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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BU REAU OF L AB O R STATISTICS/ * * '
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

j
( IN U .

L v L

SERIES

FO O D SITUATION IN
CENTRAL EUROPE, 1917




COMPILED AND TRANSLATED BY

ALFRED M AYLANDER

APRIL, 1918

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1918




ADDITIONAL COPIES
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CONTENTS.
P age.

Introduction......................................................................................................................
5, 6
Germany:
The German food supply at the beginning of the new harvest year............. 7-10
German food policy for 1917-18...................................................................: ------ 10-16
Early threshing premiums.................................................................... .................16,17
Use of grain as fodder.............................................................................................. 17,18
Increased rations of bread and flour..................................................................... 18,19
Potatoes...................................................................................................................... 20-22
Live stock and meat................................................................................................ 22-25
Game.......................................................................................................................... 25-27
Fish............................................................................................................................. 27,28
Poultry....................................................................................................................... 29, 30
Eggs............................................................................................................................ 30, 31
Butter.............................................................................. .......................................... 31,32
Milk.......................................................................................................................... >32,33
Fruits and vegetables.............................................................................................. 33-40
Oils and fats.............................................................................................................. 40-43
Sugar.......................................................................................................................... 43,44
Honey.........................................................................................................................44, 45
Coffee and tea........................................................................................................... 45, 46
Beer............................................................................................................................ 46, 47
Wine........................................................................................................................... 47, 48
Distribution of barley to distillers........................................................................48,49
“ Food excursions” .................................................................................................. 49, 50
Mass feeding in municipal war kitchens............................................................. 50-52
Reduced prices for food for the poorer classes................................................... 52-54
The food-card system.............................................................................................. 54-56
Effect of the food shortage on the public health............................................... 56-60
Food prices.........................................................................................*................... 61, 62
Food rations.............................................................................................................. 62-64
Austria:
Food supply organizations..................................................................................... 64-69
Speech of premier on food conditions.................................................................. 69, 70
Meetings of the Food Council................................................................................ 70-72
Discontent of the working classes......................................................................... 72, 73
Austrian complaints against Hungary.................................................................. 73-76
Food conditions in Vienna and Prague............................................................... 76, 77
Additional rations....................................................................................................
78
Flour........................................................................................................................... 78,79
Bread..........................................................................................................................
79
Requisition prices for certain kinds of grain and vegetables.......................... 79, 80
Live stock.................................................................................................................. 80, 81
Meat............................................................................................................................ 81-83
Fish............................................................................................................................. 83,84
Poultry and game.....................................................................................................
84
Eggs.............................................................................................................................
85
Milk............................................................................................................................. 85,86
Fats............................................................................................................................. 86,87




3

4

CONTENTS.

Austria— Concluded.
Page.
Butter...................................................................................................................................
87
Potatoes............................................................................................................................... 87-90
Fruits and vegetables..................................................................................................... 91-93
Sugar.................................................................................................................................... 94-96
Coffee...................................................................................................................................
97
Vinegar................................................................................................................................ 97,98
Wine and beer...................................................................................................................
98
Restaurant cards...............................................................................................................
98
Suppression of “ food excursions” and “ kit-bag trade” ..................................... 98, 99
War kitchens................................................................................................................... 99-103
Profiteering.........................................................................................................................
103
Influence of the food shortage upon the public health................................... 103,104
Hungary:
General food situation....................................................................................................
105
Maize................................................................................................................................ 105,106
Use of grain in breweries and distilleries and for other industrial purposes. 106,107
Flour and bread rations............................................................................................. 107,108
Potatoes........................................................................................................................... 108-110
Fruits and vegetables.....................................................................................................
110
110
Sugar.................................... ...............................................................................................
Meat, butter, and fats................................................................................................ 110, 111
Eggs......................................................................................................................................
Ill
Milk......................................................................................................................................
Ill
Regulation of hotels, restaurants, etc........................................................................
Ill
Miscellaneous recent food orders............................................................................ I l l , 112
Food prices........................................................................................................................
112
Bulgaria:
General food situation................................................................................................ 112,113
Condition of the harvest............................................................................................ 113,114
Grain and flour............................................................................................................. 114,115
Fodder rations...................................................................................................................
115
Bread........•
...................................................................................................................... 115,116
Live stock and meat................................................................................................... 116,117
Fish. >...................................................................................................................................
117
Milk and butter............................................................................................................ 117,118
Oils.......................................................................................................................................
118
Fruits and vegetables................................................................................................. 118-120
Sugar....................................................................................................................................
120
Salt................................................................................................................................... 120,121
Miscellaneous foodstuffs.................................................................................................
121
Use of war prisoners and compulsory labor on the land.....................................
121
Food prices.........................................................................................................................
122
Turkey:
General food situation....................................................................................................
122
A neutral account of conditions in Constantinople..............................................
123
Conditions in Smyrna.....................................................................................................
123
The distress in Palestine........................................................................................... 123-125
The harvest.................................................................................................................... 125,^126
Increased bread ration............................................................................................... 126, 127
Prices in Constantinople................................................................................................
127
Beef prices in Smyrna....................................................................................................
127
Food speculation..............................................................................................................
128
Distribution of food to officials.....................................................................................
128




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
NO. 242.

W ASH IN GTO N.

APRIL, 1918

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE, 1917.
IN T R O D U C T IO N .
Next to military problems the food problem plays the most im­
portant part in the present world War. “ Food will win the W a r5
*
is the general slogan now in all belligerent countries. Special food
administrations with the most far reaching dictatorial powers have
been established in every country at war and volumes of food laws,
decrees, orders, etc., have been enacted, abrogated, and amended.
In the countries of the entente powers the food problem was of
secondary importance until the end of 1916. In the central European
countries, however, the food situation has been acute ever since the
proclamation of their blockade by Great Britain. Since then the
food shortage in these countries has assumed more threatening pro­
portions from month to month and the control of food supplies has
become more and more stringent.
In view of the importance of the food problem in the present
War, the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the past year has pub­
lished in its Monthly Review a series of articles on Government
food control in European belligerent countries. These articles con­
tained brief summaries of the food legislation enacted in the various
countries and of the general food situation, which were supplemented
by comments on the enforcement of food regulations. With respect
to the central European countries these articles were of course some­
what fragmentary, owing to the fact that direct mail service with
them had been impossible, at first, on account of the British censor­
ship and later on because of the entry of the United States in the
War. British official and unofficial sources and reports of corre­
spondents of the American press had to be relied upon in the com­
pilation o f the articles in question. O f late, however, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics has had access to complete files of a considerable
number of leading daily papers of central European countries, par­
ticularly of Germany, some of these files reaching back for months.




5

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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A v a i l i n g i t s e l f o f t h is o p p o r t u n it y t o o b t a in u n b ia s e d n e w s as t o
th e p re s e n t f o o d s itu a tio n in c e n tr a l E u r o p e th e b u re a u h a s c o m ­
p ile d th e p r e s e n t b u lle t in .
T h e m a te r ia l p r e s e n te d in th is b u lle t in c o v e r s th e f o o d s itu a tio n
in G e r m a n y , A u s t r ia , H u n g a r y , B u lg a r ia , a n d T u r k e y d u r in g 191 7 ,
u p to th e e n d o f O cto b e r.
O r i g i n a l a r t ic le s o n th e f o o d s it u a t io n in
le a d in g G e r m a n a n d A u s t r ia n n e w s p a p e r s w e r e p le n t ifu l a n d c a r e ­
f u l d is c r im in a t io n h a d t o b e e x e r c is e d in m a k in g a s u it a b le s e le c ­
t io n fr o m th e w e a lth o f m a te r ia l a t th e d is p o s a l o f th e b u re a u .
C o m m e n t s o n f o o d o r d e r s , t h e ir e n fo r c e m e n t , a n d t h e p r a c t ic a l r e s u lt
o f t h e ir a p p lic a t io n w e r e a v a ila b le f r o m o r g a n s o f a ll p o l it i c a l
p a r tie s , th u s r e p r e s e n tin g e v e r y p o in t o f v ie w .
M a te r ia l r e la tin g
t o th e f o o d s itu a tio n in H u n g a r y , B u lg a r ia , a n d T u r k e y w a s m u c h
s c a r c e r , as n e w s p a p e r s f r o m th e s e c o u n t r ie s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m T u r ­
k e y , a re v e r y d iffic u lt t o o b t a in . T h o s e p a r t s o f t h e b u lle t in w h ic h
c o v e r t h e f o o d s i t u a t i o n i n t h e s e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e le s s
c o m p r e h e n s iv e th a n th e p a r t s c o v e r in g G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r ia , a n d
in s o m e r e s p e c t s t h e y a r e e v e n f r a g m e n t a r y .
A s fa r as it w a s
p o s s ib le th e m a te r ia l f o r e a c h c o u n t r y c o v e r e d w a s a r r a n g e d in th e
f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : F i r s t , a n o f f ic ia l o r u n o f f i c i a l s u m m a r y o f t h e f o o d
s itu a tio n in 1917, o r b o th .
T h i s is f o l l o w e d b y a n o u t l i n e o f t h e
fo o d p o lic y fo r th e c o m in g y e a r, h a rv est re p o rts , fo o d o rd e rs
r e la tin g t o in d iv id u a l fo o d s t u ffs , c o m m e n ts o n a n d c r it ic is m o f
th ese o r d e r s a n d th e ir p r a c tic a l a p p lic a t io n , d a ta o n th e s u p p ly
a n d p r ic e s o f in d iv id u a l fo o d s t u ffs a n d th e ir r a t io n in g , w a r k itc h e n s ,
p r o fit e e r in g , ille g a l p r o c u r in g o f f o o d ( f o o d e x c u r s io n s , e t c .) , f o o d ­
c a r d sy stem s, m e a su res f o r th e c h e a p e n in g o f f o o d f o r th e p o o r e r
c la s s e s , a n d o n t h e e f f e c t o f tl\e f o o d s h o r t a g e o n t h e h e a l t h o f t h e
c iv ilia n p o p u la t io n .
T h e n e w s p a p e r a r t ic le s u s e d in th e c o m p ila t io n o f t h is b u lle t in
w e r e tr a n s la te d in f u ll w h e n e v e r th e ir im p o r t a n c e w a r r a n te d su ch
p r o c e d u r e , w h ile in o t h e r in s ta n c e s b r i e f d ig e s t s w e r e p r e p a r e d .
I n q u o t in g c r it ic is m s o f o ffic ia l o r d e r s a n d o f t h e ir a p p lic a t io n , it
h a s b e e n a tte m p te d , w h e n e v e r p o s s ib le , t o q u o te o n th e sa m e s u b je c t
o r g a n s o f s e v e r a l p o l it i c a l p a r tie s , s u ch as s o c ia lis t, lib e r a l, c o n ­
s e r v a tiv e , a g r a r ia n , ju n k e r , a n d o t h e r o r g a n s . T h is w il l e n a b le th e
r e a d e r t o b a la n c e th e se q u o t a t io n s w it h e a c h d th e r a n d in t h is m a n ­
n e r o b t a in a g e n e r a l p o i n t o f v ie w o n d is p u t e d q u e s tio n s . N o a t t e m p t
h a s b e e n m a d e t o d r a w a n y c o n c lu s io n s as t o th e p o s s ib le e ffe c t o f
th e p re s e n t f o o d s it u a t io n in c e n tr a l E u r o p e o n th e o u t c o m e o f
th e W a r .




GERMANY.1
THE GERMAN FOOD SUPPLY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW
HARVEST YEAR.

A t the beginning of the fourth year of the War a good deal of stock
taking of the food supply was going on in the German press. The
most important review—important, it is true, less by its intrinsic
value than by the position of its author—was one given in
state
ment made on September 6, 1917, by the new food controller (the
new secretary of state for the War Food Bureau), Herr von Waldow,
to a gathering o f press representatives.
This statement first explains the recent changes in the organization
o f the War Food Bureau. In place of the “ president ” a “ secretary
of state ” has been appointed as head of the bureau. Thus, the War
Food Bureau has been placed on the same footing as the other impe­
rial bureaus, and its functions have been extended by transferring to
it the business of the food section of the war department, so that
now the food supply of the whole civil population, including workers
in the munitions industry, is combined under one authority, thus
bringing about more unity in this sphere.
The tried features o f the War Food Bureau—the directorate,
the food advisory council, the parliamentary advisory council, the
committees of experts, and the women’s advisory council—remain
without change. By his appointment as minister o f state and Prus­
sian food commissioner the head of the War Food Bureau receives
also the executive power in the largest of the Federal States.
After stating that no change o f the system of food control is in­
tended because the main lines of German war food economics in the
new harvest year have already been laid down by the orders and
regulations of the Federal Council (Bwndesrath), the chancellor, and
the former president of the War Food Bureau, and will be followed,
Herr von Waldow sketched the prospects for the winter supply of
food as follow s:

a

As regards the prospects of the food supply in the current harvest year, it is
at present impossible to obtain any exact survey of the situation. The grain
harvest is still in progress, and we have not at present the necessary basis for
an estimate of the total yield. Nevertheless, the reports up to date from most
1 The present article has been compiled from various German daily papers in the form
of translations and digests. For previous articles on the same subject see: Bulletin of
the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, No. 170, “ Foreign Food Prices as affected by the
War,” and Monthly Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May, 1917, pp. 7 0 3 7 2 7 ; June, 1917, pp. 9 2 1 -9 2 8 ; and July, 1917, pp. 66-69.




7

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BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

parts of the Empire justify the confident expectation that the bread grain sup­
ply is secured for the whole year.
The prospects for the potato crop are, to judge by all the reports so far re­
ceived, satisfactory, and if quite extraordinary weather conditions do not
hupervene, they can hardly be seriously impaired in the future. To judge by
the preliminary measures taken by the Imperial Potato Office, we can count
with certainty on a considerably better potato supply this year than last and
on escaping such trials as we have had to bear in the last two months.
More difficult are the conditions in regard to fodder corn and raw fod­
der. Here the crops will fall somewhat below those of 1915, and it requires
great care to strike a right balance between the needs of the army, of agri­
culture, of industry, and of town horses. It is obvious that, besides meeting
the essential needs of the army, we must, in the first place, have regard to the
maintenance of agricultural production. Hence, before all, agricultural draft
animals must be adequately fed. If, as is unfortunately probable, the fulfill­
ment of this duty is incompatible with the provision of sufficient fodder for the
fattening of swine and the maintenance of our present stock of cattle, we must
in good time, i. e., before the winter sets in, proceed to a systematic reduction
of our stock of pigs and cattle. Naturally, that will have its effect on the sup­
ply of meat, milk, and fat. In the case of meat a temporary increase in the
rations would be followed by a decrease. It will be particularly difficult this
winter to keep up the supply of milk and butter; this requires, before all, a
careful development of the collecting offices to get hold of dairy products in the
producing districts, and at this task the Imperial Fat Office is working without
relaxation.
The fruit and vegetable supply has improved lately. The prospects for
autumn vegetables are not everywhere uniform; in some places drought and
excessive prevalence of insect pests have disappointed our hopes. Special care
is necessary to prevent any waste of stocks under the system of public Ibntrol.
All that is requisite is being done, and the common report that grain stocks
have been spoiled is untrue.
Special energy must be put into the fight against illicit trade and profiteering.
It will be the special duty of all administrative authorities to oppose these
abuses.
The general situation may be summed up by saying that we may with full
confidence expect to overcome the difficulties of the fourth year of the war also.

T h e L e ip z ig e r V o lk s z e it u n g (S e p t . 8 ) , a m in o r it y S o c ia lis t o r g a n ,
is b y n o m e a n s s a tis fie d w it h t h is s ta te m e n t. I t w r i t e s :
Herr von W aldow’s statements contain nothing new. That the grain harvest
was a moderate, medium harvest, that the supply of bread grain is assured, that
the potato crop is better than last year, and that the want of fodder compels a
diminution of our stocks of pigs and cattle which will lead to considerable diffi*
culties in the supply of meat, milk, and butter— all these are things which we
had heard from various quarters long before Herr von Waldow. His program
went no further than the statement that no change of system is intended. He
will continue, therefore, on the lines of Yon Batocki. The maximum prices will
continue to be in very truth “ maxima,” the war companies will continue to con­
trol foodstuffs in a way displeasing to the consumers, the agrarians will continue
to make their profits, and the great mass of the people will feel just as before.
W hat then is really altered?

T h a t th e p r o s p e c t s o f th e f o o d s u p p ly f o r th e c o m in g w in t e r a re
n o t o v e r b r ig h t is g e n e r a lly r e c o g n iz e d in th e G e r m a n d a ily p re s s.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

9

T h e b r e a d -g r a in h a r v e s t is b e lie v e d t o b e a b o u t a n a v e r a g e o n e , b u t
n o t h in g d e fin ite w ill b e k n o w n u n til a ft e r th e g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f th e
g r a in c r o p s o r d e r e d f o r th e p e r io d S e p te m b e r 20 t o O c to b e r 5 b y th e
W a r F o o d B u r e a u h a s b e e n m a d e . M u c h is h o p e d f r o m t h e p o t a t o
h a r v e s t, a n d s o m e t h in g f r o m th e im p o r t s f r o m o c c u p ie d t e r r it o r ie s .
I n o t h e r r e s p e c t s t h e p r o s p e c t is n o t e n c o u r a g i n g , a n d t h e a u t h o r i ­
tie s h a r d ly a t t e m p t t o m a k e it a p p e a r o t h e r w is e .
I n t h is c o n n e c t io n it is o f in te r e s t t o n o t e a l o n g a r t ic le b y R .
S c h m id t, S o c ia lis t m e m b e r o f th e R e ic h s ta g , o n th e fu tu r e p r o s p e c ts ,
w h ic h a p p e a r e d in th e B r u n s w ic k Y o lk s fr e u n d ,1 a n d w h ic h seem s,
o n th e w h o le , t o ta k e a sa n e v ie w , n o t n o t a b ly e x a g g e r a t in g o n th e
s id e o f e it h e r o p t im is m o r p e s s im is m .
T h is a r t ic le c o n t a in s th e f o l ­
lo w in g r e m a r k s :
Although the statistics of the new harvest are-not yet available, it is pos­
sible to look forward into the next harvest year. The harvest results alone
are not decisive; previous experience shows how very much depends on
organization.
The W ar Food Bureau has begun to realize that food production must bear
some relation to the cattle stocks. Important plant foods must not be drawn
upon too heavily for fodder. The stock of pigs must be reduced. The in­
creased meat ration was made possible only by drawing heavily upon the cattle
stocks, but they still approach the peace level.
The bread-grain harvest in Germany is an average one. Tolerably large
supplies from Roumania may be counted on, and the occupied territories will
at least furnish a fair amount for the army. It may be taken as certain that
the bread ration can be maintained and possibly increased to make up for the
shortage of oat and barley food preparations; for in these two grains there
is a relatively unfavorable harvest, and their use as fodder can not be entirely
prohibited, as a considerable portion of the harvest will be needed for horses.
That a 10-pound weekly ration of potatoes is possible is admitted even by the
farmers. But the urban supplies are not assured. The Imperial Potato Office
is relying too much on the agricultural card instead of requisitioning. It is
essential that all supplies not carried to the towns in autumn should be spe­
cially stored in the keeping of the village communes and near railway stations
to lessen the difficulties attendant upon transportation in winter. Otherwise
the shortage may be even worse than last year, because there can be no substi­
tutes in the form of barley and oat preparations.

H e th e n u tte r s a s t r o n g w a r n in g a g a in s t a n y p e r m is s io n o f t r a d in g
n o t u n d e r G o v e r n m e n t c o n tr o l.
The strict control of the W ar Food Bureau is absolutely necessary. Owing
to the shortage of the fodder harvest, there will be greater temptation than ever
to use bread grain and potatoes. The control must not even be delegated to local
authorities, but it must be exercised from the central office by independent per­
sons. The more grain that comes into the hands of the Imperial Grain Office the
less danger will there be of misuse. Early thrashing must go on. There is no
lack of storage room. Not again, as last spring, should grain be allowed to lie
unthrashed in the farmers’ open ricks, there to rot and become food for vermin.
The meat supply will be poor. It must be insisted upon that where the farmer
has to kill his stock because of fodder shortage, it shall be made possible for




1 Brauncliweig, Sept. 13, 1917.

10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

him to sell. Instead of being kept on starvation diet during the winter, the
stock should be killed now, while it is well nourished, and the meat should be
preserved in cold storage.

H e h a s n o t h in g r e a s s u r in g t o s a y in r e g a r d t o m ilk a n d b u t t e r :
The rise in prices will not lead to a better supply. More might be done in
the way of collecting foliage for fodder, especially by the aid of the military
authorities.
Continual complaints are made about the fruit and vegetable supply. It is
doubtful if the jam factories will be provided with sufficient fruit for their re­
quirements. The prices of canned vegetables will be enormously high, as the
vegetables can only be bought up at high prices, and large quantities will be
spoiled by being put up in tin, an unsuitable material. The central office must
arrange for vegetables to be dried rather than canned, and it must be done by
experts to avoid a repetition of last year’s wretched production.
Very serious is the spread of illicit trading, but it can be stopped only by
supplying better rations. If, for instance, the potato ration is fixed at 10 pounds
a week, no one then would take the trouble to go out into the country and beg
and pray for potatoes.
The prospects of the food supply are in no way joyful. W e do not know with
what new difficulties we have to reckon. Price quotations have not fallen, and
in many instances have advanced. W e can not at present see what anomalies
may arise in consequence of transport difficulties and unfavorable weather. But
so much is clear: W e shall escape a repetition of the deprivations of this spring
and summer only if the new harvest is resolutely seized for human consumption.

A t p re s e n t th e s itu a tio n , d u e to th e r a is in g o f th e b r e a d r a t io n a n d
t o a b e t t e r s u p p l y o f p o t a t o e s , f r u i t , a n d v e g e t a b l e s , i s p r o b a b l y e a s ie r
t h a n i t h a s b e e n f o r s o m e t i m e . B u t i t is n o t e n c o u r a g i n g , a n d t h e r e
is in th e d a il y p r e s s e v id e n c e o f v e r y c o n s id e r a b le d is c o n t e n t , n o t
a m o n g t h e w o r k i n g c la s s e s o n l y .
G E R M A N F O O D P O L IC Y F O R 1917-18.

T h e fo o d p o lic y o f th e G e rm a n G o v e rn m e n t f o r th e c o m in g e c o ­
n o m ic y e a r c o u ld b e b e s t illu s t r a t e d b y g i v in g h e r e a s u m m a r y o f
r e c e n t ly is s u e d f o o d r e g u la t io n s . I t is t o b e r e g r e t t e d t h a t t h is c a n
n o t b e d o n e , b e c a u s e f o r s o m e tim e th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s
h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o o b t a i n G e r m a n o f f ic ia l p u b l i c a t i o n s .
I n th e a b ­
s e n c e o f o f f ic ia l s o u r c e s i t h a s b e e n d e c i d e d t o r e p r o d u c e h e r e e x t r a c t s
o f a n a r tic le b y D r . S c h litte n b a u e r , d ir e c t o r o f th e A g r ic u lt u r a l C e n ­
t r a l C o o p e r a t iv e S o c ie t y o f R a t is b o n a n d a w e ll-k n o w n le a d e r o f th e
B a v a r ia n a g r a r ia n s , o n th e im p e r ia l e c o n o m ic p la n f o r 1 9 1 7 -1 8 .1
T h is a r t ic le fu r n is h e s in a s u m m a r y f o r m a v e r y u s e fu l c o n s p e c t u s
o f th e v a r io u s f o o d o r d e r s f o r th e c u r r e n t h a r v e s t y e a r a n d , in a d d i­
t i o n , c o n t a i n s s o m e s e v e r e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s d is c u s s e d .
A c c o r d i n g t o D r . S c h lit t e n b a u e r , th e s p e c ia l fe a tu r e s o f t h e n e w
e c o n o m ic p la n f o r th e 1917 h a r v e s t a r e : ( 1 ) T h e a lte r e d p o l ic y as to
p r i c e ; ( 2 ) th e n e w im p e r ia l g r a in r e g u la t io n .
1 Europ&ische Staats- und Wirtschafts-Zeitung.




Berlin, Aug. 4, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

11

As regards the altered policy as to price the following should be remembered:
When the W ar broke out Germany had splendid supplies of live stock— 21,000,000
horned cattle and 25,700,000 pigs. Moreover, the weight of this live stock was
constantly on the increase in consequence of scientific improvements in breed­
ing. Because of this high standard, and the fact that in the first stage of the
W ar Germany preferred to feed her armies on the live stock of the conquered
territories, in the first five months of the W ar the nation had not only the
lowest prices for many years for slaughter cattle and meat, but also an abund­
ance of fat and meat. But, unfortunately, the high level of the stocks was not
altogether a natural result of Germany’s national economy. To a considerable
extent it was due to the huge imports of foreign fodder. German cattle breed­
ing, therefore, largely depended on outside sources, and this had unpleasant
consequences during the W ar. Animal foods, such as meat, fat, butter, and milk,
diminished in proportion to the diminution of supplies of foreign fodder, to the
diminution of imports from neutral countries owing to the increasing pressure
of the English blockade, and to the decline in the stock of home fodder owing
to difficulties of production and to the increasing restriction of cereals and root
crops to the human food supply.
As it was natural to expect these tendencies to develop still further, as early
as 1916 the prices for agricultural produce ought to have been so fixed as to
secure, under all circumstances, not only a sufficient production of bread grain
and potatoes, but also their exclusive, or at least preponderating, use for human
food. But instead of this, the regulations of July, 1916, fixed very low prices
for bread grain and potatoes and very high prices for fodder grain, concentrated
fodder, waste fodder, root crops, vegetables of every sort, and lean cattle. The
consequences of this disparity very soon became evident; the area cultivated
with bread grain and potatoes has decreased, and bread grain and potatoes
have been used more largely for fodder than the supply of food justified.
In the spring of 1917 the responsible food authority, the W ar Food Bureau,
perceived the danger of this price policy, and with the approval of 11 agri­
cultural professors it resolved to reverse the system. The basic prices for
bread grain were raised by 50 marks per metric ton (82 cents per bushel of
60 pounds), the prices for barley were decreased on an average 60 marks per
metric ton (31 cents per bushel of 48 pounds), the prices for fodder beets and
edible turnips of the 1917 harvest were decreased, the prices of lean pigs were
lowered on an average by 30 per cent beginning with May 1, and the prices
of lean oxen were lowered from July 1 by 15 to 20 per cent on an average,
according to the scale of weight.
No objection can be raised against the principle in itself. It resulted, on
the contrary, as the inevitable consequence of the circumstances. But there
are very grave objections to be made to its detailed execution, for the trans­
formation of the price policy took place without any consideration for keeping
up production. Such consideration would have necessitated two lines of action:
(1) A gradual diminution, adjusted step by step to the economic conditions, of
prices for fodder and lean cattle; and (2) a timely balance between the loss
on the one hand and the increased receipts on the other.
But in reality no trouble was taken about any diminution worth mentioning
in the prices for fodder of any kind, especially for concentrated and substitute
fodders. The high prices of fodder have continued, while the prices of cattle
have not merely been lowered, but let down with a rush. That constitutes a
vicious circle dangerous to production. It is impossible to raise cheap produce
with expensive means of production. Besides it remains true that the prices
for concentrated and substitute fodders in the economic year 1917 are still




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

higher than the basic prices for bread grain, indeed, in some instances much
higher than the basic prices and the early thrashing premiums together.
The prices of live stock dropped violently without any compensation for tht
loss of receipts, amounting roughly to one and one-half billion marks, from the
sale of lean cattle. The compensation would have lain (1) in a corresponding
raising of the prices of milk and (2 ) in the higher receipts from the new grain
prices.
In accordance with this the prices of cattle might have been reduced by
about 5 per cent on June 1 if, simultaneously with the publication of the new
scheme of prices on March 19, a minimum milk price adapted to the increased
costs of production had been fixed in the different Federal States, differing
in accordance with the circumstances of each. The second lowering might
then have been made when the cheap green fodder came in, i. e., about August
1, and the third after the raised prices of grain had had their effect, i. e.,
about October 1.
Agriculture and cattle breeding can not be treated apart from each other.
Together they constitute one complicated mechanism. Anyone taking out a
wheel at the wrong place and time puts the whole machine out of gear.
But in reality the time and extent of the lowering of prices were determined
by certain political considerations as to the mood of the masses. It was feared
that the diminution of the bread and flour rations which was necessitated by
the inventory of February 15 would cause discontent and perhaps even danger­
ous commotions. Therefore, the doubling of the meat ration for four months
was immediately promised, and in order to obtain the deliveries of lean cattle
necessary to carry out this promise, the farmers were threatened with the
bogy of a considerable fall in the price of pigs on May 1, and the terror of a
like fall in the price of lean cattle for July 1. The effect of this is that Ger­
many’s stock of pigs is decimated, further breeding is checked, and a serious
shortage of fat is imminent. The raids on the larger live stock in a few weeks
became intolerable.
Hundreds of thousands of thin animals, which might
in the summer have put on flesh finely for the winter in the green pastures, fell
a sacrifice to the butcher’s ax. Even the milch cows, the plough oxen, and
above all the stock of calves and heifers, which were to have prevented the milk
famine, unfortunately have been slaughtered. The doubling of the meat ration
was bound to have a bad effect on the stock of horned cattle as soon as the
supply of pigs ready for slaughter gave out, which took place somewhere about
May 20. The doubled meat ration necessitated from this time onward not a
double amount of slaughtering from the stock of oxen, but a treble amount,
owing to the fact that the civil population formerly supplied its meat needs
principally from pork, and that in summer the average killing weight of pigs
had seriously diminished. A t the cattle collecting office in Ratisbon, for in­
stance, the average weight in January, 1917, was 484 kilograms [1,067.03
pounds], but in June no more than 370 kilograms [815.70 pounds].
Not only cereals, fodder, eating turnips, and livestock, but also potatoes, have
been involved in the new price policy. Here, however, a uniform regulation was
avoided, and only outside limits were fixed of 160 marks per metric ton [$1.04
per bushel of 60 pounds] for deliveries between July 1 and September 14, and
of 100 marks per metric ton [65 cents per bushel of 60 pounds] for deliveries
from September 15. Starting from these maxima, the State central authorities
or the officers appointed by them have power to raise the price for their district
or parts of their district, with the consent of the Imperial Potato Office, to 200
marks per metric ton [$1,295 per bushel of 60 pounds] for the period July 1 to
July 31, and to 120 marks per metric ton [78 cents per bushel of 60 pounds]
from September 15, 1917. For the period August 1, 1917, to September 14, 1917,




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

13

they can also lower the price to a final price of 100 marks per metric ton [65
cents per bushel of 60 pounds]. In this manner there will be in effect a series
of different potato prices in the different parts of Germany, and probably also
the graduated decline from week to week which last year induced the growers in
many cases to dig unripe potatoes so as to secure the higher price of the earlier
week.
The principle of the reversal of the W ar Food Bureau’s price policy was
right, but the method of carrying it out was wrong, from the point of view
of both the producer and the consumer, for production has been seriously hin­
dered and partly stopped, but the consumers are also injured because in this
time of extreme scarcity every limitation of production falls on the consumers
in the end, since Germany will have to make its own produce do for many
years to come, and this can be done only if the foundations of production are
being guarded.
Besides the change in price policy the new imperial grain regulations are
conspicuous in the economic plans for 1917-18. In several points the regula­
tions for the 1917 harvest differ materially from those for 1916.
(1) The total requisitioning extends not only to bread grain as in 1916, but
also to barley, oats, pulse, buckwheat, m illet; not merely to flour, but also
to bruised grain, groats, hulled barley, grits, and flakes.
(2) All grains and grain products and pulse come under the management
of the Imperial Grain Office. The Imperial Barley Office and the Pulse Office
are shelved, and the Oat Purchasing Office degraded to a mere intermediary
office between the Imperial Grain Office and the W ar Office. The buying up of
oats and barley for the manufacture of food preparations and beer against
special purchasing vouchers ceases, and proper amounts and qualities for this
purpose will be allotted by the Imperial Grain Office.
(3 ) The economic autonomy of the communal unions for the harvest year
1917-18 is considerably curtailed. Only those are to count as economically
autonomous communal unions, which, according to the experiences of the
harvest years 1915 and 1916, as far as can be foreseen, have sufficient for the
supply of their population until May 15, 1918; that is to say, for nine months
(three months in the spring).
(4) The communal union must see to it, at its own risk, that the crops cul­
tivated in its district , are harvested and thrashed in a suitable way, and that
the requisitioned supplies are suitably garnered and treated and delivered
according to regulations. For the fulfillment of its task it may requisition
the agricultural machines, tools, and working stock of every kind existing in
the district.
(5) The communal unions shall make use of commissioners and com­
munes for collecting the requisitioned grain. In.every communal union there
must be at least two commissioners for this work. It is intended in this way
to create a certain competition, and thus promote a quicker seizure of the grain.
The communes have the same duties as the communal unions regarding suit­
able harvesting, etc., as specified here under (4 ).
(6) That the entire crop will be seized is to be guaranteed by the introduc­
tion of the agricultural card. The communal union must keep for every agri­
cultural undertaking in its district an economic card according to the form
fixed by the Imperial Grain Office, and must allow the Imperial Grain Office
and its deputies to inspect the agricultural cards on demand. The communal
union may also impose on the member communes the obligation of keeping
agricultural cards for their district.
The extension of requisitioning undoubtedly means a greater assurance that
the civil population and the army will be fed, and a certain guaranty that the




14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

trade In grain products and the preparation of beer actually gets the amounts
assigned to it in the economic plan.
The concentration of the management of all grain, grain products, and pulse
in one office facilities a clear view of all the supplies existing, and guarantees
their better distribution and a stricter control of consumption. The abandon­
ment of purchasing vouchers stops outbidding, and thus simplifies the task
of getting the goods. The agricultural industry will be glad of this concentra­
tion, as sales are thus considerably simplified.
Through the limitation of economic autonomy numerous communal unions
lose its advantages in the economic year 1917-18. These advantages are the
following: ( a ) An economically autonomous communal union may have the
bread grain, procured by itself or assigned to it by the Imperial Grain Office,
milled for its own use to the amount it requires, deducting the seed supply;
(&) it may make contracts with the mills of its district and so occupy the
milling trade of its district in a useful w a y ; (c) it can procure the crops
requisitioned on its own account and deliver them as seller to the Imperial
Grain Office according to its business conditions.
The nonautonomous communal unions, on the other hand, are subject to
the favor or disfavor of the Imperial Grain Office. They must ask for their
flour from the Imperial Grain Office, and so lose all the advantages of autono­
mous milling. They may not themselves sell the supplies requisitioned in their
district, and so lose all the gains of autonomous delivery; small mills are at
a standstill in their districts. These disadvantages are undoubtedly of great
economic significance, especially for medium and small agricultural undertak­
ings. In Bavaria this limitation of the autonomy of communal unions will not
be made.
The power, given to the communal unions, of requisitioning, in case of need,
agricultural tools and working stock of every kind, means a considerable
guaranty for the food supply of the nation. In the carrying out of early
thrashing this authorization is already playing a great part.
The appointment of at least two commissioners in every communal union
has its serious drawbacks. The help of the communes will considerably facili­
tate the getting of supplies, provided there is in the commune a good burgo­
master, or, if he is at the front, a good deputy, and provided that he has good
auxiliary forces at his disposal.
The object of the agricultural card is to ascertain the results of the harvest
as accurately as possible, and to control sharply the private consumption of
farmers and the amount to be delivered by them. The agricultural card is to
ascertain the superficial area of each farm, the areas cultivated with each crop,
the number of people belonging to each household, and the live stock owned,
the results of the preliminary crop estimates, and, after harvest, the amount
of grain for the farmer’s own consumption and for fodder, the minimum
quota for delivery, and the consignments actually sent in. The system is
doubtless ideal in theory, but impossible in practice. Indispensable for its
realization would b e:
(1) Months-long preparations for the production of a suitable card index.
(2) The existence of a sufficient staff skilled in making card indexes.
(3) Continued preservation of details of agricultural cards for the course
of a whole year, with reference to all changes which unforeseen circumstances,
errors of estimate, changes in quota demanded, diminution by loss, accidents,
and decay would have as their consequence.
W hat man in his senses could believe that after the harvest of 1917 has
already begun it would be possible to create the necessary machinery for the




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

15

smooth working of the imperial agricultural cards? But if this is impossible
the agricultural card is but a blunt sword, a huge burden for the communaL
unions, a means of dishonest chicanery on the part of producers without the
guaranties of any corresponding results.
The regulation of the potato supply for the economic year 1917-18 offers
no strikingly new points as compared with last year. The system of com­
pulsory consignments has been adhered to. Evidently the idea of making the
potato supply certain by means of delivery contracts which Herr von Batocki,
the former president of the W ar Food Bureau, announced in December, 1916,
as a new gospel, has not led to the desired results in practice. I f the 1917
system is not to fail just as miserably as that of 1916, then the following is
necessary:
(1) The assessment of the individual communal union and its assessment,
in turn, upon the individual potato growers must to some extent correspond with
the actual harvest. Therefore, this assessment must not be made until by
superficial tests the probable crop can be calculated with some amount of
accuracy.
(2) The buying up must be better organized.
(3) The arrangements for delivery must be made more quickly.
(4) Consignments must as far as possible come from places near at hand,
and unnecessary carriage expenses are to be avoided.
(5) The demands of the communal unions must be tested as regards their.
Justification, within the prescribed quota, and storing and consumption must
be better superintended than hitherto.
Also the potato must be included on the agricultural card. The agricultural
card drawn up to suit the Bundesrath regulation of June 21, 1917, must be
supplemented by a weekly note sent in to the central office by the communal
unions as to the stock in store on the day the note is sent, and as to what comes
in and goes out every week; for the scarcity of the past year must not be
wholly attributed to faulty requisitioning from the producers, but at least as
much, if not more, to illegal consumption on the part of the communal unions.
The supply of fruit and vegetables is meeting with the same difficulties as last
year. All the activity of the Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office, and of the
different State, provincial, and district offices, and all the fixing of maximums,
even if they hit producers, wholesale dealers, and retail trade equally, could
not alter it in the least. It seems that such perishable goods do not admit of
State control. To this must be added the impossibility of uniform prices
throughout the Empire, and as long as these do not exist the danger of diverting
goods from the low-priced to the high-priced neighborhoods is inevitable. In
addition to this, it is not in the least to the interest of the towns to supervise
the prices fixed for wholesale and retail trade and to punish for excessive
prices, for every town which tries to carry out the law in this direction risks
entire cessation of imports. Perhaps it would be best if the quota were sharply
defined in the case of the preserving trade and for the sake of better control
were entirely managed by the State, otherwise allowing unrestricted free trade.

D r . S c h lit t e n b a u e r c o n c lu d e s h is a r t ic le , w h ic h is r e m a r k a b le b e ­
c a u se th e c r it ic is m s c o n t a in e d in it e m a n a te f r o m a n a g r a r ia n , a
m e m b e r o f a c la s s p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r e d b y t h e G e r m a n I m p e r i a l a n d
S ta te G o v e r n m e n ts , w ith th e f o l l o w i n g a d m o n it io n :
I f you pinch your foot in too tight a shoe you will end by not being able to
walk. This fate threatens the whole State economically. W e must therefore




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

moderate our centralization and monopolization. Let us by all means improve
the institutions necessitated by the war, but do not let us create new ones
which serve the interests of the capitalists rather than the community, nay,
injure the community more than they benefit it.

EARLY THRASHING PREMIUMS.1

A survey of food stocks taken in the spring of 1917 brought to
light the fact that the stocks of bread grain had fallen much below
what they had been thought to be. It became evident that by the
middle of August the stocks of bread grain would be insufficient to
tide over into the new harvest year. Without taking much time to
investigate the causes of this discrepancy in stocks the Government,
in order to promote early thrashing of the new harvest, on June 2
issued a decree providing premiums for the early thrashing and de­
livery of bread grain, barley, and oats. This decree granted to
farmers a premium of 60 marks per metric ton (39 cents per bushel
of 60 pounds) for delivery of new grain on or before August 15, of
40 marks (26 cents per bushel of 60 pounds) for delivery during the
second half of August, and of 20 marks (13 cents per bushel of 60
pounds) for delivery during September.
With respect to the effect of these premiums Herr Sundermann,
editor of the bulletin of the German Agricultural Association makes
the following statement:2
The thrashing premiums have done their work, favored by the dry harvest
period.
In the chief bread grain provinces the deliveries from the early
thrashing districts have in some parts been very large, even up to the last hours
of the period fixed. In very many districts the thrashed grain is estimated at
two-thirds to three-fourths of the whole harvest. Control of the harvest is
rendered easier thereby, so that it is the duty of all concerned to see that the
grain is properly stored. In some parts it has been difficult to obtain the neces­
sary storage room and these difficulties are not yet removed; but they are being
removed, of that there is no doubt. The yield is on the whole that of a medium
harvest; here and there it is below this, although the premature ripening has
not assumed the proportion feared in certain districts. In any case there will
be no grain to spare, as we might have expected from the first, and we shall
have to strain every nerve to make the grain last till the next harvest. The
good quality, fortunately, guarantees that the bread will be wholesome and
more nutritious.

An official notice with respect to the early thrashing premiums, sent
by the War Food Bureau to a Berlin daily paper,3 contained the
following statement:
The early thrashing bonus of 60 marks per metric ton (39 cents per bushel
of 60 pounds), valid for all kinds of grain till August 15, has had the desired
effect of a prompt delivery of bread grain. Oats and summer barley have,
1 Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Aug. 22, 1917.
* Idem. Aug. 30, 1817.
* Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 15, 1917.




Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

17

however, not only been supplied in inferior quantities, as was to be expected
owing to their late time of ripening, but have not even been sufficient to meet
the needs of the army. The president of the W ar Food Bureau has therefore
decided in an order of August 11 (amending the early thrashing order of
June 2, 1917) that the early thrashing bonus of 60 marks per metric ton should
continue in force for the delivery of oats and barley. How long the bonus will
remain so high depends upon the amount of the deliveries in the next few weeks.

W i t h r e s p e c t t o th e la r g e d e liv e r ie s o f b r e a d g r a in a M u n ic h d a ily
p a p e r 1 sta te s t h a t f o r s o m e tim e p a s t th e B a v a r ia n M in is t r y o f th e
I n t e r i o r h a s b e e n c o n t e m p la t in g a m e a s u r e c a lc u la t e d t o ste m th e
la r g e in flu x o f b r e a d g r a in in t o to w n s , w h ic h th e p re s e n t s h o r ta g e ,
b o t h o f s t o r e r o o m a n d la b o r , h a s r e n d e r e d i t d iffic u lt t o d e a l w it h . A n
o r d e r h a s a c c o r d in g l y b e e n is s u e d in c o n ju n c t i o n w it h th e W a r F o o d
B u r e a u a n d t h e I m p e r i a l G r a i n O ffic e t h a t i n B a v a r i a t h e d e l i v e r i e s
o f b r e a d g r a in s h o u ld b e s t o p p e d f o r 14 d a y s .
F u r th e r , th e e a r ly
t h r a s h in g b o n u s , r e d u c e d o n A u g u s t 15 f r o m 6 0 m a r k s t o 4 0 m a r k s
p e r m e tr ic to n (3 9 to 26 cen ts p e r b u sh e l o f 60 p o u n d s ) w ill b e p a id
d u r in g th e p e r io d S e p te m b e r 1 t o 15. T h e m in is t r y h a s t e le g r a p h e d
to a ll c o m m u n a l u n io n s t o s u sp e n d a c c e p ta n c e o f b r e a d g r a in f r o m
fa r m e r s f o r 14 d a y s . E x c e p t io n s m a y b e a llo w e d b y th e S ta te g r a in
o ffic e .
I t m a y b e a d d e d th a t th e sam e n e w s p a p e r u n d e r d a te o f A u g u s t
15 g iv e s a n a c c o u n t o f th e g r a i n - d r y i n g in s t it u t io n in M u n ic h .
The
p r o c e s s l a s t s 2^ h o u r s i n e a c h c a s e , a n d r e d u c e s t h e m o i s t u r e f r o m 2 2
t o 11 o r 1 2 p e r c e n t , a f t e r w h i c h t h e g r a i n c a n b e m i l l e d a n d t h e f l o u r
baked.
A t th e e n d o f a d e b a te in th e E e ic h s t a g o n th e q u e s tio n o f a S ta te
s u b s i d y t o s e c u r e f o o d f o r t h e p o o r e r c la s s e s , t h e s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c
m o tio n f o r th e p a y m e n t o u t o f fu n d s o f th e I m p e r ia l T r e a s u r y o f
a ll e x p e n s e s f o r e a r ly t h r a s h in g p r e m iu m s w a s c a r r ie d .2
U S E O F G R A IN A S F O D D E R .

A S ile s ia n p a p e r 8 sta tes u n d e r d a te o f S e p te m b e r 12 th a t th e W a r
F o o d B u r e a u h a s is s u e d a n o r d e r s t ip u la t in g th e a m o u n t o f f o d d e r
g r a in (o a t s , b a r le y , a n d m ix e d c o r n ) w h ic h m a y b e u s e d f o r a n im a l
fo d d e r .
S o f a r i t is o n ly a q u e s t io n o f f i x i n g t h e a m o u n t t i l l N o v e m ­
b e r 1 5 , a s a f i n a l d e c i s i o n c a n n o t b e a r r i v e d a t u n t i l t h e r e s u lt o f t h e
h a rv e s t s u r v e y (u n d e r ta k e n fr o m S e p te m b e r 20 t ill O c t o b e r 5 ) g i v ­
i n g a c l e a r e s t i m a t e o f t h e s t o c k s a t d i s p o s a l , is k n o w n .
F a r m h o r s e s a n d m u le s a r e e n t itle d t o a s u p p ly o f o a ts o r a m i x ­
tu r e o f o a ts a n d b a r le y a t a b a s ic r a t io n o f
k i l o g r a m s ( 3 .3 1
p o u n d s ) d a ily , b e s id e s w h ic h h e a v y - w o r k in g d r a u g h t h o r s e s , w it h
1 Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Aug. 17, 1917.
2 Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Oct. 2, 1917.
8 Schlesische Zeitung. Breslau, Sept. 12, 1917.
45499°— Bull. 242— 18-------2




18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

th e a p p r o v a l o f th e c o m m u n a l u n io n s , w il l r e c e iv e a s u p p le m e n t a r y
r a t i o n o f 2 k i l o g r a m s ( 4 .4 1 p o u n d s ) d a i l y ; d r a u g h t o x e n a n d c o w s
(u s e d o n th e fie ld s in d e fa u lt o f o t h e r d r a u g h t c a ttle a n d lim it e d to
2 c o w s p e r f a r m ) w i l l r e c e i v e 5 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 1 0 .2 3 p o u n d s ) , a n d
b u l l s f o r b r e e d i n g p u r p o s e s , 2 5 k i l o g r a m s (5 5 .1 2 p o u n d s ) , f o r t h e
w h o le tim e (S e p t . 12 t o N o v . 1 5 ).
P ig s f o r b r e e d in g p u r p o s e s m a y
b e s u p p lie d w it h 50 k ilo g r a m s o f o a ts , b a r le y , o r m ix e d c o r n f o r th e
w h o le tim e .
T h e l j - k i l o g r a m r a t io n c o u ld , u n d e r t h is o r d e r , b e s u p p lie d o n ly
t o th o s e t o w n h o rs e s w h ic h w e r e u se d in c o m m e r c ia l tr a d e , a n d in d u s ­
tr y , o n w a r w o r k . A l l o th e r h o rs e s , e s p e c ia lly fa n c y h o rs e s m a in ­
t a in e d f o r c o n v e n ie n c e o r p le a s u r e o n ly , w e r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e
s u p p ly o f g r a in fo d d e r .
C o m m u n a l u n io n s a re a u t h o r iz e d b y th e
o r d e r t o g r a d u a t e th e r a tio n s f o r h o rs e s , w it h in th e lim it s o f t h e ir
t o t a l r e tu r n s , a c c o r d in g t o lo c a l -c o n d itio n s , h a v in g r e g a r d t o th e
im p o r ta n c e f o r w a r p u r p o s e s , a m o u n t o f w o r k e x e c u te d , b r e e d , a n d
fo d d e r stores.
INCREASED RATIONS OF BREAD AND FLOUR.

T h e in c o m in g o f th e n e w h a rv e st o f b r e a d g r a in h a s in d u c e d th e
I m p e r ia l G o v e r n m e n t t o in c r e a s e th e b r e a d r a t io n . T h e p r in c ip le s
n e w l y a n n o u n c e d a s s u m e a b r e a d r a t i o n o f 2 k i l o g r a m s ( 4 .4 1 p o u n d s )
p e r p e r s o n p e r w e e k f r o m A u g u s t 13. T h e f ix in g o f th e a c tu a l r a t io n
h a s b e e n l e f t t o th e lo c a l f o o d b o a r d s a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly v a r ie s
s lig h t ly f r o m t o w n t o t o w n . T h e n e w r e g u la t io n s f o r th e b r e a d a n d
flo u r s u p p ly o f L e i p z i g f o r th e p e r i o d A u g u s t 14 t o O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 1 7 ,
m a y s e r v e as a t y p ic a l e x a m p le o f lo c a l r e g u la t io n .
W ith resp ect
to th ese th e L e ip z ig e r Y o lk s z e it u n g 1 m a k e s th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:
Those entitled to the supply will quickly discover what this new regulation
means to them. Instead of the meat supplement, 500 grams [1.1 pounds] of
bread will be supplied till October 1. That this is not sufficient compensation
need not be pointed out. After October 1 the 500 grams of bread w in be omitted
and potatoes supplied instead. It is not possible to go on substituting one food
for another in the hope of making the consumers believe they are thus being
compensated.
The general rule in supply is that infants under a year receive 500 grams
[1.1 pounds] of white bread or 375 grams [0.83 pounds] of rusks; children from 1
year of age to 6, 1£ kilograms [3.31 pounds] of bread; and all persons above that
age 2 kilograms [4.41 pounds]. Instead of 500 grams of white bread, 375 grams
of flour or 7 rolls can be drawn. Those entitled to the supply may, besides bread,
draw every 4 weeks 100 grams [0.22 pound] of flour (if the supply permits).
Those between the ages of 12 and 18 entitled to a supply of bread, if not receiving
the “ heavy workers* ” supplement, can obtain 500 grams ex tra ; so, too, “ heavy
workers.”
“ Heaviest workers ” may draw up to 1 kilogram [2.2 pounds]




1 Leipziger Yolkszeitung.

Leipzig, Aug. 7, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

19

extra. Domestic servants will not receive the heavy workers’ supplement after
August 14, but those having hitherto received it may continue to do so till
September 3. It is expected that when the final regulations for the coming
economic year (including those as to potatoes) are fixed, the heavy workers’
ration will be revised and reduced.
The flour supplement of 500 grams, or, if desired, 350 grams [0.77 pound]
of bread, for expectant and nursing mothers will be continued, as well as the
supply for infants and invalids. The rate of milling of 94 per cent for wheat
and rye will remain in force. These new regulations do not affect the supply
of bread or flour in lieu of potatoes.

