

WEEKLY

SALARIES

OCCUPATIONS,

Metropolitan area

Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long Beach_
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul. _ _ _
New York City
Philadelphia
Portland (Oreg.)
San Francisco-Oakland..

15

Directors
of
nursing

$132.50
164.00
157.00
150.00
160.50
165.00
177. 50
155.00
161.50

1

OF

WOMEN

METROPOLITAN

Supervisors of
nurses

$89.50
101.50
109.50
119.00
116.50
118.50
120.00
101.50
117.50

IN

SELECTED

AREAS,

Head
nurses

$81.50
93.00
101.00
108.00
103.00
98.50
108.50
92.50
109.00
87.50
117.00 105.00
116. 00 109. 00
91.00
100.00
107.00
95.50
124.00 113.50

HOSPITAL

2

MID-1963

General
duty
nurses

$75.00
81.00
86.00
91.00
93.00
85.50
93.00
83.50
94.50
75.00
89.50
95. 50
79.50
87.50
93. 50

Nursing
instructors

$85.50
106.00
107.50
112.00
114.50
99.50
114.50
116.00
93.00
104.00
120. 50
102.50
123.50

1 Weekly salaries are straight-time earnings excluding extra pay for work on late shifts, as well as value of
room, board, or other perquisites, and are rounded to the nearest half dollar.
2 Covers those in nongovernment hospitals.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Hospitals,
Mid-1963." Bull. No. 1409. June 1964.




Women's Income and Earnings

156

Registered nurses represented the second largest group of professional women, according to the 1960 Census of Population. A t the
time of the census count, employed registered nurses numbered about
568,000. The A m e r w r A r s e s ' Association estimated that 63 percent of all female registered nurses were employed by hospitals and
similar institutions in 1962 (table 75). About 12 percent of all
nurses were private-duty nurses. The remainder were public health,
school, industrial, or office nurses, or were working in schools of
nursing or in other fields.
Table 75.—WOMEN

P R O F E S S I O N A L R E G I S T E R E D N U R S E S , BY F I E L D
MENT,

OF

EMPLOY-

1962

Field of employment

Total

Number

Percent
distribution

526, 522

Hospital or other institution
School of nursing
Private duty
Public health
School nurse
Industrial
Office nurse (physician's or dentist's)
Other specified
field
Field not reported
Source: American Nurses' Association: "Facts About Nursing."

100. 0

331, 211
16, 126
63, 647
23, 877
16, 658
17,319
43, 425
2, 465
11, 794

62. 9
3. 1
12. 1
4. 5
3. 2
3.3
8. 2
.5
2. 2

1965 Edition.

Private-duty
nurses are self-employed, and their compensation is
individually determined. The median daily fee of private-duty nurses
was $20 for a basic 8-hour day, according to a survey made by the
American Nurses' Association in November 1962.11 Ninety-five percent of the nurses charged at least $16 a day. They worked a median
number of 18 days in January 1962 and had a median income of
$320 for the month.
Office nurses had an annual median salary of $4,500 for full-time
work when surveyed by the American Nurses' Association in July
1964.12 Their salaries were generally lowest in the Southeast ($3,900)
and highest ($4,980) in Pacific Coast States. About 43 percent of
the office nurses regularly worked 40 hours a week; 37 percent, between
30 and 40 hours; and 12 percent, more than 40 hours. For 8 percent
there was no report of hours worked.
11

" F a c t s About N u r s i n g . "
Ibid.




American Nurses' Association.

1 9 6 5 Edition.

Women in the Labor Force

157

Local public health nurses in staff nurse positions received median
annual salaries of $5,313 in official agencies and $4,829 in nonofficial
agencies, as reported in a 1963 survey by the National League for
Nursing.13 By region, salaries were highest in the Pacific States, next
highest in the Middle Atlantic States, and lowest in the Southeast.
School nurses employed in public schools received average (mean)
salaries of $6,125 (enrollment of 25,000 or more), $5,754 (enrollment
of 3,000 to 24,999), and $5,095 (enrollment of 300 to 2,999), according
to a National Education Association study made for the school year
1962-63.14
Nurse educators employed on a full-time basis received a median
annual salary of $6,000, as reported in October 1963 in an American
Nurses' Association survey of nursing educational programs.15
Median salaries were $5,580 for teachers in professional hospital nursing schools and $6,860 for teachers in collegiate schools.
Industrial nurses' salaries vary considerably among metropolitan
areas. Their salaries are surveyed annually by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Between July 1963 and June 1964, women industrial
nurses received weekly salaries ranging from a median of $82 in
Greenville, S.C., to a median of $121 in Beaumont-Port Arthur, Tex.
(table 76). This would mean a range of $4,264 to $6,292 for a full
year's (52 weeks) work.
Table

76.—MEDIAN

W E E K L Y SALARIES
METROPOLITAN

Date
6-64
3-64
2-64
5-64
11-63
5-64
4-64
10-63
12-63
4-64
4-64
9-63
4-64
3-64
9-63

1

OF W O M E N I N D U S T R I A L N U R S E S ,

AREAS,

Number

Median weekly
salary

69

$107. 00

45

106. 50

35

Metropolitan area

Akron__ _ _ _ _ _
_
_ _
Albany-Schenectady-Troy _ _
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton__
Atlanta _ __
_
_
Baltimore. _
Beaumont-Port Arthur
__
Birmingham
Boston
Buffalo
Canton
_
__ _
Charleston.
__
Chattanooga
Chicago. _
_
_
Cincinnati
__ _ _
Cleveland
_

59

1963-64

103. 00

81

_ __

107. 50

139

104. 5 0

37

121.00

37

101.00

277

_ _

98. 00

182

107. 0 0

60

106.00

45

113.50

23

97. 00

659

107. 50

103

106. 00

245

108. 50

See footnote at end of table.
" Y e a r l y Review, 1 9 6 3 . "
National League f o r Nursing.
u "Twenty-first Biennial Salary Survey of Public School Employees, 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 . "
Report 1963—R 7.
National Education Association.
1964.
15 " F a c t s About N u r s i n g . "
American Nurses' Association.
1 9 6 5 Edition.
13




Research

Women's Income and Earnings

158
Table

76.—MEDIAN

W E E K L Y SALARIES

METROPOLITAN

Date

AREAS,

1

OF W O M E N

Metropolitan area

11-63
11-63
10-63
1-64
12-63
2-64
1-64
11-63
5-64
6-64
12-63
11-63
6-64
3-64
2-64
1-64
12-63
4-64
1-64
5-64
2-64
1-64
2-64
4-64
10-63
5-64
11-63
1-64
11-63
5-64
5-64
11-63
4-64
10-63
9-63
9-63
1-64
9-63
3-64
2-64
12-63
3-64
9-63
6-64

INDUSTRIAL NURSES,

59

1963-64—Continued

Columbus. __
Dallas
Davenport-Rock Island-Moline
Dayton
Denver. _
Des Moines
__
Detroit
Fort Worth
Greenville.
Houston
Indianapolis. _
Kansas C i t y . . .
Lawrence-Haverhill
Los Angeles-Long Beach. _ __
Louisville
Memphis
Miami. _
Milwaukee
. . .
Minneapolis-St. Paill.
Muskegon-Muskegon Heights .
Newark and Jersey City
New Haven
...
_
New Orleans.
New York (SMSA)
Omaha. _
Paterson-Clifton-Passaic
Philadelphia.
Pittsburgh
Portland (Me.) _
Portland (Oreg.-Wash.)
Pro vidence-Pa wt ucket
Richmond
Rockford.
St. Louis _
San Bernardino-Riverside-Ontario__
San Diego.
San Francisco-Oakland
Seattle.
South B e n d . .
_ .
Toledo
Trenton
Waterbury..
Wichita. _
Worcester _ _

Number

Median weekly
salary

56

$99.50

58

98.50

30

111.00

70

112.00

52

103.00

21

104. 00

395

116. 00

31

110. 50

19

82. 00

74

113.50

131
86

_

24

110. 50
106.50
98.00

514

117. 00

50

103. 50

28

98. 00

28

91. 50

187

105. 00

119

100. 50

18

__

94. 00

279

108.50

53

102. 50

45

104. 50

646

111.00

27

100. 00

78

109.50

397

103.00

297

108. 0 0

15

85. 00

26

105. 00

74

89.50

57

104. 50

41

91. 50

182

103. 00

32

108. 50

27

114. 50

124

114. 00

69

108.50

21

101.00

59

106. 00

38

106. 50

28

_ .

102. 50

28

110. 50

49

95. 50

i Weekly salaries are straight-time earnings.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Wage Survey.
1385.

September 1963-August 1964.




Bull. No.

Women in the Labor Force

159

75. Salaries of Professional and Technical Hospital Personnel
(Nonnursing)
Among women employed in private hospitals in professional occupations other than nursing, medical social workers generally were
the highest paid in 1963 (table 77). Their highest median salary
($137.50) was in San Francisco-Oakland; their lowest ($101), in
Philadelphia. Medical record librarians were paid more than dietitians in some areas and less in others; their highest weekly salary
($125) was in New York City and their lowest ($92) in Philadelphia.
The median weekly salary of dietitians ranged from a low of $89 in
Dallas to a high of $108 in Buffalo. Medical technologists received
their lowest median weekly salary ($78.50) in Philadelphia and their
highest ($120.50) in San Francisco-Oakland.
Physical therapists generally received higher earnings than did
medical technologists; therapists had their lowest median weekly
salary ($88) in Boston and their highest ($113.50) in Los AngelesLong Beach. X-ray teclmicians were the lowest paid of any of these
occupations—their median salary ranged from $66.50 a week in
Philadelphia to $93.50 a week in the two California centers.

76. Salaries of Scientists
A report on the economic and professional characteristics of approximately 224,000 full-time employed civilian United States scientists
listed on the National Science Foundation's National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel in 1964 gives information on the
salaries of women scientists by major scientific field.
Women scientists were 8 percent of all registered scientists and numbered 17,104 (table 78). Three-fourths of the women scientists were
in four major fields: chemistry (25 percent), psychology (22 percent),
biology (18 percent), and mathematics (10 percent). Subfields in
which the greatest numbers of women were found were clinical
psychology, biochemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry,
numerical methods and computation, and microbiology. Educational
attainment of women scientists was high: 32 percent had a doctorate,
2 percent had a professional medical degree, 38 percent had a master's
degree, and 27 percent had a bachelor's degree, Fewer than 1 percent
reported less than a bachelor's degree.
The greatest number of women Ph. D.'s was among psychologists
and biological scientists. Women with a master's degree were
primarily psychologists, chemists, biological scientists, or mathematicians. Women scientists with only a bachelor's degree were mainly
chemists.
779-555 0 — 6 6




12

o

o
Table 77.—MEDIAN

WEEKLY

S A L A R I E S 1 OF W O M E N IN S E L E C T E D

NONNURSING

TIONS, 1 5 M E T R O P O L I T A N A R E A S ,

Area

Dietitians

Medical
technologists

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL

X-ray
technicians

Physical
therapists

$84. 50

Atlanta

HOSPITAL2

OCCUPA-

MID-1963
Medical
social
workers

Medical
record
librarians

$69. 00

$102. 00

89. 0 0

$98. 50

74. 5 0

50

$120. 00

Boston

101. 5 0

85. 0 0

88. 0 0

80. 0 0

106. 50

107. 50

Buffalo

108. 0 0

91. 0 0

81. 0 0

112. 5 0

Chicago

106. 0 0

96. 0 0

88. 0 0

107. 50

128. 50

Cincinnati

100. 5 0

90. 5 0

Cleveland

106. 0 0

88. 5 0

99. 0 0

78. 5 0

104. 0 0

124. 0 0

89. 0 0

90. 0 0

90. 0 0

78. 0 0

104. 5 0

117. 5 0

113. 5 0

93. 5 0

117. 50

133. 50

Baltimore

Dallas
Los Angeles-Long Beach _

101.

00

74. 0 0

70. 5 0

83. 50

Memphis

$101.

Minneapolis-St. Paul

102. 5 0

103. 5 0

109. 0 0

76. 5 0

101. 50

N e w York City

103. 5 0

92. 0 0

105. 0 0

88. 50

125. 0 0

127. 5 0

78. 5 0

101. 5 0

66. 5 0

92. 0 0

101. 0 0

104. 5 0

137. 5 0

Philadelphia

98. 5 0

S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d _ _.

88. 0 0

93. 0 0

Portland (Oreg.)
107. 50

120. 5 0

109. 0 0

93. 5 0

1 Weekly salaries are straight-time earnings, excluding extra pay for work on late shifts, as well as value of room, board, or other perquisites, and are rounded to the nearest
half dollar.
2 Covers those in nongovernment hospitals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: "Industry Wage Survey—Hospitals, Mid-1963."




Bull. No. 1409.

June 1964.

O
3
a
3
3
n
O
3
o
Q
3
GL

m

Q
3
3*

CO

Table 78.—NUMBER

Scientific and technical

All
Chemistry. _
Earth sciences.
Meteorology
Physics _
Mathematics
Agricultural sciences
Biological sciences.
Psychology
Statistics.
Economics
Sociology
Linguistics
Other
fields

field

OF W O M E N S C I E N T I S T S , B Y F I E L D A N D H I G H E S T D E G R E E ,

Total

Less than
bachelor's
degree

Highest degree
Bachelor's

Master's

Professional
medical

Ph. D.

No report
of degree

fields

17, 104

74

4,661

6,526

265

5,458

120

21
5
6
2
16
3
4

2, 111
206
37
299
492
28
650
94
93
61
14
33
543

1, 041
202
28
334
954
12
971
1, 803
126
228
116
115
596

22

_

4,204
517
86
856
1,747
51
3, 107
3,747
289
493
407
261
1, 339

976
99
11
212
266
7
1, 235
1, 836
55
195
272
104
190

33
5
4
8
19
1
15
10
6
5
1
8
5

__
_
_ _

_
_

...

_

9
4
1
3

Source: National Science Foundation: "National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel." 1964.




1964

1

23?
4

3
1
2

Women's Income and Earnings

162

The median annual salary of all scientists (both sexes) on the 1964
register was $11,000 (table 79). Bachelor's and master's degree holders reported a median of $10,000, while holders of doctorates reported a
median salary of $12,000. The median annual salary of women scientists was $8,400.
Among women scientists, the highest median salaries were received
by economists and statisticians ($10,000 each), followed by psychologists and sociologists ($9,000 each), physicists ($8,600), mathematicians ($8,500), and biological scientists ($8,400). These medians
were from $1,100 to $3,400 a year less than the median salaries of all
scientists in the respective fields.
Table

79.—MEDIAN

ANNUAL

SALARIES

OF

FULL-TIME

C I V I L I A N SCIENTISTS, BY F I E L D ,

EMPLOYED

Women

Scientific and technical field

Number

All fields

WOMEN

1964

Median
annual
salary

Median
annual
salary
of all
scientists
(both sexes)

17, 1 0 4

Chemistry _
_
______
Earth sciences
__
Meteorology__
Physics _ _ _
Mathematics
__
_
Agricultural sciences
_
Biological sciences _
Psychology. _ _
_ __
Statistics _ _
_
Economics _
_
_
Sociology _
_ _ _
Linguistics
_ __
_
Other fields. __
_ __

$8, 4 0 0

$11, 000

4, 2 0 4

7, 7 0 0

11, 0 0 0

517

8, 2 0 0

10, 3 0 0

86

8, 2 0 0

10, 6 0 0

856

8, 6 0 0

12, 0 0 0

1, 7 4 7

8, 5 0 0

11, 0 0 0

51

7, 2 0 0

9, 2 0 0

3, 1 0 7

8, 4 0 0

10, 7 0 0

3, 7 4 7

9, 0 0 0

10, 3 0 0

289

10, 0 0 0

12, 0 0 0

493

10, 0 0 0

12, 0 0 0

407

9, 0 0 0

10, 1 0 0

261

7, 5 0 0

9, 0 0 0

7, 5 0 0

11, 1 0 0

1, 3 3 9

Source: National Science Foundation: "National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel." 1964.

Salaries of Federal Employees
The latest salary information for women employees of the Federal
Government was obtained by the Civil Service Commission as of
October 1962. The survey showed that 517,769 women white-collar
workers had an average (mean) annual salary of $5,215 in 1962, as




163

Women in the Labor Force

compared with $7,198 for men. Women were 32 percent of all fulltime white-collar workers. Salaries ranged from $3,245 for grade 1
jobs to $20,000 for grade 18 jobs—as determined under the Classification Act of 1949, as amended. Effective October 1965 salaries were
increased so that they ranged from $3,507 for grade 1 to $25,382 for
grade 18.
Differences between the grades and salaries of women and men arise
not only from differences in types of jobs held, but also from differences
in length of service. For example, a special study by the Civil Service
Commission of Federal employment records revealed that in 1963 the
average length of service was 11.2 years for women but 15.1 years for
men.16 About 26 percent of the women, but only 10 percent of the men,
had less than 5 years of service. About 53 percent of the women and
72 percent of the men had at least 10 years of service.
The largest group of women (275,000) in October 1962 were employed in general administrative, clerical, and office services (table
80). Their average (mean) annual salary was $4,828. The second
largest group for women was accounting and budget, where 48,722
were employed at an average salary of $5,384. The highest average
salaries paid to women employed in the Federal service were in veterinary medical science ($9,357) and copyright, patent, and trademark
($9,252), but there were very few of these women and they represented
a very small proportion of total employment in these occupations.

Salaries of College Graduates
77. Starting Salaries of Recent College

Graduates

The jobs and salaries expected to be offered to June 1965 college
graduates were reported by 200 companies in a survey conducted in
November 1964 by the Northwestern University Placement Center.17
Almost all the companies that responded to the university's inquiry
made regular visits to selected campuses and actively sought college
and university graduates. All but a few were large- or medium-sized
corporations. They were located in 25 States and represented all major
regions of the country.
Most college women who graduated in 1964 were employed through
direct application to the employer. Ninety-two of the companies
reporting in November 1964 indicated that they had hired a total of
1 6 " F e d e r a l E m p l o y e e s Covered by Retirement System, by Sex, Age, and L e n g t h of Service,
June 30, 1 9 6 3 . " U . S . Civil Service Commission.
17 Since the survey for 1 9 6 5 w a s conducted in N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 4 , m a n y campuses had not
yet been visited by recruiters and contractual negotiations had not yet been concluded.




164
Table

Women's Income and Earnings
80.—AVERAGE

WORKERS

IN

OCTOBER 3 1 ,

THE

ANNUAL

SALARIES

FEDERAL

SERVICE,

OF WOMEN
ALL

AREAS,1

FULL-TIME
BY

WHITE-COLLAR

OCCUPATIONAL

GROUP,

1962

Occupational group

Total
General administrative, clerical, and office services
_ _ _
Accounting and budget
_
Medical, hospital, dental, and public
health... __
_ __
Postal
Supply
Personnel administration and industrial
relations
_
__ _ _
Legal and kindred
_
_ _
Mathematics and statistics
Education
Transportation- _
__ _ _
Business and industry
_
__
Social science, psychology, and welfare.—
Library and archives..
Physical sciences
_ .
Fine and applied arts
_ __ _
Engineering
_
Biological sciences. _ _ _
Investigation
__
Commodity quality control, inspection,
and grading
__
_ _ _ _ _ _
Mechanic
_ ____
Copyright, patent, and trademark. _ _ _
Veterinary medical science. _ _ _ _ .
Miscellaneous __
___

Number

Average
annual
salary2

As percent
of total
employed

517, 769

$5, 215

31. 7

275, 699
48, 722

4, 828
5, 384

73.4
46. 0

40, 526
40, 305
36, 040

5, 867
5, 301
5, 149

45. 2
8. 5
48. 1

15, 118
13, 352
8, 458
8, 317
4, 919
4, 527
4, 198
3, 927
3, 174
2, 304
1, 664
1, 630
420

5, 904
6, 099
5, 620
5, 360
5, 484
6, 944
8, 331
6, 467
6, 885
6, 975
6, 347
6, 828
6, 858

51. 6
35. 1
57. 8
39. 7
17. 1
10. 3
22. 0
64. 7
9. 2
22. 5
1. 4
4. 4
1. 3

169
105
65
31
4, 099

6, 114
7, 168
9, 252
9, 357
6, 073

1. 2
.6
3. 9
1. 4
8. 9

1 Worldwide.
Arithmetic mean.

2

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission: Federal Employment Statistics Bulletin, M a y 1964.

896 women from the classes of 1964. Of these companies, 80 indicated
that they would hire more college women if qualified graduates were
available, especially in such fields as mathematics-data processing,
engineering, accounting, chemistry, and other sciences.
Starting salaries of women graduates in 1964, as reported by the
92 companies, averaged about $425 a month. Women graduates
employed in scientific and engineering fields, however, generally
received $525 a month or more. For example, the monthly salaries of




Women in the Labor Force

165

12 women engineers averaged $602; of 3 physicists, $543; of 38 chemists, $539; and of 116 mathematicians and statisticians, $509. The
salaries of women in other fields ranged from $365 for airline hostesses
to $472 for account ants (table 81).
Table 81.—STARTING

SALARIES

OF W O M E N

WITH

BACHELOR'S

P L O Y E D IN 1 9 6 4 , AS R E P O R T E D B Y 9 2

DEGREES

Number
Occupational

field

Companies

Total
Mathematics-statistics
General liberal arts
Chemistry.
..
_
Home economics
General business
_ _
Engineering
Accounting. _
Economics-finance
English-editorial
Secretary.. __
Biological science.
Physics
Market research._
Airline hostess
Other fields __
1

EM-

COMPANIES

Graduates

192

Starting
monthly
salary

896

34

_ _ _
_ _

116

$509

16

232

385

15

38

539

14

48

426

9

59

404

8

12

602

8

23

472

7

10

454

5

13

435
380

5

48

3

11

505

2

3

543

2

62

385

1

123

365

16

98

436

Details do not add to total because multiple replies were tabulated individually.

Source: Northwestern University: Frank S. Endicott, "Trends in Employment of College and University Students." March 1965.

A nationwide survey of employment opportunities for June 1965
college graduates was conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
early 1965.18 This study indicated that the employment outlook for
recent college graduates was generally excellent and that starting
salaries offered 1965 graduates earlier in the year by recruiting companies were at a record high level. Entry salaries alone were not,
however, the prime consideration of these recent college graduates.
They were able to choose jobs with greater freedom—able to analyze
opportunities for service and advancement, relate jobs offered to their
specialization or major, and select their geographical location. In addition to the higher salaries generally offered graduates, fringe benefits,
such as insurance and investment programs and vacation and retire18 " T h e
Job Outlook f o r 1 9 6 5 College Graduates."
Department of Labor.
M a y 10, 19,65.




Bureau

of

Labor

Statistics,

U.S.

166

Women's Income and Earnings

ment plans, were available but not usually included in the base salaries
reported. Since there is a small though growing percentage of students, both women and men, who choose graduate school rather than
employment, companies in some cases were also including free advanced college education as an added inducement.
Although there is a growing acceptance of professional women in
industry, the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey indicated that women
graduates not entering teaching still found employment primarily in
social work, retailing, government, and nonprofit organizations.
A s among men graduates, women with technical training were in
greatest demand, and women in almost all technical fields found no
difficulty in locating jobs, especially if they had advanced degrees.
Women with general liberal arts majors had the most difficulty in
finding professional employment.
Graduates with secretarial or
clerical skills, on the other hand, found numerous employment opportunities available.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey, women and men
college graduates with a bachelor's degree in science and engineering
who were being recruited for employment in these fields were generally offered the highest salaries—$575 to $650 a month. Salaries
offered new graduates with a major in mathematics ranged from $500
to $625 a month; those with a major in the physical sciences, from
$550 to $625 a month. New graduates who majored in economics were
offered salaries averaging about $525 a month. Graduates with a
major in journalism, as well as liberal arts graduates with writing
ability, were being offered approximately $400 a month. Salary
offers ranged from $425 to $600 a month for many business administration and liberal arts graduates for employment in personnel,
advertising, and public relations work, as sales representatives, and
as business trainees.
Starting salaries for beginning elementary and secondary school
teachers (the principal professional occupation of women) generally
ranged from $3,300 to $5,500 a year, depending upon geographical location. Secondary school teachers tended to receive offers in the higher
end of the range. Salaries of beginning college teachers were generally between $6,500 and $7,500 for 9 months of full-time employment.
In the Federal service entry salaries for a wide range of occupations were the same for all qualified college graduates in 1965. The entry salary as of October 1965 in most cases was $5,181 a year for graduates in liberal arts, business administration, public administration,
biological science, and social science. Outstanding graduates in these
fields could begin at $6,269. The entry annual salary was $6,207 for
holders of bachelor's degrees in scientific and technical fields. Those




Women in the Labor Force

167

with superior scholastic records or with at least 1 year of graduate work
in these fields could begin at $7,304. Graduates who qualified through
the Federal Service Entrance Examination for management intern
positions received a starting salary of $6,269 or $7,479 a year, depending upon qualifications.
College graduates who entered the Peace Corps did not receive
regular salaries. They received a monthly living allowance, a clothing allowance, and all travel and training expenses. A t the end of
their service, they received a readjustment allowance of $75 for each
month of completed service—$1,800 in all (less income tax and social
security). Many colleges offered returning Peace Corps graduates
advanced degree credit for their oversea training.
Many of the placement officers who participated in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey indicated that recruiters from large companies
and those from firms engaged in specialized fields were selective in
their recruitment of women graduates. On the whole, salaries quoted
by recruiters were aimed at "above-average" women graduates—those
in the top 10 to 15 percent of their graduating class. Higher starting
salaries generally were offered women who had either a master's or
a doctor's degree.

78. Salaries of College Graduates: 5 Years Later 19
In 1963 the Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc., conducted for
the National Science Foundation a followup survey of women who had
received either a bachelor's or a master's degree in 1958. Women who
earned a first professional degree in library science or social work were
also included. The original study w^as conducted to learn about the
occupational status of recent young college graduates who majored in
various fields. The followup study was designed to update information collected in 1960 20 on further education, employment, military
status, and marital status of a sample group of the earlier respondents.
Bachelor's degrees.—Of the 119,541 women wTho had -earned a bachelor's degree in 1958, a total of 9,290, or about 8 percent, participated in
the followup survey 21 (table 82). A majority (57 percent) of these
women were in the labor force in the summer of 1963, with about 47
percent employed full time, 10 percent employed part time, and less
than 1 percent unemployed. Almost 7 percent of the respondents
reported they were attending school—1.3 percent full time and 5.5
19 B a s e d on preliminary data.
20 « T w o y e a r s A f t e r the College D e g r e e . " N S F 6 3 - 2 6 . Prepared by the Bureau of Social
Science Research, Inc., f o r the N a t i o n a l Science Foundation.
1963.
21

T h e survey excludes all first professional degrees.




Women's Income and Earnings

168

percent part time. Although 61 percent reported that they were
housewives, information regarding the proportion of married women
who were also employed or attending school is not available.22
Table 82.—EMPLOYMENT

STATUS

IN

1963

ELOR'S OR M A S T E R ' S

OF W O M E N
DEGREE

IN

WHO

Bachelor's degree

Employment

status

Total 1
In the labor force
_
Civilian labor force:
Employed
_
Full time. _ _
Part time
Unemployed.
Armed Forces. _
_
In school. _ _ _
_
Full time _ _ _
___ _
Part time
Housewives
Retired
_
Not reported
_

Number

EARNED A

BACH-

1958

Percent
distribution

Master's

Number

degree
Percent
distribution

9,290

100. 0

1, 736

100. 0

5, 321

57.3

1, 395

80. 4

5, 229
4, 335
894
68
24
629
120
509
5, 646
29
57

56.3
46. 7
9. 6
.7
.3
6. 8
1. 3
5. 5
60. 8
.3
.6

1, 384
1, 229
155
8
3
140
39
101
632
4
6

79. 7
70.8
8.9
.5
.2
8. 1
2. 2
5. 8
36. 4
.2
.3

i Details do not add to totals because multiple replies were tabulated individually. Some of the women
were in school, some were employed, some were seeking work, and some reported a combination of two or
more.
Source: Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Most of the women respondents who worked full time in the summer of 1963 were employed in professional fields (table 83). About
67 percent either were teachers or were in other school occupations
such as guidance counselor and school official or administrator.
Thirty-nine percent were elementary school teachers, 23 percent were
high school teachers, and 3 percent were college teachers. Other
professional women were employed in a variety of occupations such
as nurse, social worker, dietitian, performer or writer, natural or
social scientist, and engineer. About 8 percent were employed in
clerical, sales, semiskilled and technical, or service and unskilled occupations.
Because of the method of coding, multiple answers were tabulated individually. As a
result, If a woman reported that she was married, employed, and attending school, three
separate entries were coded. It was not possible, therefore, to provide information
regarding the number of women who were housewives only.




Women in the Labor Force
Table

169

8 3 . — M E D I A N A N N U A L S A L A R I E S OF W O M E N W H O E A R N E D A B A C H E L O R ' S OR

M A S T E R ' S D E G R E E IN 1 9 5 8 , BY F U L L - T I M E OCCUPATION IN S U M M E R

Number

Occupation

A. WOMEN

WHO EARNED

A BACHELOR'S

Total

Percent
distribution

DEGREE IN

Median
annual
salary

1958

4,335

B. WOMEN

WHO EARNED

$5, 6 5 6

3. 6

5, 4 8 9

184

4. 2

4, 6 6 0

62

1. 4

5, 4 3 2

267

6. 2

5, 4 4 0

54

1. 2

7, 1 4 3

122

2. 8

5, 4 7 9

47

1. 1

5, 2 5 0
5, 8 2 1

162

3. 7

1, 6 6 9

38. 5

5, 7 7 7

991

22. 9

5, 5 8 3

142

3. 3

6, 1 3 2

228

5. 3

5, 5 8 5

251

5. 8

A M A S T E R ' S D E G R E E IN

Total
Health occupations.
Social workers
Teachers (elementary school)
Teachers (secondary school)
Teachers (college).
_
Writers and performing artists
Other

100.0

156

Business and commercial occupations
Clerical and sales occupations _
DietitiansHealth occupations
.
Natural scientists
Semiskilled, technical occupations. __ .
Service, unskilled occupations
Social workers
Teachers (elementary school)
_ .
Teachers (secondary school)
Teachers (college)
_ __ _.
Writers and performing artists
Other

1

1

1963

1, 2 2 9

1958
100. 0

6, 9 9 8

74

_ _

6. 0

6, 8 1 3

76

6. 2

7, 0 0 0

284

23. 1

7, 0 9 3

296

24. 1

6, 6 7 0

119

9. 7

6, 7 2 9

85

6. 9

6, 6 0 0

295

24. 0

Includes all women graduates in the survey employed full time.

Source: Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc., Washington, D . C .

The median annual salaries of the women employed full time 5
years after college graduation were in the $5,000 to $6,000 range in
most occupations. Medians in excess of this range were found among
women in certain fields: engineering ($9,250), chemistry ($7,600),
mathematics ($7,500), biological science ($6,395), and college teaching
($6,132). The lowest median annual salaries were found among performing artists ($4,594) and clerks and secretaries ($4,660).




170

Women's Income and Earnings

Master's degrees.—Of the 23,652 women who had received a master's
degree in 1958,1,736 (slightly over 7 percent) participated in the survey in the summer of 1963 23 (table 82). Eighty percent of these
women were in the labor force, 8 percent were attending school (2
percent full time and 6 percent part time), and 36 percent reported
they were housewives.24
Most of the women respondents employed full time in the summer
of 1963 were in professional occupations (table 83). The largest
group (67 percent) of the women were employed as teachers or were
in other school occupations. In contrast to the bachelor's degree
holders, only 23 percent of the master's degree holders were elementary school teachers, while 24 percent were high school teachers and
almost 10 percent worked in colleges. The remaining professional
women worked in many fields—as performers and writers, social
workers, nurses, psychologists, and engineers. Less than 2 percent
of the employed women had clerical or service jobs.
The median annual salary of the women employed full time who
had earned a master's degree in 1958 was $6,998, 5 years later. Aboveaverage salaries were reported by women employed as engineers,
mathematicians, dietitians, and psychologists. Women in business
and commerce also reported above-average salaries. Among the lowest
paid were women employed as clerical or secretarial workers ($4,583)
and as writers ($5,917).
23 Figures for women who received first professional degrees in library science and social
work are Included with master's degrees. Women with other first professional degrees
were not included in this survey. In 1958 the number of women respondents who earned
professional degrees was very small. They included only 7 percent of the M.D.'s and 3
percent of the law graduates.
24 See footnote 22, p. 168.




4
EDUCATION, TRAINING, AND
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
One of the most important determinants in a woman's employment
is the amount and type of education or training she has received. It
affects the likelihood of her employment, the regularity of her employment, and the type of job she holds. Any discussion of women
workers, therefore, would be incomplete without some recognition of
the vocational benefits that accompany the social and cultural values of
education. Moreover, the amount of trained womanpower available
in this era of technological change is of particular significance to the
growth of our economy.

Education of Women in the Population
and Labor Force 1
In March 1964 women 18 years of age and over in the labor force
had somewhat more schooling on the average than did all women of
this age group in the population—12.3 years for workers and 12.1
years for the population (table 84). Ten percent of the women in
the labor force had completed 4 years or more of college compared
with only 7 percent of the woman population. Similarly 41 percent
of the women in the work force had completed their education with
high school graduation compared with 36 percent of the women in
the population. At the lower end of the educational scale, only 20
percent of the women workers had an eighth grade education or less
compared with 28 percent of the women in the population. And
women with less than 5 years of schooling were twice as prevalent in
the population as in the labor force. Among men there is less difference between the educational attainment of those in the labor force
and those in the population, since a much larger proportion of men
than of women are employed or seeking work.
1 See also
"Trends in Educational
Department of Labor, January 1965.




Attainment

of

Women,"

Women's

Bureau,

U.S.

171

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

172
Table

84.—EDUCATIONAL A T T A I N M E N T OF THE P O P U L A T I O N A N D OF
BY S E X , M A R C H

WORKERS,

1964

(Persons 18 years of age and over)

Population
Years of school completed

Women

Number (in thousands)
Percent
Elementary:
Less than 5 years 1
5 to 7 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College:
1 to 3 years._ —
4 years or more
Median years of
completed
1

Labor force

Men

Women

Men

61, 883
100. 0

24, 326
100. 0

45, 600
100. 0

5. 2
9. 4
13. 8

6. 8
10.4
14. 6

2. 5
6.9
10. 9

4. 4
9. 0
13. 6

19. 2
36. 0

18. 4
28. 1

18. 8
40. 9

19. 4
31. 1

9.8
6. 5
school

55, 118
100. 0

10. 8
10. 8

10. 6
9. 5

10. 6
12. 1

12. 1

12. 0

12.3

12. 1

Includes persons reporting no school years completed.

Source: U.S Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 63.

Nearly 15 million, or 61 percent of the more than 24 million women
i:ri the labor force in March 1964, had at least a high school education
(chart E ) . Of these, 2.3 million were college graduates and about
2.6 million had 1 to 3 years of college. Almost 2.3 million women
workers had not finished elementary school. Of these, about 500,000
had 1 to 4 years of schooling and nearly 100,000 had not attended
school at all.
In March 1964 nonwhite women workers had completed an average
(median) of 10.8 years of schooling compared with 12.3 school years
for white women workers. The difference in the amount of education completed by white and nonwhite women not in the labor force
was greater—11.8 years and 9.2 years, respectively. However, nonwhite women workers had at least a year more of formal education
than their male counterparts had.

