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of
College
Women
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F L A B O R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
W O M E N ' S BUREAU
Mr*. Alice K. Leopold, Director

In cooperation with the
NATIONAL VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE ASSOCIATION
WOMEN'S SECTION




R E P O R T O F WOMEN
GRADUATES,
CLASS O F 1957

FIRST JOBS OF COLLEGE WOMEN
Report on W o m e n Graduates
Class of 1957




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN1 S BUREAU
Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, Director

in c o o p e r a t i o n with
National Vocational Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n
W o m e n ' s Section

WOMEN'S B U R E A U B U L L E T I N NO. 2 6 8
1959




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents

ii

FOREWORD
Rapid developments in s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l fields f o r e c a s t t r e mendous changes in many a s p e c t s of our l i v e s . In the employment a r e a ,
the c o m p l e x nature of many new jobs will place even g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on
new skills and m o r e education. If c o l l e g e women a r e to a c c e p t the c h a l lenge and contribute a l a r g e r s h a r e of the brainpower r e q u i r e d for our
c o u n t r y ' s e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s , they m u s t know how to m a k e the b e s t use of
t h e i r t a l e n t s and training in the world of t o m o r r o w .
In a Nation founded on family life, m o s t women a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d , of c o u r s e , in m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y . But the a v e r a g e woman a l s o
s e e k s employment at s o m e period during her l i f e t i m e - - t y p i c a l l y right a f t e r
graduation and often l a t e r in life when family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e c r e a s e .
M o r e and m o r e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e r e a l i z i n g that they m u s t
help p r e p a r e women for t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d r o l e s of h o m e m a k e r , w o r k e r ,
and c i t i z e n . To a c c o m p a n y the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l values of education,
m o r e w i d e s p r e a d and adequate p r o g r a m s of vocational guidance and counseling a r e being r e c o m m e n d e d . This s u r v e y d e s c r i b i n g the job e x p e r i e n c e s
of r e c e n t women g r a d u a t e s in the world of work is d i r e c t e d t o w a r d this
m a j o r objective: To help c o l l e g e women s e l e c t c o u r s e s of study which a r e
compatible with t h e i r abilities and i n t e r e s t s a s well a s with future e m ployment opportunities.




Alice K. Leopold,
Director, Women's Bureau.

iii

Acknowledgment is made to the Women's Section of the National Vocational Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n for its e x c e l l e n t cooperation in conducting
this s u r v e y of June 1957 women college g r a d u a t e s . Following p r o c e d u r e s
established for the previous s u r v e y s of women graduates of June 1955 and
June 1956 (as well as for the pilot survey of June 1954), that organization
s e c u r e d cooperation from s e l e c t e d colleges and universities and c o o r d i nated p r e p a r a t i o n and distribution of the m a i l questionnaires.

The

W o m e n ' s B u r e a u of the U. S. Department of L a b o r s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a tive s c h o o l s , tabulated the r e p l i e s from the g r a d u a t e s , and analyzed the
findings. T h i s r e p o r t was written by J e a n A. Wells of the B u r e a u ' s Division of P r o g r a m Planning, Analysis, and R e p o r t s , of which Stella P .
Manor is Chief.




iv

CONTENTS
Page
Highlights

1

Survey findings

3

Who were the graduates surveyed?
What were the recent graduates doing?
What kinds of jobs did they get?
Were first jobs related to college majors?
How much did the graduates earn?

3
4
7
9
10

Comments by the graduates

11

Conclusion

14

Appendix
A.

General tables

16

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Number of graduates and schools included in survey of June 1957 women college graduates
Age and marital status of graduates: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Marital status of June 1957 graduates, by age
Undergraduate major of graduates: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Teacher training and certification of graduates: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Employment or school status of graduates: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Regional distribution of June 1957 graduates, by employment or school status
Marital status of June 1957 graduates, by employment or school status
Employment or school status of married women graduates, class of 1957, and their
husbands
Undergraduate major of June 1957 graduates, by employment or school status
Occupation of employed graduates: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Date when June 1957 graduates started on first job, by full- or part-time employment
Primary job source of June 1957 graduates in selected occupations
Occupation of June 1957 graduates, by undergraduate major
Teacher training and certification of June 1957 graduates, by employment or school status
Comparison of graduates' salaries by occupation: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Annual salary in winter 1957-58 of June 1957 graduates, by occupation
Annual salary in selected occupations, by region of 1957 graduates' employment
Comparison of graduates' salaries, by undergraduate major: 1957, 1956, and 1955
Undergraduate major and annual salary of June 1957 graduates
Industry of employment and annual salary of June 1957 graduates
Future employment plan of June 1957 graduates, by marital status

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Questionnaire form

42

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
B.




vi

25
26
27
28
29
31
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Chart

I

C O M P A R I S O N OF S T A R T I N G SALARIES OF W O M F N
COLLEGE GRADUATES
Classes of 1957, 1956 and 1955
AVERAGE
$1,000

T o t a l employed g r a d u a t e s

ANNUAL

$2,000

[•X'X'X'XvXvXvXvX

SALARY

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000

••i

Chemists
Mathematicians,
statisticians

».»* i * *T*'i."t"j

':';".".":':•.'

J

Home economists
Nurses
Technicians, biological
Teachers
Editors, c o p y w r i t e r s ,
reporters
Assistant b u y e r s ,
s t o r e trainees
Secretaries, stenographers
Typists




$1,000

vi

$2,000

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000

FIRST J O B S O F C O L L E G E

WOMEN

Report on W o m e n Graduates, Class of 1957
HIGHLIGHTS
College women entering the labor m a r k e t in the second half of 1957
found job opportunities fully a s f a v o r a b l e a s t h o s e open to newly graduated
women in the two previous y e a r s - Starting s a l a r i e s a v e r a g e d $ 3 , 739 a y e a r for the June 1957 women
c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s , c o m p a r e d with $ 3 , 4 4 6 for the June 1956 g r a d uates and $ 3 , 141 for the June 1955 g r a d u a t e s . ( C h a r t 1 . )
Most of the women g r a d u a t e s in all t h r e e c l a s s e s found jobs r e lated to t h e i r fields of study. M o r e o v e r , t h o s e able to obtain
p r o f e s s i o n a l positions i n c r e a s e d — f r o m 80 p e r c e n t of the e m ployed women in the c l a s s of 1955 to 81 p e r c e n t in the 1956 c l a s s
and 83 p e r c e n t in the 1957 c l a s s .
ACTIVITIES
F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t continued t o be the predominant a c t i v i t y of r e cent women g r a d u a t e s - 76
3
9
5
7

percent
percent
percent
percent
percent

were
were
were
were
were

working full t i m e
seeking w o r k
attending school full t i m e
working a n d / o r attending s c h o o l p a r t t i m e
not seeking work

N e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the m a r r i e d g r a d u a t e s w e r e working.
OCCUPATIONS
When s u r v e y e d in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 , the June 1957 women g r a d u a t e s held jobs revealing both c o n c e n t r a t i o n and v a r i e t y - The m a j o r i t y (59 p e r c e n t ) of the employed g r a d u a t e s w e r e
teachers.
The next l a r g e s t occupational group was that of the n u r s e s ( 6 . 9
p e r c e n t ) , whose r e p r e s e n t a t i o n among r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s had i n c r e a s e d significantly in the previous 2 y e a r s .




- 1 -

-2A l m o s t equal in number w e r e the t h i r d g r o u p - - s e c r e t a r i e s and
s t e n o g r a p h e r s ( 6 . 7 p e r c e n t of the total) - - f o l l o w e d by biological
t e c h n i c i a n s (3 p e r c e n t ) and scfcial and w e l f a r e w o r k e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
The r e m a i n i n g g r a d u a t e s (22 p e r c e n t ) w e r e p e r f o r m i n g a wide
v a r i e t y of jobs, including positions r a t h e r unusual for women,
such as s t o c k and bond portfolio a n a l y s t , s e i s m o g r a p h c o m p u t e r ,
p h a r m a c i s t , r a d i o r e p a i r m a n in the A r m e d F o r c e s , and p r o b a tion o f f i c e r .
T h e s e and other employment f a c t s w e r e obtained f r o m c o l l e g e women
about 6 months a f t e r t h e i r graduation by the W o m e n ' s B u r e a u of the United
States D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r , in c o o p e r a t i o n with the National Vocational
Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n .




SURVEY FINDINGS
Who Were the Graduates Surveyed?
A l m o s t 8 8 , 000 women w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the m a i l questionnaire s u r vey conducted in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 . (See questionnaire f o r m on page
4 2 . ) T h i s figure f o r June 1957 women g r a d u a t e s is slightly higher than
the 8 7 , 000 women graduates r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i m i l a r s u r v e y for June 1 9 5 6 1
and c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the 8 1 , 000 for June 1 9 5 5 . 2 The n u m b e r is
e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e rapidly in the 1 9 6 0 ' s when c o l l e g e s begin to feel the
i m p a c t of the high birth r a t e s of the postwar y e a r s .
In e a c h of the t h r e e s u r v e y s , the r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s r e p r e s e n t e d only
women who w e r e graduated in the month of June from w o m e n ' s and c o e d u c a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s granting b a c c a l a u r e a t e d e g r e e s .
Survey
p a r t i c i p a n t s in the June 1957 s u r v e y included 150 c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
and a l m o s t 6, 000 of t h e i r women g r a d u a t e s . (See table 1 of appendix. )
S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the g r a d u a t e s to whom the questionnaire was sent
p a r t i c i p a t e d by supplying information about t h e i r c u r r e n t employment status
and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .
The t r e n d t o w a r d e a r l i e r m a r r i a g e is c l e a r l y indicated in the t h r e e
s u c c e s s i v e s u r v e y s of r e c e n t women g r a d u a t e s . P e r c e n t a g e s of c o l l e g e
women reporting 6 months a f t e r graduation that they w e r e m a r r i e d r o s e
f r o m 34 p e r c e n t of the 1 9 5 5 c l a s s to 37 p e r c e n t of 1956 and 38 p e r c e n t of
1 9 5 7 . T h e r e w e r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y fewer single women g r a d u a t e s in the
1957 c l a s s , since the p e r c e n t a g e of widowed, s e p a r a t e d , and d i v o r c e d
women (2 p e r c e n t ) r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t .
In e a c h c l a s s s u r v e y e d , the t y p i c a l woman graduate was 22 y e a r s old.
H o w e v e r , those who w e r e 25 y e a r s of age and o v e r equaled 14 p e r c e n t of
the 1957 and 1956 c l a s s e s c o m p a r e d with 12 p e r c e n t of the 1955 c l a s s .
( T a b l e 2 . ) Most of the single g r a d u a t e s of 1 9 5 7 , a s well as the m a r r i e d
ones with no children or with c h i l d r e n under 6, w e r e under 25 y e a r s of a g e .
1 College Women Go To Work: Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1956. Women1 s Bureau Bulletin
No. 264, 1958. Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.
30 cents.
2 Employment After College: Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1955. Women's Bureau, 1956.
Out of print.
3 The sample was selected on a random basis from graduates of representative schools, chosen by size,
type, and region. The exclusion of women who were graduated from men1 s colleges and women who received their degree in months other than June accounts for the fact that the size of this group is smaller than
the 118, 000 women college graduates reported by the U. S. Office of Education for the school year 195657.




