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FEDERAL RESERVE statistical release
G.3 (402)

For Immediate release

May 1 6 , 1985

CAPACITY UTILIZATION
Manufacturing, Mining, Utilities, and Industrial Materials

Capacity utilization in manufacturing, mining, and utilities fell
0.5 percentage point in April to 80.6 percent. The decline in the manufacturinc
operating rate was also 0.5 percentage point, but the mining rate dropped 1.2
percentage points while the utilities operating rate remained unchanged.
Revised estimates indicate that utilization for total industry held steady
during the first three months of 1985 at rates near 81.1 percent.
Utilization in both durable and nondurable manufacturing decreased
in April. The major contributors to the decline in durables were electrical
machinery and motor vehicles and parts. The utilization rates in both,
however, were still well above their 1967-82 average. Operating rates remained
about the same in several industries, including aerospace and miscellaneous
transportation equipment and instruments. Only petroleum products showed a
substantial utilization gain in April.
Capacity utilization in materials production fell 0.6 percentage
point in April. Utilization in durable and energy materials production fell,
and the nondurable materials operating rate edged slightly lower. The overall
materials utilization rate has now fallen 3.0 percentage points since August
1984, its high during that year.

Capacity Utilization: S u m m a r y
Perceni of capacity, seasonally adjusted
Series

1973
HIGH

1975
LOU

1978
-80
!
HIGH

1982
LOH

1967
-82
A? EH.

1985
JAN | FEB

| MAE

|

APB

88 « 4

71. 1

87.3

69.6

82.4.

81. 1

81.0

81.1

80.6

Manufacturing
Durable
Nondurable

87.9
87.9
89,1

69.0
67.6
71.0

87.5
89.4
87.2

68.8
64.8
73.8

81.8.
80.5.
83.9.

81.2
8U8
80.6

80*9
81.7
80.0

81.0.
79«8

80.5
8U4
79.5

Mining
Utilities

91,8
94.9

86«Q

90.4
86.8

69.6
79.0

86.5.
88.6*

75.4
83.7

74,9
85.6

75*7
85*2

74.5
85.2

66*6

83. 3*

80.5

80.8

80*8

80*2

Total industry

i

SndystriaS ^af®r§ais




92*6

69.3

88.9

CAPACITY UTILIZATION

APRIL DATA

SEASONALLY ADJUSTED, PERCENT

110
TOTAL INDUSTRY
TOTAL MATERIALS

90

70

50

110

MINING

UTILITIES

90

70

50
110
MANUFACTURING

REFINED PETROLEUM
PRODUCTS
/\

90

NONDURABLE

70

50
110
MOTOR VEHICLES
AND PARTS

90

70

50

30

1970

1973




1976

1979

1982

1985

1970

1973

1976

1979

1982

1985

MANUFACTURING, MINING AND UTILITIES
Table 1

Capacity Utilization
Monthly, seasonally adjusted, percent of capacity
1975 I 1978 8 1982 ] 1967 j YEAH !
-80 I LOU | -82 | AGO \

1973 j
HIGH ,

Series

LOS

i

8
8 8 , 4 j 7 1 . 1 1 87.3 j 69.6
I
8 7 . 9 i 69.0 j
68.8 j
I
93.7 | 68.2 ] 91*4 1 66.2 ,
69.4 ! 85.9 1 70.0 |
85.5

Total Industry

Manufacturing
Primary processing
Advanced processing
Durable manufacturing
Stone, ciay and glass products
Iron and steel, subtotal
Nonferrous metals, subtotal
Fabricated metal products
Nonelectrical machinery
Electrical machinery
ma
*
J
Motor vehicles and parts
Autos
Aerospace and misc. trans, eqp.
Instruments
^

1

1

ft.

