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FEDERAL RESERVE statistical release
G.3 (402)

For immediate release

CAPACITY UTILIZATION
Manufacturing, Mining, Utilities, and Industrial Materials

September 17, 1984

Capacity utilization in total manufacturing, mining, and utilities
remained unchanged at 82.6 percent in August, following consecutive increases
of about 1/2 percentage point in June and July. The July-August rate was 0.2
percentage point above the 1967-82 average.
In manufacturing, 82.8 percent of capacity was used in both August
and July, up 1.0 percentage point from the second quarter average and 2.1
percentage points from the first quarter.
In contrast, recent utilization rates for utilities remained
about the same as in the first half of the year. The utilization rate for
mining declined somewhat in August, but stood 2 1/2 percentage points above
the average of the first half of the year.
The overall utilization rates for both the durable and nondurable
manufacturing were essentially unchanged in August. Substantial declines in
operating rates for primary metals and automobile assemblies were offset by
increases for nonelectrical machinery, instruments and petroleum refining.
Utilization rates for industrial materials edged up to 83.6 percent
of capacity in August. This rate remained 5 percentage points below the
1978-80 high.

Capacity Utilization: Summary
Percent of capacity, seasonally adjusted
Series

1973
BIGB

1975
LO«

1978
-80

1982

1967
•82
iVER.

LOB

HIGH

1984
HAY I

JUNE i

JULY |

&UG

88.4

71.1

87.3

69.6

82.4.

81.5

82.1

82.6

82.6

Manufacturing
Durable
Nondurable

87.9
87.9
89.1

69.0
67,6
71.0

87.5
89.4
87.2

68.8
64.8
73.8

81.8.
80.5.
83.9.

81.7
81.0
82.4

82.1
81.7
82.7

82.8
82.6
82.9

82.8
82.7
82.8

Mining
Utilities

9U8
94«9

86.0
82.0

90.4
86.8

69.6
79.0

86.5.
88*6.

75.4
84.7

76.4
85.4

78.0
84.3

77.7
84.5

92-6

69.3

88-9

66.6.

83.3.

82.7

83.0

83.5

83.6

Total Industry




CAPACITY UTILIZATION

AUGUST DATA

SEASONALLY ADJUSTED. PERCENT

110
TOTAL INDUSTRY
TOTAL MATERIALS

90

70

i ! I i i l

50
110

MINING

UTILITIES

90

70

50
110
MANUFACTURING

REFINED PETROLEUM
PRODUCTS
90

NONDURABLE

70

i

I

I

!
i

I

I

!

1 ; :

! : • M

50
110

i 1

MOTOR VEHICLES
AND PARTS

90

70

50

I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I

30

1969

1972




1975

1978

1981

1984

1969

1972

1975

1978

1981

1984

MANUFACTURING, MINING AND UTILITIES
Tabl.1
vapacny Uuiizaiion
Monthly, seasonally adjusted, percent of capacity
1973 | 1975 | 1978 | 1982 | 1967 | TEAR |
Series
HIGH | LOW I - 8 0
| LO4
-82
1 AGO 1
HIGH |
AVER.| HOMTtH
|
Total Industry
88.4 ] 7 1 . 1 | 8 7 . 3 | 6 9 . 6 I 82.4 j 77.3 ;
Manufacturing

87.9 | 6 9 . 0 |

Primary processing
Advanced processing
Durable manufacturing
Stone, clay and glass products
Iron and steel, subtotal
Nonferrous metals, subtotal
Fabricated metal products
Nonelectrical machinery
Electrical machinery
Motor vehicles and parts
Autos
Aerospace and mtec. trans, eqp.
Instruments
Nondurable manufacturing
Foods
Textile mill products
Paper and products
v^neniicais ano prooucis
Petroleum products
Rubber and plaatics products

87.5 |

68. 8 I

81.8 |

77.3

93.7 | 6 8 . 2 |
85.5 | 69.4 |

91.4 |
85.9 |

66. 2 I
70. 0 I

84.0 j
80.6 |

78.1 i
76.9 ;