I n B e r lin th e n o r m a l w e e k ly b r e a d r a t io n f o r a d u lt p e r s o n s , t o
c o m e i n t o f o r c ^ A u g u s t 1 3 , h a s b e e n f i x e d a t 1 ,9 5 0 g r a m s ( 4 . 3 0
p o u n d s ).1
I n a d d i t i o n , 2 5 0 g r a m s ( 0 .5 5 p o u n d ) o f m e a t , 5 0 g r a m s
( 0 .1 1 p o u n d ) o f b u t t e r , a n d 3 0 g r a m s ( 0 .0 6 6 p o u n d ) o f m a r g a r i n e
w il l b e t h e w e e k ly r a t io n s in G r e a t e r B e r lin .
I t s h o u ld b e m e n tio n e d h e re th a t d u r in g th e p a s t su m m e r G e r ­
m a n y h a d c o n s id e r a b le t r o u b le w it h s o -c a lle d “ r o p y ” b r e a d .
The
E x p e r im e n t a l I n s t it u t e f o r G r a in P r e p a r a t i o n is s u e d t o t h e p r e s s
t h e f o l l o w i n g s ta te m e n t g i v in g h in t s as t o h o w t o p r e v e n t th e
t r o u b le .2
This peculiar bread disease, which has made its appearance in several
localities during the hot sultry weather, is well known to the expert, as it oc­
curs almost every year in particularly hot spring days and at the height of
summer. When cut, the bread emits a peculiar smell, which is at first almost
fruity, and not exactly disagreeable, but afterwards grows sharper, and finally
becomes overpowering and offensive. The crumb of such bread is first some­
what moist, then becomes sticky, more or less yellow to yellow-brown in
color, and when cut or broken hangs together in long, sticky, tough threads,
whence its name of “ ropy ” bread. Such bread, since it causes nausea and
is otherwise not innocuous, is not to be eaten but must be burned immediately.
The causes of this bread disease are fungi, the so-called hay or potato bac­
teria, which are found in almost all kinds of flour, particularly the dark flour.
The germs of these bacteria are very heat resisting, and survive the process of
baking unweakened. The comparative rarity of the disease is due to the
fact that for the development of these bacteria a very high temperature is
necessary. The bacteria themselves and their germs are harmless. It is
therefore only necessary to prevent their development and the consequent
spoiling of the bread. Bakers are not immediately responsible for the ap­
pearance of this bread disease, all the less as the bread does not begin to
decay until some days after baking. When a baker learns that his bread goes
ropy he can check the disease by leavening the dough sharply, by baking the
bread well, and by washing out his utensils with acids. But the public must
cooperate by storing their bread in a cool, airy place. The closed bread tin
is quite unsuitable for storing the essentially moist war bread during hot
weather; it acts as a veritable forcing ground for the bacteria. The bread
should either be kept under a wire cover or hung up like a ham in a linen or
gauze bag. The baker should at once be informed when the disease appears.




1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 12, 1917.
•Idem. Aug. 3, 1917.

20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

POTATOES.

A f t e r th e c o n t in u o u s u n d e r n u t r it io n s u ffe r e d d u r in g th e w in t e r
a n d s p r in g th e G e r m a n p e o p le h o p e d th a t th e e a r ly p o t a t o c r o p w o u ld
b r in g so m e r e lie f , b u t as la te a s A u g u s t 14, 19 1 7 , th e K h e in is h W e s t f a lis c h e Z e it u n g s ta te d th a t e x p e c t a t io n s in t h is r e s p e c t h a d
b e e n d is a p p o in t e d , f o r th e p r o m is e d 2 ^ -k ilo g r a m r a t io n o f p o t a t o e s
( p lu s 2^ k ilo g r a m s m o r e f o r “ h e a v y ” w o r k e r s ) h a d , d e s p it e th e h ig h
p r ic e s s t ill m a in t a in e d , s c a r c e ly e v e r b e e n e ffe c t iv e in p r a c t ic e . D u r ­
in g th e s a m e w e e k , h o w e v e r , th e r e w a s c o n s id e r a b le im p r o v e m e n t o f
th e p o t a t o s u p p ly , a n d , as th e p o t a t o c r o p p r o m is e d t o b e a g o o d
m e d iu m o n e , th e p r e s id e n t o f th e W a r F o o d B u r e a u is s u e d th e f o l ­
lo w in g r e g u la t io n s : 1
P r o v i s i o n a l l y t h e w e e k l y r a t i o n o f p o t a t o e s is f i x e d a t a m a x i m u m
o f 3^ k i l o g r a m s ( 7 .7 2 p o u n d s ) . T h i s r a t i o n i s o n l y a u n i t o f r e c k ­
o n in g , a n d th e c o m m u n a l u n io n s m a y v a r y th e a c tu a l r a t io n a c c o r d ­
i n g t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , b y a g e c la s s e s , w i t h a v i e w t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l
c o n s u m e r ’s o c c u p a t io n , o r in o t h e r w a y s ;, b u t th e a v e r a g e r a t io n
m u s t n o t e x c e e d 3^ k i l o g r a m s .
I n o r d e r t o g u a r a n t e e t h e s u p p l y u n d e r a l l c ir c u m s t a n c e s , e v e n
s h o u ld th e c o m in g h a r v e s t u n e x p e c t e d ly p r o v e s m a ll, it is fu r t h e r
p r o v id e d th a t th e w h o le p o t a t o c r o p m u st b e s e c u r e d f o r p u b lic
c o n tr o l.
T h e f a r m e r m a y u se o f h is c r o p o f p o t a t o e s s u it a b le f o r
c o n s u m p t io n o n ly th o s e r e q u ir e d f o r h is o w n h o u s e h o ld , a n d m a y
u s e a s f o d d e r o n l y s m a l l p o t a t o e s le s s t h a n 1 i n c h i n l e n g t h a n d
s u c h a s a r e d is e a s e d .
I n p o t a t o -d r y in g a n d s ta r ch fa c to r ie s o n ly
p o t a t o e s g r o w n o n th e fa c t o r ie s ’ o w n la n d m a y b e u t iliz e d . D r ie d
p o ta to e s are e x p r o p r ia te d a n d are t o fo r m a reserv e f o r p e r io d s o f
f r o s t d u r in g w h ic h fr e s h p o t a t o e s c a n n o t b e d e liv e r e d . P o t a t o e s c a n
b e u se d f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f s p ir its o n ly f o r th e m ilit a r y a d m in ­
is tr a tio n .
A s a lr e a d y s ta te d , th e 3 ^ -k ilo g r a m r a t io n is o n ly p r o v is io n a l. T h e
fin a l r e g u la t io n c a n b e is s u e d o n ly w h e n , at th e e n d o f N o v e m b e r ,
t h e i n v e n t o r y h a s s h o w n t h e s iz e o f t h e c r o p . O n l y t h e n , t o o , c a n i t
b e d e c id e d w h e t h e r th e f a r m e r m a y r e t a in f o r h is o w n u se f u r t h e r
q u a n titie s th a n th o s e n o w fix e d .
U n d e r a n y c ir c u m s t a n c e s su ch
fu r t h e r q u a n titie s ca n b e g r a n te d o n ly w h e n th e w in te r s u p p ly o f
i m p o r t i n g d i s t r i c t s i s f u l l y g u a r a n t e e d , a n d i n a d d i t i o n s u f f ic ie n t
q u a n titie s a r e a v a ila b le f o r th e s u p p ly n e x t s p r in g .
A n o r d e r o f th e F e d e r a l c o u n c il r e g u la t in g th e s u p p ly o f seed
p o t a t o e s w a s is s u e d s im u lt a n e o u s ly .1 B y t h is o r d e r c o n t r a c t s f o r
d e liv e r ie s o f see d p o t a t o e s a re p e r m is s ib le o n ly w h e n th e d e liv e r ie s
a r e t o fa r m e r s o r c o m m u n a l u n io n s , a n d m u s t b e c o n c lu d e d b y N o ­




1Berliner

Lokal-Anzeiger.

Berlin, Aug. 18, 19l7.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

21

v e m b e r 15, 1917.
T h e p o t a t o e s m a y b e d e liv e r e d e v e n a f t e r t h is
d a te. P o t a t o e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n c o n t r a c te d f o r as se e d b y N o v e m b e r
15, a n d th e c o n tr a c ts f o r w h ic h h a v e b e e n a p p r o v e d , m a y n o t b e
d r a w n o n b y th e a u t h o r it ie s f o r e a t in g p u r p o s e s .
T r a d e r s a re a l­
lo w e d t o a ct as m id d le m e n in th e s u p p ly o f seed p o ta to e s .
T h e p r o d u c e r s ’ p r ic e s f o r p o ta to e s a re r e g u la te d b y th e o r d e r o f
th e F e d e r a l c o u n c il o f M a r c h 19, 1917. T o c o v e r th e w in t e r ’s n e e d a
m o d e r a te in c re a s e w ill b e a llo w e d t e m p o r a r ily , in c lu d in g a n a llo w ­
a n c e f o r t r a n s p o r t t o th e d is p a t c h in g s ta tio n . T h e r e t a il m a x im u m s
w ill b e fix e d b y th e c o m m u n a l u n io n s , t o w h ic h n o lim it s w il l b e
p r e s c r ib e d , as r e t a il p r ic e s m u s t v a r y a c c o r d in g t o lo c a l c o n d it io n s .
D u r in g S e p te m b e r th e p o t a t o s u p p ly c o n tin u e d g o o d . M a n y d e ­
m a n d s a n d s u g g e s t io n s as t o a n in c r e a s e o f th e p o t a t o r a t io n w e r e
p u t fo r t h fr o m v a r io u s q u a rte rs. I n p a r tic u la r u rb a n o p in io n w a s
a lm o s t u n a n im o u s ly in f a v o r o f r a is in g th e w e e k ly r a t io n f r o m 3^ t o
5 k i l o g r a m s ( 7 .7 2 t o 1 1 p o u n d s ) , a n d t h e u n d e r s e c r e t a r y o f t h e
W a r F o o d B u r e a u e x p r e s s e d a v a g u e h o p e t h a t t h is m a y b e p o s s ib le .1
M e a n t im e , l o c a l a u t h o r it ie s w e r e e v e r y w h e r e m a k in g a r r a n g e m e n t s
f o r th e w in t e r s u p p ly . T h e s e a r r a n g e m e n ts in c lu d e a r e g u la t io n a l­
lo w in g h o u s e h o ld s t o la y in t h e ir o w n w in t e r s to c k s in a d v a n c e .
A t th e e le v e n th h o u r th e W a r F o o d B u r e a u g r a n t e d b o n u s e s t o
g r o w e r s f o r s p e e d y d e liv e r y , lo a d in g , a n d d is p a tc h o f p o ta to e s ,
w h ic h n o t o n ly r a is e d th e p r ic e g r e a t ly b u t in c o n v e n ie n c e d t h e
m u n ic ip a lit ie s , m o s t o f w h ic h h a d a lr e a d y m a d e t h e ir p r ic e a r ­
ra n g em e n ts.
T h e b on u ses h a v e, th e r e fo r e , a ro u se d m u ch a d v e rse
c r it ic is m .
T h e L e ip z ig e r V o lk s z e it u n g ,2 f o r in s ta n c e , s u m m a r iz e s
an a r tic le o f th e H a n n o v e r s c h e r V o lk s w ille o n th e w in te r p r ic e s o f
p o ta to e s in H a n o v e r as f o l l o w s :
The price for late potatoes in the province was, from September 15, pro­
visionally fixed at 6 marks per centner [78 cents per bushel of 60 pounds].
Throughout the Empire, however, regulations have been made to grant bonuses,
similar to the thrashing premiums, to potato growers. For the period Sep­
tember 15 to December 15, a speed bonus of 50 pfennigs per centner [6.5 cents
per bushel of 60 pounds] for delivered potatoes has been fixed. In addi­
tion, a loading bonus of 5 pfennigs [0.65 cents per bushel of 60 pounds]
and a dispatch bonus of 5 pfennigs per centner [0.65 cents per bushel of 60
pounds] and kilometer [0.62 m ile], reckoned by distance from farm to station,
are allowed. These premiums are to be borne by the purchaser, i. e., the
communal authorities. For them, therefore, the price per centner to place
of loading consists of a basic price of 6 marks, an agent’s commission of
35 pfennigs [8.3 cents], a speed bonus of 50 pfennigs, a loading bonus of
5 pfennigs, and possibly a 20 to 80 pfennigs [4.8 to 19 cents] dispatch bonus,
which brings up the price to about 7.50 or 8 marks [97 cents to $1.03 per bushel
of 60 pounds] without freight to the receiving office. There still remains




1 Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Sept. 4, 1917.
a Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Sept. 3, 1917*

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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the cost of freight, cartage from the station, and storing in cellars, and
thus in the fourth winter of the war the price of potatoes may amount to
10 marks or more per centner [$1.30 per bushel of 60 pounds].

T h e s e b o n u se s a n d th e fe a r th a t th e p r o d u c e r ’s p r ic e w o u ld b e
r e d u c e d h a d th e e ffe c t th a t p o ta to e s p o u r e d in t o m o s t to w n s a t a
q u it e e m b a r r a s s in g ra te . I n s o m e p la c e s r a t io n s w e r e d o u b le d , w h ile
in o th e r s t w o o r th r e e w e e k s 5 r a tio n s w e r e issu e d in a s in g le w e e k .
T h e p o t a t o e s w e r e a r r iv in g in s u c h q u a n titie s th a t th e c o m m u n e s
c o u ld n o t a d v a n t a g e o u s ly d is p o s e o f th e m .
N e v e r th e le s s , th e I m ­
p e r ia l P o t a t o O ffic e o r d e r e d t h a t t h e y b e a c c e p t e d . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e
w a s th a t f o r w a n t o f c a rta g e fa c ilit ie s th e r a ilr o a d ca rs c o u ld n o t
b e u n l o a d e d a n d s t o o d i n t h e f r e i g h t y a r d s i m p e d i n g t r a ffic .
The
p o t a t o e s d e t e r io r a t e d , a n d h a d t o b e s o r t e d b y w o m e n s p e c ia lly
a p p o in t e d f o r t h is p u r p o s e b y t h e c o m m u n e s .
A s th ese p o ta to e s
w e r e m o s t ly o f th e fir s t la te v a r ie t y , a n d d id n o t k e e p w e ll, t h e y
c o u ld n o t b e s t o r e d f o r w in t e r u se, a n d la r g e q u a n titie s w e r e in t h is
m a n n e r lo s t t o th e f o o d s u p p ly .1
LIVESTOCK AND MEAT.

T h e fa ilu r e o f a ll f o d d e r c r o p s in m o s t p a r t s o f G e r m a n y h a s le d
to a r e n e w a l o f th e d e m a n d f o r la r g e s la u g h te rin g s , a n d , co n s e ­
q u e n t l y , f o r a n i n c r e a s e d m e a t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h is ^ a u t u m n a n d w i n t e r .
B e g in n in g A u g u s t 15, 1917, th e w e e k ly m e a t r a t io n w a s r e d u c e d
f r o m 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .1 p o u n d s ) t o 2 5 0 g r a m s ( 0 .5 5 p o u n d ) w h e n t h e
b r e a d r a t io n w a s r a is e d . I n S e p t e m b e r , h o w e v e r , t h e m e a t s u p p l y
h a d g r o w n so u n s a t is fa c t o r y th a t e v e n th e r e d u c e d r a t io n w a s f r e ­
q u e n t ly u n o b t a in a b le , in p a r t o r w h o le .
I n B e r lin th e v a lid it y o f th e m e a t c a rd s h a d t o b e e x te n d e d , as
m a n y c o u l d n o t b e r e d e e m e d .8 B u t e v e n t h is d e v ic e h a d t o b e
a b a n d o n e d o n S e p te m b e r 22, o n w h ic h d a te th e m u n ic ip a l a d m in ­
is tr a tio n a n n o u n c e d 8 th a t “ th e v a lid it y o f th e m e a t c a rd s o n w h ic h
in th e c u r r e n t w e e k n o m e a t c o u ld b e d e liv e r e d w ill n o t b e e x te n d e d
t o n e x t w e e k o w i n g t o th e s c a n t y d e liv e r ie s o f th e liv e s t o c k d e a le r s ’
u n io n s a n d t o t h e in c o n v e n ie n c ie s c a u s e d b y th e p r e v io u s e x t e n s io n ,
a n d t h a t n e x t w e e k ’s c o u p o n w il l c e r t a in ly b e f u l l y m e t.” I n S a x o n y
th e L iv e s t o c k D e a le r s ’ U n io n p u b lis h e d a s t a t e m e n t 4 t o th e e ffe c t
th a t a lth o u g h it h a d h it h e r t o s u p p lie d th e S a x o n t o w n s r e g u la r ly
w i t h t h e l i v e s t o c k s u f f ic ie n t f o r a w e e k l y r a t i o n o f 2 5 0 g r a m s ( 0 .5 5
p o u n d ) it w o u ld p r o b a b ly b e n e ce ssa ry d u r in g th e c o m in g w eek s
t o r e d u c e t h e r a t i o n t o 2 0 0 g r a m s ( 0 .4 4 p o u n d ) . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n
1 Vorw&rts. Berlin, Oct. 6, 1917.
* Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Sept. 13, 1917.
* Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 22, 1917.
* Deutsche Tageszeitung. Berlin, Sept. 20,1917. Evening Edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

23

i t s h o u ld a ls o b e s ta te d t h a t in S a x o n y th e r u r a l m e a t r a t io n w a s
r e d u c e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f S e p t e m b e r t o 1 5 0 g r a m s ( 0 .3 3 p o u n d ) . 1
M u n i c h , t o o , w a s i n g r e a t d if f ic u l t i e s , a n d i t i s o n l y b y d i n t o f t h e
m o s t s t r e n u o u s e x e r t io n s t h a t liv e s t o c k c o u l d b e s e c u r e d t h e r e .2
T h e e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e m e a t s u p p l y is s u m m e d
u p in a n a r tic le b y O t t o B r a u n in th e B r e m e r B iir g e r -Z e it u n g p r o ­
t e s t in g a g a in s t th e r e d u c t io n o f th e m e a t r a t io n .8
A f t e r q u o tin g an e x p e rt o p in io n fr o m th e D e u tsch e T a g e s z e itu n g
th a t th e h a s ty in s p e c t io n o f th e s to c k s in J u n e b y th e p a r lia m e n ta r y
c o m m is s io n — th e in s p e c tio n w h ic h e x te n d e d o v e r th e e n tir e E m p ir e
w a s m a d e in th e b r ie f p e r io d o f 19 d a y s — c o u ld le a d o n ly t o
d is ­
t o r t e d a n d e r r o n e o u s v ie w s r e s u ltin g in in e x p e d ie n t m e a s u r e s /’ h e
a p p lie s t h is c r it ic is m t o th e m e a s u r e u n d e r d is c u s s io n :
It is true the commission declares that under no circumstances must agri­
cultural products needed for human beings be used for fodder. But what are
the cattle to be fed on? Vegetable products must now be used to cover the
needs of man, and to so cover them that man shall not gradually perish through
underfeeding. Only what is left may be used for animals. I f this is so the
cattle can not be kept at the high level maintained upon importation of foreign
fodder to the amount of 100,000,000 marks [$23,800,000] annually, which during
the war has almost entirely ceased. The following figures show the condition
of the stocks:
Kind of stock.
Cattle................
Pigs...................
Sheep................

December, 1913. June, 1916.

June, 1917

20,118,067
14,357,578

21,462,071
12,763,610
6,167,400

20,873,629
125,500,000
5,520,768

i Approximate number.

It is beyond question that these large stocks can not be scientifically fod­
dered without endangering the food supply. Chancellor Michaelis, the former
Prussian food commissioner, as well as other High Government officials, have
admitted that prohibitions are insufficient to stop foddering with grain. Den­
mark has taken steps for the reduction of her cattle stocks this year, and
Germany will have to do the same to avert a food catastrophe next spring.
I f fodder sufficient for 6,000,000 cows is stretched to feed 10,000,000, the
quality and quantity of the milk declines. Stable manure also depends, not
on the number of cattle, but on the kind and amount of fodder. In the autumn
the cattle fresh from the pasture are at their best, and both fat and meat
are lost to the food supply if they are brought back to insufficient fodder in
the sheds. The stocks can not be endangered by a 500-gram [1.1 pound] meat
ration if in peace times 1 kilogram [2.2 pounds] per head was the average con­
sumption. Pigs, geese, and other poultry, and the game (unrationed at present)
should alone suffice to provide 500 grams per head per week for six months.
I f it is considered impossible to ration geese, let them be requisitioned at
1 Fleischer Zeitung. Berlin, Sept. 8, 1917.
* Munchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Sept. 16, 1917*
• Bremer Biirger-Zeitung. Bremen, Aug. 25, 1917.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

suitable prices for hospitals, war kitchens, etc., thus releasing other meat for
the rationed sale.
By taking under State control all meat produced and imported, and by
equitable distribution, the 500-gram ration could be maintained without serious
danger to the livestock. Never again must it come to livestock being fed 011
grain and potatoes while men are being fed on fodder root crops.

I t s h o u l d b e r e m a r k e d t h a t B r a u n p r o b a b l y d o e s n o t s u f f i c i e n t ly
a l l o w f o r t h e r e s u lt s o f i n c r e a s e d s l a u g h t e r i n g s i n c e t h e c e n s u s o f
J u n e 1, 19 1 7 , o r f o r th e s m a lle r w e ig h t o f c a ttle , w h ic h , o f c o u r s e ,
m e a n s th a t th e sa m e n u m b e r o f h e a d w ill n o t p r o d u c e th e sa m e
a m o u n t o f m e a t.
T h e r e m a y , o f c o u r s e , in a d d it io n , b e a te n d e n c y
o n th e p a r t o f th e sto ck b re e d e rs to h o ld b a c k s to ck fr o m th e m a r k e t ;
b u t w h a te v e r th e re a so n , co m m e n ts o f th e d a ily p ress o n th e m e a t
s u p p l y m a k e i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e is , a t le a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , a n i n c r e a s i n g
d iffic u lt y in g e t t in g liv e s t o c k a n d , c o n s e q u e n t ly , m e a t.
I n S a x o n y a n e w o r d e r h a s b e e n is s u e d t o e s ta b lis h s t r ic t e r c o n t r o l
o v e r th e c a ttle t r a d e .1 T h is n e w o r d e r c o n c e r n in g tr a d e in liv e s to c k
f o r b r e e d in g a n d o th e r p u r p o s e s p r o v id e s th a t in th e fu t u r e a n y
o n e w h o w is h e s t o p r o c u r e a b u l l o c k , c a l f , s h e e p , p i g , o r s u c k i n g p i g ,
u n le s s h e is a c o m p u ls o r y m e m b e r o f th e L iv e s t o c k D e a le r s ’ U n io n
o r is a b u t c h e r b u y i n g s l a u g h t e r c a t t l e o n a p u r c h a s e v o u c h e r , m u s t
o b t a in a p u r c h a s e lic e n s e f r o m h is c o m m u n a l u n io n o r h is lo c a l
a u th o r ity .
T h e s a m e h o ld s g o o d f o r th o s e w h o w is h t o b u y a p i g
o r s u c k lin g p i g in o r d e r t o fa t t e n it f o r t h e ir o w n c o n s u m p t io n .
S u c h w i l l b e a b l e t o o b t a i n a l ic e n s e o n l y i f t h e y c a n p r o v e t h e y a r e
in a p o s i t i o n t o f e e d t h e a n i m a l o n r e le a s e d f o d d e r d u r i n g t h e w h o l e
o f th e th re e m o n th s o f fa tte n in g .
I f c a ttle a r e s c a rc e a t p re s e n t, p ig s , a m o n g w h ic h h e a v y s la u g h t e r ­
in g h a s t a k e n a n d is t a k in g p la c e , a re s t ill s c a r c e r . W i t h a v ie w n o
d o u b t t o p r e v e n t in g ir r e g u la r it ie s d u e t o t h is s h o r t a g e , n e w r e g u la ­
t io n s h a v e b e e n in t r o d u c e d s e c u r in g a s tr ic t e r c o n t r o l o v e r th e t r a d e
in p i g s . T h e L o k a l - A n z e i g e r 2 s t a t e s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o a n e w o r d e r
n o m o r e p r i v a t e s a le s o f p i g s m a y t a k e p l a c e i n t h e t o w n d i s t r i c t o f
B e r lin o r in th e p r o v in c e o f B r a n d e n b u r g . O n O c t o b e r 6 th e sa m e
d a ily p a p e r r e p o r t s t h a t t h is p r o h ib it io n o f th e p r iv a t e t r a d e in p ig s
h a s b e e n e x te n d e d t o th e e n tir e E m p ir e b y an o r d e r a n d r e g u la tio n s
c o n ta in in g th e f o llo w in g p r o v is io n s :
P i g s w e i g h i n g m o r e t h a n 2 5 k i l o g r a m s (5 5 .1 2 p o u n d s ) , e v e n i f n o t
f o r s l a u g h t e r i n g , m a y b e s o l d o n l y t o c a t t l e - r e c e i v i n g o ff ic e s a p p o i n t e d
b y th e S ta te . N e w r e g u la t io n s , r e d u c in g th e s u p p ly o f m e a t a llo w e d
t o s e l f - p r o v i d e r s , 8 w e r e is s u e d a t t h e s a m e t i m e .
F r o m O c t o b e r 15, 1917, s e lf-p r o v id e r s m u st d e liv e r th e fo l lo w i n g
q u a n titie s o f b a c o n o r f a t t o c o m m u n a l u n io n s f r o m h o m e s la u g h ­
1 Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Oct. 6, 1917.
2 Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Oct. 5, 1917.
s Persons providing their own meat from stock they have raised themselves.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE,-----GERMANY.

25

t e r in g s o f p ig s , f o r a s u it a b le r e m u n e r a t io n : F r o m p ig s w e ig h in g
f r o m 6 0 t o 7 0 k i l o g r a m s (1 3 2 .2 8 t o 1 5 4 .3 2 p o u n d s ) , 1 k i l o g r a m (2 .2
p o u n d s ) ; f r o m p i g s w e i g h i n g f r o m 7 0 t o 8 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 5 4 .3 2 t o
1 7 6 .3 7 p o u n d s ) , 2 k i l o g r a m s ( 4 . 4 p o u n d s ) ; f r o m p i g s w e i g h i n g o v e r
8 0 k i l o g r a m s a f u r t h e r ( ^ k i l o g r a m ) (1 .1 p o u n d s ) f o r e v e r y 1 0 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 2 2 .0 5 p o u n d s ) , o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f , i n e x c e s s o f 8 0 k i l o g r a m s .
F r o m f o r m e r b r e e d in g p ig s 3 p e r c e n t o f th e w e ig h t o f th e a n im a l
w h e n k ille d m u s t b e d e liv e r e d in b a c o n o r fa t . T h e S ta te c e n tr a l a u ­
t h o r i t i e s m a y r a is e t h e q u o t a , b u t m a y a l s o d e c i d e t h a t n o t h i n g n e e d
b e d e l i v e r e d f r o m p i g s s u p p l y i n g le s s t h a n 1 J k i l o g r a m s ( 3 .3 p o u n d s )
o f la r d .
Self-providing industrial establishments, hospitals, etc., and selfproviders who are allowed a supplementary fat supply on account
of trying manual labor, are not required to deliver anything. Game
and poultry is accounted for at the old rate.

M e a t f r o m s la u g h t e r in g c a ttle , e x c e p t c a lv e s u p t o t h r e e w e e k s o ld ,
a n d p ig s , m a y b e r e t a in e d b y th e s e l f - p r o v i d e r o n th e b a s is o f t w o t h ir d s a b o v e th e w e e k ly a m o u n t a llo w e d b y th e m e a t c a r d .
M eat
fr o m c a lv e s u p t o 3 w e e k s o ld a n d o f p ig s s h o u ld b e r e c k o n e d o n th e
b a s is o f th e f o l l o w i n g w e e k ly q u a n titie s p e r p e r s o n : C a lv e s u p t o 3
w e e k s o l d , 5 0 0 g r a m s (1 .1 p o u n d s ) ; p i g s w e i g h i n g m o r e t h a n 6 0 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 1 3 2 .2 8 p o u n d s ) , 5 0 0 g r a m s ; 5 0 t o 6 0 k i l o g r a m s (1 1 0 .2 3 t o
1 3 2 .2 8 p o u n d s ) , 6 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .3 3 p o u n d s ) ; 5 0 k i l o g r a m s o r le s s , 7 0 0
g r a m s ( 1 .5 4 p o u n d s ) . T h e W a r F o o d B u r e a u m a y t e m p o r a r i l y r a is e
th e ra te s f o r th ese r e c k o n in g s .
S e l f - p r o v i d e r s m a y k e e p s u ffic ie n t m e a t f r o m h o m e s l a u g h t e r i n g s
o c c u r r in g b etw ee n S e p te m b e r 1 a n d D e ce m b e r 31, 1917, to k eep th em
f o r o n e y e a r , a n d fr o m h o m e s la u g h te r in g s a t a n y o th e r tim e an
a m o u n t s u ffic ie n t t o k e e p t h e m u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r .
L o c a l im p r o v e m e n t s in th e m e a t s u p p ly w e r e r e p o r t e d a t th e e n d
o f S e p t e m b e r . 1 T h u s t h e s t o p p a g e i n t h e s u p p l y o f m e a t in B e r l i n
h as b e e n r e m e d ie d , th r o u g h th e e n e r g e tic m e a su re s o f th e P r u s s ia n
S t a t e m e a t o ffic e . F r o m a n a n n o u n c e m e n t i n t h e V o s s i s c h e Z e i t u n g 2
i t w o u l d e v e n a p p e a r t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n is b e t t e r e v e r y w h e r e . T h i s
p a p e r le a r n s f r o m a c o m p e t e n t s o u r c e th a t e v e n d u r in g th e tim e
w h e n c a ttle a re b e in g r e m o v e d fr o m p a s tu r e to w in te r q u a rte rs,
b e g in n in g o n N o v e m b e r 1, th e p u b lic m e a t s u p p ly w il l b e g u a r a n te e d
a t a w e e k l y r a t i o n o f 2 5 0 g r a m s ( 0 .5 5 p o u n d ) p e r c a p i t a .
GAM E.

O f a ll G e r m a n to w n s , B e r lin , b e f o r e th e w a r , c o n s u m e d th e la r g e s t
q u a n t it ie s o f g a m e . H o w e v e r , s in c e th e b e g in n in g o f th e w a r g a m e
h a s b e c o m e a r a r it y in s p it e o f t h e e n d e a v o r s o f th e W a r F o o d




1 Fleischer-Zeitung. Berlin, Oct. 1, 1917.
* Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Oct. 6, 1917.

26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Bureau to supply the large towns with game. The numerous new
regulations published produced no improvement in the Greater
Berlin supply; rather, the deliveries diminished. This game scarcity
has been due, no doubt, to the export prohibitions of individual
Federal States, provinces, and districts. According to sporting
and trading circles, not much game is to be expected this year for
Greater Berlin. The civil and military hospitals must be supplied;
even the war prisoners receive game if there is not sufficient beef.
The Greater Berlin State distributing office has already dealt with
the question of game supply and concluded contracts providing that
50,000 wild ducks are to be sent from bathing resorts on the North
Sea to Greater Berlin, to be sold to the public at very low prices.1
In order to regulate the trade in game with a view to guaranteeing
the supply of large towns and industrial districts, the Prussian min­
ister of agriculture has issued an order to establish, if possible, in
every Prussian rural district (Landkreis) a district game office to
which experts will be appointed and which will cooperate with the
German game protection society. Their duties will consist in super­
vising the deliveries and the purchase of game. Only that game is
subject to delivery which has been killed at a hunt or similar shoot­
ing expedition by a number of guns—i. e., red deer, fallow deer,
wild boars, roe deer, hares, rabbits, and pheasants. Up to three head
o f big game (Schalwild) and up to 10 head of small game are left
at the disposal of the person owning the game preserve. The re­
mainder of the bag is subject to delivery and is to be divided into
halves, one for the local supply, the other for the supply of large
towns. Holders of a hunting license may sell game only to consumers
or to officially authorized game dealers.
The supply of game is also being controlled in Bavaria, where,
according to a Munich daily paper,2 the State meat supply office
issued the following new regulations with regard to compulsory
deliveries:
Two out of every three wild boars killed must be delivered to the
commune, also four out of every live hares, pheasants, and partridges
after the first five. Maximum prices are fixed for partridge and
wild duck. Hares are to be sold by the pound instead of so much a
head. Though the game shooting rests on the good will of the hunts­
man, and it is almost impossible to keep a strict control, there are
penalties imposed for breach of the regulations, involving the pos­
sible forfeiture of the hunting license. The huntsmen are urged not
only to limit their own consumption in game, but also to supply the
public with game beyond the compulsory delivery.
1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 15, 1917.
* Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Aug. 29, 1917.




FOOD SITUATION' IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

27

A n o t h e r f o o d c a r d h a s b e e n a d d e d t o th e rest, sta tes th e L e ip z ig e r
V o lk s z e it u n g ,1 a c a r d f o r h a r e s b e in g th e la te s t.
I t is is s u e d in fiv e
s e c t io n s ; f o r a w h o le h a r e th e e n tir e c a r d m u s t b e ’ d e l iv e r e d ; f o r b a c k
a n d le g s fo u r s e c t io n s ; b a c k o r le g s s e p a r a te ly , t w o e a c h ; fo r e le g s
o r h e a d , l i v e r , e t c ., o n e s e c t i o n e a c h . T h e c a r d w i l l b e i s s u e d o n l y
o n a p p lic a t io n . E v e r y h o u s e h o ld o f o n e t o th r e e p e r s o n s is e n t itle d
t o a c a rd , c h ild r e n u n d e r 6 y e a rs o f a g e b e in g r e ck o n e d h a lf a p e rs o n .
T h e h a r e c a r d r e s tr ic ts th e r a tio n , b u t d o e s n o t e n title th e h o ld e r to
d e m a n d d e liv e r y .
FISH.

A B r u n s w ic k p a p e r 2 r e p o rts th a t th e G e rm a n G o v e rn m e n t h a s
b e e n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e s d e m a n d e d f o r i m p o r t e d fis h .
O n S e p te m b e r 3 0 ,1 9 1 6 , th e im p e r ia l c h a n c e llo r issu e d a p r o c la m a t io n
a s t o t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n f is h a n d f i s h - p r e p a r a t i o n s i n ­
d u s tr y , w h ic h w a s t o b e c o n tr o lle d b y th e C e n tra l P u r c h a s in g A s s o ­
c ia t io n .
T h is c e n tr a liz a t io n w a s t o c o m e in t o fo r c e im m e d ia te ly ,
b u t s u ch g o o d s w e r e n o t t o b e s u b je c t t o e x p r o p r ia t io n i f im p o r t e d
b e fo r e N o v e m b e r 30, 1916, b o u g h t b e fo r e O cto b e r 7, 1916, a n d re ­
p o r t e d ( b y s u b m it t in g th e in v o ic e t o th e C e n t r a l P u r c h a s in g A s s o ­
c ia t io n ) b e fo r e O c to b e r 11, 1916. T h e o r d e r a ssu m e d th a t, c o n s id ­
e r in g th e g r e a t d e m a n d f o r a ll k in d s o f fo o d s t u ffs , th ese fr e e ly im ­
p o r t e d g o o d s , e x c e p t in s p e c ia l ca ses, w o u ld b e d is p o s e d o f b y th e
t r a d e i n t h e o r d i n a r y c o u r s e o f b u s in e s s .
Y e t fo r e ig n g o o d s , p a r ­
t i c u l a r l y N o r w e g i a n p r e s e r v e d f is h , a r e s t i l l f o u n d i n s h o p s a t p r i c e s
t w o o r th r e e tim e s as h ig h as th o s e o f s im ila r g o o d s im p o r t e d b y th e
C e n t r a l P u r c h a s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t e d b y t h e d i s t r i c t o ffic e s .
T h e W a r U s u r y B u re a u is c o n s ta n tly le a r n in g th a t su ch p r ice s
a re d u e t o m id d le m a n a b u se a n d p r o fit e e r in g .
S te p s are th e r e fo r e
in c o n t e m p la t io n f o r a n e a r ly f ix in g o f m a x im u m p r ic e s f o r fo r e i g n
p r e p a r e d fis h , e s p e c i a l l y c a n n e d fis h .
T h is w il l n o t s u b s t a n t ia lly
a ffe ct la w fu l tra d e r s , w h o a re a lr e a d y fo r b id d e n t o h o ld b a c k g o o d s
w it h a v ie w t o p r o fit e e r in g .
A c c o r d in g t o th e H a m b u r g e r F r e m d e n b la t t 8 a m e e tin g o f th e
C e n t r a l F is h e r ie s S o c ie t y o f S c h le s w ig -H o ls t e in p r o t e s t e d e n e r g e ti­
c a l l y a g a i n s t t h e s e r i o u s r is e i n p r i c e s , f o r w h i c h , i t w a s c o n t e n d e d ,
t h e f i s h e r m e n a r e n o t t h e m s e lv e s r e s p o n s i b l e . M a x i m u m p r i c e s f o r
b r o o d a n d e d i b l e f is h w e r e f o r e s h a d o w e d .
I t s h o u ld b e n o t e d h e r e th a t a n e w d e lic a c y h a s b e e n a d d e d t o th e
lis t o f w a r f o o d s u n d e r th e n a m e o f “ p r e s e r v e d w h a le .”
T h i s is a
d u n -c o lo r e d m e a t, o f a fib e r s im ila r t o b e e f a n d o f a s t r o n g fla v o r .
A




1 Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Sept. 11, 1917.
8 Volksfreund. Brunswick, July 24, 1917.
8 Hamburger Fremdenblatt. Hamburg, July 27, 1917.

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

p iq u a n t s e a s o n in g r e n d e r s it a lm o s t lik e g a m e .
T h e m e a t u s e d is
n o t t h a t o f t h e s p e r m w h a le , b u t o f p o r p o is e o r “ T u m m le r ,” a m u c h
s m a l l e r s p e c i e s w h i c h is f o u n d i n G e r m a n w a t e r s . 1
T h e L o k a l - A n z e i g e r 2 r e p o r t s t h a t R o u m a n i a n f is h h a s b e e n s e n t
t o th e B e r lin m a r k e t— a t p r e s e n t o n ly a n e x p e r im e n t a l c o n s ig n m e n t.
T h e m ilit a r y a u th o r itie s in th e o c c u p ie d t e r r it o r y h a v e a p p o in t e d
a s p e c ia l fis h e r ie s d e p a r t m e n t u n d e r a H a m b u r g e x p e r t .
T h e fis h
t o b e se n t a r e c a r p , g ia n t p ik e -p e r c h , p ik e , te n c h , c r u c ia n s , a n d
v a r io u s k in d s o f stu rg e o n .
I n a n a r t i c l e o n t h e p o o r s u p p l y o f fis h a B e r l i n d a i l y 3 w r i t e s :
Like so many other foodstuffs, fish has also disappeared from the Greater
Berlin market during the war. There is a pressing need, particularly in winter
when, besides the ever-scanty meat ration, experience has proved that other
foodstuffs are also not very abundantly distributed in the capital, that the
population should receive larger supplies of fish as compensation.
The
imperial commissioner for the fish supply has given' our representative the
following information :
Up to about a week or fortnight ago relatively large supplies of sea fish
reached Berlin. Now, however, heavy storms have set in in the North and
Baltic seas, rendering fishing extremely difficult and, in parts, stopping it alto­
gether. The prospects for future imports of sea fish are difficult to estimate.
The home catch, which, owing to the abnormally cold winter, was rather small
from January to March, increased quite considerably in the spring. The
catches were bought up and distributed quickly, but naturally were insufficient
to cover the great demand. At present strenuous efforts are being made to in­
crease the fishing industry in order to store up as much as possible for the
winter, but too great expectations must not be indulged in. In distributing the
fish large towns will naturally be favored before the country. Districts un­
accustomed to a fish diet will receive only small quantities. In the season,
watering places had, of course, to receive special consideration, while communes,
when distributing, must give preference to hotels and restaurants in the inter­
est of the tourist traffic. Attempts have also been made, based on expert ex­
perience, to establish “ taste districts” ( G eschm acksgeH ete ) and to supply the
various kinds of fish to places where, in peace times, they were chiefly con­
sumed. Smoked fish, the staple fish supply of the military and naval authori­
ties, is at present very scarce, the communes having in past months been sup­
plied with larger quantities for distribution. The import of herrings has now
stopped. Endeavors are, however, being made to increase the catch. Rou­
manian salted and smoked carp have also been obtained. The sample loads
which have reached us brought good marketable wares. The military authori­
ties would do well to release large quantities of these carp for Greater Berlin,
as they will form a good and not too expensive complement to the daily menu.
W e are endeavoring to increase the home fishing industry and imports, and
hope that our organization will succeed in achieving good results.
1 Darmzeitung. [Berlin] July 24, 1917.
* Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Aug. 30. 1917.
* Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 11, 1917.




Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

29

POULTRY.

E ffo r t s , sa y s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f th e D e u ts c h e T a g e s z e it u n g ,1 t o
in c re a s e th e u r b a n f o o d s u p p ly b y p o u lt r y k e e p in g a re la u d a b le , b u t
r u r a l c o n d it io n s c a n n o t b e a d o p t e d u n a lt e r e d in th e to w n s .
In ­
s u ffic ie n t s p a c e a n d i n s u f f i c ie n t f o o d r e s u lt i n a p o o r s u p p l y o f e g g s .
T h e s o lu t io n is t o b e s o u g h t in a b a n ta m h e n , a n d u r b a n e c o n o m ic
b o d ie s a re n o w e n c o u r a g in g th e b r e e d in g o f th ese v a r ie tie s a n d th e
f o r m a t io n s o f c o m b in a t io n s a m o n g p o u lt r y k e e p e r s w it h t h is o b je c t .
T h e B e r l i n e r T a g e b l a t t 2 a n n o u n c e s t h a t o n A u g u s t 1 t h e s a le o f
fr o z e n f o w ls a n d d u c k s w ill o p e n in th e B e r lin m u n ic ip a l m a r k e ts .
T h e s t o c k s f o r s a le w i l l b e a n n o u n c e d o n p l a c a r d s .
F o w ls w ill b e
s o l d i n t h r e e q u a l i t i e s a t t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s : F i r s t q u a l i t y a t 5 .5 0
m a r k s p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s ( $ 1 .1 9 p e r p o u n d ) , s e c o n d q u a l i t y a t 4 .6 0 m a r k s
( 9 9 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) , a n d t h i r d q u a l i t y a t 3 .8 5 m a r k s ( 8 4 c e n t s p e r
p o u n d ).
D u c k s w il l s e ll f o r 4 m a r k s p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s (8 6 c e n ts p e r
p o u n d ).
T h e S a x o n m in is t r y issu e d a n o r d e r o n th e t r a d e in g e e se in S a x ­
o n y .3 I t p r e s c r ib e s th a t l iv in g g e e se a re t o b e s o ld b y w e ig h t .
The
p r ic e f o r liv in g g eese b o u g h t fr o m a p o u ltr y k e e p e r o r fa tte n e r m u st
n o t e x c e e d 2 .8 0 m a r k s p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 6 1 c e n t s p e r p o u n d . )
W hen
r e s o ld b y th e t r a d e r , a fu r t h e r c h a r g e n o t e x c e e d in g 25 p fe n n ig s (6
c e n t s ) , in c lu s iv e o f c a r r ia g e , m a y b e a d d e d . T h e lo c a l a u th o r it ie s
w ill fix m a x im u m p r ic e s in a r e v is e d m u n ic ip a l o r d e r .
A s p e c ia l
lic e n s e is r e q u ir e d f o r t r a d i n g in g e e se . P o u l t r y k e e p e r s o r p e r s o n s
o r e s t a b li s h m e n t s l i c e n s e d t o s e l l g e e s e f o r k i l l i n g a r e a l l o w e d t o s e l l
d i r e c t l y t o c o n s u m e r s o n l y i n p u b l i c p l a c e s o f s a le , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g
p r i v a t e s a le s . T h e s a le is a l l o w e d o n l y o n p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e g o o s e
c a r d a n d fo u r -te n th o f a m e a t c a r d f o r e v e r y 500 g r a m s d e a d w e ig h t
o f u n tru s se d , p lu c k e d g o o s e .
G o o s e c a r d s ca n b e o b ta in e d o n ly o n
a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t ie s . E v e r y h o u s e h o l d o f n o t m o r e
t h a n f o u r p e r s o n s m a y r e c e iv e o n e c a r d .
I n n k e e p e r s m a y r e c e iv e
o n e c a r d f o r e v e r y f o u r r e g u la r g u ests.
T h e m u n ic ip a l a d m in is t r a t io n o f B e r lin h a s fix e d th e f o l l o w i n g
m a x i m u m p r i c e s p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s (1 .1 p o u n d s ) r e t a i l t o t h e c o n s u m e r
f o r fr e s h a n d p ic k le d g o o s e a n d f o r m a n u fa c tu r e d p r e p a r a t io n s : 4
Marks per
500 grams.

G iblets:
Head and neck
Wings (without pointed wing portions)
Gizzard and heart




4
4
4

1 Deutsche Tageszeitung. Berlin, July 31,1917.
* Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, July 31, 1917.
* Fleischer-Zeitung. Berlin, Aug. 7, 1917.
4 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Oct. 5,1917.

Per
pound.

$0. 95
.9 5
.9 5

30

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.
Marks per
500 grams.

_____
Pickled giblets ________________________
____ _
Liver
— --------—
Liver sausage -------------------------------------------- _______

10
9
8
_______ 6. 50
Leg, smoked
__________________________ . ____ 9
____ _ 8.80
Breast with bone
--------------------------_ 11. 50
Breast, smoked, with bone------ ----------- ---------------___
__
_
9
Breast without bone
_
_
12.50
Breast, smoked, without bone
Frame, with breast and legs, but without internal
parts or giblets
—
—
------- _______
Scraps of meat
—
------------------------ _______
Back fat
_________ ____
_______
— ____
______
____________
Stomach fat
_
Internal fat
___________________________ ___ _ .
Dripping
_
________________________ ______
Melted pieces of f a t _____________________________ _______
Pieces, roasted
_
___________
______ ____
Pieces, smoked ______________________
_ „

6.25
4.30
10
7

8
14
10
11
13

Per
pound.

$2.16
1. 95
1.73
1.41
1. 95
1. 90
2.49
1.95
2. 71
1. 35
.93
2.16
1.52
1. 73
3.03
2.16
2. 37
. 2.81

Goose-liver pie may be sold to consumers at prices fixed by the
Union of Goose-liver Pie Manufacturers, and stated on the covering
of the box.
EGGS.

In the summer the egg supply was insufficient almost everywhere,
and in August, a Berlin paper reported1 that prices had risen from
33 (7.9 cents) to 36 pfennings (8.6 cents) per egg. The same
paper writes on this subject as follows:2
The egg-supply organization has proved a great failure. Stoppages have
continually occurred, and certain districts receive no eggs at all, while others
have a surplus. This is undoubtedly due to faulty organization. A special
organization, the State Food Association, was formed some time ago in Berlin
for the purpose of collecting and distributing eggs. Trade circles were much
pleased when it became known that a well-known tradesman, from whose di­
rection much was expected, had been appointed as manager. To the great
loss of the community, however, the greatest difficulties have, from the start,
been placed in the way of this organization. The superior authorities showed
so little understanding of the functions of an egg-supply organization that,
despite all commercial efforts, no success was obtained. All practical sug­
gestions for improving the prevailing conditions were simply ignored. This
state of affairs caused the manager of the organization to resign.

A Hamburg paper3 in quoting the above states that “Hamburg
recently received no eggs for four weeks. In reply to complaints
made, the Berlin wholesale dealers have declared that the majority
of the large towns are in the same plight, if they do not happen




1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 29, 1917.
* Idem. Aug. 28, 1917.
8 Hamburger Fremdenblatt. Hamburg, Aug. 28,1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

31

t o b e s itu a te d in c lo s e p r o x im it y t o a p r o d u c i n g d is t r ic t .
T h e con ­
su m ers’ p ro s p e cts are n o w w orse.
T h e e g g - s u p p l y o r g a n i z a t i o n is
n o w e x c l u s i v e l y m a n a g e d b y o f f ic ia ls , i. e ., n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s , s o t h a t
a n im p r o v e m e n t o f th e p r e v a ilin g c o n d it io n s c a n s c a r c e ly b e h o p e d
f o r f o r s o m e tim e t o c o m e .”
A f u r t h e r r is e in t h e p r i c e o f e g g s t o o k p la c e in t h e fir s t w e e k
o f S e p t e m b e r , th e C e n t r a l P u r c h a s in g A s s o c ia t io n h a v i n g r a is e d th e
p r i c e o f i m p o r t e d e g g s f r o m 3 6 ( 8 .6 c e n t s ) t o 4 0 p f e n n i n g s ( 9 .5
c e n ts ) p e r e g g .1
BUTTER.

