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Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook and Greenbook Tables and Charts
Table of Contents
Document Section

Accessible Material

Bluebook
Recent Developments

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_1.htm

Monetary Policy Strategies

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_2.htm

Policy Alternatives

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_3.htm

Long-Run Projections of the Balance Sheet and Monetary Base

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_4.htm

Bank Credit, Debt, and Money Forecasts

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_5.htm

Appendix A: Measures of the Equilibrium Real Rate

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_6.htm

Appendix C: Long-run Projections of the Balance Sheet and Monetary Base   

FOMC20091104bluebook20091029_7.htm

Greenbook Part 1
Domestic Developments

FOMC20091104gbpt120091029_1.htm

International Developments

FOMC20091104gbpt120091029_2.htm

Greenbook Part 2
Domestic Nonfinancial Developments

FOMC20091104gbpt220091028_1.htm

Domestic Financial Developments

FOMC20091104gbpt220091028_2.htm

International Developments

FOMC20091104gbpt220091028_3.htm

Greenbook Supplement
Supplemental Notes

Last update: April 1, 2015

FOMC20091104gbsup20091030_1.htm

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts†
Recent Developments
Chart 1
Interest Rate Developments
Figure: Expected federal funds rates
Line chart, by percent, late 2009 to 2011. There are two series, "October 29, 2009" and "September 22, 2009". October 29, 2009 begins at about 0.15 and
generally increases to end at about 2.48. September 22, 2009 begins at about 0.2 and generally increases to end at about 2.75.
Note. Estimates from federal funds and Eurodollar futures, with an allowance for term premiums and other adjustments.
Source. CME Group.

Figure: Implied distribution of federal funds rate six months ahead
Line chart, by percent, 0.25 to 4.50. There are two series, "Recent: 10/29/2009" and "Last FOMC: 9/22/2009". Recent: 10/29/2009 begins at about 52 and generally
decreases to about 15 by 0.50. It then generally increases to about 20 by 0.75 and generally decreases to about 0 by 2.75. It remains about constant until the end.
Last FOMC: 9/22/2009 begins at about 55 and generally decreases to about 0 by 2.25. It remains about constant until the end.
Note. Derived from options on Eurodollar futures contracts, with term premium and other adjustments to estimate expectations for the federal funds rate.

Figure: Distribution of expected quarter of first rate increase from the Desk's Dealer Survey
Line chart, by percent, 2010:Q1 to 2012:Q2. There are two series, "Recent: 18 respondents" and "Last FOMC: 17 respondents". Recent: 18 respondents begins at
about 0 and generally increases to about 23 by 2010:Q2. It then generally decreases to about 12 by 2010:Q4, and generally increases to about 27 by 2011:Q1. It
then generally decreases to about 0 by 2011:Q4, and generally increases to about 12 by 2012:Q1. It then generally decreases to end at about 0. Last FOMC: 17
respondents begins at nearly 18 for 2010:Q2, increases to nearly 30 for 2010:Q3, decreases back to nearly 18 for 2010:Q4 and 2011:Q1, and then decreases to
nearly 6 for 2011:Q2, 2011:Q3, and 2012:Q1.
Source. Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Figure: Nominal Treasury yields
Line chart, by percent, 2007 to October 29, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series, "10year" and "2-year". 10-year begins at about 4.8 and generally increases to about 5.4 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 2.7 by late 2008, and generally
increases to about 4.3 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 3.8. It is at about 3.7 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 2-year begins
at about 4.8 and generally decreases to about 0.5 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 1. It is at about 1 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting.
Note. Par yields from a smoothed nominal off-the-run Treasury yield curve.
Source. Staff estimates.

Figure: Inflation compensation
Line chart, by percent, 2007 to October 29, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Next 5
years" and "5-to-10 year forward". Next 5 years begins at about 2.3 and generally decreases to about 1.8 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 2.55 by
mid-2008, and generally decreases to about -1.5 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 1.6. It is at about 1.4 at the time of September 2009
FOMC meeting. 5-to-10 year forward begins at about 2.5 and generally increases to about 3.5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 2.0 by late 2008, and
generally increases to end at about 3.0. It is at about 2.95 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note. Estimates based on smoothed nominal and inflation-indexed Treasury yield curves and adjusted for the indexation-lag (carry) effect.
Source. Barclay, PLC., and staff estimates.

Figure: Survey measures of inflation expectations
Line chart, by percent, 2002 to October 2009. There are two series, "Michigan 1-year" and "Michigan 10-year". Michigan 1-year begins at about 1.9 and generally
increases to about 3.1 by early 2003. It then generally decreases to about 1.7 by mid-2003, and generally increases to about 5.2 by mid-2008. It then generally
decreases to about 1.6 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 2.8. Michigan 10-year begins at about 2.7 and generally increases to about 3 by

2002. It then generally decreases to about 2.5 by 2002, and generally increases to about 3.4 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.88.
Source. Reuters/University of Michigan.

Chart 2
Asset Market Developments
Figure: Equity prices
Line chart, 2008 to October 29, 2009. January 2, 2008 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series, "S&P
500", begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 48 by 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 72. It is at about 73 at the time of the
September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. Bloomberg.

Figure: S&P 500 earnings per share (seasonally adjusted)
Line chart, by dollars, 2000 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 14 and
generally increases to about 14.3 by mid-2000. It then generally decreases to about 10.8 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 24 by mid-2007. It then
generally decreases to about 5.4 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 16. It is at about 16 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note. 2009:Q3 is estimated.
Source. Thomson Financial.

Figure: Implied volatility on S&P 500 (VIX)
Line chart, by percent, 2002 to October 29, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 20
and generally increases to about 46 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 7 by late 2006, and generally increases to about 80 by late 2008. It then
generally decreases to end at about 30. It is at about 27 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. Chicago Board Options Exchange.

Figure: Bank ETFs
Line chart, January 2009 to October 29, 2009. January 2, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
two series, "Large banks" and "Small banks". Large banks begins at about 99 and generally decreases to about 40 by early March. It then generally increases to
about 110 by October, and generally decreases to end at about 100. It is at about 108 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Small banks begins at
about 100 and generally decreases to about 50 by March 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 74. It is at about 76 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting.
Note. Large banks ETF includes 24 banks. Small banks ETF includes 51 banks.
Source. Bloomberg.

Figure: Corporate bond spreads
Line chart, 2002 to October 29, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series,
"10-year BBB" and "10-year High-Yield". These two series use two different scales. 10-year BBB begins at about 200 and generally increases to about 320 by late
2002. It then generally decreases to about 100 by early 2005, and generally increases to about 650 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 260.
It is at about 275 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 10-year High-Yield begins at about 500 and generally increases to about 850 by late 2002. It
then generally decreases to about 250 by early 2005, and generally increases to about 1630 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 600. It is at
about 630 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note. Measured relative to an estimated off-the-run Treasury yield curve.
Source. Merrill Lynch and staff estimates.

Figure: Select interest rates
Line chart, by percent, January 2009 to October 2009. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are three series, "30-year fixed
rate mortgage", "MBS yield" and "On-the-run 10-yr Treasury". 30-year fixed rate mortgage begins at about 5 and generally increases to about 5.3 by early
February. It then generally decreases to about 4.8 by late March, and generally increases to about 5.6 by April. It then generally decreases to end at about 5 by
October 28. It is at about 5 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. MBS yield begins at about 4.2 and generally decreases to about 3.7 by January. It
then generally increases to about 5 by June, and generally decreases to end at about 4.3 by October 29. It is at about 4.5 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting. On-the-run 10-yr Treasury begins at about 2.5 and generally increases to end at about 3.5 by October 29. It is at about 3.5 at the time of the
September 2009 FOMC meeting.

Note. Data are business daily except for the 30-year fixed rate mortgage which is weekly.
Source. Bloomberg.

Chart 3
Market Functioning and Federal Reserve Facilities
Figure: Gross ABS issuance
Stacked bar chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to October 2009. Data are monthly rate. There are three series, "Credit Card", "Auto" and "Student Loan".
Approximate values are: 2006: Credit Card 5, Auto 8, and Student Loan 7. 2007: Credit Card 7.5, Auto 7, and Student Loan 5.5. 2008:H1: Credit Card 8, Auto 6,
and Student Loan 4. 2008:H2: Credit Card 2, Auto .5, and Student Loan 1.5. 2009:Q1: Credit Card 2.5, Auto 2.5, and Student Loan 1.5. April 2009: Credit Card 1,
Auto 4, and Student Loan 5. May 2009: Credit Card 7.5, Auto 3.5, and Student Loan 3. June 2009: Credit Card 13, Auto 6, and Student Loan 1. July 2009: Credit
Card 3, Auto 10, and Student Loan 3. August 2009: Credit Card 4.5, Auto 0, and Student Loan 3. September 2009: Credit Card 10, Auto 9.5, and Student Loan 0.
October 2009: Credit Card 0, Auto 3.5, and Student Loan .5.
Note. October 2009 plotted values are actual issuance as of October 23, 2009. Auto ABS include car loans and leases and financing for buyers of motorcycles.
Source. Inside MBS & ABS, Merrill Lynch, Bloomberg, and the Federal Reserve.

Figure: Libor over OIS spread
Line chart, September 2008 to October 29, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
three series, "1-month", "3-month", and "6-month". 1-month begins at about 50 and generally increases to about 335 by October 2008. It then generally decreases
to about 15 by mid-May, and remains about constant until the end. 3-month begins at about 78 and generally increases to about 360 by October 2008. It then
generally decreases to end at about 15. 1-month and 3-month are at about 15 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 6-month begins at about 100
and generally increases to about 325 by October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 30. It is at about 50 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting.
Source. British Bankers' Association and Prebon.

Figure: Spreads on 30-day commercial paper
Line chart, July 2007 to October 28, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two
series, "ABCP" and "A2/P2". ABCP begins at about 0 and generally increases to about 200 by December 2007. It then generally decreases to about 30 by early
February, and generally increases to 395 by early October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 25. It is at about 15 at the time of the September
2009 FOMC meeting. A2/P2 begins at about 15 and generally increases to about 150 by December 2007. It then generally decreases to about 50 by January 2008,
and generally increases to about 610 by January 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 25. It is at about 20 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting.
Note. The ABCP spread is the AA ABCP rate minus the AA nonfinancial rate. The A2/P2 spread is the A2/P2 nonfinancial rate minus the AA nonfinancial rate.
Source. Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation.

Figure: Senior unsecured debt issuance
Line chart, by billions of dollars, November 2008 to October 2009. There are two series, "FDIC-guaranteed" and "Non-guaranteed". FDIC-guaranteed begins at
about 20 and generally increases to about 90 by December 2008. It then generally decreases to about 24 by February 2009, and generally increases to about 56
by March. It then generally decreases to about 0 by August, and generally increases to about 18 by September. It then generally decreases to end at about 8. Nonguaranteed begins at about 0 and generally increases to about 30 by May. It then generally decreases to about 8 by July, and generally increases to about 17 by
September. It then generally decreases to end at about 4.
Note. Staff estimates.
Source. Bloomberg.

Figure: Secondary loan market pricing
Line chart, January 2007 to October 29, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Bid-asked
spread", in basis points, and "Bid price", which is by percent of par. These two series use two different scales. Bid-asked spread begins at about 55 and generally
increases to about 420 by early January 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 188. It is at about 198 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting. Bid price begins at about 99 and generally decreases to about 60 by December 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 85. It is at about 84 at
the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. LSTA/LPC Mark-to-Market Pricing.

Figure: Usage of TALF and other lending facilities
Line chart, by billions of dollars, January 2007 to October 28, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are

two series, "Other facilities" and "TALF". These two series use two different scales. Other facilities begins at about 0 and remains about constant until December
2007. It then generally increases to about 1520 by December 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 200. It is at about 310 at the time of the September
2009 FOMC meeting. TALF begins at about 0, remains about constant until March 2009, and generally increases to end at about 49. It is at about 49 at the time of
the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note. Other facilities includes primary, secondary, and seasonal credit; TAF; PDCF; dollar liquidity swaps; CPFF; and AMLF.
Source. Federal Reserve.

[Box:] Balance Sheet Developments during the Intermeeting Period
Federal Reserve Balance Sheet
Billions of dollars

Current
(10/28/2009)

Change
since last
FOMC
Total assets

Maximum
level

Date of
maximum
level

3

2,165

2,256

12/17/08

-89

195

1,247

11/06/08

-6

23

114

10/28/08

Term auction credit (TAF)

-57

139

493

03/11/09

Foreign central bank liquidity swaps

-26

33

586

12/04/08

0

0

156

09/29/08

-0

0

152

10/01/08

-24

60

351

01/23/09

-23

19

351

01/23/09

Selected assets:
Liquidity programs for financial firms
Primary, secondary, and seasonal credit

Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF)
Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market
       Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF)
Lending through other credit facilities
Net portfolio holdings of Commercial Paper
       Funding Facility LLC (CPFF)
Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF)

-1

41

44

09/11/09

10

110

118

04/02/09

Credit extended to AIG, net

6

45

91

10/27/08

Net portfolio holdings of Maiden Lane LLC, Maiden
       Lane II LLC, and Maiden Lane III LLC

4

65

75

12/30/08

102

1,690

1,693

10/23/09

Support for specific institutions

Securities held outright*
U.S. Treasury securities

9

775

791

08/14/07

Agency securities

12

142

142

10/28/09

Agency mortgage-backed securities**

81

774

777

10/23/09

Memo: Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF)
Total liabilities

0

0

236

10/01/08

3

2,112

2,213

12/04/08

Selected liabilities:
Federal Reserve notes in circulation

3

875

878

10/14/09

Reserve balances of depository institutions

191

1,083

1,097

10/23/09

U.S. Treasury, general account

-29

31

137

10/23/08

-170

30

559

10/22/08

U.S. Treasury, supplemental financing account
Other deposits
Total capital

11

11

53

04/14/09

-0

53

53

10/28/09

+0 (-0) denotes positive (negative) value rounded to zero.  Return to table
* Par value.  Return to table
** Includes only mortgage-backed security purchases that have already settled. Over the intermeeting period, the Open Market Desk committed to purchase an additional $82 billion of MBS, on
net. Total MBS purchases are about 973 billion.  Return to table

Chart 4
International Financial Indicators

Figure: Nominal trade-weighted dollar indexes
Line chart, 2007 to October 29, 2009. December 31, 2006 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
three series, "Broad", "Major Currencies", and "Other Important Trading Partners". Broad begins at about 101 and generally decreases to about 88.5 by 2008. It
then generally increases to about 107.5 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 96. It is at about 97 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting. Major Currencies begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 102 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 85 by early 2008, and generally
increases to about 106 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 91.5. It is at about 92 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Other
Important Trading Partners begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 91.5 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 110.5 by early 2009, and
generally decreases to end at about 101. It is at about 102 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. FRBNY and Bloomberg.

Figure: Nominal ten-year government bond yields
Line chart, by percent, 2007 to October 29, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are three series, "UK",
"Germany", and "Japan". UK and Germany share the same scale and Japan uses the other. UK begins at about 4.75 and generally increases to about 5.5 by mid2007. It then generally decreases to about 4.3 by early 2008, and generally increases to about 5.25 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 3.0 by early
2009, and generally increases to about 4.0 by mid-2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 3.6. It is at about 3.6 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting. Germany begins at about 4.0 and generally increases to about 4.7 by mid-2007. It then generally decreases to about 3.75 by early 2008, and
generally increases to about 4.65 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 2.9 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 3.3. It is at about
3.4 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Japan begins at about 1.7 and generally decreases to about 1.55 by 2007. It then generally increases to
about 1.95 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to about 1.25 by early 2008. It then generally increases to about 1.85 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to
about 1.2 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 1.4. It is at about 1.3 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. Bloomberg.