87.9
88.0
103.3
99.0
86.3
88.3
88.7
98.7
NA
76.0
89.6

67.6
89.4
6 4 . 0 | 90.4
6 9 . 2 | 97.5
60.8
98.2
65.7 | 90.0
| 71.8 | 83.1
62.3 I 90.6
51.3 | 9 4 . 5
NA
| 91.6
| 6 8 . 0 I 93.9
7 3 . 7 > 92.3

|
|
|
|

64. 8
| 63. 0
( 38. 8
62. 1
60. 7
61. 6
74. 7
I 46. 1
| 35.8
I 69. 1
1 73. 1

I 80.5
I 78.4
I 82.3
83.8
79.6
I 79.8
I 80.0
78.6

74.6
73.6 |
62.5 |1
73.9
70.6 1
68.5
| 83.8 !
75.3 I
HA
j 78.6
| 78.1
68.3 1
83.5
75.1 1
I

89.1
85.7
95*4
96.7
86.2
99.1
97.4

|
|
1
|
I
|

87.2
85.2
91.3
95.1
83.6
93.0
91.5

1 73. 8
I 76. 5
1 73.0
I 84. 2
I 64.0
1 71.5
I 74. 0

|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Mining

91.8

| 8 6 . 0 I 90.4

I 69. 6

| 86.5

Utilities
Electric utilities

94.9
97.6

| 8 2 . 0 | 86.8 I 7 9 , 0
| 8 2 . 1 I 87.0 I 7 7 . 9

71.0
77.2
61.3
69.1
65.9
84.6
62.1

|
I
I
I
|
I
|

|
|
|
|

83.9
83.3
86.2
89.6
78.7
89.6
88.3

|
|
|
|
I
|

80.3
79.6
90.3
95.3
71.2
76.0
90.;

1
1?8}|
DEC |
1
79.0|
1
78.9|
1
79.6|
78.2|
1
77.4|
76.0|
61.9|
80.5|
72.0|
71.0|
88.2|
83.3|
81.7|
71.1|
76.0|

1 80.7|
|
78.0|
|
88.8|
1 95.7|
1 70.7|
1 71.1|
1 92.5|

JAN

|

80. 1

FEB

|

80.7

HAfi I

APB

80.9

81.3

|

JUNF|

J0LYI

AUG

81.5

82.1

82.6

82.

82.1

82.8

82.

HAT |

80. 1

80.9

61.0

81.5

81.7

80. b
80.0

82.2
80.4

82.2
80.6

82.2
81.0

82.4
81.2

82.3
81.9

32.7
82.9

82.
82.

79.2
77.9
67.6
77.8
73.4
73.2
89.9
87. 1
83.6
71.7
77.4

80.1
79.0
72.3
81.2
73.9
73.7
91. 1
86.1
83.3
73.1
77.7

80.4
78.7
71.3
81.6
74.9
74.0
91.4
86.6
84.1
72.9
78.0

80.9
78.4
71.5
85.4
75.1
75.3
91.9
84.4
79.2
73.6
78.6

81.0
78.6
71.5
83.8
75.6
76.9
91.3
84.7
77.9
73.3
78.8

81.7
77.8
72.0
32.8
76.7
78.3
91.7
85.7
79.6
74.6
79.6

82.8
78.3
70.0
84.7
77.0
79.7
93.5
37.5
80.8
76.5
80.5

82.

77.
80.
93.
86.
77.
7b.
81.

81.1
78.7
88.0
96.7
70.7
73.9
93.0

81.8
78.8
86.9
99.0
71.6
79.5
93.1

81.8
79.1
87.4
97.1
71.6
79.3
94.0

82.3
79.9
85.0
96.0
72.5
79.4
94.6

82.4
90.2
85. 1
96.7
72.3
80.2
95.7

82.7
80.5
84.9
96.7
72.6
80.2
97. 1

82.9

d2.

85.4
97.0
73.4
79.0
96.5

80.

| 70.2 1

74.7|

75.4

74.9

74.7

74.3

75.4

76.4

78.0

77.

| 8 8 . 6 | 85.0 1
| 8 9 . 8 | 84.5 1

85.7|
34.7|

84.8
84.0

82.5
81.0

84.0
82.6

85.0
83.6

84.7
83. 1

85.4
84.0

34.3
82.5

84.
32.

1

|

Table 2
Output, Capacity, and Capacity Utilization
Quarterly, seasonally adjusted
TJoTTOT
Series

1983
II
144.5

III
151.8

1984
I

I?