79. Rise in Educational

Attainment

Educational attainment of the population as a whole and of those
working or seeking work has increased considerably over the past few
years. According to studies made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
the median years of school completed by all women 18 years of age




173

Women in the Labor Force
Chart R

HOST WOMEN WORKERS ARE AT LEAST HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
( E D U C A T I O N A L A T T A I N M E N T OF WOMEN W O R K E R S , MARCH 1964)
PERCENT

WOMEN 18 YEARS OF AGE A N D OVER

E L E M E N T A R Y SCHOOL

HIGH SCHOOL

COLLEGE

40.9

-

18.8
10.9
6.9
2.5

10.6

|

| 6.6

|

LESS
5-7
THAN
YEARS
5 YEARS

M
h
8
YEARS

1-3
YEARS

4
YEARS

1-3
YEARS

2.9
i

4
5 YEARS
YEARS OR MORE

Source: U. S, Department of Labor, B u r e a u of l a b o r Statistics.

and over rose 1.1 years between October 1952 and March 1964;
by women workers, 0.3 years. Men made even better progress over
the 12-year period. The median years of school completed by all men
18 years of age and over in the population increased 1.9 years;
by those in the labor force, 1.7 years. The greatest advance,
however, was made by nonwhite workers. The median years of school
completed by nonwhite women workers rose 2.7 years compared with
only 0.2 years for white women workers (chart S). The contrast in
the rise in years of schooling completed by white and nonwhite men
workers was not as sharp—2.5 years for nonwhite and 1.4 years for
white.
This rise in educational attainment of the population and the
work force was influenced by both social and economic factors. Special impetus was furnished by the increasing demand for workers in
occupations that require a higher level of skill and training. Education above the elementary level, at one time beyond the reach of
many, is now generally available to all. Most young people finish high
school, and more and more people of all ages are attending college and




Education, Training, and Employment of Women

174
Chart S

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
OF WHITE AND NONWHITE WORKERS IS NARROWING

1

(MEDIAN YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY WORKERS,
BY SEX AND COLOR, OCTOBER 1952 AND MARCH 1964)
18 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER

WOMEN WORKERS
-

12.3

12.1

_
OCTOBER 1952
| WHITE

H
lua

m

|

MEN WORKERS

MARCH 1964
m

12.2

10.8

W

OCTOBER 1952

MARCH 1964

NONWHITE

Source: U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Labor, B u r e a u of Labor Statistics.

taking postgraduate work. It is therefore significant to consider the
number of persons enrolling in and graduating from school and the
fields of study in which students of institutions of higher education are
taking their degrees.

School Enrollments
There were 24.8 million girls and women between 5 and 34 years
of age enrolled in school in the fall of 1964, according to the Bureau
of the Census (table 85). This was 10.4 million more than in the fall
of 1950. Even more significant is the rise—from 41 percent in 1950
to 55 percent in 1964—in the proportion of the female population 5 to
34 years of age who were attending school.
This increase, however, was not spread evenly among the various
age groups. Nearly all girls of grade school age—6 to 13 years—were
enrolled in school in both years. In contrast, a considerably higher
proportion of 5-year-old girls and of women 14 to 34 years of age
were enrolled in school in 1964 than in 1950. Among girls 14 to 17
years of age—the usual high school age group—the proportion attend-




f

Table 85.—SCHOOL

E N R O L L M E N T OF T H E P O P U L A T I O N

5

TO

34

OCTOBER 1 9 5 0 AND OCTOBER 1 9 6 4

YEARS

OF A G E , B Y S E X ,

1

Number of students
enrolled in 1964
Age

Total
5 years
6 years
7 to 13 years
14 to 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 29 years
30 to 34 years

Male students
as percent of
population

Girls and
women

Boys and
men

1964

1950

1964

1950

24, 809, 000

26, 851, 000

55. 3

41. 0

62. 3

47. 5

1,379,000
1,985,000
13,177,000
6, 356, 000
958,000
716,000
148,000
90,000

1, 435,
2, 043,
13, 548,
6, 658,
1, 238,
1, 332,
411,
186,

68. 1
98.4
99. 2
91. 8
33. 7
10. 9
2.6
1. 9

51. 9
97. 9
98. 7
82. 2
24. 3
4. 6
.4
.4

68.
98.
98.
94.
50.
23.
8.
3.

51. 6
96. 1
98. 7
84. 3
35. 2
14. 2
5. 9
1. 5

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

i Includes schools in regular school system; that is, public, parochial, and private schools offering a diploma or a degree.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, No. 148.




Female students
as percent of
population

8
1
8
4
9
8
1
6

176

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

ing school rose from 82 to 92 percent. The proportion of women 20 to
24 years of age enrolled in school more than doubled, and the proportion of those 25 to 34 years of age increased more than five times.
Relatively fewer females 5 to 34 years of age than males of this
age group were attending school in both 1950 and 1964. There was
little difference in the proportions of the population enrolled in
school at ages 5 through 17. But there was a wide disparity among
those 18 years of age and over. In 1964 among 18- and 19-year-olds,
over half the boys were enrolled in school as compared with only onethird of the girls. Similarly, among those 20 to 24 years old, onefourth of the men were attending school as compared with one-tenth
of the women. And the differences were proportionately greater among
those 25 to 34 years of age.
There was also a divergence in the proportions of white and nonwhite girls attending school. In 1964 nearly all girls less than 14
years of age, both white and nonwhite, were enrolled in school. Beginning with age 16, relatively more white girls than nonwhite girls
attended school, except among 18- and 19-year-olds. But the differences were not as wide as they had been in 1950, when only 72 percent
of nonwhite girls 14 to 17 years of age were enrolled in school as compared with 84 percent of white girls. In 1964 the respective percentages were 89 and 92. Thus the gap in the relative number of nonwhite
and white girls enrolled in school has narrowed.

80. Types of

Schools

Of the 24.8 million girls and women enrolled in the fall of 1964,
16.7 million (67 percent) were in kindergarten or elementary school,
6.4 million (26 percent) were in high school, and the remaining 1.8
million (7 percent) were attending colleges, universities, or professional schools (table 86). These students were enrolled in schools
in the regular school system; that is, any type of graded public, private, or parochial school in the regular school system offering courses
leading to an elementary or high school diploma, or to a college, university, or professional degree. Students enrolled in vocational
courses taken for credit at any of these schools also are included.
An additional 637,000 girls and women 5 to 34 years of age were enrolled in special schools outside the regular school system. Most of
these schools offer occupationally oriented courses not leading to a
diploma or a degree. Among others, they include vocational schools,
business colleges, schools of nursing, schools of beauty culture, and
technical schools. Of the girls and women enrolled in these schools,
543,000, or 85 percent, were 18 years of age or over.




Women in the Labor Force
Table

177

8 6 . — T Y P E S OF S C H O O L A T T E N D E D

B Y S T U D E N T S 5 TO 3 4

BY S E X , OCTOBER 1 9 6 4

Female

Type

of

school

Total
Elementary school or kindergarten
High school_
College
_ _ __ _ _

students

Number

24, 809, 000

YEARS

OF

AGE,

1

Male

Percent
distribution

100.0

Number

26, 851, 0 0 0

students
Percent
distribution

100.0

16, 6 9 8 , 0 0 0

67. 3

17, 505, 0 0 0

65. 2

6, 3 5 3 , 0 0 0

25. 6

6, 4 5 9 , 0 0 0

24. 1

1, 7 5 5 , 0 0 0

7. 1

2, 887, 0 0 0

10. 8

1 Includes schools in regular school system; that is, public, parochial, and private schools offering a diploma
or a degree.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, No. 148.

Growth in Secondary Education
The number of young people enrolling in and graduating from high
school is rising steadily. While part of this is due to the increase in
the number of young people in the population, part is also due to
certain social and economic factors. Most States have passed compulsory school attendance laws establishing a minimum school-leaving age—usually 16. The passage of child labor laws at both the
State and Federal levels has raised the minimum age at which young
people can be employed, thus influencing them to stay in school.
Moreover, more young people are able to stay in school because of the
rise in personal and family income. And young people are increasingly aware of the necessity of securing at least a high school diploma
in order to qualify for most jobs. Many of the jobs requiring little
or no training that formerly offered beginning employment for young
men and women have disappeared.
As recently as June 1950 only 77 out of 100 persons 14 to 17 years
of age were enrolled in high school.2 In the school year ending in
June 1964, this ratio had grown to 94 out of 100. A similar growth
occurred among high school graduates. In 1950, 59 out of 100 persons
17 years of age graduated from high school. By 1963 this ratio had
increased to 70 out of 100.
2 " D i g e s t of Educational Statistics."
Bull. 18.
Health, Education, and Welfare.
1964.




Office of Education, U.S. Department of

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

178

There were 1,173,000 girls and 1,129,000 boys who graduated from
high school during the school year 1963-64. This was 350,000 more
than the number who graduated in 1963 (1,952,000) and was due
mainly to the tremendous rise in the number of young people of high
school graduating age in the population. Girls have consistently
outnumbered boys among high school graduates. However, the difference has narrowed, and currently the number of boys almost equals
the number of girls graduating from high school.

81. High School Retention Rates
The increased holding power of the schools has been measured by
the Office of Education on the basis of retention rates. Of those
youngsters who entered the fifth grade in the fall of 1942, 81 percent
enrolled in high school in 1947 and 51 percent graduated in 1950.
The picture was considerably brighter in 1964. Of those boys and
girls who entered the fifth grade in 1956, 93 percent enrolled in high
school in 1960 and 67 percent graduated in 1964. Moreover, 36 percent
of the 1964 graduates enrolled in college compared with 21 percent of
those who graduated in 1950.

82. School

Dropouts

Despite this substantial progress, large numbers of both girls and
boys still leave school before earning a high school diploma. According to a survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1.7 million of
the 4 million girls 16 to 21 years of age who were not in school in
February 1963 had dropped out before completing high school (table
87). About 347,000 had never attended high school, and nearly half
of these had completed less than 8 years of schooling. Dropping out
of school was much more prevalent among nonwhite girls than among
white girls—55 percent of the nonwhite girls 16 to 21 years of age
had not graduated from high school compared with 39 percent of the
white girls.
The report of the survey shows reasons given by young people
for dropping out of §chool or leaving college. Among girls who had
dropped out of elementary or high school, the principal reason given
was marriage or pregnancy. A larger proportion of nonwhite girls
(49 percent) than of white girls (38 percent) gave this as their primary reason. Second in importance among both white and nonwhite
girls was loss of interest in school, but a larger percentage of white
girls than of nonwhite girls gave this reason. Relatively few white
girls left school because of poor grades or difficulties with school au-




Women in the Labor Force

179

thorities. Among nonwhite girls, however, while only 4 percent left
because of poor grades, 6 percent dropped out of school because of
trouble with school authorities. In contrast, half of the boys who
dropped out of elementary or high school gave economic reasons or
lack of interest as their reason for withdrawing from school.
Of the 421,000 girls 16 to 21 years of age who had left college, 23
percent gave marriage or pregnancy as their main reason and 13
percent gave economic factors. On the other hand, among the 296,000
boys, 35 percent indicated economic reasons and 15 percent claimed
lack of interest in school.
Table

8 7 . — M A I N R E A S O N S FOR D R O P P I N G O U T OF SCHOOL OR L E A V I N G C O L L E G E ,
BY L E V E L OF SCHOOL, S E X , AND C O L O R , F E B R U A R Y

1963

(Persons 16 to 21 years of age)

Level of school last attended
Elementary or high school
Girls
Main reason for leaving
school

Number (in
thousands)
Percent
Marriage or pregnancy __
Not interested in school.
Economic reasons 1
Own illness
Wanted to go to work___
Poor grades
Difficulties with school
authorities
Other reasons

Total

White

Nonwhite

College
Boys

Women

Men

1, 6 7 5

1, 3 4 5

330

1, 3 7 1

421

296

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

40.0

37. 8

48. 8

2. 8

23. 0

6. 9

18. 9

20. 3

13. 0

24. 4

4. 2

15. 2

12. 1

12. 4

10. 9

26. 2

13. 0

35. 1

6. 6

6. 9

5. 8

4. 0

8. 2

2. 5

4. 3

4. 8

2. 1

12. 1

5. 8

8. 0

4. 3

4. 4

3. 6

13. 2

7. 9

12. 3

2. 4

1. 5

5. 8

7. 4

.8

11. 5

11. 9

10. 0

9. 9

37. 0

19. 9

1 Includes unemployment in family, to support family, could not afford to go to school, needed money
and similar reasons.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 46.

Women and Higher Education
Each year more and more women enroll in and graduate from institutions of higher education. The advantages, both cultural and vocational, of education beyond the high school level have had a marked
influence on the decisions of many of our young women as to what




Education, Training, and Employment of Women

180

to do when they finish high school. However, women still lag behind
men in pursuing their education beyond the secondary school level,
especially in the area of advanced degrees.

83. High School Graduates

Entering

College

An estimated 1,178,000 girls graduated from high school in 1964.
Although information as to exactly how many of these students went
on to college is not available, a correlation between the number of
persons who graduate from high school in the spring of one year and
the number of first-time college enrollments the following fall provides
some indication as to the proportion of students going on to college.
It must be remembered, however, that some students do not enter
college immediately after graduation but may enroll in college several
years later.
With this limitation in mind, it is interesting to note that the number
of women enrolling in college for the first time relative to the number
of women high school graduates has increased steadily since 1950
(table 88). Thus in 1950 the number of women first-time enrollees
in college was 31 percent of the number of women high school graduates. This proportion increased to 40 percent by 1958 and to 45
percent by 1964.
A similar correlation for men is not as indicative of the true picture,
since the number of men enrolling in college for the first time was
influenced by the enrollment of veterans of World W a r I I and the
Korean conflict. However, it is evident that more men than women
enrolled in college throughout the period 1950 to 1964. Moreover,
a comparison of the number of men first-time enrollees with the number of men high school graduates indicates that a much higher proportion of men than of women went on to college throughout the
15-year period.

84. College

Enrollments

There were 2,052,106 women enrolled in institutions of higher education in the fall of 1964 according to the Office of Education (table
89). Of these, 116,000 were students in occupational or general studies
programs not chiefly creditable toward a bachelor's degree. Figures
on students in this type of program were not collected prior to the
fall of 1963, but in just 1 year the number of women enrolled in
these schools increased by 30 percent.
The remaining 1,936,106 women were taking work creditable toward
a bachelor's or higher degree. This was more than twice the 727,270




Table

88.—HIGH

SCHOOL

GRADUATES

AND F I R S T - T I M E

COLLEGE

ENROLLMENTS,

BY

SEX,

SELECTED

YEARS,

1950-64

(Persons of all ages)

Women

Men

First-time college enrollments
Selected year

1964 I

High school
graduates

Number

Percent of high
school graduates

First-time college enrollments
High school
graduates

Number

Percent of high
school graduates

1, 1 7 8 , 0 0 0

528, 340

44.9

1, 1 3 7 , 0 0 0

706, 466

62.1

L963

996,000

446, 584

44.8

956,000

608, 562

63.7

1962

990,000

436, 627

44. 1

940, 000

601, 993

64.0

1960

966,000

387, 049

40. 1

898,000

542, 774

60.4

1958

780,400

312, 450

40.0

725, 500

468, 625

64.6

1956

735,300

277, 064

37.7

679, 500

446, 114

65.7

1954

663,600

244, 573

36.9

612, 500

386, 549

63. 1

1952

627,300

213, 206

34.0

569, 200

323, 673

56.9

1950

629,000

197, 103

31.3

570, 700

319,733

56.0

1

Estimated.

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: "Digest of Educational Statistics, 1964," Bull. 1964, No. 18, and "Opening (Fall) Enrollment in Higher Education, 1964," Circular No. 762.




00

182

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

enrolled in 1950. Over the same period, the number of women 18 to
21 years of age in the population had increased by only 25 percent.
Women's representation among all students in colleges and universities offering degree-credit programs had increased from 32 percent
in 1950 to 39 percent in 1964—still slightly below their peak of 40
percent reached in 1939.
Table

89.—ENROLLMENTS,

BY

TYPE

OF I N S T I T U T I O N ,

FALL

1964

Women

Total

Number

Percent
distribution

5,320,294

2,052,106

100.0

38.6

4-year institutions

4,328,861

1,680,427

81.9

38.8

Degree-credit enrollments
Universities
Liberal arts colleges
Independent schools:
Teachers colleges
Technological
Theological, religious..
Schools of art
Other professional
Nondegree-credit enrollments—
2-year institutions

4,274,591
2,110,783
1, 396, 165

1,663,400
713,744
640, 003

81.1
34.8
31. 2

38.9
33.8
45. 8

497,771
122,813
48, 150
19, 925
78,984
54,270
991,433

260,213
11,389
11,498
10, 427
16,126
17,027
371,679

12.7
.6
.6
.5
.8
.8
18.1

52.3
9.3
23.9
52. 3
20.4
31.4
37.5

Degree-credit enrollments
Nondegree-credit enrollments—

713, 276
278, 157

272, 706
98,973

13. 3
4. 8

38. 2
35. 6

Type of institution

All institutions

As percent of
total

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education: "Opening (Fall)
Enrollment in Higher Education, 1964." Circular No. 762.

Types of institutions attended by women.—Of the 2,052,106 women
enrolled in the fall of 1964, 1,680,427 were in 4-year institutions and
371,679 were in 2-year institutions, usually junior colleges. Only a
small proportion (1 percent) of those attending 4-year institutions
were following a program which did not lead to a degree. In contrast,
more than one-fourth (27 percent) of the enrollees in 2-year institutions were taking a program that would not earn them a degree.
A slightly higher proportion of all women enrollees were attending
4-year universities (35 percent) than 4-year liberal arts colleges (31
percent). Thirteen percent were in teachers colleges. Less than 1
percent were in each of the following types of 4-year institutions:
technological, theological, art, and other professional schools.




Women in the Labor Force

183

About 18 percent of all women enrollees were in 2-year institutions
or junior colleges. Comparable figures for 1963 reported by the Office
of Education show that in 1 year the number of women enrolling in
junior colleges increased by 19 percent. More and more community
colleges have been established or are in the planning stage to supplement opportunities for higher education offered by established colleges
and universities.
There was a considerable difference in the proportion that women
were of all students in the various types of 4-year institutions. Thus,
although women constituted only 39 percent of all enrolled students,
they were 52 percent of those attending teachers colleges, 52 percent
of those attending art schools, and 46 percent of those enrolled in
liberal arts colleges. In contrast, women were only 9 percent of the
students in technological schools.
About one-third of all women enrolled in institutions of higher education in the fall of 1964 were in privately controlled schools. The
remainder attended publicly sponsored colleges and universities. Almost 38 percent of the women attending 4-year institutions were
enrolled in private schools compared with only 14 percent of those in
2-year institutions.
Full-time and part-time students.—Among
the 1,936,106 women
taking work creditable toward a bachelor's or higher degree in the fall
of 1964, 32 percent were attending school only part time. A slightly
smaller proportion of the women attending private schools than of
those attending public institutions were part-time students. There was
considerable difference in part-time attendance between the 2- and
4-year institutions—about 46 percent of the women enrolled in 2-year
institutions were attending part time compared with 30 percent of
those in 4-year institutions.
College enrollments and marriage.—A significant and growing proportion of young women have combined marriage and college attendance, according to a survey made by the Bureau of the Census.3 In
October 1963, 255,000, or 16 percent, of the women college students
under 35 years of age were married (husband present). This compares with a total of 147,000 married women students, or 13 percent,
just 4 years previously. However, most of these married women
students were 22 years of age and over—70 percent in 1963 and 79 percent in 1959.
Married women students are more likely to be enrolled in college
on a part-time than a full-time basis. Thus 70 percent of all married
3 Current Population Reports, P - 2 0 , No. 129.
Commerce.




Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of

184

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

women students were attending school only part time in 1963. A larger
proportion of married women 22 years of age and over (83 percent)
than of those younger (38 percent) were enrolled as part-time students.
The percentage of men college students who are married is significantly higher than that of women. In October 1963, 26 percent
of all men under 35 years of age enrolled in college were married (wife
present). Married men students, like married women students, are
likely to be relatively older and to attend school part time—85 percent
of these men were 22 years of age and over and 58 percent were parttime students.

85. Women

Earning

Degrees

The number of women earning degrees has risen significantly in
recent years and reached a record high of 235,936 in the school year
1963-64, according to the Office of Education. This was an increase of
more than 30,000 over the number earned in 1962-63 and about 72,000
over the number conferred by institutions of higher education in
1959-60. Moreover, women earned nearly three times as many degrees
in 1964 as they did in 1940.
Number and types of degrees.—Women's
degrees in 1963-64 included 202,291 bachelor's and first professional4 degrees (85.7 percent), 32,110 master's and other second level degrees (13.6 percent),
and 1,535 doctor's degrees (0.7 percent). Of the 202,291 first level
degrees, 4,945 (2.4 percent) were first professional degrees requiring
5 years or more of college. Despite the large increase since 1940 in the
number of degrees earned by women, the percent earned at each level
remained almost unchanged. Thus only about 1 percent of all degrees
conferred on women were at the doctorate level in both 1940 and
1964, and the percent at the master's level increased only from 12 to
14 percent.
Comparison of degrees earned by women and men.—In 1964
women earned about 40 percent of all bachelor's and first professional
degrees conferred. This was a slightly higher percentage than they
earned in 1963 (39 percent). Back at the turn of the century, women
earned only 19 percent of all bachelor's and first professional degrees.
This proportion rose to 34 percent in 1920 and 40 percent in 1930, and
reached a peak of 41 percent in 1940. Following World W a r I I the
percent dropped to a low of 24 in 1950, when the college graduating
classes included large numbers of returning veterans. The propor4 First professional degrees include degrees such as M.D., D.D.S., LL.B., B.D., M.L.S.,
and M.S.W




185

Women in the Labor Force

tions of all degrees conferred earned by women at the three degree
levels in selected years were as follows:
Percent earned by women in—
Degrees conferred

Bachelor's or first professional
Master's
Doctor's

1964

40. 3
31. 8
10. 6

1960

35. 3
31. 6
10. 5

1930

39. 9
40. 4
15. 4

1900

19. 1
19. 1
6. 0

Although the number of women taking advanced degrees has increased, women earn only a small proportion of all advanced degrees
conferred. Thus in 1964 women earned 32 percent of all master's or
second level degrees. This was considerably below the peak of 40
percent registered in 1930. However, it is above the 19 percent they
earned in 1900 and a more recent low of 29 percent they earned in
1950.
Women have made even less progress at the doctor's level. Despite
a slow rise since the turn of the century in the number of women earning doctor's degrees, the proportion of these degrees earned by women
has increased only slightly since 1950. In fact, the 11 percent of
all doctor's degrees earned by women in 1964 is considerably below
the 15 percent they earned in 1930.
Fields of study in which women earned degrees.—Since more and
more women are enrolling in and graduating from institutions of
higher education, it is of interest to examine the fields of study in
which they earn degrees. It is likewise of interest to determine
whether or not the relative importance of certain fields of study has
changed since 1956 (the earliest date for which comparable figures
are available).
Bachelor's
and first professional
degrees.—Women
earned
bachelor's or first professional degrees in 1964 in a broad and varied
range of subjects—from 159 in engineering, 343 in law, and 432 in
medicine to 27,285 in the social sciences and 86,050 in education
(table 90). However, most of the degrees received by women were
concentrated in a relatively limited number of fields of study. Fortythree percent of all bachelor's degrees conferred on women were in the
field of education (chart T ) . This is not surprising since teaching is
the largest single professional occupation for women. The humanities and the arts was the next most popular discipline (22 percent),
followed by the social sciences (14 percent) and the basic and applied
sciences (13 percent). The specific subjects in which the largest num-




Education, Training, and Employment of Women

186

ber of women earned degrees were elementary education (58,064),
English and journalism (22,837), health professions (11,049), fine and
applied arts (9,414)foreign languages and literature (8,676), history
(8,422), sociology (6,587), biological sciences (6,454), and mathematical subjects (5,995).
Another indication of the popularity of certain fields of study
among women is the proportion of all degrees in any one subject earned
by women. In 1964 almost all first level degrees in home economics,
home economics education, and early childhood education were conferred on women. Women also earned 9 out of 10 degrees in elementary education and speech correction; 3 out of 4 in library science;
Table 90.—EARNED

BACHELOR'S AND FIRST PROFESSIONAL D E G R E E S CONFERRED

ON W O M E N , BY SELECTED FIELDS OF STUDY, 1 9 5 6 AND 1 9 6 4

Percent distribution

Number
Selected field of study

1956

_ __

Art education
Business and commercial
education. _ _
_ _
Early childhood
education
_
Elementary education. _
Home economics
education. _
Music education
Physical education
Secondary education
Speech correction
Other
Humanities and the arts
English and journalism.
Fine and applied arts. _
Foreign languages,
literature
Religion and philosophy.
Other
Psychology
—




1964

1956

1964

1956

202, 291

Total
Education

As percent of
all bachelor's
and first professional
degrees conferred

111, 727

100. 0

100. 0

40. 3

35. 9

86, 050

50, 733

42. 5

45. 4

76. 2

71. 8

2, 137

849

1. 1

.8

69. 6

64. 3

4, 431

2, 545

2. 2

2. 3

71. 9

62. 4

3, 486
58, 064

2, 463
31, 849

1. 7
28. 7

2. 2
28. 5

99. 7
89. 8

98. 6
88. 7

4, 343
2, 973
4, 113
933
1,436
4, 134
43, 659

3, 080
2, 210
2,735
959
300
3, 743
20, 559

2. 1
1. 5
2. 0
.5
.7
2. 0
21. 6

2. 8
2. 0
2. 4
.9
.3
3. 4
18. 4

100. 0
56. 7
34. 5
49. 7
87. 0
39. 3
54. 1

99. 9
56. 3
33. 1
44. 9
79. 6
41. 5
43. 9

22, 837
9, 414

9, 711
6, 170

11. 3
4.7

8. 7
5. 5

64. 7
58. 2

57. 7
55. 0

8, 676
2, 238
494
5, 516

2,467
1, 674
537
2, 557

4. 3
1. 1
.2
2. 7

2. 2
1. 5
.5
2. 3

70. 2
16. 5
14. 8
41. 3

62. 0
15. 5
13. 7
45. 1

1964

Women in the Labor Force
Table
ON

187

9 0 . — E A R N E D B A C H E L O R ' S AND F I R S T PROFESSIONAL D E G R E E S
WOMEN,

BY

SELECTED

FIELDS

OF S T U D Y ,

AND

CONFERRED

1964—Continued

As percent of
all bachelor's
and first proPercent distri- fessional
debution
grees conferred

Number
Selected field of study

1956

1956

1964

1956

1964

27, 520

12, 605

13. 6

11. 3

33. 9

30. 8

Social sciences
Economics. _
History _
Political science,
government
Social science,
general program.
Social work, social
administration
Sociology
Other
Geography
Basic and applied sciences. _

27, 285
1, 068
8, 422

12, 488
676
3, 201

13. 5
.5
4. 2

11. 2
.6
2. 9

34. 2
10. 1
35. 4

31.0
10.3
30. 4

2, 738

1, 109

1.4

1. 0

22. 4

19. 6

4, 860

2, 319

2. 4

2. 1

38. 3

36. 5

2, 159
6, 587
1, 451
235
26, 866

1, 172
3, 363
648
117
14, 088

1. 1
3.3
.7
.1
13. 3

1.0
3. 0
.6
.1
12. 6

62.3
59. 6
24. 2
18. 1
20.9

66. 2
56. 8
18. 6
18. 0
16. 6

Biological sciences
Health professions.
Mathematical subjects. _
Physical sciences
Other
Other professional fields

6, 454
11, 049
5, 995
2, 450
918
12, 680

2, 959
7, 606
1, 523
1, 501
499
11, 185

3. 2
5. 5
3. 0
1. 2
.5
6. 3

2. 6
6. 8
1. 4
1. 3
.4
10. 0

28. 3
43. 5
32. 1
14. 0
2. 1
14. 8

23. 5
34. 0
32. 7
12. 9
1. 5
17.9

4, 637
4, 805
1, 966
1, 272

4, 094
4, 673
1, 233
1, 185

2. 3
2. 4
1. 0
.6

3. 7
4. 2
1. 1
1. 1

7.9
97.9
77. 6
6. 6

9. 7
99. 3
77. 4
8. 5

Social sciences

_

Business and
commerce
Home economics.
Library science._
Other

1964

1956

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: "Earned Degrees,
1955-56" and "Earned Degrees, 1963-64."

7 out of 10 in foreign languages and literature, art education, and
business and commercial education; and about 2 out of 3 in English
and journalism. On the other hand, women received only about 1 out
of 10 first level degrees in economics and less than 1 out of 10 degrees
in business and commerce.
Master's degrees.—Women
who have majored in another field
of study at the undergraduate level often obtain their master's degree
in education in order to qualify for teaching positions in secondary
schools or to qualify for higher rates of pay. Thus master's degrees




188

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

mm

Chart T

MORE THAN 2 OUT OF 5 WOMEN COLLEGE GRADUATES
MAJOR IN EDUCATION
w

I^HH

(BACHELOR'S DEGREES EARNED BY WOMEN, BY FIELD OF STUDY,
JULY 1 , 1963 - JUNE 30, 1964)

BACHELOR'S DEGREES (202,291)
Source: U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education.

earned by women in 1964 were considerably more concentrated in
the field of education than were bachelor's degrees (59 percent and
43 percent, respectively) (table 91). The next largest proportion
(18 percent) was in humanities and the arts, especially English and
journalism. Neither the social sciences nor the basic and applied
sciences were as popular at the second degree level as they were at
the first degree level.
Even though women earned only 32 percent of all master's degrees
conferred in 1964, they still predominated in the fields of home economics education, early childhood education, home economics, elementary education, and library science. Moreover, they earned more
than half of the degrees in speech correction, business and commercial
education, foreign languages and literature, art education, and English
and journalism. On the other hand, women earned less than 1 out
of 10 degrees in business and commerce, economics, and the physical
sciences.
Doctor's degrees.—More women earned their doctor's degree in
1964 in the field of education than in any other, but the concentration
(30 percent) was not as great as at the first and second degree levels




Women in the Labor Force
Table

91.—EARNED

189

M A S T E R ' S D E G R E E S C O N F E R R E D ON W O M E N , BY SELECTED
F I E L D S OF STUDY, 1 9 5 6 AND

1964

Percent
distribution

Number

As percent of
all master's
degrees
conferred

1956

1964

1956

32,110

20,027

100.0

100.0

31.8

33.7

18,841

14,133

58. 7

70. 6

46.3

46.9

230

132

.7

.7

53.4

45.5

485

280

1.5

1.4

58.9

54.5

119
5, 306

275
4, 244

.4
16.5

1.4
21.2

98.3
78.8

92.6
76.0

403
415
591
1,152
218
9, 922
5, 727

364
340
366
1,082
74
6, 976
2, 547

1.3
1.3
1.8
3.6
.7
38.8
17.8

1.8
1.7
1.8
5.4
.4
34.8
12.7

99.8
34.2
27.2
39.4
68.3
38.8
43.4

98.4
34.2
27.2
40.6
59.2
38.9
36.3

English and journalism.
Fine and applied arts—
Foreign languages, literature
Religion and philosophy
Other
Psychology

2,527
1,556

957
900

7.9
4.8

4.8
4.5

52.6
42.4

46.1
38.1

1,247

417

3.9

2.1

53. 8

46.4

308
89
688

223
50
283

1.0

.3
2. 1

1.1
.2
1.4

16.5
16.8
33.4

16.4
15.6
29.1

Social sciences

2, 181

997

6.8

5.0

22.3

21.8

2,121
98
793

965
56
306

6.6
.3
2.5

4.8
.3
1.5

22.4
8.8
29.3

21.9
9.6
27.5

223

75

.7

.4

19.2

14.7

352

139

1.1

.7

31.3

24.8

185
180
290
60

92
127
170
32

.6
.6
.9
.2

.5
.6
.8
.2

47.1
27.9
12.4
19.6

61.3
31.6
15.6
19.9

Selected field of study

Total
Education
Art education
Business and commercial education
Early childhood education
Elementary education._
Home economics education
Music education
Physical education
Secondary education
Speech correction
Other
Humanities and the arts

Social sciences
Economics
History
Political science,
government
Social science, general program
Social work, social
administration. __
Sociology
Other
Geography




1964

1964

1956

190

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

Table

91.—EARNED

MASTER'S

DEGREES CONFERRED

FIELDS OF STUDY, 1956 AND

Percent
distribution

Number
Selected field of study

Basic and applied sciences __
Biological sciences
Health professions
Mathematical subjects.
Physical sciences—
Other
Other professional fields
Business and commerce.
Home economics
Library science
_ _
Other

ON W O M E N ,

BY

SELECTED

1964—Continued

As percent of
all master's
degrees
conferred

1964

1956

1964

1956

1964

1956

3, 228

1,246

10.1

6. 2

12.1

10.0

948

380

3.0

1. 9

28.8

21.6

1,011

422

3. 1

2. 1

44.0

33.2

689

179

2.1

9

19.1

19.9

410

220

1.3

1. 1

9.0

8.3

170

45

.5

2

1.3

.8

1,445

821

4.5

4. 1

16.6

18.9

197

153

.6

8

3. 1

4.9

578

442

1.8

2. 2

97.0

98.0

554

143

1.7

7

77.7

82.7

116

83

.4

4

11.1

13.7

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: "Earned Degrees, 195556" and "Earned Degrees, 1963-64."

(table 92). On the other hand, larger proportions of women earned
degrees at the doctorate level than at lower levels in basic and applied
sciences and psychology. This reflects the need for more advanced
training in these two disciplines.
The proportion of all doctor's degrees conferred earned by women
is relatively small in every subject except home economics (88 percent).
Women received 26 percent of the doctorates in foreign languages
and literature and about 20 percent in education, psychology, and
English and journalism, but they received only 5 percent of the doctor's
degrees in mathematical subjects and the physical sciences.
Changes in women?s mayors between 1956 and 1964,.—Between 1956
and 1964 there appears to have been a gradual shifting away from
the fields of education and home economics, long popular fields of
study among women, and a quickening interest in the field of basic and
applied sciences, especially in the biological sciences and mathematical
subjects. But many women still seek degrees in the humanities and
the arts, particularly English and journalism, and in the social sciences,
especially history.
Bachelor's and -first professional degrees.—Education as a field
of study was slightly less popular with women undergraduate students
in 1964 than in 1956. Relatively more majored in the fields of the
humanities and the arts, the social sciences, and the basic and applied




191

Women in the Labor Force
Table 92.—EARNED

DOCTOR'S DEGREES CONFERRED
FIELDS

OF S T U D Y ,

1956

AND

Percent
distribution

Number
Selected field of study

Total

1964

ON W O M E N ,

1956

BY

SELECTED

1964

1964

1956

As percent of
all doctor's
degrees
conferred
1964

1956

1,535

885

100.0

100.0

10.6

9.9

456

282

29.7

31.9

19.4

17.8

Humanities and the arts

296

166

19.3

18.8

16.3

13.3

English and journalismFine and applied arts__
Foreign languages,
literature.
Religion and philosophy
Other
Psychology

116

59

7.6

6.7

20.4

15.2

64

31

4.2

3.5

15.2

13.2

97

50

6.3

5.6

25.9

19.8

17

20

1.1

2.3

3.8

6.7

2

6

182

86

11.9

9.7

19.4

13.6

Social sciences

177

112

11.5

12.7

9.6

9.6

Basic and applied sciences. -

371

208

24.2

23.5

5.2

5.1

Biological sciences
Health professions _
Mathematical subjectsPhysical sciences
Other
Other professional fields

193

117

12.6

13.2

11.9

11.4

19

7

1.2

.8

9.9

29

10

1.9

1.1

4.9

(2)
(2)

113

68

7.4

7.7

4.6

4. 1

17

6

.7

.8

53

31

3.5

3.5

12.6

36

28

2.3

3.2

87.8

4

1

.3

. 1

6

2

.4

.2

Education

1

Business and commerceHome economics
Library science._ _
Other

. 1

1. 1

.7

(2)

(2)

14.8

(2)

.5

7

(2)

(2)
(2)

84.8

(2)
(2)

1 Includes a small number who earned doctor's degrees in art education, business and commercial education, elementary education, home economics education, music education, physical education, secondary
education,-speech correction, and others.
2 Base too small for information to be significant.