Figure: Stock price indexes: Industrial countries
Line chart, 2007 to October 29, 2009. December 31, 2006 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
three series, "UK (FTSE-350)", "Euro Area (DJ Euro)", and "Japan (Topix)". UK (FTSE-350) begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 108 by mid2007. It then generally decreases to about 42 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 55. It is at about 56 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting. Euro Area (DJ Euro) begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 112 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 44 by early 2009, and
generally increases to end at about 70. It is at about 68 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Japan (Topix) begins at about 100 and generally
increases to about 107 by mid-2007. It then generally decreases to about 42 by early 2009, and generally increases to about 58 by mid-2009. It then generally
decreases to end at about 55. It is at about 57 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. Bloomberg.

Figure: Stock price indexes: Emerging market economies
Line chart, 2007 to October 29, 2009. December 31, 2006 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
three series, "Brazil (Bovespa)", "Korea (KOSPI)", and "Mexico (Bolsa)". Brazil (Bovespa) begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 89 by early 2007.
It then generally increases to about 162.5 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 75 by late 2008. It then generally increases to about 148 by 2009, and
generally decreases to end at about 134. It is at about 135 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Korea (KOSPI) begins at about 100 and generally
decreases to about 100 and generally decreases to about 92 by early 2007. It then generally increases to about 140 by late 2007, and generally decreases to about
64 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 114. It is at about 116 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Mexico (Bolsa) begins at
about 100 and generally increases to about 125 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to about 64 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 112. It
is at about 110 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source. Bloomberg.

Chart 5
Debt and Money
Figure: Bank credit
Line chart, February 2007 to October 2009. January 2008 = 100. Data are monthly averages. The series begins at about 90.8 and generally increases to about
104.5 by early November 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 97.
Note. October 2009 is estimated.
Source. Federal Reserve.

Figure: Changes in commercial banks' lending standards
Line chart, by net percent, 1990 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. The series begins at about 20 and generally increases to about 53 by late 1990. It then generally
decreases to about -19 by 1993, and generally increases to about 41 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about -20 by early 2005, and generally increases

to about 88 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 32. It is at about 70 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note. Series plots net percentage of core loans in categories for which banks reported a tightening of lending standards. Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last
business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey and Call Reports.

Growth of debt of nonfinancial sectors
Percent, s.a.a.r.

Total Business Household Government
2007

8.7

2008

13.4

6.6

6.1

5.9

5.3

0.2

17.5

Q1

5.4

7.8

2.9

6.7

Q2

3.3

6.4

0.2

4.4

Q3

8.2

5.1

-0.5

28.6

Q4

6.3

1.7

-1.8

26.7

Q1

4.1

0.0

-1.1

17.9

Q2

4.5

-1.8

-1.7

22.0

Q3

4.1

-1.5

-0.3

17.0

2009

Source. Flow of Funds.

Figure: Growth of debt of household sector
Line chart, by percent, 1991 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly, s.a.a.r. There are two series, "Consumer credit" and "Home mortgage". Consumer credit begins at
about 0 and generally decreases to about -2 by 1991. It then generally increases to about 16.5 by late 1994, and generally decreases to end at about -7. Home
mortgage begins at about 8 and generally decreases to about 3.5 by 1991. It then generally increases to about 16 by 2003, and generally decreases to about -2.5
by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 1.
Source. Flow of Funds, Federal Reserve G. 19 release.

Figure: Changes in selected components of debt of nonfinancial business sector
Bar chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to October 2009. Data are monthly rate. There are three series, "C&I loans", "Commercial paper", and "Bonds". There is also
a "Sum" series presented as a curve which plots the total of the other series. Approximate values are: 2006: Bonds 18, C&I loans 11, Commercial paper 1, Sum
30. 2007: Bonds 26, C&I loans 22, Commercial paper 0, Sum 48. 2008:Q1: Bonds 17, C&I loans 25, Commercial paper 6, Sum 48. 2008:Q2: Bonds 30, C&I loans
12, Commercial paper -7, Sum 35. 2008:Q3: Bonds 8, C&I loans 16, Commercial paper 6, Sum 30. 2008:Q4: Bonds 18, C&I loans -7, Commercial paper 0, Sum
11. 2009:Q1: Bonds 48, C&I loans -18, Commercial paper -12, Sum 18. 2009:Q2: Bonds 32, C&I loans -19, Commercial paper -11, Sum 2. 2009:Q3: Bonds 22,
C&I loans -35, Commercial paper -1, Sum -14. October 2009: Bonds 11, Commercial paper 22, C&I loans -15, Sum 18.
Note. CP and C&I loans are seasonally adjusted; bonds are not. October 2009 is estimated.
Source. Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, Thomson Financial, and Federal Reserve H.8 release.

Figure: Growth of M2
Bar chart, by percent, 2006 to October 2009. Data are s.a.a.r. The series begins at about 5.2 and generally increases to about 8.2 by 2008:Q1. It then generally
decreases to about 4 by 2008:Q3, and generally increases to about 14.3 by 2008:Q4. It then generally decreases to about 0 by 2009:Q3, and generally increases
to end at about 3.
Note. October 2009 is estimated.
Source. Federal Reserve.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts†
Monetary Policy Strategies
Chart 6
Equilibrium Real Federal Funds Rate
Figure: Short-Run Estimates with Confidence Intervals
Line chart, by percent, 1990 to 2009. There are five series, "The actual real funds rate based on lagged core inflation", "Greenbook-consistent measure (FRB/US)",
"Range of model based estimates", "70 Percent confidence interval", and "90 Percent confidence interval". The actual real funds rate based on lagged core inflation
begins at about 4.7 and generally decreases to about -0.3 by 1992. It then generally increases to about 4.9 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -0.8 by
2004. It then generally increases to about 3 by 2006, and generally decreases to about -2 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about -1. Greenbookconsistent measure begins at about 4.2 and generally decreases to about 3.5 by late 1998. It then generally increases to about 5.7 by 2000, and generally
decreases to about 0 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 3.2 by 2007, and generally decreases to about -4 by early 2009. It then generally increases to
end at about -2. The other three series closely track each other throughout the chart, with the 70 percent confidence interval being about 1 percent both lesser and
greater than the Range of model-based estimates, and the 90 Percent confidence interval being about 2 percent both lesser and greater than the Range of modelbased estimates at any given point. The Range of model-based estimates begins at between 1 and 4, decreases to about -0.8 and 2.1 by early 1991. It then
generally increases to about 2.4 and 4.8 by early 2000, generally decreases to about -5 and -1.6 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about -2.1 and
0.5.

Short-Run and Medium-Run Measures
Current Estimate Previous Bluebook
Short-Run Measures
Single-equation model

-1.7

Small structural model

-1.2

-1.1

EDO model

0.4

-0.3

FRB/US model

-2.0

-2.4

-1.3

Confidence intervals for four model-based estimates
70 percent confidence interval

-2.9 to 0.7

90 percent confidence interval

-3.8 to 1.8

Greenbook-consistent measures
EDO model

-3.7

-3.1

FRB/US model

-2.0

-1.9

Single-equation model

1.3

1.3

Small structural model

1.9

1.3

Medium-Run Measures

Confidence intervals for two model-based estimates
70 percent confidence interval

0.6 to 2.5

90 percent confidence interval

-0.2 to 3.0

TIPS-based factor model

2.0

2.0

-1.2

-1.2

Memo
Actual real federal funds rate

Note: Appendix A provides background information regarding the construction of these measures and confidence intervals. The actual real federal funds rate shown is based on lagged core
inflation as a proxy for inflation expectation. For information regarding alternative measures, see Appendix A.

Chart 7
Constrained vs. Unconstrained Monetary Policy (2 Percent Inflation Goal)

Figure: Nominal Federal Funds Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. There are three series, "Current Bluebook: Constrained", "Current Bluebook: Unconstrained" and "Previous Bluebook:
Unconstrained". Current Bluebook: Constrained begins at about 0.2 and remains about constant until early 2012. It then generally increases to end at about 4.6.
Current Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 0.2, generally decreases to about -5.2 by late 2010, and generally increases to end at about 5.4. Previous
Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 0.2, generally decreases to about -4.8 by late 2010, and generally increases to end at about 5.3.

Figure: Real Federal Funds Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. There are three series, "Current Bluebook: Constrained", "Current Bluebook: Unconstrained" and "Previous Bluebook:
Unconstrained". Current Bluebook: Constrained begins at about -1.3 and generally increases to end at about 2.6. Current Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about
-1.3 and generally increases to about -1 by 2009. It then generally decreases to about -6.8 by late 2010, and generally increases to end at about 3. Previous
Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about -1.3 and generally increases to about -1 by 2009. It then generally decreases to about -6.4 by 2010, and generally
increases to end at about 3.

Figure: Civilian Unemployment Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. There are three series, "Current Bluebook: Constrained", "Current Bluebook: Unconstrained" and "Previous Bluebook:
Unconstrained". Current Bluebook: Constrained begins at about 9.3 and generally increases to about 10.1 by late 2009. It then generally decreases to about 3.6 by
early 2014, and generally increases to end at about 3.75. Current Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 9.3 and generally increases to about 10.1 by late 2009.
It then generally decreases to about 4 by 2013, and generally increases to end at about 4.6. Previous Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 9.3 and generally
increases to about 9.8 by late 2009. It then generally decreases to about 3.9 by mid-2013, and generally increases to end at about 4.6.

Figure: Core PCE Inflation
Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. Data are four-quarter averages. There are three series, "Current Bluebook: Constrained", "Current Bluebook: Unconstrained"
and "Previous Bluebook: Unconstrained". Current Bluebook: Constrained begins at about 1.6 and generally decreases to about 1.2 by late 2011. It then generally
increases to end at about 2.05. Current Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 1.6 and generally decreases to about 1.3 by 2009. It then generally increases to
end at about 2.25. Previous Bluebook: Unconstrained begins at about 1.6 and generally decreases to about 1.3 by 2009. It then generally increases to end at about
2.22.

Chart 8
The Policy Outlook in an Uncertain Environment
Figure: FRB/US Model Simulations of Estimated Outcome-Based Rule

Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. There are three series, "Current Bluebook", "Previous Bluebook", and "Greenbook assumption". Current Bluebook begins at
about 0.2, remains about constant until early 2012, and generally increases to end at about 4. Previous Bluebook begins at about 0.2, remains about constant until
mid-2011, and generally increases to end at about 4.1. Greenbook assumption begins at about 0.2, remains about constant until early 2012, and generally
increases to end at about 3.9.
Note: There is dark and light shading that represent the 70 and 90 percent confidence intervals respectively. The 70 percent interval covers about 2.4 to 6 and the 90 percent interval covers
about 1.3 to 7.1 by the end of the chart.

Figure: Information from Financial Markets

Line chart, by percent, 2009 to 2014. There are two series, "Current Bluebook", and "Previous Bluebook". Current Bluebook begins at about 0.2 and generally
increases to end at about 3.8. Previous Bluebook begins at about 0.4 and generally increases to end at about 3.8.
Note: There is dark and light shading that represent the 70 and 90 percent confidence intervals respectively. The 90 percent interval covers about 0.9 to 7.3 and the 70 percent interval covers
about 1.5 to 5.6 by the end of the chart. In the previous Bluebook, the 90 percent interval covers about 0.9 to 7.2 and the 70 percent interval covers about 1.5 to 5.6.

Near-Term Prescriptions of Simple Policy Rules
Constrained Policy

Unconstrained Policy

2009Q4
Taylor (1993) rule
Previous Bluebook

2010Q1

2009Q4

2010Q1

0.13

0.13

-0.67

-0.56

0.13

0.13

-0.32

-0.24

Taylor (1999) rule
Previous Bluebook
Estimated outcome-based rule
Previous Bluebook
Estimated forecast-based rule
Previous Bluebook
First-difference rule
Previous Bluebook

0.13

0.13

-4.46

-4.23

0.13

0.13

-3.79

-3.62

0.13

0.13

-0.61

-1.34

0.13

0.13

-0.40

-1.00

0.13

0.13

-0.57

-1.34

0.13

0.13

-0.44

-1.08

0.13

0.25

0.11

0.23

0.22

0.39

0.22

0.39

Memo
2009Q4

2010Q1

Greenbook assumption

0.13

0.13

Fed funds futures

0.13

0.18

Median expectation of primary dealers

0.13

0.13

Blue Chip forecast (October 1, 2009)

0.20

0.20

Note: In calculating the near-term prescriptions of these simple policy rules, policymakers' long-run inflation objective is assumed to be 2 percent. Appendix B provides further background
information.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts
Policy Alternatives
Table 1: Overview of Alternative Language for the November 3-4, 2009 FOMC Announcement
November Alternatives
September FOMC
A

B

C

Forward Guidance on Funds Rate Path
"exceptionally low
levels of
the federal funds rate
for an extended period"

"exceptionally low
"this exceptionally low
levels of
range for
the federal funds rate
the federal funds rate
for an extended period" for an extended period"

"low
levels of
the federal funds rate
for some time"

Agency MBS Purchases
Total
Amount

"a total of"
$1.25 trillion

Pace

pace will "gradually slow"

Completion

by the end of the
first quarter of 2010

"a total of"
$1.5 trillion

"a total of"
$1.25 trillion

"cap" at
$1.1 trillion

pace will "gradually slow"
through the
second quarter of 2010

by the end of the
first quarter of 2010

by the end of
January 2010

Agency Debt Purchases
Total
Amount

"up to"
$200 billion

Pace

pace will "gradually slow"

Completion

by the end of the
first quarter of 2010

"up to"
$200 billion

"a total of"
$175 billion
pace will "gradually slow"

through the
second quarter of 2010

by the end of the
first quarter of 2010

Evaluation of LSAP Timing and Overall Amounts
timing and amounts of
all LSAPs
will continue to be evaluated

Last update: April 1, 2015

"cap" at
$160 billion

timing and amounts of
all LSAPs
will continue to be evaluated

by the end of
January 2010

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts†
Long-Run Projections of the Balance Sheet and Monetary Base
Balance Sheet Projections Summary
Alternative A

Alternative B

Alternative C

Agency Debt Securities
Total Purchased

$200 billion

$175 billion

$160 billion

December 2016

$34 billion

$25 billion

$19 billion

Total Purchased

$1.5 trillion

$1.25 trillion

$1.1 trillion

December 2016

$0.8 trillion

$0.7 trillion

$0.6 trillion

September 2010

June 2010

April 2010

Peak amount

$2.6 trillion

$2.4 trillion

$2.3 trillion

December 2016

$1.5 trillion

$1.5 trillion

$1.5 trillion

September 2010

December 2009

November 2009

$1.3 trillion

$1.2 trillion

$1.1 trillion

Agency MBS

Total Assets
Peak month

Reserve Balances
Peak month
Peak amount

Growth Rates for Monetary Base

Date

Baseline

Alternative A Alternative C

Memo:
September
baseline

Percent, annual rate
Monthly
Sep-09

66.9

66.9

66.9

38.5

Oct-09

88.4

88.4

88.4

109.1

Nov-09

94.9

101.1

89.4

94.2

Dec-09

16.0

27.4

5.9

27.1

Jan-10

-8.1

3.3

-18.3

-20.0

Feb-10

-10.3

1.2

-23.4

-30.7

Mar-10

-14.1

-2.4

-28.5

-2.5

Apr-10

-9.9

1.7

-19.8

11.2

May-10

10.4

21.1

-3.3

22.4

Jun-10

8.9

19.3

-10.8

25.0

Q3 2009

-2.5

-2.5

-2.5

-11.5

Q4 2009

73.7

76.8

71.0

73.4

Q1 2010

6.9

17.9

-3.9

1.8

Q2 2010

-4.3

7.0

-17.3

7.5

Q3 2010

-2.4

15.4

-11.2

9.6

Q4 2010

-10.1

1.8

-9.3

-6.9

Quarterly

Annual - Q4 to Q4
2009

45.0

45.9

44.1

42.8

2010

-2.5

10.9

-10.1

3.0

2011

-9.9

-10.5

-9.7

-7.4

2012

-13.1

-12.9

-13.4

-11.6

2013

-9.6

-9.4

-9.8

-9.9

2014

-10.8

-10.4

-5.9

-9.8

2015

0.6

-9.6

4.2

-8.8

2016

3.8

0.6

3.8

1.1

Note. Not seasonally adjusted.