D u r i n g A u g u s t , o f th e c u r r e n t y e a r , th e r e w a s m u c h d is c u s s io n in
th e d a il y p r e s s a s t o a p r o je c t e d r a is in g o f m ilk a n d b u t t e r p r ice d .
A w e ll-in fo r m e d c o rr e s p o n d e n t w r o te to a H a m b u r g d a i l y 2 as
fo llo w s :
There is undoubtedly a great lack of coordination between milk and butter
prices. Now the milk and the fat supply in the large towns has suffered
from this. Hitherto the butter prices have been fixed uniformly for the whole
Empire, whereas milk prices were regulated by the State central authorities,
or in Prussia, by the provincial central authorities. Hence, great confusion.
The remedy is to adjust the butter and cheese prices in the various parts of
the Empire to the milk prices there prevailing; in other words, to decentralize
them. There must be a fixed ratio between milk and butter prices, but with
the proviso that the latter must not exceed a certain figure, Decause the
greatest inducement should always be that for the delivery of fresh milk to
the towns. It must be remembered that the expenses of dairy farmers have
greatly increased, owing to the year’s bad fodder harvest and other causes.
Next winter the fodder difficulty will be intensified, and the production of milk
will diminish.

A f t e r l o n g c o n s u lt a t io n s w it h a n u n u s u a lly la r g e n u m b e r o f e x ­
p e r t s t h e W a r F o o d B u r e a u a t t h e e n d o f A u g u s t is s u e d n e w r e g u la ­
tio n s f o r th e p r ic e o f b u tte r w h ic h th e F r a n k fu r t e r Z e i t u n g 3 th u s
s u m m a r iz e s :
There is no intention of a general increase of basic prices, but the new order
will make possible a moderate increase in separate parts of the country where
the economic conditions call for it. The order contains five sections. In the
first the existing basic prices are maintained, except that the division into
three classes of goods is replaced by two classes. The most important innova­
tion is in the second section, in which the State central authorities are em­
powered to fix maximum prices for separate parts of the country at variance
with the basic prices. This is, however, limited by two restrictions. The butter
maker’s price may not exceed a certain proportion of the milk producer’s price,
and also it shall not amount to more than 3 marks per $ kilogram [65 cents
per pound]. The butter price per $ kilogram shall not amount to more than 8|
times the price of 1 liter [1.06 quarts] of whole milk. In districts, therefore,
1 Hamburger Fremdenblatt. Hamburg, Sept. 7, 1917.
* Idem. Aug. 15, 1917.
• Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Aug. 30, 1917.




32

BULLETIN 0E THE BUREAU 0E LABOR STATISTICS.

where the milk producer’s price is 30 pfennigs per liter [6.7 cents per quart],
the butter price of the manufacturer must not exceed 2.63 marks per $ kilogram
[56.9 cents per pound].
The third section provides for the fixing of uniform prices for the sale of
butter in importing districts. The fourth section fixes the increases in price
in the passage from manufacturer to consumer, amounting in all to 30 marks
per 50 kilograms [6.5 cents per pound]. For the larger towns a further limited
increase of profit for the wholesale and retail trade will often be unavoidable.
The fifth section, in addition to regulations for the transition period, contains
the authorization of the Imperial Fat Office to take account of special condi­
tions in certain parts of the country by extending the limit fixed by the order.
Side by side with these new prices the control of the milk and butter trade
will be extended by organizations adapted to local conditions and by combating
illicit trade.
M IL K .

The milk supply has diminished considerably in Germany. It
appears that not only is the quantity less, but the quality is con­
siderably poorer; for an agricultural daily 1 comments on the ad­
mitted low percentage of fat contained in milk ever since the cows
were taken to the pastures in tire spring, and especially since June:
In former times milk with less than 2 per cent of fat was undoubtedly
skimmed milk, but to-day milk that certainly has not been tampered with
contains only 2 per cent or less. This is attributed to poor pasturage following
the very deficient winter foddering. In former dry seasons the quantity of milk
was less, but the percentage of fat greater. This year the fat has decreased.

A s m ilk c o n t in u e d t o g r o w m o r e s c a n ty , th e m ilk r a t io n s w e r e
c u t d o w n in n e a r ly a ll la r g e t o w n s . I n G r e a t e r B e r l in th e l o c a l f a t
o ffic e r e d u c e d t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n ’ s r a t i o n o f w h o l e m i l k . 2 T h e
c h a n g e o f a g e l i m i t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o r d e r o f t h e f a t o ff ic e o f
G r e a te r B e r lin o f A u g u s t 2 4 -2 5 , 1917, m o d ifie s th e q u a n t it y o f m ilk
t o w h i c h e a c h c h i l d is e n t i t l e d . H e n c e f o r t h a l l c h i l d r e n b o r n d u r i n g
t h e t i m e O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 1 1 , t o S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 1 3 , w i l l r e c e i v e p e r d a y
o n e - h a l f l i t e r ( 0 .5 3 q u a r t ) o f w h o l e m i l k ; t h o s e b o r n d u r i n g t h e t i m e
O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 1 3 , t o S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 1 5 , t h r e e - f o u r t h s l i t e r ( 0 .7 9
q u a r t ) ; a n d t h o s e b o r n s i n c e O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 1 5 , a l s o t h r e e - f o u r t h s lit e r .
C h ild r e n b o r n d u r in g th e tim e J u ly 1 to S e p te m b e r 30, 1911, w ill
h e n c e f o r t h r e c e iv e , n o t w h o le m ilk , b u t s k im m e d m ilk . I n o r d e r to
m a k e u p f o r th e r e d u c tio n fr o m a 1 -lite r t o a th r e e -fo u r th s lite r
r a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n b o r n a f t e r O c t o b e r 1, n u r s i n g m o t h e r s w i l l r e c e i v e
a s p e c i a l c a r d v a l i d f o r o n e - f o u r t h l i t e r (0 .2 6 q u a r t ) .
A c c o r d in g to a te le g ra m fr o m N u r e m b e r g t o a M u n ic h d a i l y 3 th a t
m u n ic ip a l a d m in is t r a t io n d e c id e d , o n th e a d v ic e o f th e m e d ic a l
b o a r d , a n d c o n s id e r in g th e c o n tin u e d d e c lin e in th e m ilk d e liv e r y as
1 Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Presse. Sept. 5, 1917.
2 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Sept. 17, 1917.
8 Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Sept. 19, 1917.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

33

w e ll as th e f a c t t h a t m u c h o f th e s p e c ia l w h o le m ilk a llo w e d t o b i g
f a m i l i e s is c o n s u m e d n o t o n l y b y t h e c h i l d r e n b u t b y t h e e n t i r e f a m ­
i ly , t o r e d u c e th e w h o le m ilk r a t io n f o r c h ild r e n .
T h e r a t io n f o r
c h ild r e n u p to t w o y e a r s o f a g e h a s b e e n r e d u c e d f r o m 1 lit e r to
t h r e e - f o u r t h s l i t e r ( 1 .0 6 q u a r t s t o 0 .7 9 q u a r t ) , a n d f o r t h o s e i n t h e
t h ir d a n d f o u r t h y e a r f r o m t h r e e -fo u r t h s t o o n e - h a lf lit e r . I n a d ­
d it io n t o th e m ilk a llo w a n c e , h o w e v e r , c h ild r e n u p t o t w o y e a r s o f
a g e w ill r e c e iv e a m o n t h ly s u p p le m e n ta r y a llo w a n c e o f 3 0 0 g r a m s
( 0 .6 6 p o u n d ) o f s u g a r a n d 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .1 p o u n d s ) o f f o o d p r e p a r a ­
t io n s (p r e p a r e d o a ts , g r o a t s , e t c .).
T h e s u p p le m e n t a r y a llo w a n c e
o f f o o d p r e p a r a t io n s w il l a ls o b e g r a n t e d t o c h ild r e n in th e t h ir d a n d
fo u r th yea r.
P e r s o n s o v e r 79* y e a r s o f a g e a r e a l l o w e d 5 0 0 g r a m s
o f f o o d p r e p a r a t io n s ‘w e e k ly .
I n H a n o v e r th e m ilk r a tio n w a s r e d u c e d 1 b e g in n in g w ith O c t o ­
b e r 1, 1 9 1 7 , f r o m 1 l i t e r t o t h r e e - f o u r t h s l i t e r f o r c h i l d r e n u p t o o n e
y e a r o ld . F o r c h ild r e n in th e ir s e c o n d y e a r th e r a tio n w ill r e m a in
a t 1 ,lit e r . T h e m i l k s a v e d b y t h e r e d u c t i o n w i l l b e u s e d f o r i n v a l i d s .
T h e p r ic e o f w h o le m ilk in B e r lin w a s r a is e d o n S e p te m b e r 23 ,
1 9 1 7 , f r o m 4 0 p fe n n i g s p e r lit e r (9 c e n ts p e r q u a r t ) t o 4 6 p f e n n i g s
p e r l i t e r (1 0 .3 c e n t s p e r q u a r t ) . 2
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

D u r in g th e su m m e r o f 1917 th e p r o b le m o f s u p p ly in g th e la r g e
t o w n s w it h f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b le s o c c u p ie d m o r e s p a c e in th e G e r m a n
d a ily p re s s th a n a n y o th e r f o o d t o p ic . T h e s u p p ly in m o s t o f th e se
t o w n s w a s q u it e in a d e q u a t e d u r in g J u l y a n d th e W a r F o o d B u r e a u
w a s p e t i t i o n e d t o t a k e r e m e d i a l s t e p s . A m o n g t h e s p e c i a l d if f ic u l t i e s
w e r e th e c o m p e t it io n b e tw e e n to w n s (e . g ., B e r lin a n d B r e s l a u ) , a n d
t h e l o u d l y d e n o u n c e d c u s t o m , p r e v a le n t in m a n y p la c e s , o f w e l l- t o - d o
c o n s u m e r s b u y in g d ir e c t f r o m p r o d u c e r s in th e p la c e o f p r o d u c t io n ,
th u s le a v in g th e p u b lic m a r k e ts u n s u p p lie d . I n a p u n g e n t a r t ic le in
th e B r e m e r B iir g e r -Z e it u n g 3 R o b e r t L e in e r t e x p o s e s th e c o n fu s io n
t h a t r e ig n s in th e f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b le m a r k e t, a n d d e r id e s th e I m p e ­
r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O ffic e w i t h i t s e l a b o r a t e m a c h i n e r y a n d
“ t o p s y -t u r v y r e g u la tio n o f p r ic e s .”
H i s p a n a c e a is t h e f i x i n g a n d
e n f o r c e m e n t o f a u n i f o r m s c a le o f p r o d u c e r s ’ w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l
p r ic e s . O n th e o th e r h a n d , A g r ic u lt u r a l C o u n c ilo r S c h ift a n in an
a r t ic le in a B e r lin d a i l y 4 d e m a n d s th e t o t a l a b o lit io n o f m a x im u m
p r ic e s f o r th ese w a res.
1 Hannoverseher Kurier. Hanover, Aug. 31,
2 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 21, 1917.
8 Bremer Biirger-Zeitung. Bremen, July 27,
4 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, July 25,
45499°— Bull. 242— 18-------3




1917.
Morning edition.
1917.
1917.

34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T h e V o r w a r t s 1 c o n t a in s th e f o l l o w i n g c o m m u n ic a t io n
B e r lin m u n ic ip a l a d m in is tr a tio n :

fr o m

th e

The German Towns Congress lias been conducting an inquiry among the 42
German towns with over 100,000 inhabitants (not including Greater Berlin)
as to whether, and to what extent, there has been a shortage in fruit and
vegetables during the last few weeks, and whether the imports are now satis­
factory. Thirty-nine replies have been received, which with very few excep­
tions establish that the supply of fruit and vegetables in these towns, and
especially the imports from other districts, have been entirely inadequate
during the last few weeks, and are so stiU.
Several towns complain that the supply obtained through the imperial office
is inefficient. One adds that neither written nor personal appeals have had
any effect. Strong protests are raised against the export prohibitions and re­
strictions which still exist in all parts of the country. From several quarters
the complaint comes that it is impossible to obtain goods in the growers’
districts even at maximum prices, because of the illicit price raising. A num­
ber of towns attribute their distress to the activities of buyers from other towns.
In view of these results the German Towns Congress has petitioned the
president of the W ar Food Bureau to put in motion as soon as possible the
measures he agreed upon with the food committee of the congress at its last
sitting, which, in addition to the abolition of all internal trade restrictions,
provide for a more comprehensive acquisition by the imperial office of the sup­
plies of fruit and vegetables in the most important producing districts. It
also petitions that the fulfillment of delivery contracts be enforced by all means
at the disposal of the Government.

T h e r iv a lr y b e tw e e n B e r lin a n d la r g e p r o v in c ia l to w n s in th e
e ffo r t t o o b t a in v e g e t a b le s is w e ll illu s t r a t e d b y a n a r t ic le in t h e
L e ip z ig e r V o lk s z e it u n g .2 B r ie fly s u m m a r iz e d th is a r t ic le s a y s :
T h e m u n ic ip a l a d m in is tr a tio n o f B r e s la u c o m p la in s o f th e w a y in
w h ic h t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b le O ffice h a s g o n e t o w o r k t o
s u p p l y B e r l in w it h v e g e t a b le s .
H it h e r t o th e m a x im u m p r ic e s in
B e r lin h a v e b e e n o n ly s lig h t ly in ex ce ss o f th o s e in th e P r o v in c e s .
I n o r d e r n o w t o in d u c e th e g r o w e r s t o s e ll t o B e r lin , t h e m a x im u m
p r ic e s h a v e b e e n r a is e d c o n s id e r a b ly as th e f o l l o w i n g p r ic e s p e r 500
g r a m s f o r F r e n c h b e a n s, e ffe c tiv e in B e r lin a n d B r e s la u d u r in g th e
se co n d h a lf o f J u ly , w ill s h o w :
Breslau (since July 21,
1917).

Berlin (since July 23,
1917).

Price per
500 grams.

Grower’s price.............................................
Wholesale price........ ...................................................
Retail price...................................... ............. ..............




Price per
pound.

Price per
500 grams.

Price per
pound.

Pfennigs.

Cents.

Pfennigs.

Cents.

24
29
37

5.2
6.3
8.0

1 Vorw&rts. Berlin, July 25, 1917.
* Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, July 27, 1917*

50
65
80

10.8
14.1
17.3

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

35

C o m p l a i n tis a l s o b i t t e r t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e
O ffi c e d i d n o t t h i n k i t n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u a i n t t h e p r o v i n c i a l o ff ic e s
w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d in c r e a s e .
T h is is n o t t o b e w o n d e r e d a t s in c e
su ch in fo r m a t io n w o u ld h a v e fr u s t r a t e d th e o b je c t o f th e m ea su re.
T h e o b je c t w a s t o a t t r a c t a s la r g e a q u a n t it y o f v e g e t a b le s t o B e r lin
as p o s s ib le b y th e s e u n p r e c e d e n te d h ig h p r ic e s .
T h i s p u r p o s e is a t ­
ta in e d a t c o s t o f th e la r g e to w n s in th e P r o v in c e s .
T h e Im p e r ia l
F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O ffic e s e e m s t o b e i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e e n o r m o u s
d a m a g e th u s d o n e t o th e in h a b it a n t s o f th e s e to w n s .
T h e B r e s la u
m u n ic ip a l a d m in is t r a t io n h a s p r o t e s t e d b y t e le g r a m t o th e c h a n ­
c e llo r a n d th e P r u s s ia n f o o d c o m m is s io n e r a g a in s t th e a t t it u d e o f
t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O ffic e .
I n t h e fir s t p a r t o f A u g u s t th e v e g e t a b le s u p p ly in c r e a s e d c o n ­
s id e ra b ly , o w in g to m o re fa v o r a b le w e a th e r.
T h e V o s s is c h e Z e it u n g 1 r e p o r t s th a t o n A u g u s t 1 v e g e t a b le s w e r e so p le n t ifu l in B e r lin
r e t a il s h o p s th a t, d e s p it e th e g r e a t d e m a n d , s t o c k s w e r e b y n o m e a n s
s o ld ou t.
C a r r o ts , a ll k in d s o f c a b b a g e , b e a n s , c a u liflo w e r s , a n d
to m a to e s w e re a b u n d a n t.
I n A u g u s t th e W a r E m e r g e n c y S a u e rk r a u t C o . m a d e th e fo llo w in g
a n n o u n c e m e n t w it h th e c o n s e n t o f th e im p e r ia l c h a n c e llo r ’s r e p r e ­
s e n ta tiv e :
As, in order to supply the army and the civil population with the prescribed
quantities of sauerkraut during the harvest year 1917-18, exceptionally large
supplies of fresh vegetables (white cabbage and roots) are required, the W ar
Company grants communal unions, communes, and wholesale consumers (fac­
tories, public kitchens, nursing homes, etc.) permission to purchase white cab­
bage for the manufacture of sauerkraut, either in their own establishments or
to their order, only on condition that the entire quantity of sauerkraut pro­
duced is put at the dispos’al of the W ar Company. The W ar Company can not
for the present allow the unrestricted sale of sauerkraut which the above-men­
tioned authorities produce from white cabbage or roots of any kind of their own
growing, either in their factories or to their order. This sauerkraut must also
remain, until further notice, at the disposal of the W ar Company. I f at all
possible, however, the communal unions, etc., will, later on, be allowed a por­
tion (not exceeding 50 per cent) of the sauerkraut manufactured in their own
establishments, without the deduction of this amount from the prescribed ra­
tion of the Federal State concerned.

I n c o m m e n t in g o n t h is o r d e r t h e S c h le s is c h e Z e it u n g 2 s ta te s t h a t —
It may safely be expected that no communal union will risk manufacturing
sauerkraut which in all probability will be taken from it. Thus the sauer­
kraut supply still remains solely in the hands of the sauerkraut company,
whose work last winter is still unpleasantly remembered.

A c c o r d in g to th e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t 3 o f th e v e g e t a b le -s u p p ly s itu a ­
tio n th e s m a ll s u p p ly w a s d u e t o a fa ilu r e o f th e c r o p :
1 Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Aug. 2, 1917. Morning edition.
* Schlesische Zeitung. Breslau, Aug. 16, 1917.
•Deutsche Tageszeitung. Berlin, Aug. 23, 1917. Evening edition.




36

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The reports on this year’s vegetable crop are for the most .part quite hope­
less, and one need not wonder if prices remain high. In the south and west
of Germany a favorable condition of things is generally reported; but in the
chief producing districts in north, east, and middle Germany the prospect is
very unsatisfactory. Probably the worst reports are from Mecklenburg and
Pomerania, where almost the majority of the cultivation contracts can be
carried out to only a small extent. In certain parts of Silesia and Bradenburg, where thunderstorms occurred at the right time, a medium harvest
may perhaps be obtained. The drought has retarded not only the growth of
the rather poor seed from last year, but has delayed excessively the planting
of most kinds of cabbage so that in many districts this could not be done till
after the refreshing showers at the end of July. But the worst is the plague
of vermin which can not be overcome with the insufficient laborers available.
Various pests are rife and are ruining whole plots, especially in the southern
part of the province of Saxony.

T h e fr u it c r o p h a v in g b e e n b u t m e d io c r e , a n d in th e case o f a p ­
p l e s a n d p l u m s v e r y p o o r , t h e f r u i t s u p p l y w a s a s i n s u f f i c ie n t d u r i n g
th e s u m m e r as th e v e g e t a b le s u p p ly .
T o p r e v e n t g r o w e r s as w e ll
a s w h o le s a le a n d r e t a il d e a le r s f r o m c h a r g i n g e x t o r t io n a t e p r ic e s f o r
f r u i t t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O f f ic e i n A u g u s t f i x e d t h e f o l ­
l o w in g m a x im u m p r ic e s f o r a p p le s , p e a r s , a n d p l u m s : 1
Maximum prices established.

Kind of fruit.

Grower’s price. Wholesale price.

Retail price.

Per 500 Per Per 500 Per Per 500 Per
grams. pound. grams. pound. grams. pound.

Pfen­

Apples.:
nigs.
Grade 1 (select apples)...........................................
40
25
Grade 2..................................................................
Grade 3 (including windfalls, cider apples, etc.)_
_
10
Grade 4 (plucked and unsorted, but not windfalls).
20
Pears:
Grade 1 (select pears)............................................
35
Grade 2..................................................................
20
Grade 3 (including windfalls, cider pears, etc.)_
_
8
Plums:
Select plums..........................................................
30
Common plums (various sorts except those used
for distilling).......................................................
20
Common plums (for distilling)..............................
10

Cents.

Pfen­
nigs.

Cents.

Pfen­
nigs.

7.5
4.4
1.7

46
26
10|

9.9
5.6
2.3

60
35
16

13.0
7.5
3.5

6.5

40

8.6

50

10.8

4.4
2.2

28
13

6.1
2.8

35

7.5

8.6
5.5*
2.2
4.4

48
30
12
25

10.4
6.5
2.6
5.5

65
40
18
32

C
ents.

14.1
8.6
3.9
6.9

B y t h is m e a s u r e t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O ffic e h o p e s
to p r e v e n t w o r m -e a t e n f r u i t b e in g s o ld as s e le c t f r u i t . T h e r e g u la ­
t io n w a s o p p o s e d b y th e f r u i t g r o w e r s , w h o d e s ir e d t h a t s e le c t f r u i t
s h o u ld r e m a in fr e e o f m a x im u m p r ic e s , as la s t y e a r , th a t t h e y m ig h t
c o n t in u e m a k in g e x c e s s iv e p r o fit s a t th e e x p e n s e o f th e c o n s u m e rs .
T h i s , h o w e v e r , w a s a n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e , s i n c e t h i s y e a r 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
c e n t n e r s ( 4 4 0 ,9 2 0 s h o r t t o n s ) o f f r u i t a r e t o b e u s e d b y t h e j a m f a c ­
t o r ie s .
F a t s w il l b e s c a r c e t h is w in t e r in G e r m a n y , a n d ja m w il l
1 Hamburger Fremdenblatt.




Hamburg, Aug. 8, 1917.

Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

37

consequently be an important article of diet. For this reason the
Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office has appointed officials in those
Federal States which are large fruit producers, in order that such
States shall not be better supplied with fruit than the rest.1
With a view of getting hold of and regulating the supply of what
stocks there are of fruit the Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office on
August 20, 1917, issued a comprehensive order, which, although it
avoids general expropriation, attempts to control the supply by
other methods. In an interview given by von Tilly, head of the Im ­
perial Fruit and Vegetable Office, to representatives of the press,
the provisions and scope of the order were outlined as follow s : 2
A necessary condition for the success of the measure*is the readiness of
producers, dealers, and the public to cooperate with the Imperial Fruit and
Vegetable Office. The imperial office is against any expropriation of fruit,
owing to its perishable nature. Such a measure will be resorted to only if a
grower does not voluntarily deliver his crop to the imperial office, which will
then see to it that the fruit is shipped to a district where it is needed. All
fruit intended for use in his own household will be left to the grower.
The order provides that no apples, plums, or common plums ( Zw etsch en )
may be sold for shipment in the German Empire without the permission of
the competent State, provincial, or district offices. This permission, if ship­
ment by rail, boat, cart, barrow, or beast of burden is in question, must be
given in writing by the issue of a transport certificate (B eford eru ngsschein).
The details of this are left to the State offices, which may also delegate their
right to issue transport certificates to other offices. Sale in the open markets
alone needs no license. It is also lawful to sell direct to the consumer amounts
up to 1 kilogram [2.2 pounds].
It is unavoidable that the jam factories must be first supplied. In addition
to the 5,300,000 centners [292,110 short tons] needed by the civil population,
the army needs 2,700,000 centners [148,811 short tons]. The jam factories
will be under continual supervision, and the ingredients of the jam must be
certified. Jam will continue to be rationed in the future. It is hoped that for
nine months every person will receive 30 grams [1 ounce] of jam per day. All
fruit not needed for jam factories will be sent to the markets.

Shortly thereafter the Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office issued
an order, which came into force at once, prohibiting the commercial
manufacture of plums into jam. This order provides that plums
may be used commercially for drying and for the making of fruit
jelly only by permission of the War Company for Preserved Fruits
and Jams. The utilization of pears for pear jelly is permitted when
done by the grower for his own use.3
The Leipziger Volkszeitung 4 reports that until further notice
imports by parcel post of southern fruits, such as figs, raisins, apri­
cot kernels, pine kernels, almonds, dried apricots, etc., must be di­
verted to the needs of the army, and will therefore be withdrawn
1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 7, 1917. Evening edition.
a Frankfurter Zeitung.
Frankfort on the Main, Aug. 22, 1917.
•Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Sept. 7, 1917. Morning edition.
4 Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Sept. 3, 1917.




Morning edition.

38

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

from the open market. The Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office
will, however, after supplying the army, deliver the surplus of the
above-mentioned fruits to those firms which were carrying on an
import trade in them prior to August 1, 1914. These must then
supply the wholesale dealers, who in turn will supply the retail
trade.
The new fruit order is in general favorably commented on by the
press, though opponents of State control foretell its failure, and
socialists are inclined to think it ought to have gone farther.
“ The fruit order just published,” says the Frankfurter Zeitung,1
“ involves beyond question a serious interference both with owner
and consumer, but it is a necessary interference. The Imperial
Fruit and Vegetable Office has gone to work in a more practical
and expedient manner than last year. It is not a question of requisi­
tioning but o f controlled sale, and providing in the first place for
jam making.”
Die Konjunktur,2 an economic journal, disliking, as usual, any
public control, predicts that—
The new regulations will not only bring no improvement, but will make
things worse. Herr von Tilly pleads for the cooperation and good will of
producer, dealer, and public. But it is impossible to use the services of the
trade in conjunction with the system of maximum prices. Even a schematic
regulation of prices is out of the question. The working of the new compulsory
measure does not depend on good will. Its failure is based on the system of
maximum prices which makes trade transactions almost or wholly impossible.
The jam factories will not receive their supplies, and the towns will have
very little fresh fruit. W ith every new attempt to make the perverted system
workable by fresh compulsory measures, we find the evil becoming not less but
greater, and this applies to the whole domain of the food supply.

It seems that the somewhat gloomy prediction o f the Konjunktur
was not fulfilled, for in September the fruit supply in the north—
in the south it had for some time been fairly satisfactory—had im­
proved a good deal. Thus, as regards Berlin, the Berliner Tageblatt
states: 3
Fruit imports from all parts of the Empire have this week considerably
increased. Hundreds of wagonloads daily enter Berlin. Itinerant sellers have
again appeared in the principal streets, offering for sale peaches, apples, and
pears, and frequently grapes also. Certainly the peaches are not yet quite
ripe, the apples and pears not of the first quality, but the populace buys, and
is satisfied with its purchases. W e hear from well-informed quarters that
in the next few weeks fruit imports int^ Berlin will be further substantially
increased; besides the above-mentioned fruits, plums and bilberries are to
arrive in large quantities. Thanks to the rich fruit crop in south Germany,
the requirements of jam factories will be completely covered. Over 2,000,000
1 Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Aug. 26, 1917.
•Die Konjunktur. Berlin, Aug. 30, 1917.
•Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 8, 1917. Evening edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

39

centner [110,230 short tons] of fruit are reported to have been already de­
livered,

A n d as r e g a r d s H a m b u r g , th e H a m b u r g e r F r e m d e n b la t t 1 sta tes
th a t th e d e liv e r y o f fr u i t f o r th e A lt o n a ja m fa c t o r ie s h a s b e e n so
p le n t ifu l th a t th e y h a v e b e e n u n a b le t o h a n d le th e s u p p ly . I n o r d e r
t o p r e v e n t a n y w a s t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t w a s r e le a s e d f o r s a le
to th e p u b lic . T h e p r ic e s p e r 500 g r a m s a m o u n te d to 28 p fe n n ig s
( 6 .1 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) f o r p l u m s , 4 0 p f e n n i g s ( 8 .6 c e n t s p e r p o u n d )
f o r s e c o n d - q u a l i t y a p p l e s , a n d 3 5 p f e n n i g s ( 7 .5 c e n t s p e r p o u n d )
f o r s e c o n d -q u a lit y p e a rs , w in d f a lls 18 p fe n n ig s
( 3 .9 c e n t s p e r
p o u n d ) . T h e s u p p ly c a r d f o r s p e c ia l d is tr ib u tio n s h a d to b e s h o w n ,
a n d o n ly o n e k ilo g r a m c o u ld b e s u p p lie d p e r p e r s o n in e a ch h o u s e ­
h o ld .
I n t h e f o l l o w i n g im p o r t a n t s ta te m e n t t o t h e p r e s s ,2 V o n T i l l y ,
h e a d o f t h e I m p e r i a l F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l e O ffic e , s a i d t h a t t h e c o m ­
p u l s o r y m e a s u r e s t a k e n w i t h r e g a r d t o f r u i t h a d h a d e x c e l l e n t r e s u lt s ,
a n d h e a n n o u n c e d s im ila r m e a su r e s f o r th e c o m p u ls o r y a c q u is it io n
b y th e S ta te o f v e g e ta b le s :
When the official announcement came into force, on August 20, the jam
factories had only 360,000 centner [19,841 short tons] of fruit at their disposal
and feared they would not be able to get any more; now they have 2,000,000
centner [110,230 short tons]. I f the supplies of fruit keep up at this rate the
civil population will be able to count on ample supplies of jam from October
25, or at latest from November 1 onwards. Perhaps in the manufacture of
the jam the fruit will be mixed with carrots, pumpkins, and beets. In spite of
the great quantities supplied to the jam factories, there is, at present, abundance
in the fresh-fruit market, thanks to the measures taken against illicit trade.
The prospects of the fresh-fruit market are not, however, so good, as much of
the late fruit has been plucked before it was ripe. To counteract the effect of
this, prices will be increased every fortnight from September 15 onwards. On
September 17 the transport certificate ( Befurderungsschein), which is only
another form of the export permit, comes into force.
The principal vegetables (white and red cabbage, savoys, carrots, kohlrabi,
beets, and onions) may be compulsorily acquired by the State in the same
way as the apple, pear, and plum crops. An order published September 12 and
coming into force on September 15 empowers the State vegetable offices to
decree that in their districts, or parts of them, with the approval of the im­
perial office, the above-enumerated vegetables, or some of them, may be sold only
by permission of the State office. The vegetables so acquired are to be dis­
tributed by the imperial office among the factories which make use of them,
and the fresh-vegetable markets. The imperial office may also decide how much
of the crop is to be sold fresh, and what is to be done with the surplus. Direct
sale from producer to consumer is exempted from the restrictions upon the
sale of vegetables, so long as not more than 5 kilograms [11 pounds] is sold
to the same consumer; and similarly retail sale and sale in the public markets
remain free. The producer’s right to employ his vegetables for his own domestic
use is not subjected to any limitation. The imperial office will only acquire
1 Hamburger Fremdenblatt. Hamburg, Sept. 8, 1917.
•Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Sept. 13, 1917.




Morning edition.

40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

compulsorily the principal vegetables in each district, e. g., onions in Kalau,
white cabbage in Wesselburen, and so on. It is hoped that too frequent use
will not have to be made of these requisitioning powers.

T h e B e r lin e r T a g e b la t t r e p o r t s 1 th a t th e I m p e r ia l F r u it a n d
V e g e t a b l e O f f ic e h a s i n s t r u c t e d t h e S t a t e v e g e t a b l e o ffic e s , i n f i x i n g
w h o le s a le a n d r e t a il p r ic e s f o r a u tu m n v e g e t a b le s , t o p r o c e e d o n d i f ­
f e r e n t lin e s f r o m t h o s e f o l l o w e d in th e c a s e o f e a r ly v e g e t a b le s .
S i n c e t h e r e i s le s s d a n g e r o f w a s t e , a w h o l e s a l e a d d i t i o n o f 3 0 p e r
c e n t t o p r o d u c e r s 5 p r ic e s is t o o h ig h . T h e e x p e n s e s , e s p e c ia lly th e
a v e r a g e c o s t o f fr e ig h t a g e , m u s t b e c a r e f u lly e s tim a te d , t h a t th e
v e g e t a b le s m a y n o t b e c o m e t o o d e a r f o r c o n s u m p t io n . T h e s a m e lin e
is t o b e f o l l o w e d i n f i x i n g r e t a il p r ic e s .
T h e h ig h f r u i t p r ic e s , d u e t o t h e p o l ic y o f t h e a u t h o r it ie s , a re
c r e a t in g a g o o d d e a l o f d is s a t is fa c t io n , e v e n in q u a r te r s w h e r e it
w o u ld n o t b e e x p e cte d .
I n a c o m m u n ic a t io n , f o r in s ta n c e , t o th e
a g r a r ia n
D e u ts c h e T a g e s z e itu n g , J u s tiz r a t H a n k e
(H o m b e rg )
w r ite s : 2
When the Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office changed its policy and issued
the fruit order of August 25, 1917, the commission merchants, the heads of col­
lecting offices, and the wholesale fruit dealers were urged to strive unceasingly
to obtain fruit for jam, and instead of the former trifling commission a recom­
pense of 3 marks per centner [0.7 cent per pound] was promised to them. This
worked wonders. Great quantities of fruit have been brought together. The
joy over this is somewhat dampened when one comes to consider what the jam,
under the circumstances will cost the consumers. The grower’s maximum price
for windfall apples has been fixed at 10 marks per centner,* for picked apples
at 20 marks,4 and for pears at 8 marks [1.7 cents per pound]. . Add to thjs the
buyer’s commission of 3 marks, the working expenses, and a fair profit for the
jam factories, and the price will be so high that for poor people the jam will
be almost inaccessible, and they will have to renounce the “absolutely necessary
accompaniment to their bread ” and eat it dry, unless the Imperial Government
bears part of the price of the jam.

OILS AND FATS.

T h e N o r d d e u ts c h e A llg e m e in e Z e itu n g s t a t e s 5 th a t, as a c o n s e ­
q u e n c e o f t h e e x p e r ie n c e g a in e d in t h e p a s t y e a r , a lt e r a tio n s h a v e
b e e n m a d e in th e c o n t r o l o f o il- p r o d u c i n g p la n t s b y a n o r d e r o f th e
F e d e r a l C o u n c i lBundesrath) o f J u l y 2 3 , 1 9 1 7 , a s t o o i l f r u i t s a n d
(.
th e ir p r o d u c t s , a n d b y th e o r d e r o f th e p r e s id e n t o f th e W a r F o o d
B u r e a u o f A u g u s t 7 ,1 9 1 7 , as t o th e d e liv e r y o f o il, th e tr a d e in m a n u ­
fa c t u r e d o ils , a n d t h e p r ic e s o f o le a g in o u s fr u it s .
1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 15, 1917. Morning edition.
2 Deutsche Tageszeitung. Berlin, Sept. 17, 1917. Evening edition.
3 This is equivalent to from $0.95 to $1.08 per bushel, according to the number of
pounds allowed to the bushel.
4 $1.90 to $2.16 per bushel.
•Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Berlin, Aug. 12, 1917.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

41

T h e a m a lg a m a t io n o f o il m ills , o r d e r e d b y th e w a r c o m m it t e e f o r
th e s a v in g o f c o a l a n d la b o r , h a s r e n d e r e d th e e x t r a c t io n o f o il f r o m
o le a g in o u s f r u i t s t o o d iffic u lt f o r g r o w e r s , a n d in f u t u r e th e e n t ir e
c r o p , w it h th e e x c e p t io n o f c e r t a in q u a n titie s o f see d a n d a m o u n ts
u p t o 5 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 ,1 0 2 .3 p o u n d s ) o f l i n s e e d , m u s t b e h a n d e d o v e r
to th e c o m m itte e .
In s te a d o f h a v in g th e r ig h t to k eep b a c k 30 k ilo ­
g r a m s ( 6 6 .1 4 p o u n d s ) o f o i l - p r o d u c i n g s e e d s , t h e p e r s o n d e l i v e r i n g
m a y c la im th e r e tu r n o f o il fr o m th e w a r c o m m itte e , in p r o p o r t io n t o
t h e q u a n t i t y d e l i v e r e d , b e t w e e n l i m i t s o f 5 a n d 5 0 k i l o g r a m s (1 1 .0 2
a n d 1 1 0 .2 3 p o u n d s ) , t h e m a x i m u m o f 5 0 k i l o g r a m s b e i n g o b t a i n a b l e
w h e r e m o r e t h a n 6 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 3 ,2 2 8 p o u n d s ) o f r a p e o r p o p p y
s e e d a r e d e l i v e r e d , m o r e t h a n 1 0 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 2 2 ,0 4 6 p o u n d s ) o f
l i n s e e d , g o l d - o f - p l e a s u r e , o r m u s t a r d s e e d , o r m o r e t h a n 1 6 ,0 0 0 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 3 5 ,2 7 4 p o u n d s ) o f h e m p o r s u n f l o w e r s e e d . C o n t r a c t o r s w h o
d e liv e r o i l s e e d s f r o m s e v e r a l a g r ic u lt u r a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts m a y c la im
a r e t u r n o f o i l f o r e a c h s u c h e s t a b li s h m e n t .
T h e p r ic e o f th e o il
t o b e d e liv e r e d t o fa r m e r s h a s b e e n fix e d v e r y lo w , a m o u n t in g t o
1 .5 0 m a r k s p e r k i l o g r a m ( $ 1 .3 7 p e r g a l l o n ) o f l i n s e e d o i l , 2 .3 0 m a r k s
( $ 2 .0 7 p e r g a l l o n ) f o r p o p p y - s e e d o i l , a n d 1 .6 0 m a r k s ( $ 1 .4 4 p e r g a l ­
l o n ) f o r r a p e s e e d o il.
I n o r d e r t o a v o id a d o u b le s u p p ly b e in g o b ta in e d b y o il-s e e d
g r o w e r s , e ith e r t h r o u g h th e w a r c o m m itte e o r b y e x t r a c t in g o il f r o m
q u a n titie s k e p t b a c k , a s tr ic t c o n t r o l h a s b e e n fo u n d n e ce ssa ry .
The
r ig h t t o e x t r a c t o il f r o m v e g e ta b le su b s ta n ce s h a s t h e r e fo r e b e e n
m a d e d e p e n d e n t o n t h e s a n c t io n o f th e p r e s id e n t o f th e W a r F o o d
B u r e a u , b u t w il l o n l y b e g r a n t e d in e x c e p t io n a l ca s e s , u n le s s t h e
s t o c k i n q u e s t i o n is u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e w a r c o m m i t t e e . L i n ­
s e e d g r o w e r s n o t i n t e n d i n g t o m a k e u s e o f t h e 5 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 ,1 0 2 .3
p o u n d s ) o f lin s e e d t o w h ic h t h e y a re e n t it le d m a y , u p o n r e n o u n c in g
t h e ir c la im s t o a r e tu r n , d e liv e r t h e ir w h o le c r o p t o t h e w a r c o m ­
m it t e e a n d r e c e iv e th e m a x im u m p r ic e .
I t is th e n l e f t t o t h e ir c h o ic e
t o t a k e e i t h e r 2 5 k i l o g r a m s ( 5 5 .1 p o j i n d s ) o f o i l a n d 7 0 k i l o g r a m s
( 1 5 4 .3 p o u n d s ) o f o i l c a k e f o r e v e r y 1 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 2 2 0 .4 6 p o u n d s )
o f lin s e e d , o r a r e m u n e r a t io n o f 18 m a r k s ($ 4 .2 8 ) b e y o n d t h e o r d i ­
n a r y p rice .
I n o r d e r t h a t th e o i l m a y b e c o n s t a n t ly fr e s h , lin s e e d
o i l is d e l i v e r a b l e i n i n s t a l l m e n t s t o t h o s e s u p p l y i n g t h e s e e d . W h e r e
o il h a s b e e n e x t r a c t e d f r o m s e e d o f t h is y e a r ’s h a r v e s t in a c c o r d a n c e
w it h th e o ld r e g u la t io n s , t h is w ill b e c o u n t e d in th e q u a n t it y d u e
u n d e r th e n e w r e g u la t io n s .
T h e c o n d it io n s o f p u r c h a s e o f o il- p r o d u c i n g p la n t s b y th e w a r
c o m m itte e h a v e b ee n a m e n d e d in fa v o r o f th e fa r m e r .
T h e w e ig h t
m a y b e r e g is te r e d a t th e p la c e o f lo a d in g , in a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e
r e g u la tio n s to b e fo u n d in th e p u r ch a s e c o n tr a c ts issu e d b y th e w a r
c o m m itte e .
D iffe r e n c e s o v e r th e p r ic e s o ffe r e d b y th e c o m m itte e w ill
in f u t u r e b e a d ju s t e d b y “ s e ttle m e n t c o m m it t e e s ,” p r e s id e d o v e r b y




42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

a h i g h e r o f f ic ia l w i t h a d e a l e r a n d a f a r m e r a s e x p e r t a s s o c i a t e m e m ­
b e r s ; th e m e m b e r s o f th e c o m m itte e a re t o b e a p p o in t e d b y th e S ta te
C e n t r a l O ffic e .
W it h a v ie w t o a d v a n c in g fu r t h e r th e c u lt iv a t io n o f o il-p r o d u c in g
p la n t s in 1 9 1 8 , a n in c r e a s e i n p r i c e o f 15 m a r k s p e r 1 00 k ilo g r a m s
(5 2 c e n ts p e r g a ll o n ) h a s b e e n fix e d , as w e ll a s a n in c r e a s e d r e tu r n
o f o il ca k e.
T h e r e tu r n o f o il c a k e , w h ic h in th e la s t f e w y e a r s h a s
b e e n fr e q u e n t ly th e c a u s e o f c o m p la in t , w il l t h is y e a r b e as p r o m is e d ,
th a n k s t o th e w a r c o m m it t e e ’s r e g u la tio n s .
A n u m b er o f d r y in g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v e b e e n le a s e d b y th e w a r c o m m it t e e , s o t h a t e v e n
d a m p se e d c a n , a ft e r tr e a tm e n t, b e u t iliz e d .
T h e o il g a in e d fr o m o i l-p r o d u c in g fr u it s w ill, in c o n s e q u e n ce o f
th e e x p e c t e d d e c r e a s e in b u t t e r p r o d u c t io n , c o n s t it u t e , in th e f o r m o f
m a r g a r in e , a n im p o r t a n t e le m e n t in th e f a t s u p p ly o f G e r m a n y in
th e c o m in g w in te r . T h e r e q u is it io n in g o f th e e n tir e c r o p o f o il see d
is t h e r e fo r e a b s o lu te ly n e ce s s a r y .
T h e c o lle c tio n o f b o n e s f o r fa t -p r o d u c in g p u r p o s e s h a s b e e n c o n ­
t r o l l e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t s i n c e M a y 1, 1 9 1 6 . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e
M iin c h n e r P o s t ,1 d u r in g t h e fir s t y e a r o f t h is c o n t r o l th e t o t a l r e t u r n
o f b o n e s i n G e r m a n y a m o u n t e d t o 6 4 ,9 6 7 ,9 4 4 k i l o g r a m s (7 1 ,6 1 4 .6
s h o r t t o n s ) , f r o m w h i c h 9 ,9 9 8 ,5 8 8 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 1 ,0 2 1 .4 s h o r t t o n s ) o f
b o n e fa t w e r e o b ta in e d .
T h e W a r C o m m itte e f o r O ils a n d F a ts h a s
sta te d th a t in c o n s id e r a t io n o f th e m a n ifo ld p r o d u c t s t o b e g a in e d
fr o m b o n e s , th e c o lle c t io n o f b o n e s is v e r y im p o r t a n t a n d s h o u ld b e
ex ten d e d .
T h e w a r c o m m i t t e e i s m o s t w i l l i n g t o a s s is t i n s i n g l e
ca ses a n d t o g iv e a n y n e ce s s a r y in s tr u c tio n .
T h e Y o s s is c h e Z e itu n g w r it e s 2 th a t a n e w s o u r ce o f o il p r o d u c t io n
is n o w b e in g d r a w n o n — t o m a t o seed s.
T h e a n a ly s is o f t o m a t o
see d s u n d e r ta k e n b y th e W a r C o m m itte e f o r O ils a n d F a ts g a v e a
r e s u l t o f 2 0 t o 2 4 p e r c e n t o f o i l , 9 .1 p e r c e n t o f w a t e r , a n d 4 p e r c e n t
o f n it r o g e n .
I n m o s t p r e s e r v in g fa c t o r ie s th e w h o le to m a to e s a re
u s e d w it h o u t t a k in g o u t t h e s e e d s ; w h e r e t h is is n o t th e ca se th e
w a r c o m m itte e h a s seen t o th e c o lle c t io n o f to m a to seed s.
T h is h as
b e e n d o n e a ls o in th e o c c u p ie d te r r it o r ie s , e s p e c ia lly in R o u m a n ia .
T h e o i l o b t a in e d is u s e d as a ta b le o il.
S ig n ific a n t a t o n c e o f th e a n x ie t y o f th e a u t h o r it ie s t o o b t a in o il,
a n d o f t h e g e n e r a l s h o r t a g e o f f o o d s t u f f s , is a n a n n o u n c e m e n t i n t h e
L o k a l - A n z e i g e r 3 t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i n g o ffic e s f o r f r u i t k e r n e l s a r e p a y ­
in g c a sh o r s o u p c u b e s f o r f r u i t k e r n e ls a n d m e lo n se e d s f r o m w h ic h
t o e x tr a c t o il f o r m a r g a r in e . T h e o il it s e lf c a n n o t b e s u p p lie d t o
c o lle c t o r s , as th e k e r n e ls c o n t a in o n ly 5 p e r c e n t o f o il. T h e s o u p
1 Miinchner Post. Munich, Sept. 24, 1917.
•Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, Sept. 27, 1917. Evening edition.
•Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Oct. 3, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

43

c u b e s a r e d e liv e r e d t o c o lle c t o r s o f k e r n e ls as a s p e c ia l f a v o r a n d a re
r a te d at th e ca sh p r ic e o f
p f e n n i g s (0 .6 c e n t ) p e r cu b e .
SUGAR.

O n th e p r o s p e c t s o f th e s u g a r -b e e t h a r v e s t t h e S c h le s is c h e Z e i t u n g 1
r e p o rts as fo llo w s :
Very shortly the sugar-beet harvest will be in full swing everywhere, and
very satisfactory crop is expected this year. Only a rough estimate of the
sugar production expected from this year’s crop can at present be made. But
even on a cautious calculation— given at least fairly normal weather and har­
vesting conditions— a sugar production of at least 34,000,000 (1,873,910 short
tons) and perhaps over 35,000,000 centner (1,929,025 short tons) in raw sugar
may be expected for the German Empire. On a careful reckoning the expected
production compares with the statistics for the last three fiscal years as
follow s:

a

Short tons.

1914^15,
1915-16,
1916-17,
1917-18,

52,000,000
30,000,000
32,000,000
34,500,000

centner________________________________
centner________________________________
centner________________________________
centner________________________________

2,
1,
1,
1,

865,980
653, 450
763, 680
901, 468

Though the extraordinarily large decrease of production in the first year of
the war has been followed by continuous increases, these are unfortunately
not large enough to put an end to the prevailing scarcity of sugar; but they do
modify it to some extent. A steady endeavor considerably to increase culti­
vation next year may effect a thorough improvement.

W i t h t h is m a y b e c o m p a r e d th e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t f r o m M a g d e b u r g
in th e F r a n k fu r t e r Z e i t u n g :2
The raw sugar distribution is now announced, and amounts for, the months
October and November to 15 per cent each, i. e., in all some 8 million centner
(440,920 short tons) of the production. Thus all factories are assured good
employment. Most of them are for the time being provided with coal, but
the means for surmounting the other difficulties— lack of skilled labor and
of teams for sugar-beet transport, etc.— are as inadequate as those for trans­
porting the finished product to the refineries, whether by rail or water. Par­
ticular importance is attached by the distribution office to water carriage,
but here the difficulties have much increased lately. Notably the Elbe and
the Oder with their tributaries and canals are at present extremely low, so
that even the moderate number of barges available can be used to only a
small extent.
In general, the condition of the beet fields is very satisfactory at present,
thanks to favorable weather, and in many districts a bigger crop than last
year’s and at least the same yield of sugar is reckoned on. But in some it
is feared that owing to the fodder shortage, sugar-beet will often be used as
fodder or damaged by cutting the tops. The estimates of experts so far indi­
cate that the raw sugar will amount to about 30,000,000 centner [1,653,450
short tons].

T h e B e r lin e r T a g e b la t t * le a r n s f r o m a c o m p e t e n t s o u r c e th a t, as
th e fin a l r e v is e d r e g u la t io n s f o r th e t r a d e in s u g a r d u r in g th e h a r v e s t
1 Schlesische Zeitung. Breslau, Sept. 28, 1917. Morning edition.
* Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Sept. 28, 1917. Second morning edition.
* Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Sept. 30, 1917. Morning edition.




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

y e a r 1 9 1 7 -1 8 c a n n o t b e c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e O c t o b e r 1 , t h e s e c r e t a r y o f
sta te f o r th e W a r F o o d B u re a u h a s o r d e r e d th a t th e e x is tin g su g a r
la w c o n t in u e in e ffe c t u n t il th e is s u a n c e o f fu r t h e r o r d e r s .
H ouse­
h o ld s u g a r d e liv e r e d a ft e r S e p te m b e r 30 w ill b e p a id f o r a t th e n e w
p r ic e s to b e p u b lis h e d a b o u t th e m id d le o f O cto b e r.
C o m m u n a l u n io n s w h ic h h a v e n o t b e e n s u p p lie d w it h th e ir O c t o b e r
q u o ta w ill be c h a r g e d a t th e o ld ra te.
A c c o r d i n g t o th e B e r lin e r T a g e b l a t t 1 th e p r o d u c e r ’s p r i c e f o r s u g a r
b e e t s h a s b e e n f i x e d a t 2 .5 0 m a r k s p e r c e n t n e r ( 3 2 . 7 c e n t s p e r b u s h e l
of C p o u n d s ) .
O
T h e U n io n o f G e r m a n S u g a r M a n u fa c tu r e r s r e co m m e n d s th a t th e
b e e t s a v e d b y th e 15 p e r c e n t r e d u c t io n o f r a w -s u g a r p r o d u c t io n
s h o u l d b e r e le a s e d u p t o 4 5 p e r c e n t f o r f o d d e r .
I n t h is c o n n e c t io n
th e V o r w a r t s 2 sta te s t h a t th e a lle g e d r e a s o n f o r th e r e d u c t io n o f
s u g a r p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e w a n t o f c o a l , a n d r a is e s a s t r o n g p r o t e s t
a g a in s t a n y s u c h r e d u c t io n .
“ I n th e p re s e n t s c a r c ity o f fo o d s t u ffs it
w o u ld b e c r im in a l n o t t o u se su g a r b ee ts t o th e fu lle s t e x te n t f o r
su gar.
T h e n e ce ssa ry c o a l m u st b e fo r t h c o m in g .
T h e b e e t p r ic e s
w e r e r a i s e d t o 2 .5 0 m a r k s p e r c e n t n e r [3 2 .7 c e n t s p e r b u s h e l o f 6 0
p o u n d s ] in o r d e r t o s t im u la t e p r o d u c t i o n f o r s u g a r p u r p o s e s , a n d
n o w i t is p r o p o s e d t o w a s te p a r t o f th e g o o d h a r v e s t in f o d d e r .”
T h e L o k a l - A n z e i g e r 3 a n n o u n c e d t h a t s a c c h a r in e w a s a g a in t o b e
issu e d d u r in g S e p te m b e r .
A n o t h e r s u b s titu te f o r r e fin e d w h it e
s u g a r is d e a lt w it h in a n a r t ic le b y th e D e u t s c h e T a g e s z e it u n g ,4
w h ic h sta tes t h a t n e g o t ia t io n s a re a t p r e s e n t g o in g o n b e tw e e n th e
W a r F o o d B u r e a u a n d t h e I m p e r i a l S u g a r O ffic e , o n t h e is s u e o f
w h ic h d e p e n d s w h e t h e r th e s o - c a lle d “ m e h lis ,” a c o a r s e -g r a in e d l o a f
s u g a r is t o b e r e in t r o d u c e d . T h e r e is a ls o m u c h t a lk o f t h e a m a lg a ­
m a tio n o f su g a r fa c to r ie s f o r th e p u r p o s e o f e c o n o m iz in g c o a l.
HONEY.