-3-

-4On the other hand, high p e r c e n t a g e s of the m a r r i e d graduates with children
6 to 17 y e a r s of a g e and a l s o of the widowed, s e p a r a t e d , and divorced
graduates w e r e at l e a s t 30 y e a r s old. (Table 3 . )
E x a c t l y half of the June 1957 women graduates e a r n e d a B a c h e l o r of
Science d e g r e e , 45 percent a B a c h e l o r of A r t s , and 5 p e r c e n t other b a c c a l a u r e a t e d e g r e e s . T h e i r undergraduate m a j o r s have a strong r e s e m b l a n c e
to those of their immediate p r e d e c e s s o r s . (Table 4 . ) E d u c a t i o n - - r e p o r t e d
by 33 p e r c e n t of the 1957 g r a d u a t e s - - c o n t i n u e d to rank f i r s t . ^ The humanit i e s and a r t s , long-time favorites of college women, accounted for 19 p e r cent of the m a j o r s : English (8 percent); a r t , foreign languages, and speech
( e a c h 3 percent); and m u s i c (2 p e r c e n t ) . Other important undergraduate
m a j o r s for women w e r e the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (including history, psychology,
sociology, and s o c i a l work) - 15 p e r c e n t ; home e c o n o m i c s - 8 p e r c e n t ; and
business and c o m m e r c e - 5 p e r c e n t . The intensified effort to i n c r e a s e the
number of degree n u r s e s is probably responsible for the fact that women
who m a j o r e d in nursing r o s e from 3 percent in 1955 to 6 percent in 1957.
P e r c e n t a g e s of women majoring in physical s c i e n c e s , biological s c i e n c e s ,
and m a t h e m a t i c s did not i n c r e a s e and r e m a i n e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e
low levels as previous y e a r s .
The growing demand for m o r e t e a c h e r s throughout the country probably
accounts for the r i s e in graduates with t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g - - f r o m 74 p e r c e n t
of the 1955 c l a s s to 77 percent of the 1957 c l a s s . (Table 5. ) Most of the gain
was confined to those who had taken s o m e education c o u r s e s but had not
m a j o r e d or m i n o r e d in this subject, since actually t h e r e w e r e slightly
fewer education m a j o r s among the r e c e n t women g r a d u a t e s . "While the p e r centage of graduates with teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s was the s a m e (62 percent)
in 1957 as in 1955, the number obtaining c e r t i f i c a t e s i n c r e a s e d steadily.

What Were the Recent Graduates Doing?
Women graduates of the June 1957 c l a s s w e r e engaged in employment
or school a c t i v i t i e s to about the s a m e extent as t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s .
Eighty-two percent w e r e working either full or part t i m e - - a s c o m p a r e d
with 81 percent of the 1956 graduates and 80 percent of 1955. The m o s t
noteworthy change was the i n c r e a s e in those both employed and in s c h o o l - from 9 percent in 1955 to 13 percent in 1957. Women graduates "attending
school only" equaled 8 percent of all t h r e e c l a s s e s . Those seeking work
dropped from 4 percent in 1955 to 3 percent in 1957 and those not seeking
work, from 8 to 7 p e r c e n t . (Table 6 . )
4 Refers only to graduates who reported education as their major; does not include about 29 percent of
the graduates who had a subject-matter major and were also qualified to teach.




-5C o m p a r i s o n of a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by g r a d u a t e s living within e a c h of
the four m a j o r r e g i o n s during the winter 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 indicated that the W e s t
had the l a r g e s t proportion attending school full t i m e (12 p e r c e n t ) ; that the
N o r t h e a s t had the m o s t combining employment and school (18 p e r c e n t ) ; and
that the South had the highest p e r c e n t out of the labor m a r k e t (9 p e r c e n t ) .
(Table 7 . )
The i n c r e a s e d tendency f o r m a r r i e d women to w o r k was a l s o r e f l e c t e d
among r e c e n t c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s . S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the m a r r i e d
g r a d u a t e s f r o m the 1957 c l a s s w e r e working, a s c o m p a r e d with 69 p e r c e n t
f r o m 1 9 5 6 . H o w e v e r , among m a r r i e d women with young c h i l d r e n , the p e r c e n t a g e of working wives was the s a m e (36 p e r c e n t ) for both c l a s s e s .
( T a b l e 8 . ) Highest p e r c e n t a g e s of working wives w e r e among the g r a d u a t e s
whose husbands w e r e attending s c h o o l (83 p e r c e n t ) o r w e r e not working
(92 p e r c e n t ) . (Table 9 . )
About 9 p e r c e n t of the 1957 women g r a d u a t e s w e r e attending school
full t i m e and 12 p e r c e n t , p a r t t i m e . While the p e r c e n t a g e of f u l l - t i m e
students has r e m a i n e d constant f r o m 1955 to 1 9 5 7 , t h e r e has been a steady
i n c r e a s e in p a r t - t i m e students ( f r o m 8 p e r c e n t in 1 9 5 5 ) . Of the r e c e n t
g r a d u a t e s not attending school in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 , about t w o - t h i r d s
indicated they hoped to do graduate study in the future.
Education continues t o be the leading field of graduate study for
women. In the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 , it was the field of study of a p p r o x i m a t e l y
twice a s many of the p a r t - t i m e students a s f u l l - t i m e students. P a r t - t i m e
students not m a j o r i n g in education w e r e distributed f a i r l y evenly among
other fields of study. N u m e r i c a l l y significant study fields of the f u l l - t i m e
students f o l l o w - - w i t h the p e r c e n t a g e s of full- and p a r t - t i m e students r e porting e a c h subject:
P e r c e n t of students
Full-time
E d u c ation
Health fields 1
Home e c o n o m i c s
S o c i a l work . . . . . . . . . . .
English
F o r e i g n languages
Biological sciences
Speech and d r a m a t i c a r t
Psychology
Other m a j o r s
1

Excludes nursing.




19
12
9
7
5
5
5
4
4
30

Part-time
44
1

2
1

6
3
3
3
4
34




-6-

Chart 2

MAJOR O C C U P A T I O N S OF WOMEN COLLEGE G R A D U A T E S
Class of June

1957

o o

G r a d e - s c h o o l teachers
High-school t e a c h e r s
Nurses
Junior-high-school teachers
S e c r e t a r i e s , stenographers
Scientists, mathematicians,
statisticians
Recreation, r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l
and w e l f a r e workers

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

A A A A A A A A A A A
WW w w w w w w w w w
O O O O O O O O O O O
A A
A A A A A A A A A
f t
T T T T T T f T T
o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

l l l l l f t f f
o o o o o
A A A A A
w w wV w
o
o
o
o
o
A A A A A

VJ

if III
III
o o o

Home e c o n o m i s t s , d i e t i t i a n s
Retail-store workers
Therapists

0
EACH

Advertising and editorial
assistants
Bookkeepers, a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s

WOMEN

f

= 1,000
GRADUATES

o

o

o

A A A
www
0 0
A A
T f

-7Highest p e r c e n t a g e s of g r a d u a t e s attending graduate school full t i m e
w e r e among those with undergraduate m a j o r s in the biological s c i e n c e s (32
p e r c e n t ) , followed by foreign l a n g u a g e s , physical s c i e n c e s , s o c i o l o g y and
s o c i a l work, and h i s t o r y . (Table 1 0 . )
A l m o s t t h r e e - f i f t h s of the f u l l - t i m e students w e r e candidates for a
m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e and a few (4 p e r c e n t ) , for a d o c t o r a t e . Most of the r e m a i n d e r w e r e studying for a c e r t i f i c a t e in health s e r v i c e s or t e a c h i n g .
H o w e v e r , 10 p e r c e n t of the f u l l - t i m e students and 42 p e r c e n t of the p a r t t i m e ones w e r e not candidates for any d e g r e e or c e r t i f i c a t e .
S c h o l a r s h i p s a v e r a g i n g a l m o s t $ 1 , 200 a y e a r w e r e r e c e i v e d by o n e fourth of the f u l l - t i m e students. In addition, one-fifth w e r e g r a d u a t e a s s i s t a n t s , earning about $ 1 , 3 5 0 a y e a r on the a v e r a g e .

What Kinds of Jobs Did They Get?
The f i r s t jobs obtained by the June 1957 women g r a d u a t e s r e s e m b l e d
t h o s e r e p o r t e d by the 1956 and 1955 g r a d u a t e s . (Table 1 1 . ) H o w e v e r , the
p e r c e n t a g e of g r a d u a t e s obtaining p r o f e s s i o n a l positions i n c r e a s e d and
t h o s e doing c l e r i c a l work or m i s c e l l a n e o u s w o r k d e c r e a s e d - - a s shown in
the following f i g u r e s :
P e r c e n t of employed g r a d u a t e s
1957
P r o f e s s i o n a l work
C l e r i c a l work
Miscellaneous work

83
14
3

1956
81
16
3

1955
80
16
4

Teaching continued t o be the m o s t popular p r o f e s s i o n of c o l l e g e women.
( C h a r t 2 . ) D e g r e e n u r s e s , h o w e v e r , moved into second place among m a j o r
occupations of the 1957 g r a d u a t e s . Women g r a d u a t e s in the 1955 and 1956
c l a s s e s had included m o r e s e c r e t a r i e s and s t e n o g r a p h e r s than d e g r e e
nurses.
A l m o s t four-fifths of the employed women g r a d u a t e s r e p o r t e d that the
job they held when s u r v e y e d in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 was t h e i r f i r s t a f t e r
c o l l e g e . Of this group, 18 p e r c e n t obtained t h e i r " p r e s e n t " job e i t h e r b e fore graduation or in June 1957 and another 23 p e r c e n t , in July or August.
(Table 1 2 . ) F i f t y - t w o p e r c e n t of the g r a d u a t e s , probably m o s t l y t e a c h e r s ,
s t a r t e d work in S e p t e m b e r ; m o s t of the remaining g r a d u a t e s , in O c t o b e r
or November.