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: "Earned Degrees,
1955-56" and "Earned Degrees, 1063-64."

sciences in 1964 than in 1956. B y subjects, the rise in the number of
degrees earned by women was particularly outstanding in foreign
languages and literature (more than tripled), in mathematical subjects (increased almost fourfold), and in speech correction (rose nearly
fivefold).
779-555 O—66




14

192

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

Master's degrees.—The most significant change between 1956 and
1964 at the second degree level was the decline in the importance of
education as a field of study. In just 8 years the proportion of all
master's degrees earned by women in this field dropped from 71 to
59 percent. Each of the other broad fields of study was more popular
at this level in 1964 than in 1956. Of special significance is the fact
that the number of master's degrees earned by women in the basic and
applied sciences more than doubled, and in mathematical subjects the
number increased nearly fourfold.
Doctor's degrees.—There was little change between 1956 and 1964
in the proportion of doctor's degrees earned by women by field of
study. Psychology was slightly more popular in 1964 than in 1956,
and education and social sciences were slightly less popular.

Educational Attainment
and Labor Force Participation
There is a direct relationship between the educational attainment
of women and their labor force participation. The more education a
woman has received, the greater the likelihood that she will be engaged in paid employment. A high school diploma is a prerequisite
for many jobs today, and there is an increasing demand for workers
with education above the high school level. A shortage of personnel
with the necessary technical and professional training to fill the complex requirements of many positions in this era of technological
change is acute and is expected to continue. Moreover, women who
have completed 4 years or more of college are motivated to seek employment outside the home because of the higher earnings available
to them and because of a desire to use the skills they have acquired
t hrough higher education.
In March 1964, 72 percent of the women 18 years of age and over
who had completed 5 years or more of college and 53 percent of those
who had earned a bachelor's degree were in the labor force (chart U ) .
The percentage dropped to 45 percent among those who were high
school graduates and to 31 percent among those who did not go beyond the eighth grade. The chances of being employed were even
slimmer for women who had less than 5 years of formal education.
The relationship between educational attainment and labor force
participation is almost as strong among married women (husband
present) as it is among single women and women who are divorced,
separated, or widowed. Thus the highest labor-force participation




Women in the Labor Force
Cbart U

193

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION INCREASES WITH E00CATI0N
(LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF WOMEN,
BY YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED, MARCH 1964]

LABOR-FORCE
PARTICIPATION
RATE
75

WOMEN 18 YEARS OF A G E AND OVER

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

LESS THAN 5-7
5 YEARS YEARS

8
YEARS

COLLEGE

1-3
4
YEARS YEARS

1-3
YEARS

4 5 YEARS
YEARS OR MORE

Source: U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r , Bureau of Labor Statistics.

rate among women in each marital group in March 1964 was for those
with 5 years or more of college—84 percent for both single women and
women with other marital status and 63 percent for married women
(husband present) (table 93). Moreover, the lowest rates of labor
force participation were among women with less than 5 years of
schooling—whether they were single, married (husband present),
or widowed, divorced, or separated.




194
Table

Education, Training, and Employment of Women
93.—LABOR-FORCE

PARTICIPATION

RATES

OF WOMEN, BY

EDUCATIONAL

ATTAINMENT AND MARITAL STATUS, MARCH 1964
(Women 18 years of age and over)
Marital

Years of school completed

Total
Elementary school:
Less than 5 years 2
5 to 7 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College:
1 to 3 years
4 years
5 years or more
1
2

Total

Single

status

Married
(husband
present)

Other

1

39.3

65.2

34.5

40.5

18. 4
28. 7
31. 1

24. 3
42. 0
55. 1

19. 3
27. 7
29. 4

16. 6
28. 4
29. 9

38. 3
44. 7

54. 7
75. 6

33. 6
36. 6

46. 9
57. 7

42. 2
52. 9
72. 1

54. 8
82. 7
84. 3

36. 2
45. 2
63. 4

52. 5
52. 0
84. 3

Widowed, divorced, and separated or husband absent for other reasons.
Includes women with no school years completed.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 53.

The pattern of greater labor force participation among women with
higher educational attainment held true when the figures were broken
down by age groups, except among those 18 to 24 years of age (table
94). Since few women complete college before they are 20 years of
age, it is not surprising that the highest labor-force participation rate
for girls 18 and 19 years old was at the high school level. Similarly,
relatively few young women 20 to 24 years of age have earned advanced
degrees, and so in this age group those with 4 years of college are the
most likely to be in the labor force. Among women 25 years of age and
over, extremely high rates of labor force participation were shown
for those with 5 years or more of college in the age groups 45 to 54
years (86 percent) and 55 to 64 years (85 percent). On the other hand,
only in age groups 35 to 44 and 45 to 54 years were as many as 40
percent of the women with less than 8 years of schooling in the labor
force.




o
3

Table

9 4 . — L A B O R - F O R C E PARTICIPATION R A T E S OF W O M E N , BY E D U C A T I O N A L A T T A I N M E N T AND A G E , M A R C H

1964

(Women 18 years of age and over)
Q

cr
o

Age

Years

of school

completed

Total

Total. _
Elementary

18 and
19 years

20 to 24
years

25 to 84
years

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 to 64
years

45.9

49.4

37.4

44.7

51.4

40.6

10.5

39.3

65 years
and over

o

school:

Less than 8 years

1

Less than 5 years

25. 1

2

35.3

18.5

2

13.6

28.7

2

31. 1

5 to 7 years
8 years

2

33.8

31.5

39.5

43.3

29.7

6.3

22. 4

28.5

31.8

43. 1

25.4

6. 1

44.4

38.5

32.9

42.3

43.3

32.0

6.4

28. 8

44.4

39.0

43.8

43.5

36.7

8.8

38.3

1

36.4

34.5

35.8

44.9

49.8

41. 1

12.2

44.7

54.6

53.7

36.4

44.7

54.8

45.7

16.3

30.4

48.9

35.4

44.2

55.2

46.7

14.6

77.4

48. 1

49.6

61.3

59. 1

71.4

64.6

66. 1

85.5

84.8

2

High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years.

_.

College:
1 to 3 years..

1

52.9

5 years or m o r e . _

2

42.2

4 years

72.0

2

19.9
2

44.0

Includes women reporting no school years completed.
Base is less than 100,000.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 63.




O
ui

196

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

Educational Attainment and Occupations
The amount of education a woman has completed determines to
a great extent the type of job she can obtain. Thus in March 1964
over half the employed women who had attended college were in professional and technical occupations (table 95). On the other hand,
three-fourths of those who had attended elementary school only were
operatives or service workers.
Among women who had attended college, there was a considerable
variation in occupational distribution according to the number of
years of school completed. For example, 87 percent of the women
with 5 years or more of college were in professional and technical
occupations, and another 4 percent were nonfarm managers, officials,
and proprietors. In contrast, only 26 percent of the women who had
completed 1 to 3 years of college were in professional and technical
occupations, with 46 percent in clerical work.
Among women who had completed high school but had not gone
on to college, the majority (51 percent) were clerical workers. Many
of the remainder were service workers outside the home (13 percent)
or operatives (10 percent). On the other hand, only a small proportion (20 percent) of the women who had attended but not completed high school were clerical workers. Such dropouts were mainly
operatives (25 percent) or service workers outside the home (24
percent).
Women who had not gone beyond the elementary grades were particularly disadvantaged occupationally. Among those who had completed 8 years of schooling, only 9 percent were in clerical occupations,
with the largest proportions working as operatives (33 percent), service> workers outside the home (24 percent), or private-household
workers (15 percent). And the most disadvantaged of all were those
with less than 5 years of schooling. The largest proportion of these
women were private-household workers (34 percent), followed by
operatives (31 percent).
The close relationship between education and occupation is also
evident from an analysis of the amount of education received by
women employed in each of the major occupational groups (chart V ) .
Of the 3.1 million women employed in professional and technical occupations in March 1964, 77 percent had attended college and 57 percent had graduated (table 96). Of the 7.3 million clerical workers,
77 percent had attended high school, with 65 percent of them high
school graduates. Another 19 percent had some college training.
Among the 1.2 million women employed as managers, officials, and
proprietors (except farm), there was considerably more diversity in




o
3

3
Table

95.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

G R O U P S OF E M P L O Y E D

W O M E N , BY EDUCATIONAL A T T A I N M E N T , M A R C H 1 9 6 4

5'

(Women 18 years of age and over)

o"

Years of school completed
Elementary school

High school

College

Total

Number (in thousands)
Percent
__ _ _

__

Less
than
5 years

5 to 7
years

8
years

1 to 3
years

years

4

1 to 3
years

22, 836
100.0

Major occupational group

Professional, technical workers.
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers
_
_
Sales workers. _ _
___
_
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers __
Operatives, kindred workers __
Nonfarm laborers
_
Service workers (except private-household)
Private-household workers
_
Farm workers
____
__ _

Q

555
100.0

1,510
100.0

2, 485
100.0

4, 177
100.0

9, 396
100.0

2, 438

13.6
5. 1
31.9
7. 1
1. 1
15.6
.3
15.5
7.8
2. 1

.5
4.9
2.7
2.7
.7
30.8
.9
17.3
33.9
5.6

1.0
4.4
4.3
4.4
.6
30.2
.5
23.0
26. 1
5.5

.8
3.9
9. 1
7.5
I- 9
33.0
.5
23.7
14.5
5.2

1.8
5. 1
19.5
9. 1
1.9
24.7
.6
24.3
10.5
2.3

6.4
5.3
50.6
8.3
.9
10. 4
.2
13.5
3.3
1. 1

25.8
6.6
45. 7
5.9
.4
3.4
. 1
8.4
2.5
1.3

100.0

4

years

5 years
or more

1,576
100.0

699
100.0

73. 1
4.8
15.2
2.5
.3
1.8

86.8
4.0
5.2
1.6

1.3
.7
.3

1.1
.6
.7

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 63.




O

198

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

Chart V

JOBS WOMEN HOLD REFLECT THE EDUCATION THEY HAVE HAD
(NUMBER OF EMPLOYED WOMEN, BY SELECTED MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL
GROUPS AND YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED, MARCH 1964]
MILLIONS OF WOMEN

CLERICAL WORKERS

OPERATIVES
SERVICE WORKERS
(except private-household

PROFESSIONAL AND
TECHNICAL WORKERS
PRIVATE-HOUSEHOLD
WORKERS
SALES WORKERS

NONFARM MANAGERS

8 YEARS OR LESS
OF SCHOOLING
1 TO 4 YEARS
OF HIGH SCHOOL
1 OR MORE
YEARS OF C O L L E G E

S o u r c e : U . S . Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

educational attainment. In this major occupational group, 23 percent
had attended college, 61 percent had attended high school (43 percent
had graduated), and 16 percent had 8 years or less of schooling.
Among operatives, however, although 56 percent had attended high
school, only 27 percent were high school graduates, and another 41
percent had 8 years or less of education. Finally, among privatehousehold workers and farm workers, more than half of the employed
women had an eighth grade education or less.




t
Table 96.—EDUCATIONAL

3
a

ATTAINMENT

OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN,

BY

MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

GROUP,

MARCH

3

1964

(Women 18 years of age and over)

Percent distribution by years of school completed
Elementary

Major occupational group

Total
Professional, technical workers _
Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm)
Clerical, kindred workers
Sales workers
_
_ .
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers. _
Operatives, kindred workers _
Nonfarm laborers. _ .
. . .
Service workers (except private-household)
Private-household workers. _
Farm workers.
_
1

Number
{in thousands)

Total

Less
than 5
years

school

5 to 7
years

High school

Q

or
o

College

8
years

1 to 3
years

4
years

1 to 3
years

4
years

5 years
or
more

22, 836

100. 0

2. 4

6. 6

10. 9

18. 3

41. 2

10. 7

6. 9

3. 1

3, 0 9 7

100. 0

. 1

. 5

. 6

2. 5

19. 3

20. 3

37. 2

o
a

19. 6
2. 4

1, 1 6 3

100. 0

2. 3

5. 7

8. 3

18. 4

42. 6

13. 8

6. 5

7, 2 7 6

100. 0

. 2

. 9

3. 1

11. 2

65. 4

15. 3

3. 3

. 5

1, 6 2 7

100. 0

. 9

4. 1

11. 5

23. 5

48. 2

8. 8

2. 4

. 7

1. 7

241

100. 0

1. 7

3. 7

19. 9

32. 8

36. 1

4. 1

3, 5 6 3

100. 0

4. 8

12. 8

23. 0

28. 9

27. 4

2. 3

o

P)

0)

C1)

72

O

0)

. 8

0)

0)

3, 5 4 4

100. 0

2. 7

9. 8

16. 6

28. 7

35. 7

5. 8

. 6

. 1

1, 7 7 5

100. 0

10. 6

22. 2

20. 3

24. 7

17. 7

3. 5

. 6

. 3

478

100. 0

6. 4

17. 3

26. 8

20. 6

21. 4

6. 4

1. 0

Percents not shown where base is less than 100,000.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 53.




O

vO

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

200

86. Occupations
Dropouts

of

High

School

Graduates

and

School

The occupational advantages enjoyed by girls 16 to 21 years of
age who have completed high school compared with girls who dropped
out of school have been analyzed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
in a study of the employment of high school graduates and dropouts
in 1963. Of the 1.7 million girls who had graduated from high school
but were not enrolled in college, 61 percent were employed in clerical
jobs (table 97). Another 12 percent were service workers (except private-household), 8 percent were professional and technical workers,
and 7 percent were operatives. In contrast, among the half million
girls who had dropped out of school, 30 percent were operatives, 25
percent were service workers (except private-household), and 15
percent were private-household workers. Only 11 percent had obtained clerical jobs.
The contrast in occupational opportunities for graduates and dropouts is even sharper among nonwhite girls 16 to 21 years of age. Nearly
half of the nonwhite graduates were employed as clerical workers or
service workers (except private-household). On the other hand, threefourths of the nonwhite dropouts were employed as service workers
either inside or outside the home or as farm laborers and foremen.

87. College Majors and

Occupations

The extent to which college-trained women were employed in occupations related to their major field of study was reported in a survey conducted in April 1963 by the Office of Manpower, Automation
and Training.5 This survey showed that women college graduates
were more likely to be working in occupations related to their major
fields of study than were women with 3 years of college—82 percent and
66 percent, respectively. The proportion of women with 4 years or more
of college utilizing their college majors in their current work was
higher in some fields than in others. Over 90 percent of the women
graduates majoring in education and the health sciences used their college training in their jobs, as did 88 percent of the women graduates
who majored in business. However, among women graduates with
majors in the social sciences and the humanities, only 76 percent and 69
percent, respectively, were using their academic training. NongradB "Formal Occupational Training of Adult Workers."
Manpower Automation Research
Monograph No. 2. Office of Manpower, Automation and Training, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. 1964.




Table 97.—MAJOR

OCCUPATIONAL

GROUPS

OF

EMPLOYED

GIRL

HIGH

OCTOBER

SCHOOL

GRADUATES

1

AND

SCHOOL

DROPOUTS,

BY

COLOR,

1963

(Girls 16 to 21 years of age)

Major occupational group

Number (in thousands) _
Percent
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Clerical, kindred workers _
__
__
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
_
Nonfarm laborers
_
__ _
Private-household workers _ _ _ _
Service workers (except private-household)
Farmers, farm managers _ _ _ _
Farm laborers, foremen
1

White

Total
Graduates

Dropouts

Dropouts

Graduates

Dropouts

102
100. 0

1, 733
100. 0

490
100. 0

1, 623
100. 0

388
100. 0

110
100. 0

8. 1
1. 3
61. 1
4. 8
.6
7. 3
.3
3. 1
12. 2

.4
.8
10. 6
4. 7

.5
1. 0
12. 1
4. 9

3. 6
25. 2
6. 3

4. 8
3. 8

30. 3
.4
14. 9
25. 3

8. 4
1. 4
63. 6
4. 7
.6
6. 8
.2
2. 5
11. 4

34. 1
.5
12. 4
24. 6

14. 4
.9
11. 7
23. 4

16. 3
24. 0
27. 9

1. 3

12. 6

.4

9. 8

14. 4

23. 1

Not enrolled In college.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 41.




Graduates

Nonwhite

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

202

uates with 3 years of college who had majored in the health sciences
were more likely to be using their majors (93 percent) than were those
who had majored in education (65 percent).

Educational Attainment and Unemployment
There is a fairly close correlation between limited education and unemployment. (For further information on unemployed women, see
section 40.) Women who have not graduated from high school generally experience more unemployment than do those with more formal
education. In March 1964 women with only 8 years of schooling
had an unemployment rate of 6.2 percent (table 98). In contrast,
women who had completed high school but had not attended college had
an unemployment rate of 5.6 percent. Women who have graduated
from college run the least risk of unemployment—their unemployment
rate was only 1.6 percent in March 1964.
Table 98.—UNEMPLOYMENT

RATES

OF W O M E N ,

AND COLOR, M A R C H

BY

EDUCATIONAL

ATTAINMENT

1964

(Women 18 years of age and over)

Years of school completed

Total
Elementary school:
Less than 5 years 1_
5 to 7 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College:
1 to 3 years
4 years or more
1

Total

6. 1
6.
.61

9/
6. 2

9.

White

5. 4

Nonwhite

10. 8

8. 9

8. 9

6. 0.

8. 5
5. 6

7. 3

5. 2

4. 5

1. 6

14. 4

1. 7

5. 1\

10.2

Includes persons reporting no school years completed.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:

Special Labor Force Report No. 53.

Unemployment is higher among nonwhite women than among
white women at all educational levels. However, the correlation
between educational attainment and unemployment is not as clear
for nonwhite women. Among all nonwhite women 18 years of age
and over in the labor force in March 1964, those with 8 years of education or less had a lower unemployment rate (8.9 percent) than did
those with at least a high school education (10.2 percent) or those
with 1 to 3 years of high school (14.4 percent). This may be explained




Women in the Labor Force

203

in part by the fact that nonwhite women who have attended or completed high school may not be satisfied to work at semiskilled and
unskilled occupations and have difficulty in finding and qualifying
for more desirable work, especially in Southern States where they are
concentrated. However, nonwhite women 35 years of age and over
who were at least high school graduates had a lower unemployment rate
than those with 8 years or less of formal schooling or those with 1
to 3 years of high school.
Another measure of the relationship between education and unemployment is a comparison' of the years of school completed by
employed and unemployed women in the labor force. One-fourth of
the women 18 years of age and over who were unemployed in March
1964 had an eighth grade education or less (table 99). In contrast,
only one-fifth of the employed women had so little schooling. Moreover, half of the unemployed, but less than two-fifths of the employed women, had not completed high school. A t the upper end
of the education scale, 1 out of 40 of the unemployed was a college
graduate compared with 1 out of 10 of the employed.
Among white women the same pattern of greater educational attainment among the employed than among the unemployed held true.
However, among nonwhite women a larger proportion of the employed (36 percent) than of the unemployed (30 percent) had
an eighth grade education or less. Moreover, a smaller proportion
of the employed (26 percent) than of the unemployed (28 percent)
had completed high school but had not attended college. Only at the
upper end of the scale—among those who had 1 year or more of
college—did the proportion of the employed (14 percent) exceed that
of the unemployed (9 percent).

Educational Attainment and Hours of Work
Women with a limited amount of formal education are more likely
to be employed part time than are highly educated women. Many of
the occupational opportunities available to women with little schooling are in service work or private-household work—typically parttime jobs. In March 1964 about one-third of all women with less
than 8 years of formal education employed in nonagricultural industries worked less than 35 hours a week (table 100). In contrast, less
than one-fourth of the women who had completed high school but
had not attended college were working part time, and only about
one-fifth of the women who had 4 years or more of college worked
less than 35 hours a week.




K>

2
T a b l e 9 9 . — E D U C A T I O N A L ATTAINMENT OF WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE, BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND COLOR, M A R C H

1964

(Women 18 years of age and over)

All women
Years of school completed
Number (in thousands)
Percent
Elementary school:
Less than 5 years 1
5 to 7 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College:
1 to 3 years
4 years
5 years or more
Median years of school completed

Employed

White women

Unemployed

Employed

Nonwhite

Unemployed

Employed

women
Unemployed

22,836
100. 0

1,490
100. 0

20,034
100. 0

1,148
100. 0

2,802
100. 0

342
100. 0

2.4
6.6
10. 9

2.8
11.1
11. 1

1.8
5.1
10. 8

1.8
9.6
11. 9

7.3
17.2
11.4

5.6
16.4
7.9

18. 3
41. 1

26. 0
37. 4

17. 5
43. 2

24. 1
40. 3

24. 1
26. 4

33. 0
28. 1

10. 7
6. 9
3. 1

9. 1
1.7
.8

11.
7. 3 >
3. 2)

12. 2

12. 3

11. 9

12. 3

12. 1

* Includes women reporting no school years completed.

7. 7"!
3. 9 >
2. 1J
10. 8

9. 1
10. 8

a.
c
n
Q
o'
3

Q
=T
5"
C
O
Q
3
Q.

m

3
"U_

o
<

3
<
0
3

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 53.




f
3
a
3

W o m e n in the L a b o r Force
Table

100.—HOURS

OF W O R K

205
OF W O M E N

EMPLOYED

INDUSTRIES, BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT,

IN

NONAGRICULTURAL

MARCH

1964

(Women 18 years of age and over)

Percent distribution
Years of school completed
Total
Elementary school:
1 to 4 years
5 to 7 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College:
1 to 3 years
4 years
5 years or more

Number

Total

35 hours
or more

1 to 34
hours

22, 295, 000

100. 0

73. 4

26. 6

438, 000
1, 420, 000
2, 355, 000

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

67. 4
64. 2
70. 9

32. 6
35. 8
29. 1

4, 060, 000
9, 275, 000

100. 0
100. 0

69. 4
76. 2

30. 6
23. 8

2, 392, 000
1, 571, 000
699, 000

1

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

71. 3
79. 8
81. 7

28. 7
20. 2
18. 3

i Includes 85,000 women with no years of school completed.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics: Special Labor Force Report No. 53.

Training Programs for Women
Opportunities are available to women and girls through a variety
of federally assisted programs designed to offer training or retraining
to the high school girl, the dropout, the employed woman, the displaced worker, and the disadvantaged.
In recent years the particular attention of those concerned with
training programs has been drawn toward two divergent manpower
problems that characterize our dynamic American economy: on one
hand, a shortage of highly trained, experienced professional and
technical workers and, on the other hand, large numbers of disadvantaged people who lack the education and skills necessary for sustained employment. Various new Government training programs
have been developed to help these disadvantaged people become useful,
self-supporting, and self-respecting members of our society, to help
them make a productive contribution to our economic life, and to help
them build meaningful and rewarding lives for themselves and their
families.




206

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

88. Federally Aided

Vocational

Training

Vocational education through cooperative Federal-State-local programs is the oldest federally aided training program—initiated nearly
half a century ago under the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and gradually
extended under subsequent acts. The Vocational Education Act of
1963 provided for further broadening, enlarging, and improving of
vocational programs.
Federally aided vocational training—originally restricted to home
economics, trades and industry, and agriculture—has been broadened
to include education for distributive (merchandising and marketing),
health, technical, and most recently (under the Vocational Education
Act of 1963) business and office occupations.
In addition to authorizing Federal assistance for training in business and office occupations, the Vocational Education Act of 1963 provides for preemployment training of more technicians and semiprofessional workers than formerly and emphasizes training at the postsecondary-school level for this group. It also encourages the training
of service workers.
Greater flexibility in vocational education was made possible by provisions in the 1963 act for special programs for young people and
adults with socioeconomic handicaps. The 1963 act also authorized
funds for an experimental work-study program in which students are
paid for part-time work at school or some other public agency.
Some vocational education courses are arranged to allow alternate
periods of work and class attendance. Industrial-plant training that
is part of the arrangement must be under public supervision to assure
that actual vocational training is provided. Participants are called
"student-learners" to distinguish them from learners whose wages
and hours are regulated by the U.S. Department of Labor under the
Federal Fair Labor Standards Act or by State law.
Over 2.3 million women and girls were enrolled in public vocational
courses in the 1963-64 school year (table 101). Of these, 39.2 percent
were enrolled in adult extension courses. Most of the rest were fulltime students in secondary schools, although a growing number were
enrolled in post-secondary-school programs. Women accounted for a
little more than half of the total enrollment in public vocational
courses in 1963-64.
About 2 million, or 85 percent, of the women receiving federally
aided vocational training in 1963-64 were enrolled in home economics
classes. While formerly the general purpose of home economics education was to help improve the quality of home and family life, the
Vocational Education Act of 1963 added the purpose of fitting in-




Table 101.—WOMEN ENROLLED IN PUBLIC VOCATIONAL COURSES, 1 9 6 3 - 6 4
Women enrolled in adult
extension courses

Women enrollees

Program
Total
Home economics
Distribution
Trades and industry .
Health occupations _
Technical occupations
1
2

1

Number

Percent
distribution

As percent
of total
enrollees

2,311,068

_ _
____
__

_
_

100. 0

50. 5

905, 582

39. 2

1, 9 6 7 , 0 7 3

85. 1

97. 3

693, 189

35. 2

152, 008

6. 6

45. 5

125, 9 2 4

82. 8

112, 0 4 0

4. 8

10. 5

61, 8 3 6

55. 2

64,247

2. 8

95. 8

15, 4 8 1

24. 1

15, 7 0 0

.7

7. 1

9, 1 5 2

58. 3

2

Only five programs are included because enrollment of women in agricultural classes is negligible.
Includes 3,213 enrolled in general continuation classes.

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Division of Vocational and Technical Education.




Number

As percent of
women in
program

208

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

dividuals for gainful employment in any occupation involving knowledge and skills in home economics subjects. These include foods,
clothing, home furnishings, home management, child growth and
development, and consumer education.
The 152,008 women participating in the distributive education program during the 1963-64 school year were studying such subjects as
salesmanship, buying, pricing, advertising and display, fashion, and
business organization. Some students, employed at least 15 hours a
week in a distributive occupation, were in cooperative programs, which
combine work experience with classroom training and enable students
to complete their high school education.
About 112,040 women were enrolled in trades and industry courses
in 1963-64. The most commonly offered courses in this area in recent
years have been beauty culture, power-machine operation, and consumer foods. More than 3,000 of the trades and industry students
were in general continuation classes.
Vocational courses for women health workers have expanded noticeably in recent years—enrollments increased from 38,000 in 1956 to
64,247 in 1963-64. This growth reflects both the stimulus of Federal
funds and the increasing demand for hospital and other personnel
required to supplement the services of professional nurses. Programs
of study in the health occupations supportive to the professions of
nursing, medicine, and dentistry include practical nursing, certified
laboratory assisting, and dental assisting. More than 50 new regular
programs for practical nurses have been initiated annually since 1956,
and dental assistant training has been increasing rapidly. These programs are carried out in cooperation with hospitals and other health
agencies.
89. Training Under the Manpower
Act IMDTA)

Development and Training

The Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 provides
for a diversified nationwide training program for unemployed and
underemployed workers. Allowances are available for certain trainees, such as persons who have had at least 2 years of gainful employment and who are heads of families or members of households whose
head is unemployed, members of farm families with less than $1,200
annual net family income, and young people between the ages of 17 and
21 who are out of school and out of work. In 1963 the program was
expanded to serve persons who need basic education and others who
require supplementary allowances or part-time employment to enter
or remain in training.




Women in the Labor Force

209

The 1965 Manpower Act amended the Manpower Development and
Training Act by extending the training programs for 3 years, providing for expanded research and experimental programs, stimulating job
development programs, liberalizing training allowances for those in
greatest need, and liberalizing the State fund-matching provisions.
Important provisions of the 1965 act were authorization for on-the-job
trainees to engage in part-time work outside their training program
for up to 20 hours a week of paid employment without reduction in
their training allowance; extension of eligibility for training allowances to single persons not living as members of a family or household
group; and provision of refresher training for unemployed professional workers.
Almost 28,000 women trainees, including about 9,000 nonwhite
women, were enrolled in institutional projects started in 1964 under
this program. A very high percentage of those who completed the
courses were placed in jobs.
In 1964 the already wide choice of courses offered to women was
augmented by 100 training occupations. Among the new programs,
for example, were refresher courses in teaching and technical illustrating. Other courses offered were console operator, grocery checker,
special-diet worker, geriatrics nursing assistant, and attendant at children's institutions. However, most women trainees were enrolled in
a relatively limited group of occupational categories (table 102).
About half were preparing for clerical or sales work; more were being
trained for stenographic work than for any other single type of work.
About 1 out of 8 received training to be a licensed practical purse;
another 1 out of 8, to be a nurses' aide.
Among significant characteristics of trainees infiveof the most popular occupational programs for women were the relatively high proportions who were family heads, high school graduates, or long-term
unemployed (table 103).
More than one-third of white and nearly two-fifths of nonwhite
women trainees in all MDTA programs in 1964 were under 22 years old
(table 104). Almost half of the white and almost three-fifths of
the nonwhite trainees were between 22 and 44 years of age. A
relatively large proportion of all trainees (about 68 percent of white
and 64 percent of nonwhite women trainees) had completed at least
12 years of schooling.
In 1964, 2 out of 5 women trainees under the MDTA were the
primary wage earners in their families, normally earning at least
60 percent of the total family income. More than 1 out of 3 was a
family head with dependents.




Education, Training, and Employment of W o m e n

210
Table

1 0 2 . — O C C U P A T I O N S FOR W H I C H W O M E N W E R E T R A I N E D UNDER

MDTA

INSTITUTIONAL T R A I N I N G PROGRAMS, 1 9 6 4

Occupation
Total

Percent
distribution
100. 0

Professional and managerial1

14. 5

Licensed practical nurse
Other
Clerical and sales

12. 3
2. 2
50. 3

Stenographer
Typist/clerk-typist
Clerk (general office)
Saleswoman
Secretary
Other
Service

20. 4
12. 4
6. 4
2. 1
1. 9
7. 2
22. 9

Nurses' aide
Waitress
Cook
Ward attendant
Other
Skilled

13. 2
2. 0
1. 3
1. 1
5. 3
1. 7

Semiskilled

7.7

Sewing machine operator
Machine stitcher and sewer (boot and shoe)
Solderer
Other
Other 2

2. 7
.9
.9
3. 2
2. 8

1
2

Most training in this group is at the semiprofessional or technical level.
Primarily agricultural.

Source: "Manpower Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act of
1962. Report by the Secretary of Labor." March 1965.

Thirty-six percent of the women trainees were eligible for regular
allowances granted to the unemployed who have had at least 2 years'
employment experience. Eleven percent of the women trainees were
eligible for youth allowances, which may be granted to unemployed
young people 17 through 21 years of age who do not qualify for the
regular allowance and who are enrolled in special youth programs.




Table 1 0 3 . — C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF TRAINEES IN SELECTED M D T A INSTITUTIONAL T R A I N I N G PROGRAMS, 1 9 6 4
Occupation and length of course

Characteristics of trainees
Percent of trainees who were:
Women
Under 22 years of age
45 years of age and over
Family heads
High school graduates
Long-term unemployed 1
Nonwhite
Without significant prior work experience
With previous related experience in major occupationalgroup:
Clerical and sales
Service
Service and unskilled

Nurses'
Licensed
Stenogaide and
Typist and
practical
General
rapher
orderly
clerk-typist
nurse
office clerk
(18-52 weeks) (3-41 weeks) (10-29 weeks) (40-52 weeks) (5-51 weeks)

98

91

93

95

94

42

37

37

23

38

8

13

14

14

11

35

34

34

46

40

85

48

75

74

73

52

59

55

53

55

21

46

41

27

26

25

31

24

18

27

21

40

48

42
36

48

i Unemployed 15 weeks or more.
Source: "Manpower Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962.




Report by the Secretary of Labor."

March 1965.

Education, Training, a n d Employment of W o m e n

212

Table 1 0 4 . — W O M E N ENROLLED IN M D T A INSTITUTIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS,
BY A G E , EDUCATION, AND COLOR,

1964

(Percent distribution)

Women trainees enrolled
Age and education

White

Nonwhite

Age
Total
Under 19 years
19 to 21 years
22 to 34 years
35 to 44 years
45 years and over
Education
Total
Elementary school:
Less than 8 years
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years
College: Some

100.0

100.0

16.
18.
25.
22.
16.

12.
26.
42.
14.
4.

8
7
5
5
4

0
8
5
3
4

100. 0

100. 0

2. 7
4. 8

4. 4
4. 2

24. 7
59. 3
8. 5

27. 2
55. 2
9. 0

Source: "Manpower Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962.
Report by the Secretary of Labor." March 1965.

90. Training Under the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA)
Training for jobless and underemployed workers in economically
distressed areas was conducted under the Area Redevelopment Act of
1961. From November 1961 to January 31,1965, almost 13,000 women
were enrolled in ARA courses (table 105). In 1964 women constituted about 55 percent of the total trainees enrolled. More than half
of the women enrollees were in the 22- to 44-year age group. About
57 percent of all the women had 12 years or more of education, and
about 20 percent were heads of their families or households. In 1965
the Area Redevelopment Act training programs were consolidated
with those of the Manpower Development and Training Act.
91. Training and Other Programs Under the Economic
tunity Act

Oppor-

As part of the war on poverty, a number of training opportunities
have opened up under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 which
provide assistance to young women aged 16 to 21 years from low-




W o m e n in the L a b o r Force

213

Table 105.—CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN ENROLLED IN A R A COURSES, BY A G E

1

Age

Characteristics of enrollees

Total

Under
19
years

19 to
21
years

22 to

u

years

45
years
and
over

FAMILY STATUS

12, 762

Total
Head of family or household
Other
No report
_ _ _

1, 856

2, 213

6, 716

1, 977

2, 528
10, 177
57

97
1, 752
7

263
1, 945
5

1, 649
5, 038
29

519
1, 442
16

YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED

Total
Elementary school:
Less than 8 years _
8 years
High school:
1 to 3 y e a r s . . - __ _
4 years.
College: 4 years or more. __
No report
1

12, 762

1, 856

2, 213

6, 716

1, 977

367
1,314

30
74

14
74

209
696

114
470

3, 771
6, 574
719
17

413
1,312
22
5

528
1, 460
134
3

2, 194
3, 200
409
8

636
602
154
1

Figures are cumulative from October 1961 through January 31,1965.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and Training.

income families. The act authorized two training programs for
young people from poor families: the Job Corps and the Neighborhood
Youth Corps. Among other programs of special interest to women
which were established under the act to combat poverty are the WorkStudy Program, Volunteers in Service to America ( V I S T A ) , and
Community Action Programs.
Job Corps.—The Job Corps, administered directly by the Office
of Economic Opportunity, is a program for young people 16 to 21
years of age in the very low income groups who have not been able
to find work, who have not completed secondary education, and whose
reading and arithmetic skills range from fourth to seventh grade
levels. Some high school graduates may be enrolled in exceptional
cases. The Job Corps offers them a change of environment in residential centers and a total learning experience tailored to develop
new habits and attitudes. At these residential centers deprived girls
are prepared to become skillful workers, homemakers, and responsible
citizens. The centers offer women basic education in reading, writing,




214

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

speaking skills, and arithmetic; training in job skills for which there
is a demand; education in home and family life; participation in the
arts to develop self-expression and motivation; recreation and training in physical fitness; and counseling, guidance, and health services.
In mid-1965, five centers, the first of several planned Job Corps
residential centers for women, were providing educational and job
training in such areas as business and clerical skills, retail occupations,
food preparation and service, clothing service occupations, and educational, art, and health occupations.
Each young woman in the Job Corps receives a monthly living
allowance of $30 in addition to room and board, medical and dental
care, and work clothing. An allowance of $50 for each month of satisfactory service is paid her at the end of her service. She may
allocate to her family up to $25 a month, which is matched by the Job
Corps.
Neighborhood

Youth

Corps

{NYC).—The

Neighborhood

Youth

Corps, a work-training program administered by the Department of
Labor, is designed to provide unemployed young people from lowincome families with part-time jobs that will enable them to stay in
or return to school. In the case of young people not returning to
school, it provides actual job training for up to 32 hours a week. This
work experience is expected to increase their employability.
Ninety percent of the funds for such programs is provided by the
Federal Government. Local public or private nonprofit sponsors contribute the rest. The local sponsoring organizations provide not only
employment opportunities for the enrollees, but also wTork supervision,
counseling, testing, remedial education, occupational training, and
job referral and placement, as well as other services considered necessary to the success of the project.
As of June 30, 1965, about 155,000 young men and women were participating in this program and working an average of 12 hours a week.
Types of occupations in which enrollees are gaining work experience
include receptionist, storeroom helper, teachers' aide, library assistant,
dietary helper, tutoring aide, hospital technicians' aide, and laboratory
assistant.
Work-study program.—The work-study program under the Economic Opportunity Act, administered by the Office of Education of
the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, is designed to
help students of limited means finance their college education by working part time at either on-campus or off-campus jobs. Off-campus
employment is limited to work for a public or nonprofit private




Women in the Labor Force

215

organization in such fields as education, recreation, health, and social
and community service. Work is limited to 15 hours weekly, including
employment in projects connected with community action programs.
Participating institutions receive Federal allotments to pay for
90 percent of the working students' wages. Colleges and other employing agencies pay the remainder. Students' salaries are expected
to be commensurate .with the w^ork involved and equal to the "going
rate" of pay for such work in the area. In addition, students in
the work-study program can be aided by loans under the National
Defense Education Act. The total number of students participating
has not yet been determined, but it is expected to be substantial.
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA),—A domestic version
of the Peace Corps, V I S T A offers Americans the opportunity to join
the war on poverty at home by working on a volunteer basis with the
disadvantaged. Any person 18 years of age or older may apply;
married couples are eligible if both the husband and wife qualify for
service. Selected applicants are invited to participate in a 4- to 6-week
training program at the beginning of their 1-year service period.
They are trained for the job and location to which they are assigned
as requested by interested jurisdictions. Training, which stresses supervised field experience, is conducted by local private and public organizations, including selected colleges and universities under the
guidance of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
These volunteers help teach, train, and counsel impoverished Americans in rural and urban community action programs, Job Corps
camps, migrant worker communities, Indian reservations, hospitals,
schools, and institutions for the mentally ill or mentally retarded.
Their assignments may be in any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Applicants may, however,
express an area preference.
Volunteers receive a monthly living allowance varying according
to locality, and are reimbursed for medical and dental expenses during
service. In addition, they receive a readjustment allowance of $50
for each month of satisfactory service, to be paid upon completion of
service. By June 1965 almost 20,000 men and women had applied.
Commwnity auction programs.—Under these programs individual
communities decide how they want to do the job of fighting poverty
through the use of existing private and public resources supplemented
by Federal assistance. Programs may be in such areas as employment,
job training and counseling, health, vocational rehabilitation, welfare,
housing, home management, and remedial education.