A n o r d e r o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u(BumdesratK) r e l a t i n g t o t h e
n c il
m a x im u m p r ic e o f n a t u r a l h o n e y w a s p u b lis h e d J u n e 30 , 1 9 17, p r o ­
v i d in g t h a t f r o m t h a t d a te th e c o n s u m e r s h o u ld p a y f o r s t r a in e d
h o n e y 3 m a r k s p e r 500 g r a m s (6 5 ce n ts p e r p o u n d ) t o th e b e e k e e p e r ,
a n d 3 .5 m a r k s ( 7 5 .7 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) t o t h e d e a l e r , w h i l e t h e d e a l e r
s h o u l d p a y 2 .7 5 m a r k s p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 5 9 .5 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) t o t h e
p r o d u c e r . S in c e t h a t d a te , h a w e v e r , n o h o n e y h a s b e e n f o r s a le in la r g e
t o w n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e H a m b u r g e r F r e m d e n b l a t t 5— o n e m o r e i n ­
s ta n ce o f th e fix in g o f m a x im u m p r ic e s b e in g p r o m p t l y f o l l o w e d b y
1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 8, 1917. Evening edition.
2 Vorwarts. Berlin, Oct. 6, 1917.
•Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Aug.-31, 1917. Morning edition.
♦Deutsche Tageszeitung. Berlin, Sept. 2, 1917. Morning edition.
• Hamburger Fremdenblatt. Hamburg, Aug. 1, 1917. Evening edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

45

t lie d is a p p e a r a n c e o f th e g o o d s f r o m t h e m a r k e t . T h e s p e c ia l r e a ­
s o n s i n t h i s c a s e , a p a r t f r o m t h e m a x i m u m p r i c e s t h e m s e lv e s , a r e t h e
in a d e q u a c y a n d f a u l t y g r a d in g o f th e m a x im u m s in q u e s tio n , a n d th e
i l l i c i t t r a d i n g w h i c h a r is e s t h e r e f r o m .
T h e B e r lin e r T a g e b l a t t 1 sta tes th a t th e b e e k e e p e r s c o n s id e r th e
m a x i m u m p r i c e s i n s u f f ic ie n t . T h e b e e k e e p e r i s t o r e c e i v e 2 .7 5 m a r k s
p e r 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 5 9 .5 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) f r o m t h e d e a l e r , w h e r e a s l a s t
y e a r h e o b t a i n e d f r o m 6 t o 7 m a r k s ( $ 1 .3 0 t o $ 1 .5 2 p e r p o u n d ) . T h e
r e s u l t i s a b e e k e e p e r s ’ s t r ik e . B e e k e e p e r s , w h o i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s s u p ­
p li e d B e r l in w it h h o n e y b y th e h u n d r e d w e ig h t , d e c la r e th e m s e lv e s
u n a b le t h is y e a r t o d e liv e r h o n e y a t th e m a x im u m p r i c e ; o t h e r s d e ­
m a n d a s m u c h a s 6 m a r k s ($ 1 .3 0 p e r p o u n d ) f r o m t h e d e a l e r s . T h e
g o o d s a r e b e in g d e liv e r e d d ir e c t t o p r iv a t e c o n s u m e rs , w h o p a y th e
p r ic e s d e m a n d e d b y p ro d u ce r s .
A c c o r d i n g t o th e V o r w a r t s 2 t h is
w a s th e s it u a t io n as la te a s S e p t e m b e r 10.
T h e M in is te r o f th e I n t e r io r fo u n d e d in B e r lin , a t th e b e g in n in g o f
J u ly , a R o y a l S ta te b u re a u f o r th e d is t r ib u t io n o f n a tu r a l h o n e y , b u t
a s t h e b u r e a u h a d n o h o n e y i n i t s p o s s e s s io n n o n e c o u l d b e d i s t r i b ­
u ted .
T h is s p r in g b e e k e e p e rs c o u ld o b ta in s u g a r f o r fe e d in g b ees
f r o m t h e I m p e r i a l S u g a r O f f ic e o n l y o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e y p l e d g e
t h e m s e l v e s t o p l a c e t h e y i e l d o f h o n e y a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h a t o ffic e .
COFFEE AN D TEA.

T h e V o s s is c h e Z e i t u n g 3 sta tes th a t, a c c o r d in g t o a c o m m u n ic a t io n
b y th e w a r c o m m it t e e , c o ffe e s u b s titu te s a t e x c e s s iv e p r ic e s h a v e a p ­
p e a r e d u p o n th e m a r k e t, f o r th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f w h ic h r a w m a t e r ia ls
h a v e b e e n u s e d , s o m e o f w h i c h w e r e n o t s u it a b le , s o m e i n b a d c o n ­
d itio n , a n d s o m e u n s k illfu lly p r e p a r e d .
T h e c o m m u n ic a t io n s a y s :
An unregulated industry is trying to profit by the public necessity. The
Price Testing Offices have therefore been instructed by the economic depart­
ment of the W a r Food Bureau to see whether noxious coffee substitutes are
thus being supplied to the consumers. Measures are under consideration for
assuring reasonable prices as well as safeguarding the public health. The
standard prices for coffee substitutes apply to those for which raw materials
are supplied by the war committee. And, of course, other substitutes, espe­
cially those manufactured from inferior materials, must not be priced higher.
This also applies to foreign goods of this kind, unless the dealer can prove
that they were purchased at a higher price.

T h e la te s t c o ffe e s u b s titu te r e c o m m e n d e d is c o m p o s e d o f p r e s s e d
a n d r o a s t e d g r a p e s k in s , t h e s m e ll a n d t a s t e o f w h i c h a r e c l a i m e d b y
a D r e s d e n c h e m is t t o h a v e m u c h r e s e m b la n c e t o t h o s e o f r e a l c o ffe e .4
1 Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin, Aug. 7, 1917. Morning edition.
8 Vorwarts. Berlin, Sept. 10, 1917.
8 Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, July 25, 1917. Morning edition.
4 Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Aug. 3, 1917.




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A further coffee substitute has been discovered in asparagus seed,
which is said to contain 10 per cent protein, 15 per cent fat, besides
resin and a bitter element.1
It would be a great pity, says Das Hotel, to throw away the
parings of apples and pears. These should be dried, and will, on
delivery, be paid for at the rate of 1 mark per kilogram (10.8 cents
per pound). After being cleaned by a special process, they are being
manufactured into an important ingredient of a tea substitute, which
makes a cheap but very good beverage.

BEER.
The Munchner Neueste Nachrichten2 announces that beer is to
be uniform all over Bavaria on the right of the Rhine.
A recently issued order of the acting commanding generals provides that,
beginning with August 15, 1917, beer, unless for the army, may be manu­
factured only with an original gravity of 3.5 to 4 per cent. Supplies in stock
of a stronger brewing must be weakened to the required original gravity.
Where the working conditions do not admit of this adulteration, the Beer
Distribution Office may grant exceptions to this regulation.
The Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten learns from a reliable source that a
time limit will be given to the breweries in which to carry out the adultera­
tion of stocks of higher percentage beer. The effect of the order will be that
the retail trade can be supplied from August 15 with 60 per cent of the
average peace requirements.
This quantity will be sufficient to cover the
needs of the civilian population, as the army’s beer supply has been secured
independently of this. The uniform beer will presumably be somewhat better
than the previous small beer, since the brewers will probably go to the higher
limit (4 per cent). Bavaria will have the best beer. In northern Germany,
beer is brewed with an original gravity of 2 per cent.

Under the same date the Munchner Neueste Nachrichten reports
that an order has been issued which will check the buying up of
the small by the large breweries. Previously, if a brewery in the
country was bought up, the large brewery had the right to make use
of the brewing malt quota attached to the purchased brewery. In
future a license from the Malt Distribution Office will be required
before this malt can be used. This license will be granted only in
exceptional cases. By the closing of the country breweries many of
the local tradesmen and farmers are injured. But the purchase of
these breweries has greatly increased. In 1916, of 3,000 breweries,
both private and cooperative, in Bavaria, about 500 were closed.
Among them were certainly many cooperative breweries which had
to close in consequence of the reduction of the malt quota, but will
reopen after the War. A large number were, however, bought up
and permanently closed by being absorbed into the large breweries.
1 Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung.
Landwirtschaftliche Presse.)

■Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten.




Berlin, Aug. 12, 1917.

Munich, July 19, 1917.

(Quoted from the Deutsche

Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE-----GERMANY.

47

The Frankfurter Zeitung1 has received the following report on
the distribution of barley to breweries in the fiscal year 1917-18:
A Barley Distribution Office for Breweries has been founded, as the Imperial
Grain Office, contrary to former custom, will not supply individual establish­
ments but will assign the aggregate amount for the separate industries to their
combines, which will have charge of the redistribution to the individual brew­
eries. The Imperial Grain Office has already allowed the newly created Barley
Distribution Office to designate the districts and distributing agencies princi­
pally concerned in the matter of brewing barley. The new office has also
urged the Imperial Grain Office to assign more barley to the brewing in­
dustry, both in order to extend the beer production and to provide the valu­
able brewing refuse, viz., brewers’ grain for dairy farming and malt germs
for yeast factories. The barley distribution is to follow the lines adopted by
the Imperial Grain Company, the distribution to be equal and simultaneous.
About 20,000 to 30,000 metric tons (918,583 to 1,377,875 bushels of 48 pounds) of
barley are to be assigned monthly, so that the distribution of the quota allotted
to breweries will extend over about four to six months. As the peace-time con­
sumption of barley by German breweries, with the exception of the Bavarian
breweries, amounted to about 1,200,000 metric tons (55,115,000 bushels), a
monthly quota of 20,000 tons would amount for each brewery to 1.67 per cent,
and of 30,000 tons to 2.5 per cent of its peace-time consumption.

Based on a report by a Nuremberg firm of hop dealers, the Munchner Neueste Nachrichten2 estimates this year’s hop crop in Germany
at 133,200 centner (7,340 short tons) from an area of about 11,100
hectares (27,428.1 acres). The corresponding figures for 1916 were
173,872 centner (9,583 short tons) and 17,789 hectares (43,956.62
acres). The present conditions justify the hopes of a good medium
harvest.
WINE.

The wine export permit of last March terminated on July 31.
Leave to export without special permit is henceforth given for native
white wines, where (1) the dealer has been in business since 1913,
and (2) the price is at least 8 marks ($1.90) and 4.25 marks ($1)
per bottle and half bottle, respectively, exclusive of packing charges
and without either subsequent discount or middleman profits.3
The Frankfurter Zeitung4 states that, according to statements in
wine dealers’ circles, this year’s Roumanian vintage has been expro­
priated by the German military authorities for military require­
ments. The produce is to be brought to Germany and several Pala­
tinate wine dealers with large cellarage have offered to treat and
finish the wine.
As regards the production and sale of fruit wine, according to an
order of the imperial chancellor, a distinction must be made between
1 Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Aug. 16, 1917. First morning edition.
2 Mfinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Aug. 20, 1917. Morning edition.
* Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Aug. 14, 1917.

‘ Frankfurter Zeitung.




Frankfort on the Main, Sept. 1, 1917.

Morning edition.

48

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

that produced for trading and that produced for nontrading pur­
poses. Private production is allowed up to an amount of raw ma­
terial not exceeding 3,000 kilograms (6,613.8 pounds) during the
year. This amount may, with the consent of the State central
authorities, be increased to 15,000 kilograms (33,069 pounds). Only
the production of bilberry and apple wines is allowed for commer­
cial purposes, not, however, without the consent of the authorities
concerned. The quantity of fruit wine to be produced for commer­
cial purposes by each wine-pressing establishment will shortly be
fixed, probably at 20 per cent of the average wine pressing in 1914-15,
by the Imperial Fruit and Vegetable Office. All trade in fruit wine
is prohibited until after the publication of maximum prices.1

D IS T R IB U T IO N O F B A R L E Y T O D IS T IL L E R S .
The Imperial Grain Office issued a proclamation on September 26,
1917,2 stating that by the grain order of June 21, 1917, the supplying
of the distilleries with barley is in the hands of the Imperial Grain
Office and that it will make use of the Spirits Central Office to carry
out this task.
The amount of barley considered necessary for the manufacture of
1 hectoliter (26.42 gallons) of pure alcohol in distilleries which in
1916-17 produced an average amount of not more than 30 hectoliters
(792.6 gallons) is 30 kilograms (66.14 pounds), in distilleries that
produced not more than 300 hectoliters (7,926 gallons), 20 kilograms
(44 pounds), and in distilleries which produced over 300 hectoliters,
16 kilograms (35.27 pounds).
All spirit distilleries except those supplied by the Union of German
Compressed Yeast Manufacturers, or those which are associated with
the spirit industry of southern Germany, must apply for barley to
the Barley Distribution Office of the Spirits Central Office. This
applies both to distilleries which propose to make use of their own
harvest and to those which are dependent for their supply on the
Imperial Grain Office.
Distilleries which have grown on their own farms enough barley
for their average production, as well as association and cooperative
distilleries which can obtain their requisite quantity from the harvest
of their associates or cooperators, may on application have the neces­
sary quantity of barley released to them from their own harvest.
Distilleries which use their own barley must pay to the Imperial
Grain Office the difference between the fixed price of barley, plus 3
marks allowed for the expenses of the Spirits Central Office, and the
maximum price, plus the threshing premium for barley. The barley
1 Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Sept. 4, 1917. Morning edition.
8 Schlesische Zeitung. Breslau, Oct. 4, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

49

must not be used before it has expressly been allotted to the distil­
leries by the Barley Distribution Office.
Oats and mixtures of oats can not be released for distilling pur­
poses in the coming year. Distilleries which have not reaped suffi­
cient barley for their average production of spirits must therefore
depend for their supply on the Imperial Grain Office.

“ F O O D E X C U R S IO N S ”
During the past spring and summer the food authorities received
numerous complaints about the increasing practice among the urban
population of going out to the rural districts to secure food illicitly.
T*hese “ food excursions” were much discussed in the daily press,
some papers expressing sympathy fpr the poorer class of excursion­
ists, who should be distinguished from the richer and merely selfish
hoarders.
In Berlin and the Province of Brandenburg this injurious practice
led to a proclamation by the commanding general, which, according
to the Lokal-Anzeiger,1 contained the following statement:
Individuals can not be permitted to seek to obtain in this way an advantage
over their fellow citizens. Moreover, people now go out, not merely to buy but
to steal food or take it forcibly; they have the effrontery to help themselves to
standing field and garden crops, often long before these are ripe. The injury
to the farmers and to our future supply is obvious. Robbing the fields and
damaging the crops is a crime in war time, and the strongest measures must be
taken against it.

He therefore lays the authorities under an obligation to enforce
the following order, and states that where it is necessary military
assistance will be available. The text of the order is as follows:
A r t i c l e 1. Foodstuffs the sale of which is under Government control, espe­
cially grain, flour, bread, barley, groats, pulse, potatoes, meat (including hams
and sausage), bacon, milk, butter, and eggs may only be sold by the producer
to persons from other districts, if they can show a written license, running
in their own name and granted by the Landrat (highest rural district official)
or the communal administration of the producing district.
A rt. 2. Only those possessing such license may buy or solicit the above
foodstuffs outside their own locality.
A r t . 8. Small quantities may be given without remuneration I f permission in
writing has been granted by the competent head of the commune or manorial
estate.
A rt. 4. The competent administrative authorities may grant exceptions to the
above articles 1 to 3.
A rt. 5. Foodstuffs obtained contrary to these regulations, with their wrap­
pings. etc., are liable to confiscation by the police. The obligation to prove
legal possession will lie with the person upon wbom +he
is found.

1 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger.

45499°— Bull. 242— 18------- 4




Berlin, Aug. 2, 1917.

Morning edition.

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A b t . 6 . Police officials, gendarmes, and special constables will be entitled to
enter railway platforms, baggage offices, waiting rooms, and railway carriages,
and there make search for food.
A b t . 7 . A l l o r d e rs p r e v io u sly issu e d b y

th e a d m in is tr a tiv e a u th o r itie s w ith

re g a rd to th e s a le o f th e se fo o d s tu ffs re m a in u n a ffe c te d b y a r tic le s 1 to 3 .
A r t . 8.

Breaches of the above regulations will be punishable under martial

law.
A r t . 9. This order comes into force on August 4,1917.

In Bavaria the predatory activities of field thieves had reached
such an extent that the acting commander in chief of the First Ba­
varian Army Corps assigned mounted military detachments to pro­
tect the fields near the large towns.1

M A S S F E E D IN G IN M U N IC IP A L W A R K IT C H E N S .
The Vossische Zeitung2 contains a report by Government Coun­
cillor Dr. Tenius on the development of mass feeding in Germany
during the war. Of the 563 communes, each with 10,000 or more
inhabitants, and with a total population of 26,700,000, there were
only 56, with 857,000 inhabitants, without mass-feeding arrange­
ments; 472 communes, with 24,354,090 inhabitants, reported the
existence of 2,207 such establishments, of which 1,076 are general
war kitchens, 116 middle-class kitchens, 528 factory kitchens, and
487 kitchens of various kinds. Although most towns provided only
midday dinners, most kitchens are arranged for at least two shifts
of cooks. The average output of the 2,207 establishments amounted
in February, 1917, to a daily production of 2,528,401 liters3 of food,
which allowed 10.4 liters daily per 100 inhabitants of the 24,354,090
total inhabitants in question, as against 8.8 liters in January. The
highest possible daily output would promise a total of 4,208,741 liters,
or 17.8 liters per 100 inhabitants.
According to the Munchner Neueste Nachrichten4 the Wirtschaftliches Wochenblatt has been instituting inquiries among the German
towns as to the extent to which the food cards must be surrendered
to the mass-feeding kitchens. Replies from some hundred towns
showed a great diversity in practice. For meat and potatoes food
vouchers are required in nearly all towns, but fat, pulse, farinaceous
foods, and flour are more often supplied irrespective of vouchers.
In a few towns no food cards of any kind are required by the massfeeding kitchens. Brunswick, Celle, and Gotha reckon vouchers only
for potatoes, Potsdam only for potatoes and pulse, and Pirmasens
only for soup ingredients.
1 Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Aug. 3, 1917. Morning edition.
* Vossische Zeitung. Berlin, July 28, 1917. Morning edition.
8 A liter equals 0.908 qt. dry measure and 1.0507 qts. liquid measure.
4 Mtinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Sept. 5, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— GERMANY.

51

The extent to which the meat card is required varies greatly,
depending upon the frequency of the supply of meat dishes in the
various war kitchens. The regulations usually provide for half the
meat vouchers to be surrendered. Since, in many towns, meals are
supplied in so-called liter portions, the meat vouchers are also
reckoned on the basis of this unit. But here, too, the number of
vouchers supplied varies.

In addition to the towns (a large majority) which have intro­
duced daily vouchers, there are some which issue weekly and monthly
cards. Some towns even demand from patrons of their food kitch­
ens the meat and other vouchers for three months at a time.
The same differences are to be found as regards potato vouchers.
But here, too, it is the rule that only half the vouchers need be
given up. Also the number to be given up is often measured by the
local potato ration existing at the time. In this arrangement the
difficulties of the potato supply are clearly reflected. Many towns
stated that it was impossible to reckon potato vouchers, because the
supply did not admit of a ration being given.
Only 14 towns require the fat vouchers. A few more demand the
food card voucher for pulse, flour, and farinaceous foods; very few
reckon that for milling products. Munich requires no vouchers for
fat, pulse, and eggs. Only two towns make deductions from the sugar
card. In three towns books of tickets are supplied to the patrons of
the war kitchens containing a list of the foodstuffs reckoned. Cor­
responding deductions are made from the food cards.
The comparative popularity of mass feeding is a good index to
the actual condition of the food supply. It is interesting, therefore,
to find the Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten1 stating that in spite of
the better harvest there will, according to official intimation, probably
be an increase in the number of people using the mass-feeding
kitchens this year, especially if the fat shortage should increase.
The president of the War Food Bureau has asked the imperial
coal commissioner to see that mass-feeding institutions of all kinds
be supplied with coal to their full requirements, as important war
industries, and to direct the local authorities to see that the people’s
kitchens are not curtailed in their coal supply.
The same official states that naturally provision must also be made
for a sufficient supply of foodstuffs. Most important in this respect
is the potato supply of the war kitchens. Enough must be stored to
supply the kitchens during the long period of cold weather. In addi­
tion there must be a regular assignment to them of food prepara­
tions from the general supply for distribution. To avoid detriment
to individual households, there must be a proper deduction from the
meat, bread (flour), and, according to local conditions, other food
‘ Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten.




Munich, Sept. 19, 1917.

Evening edition.

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

cards also of those who use the kitchens. This deduction should
equal the average amount of provisions used in the kitchens; in the
case of special food preparations only half the quantity need as a
rule be counted. Further, the mass-feeding arrangements must be so
extended as to be adequate to supply the largest number of appli­
cants.
The official quoted intimates that so far as there is need for even­
ing meals, which seems to be the case only in a few localities, every­
thing necessary will be done. Allowances are made from a fund
given by the King of Bavaria for this purpose. Up to the present,
31 communes, etc., have received a total of 131,000 marks ($31,178)
from this fund.
The large increase of patrons of war kitchens from the middle
classes is shown in an article in the Lokal-Anzeiger1 on middleclass kitchens. This article states that the number of middle-class
and officials’ kitchens and of soup kitchens in Berlin has now almost
reached a hundred; 35,000 portions of food and 14,000 portions of
soup are served daily, and 8,000 portions of bone soup are distributed
to heavy workers and children. The portions are ‘generous and a
second helping can be obtained at low prices. As all kitchens receive
equal supplies, it is due to mismanagement on the part of the indi­
vidual kitchens if complaints arise. The amount of food obtained
in these kitchens is not deducted from ordinary food cards except
from those for potatoes and meat.
The Leipziger Volkszeitung2 stated that by the end of July the
majority of war kitchens of the Leipzig administrative district were
closed, but these were to be reopened at the end of October or the
middle of November. The previous portion of three-fourths to 1
liter will be retained, but in view of existing conditions the price will
be raised to 40 pfennigs (9.5 cents). Owing to the scarcity of pro­
visions, vouchers will be demanded from the patrons for meat, dried
vegetables, and farinaceous foods used in the kitchens.

R E D U C E D P R IC E S F O R F O O D F O R T H E P O O R E R C L A S S E S .
The Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten and various of its correspond­
ents have recently been discussing the question of grading food
prices according to income, and the paper gives3 the following re­
sult of inquiries on the matter instituted by the Central Office of the
German Towns Congress:
Twenty-one of the larger towns, including Berlin, Leipzig, Magde­
burg, Aix-la-Chapelle, etc., have, after investigation, given up the
idea of such grading, owing to the technical difficulties of drawing
1 Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger. Berlin, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.
* Leipziger Volkszeitung. Leipzig, Oct. 3, 1917.
•Miinchner Neueste Nachrichten. Munich, Sept. 5, 1917. Evening edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

53

a just limit in the larger towns. The fluctuations of income within
the year, the taxation according to the previous year’s income, the
number and age of children, social obligations, and children’s earn­
ings, all add to the difficulties. In many towns the practical inef­
fectiveness of the plan has led to the abandonment of the measure.
Thus, in Altona 84 per cent of the population would belong to the
poorer classes who would have to be privileged. In Berlin the num­
ber with a taxable income of over 6,000 marks ($1,428) forms only 1
per cent. In Elberfeld 85 per cent have a taxable income of under
2,400 marks ($571.20). In Saarbrticken 87 per cent earn under
3.000 marks ($714).
Some towns have graded the purchasing public according to in­
come only in isolated cases, and for certain classes of foodstuffs, like
cheap meat and potatoes, and (temporarily) lard, peas, bread, fari­
naceous food, etc. In Dresden persons with less than 3,100 marks
($737.80) income receive an extra kilogram (2.2 pounds) of bread per
week, unless they are already entitled, as heavy workers, to a supple­
mentary card. They are also somewhat better supplied with fari­
naceous food, cheese, tea, coffee substitutes, etc., but only to the amount
of an extra 25 grams (0.88 ounces) of farinaceous food in four weeks.
There are in Dresden 192,000 persons who receive the extra bread
and 402,000 who have the larger food card.
Munich, by means of voluntary contributions chiefly, provides
35.000 families with food at lower prices. A collection for this pur­
pose was started on March 1, 1916. Up to July 31, 1917, about
4,000,000 marks ($952,000) was paid on the cards entitling to cheap
food, and goods to the value of 6,000,000 marks ($1,428,000) were
purchased. The cheapened foods included household flour, bread,
milk, malt coffee, sugar, and potatoes. Flour was sold at 21 pfen­
nigs instead of 27 pfennigs per 375 grams (6£ instead of 8 cents per
pound) ; 500 grams of bread at 13 pfennigs instead of 24 pfennigs
(2.8 instead of 5.2 cents per pound) ; one liter of milk at 15 pfennigs
instead of 30 pfennigs (3.4 instead of 6.7 cents per quart) ; 500 grams
of malt coffee at 40 pfennigs instead of 52 pfennigs (8.6 instead of 11.1
cents per pound) ; and 500 grams of sugar at 25 pfennigs instead of
33 pfennigs (5.4 instead of 7.1 cents per pound).
This example has been followed by Augsburg, where also for the
past year the commune has supplied the 8,000 poor families, having a
total of 30,000 persons, with tickets entitling to special foods, among
them butter or artificial fat, as well as meat and sausage. This
scheme costs 25,000 marks ($5,950) a month, covered by voluntary
contributions.
In Bochum the incomes are graded. The poorer classes include
all soldiers’ families receiving assistance, all civilians noted as ex­




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

empt from taxes and having a household of their own, and all
families whose assessed income does not exceed 5,500 marks ($1,309).
A reduction is granted to them in the prices paid for potatoes,
rutabagas, white cabbage, condensed milk, and for meals taken in war
kitchens, 30 pfennigs (7.1 cents) being charged for the latter in­
stead of 40 pfennigs (9.5 cents). About two-thirds of the inhabitants
of Bochum enjoy these privileged prices, from which it is true the
most important foods—bread, fresh milk, and meat—are excluded.
The cheap additional meat granted since April 16, 1917, caused
some of the German towns to fix income limits for the purchase of
this meat. These limits fluctuated between 3,000 and 6,300 marks
($714 and $1,499.40); other towns took the number of children into
consideration where the income did not exceed 8,000 marks ($1,904),
as in Frankfort on the Main, and 8,500 marks ($2,023), as in Halle.
On the occasion of a debate in the Reichstag Main Committee on
the question of a State subsidy to secure food for the poorer classes,
Herr von Waldow, secretary of state for the War Food Bureau,
made an important statement.1 After explaining the causes of the
increased cost of living, and mentioning that, in order to cheapen
the price of flour, bread, and potatoes, the imperial treasury had as­
sumed the cost of the early-threshing and quick-delivery premiums
on grain and potatoes, he said:
There are objections, both in principle and fact, to granting imperial funds
for reducing the prices of the most important foodstuffs for the poorer classes,
as suggested in a socialist motion. It would make the price formation arti­
ficial and in the long run cause an intolerable want of proportion between
producers’ expenses and consumers’ prices; also the line of demarcation be­
tween privileged and unprivileged classes can not be settled on general but
must be settled on local principles. This must therefore be left to the com­
munes, and proves that the solution of the question must be sought by way of
war welfare administration. How far the funds of the war welfare societies
should be assisted by imperial contributions is at present under consideration
by the competent imperial offices.

T H E F O O D -C A R D SY ST E M .*
The following is reprinted from the National Food Journal
(London) of November 28, 1917:
Food tickets are issued in general by three methods. In Berlin and some
other towns, the porters of the large blocks of flats in which almost everybody
lives obtain the tickets from the authorities and distribute them to the indi­
vidual families. In Munich and a decreasing number of towns, school children
and other voluntary helpers take the tickets round. The method becoming
most general is, however, to compel each family to fetch its tickets for itself
from a local office on one or more fixed dates, arranged so as to prevent an un­
1 Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfort on the Main, Oct. 2, 1917. Second morning edition.
•Reprinted from National Food Journal, London, Nov. 28, 1917, p. 110.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

55

due rash of applicants. The advantage of this method over the others is that
complaints are investigated and settled on the spot. The last occasion on
which Leipzig distributed tickets by volunteer messengers to its 155,000 families
produced nearly 100,000 complaints. The person who fetches the tickets for a
family has to produce their individual police registration cards and sometimes
special food ticket registration documents, and is often requested to bring
their birth certificates. The issuing office keeps a card register showing
changes in the membership of each family, all such changes having to be re­
ported immediately. Under the first two methods of issuing tickets a receipt
has to be given by the recipient. Tickets are taken out at intervals ranging
from every three months down to every month or less. The more frequent the
issue, the less is the danger of forgery, as the appearance of each successive
series of tickets can be varied. Hoarding and anticipation of supplies are pre­
vented by making each ticket valid only for a single week, or fortnight.
As supplies are rationed by districts, the tickets, with the exception of the
meat ticket, are valid only in the district of issue. If, therefore, a ticket holder
goes on a journey or removes to another district, he must report to the issuing
authority, which, on surrender of all the tickets held by him, provides him
with a removal certificate entitling him to claim tickets in the place to which
he goes. The procedure for removals has taken a very long time to settle,
owing to the difficulty of adjusting supplies between different districts, and its
details are too complicated to be described here. Tickets are now generally
necessary in order to obtain food in hotels and restaurants. You give up
coupons corresponding to the amount of raw food in the dish, which is stated
on the menu. Loss of tickets has presented a very difficult problem. At first
they were replaced without much question, but the possibility of fraud and
the danger that lost tickets would be used by the finder have proved so serious
that German local authorities now commonly refuse to replace losses, or levy
a substantial fine for replacement, or give only a ticket for a curtailed ration.
The original and simplest form of German food ticket is a card with de­
tachable coupons, printed so as to be difficult of imitation. It now must gener­
ally be signed by the holder; it is never transferable. Other varieties used
locally for general or special purposes are books containing a page with sepa­
rable coupons for every article. Such a book occasionally represents the
rations for a whole family. On the whole, the use of one card for every article
and for every person is found most satisfactory, while general tickets or books
are issued with blank coupons to be used in buying any exceptional supplies
which the local authority may be able from time to time to provide; e. g.,
dried vegetables and farinaceous foods are not reguarly on sale, but can be
bought at irregular intervals on specified coupons of the general food ticket.
Every coupon is for the ration and date marked on it or announced by the local
authority. On making each purchase the whole ticket must be handed to the
tradesman, who detaches the appropriate coupons in order to exchange them at
the local control office for permits to restock his shop in proportion to the
number of coupons which he has collected. Similarly, hotels and restaurants
exchange their collections of coupons for purchasing permits. The imperial
German authorities attach the greatest importance to the enforcement of this
check upon the retailer, as it has been found by hard experience to be the only
method of securing that the food supplied to the tradesman is really sold to
legitimate ticket holders, and not consumed by his family or sold surrepti­
tiously at preposterous prices to favored customers. Unless the retailer buys
upon official vouchers, it is impossible in practice to ascertain what his stocks




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

have been and whether a failure to supply the ticket holders is due to fraud
or to genuine shortage.
The comparatively simple ticket system described above worked well in Ger­
many for bread and flour down to the end of 1915; but it requires for its suc­
cessful operation the existence of a considerable margin of stocks in the retail
shops, so that the ticket holder may be certain of being served in some shop
near his home. The extreme scarcity of all foods which began to prevail in
1916 and still continues has necessitated the introduction of important compli­
cations; and, speaking generally, bread, flour (usually), and sugar are now the
only foods to which the simple system still applies. For meat, milk, fats, pota­
toes, and other foods, especially those which are only distributed occasionally,
the purchaser must become the registered customer of a particular shop, and
very frequently he must place his order a week or mor6 in advance. The shop
is supplied in exact proportion to the number of its registered customers or of
the advance orders received. To prevent the formation of food queues [waiting
lines], a number is assigned to every customer and the tradesman announces in
his window what numbers will be served at particular hours. One hour in the
day is reserved for persons who prove by a certificate from their employers or
otherwise that they could not attend when their numbers were up. These re­
finements prevent the necessity for a margin; but they involve the issue of
special registration tickets, complicate enormously the problem of removals, and
subject the public to very great inconvenience.
In conclusion one observation may be made by way of caution. The ticket
system is the effect, not the cause, of the German food crisis. I f it has to some
extent lessened the supply of food by discouraging production and dislocating
trade, it has undoubtedly saved the nation from early defeat in the war by
reducing consumption to a minimum far below any that voluntary effort could
have secured.

E F F E C T O F T H E F O O D S H O R T A G E O N T H E P U B L IC H E A L T H .
During the summer months of 1917 numerous reports appeared in
the daily press as to the prevalence of dysentery in Germany. It is
the same disease that is referred to in an account of intestinal catarrh,
quoted by the Vossische Zeitung1 from the Deutsche Medizinische
Wochenschrift, compiled by Prof. Schwalbe from replies to a ques­
tionnaire. This account says:
The simple intestinal catarrh, in most cases unaccompanied by fever, pre­
dominates in northern Germany; but several cases a r e . also reported from
Tubingen, whereas hospitals in Munich and Wurzburg report no more than the
normal number. North German towns (Berlin, Halle, Leipzig, Bonn, Cologne)
report a heavy epidemic-like increase; but whether dysentery is here in ques­
tion can not be ascertained, for lack of bacteriological data. Most of the cases
must be considered as a result of war conditions: Indigestible or deleterious
foodstuffs, or fruit obtained in a less fresh condition than formerly. However,
the general opinion is that the bread, badly milled and badly baked, is the
cause.
1 Vossische Zeitung.




Berlin, Aug. 16, 1917.

Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EtJROPE— GERMANY.

57

At a later date the Vossische Zeitung,1 with reference to the
epidemic of dysentery, writes as follows:
According to current reports last month, one had the impression that every
third person was suffering from dysentery. But in reality such was not the
case. The infectious cases were limited to a small number, and only a small
percentage resulted fatally. The official report for the week August 5 to 11
states that in the police district of Berlin there were 203 cases, of which 44
proved fatal. A more violent epidemic broke out in the Government district
of Allenstein; 350 persons were taken ill, of whom 16 died. Diisseldorf had
the largest number of cases, 554, of which 32 proved fatal. In the Government
district of Cologne the number amounted to 480, with 19 deaths. In the Gov­
ernment district of Oppeln 348 cases were reported, of which 56 proved fatal.
The total number of cases of dysentery for Prussia during the period August
5 to 11 was 3,806, with 339 deaths.

The Vorwarts2 states that—
The spring months in 1917, following the bad winter months, show a great
increase in the number of deaths from phthisis in Berlin. The monthly tables
published by the Berlin Statistical Bureau for the time up to May record for
the spring months March, April, and May 500, 542, and 564 (in all 1,606)
deaths from phthisis (including laryngeal phthisis), against 375, 331, and 326
(in all 1,032) deaths in the same months of last year.
The deaths from
pneumonia also greatly increased. In the three months 366, 362, and 281
deaths (in all 1,009) were reported, as against 260, 192, and 170 (in all 622)
last year. Of other diseases of the lungs (including pleurisy) there died 106,
128, and 103 (in all 337) persons, as against 86, 57, and 47 (in all 190) last year.
The death roll from the three above-named diseases amounts in the spring of
1917 to 2,952 against 1,844 in the spring of 1916. This increase can only partly
be explained by the inclemency of the weather.

German doctors in public lectures assure their audiences that the
public health is suffering but little from the difficult food conditions,
and, in particular, that “ all is well with the children.” They base
their assertions on apparently confirmatory statistics. Statistics,
however, are notoriously easy to juggle with. Certain figures for
Berlin given by the Vorwarts3 on authority which can not be im­
peached throw a very different light on the matter.
The Vorwarts states that—
Infant mortality is unusually high this year in Berlin. It is true that the
actual number of deaths is below that of recent years. But this is explained
by the extraordinary decline in the birth rate. The proportion of the number
of infant deaths to the number of births is considerably more unfavorable this




1 Vossische Zeitung.

Berlin, Sept. 2, 1917.
* Vorwarts. Berlin, Sept. 5, 1917.
•Idem. Oct. 3, 1917.

58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

year than last. The following figures are taken from the records of the Berlin
Statistical Office:

Number o f infant deaths per 100 births.
1916— September
11. 62
1915— Septembe r
9 .6 2
O cto b e r___________________ 9. 25
O cto b e r___________________10. 25
N ovem b er________________
9. 85
N ovem ber________________ 11. 63
D ecem ber_________________14.14
D ecem ber_________________13. 05
1916— Januar_____________________y
10. 89
1917— Januar____________________ y
14. 64
F e b r u a r y _________________11. 92
F e b r u a r y _________________14. 93
M a r c h ____________________ 13. 04
M a r c h ____________________ 14. 01
A p r i l _____________________ 11.10
A p r i l _____________________ 12. 70
M a y _______________________12. 65
M a y ______________________ 11.39
J u n e ______________________ 11. 72
June _____________________ 13. 52
The figures for July and August are not yet published but the proportion
between this year and last year must have been still more unfavorable.
Especially have July and August brought a striking increase this year in
infant mortality.

The Vorwarts says that there may be several causes for this lam­
entable increase in infant mortality, but it should be investigated
how far the deterioration of milk is responsible.
An interesting article by Dr. Drenemann, health officer of Dresden,
dealing with the effect of the food shortage on the health of the
public in general and on that of juveniles in particular, appears in
the Soziale Praxis for September 27:
W e observe that in the distribution of foodstuffs in Germany two tendencies
are at work. One is the aim of securing to each individual an equal share
of the general food supply. The other is the reaction against this tendency
of individuals who feel that the share of each person should correspond to
his personal needs, which are qualified by the most varied circumstances.
The Government has found itself bound to conform to this latter tendency,
but only to that degree which seemed to it compatible with the fundamental
idea of equality of distribution. The difficulty now is to decide where the line
should be drawn and where the danger arises of disturbing the equilibrium of
the whole scheme, since it is not a matter of those groups whose rations ought
to be reduced in size, but of those which need additions to their rations.
W e have ascertained, by countless experiments and inquiries, how much
nourishment is required by the various ages, and by a man doing hard physical
labor or leading a sedentary life.
’ in the following table will be shown, on the one hand, the number of calories
required by the younger classes, and briefly also that required by adults, and,
on the other hand, the volume of foodstuffs actually allowed in each particular
case (in calories). These latter calculations are based chiefly on the condi­
tions prevailing in Dresden under the present system of food cards.
Children at the end of their first
year of life require daily about 900
calories.




The volume of foodstuffs assured to
this age represents:
1. About 1,050 calories in the case of
essential foodstuffs (milk, flour, oat­
meal, sugar, semolina).
2. About 450 calories in the case of
nonessential foodstuffs (meat, edible
fats, potatoes, curds, pastry).

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.
In the second year, require about
1,100 calories.
In the third and fourth years, re­
quire about 1,700 calories.
In the fifth and sixth years, require
about 1,400 calories.
In the seventh and eighth years, re­
quire about 1,700 calories.

59

Receive about 1,600 calories.
Receive about 1,400 calories.
Receive about 1,250 calories.
Receive 1,300 calories. An addi­
tional % liter of milk is granted.

In this age the balance between the foodstuffs required and actually assured
begins to show a considerable deficit. Since, however, at this age children sit at
all meals with their elders and may be given things available without cards,
the deficit may be covered without prejudice to the quantities of food allowed
to other members of the family.
In the case of the years between 9
and 14, the circumstances are more
serious. Then the requirements are,
according to the detailed inquiries of
Prof. Franz Muller, about 1,800 to 2,400
calories daily.
No different is the case of the years
between 15 and 18, when requirements
rise to the requirements of adults with
2,450 calories.

They receive, however, only about
1,200 calories.

These also receive only 1,200 calo­
ries.

This difference, under present conditions, can only be covered by very wealthy
people.
As far as adults are concerned, the figures are, in brief, as follow s:
A man engaged in light work re­
quires 2,450 calories daiK
A man engaged on heavy work re­
quires 3,500 calories daily.
A man engaged on the heaviest work
requires 4,200 to 6,000 calories daily.

He receives 1,200 calories.
He receives 1,600 calories.
He receives 1,950 calories.

That is, he ought to receive these quantities, but the cessation of the potato
supply makes the figures of the foodstuffs given as rations fall at times to
about 1,050 calories daily, in spite of the additional allowances of bread and
flour for the community.
The authorities have tried and continue to try to ameliorate the situation by
special allowances. The measure of their success is shown by the fact that
for the period April 17 to May 14, 1917, the daily quantity of calories in­
creased from 1,200 to 1,450.
Since, due to her smaller size and weight, a woman’s requirements can not
be put on tlie same footing as a man’s, she will have to be content with from
2,000 to 2,400 calories. If we assume that women with child and mothers
nursing their own children require somewhat more, 2,500 calories may be con­
sidered sufficient for these latter.
How do the supplies of assured foodstuffs work out? In addition to the
1,200 calories just mentioned, during the last three months a woman with
child in Dresden received 400 grams [14 ounces] of bread, & pound of semolina,
5 i liters [about 20 pints] of milk per week, that is, about 680 calories daily.
W ith these 1,200 calories, plus 680, and with what is obtainable without cards,
it seems demonstrable that there is no cause for the anxiety concerning these
persons and the newly born infants expressed hitherto in medical reports.
Women with child in any case receive an additional allowance of 400 grams of




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

bread per week— i. e., 55 calories a day. To this is added the infants’ food
card to the value of about 1,500 calories daily, giving a total (1,200+1,500+55)
of over 2,700 calories. These figures give us assurance that sufficient care is
being taken of these women if, as happens in Dresden, they receive, when nurs­
ing infants at the breast and with the bottle, an additional allowance of £ liter
[| pint] of milk daily.
One more group of persons must be mentioned, i. e., men and women of ad­
vanced age whose strength does not any longer permit of profitable activity,
and in whom the physiological loss of weight inherent in their age is found.
Their requirements probably do not exceed 2,000 calories a day, in the case
of females considerably less.
But in Saxony they receive under the order of the ministry i liter [| pint]
of milk a day and in Dresden $ pound of semolina per week as an additional
allowance. This gives for these persons the assured amount of nearly 1,400
calories a day.
We see from these figures that ample and, in some cases, more than ample
care is taken of those about to become mothers, of women with young children,
and of infants up to 4 years of age, that children up to 8 years of age are still
protected from any serious disadvantage, but that on the contrary those be*
tween 8 and 18 years are without any doubt in a serious position. In their case
an alteration must be made even if it be by means of reducing the rations of
the younger children who could bear it, or, above all, by not giving children in
this age group renewed supplementary allowances without reducing foodstuffs
which are not yet suitable for them and handing over the same to children of
over 8 years. Already ill supplied with nourishment for the maintenance of
their physical condition, they are expected to go on growing and become
strong so as to serve their country. Indeed, even now they are obliged to take
over the work of grown men as harvest workers and in auxiliary service as
apprentices and youthful workmen, and are expected to attend school and con­
tinuation classes, and take part in drills, etc., and all this without detriment to
their health. Even before the war the number of cases of heart ailments in
the young was increasing very much owing to the overexertion to which they
were subjected. And these ailments will most certainly be increased by the
immoderate desire on the part of these young people to use their strength. My
point is tliat it must be continually brought home to the authorities that a very
great wrong is being done to these young people, that, on the one hand, changes
must be made in the calories allotted and, on the other hand, doctors must be
given greater influence on the extension of physical exercises. And even should
the general public receive less food, the future of our country must be consid­
ered. We grown-ups can help ourselves, the growing lad can not, for we can
become still thinner, but he can not do so without detriment to his whole future
existence.




POOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

61

F O O D P R IC E S .
In order to illustrate the enormous rise in food prices, the Leipziger
Volkszeitung publishes two tables, giving prices of various foodstuffs
in Leipzig at the outbreak of the War and in August, 1917.
The first of these tables, which are reproduced below, was compiled
by the Cooperative Society of Leipzig-Plagwitz.
R ET AIL PRICES OF VARIOUS ARTICLES IN LEIPZIG, AS CHARGED IN A COOPERATIVE
STORE DURING THE FIRST W E E K OF AUGUST, 1914 AND 1917.
[Souroe: Leipziger Volkszeitung, Leipzig, Sept. 20, 1917.]

Article.

Unit.

First week First week
of August, of August,

1914.

1917.

Per cent of
increase
August,
1917, over
August,

1914.

Jam, first quality .1 .................................... . . .....................
Artificial honey, in boxes,................... . ..............................
Artificial honey, loose.........................................................
Sirup ....................................................................................
Sauerkraut ........................................................................
50 per cent coffee....................................................................
25 per cent coffee.....................................................................
10 per cent coffee.....................................................................
Onions.......................................................................................
Herrings

......... ...................................

Bloaters1............... .................................................................
Smoked herrings.....................................................................
Beans.......................................................................................
Condensed milk, sweetened.................................................
Eggs..........................................................................................
Soap, first quality...................................................................
Butter, first quality...............................................................
Wheat flour..............................................................................
Margarine.................................................................................
Limburger cheese...................................................................
Lard..........................................................................................
Wheat grits..............................................................................
Farinaceous food.....................................................................
Hulled barley.........................................................................
Prepared oats, loose...............................................................
Prepared oats, in packages...................................................
Potato flakes............................................................................
Potato-starch flour.................................................................
Potatoes...................................................................................
Salad oil....................................................................................

Pound___
...d o ...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. . . do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. . . do...........
. ..do...........
f..d o...........
..d o..........
..do..........
..do..........
/Each.........
)
\..do..........
. ..do...........
Pound. . . .
Can...........
Each.........
Pound. . . .
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
do...........
Package...
Pound. . . .
. ..do...........
. ..do...........

$0,097
.076
.076
.043
.013
.013
.048
.012 1
.036
.045
.131
.017
.155
.259
.043
.181
.108
.194
.043
.076
.032
.039
.076
.107
.019
.039
.006
.215

$0.302
.119
.119
.076
.035
.475
.302
.199
.043
.259
.238
. 215 ,
.194
.214
. 143
.214
.093
.405
.076
.864
.626
.056
.432
.194
.915
.097

211
57
57
75
167

233
445
400
355
309
1,700

1,100

.110

.035
.065
.095
.133
.086
.058

.022
.756

500
105
209
357
456
142
30
138
80
371
125
46
7
67
26
24
344
50
233
250

1In 1917 these fish were graded according to size, while in 1914 the price was the same for all sizes.

The above table is supplemented by the following table which
gives comparative prices for the same periods as the above table




62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

for meats, fish, fruits, and vegetables, based on the weekly price re­
ports issued by the administration of the Leipzig municipal markets:
R ET AIL PRICES OF MEATS, FISH, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN THE MUNICIPAL
MARKETS OF LEIPZIG FOR THE FIRST W E E K OF AUGUST, 1914 AND 1917.
[Source: Leipziger Volkszeitung, Leipzig, Sept. 20,1917.]

Article.

Unit.

First week First week
of August, of August,

1914.

1917.

Per cent of
increase
August,
1917, over
August,

1914.

Beef, loin..................................................................................
Veal, leg....................................................................................
Pork, leg...................................................................................
Liver pudding (Leherwurst) .................................................
Blood pudding (Blutwurst)...................................................
Pickled pork............................................................................
Goose.........................................................................................
Flounder...................................................................................
Haddock...................................................................................
Apples.......................................................................................
Pears.........................................................................................
Bilberries..................................................................................
Tomatoes..................................................................................
Rhubarb...................................................................................
Cauliflower...............................................................................
Green peas................................................................................
Kohlrabi...................................................................................
Savoy.........................................................................................
Red cabbage............................................................................
White cabbage.........................................................................
Carrots.......................................................................................
Radishes...................................................................................
Cucumbers................................................................................
Mushrooms...............................................................................

Pound. . . .
.. . do...........
__do...........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........

. ..do...........
Bunch.__
Head.........
Pound. . . .
Ten...........
Head.........
. ..do...........
. ..do...........
Bunch. . . .
Each.........
Pound___

$0.302
.215
.173
.151
.151
.151
.194
.130
. 108
.043
.043
.069
.043
.060
.022
.071
.024
.060
.048
.024
.012
.048

.215

$0.751
.475

149
120

.432
.432
.345
.918
.324
.238
.136
.130
.108
.259
.060
.190
.215
.476
.119
.119
.119
.143

186
186
129
372
150
120
215
200
56
500

.060

.071
.756

220
900
567
400
100
150
500
400
50
250

F O O D R A T IO N S .
Food rations are generally fixed by the Imperial War Food Bu­
reau, on the basis of the estimated supply, for the entire empire.
In practice, however, the food rations apportioned to the civilian
population of the individual localities vary greatly from locality to
locality and are dependent on the actual supply on hand.
An attempt has been made below to tabulate the weekly average
food rations in 24 representative towns of Germany for the four
weeks ending August 26, 1917. The table given here was compiled
from reports of the local German press. In many cases the rations
shown in the table are the maximum rations, the actual rations de­
pending on the available supply. Hamburg professes to publish
only the actual rations available for distribution. Brunswick, on
the other hand, qualifies nearly every amount with the condition “ if
sufficient supplies are in the hands of the authorities.” It will be
noticed that for several towns the list is very incomplete. All ra­
tions which could be obtained from the press were noted, but only a
few towns (Hamburg, Altona, Berlin, and Gladbach) publish com­
plete lists. In the case of all other towns the rations had to be taken
from announcements in the advertisement columns and elsewhere.