-8M o r e than two-fifths of the employed women g r a d u a t e s said they f i r s t
h e a r d about t h e i r job through " d i r e c t application on own. M (Table 13. )
School p l a c e m e n t b u r e a u s gave helpful job l e a d s to a l m o s t o n e - f o u r t h , i n cluding substantial proportions of a s s i s t a n t b u y e r s and r e t a i l s t o r e t r a i n e e s , m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and s t a t i s t i c i a n s , c h e m i s t s , r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s , and
t e a c h e r s . Those aided m o s t by t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s w e r e the dietitians
and t h e r a p i s t s . P r i v a t e and public employment offices w e r e a m o r e i m portant s o u r c e for v a r i o u s types of c l e r i c a l jobs than for p r o f e s s i o n a l
positions.
The favorable employment conditions facing c o l l e g e women in the
t h r e e c l a s s e s s u r v e y e d probably account to a l a r g e extent for t h e i r wides p r e a d s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r f i r s t jobs. T h e i r r e s p o n s e s in the t h r e e s u r veys follow:
Percent "Yes1 f
1957
Is it the type of job hoped for ?
Does job provide a step f o r w a r d ?
Does it m e e t e c o n o m i c needs ?
Does it r e l a t e to c o l l e g e m a j o r ?

1956

86
92
83
86

85
90
81
84

1955
83
90
81
84

G r a d u a t e s not employed in the type of work hope d for gave n u m e r o u s
r e a s o n s for a c c e p t i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t jobs . R e s p o n s e s f r o m the t h r e e c l a s s e s
- - a s listed b e l o w - - a r e f a i r l y s i m i l a r :
Percent
1957

1956

Financial reasons

30
20

B e s t job available

10

29
18
15
10
8
6
5
9

T e m p o r a r y or p a r t - t i m e work
4
6
1

1955
20
18
16
X

( )
15
11
1)
t
20

Included with "other reasons. "

A l m o s t two-fifths of the g r a d u a t e s not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r p r e s e n t job
said they w e r e i n t e r e s t e d in t e a c h i n g . Some of this group w e r e teaching
a l r e a d y - - b u t not in the subject or location p r e f e r r e d . Others w e r e




-9stationed with a s o l d i e r husband in a s m a l l town with few employment opportunities or w e r e holding a t e m p o r a r y job while waiting for a new school
t e r m . Additional fields in which g r a d u a t e s wished they w e r e employed i n cluded health s e r v i c e s , s o c i a l work, e n t e r t a i n m e n t , j o u r n a l i s m , and
personnel.

Were First Jobs Related to College Majors ?
The f i r s t jobs of the 1957 women g r a d u a t e s w e r e l a r g e l y in the fields
of t h e i r undergraduate m a j o r s . In the l a r g e group of women with education
m a j o r s who w e r e employed in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 , 94 p e r c e n t w e r e
t e a c h i n g . (Table 14. ) This a c t i v i t y a l s o a t t r a c t e d many who had m a j o r e d
in other s u b j e c t s . T h e s e included at l e a s t half of the employed g r a d u a t e s
who had m a j o r e d in physical education, m u s i c , h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , foreign
l a n g u a g e s , and home e c o n o m i c s , and two-fifths o r m o r e of t h o s e in p s y chology, m a t h e m a t i c s , a r t , and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .
Among the other employed g r a d u a t e s whose occupations w e r e d i r e c t l y
r e l a t e d to t h e i r undergraduate study w e r e t h o s e whose m a j o r s w e r e in:
n u r s i n g - - w i t h 98 p e r c e n t employed a s n u r s e s ; other health f i e l d s - - w i t h 51
p e r c e n t employed a s biological t e c h n i c i a n s and 16 p e r c e n t a s t h e r a p i s t s ;
physical s c i e n c e - - w i t h 43 p e r c e n t employed as c h e m i s t s and 15 p e r c e n t as
biological t e c h n i c i a n s ; and m a t h e m a t i c s - - w i t h 42 p e r c e n t employed a s
m a t h e m a t i c i a n s o r s t a t i s t i c i a n s . In addition, among other employed g r a d u a t e s , 48 p e r c e n t of t h o s e with biological s c i e n c e m a j o r s b e c a m e biological
t e c h n i c i a n s ; 4 4 p e r c e n t with j o u r n a l i s m m a j o r s b e c a m e e d i t o r s , c o p y w r i t e r s , o r r e p o r t e r s ; 39 p e r c e n t with b u s i n e s s and c o m m e r c e m a j o r s b e c a m e s e c r e t a r i e s o r s t e n o g r a p h e r s ; 32 p e r c e n t with home e c o n o m i c s
m a j o r s b e c a m e dietitians o r home e c o n o m i s t s ; and 27 p e r c e n t with s o c i o l ogy and s o c i a l - w o r k m a j o r s b e c a m e s o c i a l o r w e l f a r e w o r k e r s .
Among the June 1957 g r a d u a t e s with teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s , 75 p e r c e n t
of the t o t a l group w e r e employed as t e a c h e r s in the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 .
T e a c h i n g engaged a higher proportion of those with a c e r t i f i c a t e in e l e m e n t a r y education (85 p e r c e n t ) than of those with one in s e c o n d a r y education
(62 p e r c e n t ) . (Table 1 5 . ) About 11 p e r c e n t of all the c e r t i f i c a t e holders had
nonteaching jobs and 7 p e r c e n t w e r e not in the labor m a r k e t ; the r e m a i n d e r
(7 p e r c e n t ) w e r e e i t h e r attending school or seeking w o r k . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s among c e r t i f i c a t e holders in the c l a s s of 1957
was a l m o s t the s a m e a s in 1 9 5 6 .
F o u r out
ates covered
than one-half
s c h o o l s only;




of five of the teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s obtained by the 1957 g r a d u only one State and m o s t of the r e m a i n d e r , two S t a t e s . M o r e
of the c e r t i f i c a t e holders w e r e entitled to t e a c h in e l e m e n t a r y
o v e r o n e - t h i r d in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s only; and about o n e - t e n t h

-10held c e r t i f i c a t e s for both types of s c h o o l s . Many of t h o s e with s e c o n d a r y school c e r t i f i c a t e s w e r e entitled t o t e a c h m o r e than one s u b j e c t . The potential supply of r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s t r a i n e d to t e a c h the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s
(including biological and physical s c i e n c e s ) has i n c r e a s e d c o m p a r e d with
1955, a s shown in the following list of s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l s u b j e c t s and p e r c e n t a g e s of c e r t i f i c a t e holders qualified to t e a c h t h e m :
Percent
1957
English
Fine arts
Home e c o n o m i c s
Social s c i e n c e s
Natural s c i e n c e s
B u s i n e s s education
History
Modern languages
Mathematics

1956

35
20

35
21
20
25
17
15
13
10
11
7

17
16
14
12
10
6

1955
34
22
18
18
12
13
8
6
11
7

P r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y being taught by the June 1957 g r a d u a t e s in
the winter of 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 and the p e r c e n t a g e s t e a c h i n g t h e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e :
E n g l i s h - 35 p e r c e n t ; home e c o n o m i c s - 20 p e r c e n t ; fine a r t s - 16 p e r c e n t ;
p h y s i c a l education - 14 p e r c e n t ; business education - 12 p e r c e n t ; s o c i a l
s c i e n c e s and m a t h e m a t i c s - e a c h 10 p e r c e n t ; n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s - 9 p e r c e n t ;
and h i s t o r y and languages - e a c h 7 p e r c e n t .
Among the l a r g e group of g r a d e - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f r o m the June 1957
c l a s s , the p e r c e n t a g e s teaching e a c h grade follow: K i n d e r g a r t e n - 9 p e r cent; f i r s t g r a d e - 24 p e r c e n t ; second grade - 26 p e r c e n t ; t h i r d g r a d e - 25
p e r c e n t ; fourth grade - 24 p e r c e n t ; fifth g r a d e - 20 p e r c e n t ; and s i x t h
grade - 13 p e r c e n t . Some t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d m o r e than one g r a d e .

How Much Did the Graduates Earn ?
The $ 3 , 739 a v e r a g e s a l a r y e a r n e d by the June 1957 women g r a d u a t e s
who w e r e employed full t i m e in the winter 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 was $ 2 9 3 m o r e than the
annual s t a r t i n g s a l a r y a v e r a g e d by the June 1956 g r a d u a t e s . ( T a b l e 1 6 . )
This i n c r e a s e was a l m o s t a s l a r g e as the $ 3 0 5 gained by the 1956 women
g r a d u a t e s o v e r the 1955 g r a d u a t e s . The l a r g e s t s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s between
1955 and 1957 w e r e in occupations with s h o r t a g e s of qualified w o r k e r s .
T h e s e occupations included c h e m i s t s (with an a v e r a g e i n c r e a s e of $ 9 4 7 b e tween 1955 and 1957), m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and s t a t i s t i c i a n s ( $ 9 1 2 ) , biological




-11t e c h n i c i a n s ( $ 8 1 6 ) , home e c o n o m i s t s ( $ 6 9 9 ) , and t e a c h e r s ( $ 6 0 2 ) . J o b s for
which starting s a l a r i e s i n c r e a s e d r e l a t i v e l y little w e r e t h o s e of e d i t o r s ,
c o p y w r i t e r s , and r e p o r t e r s ( $ 3 7 7 ) , s e c r e t a r i e s and s t e n o g r a p h e r s ( $ 4 0 0 ) ,
and t y p i s t s ( $ 4 0 0 ) .
Highest starting s a l a r i e s continued to be r e c e i v e d by the women c h e m i s t s ( $ 4 , 8 4 7 ) and the women m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and s t a t i s t i c i a n s ( $ 4 , 6 7 5 ) .
( T a b l e 1 7 . ) Other groups of June 1957 g r a d u a t e s with r e l a t i v e l y high s a l a r i e s w e r e the home e c o n o m i s t s ( $ 4 , 0 4 0 ) , r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s ( $ 3 , 9 7 1 ) , and
t h e r a p i s t s ( $ 3 , 9 4 7 ) . A v e r a g e s a l a r y of d e g r e e n u r s e s was $ 3 , 8 7 5 a y e a r - with n u r s e s 22 y e a r s of age o r under ( p r e s u m a b l y on t h e i r f i r s t nursing
job) a v e r a g i n g $ 3 , 543 and n u r s e s 23 y e a r s of age o r o v e r (many of whom
had previous nursing e x p e r i e n c e ) averaging $ 4 , 0 5 7 . T e a c h e r s , p r e d o m i nant occupational group among women g r a d u a t e s , had an a v e r a g e s t a r t i n g
s a l a r y of $ 3 , 799 in 1957 - - a s c o m p a r e d with $ 3 , 492 in 1956 and $ 3 , 197 in
1955. S a l a r i e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y highest in the W e s t and lowest in the South.
(Table 1 8 . )
C o n s i d e r e d in t e r m s of undergraduate m a j o r s , the highest s t a r t i n g
s a l a r i e s in the c l a s s of 1 9 5 7 - - a s in the previous c l a s s e s s u r v e y e d - - w e r e
r e c e i v e d by c o l l e g e women who had m a j o r e d in: the physical s c i e n c e s
( $ 4 , 509), m a t h e m a t i c s ( $ 4 , 2 4 4 ) , s p e c i a l i z e d health fields other than n u r s ing ( $ 4 , 106) and nursing ( $ 3 , 8 2 0 ) . (Table 19. ) Over half of the women with
physical s c i e n c e m a j o r s and two-fifths of t h o s e with m a t h e m a t i c s m a j o r s
among the June 1957 women g r a d u a t e s e a r n e d $ 4 , 500 o r m o r e a y e a r .
(Table 2 0 . ) On the other hand, o v e r two-fifths of the women with m a j o r s
in religion and o n e - f o u r t h in a r t e a r n e d l e s s than $ 3 , 000 a y e a r .
When annual s a l a r i e s of women g r a d u a t e s w e r e grouped by i n d u s t r y of
employment, t h e r e was l e s s v a r i a t i o n than when c o n s i d e r e d by occupation
or by undergraduate m a j o r . Highest a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s w e r e r e c e i v e d by the
1957 g r a d u a t e s in manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s ( $ 3 , 9 1 9 ) and g o v e r n m e n t
( $ 3 , 8 3 6 ) , and lowest, in a d v e r t i s i n g and public r e l a t i o n s f i r m s ( $ 3 , 2 2 0 )
and r e t a i l and wholesale t r a d e ( $ 3 , 3 5 4 ) . (Table 2 1 . )