216

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

92. Training of Handicapped

Women

Programs designed to give handicapped men and women the particular services they need to become employable are known as vocational
rehabilitation. As a separate field of work, rehabilitation involves the
special skills of a variety of professions collaborating to solve the
complex problems so often presented by severely disabled persons.
A public program of vocational rehabilitation for the disabled was
established shortly after World War I. In response to the demand for
a civilian program that emerged immediately after the needs of
disabled soldiers had been considered, the Vocational Rehabilitation
Act of 1920 (Public Law 236) established a State-Federal program
to help men and women handicapped as a result of accident, illness, or
any other cause become employable. The law has been extended to
include the rehabilitation of those who remain at home and perform
housekeeping tasks and of the blind, the deaf, the hard of hearing,
the emotionally or mentally ill, and the mentally retarded.
Because vocational rehabilitation under the act is designed to serve
those disabled individuals who may become employable, three conditions must be met before a disabled person may receive services: The
person must have a disability that represents a substantial handicap
in securing employment; he must be of working age or near it (legal
working age is determined by the laws of individual jurisdictions, 15
years being the usual minimum age) ; and there must be a reasonable
prospect that the disabled person will be employable after completion
of the program.
All the States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the
Virgin Islands have vocational rehabilitation programs for disabled
men and women in cooperation with the Federal Government. Jurisdictions match $2 on the average for every $3 from the Federal Government to finance the programs. No disabled person is considered
rehabilitated until he has been placed in suitable employment after
being provided with rehabilitation services. In most cases the criterion
is successful accomplishment in paid employment, verified by personal
followup. In some cases it is the ability to perform the important
work of making a home; thus a woman who is needed as homemaker
for her own family also may be accepted for rehabilitation.
In addition to counseling, training, and placement in a suitable
job based on individual requirements, the program includes medical
or physical therapy and the furnishing, in case of financial need, of
such physical aids as hearing devices, trusses, artificial limbs, and
braces. Also, the program provides some or all of the cost of tools
and licenses needed in certain occupations and of room, board, and




Women in the Labor Force

217

travel during rehabilitation in cases where the disabled person lacks
sufficient funds.
Of the more than 100,000 disabled persons who were restored to
active life and employment through the State-Federal program of
vocational rehabilitation in 1964, almost half (47,613) were women.
The number of handicapped women who were helped in the last few
decades has increased considerably, rising from 850 in 1930 to 3,069
in 1940, 19,667 in 1950, and 33,006 in 1960.
About 4,800 handicapped workers (both sexes) who were trained
under vocational rehabilitation programs received supplemental training in 1964 under the Manpower Development and Training Act.6
Handicapped trainees (both sexes) enrolled in MDTA institutional
projects represented 7.1 percent of all MDTA trainees, but the proportion of handicapped female trainees was small—only 3.2 percent
compared with 9.9 percent for handicapped men (table 106).
Table

1 0 6 . — H A N D I C A P P E D PERSONS AS A PERCENT OF A L L ENROLLEES IN

MDTA

INSTITUTIONAL PROJECTS, BY S E X AND A G E , 1 9 6 4

Sex and age
Total
Women
Under 19 years
19 to 21 years
22 to 44 years
45 years and over
Men
Under 19 years
19 to 21 years
22 to 44 years
45 years and over

Percent
7.1
3. 2
1. 6
2. 2
3. 5
5. 6
9. 9
4.2
6. 7
11.3
18.1

Source: "Manpower Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act of
1962. A Report by the Secretary of Labor." March 1965.

93. Apprenticeship

Training

One of the oldest systems of occupational training on the job for
youth is apprenticeship. Apprentices are employed workers who receive formal instruction on the job, thus gaining practical experience
and developing skills. When their terms of training are completed—
usually after 4 years—they are awarded certificates as journeymen.
9 " M a n p o w e r Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and T r a i n i n g A c t
of 1962. A R e p o r t by the Secretary of L a b o r . " March 1965w




218

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

Apprenticeship programs are directed by industry, usually through
cooperative programs established by employers and labor organizations. They are closely related to the manpower needs of employers,
who train for existing or prospective job vacancies.
The Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training in the Manpower
Administration of the Department of Labor and cooperating State
apprenticeship agencies encourage the formation and extension of
apprenticeship training programs and approve standards for training.
The Bureau and many of the State agencies operate through field
offices throughout the United States. Federal- and State-approved
programs are established for about 370 skilled occupations. Although
statistics on apprentices by sex are not available, it is believed that
women accounted for about 1 to 2 percent of the estimated 170,500
registered apprentices in training under such approved programs at
the end of 1964.
The principal reason for the small number of women apprentices
is that few women are employed in most of the trades recognized as
"apprenticeable," either because of the physical demands of the occupation, as in the construction and metals trades, or because of the
length of the training required. Some women, however, are being
trained as bookbinders during a 2-year apprenticeship. This differs
from the 4-year training period for male bookbinders mainly because
women in this trade handle small and less complicated types of work.
Other occupations in which women apprentices are sometimes trained
include cosmetologist, dressmaker, dental technician, fur finisher,
fabric cutter, and tailor.

Special Program for Private-Household Workers
The Women's Bureau, in cooperation with other government agencies and private organizations, is sponsoring a program to improve
the social and economic status of private-household workers. This
program is intended to help not only those currently employed in the
occupation and their employers, but also many unemployed women
and prospective employers. At the same time that many household
positions cannot be filled because of the lack of qualified applicants,
there are many unskilled unemployed women who could be trained
for this occupation, and there are other women and girls who might
enter the occupation if it were given more dignity.
The Women's Bureau sponsored a consultation with representatives
of national organizations and government agencies in June 1964. At
this meeting ways to stimulate improvement in working conditions




Women in the Labor Force

219

and standards as well as in worker qualifications and performance were
discussed. A second consultation, held in February 1965, focused to a
large extent, as did the earlier meeting, on private and government
training and other programs directed toward improving the status of
private-household work and making the occupation more attractive.
The participating nongovernment organizations established a National
Committee on Household Employment to coordinate the efforts of the
many private organizations concerned with upgrading the status of the
occupation, developing standards, and promoting the expansion of job
opportunities in accordance with the objectives of the nationwide Job
Development Program. That program, launched by President Johnson on February 1, 1965, calls for the development and extension of
employment opportunities in a variety of service-type occupations—
in business, at home, on the farm, and in the community—to provide
jobs for the unemployed and underemployed.
The Women's Bureau and the National Committee on Household
Employment currently are engaged in programs developed at the two
consultations and in initiating projects under the Job Development
Program.
Private-household workers include women employed in households
as general household workers, housekeepers, maids, cleaning women,
or laundresses.
Wages paid in this occupation are extremely low. Women privatehousehold workers who worked full time the year round (slightly more
than one-fifth of those employed) in 1964 earned a median of only
$1,082. Their median total cash income, which includes wage and
self-employment income as well as all forms of social insurance and
public assistance payments, was only $1,265. Almost 7 out of 10 of all
women private-household workers had total cash income under
$1,000. Just over 1 out of 10 had as much as $2,000 total cash income.
The low annual wages (income) of women private-household workers reflect not only their low rates of pay, but also the intermittent
character of their employment. At the time of the 1960 census,7 less
than 3 out of 10 of all women workers were working part time (less
than 35 hours a week), but more than half of the women privatehousehold workers were working part time. Moreover, while half
of all women workers were employed a full year (50 to 52 weeks), only
4 out of 10 private-household workers were so employed.
Full-time private-household workers tended to work considerably
longer hours than other employed women did. Thus at the time of
the 1960 census almost 45 percent of the full-time private-household
workers worked from 41 hours a week to more than 60 hours a week.
T

All 1960 census data in this section exclude babysitters.




220

Education, Training, and Employment of Women

In contrast, 25 percent of all women who worked full time reported
these long hours.
The 1960 census data disclosed other characteristics of women
private-household workers: 65 percent were nonwhite; their median
age (46 years) was about 6 years more than that of all women in the
labor force; more (54 percent) lived in the South than elsewhere;
relatively few (11 percent) were "live-in" workers; and they had
completed 8.4 years of school as compared with 12.1 years for all
women in the labor force. Most significantly, a high proportion (an
estimated 15 percent as a minimum) of women private-household
workers were heads of families.
Private-household workers, as a group, clearly are disadvantaged
economically. In addition, they are disadvantaged legislatively.
While they are covered by social security if they earn a minimum of
$50 from any one employer in a calendar quarter, they are virtually
excluded from other protective legislation from which most workers
benefit.




5
OUTLOOK FOR WOMEN WORKERS
The striking increase in this century in the proportions of women
who work outside the home probably could not have been predicted
by economists, sociologists, psychologists, and historians. Yet it is
now a well-established fact of American society that each year more
women join the labor force, almost doubling in number between 1940
and 1965. This trend is likely to continue.
Estimates of population growth for the United States project the
total population at 226 million in 1975 and 245 million in 1980. To
produce the goods and services needed for a population of this magnitude, the Department of Labor anticipates that the economy will have
94 million men and women workers in 1975 and 101 million in 1980.1
These expected manpower requirements are based on the assumption
that relatively full employment would be achieved so that the unemployment rate would be reduced to about 4 percent.2
Women workers will probably show a rise of 41 percent between
1964 and 1980, as compared with only 27 percent for men. Of the
total labor force growth between 1964 and 1980, about 21 million (87
percent) will be due to population increases, and the remainder will be
due to the continued rising labor-force participation rates of adult
women.
In 1964, 37.0 percent of all women 14 years and over were in the
labor force (taJble 107). This percentage is expected to increase steadily to 40.6 percent in 1980, while the corresponding rate for men shows
no change between 1964 and 1980 and even a slight drop in 1970 and
1975. The labor-force participation rate of girls 14 to 19 years is
projected to rise more slowly than that for all women—from 28.1
percent in 1964 to 31.0 percent in 1980. In sharp contrast, the rate of
women in the 45- to 54-year-old group, which was 51.0 percent in 1964,
is projected at 59.5 percent for 1980; and that of women 55 to 59 years
old, which was 45.9 percent in 1964, is projected at 56.2 percent in 1980.
1 "Labor Force Projections for lOTO-SO."
Special Labor Force Report No. 49. Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. February 1965.
3 Other assumptions underlying the projections are continuity of recent trends in economic and social patterns in our society and of scientific and technological advances, as
well as the absence of cataclysmic events.




221

222

O u t l o o k for W o m e n Workers

When women in the main working ages (18 to 64 years) are considered, the rise in the next 15 years in the percentage of women who
are expected to Work is even more apparent. In 1964, 44.4 percent of
the women of these ages were working, but by 1980 about one-half of
them (49.0 percent) probably will be in the labor force. Nevertheless,
in the light of past trends all these projections are considered
conservative.
T a b l e 107.—LABOR-FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES, BY SEX AND BY AGE OF W O M E N ,
1 9 6 4 AND PROJECTED TO 1 9 8 0 1
(Persons 14 years of age and over)

Actual
1964

Sex and age
Total
Men __ _
Women
14 to 19 years
_
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years
_
35 to 44 years..
45 to 54 years
55 to 64 years.
55 to 59 years _
60 to 64 years._
65 years and over _
65 to 69 years
70 years and over_
18 to 64 years _

_ _

,

Projected
1970

1975

1980

56. 5
77. 2
37. 0
28. 1
49. 2
37. 1
44. 8
51. 0
39. 8
45. 9
32. 7
9. 6
16. 2
5. 8

57. 5
77. 0
39. 1
30. 1
50. 3
38. 6
47. 5
55. 3
43. 8
51. 5
34. 8
9. 8
17. 4
5. 9

57.
76.
39.
30.
51.
39.
49.
57.
45.
54.
36.
9.
17.
6.

8
9
9
6
5
3
0
6
7
2
2
8
4
0

44. 4

47. 2

48. 2

58.
77.
40.
31.
52.
40.
50.
59.
47.
56.
37.
9.
17.
6.

3
2
6
0
6
3
0
5
3
2
3
9
4
1

49. 0

i Annual averages.
Source: "Manpower Report of the President and A Report on Manpower Requirements, Resources,
Utilization, and Training by the U.S. Department of Labor." March 1965.

What jobs will be available for these women? Growth in the
economy is, of course, never even. Industries have different growth
rates: some will expand, others will show little change, and still others
will decline as new industries develop. These changes will affect
significantly the occupational structure within industries and the demand for workers with specific skills and educational attainment.3
Professional and technical workers are expected to be the most
rapidly growing broad occupational group. Men and women in this
group have the highest average educational attainment. The main
3 For
employment opportunities in specific occupations, see " O c c u p a t i o n a l Outlook
H a n d b o o k , " Bull. No. 1450, Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, and
publications of the W o m e n ' s Bureau listed in the bibliography of this handbook.




Women in the Labor Force

223

demand in this group affecting women will be for teachers at all levels
of education, but especially college teachers. Jobs for medical and
dental technicians, as for all the health services occupations, also will
be plentiful.
Service workers are another occupational group that will increase
rapidly during the next decade. Among them, women will be in
greatest demand as practical nurses, attendants in hospitals and other
institutions, waitresses and cooks, counter and fountain workers, and
charwomen and cleaners. Both clerical and sales workers also are expected to increase greatly in numbers. There will be many part-time
opportunities for women in these occupations.
Among white-collar workers, the manager-proprietor group as a
whole will increase somewhat. Among blue-collar workers, the group
of craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers will show the greatest
increase, while that of operatives will grow somewhat more slowly
than in the last few years. Jobs for unskilled workers will decline.
Since turnover is generally greatest in occupations in which young
women are employed—because large numbers of them leave the labor
force to be married—the number needed for replacements is much
greater than that needed for additional jobs. For example, about 8
percent of all elementary school teachers need to be replaced each year,
but the net growth requirement in this occupation is estimated to be
only 2 percent annually from 1964 to 1975.
The overall effect of both the divergent trends in manpower requirements in industry and the shifting occupational composition of
the labor force within industry will be a continued strong demand
in coming years for workers with high levels of education, skill, and
training. Conversely, job opportunities for those with little schooling and training will continue to decrease.
This clearly indicates that women must take advantage of all the
education and training available to them and develop their talents
and abilities to the fullest extent possible. In this era of rising demand
for more skilled workers and of accelerated automation, women must
be positive and flexible in their attitudes—willing to learn and willing
to make necessary changes. They must be alert to new job opportunities and to new training programs. Only if they are fully prepared
by education, training, and the willingness to learn anew, will they be
ready for the challenges and demands of tomorrow's society.

779-555 0 — 6 6




16




Part II
Laws Governing Women's
Employment and Status




HIGHLIGHTS
Minimum wage—34 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have
minimum wage laws in operation that apply to women,- of these, 23
apply also to men. A n additional 3 States have minimum wage
laws applicable to women, but they are not currently in operation.
Equal pay—25 States have equal pay laws,- 5 States and the District of
Columbia which have no equal pay laws have fair employment
practices laws (D.C., police regulation) that prohibit discrimination
in rate of pay or compensation based on sex.
Sex discrimination—10 States and the District of Columbia prohibit discrimination in private employment based on sex.
Hours of work—43 States and the District of Columbia regulate daily and/
or weekly working hours for women; 25 States and the District of
Columbia set maximum hours of 8 a day, or 48 or less a week, or
both. (See footnote 4, p. 238.)
Nightwork—21 States and Puerto Rico prohibit and/or regulate the employment of adult women at night. (See footnote 4, p. 238.)
Industrial homework—19 States and Puerto Rico have industrial homework
laws or regulations.
Employment before and after childbirth—6 States and Puerto Rico prohibit
the employment of women immediately before and/or after childbirth.
Occupational limitations—25 States prohibit the employment of adult
women in specified occupations or industries or under certain working
conditions considered hazardous or injurious to health.
Jury duty—47 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico permit
women to serve on all juries. Alabama, Mississippi, and South
Carolina bar women from State juries. Women are eligible for
Federal jury service in all jurisdictions by virtue of the 1957 Federal
Civil Rights Act.
Marriage laws—46 States require a premarital health examination for both
applicants for a marriage license.
Married women's rights—All States recognize a married woman's legal
capacity to contract her personal services outside the home. Married
women generally have control of their own earnings,- however, in 5
of the 8 community-property States, the wife's earnings are under
the complete control of the husband.

226




6
RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Development of Standards
Significant changes in women's work have been developing over
the last century and a half. They have been the result of economic
and technological progress and of demographic and social influences.
Two world wars speeded up the process. Today women are an important part of the Nation's labor force. In large and increasing
numbers they are employed in manufacturing goods or performing
services for the public—working in factories, offices, schools, stores,
hospitals, hotels, restaurants, and laundries. Over a million women
are employed by Federal, State, and local governments; several million
work in private households.
94. Variations in Standards
The Nation's best interests demand good labor standards for
women, many of whom are mothers and homemakers as well as wage
earners. In many instances employers have voluntarily established
such standards for their employees. In other cases good standards
have been adopted through collective bargaining between employers
and workers. But when standards depend wholly on voluntary action, they often vary in adequacy from firm to firm, and many workers
are completely unprotected. For this reason the States quite generally have set up standards for women's employment that govern wages,
hours, and other conditions of work in a large number of occupations
and industries. The standards vary from State to State, and not every
State has established each type of standard.
Labor standards are not static but are influenced by continuously
changing conditions. They change as a result of advancing scientific
knowledge and a growing recognition by both workers and employers
of the importance of good working conditions.
Minimum wage standards have been adjusted in many States to
reflect rising prices and improved standards of living. Historically




227

228

Recommended Standards for Employment of Women

hours of work have been reduced as factory processes have been
mechanized and also as fatigue has come to be recognized as detrimental to the worker's health, efficiency, and productivity. The
development of good industrial health and safety practices provides
a basis for protecting the worker from unsafe working conditions
and from processes that endanger health.
95. Meffiocfs of Establishing

Standards

Labor standards are developed through many channels—employers, unions, and governmental and private agencies. The enactment in
many States of laws establishing adequate standards governing
wrages, hours, and working conditions for women has stimulated the
adoption by employers of better standards for men also.
In matters such as training, seniority, and promotion, women
workers are often in a particularly vulnerable situation which requires special attention. Women may be hired for beginning jobs
on an equal basis with men but may not get equal consideration for
promotion. Frequently they do not have the same training opportunities and are not given a chance at better jobs. The opportunity
to secure an equal rate of pay or equal seniority in their jobs is
sometimes lacking.
An outline follows of basic recommended standards to safeguard
health and efficiency of women employees. These standards apply
mainly to manufacturing, trade and service occupations, and office
work. They do not attempt to deal with details but indicate the
direction in which good standards should move. Federal labor laws
and social security provisions relate to such matters as labor-management relations, wage and hour standards, social security, employment
security, job training, education, and workmen's compensation. They
affect both men and women workers and therefore lie for the most part
outside the scope of this chapter.

Wages and Hours
96. Wage

Standards

Adequate basic wages serve to promote the Nation's welfare by
maintaining a secure and healthful level of living for individual
workers and by sustaining the purchasing power of workers as a whole.
To aid in accomplishing this objective, many States have provided
by law for a floor to wages. Since earnings determine standards of
living, workers should be assured a minimum wage adequate to meet




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

229

the cost of living. The adequacy of the wage depends not only on the
amount of the rate paid, but also on the opportunity for regular employment throughout the year.
Wage standards should include:
a. A minimum wage, applicable to both men and women, adequate to
maintain the health and well-being of the worker with overtime pay
after 40 hours a week at not less than iy 2 times the worker's regular
rate.
b. The principle of equal pay for comparable work—wage rate based
on the job and not on the sex of the worker.
c. No deduction from wages for protective clothing, other safety
equipment, or uniforms; provision and maintenance of these items by
the employer as part of the cost of production.
d. Wages paid regularly and in full, on a weekly or semimonthly
basis, and on a fixed day; assistance by the appropriate government
agency in collection of unpaid wages.
97. Hours

Standards

Standards that provide workers with adequate rest for health and
welfare, and time for other responsibilities and for leisure, are important to both workers and employers. Experience has shown that
maximum production can be maintained over a prolonged period only
under working conditions that sustain the health and efficiency of the
workers and strengthen their morale. The 5-day, 40-hour workweek
is an accepted practice in many industries.
Hours standards should include:
a. A workday of 8 hours and a workweek of 40 hours, with worktime
over 40 hours a week or 8 hours a day to be paid at not less than l1/^
times the worker's regular rate.
b. At least 1 day of rest in 7, preferably 2 consecutive days in 7.
c. Meal periods of at least 30 minutes; no work period of more than
5 hours without a break for meal and rest.
d. A rest period of at least 10 minutes in the middle of each halfday work period, to be allowed in addition to the lunch period and
without lengthening the workday.
e. Nightwork, except in continuous-process industries and essential services, kept to a minimum; observance of the International Labor
Organization standard; that is, a guarantee of an uninterrupted rest
period of 11 consecutive hours, including a rest period of at least 7
consecutive hours between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m.




230

Recommended Standards for Employment of Women

Health and Safety
Standards adequate to insure healthful and safe working conditions
are essential in all workplaces. The standards should include:
98. Health

Standards

a. Vacation with pay after 6 months on the job; longer vacation
after longer service.
b. Time off with pay on legal holidays.
c. Sick leave and maternity leave without loss of job or seniority
rights; maternity leave to cover a minimum of 6 weeks before and
2 months after confinement, with extension of either period on advice
of the worker's physician. Paid maternity leave or comparable insurance benefits should be provided for women workers.
d. Working environment with adequate ventilation, lighting, and
heating to preserve health and reduce strain and fatigue.
e. Washrooms, toilets, restrooms, dressing rooms, and drinking
water convenient and available to all workers; lunchrooms with
nourishing food at reasonable prices when the size of the plant makes
it practicable; facilities to conform to high standards of health and
sanitation.
f. Medical services in the plant commensurate with needs of the
workers.
g. A program to discover and protect against occupational hazards
arising from the use of dangerous substances or processes.
h. Provision of mechanical aids for lifting weights; elimination of
undue physical strain for workers.
i. Suitable seats in adequate numbers; workers free to use them
when not actively engaged in performance of duties that require a
standing position, or at all times when nature of job permits.
99. Safety

Standards

a. Equipment and machinery in good working condition, with
adequate guards against injury.
b. Safety equipment and clothing as needed—such as goggles, safety
shoes, protective gloves—maintained in good condition.
c. Safe and uncrowded workspace; stairways, floors, halls, rooms,
and passageways kept in good condition and adequately lighted.
d. A continuing safety program and training in safety on the job
for all workers.




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

231

Other Standards
100. Industrial

Homework

Industrial homework should be limited by law to handicapped
persons who are unable to leave home for regular employment. For
such workers it should be controlled by licensing provisions and
related standards.







7
STATE LABOR LAWS FOR WOMEN
as of September 1, 1965

During a century of development, the field of labor legislation for
women has seen a tremendous increase in the number of laws and
a notable improvement in the standards established. Today each of
the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have laws
relating to the employment of women. The principal subjects of
regulation are: (1) minimum wage; (2) equal pay; (3) hours of
work, including maximum daily and weekly hours, day of rest, and
meal and rest periods; (4) industrial homework; (5) employment before and after childbirth; (6) occupational limitations; and (7) other
standards, such as seating provisions and weightlifting limitations.
Legislation in one or more of these fields has been enacted in all of
the States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, but the standards established vary widely.
In some jurisdictions different standards apply to different occupations or industries. Only the highest standards established for the
principal subjects of regulation, in effect September 1, 1965, are shown
in this summary. Laws relating to minors are mentioned only if they
apply also to women.

Minimum W a g e
A total of 34 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico
have minimum wage laws with minimum wage rates currently in
effect. These laws apply to men as well as women in 22 States and
Puerto Rico. In 12 States and the District of Columbia minimum
wage laws apply only to women or to women and minors. An additional 3 States have minimum wage laws, applicable to females and/or
minors, which are not in operation.
In general these laws are applicable to all industries and occupations except domestic service and agriculture, which are specifically




233

234

State Labor Laws for Women

exempt in most States.1 Since the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act
of 1938, as amended, establishes a minimum hourly rate for both men
and women engaged in or producing goods for interstate commerce and
for employees of some retail firms and other specified establishments,
the benefits of State minimum wage legislation apply chiefly to workers in local trade and service industries.
101. Historical Record
The history of minimum wage legislation began in 1912 with the
passage of a minimum wage law in Massachusetts. At that time
minimum wage legislation was designed for the protection of women
and minors and did much to raise their extremely low wages in manufacturing (now covered by the FFLSA) and in trade and service
industries. Between 1912 and 1923, laws were enacted in 15 States,2
the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
Legislative progress was interrupted by the 1923 decision of the
U.S. Supreme Court declaring the District of Columbia law unconstitutional, and no new minimum wage laws were passed during the
next 10 years.
The depression years of the 1930's brought a revival of interest in
minimum wage legislation, and 13 additional States and Alaska
enacted laws.
In 1937 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of
the minimum wage law in the State of Washington, expressly reversing
its prior decision on the District of Columbia minimum wage law.
In 1941 Hawaii enacted a minimum wage law, bringing to 30 the
number of jurisdictions with such legislation.
From 1941 through 1954 no State enacted a minimum wage law.
However, there was a considerable amount of legislative activity in
the States which already had minimum wage legislation on their
statute books. In some States the laws were amended to extend coverage to men; in others, to establish or increase a statutory rate; in still
others, to strengthen the procedural provisions.
1 Minimum wage laws in only 9 States—California, Colorado, Kansas, Michigan, North
Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin—do not specifically exempt from
coverage employment in both domestic service and agriculture or labor on a farm. The
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii exempt domestic service but not agriculture,
except that Hawaii exempts agricultural workers in any workweek in which the employer
has fewer than 20 employees. Minimum wage rates f o r agricultural employment have
been set by waige orders f o r women and minors in California and Wisconsin, f o r minors in
Oregon, and f o r men and women in Puerto Rico. A Wisconsin wage order sets minimum
wage rates for women and minors in domestic service.
2 One of these laws was repealed in 1919 (Nebraska) ; another, in 1921 (Texas).




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

235

In the period 1955-63 the following actions occurred:
5 States—Idaho, New Mexico, North Carolina, Vermont, and Wyoming—enacted minimum wage laws for the first time.
5 States—Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Washington—amended their laws to establish a statutory rate, and three of
these amendments—in Maine, Pennsylvania, and Washington—extended coverage to men also.
13 States—Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Masachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Rhode
Island, Vermont, and Washington—amended existing laws to raise
statutory rates.
1 State—Massachusetts—amended the minimum wage law to require
the payment of not less than iy 2 times the employee's regular rate for
hours worked in excess of 40 a week, but a number of occupations and
industries are exempted from the overtime provision.
Other amendments in a number of States affected coverage of the
law, clarified specific provisions, or otherwise strengthened the minimum wage laws.
In 1964 and up to September 1965:
4 States—Delaware, Indiana, Maryland, and Michigan—enacted
minimum wage laws for the first time.
1 State—Oklahoma—with a wage board law enacted a statutory rate
law applicable to men and women.
2 States—Nevada and North Dakota—amended their laws to extend
coverage to men.
8 States—Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming—amended their laws to
increase the statutory rate.
102. Roster of Minimum

Wage

States

The 39 jurisdictions with minimum wage legislation are:
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Hawaii
Idaho
•Illinois
Indiana
•Kansas

Kentucky
•Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina

•Law not in operation; no minimum wage rates in effect.




North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Dakota
Utah
Vermont
Washington
Wisconsin
Wyoming

236

State L a b o r L a w s for W o m e n

Eleven States and Puerto Rico have statutory rates and also provide
for the establishment of occupation or industry rates based on recommendations of wage boards. Fourteen States (including 3 with no
minimum wages rates currently in effect) and the District of Columbia
have no fixed rate in the law but provide for minimum rates to be
established on an occupation or industry basis by wage board action.
Twelve States have statutory minimum wages rates only; that is, the
rate is set by the legislature.
The following list shows for the 39 jurisdictions the type of law and
employees covered.
a. Statutory rate and wage board law for—
Men, women, and minors
Connecticut
Delaware
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Men and women
Indiana
(18 years
and over)

Vermont
Washington

New York
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
Michigan
(18 to 65 years)

b. Wage board law only forMen, women, and minors
North Dakota
Women and minors
Arizona
California
Colorado
District of Columbia
•Illinois
Females
•Louisiana

Oregon
Utah
Wisconsin

•Kansas
Kentucky
Minnesota
New Jersey
Ohio

c. Statutory rate law only forMen, women, and minors
Alaska
Hawaii
Idaho
Maine
Maryland

Nevada
New Mexico
North Carolina
(16 to 65 years)

Men and women
Oklahoma
(18 to 65 years)
Wyoming
(18 years and over)
Females
Arkansas
South Dakota

•Law not in operation ; no minimum wage rates in effect.




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

237

Equal Pay
Twenty-five States have equal pay laws applicable to private
employment which prohibit discrimination in rate of pay because of
sex. They establish the principle of payment of a wage rate based
on the job and not on the sex of the worker. Five States with no equal
pay laws have fair employment practices laws that prohibit discrimination in rate of pay or compensation based on sex.
703. Historical Record
Public attention was first sharply focused on equal pay for women
during World War I when large numbers of women were employed in
war industries on the same jobs as men, and the National War Labor
Board enforced the policy of "no wage discrimination against women
on the grounds of sex." In 1919, 2 States—Michigan and Montana—
enacted equal pay legislation. For nearly 25 years these were the only
States with equal pay laws on their statute books.
Great progress in the equal pay field was made during World War
I I when large numbers of women entered the labor force, many of
them in jobs previously held by men. Government agencies, employers, unions, organizations, and the general public were concerned
with the removal of wrage differentials as a means of furthering the
war effort.
During the period 1943-45 equal pay laws were enacted in 4
States—Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Washington.
In the next 4 years 6 States—California, Connecticut, Maine, New
Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island—and Alaska passed
equal pay laws.
New Jersey enacted its equal pay law in 1952. Arkansas, Colorado,
and Oregon, by passing such legislation in 1955, increased the number
of equal pay laws to 17.
In 1957 California amended its equal pay law to strengthen existing legislation, and Nebraska adopted a resolution endorsing the
policy of equal pay for equal work without discrimination as to sex
and urging the adoption of this policy by all employers in the State.
Hawaii, Ohio, and Wyoming passed equal pay laws in 1959.
In 1961 Wisconsin amended its fair employment practices law to
prohibit discrimination because of sex and to provide that a differential
in pay between employees, when based in good faith on any factor
other than sex, is not prohibited.
In 1962 Arizona became the 21st State with an equal pay law, and
Michigan amended its law to extend coverage to any employer of labor




238

State Labor Laws for Women

employing both males and females. (Previously only manufacture or
production of any article was covered by the Michigan law.)
During 1963 Missouri enacted an equal pay law, and Vermont
passed a fair labor practices law which also prohibits discrimination
in rates of pay based on sex.
(Also in 1963 the Federal Equal Pay Act wTas passed as an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act. In general the law became
effective June 11,1964.)
In 1965 3 States—North Dakota, Oklahoma, and West Virginia—
enacted equal pay laws; Maryland, Nebraska, and Utah passed fair
employment practices laws that include a prohibition of discrimination in compensation based on sex. Amendments in 4 States—California, Maine, New York, and Rhode Island—strengthened existing
equal pay laws.
704. Roster of Equal Pay States 3
The 25 States wTith equal pay laws are:
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Hawaii
Illinois
Maine

Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
Montana
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Ohio

Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Washington
West Virginia
Wyoming

Equal pay laws in 3 States—Colorado, Montana, and North
Dakota—are applicable to public as well as private enterprise. In 21
States the laws apply to most types of private employment ; in general
those specifying exemptions exclude agricultural labor and domestic
service. The Illinois law applies only to manufacturing.

Hours of Work
The first enforceable law that regulated the hours of employment
of women became effective in Massachusetts in 1879. Today 46 States,4
the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have established standards
governing at least one aspect of women's hours of employment; that
3 Fair employment
practices laws in 5 States with no equal pay laws—Maryland,
Nebraska, Utah, Vermont, and Wisconsin—prohibit discrimination in rate of pay or
compensation based on sex.
4 While this handbook was in press, Delaware repealed its labor laws f o r
women,
regulating maximum hours, day of rest, meal period, nightwork, and seating facilities,
effective December 14, 1965. All subsequent summaries of these provisions therefore
should exclude Delaware.




239

Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

is, maximum daily or weekly hours, day of rest, meal and rest periods,
and nightwork. Some of these standards have been established by
statute; others, by minimum wage or industrial welfare orders.
105. Maximum

Daily and Weekly

Hours5

Forty-three States and the District of Columbia regulate the number of daily and/or weekly hours of employment for women in one or
more industries. These limitations have been established either by
statute or by orders. Seven States—Alabama, Alaska, Florida,
Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, and West Virginia—and Puerto Rico do not
have such laws; but laws of Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico require
the payment of premium rates for time worked over hours specified.
Twenty-five States and the District of Columbia have set maximum hours of
8 a day, 48 or less a week, or both.
Eight States have a maximum 9-hour day and 50- or 54-hour week. (Michigan
has an average 9-hour day, maximum 10-hour.)
Minnesota has no daily hour limitation in its statute; weekly hours are
limited to 54.
Nine States have a maximum of 10 hours a day and from 50 to 60 hours a week.

The highest standard (the fewest maximum hours) applicable to
one or more industries is shown here for each of the 43 States and the
District of Columbia. Standards for Georgia, Montana, and South
Carolina are applicable to both men and women.
Maximum hours
Daily

Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia __
Georgia
Idaho 2
Illinois
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri

8
8
8
8
8
10
8
10
8
8
8
10
8
9
10
9
9
—
10
9

See footnotes at end of table.
6

See footnote 4, p. 238.
779-555 O—66




17

Maximum hours

Weekly

48
(*)
48
48
48
55
48
60
48
48
48
60
48
50
60
48
54
54
60
54

Daily

Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont

8
9
8
10
10
8
8
9
8%
8
9
8
10
9
10
10
10
9
8
9

Weekly

48
54
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
54
44
48
48
55
54
50
54
48
50

State Labor Laws for Women

240

Maximum hours

Maximum hours
Daily

Virginia
Washington

9
8

Daily

Weekly

48
(3)

Weekly

9
8

Wisconsin
Wyoming 4

50
48

1 Day-of-rest law provides, in effect, for 48-hour workweek.
Nine hours a day permitted,
if time worked over 8 hours a day is paid for at 1% times the employee's regular rate.
2 Law amended in 1963 to provide that females may not be employed over 8 hours a day
or 48 hours a week without the payment of 1% times the rate for hours worked in excess
of 8 a day or 48 a week.
3

Day-of-rest law provides, in effect, for 48-hour workweek.