Nondurable manufacturing
Foods
Textile mill products
Paper and products
Chemicals and products
Petroleum products
Rubber and plastics products

89.4
'90.4
97*5
1 98*2
I 90.0
| 83.1
I 90.6
I 94,5
Ml| 91.6
76.0 | 68.0 | 93.9
89.6 | 73.7 I 92.3

87.9
86.0
103.3
99.0
66.3
88.3
88.7
98.7

67.6
64.0
69.2
| 60.8
| 65.7
1 71.8
| 62.3
| 51.3

| 64.8
63.0
j 38.6
i 62. 1
60.7
I 61.6
74.7
| 46.1
35.8
I 69.1
I 73.1

i

89.1
85.7
95.4
96.7
86.2
99.1
97.4

I
I
I
\
1
|
|

71.0
77.2
61.3
69.1
65.9
84,6
62.1

I
8
8
8
S
8
I

87.2
85.2
91.3
S5. 1
83.6
93.0
91.5

II
1
!
I
1
I
I

73.8
76.5
73.0
84.2
64.0
71.5
74.0

J
82.4 j 81.3 !

1
19§4
Aflfi 1

82.5

1985
<?FP

i

81.9

HAS i

iJPR

81.0

81. 1

80.6

80.9

61.0

80.5

60.1
82.0

80.7
81.3

80.7
8U2

80.4
80.7

MOV |

DEC 4

JAM 1

FSB |

61.4

81.4

1
81.21

81.1

81.48

81.2

QCT |

81.8 j 81.5 !

82.8

62.0

81.7

81.6

84.0 i 82.2 j
80.6 | 81.0 J
I
80.5 1 60.9 |
73.4 { 78.4 |
82.3 I 71.5 |
1 83.8 | 85.4 j1
| 79.6 | 75.1 1
I
I 79.8 | 75.3 1
91.9 1
8 60.0
8 78.6 j 84.4 |
! N
A
79.2 1
I 78.1 I 73.6 1
I 83.5 I 78.6 !
I
1 83.9 I 82.3 !
! 83.3 | 79.9 8
1 86.2 | 65.0 !
$ 89.6 I 96.0 8
I 78.7 I 72. £ 8
8 89.6 5 79.4 1
| 66.3 | 94.6 1

82.1
83.1

81.5
62.4

81.2
81.8

80.6
82.0

79.58
82.2 8

82.9
77.7
67.9
83.6
77.2
81.1
92.5
87.5
77.9
76.5
81.1

82.3

82.2
76.7
65.9
82.6
76.3
80.8
91.3
87.5
79.8
75.8
80.6

82.08
76.58
64.5|
78.08
76.8|
80.48
91.58
87.8 8

81.8
76.5
64.8
81.5
76.3
80.7
89.2
89.8
8 1e 6 8 86.5
77.5 8 77.9
82.0 8 81.4

81.7
76.8
66.9
82.9
77.4
80.2
88.4
87.6
82.5
78.6
81.1

81.9
77.0
71.4
81.9
77.8
80.1
88.5
87.4
83.5
79.5
81.8

81.4

83.3
76. a
80.5
92.5
83.6
70.0
76.5
81*5

62.1
77.4
66.0
84.2
77.4
80.4
91.7
83.0
71.2
76.3
80.5

82.6
79.9
84.1
97.3
73.2
78.5
96.0

81*7
79.5
61.0
97.4
72.9
77.5
94.5

81.1
79.2
79.5
95.0
7L9
77.9
94.0

81.0
78.5
78.5
94.4
72.5
78.7
91.6

8 80.6
80.61
78.8 8 7 9 . 1
78.31 77.9
94.58 94.6
71.7!
71.5
76.5 8 73*9
90.81 91.2