COMMENTS BY THE GRADUATES
In r e s p o n s e to the question, "What a r e your plans for future e m p l o y m e n t ? " the m a j o r i t y of g r a d u a t e s indicated they w e r e planning t o l e a v e the
labor m a r k e t when m a r r i a g e or family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t e r v e n e d : 6 p e r cent when they m a r r i e d , 18 p e r c e n t a short while a f t e r m a r r i a g e , and 40
p e r c e n t when they had c h i l d r e n . (Table 2 2 . ) Another 16 p e r c e n t e x p e c t e d
to work indefinitely or when n e c e s s a r y but had no i n t e r e s t in a c a r e e r . Only
18 p e r c e n t said they w e r e planning to have a c a r e e r . T y p e s of positions
m o s t popular with the c a r e e r - m i n d e d g r a d u a t e s w e r e : teaching (42 p e r c e n t ) ,




-12education excluding teaching (13 p e r c e n t ) , health fields excluding nursing
(8 p e r c e n t ) , e n t e r t a i n m e n t o r a r t (6 p e r c e n t ) , nursing (6 p e r c e n t ) , s o c i a l
w o r k (4 p e r c e n t ) , and j o u r n a l i s m (3 p e r c e n t ) .
A c o l l e g e education was c o n s i d e r e d v e r y beneficial in m a n y a s p e c t s of
life o t h e r than v o c a t i o n a l . M o r e than nine-tenths of the m a r r i e d g r a d u a t e s
offering an opinion thought t h e i r c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e s helpful in t h e i r r o l e
a s housewife, and an even l a r g e r proportion, in t h e i r r o l e a s m o t h e r .
T w o - t h i r d s indicated they w e r e a c t i v e m e m b e r s of at l e a s t one o r g a n i z a tion and o v e r one-fifth of t h e s e w e r e o f f i c e r s . F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of all the
g r a d u a t e s belonged to a c h u r c h o r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n ; o v e r o n e - t h i r d to
a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r work; o v e r one-fifth to a s o c i a l or
r e c r e a t i o n a l club; a l m o s t one-fifth to an educational o r c u l t u r a l group; and
one-eighth to a s o c i a l - s e r v i c e or c o m m u n i t y w e l f a r e a c t i v i t y .
When questioned c o n c e r n i n g " w a y s in which your c o l l e g e work might
have been made m o r e valuable, " the women g r a d u a t e s offered a v a r i e t y of
s u g g e s t i o n s . Since the m a j o r i t y of the women had p r e p a r e d for t e a c h i n g , it
is not s u r p r i s i n g that a significant number d i s c u s s e d t h e i r education
c o u r s e s . Most of t h e i r c o m m e n t s w e r e c r i t i c a l , a s shown in the following
quotations from g r a d u a t e s of different s c h o o l s throughout the country:
" A f t e r taking s e v e r a l education c o u r s e s I felt that b e c a u s e of t h e i r
s i m i l a r i t y and repetition I might profit m o r e by taking other
courses."
" . . . m o r e valuable if a l i b e r a l a r t s p r o g r a m could have been i n c o r p o r a t e d into the education c u r r i c u l u m r a t h e r than so many
hours spent in dull r e p e t i t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . "
" M o r e e m p h a s i s on a c t u a l subject m a t t e r and l e s s e m p h a s i s on
t h e o r e t i c a l education c o u r s e s . . . "
" M y student teaching was worth all the other education c o u r s e s
put t o g e t h e r . "
"Could have benefited by spending m o r e t i m e in a c t u a l p r a c t i c e
and having m o r e evaluation and t h e o r y worked into t h i s , r a t h e r
than given s e p a r a t e l y . "
" . . . m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e and p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s in methods r a t h e r
than the r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s in t h e o r y , which dealt principally with
'book' p r o b l e m s r a t h e r than a c t u a l i t i e s . "
" . . . am m o r e than elated that I took a full l i b e r a l a r t s p r o g r a m
and delayed taking any education c o u r s e s until a f t e r graduation. "




-13Many of the g r a d u a t e s ' c o m m e n t s w e r e c o n c e r n e d with v o c a t i o n a l
counseling, guidance, and p l a c e m e n t and indicated t h e i r continuing need for
m o r e help f r o m t h e s e s e r v i c e s :
" . . . m y c o l l e g e work might have been m o r e valuable had t h e r e been
b e t t e r counseling with attention to my t o t a l situation, r a t h e r than
the c o u n s e l o r just t r y i n g t o schedule c o u r s e s I had a l r e a d y c h o s e n . "
"I wish that I had had s o m e good advice about what different m a j o r s
c o v e r e d . I changed m y m a j o r t h r e e t i m e s for l a c k of knowing what
different m a j o r s c o n s i s t e d of and what I r e a l l y wanted. M
. . v o c a t i o n a l guidance should begin m u c h e a r l i e r than the s e n i o r
y e a r ; if not in the f r e s h m a n y e a r , c e r t a i n l y by the t i m e a student
m u s t c h o o s e her m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t . This vocational guidance
should be conducted in an o r g a n i z e d and continuous m a n n e r by the
c h a i r m a n of the m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t in c o o p e r a t i o n with the v o c a tional b u r e a u . n
" . . . students should be given m o r e detailed and individual guidance
aid. At our school it was optional but I think it should have been
r e q u i r e d in o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e our e x a c t needs in our individual
fields. "
"Guidance t o w a r d a vocation was not given by p r o f e s s o r s o r c o u n s e l o r s , but by m y m o t h e r , who is a p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r . With her
direction, m y schooling has p r e p a r e d m e to work in s e v e r a l different fields. "
" . . . m y c o l l e g e work was t r e m e n d o u s l y r e w a r d i n g and valuable in
m y own p e r s o n a l life - - c u l t u r a l l y , intellectually, and s o c i a l l y .
I do feel, h o w e v e r , that it was r a t h e r u n r e a l i s t i c a s f a r as the
b u s i n e s s world is c o n c e r n e d . "
•

" . . . t h e c o l l e g e I attended g r e a t l y lacks a p r o g r e s s i v e , r e a l i s t i c
a p p r o a c h in helping students plan for future c a r e e r s . Many of the
c o u r s e s I took w e r e of little or no help in p r e p a r i n g for the future. "
" . . . i f I had had s o m e counseling in how to use m y m a j o r in a v o c a t i o n , it would have been v e r y helpful. "
" F r o m m y own e x p e r i e n c e , c o l l e g e s a r e v e r y good in placing m e n
but v e r y seldom do they have good positions for women. "
" R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m v a r i o u s employment fields should be brought
on c a m p u s , not only for interviewing p u r p o s e s , but for educational
and i n f o r m a t i v e s e s s i o n s o r l e c t u r e s t o o . 1 '




-14Amotig the many other c o m m e n t s offered by the r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s w e r e
s o m e which showed c o n c e r n about the quality of t h e i r c o l l e g e education, as
r e v e a l e d in s o m e of the following m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e m a r k s :
ff I

feel that not enough was demanded of m e in m y c o l l e g e e d u c a tion. "
"I feel that the c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m should provide m o r e opportunity
for individual e x p r e s s i o n and formulation of i d e a s . Too m u c h of
the c o l l e g e m a t e r i a l is hand fed by the p r o f e s s o r s and not enough
is left to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the students. "
M.

. . a l a c k in m y education was the s t r e s s on f a c t s and not on
ideas."
"I think that m y c o u r s e s that w e r e m o s t valuable w e r e the ones
that r e q u i r e d outside p r o j e c t work to be done by the student. . .
m a d e learning a v e r y p e r s o n a l m a t t e r which i n s p i r e d r e a l i n t e r e s t
instead of s i m p l y a r o t e m e m o r y of f a c t s . 11
" R e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s should be made available for all t h o s e w i s h ing to do o r i g i n a l work in any field. I feel that this e x p e r i e n c e is
the single m o s t valuable one a c o l l e g e c a n o f f e r . "
"While m a n y of the s o - c a l l e d r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s m a y be valuable
for students entering c o l l e g e at 18 or 19, I found them of minimum
i n t e r e s t and use to a woman o v e r 30. "
Although t h e s e c o m m e n t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t the viewpoints
of all the women g r a d u a t e s s u r v e y e d , they contain many helpful insights
into s o m e of the c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s and thinking of c o l l e g e women today.
Among the l a r g e proportion who went to w o r k i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r graduation,
t h e r e w e r e s o m e who thought that the difficulties e n c o u n t e r e d in the t r a n sition f r o m c o l l e g e to workplace could and should be d e c r e a s e d . By and
l a r g e , however, the r e c e n t women g r a d u a t e s viewed t h e i r c o l l e g e education
favorably a s they r e f l e c t e d upon it 6 months a f t e r graduation.