A 1959 amendment to the hour law permits the employment of females over 8 hours a
day, provided time and one-half is paid for each hour worked over 8 a day in a 12-hour
period.
4

Virtually all State hour laws cover manufacturing; most of them
apply to a variety of other industries as well. Standards are usually
the same for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing. However, in 4
States the highest standards established for daily and weekly hours
apply to nonmanufacturing. For manufacturing establishments the
maximum daily and weekly hours in these 4 States are:
Daily

ConnecticutKansas
Montana
Ohio

9
9
8
9

Weekly

48
49i/2
48

106. Day of Rest6
Twenty-three States and the District of Columbia have established
a maximum 6-day workweek for women employed in some or all industries; in 6 of these States this standard is applicable to both men
and women. Jurisdictions providing for a 6-day maximum workweek
are:
Arizona
Arkansas
California (men and women)
Colorado
Connecticut 1
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois (men and women)
Kansas
Louisiana
Massachusetts (men and
women)
Nevada

New Hampshire (men and
women)
New Jersey
New York (men and women)
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin (men and women)

1 Standard shown is applicable to females; another statute prohibits Sunday employment of all employees in commercial occupations or work in any industrial process, with
specified exceptions. (Employees covered by statute who are employed on Sunday must
be relieved of duty f o r one of the following 6 days.)
6

See footnote 4, p. 238.




241

Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

Of the 28 jurisdictions with no laws limiting the workweek to 6 days,
8 States have laws applicable to both men and women that prohibit
employment on Sunday with specified exceptions:
Alabama
Florida
Maryland

Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri

Virginia
West Virginia

Eight other States—Georgia, Maine, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Vermont—have Sunday "blue laws"
that prohibit the performance of work by an individual. These States,
since their laws do not regulate employment, are not listed with those
having day-of-rest laws.
In Montana, Sunday is a legal holiday by law. Three additional
jurisdictions—Rhode Island, Kentucky, and Puerto Rico—have laws
which require the payment of overtime rates to both men and women
for work on the seventh day or on Sunday, thus, in effect, encouraging
a 6-day workweek. The Rhode Island statute, under the jurisdiction
of the State Department of Labor, prohibits employment on Sundays
and holidays, but allows work of necessity and charity to be performed on such days by special permit, provided 1% times the worker's
regular rate is paid. The Kentucky law requires the payment of time
and one-half the worker's regular rate for work on the seventh consecutive day for persons working at least 40 hours a week. Puerto
Rico provides for a day of rest but permits work on such day at
double the employee's regular rate.
707. Meal

Period7

Half of the States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico provide that meal periods, varying from one-third of an hour to 1 hour in
duration, must be allowed women employed in some or all industries;
in 4 States these provisions apply to men as well as women. The
length of the meal period is provided for by statute, orders, or regulations in 27 jurisdictions:
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Delaware
District of Columbia
Indiana (men and
women)
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
7

See footnote 4, p. 238.




Massachusetts
Nebraska (men and
women)
Nevada
New Jersey (men and
women)
New Mexico
New York (men and
women)
North Carolina
North Dakota

Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
Utah
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin

242

State Labor Laws for W o m e n

Combining rest period and meal period provisions, Kentucky requires that before and after the regularly scheduled lunch period (duration not specified) rest periods shall be granted females; and in
Wyoming females employed in specified establishments who are required to be on their.feet continuously must have two paid rest periods,
one before and one after the lunch hour.
108. Rest Period
Twelve States and Puerto Rico 8 have provided for specific rest periods (as distinct from a meal period) for women workers, 6 by statute
and 7 by wage order. The statutes in Alaska, Kentucky, Nevada, and
Wyoming cover a variety of industries (in Alaska and Wyoming,
applicable to women standing continuously); laws in New York and
Pennsylvania apply to elevator operators not provided with seating
facilities. Rest periods in one or more industries are provided by
wage orders in Arizona, California, Colorado, Oregon, Puerto Rico,
Utah, and Washington. Most of the provisions are for a 10-minute
rest period within each half day of work.
In addition, in Arkansas manufacturing establishments operating
on a 24-hour schedule may, when necessary, be exempt from the meal
period provision if females are granted 10 minutes for each of two
paid rest periods and provision is made for them to eat at their work;
and the North Dakota Manufacturing Order prohibits the employment of women for more than 2 hours without a rest period (duration
not specified).
109. Nightwork

9

In 21 States and Puerto Rico nightwork for adult women is prohibited and/or regulated in certain industries or occupations.
Eleven States and Puerto Rico prohibit nightwork for adult women in certain occupations or industries or under specified conditions:
Connecticut
Kansas
Massachusetts
Nebraska (except by
permit)

New Jersey
New York
North Dakota
Ohio

Puerto Rico
South Carolina
Washington
Wisconsin

In North Dakota and Washington the prohibition applies only to
elevator operators; in Ohio, only to taxicab drivers.
In 10 other States, as well as in several of the States and Puerto
Rico which prohibit nightwork in specified industries or occupations,
8 Rest period provision in Puerto Rico applies also to men.
• See footnote 4, p. 238.




243

Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

the employment of adult women at night is regulated either by maximum hour provisions or by specified standards of working conditions:
California
Delaware
Illinois
Maryland

New Hampshire
New Mexico
Oregon
Pennsylvania

Rhode Island
Utah

Arizona and the District of Columbia prohibit night messenger
service by females under 21; the Arizona law is also applicable to
males under 21.

Other Labor Legislation
770. Industrial

Homework

Nineteen States and Puerto Rico have industrial homework laws
or regulations:
California
Connecticut
Hawaii
Illinois
Indiana
Maryland
Massachusetts

Michigan
Missouri
New Jersey
New York
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania

Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
Tennessee
Texas
West Virginia
Wisconsin

These regulations apply to all persons, except in Oregon, where
the provisions apply to women and minors only.
In addition, the Alaska and Washington wage and hour acts authorize issuance of rules and regulations restricting or prohibiting
industrial homework where necessary to safeguard minimum wage
rates prescribed in the acts.
111. Employment

Before and After Childbirth

Six States and Puerto Rico prohibit the employment of women
in one or more industries or occupations immediately before and/or
after childbirth. These standards are established by statute or by
minimum wage or welfare orders. Women may not be employed in—
Connecticut
Massachusetts
Missouri
New York
Puerto Rico
Vermont
Washington1

4 weeks before and 4 weeks after
4 weeks before and 4 weeks after
3 weeks before and 3 weeks after
4 weeks after
4 weeks before and 4 weeks after
2 weeks before and 4 weeks after
4 months before and 6 weeks after

childbirth
childbirth
childbirth
childbirth
childbirth
childbirth
childbirth

1 Standard established by minimum wage orders.
Some orders provide that a special
permit may be granted f o r continued employment upon employer's request and with
doctor's certificate.




244

State Labor Laws for W o m e n

In addition to prohibiting employment, Puerto Rico requires the
employer to pay the working mother one-half of her regular wage or
salary during an 8-week period and provides for job security during
the required absence.
Rhode Island's Temporary Disability Insurance Act provides that
women workers covered by the act who are unemployed because of
sickness resulting from pregnancy are entitled to cash benefits for
maternity leave for a 14-week period beginning the sixth week prior
to the week of expected childbirth, or the week childbirth occurs if it is
more than 6 weeks prior to the expected birth.
In New Jersey the Temporary Disability Benefits Act provides
that women workers to whom the act applies are entitled to cash payments for disability existing during the 4 weeks before and 4 weeks
following childbirth.
112. Occupational

Limitations

Twenty-six States have laws or regulations that prohibit the employment of adult women in specified occupations or industries or
under certain working conditions which are considered hazardous or
injurious to health and safety. In the majority (17) the prohibition
applies to women's employment in or about mines. Clerical or similar
work is excepted from the prohibition in approximately half of these
States. Ten States prohibit women from mixing, selling, or dispensing alcoholic beverages for on-premises consumption, and 1 State—
Georgia—prohibits their employment in retail liquor stores. (In
addition, a Florida statute authorizes the city of Tampa to prohibit
females from soliciting customers to buy alcoholic beverages.)
The following States have occupational limitations applicable to—
Establishment8 serving
alcoholic beverages

Mines

Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
Colorado
Illinois
Indiana
Maryland
Missouri
New York

Ohio
Oklahoma
Pennsylvania
Utah
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Alaska
California
Connecticut
Illinois 1
Indiana
Kentucky
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Wyoming

1 Illinois State law empowers city and county governments to prohibit by general ordinance or resolution.




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

245

Eleven States prohibit the employment of women in other places or
occupations or under certain conditions:
Arizona—In occupations requiring constant standing.
Colorado—Working around coke ovens.
Massachusetts—Working on cores over 2 cubic feet or 60 pounds.
Michigan—Handling harmful substances; in foundries, except with approval
of the Department of Labor; operating polishing wheels, belts.
Minnesota—Placing cores in or out of ovens; cleaning moving machinery.
Missouri—Cleaning or working between moving machinery.
New York—Coremaking, or in connection with coremaking, in a room in
which the oven is in operation.
Ohio—As crossing watchman, section hand, express driver, metal molder,
bellhop, gas- or electric-meter reader; in shoeshining parlors, bowling
alleys as pinsetters, poolrooms; in delivery service on motor-propelled
vehicles of over 1-ton capacity; in operating freight or baggage elevators
if doors are not automatically or semiautomatically controlled; in baggage
and freight handling; by means of handtrucks, trucking and handling
heavy materials of any kind; operating emery wheels, belts; in blast
furnace and smelter.
Pennsylvania—In dangerous or injurious occupations.
Washington—As bellhop.
Wisconsin—In dangerous or injurious occupations.

The majority of States with occupational limitations for adult
women also have prohibitory legislation for persons under 21 years.
In addition, 10 States have occupational limitations for persons und^r
21 only. Most of these limitations apply to the serving of liquor ami
to the driving of taxicabs, schoolbuses, or public vehicles; others pro
hibit the employment of females under 21 years in jobs demandin
constant standing or as messengers, bellhops, or caddies.
113. Seating10

and

Weightlifting

A number of jurisdictions, through statute, minimum wage orders,
and other regulations, have established employment standards for
women relating to plant facilities such as seats, lunch rooms, dressing
and rest rooms, and toilet rooms, and to weightlifting. Only the
seating and weightlifting provisions are included in this summary.
Seating.—Forty-five States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto
Rico have seating laws; all but 1—the Florida law—apply exclusively
to women. Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, Mississippi, and North Dakota
have no seating laws.
Weightlifting.—Twelve States have statutes, rules, regulations, or
wage orders which specify the maximum weight women employees
are permitted to lift, carry, or lift and carry. Following are the
10

See footuote 4, p. 238.




State Labor Laws for Women

246

highest standards established for weightlifting and carrying in the
12 States:
Any occupation: 15 pounds in Utah; 25 in Alaska and Ohio; 30 in Georgia;
35 in Michigan.
Foundries and core rooms: 25 pounds in Maryland, Massachusetts,
Minnesota, and New York.
Specified occupations or industries (by wage order) : 25 pounds in California
and Oregon; 35 pounds and "excessive weights" in Washington.




8
POLITICAL AND CIVIL
STATUS OF WOMEN
as of September 1, 1965

New Trends
Beginning in the mid-19th century the various States enacted the
Married Women's Property Acts which were thefirstlegal steps toward
releasing a married woman's property and property rights from her
husband's control. This started a trend which has continued over the
years to equalize married women's rights with those of married men
in the enjoyment and disposition of property. The adoption of the
19th amendment to the Constitution, which gave both married and
single women the right to vote, marked the beginning of the political
emancipation of women and established the basis for them to participate fully in the political life of the country. Similarly, the passage
of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,1 which in its employment title (title
VII) includes a ban on discrimination based on sex, may mark a new
era in the economic life of women, for it requires equal treatment in
employment.
Title VII, which bans all types of discrimination in private employment, became effective July 2, 1965, and is administered by an Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission. In general, the title covers
employers and unions engaged in industries affecting interstate commerce and also employment agencies. During the first effective year
of the title, an employer with at least 100 employees or a union with
at least 100 members is covered. This required number decreases by
25 each year until during the fourth effective year and thereafter the
required number is 25.
Unlawful employment practices include:
• For an employer to fail or refuse to hire, to discharge, or to otherwise discriminate because of race, color, religion, sex, or national
origin, with respect to compensation, terms, conditions or privileges
1

Public L a w 88-352, July 2, 1964.




247

248

Political and Civil Status of Women

of employment; or to limit, segregate or classify his employees in
any way which deprives them of employment opportunities.
• For a union to exclude or expel from membership, limit, segregate
or classify, fail or refuse to refer for employment on any of the
prohibited grounds or to cause or attempt to cause an employer to
discriminate.
• For an employment agency to fail or refuse to refer for employment on any of the prohibited grounds.
• For any of the above to print, publish, or cause to be printed advertisements regarding employment indicating any preference, classification, or discrimination on any of the prohibited grounds.
•

F o r an employer,

labor union, or joint labor-management

com-

mittee to discriminate on any of the prohibited grounds in apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs.
The exception to the above prohibitions is when sex is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation
of the particular business.
The Federal Government has been working to achieve equal opportunities for women in Federal employment. In private employment
the recent Civil Rights Act will chart a new course in labor legislation
designed to prohibit discrimination. Prior to passage of the Federal
act only 2 States—Wisconsin and Hawaii—had bans against discrimination in private employment based on sex. (Washington State, by
Executive order dated June 13, 1963, banned such discrimination in
public employment; and Colorado, also in 1963, had amended its fair
employment practices (FEP) law to ban discrimination based on sex
in apprenticeship, vocational training, and on-the-job training
courses.)
Title V I I encourages State action in this area since it requires that
a State or local remedy for an alleged unlawful employment practice
be pursued for a specified period before the Commission can take action; permits utilization of State agencies by the Commission; and
allows the Commission to cede its administrative authority to a State
or local agency that effectively administers its own antidiscrimination
law.

In 1965, 5 States—Arizona, Maryland, Nebraska, Utah, and Wyoming—enacted new FEP acts which include a ban on discrimination




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

249

because of sex and the District of Columbia adopted a police regulation banning such discrimination; all of these laws except that of
Maryland appear to have broad and comprehensive provisions similar
to those in the Federal law. In addition, Massachusetts, Missouri,
and New York amended their FEP laws to include a ban on discrimination because of sex along the lines of the Federal law. Of the 33
mandatory FEP laws, 11 prohibit sex discrimination.
In other areas activities at both the State and Federal levels continue
to be directed toward the removal of discriminations in laws affecting
the civil and political status of women. The report of the President's
Commission on the Status of Women dated October 11, 1963, recommended basic principles for further action in improving the legal status of women. This stimulated interest at the State level in the creation of Governors' Commissions on the Status of Women. As of
September 1, 1965, 45 2 such Commissions had been created, 17 of
which had made commission reports to the respective Governors recommending significant steps to be taken to improve State laws. In
general these reports on civil and political status follow guidelines
set forth in the report of the President's Commission.

Political Status
114.

Citizenship

Citizenship in the United States is acquired in the same way by
men and women; that is, by birth within the domain, by birth abroad
of a parent who is a citizen, or by naturalization. Mothers as well
as fathers confer citizenship on their minor children.
A married woman's citizenship does not automatically follow that
of her husband. An alien wife may become a citizen whether or not
her alien husband desires or qualifies for that privilege. When a
woman citizen marries an alien, she retains her citizenship until she
renounces it by declaring allegiance to another government.
115. Voting and Public Office
Federal.—Women and men have equal rights of suffrage in the election of Federal Government officials and on proposals for change in
the Federal Constitution.
2 Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii,
Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.




250

Political and Civil Status of Women

Any woman who meets the qualifications for official positions in the
Federal Government is eligible for election or appointment to posts
in the executive and legislative branches or for appointment to the
judiciary.
State.—Women and men have equal rights of suffrage in the election of State and local officials and in the determination of public
issues within the State.
Any woman who meets the qualifications for elected officials of State
and local governments is eligible for election to these positions.
Civil service positions.—Appointive positions in both Federal and
State civil service are open generally to women who qualify. On
June 4,1962, the U.S. Attorney General reversed a 1934 interpretation
of an 1870 Federal hiring statute which permitted appointing officials,
at their discretion, to specify sex in filling appointments in the Federal civil service. This was followed by a Presidential directive on
July 23,1962, requiring agency heads to fill Federal positions without
reference to sex of the applicant where experience and physical requirements are met. On July 31, 1962, the U.S. Civil Service Commission issued the necessary rules and regulations to implement this
policy. Some States by statute specify the sex of appointees for certain positions, such as superintendents, wardens, matrons, or attendants in institutions. In the District of Columbia three of the
nine members of the Board of Education, in which control of the
public schools is vested, must be women.
Courts—jury service.—The Civil Rights Act of 1957 3 had the
effect of removing the disqualification of women for service on Federal juries in all States. Any citizen 21 years old who has resided
in the judicial district for a year is now qualified to serve on a grand
or petit Federal jury, provided he or she has not been convicted of a
crime, is not illiterate, and does not suffer from a physical or mental
infirmity which would impair such service. Formerly women were
not permitted to serve on Federal juries in 3 States—Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina—where they are still barred from service on State juries. Women are eligible by law to serve on State
juries in the other 47 States and the District of Columbia.
Twenty-three States4 and 19 of the 23 counties in Maryland provide the same qualifications for, and disqualifications and exemptions
Public Law 85-315, September 9, 1957, sec. 152, amending 28 U.S.C. 1861.
Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
3

4




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

251

from, jury service for women as for men. In 24 States and the District of Columbia women may claim exemptions not available to men.
Of these, 12 States,5 the District of Columbia, and the remaining 4
counties in Maryland permit a woman to be excused solely on the basis
of her sex. An additional 8 States6 permit women to claim exemption
on the basis of child care or family responsibilities. Nebraska and
Rhode Island further provide that women shall be included for jury
service only when courthouse facilities permit. Florida, Louisiana,
and New Hampshire permit women to serve only if they first register
for jury service.
7 76. Domicile
A married woman's domicile (legal residence; not necessarily actual
residence) generally depends on that of her husband. The rule is,
however, that when the interests of husband and wife are hostile and
result in a separation of the parties, an aggrieved wife may establish a separate domicile. In addition, an increasing number of jurisdictions 7 are permitting a wife to establish a separate domicile when
the marital unity has been breached and the parties are living separately by mutual consent or acquiescence. In such cases separate
existence, interest, and rights are recognized.
There nevertheless remains a problem of domicile for a woman
whose marriage is still intact but who for some good and valid reason
has a residence separate from her husband. In recognition of this,
some States permit a married woman to have a separate domicile for
certain specified purposes. At least 16 States8 permit a married
woman to establish a separate domicile for voting; 5 States9 permit
a separate domicile for jury service; 6 States10 permit a separate
domicile for eligibility to public office; and 5 States11 recognize a
separate domicile for purposes of probate.
6 Arkansas, Georgia, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New York, North Dakota,
Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington.
6 Connecticut,
Massachusetts, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah,
Wyoming.
7 Arizona, Arkansas,
Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia,
Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia.
8 Arizona, California, Connecticut,' Florida, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin.
9 Maine, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Wisconsin.
10 Maine, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Wisconsin.
11 Florida, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Washington.




252

Political and Civil Status of Women

Civil Status—Family Relations
117.

Marriage

The laws of the various States governing marriage requirements
generally do not differentiate between the sexes, except in establishing
minimum ages. Most States set lower minimums for women than for
men. When the consent of the parents is not required, the minimum
age for women is 18 years in 34 States and the District of Columbia;
19, 20, or 21 in the remaining jurisdictions. With the consent of the
parents, the minimum for girls is 16 in 38 States and the District of
Columbia, 15 in 6 States,12 and 14 in 4 States.13 In Washington the
minimum age is 17 years. In New Hampshire a girl who marries
below the age of 18 must have both the consent of her parents and
that of the court. All but 4 States14 and the District of Columbia,
require a premarital health examination for both applicants for a
marriage license. In those 5 jurisdictions the health examination is
not required for either applicant.
118. Divorce
All States recognize divorce on at least one ground. Generally
grounds for divorce are the same for husband and wife, although some
States recognize nonsupport as a ground for granting the wife a
decree, and at least 14 States permit a man to seek a divorce on the
basis of his wife's pregnancy by another man at the time of their
marriage. The most usual grounds for divorce are adultery, desertion, cruelty, alcoholism, impotency, felony conviction, insanity, and
neglect to provide. Other grounds which appear frequently are drug
addiction, imprisonment, and commission of an infamous crime.
Forty-eight States and the District of Columbia have statutes which
provide that when divorce is granted permanent alimony may be
awarded to the wife in the discretion of the court. (In North Carolina
alimony is limited to divorce from bed and board.) Pennsylvania
and Texas make no general provision for alimony on final decree, although in Pennsylvania the court is empowered to decree alimony for
the support of either an insane wife or an insane husband. In addition to Pennsylvania, at least 7 States 15 with no general provision for
alimony to the husband on final decree may allow alimony for the
12
13
14
15

Idaho, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon.
Alabama, South Carolina, Texas, Utah.
Maryland, Minnesota, Nevada, South Carolina.
Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska, Wyoming.




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

253

husband or may hold the wife liable for his support in case of divorce
on the basis of his mental illness.
Eleven States16 allow alimony to either spouse; in addition, Massachusetts and New Hampshire allow the husband a portion of the wife's
estate in the nature of alimony. The statutes of Colorado and Virginia are broad enough to apply to either spouse, but in actual practice
alimony may be limited to the wife since in neither State does there
appear to be a judicial determination permitting alimony to the
husband.
7 79. Parent and

Child

Under the common law, the father was the preferred natural guardian of the person of a minor child and as such had the care, custody,
control, and responsibility for the education of the child. This rule
has been abrogated by statute in the majority of States, to provide that
natural guardianship of a minor child is vested jointly in both parents.
Six States17 specifically provide by statute that the father is the preferred natural guardian of a minor child and in 1—Alabama—the
father is preferred by virtue of the common law.
In addition, 7 States18 and the District of Columbia specify by statute that the father is preferred when it is necessary to appoint a guardian of the estate of the minor. If the marriage is broken by divorce
or legal separation, generally neither parent has any legal advantage
over the other as to custody of a minor child; the best interests of the
child guide the court's disposition of custody. If there is a contest
between the parents regarding custody or guardianship of minor
children, at least 7 States19 provide that, all other things being equal,
the mother has a preferred right if the child is of tender years, and
the father has a preferred right if the child is of an age to require
education and preparation for labor or business.
Unmarried parents.—An unmarried mother is considered the natural
guardian and entitled to the custody of her child. The father becomes
the natural guardian only if he legally acknowledges his relationship
to the child or marries the mother.
Inheritance by parents from children.—No distinction exists between
the rights of the father and those of the mother to inherit from legitimate children. Most States allow the unmarried mother to inherit
from her child.
16 Alaska, California, Illinois, Iowa, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Utah, West Virginia.
17 Alaska, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Texas.
18 Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas.
19 Arizona, California, Michigan, Montana, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah.




254

720. Family

Political and Civil Status of Women

Support

Notwithstanding the legal emancipation of women and their increased participation in the labor force, in all States the husband and
father is primarily responsible for the support of the family. If the
father is dead or otherwise incapable of furnishing such support, the
responsibility devolves on the wife and mother. In the 8 States20 having community-property laws of ownership between husband and wife,
the common estate of husband and wife is liable for debts for family
support; in the remaining States and the District of Columbia, the
property of the husband generally is primarily liable for family
necessaries.
There has been a comparatively recent trend to enact State familyexpense laws that impose liability for family expenses on both parents.
At least 17 States 21 have enacted such laws. Irrespective of these
statutes, courts in 10 22 of these jurisdictions have stated that these
statutes were enacted for the benefit of creditors and that the father
is still primarily liable for family expenses. As a matter of fact, it
appears that only 3 of the 17 States—Iowa, Tennessee, and Washington—have interpreted such family expense statutes to mean that the
husband's prime liability has been changed. Apparently the remaining 4 States—Montana, North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Wyoming—
have not made a judicial determination in this area.
Unmarried parents.—The mother is primarily liable for support of
her child born out of wedlock. Most States have legal procedures
for establishing paternity if satisfactory proof is submitted. Until
paternity is established or voluntarily assumed, the father has no legal
obligation to support the child, or to contribute to the expenses of the
mother at childbirth.
Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act.—Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Acts are now in effect in all jurisdictions
of the United States, following the 1957 law enacted by Congress for
the District of Columbia. The prime purpose of this legislation is
to permit enforcement of a support decree in any jurisdiction where
the party who has liability for support may be found. In addition,
these laws provide that public agencies may secure a prospective and
continuing support order, as well as reimbursement for public assistance previously given. The laws have been used extensively by courts
Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington.
Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota,
Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
22 Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, niinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oregon,
South Dakota, Utah.
20

21




Commissions on the Status of Women

255

throughout the country. Their enforcement has lightened the burden
of welfare agencies to a large extent, and incidentally has contributed
to the preservation of the family unit since it is easier for the parties
to become reconciled when an action is civil and not criminal in
character.
One problem, however, has persisted to hamper the effective administration of these acts: that of finding the deserting party responsible
for the support of. his dependents. An interesting development in this
area was the enactment of almost identical laws in 1963 in 4 States—
Arkansas, Minnesota, Missouri, and Vermont—following an earlier
law in New York. Each of these laws permits responsible agencies
within the State or any other State in the Nation to request and receive
information from the records of all departments, boards^ bureaus, and
other State agencies within the State to assist in locating parents who
have deserted their children or any other persons liable for the support of their dependents. In 1965 Idaho, Maine, and Maryland
adopted such laws.

Civil Status—Contract and Property Law
727. Power To Make

Contracts

All States with a common-law background recognize a married
woman's legal capacity to contract her personal services in employment outside her home and to be entitled to earnings from such work
without the formal consent of her husband. In the eight communityproperty States23 a married woman may contract with respect to her
employment and earnings from such employment, but the earnings
are considered part of the community property.
In the majority of States a married woman may contract with
respect to her separate property.
In at least 3 States—Georgia, Idaho, and Kentucky—a married
woman does not have the legal capacity to become a surety or a guarantor. In Michigan existing case law24 prohibiting a married woman
from being a surety undoubtedly will be reinterpreted in the light of
the State's new constitution. In Texas an express statutory provision
prohibiting a married woman from being a bonded obligor was repealed in 1963. However, it is not known if previous decisions stating
that married women have no general powers to contract will be appli23
24

See footnote 20, p. 254.
Dowagiac National Bank v. Mader (1938), 280 N.W. 86.
779—555 O—66




18

256

Political and Civil Status of Women

cable to the new statutory enactment liberalizing a married woman's
powers to contract.25
Although a married woman has the power to contract with reference
to her separate real property, in 27 States and the District of Columbia
there are restrictions—either directly or indirectly imposed by law—
on her right to convey or encumber her separate real property. In
22 of these States26 and the District of Columbia, where both the
husband and the wife have either curtesy, dower, or a statutory interest
in the nature of dower in the other spouse's property, it is necessary
that either spouse join in the conveyance of the real estate belonging
to the other spouse in order to bar this interest. While this requirement is of benefit to the married woman in that it can help prevent
the dissipation of the assets of her spouse, there are 3 States—Alabama,
Florida, and Indiana—which do not give a husband a curtesy or statutory dower interest in the wife's property and which specifically require a husband to join in the conveyance of his wife's real property.
On the other hand, it should be pointed out that 5 States27 provide
dower or statutory interest in the nature of dower for a wife without
giving her husband a similar interest in the wife's property, thereby
making it necessary for the wife to join in her husband's conveyance
of his realty without subjecting her real estate to similar restrictions.
Recent enactments have made a number of major changes in State
laws governing the power of a married woman to convey her real
estate. In 1963 Texas removed its requirements that a husband join in
the conveyance of his wife's property, and in January 1964 North
Carolina adopted a constitutional amendment that removed its
restriction in this area. During the 1965 State legislative sessions,
Massachusetts amended its dower and curtesy law (effective January 1, 1966) to apply only to real estate owned at death, thereby permitting one spouse to sell or encumber his or her real estate without
the written consent of the other.
Although married women in general may contract freely with third
parties, transactions between husband and wife are still subject to legal
limitations in many States. In some States such contracts are
restricted by the general rule that controls the action of persons occupying confidential relations with each other. In some States such
contracts may be executed by a formal written document, and in others
25 Vernon's Annotated Texas Statutes, C.S. Art. 4614; 1963 H.B. 4 0 3 ; Austin et al.
v. United Credits Corp. (1954), 268 S.W. (2d) 793.
26 Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota,
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
(Also Missouri
for all estates vested as of 1955 when the statutory dower law of 1939 was repealed.)
^Arkansas, Michigan, Montana, South Carolina, Utah. (In Utah joinder of wife to bar
dower is necessary only if wife is resident of Utah.)




Laws Governing Women's Employment and Status

257

no authority exists to make such contracts. State laws continue to
liberalize this area. For example, in 1963 Massachusetts passed a law
permitting husband and wife to contract with each other. This was
particularly significant because prior to this law separation agreements had to be effectuated through a third party trustee.
7 22. Ownership,

Control, and

Use of Property

General.—In property management and control, inheritance, and
freedom of enjoyment of earnings, no distinction is made between the
rights of unmarried women and unmarried men; and in most States
married women and married men now have the same degree of control
over their separate property.
Personal earnings of married women are made their separate property by specific statute in most of the States not having a communityproperty law. Earnings are considered community property in the
community-property States,28 but 3 of these 8 States—California,
Idaho, and Washington—provide that the wife may control her earnings. (In Washington the right is absolute; in the other 2 States the
right is qualified.)
Four States—California, Florida, Nevada, and Pennsylvania—have
statutes under which court sanction, and in some cases the husband's
consent, is required for a wife's legal venture into an independent business. It should be noted, however, that in Pennsylvania other laws
enacted over the years after the original"sole-trader statute of 1718
have increased a married woman's powers over her separate property
to the extent that the sole-trader law appears to be primarily a protective statute. Thus a married woman may be adjudged a sole trader
in Pennsylvania under conditions of nonsupport by her husband, and
when she is so adjudged her husband loses his right to claim an inheritance interest in his wife's estate. In addition, Massachusetts requires
a married woman or her husband to file a certificate with the city or
town clerk's office in order to prevent the personal property of her
business from being liable for her husband's debts.
Property

acquired by joint efforts after marriage.—In

the 8 States 29

which have the community-property system, the husband has superior
right to control all property acquired by joint efforts while the spouses
live together.
In the District of Columbia and the 42 States that are not
community-property States, the personal property accumulated during the marriage by the cooperative efforts of both husband and wife
28
29

See footnote 20, p. 254.
See footnote 20, p. 254.




258

Political and Civil Status of Women

is generally under the control of the husband, subject to certain restrictions ; but the effect of this rule may be overcome by private agreement
between the parties.
In these same jurisdictions the control of the real estate depends
upon the type of coownership under which it is held. Under the
common law, real estate conveyed or devised to husband and wife
created an estate by the entireties held by them as one person, with the
husband entitled to all the rents, profits, and enjoyment thereof. Although the common-law estate by the entireties may still be created in
the District of Columbia and in the majority of the 42 States that are
not community-property States, it is also generally possible for married
persons to own real estate by some other form of coownership under
which each party is entitled to one-half of the rents, profits, and
enjoyment thereof.
Disposition

of property

after death.—Married

women may dispose

of their separate property by will as freely as married men may. In
the absence of a will, the majority of States provide that a widow or
widower inherits from the deceased spouse in a similar manner. The
surviving spouse's share of the estate generally depends on whether
there are surviving issue, parents, or next of kin.
In both the common-law and community-property States, a surviving husband or wife generally receives all of the property separately
owned by the deceased spouse if there are no descendants and one-half
or one-third if there are descendants.
In all the community-property States,30 the wife receives her half of
the community property. In addition, in 4 of these States she receives
her husband's half; in 3 States she receives her husband's half if there
are no descendants, and in 1 State she receives his half if there are no
descendants or parents. In the common-law States jointly owned
property is divided according to the title.
30

See footnote 20, p. 254.




Part III
Commissions on the Status of Women




COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF
WOMEN
Federal
An upsurge of interest in the status of women was engendered by
the President's Commission on the Status of Women, established by
President John F. Kennedy, December 14, 1961. The function of
the Commission was to examine and recommend remedies for the
prejudices and outmoded customs, which the President said in his
Executive order, "act as barriers to the full realization of women's
basic rights which should be respected and fostered as part of our
Nation's commitment to human dignity, freedom, and democracy."
The Commission and its seven committees studied a wide variety
of problems affecting women's role in the economic, political, and
cultural life of the Nation. Its recommendations were in its report
American Women, which was presented to the President October 11,
1963.
The Commission gave top priority to education and recommended
greater educational opportunities for women at all levels of learning
and increased counseling facilities for women and girls. It stressed
the need for new and expanded services to enable women to meet more
effectively their responsibilities as homemakers and workers. In the
field of employment it recommended equal opportunities for women
in hiring, training, promotion, and pay, and improvement of minimum wage laws and other labor legislation affecting women. Other
recommendations called for action to insure for women equality under
the law, greater social insurance and tax benefits, and a larger role as
citizens. The Commission urged special attention to the needs of disadvantaged women and girls in carrying out all its recommendations.
Acting upon a final recommendation of the Commission for continuing leadership at the Federal level to further the objectives
proposed in its report, President Kennedy established the Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council on the
Status of Women, November 1,1963.
The Interdepartmental Committee seeks to stimulate cooperation
and the exchange of ideas and information among Federal agencies,
State and local governments, State commissions on the status of
women, and public and private organizations concerned with areas
260




Commissions on the Status of Women

261

of particular interest to women. The Committee also encourages research on factors affecting women's status, and reviews and evaluates
the progress of Federal departments and agencies in advancing the
interests of women. Members are heads of Federal departments and
agencies especially concerned with matters affecting the status of
women. The Secretary of Labor serves as chairman, the Assistant
Secretary for Labor Standards as vice chairman, and the Director of
the Women's Bureau as executive vice-chairman.
The Citizens' Advisory Council works with private institutions,
organizations, and individuals, suggesting and stimulating action
directed toward furthering full participation of women in all phases
of national life. It reviews and evaluates progress made and advises
and assists the Interdepartmental Committee. The Council's members are private citizens, many of whom served on the original Commission. Miss Margaret Hickey was named chairman by President
Kennedy.
The Committee and the Council, which publish an annual progress
report, have received full support from President Johnson, who
early assumed leadership in making the Federal Government a showcase for equal opportunity for women. Between January 1, 1964,
and June 30, 1965, he announced appointment of 120 women to key
government posts; Federal departments and agencies, with his encouragement, appointed 675 women and promoted 2,285 to positions
at salary levels of $10,600 and above.
In addition to the improvement of opportunities for women in
government, other advances in the status of women resulted from
the new climate of acceptance which the Commission effected. A
Federal equal pay law was enacted in 1963, and a prohibition against
discrimination in employment based on sex was included in the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 as Title VII.
The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 included women in the
Job Corps and other programs under the act, and the enactment of
Federal aid to education legislation opened many opportunities to
women. Interest in day care services was stimulated by grants to
the States under the Social Security Act, and income tax deductions
for child care were liberalized. Commissions on the Status of
Women in most States concerned themselves with implementation of
the recommendations of the President's Commission at the State and
local level.
The Interdepartmental Committee and the Council have worked
closely with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, whose
chairman is a member of the Committee, in developing policy for




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Commissions on the Status of W o m e n 262

the implementation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. A statement of the Council's views on the issues, stressing the importance of
vigorous administration in securing greater social and economic gains
for women workers, was approved by the Interdepartmental Committee and transmitted to the Commission. The paper pointed out that
Title V I I is of special importance for Negro women who have been
the victims of both race and sex discrimination.
The Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory
Council sponsored conferences of State Commissions on the Status
of Women in Washington, D.C., in June 1964 and in July 1965. The
first conference was attended by 83 delegates from 31 States; the
second, by 327 delegates from 49 States and Canada.