Baseline Scenario
Figure: Federal Reserve Assets
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are nine series, "Treasury securities", "Repurchase agreements", "TALF", "Agency debt", "TAF",
"Other loans and facilities", "Agency MBS", "Central bank swaps", and "SDR and other assets". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of
each year. 2006: Treasury securities 750, Repurchase agreements 15, SDR and other assets 35. 2007: Treasury securities 760, Repurchase agreements 20, SDR
and other assets 35. 2008: Treasury securities 740, Repurchase agreements 20, TAF 15, Central bank swaps 10, SDR and other assets 35. 2009: Treasury
securities 499, Agency MBS 10, TAF 440, Central bank swaps 350, Other loans and facilities 480, SDR and other assets 15. 2010: Treasury securities 760,
Agency debt 220, Agency MBS 950, TAF 15, Central bank swaps 5, TALF 40, Other loans and facilities 60, SDR and other assets 50, 2011: Treasury securities
750, Agency debt 150, Agency MBS 1080, TALF 50, Other loans and facilities 55, SDR and other assets 80. 2012: Treasury securities 750, Agency debt 50,
Agency MBS 980, TALF 50, Other loans and facilities 40, SDR and other assets 90. 2013: Treasury securities 700, Agency debt 60, Agency MBS 890, TALF 10,
Other loans and facilities 15, SDR and other assets 100. 2014: Treasury securities 680, Agency debt 60, Agency MBS 770, TALF 5, Other loans and facilities 5,
SDR and other assets 100. 2015: Treasury securities 600, Agency debt 25, Agency MBS 795, TALF 2, Other loans and facilities 1, SDR and other assets 100.
2016: Treasury securities 580, Agency debt 20, Agency MBS 600, Other loans and facilities 1, SDR and other assets 100.

Figure: Federal Reserve Liabilities and Capital
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are six series, "Federal Reserve notes", "Deposits, other than reserve balances", "Other liabilities",
"Reverse repurchase agreements", "Reserve balances" and "Capital". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of each year. 2006: Federal
Reserve notes 750, Reserve balances 15, Reverse repurchase agreements 10, Reserve balances 5, Capital 20. 2007: Federal Reserve notes 760, Reverse
repurchase agreements 20, Reserve balance 10, Capital 25. 2008: Federal Reserve notes 775, Reverse repurchase agreements 40, Reserve balances 10, Capital
30. 2009: Federal Reserve notes 890, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 170, Reserve balances 590, Capital 20. 2010:
Federal Reserve notes 880, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 112, Reserve balances 1130, Other liabilities 2, Capital
30. 2011: Federal Reserve notes 900, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 200, Reserve balances 950, Other liabilities 2,
Capital 50. 2012: Federal Reserve notes 980, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 240, Reserve balances 700, Other
liabilities 2, Capital 75. 2013: Federal Reserve notes 1000, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 230, Reserve balances
420, Other liabilities 5, Capital 80. 2014: Federal Reserve notes 1100, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 100, Reserve
balances 140, Other liabilities 5, Capital 100. 2015: Federal Reserve notes 1150, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 220,
Reserve balances 10, Other liabilities 5, Capital 110. 2016: Federal Reserve notes 1200, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve
balances 10, Reserve balances 5, Other liabilities 5, Capital 125.

Source. Federal Reserve H.4.1 statistical release and staff calculations.

Alternative A
Figure: Federal Reserve Assets
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are nine series, "Treasury securities", "Repurchase agreements", "TALF", "Agency debt", "TAF",
"Other loans and facilities", "Agency MBS", "Central bank swaps", and "SDR and other assets". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of
each year. 2006: Treasury securities 750, Repurchase agreements 15, SDR and other assets 40. 2007: Treasury securities 780, Repurchase agreements 20, SDR
and other assets 50. 2008: Treasury securities 720, Repurchase agreements 15, TAF 20, Central bank swaps 5, SDR and other assets 50. 2009: Treasury
securities 498, Agency debt 15, Agency MBS 5, TAF 440, Central bank swaps 350, Other loans and facilities 480, SDR and other assets 15. 2010: Treasury
securities 780, Agency debt 200, Agency MBS 1010, TAF 5, Central bank swaps 2, TALF 20, Other loans and facilities 180, SDR and other assets 60. 2011:
Treasury securities 750, Agency debt 200, Agency MBS 1275, TALF 45, Other loans and facilities 200, SDR and other assets 70. 2012: Treasury securities 750,
Agency debt 130, Agency MBS 1140, TALF 20, Other loans and facilities 100, SDR and other assets 60. 2013: Treasury securities 700, Agency debt 65, Agency
MBS 1025, TALF 10, Other loans and facilities 35, SDR and other assets 75. 2014: Treasury securities 650, Agency debt 50, Agency MBS 1000, TALF 5, Other
loans and facilities 10, SDR and other assets 80. 2015: Treasury securities 600, Agency debt 25, Agency MBS 1000, TALF 2, Other loans and facilities 5, SDR
and other assets 80. 2016: Treasury securities 580, Agency debt 20, Agency MBS 1000, TALF 1, SDR and other assets 80.

Figure: Federal Reserve Liabilities and Capital
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are six series, "Federal Reserve notes", "Deposits, other than reserve balances", "Other liabilities",
"Reverse repurchase agreements", "Reserve balances", and "Capital". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of each year. 2006: Federal
Reserve notes 750, Reverse repurchase agreements 15, Reserve balances 10, Other liabilities 2, Capital 20. 2007: Federal Reserve notes 750, Reverse
repurchase agreements 20, Reserve balances 10, Other liabilities 2, Capital 20. 2008: Federal Reserve notes 780, Reverse repurchase agreements 30, Reserve
balances 10, Other liabilities 1, Capital 30. 2009: Federal Reserve notes 850, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 170,
Reserve balances 700, Other liabilities 1, Capital 20. 2010: Federal Reserve notes 890, Reverse repurchase notes 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 110,
Reserve balances 1175, Other liabilities 1, Capital 25. 2011: Federal Reserve notes 940, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve
balances 200, Reserve balances 1275, Other liabilities 2, Capital 35. 2012: Federal Reserve notes 950, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than
reserve balances 250, Reserve balances 940, Other liabilities 5, Capital 40. 2013: Federal Reserve notes 1000, Reverse repurchase agreements 60, Deposits,
other than reserve balances 225, Reserve balances 650, Other liabilities 5, Capital 50. 2014: Federal Reserve notes 1080, Reverse repurchase agreements 60,
Deposits, other than reserve balances 225, Reserve balances 380, Other liabilities 5, Capital 55. 2015: Federal Reserve notes 1150, Reverse repurchase
agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 200, Reserve balances 200, Other liabilities , Capital 80. 2016: Federal Reserve notes 1180, Reverse
repurchase agreements 60, Deposits, other than reserve balances 230, Reserve balances 5, Other liabilities 5, Capital 100.

Source. Federal Reserve H.4.1 statistical release and staff calculations.

Alternative C
Figure: Federal Reserve Assets
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are nine series, "Treasury securities", "Repurchase agreements", "TALF", "Agency debt", "TAF",
"Other loans and facilities", "Agency MBS", "Central bank swaps", and "SDR and other assets". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of
each year. 2006: Treasury securities 750, Repurchase agreements 15, SDR and other assets 40. 2007: Treasury securities 760, Repurchase agreements 15, SDR
and other assets 40. 2008: Treasury securities 700, Repurchase agreements 25, TAF 15, Central bank swaps 5, SDR and other assets 40. 2009: Treasury
securities 500, Agency debt 20, Agency MBS 10, TAF 430, Central bank swaps 350, Other loans and facilities 430, SDR and other facilities 20. 2010: Treasury
securities 750, Agency debt 170, Agency MBS 925, TAF 5, Central bank swaps 5, TALF 20, Other loans and facilities 210, SDR and other assets 50. 2011:
Treasury securities 770, Agency debt 110, Agency MBS 870, TALF 60, Other loans and facilities 170, SDR and other assets 80. 2012: Treasury securities 750,
Agency debt 50, Agency MBS 830, TALF 30, Other loans and facilities 100, SDR and other assets 80. 2013: Treasury securities 680, Agency debt 40, Agency
MBS 860, TALF 5, Other loans and facilities 25, SDR and other assets 90. 2014: Treasury securities 730, Agency debt 25, Agency MBS 675, TALF 2, Other loans
and facilities 15, SDR and other facilities 100. 2015: Treasury securities 600, Agency debt 15, Agency MBS 860, TALF 1, Other loans and facilities 5, SDR and
other assets 100. 2016: Treasury securities 680, Agency debt 10, Agency MBS 575, SDR and other assets 100.

Figure: Federal Reserve Liabilities and Capital
Stacked line chart, by billions of dollars, 2006 to 2016. There are six series, "Federal Reserve notes", "Deposits, other than reserve balances", "Other liabilities",
"Reverse repurchase agreements", "Reserve balances", and "Capital". Approximate values of all series are given as of the beginning of each year. 2006: Federal
Reserve notes 750, Reverse repurchase agreements 15, Reserve balances 10, Deposits, other than reserve balances 2, Capital 20. 2007: Federal Reserve notes
750, Reverse repurchase agreements 20, Reserve balances 10, Deposits, other than reserve balances 2, Capital 20. 2008: Federal Reserve notes 750, Reverse
repurchase agreements 30, Reserve balances 10, Deposits, other than reserve balances 2, Capital 20. 2009: Federal Reserve notes 850, Reverse repurchase
agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 120, Reserve balances 650, Other liabilities 1, Capital 25. 2010: Federal Reserve notes 880, Reverse
repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 110, Reserve balances 1050, Other liabilities 1, Capital 30. 2011: Federal Reserve notes 900,
Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 200, Reserve balances 800, Other liabilities 2, Capital 50. 2012: Federal Reserve
notes 980, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 240, Reserve balances 560, Other liabilities 2, Capital 50. 2013: Federal
Reserve notes 1000, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 220, Reserve balances 300, Other liabilities 2, Capital 50. 2014:
Federal Reserve notes 1050, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 200, Reserve balances 130, Other liabilities 5, Capital
65. 2015: Federal Reserve notes 1150, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 60, Reserve balances 5, Other liabilities 5,
Capital 75. 2016: Federal Reserve notes 1200, Reverse repurchase agreements 50, Deposits, other than reserve balances 5, Reserve balances 10, Other
liabilities 5, Capital 100.

Source. Federal Reserve H.4.1 statistical release and staff calculations.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts
Bank Credit, Debt, and Money Forecasts
Growth Rates for M2
(percent, annual rate)

Greenbook Forecast*
Monthly Growth Rates
Apr-09

-7.7

May-09

10.2

Jun-09

4.6

Jul-09

-2.5

Aug-09

-7.4

Sep-09

4.0

Oct-09

3.0

Nov-09

0.7

Dec-09

0.3

Jan-10

1.9

Feb-10

2.3

Mar-10

2.3

Apr-10

2.4

May-10

2.4

Jun-10

2.6

Jul-10

3.2

Aug-10

3.3

Sep-10

3.3

Oct-10

3.7

Nov-10

3.6

Dec-10

3.7

Quarterly Growth Rates
2009 Q2

2.7

2009 Q3

0.1

2009 Q4

1.2

2010 Q1

1.5

2010 Q2

2.4

2010 Q3

3.0

2010 Q4

3.5

Annual Growth Rates
2008

8.3

2009

4.2

2010

2.7

2011

4.7

Growth From

To

Sep-09

Dec-09

1.3

2008 Q4 2009 Q4

4.2

2009 Q4 2010 Q2

2.0

* This forecast is consistent with nominal GDP and interest rates in the Greenbook forecast. Actual data through October 19, 2009; projections thereafter.  Return to table

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts
Appendix A: Measures of the Equilibrium Real Rate
Measure
Singleequation
Model
Small
Structural
Model

Description
The measure of the equilibrium real rate in the single-equation model is based on an estimated aggregate-demand relationship between the current value of the
output gap and its lagged values as well as the lagged values of the real federal funds rate.
The small-scale model of the economy consists of equations for six variables: the output gap, the equity premium, the federal budget surplus, the trend growth rate
of output, the real bond yield, and the real federal funds rate.

EDO Model

Estimates of the equilibrium real rate using EDO--an estimated dynamic-stochastic-general-equilibrium (DSGE) model of the U.S. economy--depend on data for
major spending categories, price and wages, and the federal funds rate as well as the model's structure and estimate of the output gap.

FRB/US
Model

Estimates of the equilibrium real rate using FRB/US--the staff's large-scale econometric model of the U.S. economy--depend on a very broad array of economic
factors, some of which take the form of projected values of the model's exogenous variables.

Greenbook- Two measures are presented--based on the FRB/US and the EDO models. Both models are matched to the extended Greenbook forecast. Model simulations
consistent determine the value of the real federal funds rate that closes the output gap conditional on the extended baseline.
Yields on TIPS (Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities) reflect investors' expectations of the future path of real interest rates. The TIPS-based measure of the
TIPS-based
equilibrium real rate is constructed using the seven-year-ahead instantaneous real forward rate derived from TIPS yields as of the Bluebook publication date. This
Factor
forward rate is adjusted to remove estimates of the term and liquidity premiums based on a three-factor arbitrage-free term-structure model applied to TIPS yields,
Model
nominal yields, and inflation.

Actual real
Proxy used for expected inflation federal funds rate
(current value)
Lagged core inflation
Lagged headline inflation
Projected headline inflation

Last update: April 1, 2015

Greenbook-consistent
measure of the equilibrium
real funds rate
(current value)

Average actual
real funds rate
(twelve-quarter
average)

-1.2

-2.0

-0.8

0.8

-2.0

-0.9

-1.3

-2.0

-0.9

Accessible Material
November 2009 Bluebook Tables and Charts†
Appendix C: Long-run Projections of the Balance Sheet and Monetary Base
Individual Balance Sheet Item Profiles
Note. All values are in billions of dollars.

Asset purchases and Federal Reserve liquidity programs and credit facilities
Figure: Agency Debt

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are four series, "September", "Baseline", "Alternative A", and "Alternative C". They begin at about 25 and generally increase
together until they reach about 125 by 2009. September generally increases to about 148 by 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 20. Baseline generally
increases to about 175 by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 30. Alternative A generally increases to about 198 by mid-2010, and generally
decreases to end at about 40. Alternative C generally increases to about 155 by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 25.

Figure: Agency MBS

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are four series, "September", "Baseline", "Alternative A" and "Alternative C". They begin at about 0 and generally increase together
until they reach about 900 by early 2010. September generally increases to about 1125 by mid-2010, and generally decreases to end at about 720. Baseline
generally increases to about 1100 by mid-2010, and generally decreases to end at about 760. Alternative A generally increases to about 1350 by late 2010, and
generally decreases to end at about 800. Alternative C generally increases to about 998 by 2010 and generally decreases to end at about 560.

Figure: TAF

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are two series, "September" and "Baseline". They begin at about 450 and generally decrease to about 425 by 2009. They then
generally increase to about 495 by 2009, and generally decrease together until they reach about 160 by late 2009. September generally decreases to about 30 by
mid-2010, and remains about constant until the end. Baseline generally decreases to about 0 by mid-2010, and remains about constant until the end.