63

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- GERMANY.

Naturally, these announcements refer mainly to special distributions
of foodstuffs and not to staple foods. The table does not include
special supplementary rations for children, nursing mothers, and
sick people.
AVERAGE W E E K L Y RATIONS OF PRINCIPAL FOODSTUFFS IN 24 REP R E SEN TA TIVE
GERMAN TOWNS FOR THE FOUR W E E K S ENDING AUG. 26, 1917.
[Compiled from the local German papers. Blanks in this table do not indicate that the article in question
was not rationed but mean that no source was available to ascertain the ration fixed for the article.]

City.

Flour. Hulled Groats. Grits.
barley.

Bread.

Lbs. oz.
Aix la Chapelle.................

3
3
3
3
3
3

Oz.

13.7
13.8
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6

3.1
.9
.9
.9

Berlin.................................
Charlottenburg.........
Schoneberg.................
Wilmersdorf...............
Bremen..............................
2.1
Breslau............................... 1 4
Brunswick........ ............... * 3 8.4
Dresden.............................
3 13.7
Duren.................................
Dusseldorf.........................
Frankfort on the M ain... 3 i3.7
Gladbach.......................... 3 9.3
Hamburg (urban)...........
3 14.1
Hamburg (rural).............
3 14.0
Hanover...........................
3 15.5
Kiel....................................
Krefeld...............................
Leipzig............................... 3 13.7
Magdeburg........................ 3 15.5
Munich............................... 3 13.7
Strassburg.........................
4 3.0
Stuttgart...........................

City.

2.2
1. 9

7.4

.9
2.2

2.6
3.5

Oz.
3.1
1.8
.9
2.2
2.2
1.5
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.8
2.6
1.8
2.4
.9
4.4
8.8
1.1
1.1

Fresh
meat.

Sau­
sage.

Fish.

Oz.

Oz.

Oz.

Oz.

Oz.

2.6

1.8
1.8

.9
1.8

2.2

5.3
4.4

2.2
.9
1.8

6.4
.9

1.8

4.0
i.i
1.1
2.6

6.2
10.1
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
10.6
9.7
10.6
13.2
6.2
13.2
12.3
13.2
12.3
10.6
13.2
13.2
11.5

1.8

2.6
1.8

0.9

2.2

2.6
3.5
2.6

2.2
.9

.9
3.5

Dried Legu­
Mar­ Edible Cheese. Potatoes. Potato vege­ minous
Butter. garine. fats.
substi­
tutes. tables. prod­
ucts.

Oz.

2.2
2.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.1
1.8
2.6
2.2
1.9
2.2
1.3
2.4
2.0

i
If
£
I
1
1
1
1

1
i
1

1

Oz.

Oz.

2.2
1.8
1.1
‘ ‘ ‘ " i ’ 8*
2.2

Oz.

2.0
2.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
4.4
1.6
1.3
.9
.9
.6
5.5

1.1
.4
2.4
1.1

2.5

1

1 Or 2 lbs. 9«8 ox. of flour.




10.6

8

Eggs.

1

0.9
.9
1.8
2.2
1.8

2.2

Average
number.
Aix la Chapelle.................
Altona................................
Berlin.................................
Charlottenburg.........
Schoneberg.................
Wilmersdorf...............
Bremen..............................
Breslau...............................
Brunswick........................
Dresden.............................
Duren.................................
Dusseldorf........................s
Frankfort on the Main.. .
Gladbach...........................
Hamburg (urban)............
Hamburg (rural).............
Hanover.............................
Kiel....................................
Krefeld...............................
Leipzig...............................
Magdeburg........................
Munich...............................
Strassburg.........................
Stuttgart...........................

Oz.

Farina­
ceous
foods.

1.1
.5
1.1
.4

2.5
1.1
2.6
0.5

•See Bread.

8.8

.9

Lbs. oz.

3
6
5
4
5
4
4
3
5
2
4
4
2
5
5
5
2

4.9
1.0
8.2
15.4
12.6
65
2.1
.5
8.2
12.1
13.7
15.4
12.1
3.8
8.2
2.9
12.1

4 15.4
6
3
5
8

1.0
.5
8.2
4.3

Oz.

9.7

Oz.

Oz.

0.4

8.8
8.8
16.5
19.8
5.3
3.2
15.9
5.3

.9

12.3
9.0

•Or 2 lbs. 10.9 ozs. flour.

4.4

2.0
1.3

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A V E R A G E W E E K L Y RATIONS OF PRINCIPAL FOODSTUFFS IN 24 R E P R ESE N TA TIV E
GERMAN TOW NS FOR T H E FOUR W E E K S ENDING AUG. 26, 1917—Concluded.

City.

Aix la Chapelle.................
Altona................................
Berlin.................................
Charlottenburg..........
Schoneberg.................
Wilmersdorf...............
Bremen..............................
Breslau...............................
Brunswick.........................
Dresden.............................
Duren.................................
DusseMorf.........................
Frankfort on the Main...
Gladbach...........................
Hamburg (urban)...........
Hamburg (rural...............
Hanover...........................
Kiel....................................
Krefeld...............................
Leipzig...............................
Magdeburg........................
Munich...............................
Strassburg.........................
Stuttgart...........................

Sugar.

Arti­
ficial
honey.

Oz.
6.2
5.7

Oz.
1.8
2.2

5.9

Sirup.

4.4

Oz.

2.2
6.6

Oz.
3.5
4.2
4.4
4.4
8.8
2.2

1.8
1.1

.9
5.5
2.2
6.6

2.2
2.2

4.0

3.3

Oz.

Soup.

Oz.
0.9
1.8
.9
1.8
4.0

Potato
flakes,
etc.

Oz.

Heavy workers.
Potatoes. Bread.
Lbs. oz.
3
1

4.9
1.6

22.0

2.2

.9
2.2

7.9

(*)

4.4
1.3
.9
1.8

11.3

.9
2 11.3

2.2

Oz.

4.0

1.1

2.2
1.3
2.6

1.1
6.6

Coffee
substi­
tutes.

2.2
1.3

6.2
6.3
5.7
7.0

Jam.

1.8
2.2
4.4
1.1

4
.9

32.6

6.5

3 13.7

1.8
»2 lbs. 11.3 oz. to 3 lbs. 13.7 o*.

AUSTRIA.

F O O D -S U P P L Y O R G A N IZ A T IO N S .
At a meeting of the Joint Committee for War Economy of both
houses of the Reichsrath held in Vienna on September 11,1917, Min­
isterial Councilor Dr. Lowenfeld-Russ gave the following informa­
tion as to the activities of the food-supply organizations connected
with the Austrian Food Office (Erndhrungsamt):
The rise in price of many articles, which has been quite unexpected, and in
many cases unjustified, can be stopped only by withdrawing the articles in
question from the market and handing them over to the central management
The reproach has often been leveled against the Government that it took
its measures too late, and created organizations only when the dearth made
itself felt or had already begun. Looking back, this reproach seems justified,
but it must not be forgotten that not only the State administration, but also
economic circles, were quite unprepared for the whole trend’ of conditions, and
that, especially in regard to foodstuffs, difficulties were also introduced by Aus­
tria’s relations to Hungary.
The War Grain Clearing House [Kriegsgetreide-verkchrsanstalt] and the
Central Office for Fodder [Futterm ittelzentrale] both occupy special positions
in the organization of the Food Office, for they both possess the character of
State offices, and are really executive Government agencies. In Austria con­
trol of existing supplies and drastic regulation of the grain traffic were neces­
sary, since difficulties were encountered in the supply of agricultural commodi­
ties from Hungary, which was obtained only after negotiations between the two
Governments. In February, 1915, the Ministry of Agriculture created cen­
tral offices for maize to take over a consignment of maize. These have since
been abolished. Soon after, it was found necessary to collect all the stocks,




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

65

hand over grain supplies to the State for management and distribution and
draw up general grain’ regulations. The organization controlling grain is not
a private commercial undertaking, but a public body with a very far-reaching
State guaranty. State administrators and experts share in conducting it, and,
thanks to the unlimited guaranties, it is enabled to command the necessary
credit. In its price policy the institution is not given full powers but must
receive grain at the maximum prices settled upon, and is bound by Government
regulations with regard to its selling price. This selling price is to be ar­
rived at on the basis of traders’ calculations of the expenses to be met, and is
to be fixed by the Government. It is true that at the present time, in viewr
of the requirements of the population, the question of covering the cost does
not take a very prominent place in our calculations.
Thus it is well known that the prices of flour and bread have not been raised,
although this would have been justified by the level of grain prices; the State
bears the expense.
The constitution of the Central Office for Fodder is similar to that of the
grain organization, save for the one important difference that any eventual
deficit in the balance sheet of the Central Office for Fodder is not covered by
the State; the disbursements must be covered by the receipts, and for this
reason the Central Office was compelled to eliminate any possibility of a
deficit. It became necessary, therefore, to create a corresponding reserve fund,
because of the fact that the stocks of the Central Office for Fodder would in
the event of an early conclusion of peace be subject to a considerable deprecia­
tion, and this had to be considered in fixing the price of these stocks. In the
same way consideration had to be given to the additional fact that by the in­
clusion of new fodder stuffs in its sphere of activity the Central Office would
incur further large disbursements, and this, too, necessitated the formation of
a reserve fund. None the less, the Central Office for Fodder is not a concern
conducted for profit. In order to cover its expenses, it imposes, with Govern­
ment sanction, a payment additional to the maximum prices, and, as circum­
stances demand, to the buying price of articles the purchase of which is
open to the public. As regards the provision of substitutes for fodder this
Central Office has given very effective service. As to complaints of the fixing
of prices, the fact must not be overlooked that the fixing of prices is largely
influenced by the policy of the Government that the price of bread and
flour must remain stationary, and that the increasing burdens due to the rise
in price of foreign supplies must not react on the consumption of bread.
The grain monopoly as administered by the State had the result of depriving
a number of industries working up grain or potatoes of unrestricted purchase
of the raw materials so important to them. For this reason offices were
created to supply these industries with raw materials. The expenses of these
offices were met by imposing special fees, their sole source of revenue. The
cost of their administration is relatively insignificant, and by no means as
great as has frequently been assumed by the public which has talked of an
absolutely spendthrift administration. The central offices for the brewing,
malting, yeast, potato-flour, and potato-drying industries serve to supply the
industries in question, and are, in fact, offices for the supply of raw materials.
With the central offices for sugar and for spirit the case is different. Their
activity, too, is not directed toward profit making; they assist in regulating
production and distribution. These two offices were founded with the support
of the organizations, resembling trusts, already existing in the industries.
This form of organization has frequently been made a source of reproach
45499°— Bull. 242— 18------ 5




66

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

against the Government. In peace time the trusts in question were discharging
functions now discharged by the State. So far as these functions— even
though they now have to be discharged from a different point of view— coin­
cided, there was no reason for the creation of new organizations with their
inevitably very large expenses. The State preferred to make use of the
existing trusts by placing them under its control— the measure which was
demanded at the time of the trust inquiry, but at that time put aside as imprac­
ticable. Moreover, it would be an error to believe that these two central
offices are identical with the trusts in question. They are entirely independent
of them. Certain functions which were discharged by the trusts have merely
been handed over to these central offices. For example, the sugar trust ceased
to exist some weeks ago, while the central office continues its functions. There
is this connection between the trusts and the contral offices: the rationing of
production, as already arranged by the trusts, was undertaken with a view
to public interests. The prices axe fixed by the Government. The regulations
on the trust system, however, facilitated the carrying through of the fixed
prices by making it possible, on the basis of the freight quotations on the trust
principle, to equalize the price when delivered at stations of consumption
throughout Austria. The sale of sugar and spirit takes place not through the
central offices, but in the case of sugar through the individual sugar factories
and in the case of spirit through the retail stores of the spirit syndicate on
order of the central offices. The two central offices do not possess independent
revenues, and their very considerable expenses have been met hitherto by the
industries in question. Between these two central offices stands the Central
Office for Molasses, which was founded in 1915, when, in consequence of the
great shortage of butter, and the outrageous rise in price of fodder, molasses
was placed under State control.
Exports of sugar can take place only with the sanction of the Government,
which fixes the price of export sugar. Apart from the fact that these exports
of sugar are very small, the prices in excess of the inland value do not benefit
the sugar industry, since the larger part of the proceeds goes to a fund which,
because of the high prices paid for sugar, amounts to a considerable sum,
the right of disposal of which the Government has reserved to itself.
The Central Office for Coffee was formed as a limited liability company. The
Government fixes the selling price and authorizes the company to make a fixed
supplementary charge for royalties and administration. The company’s efforts
have been successful in so far that, with the assistance of the traders’ organ­
izations, it has effected equal distribution of coffee and maintained the price at
the level of 8 crowns1 per kilogram [73.7 cents per pound], so that in Austria
coffee is considerably cheaper than in other countries. With a turnover in
coffee to the value of 25,000,000 crowns [$5,075,000] the Central Office for Coffee
had expenses of administration amounting to 90,000 crowns [$18,270], or of 1£
hellers * per kilogram [0.1 cent per pound] of coffee.
For the purpose of purchasing foodstuffs abroad the purchasing #
company
called “ Miles ” was founded. The original agreement between the company
and the Government contained no stipulation making obligatory the mainte­
nance of fixed selling prices. But when the officials now responsible for the
management of the company took office a new agreement was made whereby
the company’s opportunities for profit were defined and limited, so that in
making sales the company can impose only certain definite charges in addi­
tion of the primary cost. Originally the company was not a monopoly, but
1A crown is equal to 20.3 cents in United States money.
* A heller is equal to 0.2 cent in United States money.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL, EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

67

as monopolization of import business increased in Germany it obtained a
monopoly of certain articles, and its character was altered in some re­
spects owing to the transference of certain business transacted by way of
compensation abroad [K o m p en sa tio n sg esch d fte ]. The extension of the com­
pany’s sphere of activity led to an unforeseen increase of turnover which in
turn led, as was to be expected, to an increase of profits. These circumstances
have induced the advisory council and the Creditanstalt, the banking institution
which finances the company, to propose to the Government that the undertaking
be made a purely nonprofit-making concern, and also that its duties be given
to a State authority modeled after the War Grain Clearing House.
When the “ Miles ” was transformed into the “ Oezeg ” the capital was
increased, the payment of dividends limited, the selling price reserved for
Government control and sanction, and a supplementary payment for royalty
and administration amounting to 5 per cent only allowed. An agreement
approved by the Government has been made between the company and its
financial backer, whereby the latter pledges itself to allow a credit of 50,000,000
crowns [$10,150,000] at a rate of interest 1 per cent lower than the bank rate
of interest. This credit has been considerably exceeded consequent to the exten­
sion of the company’s business. The State undertook a guaranty of 5,000,000
crowns [$1,015,000] against loss, but this, in view of the risks of the company,
is not a matter of much importance. Although the “ Oezeg,” in the case of
a number of important foodstuffs, has not exacted the additional payment
agreed upon and has even placed a large number of articles on the market
without any supplementary payment, it has amassed a reserve fund which is
to be applied to the cheapening of foodstuffs, and this has, for example, already
taken place to a large extent in the case of the cheaper cuts of beef. During
the nine months of its existence the “ Miles ” distributed for consumption
foodstuffs to the value of 230,000,000 crowns [$46,690,000], while the “ Oezeg”
during the first year of its existence distributed foodstuffs to a value of more
than 600,000,000 crowns [$121,800,000]. Reckoned on the total turnover, the
expenses amounted to 0.23 per cent. The “ Oezeg ’* is employed in acquisition
and distribution; the former function it exercises by means of its numerous
offices in foreign countries, while the distribution takes place under an agree­
ment with the victualing organizations. In the case of the distribution of the
most important foodstuffs it exercises an absolute authority, but in that of
the other its authority is exercised only in cases where it appears necessary.
Yet another organization is the “ Geos.” Its first duty is to promote produc­
tion, to which end it is intrusted with procuring seeds from abroad and con­
cluding agreements as to cultivation and delivery as well as seed culture. It
is a limited liability company with a capital of 100,000 crowns [$20,300], and
it also has a credit of 5,000,000 crowns [$1,015,000] with the Austrian Pur­
chasing Company, but it has only used a very small portion of this credit, and
that in purchasing vegetable seeds. Different measures have been adopted in
the case of vegetables and fruit. The trade in vegetables is not limited, maxi­
mum prices are not fixed, nor is there a controlling office for the transport of
vegetables. The activity of the “ Geos ” is confined to announcing the prices
at which it concludes the delivery agreements. These prices, however, have
not the character of standard prices, and still less of maximum prices. The
agreements concluded by the “ Geos ” are assigned to the municipal or con­
sumers’ organizations, and accordingly the “ Geos ” can not be held respon­
sible for the small quantities of vegetables placed on the markets. Apart from
the fact that Austria at present receives no vegetables from Italy or the
southern Provinces, it has had to battle with a terrible drought. There is the
added difficulty that producers of vegetables in the vicinity of towns have




68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

neither labor nor carts at their disposal, and consequently do not bring their
vegetables to market, while it is just now that the demand for vegetables is
incomparably greater than it was before. On the other hand, the “ Geos ” has
done all in its power to promote the sending of supplies to market. Some
towns make the dispatch of vegetables to the produce markets compulsory,
which exceeds the company’s measures. The “ Geos ” has done good service
by introducing Hungarian vegetables. It cooperates with syndicates of traders
who have hitherto purchased Hungarian vegetables in large quantities. With
regard to fruit the “ Geos ” has not eliminated unrestricted trade. Fruit is pro­
cured by a large number of trading syndicates created by the “ Geos,” but
there is no question of the seizure of the fruit. Only in localities where maxi­
mum prices have been considerably exceeded is it made obligatory to sell to the
trading syndicate.
The economic war organizations are to-day indispensable for the foodstuff
service. It is not to be denied that there does exist a general discontent with
Austria’s economic war policies in general and its representatives, namely the
central offices, in particular. The producer feels the compulsion, the con­
sumer the scarcity, and neither can determine whether the central offices or the
abnormal circumstances are to blame. Both are inclined to hold the system
responsible. Perhaps, too, a certain secretiveness which has crept into the
activities of the central offices is to blame for the prevailing discontent, a
secretiveness due to the action of the censor, and perhaps also to the overbur­
dening of all the functionaries of the central offices so that they are not in a
position to keep the public sufficiently well informed. In this way errors have
been made which have perhaps contributed to the general uneasiness. That
the whole organization is continually in a state of flux, and that it is capable
of improvement no one will deny, but criticism of the central offices ought not
to lead to disregard for, and suspicion of, the work they have accomplished.

At the same meeting of the Joint Committee for War Economy,
von Schonka, president of the War Grain Clearing House gave a
resume of its activities. The first provisional balancing of its ac­
counts to August 31, 1915, gave a surplus of 3,300,000 crowns
($669,900) ; after including this, the accounts for 1915-16 showed a
surplus of 1,400,000 crowns ($284,200). Dr. Gartner, commissioner
of the office, gave particulars of its organization, stating that all
those connected with the grain trade in time of peace were, gener­
ally speaking, now employed in the same capacity under the State.
Confidential particulars were then given—chiefly with regard to
Roumania—and various technical and financial details. The diffi­
culties of payment to Roumania were also set out, for which more
than 4,000,000 leu ($772,000) were wanted. A special arrangement
was made with the Roumanian National Bank, whereby one-sixth of
the amount was paid to the bank in gold, one-sixth deposited in Ber­
lin in gold, and four-sixths paid into the Reichsbank to the credit of
Roumania. Thus Roumania had so far received in cash only onesixth of the value of the grain.
Various deputies criticized the administration, notably in respect
of the price of grain coffee.1




* Arbeiter-Zeitung.

Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

69

Discontent with the operations of the central food offices does
not seem to diminish. Now and again scandals in their working come
to light. The semiofficial Reichspost, for instance, comments as fol­
lows upon a recent discovery of this nature: 1
It is certainly not the task nor the intention of the central offices, charged
with securing and delivering food, to bring about a rise in prices. For this
very reason it is ominous that many central food offices exhibit a partiality for
setting the wolf to mind the sheep— that is, working with agents who are im­
bued with the spirit of price raising, and who by their peculiar methods of doing
business must bring the central offices into discredit with the populace. So,
as we learn, recently the army command was obliged, in the following letter, to
draw the attention of the food office to certain occurrences in territory occu­
pied by Austria in Poland:
#
“ The Government in Poland reports that the representatives of the pur­
chasing central office, intrusted with the purchase of edible beets, are in the
habit of competing with each other in the high prices which they offer to the
producers. Moreover, they do not limit their purchases to table beets, but,
without authority, buy fodder beets also at 40 crowns per 100 kilograms [$1.85
to $2.22 per bushel, according to weight of bushel] and upward. Principally
concerned in this raising of prices are two representatives of the “ Geos,”
who, moreover, are accused of a regular middleman traffic in fodder beets.
One of them in particular must have made a large profit by such operations,
and in one case, merely by passing on a contract, secured a sum of 120,000
croons [$24,360]. The Food Office is earnestly requested to procure the imme­
diate dismissal of the representatives of the “ Geos ” in question [names given
in letter], and to appoint in their places a trustworthy individual to take over
the table beets arriving for the “ Geos.”

As a result of these and similar disclosures, Dr. Roller and other
deputies brought forward a proposal for an investigation into the
conduct of the central food offices, the report to be laid before the
Lower House.2

S P E E C H O F P R E M IE R O N F O O D C O N D IT IO N S .
On introducing his reconstructed cabinet to the Reichsrath, Dr.
von Seidler, prime minister of Austria, delivered a long speech re­
viewing the general war situation. His remarks on the food situa­
tion were in part as follows: 3
Important as are these matters, the most pressing question is still that of
feeding the people, and supplying the public with the necessaries of life.
For an honorable peace, the early consummation of which we desire, can only
toe assured if our arms, as hitherto, remain victorious, and our valiant troops
to the end find their support in the- steadfast endurance of the population of
the country.
Recognizing this, the new Government, immediately on its constitution,
pla ced the handling of food questions in the forefront of its program. In
this connection it was recognized as fundamental that the existing war ad­
1 Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 30, 1917.
2 Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Sept. 28, 1917.
•Idem. Sept. 26, 1917. Morning edition.




Morning edition.

70

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ministrative organizations could not be dissolved without grave injury to
the whole system of supply, and that without illusion, without any respect
for theories and doctrines, and without any protection of particular interests,
we must fix our eyes on and fearlessly carry through what has shown itself
to be expedient from the standpoint of the common weal. In any case the
Government holds that a distribution, under war control, of the available
supplies is absolutely necessary, but that the maintenance of the working
spirit of our producing classes is equally important. A crippling or weakening
of productive power must on no account take place, but it must be brought
clearly and impressively before the eyes of producers in all parts of the
country, that pulling through depends on the strictest observance of the
ordinances that expert investigation has shown to be necessary for general
supply.
Tcf solve the problems of supply presents many new and therefore difficult
tasks, particularly to our civil service, whose self-sacrificing devotion to duty
has again shown itself strikingly in these stern times. The present Govern­
ment is determined to eliminate as far as possible all red tape, and to join in
steadfast union with parliament and the people, to ask for free discussion of
food questions and to make its decisions in accordance with the true needs
of the population. The whole populace, by its courageous endurance in griev­
ous times, has won for itself the fullest right to be so associated with the Gov­
ernment. In no small measure is it due to the sense of duty of the working
classes that we have been able to maintain the position at home. The Gov­
ernment will further work to promote, in increasing degree, the idea, so
notably tested in this war, of the indissoluble comradeship with the Hun­
garian Crown Lands in defense and also in economic matters— that is, by an
equal distribution of the necessaries of life to both peoples. The much-de­
manded transformation of the War Food Office into an independent food
ministry is already in process of being carried out.

Dr. von Seidler also promised that Parliament would be allowed
to play a part in the State control over the central food offices and
that publicity would be given as far as possible to all the operations
of these offices.

M E E T IN G S O F T H E F O O D C O U N C IL .
The Food Council (Er^h/ningsrat) , which is an advisory body of
40 members, designed to keep the Food Office in touch with public
opinion, has been meeting lately, after a long period of inactivity.
Accounts of these meetings, extracted from the press, follow :
At a meeting of the Food Council on September 21, 1917, the
chairman characterized the past few months as the most critical
period of the administrative year. Gen. Hofer, minister of food,
explained the delay in calling the meeting, which had been caused
by the pressure of work and which he much regretted.1
At the second meeting of the Food Council, the minister of food
gave a long exposition of the situation of the monarchy during
the preceding and for the coming months. He indicated the insur­
mountable difficulties of the past half year, when the home supplies
1 Neues Wiener Tageblatt.




Vienna, Sept. 23, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

71

of grain were used up, potatoes were not available, and it had been
necessary to seek some means of tiding over the period until the
receipt of the supplies from Roumania. The most stringent requisi­
tions had to be resorted to, as during the long hard winter the
Danube was frozen over, and tug traffic held up. He declared that
the marvelous bearing of the population formed the one ray of light,
but the Government must not presume on this endurance, and must
do its utmost to insure adequate provision being made for the people.
He had during the past months traveled through many districts
of the monarchy in order to ascertain conditions at first hand, and
he had thus met the representatives of the local authorities. He
bore witness to what he called the magnificent work of the authorities
under very trying circumstances. With regard to the future he
indicated in particular that, in view of the reduction of the milling
percentage, the quality of the bread would be better, and that in
the first two weeks of October supplementary rations would be avail­
able for the nonproducing population. He appealed to the members
of the Council to use their utmost influence to sustain the sense of
duty of the population, and thus give the strongest support to the
State food administration.
Various proposals were brought forward by members, and one
dealing with the potato crop was accepted, as also was one for the
convocation of the Council during the first half of October to discuss
the Government’s plan of supply.1
At the closing meeting of the Food Council a demand was put
forward for a general system of administration, to embrace all food
products.
Councilor Soyka declared it to be absolutely essential that the
raising of potatoes, the registration of supplies, and transport should
be managed exclusively by the War Grain Clearing House, and that
the raising of potatoes which had been already contracted for should
be placed under the strictest control.
Another member approved of the potato order, if the 100 kilo­
grams (220.46 pounds) per person per year was guaranteed, and
asked that the Food Council be made permanent and a transport
plan be immediately brought forward. Secretary Lowenfeld-Russ
replied that the details of a transport plan could be settled only
when it was known from what districts supplies would come, but,
.generally speaking, the plan would have to be decided upon without
previous consideration by the Council, or it would be too late.
In the course of a discussion on the raising of the prices of sugar
for 1917-18, Lowenfeld-Russ announced that the order for raising
the price of sugar and reducing the ration would come into force




* Neues Wiener Tageblatt.

Vienna, Sept. 25, 1917.

72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

October 1, 1917. Here again the Food Council was confronted with
an accomplished fact.
Frequent complaint was made that the Food Council had not been
called together since June, and it was finally decided that the ques­
tion of the organization of the Food Council and its relations with
the Ministry of Food should be the first item on the agenda for the
next meeting.
The proceedings were finally brought to a close owing to the lack
of a quorum.1

D IS C O N T E N T O F T H E W O R K IN G C L A S S E S .
The food shortage is, of course, felt most by the poorer classes who
are demanding more food and better methods of distribution. Con­
ditions seem to be worst in the industrial districts on the northern
border of Bohemia and the Sudetic lands (Moravia and Silesia).
The common pressure of hunger seems for the time being to have
united Czech and German workmen in protest against the present
food situation.
A Bohemian paper2 summarizes as follows the demands made by
the socialist metal workers, in conference at Prague and other in­
dustrial centers of Bohemia:
1. The bread ration to be raised for heavy workers from 2,100 to 3,000 grams
[4.6 to 6.6 pounds] weekly. For other workers from 1,400 to 2,100 grams [8.1
to 4.6 pounds].
2. The sugar ration to be raised for heavy workers from 1,500 to 2,000 grams
[3.3 to 4.4 pounds] per month. For other workers' from 1,000 to 1,500 grams
[2.2 to 3.3 pounds].
3. The potato ration should be 4 kilograms [8.8 pounds] weekly per capita.
4. Profiteering to be suppressed.

The Arbeiter Zeitung 3 states that the food conditions of the indus­
trial workers in the Sudetic lands were discussed at a recent socialdemocratic conference at Briinn. It was pointed out that increases
in wages had not alleviated the distress, not being in proportion to
the rise in food prices. Thousands of workmen had not even had an
increase. During recent food disturbances in Moravia it was proved
that thousands were earning less than 20 crowns ($4.06) weekly, and
few as much as 30 crowns ($6.09). In North Moravia hundreds of
weavers were earning 7 crowns ($1.42) per week and less. It was
stated, however, that accusations should be directed not only against
manufacturers and dealers, but also against the Government which
alone had power to stop abuses in the distribution and sale of food
l Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 24, 1917. Morning edition.
2 Bohemia. Prague, Sept. 10, 1917.
•Arbeiter Zeitung. Vienna, Sept. 20, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

73

and which ought also to take precautions that orders issued were
really enforced. The conference adopted the following resolution:
The industrial workers of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, without distinction
of language and nationality, are at the present time suffering intolerably,
though the harvest is barely over, in consequence of the transport difficulties and
the high prices of food. These conditions can not be explained as due to
scarcity of foodstuffs, but are founded on the following two causes: (1) The
passive resistance of the agrarian population to the regulations of the food ad­
ministration, and (2) the faulty and senseless organization of the food ad­
ministration itself.
The complaints (partly well founded) leveled by farmers against these defects
in organization can not justify the starvation of the industrial population.
Industrial labor is always at the service of agriculture and its requirements, yet
agrarians of both nationalities are only too ready to raise the prices of food­
stuffs, and this passive resistance is made use of by Czech-agrarian politicians
and abused for nationalistic purposes. We protest in the name of all prole­
tarians of the Sudetic lands against these proceedings.
The organization controlling the food supply needs thorough overhauling.
Neither the bureaucratic administration nor the private agencies executing its
orders and not responsible to the public, assure the necessary consideration of
consumers and producers. A democratic local administration is necessary.
The rations assigned to industrial workers should be raised in proportion,
following the example of Germany, and other products should be taken under
State control.

A U S T R IA N C O M P L A IN T S A G A IN S T H U N G A R Y .
A recent important event much discussed in the press is the sudden
flaming up of the long-smoldering jealousy felt by the Austrian
public of Hungary’s comparatively favorable situation in the matter
of food. The suppressed resentment caused by Hungary keeping
most of her food for herself, and charging enormous prices for food,
found its first public and official expression in a highly important
debate, held on October 16,1917, in the Lower House of the Reichsrath,
with regard to the relations between Austria and Hungary in the
matter of food. It arose from an urgent interpellation addressed to
Gen. Hofer, .the food minister, by deputies Schiirff, Kraft, and
Wedra. This interpellation complained of the small quantities of
fat, pork, and bacon permitted to be exported from Hungary to the
Vienna markets and the enormous prices demanded for them, and
inquired whether the Austrian Government would make representa­
tions to the Hungarian Government in order to bring this state of
things to an end. The most important speeches in regard to the
matter as reported in the Arbeiter Zeitung1 are here summarized:
Dr. Schiirff observed that the economic relations between Austria
and Hungary had been completely revolutionized during the War,
with the result of upsetting the Austrian food market. Hungary’s




1 Arbeiter Zeitung.

Vienna, Oct. 18, 1917.

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

policy of restricting food exports to Austria was contrary to the
compromise agreement ( Ausgleich ) of 1867, which forbade the erec­
tion of a customs barrier between the two States. The Austrian
deputies, as true friends of Hungary and genuine adherents of
dualism, exhorted her to give up this policy and place at the disposal
of Austria the food which was necessary for holding out in the War.
The speaker mentioned that in spite of maximum prices, 32 crowns
per kilogram ($2.95 per pound) was recently paid for lard, which in
Hungary costs only 8.5 crowns (78 cents per pound), and said that
the same conditions obtained with respect to fruit, vegetables, and
other foodstuffs.
Gen. Hofer, minister of food, replied:
At present Hungary sends us 4,000 horned cattle per month. In the last two
months we have had this quantity raised to 6,000 and we hope before long to
get it up to 8,000. In addition, we have had 30,000 horned cattle from Hungary
in a single consignment. These cattle are all of best quality, and their price
when they are alive is from 5 to 6 crowns per kilogram [46.3 to 55.5 cents per
pound].
Our supply of pigs from Hungary amounts to 12,000 per month and we are
endeavoring to get this raised to 16,000. These pigs are purchased through
the Cattle Trade Company. The maximum prices are settled according to the
so-called Budapest-Kobanyaer usage and amount to from 5 to 6 crowns per
kilogram [46.3 to 55.5 cents per pound]. We also receive bacon, fat, and
sausage meat. Our monthly supply of these amounts to 90£ truck loads. We
are trying to get this raised to 120 truck loads. The maximum prices per
kilogram for these articles are 7.5 to 8.5 crowns [69.1 to 78.7 cents per pound].
These wares are bought in Hungary mainly by municipalities and industries;
sometimes their representatives have paid more than the legal maxima in
order to get food at any cost. The result is that these provisions come into
the Austrian market at exorbitant prices.
The Austrian Government has discussed the matter with the Hungarian
Government, and found the latter most ready to meet the Austrian Government.
It is obvious that free purchase, and its consequence, the offering of sums
exceeding the maximum prices, can no longer be tolerated. The Hungarian
Government proposes, therefore, to set up a central company for purchasing
provisions for Austria, which will unify the whole system.
In order, however, to guarantee our independence as far as possible, we are
setting up pig farms of our own in Hungary, by permission of the Hungarian
Government. We hope to have shortly 10,000 pigs fattened at Nagy-Teteny,
to which will be added another 10,000 which are receiving a preliminary fat­
tening in Croatia. And there are hopes of a third 10,000 before long, so that
we shall have 30,000 pigs at Nagy-Teteny. We are also proposing to set up pig
farms in Serbia to be managed by the military authorities.
On the question of making the Empire into a single economic area, I will be
brief. The authorities of each Province, and to some extent of each district,
have hitherto been able to give or refuse transport permits. The tendency
has been to refuse them, and so the Provinces have become, economically
speaking, water-tight compartments. We have abolished this system in so far
as it extended to the particular districts of a Province. But it is difficult to
abolish it as between Provinces, so long as prices are not the same everywhere.
If, for instance, absolutely free trade were allowed between Austria and Hun­




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

75

gary, the higher prices in Hungary would attract all our manufactured articles
over to Hungary. Prices are the chief difficulty, and it is to them that the
lever must be applied. The Hungarians find the prices which we ask for man­
ufactured articles too high, just as we find the prices which they ask for food
too high. We have agreed with the Hungarian Government that the question
of leveling down prices, both of food and of manufactured articles, shall be
considered by the Price Control Committees of both countries.
As for corn, vegetables, meat, etc., there will shortly be a conference of both
Governments at which it will be decided how much of these foods Hungary can
spare for Austria. At this conference we shall, of course, press our claims with
all our power.

Dr. Kraft, of the German Labor Party, pointed out that of the fat
imported into Austria-Hungary by way of Germany seven-twelfths
went to Austria and five-twelfths to Hungary. What did Hungary
want with this five-twelfths ? She had already a surplus of fat. Her
only object was to sell this imported fat to Austria at increased prices.
He suggested that the Austrian Government should compel Hungary
to observe a “ minimum of decency” in these matters by laying an
embargo on the export to Hungary of coal, paper, etc.—commodities
which Hungary could obtain only from Austria.
The Arbeiter Zeitung comments as follows on the debate:
In the nature of the case a definite resolution could not be passed. It was
clear, however, that the House was unanimously of the opinion that the food
profiteering in which the Hungarians have been indulging could no longer be
tolerated. They have made use of the fat shortage in Austria to set up a regu­
lar system of plunder, with the protection and assistance of the Hungarian
Government.

Die Zeit1 hints that Austria may be compelled, in order to bring
Hungary to a. better state of mind in the matter of food, to restrict
her supply of Austrian coal, petroleum, and manufactured goods. It
points out that since Hungary, by herself, has few or no friends, and
owes her political position solely to her connection with Austria, it
is hardly wise on her part to alienate permanently the only friend
she has, in order to snatch a momentary financial advantage.
This expression of Austrian public opinion seems to have caused a
good deal of excitement in Hungary. On the arrival of the news of
the debate in the Reichsrath, Count Johann Hadik, Hungarian food
minister, gave an interview to a representative of the Pester Lloyd,2
in which he said, with some indignation, that Dr. Schurff’s interpel­
lation and speech were both most unfair, and calculated to create
friction between Austria and Hungary; that the reason why Hungary
had not sent more fat to Austria was that she did not have it to send,
and that Hungary supplied fat to the whole army, and, after the
needs of her own civilian population were supplied, there was prac­
tically no surplus left.




1 Die Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 17, 1917.
■Pester Lloyd. Budapest, Oct. 18, 1917.

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The Pester Lloyd adds some comments of its own marked by con­
siderable asperity. It observes:
A single visit to Budapest would dispel Herr Kraft’s illusions as to the exist­
ence of a fat surplus in Hungary; he would see long lines of people waiting
patiently for hours, in order to secure only a gram [0.002 pound] of fat. Some
Austrian deputies criticized Hungary for restricting exports to Austria and so
setting up a barrier between the halves of the monarchy; but they should look
nearer home; exactly the same barriers exist between the different Crownlands
or Provinces of Austria itself. As for Die Zeit’s threats [see above], Hungary
has nothing to fear. She is the stronger part of the monarchy. It is Austria
herself who may need a crutch.

The Hungarians, however, having relieved their feelings in this
way, make some concession to the Austrian point of view. Therefore,
while maintaining strenuously that they are almost as badly off as
Austria and pointing out the fact that they are actually maintaining
hundreds of thousands of male Austrians in the army, they propose
to reorganize the system of fat exportation to Austria. In this re­
spect Die Zeit1 says:
A telegram from Budapest, under date of October 19, 1917, states: “ The
shortage in fat is assuming throughout Hungary the proportions of a regular
calamity. This is due to the fact that Hungary has to supply other needs be­
sides her own. The Hungarian Government has therefore determined to grap­
ple seriously with the problem and to set up a Central Fat Office. All fat pigs
in the country must be offered for sale to the Central Office, whose function
will be to satisfy the country’s needs of fat and to convey the surplus to Aus­
tria. This regulation involves the abolition of the old system of free export and
‘ blank certificates.’ No one except the office will be allowed to sell pigs or pig
fat. Hitherto, Austrian-agents have had a free hand in Hungary. They have
forced up the price of fat to 30 crowns per kilogram [$2.77 per pound]. This
state of things will be abolished by the new regulations.”
FOOD CONDITIO NS IN V IE N N A A N D PRAGUE.

The Vienna correspondent of the Frankfurter Zeitung describes in
a remarkable letter the war weariness of Vienna. He writes:
Although the Viennese put the chief blame for their sufferings upon the stub­
born enemy who still does not let go, ignorance, indolence, and the parishpump spirit bear their full share of responsibility for the bitterness of the pres­
ent war times. Hungary no doubt gives her blood for the joint defense, but in
all food matters her charity begins at home, and we have still not been able to
establish a joint commander in chief for the feeding of the allied empires.
When travelers tell of the milk and honey in Hungary, the Viennese is moved
by the sight of the long waiting lines standing before every fat, coal, or soap
shop; if he is himself standing in line, he gives expression to his feelings.

However, steps have been taken toward the mitigation of these
hardships. The Neues Pester Journal2 says that a conference consist­
ing of delegates representing consumers, commerce, trade, and agri­




1 Die Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 20, 1917.
2 Neues Pester Journal. Budapest, Sept. 11, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

77

culture, met at Vienna on September 10, 1917, to discuss the food
question. Two opinions made themselves felt, one demanding the
tightening of the State control of the food, the other demanding its
relaxation. Those of the latter opinion demanded freedom of trade,
especially in perishable articles. The prime minister, Dr. Seidler,
thought the two points of view not irreconcilable. The wish was
expressed that it might be possible to set up a common food adminis­
tration in union with Hungary. This somewhat naive expression of
the Austrian desire to have a share in Hungary’s food does not ap­
pear to have been received with enthusiasm by the latter.
The “ queue” (waiting-line) system comes in for a good deal of
criticism in the Viennese press. Die Zeit1 says that “ during the
summer people used to sleep in the streets of Vienna in order to get
good places in the “ queues ” of food-distributing centers. This can
hardly be done during the winter. The prospect is distinctly alarm­
ing. Underfeeding and insufficient clothes and shoes have already
diminished the physical resisting power of the population, and all
these unfortunate circumstances will have their power for harm in­
creased by the winter cold.” The writer of the article pleads
strongly for the abolition of the waiting-line system and the insti­
tution of zone distribution, and says that it is useless for the authori­
ties to say that zone distribution is possible only in the case of
articles which are produced in large quantities and can be regularly
supplied; it is their business to make it possible in all cases.
The food situation in Bohemia seems to be distinctly unsatis­
factory. This is probably due in the main to the inefficient organiza­
tion of the food supply.
A commission of the Prague city council has drawn up a memoran­
dum on the subject,2 bringing out the following points:
1. Potatoes are unobtainable.
2. The butter ration during last year was only 120 grams (4.2 ounces) per
household per month.
3. The milk supply gets steadily worse, both in quality and quantity. On
July 31, 1917, the allowance for each individual was only 0.06 liter (0.06 quart).
4. Sugar supply is unsatisfactory owing to the inefficiency of the Sugar Cen­
tral Office in Vienna and transport difficulties.
5. M ea t .— The allowance of 900 head of cattle which had been promised has
been reduced to 565.
6. G oal .— Greater Prague before the War used 320 wagonloads of coal daily;
only 100 per day are now available.
7. The results of this are that a great part of the population suffers from
hunger, and that the children suffer both physically and morally. The number
of child beggars has gone up to several thousands. The death rate among the
general population increases daily. Diarrhea is spreading at an alarming
rate in Greater Prague.




i Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 14, 1917.
•Prager Tagblatt. Prague, Sept. 11, 1917.

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A D D IT IO N A L R A T IO N S .
An order of the Imperial War Food Office of August 15, 1917,
foreshadowed the introduction of additional food rations beginning
with October. The Reichspost1 gives the following information
about these supplementary rations:
From October 1, 1917, the supplementary rations (semolina, macaroni, pearl
barley, and the like) proposed in the order of the War Food Office should be
available for the people. The providing of these additional rations to the per­
sons registered with the municipal flour supply offices will be effected through
these supply offices. The food office intends to distribute the supplementary
rations, according to the supplies available, either to the whole population or
only to individual groups of the poorer classes— that is, to those performing the
hardest kind of work. In what quantities, for what groups, and at what prices
supplementary rations will be distributed will be duly announced from time to
time. Appropriate purchasing tickets must be produced. The heads of munici­
pal flour supply offices must during the current week make out a list of the
poor registered with them, and of those engaged in the hardest work. In this
connection official purchasing tickets, and in the case of the heavy workers
notice of the increased bread ration, must be left with the flour supply office.

The Fremdenblatt2 stated that additional rations would be sup­
plied for two weeks ending October 13, 1917, at the highest rate of
one-half kilogram (1.1 pounds) per week for heavy workers and oneeighth kilogram (0.28 pound) for all other nonproducers, and that
for the week ending October 6 the food supplement for Vienna would
consist of pearl barley, at a price per kilogram of 80 hellers; that is,
10 hellers for the ration of one-eighth kilogram (7.3 cents per pound).
The Deutsches Volksblatt3 gives the following details as to sup­
plementary rations for expectant and nursing mothers:
Pregnant women or nursing mothers can obtain a supplementary ration card
by means of a certificate from the physician handling the case or the sworn
midwife on producing the flour ration card at the proper bread and flour com­
mission. This will enable them to obtain a weekly supplementary ration for
the duration of the pregnancy, or until the child is weaned, but not longer than
the fortieth week of the child’s life.

FLO U R.
A Vienna daily paper4 reported on September 24 that in the cur­
rent week wheat-flour substitute would be distributed from the mu­
nicipal flour offices at the price of 60 hellers per kilogram (5.5 cents
per pound), that is, the distribution would be to the full quota. For
families boarding children, invalids, or aged persons half flour and
half semolina would be supplied.
1 Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 30, 1917. Morning edition.
•Fremdenblatt. Vienna, Sept. 30, 1917. Morning edition.
•Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Oct. 12, 1917. Morning edition.
4 Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 24, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

79

The Deutsches Volksblatt1 reports that the food minister wrote to
the mayor of Vienna of arrangements being made to increase the
quantities of flour and meal as contemplated in the order of August
15, 1917, and that the supplements should be forthcoming in the
autumn. He stated that naturally the decision as to whether and
when the ration should be raised must be reserved to the Food Office,
as it alone had the requisite information, and said that these deci­
sions had not yet been taken, as full consideration had not been given
to the crop yield and the different claims upon it, particularly those
of the military administration.

BREAD.
In a recent bulletin of the War Grain Clearing House an expert
considers it has been demonstrated that the bread produced prior to
the War did not properly correspond to human requirements, as in the
milling practiced in peace time the bran, the valuable residue rich
in husks and tissue cells, and also to some extent the albuminiferous
germs, were withdrawn from human consumption. Liebig has al­
ready recognized that white bread has shown itself less favorable
than black bread to the maintenance of digestion in the human body.
For a sound natural digestion all elements of the wheat grain are
necessary, and every element taken from the flour diminishes its
value and digestibility. From the standpoint of sensible feeding
the use of whole meal should be strongly advocated. According to
this treatise, the first step in the right direction has been taken in
the case of war bread. But even a thoroughly ground flour does not
involve the complete using up of all nutritive elements, because the
transformation of the bran particles contained in this flour into a
digestible form has been hitherto neglected. Making use of the bran
for human consumption would constitute, according to the Grain
Clearing House, a noteworthy triumph for the feeding of the people,
but this can be done only if flour is made to include that portion of
the bran which hitherto has not been used for the nourishment of the
human body. At present there are undoubtedly difficulties in the
way of accomplishing this, but they could be overcome so far as the
supply of the larger towns is concerned.2

R E Q U IS IT IO N P R IC E S F O R C E R T A IN K IN D S O F G R A IN A N D
V EGETA BLES.
The Deutsches Volksblatt8 announces that the following prices per
100 kilograms (220.46 pounds) will be paid by the War Grain Clear­
ing House for requisitioned stocks :
1 Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Sept. 28, 1917. Morning edition.
*Die Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 12, 1917. Evening edition.
• Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Oct. 2, 1917. Morning edition.




80

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Crowns
per

Per

100 kilos.
bushel.
38
$1. 96
40
1.18
40
1. 55
80
4.44
80
$4. 07 to 4. 57
120
M l
3. 03 to 3. 41
60
2.092
100
*.047
51
*.032
35
.773
15

Maize, shelled___________
Oats_____________________
Buckwheat_______________
Peas_____________________
Beans____________________
Lentils___________________
Horse beans_____________
Cultivated winter vetch.
Cultivated summer vetch.
Wild vetch, unmilled____
Maize in the ear_________

These prices also apply to those quantities of the above articles
from the harvest of 1917 that were already delivered before the pres­
ent order came into force.

L IV E S T O C K .
At the meeting of the War Economy Committee held on October
10, 1917, Dr. von Ertl stated that, thanks to the stimulus given to
cattle breeding by the law of 1909 and the assistance of the Cattle
Fund, Austria entered the War with mu’ch bigger cattle reserves than
anyone would have thought, and that despite the great demands on
the cattle supply, it is holding out well. The necessity for the strin­
gent control of the cattle trade by the State in the various Provinces
of the Empire has nevertheless become increasingly obvious. The
Cattle Trade Companies are all under the control of the Central
Cattle Commission and the Ministry of Agriculture as well as of
the Central Office for Cattle which advises the Ministry.
The speaker then gave information as to the financial situation of
the twelve provincial cattle trade companies and the General Aus­
trian Cattle Trade Company. The value of the cattle sold up to the
end of 1916 amounted to 1,200,000,000 crowns ($243,600,000). The
total profits of the provincial cattle companies were a little over
8,000,000 crowns ($1,624,000). Of this sum 5,300,000 crowns ($1,075,900) is to be paid to the Ministry of Agriculture, and represents
no additional burden placed on the consumer. The value of the stock
disposed of by the General Austrian Cattle Trade Company was, up
to the end of 1916, 326,576,000 crowns ($66,294,928) ; in the year
1914 the net profit was 153,000 crowns ($31,059), in 1915, 2,377,000
crowns ($482,531), and in 1916, $8,009,344 crowns ($1,625,896.83).
The whole system has been organized in such a way as to supply
the population with meat and fat directly from the cattle trade, and
to eliminate the middleman.8
1 According to weight of bushel.
* Per pound.

s Fremdenblatt.




Vienna, Oct. 11, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

81

On account of the extensive slaughtering of cattle necessitated by
the drought and consequent failure of the fodder harvest the supply
of live stock to the Vienna cattle market appears to have been fairly
good during September. For September 24, 1917, the Reichspost1
reports the following prices per 100 kilograms (220.4 pounds) live
weight for various kinds and qualities of cattle:
Crowns per

100 kilograms.
Oxen, first quality ________
381 to 420
Oxen, second quality
341 to 380
Oxen, third q u a lit y ____ ___
310 to 350
Cows, first q u a l i t y ___ ___
351 to 390
Cows, second q u a l i t y _____
311 to 350
Cows, third quality
___
285 to 300
Calves, first quality
361 to 400
______ 321
Calves, second quality
to 360
Calves, third quality
____ _ 295 to 310
441 to 480
Bullocks, first quality
Bullocks, second quality
. - - 401 to 440
Bullocks, third quality
375 to 390
D raft o x e n ________________ _______ 200 to 330
D raft c o w s ------------------------ _______ 200 to 300
Draft bullocks and calves . - . 200 to 310

Per hundredweight.
$35. 09 to $38. 68
31. 41 to 35 .00
28. 55 to 32 .24
32. 33 to 35.92
28.64 to 32. 24
26. 25 to 27 .63
33. 25
36 .84
29. 56
33 .16
27.17
28. 55
40.62
44. 21
36. 95 to 40 .53
34.54 to 85.92
18.42 to 30. 39
18.42 to 27 .63
18.42 to 28. 55

to
to
to
to

Since December, 1915, the municipality of Vienna, as part of its
food policy, has maintained a dairy with about 500 cows at the farm
of Sachsengang. The milk is supplied partly to the municipal
juvenile department, and partly to municipal depots. Seeing, how­
ever, that a purely dairy establishment was not justified, and that
some of the stock appeared suitable for breeding, the municipality
decided to combine breeding with the keeping of cows. To this end
the municipality has acquired a suitable property where 170 head of
young cattle can be bred and maintained with the requisite breeding
stock. This capacity can be considerably extended.2
MEAT.