1
1
III

CAPACITY.
1983
II

Ill

195.5

196.4

197.3|

1984
I

If

1
)

UTILIZATION

III
1
199.7|

1983
II

III

IT

1984
I

73.9

77.3

1
78.3|

90.5

81.

201.0|

73.8

77.4

78.9|

30.7

91.

197.2)
203.01

74.6
73.5

78.3
76.9

79.9)
78.2|

31.7
30.3

82.

81.
78.
71.
34.
75.
7b.
91,

145.2

152.8

145.2
145,1

152.8
152.8

155.5| 159.8
•
156.5| 161.0
•
156.4| 160.5
156.1| 161.7

Durable manufacturing
Stone, clay and glass products
iron and steel, subtotal
Nonferrous metals, subtotal
Fabricated metal products
Nonelectrical machinery
Electrical machinery
Motor vehicles and parts
Autos
Aerospace and misc. trans, eqp.
instruments

131.1
139.7
69.2
111.2
116.4
146.2
179.9
130.7
109.5
98. 1
155.7

139.1
148.5
75.0
110.9
125.4
156.6
191.1
145.8
132.3
99.2
161.5

143.8|
152.8}
79.2|
116.6|
128.2|
161.81
200.0|
154.21
132. 1|
103.0|
163.5|

150.2
159.5
83.7
119.0
133.1
170.8
209.4
165.5
141.2
106.3
168.7

153.6|
160.01
83.7|
124.6|
136.91
178.6)
215.21
163.4|
134.5|
109.4|
172.2J

185.4
200.4
120. 1
148.4
177.6
228.1
224.1
192.7
167.8
144.2
214. 1

186.1
201. 1
120.1
148.4
178.3
229.6
225.7
191.7
167.8
145.2
215.1

186.8)
201.9|
120.1)
148.4)
179.0)
231.0)
227.4|
190.7|
167.8|
146.3|
216.2)

187.3
203.0
119.0
148.4
179.8
232.0
230.4
190.9
168.7
147.2
217.1

189.1)
204.4|
116.7|
148.4|
180.6|
232.6|
234.9)
192.31
170.5)
148. 1)
217.91

70.7
69.7
57.6
74.9
65.5
64.1
80.3
67.8
65.2
68.0
72.8

74.7
73.8
62.5
74.7
70.3
68.2
84.7
76. 1
78.8
68.3
75.1

76.9|
75.7)
66.0)
78.6|
71.6)
70.0)
87.9)
80.8!
78. 7 J
70.4)
75.7|

79.9
78.5
70.4
30.2
74.0
• 3.6
7
90.8
86.6
83.6
72.6
77.7

Nondurable manufacturing
Foods
Textile mill products
Paper and products
Chemicals and products
Petroleum products
Rubber and plastics products

165.5
155.7
139.3
160.5
211.4
122.5
288.3

172.7
159.1
147.6
168.0
220.9
124.2
304.6

174.8J
157.5|
146.5|
171.21
225.0|
121.1|
311.4|

176.7
160.2
143.2
174.2
223.8
124.5
319.8

180.01
164.2|
140.41
173.7|
228.4|
127.4|
334.4]

212.8
198.7
163.4
176.4
306.8
163.0
336.8

213.9
200.2
163.2
176.9
309.4
962. 1
337.7

215.0|
201.7|
163.0|
177.4|
312.1)
161.3)
338.5)

216.5
203.1
163.7
178.5
314.0
160.4
342.3

218.21
204.6)
165.2)
180. 11
315.1|
159.4|
349.1|

77.8
78.3
85.3
91.-0
68.9
75.2
85.6

80.7
79.5
90.4
95.0
71.4
76.6
90.2

)
81.3)|
78. 1
89.Bg
96.5)
72. 1)
75. 1 |
91.9)

31.6
78.9
37.5
97.6
71.3
77.6
93.4

82.
30.
85

Mining

112.3

116.1

12Y.0| 124.2
1

125.0|

165.3

165.4

165.5|

165.7

70.2

73.1|

75.0

75.