Figure: TALF

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are two series, "September" and "Baseline". They begin at about 0 and generally increase together until they reach about 40 by
2009. September generally increases to about 138 by 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 0. Baseline generally increases to about 95 by mid-2010, and
generally decreases to end at about 0.

Figure: Credit Extended to AIG

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are two series, "September" and "Baseline". September begins at about 39 and generally increases to about 46 by 2009. It then
generally decreases to about 18 by early 2010, and generally increases to about 29 by early 2011. It then generally decreases to about 0 by early 2014, and
remains about constant until the end. Baseline begins at about 38 and generally increases to about 46 by 2009. It then generally decreases to about 0 by early
2014, and remains about constant until the end.

Federal Reserve liabilities and capital
Figure: Reverse Repurchase Agreements

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are two series, "September" and "Baseline". September begins at about 77 and generally decreases to about 64 by late 2009. It

then remains about constant until the end. Baseline begins at about 77 and generally decreases to about 30 by late 2009. It then remains about constant until the
end.

Figure: SFA

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are four series, "September", "Baseline", "Alternative A" and "Alternative C". They begin at about 170 and generally increase to
about 200 by 2009. They then generally decrease to about 20 by late 2009, and generally increase to about 200 by 2010. They remain about constant together
until about mid-2014. September and Alternative A remain about constant at about 200 until early 2016, and then generally decrease to end at about 15. Baseline
remains about constant until early 2015, and then generally decreases to end at about 0. Alternative C generally decreases to end at about 0.

Figure: Reserve Balances

Line chart, 2009 to 2016. There are four series, "September", "Baseline", "Alternative A" and "Alternative C". They begin at about 880 and generally decrease to
about 650 by mid-2009. They track closely together until they reach about 1120 by late 2009. September generally increases to about 1200 by mid-2010, and
generally decreases to end at about 0. Baseline generally decreases to about 0 by early 2015, and remains about constant until the end. Alternative A generally
increases to about 1320 by late 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 0. Alternative C generally decreases to about 0 by mid-2014, and remains about
constant until the end.

Federal Reserve Balance Sheet: End-of-Year Projections -- Baseline Scenario
End-of-Year
Oct 28, 2009 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

$Billions
Total assets

2,165 2,270 2,248 2,059 1,829 1,705 1,564 1,463 1,480

Selected assets:
Liquidity programs for financial firms
Primary, secondary, and seasonal credit

195

140

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

23

25

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

139

95

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

33

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market
Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

60

76

90

76

33

25

17

0

0

Term auction credit (TAF)
Foreign central bank liquidity swaps

Lending through other credit facilities
Net portfolio holdings of Commercial Paper
Funding Facility (CPFF)

19

16

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF)

41

60

90

76

33

25

17

0

0

110

108

86

60

30

14

3

2

1

45

43

45

28

7

0

0

0

0

65

65

41

32

23

14

3

2

1

Support for specific institutions
Credit extended to AIG
Net portfolio holdings of Maiden Lane LLC,
Maiden Lane II LLC, and Maiden Lane III LLC
Securities held outright
U.S. Treasury securities

1,691 1,843 1,961 1,814 1,657 1,557 1,435 1,352 1,370
775

775

768

746

679

659

615

597

693

Agency debt securities

142

164

151

109

86

67

48

43

25

Agency mortgage-backed securities

774

904 1,042

959

892

831

772

712

652

Memo: TSLF

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Repurchase agreements

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

5

8

10

10

10

10

10

10

Special drawing rights certificate account
Total liabilities

2,113 2,218 2,188 1,990 1,749 1,613 1,459 1,342 1,340

Selected liabilities
Federal Reserve notes in circulation
Reverse repurchase agreements
Reserve balances of depository institutions

875

879

906

934

64

64

64

64

995 1,062 1,119 1,169 1,217
64

64

64

64

64

1,111 1,163

984

758

456

253

41

25

25

U.S. Treasury, general account

18

68

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

U.S. Treasury, supplemental financing account

15

15

200

200

200

200

200

50

0

53

53

60

69

80

92

106

121

140

Total capital
Source: Federal Reserve H.4.1 statistical release and staff calculations.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Part 1 Tables and Charts†
Domestic Developments
Key Background Factors Underlying the Baseline Staff Projection
Note: In each panel, shading represents the projection period, which begins in 2009:Q4, except where noted. In the upper-left panel that reports the federal funds
rate, the dashed line is not apparent because the paths of the federal funds rate in the September and current Greenbooks are the same.

Figure: Federal Funds Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2006 to 2011. Data are quarterly averages. There are three series, "Current Greenbook", "September Greenbook" and "Market forecast".
These three series track closely together throughout the chart. They begin at about 4.5 and generally increase to about 5.2 by mid-2006. They remain about
constant until mid-2007. They then generally decrease to about 0.15 by early 2009. Current Greenbook and June Greenbook remain at 0.1 to the end. Market
forecast generally increases to end at about 2.2.

Figure: Long-Term Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2006 to 2011. Data are quarterly averages. There are six series, "BBB corporate rate", "Conforming mortgage rate", and "10-year Treasury
rate", and the September Greenbook is also marked separately for each of these series. BBB corporate rate and the September Greenbook begin at about 6 and
generally increase to about 9.4 by late 2008. BBB corporate rate generally decreases to end at about 6, and September Greenbook generally decreases to end at
about 6.2. Conforming mortgage rate and September Greenbook begin at about 6.3 and then generally increase to about 6.7 by 2006. They continue to track
closely together, generally decreasing, until late 2009 at about 5.1. Conforming mortgage rate generally increases to end at about 5.7 and September Greenbook
generally increases to end at about 5.5. 10-year Treasury yield and September Greenbook begin at about 4.7 and generally increase to about 5.2 by 2006. They
then generally decrease to about 3.3 by early 2009, and generally increase to end at about 4.1.

Figure: Equity Prices
Line chart, 2006 to 2011. 2006:Q1 = 100, ratio scale. Data are quarter-end. There are two series, "Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index" and "September
Greenbook". They begin at about 100 and generally decrease to about 97 by 2006. They then generally increase to about 116 by 2007, and generally decrease to
about 62 by early 2009. They track closely together, generally increasing together until they reach about 83 by mid-2009. Dow Jones generally increases to end at
about 111 and September Greenbook generally increases to end at about 115.

Figure: House Prices
Line chart, 2006 to 2011. 2006:Q1 = 100, ratio scale. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "LoanPerformance index" and "September Greenbook". They begin
at about 100 and generally decrease to about 68. They then generally increase to about 72. LoanPerformance index generally decreases to end at about 69 and
September Greenbook generally decreases to end at about 68.
Note: The projection period begins in 2009:Q3.

Figure: Crude Oil Prices
Line chart, by dollars per barrel, 2006 to 2011. Data are quarterly averages. There are two series, "West Texas Intermediate" and "September Greenbook". They
begin at about 64 and generally increase to about 70 by 2006. They then generally decrease to about 58 by early 2007, and generally increase to about 125 by
2008. They then generally decrease to about 44 by early 2009, and track closely together, generally increasing together until they reach 68 by 2009. West Texas
Intermediate generally increases to end at about 87 and September Greenbook generally increases to end at about 78.

Figure: Broad Real Dollar
Line chart, 2006 to 2011. 2006:Q1 = 100. Data are quarterly averages. There are two series, "Broad Real Dollar" and "September Greenbook". They begin at about
100 and generally decrease to about 87 by 2008. They then generally increase to about 98 by early 2009, and track closely together, generally decreases to about
92 by late 2009. Broad Real Dollar generally decreases to end at about 86.5 and September Greenbook generally decreases to end at about 87.5.

Summary of the Near-Term Outlook

(Percent change at annual rate except as noted)

2009:Q3
Measure

September
Greenbook

Real GDP

2009:Q4

October
Greenbook

September
Greenbook

October
Greenbook

2.5

3.2

2.8

1.6

Private domestic final purchases

3.4
3.0

-.5

-.1

Personal consumption expenditures

2.3

3.4

.8

.7

Residential investment

3.0

20.9

4.0

.1

-3.8

-3.8

-11.3

-6.4

1.8

2.3

4.3

1.8

Business fixed investment
Government outlays for consumption and investment

Contribution to growth (percentage points)
Inventory investment

1.0

.9

2.8

2.3

Net exports

-.2

-.6

-.1

.1

Projections of Real GDP
(Percent change at annual rate from end of preceding period except as noted)

Measure
Real GDP
Previous Greenbook
Final sales
Previous Greenbook
Personal consumption expenditures
Previous Greenbook
Residential investment
Previous Greenbook
Business fixed investment
Previous Greenbook
Government purchases
Previous Greenbook
Exports
Previous Greenbook
Imports
Previous Greenbook

2009:H2

2010:H1

2010

2011

3.1

3.2

3.4

4.4

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.5

1.4

2.7

2.7

3.9

.9

2.7

2.9

4.1

2.0

2.4

2.3

3.4

1.6

2.6

2.9

3.6

10.0

9.5

10.0

22.6

3.5

9.6

12.9

25.3

-5.1

3.1

5.7

9.5

-7.6

2.2

5.0

9.9

2.1

2.6

1.7

.9

3.1

2.6

1.6

1.0

12.2

8.4

8.7

8.8

14.3

7.6

8.2

8.6

11.3

6.4

7.0

7.7

12.7

7.2

8.0

8.0

Contribution to growth (percentage points)
Inventory change
Previous Greenbook
Net exports
Previous Greenbook

1.7

.4

.7

.5

1.9

.4

.6

.4

-.2

.0

-.0

-.1

-.2

-.2

-.2

-.2

[Box:] Revision to Structural Productivity and Potential Output in the Staff Projection
Figure: Nonfarm Business Productivity
Line chart, chained 2005 dollars per hour, 2007 to 2009. There are three series, "Productivity", "Structural productivity, Oct. Greenbook" and "Structural productivity,
Sept. Greenbook". Productivity begins at about 51.05 and generally increases to end at about 55.2. Structural productivity, Oct. Greenbook begins at about 51.5
and generally increases to end at about 54.5. Structural productivity, Sept. Greenbook begins at about 51.5 and generally increases to end at about 54.15.

Figure: Okun's Law

Line chart, by percent, 2007 to 2009. There are three series, "Unemployment rate", "Simulation, Oct. Greenbook potential" and "Simulation, Sept. Greenbook
potential". Unemployment rate begins at about 4.5 and generally increases to end at about 9.6. Simulation, Oct. Greenbook potential begins at about 5 and
generally increases to end at about 9. Simulation, Sept. Greenbook potential begins at about 5 and generally increases to end at about 8.8.

Decomposition of Structural Labor Productivity
Nonfarm Business Sector
(Percent change, Q4 to Q4, except as noted)

Measure

1974-95

1996-2000

2001-07

2008

2009

2010

2011

Structural labor productivity

1.5

2.5

2.8

2.3

2.5

1.6

1.9

Previous Greenbook

1.5

2.5

2.8

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.9

.7

1.4

.7

.5

-.0

-.1

.5

.7

1.4

.7

.5

-.0

-.1

.4

.5

.7

1.6

1.6

2.4

1.6

1.4

.5

.7

1.6

1.3

1.7

1.6

1.4

.3

.3

.3

.2

.2

.1

.1

3.0

3.4

2.8

2.7

2.7

2.1

2.4

3.0

3.4

2.8

2.4

2.0

2.1

2.3

Contributions1
Capital deepening
Previous Greenbook
Multifactor productivity
Previous Greenbook
Labor composition
Memo
Potential GDP
Previous Greenbook

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding. For multiyear periods, the percent change is the annual average from Q4 of the year preceding the first year shown to Q4 of the
last year shown.
1. Percentage points.  Return to table

The Outlook for the Labor Market
(Percent change, Q4 to Q4, except as noted)

Measure
Output per hour, nonfarm business
Previous Greenbook
Nonfarm private payroll employment
Previous Greenbook
Household survey employment

2008 2009 2010 2011
.9

4.6

1.1

.8

.9

3.7

1.3

1.4

-2.1

-4.4

1.8

3.4

-2.1

-4.1

2.1

3.3

-1.5

-3.7

1.6

2.4

Previous Greenbook

-1.5

-3.0

1.7

2.3

Labor force participation rate 1

65.9

65.2

65.1

65.0

Previous Greenbook

65.9

65.5

65.4

65.3

Civilian unemployment rate1

6.9

10.1

9.5

8.2

Previous Greenbook

6.9

9.9

9.2

7.9

-4.8

-7.6

-6.4

-4.5

-4.6

-6.9

-5.6

-3.6

Memo
GDP gap 2
Previous Greenbook

1. Percent, average for the fourth quarter.  Return to table
2. Actual less potential GDP in the fourth quarter of the year indicated as a percent of potential GDP. A negative number thus indicates that the economy is operating below potential.  Return to
table

Inflation Projections
(Percent change, Q4 to Q4, except as noted)

Measure

2008 2009 2010 2011

PCE chain-weighted price index

1.7

Previous Greenbook

1.4

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

6.8

Food and beverages

1.1

1.7

Previous Greenbook

-1.9

1.3

.7

6.8

Excluding food and energy

1.5

.7

1.3

7.7

2.4

-9.1

Previous Greenbook

-1.1

-9.1

Energy

-2.4

5.0

2.1

2.0

Excluding food and energy

1.0

1.1

1.0

1.3

1.7

1.2

1.5

Previous Greenbook

1.1

1.4

1.5

Consumer price index

1.4

2.0

Previous Greenbook

1.1

1.5

1.1

2.0

Compensation per hour, nonfarm business sector

1.1

.7

1.3

1.1

.9

1.2

1.1

2.4

1.2

1.8

2.0

2.4

Previous Greenbook

1.1

1.2

1.9

1.2

1.8

2.0

2.6

Previous Greenbook
ECI for compensation of private industry workers 1

1.2

1.7

1.9

GDP chain-weighted price index

1.7

2.0

Previous Greenbook

-.2

1.8

2.1

Previous Greenbook

2.6

-.3

1.8

2.1

Prices of core goods imports 2

3.8

-1.7

1.5

1.0

Previous Greenbook

3.8

-1.4

1.3

1.0

1. December to December.  Return to table
2. Core goods imports exclude computers, semiconductors, oil, and natural gas.  Return to table

The Long-Term Outlook
(Percent change, Q4 to Q4, except as noted)

Measure

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Real GDP
Civilian unemployment rate1

-.3

3.4

4.4

5.0

4.8

3.2

10.1

9.5

8.2

6.1

4.9

4.7

PCE prices, total

1.1

1.4

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Core PCE prices

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.4

1.6

.1

.1

.1

2.1

3.5

3.9

Federal funds rate 1

1. Percent, average for the final quarter of the period.  Return to table

Alternative Scenarios
(Percent change, annual rate, from end of preceding period except as noted)