CONCLUSION
S e v e r a l f a c t s r e v e a l e d in the t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e s u r v e y s of r e c e n t women
c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s for t h o s e c o n c e r n e d with the
development of the skilled manpower and womanpower needed for our Nat i o n ' s continuing growth. High proportions of the women g r a d u a t e s , in a l m o s t
e v e r y field of undergraduate education, r e p o r t e d that they w e r e able t o obtain jobs r e l a t e d to t h e i r c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g . M o r e o v e r , the m o s t a t t r a c t i v e




-15employment opportunities - - a s indicated by r i s i n g s a l a r i e s , i m m e d i a t e e m ployment in p r o f e s s i o n a l positions, and nationwide a t t e n t i o n - - p r e v a i l e d p r i m a r i l y in occupations with s h o r t a g e s of qualified w o r k e r s .
F o r two of t h e s e occupations - - t e a c h i n g and n u r s i n g - - t h e number of
women r e c e i v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e training i n c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y a s indicated by
a c o m p a r i s o n of findings f r o m the t h r e e s u r v e y s . F o r s e v e r a l other p r o f e s s i o n s , however, with equally s t r o n g demand for t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , t h e r e
was no evidence that m o r e women w e r e m o t i v a t e d to obtain suitable t r a i n i n g .
In this second group of p r o f e s s i o n s w e r e the physical s c i e n c e s , the biologic a l s c i e n c e s , the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , m a t h e m a t i c s , and e n g i n e e r i n g .
To a t t r a c t m o r e women into t h e s e fields, a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s m a y be
needed on the part of women students, t h e i r p a r e n t s , and t h e i r c o u n s e l o r s
that employment opportunities a r e expanding rapidly in t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n s
and that women who have e n t e r e d them have not only d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r c o m petence but a r e gaining r e c o g n i t i o n . Since our Nation needs t o develop and
utilize available talent to the g r e a t e s t extent possible, it is i m p o r t a n t that
we help young women c h o o s e c o u r s e s of study which will channel t h e i r abilit i e s and education t o w a r d both fulfillment of t h e i r individual goals and
m a x i m u m s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y .







APPENDIX
A--General Tables
Note 1:

Survey c o v e r e d only c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s
granting b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s and c l a s s i f i e d a s
women's schools or coeducational.

Note 2:

Due to rounding, p e r c e n t a g e s in t h e s e tables do not
n e c e s s a r i l y equal 100.

Note 3:

The total of women g r a d u a t e s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h
table v a r i e s with the number of women who r e ported on the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d
in the t a b l e .

-16-

Table 1 . — NUMBERS OF GRADUATES AND SCHOOLS INCLUDED IN SURVEY OF JUNE 1957 WOMEN COLLEGE GRADUATES

Item

Survey sample

Total represented
Number

Percent

Number

Percent

87,979

100

5,978

100

24,226
23,348
25,898
14,507

28
27
29
16

1,660
1,632
1,385
1,301

28
27
23
22

9,620
17,008
29,111
20,975
11,265

WOMEN GRADUATES (total),

11
19
33
24
13

586
1,283
1,932
1,378
799

10
21
32
23
13

1,034

100

153

100

13
49
199
285
488

1
5
19
28
47

13
23
33
33
51

8
15
22
22
33

By region of school:
Northeast
North Central
South
West
By size of school (number of women graduates)
500 and over
250 to 499
100 to 249
50 to 99
Under 50
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

1

By number of women graduates:




500 and over
250 to 499
100 to 249
50 to 99
Under 50

Covers colleges and universities granting bachelor's degrees and classified as women's schools or coeducational.

Table 2 . — A G E AND MARITAL STATUS OF GRADUATES:

1957, 1956, AND 1955

June 1957
Age and marital status

Number

June 1956

June 1955
Number

Percent

Number

Percent

87,622

100

87,058

100

80,586

100

1,498
15,091
45,906
12,290
4,813
8,024

2
17
52
14
5
9

1,468
15,120
45,496
13,256
4,225
7,493

2
17
52
15
5
9

1,641
17,978
39,617
11,684
3,172
6,494

2
22
49
15
4
8

87,663

100

87,172

100

80,966

100

52,802
33,116
7,724
5,404
2,320
25,392
1,745

60
38
9
6
3
29
2

53,333
31,969
7,984
5,430
2,554
23,985
1,870

61
37
9
6
3
28
2

51,911
27,478
5,793
3,366
2,427
21,685
1,577

64
34
7
4
3
27
2

Percent

A .. Age
Graduates represented
21 years
22 years
25 to 29 years
30 years and over

B . Marital Status
Graduates represented
Single
With children 1
Under 6 years
6 to 17 years only
Widowed, separated, divorced
1




Includes graduates who also had children 6 to 17 years of age.

Table 3 . — M A R I T A L STATUS OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY AGE
Marital status
Total
Married
Age

Widowed, separated , divorced

With children
Number Percent

Graduates represented.... 87,609
Percent

Single

Total

Under 1 6
years

6 to 17
years

With
no
children

With
children

Total

With
no
children

52,773
100

33,091

5,404

2,320

25,367

1,745

930

815

60

38

6

3

29

2

1

1

100

100

100

___
2
3
9
12
32
42

7
10
1
15
67

Percent distribution
Total
Under 21 years

1,498
15,091
45,893
years
and 24 years.....••••. 12,290
to 29 years
4,813
to 39 years
3,615
years and over
4,409

22
23
25
30
40
1




100

100

100

100

100

100

2
17
52
14
5
4
5

2
19
56
14
5
2
1

1
15
49
14
5
6
9

1
11
40
24
13
8
3

———

2
18
55
14
4
2
6

Includes graduates who also had children 6 to 17 years of age.

5
41
53

->_. —

1
5
9
7
24
54

Table 4.—UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR OF GRADUATES:

Graduates represented

Health fields

1

Languages, foreign

Physical sciences
4

2

Social sciences
Sociology and social work

1
2
3
4




Number

June 1955

June 1956

June 1957
Undergraduate major

1957, 1956, AND 1955

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

84,002

100.0

86,042

100.0

78,819

100.0

2,425
2,779
4,591
27,396
6,642
1,451
2,987
6,599
674
2,380
1,166
1,986
5,155
1,963
1,487
2,858
932
3,333
3,583
2,134
1,481

2.9
3.3
5.5
32.6
7.9
1.7
3.6
7.9
0.8
2.8
1.4
2.4
6.1
2.3
1.8
3.4
1.1
4.0
4.3
2.5
1.8

2,429
2,791
4,156
28,555
6,548
1,192
3,269
7,808
759
2,156
1,816
2,093
3,266
2,370
1,541
3,013
844
4,304
3,524
1,619
1,989

2.8
3.2
4.8
33.2
7.6
1.4
3.8
9.1
0.9
2.5
2.1
2.4
3.8
2.8
1.8
3.5
1.0
5.0
4.1
1.9
2.3

2,118
2,521
3,495
27,440
7,697
1,371
2,113
6,155
956
1,835
1,345
2,434
2,653
2,397
1,392
2,352
3
( )
3,200
3,631
1,630
2,084

2.7
3.2
4.4
34.8
9.8
1.7
2.7
7.8
1.2
2.3
1.7
3.1
3.4
3.0
1.8
3.0

Excludes nursing.
About four-fifths of the women graduates majored in chemistry in each of the years surveyed.
Included with "other majors."
Excludes (a) history, (b) psychology, and (c) sociology and social work.

4.1
4.6
2.1
2.6

Table 5. — T E A C H E R TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF GRADUATES:

June 1956

June 1957
Item

Number

1957, 1956, AND 1955

Percent

Number

June 1955

Percent

Number

Percent

A . Teacher Training
Graduates represented
Graduates with:
Teacher training, total
Education major
No education courses

86,675

100

86,676

100

79,857

100

66,827
29,900
6,64-9
30,278
19,848

77
34
8
35
23

65,152
31,291
8,060
25,801
21,524

75
36
9
30
25

59,246
30,168
4,818
24,260
20,611

74
38
6
30
26

B . Teacher Certification
Graduates represented

86,350

100

85,955

10 0

78,638

100

Graduates with:
Teacher certification, total..
Elementary education
Secondary education
Elementary and secondary
Other type of certificate
No teaching certificate

53,867
28,592
18,857
5,625
793
32,483

62
33
22
7

51,585
25,835
20,489
4,985
276
34,370

60
30
24
6
X
( )
40

48,387
25,941
16,263
4,830
1,353
30,251

62
33
21
6
2
38

1




Less than 1 percent.

C1)

38

Table 6 . — EMPLOYMENT OR SCHOOL STATUS OF GRADUATES:

1957, 1956, AND 1955
June 1955

June 1956

June 1957
Qnployment or school status
Number

Percent

Number

Number

Percent

Percent

87,703

Full time
Part time

1




Less than 1 percent.

part
full
part
part

time
time
time
time

100

80,852

100

69
66
3

60,978
58,746
2,232

70
67
3

57,923
55,464
2,459

71
68
3

11,125
8,532
95
770
1,728

13
10

9,251
7,284

11
8

7,078
5,966

9
7

C1)

1
2

497
1,470

1
2

485
627

1
1

7,005
6,029
976

8
7
1

7,045
5,933
1,112

8
7
1

6,816
6,428
388

8
8
( )

2,560
6,566

Employed full time, school
Employed full time, school
Employed part time, school
School full time, employed

87,183

60,447
57,887
2,560

Full time

100

3
7

2,523
7,386

3
8

2,916
6,119

4
8

x

Table 7 - — REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY EMPLOYMENT OR SCHOOL STATUS
Region where living in winter 1957-58

Total
Employment or school status
Number
87,703
100

Northeast

North
Central

South

West

25,368

Percent

22,725

22,718

15,546

1,346

29

26

26

18

2

Other

1

Percent distribution
100

100

100

100

100

100

60,447
57,887
2,560

69
66
3

66
64
2

72
69
3

72
69
4

67
63
3

45
36
10

11,125
8,532
95
770
1,728

13
10
(2)
1
2

18
16
(2)
1
1

12
9

13
8
(2)
1
3

4
3

1
3

7
5
(2)
1
1

Attending school only
Full time
Part time

7,005
6,029
976

8
7
1

9
7
1

7
6
1

6
5
1

10
9
2

21
16
4

Not seeking work

2,560
6,566

3
7

2
5

2
7

4
9

2
8

13
17

Total

Employed and attending school
Employed full time, school full time
Employed part time, school part time

1
2




Outside continental United States.
Less than 1 percent.