80.0
78.1
77.7
95*5
71.3
75* 1
90.6

79.8

79.5

77.5
94.8
71.0
77.2
90.5

6ali

77.9
79.8
86,9
86.7
81.0
79.6
81.8

79.3

1

Mining

91.8 | 86.0 I 90.4 | 69.6 I 86.5 | 74.3 I

77,3

77.4

74.3

75. 1

74.8 8

75.4

74.9

75.7

74.5

Utilities
Electric utilities

94.9 I 82.0 f 86.8 I 79.0 | 68.6 i 85.0 |
97.6 8 82.1 j 8 7 . 0 i 77.9 I 69.8 ) 83.6 I

83.3
81,3

83.2
81.2

82.9
30.8

64.6
82.7

83.98
80.91

83.7
81.3

85.6
33.8

85.2
83. 1

85.2
83.1

I
1985J

1984

i

Table 2

Output, Capacity, and Capacity Utilization

Quarterly, seasonally adjusted

OOTPUT
Series

S
1985}

1984
I

II

III

Total Industry

159.8

163. 1

165.6

Manufacturing

161.0

164. i*

167.2

160.5
161.7

162.1> 162.2
165.2 169.7

Primary processing
Advanced processing

150.2
159.5
83.7
119.0
133.1
170.8
209.4
165.5
141.2
106.8
168.7

153.6
160. I
8 3 . '7
124.« 3
136.< )
178.6
215.C)
163.4
134.15
109.* I
172. i^

176.7
160.2
143*2
174.2
223.8
124.5
319.8

130. I 181.3
164. 1 164.6
140. < 138.5
»
173.* 1 177.0
229. ! 231.5
127.' * 123.9
334»<i 340.4

Mining

124.2

125. 1

129.0

Utilities
Electric utilities

179.2
203.8

183. «
208. 3

181.1
204.8

Durable manufacturing
Stone, clay and glass products
Iron and steel, subtotal
Nonferrous metals, subtotal
Fabricated metal products
Nonelectrical machinery
Electrical machinery
Motor vehicles and parts
Autos
Aerospace and misc. trans, eqp.
Instruments
Nondurable manufacturing
Foods
Textile mill products
Paper and products
Chemicals and products
Petroleum products
Rubber and plastics products




157.4
159.6
77.2
124.7
140.0
188.0
221.9
167.0
131.4
114.0
177.5

IV

II

I
I
164.71 165.41
1
166.58 166.7J
>
159.61 160.81
169.6f 170.31
•
I
157.4J 158.21
159.3| 160. 3 J
73.58 75.31
121.2j 121.91
140.0| 141.3J
188.3| 188.78
223.11 220.5)
168.11 173*71
135.0J 147.81
114.71 118.71
178.11 179.71
179.5|
163.7}
132.41
!73.4j
228.8)
122.48
334.01
1
124.31
1
183*0?
206.1}

CAS&CI1I
1984
I

II

I I I

198.4

199.7

201.1

199.5

201.0

202.5

196.5
20 1. 1

197.2
203.0

198.0
204.9

IS

IV

1
202.4j
1
204.01
*
198.71
206.68

UTILIZATION
I

1985
II

I I I

I
204.0}
1
205.7J

80.7

199.7|
206.91

81.7
30.3

82.4
81.4

81.9
62.8

l

80.5

81.7

82.4
82.5

I

IV

8
81.38
1
81.61

81.1
61.0
80.5
81.5

187.8
203.0
119.0
148.4
179.8
232.0
230. 4
190.9
168.7
147.2
217.1

189.1
204.4
116.7
146.4
180.6
232.6
234.9
192.3
170.5
148.1
217.9

190.4
205.9
114.5
148.4
181.4
233.1
239.3
193.8
172.3
149.0
216.8

191.7J
207a3J
112.21
148.41
182.21
233.7J
243.81
195.2J
174.11
149.9J
219.61

193o4j
208.71
111.01
148.41
183.11
234.91
248.51
196.6!
175.61
150.81
220.6|

79.9
78.5
70.4
80.2
74.0
73.6
90.8
86.6
83.6
72.6
77.7

81.2
78,3
71.7
84.2
75.8
76.8
91.5
84.9
78.9
73.8
79.1

62-6
77.5
67.5
84.0
77.2
80.6
92.7
86.2
76.2
76.5
81.2

80.4!
82.01
•
62.1!
76.9}
65.5]
81.71
76. 8 1
80.51
91.5J
86.11
77.5J
76.5!
81.11

216.5
203.1
163.7
178,, 5
314.0
160.4
342.3

216.2
204.6
165.2
180. 1
315.1
159.4
349.1

220.0
206.1
166.7
181.6
316.3
158.5
355.8

221.71
207.6J
168.21
183.21
317.41
157*5!
362.61

223.51

81.6
78.9
87.5
97.6
71.3
77.6
93.4

82.5
60.2
85.0
96.5
72.7
79.9
95.8

82.4
79.9
83.1
97.4
73.2
78.2
95.7

81.01
78.8!
78.8!
94.6)
72.1!
77.71
92.11

77.7
95.0
71.3
75.4
90.7

125.5J 165.7

165.9

966.1

75.0

75.4

77.7

74.7!