With respect to the Vienna meat market the Arbeiter Zeitung3
reports that—
In September the meat supply had somewhat improved. There was less of
the better kinds of meat for sale but more meat was available for the poorer
class [so-called “ w elfare” meat], as purchases on their account have been
greater than ever before. There was no alteration in the high meat prices,
and it is thought there will be none, though the market for the more expensive
kinds is paralyzed. In Hungary meat prices had to be lowered by 1 crown
per kilogram [9.2 cents per pound] because of the small demand. Possibly this
may lead to a modification in Austria also. For a long time there has been no
market for hogs. A certain number, however, has been brought in and allotted
1 Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 25, 1917. Morning edition.
2 Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Oct. 12, 1917. Morning edition.
•Arbeiter Zeitung. Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.

45499°— Bull. 242— 18------- 6




82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to the pork butchers and others. Pork will therefore be available for those to
whom no price is too high, but there is an utter lack of fat.

For September 22, 1917, the retail prices of meat are reported by
the Neues Wiener Tagblatt1 as follows:
Crowns per
kilogram.

Beef, forequarter___________________6. 70
Beef, hindquarter__________________ 7. 25
V e a l _________________________________ 4. 60
Mutton _________ ____________________ 7. 50
P o r k _________________________________
L a m b ________________________________ 7. 00

Per pound.

to 11. 00
to 12. 00
to 4. 80
to 8. 00
7 .8 0
to 7. 70

$0. 62
. 67
. 42
. 69

to $1. 01
to 1.11
to
. 44
to
.7 4
.7 2
. 64 to
. 71

For September 24, the Reichspost’s 2 report on the Vienna meat
market reads as follows:
Business on the meat market was, as usual on Mondays, only moderate.
Supplies of beef of all kinds were sufficient; veal was limited in quantity;
lamb and mutton were in excess of the demand, but there was a lack of pork.
The First Vienna Wholesale Butchers’ Association supplied in place of “welfare”
meat 2,000 kilograms [4,409.24 pounds] of “ Government ” potatoes at 10 hellers
the kilogram [0.9 cents per pound]; 4,000 kilograms [8,818.5 pounds] of the
inward parts of bullocks (lungs, liver, etc.), were brought in from Hungary
and supplied to the consumers at 1 kilogram [2.204 pounds] per person. The
wholesale and retail prices for these parts were as follow s:
Wholesale price.
Kind of meat.

Tripe cleaned and cooked.........................................

Per
pound.

Crowns.

Bullocks’ lungs................................ .........................
Bullocks’ lungs, cooked.............................................
Bullocks’ liver............... ............ ............ .
Bullocks’ brains..........................................................
Bullocks’ kidneys............................... .
Cows’ udders........................................ .
Cows’ udders, cooked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Per kilo­
gram.

Cents.

2.20

20.3

3.30
3.60
3.40
1.50

30.4
33.2
31.3
13.8

4.50

41.5

Retail price.
Per kilogrrm.

Crowns.

2.32 to 2.50
2.52 to 2.70
3.72 to 4.00
3.72 to 4.00
3.54 to 3.80
1.68 to 1.80
2.32 to 2.50
.92 to 1.00
1.58 to 1.70

Per pound.
Cents.

21.4 to 23.0
23.2 to 24.9
34.3 to 36.8
34.3 to 36.8
32.6 to 35.0
15.4 to 16.6
21.4 to 23.0
8.5 to 9.2
14.6 to 15.7

For September 29, Die Zeit3 prints the following report on the
Vienna meat market:
Business at the market to-day was very brisk. Meat “queues” began to
line up before the large market hall soon after 3 o’clock in the morning. The
demand for all kinds of meat was very insistent, but beef and veal were pre­
ferred. The supplies of meat were sufficient for all requirements; there was
even enough veal, and 6,000 kilograms [6.6 short tons] of pork available,
while the supply of lamb and mutton was in excess of the demand. About
1,000 kilograms [1.1 short tons] of bullocks’ parts were sold at i kilogram
[1.10 pounds] per person. In place of “ welfare” meat the Wholesale Butchers’
Association sold potatoes at its stalls, where there was a great throng of the
poor. The markets were also supplied with war sausage. For to-morrow’s
1 Neues Wiener Tagblatt. Vienna, Sept. 23, 1917.
2 Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 25, 1917. Evening edition.
*Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 29, 1917. Evening edition.




83

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA,

requirements 400 quarters of “people’s” beef at 8 crowns per kilogram [73.5
cents per pound] were supplied to the butchers.
As the lack of fodder causes greater slaughtering, there may be a substantial
increase in the amount of meat brought in in the near future, and the im­
minent migration from the hill pastures will cause fairly large reserves to be
accumulated. Unfortunately, very many milch cows are being sacrificed to
this measure of necessity, a circumstance that will entail a further reduction
in the deliveries of milk. In October, so we hear, in order to assure milk for
invalids and children, the serving of milk and coffee with milk will be forbid­
den in restaurants.

The Deutsches Yolksblatt1 states that the governor (Statthalter)
of Lower Austria has issued an ordinance fixing maximum prices
for the retail sale of horseflesh, horse sausages, and horse fat. For
Vienna and neighboring districts the prices fixed are the following:
Crowns
per kilogram,

Forequarter, without make-weight______________ 4. 50
Hind quarter, with make-weight (not in excess
of 15 per cent)__________________________________ 5 .6 0
Roast pieces (loin, sirloin, or haunch), not cut
out but without make-weight_____________________ 6. 50
All other cuts, net weight________________________ 4. 50
Horse tongue_______________________________________ 3. 50
Horse lung, raw___________________________________ 1. 00
Horse lung, cooked__________________________________ 1. 20
Horse liver, milt, heart, brains, or kidneys______ 1. 65
Preserved horse sausage___________________________ 4. 60
Horse-meat sausage_________________________________ 4 .1 0
Horse fat____________________________________________ 6. 50

Cents
per pound.

41. 3
5 1 .7
59. 9
41. 3
32. 2
9 .1
10. 9
15 .0
42. 2
37. 7
59. 9

In the sale of horse meat wholesale in the above-mentioned dis­
tricts the price of 5.10 crowns per kilogram (47.2 cents per pound)
must not be exceeded, nor in other districts the price of 4.80 crowns
(44.2 cents per pound).
The same Vienna daily paper announced on September 23, that
from that date to Ocober 6, 1917, the Wholesale Butchers’ Associa­
tion would supply to the very poor 50 grams (1.8 ounces) of bacon
at the price of 48 hellers (9.6 cents) for every member of a house­
hold.
F IS H .

Die Zeit2 publishes the following retail prices for fresh-water
fish, as recently fixed by order of the governor of Lower Austria:
In quantities up to 10 kilograms:

Crowns
per kilogram.

Carp and te n c h __________________________ 7.2 0
Pike
_
__
__
_____ _______7. 50
In quantities of 10 to 50 kilograms:
__
_
Carp and tench
_____
6 .4 0
Pike
_______________
_____ 6 .7 0

Cents
per pound.

66.2
6 9 .0
5 9 .0
6 1 .7

1 Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Sept. 29, 1917. Morning edition.
■Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.




84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Within the city limits of Vienna, in .addition to the maximum
price for pike, the consumption tax, together with the communal
addition of 15.6 hellers per kilogram (1.4 cents per pound), may be
charged. The established prices apply only to fresh-water fish of
Austrian origin, while for Hungarian fish sale prices will be fixed
from time to time by the district authorities, with consideration for
the market prices. Care will, however, be taken to prevent Austrian
fish being sold as Hungarian at higher prices.
The same source1 stated on September 29 that on the fish market
a want of fresh-water fish was noticeable, because, owing to the
grading of maximum prices, the owners o fJlakes would not fish.
They did not approve of the prices, and the outlook for the winter
and Christmas requirements of fresh-water fish was consequently
very gloomy. Of salt-water fish there were on sale small shellfish,
soles, and cod.
The Reichspost2 reported under date of September 28 that on the
preceding day limited quantities of several kinds of fresh and salt
water fish were on sale at the Vienna fish market at the following
prices per kilogram (2.2 pounds): Small shellfish, 3 crowns (27.6
cents per pound) ; bream, 4 to 4.50 crowns (36.8 to 41.5 cents per
pound); trout, 18.50 to 20 crowns ($1.71 to $1.84 per pound); pike, 7
to 7.20 crowns (64.4 to 66.2 cents per pound); carp, 6.70 to 7.20
crowns (61.7 to 66.2 cents per pound); salmon, 22 crowns ($2.03
per pound); zander, 14 to 17.50 crowns ($1.29 to $1.61 per pound);
sturgeon, 14 to 17 crowns ($1.29 to $1.57 per pound) ; dried cod,
3.70 crowns (34 cents per pound).

PO U L T R Y A N D GAM E.
Under date of September 29, 1917, Die Zeit1 in its Vienna meat
market report makes the following remarks as to the poultry and
game supply:
The poultry market was to-day also very active. The fat shortage in­
creases the demand for fattened poultry, supplies of which are used up every
day. On the game market there were to-day larger offerings of venison, which
was sold per kilogram as follow s: Haunch, 11 to 12 crowns [$1.01 to $1.11 per
pound]; shoulder, 9.20 crowns [84.8 cents per pound]; breast, 6 crowns [55.3
cents per pou n d]; fillet, 17 crowns [$1.57 per pound]. No hares were offered
for sale.
*Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 29, 1917. Evening edition.
• Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 28, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

85

EG G S.

According to the Fremdenblatt1 the Vienna Market Office has
fixed the following maximum prices for eggs from September 30,
1917, until further notice:
Russian-Polish eggs______________________________

Galician eggs

.

26i hellers (5.3 cents) each.

Wholesale price—
In quantities of 1 case (1,440 eggs) ormore_ 442
In quantities of less than 1 case:
To restaurants, boarding houses, and
confectioners.________________________ 34
To firms and dealers obtaining their
supplies from the “ Ovum ” ________
35
Retail price______________________________________
36

crowns ($89.73) per case.

hellers (6.8 cents) each.
hellers (7 cents) each.
hellers (7.2 cents) each.

Hungarian eggs.
Wholesale price—
In quantities of 1 case (1,440 eggs) or more
(direct from “ Oezeg ” ) --------------------------- 605
In quantities of less than 1 case:
To dealers______________________________
47
To dairies and organizations purchas­
ing
from
“ Oezeg,”
restaurants,
boarding houses, and confectioners-. 48
49
Retail price______________________________________

crowns ($122.82) per case.
hellers (9.4 cents) each.

hellers (9.6 cents) each.
hellers (9.8 cents) each.

All eggs sold wholesale must be invoiced and quantity and origin
clearly shown.

M IL K .
The Fremdenblatt* states that the milk supplies for Vienna de­
cline from month to month. As against the daily peace supply of
900,000 liters (951,030 quarts) the average daily supply now amounts
to only 200,000 liters (211,340 quarts), and it seems that further
diminution may take place. For private households the milk ration
has been almost suspended, and even for children, in spite of their
recognized claim, milk is difficult to procure. Recently the dairies
have maintained their deliveries to depots only with the greatest dif­
ficulty. Coffee houses are still fairly well supplied, but should the
milk scarcity become still greater, as is expected, the restriction of the
sale of coffee with milk in coffee houses and restaurants will be an
unavoidable measure.
The principal cause of these unpleasant conditions lies in the in­
sufficient supply of the dairies with fodder stuffs. The consequence
is that the slaughtering of milch cows assumes threatening propor­
tions.
1 Fremdenblatt. Vienna, Sept. 30, 1917.
i Idem. Oct. 10, 1917. Morning edition.




Morning edition.

86

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

On this gloomy situation Die Zeit1 comments as follows:
Consumers supplied with purchasing tickets complain more and more that,
in spite of their tickets, they can obtain no milk from their retailers. W e
now learn from a well-informed quarter that this disagreeable condition of
affairs will, unfortunately, become still more accentuated in the next few
weeks. For the time being, however, it is still possible to meet the require­
ments of children and invalids by means of so-called “ preferential ” cards.
But as to what will happen should the milk supplies from Hungary fail
neither the dairies nor the authorities have any clear idea. Trade circles have
absolutely no illusions as to the continuance of the supplies of fresh milk from
Hungary to Vienna. It is assumed that they will completely fail within a
measurable period. This fear is all the more justified when one considers that
the Hungarian Government assures to the home milk producers the delivery of
a certain quantity of bran if they keep their milk in that country. Owing
to the present scarcity of fodder, Austria is not in a position to provide the
Hungarian milk producers with bran; consequently they are obliged, in order
to maintain their stock, to sell their milk only on Hungarian markets. An­
other circumstance hitherto not known will likewise induce the Hungarian
dealers to withhold their milk from the Vienna market. When Hungarian
milk was selling for 60 hellers per liter [11.8 cents per quart]— that is, 64
hellers [12.1 cents per quart] at Vienna (East Station), including cost and
freight— the Hungarian Government arranged privately that deliverers of milk
for export to Vienna should ask only 50 hellers per liter [9.9 cents per quart].
In this obvious advance on the part of the Hungarian Government to meet
the requirements of the Vienna market lay, nevertheless, serious damage for
this market. For obviously any inducement for the Hungarian producers to
deliver was thereby removed.
To relieve the present milk scarcity by the sale of condensed milk is clearly
not feasible. To be sure, there is in Vienna a considerable quantity of foreign
canned condensed milk, but this is not nearly sufficient to meet requirements,
considering the daily increasing want. This inelastic reserve, which is still pro­
visionally retained by the authorities, should be reserved for the months of
January and February, which even in peace time were the worst months for the
supply of milk. The present imports of condensed milk from neutral countries,
are, moreover, very small, for even abroad the scarcity of fodder caused by the
W ar makes itself distinctly felt. In Holland, the principal exporting center of
milk products, the Government itself is planning to store up considerable
reserves in national depots in order to be prepared for all contingencies.

FA TS.
For months past the Food Office has been making arrangements
for supplying fat, through a system of zone distribution, to the poor
of Vienna in order to put a stop to the waiting lines. These arrange­
ments were completed in September and an order was issued, effective
September 23, 1917, providing that all persons hitherto entitled to
purchase meat at reduced prices and registered in one of the shops of
the Wholesale Butchers’ Association, may also purchase their allotted
fat ration there. Every shop of the association will be assigned a
quantity sufficient for 350 persons daily, whose needs can surely be




l Die Zeit.

Vienna, Oct. 20, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA,

87

supplied in a few hours. But, in order to prevent any possibility of
consumers being turned away owing to inadequacy of supplies, a
certain quota per person, according to supplies available, will be
fixed and guaranteed. Thus each purchaser of fat will know before­
hand that his ration, however small, is secured, and there will no
longer be any inducement to form a “ queue.” The order does not
affect the sale of butter.
Die Zeit,1 commenting on the official order, says that it remains to
be seen whether the above method will be practicable, and adds that
the main question is whether sufficient fat can be procured for sup­
plying the 770,000 persons who, in Vienna, come under the category
of “ poor,” with a ration of any significance. The paper notes that
the municipal authorities of Vienna were careful to mention in ad­
vance that the ration per person would be fixed every fortnight, ac­
cording to the supplies available.

BUTTER.
The Arbeiter Zeitung2 reports under date of October 7 that the
maximum prices for butter were amended as follows: Butter in bulk,
14.16 crowns per kilogram ($1.30 per pound), in prints, 14.36 crowns
($1.32 per pound). The corresponding prices per 120 grams (4.23
ounces) have been fixed at 1.70 and 1.72 crowns (34.5 and 34.9 cents).
Under date of October 18 the Neue Freie Presse3 states that “ as
the consignment of foreign butter expected for to-day in Vienna did
not arrive, butter can not be supplied this week at most of the munic­
ipal butter supply depots. The managers of the £Oezeg’ give as­
surances that next week there will be a double supply of butter and
margarine for every one entitled thereto.”

POTATOES.
The Food Office has issued a set of regulations supplementary to
the potato order of July 26, 1917. These regulations are bitterly
criticized by the urban populations, especially by the socialists.
Below is summarized a typical attack made upon the new regulations
by the Arbeiter Zeitung: 4
The Food Office has given way to the agrarians, and altered the potato regu­
lations unanimously adopted by the Food Council. It is to be regretted that
tlie idea of stringent State management of potatoes has been thrown overboard;
but we must always expect this kind of weakness whenever the authorities try
to tackle the farmers.
Tn the early summer the farmers acquiesced in the proposed requisitioning of
the whole potato crop, as decreed by the order of July 26, 1917. But the failure
1 Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.
•Arbeiter Zeitung. Vienna, Oct. 7, 1917. Morning edition.
* Neue Freie Presse. Vienna, Oct. 18, 1917. Morning edition.
4 Arbeiter Zeitung. Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.




88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of the fodder crop, and consequent anxiety for their livestock later on deter­
mined them to resist. At this time a few bourgeois journals were carrying on
a shortsighted campaign for what they called “ free trade.” The agrarians
cunningly used this agitation to stir up a discussion on the whole food question,
so as to divert attention from the fact that they had begun to use potatoes as
fodder.
The potato crop of the country (not including the countries occupied and
under military administration) promises a yield of over 70,000,000 metric
centners [7,716,100 short tons]. From this the Food Ministry proposes to as­
sign to nonproducers the quantity of 20,000,000 metric centners [2,204,600 short
tons]. Part of this latter quantity is set apart for potato-using industries and
the army. About 17,000,000 metric centners [1,873,910 short tons] remain,
and as there are about 17,000,000 of nonproducers, it means about 100 kilograms
[220.46 pounds] per person for the nine months. This represents, roughly,
an allowance of 380 grams [13.4 ounces] per d a y; but a considerable deduc­
tion must be made for loss and for restaurants and hotels. Even should the
380 grams be obtained it is far below the quantity allotted in Germany, where
500 grams [1.1 pounds] or more is assured. I f there is going to be a shortage
of other vegetables this winter, why should the allowance of potatoes be kept
down to such a scanty figure if more are available? And why should potatoes
be used for cattle fodder while human beings have to go without them?
The Food Office pleads necessity, and hopes that the human population will
exercise voluntary abstinence. It has, for practical purposes, changed the
“ requisitioning ” [ Beschlagnahme ] of potatoes into a mere “ prohibition of
sale ” [ Sperre ]. It has prescribed a fixed quantity to be delivered by the
producers to the State, and has provided that the prohibition of sale is not to
be relaxed in any Province until this quantity has been delivered by all the
producers in the Province. The potatoes which remain after the State con­
signment has been delivered may be used by the farmer as fodder, or put on
the market. As these potatoes can only be sold subject to the maximum prices
fixed by the State, the farmer will probably prefer to use them as fodder.
This plan sounds more reasonable than it is in reality. The objection to it
is as follow s: In the first place there is nothing to compel the farmer to ration
either man or beast on his own farm. He is at liberty to waste as many
potatoes as he likes. Consequently, the State has no security that the fixed
quantity actually will be forthcoming. The idea of the new regulations is that
two-thirds of the State quantum is to be delivered to the local authorities in
the autumn before the frosts set i n ; and that one-third is to be stored and de­
livered in the spring. But between these two periods of delivery lies the
winter, with unrestricted opportunities of wasting potatoes as fodder. The
State relies upon the bona fide cooperation of the farmers in carrying out this
scheme. Whether this reliance is justified remains to be seen; probably it
is not.
All this is very interesting for the urban population; it shows them how the
fulfillment of an elementary duty of citizenship can be made the subject of a
sordid bargain. This applies especially to prices. The farmers stipulated for
an “ early-delivery ” premium of 5 crowns for every metric centner [27.8 cents
per bushel] of potatoes delivered on or before November 30, 1917. The cost of
this extra premium is, of course, borne by the consumer. Moreover, if the
farmer has his potatoes in readiness by November 30, but is compelled to store
them owing to delay on the part of the authorities in taking them away, he
can claim a “ storage premium ” of 2 crowns [11 cents per bushel] as well,
when the potatoes are finally removed. The result of these premiums will be




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

89

that the farmers will not separate the potatoes to be delivered next -spring
from those to be delivered in the autumn, they will keep them in one indis­
tinguishable mass, so as to make it difficult for the W ar Grain Clearing House
to lay hand on the spring potatoes.
All these undesirable circumstances arise from the fact that our stock and
meat prices have been allowed to rise far too high. All attempts to limit the
use of potatoes for fodder by raising the potato price and by giving premiums
are bound to fail, because the price of meat has gone so high that it will
always be more profitable for the farmer to turn his potatoes into meat (by
using them as fodder) than to sell them as potatoes. The only possible method
now of preventing the use of potatoes for fodder is legal compulsion.
At present, however, the Government has neither the will nor the power "to
take this simple step of making foddering with potatoes illegal. So, contrary to
the principle hitherto observed, that the harvest should be distributed equally
all round, the expedient is adopted of rationing the nonproducer with a moder­
ate quantity and openly handing over the larger remainder to the growers for
free disposal. The idea of equality of sacrifice is thereby abandoned. While
the nonproducer has to put up with 380 grams [13.4 ounces], the grower may
enjoy three or four times that amount, and use as much again for fodder.
The consequence may well be that the farmers will keep through the winter
more stock than proper war management would permit, and that in the sum­
mer we shall be compelled to kill off numbers of lean stock without profit, thus
recovering only a fraction of the potatoes used as fodder. The new potato
regulations are therefore a mistake, and we may have, instead of the mild
compulsion of the law to put up with, the reckless violence of military requisi­
tion, as happened in the case of the gathering of the harvest last year.

A few weeks later the Neues Wiener Tagblatt1 reports that a still
further step was taken away from State confiscation of potatoes by
a recent order of the Food Office extending the right of “ self-sup­
ply ” as regards potatoes to the parents, children, brothers, and sisters
of producers, even when these do not live under the same roof as the
producers—also to the domestic dependents of these relatives of
producers. This will probably cause in Lower Austria an enormous
increase in the number of applications for “ transport permits.”
Persons applying for transport permits in order to be able to
supply -themselves with potatoes from their relatives’ fields, were
warned that they will have to sign a renunciation of their potato
cards at the time their application is filed, and before the transport
permit is issued to them; it is, therefore, possible that during the
time between the presentation of their application and the granting
of the transport permit they may have to go without potatoes alto­
gether. Persons whose potatoes spoil during the journey will not
be entitled to an additional supply during the period for which these
potatoes should have lasted.
Shortly after this potato cards were introduced in Vienna. The
system came into force on October 21, 1917, and it was announced
that the zone system for the supply of potatoes would be organized




J
Neues Wiener Tagblatt.

Vienna, Oct. 9, 1917.

90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

at the same time. In this connection Die Zeit1 records the following
information from official municipal sources:
According to the ordinance of October 2, 1917, of the governor of Lower
Austria dealing with the regulation of the consumption of potatoes, consumers
must be allocated to certain supply depots. Every possessor of a potato card
is, in the purchase of potatoes, confined to his residential district, within
which, however, he has a free choice of depot, the addresses of which are
published. For those classes of the population that belong to no consumers’
organization sufficient municipal depots were established to permit not more
than 3,000 persons being assigned to one depot. It is the same with the or­
ganizations. Members of those organizations to which the supply of potatoes
lias been intrusted by the Vienna municipal administration can register w ith
T
their organization without being confined to their residential district. But
they have the option, by canceling this registration, of assuring themselves a
supply at one of the notified depots. Organizations, however, are not permitted
to register persons who are not members.
The procedure of registration is as follow s: Every possessor of a card has
to fill in on the card his name and address, and produce it at the selected depot
(or organization), which must fill in the name and address of the depot, cut
off the exterior section, and return the card to its owner. The sections cut
off remain in the keeping of the depot, which has to make up from them a
list of customers. No depot (excluding organizations) may register more than
3,000 cards. In case the possessor of a card for some reason can not find a
depot, he must apply to the local authority of his district, which will assign
him to one. Registration starts on October 21 and closes on October 27. The
date as from which the possessor of a card will be restricted to a depot once
he has chosen it will be announced, until which time the depots already exist­
ing are obliged to supply potatoes to anyone on surrender of the voucher for
the week, even when the owner has already registered elsewhere. This regu­
lation presumes larger supplies which can be collected only if imports reach the
estimated quantity.

According to the Arbeiter Zeitung,2 the potato ration for the week
beginning October 7, 1917, has been fixed at 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds)
per person.
With respect to the importation of potatoes from Germany, the
Reichspost3 gives the following information:
W e learn from a well-informed quarter that the eagerly expected supply of
potatoes for our markets is due to an arrangement that the “ Oezeg ” has made
with the proper German authorities, whereby a larger quantity of this important
article of food was assured to Austria. In the early summer the “ Oezeg ”
endeavored to secure for Austria early potatoes from the northern countries, in
order to remedy the potato shortage which seriously threatened by reason of the
failure of the home crop. Unfortunately, it appeared that the abnormal
weather conditions, which were the same in the whole of mid-Europe, had
damaged the potato crops there also. The quality of the potatoes was poor and
unsuitable for long transport, so that the “ Oezeg ” was obliged to withdraw
i‘roin the negotiations. Luckily, it appears from the arrangement with Germany
referred to that the needs of Vienna and the industrial districts are once more
covered.
i Die Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 20, 1917. Morning edition.
■Date not given.
• Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 80, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

91

F R U IT S A N D V E G E T A B L E S .
Under date of September 26, 1917, Die Zeit1 reports that it was
informed by the Food Office that, owing to the poor cabbage crop, it
was necessary to requisition the commodity. The result was that
cabbage could not be consumed, supplied direct to the consumer
(except in the case of small quantities), sold, or bought. Cabbage
grown in private or allotment gardens, or applied by the producer
to his own requirements, or made into sauerkraut in his own house­
hold, was not included, nor was that included which was covered by
agreement with the Food Office or the “ Geos.” The requisitioned
cabbage was to be handed over to certain designated sauerkraut
manufacturers. The maximum price fixed for all Austria was' 45
crowns per 100 kilograms (4.1 cents per pound), local authorities
being given power to fix a lower price. These authorities were to fix
the retail prices. Consignments of cabbage had to have a transport
permit.
Die Zeit says that the Food Office will have to regulate prices of
sauerkraut also, otherwise it will be even harder to obtain this win­
ter than last. The price recently was 1.30 crowns per kilogram (12
cents per pound), but that was foreign cabbage. Since then Bohe­
mian sauerkraut dealers have offered it froe on rail Bohemia at 130
crowns per 100 kilograms (12 cents per pound) in wagonload lots.
In its evening edition of the same date Die Zeit2 doubts whether
the maximum price for cabbage of 45 crowns per 100 kilograms
(4.1 cents per pound) covers the cost of production, but at the same
time states that the reduction in price of the commandeered cabbage
was necessary to prevent a rise in the retail price for sauerkraut.
According to the Keichspost3 onions which formerly could be
obtained in the Vienna markets, without recourse to “ queues,” at 1.20
to 1.70 crowns per kilogram (11 to 15.7 cents per pound) suddenly
disappeared, and after the lapse of a month appeared here and there
again on the market, but at prices which had risen to 2.64 crowns
(24.3 cents per pound). The general opinion was that onions would
soon disappear altogether from the markets, and a strong demand
set in. Only after long waiting in “ queues ” could a few kilograms
be obtained at high prices. The manipulators were wholesale mer­
chants who held back their goods in order to cause a rise in price,
and in this way quickly secure a large profit. It is now apparent
from the proceedings at a summons before the Marburg (Styria)
district court that the authorities have been successful in inflicting
punishment on two such dealers. One was a merchant of Gorizia,
1 Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 26, 1917. Morning edition.
8 Idem. Evening edition.
* Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 29, 1917. Evening edition.




92

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the other of Graz. The two carried on the wholesale purchase of
onions in lower Styria, and manipulated prices so that the price of
onions was raised more than 100 per cent. One of the two partners
managed the lower Styrian “ business ” ; he bought onions in the
country at 70 hellers per kilogram (6.4 cents per pound), at which
price the sellers delivered free on rail, and he then consigned them
by rail at the price of 1.40 and 1.50 crowns per kilogram (12.9 to 13.8
cents per pound). The other partner received dealers’ orders from
Vienna, Lower Austria, Carinthia, the Tyrol, etc. What profits
the two made appears from the fact that in two days they made
1,512.80 crowns ($307.10) on 1,891 kilograms (2.08 short tons) of
onions, which they bought at 1,323.70 crowns ($268.71) and sold at
2,836,50 crowns ($575.81). They kept the onions back in order to
obtain the prices they desired. The sentence of the court involved
for each defendant 4 weeks’ imprisonment and a fine of 1,500 crowns
($304.50).
On September 29 Die Zeit,1 in reporting on the Vienna vegetable
market, states that the market was entirely sold out as usual the
Saturday before, and gives the following quotations:
Crowns per
kilogram.

French and butter beans _
Pumpkins
Hungarian cucumbers
-----------Viennese o n i o n s _________________
Native o n io n s________________ __
Garlic
__
________
Red cabbage --------------------------Leaf spinach
Stalk spinach
Brussels sprouts
Green cabbage

1. 76 to 2. 24
56 to 1. 10

Gents per pound.

2. 44
2. 80
1. 64
92
72
2. 30
1. 54
15
22
20
24
82
,26
28
54
20

50 to

16 .2
5 .2
4 .6
14. 4
19. 9
19. 9
14 .7
8 .1
6 .3
16 .2
12. 9
1 .6
2 .4
2 .4
3. 2
3 .2
3 .7
4 .9
7 .7
2 .8

64

1. 56 to 1. 84
2. 16 to
2. 16 to
1. 60 to
88 to
68 to
1. 76 to
1. 40 to
Each.

Hungarian peppers
Cooking lettuce
Cabbage lettuce
Fine crinkled lettuce
Kohlrabi
Hungarian maize in the ear
Native maize in the ear
Cauliflower
_
--------------------Large radishes
_ — —
—
Small white and red radishes,
per bunch
—

08
12
12
16
16
.18
24
38
14

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

2 0 .7
10 .1
5 .9
1 7 .0
22. 5
2 5 .8
1 5 .1
8 .5
6 .6
2 1 .2
14 .2

Each.

24

to 3 .0
to 4 .5
to 4 .1
to 4 .9
to 6 .5
to 5 .3
to 5 .7
to 1 1 .0
to 4 .1
4 .9

Pumpkins have become popular in Vienna as a vegetable for
human consumption only within the last few months. Hitherto
there has been abundance of other vegetables, and there has been a




1 Die Zeit.

Vienna, Sept. 29, 1917.

Evening edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

93

certain prejudice against pumpkins because of the fact that they
form very good fodder for swine. However, this has been a very
*bad year for other vegetables, though a very good one for pumpkins,
especially in Hungary, which is exporting quantities of pumpkins.
Upper Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Styria have also had a good
yield of pumpkins. The export from these Provinces has gone prin­
cipally to Vienna, as country districts and small towns prefer the
usual seasonal vegetables. Fine pumpkins were at first sold in
Vienna at 240 crowns per 100 kilograms (22.1 cents per pound) j
however, by October the price had gone down to 24 to 30 crowns
(2.2 to 2.8 cents per pound).1
In September the Vienna markets were well supplied with fruit,
many wagonloads of which were still coming in. The Hungarians
were supplying the Austrian markets with grapes and even with
peaches, but the urgently wanted plums they kept for themselves.
I f therefore a few Bosnian plums appeared on the markets, num­
erous buyers lined up at once. The expected Serbian plums had not
arrived.2 The markets in Vienna were full of apples and amply
supplied with pears. There was a great demand for the cheap
“ municipal ” apples at 56 to 60 hellers per kilogram (5.1 to 5.4 cents
per pound). The offering of apples for less than the maximum price
caused the wholesale trade to fall off, because the fruit companies in­
sisted on the impossible legal maximum prices. Still the Government
made no change in the maximum price, even though in practice it was
disregarded. Die Zeit remarked8 that if the Government did not de­
cide to make an alteration in the price, it would find in a few
weeks that the market was deserted while the people were clamoring
for more cheap fruit. The supply of grapes was fairly good, but
the prices did not decrease. The Government appeared unwilling
to do anything to lower the price, as it had been decided to export
wine and as a modification of the price of grapes would affect the
price of wine.
The Deutsches Volksblatt4 stated that according to a communica­
tion from the railroad authorities to the Vienna municipal ad­
ministration, the removal of fruit from the railway stations was
taking place very slowly, thus hindering traffic, and that the railroad
authorities would be obliged, if these conditions continued, to pro­
hibit consignments of fruit to the stations. This would have a bad
effect on the fruit supply of Vienna. Orders were therefore issued
that everyone should remove consignments of fruit as speedily as
possible. This information confirms the impression gathered from
the press that the fruit crop in Austria has been remarkably good.
xDie Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 10, 1917. Evening edition.
2 Idem. Sept. 26, 1917. Evening edition.
* Idem. Sept. 29, 1917. Evening edition.
4 Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Sept. 23, 1917. Morning edition.




94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

SU GA R.
The Commission for War Economy held a meeting on October 10,
1917, at which Dr. Lowenfeld-Russ, ministerial councilor, gave the
following details1 regarding the Central Office for Sugar, in addition
to those which he gave on September 11 (see p. 64):
The whole sugar supply had been requisitioned by the State, and administered
exclusively by the Central Office for Sugar. This office is subordinate to and acts
under the direction of the Food Office. The main task of the “ Central ” is to
regulate the production and supply of sugar. Sugar prices are fixed by the Gov­
ernment. As the “ Central ” does not itself sell any sugar, it has no income; con­
sequently all its working expenses have to be borne by the sugar trade. These
expenses amounted to 600,000 crowns [$121,800] during the last fiscal year,
and may be more this year.
The export trade in sugar is carried on by the individual factories within the
limits of the quantities determined by the Government, under the direction of
the “ Central.” Export prices are fixed by the Government. At present sugar
exports are restricted to a minimum. The money which the factories receive
for the sugar they export, in excess of what they would have received had it
been sold at home, must be turned over to a fund under State control. This
fund receives, further, any excess profits of those who supply the army ad­
ministration with sugar, not at the Austrian but at the distinctly higher Hun­
garian prices. Finally, this fund receives the surplus profits made by the fac­
tories on the sugar which they supply to the confectionery factories. This fund
on September 30, 1917, stood at 60,000,000 crowns [$12,180,000]. The Food
Office has decided that the fund is to be devoted to the purposes of the Poorer
Classes Supply Department.

Herr Janota, president of the Central Office for Sugar, explained
that “ the setback in sugar production which had occurred since the
foundation of the Central was due to the deficient supply of beets;
and this again is due to the shortage of manure, carts, and labor.
Unfortunately the shortage in the supply of sugar coincided with an
enormously increased demand for it, both from ordinary consumers
and from the military authorities. However, measures have been
taken to increase the area under beet cultivation.”
After some discussion the deputy Jerzebek observed that “ he was
still unable to understand why the price of sugar should have risen
simultaneously with an increase of the number of consumers. He
was not satisfied with the explanation that the increase in sugar
prices was due to the increase in beet prices. In Germany beets were
much dearer and sugar distinctly cheaper than in Austria. The
profits of the sugar industry were no less than they had been, as the
dividends showed. The sugar industry would not have been in­
jured if prices had not been raised; it would only have made a little
less profit. In war time, when everybody has to be content with
less than he had, why should the sugar industry be spared ? ”
1 Fremdenblatt.




Vienna, Oct. 11, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

95

Dr. Mikusch, business manager of the Central Office for Sugar,
stated that—
It was not the purpose of speculating, but the fear of speculation, which had
induced the refineries in 1914 to store more raw sugar than was required by
the average consumption in peace time. The institution of the Central Office
for Sugar and the State control of prices had prevented speculation, had estab­
lished a fixed relation between the prices of raw and of refined sugar, and had
enabled the refineries to meet the needs both of home consumers and of the
diminished export trade. The increase in home consumption during the W ar is
due to the changes in the character of the food generally consumed. The
Central Office had nothing to do with the use made by the military authorities
of the sugar assigned to them. Unlike the Hungarian Sugar Office the Austrian
Sugar Office has no control over saccharine. Probably this year’s beets will yield
a slightly better sugar supply, but it is unsafe to prophesy, as the weather may
upset calculations. It must be remembered that not all the beets grown will be
delivered to the sugar factories, because, despite the legal prohibition, a good
deal is sure to be used for food and fodder, and also a geat many of the
tops will probably be cut off for fodder purposes. Moreover, the refineries will
have great difficulties to contend with in the matter of transport, coal supply,
shortage of important materials, etc. It must be expected, therefore, that the
sugar supply for 1917-18 will not permit of the present quota per person being
maintained, if it is to last out the whole year. As for the question of prices,
in view of the rise in the price of beets from 2.3 crowns per 100 kilograms
in prewar days to 6.2 crowns [0.2 to 0.6 cent per pound], the sugar industry
would not really be expected to keep its prices at the same level. People must,
therefore, be prepared for still higher prices next year. The farmers are rather
loath to devote acreage to beets, owing to lack of manure, carts, and labor;
they can be induced to produce more beets only by getting higher prices for
them. The sugar industry is not interested in forcing prices u p ; it much prefers
an abundant yield and low prices. The profits which it has made lately have
been quite m o d e st and re a so n a b le .

Dr. Lowenfeld-Russ gave a detailed explanation, with numerous
figures, of the distribution of sugar among the army, civilians, and
the sugar-treating industries. “ As for the per capita quota, it is
reasonable to make a distinction between town and country, because
country people consume less sugar in peace time. Generally speak­
ing, the Austrian sugar ration is higher than the German ration. It
should be remembered that the export trade in sugar has been re­
duced to very small dimensions, and is carried on rather by way of
barter, to induce foreign countries to supply Austria with necessary
commodities, than for the sake of profit.”
At a meeting of a committee of the Food Council, held on October
16, 1917,1 Dr. Lowenfeld-Russ referred to sugar management. He
gave a few figures with regard to the coming year, and declared that,
on the basis of present estimates, the Government would be compelled
to reduce the sugar ration for the population of the whole of Austria
as from November 1. “ Last year we disposed of a total crop of
7,000,000 metric centners [771,610 short tons] of raw sugar, while the
1 Die Zeit.




Vienna, October 17, 1917.

Morning edition.

96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

season 1917-18 will yield only about 5,500,000 metric centners
[606,265 short tons], and owing to the shortage of about 1,500,000
metric centners [165,345 short tons], considerable restrictions must
be expected. In the necessary reductions great difficulties were en­
countered in the case of deliveries for army requirements. It was
apparent that a reduction of the sugar ration for the fighting troops
could not be carried out. Consequently there remained only the re­
duction of the sugar ration for direct consumers in regard to sweet­
meats and for industrial manufacture. The ration must therefore be
reduced from 1 to £ kilogram [2.2 to 1.7 pounds] for the town popu­
lation, and from £ to \ kilogram [1.7 to 1.1 pounds] per month for
rural districts. The ration will not be reduced for heavy workers,
who will retain their sugar supplementary card, so as to obtain 1£
kilograms [2.8 pounds] per month.”
Strong opposition to the reduction manifested itself in the debate,
certain members of the committee advocating a complete stoppage
of luxury production and the manufacture only of “ popular ” sugar
to be sold at maximum prices. Another member insisted on the
necessity of sugar for children, who should be placed on the same
level as heavy workers and given supplementary cards.
As it was hoped that after the conclusion of the discussions with
Hungary, Austria might receive better treatment, several members
proposed that the reduction of rations as from November 1 should
be provisional, and that the matter should be finally regulated only
after the close of the pending negotiations.
According to the Neue Freie Presse1 the governor of Lower Austria
has published an ordinance fixing maximum prices, wholesale and
retail, for refined sugar. It gives the selling price for refined loaf
sugar, which will be put on the market at the increased price of 130
crowns per 100 kilograms (12 cents per pound), prime quality, and
will be furnished with official red labels. There will be a maximum
addition over existing station prices for delivery free on rail of 1.75
crowns per 100 kilograms (0.2 cents per pound), and a further addi­
tion of 3 crowns per 100 kilograms (0.3 cents per pound) for cost of
conveyance to the seller. For sugar sold at retail there is an addition
of 5 or 8J hellers (1 or 1.7 cents) according as the sugar is sold as
packed originally or in boxes. Eetail prices can be ascertained from
the district authorities. With reference to those quantities of refined
sugar which were put on sale with green labels at the old factory
prices, the former retail prices naturally still hold good. The dis­
trict authorities are instructed to take proper steps to insure that
such sugar be not sold at the higher prices. The prices are fixed for
a whole year; that is, until October 1, 1918.
a Neue Freie Presse.




Vienna, Oct. 18, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— AUSTRIA.

97

CO FFEE.
The Reichspost1 states that it is officially informed that, owing
to the lack of bean coffee, the manufacture of coffee substitutes has
become of increasing importance. The war coffee put on the market,
a mixture of bean coffee and raw sugar, has not satisfied the require­
ments of the population for coffee and coffee substitutes. The Food
Office, therefore, turned its attention to the supply of raw material
for the coffee-substitute industry. As figs are no longer imported,
only barley, chicory, and sugar beets are available. Four thousand
cars of barley were reserved for the production of coffee substitutes,
the greater part being used for malt coffee, and only a small quantity
for barley coffee. Prices are regulated by a special ordinance. The
whole chicory crop was requisitioned, and its distribution is effected
through the Chicory Distribution Office in Prague. Unfortunately
the yield of this year’s crop is poor, so that the production of sub­
stitutes is#not thriving. For beets also there is a special distribution
committee, composed of representatives of the sugar and coffee-sub­
stitute industries, which provides for the distribution of available
supplies on agreed principles. The retail prices of all manufactured
coffee substitutes are fixed by order—usually at 2 crowns per kilo­
gram (18.4 cents per pound) for goods in packages—or are, when
the mixed article is in question, prescribed for every brand and must
be printed on the package. With the exception of pure fig coffee,
which, however, will soon be no longer available, the retail price in
no case exceeds 4 crowns per kilogram (36.8 cents per pound), or,
as the sale is usually in packages of i kilogram, 1 crown (20.3 cents)
per package.

V IN E G A R .
A shortage of table vinegar, due partly to the pickling season and
partly to extensive military requirements, is reported in Die Zeit.2
Attempts are being made by the vinegar industry to remedy this
state of affairs as far as possible. At the request of the Food Office
the Ministry of War. has released for distribution chemically pure
acetic acid. This will allow of a few hundred thousand liters of
2^ per cent table vinegar being distributed very shortly to the pub­
lic. What still remains of the acetic acid will, through the medium
of the “ Geos,” be used in fruit and vegetable preserving factories
and for supplying pressing demands in the Provinces. Since Vienna
comprises about 600,000 households, and the table vinegar produced
from the released acetic acid can be purchased by cards in quantities
1 Reichspost. Vienna, Oct. 2, 1917. Morning ^edition.
2 Die Zeit. Vienna, Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.

45499°— 18— Bull. 242------- 7




98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.

of only one-half liter per household at a maximum price of 26 hellers
per liter (4.9 cents per quart), the vinegar shortage in Vienna should
be remedied for the immediate future at least.

W IN E A N D B E E R .
The Reichspost1 learns from Trieste that by a governor’s ordi­
nance a Wine Office is established which will have the exclusive
right of purchase for the Province of Istria. The purchase will be
at fixed prices. The shipment of wine from Trieste will also be
controlled.
The Bohemia2 reports that the brewing of beer at home has been
officially forbidden.

R E STA U R A N T CA RDS.
According to the Fremdenblatt8 restaurant cards were to be in­
troduced in November. Each person desiring a meal in a restaurant
would present an official meal check to the proprietor. According to
tentative regulations under consideration at the Food Office, cafes
and restaurants will be allowed to supply food only at the two chief
mealtimes, viz, at noon and in the evening. The viands which may
be supplied will be restricted to the following, for each person: At
noon, one portion of soup, one of meat (not more than 100 grams)
(3.5 ounces) with vegetables, and one of farinaceous food of any
kind; in the evening, one portion of meat (maximum 100 grams). with
vegetables, and 100 grams of cheese. Hors d’oeuvres and savories
will be allowed, provided meat, flour, milk, and eggs do not enter
into their composition. Persons desiring meal checks must make a
written declaration that they regularly take their meals away from
home. This is designed to prevent people from lunching or dining
both at home and at a restaurant.
This proposed innovation has provoked much opposition from
restaurant and hotel proprietors and from the public. According
to the Deutsches Volksblatt4 the committee of the Food Council ap­
pointed to consider the matter is also definitely opposed to the issu­
ance of restaurant and hotel cards, a fact winch makes it probable
that the Food Council will also refuse to sanction the scheme.

S U P P R E S S IO N O F “ F O O D E X C U R S IO N S ” A N D “ K IT -B A G T R A D E .”
As in Germany, the practice in Austria among the urban popula­
tion of going to the country districts to secure food illicitly has been
1 Reichspost.

Vienna, Oct. 1, 1917. Morning edition.
•Bohemia. Prague, Sept. 11, 1917.
•Fremdenblatt. Vienna, Sept. 23, 1917.
* Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Oct. 11, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL, EUROPE— AUSTRIA,

99

the source of many complaints. The Food Office decided to stop this
practice and issued regulations quoted by the Arbeiter Zeitung1 as
follows:
W e are officially informed that numerous persons, to the detriment of the
community, unlawfully obtain food controlled by the State (particularly flour,
pulse, potatoes, eggs, butter, milk, fat, sugar, and coffee), in addition to the
rations fixed by the Food Office, and that in a markedly increasing degree, the
authorities are obliged to order the examination of baggage (boxes, baskets,
bags, and kit bags) of travelers and pedestrians. This examination will be
carried out by the police at the stations in the neighborhood of Vienna, by
the revenue guard at the boundary customs offices, and by the gendarmery in
the country. Food carried contrary to prohibition will be taken away in
every case and handed over to hospitals, cooperative kitchens, and similar public-welfare institutions. People are therefore warned not to render themselves
liable to accusations of smuggling of this kind, as in addition to a considerable
fine or imprisonment they may expect the confiscation of the food in question.

Some measures of this kind had already been taken at Vienna,
apparently under the authority of the governor of Lower Austria
(not of the Food Office), in the latter part of September, with the ef­
fect of calling forth protests from the city council. The result of
the present order, therefore, was to irritate the city council and the
mayor of Vienna still more. Die Zeit2 reports an utterance of the
mayor of Vienna in this respect as follows:
Our Government, which has certainly not been lacking in ordinances, has
just brought out another, the “ kit-bag ” ordinance, which has aroused the
greatest bitterness, and indeed despair, in the whole population of Vienna.
W ith unparalleled lack of consideration, large and small bags belonging to
incoming travelers are examined, not only in Vienna, but also during the
journey, and small quantities of food, as, for instance 10 eggs or a bottle of
milk, are confiscated. In Bohemia large quantities of flour are sold by small
millers without regard to State control, and without ration tickets or cards,
in excess of the maximum price; there are no officials to interfere. Here in
Vienna articles are taken away from poor women, who, through former con­
nections in the country, manage to pick up here and there small quantities
for their children, and these women leave the stations weeping and in despair.
I appeal to the Government, as I did recently in the municipal council, not
to proceed with such petty, irritating methods, which only calculate to disturb
and embitter the population.

W A R K IT C H E N S .
Public kitchens (VolksTcuchen) were much used in Vienna during
August, 1917. With the return of the cold weather, the coal short­
age, and the inconvenience of waiting in line, the number of persons
patronizing these kitchens has probably still further increased. In
1 Arbeiter Zeitung. Vienna, Oct. 7, 1917. Morning edition.
•Die Zeit. Vienna, Oct. 17, 1917. Morning edition.




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BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

an interview with a representative of Die Zeit,1 Dr. Eisler, president
of the Union of Public Kitchens, expressed himself as follows:
Ninety-nine public kitchens now belong to the union, in which 49,000 persons
are fed daily. The largest of these kitchens is that attached to Krupp’s Metal
Works at Berndorf, feeding 7,000 persons per day. In other kitchens the
number of patrons ranges from 30 to 2,300.
The provisioning of these kitchens is a gigantic task.
The most difficult problem is the meat supply, which is arranged as follow s:
The union receives monthly from the provincial Government [ S tatthalterei ]
20 bullocks— 10 from Austria and 10 from Hungary. In addition the wholesale
slaughterers are under a contract to supply, monthly, 6,000 kilograms [13,228
pounds] of Austrian and 44,000 kilograms [97,002 pounds] of Hungarian meat.
The average price of this meat, carriage paid, is 12 crowns per kilogram [$1.10
per pound].
Vegetables are also difficult to procure. To insure a regular supply, the
Geos ” has been instructed by the provincial Government to deliver weekly
half a wagonload to the union. As this is naturally insufficient to cover the
needs of the kitchens, the managers of the kitchens resort to independent pur­
chasing of vegetables. Occasionally they are supplied by the “ Oezeg ” with
fresh foreign vegetables. No complaints have yet been made of a potato short­
age. These are supplied in sufficient quantities of excellent quality by the W ar
Grain Clearing House.
No fresh milk is used in the kitchens. In certain dishes, for which milk is
an essential ingredient, only powdered milk is used, and in very limited quanti­
ties, which often run short.
Much economy has to be observed in the use of flour.
The managers of the
individual kitchens have no easy task in apportioning their flour quota when
preparing farinaceous dishes. A weekly ration of only £ kilogram [0.55 pound]
per capita is allowed on the food cards. According to the supplies on hand,
a further very limited quantity of potato flour is sometimes allowed, without
cards, to eke out the scanty supply of grain flour.
Nothing definite can at present be stated with respect to pulse. For the
period from July 22 to October 1, the kitchens were assigned 3 wagonloads
by the provincial Government.
Naturally, considering present conditions,
these had to be used very sparingly. A considerable portion, too, had to be
stored up.
Fat, so necessary in cooking, has hitherto been supplied in sufficient quanti­
ties by the Food Office. A monthly ration of 175 grams [6.2 ounces] of butter
and margarine per person has been allowed.
Sugar has been assigned at the rate of i kilogram per person monthly.
A midday meal costs the guests from 2 to 2.30 crowns [40.6 to 46.7 cents].
In some kitchens it is as low as 1.50 to 1.80 crowns [30.5 to 36.5 cents].
It is doubtful whether these extraordinarily cheap prices can be maintained.
For purely technical reasons it has hitherto proved impossible to provide
a cheap evening meal. People must regard the hot midday meal as their
principal meal, and content themselves with a cold supper.