2009
Measure and scenario

2010

2011

2012

2013-14

H2
Real GDP
Extended Greenbook baseline

3.1

3.4

4.4

5.0

4.0

Jobless recovery

3.2

4.0

5.6

6.4

4.7

Jobless recovery and more caution

3.1

3.4

4.4

5.0

5.1

Weaker aggregate demand

2.2

2.0

4.4

5.4

4.6

V-shaped recovery

4.3

4.8

5.6

4.8

3.2

Earlier liftoff

4.3

5.1

5.6

4.2

2.8

Greater disinflation

3.1

3.3

4.1

4.9

4.8

Unemployment rate1
Extended Greenbook baseline

10.1

9.5

8.2

6.1

4.7

Jobless recovery

10.2

10.1

9.2

6.6

4.5

Jobless recovery and more caution

10.2

10.3

9.8

7.8

5.5

Weaker aggregate demand

10.2

10.2

8.9

6.6

4.7

V-shaped recovery

10.0

8.9

7.2

5.2

4.6

Earlier liftoff

10.0

8.8

7.1

5.3

5.0

Greater disinflation

10.1

9.5

8.3

6.3

4.3

Extended Greenbook baseline

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.5

Jobless recovery

1.3

.9

.4

.4

1.1

Jobless recovery and more caution

1.3

.9

.2

.0

.5

Weaker aggregate demand

1.3

1.0

.8

.9

1.3

V-shaped recovery

1.3

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.7

Earlier liftoff

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.2

2.9

Greater disinflation

1.0

.4

.1

-.1

.0

Extended Greenbook baseline

.1

.1

.1

2.1

3.9

Jobless recovery

.1

.1

.1

.6

3.7

Jobless recovery and more caution

.1

.1

.1

.1

1.7

Weaker aggregate demand

.1

.1

.1

1.3

3.7

V-shaped recovery

.1

.1

.8

3.1

4.4

Earlier liftoff

.1

.1

2.3

4.5

5.5

Greater disinflation

.1

.1

.1

.1

2.1

Core PCE inflation

Federal funds rate1

1. Percent, average for the final quarter of the period.  Return to table

Selected Greenbook Projections and 70 Percent Confidence Intervals Derived from Historical Greenbook Forecast
Errors and FRB/US Simulations
Measure

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

-.3

3.4

4.4

5.0

4.8

3.2

Greenbook forecast errors

-.9-.2

1.7-5.1

3.0-5.8

…

…

…

FRB/US stochastic simulations

-.9-.3

2.1-5.1

2.7-6.4

2.7-6.9

2.5-7.1

1.0-5.5

10.1

9.5

8.2

6.1

4.9

4.7

Greenbook forecast errors

10.0-10.2

8.8-10.2

7.2-9.2

…

…

…

FRB/US stochastic simulations

9.9-10.3

8.8-10.1

7.1-9.1

5.0-7.2

3.8-6.0

3.5-5.8

1.1

1.4

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Greenbook forecast errors

.9-1.4

.3-2.6

-.2-2.2

…

…

…

FRB/US stochastic simulations

.9-1.5

.6-2.4

.0-2.2

.1-2.3

.4-2.6

.6-2.8

1.0

1.1

1.4

1.6

Real GDP (percent change, Q4 to Q4)
Projection
Confidence interval

Civilian unemployment rate (percent, Q4)
Projection
Confidence interval

PCE prices, total (percent change, Q4 to Q4)
Projection
Confidence interval

PCE prices excluding food and energy (percent change, Q4 to Q4)
Projection

1.4

1.1

Confidence interval
Greenbook forecast errors

1.2-1.7

.4-1.7

.0-1.9

…

…

…

FRB/US stochastic simulations

1.2-1.6

.4-1.7

.2-1.9

.3-2.0

.7-2.3

.9-2.6

.1

.1

.1

2.1

3.5

3.9

.1-.1

.1-.1

.1-1.6

.4-3.9

2.1-5.2

2.5-5.6

Federal funds rate (percent, Q4)
Projection
Confidence interval
FRB/US stochastic simulations

Notes: Shocks underlying FRB/US stochastic simulations are randomly drawn from the 1969-2008 set of model equation residuals.
Intervals derived from Greenbook forecast errors are based on projections made from 1979-2008, except for PCE prices excluding food and energy, where the sample is 1981-2008.
… Not applicable. The Greenbook forecast horizon has typically extended about two years.  Return to table

Forecast Confidence Intervals and Alternative Scenarios
Confidence Intervals Based on FRB/US Stochastic Simulations
Figure: Real GDP

Line chart, by 4-quarter percent change, 2007 to 2014. There are seven series, "Extended Greenbook baseline", "Jobless recovery", "Jobless recovery and more
caution", "Weaker aggregate demand", "V-shaped recovery", "Earlier liftoff", and "Greater disinflation". They begin at about 2 and generally decrease to about 1.5
by early 2007. They then generally increase to about 2.8 by mid-2007, and generally decrease to about -3.8 by mid-2009. Extended Greenbook baseline generally
increases to about 5.2 by early 2013, and generally decreases to end at about 3.4. Jobless recovery generally increases to about 6.7 by early 2013, and generally
decreases to end at about 3.6. Jobless recovery and more caution generally increases to about 5.8 by 2013, and generally decreases to end at about 4.5. Weaker
aggregate demand generally increases to about 5.8 by early 2013, and generally decreases to end at about 3.8. V-shaped recovery generally increases to about
5.6 by mid-2011, and generally decreases to about 2.5. Earlier liftoff generally increases to about 5.9 and generally decreases to end at about 2.1. Greater
disinflation generally increases to about 5.6 by 2013, and generally decreases to end at about 4. There is a 90 percent confidence interval shown, which ranges
from about -0.3 to 7 and a 70 percent confidence interval, which ranges from about 1.1 to 5.6.

Figure: Unemployment Rate

Line chart, by percent, 2007 to 2014. There are seven series, "Extended Greenbook baseline", "Jobless recovery", "Jobless recovery and more caution", "Weaker
aggregate demand", "V-shaped recovery", "Earlier liftoff", and "Greater disinflation". They begin at about 4.5 and generally increase together until they reach about
10.0 by 2009. Extended Greenbook baseline generally increases to about 10.15 by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 4.75. Jobless recovery
generally increases to about 10.4 by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 4.5. Jobless recovery and more caution generally increases to about 10.4
by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 5.5. Weaker aggregate demand generally increases to about 10.4 and generally decreases to end at about
4.75. V-shaped recovery generally decreases to about 4.4 by late 2013, and generally increases to end at about 4.5. Earlier liftoff generally decreases to about 5.0.
Greater disinflation generally increases to about 10.15 by early 2010, and generally decreases to end at about 4.25. There is a 90 percent confidence interval
shown, which ranges from about 2.8 to 6.3 and a 70 percent confidence interval, which ranges from about 3.5 to 5.78.

Figure: PCE Prices excluding Food and Energy

Line chart, by 4-quarter percent change, 2007 to 2014. There are seven series, "Extended Greenbook baseline", "Jobless recovery", "Jobless recovery and more
caution", "Weaker aggregate demand", "V-shaped recovery", "Earlier liftoff", and "Greater disinflation". They begin at about 2.45 and generally decreases to about
2.25 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 2.6 by mid-2008, and generally decrease together until they reach about 1.3 by mid-2009. Extended Greenbook
baseline generally increases to about 1.4 by late 2009, generally decreases to about 0.98 by late 2011, and generally increases to end at about 1.6. Jobless
recovery generally decreases to about 0.3 by 2012, and generally increases to end at about 1.3. Jobless recovery and more caution generally decreases to about 0.1 by mid-2012, and generally increases to end at about 0.2. Weaker aggregate demand generally decreases to about 0.75 by late 2011, and generally increases
to end at about 1.45. V-shaped recovery generally decreases to about 1.0 by late 2011, and generally increases to end at about 1.85. Earlier liftoff generally
decreases to about 1.25 by 2010, and generally increases to end at about 3.0. Greater disinflation generally decreases to about -0.15 by late 2012, and generally
increases to end at about 0.15. There is a 90 percent confidence interval shown, which ranges from about 0.35 to 3.1 and a 70 percent confidence interval, which
ranges from about 0.8 to 2.55.

Figure: Federal Funds Rate

Line chart, by percent, 2007 to 2014. There are seven series, "Extended Greenbook baseline", "Jobless recovery", "Jobless recovery and more caution", "Weaker
aggregate demand", "V-shaped recovery", "Earlier liftoff", and "Greater disinflation". They begin at about 5.3, generally decreases to about 0.2 by late 2009, and
remains about constant until 2010. Extended Greenbook baseline generally increases to end at about 3.8. Jobless recovery generally increases to about 5.6 and
generally decreases to end at about 5.5. Jobless recovery and more caution remains about constant until mid-2013, and generally increases to end at about 1.6.
Weaker aggregate demand remains about constant until mid-2012 and generally increases to end at about 5.5. V-shaped recovery remains about constant until

mid-2011, and generally increases to end at about 4.5. Earlier liftoff remains about constant until late 2010, and generally increases to end at about 5.6. Greater
disinflation remains about constant until late 2012, and generally increases to end at about 2.2. There is a 90 percent confidence interval shown, which ranges from
about 1.5 to 6.5 and a 70 percent confidence interval, which ranges from about 2.5 to 5.5.

Evolution of the Staff Forecast
Figure: Change in Real GDP
Line chart, by percent, Q4/Q4, January 24, 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010" and "2011". 2008 begins at about 2.5 and
generally decreases to about 0.0 by March 13, 2008. It then generally increases to about 1.5 by September 10, 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 1.9. 2009 begins at about 2.2 by September 12, 2007 and generally increases to about 3.0 by March 13, 2008. It then generally decreases to about -2.25 by
March 12, 2009, and generally increases to end at about -0.3. 2010 begins at about 2.7 by September 10, 2008, generally decreases to about 1.5 by March 12,
2009, and generally increases to end at about 3.5. 2011 begins at about 4.5 and generally decreases to end at about 4.45.

Figure: Unemployment Rate
Line chart, by percent, fourth quarter, January 24, 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010" and "2011". 2008 begins at about 4.9
and generally increases to about 5.15 by March 14, 2007. It then generally decreases to about 4.8 by June 20, 2007, generally increases 6.85 by January 22,
2009, and remains about constant until the end. 2009 begins at about 4.98 by September 12, 2007 and generally increases to end at about 10.1. 2010 begins at
about 5.9 by September 10, 2008 and generally increases to about 9.75 by June 17, 2009. It then generally decreases to about 9.2 by September 16, 2009 and
generally increases to end at about 9.5. 2011 begins at about 7.9 by September 16, 2009 and generally increases to end at about 8.25.

Figure: Change in PCE Prices excluding Food and Energy
Line chart, by percent, Q4/Q4, January 24, 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010" and "2011". 2008 begins at about 2.0 and
generally increases to about 2.15 by May 2, 2007. It then generally decreases to about 1.88 by September 12, 2007 and generally increases to about 2.4 by
September 10, 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.0. 2009 begins at about 1.88 by September 12, 2007 and generally increases to about 2.25 by
June 18, 2008. It then generally decreases to about 1.0 by January 22, 2009 and generally increases to end at about 1.4. 2010 begins at about 1.9 by September
10, 2008 and generally decreases to about 0.5 by March 12, 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 1.1. 2011 begins at about 1.0 and remains about
constant until the end.
Note: Because the core PCE price index was redefined as part of the comprehensive revisions to the NIPA, projections prior to the August 2009 Greenbook are not strictly comparable with more
recent projections.

Changes in GDP, Prices, and Unemployment
(Percent, annual rate except as noted)

Nominal GDP

Real GDP

PCE price index

Core PCE price index Unemployment rate 1

Interval
09/16/09 10/29/09 09/16/09 10/29/09 09/16/09 10/29/09

09/16/09

10/29/09

09/16/09

10/29/09

Quarterly
2009: Q1

-4.6

-4.6

-6.4

-6.4

-1.5

-1.5

1.1

1.1

8.1

8.1

Q2

-1.0

-.8

-1.0

-.7

1.3

1.4

2.0

2.0

9.2

9.2

Q3

3.1

4.2

2.5

3.4

2.9

2.8

1.5

1.4

9.6

9.6

Q4

4.2

3.1

3.2

2.8

1.4

2.0

1.2

1.2

9.9

10.1

2010: Q1

4.3

5.0

2.8

3.2

1.4

1.8

1.1

1.0

9.8

10.1

Q2

4.4

4.5

3.2

3.2

1.4

1.5

1.1

1.1

9.6

9.9

Q3

5.0

4.7

3.8

3.5

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.1

9.4

9.7

Q4

5.3

5.0

4.2

3.9

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

9.2

9.5

2011: Q1

5.6

5.4

4.4

4.2

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

8.8

9.2

Q2

5.6

5.5

4.5

4.4

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

8.5

8.9

Q3

5.6

5.6

4.6

4.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

8.2

8.6

Q4

5.6

5.5

4.6

4.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

7.9

8.2

2009: Q2

-2.9

-2.7

-3.8

-3.6

-.1

-.1

1.6

1.6

2.3

2.3

Q4

3.7

3.7

2.8

3.1

2.1

2.4

1.3

1.3

.7

.9

2010: Q2

4.4

4.7

3.0

3.2

1.4

1.6

1.1

1.0

-.3

-.2

Two-quarter 2

Q4

5.1

4.9

4.0

3.7

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.1

-.4

-.4

2011: Q2

5.6

5.5

4.4

4.3

1.0

1.1

1.0

1.0

-.7

-.6

Q4

5.6

5.6

4.6

4.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-.6

-.7

.1

.1

-1.9

-1.9

1.7

1.7

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

Four-quarter 3
2008:Q4
2009:Q4

.4

.4

-.5

-.3

1.0

1.1

1.4

1.4

3.0

3.2

2010:Q4

4.7

4.8

3.5

3.4

1.3

1.4

1.1

1.1

-.7

-.6

2011:Q4

5.6

5.5

4.5

4.4

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-1.3

-1.3

2008

2.6

2.6

.4

.4

3.3

3.3

2.4

2.4

5.8

5.8

2009

-1.4

-1.3

-2.6

-2.5

.2

.2

1.5

1.5

9.2

9.2

Annual

2010

4.0

4.1

2.9

3.0

1.5

1.8

1.2

1.2

9.5

9.8

2011

5.4

5.3

4.3

4.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

8.4

8.7

1. Level, except for two-quarter and four-quarter intervals.  Return to table
2. Percent change from two quarters earlier; for unemployment rate, change is in percentage points.  Return to table
3. Percent change from four quarters earlier; for unemployment rate, change is in percentage points.  Return to table

Changes in Real Gross Domestic Product and Related Items
(Percent, annual rate except as noted)

2009

2010

2011

2009 1 2010 1 2011 1

Item
Q1
Real GDP

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

-6.4

Previous Greenbook

3.5

3.9

4.2

4.4

4.5

4.5

-.3

3.4

4.4

3.2

3.8

4.2

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.6

-.5

3.5

4.5

.7

2.4

.4

2.5

3.0

2.5

3.0

3.4

3.9

4.2

4.3

-.2

2.7

3.9

.5

1.5

.3

2.2

3.1

2.9

3.4

3.6

4.1

4.2

4.6

-.5

2.9

4.1

-2.7

3.0

-.1

2.4

2.9

2.9

3.5

4.1

4.5

5.0

5.0

-1.9

2.9

4.7

-2.8

1.6

-.5

2.3

3.3

3.7

4.3

4.4

4.9

5.0

5.4

-2.3

3.4

5.0

.6

Personal cons. expend.

3.2

2.8

-7.2

Previous Greenbook

3.2

3.2

-7.2

Priv. dom. final purch.

2.8

2.5

-4.1

Previous Greenbook

3.4

-1.0

-4.1

Final sales

-.7

-6.4

Previous Greenbook

-.9

3.4

.7

2.4

2.3

2.1

2.4

3.0

3.3

3.6

3.6

.9

2.3

3.4

.6

-.9

2.3

.8

2.5

2.8

2.9

3.3

3.3

3.6

3.6

3.8

.7

2.9

3.6

Durables

3.9

-5.6

22.2

-7.6

10.2

10.9

7.0

8.3

10.1

10.3

12.1

11.0

2.6

9.1

10.9

Nondurables

1.9

-1.9

2.0

1.9

2.3

1.9

1.7

2.1

2.8

3.1

3.2

3.2

.9

2.0

3.1

Services

-.3

.2

1.2

1.7

1.3

1.2

1.5

1.7

2.0

2.3

2.5

2.6

.7

1.4

2.3

-38.2 -23.3

20.9

.1

9.3

9.7

8.1

13.1

15.5

22.4

24.1

28.7

-13.0

10.0

22.6

-38.2 -22.9

3.0

4.0

7.0

12.4

15.4

17.0

20.2

23.9

26.8

30.5

-15.5

12.9

25.3

-3.8

-6.4

.9

5.5

7.2

9.4

9.8

9.0

10.4

9.0

-16.1

5.7

9.5

Residential investment
Previous Greenbook
Business fixed invest.