State
In August 1962 the Governor of Michigan announced the appointment of a Commission on the Status of Women. His example was followed in other States until by September 1965 a total of 45 1 Commissions had been established, 4 of those currently in effect2 by legislation
and the others by gubernatorial action. Over half had published either
interim or full-term reports of their findings and recommendations, and
in all but one State the Commissions had been requested to continue,
usually with some revision of membership, in order to help implement
their recommendations. In that one State the Governor decided that
the Commission's findings could be implemented best through administrative action by agencies already existing.
Commissions were not necessarily continued under their original
names. In several States a name was chosen which fitted more exactly
the specific areas the Governor or legislature wanted the group to
emphasize or which was related more closely to the basic structure of
the State's organization. Thus one Governor's Commission on the
Status of Women became the Advisory Council on the Status of
Women; another became the Governor's Commission on Education
and Employment. Several others were established under the name of
a "committee" rather than a "commission."
The full impact of this work on specific State situations, by representatives chosen from a broad range of social, economic, and occupational backgrounds, cannot be described in any report. No way has
1 Not included were Alaska, Connecticut, New Mexico, Ohio, and Texas.
In Puerto Rico
and the District of Columbia, Commissions were under consideration.
2 The original 4 included California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Mississippi.
Later
North Carolina changed from a Governor's Commission to one established by the legislature, and Illinois moved from a legislative commission to one appointed by the Governor.




Commissions on the Status of Women

263

been found to measure the effect of the explorations and recommendations of the State Commissions on the legislatures, on State institutions, and on women's and civic organizations in general. By focusing
attention on their findings in such areas as education, employment,
guidance and counseling, day care, and consumer affairs, the Commissions have been responsible for awakening the public conscience and
for pointing to ways in which needed action might be effected.
One significant result of the Commissions' work is the rapidly
growing realization on the part of their members that successful implementation of Commission recommendations requires more than
pointing out what is wrong; it requires intelligent and continuing
participation in the areas where decisions are made, and the application of techniques for the mobilization of support.
In the country as a whole the program has in fact become a
locally based national movement to open opportunities to women for
more effective functioning in each of their multiple roles. The 1964
and 1965 national conferences, as well as the interchange of State
reports and other materials, have opened active channels of communication. In addition, a series of regional conferences is in the planning
stage. The first of these will be held for nine States in San Francisco
early in 1966.
Although it would be impossible to include here the full story of
each Commission's contribution in terms of its own State's needs, the
following examples are representative of the broad scope of what is
happening throughout the 45 States where Commissions have been
established.3
Two States have found a way to broaden the representation
on their Commissions. In one the State Council of Women's
Organizations (representing 34 statewide groups and more
than half a million women) has appointed a special committee to help the new seven-member Commission on the
Education and Employment of Women implement the recommendations in the first Commission's report. In the other
the Commission itself called together representatives of statewide organizations in which women made up the total or a
large'part of the membership. This resulted in the establishment of a committee, which currently represents 46 groups,
to be used as a two-way channel for getting problems to the
Commission and for implementing recommendations.
8 For a more detailed description, see the 1965 Progress Report of the Citizens' Advisory
Council or consult the individual Commissions' reports to their Governors or legislatures.




264

Commissions on the Status of Women 264

A technique that at least five States have found useful is
a series of regional or area meetings to acquaint local persons
with the Commission's findings and recommendations and to
secure their help in implementation. In two of the States,
City Commissions on the Status of Women have grown from
these area meetings.
Almost all of the Commissions have made rosters of qualified women for Federal, State, and local positions and have
urged their appointment. Among recent appointments directly traceable to the Commissions' activities are: a member
of a State civil service commission, a State legislative council, a State building board, a State human relations committee, and a commission on uniform State laws; several members
of boards of trustees of institutions of higher learning; a
registrar of motor vehicles; and a deputy director of personnel for State employees.
A speakers bureau established by one Commission proved
very helpful by assisting women's and civic groups to become
acquainted with the program and findings of the Commission
and to help implement its recommendations.
A 30-minute television show on the status of women prepared by one Commission was taped and shown. This same
Commission was especially successful in securing excellent
cooperation and television coverage for its activities in
general.
One Commission obtained from its legislature an appropriation of $10,000 to finance the printing of the Commission's
report.
One Commission in an industrialized State is working actively to help clarify the relationship of its State laws to the
rulings of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Most State Commissions have functioned actively on the
legislative front, recommending a broad range of bills.
Most frequently this activity was centered on efforts to initiate minimum wage provisions, or to improve the rates and
extend the law to men. Equal pay laws also were given much
support, as were, to a somewhat lesser degree, changes in
State jury provisions, extension of day care facilities, and
improvement in vocational education opportunities and in
guidance and counseling programs.
One Commission initiated and gave support to a citizens'
committee for an effective minimum wage. When that bill
failed of passage, the Commission members met with that




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Commissions on the Status of Women

committee to review its procedures and to work at what they
hope might be more successful plans for the next legislative
session.
One Commission, which has made a special effort to participate in launching needed projects, organized and gave
support to (1) a committee establishing an MDTA project
for training and raising the status of household employees,
(2) a statewide conference on consumer interests, and (3) a
conference on "Women on the Move" cosponsored with a
chapter of the National Council of Jewish Women. Another Commission plans to work closely with a new Job Corps
center for women in that State.
The names and addresses of the chairmen of the various States
Commissions on the Status of Women follow.
Dr. Minnie C. Miles
27 Beech Hills
Tuscaloosa, Ala., 35404
Mrs. Howard W. Hintz
8 West Paseo Redondo Street
Apartment 4-D
Tucson, Ariz., 85705
Mrs. Charlotte Gardner
Director of Beautification
Arkansas Planning Commission
Game and Fish Commission Building
Capitol Mall
Little Rock, Ark., 72201
Miss Ruth Miller 1
National Representative and
West Coast Education Director
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America
2501 South Hill Street
Los Angeles, Calif., 90007
Mrs. Virginia Neal Blue
2338 East Third Avenue
Denver, Colo., 80206
Mrs. Rosella T. Humes
200 East Center Street
Post Office Box 56
Harrington, Del., 19052
1 Advisory Commission on the Status of
Women.




Mrs. Aleene Kidd
Special Assistant to the
State Treasurer
Box 1286
Ocala, Fla., 32670
Mrs. Mamie K. Taylor
1137 Briarcliff Road, NE.
Atlanta,\Ga., 30306
Mrs. Mary Ellen Swanton
7250A 15th Avenue
Honolulu, Hawaii, 96816
Rep. Edith Miller Klein
1732 Warm Springs Avenue
Post Office Box 475
Boise, Idaho, 83702
Rep. Esther Saperstein
Chicago Board of Health
54 West Hubbard Street
Chicago, 111., 60610
Dr. Eunice C. Roberts
Indiana University
101 Kirkwood Hall .
Bloomingtonj Ind., 47405
Dr. Marguerite Scruggs
Head, Department of Home
Economics Education
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa, 50010

Commissions on the Status of W o m e n 266

266
Mrs. Mary Barrett
1000 Quincy Street
Salina, Kans., 67401

Miss Margaret E. Normandin
135 Church Street
Laconia, N.H., 03246

Miss Chloe Gifford
Office Number 1
Capitol Annex Building
Frankfort, Ky., 40601

Mrs. Marion Koleser
121 South Maine Street
Phillipsburg, N. J., 08865
Mrs. Oswald B. Lord 3
770 Park Avenue
New York, N.Y., 10021

Mrs. Ellen Bryan Moore
Register of State Land Office
State Capitol
Baton Rouge, La., 70821

Sen. Voit Gilmore4
700 East Indiana Avenue
Southern Pines, N.C., 28387

Mrs. Ruth L. Crowley 2
201 Cony Street
Augusta, Maine, 04331

Miss Dagny Olson
Box 618
Devil's Lake, N. Dak., 58301

Mrs. Paul C. Wolman
405 Mercantile Trust Building
Baltimore, Md., 21202
Sen. Mary Fonseca
102 Webster Street
Fall River, Mass., 02723

Mrs. Ettamae Reed
Vice Chairman, State Board
of Public Affairs
306 State Capitol
Oklahoma City, Okla., 73105

Mrs. Paul G. Goebel
2310 Jefferson Drive, SE.
Grand Rapids, Mich., 49507

Mrs. Gertrude Houk Fariss
Director, St. Helen's Hall
Portland, Oreg., 97223

Mrs. Charles Hymes
2044 West Cedar Lake Boulevard
Minneapolis, Minn., 55416

Mrs. J. Russell Meyers
312 Anderson Road
King of Prussia, Pa., 19406

Judge Mildred W. Norris
1315 Camp Street
Hattiesburg, Miss., 39401

Mrs. Harold M. Burkholder
5 Beech Hill Road
Peace Dale, R.I., 02883

Dr. Blanche H. Dow
615 West Kansas Street
Liberty, Mo., 64068

Miss Jean B. Berry
1443 Brentwood Drive
Columbia, S.C., 29206

Mrs. Edna Hinman
562 Fifth Avenue
Helena, Mont., 59601

Mrs. Winifred Echelberger
808 North Central
Pierre, S. Dak., 57501

Mrs. Arnold W. Black
Lakeside
Nebr., 69351

Dr. Flora Rawls
Dean of Women
Memphis State University
Memphis, Tenn., 38117

Mrs. Hope Roberts
Roberts House
780 Forest Street
Reno, Nev., 89502
2 Advisory
Women.

Council




on

the

Status

of

8 Governor's
Committee on Education
and Employment has completed its work
and reported to the Governor.
4 Governor's Commission
on Education
and Employment.

267

Commissions on the Status of Women
Mrs. Edith S. Shaw 6
785 Juniper Drive
Logan, Utah, 84321

Mrs. John Scott
202 Woods Avenue
Oak Hill, W. Va., 25901

Mrs. Ruth Colombo
Vermont Labor Council, AFL-CIO
COPE Headquarters
109 State Street
Montpelier, Vt., 05601

Dr. Kathryn F. Clarenbach
Director, Education of Women
University of Wisconsin
126 Langdon, Room 211
Madison, Wis., 53706

Miss Martha Bell Conway
Secretary of Commonwealth
State Capitol
Richmond, Va., 23201

Miss Margaret Tobin
Dean of Women
University of Wyoming
Laramie, Wyo., 82071

Mrs. Vesta Cutting
Vesta Cutting Employment Service
Fourth & Pike Building
Seattle, Wash., 98101
6 Governor's Committee on the Status of
Women.







Part IV
Organizations of Interest to Women




ORGANIZATIONS OF INTEREST
TO WOMEN
National organizations for women, together with some professional
organizations for both women and men, are grouped in the following
list according to fields of interest. Membership is noted when recent
figures are available. (For an alphabetical list of organizations included, see pages 288-290.)

Social, Civic, and Religious Organizations
American Women's Voluntary Services, Inc., 125 East 65th Street, New York,
N.Y., 10021. Founded 1940. Its purpose is to make available to all women of
America the opportunity to work actively on a voluntary basis for their country through constructive service to their community, and to instruct and guide
these volunteers toward the achievement of this end.
Association of the Junior Leagues of America, Inc., The Waldorf-Astoria, New
York, N.Y., 10022. Founded 1901. Nonprofit, advisory to 206 Junior Leagues
in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, with total membership of 87,000
community volunteers. Junior League purpose is to foster interest among its
members in the social, economic, educational, cultural, and civic conditions
of the community, and to make their volunteer service efficient.
B'nai B'rith Women, 1640 Rhode Island Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.
Founded 1895. It is a Jewish women's service organization engaging in education, civic, and philanthropic programs. It provides both womanpower and
financial support for projects vital to the welfare of the individual, community,
and country. The largest part of its funds and programing is devoted to youthbuilding activities and advancement of equal opportunity and rights for all.
The organization established and maintains a home for emotionally disturbed
children in Israel. In the United States it contributes to the support of a
number of national medical institutions and a residential treatment center for
children. Membership: 135,000 in the United States and Canada.
Camp Fire Girls, Inc., 65 Worth Street, New York, N.Y., 10013. Founded 1910.
Its purpose is to perpetuate the spiritual ideals of the home and to stimulate
and aid in the formation of habits making for health and character. It seeks
to serve the leisure-time needs of all girls between the ages of 7 and 18 and
emphasizes the individual development of each girl. Its program supplements
the training of the home, church or synagogue, and school through enjoyable
and character-building activities. Membership: 600,000.
General Federation of Women's Clubs, 1734 N Street NW., Washington, D.C.,
20006. Established 1890. Its objective is to unite women's clubs and like or-

270




Organizations of Interest to Women

271

ganizations throughout the world for mutual benefit and for the promotion
of their common interest in education, philanthropy, public welfare, moral
values, civics, and fine arts. Membership: 11 million through combined membership with affiliated groups in 58 countries, territories, and possessions
(862,740 per capita paying members).
Girl Scouts of the United States of America, 830 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y.,
10022. Founded 1912. The purpose of scouting is to help girls develop as
happy, resourceful individuals willing to share their abilities as citizens in their
homes, their communities, their country, and the world. Membership: 2,836,000
girls, 720,000 adults.
Girls Clubs of America, Inc., 101 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10017. Founded
1945. National nonprofit youth organization. Its goal is to train girls to be
responsible citizens and homemakers. The organization provides daily outof-school programs in permanent clubhouses for girls from 6 years of age
through high school. The program is available to all girls, regardless of
race, creed, or national origin, at flexible membership fees. Membership:
60,000 girls, 100 clubs throughout the Nation and Canada.
Hadassah, The Women's Zionist Organization of America, Inc., 65 East 52d
Street, New York, N.Y., 10022. Founded 1912. Its purpose is to participate
in efforts that help safeguard the democratic way of life here and that work
toward peace and security throughout the world; provide basic Jewish education as background for intelligent and creative Jewish living in America and
help interpret Israel to the American p e o p l e . Through affiliation with
Hadassah in Israel, it supports medical institutions, teaching, research and
public health networks, and child welfare and vocational education projects.
Through Junior Hadassah, it fosters a program of Jewish education, encourages participation in American civic affairs, and provides fellowships and other
grants for travel and study in Israel.
League of Women Voters of the United States, 1026 17th Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20006. Founded 1920. Its purpose is to promote political responsibility through informed and active participation of citizens in government.
Membership: 135,600 in over 1,181 local Leagues organized in 50 States and
the District of Columbia.
Lucy Stone League, The, 38 East 57th Street, New York, N.Y., 10022. The League
is a center for research and information on the status of women. Membership: About 100.
National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Inc., 1601 R Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20009. The organization was founded in 1896 to prepare women
for complete community participation by raising the standards of homelife
and by providing better health, educational, and economic opportunities.
Membership: 100,000 in 42 States.
National Committee on Household Employment, % Mrs. Lois Harper, Executive
Director, 1346 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C., 20036. Founded
1965. Its purpose is to serve as a clearinghouse and coordinator for all organizations concerned with upgrading the status of private-household employment, to provide leadership in establishing and promoting standards for
private-household work, to serve as liaison with government agencies, and to
stimulate the development of additional jobs—new and traditional—and train779-555 O—66




19

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Organizations of Interest to Women 272

ing opportunities in the private-household field. Local counterparts of the
national agencies and organizations participating in the National Committee
form committees on household employment which enlist the assistance and
services of local public and private agencies to carry out its program and
achieve its objectives. Membership: 16 national voluntary agencies and organizations with a combined, unduplicated membership of approximately 25
million men and women.
National Consumers League, 1029 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20005.
Established 1899. Its purpose is to awaken consumers' interest in their
responsibility for conditions under which goods are made and distributed
and, through investigation, education, and legislation, to promote fair labor
standards. Its legislative program includes consumer protection, minimum
wage, child labor, hours of work, social security, and improvement of the
conditions of migrant workers in agriculture. There are active State branches
in New York, New Jersey, and Ohio, and individual members in every State.
(Not restricted to women.)
National Council of Catholic Women, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20005. Established 1920. Its purpose is to federate existing organizations of Catholic women in order that they may speak and act as a unit when
the welfare of the church or the country demands such expression. Through
special committees, it endeavors to stimulate interest in the welfare of all
workers. Affiliated with World Union of Catholic Women's Organizations.
Membership: 10 million women through more than 14,000 national, State,
diocesan, and local affiliated groups.
National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., 1 West 47th Street, New York, N.Y.,
10036. Established 1893. An educational and service organization which leads
and educates women for constructive action in the community. Through 329
affiliated local units, it maintains over 1,000 community services to the aging,
to children and youth, in mental health, and for the foreign born. A major
emphasis in recent years has been development of programs to meet the needs
of out-of-school, out-of-work youth. It also conducts an adult education and
social action program concerned with major national and international issues.
Its oversea program extends these services to Jewish communities abroad by
sponsoring studies in U.S. graduate schools for educators and social welfare
specialists, and by direct financial aid to educational institutions. Membership : 123,000.
National Council of Negro Women, Inc., 1318 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20005. Organized 1935. The Council seeks the cooperation and membership of all races and works for the integration of Negroes into the economic,
social, cultural, civic, and political life of every community. There are 20
national organizations and 95 local councils capable of reaching 850,000 women.
National Council of Women of the United States, Inc., 345 East 46th Street, New
York, N.Y., 10017. Founded 1888. Serves as information center and clearinghouse for 27 affiliated women's organizations ; conducts pilot projects and sponsors conferences on national and international problems and matters of concern
to women, sharing results with affiliated groups; and provides exchange of
news and ideas among the women of the free world. Membership: Approximately 4 million (individual and through affiliates).




Organizations of Interest to Women

273

National Jewish Welfare Board, 145 East 32d Street, New York, N.Y., 10016.
Founded 1917. It is the national association of Young Men's and Women's Hebrew Associations and Jewish Community Centers. It is also the recognized
Jewish community agency for meeting the religious, welfare, and morale needs
of Jewish personnel in the Armed Forces and their dependents, and iis a
constituent agency of the United Service Organizations (USO). The Women's Organizations' Services of the National Jewish Welfare Board coordinate
the work of nine national Jewish women's organizations united for services
to hospitalized veterans, military personnel in camps, and chaplains.
National Social Welfare Assembly, Inc., 345 East 46th Street, New York, N.Y.,
10017. Organized 1945. The Assembly serves as central national planning
body through which specialized interests in social welfare—government and
voluntary, national and local, lay and professional—come to grips with the
needs of people. Membership: 225 individuals from 71 affiliated national organizations and 5 associate groups, and members-at-large. About one-third are
women.
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, 111., 60201. Established 1874. Its purpose is to unite the Christian women of the United States for the education of the public to a standard of total
abstinence from alcoholic beverages and abolition of liquor traffic, for youth
training in habits of total abstinence and sobriety, and for the promotion
of good citizenship, peace, and the general welfare. Paid membership: 300,000.
National Woman's Forum, Inc., 266 Fulton Avenue, Hempstead, N.Y., 11550.
Founded 1944. Under the motto "For a United Community—For a Stronger
Democracy," it serves as a clearinghouse of organizations (primarily women's) on the local level, coordinating their activities in common projects
for the betterment of the community and the strengthening of democracy at
the grassroots.
United Church Women, 475 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y., 10027. Organized
December 1941. It is a General Department of the National Council of the
Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Its purpose is to unite
churchwomen in their allegiance to their Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ,
through a program looking to their integration in the total life and work of
the church and the building of a world Christian community. Membership;
12 million and 2,300 local councils of churchwomen.
Women's International League for Peaoe and Freedom, administrative headquarters U.S. Section: Jane Addams House, 2006 Walnut Street, Philadelphia,
Pa., 19103; legislative office: 120 Maryland Avenue NE., Washington, D.C.,
20002. Established 1915 in The Hague. Its purpose is to unite those in all
countries who oppose every kind of war, exploitation, and oppression, and who
want to work by nonviolent means for the solution of conflicts by establishment
of justice for all, without distinction as to sex, race, class, or creed.
Young Women's Christian Association of the United States of America, 600
Lexington Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10022. Founded in the United States
1858. Organized to advance the physical, mental, social, and spiritual
well-being of women and girls, and to build a fellowship of women and
girls devoted to the task of realizing in our common life those ideals of




Organizations of Interest to Women 274

274

personal and social living to which we are committed by our faith as Christians. Affiliated with the World YWCA. Approximately 5,500 locations in
United States.

Professional and Business Organizations
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc.,
c/o Mrs. Marion E. Bryant, President, 652 Bryn Mawr Road, Pittsburgh, Pa.,
15219. Founded 1935. Its purpose is to promote and protect the interests
of Negro business and professional women and create good fellowship among
them, to direct their interests toward united action for improved social and
civic conditions, to encourage the training and development of women, and to
inspire and train young women for leadership. Membership: 10,000.
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., The,
2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20006. Established 1919.
Its purpose is to elevate the standards and promote the interests of business
and professional women, and to extend opportunities to business and professional women through education along lines of industrial, scientific, and vocational activities. Affiliated with International Federation of Business and
Professional Women. Membership: 170,000 in 3,550 clubs in the United
States, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.

Accountancy
American Society of Women Accountants, 327 South LaSalle Street, Chicago,
111., 60604. Founded 1938. Its purpose is to offer technical and educational
programs to improve the efficiency of its members, to provide opportunity for
exchange of ideas, and to encourage many of its members to become certified
public accountants. Membership: 3,400.
American Woman's Society of Certified Public Accountants, 327 South LaSalle
Street, Chicago, 111., 60604. Founded 1933. Its purpose is to advance the professional interest of women certified public accountants and to promote a
greater interest among women in the higher attainments of the accounting
profession. Membership: 525.

Banking
National Association of Bank-Women, Inc., 60 East 42d Street, New York, N.Y.,
10017. Founded 1921. Its purpose is to bring together women executives engaged in the profession of banking for exchange of ideas and experiences for
mutual benefit, to promote the interests of its members, and to further the interests of all women in the banking profession. It is the only national
organization of executive women in banking, with members from national,
State, and savings banks, and trust companies. Membership: 4,500.

Construction
National Association of Women in Construction, P.O. Box 13615, Atlanta, Ga.,
30324. Organized 1953; received national charter 1955. Objectives: to unite
for their mutual benefit women who are actively engaged in various phases of
the construction industry, to encourage cooperation and better understanding
among women in the industry, and to promote fellowship and good will among




Organizations of Interest to Women

275

members of the organization. Membership is open to all women who are employed in or who own businesses in the construction or allied fields. NAWIC
is nonprofit, nonsectarian, and nonpartisan; not affiliated with any religious,
fraternal, or labor group. There are 86 chapters in various cities throughout
the United States. Membership: Over 3,500.

Engineering
Society of Women Engineers, United Engineering Center, 3d Floor, 345 East 47th
Street, New York, N.Y., 10017. Established 1950. Its purpose is to inform
young women, their parents, counselors, and the public in general of the
qualifications and achievements of women engineers and of the opportunities
open to them; to assist women engineers in readying themselves for a return
to active work after temporary retirement; and to encourage women engineers to attain high levels of educational and professional achievement.
Membership: 800.

Fashion
Fashion Group, Inc., The, 9 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N.Y., 10020. Founded
1931. It is a nonprofit association of women engaged in fashion work, formed
to advance the principles of applied art in industry, to maintain high standards, to provide liaison among the many facets of fashion industries, to disseminate information on trends through meetings and bulletins, and to
encourage new interest in fashion through training courses and scholarships.
Membership: 4,000 members with 28 regional groups in the United States,
plus 2 regional groups in Canada, 1 in Melbourne, Australia, and an allied
group in Paris.

Finance
Federation of Women Shareholders in American Business, Inc., 527 Lexington
Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10017. Its purpose is (a) to educate women concerning the importance of using their vote as stockholders (including the goal
of a secret ballot for all shareholders—especially employee-shareholders—in
corporate elections) ; (b) to delineate their responsibilities as employers of
management and labor; and (c) to provide financial education for women
because they own, although they do not control, 70 percent of the privately
owned wealth. It supports equal pay for equal work, equal mandatory
retirement age, and equal training and opportunity in business.

Geography
Society of Woman Geographers, The, 1216 Connecticut Avenue NW., Washington,
D.C., 20036. Founded 1925. Its purpose is to form a medium of contact between traveled women engaged in geographical work and allied arts and
sciences, to further geographical work in all its branches, to spread geographical
knowledge, and to encourage geographical research. Membership: 400.

Health Services
American Association of Industrial Nurses, Inc., 170 East 61st Street, New York,
N.Y., 10021. Founded 1942. It is the professional association of registered
nurses engaged in the practice of industrial nursing. Its purpose is to maintain




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Organizations of Interest to Women 276

the honor and character of the profession among industrial nurses, to improve
community health by better nursing service to workers, to develop and promote
standards for industrial nurses and industrial nursing services, and to
stimulate interest in and provide a forum for the discussion of problems in
the field of industrial nursing. Membership: 5,503.
American Association of Medical Record Librarians, 840 North Lake Shore Drive,
Chicago, 111., 60611. Founded 1928. Its purpose is to improve the quality and
efficiency of medical records in hospitals, clinics, and other health and mental
institutions; to establish standards and criteria of competency; and to develop
and improve the teaching and practice of medical record science so that it
may be of greater service to the science of medicine and public health.
Membership: 4,760. (Not restricted to women, but membership is primarily
women.)
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, Suite 3010, Prudential Plaza, Chicago, 111., 60601. Founded 1931. Its purpose is to develop educational standards and techniques in the administration of anesthetics, to facilitate
cooperation between nurse anesthetists and the medical profession, and to
promote an educational program on the importance of the proper administration
of anesthetics. Membership: 11,676.
American Dental Assistants Association, Inc., 410 First National Bank Building,
LaPorte, Ind., 46350. Established 1924. Its purpose is to promote the education of the dental assistant, to improve and sustain the vocation of dental
assisting, and to contribute to the advancement of the dental profession and
the improvement of public health. Membership: 14,000.
American Dental Hygienists' Association, 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago, 111.,
60611. Established 1923. Its purpose is to elevate and sustain the professional
character and education of dental hygienists; to promote among them mutual
improvement, social intercourse, and good will; to inform and direct public
opinion in relation to dental hygiene and the promotion of pertinent legislation ;
and to represent and safeguard the common interests of members of the profession. Membership: Approximately 4,600. Student membership: 2,700.
American Medical Women's Association, Inc., 1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y.,
10019. Founded 1915. Its purpose is to further the art and science of
medicine; to promote interests common to women physicians and the public;
to aid and encourage premedical, medical, and postgraduate medical students;
to foster medical relief projects; and to cooperate with other organizations
having comparable interests. Affiliated with the Medical Women's International Association.
American Nurses' Association, Inc., 10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019.
Organized 1896 as the Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States and
Canada. It is an organization of registered professional nurses. Its purposes
are to foster high standards of nursing practice, to promote the professional
and educational advancement of nurses, to advance the economic and general
welfare of nurses, to promote research to improve the practice of nursing, and
to support legislation to provide all people with better nursing care. Affiliated
with the International Council of Nurses. Membership: 170,000.
American Occupational Therapy AssocicMon, 250 West 57th Street, New York,
N.Y., 10019. Founded 1917. Its objectives are to promote the use of occupa-




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277

tional therapy, to advance standards of education and training in this field, to
conduct a national registration examination, to maintain a registry of qualified occupational therapists, to promote research, and to engage in other
activities advantageous to the profession and its members. Membership:
5,387. Registrants: 6,568. (Not restricted to women, but membership is
primarily women.)
American Physical Therapy Association, 1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y., 10019.
Founded 1921. The object of this organization is to foster the development
and improvement of physical therapy service and physical therapy education
through the coordinated action of physical therapists, allied professional
groups, citizens, agencies, and schools so that the physical therapy needs of
the people will be met. Membership: 10,035. (Approximately 75 percent are
women.) In addition, there are 1,100 student members.
American Society of Medical Technologists, c/o Rose Matthaei, Executive Secretary, Suite 25, Hermann Professional Building, Houston, Tex., 77025.
Founded 1933. Its purpose is to promote higher standards in clinical laboratory methods and research, and to raise the status of those specializing in
medical laboratory technique. Membership: 9,000. (Not restricted to women,
ibut membership is primarily women.)
American Society of Radiologic Technologists, c/o Genevieve J. Eilert, Executive
Secretary, 537 South Main Street, Fond du Lac, Wis., 54935. Founded 1920.
Its purpose is to promote the science and art of radiography and to assist in
establishing approved standards of training and recognized qualifications for
those engaged in technical work in radiological departments. Membership:
12,631. (Not restricted to women, but membership about 70 percent women.)
American Speech and Hearing Association, 1001 Connecticut Avenue NW.,
Washington, D.C,, 20006. Founded 1925. Its purposes are to encourage basic
scientific study of the processes of individual human speech and hearing, to
promote investigation of speech and hearing disorders, and to foster improvement of therapeutic procedures with such disorders; to stimulate exchange of
information among persons thus engaged and to disseminate such information.
Membership, iucluding associates : 11,300. (Not restricted to women.)
Association of American Women Dentists, c / o Dr. Dollie R. Woodul, 6115 La
Vista Drive, Dallas, Tex., 75214. Founded 1921. Objectives are to promote
good fellowship and cooperation among its members and to aid in the advancement of women in dentistry. Membership: Approximately 300.
National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service, Inc., 475 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y., 10027. Organized 1941. Its major purpose is to
promote practical nurse education.. It conducts an accrediting program for
schools of practical nursing; sponsors workshops, institutes, and summer
school sessions; offers consultation services; and publishes a monthly magazine, manuals, and other educational literature. Membership: 1,844 individual and sustaining members; 21,909 State associations (per capita) ; 37 group
members; and 2,009 students enrolled as future members. (Not restricted to
women, but membership is primarily women.)
National Association of Social Workers, 2 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10006.
Established October 1, 1955. Its purpose is to improve the quality of social




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278

work practice, advance the profession, and represent it on social welfare issues.
Membership: 40,000. Chapters: 167 in all 50 States and in Puerto Rico.
(Membership includes both men and women.)
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses, Inc., 250 West 57th Street,
New York, N.Y., 10019. Organized 1949. Its major objectives are to associate all licensed practical nurses and to protect their welfare, to further the
highest ethical principles, to interpret the standards of licensed practical nursing, and to promote the most effective use of their services. Membership:
32,000.
National League for Nursing, 10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y., 10019.
Organized 1952. Its purpose is to foster the development of hospital, industrial, public health, and other organized nursing services and of nursing
education through the coordinated action of nurses, allied professional groups,
citizens, agencies, and schools so that the nursing needs of the people will be
met. Membership: 24,712 individuals and 1,341 member agencies.

Home

Economics

American Dietetic Association, 620 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60611.
Founded 1917. The objective of this association is to improve the nutrition
of human beings, to advance the science of dietetics and nutrition, and to promote education in these and allied areas. Membership: 17,000. (Not restricted to women, but membership is primarily women.)
American Home Economics Association, 1600 20th Street NW., Washington,
D.C., 20009. Established 1909. It is the professional organization for all
home economists and those employed in fields related to home economics.
Activities include consumer interests, publications, career information, and national and international scholarships and fellowships. The official organ is
the Journal of Home Economics, published September through June. Membership : 23,500 individual members; 350 affiliated college chapters; 200
groups of home economists in homemaking. (Not restricted to women, but
membership is primarily women.)

Housekeeping
National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., The, c/o Mrs. Alberta J.
Wetherholt, Secretary, Holzer Hospital and Clinic, Gallipolis, Ohio, 45631. Incorporated 1931. Its purpose is to bring together the progressive executive
housekeepers of the country in an active, cooperative body; to encourage
educational activities and high professional standards; to encourage a wider
knowledge of administrative problems; to promote research; and to engage
in other activities advantageous to the profession and its members. Membership: Approximately 2,300 in 54 chapters. (Approximately 85 percent are
women.)

Insurance
National Association of Insurance Women, 823 South Detroit Avenue, Tulsa,
Okla., 74120. Founded June 1940. Its purpose Is to encourage and foster




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279

educational programs designed to broaden tbe knowledge of insurance of its
members and to cultivate their friendship, loyalty, and service. Membership:
Approximately 14,000 in 276 affiliated clubs.
Women Leaders Round Table, The National Association of Life Underwriters,
c / o Miss Ethel B. Karene, C.L.U., Union Central Life Insurance Co., 225 Broadway, New York, N. Y., 10007. Founded 1936. Its purpose is to promote a friendly relationship among women underwriters who are producing a considerable
volume of business, and to provide for an interchange of ideas to the advantage
of the institution of life insurance and of the general public. Membership:
300.

Interior

Decoration

American Institute of Interior Designers, 673 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y.,
10022. Founded 1931. A nonprofit association of interior designers and
decorators, organized to maintain standards of design and professional practice.
Membership: 4,800 in 36 chapters. (Not restricted to women.)

Law
National Association of Women Lawyers, American Bar Center, 1155 East 60th
Street, Chicago, 111., 60637. Founded 1899. Its purpose is to promote the
welfare and interests of women lawyers, to maintain the honor and integrity
of the legal profession, to aid in the enactment of legislation for the common
good and in the administration of justice, and to undertake actively whatever
is necessary to promote and advance the purposes of the association. Membership : 1,200.

Library

Science

American Library Association, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, 111., 60611.
Founded 1876. Its objective is to promote library service and librarianship.
Membership: Approximately 25,000. (Not restricted to women, but personal
membership is predominantly women.)
Special Libraries Association, 31 East 10th Street, New York, N.Y., 10003. Organized 1909. Its purpose is to promote the collection, organization, and dissemination of information in specialized fields and to improve the usefulness of
special libraries and information services. Membership: 6,100. (Not restricted to women.)

Music
National Federation of Music Clubs, Suite 1215, 600 South Michigan Avenue,
Chicago, 111., 60605. Founded 1898. Its purpose is to bring into working
relations with one another music clubs and other musical organizations and
individuals directly or indirectly associated with musical activity, for the purpose of developing and maintaining high musical standards; to aid and encourage musical education; and to promote American music and American
artists throughout America and other countries. Membership: 600,000.
(Not restricted to women, but membership is primarily women.)




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Organizations of Interest to Women 280

Personnel
International Association of Personnel Women, e/o Mrs. Agnes A. Milhoan, State
Compensation Insurance Fund, 648 Capitol Annex, Denver, Colo., 80203.
Founded 1951. Its objectives are to encourage, promote, and extend women's
memberships in associations devoted to a better understanding of employeremployee relationships; to encourage and assist women to prepare for careers
in the fields of personnel and industrial relations; to stimulate the organization of local groups for study, research, and exchange of information and
ideas; and to promote scientific study of personnel and industrial relations work
by collecting and publishing such information, organizing conferences and
discussion groups, and publishing and distributing conference proceedings and
other books, periodicals, and reports that will help accomplish its purposes
and objectives. Membership: 1,000.

Radio and Television
American Women in Radio and Television, Inc., 75 East 55th Street, New- York,
N.Y., 10022. Established 1951. The objectives of this professional organization of women working as broadcasters, executives, and administrators and
in a creative capacity in radio, television, broadcast-advertising, and closely
allied fields, are to provide a medium for communication and exchange of
ideas; to encourage cooperation within the allied fields of the industry; and
to augment the value of members to their employers, their industry, their
community, and their country. Membership: 1,600.

Railway
National Association of Railway Business Women, Inc., Room 714, 50 East Broad
Street, Columbus, Ohio, 43215. Organized 1918; incorporated 1941. Its purpurpose is to stimulate interest in the railroad industry; to foster cooperation and better understanding within the railroad industry and its affiliates ; to create good public relations for the railroad industry; to further
the educational, social, and professional interests of its members ; to undertake
charitable, benevolent, and social welfare projects; and to establish, provide,
and operate a residence or residences to be used as living quarters for members
of this association after their retirement. First residence for retired members
was established in Boca Raton, Fla. National welfare project is providing
model electric trains to schools and hospitals for handicapped children.
Membership: Approximately 7,000 active in 60 chapters located in 33 States.
Associate membership available.