75.4

165*5j 213.8
210.9j 246.9
1

215.3
248.9

216.8
251.0

83.8
82.5

85.0
83.6

83.5
81,6

83.61
81.41

179.1|
1
131.41
175.4|
227*41
118*3|
334.8$

I

1

i

169.11
184.7!
319.01
156.81
369.01
1
*
166.38 166.5J
1
•
218.3! 219.8|
253.0J 255.0J
g
a

1
1

81.8
76.8
67.7
82.1
77.2
80.3
88.7
88.3
84.1
78.7
81.4
80.1

84.8
82.7

INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS
Table 3

Capacity Utilization
Series

1973
SIGH

Industrial Materials

92.6

Durable goods materials

91.4

1975 | 1978 \ 1982 f 1967 \ YEAS
L W S - 8 0 ; LOtf \ -82 j AGO 4 1 1984
O
AfJG |
I A¥Bfi. I fiOHTB
i HIGH 1
{

BO? 1

88.9 I 66.6 J Q3^2 82. 5 I
1
j
I
1
j
79.7 | 8 1 . 5 |
63 « 5 1 38.4 I 59.8

83«2

82.4

81.0

82.9

82.2

81.3

80.8

82.2 1 73.0 I

70.8

69.8

67.6

80.4g
J
I
8 0 . 0J
1
64. 51

80.9

66.7

69.3

46.2 I
| 6 6 . 0 1 95*4
I
107.1 j 6 8 . 0 1102.9 I 40.2 |
Raw steel
Aluminum
73.4 I 979 9 ! 57*9 I
96.8
I
I
I
i
94.4
67.4
! 70.7 I
Nondurable goods materials
j
I
68.6 S
65.4
92.3
Textile, paper, and chemical materials 9 5 . 1
I
72 . 4 | 97.9 I 86.3 |
Paper materials
95^5
64.2 I .91.3 i 64.0 I
Chemical materials
f
Metal materials

SIP I

97.8

84.3 | 7 4 . 5 |
90.6 | 8 5 . 7 !

62.9
32.5

62.5
81.0

65.4
79. 4

82.9

81.5

80.5

1

64.0
77.9

86*5 | 83.2

80.2

86.5 j| 82*7 !

82.4

80.5

79.7

99.7
78.1

99.7
76. 1

98.7
75.7

97*2
75.7

84.7

84.3

81.0

J
79.4|
I
73.0|
S
98.5|
73.9|
1
i

82.1

•

88.9

94.5 j

Energy materials

L

88.5

78.5

I 84.5 |

1985
JAM |

FSB I

HAS |

APS

80.5

80.8

80.8

80.2

80.0

79.9

79.8

79.0

65.2

67.7

68.8

68.4

68.2

70.7
75.7

71.5
74.5

79.2

79.5

79.3

78.0

78.2

78.4

78.2

98.2
74,3

96.4
74.7

95.9
75.0

84.2

85.7

86.0

85.3

17

1985
I

111 * I 76.6

79.1

93.4
98.5 |
85,1 | 78.9 |

1
I
DEC f

83.21

J

79.2

I

Table 4

Output Capacity, and Capacity Utilization
Quarterly, seasonally adjusted
OUTPUT
Series

1984
I

II

III

Industrial Materials

158. 8

162.1

163.4

Durable goods materials

157*6

162.0

164.6

Metal materials
Raw steel
Aluminum
Nondurable goods materials
Textile, paper and chemical materials
Paper materials
Chemical materials
Energy materials

97.3

100,3

97.2

84.5
137.5

83.1
144.9

71.6
138.1

183.7

186.6

185.7

193.2

195.9

194.9

165.8
236. 7

168.5
240.4

171.0
238.4

131.2

132.4

133.1

s
1985! 1984
I
IV
II
S
1
194.7
160.2|
1
S
J
s
162.19 161.88 197. 1
91.01
69.91
131.2J
i
1
.181.511
139.61
1
168.3J
233.5]
S
1
129.41
8