-39.2

Previous Greenbook

-9.6

-39.2 -10.3

Nonres. structures
Previous Greenbook
Net exports2

4.8

7.2

8.7

9.2

10.3

9.8

10.3

-17.4

5.0

9.9

-4.9

1.1

3.5

6.2

10.3

10.9

12.7

13.5

12.9

15.0

12.9

-10.8

10.0

13.6

-36.4

-6.2

4.8

-3.0

5.2

10.2

11.8

12.3

12.8

15.0

14.4

14.9

-11.7

9.8

14.3

-43.6 -17.3 -12.3 -23.3

Previous Greenbook

-.3

-36.4

Equipment & software

-3.8 -11.3

-9.4

-4.3

-.8

2.3

1.7

.2

-.4

-.3

-25.1

-3.2

.3

-43.6 -17.1 -18.0 -25.9 -11.0

-5.9

-2.3

.7

1.1

-.2

-.9

-.8

-27.0

-4.7

-.2

-386

-330

-348

-343

-346

-340

-341

-341

-348

-348

-351

-350

-352

-342

-349

-386

-332

-339

-342

-351

-351

-359

-367

-374

-379

-385

-387

-350

-357

-381

Exports

-29.9

-4.1

14.7

9.6

8.2

8.5

8.9

9.4

8.9

8.5

8.5

9.1

-4.1

8.7

8.8

Imports

-36.4 -14.7

16.3

6.4

7.4

5.5

7.5

7.7

8.9

7.1

7.6

7.3

-9.5

7.0

7.7

Previous Greenbook

Gov't. cons. & invest.
Previous Greenbook

2

-2.6

6.7

2.3

1.8

3.0

2.1

1.0

.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

.5

2.0

1.7

.9

-2.6

6.5

1.8

4.3

3.1

2.0

.7

.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.5

1.6

1.0

Federal

-4.3

11.4

7.9

Defense

-5.1

14.0

Nondefense

-2.5

6.1

-1.5

Nonfarm

2

Farm2

8.4

1.0

4.8

2.4

1.9

.3

.6

.4

.5

-.5

4.3

2.3

.2

6.8

13.6

9.9

6.3

-2.1

-1.8

2.6

2.6

2.6

2.6

5.8

2.9

2.6

3.9

-1.1

-.1

.7

1.2

1.3

1.3

.9

.9

.9

.5

.3

1.1

.8

-114

-160

-131

-60

-36

-30

0

29

55

70

80

89

-116

-9

73

-165

-134

-45

-25

-20

7

33

58

71

85

87

-114

-1

75

-163

-134

-64

-41

-35

-4

25

52

67

77

87

-119

-14

71

0

Previous Greenbook

2

3.6

-115

Change in bus. inventories 2

6.5

-114

State & local

4.8

.6

-.4

1.3

1.1

1.2

2

3

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

3

3

1. Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated.  Return to table
2. Billions of chained (2005) dollars.  Return to table

Changes in Real Gross Domestic Product and Related Items
(Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated, unless otherwise noted)

Item

2003

Real GDP

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

3.8

3.1

2.7

2.4

2.5

-1.9

-.3

3.4

4.4

3.8

3.1

2.7

2.4

2.5

-1.9

-.5

3.5

4.5

3.8

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.7

-1.4

-.2

2.7

3.9

3.8

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.7

-1.4

-.5

2.9

4.1

4.2

4.2

3.1

2.5

1.4

-3.2

-1.9

2.9

4.7

4.2

4.2

3.1

2.5

1.4

-3.2

-2.3

3.4

5.0

3.4

3.5

2.7

3.3

2.0

-1.8

.9

2.3

3.4

3.4

3.5

2.7

3.3

2.0

-1.8

.7

2.9

3.6

Durables

8.9

5.5

2.1

6.3

4.6

-11.8

2.6

9.1

10.9

Nondurables

3.9

3.0

3.3

3.2

1.5

-2.9

.9

2.0

3.1

Services

2.2

3.4

2.6

2.8

1.7

.3

.7

1.4

2.3

11.5

6.6

5.3

-15.7

-20.5

-21.0

-13.0

10.0

22.6

11.5

6.6

5.3

-15.7

-20.5

-21.0

-15.5

12.9

25.3

Previous Greenbook
Final sales
Previous Greenbook
Priv. dom. final purch.
Previous Greenbook
Personal cons. expend.
Previous Greenbook

Residential investment
Previous Greenbook
Business fixed invest.

5.9

7.0

4.4

7.8

7.9

-6.0

-16.1

5.7

9.5

Previous Greenbook

5.9

7.0

4.4

7.8

7.9

-6.0

-17.4

5.0

9.9

Equipment & software

7.5

8.8

6.1

6.0

3.2

-10.7

-10.8

10.0

13.6

7.5

8.8

6.1

6.0

3.2

-10.7

-11.7

9.8

14.3

1.3

1.7

-.1

13.0

18.9

3.2

-25.1

-3.2

.3

1.3

1.7

-.1

13.0

18.9

3.2

-27.0

-4.7

-.2

-604

-688

-723

-729

-648

-494

-352

-342

-349

Previous Greenbook
Nonres. structures
Previous Greenbook
Net exports 1
1

-604

-688

-723

-729

-648

-494

-350

-357

-381

Exports

6.2

7.1

6.7

10.2

10.2

-3.4

-4.1

8.7

8.8

Imports

5.1

10.9

5.2

4.1

.9

-6.8

-9.5

7.0

7.7

1.6

.6

.7

1.5

2.5

3.0

2.0

1.7

.9

1.6

.6

.7

1.5

2.5

3.0

2.5

1.6

1.0

5.7

2.3

1.2

2.2

3.4

8.9

4.8

2.5

1.0

8.4

2.4

.4

4.4

2.6

9.5

4.3

2.3

.2

.7

2.3

2.6

-2.3

5.2

7.5

5.8

2.9

2.6

-.5

-.4

.4

1.2

1.9

-.3

.3

1.1

.8

17

66

50

59

19

-26

-116

-9

73

17

66

50

59

19

-26

-114

-1

75

Previous Greenbook

Gov't. cons. & invest.
Previous Greenbook
Federal
Defense
Nondefense
State & local
Change in bus. inventories 1
Previous Greenbook

1

.5

4.8

2.5

1.0

Nonfarm 1

17

58

50

63

20

-20

-119

-14

71

0

8

0

-4

-1

-5

2

3

3

1

Farm

1. Billions of chained (2005) dollars.  Return to table

Contributions to Changes in Real Gross Domestic Product
(Percentage points, annual rate except as noted)

2009

2010

2011

2009 1 2010 1 2011 1

Item
Q1
Real GDP
Previous Greenbook
Final sales
Previous Greenbook
Priv. dom. final purch.
Previous Greenbook
Personal cons. expend.
Previous Greenbook
Durables
Nondurables

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

-6.4

-.7

3.4

2.8

3.2

3.2

3.5

3.9

4.2

4.4

4.5

4.5

-.3

3.4

4.4

-6.4

-1.0

2.5

3.2

2.8

3.2

3.8

4.2

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.6

-.5

3.5

4.5

-4.1

.7

2.4

.4

2.5

3.0

2.5

3.0

3.4

3.9

4.2

4.2

-.2

2.8

3.9

-4.1

.5

1.5

.4

2.2

3.1

3.0

3.4

3.6

4.1

4.2

4.6

-.5

2.9

4.1

-6.1

-2.3

2.5

-.1

2.0

2.4

2.4

2.9

3.4

3.7

4.1

4.1

-1.6

2.4

3.8

-6.1

-2.4

1.3

-.4

1.9

2.7

3.1

3.5

3.6

4.0

4.1

4.4

-1.9

2.8

4.1

.4

-.6

2.4

.5

1.7

1.7

1.5

1.7

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.5

.7

1.7

2.4

.4

-.6

1.6

.6

1.8

2.0

2.1

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

.5

2.0

2.5

.3

-.4

1.5

-.6

.7

.8

.5

.6

.7

.7

.9

.8

.2

.6

.8

.3

-.3

.3

.3

.4

.3

.3

.3

.4

.5

.5

.5

.1

.3

.5

-.1

.1

.6

.8

.6

.6

.8

.8

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

.3

.7

1.1

-1.3

-.7

.5

.0

.2

.2

.2

.3

.4

.6

.6

.8

-.4

.2

.6

-1.3

-.7

.1

.1

.2

.3

.4

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

-.5

.3

.7

-5.3

-1.0

-.4

-.6

.1

.5

.6

.9

.9

.8

1.0

.8

-1.8

.5

.9

Previous Greenbook

-5.3

-1.1

-.4

-1.1

.0

.4

.6

.8

.8

.9

.9

.9

-2.0

.5

.9

Equipment & software

-3.0

-.3

.1

.2

.4

.6

.7

.8

.8

.8

1.0

.8

-.8

.6

.9

-3.0

-.4

.3

-.2

.3

.6

.7

.8

.8

.9

.9

1.0

-.8

.6

.9

-2.3

-.7

-.4

-.8

-.3

-.1

.0

.1

.1

.0

.0

.0

-1.1

-.1

.0

-2.3

-.7

-.7

-.9

-.3

-.2

-.1

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

-1.1

-.1

.0

Services
Residential investment
Previous Greenbook
Business fixed invest.

Previous Greenbook
Nonres. structures
Previous Greenbook
Net exports

2.6

1.7

-.6

.1

-.1

.2

-.1

.0

-.3

.0

-.1

.0

1.0

.0

-.1

2.6

1.6

-.2

-.1

-.3

.0

-.3

-.2

-.2

-.2

-.2

-.1

1.0

-.2

-.2

Exports

-4.0

-.5

1.5

1.0

.9

.9

1.0

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

-.5

1.0

1.0

Imports

6.6

2.1

-2.0

-.9

-1.0

-.8

-1.1

-1.1

-1.3

-1.0

-1.1

-1.1

1.5

-1.0

-1.1

-.5

1.3

.5

.4

.6

.5

.2

.1

.2

.2

.2

.1

.4

.3

.2

-.5

1.3

.4

.9

.6

.4

.2

.1

.2

.2

.2

.2

.5

.3

.2

-.3

.9

.6

.4

.5

.3

.0

.0

.1

.1

.1

.0

.4

.2

.1

Defense

-.3

.7

.4

.1

.3

.1

.1

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.2

.1

.0

Nondefense

-.1

.2

.2

.3

.3

.2

-.1

.0

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

-.2

.5

-.1

.0

.1

.1

.2

.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

.0

.1

.1

-2.4

-1.4

.9

2.3

.7

.2

1.0

.9

.8

.5

.3

.3

-.1

.7

.5

-2.4

-1.5

1.0

2.8

.6

.1

.8

.8

.8

.4

.4

.1

.0

.6

.4

-2.4

-1.5

.9

2.2

.7

.2

1.0

.9

.8

.5

.3

.3

-.2

.7

.5

.1

.1

.0

.1

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.1

.0

.0

Previous Greenbook

Gov't. cons. & invest.
Previous Greenbook
Federal

State & local
Change in bus. inventories
Previous Greenbook
Nonfarm
Farm

1. Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated.  Return to table

Changes in Prices and Costs

(Percent, annual rate except as noted)

2009

2010

2011

2009 1 2010 1 2011 1

Item
Q1
GDP chain-wt. price index

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

PCE chain-wt. price index
Previous Greenbook

1.9

.0

.8

.3

1.7

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

.7

1.3

1.1

1.9

Previous Greenbook

.0

.7

1.0

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

.9

1.2

1.1

-1.5

1.4

2.8

2.0

1.8

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.4

1.0

-1.5

1.3

2.9

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

-36.7

-2.0

41.1

20.3

15.2

7.8

4.5

3.7

3.2

2.3

2.1

2.0

1.3

7.7

2.4

-36.7

-2.2

39.5

4.9

6.0

6.2

4.5

3.5

2.8

2.0

1.9

1.8

-2.4

5.0

2.1

-1.1

-3.6

-2.1

-.8

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.0

.7

.7

.7

.7

-1.9

1.3

.7

-1.1

-3.6

-1.5

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.0

.7

.7

.7

.7

-1.1

1.5

.7

1.1

2.0

1.4

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.1

2.0

1.5

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.4

1.1

1.0

-2.4

1.3

3.6

2.6

2.3

1.8

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.7

1.2

-2.4

1.3

3.6

1.8

1.6

1.7

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.5

1.1

1.5

2.4

1.5

1.5

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.7

1.2

1.1

Previous Greenbook

1.5

2.4

1.5

1.5

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.7

1.2

1.1

ECI, hourly compensation2

.7

.7

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

1.2

1.8

2.0

.7

.7

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

1.2

1.8

2.0

.3

7.0

7.2

4.2

2.4

.8

.6

.7

.7

.8

.9

.9

4.6

1.1

.8

.3

6.6

5.2

2.9

1.4

1.4

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.6

1.6

1.5

3.7

1.3

1.4

-4.7

.4

1.9

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

-.2

1.8

2.1

Energy
Previous Greenbook
Food
Previous Greenbook
Ex. food & energy
Previous Greenbook
CPI
Previous Greenbook
Ex. food & energy

Previous Greenbook 2
Nonfarm business sector
Output per hour
Previous Greenbook
Compensation per hour
Previous Greenbook

Previous Greenbook
Core goods imports chain-wt. price index3
Previous Greenbook

3

-4.7

.4

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

-.3

1.8

2.1

-5.0

Unit labor costs

-6.2

-5.0

-2.5

-.8

.9

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.2

-4.7

.7

1.2

-5.0

-5.8

-3.2

-1.2

.3

.3

.7

.6

.9

.4

.5

.6

-3.8

.5

.6

-9.4

-2.3

1.0

4.4

2.6

1.4

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-1.7

1.5

1.0

-9.4

-2.4

3.5

3.5

2.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-1.4

1.3

1.0

1. Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated.  Return to table
2. Private-industry workers.  Return to table
3. Core goods imports exclude computers, semiconductors, oil, and natural gas.  Return to table

Changes in Prices and Costs
(Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated, unless otherwise noted)

Item
GDP chain-wt. price index
Previous Greenbook
PCE chain-wt. price index
Previous Greenbook
Energy
Previous Greenbook
Food
Previous Greenbook
Ex. food & energy