Real Estate
Women's Council of the National Association of Real Estate Boards, 36 South
Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60603. Established 1939. Its purpose is to
promote women's active participation in local Board activities and to present
programs to all women Realtors within local and State groups that offer an
opportunity for leadership, education, and fellowship. Membership: 4,060.




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281

Secretarial
National Secretaries Association (International), 1103 Grand Avenue, Kansas
City, Mo., 64106. Organized 1942. Its purpose is to elevate the standards
of the secretarial profession by uniting, for their mutual benefit by means
of educational and professional activities, women who are or have been
engaged in secretarial work. It established the Institute for Certifying Secretaries, a department of NSA; and sponsors the annual certifying examination presented by this institute the first Friday and Saturday of May at
universities and colleges across the country. Membership: 23,000 in 547
chapters.

Teaching
See Educational Organizations.

Writing
American Newspaper Women's Club, Inc., 1607 22d Street NW., Washington,
D.C., 20008. Founded 1932. Its purpose is to maintain a meeting place for
members, to promote professional pursuits and good fellowship among the
members, and to encourage friendly understanding between the members and
those whom they must contact in their profession. Membership: 260 professional, 105 associate members.
National League of American Pen Women, Inc., 1300 17th Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20036. Founded 1897. Its purpose is to conduct and promote
among its members creative and educational activities in art, letters, and music.
Membership: 5,000.
Women's National Press Club, 505 National Press Building, Washington, D.C.,
20004. Founded 1919. Purposes are to encourage higher professional standards among women in journalism and other media of public information; to
present outstanding leaders and foster discussion in meetings and seminars,
thereby encouraging dissemination of information to the public on national
and international affairs—economic, educational, scientific, and welfare developments, and any additional topics of current interest. Membership: 450.

General Service Organizations of Business and
Professional Women
Altrusa International, Inc., 332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60604.
Established 1917. Pioneer of women's service clubs. It channels its service
work through four committees: International Relations, Public Affairs, Vocational Services, and Altrusa Information. It supports two major projects
through voluntary contributions of members: Grants-in-Aid, which awards
gift grants to graduate women from Asia and Latin America for higher study,
and Founders Fund Vocational Aid, which makes available through local Altrusa clubs grants for women of all ages who need job training, rehabilitation,




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Organizations of Interest to Women 282

or other help to equip themselves to find employment or start a business of
their own. Membership: 16,000 in 500 clubs in 10 countries.
Pilot Club International, Persons Building, Macon, Ga., 31201. Organized 1921.
A classified service club for executive business and professional women. Its
objectives are to develop friendship as a means of encouraging and promoting
international peace and cultural relations; to inculcate the ideal of service as
the basis of all worthy enterprises; to encourage high ethical standards among
business and professional women; and to promote active participation in any
movement that tends to improve the civic, social, industrial, and commercial
welfare of the community. Membership: More than 13,000 in 450 clubs in
the United States, Canada, England, France, Bermuda, and Japan.
Quota International, Inc., 1145 19th Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.
Established 1919. A classified civic service club of women executives. Among
its objectives are service to country and community, developing good fellowship and enduring friendship, and emphasizing the worth of useful occupation. It promotes international understanding through club programs and
the granting of international fellowships. Membership: 11,000 in 365 clubs
in 4 countries.
Soroptimist International Association, Soroptimist Federation of the Americas,
Inc., 1616 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 19103. Founded 1921. Its purpose is to assist in developing the highest concept of patriotism and love of
country; to promote the spirit of service; to foster high ethical standards
in business and professions; to advance the status of women; to develop
interest in community, national, and international affairs; and to recognize
the worthiness and dignity of all legitimate occupations as affording to each
Soroptimist an opportunity to serve society. Membership in International
Association: 40,000 in 1,490 clubs in 35 countries.
Zonta International, 59 East Van Buren Street, Chicago, 111., 60605. Established
1919. Its main objectives are the encouragement of high ethical standards in
business and professions; the improvement of the legal, political, economic,
and professional status of women; and the advancement of international
understanding, good will, and peace through a world fellowship of executive
women. Membership: 17,000 in 460 clubs in 24 countries.

Educational Organizations
Adult Education Association of the United States of America, 1225 19th Street
NW., Washington, D.C., 20036. Founded May 14, 1951. Its purpose is to
further the concept of education as a process continuing throughout life, by
developing greater unity of purpose in the adult education movement, by helping individuals engaged in adult education increase their competence, by
bringing agencies of adult education into closer relationship, by detecting needs
and gaps in the field and by mobilizing resources for filling them, by making the
general public more aware of the need and opportunities for adult education,
by assembling and making available knowledge about adult education, and by
serving as a voice for the adult education movement. Its services include the
publication of Adult Leadership, Adult Education, and other leadership materials; consultation services; conferences and field services. Membership:
5,000. (Not restricted to women.)




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283

American Association of University Women, 2401 Virginia Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20037. Founded 1882. Its purpose is to raise standards in education generally, to enlarge opportunities for college women, and to help
members extend their education and use their abilities and training in building better communities and meeting national and international problems.
Affiliated with the International Federation of University Women. Membership : Over 155,000.
American Council on Education, 1785 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington,
D.C., 20036. Established 1918. Serves as a center of coordination and cooperation in higher education; conducts inquiries and investigations into
specific educational problems and seeks to enlist appropriate agencies for their
solutions. Acts as a liaison between higher education and the Federal Government. Membership: 227 educational associations, 1,072 institutions.
American Vocational Association, Inc., 1010 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington,
DC., 20005. Founded 1925 by a merger of two associations which go back
to 1906. Its purpose is to promote vocational and practical arts education
and to improve the quality of instruction in these phases of education, to find the
aptitudes and talents of each child and prepare him for the vocation in which
he is best fitted to earn his livelihood, and by so doing to contribute to the freedom and security of both the individual and the Nation. Also, the association promotes training of adult workers in vocational education to update them
in their occupations and to train them for new ones. Membership: 35,000,
approximately 10,000 of whom are women.
National Association of Women Deans and Counselors, a department of the
National Education Association, 1201 16th Street NW., Washington, D.C.,
20036. Established 1916. Its purpose is to increase the professional effectiveness of its members and to advance personnel work in schools and colleges.
It is especially interested in education as it relates to women's changing roles
in society and in the implications of these changes for counseling. Membership: 2,000.
National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers, 123 South Queen Street,
Dover, Del., 19901. Founded May 7, 1926. Its purpose is to promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church, and community; to raise
the standards of homelife; to secure adequate laws for the care and protection
of children and youth; to bring into closer relation the home and the school,
that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the
child; to develop between educators and the general public such united efforts
as can secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, social,
and spiritual education. Membership: 250,000. (Not restricted to women.)
National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 700 North Rush Street, Chicago,
111., 60611'. Founded 1897. Its purpose is to promote the welfare of children
and youth in home, school, church, and community; to raise the standards of
homelife; to secure adequate laws for the care and protection of children and
youth; to bring into closer relation the home and the school, that parents and
teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the child; and to
develop between educators and the general public such united efforts as can
secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, social, and
spiritual education. Membership: 12,131,318. (Not restricted to women.)




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Organizations of Interest to Women 284

National Council of Administrative Women in Education, a department of the
National Education Association, 120116th Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20036.
Founded 1915; became NEA affiliate 1932. Its purpose is to contribute to the
advancement of education by encouraging women in education to prepare for
and accept the challenge of administrative or executive positions; to urge
school systems and educational agencies to recognize women's administrative
abilities and to employ qualified women as administrators; to recognize the
achievements of women in educational administration; and to work for the
general recognition and utilization of women's leadership abilities as a significant national resource. Membership: 1,700.
National Education Association of the United States, 1201 16th Street NW.,
Washington, D.C., 20036. Established 1857 as the National Teachers Association. Its purpose is to elevate the character and advance the interests of the
teaching profession and to promote the cause of education. Membership:
900,000 individual personal memberships and approximately 1,500,000 affiliated
through State, territorial, and local groups. (Not restricted to women, but a
majority of the members are women.)

Political and Legislative Organizations
Democratic National Committee, Office of Women's Activities, 1730 K Street
NW., Washington, D.C., 20006. Established 1953, to replace the previous
Women's Division and Women's Bureau, dating back to 1916. Its purpose is
to encourage more women to participate in Democratic political organizations
and provide them with information and techniques to make it possible for them
to work as equals with men at all political levels. Functions include preparing and distributing political techniques materials, assisting in building political organizations, aiding and encouraging women to seek both public and party
office.
National Federation of Republican Women, 1625 I Street NW., Washington,
D.C., 20006. Founded 1938. The objectives are to promote an informed electorate through political education, to increase the effectiveness of women in the
cause of good government through active political participation, to facilitate
cooperation among women's Republican clubs, to foster loyalty to the Republican Party and to promote its ideals, to support objectives and policies
of the Republican National Committee, and to work for the election of the
Republican Party's nominees. Membership: 500,000 women in 50 States, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.
National Woman's Party, 144 Constitution Avenue NE., Washington, D.C., 20002.
Established 1913 for suffrage for women through the adoption of the Federal
Suffrage Amendment; reorganized in 1921 for equal rights for women in all
fields. Its immediate purpose is to secure the adoption of the Equal Rights
for Women Amendment to the National Constitution and equal rights for
women in the international field. It is affiliated with the World Woman's
Party and with the International Council of Women.
Republican National Committee, Women's Division, 1625 I Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20006. Founded 1918 to give women a voice in the councils of the




Organizations of Interest to Women

285

Republican National Committee. Its basic objectives are to coordinate the
activities of women in the Republican Party to achieve a maximum effectiveness from their efforts; to encourage their participation in party work and
in seeking public office as candidates; and to promote equal recognition of
women with men at all levels of party organization, to develop leadership
among Republican women, and to keep women informed of party activities
and current issues.
Woman's National Democratic Club, 1526 New Hampshire Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20036. Founded 1922. Its purpose is to afford Democratic women
an opportunity to obtain information about problems and issues confronting
the country and to discuss Democratic ideals and programs, to do educational
and community service work, and to hear and meet the Nation's lawmakers
and other leaders in domestic and international fields. Membership: 1,350.

Patriotic Organizations
American Legion Auxiliary, 777 North Meridian Street, Indianapolis, Ind.,
46204. Established 1921. Its purpose is to assist The American Legion in the
promotion of Americanism, patriotism, and world peace, and in its program
for the benefit of veterans and their families. Membership is composed of
wives, widows, mothers, daughters, and sisters of veterans of World Wars I
and II and the Korean conflict, and women veterans of those hostilities. The
veteran, if living, must be a member of The American Legion. Membership:
Approximately 1 million.
Daughters of the American Revolution, National Society, 1776 D Street NW.,
Washington, D.C., 20006. Established 1890. Objectives are historic preservation, promotion of education, and patriotic endeavor. National Headquarters, Washington, D.C., Americana Museum with 28 period rooms and
genealogical library open to the public 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily. Membership:
Approximately 185,000 in nearly 3,000 local chapters throughout the United
States.
Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, 1861-65, 534 South Second Street,
Springfield, 111., 62704. Organized 1885. Its purpose is patriotic, historical,
and educational. Membership: 15,000. (Membership restricted to women
whose ancestors sided with the North during the Civil War.)
Disabled American Veterans Auxiliary, 220 East Washington Street, Colorado
Springs, Colo., 80907. Established 1922. Its purpose is to uphold and maintain
the Constitution and laws of the United States, to advance the interest® and
work for the betterment of all wounded, injured, and disabled veterans and
their families. Membership is composed of wives, widows, mothers, daughters,
sisters, granddaughters, and grandmothers of disabled veterans of World Wars
I and II and the Korean conflict, and disabled women veterams. Membership:
Approximately 50,000.
Ladies Auxiliary to the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, 406
West 34th Street, Kansas City, Mo., 64111. Founded 1914. Its objectives are
fraternal, patriotic, and educational. Major programs include volunteer work




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Organizations of Interest to W o m e n 286

in the Veterans' Administration and other hospitals, and welfare activities for
veterans and their dependents. Membership: 355,000.
United Daughters of the Confederacy, U.D.O. Memorial Building, 328 North
Boulevard, Richmond, Va., 23220. Established 1894. Its purpose is historical,
benevolent, educational, and social. Membership: Approximately 36,000.
(Membership restricted to women who are descendants of Confederate veterans of the War Between the States.)

Farm and Rural Organizations
American Farm Bureau Federation, Women's Commitee, Room 1000, Merchandise Mart, Chicago, 111., 60654. Its objective is to assist in an active, organized way in carrying forward the program of the American Farm Bureau
Federation; to promote, strengthen, and assist the developmemt of the business,
economic, social, educational, and spiritual interests of the farm families of
the Nation; and to develop agriculture. Membership: 1,628,295.
Country Women's Council, U.S.A., c / o Mrs. Everett Spangler, Chairman, 444
South 88th Street, Omaha, N'ebr., 68114. Founded 1939. This Council is a coordinating group made up of representatives of 4 national and some 60
regional and State societies in the United States which are constituent members of the Associated Country Women of the World. Its purpose is to effect
a closer association among these United States groups in carrying out the aims
and programs of the Associated Country Women of the World in furthering
friendship and understanding among the country women of the world, in improving their standard of living, and in representing them in international
councils. Membership: 2 million.
National Home Demonstration Council, c / o Mrs. Homer A. Greene, President,
Tutwiler, Miss., 38963. Founded 1936. Its purpose is to strengthen and develop adult education in home economics through the cooperative Extension
Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the land-grant colleges;
to provide opportunity for homemakers to pool their judgment for the improvement of home and community life; and to offer a means by which homemakers may promote extension projects important in the protection and development of the American home. Membership: Approximately 1 million.
Woman's National Farm and Garden Association, Inc., c/o Miss Elizabeth Miller,
President, 201 Iola Street, Glenshaw, Pa., 15116. Founded 1914. Its purpose
is to stimulate interest in the conservation of natural resources and an appreciation of country life; to work for improvement of rural conditions; to
promote good relationships between farm and city women; to help women and
girls through scholarships and expert advice to obtain the best available
training in agriculture, horticulture, and related professions, and to develop
opportunities for women so trained; to stimulate and make available to members opportunities for the marketing of farm and garden products; and to
cooperate with national and international groups of women with similar
interests. Membership: 8,000.




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287

Labor Organizations
The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor,
in its "Directory of National and International Labor Unions in the
United States, 1965," includes a table listing of the unions that report
membership by sex. (See table 39, page 82 of this handbook, for
list of unions reporting 25,000 or more women members.)
American Federation of Labor—Congress of Industrial Organizations {AFLCIO) Auxiliaries, 815 16th Street NW., Washington, D.C., 20006. Established
December 1957 by merger of the former American Federation of Women's
Auxiliaries of Labor and National C.I.O. Auxiliaries. Composed of women
from families of men in a trade union affiliated with the AFL-CIO. Its purpose is to further the program of the AFL-CIO ; to foster organizing of the unorganized members of union families and to educate them in the benefits of
trade unionism; to aid in securing better schools and instructors; to abolish
child labor; to promote legislation which benefits workers and their families;
and to promote social and cultural activities. Membership: 50,000.

779-555 O—<66




20

Alphabetical List of Organizations
Page

Adult Education Association of the United States of America
A F L - C I O Auxiliaries
Altrusa International, Inc
American Association of Industrial Nurses, Inc
American Association of Medical Record Librarians
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
American Association of University Women
American Council on Education
American Dental Assistants Association, Inc
American Dental Hygienists' Association
American Dietetic Association
American Farm Bureau Federation, Women's Committee
American Home Economics Association
American Institute of Interior Designers
American Legion Auxiliary
American Library Association
American Medical Women's Association, Inc
American Newspaper Women's Club, Inc
American Nurses' Association, Inc
American Occupational Therapy Association
American Physical Therapy Association
American Society of Medical Technologists
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
American Society of Women Accountants
American Speech and Hearing Association
American Vocational Association, Inc
American Woman's Society of Certified Public Accountants
American Women in Radio and Television, Inc
American Women's Voluntary Services, Inc
Association of American Women Dentists
Association of the Junior Leagues of America, Inc
B'nai B'rith Women
Camp Fire Girls, Inc
Country Women's Council, U.S.A
Daughters of the American Revolution, National Society
Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, 1861-65
Democratic National Committee, Office of Women's Activities
Disabled American Veterans Auxiliary
Fashion Group, Inc., The
Federation of Women Shareholders in American Business, Inc
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Girl Scouts of the United States of America
Girls Clubs of America, Inc

288




282
287
281
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276
276
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283
276
276
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270
270
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285
284
285
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275
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271
271

Organizations of Interest to Women

289
Page

Hadassah, The Women's Zionist Organization of America, Inc
International Association of Personnel Women
Ladies Auxiliary to the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States
League of Women Voters of the United States
Lucy Stone League, The
National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service, Inc
National Association of Bank-Women, Inc
National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Inc
National Association of Insurance Women
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs,
Inc
National Association of Railway Business Women, Inc
National Association of Social Workers
National Association of Women Deans and Counselors
National Association of Women in Construction
National Association of Women Lawyers
National Committee on Household Employment
National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers
National Congress of Parents and Teachers
National Consumers League
National Council of Administrative Women in Education
National Council of Catholic Women
National Council of Jewish Women, Inc
National Council of Negro Women, Inc
National Council of Women of the United States, Inc
National Education Association of the United States
National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., The
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc.,
The
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses, Inc
National Federation of Music Clubs
National Federation of Republican Women
National Home Demonstration Council
National Jewish Welfare Board
National League for Nursing
National League of American Pen Women, Inc
National Secretaries Association (International)
National Social Welfare Assembly, Inc
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union
National Woman's Forum, Inc
National Woman's Party
Pilot Club International
Quota International, Inc
Republican National Committee, Women's Division
Society of Woman Geographers, The
Society of Women Engineers
Soroptimist International Association, Soroptimist Federation of the
Americas, Inc
Special Libraries Association
United Church Women




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290

Organizations of Interest to W o m e n 290
Page

United Daughters of the Confederacy
Woman's National Democratic Club
Woman's National Farm and Garden Association, Inc
Women Leaders Round Table, The National Association of Life Underwriters
Women's Council of the National Association of Real Estate Boards
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Women's National Press Club
Young Women's Christian Association of the United States of America
Zonta International




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Part V
Bibliography
on
American Women Workers




BIBLIOGRAPHY ON
AMERICAN WOMEN WORKERS
This bibliography covers principally publications of current interest concerning women as workers and citizens. It was prepared
in response to numerous requests for reference materials pertaining
to women's participation in employment and other activities outside
the home. Since it is based primarily on materials utilized in the
course of research work and is not the result of a complete review of
the literature in the field, the bibliography is of necessity limited. It
includes references with varying conclusions and opinions, and does
not constitute endorsement of any single point of view.
Wherever possible, the references have been classified according
to their primary subject matter. Those which are not specialized are
shown under "General."
The topical sections of the bibliography are:
General
Commissions on the Status of Women
Counseling and Guidance
Education and Training
Family Status and Responsibilities of Women Workers
Health and Conditions of Work
International
Special Groups of Women
Standards and Legislation Affecting Women
Union Organization
Women as Workers
Conferences, Seminars, and Meetings
Speeches
Unless otherwise stated, all U.S. Government publications are published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

GENERAL
Cassara, Beverly B., ed. American Women: The Changing Image.
Boston, Mass., Beacon Press, Inc., 1962.
Cutler, John Henry. What About Women ? New York, N.Y., Ives,
Washburn, Inc., 1961.
292




Bibliography

293

Farber, Seymour, and Roger H. L. Wilson, eds. The Potential of
Woman. New York, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963.
Firkel, Eva. Woman in the Modern World. Notre Dame, Ind.,
Fides Publishers, 1963.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York, N.Y., W. W.
Norton & Co., Inc., 1963.
Goldberg, Dorothy. The Creative Woman. New York, N.Y., David
McKay Co., Inc., 1963.
Harbison, Frederick, and Charles A. Myers. Education, Manpower
and Economic Growth. New York, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
Inc., 1964.
The Role of the Educated Woman. Proceedings of a symposium held
at Rice University. January 29-30, 1963. Sponsored by Mary
Gibbs Jones College. Houston, Tex., Rice University, 1964.
United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization.
Images of Women in Society. In International Social Science
J ournal, January 1962.
Who's Who of American Women—A Biographical Dictionary of
Notable Living American Women. 3d ed. 1964-65. Chicago, 111.,
A. N. Marquis Co., 1965.
The Woman in America. In Daedalus. Journal of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences. New York, N.Y., Spring 1964.
Young Women's Christian Association, National Board. Women
Today: Trends and Issues in the United States. New York, N.Y.,
Bureau of Communications, 1964.

C O M M I S S I O N S O N THE STATUS OF W O M E N
President's Commission on the Status of Women:
American Women. The report of the Commission. Washington,
D.C., 1963.
Reports of Committees, 1963:
Civil and Political Rights.
Education.
Federal Employment.
Home and Community.
Private Employment.
Protective Labor Legislation.
Social Insurance and Taxes.
Report on Four Consultations: Summaries of consultations held
under Commission auspices on Private Employment Opportunities, New Patterns in Volunteer Work, Portrayal of Women
by the Mass Media, and Problems of Negro Women. 1963.




294

Bibliography

U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Interdepartmental Committee and Citizens' Advisory Council on
the Status of Women:
Progress Report on the Status of Women. First Annual Report,
October 11, 1963 through October 10,1964. 1964.
Summaries of the Recommendations of the Governors' Commissions on the Status of Women from State Commission Reports.
1965.
Governors' Commissions on the Status of Women. Leaflet 38.
Revised October 1964.

COUNSELING A N D GUIDANCE
American Association of University Women Foundation:
Continuing Education—Focus on Counseling and Training. In
Women's Education, March 1965.
Torrance, Paul E. Developing Women's Natural Gifts. In
Women's Education, March 1965.
Calvert, Robert, Jr., and John E. Steele. Planning Your Career.
New York, N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963.
Change and Choice for the College Woman. In American Association of University Women Journal, May 1962.
Goldstein, Bernard, and Harry Stark. Entering the Labor Force.
New York, N.Y., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964.
New York State Employment Service. From Campus to Career—A
Guide for Generalists. New York, N.Y., Professional Placement
Center, 1960.
O'Neill, Barbara Powell. Careers for Women After Marriage and
Children. New York, N.Y., The Macmillan Company, 1965.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security:
Career Guide for Demand Occupations. 1965.
Guide to Local Occupational Information. (Revised periodically)
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Hedges, Janice N. Counseling of Girls and Mature Women. In
Employment Service Review, December 1964.
Terlin, Rose. Speech about job opportunities for girls before the
Maryland State Personnel and Guidance Association, Annapolis,
Md., May 2,1964.
Wells, Jean A. Women and Girls in the Labor Market Today and
Tomorrow. Speech before the National Conference on Social
Welfare, Cleveland, Ohio, May 21,1963.
Zapoleon, Marguerite W. Occupational Planning for Women. New
York, N.Y., Harper and Brothers, 1961.




Bibliography

295

EDUCATION A N D TRAINING
American Association of University Women. Women's Education.
(Monthly)
Bernard, Jessie S. Academic Women. University Park, Pa., The
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964.
Bunting, Mary I. A Huge Waste: Educated Womanpower. In The
New York Times Magazine, May 7,1961.
Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. Two Years After the College
Degree: Work and Further Study Patterns. Report on the 1960
Survey of 1958 College Graduates. Washington, D.C., 1963.
Dennis, Lawrence E., ed. Education and a Woman's Life. Washington, D.C., American Council on Education, 1963.
Dolan, Eleanor F. Higher Education for Women: Time for Reappraisal. In Higher Education, September 1963.
Ginzberg, Eli, amd John L. Herma. Talent and Performance. New
York, N. Y.? Columbia University Press, 1964.
Hawkes, Anna L. Rose. Changing Patterns in Women's Lives in 1960.
In Teachers College Record, April 1960.
Muller, Lee C., and Ouida G. Muller, eds. New Horizons for College
Women. Washington, D.C., Public Affairs Press, 1960.
Newcomer, Mabel. A Century of Higher Education for American
Women. New York, N.Y., Harper and Brothers, 1959.
Parrish, John B. Professional Womanpower as a National Resource.
In the Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, February 1961.
Special Issue on Women's Education. In Saturday Review, May 18,
1963.
The Two-Year College for Women: A Challenge Met. In The New
York Times Magazine, March 7,1965.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. School Enrollment, October 1963. Series P-20, No. 129, July 24,1964.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of
Education:
American Education. (Monthly)
Digest of Educational Statistics. (Annual)
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Educational
Attainment of Workers, March 1964. Special Labor Force Report
No. 53.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Fifteen Years After College—A Study of Alumnae of the Class of
1945. Bull. 283. 1962.
First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class
of 1957. Bull. 260. 1959.




296

Bibliography

Trends in Educational Attainment of Women. January 1965.
Wigney, Trevor. The Education of Women and Girls in a Changing
Society: A Selected Bibliography With Annotations. Toronto,
Canada, Department of Educational Research, University of
Toronto, 1965.

Continuing Education—Programs and Needs
Berry, Jane, and Sandra Epstein. Continuing Education of Women :
Needs, Aspirations and Plans. Kansas City, Mo., The University
of Kansas City, 1963.
Bunting, Mary I. The Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study.
In Educational Record, October 1961.
Boston University Center for the Study of Liberal Education for
Adults. Continuing Education for Adults. Brookline, Mass.
(Biweekly newsletter)
College Programs for Mature Women. In Saturday Review, May 18,
1963.
Elmquist, Nanette J. Career Clinic for Mature Women, Inc., of
Greater Minneapolis, Guide Book. Minneapolis, Minn., Career
Clinic for Mature Women, Inc., 1964.
Itasca Conference on the Continuing Education of Women. Education and a Woman's Life. Report of the conference. Held at
Itasca State Park, Itasca, Minn., September 1962. Washington,
D.C., American Council on Education, 1963.
Minnesota Plan Guidelines—Women's Continuing Education Program. Minneapolis, Minn., The University of Minnesota. (Quarterly)
Senders, V. L. Minnesota Plan for Women's Continuing Education:
A Progress Report. In Educational Record, October 1961.
Unfinished Business—Continuing Education for Women. In Educational Record, October 1961.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Why Continuing Education Programs for Women ? 1963.
University of Chicago, Studies and Training Program in Continuing Education. Continuing Education Report. (Periodical)
White, Martha F., and others. The Next Step: A Guide to PartTime Opportunities in Greater Boston for the Educated Woman.
Cambridge, Mass., Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study, 1964.
Work in Progress at the Center for Continuing Education, Sarah
Lawrence College; The First Year, 1962-1963. Bronxville, N.Y.,
The Center, 1963.




Bibliography

297

Job Training and Vocational Education
Harris, Norman C. Technical Education in the Junior College.
Washington, D.C., American Association of Junior Colleges, 1964.
Levitan, Sar A. Vocational Education and Federal Policy. Public
Policy Information Bulletin. Kalamazoo, Mich., W. E. Upjohn
Institute for Employment Research, May 1963.
Parrish, John B. Top Level Training of Women in the United States,
1900-60. In National Association of Women Deans and Counselors
Journal, January 1962.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education :
Education for a Changing World of Work: Report of the Panel of
Consultants on Vocational Education. 1963.
Trade and Industrial Education for Girls and Women: A Directory
of Training Programs. OE-84002. 1960.
The Vocational Education Act of 1963. OE-80034. 1965.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
An Assessment of Apprenticeship and Training. In Monthly Labor
Review, January, February, April, and June 1964.
Industrial Retraining Programs for Technological Change: A
Study of the Performance of Older Workers. Bull. No. 1368.
1963.
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and
Training:
Formal Occupational Training of Adult Workers. Manpower
Automation Research Monograph No. 2. December 1964.
Manpower Research and Training Under the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962. A Report by the Secretary of
Labor. March 1965.
The Mentally Retarded: Their Special Training Needs. Bull. No.
6. October 1964.
Occupational Training of Women under the Manpower Development and Training Act. Manpower Evaluation Report No. 3.
July 1964.
Occupational Training/Pathway to Employment. 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau and Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. Everybody's Talking About Trained
Workers for the Future. 1963.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Job Training Suggestions for Women and Girls. Leaflet 40. 1965.
Training Opportunities for Women and Girls. Bull. 274. 1960.




298

Bibliography

FAMILY STATUS A N D RESPONSIBILITIES OF W O M E N
WORKERS
Kenniston, Kenneth and Ellen. The Image of Women and Work.
In The American Scholar, Summer 1964.
Rodman, Hyman. Marriage, Family, and Society: A Reader. New
York, N. Y., Random House, Inc., 1965.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Marital and
Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1964. Special Labor
Force Report No. 50. (See also Occupations.)

Child Care Arrangements
Hosley, Eleanor M. Part-Time Care: The Day-Care Problem. In
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
September 1964.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Cohen, Wilbur
J., and Robert M. Ball. Public Welfare Amendments of 1962 and
Proposals for Health Insurance for the Aged. In Social Security
Bulletin, October 1962.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Children's
Bureau :
Child Care Arrangements of Full-Time Working Mothers. Publication No. 378. Reprinted 1964.
Child Care Arrangements of the Nation's Working Mothers: A Preliminary Report. 1965.
The Children's Bureau Looks at Day Care. In Newsletter of National Committee for the Day Care of Children, Inc., February
1964.
Day Care Services. Publication No. 420-1964.
Goals, Problems, and Progress in Child Welfare: Report of Four
Regional Meetings on Implementation of the 1962 Public Welfare
Amendment. Child Welfare Report No. 13. 1964.
Herzog, Elizabeth. Children of Working Mothers. Publication
No. 382-1960. Reprinted 1964.
Hoffman, Gertrude. New Dimensions for Day Care Services. Address at the National Conference on Social Welfare. Cleveland,
Ohio, May 1963.
Licensed Day Care Facilities for Children: Report of a National
Survey of Departments of State Governments Responsible for
Licensing Day Care Facilities. 1962.
Public Welfare's Role in Day Care for Children. In Children,
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Report on Day Care. Meeting of Representatives of State Advisory
Committees on Day Care Services and State Departments of
Public Welfare, March 19-20, 1964. Child Welfare Report No.
14. 1964.
State Action on the Child Welfare Provisions of the 1962 Amendments. In Welfare in Review. January 1964.
Winston, Ellen. The National Need for Day Care Programs. Address at the Children's Bureau Day Care Conference. Washington, D.C., March 19,1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau and the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, Children's Bureau:
Day Care Services—Form and Substance. Report of a conference,
November 17-18, 1960. Women's Bureau Bull. 281. Children's
Bureau Bull. 393. 1961.
Day Care of Children Under 12—A Report on the Resources of
National Organizations. 1961.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Keyserling, Mary
Dublin. Day Care in a Changing Economy. May 19, 1964.
(Cited under Speeches.)
Winston, Ellen. A New Era of Partnership in Services for Children.
In Child Welfare. New York, N.Y., Child Welfare League of
America, May 1964.

Working Mothers
Addiss, Luise K. Job-Related Expenses of the Working Mothers.
In Children, November-December 1963.
Mothers at Work. New York, N. Y., Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.,
1963.
Nye, F. Ivan, and Lois W. Hoffman. The Employed Mother in
America. Chicago, 111., Rand McNally & Co., 1963.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service. Maternity Care Utilization and Financing. Health Economics Series No. 4. Publication 947-4,1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Keyserling, Mary Dublin. The Nation's Working Mothers and the
Need for Day. Care. Address. May 14, 1965. (Cited under
Speeches.)
Maternity Benefit Provisions for Employed Women. Bull. 272.
1960.
Who Are the Working Mothers? Leaflet 37. Revised 1965.
Women in the World Today: Maternity Protection and Benefits in
92 Countries. IR No. 6. June 1963.




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Weingarten, Violet. The Mother Who Works Outside the Home.
New York, N. Y., Child Study Association of America, 1961.
Worthy, N. Beatrice. Part-Time Working Mothers—A Case Study.
In Management Record, September 1960.
Yarrow, Marian Radke. Maternal Employment and Child Rearing.
In Children, November-December 1961.

Working Wives
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service:
Job-Related Expenditures and Management Practices of Gainfully
Employed Wives in Four Georgia Cities. Home Economics
Research Report No. 15. 1962.
Paid Services Used by Employed Homemakers in Georgia and
Ohio. In Family Economics Review, June 1962.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of
Education. Management Problems of Homemakers Employed
Outside the Home. Bull. OE-83009. 1961.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Carroll,
Margaret S. The Working Wife and Her Family's Economic
Position. In Monthly Report on the Labor Force, April 1962.
Working Wives. In Business Management Record, October 1963.

HEALTH A N D CONDITIONS OF W O R K
Enterline, Philip E. Work Loss Due to Illness in Selected Occupations and Industries. In Journal of Occupational Medicine,
September 1961.
Hinkle, Lawrence, Jr., and others. An Examination of the Relation
Between Symptoms, Disability and Serious Illness in Two Homogeneous Groups of Men and Women. In American Journal
of Public Health, September 1960.
Spiro, Evelyn S. Women in Industry—Patterns of Women's Work
and Occupational Health and Safety. In American Journal of
Public Health, September 1960.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service. Vital and Health Statistics. Data from the National
Health Survey. National Center for Health Statistics. Series 10:
No. 2. Family Income in Relation to Selected Health Characteristics, United States.
No. 4. Disability Days, United States, July 1961-June 1962.
No. 7. Disability Among Persons in the Labor Force, by Employment Status, United States, July 1961-June 1962.




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No. 9. Medical Care Health Statistics and Family Income, United
States.
No. 13. Current Estimates From the Health Interview Survey,
United States, July 1963—June 1964.

INTERNATIONAL
Canadian Department of Labour, Women's Bureau, Ottawa, Canada:
Collective Action by Nurses To Improve Their Salaries and Working Conditions. In Labour Gazette, May 1964.
Day Care Services for Children of Working Mothers. 1964.
A New Career After 30. 1960.
Opportunities for Continuing Education—A Second Chance for
Women. July 1963.
Vocational and Technical Training for Girls in Canada at High
School, Post High School and Trade School Levels. 1963.
Women's Bureau Bulletin. (Periodical)
International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland (Branchy Washington, D.C.) :
Discrimination in Employment or Occupation on the Basis of Marital Status. In International Labour Review, March and April
1962.
Expanding Horizons for Women Workers. In ILO News, June
1964.
The ILO and Women Workers. In The International Labour
Organization. Seventh ed. August 1963.
Publications of the International Labour Office, 1944-62.
Women Part-Time Workers. In International Labour Review,
November 1962.
Women Workers in a Changing World: Employment of Women
With Family Responsibilities. Report VI (2) of the International Labour Conference, Forty-eighth Session, Geneva, 1964.
1964.
Organization of American States, The Inter-American Commission
of Women:
Washington, D.C. News Bulletin.
Pan American Union.
(Biannual)
Report Presented to the 18th Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Teheran, Iran, March 1965. Pan
American Union, 1965.
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women:
Civil and Political Education of Women. New York, N. Y., Columbia University Press, 1965.




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Equal Pay for Equal Work. Sales No. 60: IVA. New York, N.Y.,
1960.
Legal Status of Married Women. Reports submitted by the Secretary General. New York, N.Y., 1958. (Revision in process.)
Progress Report on the Status of Women, 17th Session. In Department of State Bulletin, July 22,1963.
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. In Monthly
Chronicle. New York, N.Y., U.N. Office of Public Information,
April 1965.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
20 Years of International Work. Reprinted from International
Labor, May-June 1964.
International Report Series:
IR-1 Women in High-Level Elective and Appointive Positions
in National Governments. 1963.
IR-2 Political Rights of Women in Member Nations of the
United Nations. 1963.
IR-3 Policies of National Governments on Employing Women.
1963.
IR-4 Equal Pay in Member Nations of the International Labor
Organization. 1963.
IR-5 Protective Labor Legislation for Women in 91 Countries.
1963.
IR-6 Maternity Protection and Benefits in 92 Countries. 1963.
IR-7 Notes on Women's Employment in the United States and
Nine European Countries. 1963.
World Young Women's Christian Association. The Transition from
School to Work. Geneva, Switzerland, 1964.