1

Table 8 . — M A R I T A L STATUS OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY EMPLOYMENT OR SCHOOL STATUS
Marital status
Total

Widowed, separated,
divorced

Married
Employment or
school status
Number

Graduates represented

With children

Single
Percent

87,663

Total

52 ; 802

33,116

Under 1 6
years

6 to 17
years

5,404

2,320

With
no
children

With
no
children

Total

With
children

25,392

1,745

930

815

Percent distribution
100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

60,395
57,835
2,560

69
66
3

71
70
1

66
60
6

32
24
8

76
68
8

72
67
5

73
72
1

77
75
2

69
69

11,125

13

16

7

4

13

7

15

15

15

8,532

10

12

5

2

12

5

11

14

8

95

( )

( )

( )

770

1

1

1

1

1,728

2

3

1

1

Attending school
Full time.

7,005
6,029
976

8
7
1

11
10
1

3
2
1

4
1
2

Seeking work
Not seeking work

2,560
6,578

3
8

2
1

5
19

7
53

Total
Employed only
Full time
Part time
Employed and attending
school
Employed full time,
school part time
Employed full time,
school full time
Employed part time,
school part time
School full time,
employed part time

1
2




2

2

2

2

Includes graduates who also had children 6 to 17 years of age,
Less than 1 percent.

( )
1

1

1

3

1

6

7
4
3

3
2
1

8
7
1

8
8

8
6
1

1
3

5
13

1
3

2

1

2
7

Table 9 . — E M P L O Y M E N T OR SCHOOL STATUS OF MARRIED WOMEN GRADUATES, CLASS OF 1957, AND THEIR HUSBANDS
Total
Status of married women graduates

Married graduates represented....

Number

Status of husband
In
military
service

19,023

32,725

Percent.

Attending
school
8,739

4,560

403

58

27

14

1

Employed

Percent

100

Not
working

Percent distribution
100

100

100

100

100

23,695

72

71

83

57

92

1,348

4

5

4

2

2

1,591

5

4

2

13

3

6,091

19

21

10

28

3

Total
1

Employed .

Seeking work

1
2

Includes graduates who are "employed only" or employed primarily and attending school.
Includes graduates who are "attending school only" or "attending school full time and employed part time."




Table 10.—UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY EMPLOYMENT OR SCHOOL STATUS
Total

Not
seeking
work

Seeking
work

1

Attending
2
school

66,689

8,522

2,436

6,355

100

79

10

3

8

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

73
60
86
88
77
85
68
76
91
63
86
78
85
79
71
69
79
72
73
72
54

9
32
2
2
11
6
20
12
2
25
8
16
7
9
21
17
7
17
21
14
32

4
2
3
3
3
5
3
3
4
4
2
1
2
2
1
3
3
3
2
8
9

13
6
9
7
8
4
8
9
4
8
4
5
6
10
7
12
10
9
4
6
6

Employed

Undergraduate major
Number
Graduates represented....

Health fields

3

Physical sciences
Psychology

Other majors
1
2
3
A




Includes
Includes
Excludes
Excludes

Percent

84,002

2,425
2,779
4,591
27,396
6,642
1,451
2,987
6,599
674
2,380
1,166
1,986
5,155
1,963
1,487
2,858
932
3,333
3,583
2,134
1,481

graduates who are "employed only" or employed primarily and attending school.
graduates who are "attending school only" or "attending school full time and employed part time."
nursing.
(a) history, (b) psychology, and (c) sociology and social work.

Table 11.—OCCUPATION OF EMPLOYED GRADUATES:
June 1957

1957, 1956, AND 1955
June 1955

June 1956

Occupational group
Number

Percent

Number

Percent

71,44-1
Advertising and editorial assistants
Assistant buyers, store trainees.....
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Editors, copywriters, reporters

Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation workers
Salesclerks, retail workers
Social and welfare workers
Teachers
Grade school
Junior high 7 school
High school
Other
Typists
Other occupations
1

100.0

70,043

100.0

854
402
470
652
586
2,428
970
578
880
406
703
4,915
476
2,167
679
549
646
617
4,753
1,320
42,028
26,793
4,882
8,863
1,490
1,977
887
566
932

1.2
0.6
0.7
0.9
0.8
3.4
1.4
0.8
1.2
0.6
1.0
6.9
0.7
3.0
1.0
0.8
0.9
0.9
6.7
1.8
58.8
37.5
6.8
12.4
2.1
2.8
1.2
0.8
1.3

633
459
624
817
397
3,389
696
740
758
436
454
3,504
551
2,148
480
699
493
628
4,391
1,541
41,133
25,375
4,650
9,543
1,565
2,123
861
899
1,189

0.9
0.7
0.9
1.2
0.6
4.8
1.0
1.1
1.1
0.6
0.6
5.0
0.8
3.1
0.7
1.0
0.7
0.9
6.3
2.2
58.7
36.2
6.6
13.6
2.2
3.0
1.2
1.3
1.7

Number

2

64,752

Percent
100.0

C1)

3

(2)
914
(X)
470
4,120
(4)
650
887
C1)

1.4
—

0.7
6.4
1.0
1.4

479
2,585

0.7
4.0

2,911
2,005
(6)
(2)
679
4,908
(6)
39,651
26,637
2,791
8,753
1,470
1,929
(2)
1,147
1,417

4.5
3.1

(*)

6

1.0
7.6
61.2
41.1
4.3
13.5
2.3
3.0
1.8
2.2

Included in "clerical workers, miscellaneous."
Included in "professional workers, miscellaneous."
Includes bank and insurance workers who6 did primarily clerical work.
^ Included with "home economists."
5
Includes a7 few natural scientists.
A combination job covering "recreation, religious, social, and welfare
workers."
Includes graduates teaching in both elementary and secondary schools.
3




Table 1 2 . — D A T E WHEN JUNE 1957 GRADUATES STARTED ON FIRST JOB, BY FULL- OR PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT
Full-time employment

Total
Date of starting on first job

Graduates represented
June 1957 or prior
July 1957
August 1957..
September 1957
October 1957
November 1957
December 1957
January 1958 or later
1
2




1

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Part-time employment
Number

Percent

54,776

100

51,890

100

2,886

100

654
5,225
7,335
28, 637
131
967
212
615

18
10
13
52
4
2
(2)
1

9,237
4,939
7,097
27,698
1,627
618
160
514

18
10
14
53
3
1
(2)
1

417
286
238
939
504
349
52
101

14
10
8
33
17
12
2
3

Excludes graduates who were no longer employed on their first job when surveyed in the winter of 1957-58.
Less than 1 percent.

Table 13.--PRIMARY JOB SOURCE OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS
Percent of employed graduates listing as primary job sourceTotal
Occupational group
Number

Percent

School
placement
bureau

College
professor

Private
employment
service

Public
employment
service

Newspaper
or
magazine
advertisement

Family
or
friend

Direct
application
on own

Other

17,072

4,688

1,989

1,304

1,594

11,859

30,576

1,352

100

24

7

3

2

2

17

43

2

854

100

17

5

23

8

6

23

18

341

Graduates represented

100

6

11

15

9

8

20

20

10

447

100

61

10

9

15

5

632
586

100
100

17
41

2
9

10
5

6
6

35
2

25
36

5
2

2,428
886

100
100

19
13

4
37

5
5

11

7
4

24
4

28
33

C1)

566
852
406

100
100
100

16
9
10

16
3
18

10

3
1

4
2

29
26
11

22
40
44

703
4,775
476

100
100
100

44
3
20

9
4

12
2
21

18
14
21

17
67
9

2,120

100

23

16

7

24

26

70,4-34

Percent
Advertising and editorial
Artists, musicians,
Assistant buyers, store
trainees
Bookkeepers, accounting
clerks
Chemists
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Dietitians
Editors, copywriters,
reporters
Home economists
Library assistants........
Mathematicians, statisticians
Personnel assistants
Professional workers,
miscellaneous

See footnotes at end of table.




6
1
20
2

1

4

18
11
—

9
8
2

Table 1 3 . — P R I M A R Y JOB SOURCE OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS—Continued
Percent of employed graduates listing as primary job s o u r c e —
Total
Occupational group
Number

School
placement
Percent bureau

Private
College employprofessor ment
service

Public
employment
service

Newspaper
or
magazine
advertisement

Family
or
friend

Direct
application
on own

23
27
15

26
22
18

7
10

Other

630
492
646

100
100
100

16
27
30

14
9
13

8
2
15

2
2

4
2
6

617

100

12

3

3

2

2

34

42

1

4,721

Recreation workers
Religious workers
Research workers
Salesclerks, retail

100

15

8

11

7

4

24

29

2

1,304
41,693
26,549
4,870
8,816
1,458
1,935
858
550
916

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10
30
28
30
39
15
10
20
13
7

9
5
4
2
8
21
16
23

1
1
1

8
1

5
1

26
14
13
13
19
14
21
8
31
26

39
48
53
53
32
41
38
39
35
47

Secretaries, stenogSocial and welfare
workers
Grade school.
Junior high school
High school
Other
Technicians, biological...
Therapists
Typists
Other occupations
1




Less than 1 percent.

3

C1)

4
2

i
3
5

1
2
2
5

14
7

5
5

1
6

t1)

n

1

C1)
n
i
i
i
4
10

— —

Table 14.—OCCUPATION OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR
Percent of employed graduates
with undergraduate major i n -

Total
Occupational group
Art

Biological
sciences

Business
and
commerce

Education

English

Health 1
fields

1,842

1,983

3,941

24,251

5,166

1,287

100

Number

100

100

100

100

100

100

1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
3
1
1
1
1
7
2
58
37
7
13
2
3
1
1
1

3
11
3

1
(3)
4
9

(3)

4
1
1
(3)

Percent

68,268
Advertising and editorial assistants...
Assistant buyers, store trainees
Bookkeepers, accounting clerks
Clerical workers, miscellaneous...
Editors, copywriters, reporters
Library assistants
Mathematicians, statisticians
Professional workers, miscellaneous....
Religious workers
Research workers
Salesclerks, retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Grade school
Junior high school
Other
Technicians, biological
Therapists
Other occupations
See footnotes at end of table.




790
402
461
639
574
2,375
942
565
871
406
- 703
4,816
476
2,013
657
459
646
608
4,570
1,298
39,744
24,977
4,747
8,555
1,465
1,943
853
543
914

7

1
5
2

3
1
1
(3)
1
13
2

(3)
—

10
(3)

i

2
O

2
4
3
2

1
2
7

3
1
2

41
24
10
5
2
2

26
4
5
13
4
48

7

—

(3)
1
4
4
(3)
3
3
39
(3)
19
3
1
15
(3)

1

1

(3)

ft
ft
ft
ft
(3)
2
94
80
5
7
2

S)
(

2
1
1
1
1
10
1
60
16
17
26
1
1

3

1
2

(3)

2
2

(3)
(3)

3
2

3
(3)
28

1
1

1
51
16

Table 14. —OCCUPATION OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR--Continued
Percent of employed graduates with undergraduate major i n —
Occupational group

History

Home
economics

Journalism

Languages,
foreign

Mathematics

Music

Nursing

2,139

5,504

612

1,511

1,001

1,718

4,426

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

3

1

21
3

1

2
1
(3)
1
17
1
15
(3)

4
1
1

2

1

Advertising and editorial assistants
Artists, musicians, actresses
Assistant buyers, store trainees
Bookkeepers, accounting clerks

10
Editors, copywriters, reporters
Library assistants
Mathematicians, statisticians
Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation workers
Religious workers
Research workers
Salesclerks, retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Grade school
Junior high school
Other
Technicians, biological

(3)
••••••
(3)

3

1

(3)
6
2
65
32
14
16
3
—

44

See footnotes at end of table.