2003

2004
2.1

3.2

2005
3.5

2006
2.9

2007
2.7

2008
1.9

2009

2010
.7

1.3

2011
1.1

2.1

3.2

3.5

2.9

2.7

1.9

.9

1.2

1.1

1.9

3.0

3.3

1.9

3.6

1.7

1.1

1.4

1.0

1.9

3.0

3.3

1.9

3.6

1.7

1.0

1.3

1.0

8.6

18.6

21.5

-3.7

19.7

-9.1

1.3

7.7

2.4

8.6

18.6

21.5

-3.7

19.7

-9.1

-2.4

5.0

2.1

3.2

2.7

1.5

1.7

4.7

6.8

-1.9

1.3

.7

3.2

2.7

1.5

1.7

4.7

6.8

-1.1

1.5

.7

CPI
Previous Greenbook

1.5

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.0

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.5

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.0

1.4

1.1

1.0

2.0

Previous Greenbook

3.4

3.8

1.9

4.0

1.5

1.3

1.7

1.2

2.0

3.4

3.8

1.9

4.0

1.5

1.1

1.5

1.1

Ex. food & energy

1.2

2.2

2.1

2.7

2.3

2.0

1.7

1.2

1.1

Previous Greenbook

1.2

2.2

2.1

2.7

2.3

2.0

1.7

1.2

1.1

ECI, hourly compensation1

4.0

3.8

2.9

3.2

3.0

2.4

1.2

1.8

2.0

4.0

3.8

2.9

3.2

3.0

2.4

1.2

1.8

2.0

Previous Greenbook 1
Nonfarm business sector
Output per hour

5.0

Previous Greenbook

1.4

.9

2.8

.9

4.6

1.1

.8

1.5

1.4

.9

2.8

.9

3.7

1.3

1.4

5.7

Compensation per hour

1.5

5.0

Previous Greenbook

3.4

3.5

4.5

3.6

2.6

-.2

1.8

2.1

5.7

Previous Greenbook

3.6

2.6

-.3

1.8

2.1

3.5

.7

1.6

-4.7

.7

1.2

1.9

2.0

3.5

.7

1.6

-3.8

.5

.6

3.6

2.2

2.5

3.5

3.8

-1.7

1.5

1.0

1.6

2

4.5

2.0

1.6

Core goods imports chain-wt. price index 2

3.5

1.9

.6

Previous Greenbook

3.4

.6

Unit labor costs

3.6

2.2

2.5

3.5

3.8

-1.4

1.3

1.0

1. Private-industry workers.  Return to table
2. Core goods imports exclude computers, semiconductors, oil and natural gas.  Return to table

Other Macroeconomic Indicators
2009

2010

2011

2009 1

Item
Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2010 1

2011 1

Q4

Employment and production
Nonfarm payroll employment 2

-2.1

GDP gap

.0

.7

.5

.7

.9

.9

1.0

1.0

-5.1

2.0

3.9

10.1

10.1

9.9

9.7

9.5

9.2

8.9

8.6

8.2

10.1

9.5

8.2

9.2

9.6

9.9

9.8

9.6

9.4

9.2

8.8

8.5

8.2

7.9

9.9

9.2

7.9

-7.8

-7.6

-7.6

-7.3

-7.1

-6.8

-6.4

-6.0

-5.5

-5.0

-4.5

-7.6

-6.4

-4.5

-6.6

-7.3

-7.2

-6.9

-6.8

-6.5

-6.1

-5.6

-5.2

-4.7

-4.2

-3.6

-6.9

-5.6

-3.6

-19.0

-10.3

5.2

6.4

3.9

4.5

5.0

6.3

5.9

5.5

7.2

8.2

-5.0

4.9

6.7

-19.0

-10.5

4.3

5.0

5.3

5.1

5.5

6.2

6.0

5.8

7.0

8.7

-5.6

5.5

6.9

-22.0

-8.7

7.1

6.2

3.7

4.9

5.2

7.0

6.6

6.1

8.2

9.3

-5.2

5.2

7.5

-22.0

-9.0

6.3

4.9

5.1

5.2

5.6

6.7

6.6

6.5

7.9

9.9

-5.7

5.6

7.7

66.7

65.4

66.8

68.1

69.0

70.1

71.3

72.8

74.2

75.4

77.1

79.0

68.1

72.8

79.0

66.7

65.3

66.6

67.7

68.8

70.0

71.2

72.7

74.0

75.4

77.0

79.0

67.7

72.7

79.0

.5

.5

.6

.7

.8

.8

.9

.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

.6

.8

1.2

9.5

9.6

11.5

9.9

10.9

12.1

12.5

13.2

13.6

13.9

14.7

15.2

10.1

12.2

14.4

-4.6

-.8

4.2

3.1

5.0

4.5

4.7

5.0

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.5

.4

4.8

5.5

.2

3.8

-3.5

-.1

3.6

.3

3.2

3.7

1.0

4.1

4.4

4.3

.1

2.7

3.4

.2

3.9

-3.4

1.0

1.9

2.6

3.4

3.7

1.8

3.9

4.2

4.3

.4

2.9

3.6

3.7

4.9

3.3

3.3

3.6

3.2

3.4

3.7

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.8

3.3

3.7

3.8

3.7

5.0

3.8

3.9

3.8

3.8

4.0

4.1

3.8

3.9

4.0

4.1

3.9

4.1

4.1

22.8

15.6

69.7

-29.5

105.5

6.5

10.2

6.2

6.7

4.3

5.7

5.7

14.2

26.5

5.6

8.3

Previous Greenbook

4

-.5

9.6

-7.0

4

-.9

9.2

8.1

Previous Greenbook 3

-1.5

8.1

Unemployment rate3

8.6

9.7

8.8

10.4

10.5

10.6

10.6

10.7

10.7

10.7

10.7

8.8

10.6

10.7

 

 

Industrial production 5
Previous Greenbook 5
Manufacturing industr. prod.
Previous Greenbook

5

5

Capacity utilization rate - mfg. 3
Previous Greenbook

3

 

 

Housing starts 6
Light motor vehicle sales 6
Income and saving
Nominal GDP 5
Real disposable pers. income
Previous Greenbook 5
Personal saving rate

3

Previous Greenbook

3

5

 

 

Corporate profits7
Profit share of GNP 3
 

 

Net federal saving8
Net state & local saving
 

-969 -1,294 -1,321 -1,212 -1,427 -1,359 -1,372 -1,370 -1,250 -1,217 -1,209 -1,183
8

-37

-25

-10

16

51

55

59

63

17

15

6

1

-1,199

-1,382

-1,215

-14

57

9
 

Gross national saving rate3

11.2

10.1

9.7

10.1

10.1

10.3

10.7

11.1

11.3

11.7

11.9

12.2

10.1

11.1

12.2

Net national saving rate3

-2.5

-3.4

-3.4

-3.0

-2.9

-2.6

-2.2

-1.7

-1.5

-1.0

-.7

-.4

-3.0

-1.7

-.4

1. Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated, unless otherwise indicated.  Return to table
2. Change, millions.  Return to table
3. Percent, annual values are for the fourth quarter of the year indicated.  Return to table
4. Percent difference between actual and potential GDP; a negative number indicates that the economy is operating below potential. Annual values are for the fourth quarter of the year
indicated.  Return to table
5. Percent change, annual rate.  Return to table
6. Level, millions, annual values are annual averages.  Return to table
7. Percent change, annual rate, with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments.  Return to table
8. Billions of dollars, annual values are annual averages.  Return to table

Other Macroeconomic Indicators
(Change from fourth quarter of previous year to fourth quarter of year indicated, unless otherwise noted)

Item

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Employment and production
Nonfarm payroll employment 1

-.1

2.0

2.4

2.1

1.2

-2.3

-5.1

2.0

3.9

Unemployment rate2

5.8

5.4

4.9

4.4

4.8

6.9

10.1

9.5

8.2

5.8

5.4

4.9

4.4

4.8

6.9

9.9

9.2

7.9

-1.6

-.7

-.3

-.3

-.4

-4.8

-7.6

-6.4

-4.5

-1.7

-.8

-.4

-.4

-.5

-4.6

-6.9

-5.6

-3.6

Previous Greenbook
GDP gap

2

3

Previous Greenbook

3

 

 

Industrial production 4

1.6

3.0

2.6

1.8

1.8

-6.7

-5.0

4.9

6.7

1.6

3.0

2.6

1.8

1.8

-6.7

-5.6

5.5

6.9

1.8

3.6

3.8

1.2

1.9

-8.7

-5.2

5.2

7.5

1.8

3.6

3.8

1.2

1.9

-8.7

-5.7

5.6

7.7

74.6

77.3

79.2

79.0

78.7

70.9

68.1

72.8

79.0

74.6

77.3

79.2

79.0

78.7

70.9

67.7

72.7

79.0

1.8

2.0

2.1

1.8

1.4

.9

.6

.8

1.2

16.6

16.8

16.9

16.5

16.1

13.1

10.1

12.2

14.4

Nominal GDP 4

6.0

6.4

6.3

5.4

5.3

.1

.4

4.8

5.5

Real disposable pers. income4

3.9

3.5

.6

4.6

1.0

.3

.1

2.7

3.4

Previous Greenbook 4

3.9

3.5

.6

4.6

1.0

.3

.4

2.9

3.6

3.6

3.6

1.5

2.5

1.5

3.8

3.3

3.7

3.8

3.6

3.6

1.5

2.5

1.5

3.8

3.9

4.1

4.1

12.2

21.9

19.6

3.7

-5.7

-25.1

14.2

26.5

5.6

9.1

10.5

11.8

11.6

10.3

7.8

8.8

10.6

10.7

-376

-379

-283

-204

-236

-643

-1199

-1382

-1215

-39

-8

26

51

22

-40

-14

57

9

Previous Greenbook

4

Manufacturing industr. prod.

4

Previous Greenbook 4
Capacity utilization rate - mfg.
Previous Greenbook

2

2

 

 

Housing starts 5
Light motor vehicle sales 5
Income and saving

Personal saving rate

2

Previous Greenbook

2

 

 

Corporate profits6
Profit share of GNP 2
 

 

Net federal saving7
Net state & local saving7
 

 

Gross national saving rate2
Net national saving rate

2

14.3

14.3

15.5

16.3

13.8

12.2

10.1

11.1

12.2

2.5

2.7

3.5

4.2

1.6

-.7

-3.0

-1.7

-.4

1. Change, millions.  Return to table
2. Percent, values are for the fourth quarter of the year indicated.  Return to table
3. Percent difference between actual and potential GDP; a negative number indicates that the economy is operating below potential. Values are for the fourth quarter of the year indicated.  Return

to table
4. Percent change.  Return to table
5. Level, millions, values are annual averages.  Return to table
6. Percent change, with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments.  Return to table
7. Billions of dollars, values are annual averages.  Return to table

Staff Projections of Federal Sector Accounts and Related Items
(Billions of dollars except as noted)

Fiscal year
Item

2008a 2009a 2010

2009
2011

Q1 a

Q2 a

2010

Q3

Q4

Q1

Unified budget
Receipts
Outlays

1

Q2

2011

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Not seasonally adjusted
2524

1

2105

2192

2473

442

599

516

499

468

665

560

562

526

756

629

603

2983

1

3522

3646

3660

891

904

847

876

962

916

892

922

932

903

904

922

-459

-1417 -1454 -1187 -449

-305

-331

-378

-494

-251

-332

-359

-406

-147

-275

-319

Previous Greenbook

-459

-1431 -1419 -1149 -449

-305

-345

-423

-455

-228

-313

-352

-395

-136

-266

-317

On-budget

-642

-1554 -1547 -1312 -468

-382

-320

-420

-482

-321

-323

-408

-410

-223

-271

-366

Off-budget

183

137

92

125

19

77

-11

42

-12

70

-9

49

4

76

-4

47

768

1743

1499

1207

465

338

379

220

690

241

347

349

396

172

290

309

0

Surplus/deficit

Means of financing
Borrowing
Cash decrease
Other 2
Cash operating balance, end of period

-296

96

25

98

-49

43

191

-170

15

-10

15

15

-20

-10

15

-13

-423

-70

-20 -114

16

-90

-34

-26

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

-5

372

275

250

250

318

275

85

255

240

250

235

220

240

250

235

269

NIPA federal sector

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

Receipts

2534

2282

2348

2529 2251

2211

2217

2369

2310

2341

2373

2410

2527

2567

2611

2655

Expenditures

3074

3346

3691

3790 3220

3506

3538

3581

3737

3700

3746

3781

3776

3784

3820

3838

914

973

1052

1089

979

1003

1020

1052

1065

1070

1072

1088

1095

1102

1107

Consumption expenditures

954

Defense

620

659

701

723

643

663

680

684

701

707

712

714

723

725

728

730

Nondefense

294

314

351

366

311

316

322

336

351

358

358

357

365

369

373

378

Other spending

2160

2374

2639

2701 2266

2527

2535

2561

2685

2635

2676

2709

2689

2689

2719

2731

Current account surplus

-540

Gross investment

141

Gross saving less gross investment 3

-563

-1065 -1343 -1262 -969 -1294 -1321 -1212 -1427 -1359 -1372 -1370 -1250 -1217 -1209 -1183
158

165

167

152

159

162

162

164

166

167

167

166

167

167

166

-1099 -1377 -1292 -999 -1330 -1356 -1246 -1462 -1394 -1407 -1403 -1281 -1247 -1238 -1210

Fiscal indicators 4
High-employment (HEB) surplus/deficit

-491

-706

-844

-838 -639

-875

-846

-705

-920

-861

-888

-903

-811

-807

-832

-841

Change in HEB, percent of potential GDP

1.8

1.3

0.7

-0.2

1.1

1.5

-0.2

-0.9

1.3

-0.4

0.1

0.1

-0.6

-0.1

0.1

0.0

Fiscal impetus (FI), percent of GDP

0.8

1.0

1.0

-0.2

0.0

0.7

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

-0.2

-0.0

-0.1

-0.2

0.8

1.0

0.9

-0.0

0.0

0.7

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

-0.1

-0.0

-0.1

-0.2

Previous Greenbook

1. Budget receipts, outlays, and surplus/deficit include corresponding social security (OASDI) categories. The OASDI surplus and the Postal Service surplus are excluded from the on-budget
surplus and shown separately as off-budget, as classified under current law.  Return to table
2. Other means of financing are checks issued less checks paid, accrued items, and changes in other financial assets and liabilities.  Return to table
3. Gross saving is the current account surplus plus consumption of fixed capital of the general government as well as government enterprises.  Return to table
4. HEB is gross saving less gross investment (NIPA) of the federal government in current dollars, with cyclically sensitive receipts and outlays adjusted to the staff's measure of potential output
and the NAIRU. Quarterly figures for change in HEB and FI are not at annual rates. The sign on Change in HEB, as a percent of nominal potential GDP, is reversed. FI is the weighted difference
of discretionary changes in federal spending and taxes in chained (2005) dollars, scaled by real GDP. The annual FI estimates are on a calendar year basis. Also, for FI and the change in HEB,
positive values indicate aggregate demand stimulus.  Return to table
a--Actual  Return to table

Change in Debt of the Domestic Nonfinancial Sectors

(Percent)

Period 1

Households
Total

Business State and local governments Federal government Memo: Nominal GDP
Total

Home mortgages Consumer credit

Year
2004

8.9

11.1

13.5

5.6

6.3

7.4

9.0

6.4

2005

9.5

11.1

13.2

4.5

8.8

10.2

7.0

6.3

2006

9.0

10.1

11.1

4.1

10.5

8.2

3.9

5.4

2007

8.7

6.6

6.6

5.7

13.4

9.3

4.9

5.3

 

 

5.3

1.9

 

24.2

.1

2008

5.9

.2

-.7

1.6

2009

4.0

-.8

.1

-5.4

-.8

5.2

22.1

.4

2010

5.9

.9

.6

.3

1.9

4.2

21.0

4.8

2011

5.3

2.3

1.0

6.7

3.2

4.0

12.4

5.5

2008: 1

5.4

2.9

2.3

4.5

7.8

3.6

8.1

1.0

2

3.3

.2

-.5

4.1

6.4

.9

5.9

3.5

3

8.2

-.5

-2.5

.6

5.1

3.3

39.2

1.4

Quarter

4

6.3

-1.8

-1.8

-2.9

1.7

-.2

37.0

-5.4

2009: 1

4.1

-1.1

-.1

-3.7

-.0

4.5

22.6

-4.6

2

4.5

-1.7

-1.4

-6.5

-1.8

3.6

28.2

-.8

3

4.1

-.3

.9

-6.8

-1.5

5.4

20.7

4.2

4

2.8

.1

1.0

-5.2

.1

7.0

10.5

3.1

2010: 1

7.3

.3

.5

-2.5

.8

4.2

30.1

5.0

2

5.3

.7

.5

-.4

1.7

4.1

18.0

4.5

3

5.2

1.0

.6

1.1

2.3

4.2

15.6

4.7

4

5.3

1.5

.7

3.0

2.8

4.2

14.4

5.0

2011: 1

4.9

1.8

.8

4.5

2.8

4.0

12.3

5.4

2

5.3

2.1

.9

6.0

3.3

4.0

12.7

5.5

3

5.1

2.5

1.0

7.3

3.2

3.9

11.3

5.6

4

5.2

2.8

1.1

8.4

3.2

3.9

11.2

5.5

Note. Quarterly data are at seasonally adjusted annual rates.
1. Data after 2009:Q2 are staff projections. Changes are measured from end of the preceding period to end of period indicated except for annual nominal GDP growth, which is calculated from
Q4 to Q4.  Return to table
2.6.3 FOF