Utilities

178.2
203.6

178.4J 179.2
203.03 203.8

183.11 209.8
208.1) 241.1

211.1
243.0

212.4| 213.8
244.9| 246.9

165.9|
•
215.31
248.9|
I

67.9

169.6
192.5

80.8
79.8

84.4
83.8

84.0|
82.8|

33.8
82.5

85.1
83.t

Total Industry
Manufacturing
Primary processing
Advanced processing

1




163.1|
164.4|
j
162.3|
165.2|

196.6

197.5

194.8
197.6

195.3
198.6

198.4| 199.5
•
195.8) 196.5
199.7| 201. 1

198.4

i

84.

73
73
79.

72.
79.
95.

a

1
•

81.

1

INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS
Table 3

Capacity Utilization
Monthly, seasonally adjusted, percent of capacity
1973 | 1975
1978
HIGH I LOB
| -80
Series
Industrial Materials

92.6

Durable goods materials

91.4

1967 | TEAS
1
-82
| A O JL 19831
G
OEC 1
| AVEP. 1 noNTH
1
1
1
79. 6|
I 66.6
8 3 . 3 ! 77.4
1
1
77. 0|
| 6 3 . 5 ! 88.4 | 5 9 . 8
7 9 . 7 I 73.6

Metal materials

97.8

I 6 8 . 0 I 95.4 I 4 6 . 2

Raw steel
Aluminum

107.1
96.8

Nondurable goods materials
Textile, paper, and chemical materials
Paper materials
Chemical materials

1984

! LOW

JAN 1

FIE

80. 6

81. 9

1

HA3 1

APF 1

MAY 1

J0NE|

JULY|

AU3

82. 2

82. 5

82. 7

83. 0

S3. 5

33. 6

78. 5

30. 5

80. 7

81. 5

31. 5

P2. 0

63. 0

33. 1

66. 8|

67. 3

71. 1

71. 5

73. a

72. 2

72. 0

73. 0

71. 3

1
73. 8 |
79. 0 |

70. 0
79. 8

74. 0
82. 0

72. 6
84. 3

74. 5
85. 7

74. 2

0

68. 9
86. 6

66. 2
83. 6

81. 9

83. 0

83. 6

83. 2

83. 9

83. 5

83. 5

83. 8

31. 2|

81. 5

32.8

83.1

82. 7

83. 3

82. 9

83. 1

83. 5

98. 8 |
76. 2 |
1
1
8 3 . 6|

99. 3
76. 7

99. 0
78. 6

96. 8
79. 5

98. 5
78. 9

99. 8
79. 0

99. 7
78. 8

100. 4
78. 6

84. 4

84. 1

34. 1

84. 5

84. 3

9

« . 3

i

94.4
95.1
99.4
95.5
94.5

Energy materials

I 1982

I
| HIGH
1
88.9
| 69.3
1

64.0

82. 2

1102.9 I 4 0 . 2 I 84.8 ! 6 1 . 0
71.2
| 97.9 I 5 7 . 9
90.6
I
i
1
86. 5
81.1
91.7 | 70.7
I
|
80.5
86. 5
I 92.3 | 6 8 . 6
1
1
I 7 2 . 4 1 97.9 I 86.3
93. * 1 96.9
»
75.5
I 64.2 I 91.3 I 64.0
85. 1
I
1

| 68.0
| 73.4
I
1
| 67.4
|
I 65.4

| 84.4 ! 88.9 I 7 8 . 5

1

81. 6|

! 82.8
I
I

88. 5

85. 1

Table 4

Output, Capacity, and Capacityr Utilization
Quarterly, seasonally adjusted
Series

1983
II

OUTPUT
III

141.7
Durable goods materials

149.9

134.7

144.2

1984
I

IY

154.31 158.8
1
1
150.31 157.6

1
III

1983
II

CAFACITT
I I I

Metal materials

39.3

Raw steel
Aluminum

68.7
105. 1

72.7
119.0

171.7

179.1

179.6

188.0

153.4
219.4

162.8
227.8

121.5

127.4

Nondurable goods materials
Textile, paper and chemical materials
Paper materials
Chemical materials
Energy materials