2
1

1
3

5
1

—
—

2
1

1
42

1
98
1

9

4
1

6

3

1
1
16

3

55
14
10
28
3

42
3
16
24

3
2
2
11
11

1
6
71
26
7
26
12
1

- - -

—

Other occupations

6

— -

(?)
1
2
2
(3)
51
10
13
28
1
(3)

8

2

1
5

4
5

1
1
4

Table 14.—OCCUPATION OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR—Continued
Percent of employed graduates with undergraduate major i n —
Sociology,
social
work

Speech,
Other
dramatic
subjects
art

Physical
education

Psychology

Religion

1,062

1,958

763

2,446

2,628

1,572

842

100
Advertising and editorial assistants.
Artists, musicians, actresses
Assistant buyers, store trainees
Bookkeepers, accounting clerks

Physical
sciences

1,616

Occupational group

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1

1

4
1

2

Social 2
sciences

3

1
1

1
1

3

7

11

1
1
43
1

Clerical workers, miscellaneous

7

2
—

2
5
1
4

3
8
—

1

1

Editors, copywriters, reporters

1

—

—

—
—

—

4

Mathematicians, statisticians

1
4

3
3

4
8
3

1
8
2

—
—

Professional workers, miscellaneous..

2
11

16

Religious workers
1

3

3
11
2
15

8
11
43
33
2
2
6*
1

1

2
2

3
80
5
25
43
7

Other

1
15

2
35
2
21
2
27
27

2
2
18
8
40
17
13
9

2
Typists
1
3




Excludes nursing.
Less than 1 percent.

2

6

1
2

2
1
(3)
3
2
6
1
2
1
9
27
28
21
1
5
2
(3)
1
1
2

Excludes (a) history, (b) psychology, and (c) sociology and social work.

2
2
2
1
2
9
30
10
2
14
4
32
1
3

7
1
11
5
3
8
2
42
20
9
11
3
5
1
1

Table 1 5 . — T E A C H E R TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY EMPLOYMENT OR SCHOOL STATUS
Percent of graduates who a r e —

Total

Employed
Teacher training
and certification
Number

Percent

As teachers i n —
Total

Grade
school

High
Junior
high schools-

Other
schools

Other
occupations

Attending 2
school

Seeking
work

Not
seeking
work

A . Teacher Training
Graduates represented

41,745

26,690

4,840

8,789

1,426

27,182

8,682

2,548

6,518

100

48

31

6

10

2

31

10

3

8

100
100
100
100
100

61
82
61
40
5

39
65
31
15
2

7
6
9
8
(3)

13
9
20
16
1

2
2
1
1
1

21
6
20
36
66

8
3
9
13
17

3
3
3
3
4

7
7
8
8
8

86,675

Graduates with:
Teacher training, total.... 66,827
Education major
29,900
6,649
Some education courses... 30,278
19,848
No education courses

B . Teacher Certification
Graduates represented

41,839

26,747

4,840

8,838

1,414

26,972

8,560

2,495

6,484

100

48

31

6

10

2

31

10

3

8

100
100
100
100
100
100

75
85
62
81
27
4

49
81
4
38
6
2

9
2
18
15
1
(3)

16
(3)
38
24
6
1

2
1
2
4
14
1

11
5
18
11
57
65

4
2
8
2
3
19

3
2
3
2
2
3

7
6
8
5
10
9

86,350

Graduates with:
Teacher certification,
53,867
28,592
Secondary education
18,857
Elementary and secondary. 5,625
793
Other type of certificate
No teaching certificate.... 32,483
1
2
3




Includes graduates teaching in both elementary and secondary schools.
Includes graduates attending school full time and employed part time.
Less than 1 percent.

Table 1 6 . — C O M P A R I S O N OF GRADUATES

1

SALARIES BY OCCUPATION:

1957
Occupational group

1956

Average
annual
salary

Number

Average
annual
salary

63,945

$3,739

64,841

$3,446

764
427
544
569
2,049
401
542
808
329
627
4,302
447
2,125
543
370
626
396
4,089
1,266
39,320
25,549
4,613
8,290
868
1,586
701
449
630

$3,278
574
3,381
597
740
3,407
4,847
397
3,247
3,007
3,576
355
688
3,397
4,040
683
359
3,097
4,675
454
3,191
3,875
3,676
551
2,351
3,862
3,655
426
3,167
615
430
3,971
2,860 .
471
3,295
4,017
3,792
1,462
3,799
39,059
3,858
24,547
4,583
3,785
3,658
9,137
3,475
792
3,854
1,810
800
3,947
3,104
780
931
3,214

$3,210
3,056
3,017
4,453
3,179
3,351
3,120
3,803
2,960
4,382
3,647
3,497
3,732
3,571
2,960
3,819
2,504
3,148
3,440
3,492
3,550
3,476
3,355
3,348
3,492
3,733
2,912
3,007

Number

Advertising and editorial assistants

Professional w o r k e r s , miscellaneous
Recreation workers•••••••••4..••••••••.«•••
Reli finus

workers..........................

Teachers
Grade school

Other
Technicians, biological
Therapists
Typists
Other occupations
1

M o u n t of
increase

1955

Number

Average
annual
salary

1956
to
1957

59,747

$3,141

$293

.....

893

$2,791

470
3,087

3,900
2,852

650
791

3,020
3,341

438
2,252

3,763
3,438

4,168

3,212

405
4,506

2,420
2,895

37,418
25,800

3,197
3,242

10,705
913
1,720

3,087
3,230
3,038

996
1,218

2,704
3,008

$68
325
390
394
68
225
277
237
137
293
228
179
130
84
207
152
356
147
352
307
308
309
303
127
362
214
192
207

.....

.....

Excludes part-time workers. Includes a few graduates w h o did not report their occupation.

NOTE:




1957, 1956, AND 1955

For comparability of occupational groups surveyed, see footnotes in table 1 1 .

1955
to
1957
$598
—

$590
947
395
377
699
912
437
—

650
...

440
400
—

602
616
571
245
816
400
206

Table 17.--ANNUAL SALARY IN WINTER 1957-58 OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY OCCUPATION

Occupational group

Graduates represented

1

Average
Number
of
annual
graduates salary

Editors, copywriters, reporters
Library assistants
Mathematicians, statisticians.
Personnel assistants
Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation workers
Research workers
Salesclerks, retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Teachers

Other
'
Technicians, biological




1
2

764
427
544
569
2,049
401
542
808
329
627
4,302
447
2,125
543
370
626
396
4,089
1,266
39,320
25,549
4,613
8,290
868
1,586
701
449
630

Under
$3,000

$3,000
to
$3,499

$3,500
to
$3,999

$4,000
to
$4,499

7,232

13,069

19,490

17,323

100

63,945

11

20

30

27

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
(2)
100
100
100
100
100
(2)
100
(2)
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

28
11
39

34
56
15

36
11
8

28
10
66
3

34
30
19
12
23
69
18
28

4
2
15
11
11
11
6
58

6
23
41
20
26

8
31
20
26
54

15
27
24
18
20

71
15
9
21

34

33

19

14

31
25
17
15
21
20
18
25
5
63
27

25
26
32
30
33
39
28
39
40
10
16

9
41
33
36
34
23
21
15
41

4
5
10
11
7
7
8
16
11

10

11

Total

$3,739

Percent
Advertising and editorial assistants
Assistant buyers, store trainees
Bookkeepers, accounting clerks
Chemists
Clerical workers, miscellaneous

Percent of employees receiving annual salary of--

$3,278
3,381
3,407
847
3,247
3, 576
3,397
040
3, 097
675
3, 875
3, 676
3, 862
3, 655
3, 167
3,971
2, 860
3,295
3, 792
3, 799
3,858
3, 785
3, 658
3,475
3, 854
3, 947
3, 104
3,214

4
6
15

30
2
8
7
5
12
25
4
2
27
37

Excludes part-time workers. Includes a few graduates who did not report their occupation.
Insufficient coverage to warrant breakdown of occupational average.

$4,500
and
over
6, 831
11

12
76
2
2
11

Table 1 8 . — ANNUAL SALARY IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY REGION OF 1957 GRADUATES

Occupational group

Total
i
Average
Number
annual
salary

Personnel assistants

Teachers
Grade school
High school.
Other
Technicians, biological
Therapists
Typists

1

Northeast

North
Central
$3,860

$3,381

$4,050

$3,168

$2,765

$3,299

$3,739

$3,764

764
569
2,049
401
808
627
4,302
447
2,125
370
626
4,089
1,266
39,320
25,549
4,613
8,290
868
1, 586
701
449

$3,278
4,847
3,247
3,576
4,040
4.675
3,875
3.676
3,862
3,167
3,971
3,295
3,792
3,799
3,858
3,785
3,658
3,475
3,854
3,947
3,104

$3,282
4,847
3,464
3,624
3,965
4,608
3,845
3,801
3,689
3,955
3,437
3,752
3,840
3,866
3,822
3,812
3,563
3,595

South

West

4,011
4,167

3,673

3,814

4,121

3,624
3,096

4,422

3,403
3,791
3,925
3,940
3,965
3,854

3,069
3,553
3,348
3,425
3,331
3,227
2,965
3,897

3,372
4,131
4,185
4,224
4,113
4,060

3,987
3,957

4,000

3,222

Excludes part-time workers. Includes a few graduates who did not report their occupation.

NOTE:




EMPLOYMENT

Average annual salary

63,945
Advertising and editorial assistants

1

Salaries are not shown for regions with only small numbers of graduates reporting a specified occupation.