The Reichspost,2 in an article on organization for supplying war
kitchens, states that with the increasing difficulty of food supply
for the individual the war-kitchen movement has developed to an
1 Die Zeit. Sept. 19, 1917. Morning edition.
•Reichspost. Vienna, Sept. 30, 1917. Morning edition.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

101

extraordinary extent. But in order to assure and regulate supplies
to war kitchens by the direction of the Government authorities and
the Food Office, a new organization, the Central Union of Communal
and War Kitchens, has been created, which includes all communal
and war kitchens in Vienna and Lower Austria.
As a source of supply for this Central Union, on July 22, 1917,
the Purchasing Department was founded as a limited-liability cor­
poration with a paid-up capital of 100,000 crowns ($20,300) ad­
vanced by the Central Union of Industrial Purchasing and
Economic Associations, after this union had entered into relations
with the Central Union of Communal and War Kitchens. There
is no inducement to make a profit, and any surplus goes to benefit the
consumers.
In Vienna the new Purchasing Department buys for the communal
kitchens; for the banking and industrial undertakings, so far as
they do not belong to the Food Union; for the State employees’
kitchens; for such convents and educational establishments as have
day boarders, and for the officers’ messes, including the war kitchen
in the Vienna arsenal. In Lower Austria it provides for all war
kitchens of rural and town communes; for all convents; for the
kitchen organizations of the Duchess of Parma, with 8,000 persons;
and for those kitchens for war workers which do not belong to the
“ Vita/’1 No less than 120,000 to 150,000 have to be provided for
daily, and this figure will proably be largely increased, as new
kitchens are being set up everywhere in consequence of the good
work done by the Purchasing Department.
The Purchasing Department is also the connecting link between
the individual central offices and the kitchens. While at first every
little kitchen had to send to Schwechat for fiour, to the “ Oezeg ” for
fat and oil, to the u Geos ” for fruit and vegetables, etc., it now gets
everything from the Purchasing Department. The latter provides
the kitchens with fat, cheese, grain products, pulse, potatoes, vege­
tables, groceries, and eggs, which it has stocked in a vast store.
This store, purchased with the funds of the Central Union of Indus­
trial Purchasing and Economic Associations, will after the War
again be useful for commerce as a warehouse for raw material. The
goods stocked here are obtained by the Purchasing Department from
the various central food offices, in quantities strictly limited to the
quota corresponding to the persons catered to by the individual
kitchens. But it also buys freely articles not rationed and carries
1 The “ Vita ” is an association for supplying persons in Lower Austria who are engaged
in war industries with those foodstuffs which are administered by the State, It is
stringently controlled by the governor of Lower Austria and his officials. Factories
belonging to the “ Vita ” are supplied with food solely through it. The “ Vita ” food
cards are nontransferable, and any falsification of them is severely punished. (Neues
Wiener Tagblatt. Vienna, Oct. 9, 1917.)




102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

on a lively trade with the “ Gekawe,” the wholesale purchasing asso­
ciation of Viennese merchants. The Purchasing Department, which
during its short existence has reached a turnover of from two to
three million crowns, is in a position, by its wholesale purchases of
goods, to supply the public kitchens, if not always very cheaply, at
least at reasonable prices. It is claimed that the system effectually
prevents a double supply of rationed articles like flour being obtained
by patrons of the war kitchens. In the first place, fat or flour cou­
pons corresponding to the quantity served in his meal is taken from
each patron, and, secondly, an identification card is supplied by the
Purchasing Department to patrons of public kitchens, in which also
is specified the place where they would otherwise (i. e., if they were
not patronizing a public kitchen) obtain their rationed food articles.
Every fortnight these identification cards are transmitted to the
Grain Clearing House, which in turn provides a correspondingly
smaller quantity of flour to the cooperative societies, municipal flour
supply stalls, and so on, with whom the patrons of the kitchens are
registered, so that the cooperative societies, etc., can have no flour
left over.
The commercial management of the Purchasing Department is car­
ried on by a representative of the Central Union of Industrial Pur­
chasing and Economic Associations, and the .management includes
also representatives of the trading community, the municipality, and
the consumers. The board of control includes representatives of
the governor of Lower Austria, of provincial administrations, and
of the Municipal and War Kitchens Commissary Department. The
Purchasing Department enjoys the active support of country and
town.
The Reichspost1 reports that in an autograph letter to the Arch­
duchess Isabella the Emperor expressed the wish that the War Aid
Bureau should devote its attention to the establishment of war
kitchens on a charitable basis, and in a second letter to the prime
minister, Dr. von Seidler, gave directions that this work be supported
in every possible way by the proper authorities. The War Aid
Bureau of the Ministry of the Interior will publish an appeal for the
requisite funds.
The director of this bureau, Prince von Lichtenstein, gave out the
following information with regard to the work alluded to by the
F mperor:
The W ar Aid Bureau had in the first place the task of caring for the families
of men called to the colors. When, owing to the increase of the separation
allowance and the extension of rationing, the activities of the bureau embraced
the wider circle of those suffering from other causes, it was necessary that
attention should be turned to provisioning, and thanks to the initiative of the
1 Reichspost.




Vienna, Oct. 12, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- AUSTRIA.

103

Archduchess Isabella, it succeeded in establishing war kitchens on a charitable
basis, in which the poor could obtain their principal meals at less than cost
price. The Archduchess collected 560,000 crowns [$113,680], of which 320,000
crowns [$64,960] are still available. So far six war kitchens and two kitchens
for invalids have been established. Now, the Emperor in a letter to the Arch­
duchess has requested her to turn her special attention to this branch of war
relief work, and has directed the Austro-Hungarian Government to support to
the. utmost all efforts in furtherance of this undertaking, and to notify to this
effect all officials concerned.
Two meetings have recently taken place, which were concerned with the
carrying through of the work referred to by the Emperor. At the first meeting
I explained the main lines of action, and stated that a beginning could be
made at once if from the money at the disposal of the district aid bureaus,
the sixth donation of the W a r Aid Bureau, a sum of about 1,800,000 crowns
[$365,400] could be provided, as the W ar Aid Bureau could at once supply from
its reserve a further 500,000 crowns [$101,500]. It was decided to establish
war kitchens where required, and to supply meals in these and existing Gov­
ernment kitchens to the very poor at a price according to their means, below
the cost price. The difference must be paid to the kitchen administration out
of the moneys collected by means of a card or check system, as the Government
war kitchens must be run on business as distinct from philanthropic lines.
Preparations have been made in cooperation with the Food Office.
A further discussion took place at which representatives of every district
stated the local requirements as to war kitchens. It appeared that there was
no desire for a gratuitous supply of meals, which was to be recommended only
in exceptional cases; further, that in most districts it was less a question of
establishing new war kitchens than of favoring a greater number of the poor.
The W ar Aid Bureau will now inaugurate a collection for this work, which
will be announced very shortly.

P R O F IT E E R IN G .
With respect to the general complaints of profiteering the Reichs­
post1 states that from the beginning of October a stricter surveil­
lance of the markets has been observable. Officials appointed for the
purpose mingle with the buying public, control the observance of
maximum prices, and insist that the price of articles offered for sale
shall be plainly marked. The people welcome these measures with
lively satisfaction, and strongly support the officials. Dealers who
fail to comply are prosecuted.

IN F L U E N C E O F T H E F O O D S H O R T A G E U P O N T H E P U B L IC
HEALTH.
Of the scarce data available on this subject some are contained in a
memorandum on the food situation in Prague, drawn up by a special
committee of the Prague city council.* In this memorandum the
1 Reichspost. Vienna, Oct. 10, 1917. Evening edition.
•Prager Tagblatt. Prague, Sept. 11, 1917,




104

.BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

death rate of the general population of Prague is shown for the last
three years (1914 to 1916) to have been 13.1, 15.1, and 15.3 per 1,000
inhabitants. This shows an increase from year to year, that for
1916 as compared with 1914 being equivalent to 16.8 per cent.
Deaths from tuberculosis also show a considerable increase. In 1913
of the total number of deaths, 18.2 per cent were due to tuberculosis;
in 1914, 21.2 per cent; in 1915, 23.3 per cent; and in 1916, 24.5 per
cent.
According to these figures the death rate from tuberculosis increased 34.4
per cent in 1916 as compared with 1913. The memorandum also states that
diarrhea is spreading at an alarming rate in Greater Prague.

Die Gewerkschaft,1 the organ of the Federation of Austrian
Trade-unions, states that while in the years immediately preceding
the War the number of deaths from tuberculosis decreased gradually
in Austria, during the second year of the War there was an enormous
increase in the number of deaths from this cause. In Vienna the
number of deaths from this disease was much greater in 1916 than
10 years ago. In support of this statement the Gewerkschaft quotes
the following figures furnished by the chief of the Vienna Municipal
Health Department:
NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM TUBERCULOSIS IN VIENNA, 1906, AND 1913 TO 1916.
Number of deaths from—
Tuberculosis of all kinds.
Year.

Civilians.

Civilians.

Residents Nonresi­
of Vienna. dents.
1906............................
1913............................
1914............................
1915............................
1916............................

Tuberculosis of the lungs.

7.217
6,123
5,921
6,735
7,386

'210
253
237
279
424

Military
persons.

53
54
65
796
1,841

Total.

7,480
6,430
6,223
7,810
9,651

Residents Nonresi­
of Vienna. dents.
5,426
4,793
4,713
5,372
6,000

152
188
178
223
312

Military
persons.

30
34
49
665
1,530

Total.

5,608
5,015
4,940
6,260
7,842

In commenting on these figures the Gewerkschaft says that not
only are they ample proof of the renewed spreading of this dreadful
disease, which selects its victims particularly among the working
people, but they also show that all measures for combating this
national disease are useless as long as provision is not made for
rational and sufficient nutrition of the population. In view of the
small rations at present allotted to the working population, the
Gewerkschaft predicts a still further spreading of tuberculosis.




1 Pie Gewerkschaft.

Vienna, Oct. 9, 1917*

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- HUNGARY,

105

HUNGARY.

G E N E R A L F O O D S IT U A T IO N .
The general impression produced by reading the Hungarian
papers is that while Hungary as a whole is rather well off in regard
to food, and, indeed, much better off than Austria, the problem of
apportioning between the cities and the country the food available
after military needs have been satisfied has not yet been solved.
The harvest of wheat and corn was a good average harvest. The
potato crop, however, is far inferior to that of last year. During
the current year the free purchase of grain has been prohibited in
Hungary; in Germany and Austria this prohibition has been in
force for nearly three years. The potato crop has been taken over
by the State. Bread and flour rations have been increased lately.
Owing to the extreme shortage of fodder it is proposed to abolish
meatless days. The increasing scarcity of fat will, however, make it
necessary to introduce two fatless days in place of one. The prices
of all foodstuffs continue to rise rapidly.
Because of the difficulty of obtaining Hungarian newspapers only
a few items can be given here as to the situation with respect to
individual foodstuffs.

M A IZ E .
The total maize -crop of Hungary has been taken over by the
State by an order published on September 18, 1917, in the Official
Gazette. The main points of this order are summarized in the
Pester Lloyd1 as follows:
* 1. The total maize crop of 1917 is taken over by the State, including quantities
usually given by way of wages in kind, etc., to laborers. The minister of agri­
culture and the Hungarian State Food Office jointly decide how much maize
an individual producer may retain for his own needs.
2. For purposes of pig fattening a producer may retain, at most, 50 per cent
of his surplus of maize, provided he obtains official permission.
3. It is forbidden to ’ sell maize for industrial purposes. The amount to be
used for this purpose will be decided on by the minister of food in conjunction
with the ministers concerned.
4. The producer may sell his surplus of maize (up to 50 per cent) only to
the W ar Products Company (L td .), or to persons holding a purchase license.
The right to sell expires, however, when official requisitioning begins, and in
any case on October 31, 1917.
5. For the transport of maize or maize products outside the borders of the
commune the usual transport certificate is necessary, unless the maize is re­
moved to a mill under power of a milling license or from one farm to another.
In the latter case a special transport certificate is required. This applies also
to the removal of maize received as wages.
1 Pester Lloyd.




Budapest, Sept. 19, 1917.

Evening edition.

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

6. A t the end of the maize harvest a requisitioning order will be published.
The producer must report his supply and deliver the surplus to the W ar Prod­
ucts Company, in return for cash payment. Any damaged stocks must be re­
ported to the W ar Products Company, which will receive instructions from the
minister of agriculture. I f the maize is not yet harvested, the producer must
gather it in as soon as he is requested to do so by the authorities. H e must
also deliver with every metric centner (220.46 pounds) of maize at least 15
kilograms (38.1 pounds) of corn cobs.
7. Any one who is not a producer himself or whose own crop is insufficient
for his own house and farm use, may, if granted a purchasing license by the
chief presiding judge, or, in towns, by the mayor, buy maize directly from
producers until requisitioning begins or until October 31, 1917.
8. Maize can be received for milling only when accompanied by the usual
official milling certificates.
9. For maize sold according to these regulations, the official maximum prices
must not be exceeded. The maximum prices per 100 kilograms throughout the
country are as follow s:

Ordinary and m ixed maize.
In the ear.
Time of delivery.

Price per
Price per
Price per
Price per
160 kilograms.
bushel
100 kilograms. (70bushel
pounds).
(56 pounds).

September-October, 1917....................................
November, 1917...................................................
December, 1917....................................................
January, 1918.......................................................
February, 1918.....................................................
March, 1918..........................................................
April, 1918............... ...........................................
May, and after, 1918...........................................

Special maize

Shelled.

Crowns.

(Sinquantin, Florentine,

September-October, 1917.....................................
November, 1917................................. .................
December, 1917....................................................
January, 1918.......................................................
February, 1918.....................................................
March, 1918..........................................................
April, 1918............................................................
May, and after, 1918...........................................

Crowns.

34.00
34.90
35.80
36.70
37.60
38.50
39.40
40.30

$2.19
2.25
2.31
2.37
2.42
2.48
2.54
2.60

42.50
43.00
43.50
44.00
44.50
45.00
45.50
46.00

$2.19
2.22
2 24
2.27
2.29
2.32
2.35
2.37

,

P utyi and w hite round m aize).

Growns.

36.10
37.05
38.00
38.95
39.80
40.80
41.80
42.80

$2.33
2.39
2.45
2.51
2.57
2.63
2.70
2.76

Crowns.

45.50
46.00
46.50
47.00
47.50
48.00
48.50
49.00

$2.55
2.37
2.40
2.42
2.45
2.47
2.50
2.53

For the requisitioned corn cobs the following prices per 100 kilograms
[220.46 pounds] will be paid: January, 1918, 8 crowns [$ 1.6 2]; February, 8.5
crowns [$1.73]; March, 9 crowns [$1.83]; April, 9.5 crowns [$ 1.9 3]; May and
after, 10 crowns [$2.03.]
The above order applies to the whole country, and comes into force imme­
diately.

U S E O F G R A IN IN B R E W E R IE S A N D D IS T IL L E R IE S A N D F O R
O T H E R IN D U S T R IA L P U R P O S E S .
The Neue Freie Presse1 reports the publication by the Official
Gazette of an order regulating the amounts of grain and flour to be
1 Neue Freie Presse.




Vienna, Sept. 25, 1917.

Morning edition.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL. EUROPE---- HUNGARY.

107

assigned from this year’s crop to breweries, malt factories, distilleries,
and other industrial concerns which treat grain and flour, in the fiscal
year 1917-18. Breweries in Hungary may keep, or acquire, a total
amount of 240,000 metric centners (26,455 short tons) of barley for
brewing purposes. The quantity of malt to be used in breweries is
settled by agreement between the minister of commerce and finance
and the food minister. Independent malt factories (i. e., not form­
ing part of a brewery) may keep or acquire a total amount of 160,000
metric centners (17,637 short tons) of barley. The distribution of
the barley to the individual breweries and malt factories will be
superintended by the Ministry of Public Works or by the Minister
of Commerce on the basis of the malt extract contained in the beer
of 1913-14 or of the malt produced during that year. An allowance
of 10,000 metric centners (1,102 short tons) of rye and 200,000 metric
centners (22,046 short tons) of barley will be made to the distilleries.
Rye and barley will, however, be given only to those distilleries
which produce corn-pressed yeast. Nonyeast-producing distilleries
are allowed half the quantity of barley used by them in the year
1913-14. Distilleries founded later than 1913-14 may reserve or ac­
quire 30 kilograms (66.14 pounds) of barley for each hectoliter
(26.42 gallons) of alcohol, if they work with materials rich in starch;
if with materials rich in sugar, a maximum of 15 kilograms (33.07
pounds) of barley per hectoliter of alcohol.
The quantity of spirit to be produced and the conditions of its
production are settled by the food minister in agreement with the
minister of finance. The internal revenue offices .(Fma/mdirehtionen) are intrusted with the task of distributing the barley among
the distilleries. The food minister will from time to time issue per­
mits stating what quantities of barley may be used by the War Prod­
ucts Company for producing malt coffee, barley coffee, and surrogate
coffee, and what may be used for pearl barley. Starch factories may
procure 20,000 metric centners (2,204.6 short tons) of corn through
the War Products Company, to be treated in accordance with the
food minister’s regulations. Biscuit and rusk factories may obtain
permission from the food minister to procure flour through the War
Products Company from time to time. The same applies to “ Tarhonya” and flour-food factories. Bread factories, confectioners,
hotels, and restaurants, and other concerns which use grain and
flour will be supplied by the municipalities.

F L O U R A N D B R E A D R A T IO N S .
According to the Neues Pester Journal1 the flour ration per person
per diem for Budapest will be increased beginning with October 7,




1 Neues Pester Journal.

Budapest, Sept. 16, 1917.

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1 9 1 7 , t o 2 8 0 g r a m s ( 9 .9 o u n c e s ) , a n i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t 8 0 g r a m s ( 2 . 8
o u n c e s ).
H e a v y w o r k e r s w il l r e c e iv e s p e c ia l c a r d s a l lo w i n g th e m
5 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .1 p o u n d s ) o f f l o u r o r 7 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .5 p o u n d s ) o f b r e a d .
S p e c ia l c a r d s a re a ls o p r o v id e d f o r r e g u la r n ig h t w o r k e r s ( in a d d i ­
tio n to th e ir o r d in a r y c a r d s ) , e n t itlin g th e m to a n a d d it io n a l a l­
l o w a n c e o f 8 4 0 g r a m s ( 1 .9 p o u n d s ) o f f l o u r o r 1 ,1 7 0 g r a m s ( 2 .6
p o u n d s ) o f b r e a d p e r w e e k ; a n d t h e r e a re a ls o s p e c ia l c a r d s f o r
p r e g n a n t a n d c o n fin e d w o m e n a n d n u r s in g m o th e r s .
T h e c a rd s is ­
su e d t o p r o s p e c t iv e m o th e r s a u th o r iz e t h e m t o r e c e iv e 2 0 p e r c e n t
m o r e th a n th e n o r m a l r a t io n o f a ll fo o d s t u ffs , b e g in n in g w it h th e
s ix th m o n th o f p r e g n a n c y a n d e x te n d in g f o r tw o m o n th s a fte r d e ­
liv e r y , o r s ix m o n th s i f th e m o th e r n u rse s h e r c h ild h e r s e lf.
H o tel
d a y c a r d s e n t i t l e t o 3 5 0 g r a m s ( 1 2 .3 o u n c e s ) o f b r e a d .
I t is n o w p o s s i b l e f o r t h o s e w h o h o l d t h e p r e s e n t f l o u r c a r d s ( v a l i d
f o r 4 w e e k s ) t o d r a w th e w h o le o f t h e ir a llo w a n c e f o r 4 w e e k s in
o n e q u a n tity , w h ic h eases th e s itu a tio n c o n s id e r a b ly .
F lo u r ca rd s
w ill b e d is t r ib u t e d a w e e k b e f o r e t h e y c o m e in t o f o r c e , s o t h a t flo u r
c a n b e o r d e r e d in a d v a n c e . S o m e r e s ta u ra n ts h a v e b e e n u s in g flo u r
c a r d s t o g e t flo u r f o r c a k e s , e tc. T h i s p r a c t ic e w i l l b e s t o p p e d b y
th e m u n ic ip a l f o o d a d m in is t r a t io n .
POTATOES.

A n o r d e r p r o v id i n g f o r th e t a k in g o v e r b y th e S t a t e o f th e w h o le
p o t a t o c r o p is s u m m a r i z e d b y t h e N e u e s P e s t e r J o u r n a l 1 a s f o l l o w s :
1. The whole potato crop of 1917 is taken over by the State. The producer
must dig his potatoes at the right time, neither too soon nor too late.
2. The amount of potatoes which the producer may keep for home or farm
use is determined by the food minister or, with the food minister’s permission,
by the first officer of the municipality. All potato fields are to be registered.
Every owner of a Katastraljoch (one and two-fifths acres) of potato-sown
ground must register the amount of potatoes grown and his home and farm
needs, by September 1, 1917.
3. A nonproducer of potatoes may buy potatoes fop domestic use (in accord­
ance with the per capita quota prescribed by the food minister) in any com­
mune upon license from the mayor.
4. The food minister may commandeer potatoes in excess of the domestic
requirements of the producer. These potatoes are to be delivered to the
State Potato Office. If the producer is not willing to give them gratis, a price
20 per cent below the maximum price will be paid.
5. The use of potatoes in factories, distilleries, etc., is allowed only on
special permission of the food minister, who fixes maximum prices for products
made from potatoes, with the exception of spirit and starch.
6. Certain classes of the population—widows, orphans, poor invalids, fami­
lies in receipt of military pensions, charitable institutions, etc.—may obtain
potatoes at reduced prices from the State Potato Office through the local
authorities.




1 Neues Pester Journal.

Budapest, Sept. 11, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- HUNGARY.

109

T h e S t a t e c o n t r o l o f p o t a t o e s is b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t v i g o r o u s l y i n
H u n g a r y . A B u d a p e s t te le g r a m t o th e N e u e F r e ie P r e s s e 1 s a y s :
The food minister has addressed a circular to all municipalities requiring
the chief officials to keep the interests of the country in mind when fixing the
amount of potatoes which may be kept by producers for home and business
needs. Producers are warned that they must voluntarily inform the authori­
ties of their surplus and place it at the disposal of the State; otherwise it
will be requisitioned. The information given by growers as to their surplusses
must be strictly checked up.

T h e p o t a t o s u p p ly o f B u d a p e s t seem s t o c a u se c o n s id e r a b le d is ­
c u s s io n .
I n H u n g a r y , as in A u s t r ia , a la r g e s e c tio n o f th e p u b lic d e ­
s ir e s th e r e s t o r a t io n o f u n r e s t r ic t e d t r a d e in p o t a t o e s , a s u g g e s t io n
w h ic h is s t r e n u o u s ly r e s is te d b y th e S t a t e f o o d a u t h o r it ie s .
T he fo l­
l o w i n g o ff ic ia l i n f o r m a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d b y t h e N e u e s P e s t e r J o u r n a l , 2
is o f in t e r e s t :
The Hungarian State Pood Office has taken all possible measures to insure a
supply of potatoes for the capital. Budapest will receive the portion of the
potato crop allotted to it. In spite of this, however, the capital has several
times expressed a wish for the right of direct purchase of potatoes. The capital
refers, in support of this claim, to the system of last year, which was based
upon direct purchase from the producers, who stored the potatoes during the
winter and withdrew them from storage as needed. This system has been pre­
served in the last potato order, by the fixing of premiums for the storing of
potatoes. No anxiety need be felt as to whether the Potato Company will have
sufficient supplies at its disposal early next year. The State Food Office is
quite resolved to insure the necessary quantities of potatoes for the capital as
one of its primary duties. Consequently, it would not be of any use to arouse
hopes (by means of communications to the press) in the breasts of producers
that the capital, or any other place, will introduce a policy of private purchase
of potatoes. Policies of this kind produce a competition which is not favorable
to a continuous and systematic supply of the necessary potatoes. Whether the
capital will get 15,000 wagonloads of potatoes, or, indeed, what quantity will
be assigned to it, can not be settled yet. It is the business of the municipal
authorities of Budapest to see that persons who have obtained permission for
private purchase do not obtain supplies from official sources as well; and also
that officials and workmen of the munitions industry, whose needs are being
provided separately, do not get a double official supply—for otherwise 15,000
wagonloads would not suffice for Budapest. The State Food Office assumes
complete responsibility for seeing that everyone who participates in the official
supply receive a quota corresponding to this year’s reduced crop.
It will be more easy to carry this through, inasmuch as the potato contracts,
which the capital had concluded before the publication of the potato order, are
to be respected, in the sense prescribed by this order.

T o t h is m a y b e a d d e d th e f o l l o w i n g s ta te m e n t in t h e P e s t e r L l o y d : 3
Some newspapers have recently printed a report that the capital is now
selling its last stores of potatoes. This is contradicted by the Hungarian State
Food Office, which states that 121 truck loads of potatoes are on the way, most
1 Neue Freie Presse. Vienna, Sept. 21, 1917. Evening edition.
* Neues Pester Journal. Budapest, Sept. 16, 1917.
• Pester Lloyd. Budapest, Sept. 18, 1917. Morning edition.




110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of which will arrive during the course of this week. Further supplies can be
considered as assured. The rumor alluded to is probably traceable to the
fact that the unloading of potatoes from the trucks at the central market had
to be suspended recently for a few days owing to the congestion caused thereby.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

T h e s u p p l y o f v e g e t a b l e s is n o t v e r y g o o d t h i s y e a r , a c c o r d i n g t o
th e N e u e s P e s t e r J o u r n a l.1 P a r t i c u la r l y a r e g r e e n v e g e t a b le s a n d
o n io n s s c a rc e , a n d m e a su re s m u s t b e ta k e n t o in s u r e a b e tte r s u p p ly .
I t is i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y a t p r e s e n t h o w m u c h o f t h e t o t a l a v a i l a b l e
s u p p ly w il l b e a s s ig n e d t o B u d a p e s t .
S u p p lie s in th e B u d a p e s t
fr u it m a rk e t a re r e p o r te d as a b u n d a n t.
M a x im u m p r ic e s h a v e b e e n fix e d f o r th e B u d a p e s t m a r k e ts n o t
o n l y f o r v e g e t a b le s b u t a ls o f o r f r u i t , e x c e p t p e a c h e s , a p r ic o t s , a n d
g r a p e s . T h e p r ic e s o f v e g e t a b le s in t h e fir s t w e e k o f A u g u s t w e r e :
Crowns per
kilogram.

Potatoes____________________________________
Cabbage_____________________________________
Onions______________________________________
Fresh beans_________________________________
Tomatoes___________________________________
Vegetable marrows__________________________
Cucumbers__________________________________

0. 60
.86
1. 30
1. 20
1. 20
.64
.50

Cents per
pound.

5. 5
7.9
12.0
11.1
11.1
5.9
4.6

SUGAR.

T h e s u p p l y w i l l b e le s s t h a n l a s t y e a r . T h i s i s d u e p a r t l y t o t h e
s c a r c i t y o f c o a l f o r t h e r e f in e r ie s , a n d p a r t l y t o t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f t h e
beet crop .
MEAT, BUTTER, AND FATS.

A z E s t 2 r e p o r t s t h a t o w i n g t o th e e x tr e m e s h o r t a g e o f f o d d e r it
i s p r o p o s e d t o p u t a n e n d t o m e a t le s s d a y s i n H u n g a r y . I t i s s t a t e d
t h a t t h e n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h is w i l l b e m o r e m e a t o n t h e m a r k e t
a n d a r e d u c t io n in th e p r ic e o f t h a t c o m m o d it y .
T h e paper adds
t h a t t h i s a g r e e a b le n e w s i s s o m e w h a t c o u n t e r a c t e d b y t h e r e p o r t t h a t
o w in g t o th e g r e a t s c a r c it y o f f a t t w o fa tle s s d a y s in s te a d o f o n e
w ill h a v e t o b e o b s e r v e d in fu tu r e .
T h e m u n ic ip a lit y o f B u d a p e s t h a d t o c lo s e d o w n its p i g fa r m ,
o w in g to th e sh o rta g e o f fo d d e r .
T h e p ig s a re t o b e s la u g h t e r e d
in b a tc h e s u n t il O c t o b e r 15. F r o m O c t o b e r 15 u n t il t h e e n d o f D e ­
c e m b e r th e m u n ic ip a lit y w ill h a v e o n ly th e fa t s a s s ig n e d t o it b y th e
F o o d O ffic e . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d m a r g a r i n e w i l l l a r g e l y b e b r o u g h t




1 Neues Pester Journal. Budapest, Sept. 16, 1917.
8 Az Est. Budapest, Sept. 4, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- HUNGARY.

i n t o u se in s te a d o f d r ip p in g .
o n th e p r o d u c t io n o f c a r d s .1

I ll

H e n c e fo r th b u tte r w ill b e s o ld o n ly

EGGS.

T h e s u p p l y o f e g g s i s t o b e r e o r g a n i z e d . A n E g g S a l e O f fi c e i s t o
b e in s t it u t e d in o r d e r t o k e e p a r e c o r d o f t h e e g g s itu a tio n .
C on­
t r o l l e d b y t h e o ff ic e , t h e r e w i l l b e a n E g g S a l e C o m p a n y t o d i s t r i b u t e
th e e g g s . T h e c o m p a n y h e n c e fo r w a r d w ill b e th e o n ly le g a l w h o le ­
s a le b u y e r o f eg g s*2
MILK.

T h e m i l k s u p p l y o f B u d a p e s t i s s m a l l , a m o u n t i n g t o o n l y 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 .
l i t e r s (1 2 6 ,8 4 0 q u a r t s ) p e r d a y , w h i c h i s n o w h e r e n e a r e n o u g h . I n
S e p t e m b e r l a s t y e a r t h e d a i l y s u p p l y w a s 1 6 9 ,0 0 0 l i t e r s (1 7 8 ,6 3 3
q u a r t s ) . T o s t im u la t e p r o d u c t i o n , c a r d s w il l b e is s u e d t o d a ir y m e n
f o r f o d d e r f o r m ilc h c o w s . T h e m ilk a llo w a n c e f o r in fa n t s w ill b e
k e p t a t t h e p r e s e n t le v e l u n d e r a ll c ir c u m s t a n c e s .3
REGULATION OF HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, ETC.

T h e N eu es P e s te r J o u r n a l4 r e p o r ts th a t in o r d e r to p r e v e n t p r o ­
p r i e t o r s o f h o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , c a f e s , e t c ., f r o m f l e e c i n g t h e p u b l i c
b y e x c e s s i v e c h a r g e s , t h e p r i c e s o f t h e o b l i g a t o r y m e n u s w i l l b e o ff i­
c ia lly fix e d b y th e p r ic e -c o n t r o l c o m m is s io n s , o n w h ic h th e g e n e r a l
p u b lic w il l b e r e p r e s e n te d . T h e q u a n titie s o f f o o d t o b e s u p p lie d w ill
b e f i x e d a t t h e s a m e t i m e . H o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , e t e ., w i l l b e s u p p l i e d
w i t h t h e i r u n c o o k e d m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y b y t h e S t a t e F o o d O ffic e , s o
t h a t th e u se o f f o o d in su ch e a tin g p la c e s m a y b e s t r ic t ly c o n t r o lle d .
T h e m a x im u m p r ic e s o f f o o d a n d d r in k w il l b e o ffic ia lly fix e d o n th e
b a s is o f t h e m a x im u m p r ic e s o f t h e r a w m a t e r ia l.
MISCELLANEOUS RECENT FOOD ORDERS.

T h e D e u ts c h e s V o lk s b la tt,* u n d e r d a te o f O c t o b e r 1, 1917, is i n ­
fo r m e d b y its B u d a p e s t c o r r e s p o n d e n t th a t a t th e la s t c o u n c il o f
m in is t e r s n o t e w a s t a k e n o f th e in fo r m a t io n s u p p lie d b y th e f o o d
m in is t e r , C o u n t H a d ik , w it h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a d e in l iv e a n d d e a d
g a m e , a n d th a t p r ic e s w e r e fix e d . C o n s e q u e n tly th e e x p o r t o f g a m e
w i l l b e r e g u l a t e d b y t h e F o o d O f fic e o n a u n i f o r m b a s i s . T h e c o u n c i l
a l s o r a t i f i e d t h e p r o p o s e d r e d u c t i o n i n m e a t le s s d a y s a n d t h e i n c r e a s e
i n f a t l e s s d a y s . F r i d a y w i l l b e t h e o n l y m e a t le s s d a y h e n c e f o r w a r d ,
1 Neues Pester Journal. Budapest, Sept. 16, 1917.
• Ibid.
» Ibid.
4 Ibid.
* Deutsches Volksblatt. Vienna, Oct. 2, 1917. Morning edition.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

a n d F r i d a y , a s w e ll a s M o n d a y , w ill b e a fa t le s s d a y . F o r th e s a le
o f f o r e i g n ch ee se, as w e ll as f o r s h ip m e n t o f m ilk p r o d u c t s , t r a n s p o r t
c e r tific a te s w e r e m a d e o b lig a t o r y . T h e c o u n c il a ls o a c c e p t e d a p r o ­
p o s a l o f th e f o o d m in is t e r t o p r o h ib it th e fe e d in g o f s t o c k w it h m ilk .
C h a n g e s w e r e m a d e in th e o r d in a n c e s r e la tin g to th e t r a n s p o r t o f
f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b le s .
B e c a u s e o f th e g r o s s ab u ses th a t h a v e b ee n
p r e v a le n t r e c e n t ly in th e t r a n s p o r t o f b a c o n , f a t , a n d s la u g h t e r e d
p ig s , t r a n s p o r t c e r t ific a t e s w e r e d e c la r e d o b l i g a t o r y f o r th e s e a r t ic le s
a ls o . F u r t h e r , a n o r d e r r e g u l a t i n g t h e s a le a n d f i x i n g t h e p r i c e o f
m a lt c o ffe e w a s a g r e e d u p o n .
A f t e r c a r e fu l p r e p a r a t io n a n d c o n ­
s id e r a t io n a n o r d e r r e la t in g t o m id d le m e n ’s a c t iv it ie s w a s c o m p le t e d .
FOOD PRICES.

T h e H u n g a r ia n s o c ia lis t p a p e r N e p s z a v a sta tes th a t a c c o r d in g t o
th e L a b o r G a z e t t e o f J u ly , 1 9 1 7 , s in c e J u ly , 1 9 1 4 , f o o d p r ic e s in
E n g l a n d h a v e r is e n a s f o l l o w s c o m p a r e d t o th e p r ic e s in H u n g a r y :
P E R CEN T OF IN CR E ASE IN PR ICE S OF SPE C IFIE D A R T IC L E S, JUNE, 1917, O V E R JU LY,
1914, IN E N G L A N D A N D IN H U N G A R Y .

Per cent of increase,
June, 1917, over July,
1914.
Article.
In
England.

In
Hungary.

96
76
109
188
60
65
95
144

700
350
64
65
180
200
200
115

Beef, ribs.................................................
B acon.......................................................
Flour........................................................
Sugar........................................................
M ilk..........................................................
Butter......................................................
E ggs..........................................................
Potatoes...................................................

A c c o r d in g t o th e a b o v e fig u r e s th e p r ic e o f flo u r , s u g a r , a n d p o t a ­
t o e s h a s r is e n m o r e i n E n g l a n d t h a n i n H u n g a r y , w h e r e a s t h e i n ­
cre a s e in b e e f, b a c o n , m ilk , b u tte r , a n d e g g s h a s b e e n in c o m p a r a b ly
g r e a t e r in H u n g a r y .
B U L G A R IA .
GENERAL FOOD SITUATION.

D u r in g th e e a r ly su m m e r o f 1917 th e B u lg a r ia n p u b lic w e r e r e ­
g a l e d w i t h o f f ic ia l, s e m io f f i c i a l , a n d p r i v a t e r e p o r t s o f t h e e x c e l l e n t
p r o s p e c t s f o r t h is y e a r ’s h a r v e s t.
A u t h o r it a t iv e r e p o r t s o f a la te r
d a te , h o w e v e r , p u t a v e r y d iffe r e n t c o m p le x io n o n th e m a tte r .
On
t h e w h o le , i t a p p e a r s th a t th e c e r e a l c r o p s w il l n o t a p p r e c ia b ly e x c e e d
t h o s e o f l a s t . y e a r ( a p o o r h a r v e s t y e a r ) a n d t h a t s o m e o f t h e le s s




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— BULGARIA.

113

im p o r ta n t c r o p s a re p o o r , th o u g h o th e rs , lik e fr u it , a re g o o d , o r
e v e n e x c e lle n t .
T h e r e is a m e a t s h o r t a g e , s a id , h o w e v e r , t o b e d u e
t o la c k o f tr a n s p o r t a t io n fa c ilit ie s r a th e r th a n t o a s h o r ta g e o f liv e
s to c k (th o u g h th e la tte r h a v e d e cre a se d in n u m b e r ).
M e a t is n o w
r a tio n e d in B u lg a r ia a n d th e s la u g h te r in g o f p ig s h a s b e e n fo r b id d e n
u p t o D e c e m b e r 10, 1917. A r r a n g e m e n ts , w h ic h seem to be w o r k in g
v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , h a v e b e e n m a d e t o i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p l y o f fis h .
S p e c ia l e ff o r t s a r e b e in g m a d e t o in c r e a s e th e o u t p u t o f o ils b y e x ­
t r a c t io n f r o m se e d s , f r u i t k e r n e ls , e tc . T h e s h o r t a g e in t h e s a lt
s u p p ly h a s la te ly b e e n r e m e d ie d t h r o u g h h e a v y im p o r ts .
A p ra c­
t ic a b le s c h e m e f o r r e q u is it io n in g c e r e a ls a n d flo u r w a s i n t r o d u c e d a t
t h e e n d o f S e p t e m b e r a n d p r ic e s w e r e fix e d f o r th e r e q u is it io n e d
goods.
T h e s e p r ic e s a re c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r th a n th o s e fix e d in th e
e a r ly p a r t o f th e su m m e r, p r o b a b ly o w in g t o th e in fe r io r y ie ld .
The
p r i c e o f b r e a d h a s b e e n r a is e d a t S o fia , t h e c a p it a l, w h e r e m ilk a n d
b u t t e r p r ic e s h a v e a ls o b e e n fix e d .
B u lg a r ia b e in g a p r e d o m in a n t ly a g r ic u ltu r a l c o u n t r y , th e f o o d
s it u a t io n in t h e c o u n t r y a t la r g e is b y n o m e a n s a c u te . I n t h e c a p i ­
t a l, h o w e v e r , w h e r e o f la te t h e p o p u la t io n h a s in c r e a s e d c o n s id e r a b ly ,
th e p r o b le m o f e q u it a b le f o o d d is t r ib u t io n h a s b e e n r e n d e r e d m o r e
d iffic u lt , a n d p e r s o n s w h o h a v e n o d e fin it e o b j e c t t h e r e a r e c a lle d o n
t o le a v e th e c ity . •
CONDITION OF THE HARVEST.

T h e E c h o d e B u l g a r i e 1 p u b lis h e s th e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t o f th e C e n ­
t r a l M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S t a t io n a t S o fia o n t h e a g r ic u lt u r a l c o n d it io n s
p r e v a ilin g d u r in g J u ly , 1 9 1 7 :
The temperature was temperate, while the rainfall was 40 per cent under
normal. There were a few violent storms which have caused some damage in a
number of districts.
The harvesting has been completed successfully in the plains and is continu­
ing in the mountain districts. The weather has been very favorable to the
transport of the harvested grain and to the threshing operations, which are
in full swing in most parts. Owing to the difficulties arising from the present
situation it has been impossible to obtain precise information permitting an
estimate of the harvest. If one may judge by the occasional reports, the
autumn-sown crops are generally better than the spring sowings, both in
quality and in quantity, and that, as a whole, the supply of wheat, rye, barley,
oats, and lucerne actually in sheaves, is from a certain point of view less
abundant than last year, but the grain is everywhere purer, heavier, and with
more substance.
Maize is developing in very good condition generally, and along the low­
lands and along streams it is in a very good, almost excellent state. Toward
the end of the month the need of rain was everywhere felt, especially in the
1 Echo de Bulgarie.

45499°—18—Bull. 242------8




Sofia» Aug. 24, 1917.

114

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

case of late-sown maize. This crop had even suffered from the drought In some
places. Millet, especially late sown, is very sparse, and has not developed.
This year will not be noted by an abundance of beans, but it seems that they
will be more abundant than last year. Potatoes are generally good. Early
potatoes are small in size.
Rice fields have suffered hardly at all from drought and promise a very
good crop. The conditions prevailing during the month were favorable to the
sugar beets. The condition of vegetable gardens is everywhere satisfactory,
and in some places excellent.
Vineyards have in some few cases suffered from hail and mildew. But
generally the vines have not been affected, and promise a rich vintage. In
the district of Negotin grapes began to ripen toward the middle of the month.
Plum, apple, peach, and walnut trees have yielded fruit in plenty in most of
the fruit-producing centers. Olive trees and fig trees also promise an equally
rich yield.
The weather has favored haymaking. Hay is in general of a better quality,
but less abundant than last year. Pasture for cattle, and especially for sheep,
has been fairly abundant. Sheep have yielded milk in fairly large quantities.
Among cattle diseases cowpox was the one most frequently met. Bees have
not everywhere found sufficient food, and this has resulted in a diminution in
the production of honey.

A c c o r d i n g t o th e U t r o ,1 in a d d it io n t o t h e r ic e fie ld s a t o t a l a r e a o f
2 ,1 2 5 h e c t a r e s ( 5 ,2 5 0 .8 8 a c r e s ) h a s b e e n i r r i g a t e d t h i s y e a r i n s o u t h ­
e r n B u l g a r i a ; 5 5 5 h e c t a r e s ( 1 ,3 7 1 .4 a c r e s ) w e r e s o w n w i t h v e g e ­
t a b l e s , 1 ,0 5 0 h e c t a r e s ( 2 ,5 9 4 .6 a c r e s ) w i t h t o b a c c o a n d f o d d e r , a n d
5 2 0 h e c t a r e s ( 1 ,2 8 4 .9 a c r e s ) w i t h b e a n s . T h e s t a t e o f a l l t h e s e c r o p s
is d e s c r ib e d a s e x c e lle n t .
GRAIN AND FLOUR.

T h e M i r 2 r e p o r t s t h a t t h e t r a n s p o r t o f c e r e a ls , f l o u r , a n d b r a n
h a s b e e n p r o h ib it e d .
C a rts a n d h orses e m p lo y e d f o r su ch tra n s­
p o r t w ill b e r e q u is it io n e d a n d t h e ir o w n e r s p r o s e c u t e d .
T h e sam e p a p e r r e p o r ts u n d e r d a te o f O c to b e r 10, th a t th e f o l ­
l o w in g in s t r u c t io n s h a v e b e e n is s u e d b y th e F o o d B u r e a u f o r th e
r e q u i s i t i o n i n g o f c e r e a ls , f l o u r , e t c . :
T h e s u r p lu s f r o m e v e r y a g r ic u lt u r a l e s t a b lis h m e n t is t o b e r e ­
q u is it io n e d . F r o m t h is s u r p lu s th e r e q u is it e a m o u n t o f f o o d f o r th e
v illa g e in w h ic h th e fa r m s a r e s itu a te d is t o b e p r o v id e d .
F rom
th e s u r p lu s th e n r e m a in in g th e f o o d s u p p ly o f th e m u n ic ip a lit y a n d
th e n o f th e d is t r ic t is t o b e s e c u re d . W h a t r e m a in s a b o v e th e r e ­
q u ir e m e n t s o f e a c h d is t r ic t w il l b e u s e d in s u p p l y i n g t h e D e p a r t ­
m e n t a n d th e p o p u la t io n o f o th e r D e p a rtm e n ts w h ic h h a v e a s h o r t­
age.
T h e f o l l o w i n g p r ic e s w e r e fix e d f o r r e q u is it io n e d c e r e a ls a n d
flo u r :
MJtro.




Sofia, Aug. 16, 1917,

•Mir.

Sofia, Sept 28, 1917.

POOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUHtOPE— BULGARIA.
Francs per
100 kilograms.

Wheat, containing not more than 2 per cent
of impurities and weighing 78 kilograms
per hectoliter (60.6 pounds per bushel)_50
Rye, containing not more than 2 per cent
of impurities and weighing 70 kilograms
per hectoliter (54.5 pounds per bushel)_40
Barley-------------------------- 1
_________________ _40
Oats_____________________________________ _38
_
Millet________________________________ __ _35
Maize (shelled)__________________________ _35
B ra n ____________________________________ _25

115

Per bushel.

$2.63

1.96
1. 68
1. 06
1. 53
1.72
.44
Per 100 pounds.

Corn cockle______________________________ _15

$1. 32
Per pound (cents).

Flour,
Flour,
Flour,
Flour,
Flour,

wheat_____________________________ _60
rye_______________________________ _51
maize_____________________________ _41
barley_j._____________ ______________55
millet_____________________________ _47

5.3
4. 5
3. 6
4. 8
4.1

T h e a b o v e p r ic e s a r e f o r d e liv e r y a t th e v illa g e s . A l l c e r e a ls r e ­
q u is itio n e d s in c e J u n e 10, 1917, w ill b e p a id f o r a t th e a b o v e p r ic e s ,
w h ic h r e p r e s e n t a m a r k e d in c re a s e o v e r p r ic e s fo r m e r ly fix e d ,
a m o u n t in g in so m e ca ses t o 25 p e r cen t.
T h e r e t a i l p r i c e o f t h e b e s t q u a l i t y o f f l o u r h a s b e e n f i x e d a t 1 .5 0
f r a n c s p e r k i l o g r a m ( 1 3 .2 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) . 1
FODDER RATIONS.

F o r th e liv e s t o c k o f in d iv id u a l fa r m e r s , c a r r ie r s , a n d in d u s t r ia l
e s t a b lis h m e n t s th e f o l l o w i n g r a t io n s h a v e b e e n f i x e d : 2
F o r e a c h h o r s e , p e r d a y , 2 k ilo g r a m s (4 .4 p o u n d s ) o f b r a n , o r , in
t h e la s t r e s o u r c e , g r a in f o d d e r , a n d 4 k ilo g r a m s (8 .8 p o u n d s ) o f h a y
o r stra w .
F o r h o r n e d c a ttle , p e r h e a d p e r d a y , 2 k ilo g r a m s o f b r a n , o r , in
th e la s t r e s o u r c e , g r a in f o d d e r , a n d 6 k ilo g r a m s (1 3 .2 p o u n d s ) o f
h a y o r stra w .
T h e s e r a t io n s o f b r a n a n d g r a in f o d d e r d o n o t r e f e r t o c a t tle o n
d a i r y f a r m s o r i n c a t t l e - b r e e d i n g e s t a b li s h m e n t s , t o w h i c h 9 0 0 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 1 ,9 8 4 p o u n d s ) o f b r a n o r g r a i n f o d d e r w i l l b e a l l o t t e d p e r
h ead p er year.
BREAD.

R e g a r d i n g th e i n f e r i o r q u a lit y o f b r e a d d u r in g th e fir s t h a l f o f
1917 th e N a r o d n i P r a v a 3 p u b lis h e d th e fo llo w in g n o t ific a t io n :




1 Utro. Sofla^ Aug. 24, 1917.
* Idem. July 28, 1917.
8 Narodni Prava. Sofia, July 20, 1917.

116

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS,

Complaints arising from the poor quality of bread have lately increased.
The Food Bureau is thus obliged once more to declare that the causes can be
removed only when the new crop becomes available. The quality of the bread
will be improved as s©on as the threshing begins. The Food Bureau is taking
every possible measure to insure bread of good quality, both to l;he army and
to the civil population, and in sufficient quantity for the whole of the coming
year.

T h e E c h o d e B u lg a r i e 1 a n n o u n c e s th a t fr o m A u g u s t 1, 1917, u n i­
fo r m b r e a d w ill b e p r e p a r e d in B u lg a r ia .
T h e flo u r u sed w ill c o n ­
ta in 80 p e r c e n t o f w h e a t a n d 2 0 p e r c e n t o f m a iz e .
B r e a d w ill be
m a d e in lo a v e s o f 1 k i lo g r a m (2 .2 p o u n d s ) e a c h .
T h e d a ily b r e a d
r a t i o n w i l l b e 5 0 0 g r a m s ( 1 .1 p o u n d s ) .
H e a v y w o r k e r s w il l r e c e iv e
a r a t io n o f 8 0 0 g r a m s (1 .8 p o u n d s ) .
F a m ilie s d e s ir in g to b a k e th e ir
o w n b r e a d w ill r e c e iv e flo u r f r o m th e r e g io n a l c o m m itte e s .
The
a m o u n t o f f l o u r a l l o t t e d m a y , h o w e v e r , n o t e x c e e d a f a m i l y ’s r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts f o r 3 m o n th s.
F o r th e p r e s e n t o n ly w h e a t flo u r w ill b e p r o ­
v id e d t o fa m ilie s , th e r e g io n a l c o m m itte e s n o t h a v in g m a iz e flo u r a t
t h e ir d is p o s a l.
A c c o r d in g t o th e U t r o ,2 e x p e r im e n ts h a v e b e e n c a r r ie d o n b y
m ix in g w h e a t flo u r w it h m ille t f o r b r e a d m a k in g .
V e ry g o o d re­
s u lt s w e r e o b t a in e d , t h e b r e a d b e c o m in g s w e e te r a n d m o r e p a la t a b le .
U n d e r d a te o f O c t o b e r 1 3 ,1 9 1 7 , t h e M i r 8 s ta te d t h a t f r o m O c t o b e r
1 4 th e p r ic e o f b r e a d w a s t o b e in c r e a s e d f r o m 60 t o 7 0 c e n tim e s p e r
k i l o g r a m ( 5 .3 t o 6 .1 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) .
LIVE STOCK AND MEAT.