139. 1

92.0|

II

III

1
19851
11
1

]EV

81.6

82.7

82.9

198 . 3

199.5

200. 81 202.41

79. f

81.7

82.5

137.9

I
137. 31
<

136.8J

70.0

72.4

70.5

72.2
82.0

72.5
86.4

63.8
82.3

1

j

82.8

83.5

82.5

82.5

82.9

81.8

98.4
78.3

99.4
78.8

84.2

84.6

S

138 . 5

1
1

223 .4

225. 2

226. 9S 228.41

234.2

236.2

238.2

240. 3 |

168.5
302.3

169.5
305.2

170.5
308.0

171. 51
310, 91

155.8

156 • 4

157.0

157. 6 |

I
1

1
I

242.01
I
172.51
313v5j
1
8
158.41

1
80.7| 80.7
1
1
80.71 79.9
1
66-31 6.7.2
t

1

109.71 108.31
167.71 167.5J
1
1

Groupings. Estimates of capacity and industrial production for manufacturing industries are
aggregated to primary processing and advanced processing industries, to durable and nondurable manufacturing industries, and to total manufacturing. The mining, manufacturing, and
utilities estimates aggregate to the total index. Industrial materials are Items produced and used as inputs by manufacturing plants, mines, and utilities. Industrial materials include many of
trie items included in the primary processing grouping of manufacturing, as well as some of the
output of the advanced processing industries, mines, and utilities—such as iron ore, crude oil,
semiconductors, and electricity sold to Industry.

III

197.2

112.2
167.7

I

II

195.9

114 • 6
167. 7

189.21
S
167.11
234.01
S
1
135.1J

UTILIZATION
1984
I

1
198. 4 J 199.71
8
1

76.11 117.1
126.68 1.67.7
1
S
181.11 221.8

Definition. This release contains estimates of output, capacity, and capacity utilization for the
nation's factories, mines, and electric and gas utilities. Estimates of actual output and capacity output are expressed as percentages of 196? actual output. Estimates of capacity utilization
are calculated as ratios, in percent, of the Federal Reserve's seasonally adjusted indexes of industrial production to the indexes of capacity. The capacity indexes are based on a variety of
data, including capacity data in physical units; surveys of capacity growth and utilization rates,
and estimates of capital stock growth. Instead of a formal definition of capacity the concept of
practical capacity is applied, which is the greatest level of output that a plant can maintain
within the framework of a realistic work pattern, taking account of normal downtime, and
assuming sufficient availability of inputs to operate machinery and equipment in place. When
the capacity indexes for individual industries are aggregated—-for example to total manufacturing—no explicit account is taken of possible general equilibrium constraints such as emerging
industry bottlenecks.




CAPACITY

70.2
75.6

100.3
77.4

63. 71
78.21
J
1
80.0]
1
79.0|
1
98.11
75.1|

84.8

82.11

85.3

79.3
78.2
96.8
74.7

Perspective. The historical highs and lows in capacity utilization shown in the tables above are
specific to each series and did not all occur In the same month. Industrial plants usually
operate at capacity utilization rates that are well below 100 percent: none of the broad aggregates has ever reached 100 percent. For mining, manufacturing, and utilities as a whole, and
for total manufacturing, utilization rates as high as 90 percent have been exceeded only in wartime.
Revisions. The first estimates for a month are published about the 17th of the following month.
These estimates may revise in each of the next three months as new data become available.
After the fourth month no further revisions are undertaken until an annual or benchmark revision. The median of the revisions in the total manufacturing utilization rate between the first
and fourth estimate is 0.3 of a percentage point; that is, in about half of the cases, the absolute
value of the revision from the first to the fourth estimate is less than 0.3 of a percentage point.
Sources. The methodology used to estimate the series is discussed in New Federal Reserve
Measures of Capacity and Capacity Utilization, Federal Reserve Bulletin,July1983. Revised
data from 1967-82 are included in the statistical supplement to the July 1983 capacity utilization release, which may be obtained frbm Publications Services, Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System, Washington, D.C. 20551.
Rounding. The rounding algorithms applied to the capacity, output, and utilization rate series
are independent. Aggregates are derived from unrounded detailed components,
Release schedule for 1985. Approximately 11 a.m. on January 16, February 19, March 18, April
17, May 16, June 17, July 17, August 16, September 16, October 17, November 18, and December 16.