Table 19. — C O M P A R I S O N OF GRADUATES' SALARIES, BY UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR:
June 1957
Undergraduate major
Number

Average
annual
salary

June 1956
Number

Average
annual
salary

1957, 1956, AND 1955
June 1955

Number

Average
annual
salary

Amount of increase
1956
to
1957

1955
to
1957

63,945

English
2
Health fields
History
Home economics
Languages, foreign

Physical education
Psychology
Religion
4
Social sciences




1
2
3
4

$3,739

64,841

$3,446

59,747

$3,141

$293

$598

1,480
1,538
3,602
22,919
4,716
1,135
1,882
4,628
563
1,287
891
1,241
3,875
1,497
972
1,719
660
2,219
2,211
1,269
710

$3,570
3,683
3,630
3,796
3,608
4,106
3,617
3,693
3,458
3,561
4,244
3,667
3,820
3,662
4,509
3,646
3,007
3,676
3,609
3,614
3,749

1,579
1,791
3,222
24,388
4,635
851
2,356
5,151
603
1,500
1,476
1,270
2,733
1,889
954
1,814
596
2,777
2,195
1,053
1,252

$3,261
3,473
3,266
3,492
3,336
3,612
3,472
3,359
3,139
3,355
3,747
3,335
3,598
3,244
4,100
3,578
3,073
3,413
3,446
3,380
3,560

1,294
1,455
3,027
22,962
5,094
950
1,339
4,543
657
1,131
1,047
1,488
2,123
1,913
679
1,102

$2,660
3,017
3,135
3,204
3,015
3,469
3,092
3,037
2,981
2,849
3,402
2,987
3,451
3,174
3,670
2,862

$910
666
495
592
593
637
525
656
477
712
842
680
369
488
839
784

2,215
2,470
1,182
1,232

3,122
3,214
3,021
3,140

$309
210
364
304
272
494
145
334
319
206
497
332
222
418
409
68
3
66
263
163
234
189

Excludes part-time workers. Includes some graduates who did not report their undergraduate major.
Excludes nursing.
A decrease in average annual salary.
Excludes (a) history, (b) psychology, and (c) sociology and social work.

—

554
395
593
609

Table 20. —UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR AND ANNUAL SALARY OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES

Average
annual
salary

63,945

Undergraduate major

Number
of
graduates

Percent of employed graduates receiving
annual salary o f —

$3,739

Total

Under
$3,000

$3,000
to
$3,499

$3,500
to
$3,999

$4,000
to
$4,499

$4,500
and
over

English
2
Health fields
History

Physical sciences.....
Religion

1
2
3




$3,570
3,683
3,630
3,796
3,608
4,106
3,617
3,693
3,458
3,561
4,244
3,667
3,820
3,662
4,509
3,646
3,007
3,676
3,609
3,614
3,749

13,069

19,490

17,323

6,831

100
1,480
1,538
3,602
22,919
4,716
1,135
1,882
4,628
563
1,287
891
1,241
3,875
1,497
972
1,719
660
2,219
2,211
1,269
710

7,232
11

20

30

27

11

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

25
11
22
9
14
5
13
8
7
19
7
17
5
14
3
15
45
9
11
17
13

25
29
25
17
26
14
23
20
42
15
12
21
24
20
5
21
32
26
31
20
18

18
29
23
32
31
42
36
40
38
38
14
24
29
25
18
29
17
34
26
31
41

23
18
18
33
22
20
21
27
12
23
27
28
29
32
20
31
5
20
25
25
15

9
13
12
10
7
19
7
5

Excludes part-time workers. Includes some graduates who did not report their undergraduate major.
Excludes nursing.
Excludes (a) history, (b) psychology, and (c) sociology and social work.

5
40
10
13
9
53
4
—

10
7
7
13

Table 21. — INDUSTRY OF EMPLOYMENT AND ANNUAL SALARY OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES
Percent of employed graduates receiving
annual salary o f —
iNUILLUcX

Industry of employment

1

of
graduates

iiV C i

clgti

annual
salary

Total

Under
, nnn
UUU

$3,000
to
$3,499

$3,500
to
$3,999

$4,000
to
$4,499

$4,500
and
over

Retail or wholesale trade....
Finance, insurance, or law
Transportation, communications, or
public utilities
Social services or religion
Advertising or public relations...
Manufacturing
Other industries




1
2

63,945

7,232

13,069

19,490

17,323

6,831

100

Graduates represented

11

20

30

27

11

$3,739

42,634
6,165
2,008
1,922

$3,769
3,797
3,354
3,508

100
100
100
100

10
7
29
23

17
23
28
32

32
36
29
24

32
20
9
11

9
13
5
10

1,426
1,888
524
3,651
2,864
853

3,553
3,364
3,220
3,919
3,836
3,596

100
100
100
100
100
100

10
16
31
10
9
27

36
42
46
25
24
19

33
27
15
21
17
26

13
15
8
18
31
13

8

Excludes part-time workers. Includes a few graduates who did not report their industry of employment.
Excludes graduates employed in government hospitals, as they are included in medical services.

—

26
18
15

Table 2 2 . — F U T U R E EMPLOYMENT PLAN OF JUNE 1957 GRADUATES, BY MARITAL STATUS
Total

Marital status

Employment plan
Number

Single

Percent

78,893

Married

Other

1

49,299
100

28,105

1,489

62

36

2

Percent distribution
100
Plan to work indefinitely, have no interest in a career
Plan to work only as necessary—for economic
Plan to work short while after marriage
Other plans
1
2




Widowed, separated, divorced.
Less than 1 percent.

100

100

100

14,193
7,683

18
10

19
10

14
9

52
27

5,089
31,531
14,052
4,406
1,754
185

6
40
18
6
2
(2)

4
33
25
9
(2)
(2)

11
54
6

11
1
3
4
2

5
(2)

• —

-42-

B. QUESTIONNAIRE FORM
Survey of

Please leave blank:

Class of June 1957 Women Baccalaureate Graduates

Sch. No

Conducted by the National Vocational Guidance Association

Region

in cooperation with the

Weight

Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor

College or university

Location-

Instructions: Please circle ONLY ONE NUMBER in each question. Fill in all blank lines where pertinent,
but do not fill in boxes (inserted for tabulating purposes).

I. Are you a graduate assistant?
1. Yes
2. No

I EDUCATION
A. Degree received:
1. B.A.
2. B.S.
3. Other, specify
B. Field of degree:
j

J. Amount of assistantship per school year:

Major
Minor

C. Are you attending school now?
1. Yes, full time
2. Yes, part time
3. No, not at all
D. If "yes", give:
Name of school
Major field of study

E. Are you a candidate for a graduate degree
or certification?
1. Yes
2. No
F. If "yes", what degree or type of certificate?
G. Do you have a scholarship?
1. Yes
2. No
H. Amount of scholarship per school year:




K. If not now attending school, do you plan to do
graduate study later?
1. Yes
2. No
L. Did you take any education course or courses as an
undergraduate ?
1. Yes
2. No
M. Did you meet the requirements for a teaching
certificate (either permanent or temporary) ?
1. Yes
2. No
N. In elementary education?
1. Yes
2. No
0 . In secondary education?
1. Yes
2. No
P, If secondary, list teaching subjects:

Q. If you have a teaching certificate, what states
does it cover?

-43-

R. If you have another type of certificate, specify:

II AGE AND MARITAL STATUS
A. Age on your last birthday:
1. Under 21 years
2. 21 years
3. 22 years
4. 23-24 years
5. 25-29 years
6. 30-39 years
7. 40 years or over
B. Marital status:
1. Single
2. Married
3. Widowed, separated, or divorced
C. If you have children, indicate their ages:
1. Under 6 years old
2. 6 to 17 years old
3. Both under 6, and 6 to 17 years old
4. No children
D. If married, is your husband:
1. Employed full time: Occupation
.....
2. Attending school full time: Field of study.
3. In military service
4. Not working
5. Other, specify
E. In which state are you now living?

Ill EMPLOYMENT
A. Are you employed?
1. Yes, full time
2. Yes, part time
3. No, but seeking work
4. No, and not seeking work
IF EMPLOYED, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:
B. Is this your first job since graduation?
1. Yes
2. No
C. Date you began work on present job:




D. From whom (or what source) did you first hear
about your present job?
1. College or university placement bureau
2. College professor
3. Private employment service
4. Public employment service
5. Newspaper or magazine advertisement
6. Family or friend
7. Direct application on own
8. Other, specify
E. Is your present job the kind you hoped to get
after college?
1. Yes
2. No
F. If "no", what kind of job did you hope to get?

I

I

G. If "no", reason for accepting present job:

IN YOUR OPINION, DOES YOUR PRESENT
JOB:
H. Meet your economic needs?
1. Yes
2. No
I. Provide a step forward in your professional
development?
1. Yes
2. No
J. Relate to your college major?
1. Yes
2. No
K. If employed, what is your occupation?
Job title
Major job duties

L. Name of employing organization
Location
Main activity of employer:
0. Educational service
1. Medical service
2. Retail or wholesale trade
3. Finance, insurance, or law

-44-

4. Transportation, communications, or public
utilities
5. Social service or religion
6. Advertising or public relations
7. Manufacturing
8. Government
9. Other, specify

4. Plan to work only as necessary—for economic
reasons
5. Do not plan to work in the forseeable future
6. Plan to work indefinitely, but have no interest
in a career
7. Plan to have a career. What type of position do
you hope eventually to hold?

M. If employed as a teacher, give type of school:
1. Grade school—What grade

IV GENERAL

2. Junior high—What grade and subjects

A. If married, do you feel that your college experience
has helped you in your role—As a housewife:
1. Yes
2. No

3. Senior high—What subjects
4. Other, specify

B. As a mother
1. Yes
2. No

N. Gross salary (before deductions):
(Answer one):
Per week
$
Every 2 weeks $
Per month
$
Per year
$

1

C. If you are an ACTIVE member (contributing time
as well as dues) of any organizations, circle one or
more of the following:
1. Social service or community welfare
2. Professional society related to work
3. Social or recreational
4. Political
5. Union
6. Educational and cultural (literature, art, music,
etc.)
7. Church or religious
8. Other, specify

I

0 . If teaching, how many paychecks do you receive
per year?
P. What are your plans for future employment?
(Circle the one statement which most closely
applies.)
1. Plan to stop working when I marry
2. Plan to work for a short time after marriage
3. Plan to stop working when I have children

D. Are you an officer (elected or appointed) in any
of these organizations?
1. Yes
2. No

NAME OF COLLEGE FROM WHICH YOU GRADUATED
LOCATION
YOUR NAME
(If married, include your maiden name)

PRESENT ADDRESS
(Number)

(Street)

(City)

(State)

PERMANENT MAILING ADDRESS
(Number)

(Street)

(City)

(State)

WHERE YOU LIVED BEFORE GOING TO COLLEGE
(City)

(State)

NOTE: Please add on the back any explanations you wish to make concerning the above questions or other topics. We should be
especially interested in specific comments on ways in which your college work might have been made more valuable.




S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F I C E : 1959 O - 5 0 3 1 4 2


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102