SPECIAL GROUPS OF W O M E N
Mature Women
Angel, Juvenal L. Occcupations for Men and Women After 45. New
York, N. Y., World Trade Academy Press, 1963.
Jewish Vacation Association, Inc. Project on Middle Age. New
York, N. Y.:
A Memorandum on the Motivations of Middle-Aged Women in the
Lower Educational Brackets To Return to Work. January 1961.
The Middle-Aged Woman and the Labor Market. Report on a
Workshop Sponsored by the Project on Middle Age. 1962.
A Pilot Study of the Motivations and Problems of Middle-Aged
Homemakers in Lower Socio-Economic Groups in Seeking Employment. March 1962.




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In Quest of Wider Horizons. The Woman After Forty Thinks
About a Job. 1962.
Kreps, Juanita. Employment, Income, and Retirement Problems of
the Aged. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1963.
Lichtenstein, H., and J. R. Block. Middle-Aged Co-ed in Evening
Colleges. In Adult Education, Summer 1963.
Miller, Helen Hill. Over 65: Beyond the Merely Bearable. In The
New Republic, November 7,1964.
President's Council on Aging:
Annual Report to the President. 1964—Action for the Older
Americans. 1965.
Do You Have a Homemaker Service in Your Town ? 1963.
On Growing Older. 1964.
The Older American. 1963.
Schneider, Betty Y. H. The Older Worker. Berkeley, Calif., Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, 1962.
Slavick, Fred, amd Seymour L. Wolfbein. The Evolving Work-Life
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U.S. Civil Service Commission, Bureau of Programs and Standards.
The Older Worker in the Federal Service. 1961.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Aging:
Creating Opportunities for Older Persons. Selected papers from
the Fourth Annual Conference of State Executives on Aging.
Washington, D.C., April 27-29,1964.
Epstein, Lenore A. Income of the Aged in 1962. (Cited under
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Income of Older People, 1960-61. September 1963.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security
Administration. Answers to a Woman's Questions About Social
Security. OASI-27, December 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor. The Older American Workers: Age Discrimination in Employment. Report of the Secretary of Labor to
the Congress. June 1965.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Industrial Retraining Programs for Technological Change: A
Study of the Performance of Older Workers. Bull. No. 1369.
June 1963.
1963 Survey of the Aged. In Monthly Labor Review, October 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and
Training. Older Workers. Reprinted from the Manpower Report
of the President, March 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Memo on Job-Finding
for the Mature Woman. Leaflet 13. Revised 1963.
779-555 0 — 6 6




21

304

Bibliography

Nonwhite Women
Hiestand, Dale L. Economic Growth and Employment Opportunities for Minorities. New York and London, Columbia University
Press, 1964.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security
Administration. Orshansky, Mollie. The Aged Negro and His
Income. In Social Security Bulletin, February 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Hayes, Marian. A Century of Change: Negroes in the United
States Economy, 1860-1960. In Monthly Labor Review, December 1962.
Wider Horizons for Negro Workers. In Occupational Outlook
Quarterly, December 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Current Data on Nonwhite Women Workers. (Revised periodically)
Negro Women Workers ill 1960. Bull. 287. 1963.
Problems of Negro Women. In Report on Four Consultations.
(Cited under Commissions on the Status of Women.)

Teenagers and Youth
Barkin, Sol. Educating Students for Personal and Economic Growth
in a Dynamic Technological Society. In American Vocational
Journal, October 1962.
Conant, J ames B.:
Slums and Suburbs. New York, N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
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Social Dynamite in Our Large Cities. In Report of Conference
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in Washington, D.C., May 24, 1961. Sponsored by the National
Committee for Children and Youth. 1961.
Harmon, Burney M., Jr., cmd Jerry S. Sims. Reaching Out to Disadvantaged Youth. In U.S. Employment Service Review, December 1964.
Schreiber, D.:
School Dropouts: The Female Species. In National Association of
Women Deans and Counselors J ournal, J une 1962.
School Dropout: Fugitive From Failure. In National Association
of Secondary School Principals' Bulletin, May 1962.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
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Employment of School Age Youth, October 1963. Special Labor
Force Report No. 42.
Factbook on the School Dropout in the World of Work. New York,
N. Y., New York Regional Office, 1963.
Out-of-School Youth, February 1963. Part I. Special Labor
Force Report No. 46, and Part II. Special Labor Force Report
No. 47.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Who Are the Disadvantaged Girls 16-21 Years Old ? 1964.

Other Special Groups
Advisory Council of the President's Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped. Special Report to the President. June 24, 1964.
Miller, Herman P. Rich Man—Poor Man. New York, N.Y.,
Thomas G. Crowell Co., 1964.
President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped. Performance—The Story of the Handicapped. (Monthly)
U.S. Congress. House Committee on Education and Labor. Poverty
in the United States. Committee print. 88th Cong., 2d sess.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau. Witmer, Helen L. Children and
Poverty. In Children, November-December 1964.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security
Administration, Orshansky, Mollie :
Children of the Poor. In Social Security Bulletin, July 1963.
Counting the Poor: Another Look at the Poverty Profile. In Social
Security Bulletin, January 1965.
Who's Who Among the Poor: A Demographic View of Poverty.
In Social Security Bulletin, July 1965.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Vocational
Rehabilitation Administration:
Cooperation on Prevocational Programs for Handicapped Young
Adults. June 1963.
Help for the Disabled Through Vocational Rehabilitation. V R 1SC-12. Revised January 1963.
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration. Automation
and Some Implications for the Handicapped. November 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and
Training. The Mentally Retarded: Their Special Training Needs.
Bull. No. 6. October 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Women in Poverty.
1964.




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Women's Committee of the President's Committee on the Employment of the Handicapped, The. Ability Calling . . . A Program
Guide for Women's Groups. 1964.

STANDARDS A N D LEGISLATION AFFECTING W O M E N
U.S. Congress:
Public Law 88-452. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. August 20,1964.
Public Law 89-10. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
1965. April 11,1965.
Senate. Special Committee on Aging. Major Federal Legislative
and Executive Actions Affecting Senior Citizens, 1963-64. Staff
report. 88 th Cong., 2d sess.
U.S. Department of Labor. A New Policy Against Discrimination
in Employment on the Basis of Age by Federal Contractors and
Subcontractors. Under Executive Order No. 11141. February 12,
1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards: Brief Summary of State Laws Against Discrimination in Employment: Older
Workers. Fact Sheet No. 6-B. August 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Digest of State Legislation of Special Interest to Women Workers.
(Annual)
State Hour Laws for Women (as of October 1, 1960). Bull. 277.
1961.
Labor Laws Affecting Women. (By State)
Summary of State Labor Laws for Women. (Annual)
U.S. Small Business Administration. Managing Women Employees
in Small Business. Small Marketers Aids No. 75. January 1962.

Civil and Political Status
Flexner, Gertrude. Century of Struggle. The Woman's Rights
Movement in the United States. Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 1959.
League of Women Voters of the United States. Forty Years of a
Great Idea. Washington, D.C., 1960.
U.S. Congress. Public Law 88-352. Civil Rights Act of 1964. July
2, 1964. (Title VII—Equal Employment Opportunity)
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Divorce Laws as of July 1,1965.
Family and Property Law. (By State)




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Know Your Rights. Leaflet 39. 1965.
The Legal Status of Women. Reprint from Book of the States.
1960-61 ed.
The Legal Status of Women in the United States of America—
United States Summary. Bull. 157.
Reports for each State and the District of Columbia. Bull. 157-1
through 157-52. (Various dates)
Marriage Laws as of July 1,1965.
Political and Civil Status of Women as of September 1, 1965. Reprint from 1965 Handbook on Women Workers.
State Laws Governing Natural Guardianship and Support of Minor
Children, as of January 1,1964.
Women and the Equal Employment Provisions of the Civil Rights
Act. July 1965.
Women of the 89th Congress. 1965.

Equal Pay
U.S. Congress. Public Law 88-38. Equal Pay Act of 1963. June 10,
1963.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Action for Equal Pay. 1964.
Digest of State Equal Pay Laws. (Annual)
Economic Indicators Relating to Equal Pay. Pamphlet 9. 1963.
In the Federal Service—Equal Opportunity and Equal Pay.
January 1965.
Suggested Language for a State Act To Abolish Discriminatory
Wage Rates Based on Sex. December 1964.
Text of State equal pay laws. (By State)
What the Equal Pay Principle Means to Women. Revised 1964.

Minimum W a g e
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Analysis of Coverage and Wage Rates of State Minimum Wage
Laws and Orders, August 1,1965. Bull. 291. 1965.
Minimum Wage and the Woman Worker. Pamphlet 8. 1960.
State Minimum-Wage Law and Order Provisions Affecting Working Conditions, July 1,1942, to January 1,1961. Bull. 280. 1961.
State Minimum Wage Laws. Leaflet 4. Revised January 1965.
State Minimum-Wage Laws and Orders, July 1, 1942-July 1, 1958.
Bull. 267, Parti. 1958.
Suggested Language for a State Bill Establishing a Fixed Minimum
Wage and Wage Board Procedure. August 1963.




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UNION ORGANIZATION
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Industrial Union Department. Problems of Working Women.
Summary report of a conference. Publication No. 43. Washington, D.C., 1961.
Taft, Philip. Organized Labor in American History. New York,
N. Y., Harper & Row, 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
A Digest of One Hundred Selected Health and Insurance Plans
Under Collective Bargaining, Winter 1961-62. Bull. No. 1330.
June 1962.
Directory of National and International Labor Unions in the United
States. Bull. No. 1395. May 1964. (Appendix D) (New edition in press.)
Cohany, Harry P., and James Neary. Unaffiliated Local and
Single-Employer Unions in the United States in 1961. In
Monthly Labor Review, September 1962.

W O M E N A S WORKERS
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964. Special Labor
Force Report No. 53.
Labor Force and Employment in 1964. Special Labor Force Report
No. 52.
Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1964.
Special Labor Force Report No. 50.
Unemployment Among Full-Time and Part-Time Workers. Special Labor Force Report No. 45.
Work History, Attitudes, and Income of the Unemployed. Special
Labor Force Report No. 37.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Background Facts on Women Workers in the United States. (Revised periodically)
Current Data on Nonwhite Women Workers. (Revised periodically)
Fact Sheet on the Changing Pattern of Women's Lives. (Revised
periodically)
Keyserling, Mary Dublin:
Changing Trends in Women's Employment. In The American
Child, May 1965.
Growing Need for Womanpower. In Salesman's Opportunity
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Negro Women Workers in 1960. Bull. 287. 1963.
Peterson, Esther. American Women at Work. In The American
Review, December 1961.
What About Women's Absenteeism and Labor Turnover? 1963.
What's New About Women Workers? Leaflet 18. Revised 1963.
Women Workers in 1960: Geographical Differences. Bull 284.
1962.
Women Workers in 1960. (By State)

Earnings and Income
Kreps, Juanita. Employment, Income, and Retirement Problems of
the Aged. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1963.
Lampman, Robert J. The Share of Top Wealth-Holders in National Wealth, 1922-56. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University
Press, 1962.
National Education Association of the United States, Research
Division, Washington, D.C.:
Salaries Paid and Salary Practices in Universities, Colleges, and
Junior Colleges, 1963-64. Research Report 1964-R 3. February
1964.
Salary Schedules for Classroom Teachers, 1964-65. Research Report 1964-R 13. October 1964.
Twenty-second Biennial Salary Survey of Public-School Employees,
1964-65. Research Report 1965-R 5. June 1965.
New York Stock Exchange:
The 17 Million: 1962 Census of Shareowners in America. June
1962.
Shareownership - U.S.A.: 1965 Census of Shareowners. June 1965.
Soss, Wilma. Status of Women in America. In Bulletin of Bryant
College, Providence, R.I., November 18, 1963.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security
Administration:
Employment and Earnings of Self-Employed Workers Under Social
Security. Research Report No. 5. 1964.
Epstein, Lenore A. Income of the Aged in 1962: First Findings
of the 1963 Survey of the Aged. In Social Security Bulletin,
March 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay:
February-March 1963. Bull. No. 1387.
February-March 1964. Bull. No. 1422.




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Salaries of Major Federal Officials, 1789-1965. In Monthly Labor
Review, October 1964.
Waterman, B. Y. College Graduate Salaries in Nonteaching Fields.
In New York State Education, February 1962.
Winter, Elmer. A Woman's Guide to Earning a Good Living. New
York, N.Y., Simon and Schuster, 1961.

Occupations and Employment
Characteristics of Public-School Teachers. In National Education
Association Research Bulletin, December 1963.
Cussler, Margaret. The Woman Executive. New York, N.Y., Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1958.
David, Harry D. Upgrading Office Skills. In Training Directors
Journal, February 1965.
King, Alice Gore. Career Opportunities for Women in Business.
New York, N. Y., E. P. Dutton and Co., 1963.
Kreps, Juanita. Automation and Employment. New York, N.Y.,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964.
Maule, Frances. Executive Careers for Women. New York, N.Y.,
Harper and Brothers, 1961.
National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards (National Education Association) cmd CATALYST in Education. Teaching: Opportunities for Women College Graduates.
Washington, D.C., 1964.
National Education Association. Teacher Supply and Demand in
Public Schools, 1965. Research Report 1965-R 10, May 1965.
U.S. Civil Service Commission:
Federal Employment Statistics Bulletin. (Monthly)
Occupations of Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1961.
Pamphlet 56-5. September 1964.
Occupations and Salaries of Women in the Federal Service. Pamphlet 62. February 1962.
U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Advisory Committee on Women
in the Services:
For You—An Officer's Career in the U.S. Armed Forces. Revised.
Careers in the Medical Services of the U.S. Armed Forces. Revised.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Employment in Professional Mathematical Work in Industry and
Government, Report on a 1960 Survey. Prepared for the National Science Foundation. NSF 62-12. 1962.
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1966-67 ed. Bull. No. 1450.




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Occupational Outlook Quarterly.
Rutzick, Max A. A Ranking of U.S. Occupations by Earnings. In
Monthly Labor Review, March 1965.
Swerdloff, Sol. Job Opportunities for Women College Graduates.
In Monthly Labor Review, April 1964.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Careers for Women—
as Life Underwriters. Life Insurance Selling. Bull. 279. 1961.
as Technicians. Bull. 282. 1961.
in the Biological Sciences. Bull. 278. 1961.
Clerical Occupations for Women—Today and Tomorrow. Bull.
289. 1964.
First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class
of 1957. Bull. 268. 1959.
Future Jobs for High School Girls. Pamphlet 7. Revised 1965.
Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's. Bull. 288. 1964.
Keyserling, Mary Dublin. Women Journalists and Today's World.
In The Matrix, April 1965.
Nurses and Other Hospital Personnel—Their Earnings and Employment Conditions. Pamphlet 6. Reprinted with supplement,
1961.
Women in the Federal Service, 1939-59. Pamphlet 4. Revised
1962.
Women Private-Household Workers. Fact Sheet. March 1964.
Women Telephone Workers and Changing Technology. Bull. 286.
1963.
U.S. National Science Foundation. Women in Scientific Careers.
NSF 61-50. 1961.

Part-Time and Part-Year Employment
Brunts, Francois. The Part-Time Employment of Women in industrialized Countries. In International Labour Review, November
1962.
Cooper, Joseph D. A Woman's Guide to Part-Time Jobs. New
York, N.Y., Dolphin Books, 1964.
Hewes, Amy. Women Part-Time Workers in the United States. In
International Labour Review, November 1962.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Work Experience of the Population in 1963. Special Labor Force Report
No. 48.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Part-Time Employment for Women. Bull. 273. 1960.




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White, Martha S., ed. The Next Step. A Guide to Part-Time Opportunities in Greater Boston for the Educated Woman. Cambridge,
Mass., Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study, 1964.
Worthy, N. Beatrice. Part-Time Working Mothers—A Case Study.
In Management Record, September 1960.

CONFERENCES, SEMINARS, A N D MEETINGS
The Changing Role of Women in Our Changing Society. Held at
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 7-8, 1962.
The Changing Status of Women. Chicago Regional Conference. Held
at Roosevelt University, Chicago, 111., May 18-19, 1962. 1964.
The Continuing Education of Women. Held at Itasca State Park,
Itasca, Minn., September 1962. (Cited under Continuing Education.)
Continuing Education of Women. Held at University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wis., February 20,1962.
Day Care. Meeting of Representatives of State Advisory Committees
on Day Care Services and State Departments of Public Welfare.
Held in Washington, D.C., March 19-20, 1964. Child Welfare Report No. 14. 1964.
Employment Problems of Women. Connecticut Valley Conference.
Held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass., March 1617, 1962. 1962.
Employment Problems of Working Women. Held at State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, May 10-11,1963.
Manpower Implications of Automation. Held in Washington, D.C.,
December 8-10, 1964. Sponsored jointly by the Organization of
Economic Cooperation and Development, the U.S. Department of
Labor, and the Canadian Department of Labour. 1964.
New Approaches to Counseling Girls in the 1960's. Midwest Regional
Pilot Conference. Held at the University of Chicago, Chicago,
111., February 26-27, 1965. 1965.
Problems and Prospects of Working Women. Western Regional
Conference. Held at University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, Calif., September 8-9,1961. 1962.
Problems of Employed Women. Held at Michigan State University,
East Lansing, Mich., September 30, 1961. 1962.
The Role of the Educated Woman. Held at Rice University, Houston, Tex., January 29-30,1963.
The Status of Women Around the World. Held in Washington, D.C.,
March 30, 1959. Sponsored by the American Association of the




Bibliography

313

United Nations of the Capital Area and the Women's Bureau, U.S.
Department of Labor. 1959.
Today's Woman in Tomorrow's World. Conference Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Women's Bureau. Held in Washington, D.C., June 2-3, 1960. Women's Bureau Bull. 276. 1960.
Wisconsin Governor's Conference on the Changing Status of Women.
Held at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., January 31February 1, 1964.
Woman's Destiny—Choice or Chance ? Held at University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., November 21-22, 1963. 1965.
Women in Science and Engineering. Held at Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Boston, Mass., October 25-27,1964.
Women's Changing World. Second Annual Women's Conference.
Held at University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 5-6,
1963.
World of Work Conference on Career and Job Opportunities. Held
at Howard University, Washington, D.C., July 27-28, 1962. 1963.

SPEECHES
Hilton, Mary N. The Significance of the Work of the President's
Commission on the Status of Women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Colleges for Women.
In Proceedings of the Forty-first Annual Meeting, Louisville, Ky.,
December 2, 1964.
Keyserling, Mary Dublin:
Day Care in a Changing Economy. Speech before the Maryland
Committee on Group Day Care of Children, Baltimore, Md., May
19, 1964.
Economic Opportunity—A Challenge to the Community. Speech
before the National Council of Jewish Women, Wilmington Section, Wilmington, Del., November 24,1964.
Facing the Facts About Women's Lives Today. Speech before
Midwest Regional Pilot Conference on New Approaches to Counseling Girls in the 1960's, Chicago, 111., February 26, 1965.
The Nation's Working Mothers and the Need for Day Care. Address before the National Conference on Day Care Services, Washington, D.C., May 14,1965.
New Horizons for Women. Speech before the National Home
Demonstration Agents' Association, Washington, D.C., November 15,1964.




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Bibliography

New Opportunities and New Responsibilities for Women. Convocation address at Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, Va., September 17,1964.
Research and Your Job. Speech before the National Federation of
Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., Detroit, Mich.,
July 18, 1964.
McConnell, Beatrice. Present and Prospective Opportunities for
Women in Science. Speech before the Conference on the Role of
Women in Science, sponsored by Marymount College, Tarrytown,
N.Y., January 31, 1963.
Peterson, Esther:
Education, Jobs, and Justice Needed by Rural Youth. Speech
before the National Conference on Problems of Rural Youth in a
Changing Environment, Stillwater, Okla., September 24? 1963.
The Impact of Education. Speech before the Symposium on Man
and Civilization: The Potential of Women. University of
California School of Medicine, San Francisco, Calif., January
26, 1963.
Outlook for Women. Speech before the American Association of
School Administrators, Atlantic City, N.J., February 15, 1965.
Wirtz, Willard W.:
Speech about the older worker. Presented before the Conference
of State Agencies Administering Age Discrimination Laws,
Washington, D.C., September 23,1964.
Speech about youth dropouts and unemployment. Presented before the National Committee for the Support of Public Schools,
Washington, D. C., April 9, 1963.




INDEX
Absenteeism, 69
Accountants, auditors, 95,154,163,165
Accounting clerks, 139
Administrators:
Hospital, 154
School, 153
Age:
Ohildbearing, 5
Children of working mothers, 38
Educational attainment, 194
Farm workers, 112
Income, 131
Job tenure, 67
Labor force, 12
Nonwhite, 12
Labor force participation, 13, 23,
194, 221
Marriage, 5
Mothers (working), 36
Part-time and full-time status, 64
Population, 14
School enrollees, 174
Teachers, 95
Training program enrollees, 209
Trends, 12
Unemployment, 71
Work experience, 55
American Women (Report of the
President's Commission on the Status of Women), 4, 260
Agriculture, 107, 111
Apprenticeship training, 217
Assemblers (mfg.), 79
Attendants (hospitals and other institutions) , 97, 223
Babysitters, 60, 93,102
Bank tellers, 97
Bill and account collectors, 97
Biological scientists, 159,169
Bookkeepers, 91, 97,102
Buyers. (retail trade), 96
Cashiers, 97,102
Chambermaids, maids, 88, 98
Charwomen, cleaners, 60, 93,98, 223



Checkers examiners (mfg.), 79
Chemists, 159,165,169
Child care:
Arrangements of working mothers, 48
Income tax deductions, 50
Children:
Guardianship, 253
Inheritance by parent, 253
Support, 254
Working mothers, 36
Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women, 4, 260
Citizenship, 249
Civil status—contract and property
laws (see Contractual powers of
married women; Property ownership and control)
Civil status—family relations (see
Children; Divorce laws; Family
support; Marriage laws)
Clerical, kindred workers, 33, 47, 58,
67, 87, 90, 96, 98, 102, 104, 112, 127,
132, 139, 154, 168, 196, 200, 209, 223
College (see also Education) :
Degrees:
Field of study, 185
Number and proportions, 184
Dropouts, 179
Enrollments, 180
First-time, 180
Married students, 183
Occupations, 167
Part-time students, 183
Salaries, 169
Utilization of major, 200
Work-study programs, 214
Commissions on the Status of Women,
4, 249, 260
Community action programs, 215
Comptometer operators, 139
Construction, 107
Contractual powers of married
women, 255
315

316
Cooks (except private-household), 88,
97,119, 223
Counter and fountain workers, 60, 93,
97, 223
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers,
58, 67, 87, 91,105, 223
Crossing guards, bridgetenders, 98
Dancing teachers, 60
Demonstrators, 60
Dietitians, nutritionists, 95, 119, 159,
168,170
Disability insurance (see Social security beneficiaries)
Divorce laws, 252
Divorced women (see Marital status)
Domicile, 251
Dual jobholders, 69
Durable goods manufacturing (see
Manufacturing)
Earnings {see also Income) :
Accountants, 163,165
Administrative staff (school), 153
Airline hostesses, 165
Clerical workers, 139,169
College graduates, 163
Differences between women and
men, 125,162
Factors affecting, 123
Federal civilian employees, 162
Geographical differences, 139
Hospital occupations:
Nonprofessional, 147
Professional nonnursing, 154
Job analysts, 154
Manufacturing industries:
Cotton textiles, 141
Synthetic textiles, 142
Women's and misses' dresses,
142
Nurses (professional), 154
Operatives, kindred workers, 127,
132
Personnel directors, 154
Professional, technical, and kindred workers, 132,154,159
Scientists, 159
Service industries:
Eating and drinking places,
146
Hotels and motels, 144
Laundries, 145




Index
Teachers:
College and university, 153
Elementary and secondary
school, 151
Junior college, 154
Tracers, 154
Year-round full-time workers, 125
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, 212
Editors, reporters, 95
Education (see also College; High
school; Training programs) :
Enrollments, 174,180
Hours of work, 203
Income, 133
Labor force, 171
Labor force participation, 192
Mothers (working), 46
Nonwhite women, 172, 176, 178,
200, 202
Occupations, 168,196
Population, 171
School dropouts, 178, 200
Special schools, 176
Trends, 172,177,180,184
Types of schools, 176,182
Unemployment, 202
Years of school completed, 171,
192
Employment (see also Labor force;
Occupations) :
Before and after childbirth, 230,
243
Engineers, 95,165,168
Equal employment opportunities:
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 4, 247
Executive Order 11141, 4
Federal employment, 113,117, 248,
250
Equal pay laws (see also Legislation, Federal), 237
Factory workers, 108,141
Fair employment practices laws, 248
Families:
Composition, 24,124
Employment, 25
Income, 124
Labor force participation, 25, 28
Number, 24
Occupations, 33
Types, 24
Family support, 254
Farm women, 111

Index
Farm workers (farmers, managers;
farm laborers, foremen), 33, 60, 67,
85, 87,101,112,198, 200
Federal employment:
Civilian service, 113, 250
Foreign Service, 115
Military service, 117
File clerks, 93
Finance, insurance, real estate, 96,107
Foreign service (see Federal employment)
Geographical distribution:
Industries, 141
Labor force, 9
Nonwhite women, 7,11,131
Government workers (see Federal
employment; State office)
Governors' Commissions on the Status
of Women (see State Commissions)
Hairdressers, cosmetologists, 79, 98,
218
Handicapped workers, 216, 231
Heads of families (see also Families),
24,125
High school (see also Education) :
Dropouts, 178, 200
Enrollments, 176
Graduates, 178,180, 200
Hospital
occupations
(nonprofessional and professional), 95, 97, 147,
154
Hours of work (see also Part-time
and full-time status; work experience), 203
Nurses, 155
Private-household workers, 219
Hours-of-work laws, 229, 238
Day of rest, 229, 240
Maximum daily and weekly
hours, 229, 239
Meal period, 229, 241
Nightwork, 229, 242
Rest period, 229, 242
Housekeepers, stewards (except private-household), 93, 98
Income (see also Earnings) :
Age, 131
Contribution of wives, 30
Differences between women and
men, 125,163
Education, 133




317
Families, 124
Female-head, 125
Husband-wife, 125
Nonwhite women, 130,135
Number and proportions of women, 125,129,131,133
Occupations, 132
Part-time or part-year work, 129
Social security beneficiaries, 134
Trends, 124,126
Wages or salary, 125,130,132
Year-round full-time workers, 125
Industrial homework laws, 231, 243
Industries (see also specific industry
groups) :
Job tenure, 68
Major groups, 105
Number and proportions of women, 105
Trends, 107
Inheritance laws, 253, 258
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators, 97
Interdepartmental Committee on the
Status of Women, 4, 260
Janitors, sextons, 98
Job Corps, 213
Job mobility, 66
Job-related expenses, 32
Job tenure, 67
Judges, 113,120
Junior colleges (see College; Earnings, Teachers)
Jury service, 250
Kitchen workers, 88,97
Labor force:
Age, 12, 23,194, 221
Education, 46,192
Families, 25
Geographical distribution, 9
Marital status, 19, 26
Mothers, 36
Nonwhite women, 7,11,16, 40
Number and proportions of women, 6, 221
Outlook, 221
Participation rates of women, 8,
13, 21, 36, 221
Trends, 6,11,13, 28, 36
Women 18 to 64 years of age, 17
Labor laws for women, State, 233

318
Labor reserve, 83
Labor standards:
Development, 227
Recommendations:
Health, 230
Hours, 229
Industrial homework, 231
Safety, 230
Wage, 228
Labor turnover, 65
Laborers:
Farm (see Farm workers)
Nonfarm, 67, 87,103
Laundry workers, 111, 14)5
Legislators, 113,120, 250
Legislation, Federal:
Area Redevelopment Act of 1961,
212
Civil Rights Act of 1957, 250
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title
VII, 4, 247
Economic Opportunity Act of
1904, 4, 50, 212
Employees Health Benefits Act of
1959, 52
Equal Pay Act of 1963, 4, 238
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938,
12, 206, 234, 238
M a n p o w e r Development and
Training Act of 1962, 208, 217
1965 Manpower Act, 209
Revenue Act of 1954, 50
Revenue Act of 1964, 51
Social Security Act of 1935,134
19156 Amendment, 137
1962 Pubilc Welfare Amendments, 49
Medicare, 135
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, 206
Vocational Education Act of 1963,
206
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of
1920, 216
Librarians, 95
Library attendants and assistants, 60,
97
Life expectancy, 5
Managers, farm (see Farm workers)
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm), 33, 58, 68, 87, 96, 100,
103,129,132,154,196, 223




Index
Salaried, 96
Self-employed, 96
Manufacturing, 68,107,141
Marital status:
College students, 183
Job tenure, 67
Labor force, 19,26,36
Labor force participation, 21, 28,
36
Occupations, 33, 98
Part-time and full-time status, 64
Population, 19
Social security benefits, 134
Unemployment, 71
Work experience, 56
Marriage laws, 252
Married women (see Marital status)
Maternity benefits and protection:
Employment before and after
child birth, 230,243
Maternity benefits, 51
Mathematicians, statisticians, 95, 159,
165,169
Mature women:
Labor force participation, 13
Occupations, 104
Unemployment, 71
Work experience, 55
Medical record librarians, 159
Medical technologists, 159
Military service (see Federal employment)
Minimum wage laws, State, 227, 233
Mothers (working) :
Child care arrangements, 48
Education, 46
Job-related expenses, 32
Labor force participation, 36, 40
Nonwhite, 40,45
Number, 36
Occupations, 47
Part-time and full-time status, 45
Trends, 36
Work experience, 43
Musicians, music teachers, 91, 95
National Committee on Household Employment, 219
Negro workers (see Nonwhite women
workers)
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 213
Nightwork laws, 229, 242
Nonagricultural industries, 105

Index
Nondurable goods manufacturing (see
Manufacturing)
Nonmanufacturing industries, 108
Nonwhite women:
Education, 172,176,178,202
Geographical distribution, 7,11
Job tenure, 68
Labor force, 7,11, 36
Age, 12
Labor force participation, 11, 16,
40
Income, 130
Mothers (working), 36, 40, 45, 48
Occupations, 48,101,220
Part-time and full-time status, 64
Training, 209
Unemployment, 76, 202
Work experience, 45,61
Nurses:
Educators, 155,157
Industrial, 157
Office, 156
Practical, 98,150, 223
Professional, 79, 91,95,154,168
Public health, 157
School, 157
Student, 95
Occupational limitation laws, 244
Occupations (see also specific occupations and occupational groups) :
Differences between women and
men, 88
Dual jobholders, 69
Earnings, 139
Education, 196
College graduates, 166, 168,
170, 200
High school graduates, 200
School dropouts, 200
Federal employment, 115
Husbands and wives, 33
Income, 127,132
Job tenure, 68
Labor turnover, 67
Major groups, 86
Marital status, 98
Mature women, 104
Mothers (working), 47
Nonwhite women, 101
Numerically important, 91
Number and proportions of women, 85, 90




319
Outlook, 222
Part time, 58
Self-employed, 96
Teenagers and young adults, 102
Trends, 86, 87
Type of work, 85
Unemployment, 77
Work experience, 58
On-the-job training, 206, 2:17
Office workers (see Clerical workers)
Operatives, kindred workers, 33, 47,
60, 67, 79, 87, 99, 102, 104, 127, 132,
196, 200, 223
Organizations of interest to women
(see Alphabetical list, pp. 288-290)
Outlook :
Labor force, 221
Labor-force participation rates,
221
Occupations, 222
Population, 221
Packers and wrappers (mfg.), 79
Part-time and full-time status:
Age, 64
Differences between women and
men, 64
Education, 203
Marital status, 64
Nonwhite, 64
Unemployment, 64
Part-time or part-year work (see parttime and full-time status; Work
experience)
Payroll and timekeeping clerks, 97,119
Peace Corps, 167
Personal services, 96,105
Personnel and labor relations workers,
95
Physicians, surgeons, 95,119
Political status (see Citizenship;
Domicile; Public office; Voting)
Population, 7
Age, 14,16
Education, 171
Marital status, 19
Nonwhite women, 7
Trends, 7
Postmasters, 96
Poverty, 28
Female-head families, 26,36
War on, 212

320
President's Commission on the Status
of Women, 3, 50,113, 249, 260
Private-household workers, 33, 48, 60,
69, 79, 87, 90,102,133, 200
Special program, 218
Professional and related services, 105
Professional, technical, kindred workers, 33, 47, 67, 69, 87, 91, 93, 99, 102,
129,151,168,196, 200, 222
Property ownership and control, 257
Psychologists, 159,170
Public administration (see also Federal employment; State office), 107,
113
Public office, 113,120, 249
Public relations workers, publicity
writers, 95
Receptionists, 97
Recreation and group workers, 95
Retail trade, 96,102,107
Retired workers (see Social security
beneficiaries)
Salaried workers, 96,100
Salaries (see Earnings)
Sales workers, 33, 47, 60, 67, 87, 91,
100,102,105,127,133,168
Scientists, 95,119,159,164,166,169
Seating, 230,245
Secretaries (see Stenographers, typists, secretaries)
Self-employed workers, 96,100
Separated women (see Marital status)
Service industries (see also Nonmanufacturing industries) 107, 111
Service workers (except privatehousehold), 33, 48, 67, 87, 90, 93, 97,
99,102,104,112,115,129,133,196
Single women (see Marital status)
Social and welfare workers, 95, 159,
168,170
Social security beneficiaries (see also
Legislation, Federal), 134
Sport instructors and officials, 95
State office, 120
State Commissions on the Status of
Women, 4, 249, 262
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
(see also Clerical workers), 47, 66,
79, 91, 96,102,115,139,169,170, 209
Stock clerks, storekeepers, 97




Index
Stockholders, 137
Teachers, 93
College and university, 153, 166,
168,223
Elementary school, 60, 79, 91, 94,
151,166,168, 223
Junior college, 154
Secondary school, 60, 79, 91, 94,
151,166,168
Technicians:
Medical and dental, 95, 115, 119,
159, 218, 223
Other, 95,115,119,154
Technological change, 88,96
Teenagers and young adults:
Job tenure, 67
Labor force participation, 14
Nonwhite, 16, 61, 76, 209
Occupations, 102
Training programs, 206, 208, 212
Unemployment, 71, 74
Work experience, 55
Telephone workers, 96,102,139
Therapists, 95,119,159
Ticket (station and express) agents,
97
Training programs, 205
Allowances, 208, 210, 212, 213,
214, 215
Eligibility for, 208, 212, 216
Enrollments, 206, 209, 212, 214,
215, 217, 218
Transportation, communication, other
public utilities (see also Nonmanufacturing industries), 68,107, 111
Type of work:
Blue-collar, 75, 85, 91, 101, 115,
223
Farm, 85,101,112
Service, 75, 85, 91,101
White-collar, 75, 85, 91, 101, 115,
223
Typists (see Stenographers, typists,
secretaries)
Underemployment, 76
Unemployment (see also Training
programs), 7, 71
Age, 71, 74, 76
Differences between women and
mfcn, 8, 71,74
Education, 202
Hidden, 75

Index

321

Marital status, 71
Nonwhite women, 76
Occupations, 77
Part-time and full-time status, 64
Trends, 8, 71
Union membership, 80
Unpaid family workers, 112
Unrelated individuals (see Families)
Veterans, 120
Vocational rehabilitation, 216
Vocational training, 205
Volunteers in Service to America
(VISTA), 215
Voting, 249
Wages or salary (see Earnings, Income)
Waitresses, cooks, bartenders, 60, 79,
88, 91, 97,102, 223
Weightlifting provisions, 230, 245
Wholesale trade, 107




Widowed, divorced, or separated
women (see Marital status)
Widows (see Inheritance; Social security beneficiaries)
Wives (working) (see also Families;
Marital status), 26
Contribution to family income, 30
Husband's income, 28, 40
Job-related expenses, 32
Occupations, 33
Womanpower reserve, 83
Work experience, 53
Age, 55
Differences between women and
men, 53
Marital status, 56
Nonwhite women, 61
Occupations, 58
Work patterns, 123,129,132
Work-study programs, 206, 214

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