93.8|
97.3
1
84.5
32.8|
128.61 137.5
1
1
183.51 183.7
•
193.2| 193.2
I

167.4| 165.3
2 3 5 . 0 | 236.7
1
1
127.8| 131.2
I

193.4

162.01 195.6

196.0

194.61 194.7
1
1
196.5| 197. 1

100.31
1
83.1|
144.9|
1
1
186.71

139.9

139.8

139.6|

119. 1
167.7

1 18. d
167.7

218.8

219.6

118.5J 117. 1
167.7| 167.7
1
1
2 2 0 . 6 | 221.8

230.7

231.6

2 3 2 . 7 | 234.2

166. 1
29b. 6

166.9
298. J

154.3

154.7

167.7| 168.5
300. 1| 302.3
1
1
155.3| 155.8

196. U
I
168.5|
240.81
I
1
132.4|
i

Definition. This release contains estimates of output, capacity, and capacity utilization for the
nation's factories, mines, and electric and gas utilities. Estimates of actual output and capacity output are expressed as percentages of 1967 actual output. Estimates of capacity utilization
are calculated as ratios, in percent, of the Federal Reserve's seasonally adjusted indexes of industrial production to the indexes of capacity. The capacity indexes are based on a variety of
data, including capacity data in physical units, surveys of capacity growth and utilization rates,
and estimates of capital stock growth. Instead of a formal definition of capacity the concept of
practical capacity is applied, which is the greatest level of output that a plant can maintain
within the framework of a realistic work pattern, taking account of normal downtime, and
assuming sufficient availability of inputs to operate machinery and equipment in place. When
the capacity indexes for individual industries are aggregated—for example to total manufacturing—no explicit account is taken of possible general equilibrium constraints such as emerging
industry bottlenecks.
Groupings. Estimates of capacity and industrial production for manufacturing industries are
aggregated to primary processing and advanced processing industries, to durable and nondurable manufacturing industries, and to total manufacturing. The mining, manufacturing, and
utilities estimates aggregate to the total index. Industrial materials'are Items produced and used as inputs by manufacturing plants, mines, and utilities. Industrial materials Include many of
the Stems included In the primary processing grouping or manufacturing, as wen as someoTThe
£4f*put of the advanced processing industries, mines, and utilities—such as iron ore, crude oil,
semiconductors, and electricity sold to industry.




?

1
162.21 192.9
1

•

34.9

I

1934
I

139. 1

1983
II

II

195.9

UTILIZATION
III

73.5

77.5

68.9

73.6

1
198.3

1934
I

IV
1
7 9 , 6|
I
1
7 6 . 5|
I

138.5

60.7

63.9

114.6
167.7 I

57.7
62.7

61.2
70.9

76! 7|

223.4

78.5

81.5

8 3 . 2\

236.2

77.9

11.2

1o9.5
305.2

92.3
74.0

97.5
76.4

156.4

78.7

32.3

i

o7.2|
i

II

31.6

S2 . 7

79.9

31 . 6

70. 0

72 . 4

72.2
32.0

72 . 5
.4

42. d

63 . 5

32.5

33 . 0

98.4
78.3

59 . 4
79 . 9

34.2

34 . 6

I
1
1
33.
^1
1
7s! 3|
I
1
« 2 . 31

i

Perspective. The historical highs and lows in capacity utilization shown in the tables above are
specific to each series and did not all occur in the same month. Industrial plants U6uaiiy
operate at capacity utilization rates that are well below 100 percent: none of the broad aggregates has ever reached 100 percent. For mining, manufacturing, and utilities as a whole, and
for total manufacturing, utilization rates as high as 90 percent have been exceeded only in wartime.
Revisions. The first estimates for a month are published about the 17th of the following month.
These estimates may revise in each of the next three months as new data become available.
After the fourth month no further revisions are undertaken until an annual or benchmark revision. The median of the revisions in the total manufacturing utilization rate between the first
and fourth estimate is 0.3 of a percentage point; that is, in about half of the cases, the absolute
value of the revision from the first to the fourth estimate is less than 0.3 of a percentage point.
Sources. The methodology used to estimate the series is discussed in New Federal Reserve
Measures of Capacity and Capacity Utilization, Federal Reserve Bulletin, July 1983. Revised
data from 1967-82 are included in the statistical supplement to the July 1983 capacity utilization release, which may be obtained from Publications Services, Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System, Washington, D.C. 20551.
Rounding. The rounding algorithms applied to the capacity, output, and utilization rate seriep
are independent. Aggregates are derived from unrounded detailed components.
Release schedule for 1984. Approximately 11 a.m. on February 16, March 16, April 16, May 16,
June 18, July 16, August 16, September 17, October 17, November 16, and December 17.