A c c o r d in g t6 th e B a lk a n s k a P o s t a 4 th e B u lg a r ia n m in is te r o f a g ­
r ic u lt u r e d e c la r e d t h a t th e n u m b e r o f d o m e s tic a n im a ls h a d d e c r e a s e d
d u r i n g t h e W a r b u t t h a t a s u ffic ie n t m e a t s u p p l y w a s n e v e r t h e le s s a s­
su red.
T h e r e a r e 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 s h e e p i n t h e c o u n t r y , g i v i n g 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
la m b s a y e a r.
R e c k o n in g th e a v e r a g e w e ig h t o f a la m b a t 12 k i lo ­
g r a m s ( 2 6 .5 p o u n d s ) t h i s w o u l d y i e l d 6 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 6 6 ,1 3 8
s h o r t to n s ) o f m e a t f o r c o n s u m p tio n .
H e sta ted th a t th e p re s e n t
la c k o f m e a t w a s d u e t o th e b a d tr a n s p o r t c o n d it io n s b r o u g h t a b o u t
b y s h o r ta g e o f la b o r .
T h e M i r 5 a n n o u n c e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e t a il p r ic e s f o r t h e s a le o f
la m b m e a t in S o fia , t o c o m e in t o f o r c e b e g in n in g w it h A u g u s t 2 ,
1 9 1 7 : L a m b o r k i d , 3 .3 0 f r a n c s p e r k i l o g r a m
(2 8 .9 c e n t s p e r
p o u n d ) ; h e a d o f l a m b o r k i d , 1 f r a n c ( 1 9 .3 c e n t s ) e a c h ; l i v e r o f l a m b
o r k i d , 2 f r a n c s ( 3 8 .6 c e n t s ) e a c h .
1 Echo de Bulgarie. Sofia, Aug. 1, 1917.
* Utro. Sofia, July 21, 1917.
•Mir. Sofia, Oct. 13, 1917.




4 Baikansba Posta.
J u ly 17, 1917.
*Mir. Sofia, July 21, 1&17.

POOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— BULGARIA.

117

G n A u g u s t 22, 1917, th e E c h o d e B u lg a r ie 1 a n n o u n ced th a t n o
m e a t w o u ld b e s o ld u n til A u g u s t 28 (A s s u m p t io n D a y ) .
T h e N a r o d n i P r a v a ,2 u n d e r d a te o f S e p te m b e r 6, a n n o u n c e d p r o ­
h ib it io n o f th e s la u g h te r o f p ig s u p to D e c e m b e r 10, 1917.
A c­
c o r d i n g t o t h e s a m e p a p e r t h e w e e k l y m e a t r a t i o n p e r p e r s o n in
S o f i a h a s b e e n f i x e d a t 2 0 0 g r a m s ( 0 .4 4 p o u n d ) , d i s t r i b u t e d e v e r y
T u e s d a y , T h u r s d a y , a n d S u n d a y a f t e r S e p t e m b e r 9.
I n ca se th e
a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y o f m e a t i s n o t s u f f ic ie n t f o r a l l , t h o s e w h o d o n o t
r e c e iv e t h e ir r a t io n w il l b e th e fir s t t o b e s u p p lie d o n th e f o l l o w i n g
m e a t d a y . E v e r y p e r s o n m a y r e c e iv e h is w e e k ly r a t io n o f m e a t a t a
s in g le tim e .
T h e c o n s u m p t io n o f f o w l s a n d g a m e is p e r m it t e d o n
m e a t le s s d a y s .
FISH.

W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u p p l y o f f is h t h e U t r o 8 w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e i s
g r e a t a b u n d a n c e o f fis h t h i s y e a r i n t h e D a n u b e m a r s h e s , i n t h e
L o w e r M a r itz a , a n d th e A e g e a n S ea . In s tr u c tio n s h a v e b ee n g iv e n
t o in c r e a s e th e c a t c h as m u c h as p o s s ib le .
T h e f is h c a u g h t i n t h e
D a n u b e a n d its m a r s h e s h a v e b e e n a p p o r t io n e d t o th e v a r io u s t o w n s
in B u lg a r ia .
S o fia is b e in g s u p p lie d f r o m th e S is t o v a a n d B e la
m a r s h e s . T h e f is h f r o m t h e M a r i t z a a r e b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g t h e
t o w n s o f s o u t h e r n B u l g a r i a . T h e B l a c k S e a f is h m a y b e s e n t f r e e l y
to a n y p a r t o f th e c o u n tr y a fte r 30 p e r cen t o f th e ca tch h as b een
k e p t f o r lo c a l c o n s u m p tio n a t Y a r n a a n d B u rg a s .
B e t w e e n t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e F o o d B u r e a u a n d th e e n d o f
A u g u s t , 1 9 1 7 , 7 6 5 ,4 7 8 k i l o g r a m s ( 8 4 3 .8 s h o r t t o n s ) o f fis h w e r e
c a u g h t . O f t h i s q u a n t i t y , 5 3 8 ,1 0 5 k i l o g r a m s ( 5 9 3 .2 s h o r t t o n s ) w e r e
c o n s u m e d b y t h e p o p u l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , a n d 2 2 7 ,3 7 3 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 2 5 0 .6 s h o r t t o n s ) w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y i n t h e r e a r ,
w h i l e t h e a r m ie s a t t h e f r o n t w e r e s u p p l i e d f r o m t h e D o b r u d j a
m a r s h e s , t h e A e g e a n c o a s t , a n d t h e M a c e d o n i a n la k e s .*
O w i n g t o t h e m e a s u r e s l a t e l y d e c r e e d , w r i t e s t h e M i r , 5 1 2 ,0 0 0 k i l o ­
g r a m s ( 1 3 .2 s h o r t t o n s ) o f fis h a r e t a k e n d a i l y i n t h e M a r i t z a . A c ­
c o r d in g t o th e E c h o d e B u lg a r ie ,6 th e F o o d B u re a u h a s d e cid e d th a t
h e n c e f o r t h a t r u c k l o a d o f fis h s h a l l b e d a i l y f o r w a r d e d t o S o f ia .
MILK AND BUTTER.

T h e M i r 7 a n n o u n c e s u n d e r d a t e o f O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1 9 1 7 , t h a t t h e S o fia
D is t r ic t C o m m itte e h a s fix e d th e fo l l o w i n g p r ic e s f o r m ilk a n d
b u tter.
1 Echo de Bulgarie. Sofia, Aug. 22,1917.
* Narodni Prava. Sofia, Sept. 6, 1917.
» Utro. Sofia, Sept. 9, 1917.
* Mir. Sofia, Sept. 21, 1917.




* Idem. Sept. 25, 1917.
c Echo de Bulgarie. Sofia, Aug. 27,1917.
* Mir. Sofia, Oct. 10, 1917.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

118

F ra n c s
per
lite r.

Fresh milk, delivered within the town_________ 1.10
.90
Fresh milk, delivered outside the town------------Fresh milk, delivered outside the town in quan­
tities above 5 liters________________________
.80
* Boiled milk, at the milk shops________________ 1. 30
Curdled milk________________________________ 1. 50
P er
k ilo gram .

Butter,
Butter,
Butter,
Butter,

within the town_____________________ 12. 00
outside the town_____________________ 10. 00
melted______________________________ 15. 00
centrifugal__________________________ 18. 00

T h e above
o r b u f f a l o ’s
m itte e a n d
c o o p e r a tiv e
s ic k a n d t o

Per
q u a rt.

$0. 20
.17
.15
. 24
. 27
P er
p oun d.

1. 05
. 88
1. 32
1. 57

p r ic e s o f b u t t e r a r e f o r b u t t e r m a d e f r o m s h e e p ’s, c o w ’ s,
m ilk .
T h e m ilk w ill b e c o lle c te d b y th e d is t r ic t c o m ­
h a n d e d o v e r , f o r d is t r ib u t io n in s p e c ia l r e c e p t a c le s , t o
s o c ie tie s o r t o a c o n t r a c t o r . I t w il l b e s o ld o n ly t o th e
c h ild r e n .
OILS.

I n o r d e r t o a lle v ia t e th e g r e a t s c a r c it y o f o ils in th e c o u n t r y th e
.F o o d B u r e a u h a s is s u e d in s t r u c t io n s f o r s u p p l y i n g fa r m e r s w it h th e
s e e d s o f o le a g in o u s p la n t s .
I t h a s b een d e c id e d to d e v o te g r e a te r
a re a s t o th e c u lt iv a t io n o f th e se p la n t s .1
T h e F o o d B u r e a u h a s a ls o in s t r u c t e d th e d is t r ic t c o m m it t e e s t o
b u y k e r n e ls a n d se e d s a t th e f o l l o w i n g p r i c e s :
F ra n cs
p er
k ilogra m .

Stones of plums and peaches------------------------------- 0. 20
Stones of apricots______________________________ .25
Kernels of plums, peaches, and apricots__________ 1. 80
Seeds of melons and watermelons________________ 1. 00
Seeds of vegetable marrows_____________________ 1. 20
Beechnuts______________________________________ .50

C ents
per
pou n d.

1. 8
2. 2
15. 7
8. 8
10. 5
4. 4

T h e y w i l l b e b o u g h t i n q u a n t i t i e s o f n o t le s s t h a n 1 0 0 k i l o g r a m s
(2 2 0 .4 6 p o u n d s ) i n t h e c a s e o f s t o n e s a n d k e r n e l s , 5 0 0 k i l o g r a m s
( 1 ,1 0 2 .3 p o u n d s ) i n t h e c a s e o f s e e d s , a n d 1 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 2 ,2 0 4 .6
p o u n d s ) in th e ca se o f b e e ch n u ts.
T h e e x p o r t o f t h e a b o v e is p r o ­
h i b i t e d a n d n o b o d y is a l l o w e d t o u t i l i z e t h e m f o r t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f
o i l s w it h o u t th e p e r m is s io n o f th e F o o d B u r e a u .2
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

T h e M i r * g iv e s th e f o l l o w i n g in fo r m a t io n as t o th e v e g e t a b le s u p ­
p l y o f S o fia d u r in g th e s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 7 :
1 Mir.

Sofia, Sept 19,1917.




* Idem.

Sept. 13,1917.

* Idem. July 19,1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— BULGARIA.

119

During 1916, from June 15 to July 19, the total quantity of vegetables re­
ceived amounted to 144.584 kilograms (159.4 short tons), while for the same
period of 1917 the Union of Cooperative Societies imported 563,000 kilograms
(620.6 short tons). If a greater scarcity of vegetables is at present felt, this is
due to the greater number of meatless days and to the lack of other foodstuffs.
It has been arranged that 10 to 12 truckloads of vegetables and fruit shall
arrive daily at Sofia.

A s m a n y c o m m itte e s a n d m u n ic ip a lit ie s h a v e a p p r o a c h e d th e F o o d
B u r e a u w it h r e q u e sts f o r le a v e t o p r o h ib it th e e x p o r t o f v e g e t a b le s
a n d fr u i t f r o m t h e ir d is t r ic t s , a n d as s o m e h a v e a lr e a d y t a k e n t h is
step o n th e ir o w n in itia tiv e , se v e r a l la r g e c o n s u m in g ce n te rs h a v e
b e e n w it h o u t v e g e t a b le s .
T h e F o o d B u re a u h a s th e r e fo r e d e cre e d
th a t h e n c e fo r t h n o s u ch o b s ta c le s a re t o b e p la c e d in th e w a y o f
e x p o r t .1
T h e U t r o 2 a n n o u n c e s t h a t th e m ilit a r y a g r ic u lt u r a l a u t h o r it ie s
r e p o r t th e c o n d it io n o f th e p o ta to e s t h r o u g h o u t th e c o u n tr y as e x c e l­
le n t . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n m i g h t b e m a i n t a i n e d ,
th e o w n e r s w e r e r e c o m m e n d e d t o s p r in k le th e p la n t s w it h a s o lu t io n
c o n t a i n i n g 1 p e r c e n t o f c o p p e r s u lp h a t e .
V e g e t a b le -p r e s e r v in g fa c t o r ie s a r e t o b e o p e n e d in a ll o f t h e m o s t
im p o r t a n t ce n te rs. T h e y w ill b e p la c e d u n d e r th e m a n a g e m e n t o f
e x p e r t s .3
T h e d r y in g o f p r u n e s f o r c o m m e r c ia l p u r p o s e s is p e r m it t e d o n ly
w h e n a u th o riz e d a n d c o n t r o lle d b y th e F o o d B u re a u . P e r s o n s h a v in g
d r y in g a p p a r a t u s f o r t h is p u r p o s e w e r e o b lig e d t o n o t i f y th e F o o d
B u r e a u b y A u g u s t 15. W h o e v e r d e s ir e s t o c a r r y o u t t h e d r y i n g o f
p r u n e s f o r t r a d in g p u r p o s e s m u st u n d e r ta k e t o d e liv e r th e w h o le
o u t p u t o f d r ie d p r u n e s t o th e F o o d B u r e a u . T h e p r ic e o f p lu m s h a s
b e e n f i x e d a t 0 .5 f r a n c p e r k i l o g r a m (4\4 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) a n d o f
p r u n e s a t 2 .5 f r a n c s ( 2 1 .9 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) .
T h e p r e w a r r e t a il
p r i c e s i n S o f i a w e r e 0 .1 5 t o 0 .2 (1 .3 t o 1 .8 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) a n d 1
f r a n c ( 8 .8 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4
T h e M i r 5 o n S e p te m b e r 21, 1917, n o te s th e f o llo w in g p r ic e s o f
v e g e t a b le s r u l in g in S o f i a :
Francs
per

Cents
per

b unch,

Garlic—
Parsley.

bu n ch .

. 1. 00
- . 07

19. 3
1. 4

Per
Per
kilogram, pound.

Tomatoes, red___
Tomatoes, green_.
Tomatoes, yellow.
French beans____
1 Utro. Sofia, July 10, 1917.
1 Idem. July 14, 1917.
a Idem. July 11, 1917.




0. 70
.30
.70
1.00
4 Mir. Sofia, July 27, 1917,
•Idem. Sept. 21, 1917.

6. 2
2.6
6.2
8.8

120

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.
Per
k ilo gra m ,

Potatoes, yellow__________________________________ 0. 70
Papricash________________________________________ .80
Eggplant__________________________________________ .70
Peas____ _________________________________________ 1. 50
Cauliflower_______________________________________ .80
Cabbage__________________________________________ .25

Per
p ou n d .

6.2
7. 0
6. 2
13.2
7.0
2. 2

Beans, pulse, corn cockle, and peas have been placed under an
bargo, and will be requisitioned wherever found.1

em ­

T h e y i e l d o f th e f r u i t o r c h a r d s in th e K u s t e n d il d is t r ic t is v e r y
a b u n d a n t. S u c h a p le n t i fu l h a r v e s t, e s p e c ia lly o f p lu m s , is n o t r e ­
m e m b e r e d in 50 y e a rs . T r a n s p o r t o f fr u i t b y r a il h a s b e e n a llo w e d .2
The prices of fruit in Sofia in September, writes, the Mir,3 were
as follows:
F ra n c s
C ents
per
per
k ilogra m , pou n d.

Apples, first quality______________________________ 1.10
Apples, second quality____________________________ .80
Large pears_______________________________________1.10
Common pears____________________________________ .80
Peaches__________________________________________ 1. 00
Grapes___________________________________________ 2.20
Green walnuts____________________________________ 2.40

9. 6
7.0
9. 6
7.0
8. 8
19.3
21. 0

SUGAR.

The Utro reported under date of August 1, 1917, that the Sofia
District Committee would distribute during the current week sugar
at the rate of 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) per person in exchange for the
July sugar ticket. According to the Narodni Prava4 a like ration
was distributed in September against the August sugar card.
SALT.

I n J u ly , 1917, th e U n io n o f C o o p e r a t iv e S o c ie tie s r e c e iv e d a c o n ­
s i g n m e n t o f s a l t , a m o u n t i n g t o 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 ,1 0 2 .3 s h o r t
t o n s ) , in t w o b a r g e s . T h is s a lt h a s b e e n d is tr ib u te d t o th e a g r ic u l­
t u r a l c o o p e r a t iv e s o c ie tie s .
F u r t h e r la r g e c o n s ig n m e n t s w e r e e x ­
p e c te d b y th e u n io n .5
T h e f o l l o w i n g q u a n titie s o f s a lt a r e n o w p e r m it t e d t o b e g iv e n to
d r a f t c a t tle o r c a t t le k e p t f o r b r e e d in g : 2 k ilo g r a m s (4 .4 p o u n d s )
p e r h e a d o f h o r n e d c a t t l e i n 3 m o n t h s ; 2 0 0 g r a m s ( 7 .1 o u n c e s ) p e r
h e a d o f s h e e p , e t c ., i n 3 m o n th s .® „
1 Mir. Sofia, Sept. 24, 1917.
* Idem. Sept. 25, 1917.

4 Narodni Prava. Sofia, Sept. 11, 1917.
*Mir. Sofia, July 21, 1917.

» Idem.

• Utro.

Sept. 19, 1917.




Sofia, July 10, 1917.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE*— BULGARIA.

121

T h e D n e v n i k 1 a n n o u n c e s th a t a ll s a lt is t o b e r e q u is it io n e d .
S a lt
im p o r t e d fr o m a b r o a d w ill b e a c q u ir e d b y th e S ta te a t th e p r ic e o f 40
t o 5 0 f r a n c s p e r 1 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 3 .5 t o 4 .4 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) , d e l i v e r e d
o n th e b a n k s o f th e D a n u b e o r o n r a il w a y t r a c k s a t S o fia .
S a lt p r o ­
d u c e d l o c a l l y w i l l b e p a i d f o r a t t h e r a t e o f 1 5 .5 0 f r a n c s ( 1 .4 c e n t s
p e r p o u n d ) a t th e b r in e w o r k s , f r e e o f e x c is e a n d o t h e r d u tie s .
The
d is t r ib u t io n o f s a lt w ill b e c a r r ie d o u t b y m e a n s o f c a r d s o r b y f a m i l y
l is t s .
T h e B u lg a r ia n m i l it a r y a u t h o r it ie s in B u c h a r e s t a re e x e r t in g t h e m ­
s e l v e s t o t h e i r u t m o s t i n s u p p l y i n g B u l g a r i a w i t h s a lt . A c c o r d i n g
t o i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d b y t h e U t r o , 2 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 8 ,8 1 8 .4
s h o r t t o n s ) o f s a lt a r e b e in g im p o r t e d m o n t h ly in t o B u lg a r ia .
MISCELLANEOUS FOODSTUFFS.

I n J u l y th e F o o d B u r e a u is s u e d a n o r d e r b i d d i n g a ll p e r s o n s w h o
h a v e in t h e ir p o s s e s s io n c o ffe e in q u a n t it ie s e x c e e d in g 10 k ilo g r a m s
(2 2 p o u n d s ) t o d e c la r e it w it h in 10 d a y s .3
U n d e r d a te o f A u g u s t 9, 1917, th e D n e v n i k 4 a n n o u n c e d th a t th e
s t a t u t o r y p r i c e o f c u r d s w a s f i x e d a t 1 .5 0 f r a n c s p e r k i l o g r a m ( 1 3 .2
c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) , 4 a n d t h a t o f v i n e g a r a t 1 .4 0 f r a n c s p e r k i l o g r a m
( 1 2 .3 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) 5 w h o l e s a l e a n d 1 .7 0 f r a n c s ( 3 1 c e n t s p e r
q u a r t ) r e t a il.
USE OF WAR PRISONERS AND COMPULSORY LABOR ON THE
LAND.

A c c o r d i n g t o th e M i r 6 th e f o l l o w i n g in s t r u c t io n s h a v e b e e n is s u e d
t o th e m ilit a r y a g r ic u lt u r a l a u t h o r it ie s b y th e F o o d B u r e a u :
Farmers must declare what amount of land they intend cultivating. If from
these returns it becomes evident that some land will lie fallow, the village
mayors should draw up a list of such parcels of land, and the military agricul­
tural authorities should organize the sowing of these lands. Every effort should
be made to cultivate an area not less than the average during normal years. To
this purpose the military agricultural authorities should make use of all avail­
able labor, cattle, machinery, etc. In mountainous regions, also in villages
where refugees have been settled, every inhabitant must sow at least 1/20 hec­
tare (0.124 acre) of potatoes or other vegetables. School pupils must also be
encouraged to cultivate land.

T h e M i r 7 a l s o a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e p r o v i d e n t C o m m i t t e e .w a s t a k ­
i n g s te p s t o c a r r y o u t a u tu m n s o w in g w it h th e h e lp o f w a r p r is o n e r s .
T h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l a r g e r a r e a s i s a i m e d a t,




1 Dnevnik. Sofia, July 30, 1917.
2 Utro. Sofia, Sept. 13, 1917.
8 Mir. Sofia, July 19, 1917.
4 Dnevnik.
Sofia, Aug. 9. 1917.
* In Bulgaria these commodities
•Mir. Sofia, Sept. 14, 1917.
9 Idem.
Sept. 10, 1917.

are sold by weight.

122

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

FOOD PRICES.

T h e r is e o f f o o d p r i c e s d u r i n g t h e W a r is i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w ­
i n g l is t , p u b l i s h e d b y t h e M i r , 1 o f p r i c e s r u l i n g d u r i n g M a r c h , 1 9 1 3
a n d 1917.
T h e r e ta il p r ic e s p e r k ilo g r a m a re as f o l l o w s :
A V E R A G E R E T A IL PR ICE S M ARCH, 1913, A N D L O W E ST A N D H IG H E ST R E T A IL PRICES
M ARCH, 1917, IN SOFIA, B U L G A R IA .

Retail prices March, 1917

A v e r a g e retail
p r i c e s March,
1913—

Lowest.

Article.
Per
kilogram.

Per
pound.

Bread (black)...................................................
Meat.................... .............................................
Fresh m ilk........................................................
B utter................................................................
Cheese................................................................
Sugar.................................................................
Coffee.................................................................
Salt.....................................................................
Olive oil............................................................
Petroleum.........................................................
Soap.................................. ...............................

0.35
.63
.24
1.05
.39
2.71
1.37
1.26
3.50
.25
2.27
.50
1.13

Per
pound.

10.031
.055
.021
.092
.034
.237
.120
.110
.307
.022
.199
.044
.099

0.90
2.50
.45
1.50
.60
8.00
1.50
2.10
25.00
.45
24.00
1.25
4.00

Per
kilogram.

Per
pound.

Francs.

Francs.

Francs.
Beans.............................................................. .

Per
kilogram.

Highest.

10.079
.219
.039
.132
.053
.699
.132
.184
2.190
.039
2.100
.109
.350

1.90
2.50
1.00
4.50
2.00
12.00
6.00
15.00
38.00
4.80
28.00
3.00
8.00

$0,167
.219
.088
.394
.175
1.050
.526
1.320
3.333
.420
2.450
.263
.690

TURKEY.
GENERAL FOOD SITUATION.

A s i t is e x t r e m e ly d iffic u lt t o o b t a in T u r k is h n e w s p a p e r s , o n ly
fr a g m e n t a r y n e w s ite m s c a n b e g iv e n h e re w it h r e s p e c t t o f o o d c o n ­
t r o l a n d t h e f o o d s it u a t io n in T u r k e y . M o s t o f th e a v a ila b le n e w s
r e la te s t o th e h a r v e s t , w h ic h o n th e w h o le se e m s t o h a v e b e e n v e r y
g o o d . A c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e o f t h e a r e a u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n is a l s o
r e p o r t e d . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e g o o d h a r v e s t it is e x p e c t e d t h a t
th e b r e a d r a t io n w il l b e in c r e a s e d .
T h e o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e f o o d
a d m in is tr a tio n in T u r k e y a p p e a r s t o b e v e r y d e fe c t iv e a n d to b e
w o r k in g w it h o u t a n y sy ste m b a se d o n s ta tis tic a l d a ta .
I f rep o rts
t o c it iz e n s o f n e u t r a l c o u n t r ie s w h o f o r m e r l y r e s id e d in C o n s t a n t i­
n o p le a n d la te ly le f t th a t c it y a re t o b e c re d ite d , th e g r e a t m a sses o f
th e p o p u la t io n a re a c t u a lly s ta r v in g . U n r e s t r ic t e d p r o fit e e r in g a n d
th e g r e a t s c a r c it y o f f o o d h a v e d r iv e n f o o d p r ic e s t o p r o h ib it iv e
h e ig h ts . L a c k o f o r g a n iz a tio n , o f d is tr ib u tio n , a n d o f p r ic e fix in g
f o r a v a ila b le s u p p lie s see m s t o b e th e p r in c ip a l c a u s e o f th e f o o d
s itu a tio n in T u r k e y .




»Mir.

Sofia, Sept. 19, 1917.

POOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- TURKEY.

123

A NEUTRAL ACCOUNT OP CONDITIONS IN CONSTANTINOPLE.

T h e M e s s a g e r d ’A t h e n e s 1 p u b lis h e s th e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t o f th e
s itu a tio n in C o n s t a n tin o p le , o b ta in e d fr o m a m e m b e r o f a n e u tra l
f a m ily r e c e n tly a r r iv e d in S w it z e r la n d :
We left Constantinople because it was absolutely impossible for us to live
there any longer. You know how difficult it is to procure certain necessaries
even in Vienna and Budapest; but we felt a sense of relief when we passed
from Turkey into Austria. Austria lacks many things, but Turkey lacks every­
thing. When it is reported that the Viennese are dying of hunger, it may be
taken as a form of speech, but in Constantinople this is literally true.
The food-card system has produced the most pitiable results. How can
the population be rationed when there is no census? How can a Turkish
functionary be induced to keep his books in order and remain incorruptible?
Besides, the Government depots are for the greater part of the time empty,
though speculators are piling up foodstuffs which frequently find their way to
Germany. The word ‘ baksheesh’ (graft) has become more than ever the
essential word in Turkish.
For many weeks bread in Constantinople smelled of petroleum. But to
people dying from hunger nothing is uneatable. Meat, even horse meat and
goat meat, is a luxury reserved for the rich. As for the Bosphorus fisheries,
they were abandoned a long time ago, owing to the danger from mines and to
the fact that all kinds of boats have been requisitioned. To a real Turk black
coffee is as necessary as bread and meat. But a kilogram of sugar costs 14
francs [$1.23 per pound 1 and coffee 15 francs [$1.32 per pound 1. Last July
thousands of Turkish women pillaged the shops of Galata and Per a. In con­
sequence of this the Turkish Government requisitioned from merchants rice,
potatoes, and sugar, and offered these articles for sale at prewar prices, but
only to Turkish women. This period of plenty lasted a fortnight, and the
Turkish women were somewhat calmed; as for the non-Mussulmans, they con­
tinued tightening their belts.
CONDITIONS IN SMYRNA.

T h e P a t r i s 2 r e p o r t e d t h a t “ th e in h a b it a n t s o f S m y r n a a r e d e s t i­
tu te. B o t h G re e k s a n d T u r k s a re s u ffe r in g f r o m h u n g e r , a n d p r a y
f o r fo r e ig n in te r v e n tio n .
T h e p resen t h a rv est w as a b u n d a n t, b u t
h a s d is a p p e a r e d , th e G e r m a n s h a v in g p r o b a b ly r e q u is it io n e d it .”
THE DISTRESS IN PALESTINE.

T h e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t o f th e c o n d it io n s p r e v a ilin g in P a le s t in e
b e f o r e its o c c u p a t io n b y th e B r it is h fo r c e s , p a r t ic u la r ly as r e g a r d s
f o o d , is t a k e n f r o m P a le s t in e ,8 a n d see m s t o b e d e r iv e d f r o m fir s t ­
h an d sou rces:
From time to time general descriptions of the distress in Palestine have
reached the West. We are enabled this week to give some more precise and
1 Messager d’Athfcnes. Athens, July 25, 1917.
2 Patris. LPlace of publication not known.] July 21, 1917.
•Palestine. Sept. 8 /1 9 1 7 , p. 54.




124

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

authentic afccount of the terrible condition of affairs there. The Hebrew
teachers in Palestine have addressed to the heads of the Zionist movement a
letter in which they set out their own melancholy state. Paper money, they
point out, has fallen in Palestine to one-fourth its nominal gold value, and the
prices of commodities have risen out of all proportion even to the depreciation
of paper money.

A p r ic e lis t g iv e n in c o n n e c tio n w it h th e a r tic le s h o w s th a t b r e a d
c o s ts e le v e n tim e s as m u c h as b e f o r e th e W a r , sesa m e o il m o r e th a n
t h ir t e e n t im e s a s m u c h , c o a l n e a r ly e ig h t tim e s a s m u c h , p e t r o le u m
t h ir t y tim e s as m u c h , s a lt e ig h t t im e s as m u c h , le n t ils a n d te a f i f ­
te e n t im e s a s m u c h , w o o d n e a r ly s ix tim e s a s m u c h , a n d m ilk fiv e
tim e s a s m u c h .
The teachers give some typical family budgets of their colleagues. One re­
veals a minimum monthly expenditure of 268 francs [$51.72] against a salary
of 120 francs [$23.16], another of 430 francs [$82.99] against 175 francs
[$33.78], a third of 823 francs [$158.84] against 300 francs [$57.90]. Perhaps
the most severely felt calamity is the elevenfold increase in the price of bread,
because in Palestine substitutes for bread are exceedingly difficult to get.
There are teachers whose whole salary can provide only dry bread for their
family.
A report from Jerusalem, dated end of June, supplements this account of the
teachers. The writer says:
“ This last year has caused enormous changes in Jerusalem, unfortunately
all for' the worse. You miss half your friends; they are all either dead or
gone. Those who remain are depressed and exhausted by their sufferings.
The money evil has become intolerable. In Constantinople paper money circu­
lates freely; here you must pay in coin or fourfold the price in paper. The
misery of the poor is unspeakable. The roads are lined with starving persons,
who lie about begging for a mouthful of bread. The poor Jews sell all their
belongings—clothes, linen, bedcovers—to the soldiers to get a few- metalliks1
for food. Epidemics have somewhat abated, and the spotted typhus is less
severe. But most of the patients die, because, owing to the lack of nourish­
ment, they can not resist disease.
u Early this year the Turkish authorities founded a wheat syndicate at
Jerusalem, with the object of steadying prices and insuring supplies. It
worked very well, especially from the point of view of the poor. It has now
been suspended and replaced by a Government commission. The change is
very much for the worse. The commission is charged with providing wheat
for public institutions, as well as for the poor, but it has not the privileges of
the syndicate. It must pay in gold and can sell only for gold. The buyers
must get gold and- this will further depreciate the value of paper money. The
Government has agreed to allow every civilian 10 ounces of wheat a day; but
the commission has for transport purposes only 500 donkeys, and these can not
carry rations for more than a small part of the Jerusalem population. Occa­
sionally the commission has the use of a few motors, but this is very rare.”
The head master of the Hebrew Boys’ School thus reports as to conditions in
the institution:
“ Our pupils belong to the poorest of the poor. Among 200 there are 51
orphans. The parents have died during this dreadful time. The children are
1 The value of a metallik varies from 1 to 2 cents in United States money.




FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE— TURKEY.

125

in rags beyond description, and it is impossible to provide them with clothes.
They are fortunate that the school provides them with dinner, even though
it be only thin soup and a piece of bread. In a great many cases that is the
only food they get during the day. Often I have seen the children drink the
soup but put the bread into their pockets to take home for brothers or sisters
who have not even so much food as they.”
THE HARVEST.

O n th e s u b je c t o f th e c u lt iv a t e d a rea in T u r k e y th e W ir t s c h a f t s z e i t u n g d e r Z e n t r a l m a c h t e o f S e p t e m b tear t e s :
7s
Thanks to the solicitude of the responsible authorities the area in cultiva­
tion of the Turkish Empire has grown annually larger in spite of the War. In
the past year the cultivated area amounted to 25,000,000 deumims,1 while this
year it amounts to 30,000,000. There can be no doubt that the cultivated area
will shortly be 60,000,000 deunums again, the figure at which it stood before
the Balkan War. The minister of agriculture is making extensive preparations
for planting large areas with rape.

S e v e r a l o f th e h a rv e s t r e p o r ts in th e p re s s (c h ie fly th o s e o f a
g e n e r a l c h a r a c te r ) a re e x tr e m e ly fa v o r a b le . T h u s a le a d in g a r t ic le
in th e T a s v i r - i - E f k i a r 1 sa y s th a t th e h a r v e s t is a r ic h o n e , a n d th a t
t h e r e is n o l o n g e r a n y f e a r o f f a m i n e t h i s y e a r , a n d c o n c l u d e s b y
s a y in g th a t i f th e G o v e r n m e n t s o lv e s th e se e d p r o b le m m o r e t h a n
5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 d e u n u m s ( a b o u t 1 2 ^ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s ) c a n b e c u l t i v a t e d n e x t
yea r.
O n th e o th e r h a n d th e T a n i n 2 g iv e s th e f o llo w in g r e p o r ts f o r
in d iv id u a l d is t r ic t s , s o m e o f w h ic h a re b y n o m e a n s c h e e r i n g :
D janik .—Maize is satisfactory, but wheat and oats less so.
Adana .—On account of the drought it is believed that the cereal crop will

be 10 per cent below that of last year, but 30 per cent more land has been
cultivated than last year.
Beirut. —Drought, but summer cultivation good.
Mosul.—The harvesting began in the first week of April. It is pretty good
in some districts, but in the neighborhood of Gharnak, the locusts having de­
stroyed the crops, the fields have had to be cultivated afresh. At Sertchenar
and Sourtach the locusts have destroyed 59 and 70 per cent respectively of the
crops. This pest is spreading to other districts.
Zor .—Harvesting began on June 15. Wheat and barley show an increase in
production of 40 per cent compared with last year. But the winter production
shows a diminution of 493 BekrS [about 2,465 acres] compared with last year.
Steps are being taken to remedy this.

T h r e e o th e r r e p o rts , g iv e n b y th e T a s v ir -i-E f k ia r , s ta te d th a t in
a ll o f th e th re e im p o r ta n t g r a in p r o d u c in g d is tr ic ts o f A d r ia n o p le ,
B r a u s , a n d K o n ie h , th e re h a d b ee n a d e q u a te r a in fa ll a n d th a t th e
c r o p s w e r e in g o o d c o n d it io n .




1 1 deunum equivalent to slightly less than \ acre.
a Tasvir-i-Efkiar. Constantinople, July 10, 1917.
•Tanin. Constantinople, Aug. 8, 1917.

126

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T h e H i l a l 1 h ea rs fr o m C a s ta m o n n i th a t it w a s h o p e d t o o b ta in a n
a v e r a g e o f 1 5 0 k i l o g r a m s [ 3 3 0 .7 p o u n d s ] o f c e r e a l s f r o m e a c h d e u n u m
(i a c r e ) c u lt iv a t e d .
T h e q u e s tio n s o f la b o r a n d m a c h in e r y h a v e a ttr a c te d a g o o d d e a l
o f a tte n tio n . A s r e g a r d s th e fo r m e r th e T a s v i r - i - E f k i a r 2 s ta te d t h a t
th e e x e c u tio n o f th e d e c is io n t o e n r o ll m e n f r o m 45 t o 60 y e a r s o f
a g e f o r t r a in in g f o r m ilit a r y s e r v ic e h a d b e e n p o s t p o n e d b y th e
C o u n c il o f M in is t e r s .
T h e M in is t r y o f A g r ic u lt u r e te le g r a p h e d to
th e P r o v in c e s t h a t t h e m e n in q u e s t io n w e r e t o b e e m p lo y e d in h a r ­
v e s tin g w o r k .
L e S o i r 3 le a r n e d f r o m E s k i C h e lir th a t th e A g r ic u lt u r a l C o m m is ­
s io n d e c id e d t o e m p lo y a ll m e r c h a n t s a n d a r t is a n s in th e c it y t o b r in g
in th e h a r v e s t , w h ic h w a s e x p e c t e d t o b e v e r y a b u n d a n t t h is y e a r .
T h e y w e r e t o r e c e i v e w a g e s o f 1 5 p ia s t e r s - ( 6 6 c e n t s ) a d a y .
F iv e
h u n d r e d m e n h a d a lr e a d y b e e n s e n t, u n d e r th e s e te r m s , t o th e fie ld s .
P e r s o n s u n w i ll i n g t o g o w e r e o b l i g e d t o fin d a s u b s titu te .
A s r e g a r d s th e s e c o n d p r o b le m , th a t o f m a c h in e r y , th e T a s v ir -iE f k i a r4 s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r i c e o f f a r m i n g i m p l e m e n t s w a s b e y o n d t h e
r e a ch o f th e fa r m e r s , a n d th a t th e a p p r o a c h o f th e h a r v e s t w a s
d r a w in g t h e a t t e n t io n o f th e G o v e r n m e n t t o th e n e c e s s ity o f r e m e d y ­
i n g t h is s ta te o f a ffa ir s .
O v e r a m o n th la te r L e S o i r 5 sta te d th a t
24 m a c h i n e s f o r c l e a n i n g g r a i n a n d o t h e r m a c h i n e s h a d a r r i v e d i n
K o n ie h .
T o s u p e r in t e n d t h e o p e r a t io n o f th e s e m a c h in e s f o u r s t u ­
d e n ts o f t h e S c h o o l o f A r t s a n d C r a ft s in C o n s t a n t in o p le , a t 50 p ia s ­
te r s ($ 2 .2 0 ) a d a y , a s w e ll as f o u r H u n g a r ia n e x p e r t s a t 5 0 fr a n c s
($ 9 .6 5 ) a d a y , h a v e b e e n s e n t t o K o n ie h . T w e n t y - e ig h t s tu d e n ts f r o m
th e H a lk i A g r ic u lt u r a l S c h o o l h a v e g o n e t o d ir e c t th e o p e r a t io n o f th e
r e a p i n g a n d b i n d i n g m a c h in e s .
INCREASED BREAD RATION.

T h e T a s v i r - i - E f k i a r 6 e x p e c ts th a t, o n a c c o u n t o f th e r e la tiv e ly
la r g e a re a (1 1 m i llio n a c r e s ) u n d e r c u lt iv a t io n s in c e t h e W a r , th e e s­
p e c ia lly g o o d y ie ld o f g r a in t h is y e a r w o u ld p e r m it a n in c r e a s e f r o m
o n e - q u a r t e r t o o n e - h a l f a n o k a ( 0 . 7 t o 1 .4 p o u n d s ) i n t h e p o r t i o n o f
b re a d g iv e n o n ea ch b r e a d ca rd .
F u r t h e r , th e q u a lit y w o u ld b e
m u ch b ette r.
T h e fa r m e r s w il l b e a llo w e d t o r e ta in o n e -te n t h o f th e
y ie ld .
E f f o r t s a r e t o b e m a d e t o s o w 15 m i l li o n a c r e s n e x t y e a r .
I n D a m a s c u s t h e S u p p l y S e r v ic e is s u e d a n o r d e r th a t , b e g in n in g
A u g u s t 1 5, 1 9 1 7 , t h e d a il y r a t io n o f b r e a d w o u ld b e 1 o k a (2 .8




1 Hilah. Constantinople, July 8, 1917.
* Tasvir-i-Efkiar. Constantinople, July 7, 1917.
8 Le Soir. Constantinople, Aug. 15, 1917.
4 Tasvir-i-Efklar. Constantinople, July 12, 1917.
8 Le Soir. Constantinople, Aug. 17, 1917.
•No date given.

FOOD SITUATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE---- TURKEY.

127

p o u n d s ) a n d o n e r a t a l (2 o k a s ) w ill b e s o ld a t 16 p ia s t e r s (7 0 c e n t s )
p a p e r m o n e y .1
PRICES IN CONSTANTINOPLE.

T h e T a s v ir -i-E f k ia h , u n d e r d a te o f J u ly 17, r e p o r ts th e f o l l o w i n g
w h o le s a le p r ic e s f o r v e g e t a b le s a t C o n s t a n t in o p le :
A V E R A G E W H O L E S A L E PR ICE S IN C O N STA N TIN O PLE , JU L Y, 1913, A N D JU LY , 1917.

Average price, July, 1917.
Average price, July,
1913.
First quality.

Article.

Second quality.

Per oka.1

Per oka.1

Per
pound.

Paras.

P um p kins..
Beans...........
Tom atoes...
Onions.........
Cucumbers..
Eggplant....

Per
pound.

Cents.

Piasters.

Cents.

20
20
10
15
25

no
12.83 pounds.

0
.

Per
Per oka.1 pound.
Piasters.

12.4
21/8
31.1
9.4
24.7
a 4.7

8
14
20
6
23

2
3

Cents.

13
18
5

*2J

20.2
28.0
7.8

£3.1

2 Each.

R e t a il p r ic e s w e re 2 0 p e r ce n t h ig h e r th a n in J u ly , 1913.
On
A u g u s t 19 t h e s a m e p a p e r r e p o r t s t h a t v e g e t a b le s h a d d e c r e a s e d in
p r ic e b u t w e r e s till v e r y d e a r.
A c c o r d in g t o th e U t r o 1 th e f o l l o w i n g r e t a il p r ic e s w e r e r u lin g in
C o n s ta n tin o p le o n S e p te m b e r 12, 1 9 1 7 :
Piasters per oka.

Bread___________________________
Beef____________________________
Mutton__________________________
Lamb___________________________
Butter___________________________
Butter (from cows’ or buffaloes’
m ilk )_________________________
Raisins, black___________________
Wheat__________________________
Maize___________________________
Barley --------------------------------------

Per pound.

2
20
30
25
135 to 150

$0.03
.31
.47
.39
$2.10 to 2. 33

125 to 140
22 to 23
226 to 27
18$
*13 to 14

1.94 to 2.18
. 34 to .36
. 40 to . 42
. 29
.20 to* .22

BEEF PRICE IN SMYRNA.

T h e p r i c e o f b e e f w a s f i x e d a t 1 7 p i a s t e r s a n o k a ( 2 6 .4 c e n t s p e r
p o u n d ) b y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f S m y r n a b e g i n n i n g J u l y 3 .4
1 Ark-Sharq. Aug. 8, 1917.
•Utro. Sofia, Sept. 12, 1917.




8 A c c o r d in g to q u a n tity .

‘ Ikdam.

July 7, 1917.

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

FOOD SPECULATION.

T h e T a s v i r - i - E f k i a r ,1 in a le a d in g a r t ic le , d e m a n d e d e n e r g e tic
ste p s a g a in s t s p e c u la t io n in th e p r in c ip a l fo o d s t u ffs .
I t c o m p la in e d
th a t o w i n g t o s p e c u la t io n , o liv e o il, w h ic h w a s s o ld a t 60 p ia s te r s p e r
l i t e r ( $ 2 .4 8 p e r q u a r t ) a m o n t h b e f o r e , w a s t h e n s o l d a t 1 0 0 p i a s t e r s
($ 4 .1 4 p e r q u a r t ) a n d t h a t “ C a c h a r c h e e s e h a d o t h e r w i s e r i s e n f r o m
6 0 t o 100 p ia s t e r s p e r o k a .”
A t th e b e g in n in g o f th e w a r t h is c h e e s ?
c o s t f r o m 6 t o 8 p i a s t e r s p e r o k a ( 9 .2 t o 1 2 .4 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) . I n a
f o r m e r is s u e ( J u l y 1 4 ) th e s a m e p a p e r c o m p la in e d t h a t w h it e h a r ic o t
b e a n s h a d r i s e n i n p r i c e f r o m 2 p i a s t e r s p e r o k a ( 3 .1 c e n t s p e r p o u n d )
t o f r o m 4 5 t o 5 0 p i a s t e r s t h e o k a ( 7 0 t o 7 7 .7 c e n t s p e r p o u n d ) .
DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD TO OFFICIALS.

P r e s s r e p o r t s g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t G o v e r n m e n t o f f ic ia ls a r e
f a v o r e d in T u r k e y in th e d is t r ib u t io n o f f o o d s u p p lie s .
L e S o ir ,2
f o r in s ta n c e , s ta te d th a t a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f lo a v e s o f b r e a d w e r e t o
b e d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l o f f ic ia ls i n t h e c a p i t a l a n d i n t h e P r o v i n c e s , a n d
t h a t o t h e r f o o d w o u ld a ls o b e d is t r ib u t e d as r e q u ir e d .
A n oth er
p a p e r r e p o r t e d th a t m a n y p r o v is io n s , in c lu d in g te a , h a d b e e n d is t r ib ­
u te d to fu n c tio n a r ie s o f th e G r a n d V iz ir a te , th e S h e ik -u l-Is la m a te ,
a n d t h e v a r io u s m in is t r ie s .




1 Tasvir-i-Efkiar. Constantinople, July 28, 1917.
*Le Soir. Constantinople, Aug. 17. 1917.

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
[The publication of the annual and special reports and of the bimonthly bulletin was
discontinued in July, 1912, and since that time a bulletin has been published at irregular
intervals. Each number contains matter devoted to one of a series of general subjects.
These bulletins are numbered consecutively beginning with No. 101, and up to No. 237 they
also carry consecutive numbers under each series. Beginning with No. 237 the serial num­
bering has been discontinued. A list of the series is given below. Under each is grouped all
the bulletins which contain material relating to the subject matter of that series. A list
of the reports and bulletins of the bureau issued prior to July 1, 1912, will be furnished on
application.]
Wholesale Prices.
Bui. 114. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1913.
Bui. 173. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign
countries.
Bui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914.
Bui. 200. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1915.
Bui. 226. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1916.
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
Bui. 105. Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part II— General tables.
Bui. 106. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912 : Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912 : Part II— General tables.
Bui. 108. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1912.
Bui. 110. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1912.
Bui. 113. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1912.
Bui. 115. Retail prices, 1890 to February, 1913.
Bui. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer.
Bui. 125. Retail prices, 1890 to April, 1913.
Bui. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer*
Bui. 132. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1913.
Bui. 136. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1913.
Bui. 138. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1913.
Bui. 140. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1913.
Bui. 156. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.
Bui. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the War.
Bui. 184. Retail prices, 1907 to June, 1915.
Bui. 197.
Bui. 228.
Wages and Hours of Labor.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in
selected industries in the District of Columbia.
Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
Bui. 128. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890
to 1912.
Bui. 129. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture Indus
tries, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 131. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912.
Bui. 134. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit gooda
industries, 1890 to 1912.

45499°—ig——Bull. 242----- 9




I

n

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Wages and Hours of Labor—Concluded.
Bui. 135. Wages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and
1912.
Bui. 137. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 143. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1913.
Bui. 146. Wages and regularity of employment in the dress and waist industry of
New York City.
Bui. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
Bui. 150. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907
to 1913.
Bui. 151. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United
States, 1907 to 1912.
Bui. 153. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries, 190T to 1913.
Bui. 154. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and underwear
industries, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories.
Bui. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to
1913.
Bui. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 168. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United
States, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1914.
Bui. 177. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to
1914.
Bui. 178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1914.
Bui. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907
to 1914.
Bui. 194. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1915.
Bui. 204. Street railway employment in the United States.
Bui. 214. Union scale of wages and boors of labor, May 15, 1916.
Bui. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915.
Bui. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries.
Bui. 232. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916.
[In press.]
Bui. 238. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing,
1916. [In press.]
Bui. 239. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing,
1916. [In press.]
Employment and Unemployment.
Bui. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the
United States.
Bui. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of
Boston, Mass.
Bui. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’ b ready-to-wear garment industries.
Bui. 192. Proceedings of the American Association of Public Employment Offices.
Bui. 195. Unemployment in the United States.
Bui. 196. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis.
January, 1916.
Bui. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers* Association of
Boston, Mass., held May 10, 1916.
Bui. 206. The British system of labor exchanges.
Bui. 220. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of
Public Employment Offices, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the War.
Bui. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa.,
April 2 and 3, 1917.
Bui. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association.
Bui. 241. Employment offices in the United States. [In press.]




PUBLICATION S.

HI

Women in Industry.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning womenin
selected industries in the District of Columbia.
Bui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
Bui. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories.
Bui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in
the United States.
Bui. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon.
Bui. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of
Boston, Mass.
Bui. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts.
Bui. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the War.
Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
Bui. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany.
Bui. 102. British National Insurance Act, 1911.
Bui. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland.
Bui. 107. L a w relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany.
Bui. 126. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States.
Bui. 185. Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915.
Bui. 203. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 210. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the Inter­
n a tion a l Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of
industrial employment of women and children.
Bui. 240. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States. [In
press.]
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
Bui. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary
ware factories.
Bui. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade.
Bui. 127. Dangers to workers from dust and fumes, and methods of protection.
Bui. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead.
Bui. 157. Industrial accident statistics.
Bui. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries.
Bui. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry.
Bui. 188. Report of British departmental committee on danger in the use of lead in
the painting of buildings.
Bui. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commis­
sions. [Limited edition.]
Bui. 205. Anthrax as an occupational disease.
Bui. 207. Causes of death by occupations.
Bui. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades.
Bui. 216. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades. [In press.]
Bui. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry. [In press.]
Bui. 236. Effect of the pneumatic hammer on the health of stonecutters in the
Indiana oolitic limestone belt.




[In press.]

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LAB0B STATISTICS,

IV

Conciliation an. Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
Bui. 124.
onciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
Bui. 133.
eport of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade cm Its in­
quiry into industrial agreements.
Bui. 139. Michigan copper district strike.
Bui. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist Industry of
New York City.
Bui. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry.
Bui. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry.
Bui. 233. The Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of Canada. [In press.]
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

111.
112.
148.
152.
166.
169.
186.
189.
211.
213.
224.
229.

Labor legislation of 1912.
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912.
Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913.
Labor legislation of 1914.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1914.
Labor legislation of 1915.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1915.
Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States.
Labor legislation of 1916.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916.
Wage-payment legislation in the United States.

Foreign Labor Laws.
Bui. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European
countries.
Vocational Education.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist Industry of
New York City.
Bui. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va.
Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis.
Labor as
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

Affected by the War.
170. Foreign food prices as affected by the War.
219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the War.
230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain.

Miscellaneous Series.
Bui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 123. Employers’ welfare work.
Bui. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign
countries.
Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
Bui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the War.
Bui. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics up to May 1, 1915.
Bui. 208. Profit sharing in the United States.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.




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