Flow of Funds Projections: Highlights
(Billions of dollars at seasonally adjusted annual rates except as noted)

2009
Category

2008

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Domestic nonfinancial sectors
Net funds raised
Total

1538.9 1338.0 1980.7 1840.5 1517.6

903.7 2537.7 1807.2 1757.5 1820.3 1726.4 1895.3 1840.5 1900.0

Net equity issuance

-335.1

-80.0

Net debt issuance

1874.0 1326.9 2055.7 1940.5 1403.1

11.1

-75.0 -100.0

114.5

-20.0

-80.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0

983.7 2557.7 1887.2 1857.5 1920.3 1826.4 1995.3 1940.5 2000.0

Borrowing indicators
Debt (percent of GDP)1
Borrowing (percent of GDP)

226.0

240.1

242.2

242.9

241.2

241.4

241.5

242.7

243.0

243.2

243.0

242.9

242.7

242.6

13.0

9.3

13.9

12.4

9.8

6.8

17.5

12.8

12.5

12.7

11.9

12.9

12.3

12.6

Households
Net borrowing2
Home mortgages
Consumer credit
Debt/DPI (percent) 3

26.6 -103.8

118.8

318.7

-39.1

16.2

35.2

97.0

143.6

199.4

248.1

294.4

346.3

386.0

10.7

61.7

102.1

95.0

104.5

47.5

57.0

66.5

76.0

85.5

95.0

109.2

118.7

40.2 -140.9

7.4

165.0 -173.0 -128.8

-60.7

-8.9

26.7

72.5

111.7

148.1

185.3

215.1

119.5

123.5

123.1

122.0

120.9

120.8

119.8

118.9

118.2

-74.7 -284.3 -239.2 -235.5 -228.9 -202.3 -161.5 -121.4

-86.4

-58.2

-32.9

-68.5

127.4

126.3

122.5

125.7

125.1

Business
Financing gap 4
Net equity issuance
Credit market borrowing

231.4 -178.8 -207.0
-335.1

11.1

-75.0 -100.0

114.5

-80.0

-20.0

566.6

-89.9

209.4

41.6

116.8

99.8

97.8

212.7

222.9

274.9

232.3

-80.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0

356.9 -167.5

12.0

87.2

188.2

253.0

309.3

320.5

375.1

364.4

367.5

123.1

161.8

97.8

97.8

101.8

101.8

97.8

97.8

97.8

97.8

204.5

231.2

267.2

272.1

277.3

283.1

237.9

236.8

229.2

225.5

State and local governments
Net borrowing
Current surplus 5
Federal government
Net borrowing

1239.2 1402.9 1627.7 1167.2 1486.6

793.7 2337.5 1504.2 1359.2 1309.8 1160.0 1228.0 1132.0 1148.8

Net borrowing (n.s.a.)

1239.2 1402.9 1627.7 1167.2

378.7

220.4

690.4

241.1

346.8

349.5

396.0

172.0

290.0

309.2

Unified deficit (n.s.a.)

680.5 1462.2 1436.1 1147.2

330.8

377.6

493.9

251.0

331.8

359.5

406.0

147.0

275.0

319.2

-77.9 -180.2

411.7

203.7

Depository institutions
Funds supplied

415.1 -465.7

77.4

89.3 -774.8

-70.9 -399.2

104.0 -610.5 1215.4

Note. Data after 2009:Q2 are staff projections.
1. Average debt levels in the period (computed as the average of period-end debt positions) divided by nominal GDP.  Return to table
2. Includes change in liabilities not shown in home mortgages and consumer credit.  Return to table
3. Average debt levels in the period (computed as the average of period-end debt positions) divided by disposable personal income.  Return to table
4. For corporations, excess of capital expenditures over U.S. internal funds.  Return to table
5. NIPA state and local government saving plus consumption of fixed capital and net capital transfers.  Return to table
n.s.a. Not seasonally adjusted.  Return to table
2.6.4 FOF

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Part 1 Tables and Charts†
International Developments
Summary of Staff Projections
(Percent change from end of previous period, annual rate, except as noted)

Projection
2009
Indicator

2009
2010
Q1

Foreign output

Q2

Q3

2011

Q4

-8.6

3.6

3.6

4.1

1.7

3.8

3.2

3.5

4.1

-1.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.7

1.8

-1.0

Previous Greenbook

4.4

-8.6

Previous Greenbook
Foreign CPI

1.7

1.0

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.8

Contribution to growth (percentage points)
U.S. net exports

2.6

-.6

.1

.0

-.1

2.6

Previous Greenbook

1.6
1.6

-.2

-.1

-.2

-.2

Note: Changes for years measured as Q4/Q4.

Staff Projections for Foreign GDP Growth by Region
(Percent change from end of previous period, annual rate)

Projection
2009
Indicator

2009
2010
Q1

Advanced Foreign Economies

Q2

Q3

-7.9

2.5

2.6

3.2

-1.5

2.1

2.1

2.5

3.2

-9.6

Previous Greenbook

1.8

6.0

7.7

5.0

4.9

5.2

-9.6

Emerging Market Economies

-1.6

-7.8

Previous Greenbook

6.0

6.2

4.5

4.7

5.2

Note: Changes for years measured as Q4/Q4.

Staff Projections of Selected Trade Prices
(Percent change from end of previous period, annual rate, except as noted)

Projection
2009
Trade category

2009
2010
Q1

Q2

Q3

-9.4

-2.3

1.0

4.4

2011

1.5

1.0

1.3

1.0

Q4

Imports
Core goods
Previous Greenbook

-9.4

-2.4

3.5

3.5

41.58

53.71

65.34

74.10

79.11 81.49

Previous Greenbook 41.58

53.71

64.56

64.68

70.58 72.72

2.4

5.3

4.5

Oil (dollars per barrel)

Exports
Core goods

2011

Q4

-12.5

2.1

1.2

Previous Greenbook

-12.5

2.6

4.0

3.2

1.9

1.2

Note: Prices for core exports exclude computers and semiconductors. Prices for core imports exclude computers, semiconductors, oil, and natural gas. Both prices are on a national income and
product account chain-weighted basis.
The price of imported oil for multiquarter periods is the price for the final quarter of the period. Imported oil includes both crude oil and refined products.

Staff Projections for Trade in Goods and Services
(Percent change from end of previous period, annual rate)

Projection
2009
Measure

2009
2010
Q1

Real imports
Previous Greenbook
Real exports
Previous Greenbook

Q2

Q3

2011

Q4

-36.4

-14.7

16.3

6.4

7.0

7.7

-36.4

-14.8

18.4

7.2

8.0

8.0

-29.9

-4.1

14.7

9.6

8.7

8.8

-29.9

-4.6

20.9

8.1

8.2

8.6

Note: Changes for years are measured as Q4/Q4.

Alternative Scenario:
Dollar Depreciation
(Percent change from previous period, annual rate, except as noted)

2009

2010

Indicator and simulation

2011
H2

H1

H2

201213

U.S. real GDP
Baseline

3.1

3.2

3.7

4.4

4.9

Dollar Depreciation

3.2

3.8

4.7

4.6

4.8

Stronger EME Demand

3.6

4.0

4.1

4.4

4.8

U.S. PCE prices (excluding food and energy)
Baseline

1.3

1.0

1.1

1.0

1.2

Dollar Depreciation

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.2

1.4

Stronger EME Demand

1.7

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.3

Baseline

.1

.1

.1

.1

3.5

Dollar Depreciation

.1

.1

.1

1.0

4.1

Stronger EME Demand

.1

.1

.1

.5

3.8

U.S. federal funds rate (percent)

U.S. trade balance (percent share of GDP)
Baseline

-3.0

-3.0

-2.9

-2.9

-2.7

Dollar Depreciation

-2.8

-2.2

-1.7

-1.8

-1.9

Stronger EME Demand

-2.7

-2.6

-2.5

-2.6

-2.6

Note: H1 is Q2/Q4; H2 is Q4/Q2. U.S. real GDP and U.S. PCE prices are the average rates over the period. The federal funds rate and the trade balance are the values for the final quarter of the
period.

Evolution of the Staff Forecast
Figure: Current Account Balance
Line chart, by percent of GDP, January 24, 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010", and "2011". 2008 begins at about -6.7 and
generally increases to about -4.75 by October 22, 2008. It remains about constant until about June 17, 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -4.85. 2009
begins at about -5.4 by September 12, 2008, and generally increases to about -3.0 by December 10, 2008. It then generally decreases to about -3 by March 12,

2009, and generally increases to end at about -3.0. 2010 begins at about -3.4 by September 10, 2008 and generally increases to about -3.25 by October 22, 2008.
It then generally decreases to about -4.0 by March 12, 2009, and generally increases to end at about -3.0. 2011 begins at about -3.1 by September 16, 2009, and
generally increases to end at about -3.0.

Figure: Foreign Real GDP
Line chart, by percent change, Q4/Q4, January 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010", and "2011". 2008 begins at about 3.5 and
remains about constant until about August 2, 2007. It then generally decreases to about -1 by March 12, 2009, and remains about constant until the end. 2009
begins at about 3.3 by September 12, 2007 and generally increases to about 3.7 by March 13, 2008. It then generally decreases to about -2.4 by March 12, 2009
and generally increases to end at about 0.1. 2010 begins at about 3.5 by September 10, 2008 and generally decreases to about 2.4 by March 12, 2009. It then
generally increases to end at about 3.7. 2011 begins at about 4.1 by September 16, 2009 and remains about constant until the end.

Figure: Core Import Prices
Line chart, by percent change, Q4/Q4, January 24, 2007 to October 29, 2009. There are four series, "2008", "2009", "2010", and "2011". 2008 begins at about 1
and generally increases to about 7.2 by September 10, 2008. It then generally decreases to about 3.4 by January 22, 2009 and generally increases to end at about
3.8. 2009 begins at about 1 and generally increases to about 1.5 by July 30, 2008. It then generally decreases to about -4.2 by March 12, 2009, and generally
increases to end at about -1.7. 2010 begins at about 1.4 by September 10, 2008 and generally decreases to about 1 by April 22, 2009. It then generally increases
to end at about 1.5. 2011 begins at about 1 by September 16, 2009 and remains about constant until the end.
Note: Core Import Prices for merchandise imports excluding computers, semiconductors, oil, and natural gas.

Outlook for Foreign Real GDP and Consumer Prices: Selected Countries
(Percent changes)

Projected
Measure and country

2009
Q1

Q2

REAL GDP 1

2010

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2011
Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Quarterly changes at an annual rate

Total Foreign

-8.6

4.4

3.6

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.9

4.0

4.1

4.1

4.1

-7.9

-1.6

1.8

2.5

2.3

2.6

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.3

-6.1

Advanced Foreign Economies

1.7

-3.4

2.0

3.3

3.1

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.9

of which:
Canada
Japan

-12.4

2.3

4.2

2.5

2.1

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

United Kingdom

-9.6

-2.3

-1.6

2.4

1.9

2.5

2.8

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.2

3.2

Euro Area 2

-9.6

-0.7

1.8

1.6

1.6

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.7

2.8

3.0

3.0

Germany

-13.4

1.3

2.7

2.4

2.1

2.2

2.4

2.7

2.8

3.0

3.5

3.6

-9.6

6.0

7.7

5.0

4.7

4.8

5.0

5.2

5.1

5.2

5.2

5.2

-2.7 14.3

9.3

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.9

6.1

6.0

6.0

6.1

6.0

0.5 11.0 12.3

3.8

3.8

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

Emerging Market Economies
Asia
Korea
China

6.5 18.5

Brazil

8.8

8.2

8.2

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.8

-1.8

6.7

4.5

3.7

4.0

4.2

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.3

4.3

-4.4

7.8

4.7

3.5

4.0

4.2

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

-3.8

Mexico

9.8 10.0

-16.7
-21.2

Latin America

7.8

6.0

4.5

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

CONSUMER PRICES 3
Total Foreign

Four-quarter changes
1.8

0.2

0.9

1.5

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.0

0.0

-0.8

-0.0

0.6

0.9

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

0.1

-0.9

0.3

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.8

-0.1

Advanced Foreign Economies

0.9

-1.0

-2.2

of which:
Canada
Japan
United Kingdom 4

-1.7 -1.1 -0.9 -0.6 -0.7 -0.7 -0.6 -0.6 -0.6

3.0

2.1

1.5

2.0

2.6

2.4

1.9

1.7

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

1.0

0.2

-0.4

0.3

0.9

1.2

1.4

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.3

Germany

0.8

0.2

-0.4

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

Euro Area

Emerging Market Economies
Asia

2.7

1.6

1.2

1.7

2.4

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.5

1.0

-0.3

-0.5

0.6

1.8

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

Korea

3.9

2.8

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.3

China

-0.6

-1.5

-1.3

-0.2

1.3

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.9

Latin America

6.3

5.9

4.9

4.0

3.6

2.9

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

Mexico

6.2

6.0

5.1

4.0

3.5

2.7

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Brazil

5.9

5.3

4.3

4.1

3.8

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.7

1. Foreign GDP aggregates calculated using shares of U.S. exports.  Return to table
2. Harmonized data for euro area from Eurostat.  Return to table
3. Foreign CPI aggregates calculated using shares of U.S. non-oil imports.  Return to table
4. CPI excluding mortgage interest payments, which is the targeted inflation rate.  Return to table

Outlook for Foreign Real GDP and Consumer Prices: Selected Countries
(Percent, Q4 to Q4)

Projected
Measure and country

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
2009 2010 2011

REAL GDP 1
Total Foreign

2.9

3.8

4.1

4.0

4.2

-1.0

0.1

3.6

4.1

1.8

2.6

2.8

2.5

2.5

-1.6

-1.4

2.6

3.2

1.5

Advanced Foreign Economies

3.7

3.1

1.9

2.8

-1.0

-1.1

3.2

3.9

of which:
Canada
Japan

2.4

1.1

2.9

2.1

1.9

-4.5

-1.1

2.0

2.0

United Kingdom

3.2

2.4

2.4

2.8

2.4

-2.0

-2.9

2.6

3.1

Euro Area 2

1.2

1.7

2.1

3.5

2.2

-1.8

-1.8

2.1

2.9

Germany

0.1

0.2

1.6

4.3

1.6

-1.8

-2.0

2.3

3.2

Emerging Market Economies

4.5

5.5

5.9

5.9

6.4

-0.1

2.0

4.9

5.2

6.9

6.0

7.7

7.2

8.2

0.2

6.5

5.9

6.0

Korea

3.7

2.6

5.2

4.6

5.7

-3.4

6.8

4.2

4.4

China

10.3

9.9

10.3

10.8

12.3

6.9

11.1

8.4

8.7

1.8

5.0

4.0

4.7

4.5

-0.8

-2.3

4.1

4.3

Mexico

1.3

4.5

3.5

4.0

3.7

-1.7

-4.0

4.0

4.5

Brazil

1.0

4.7

3.7

4.6

6.1

1.2

3.5

4.0

4.0

2.1

2.8

2.3

2.1

3.7

3.3

0.9

1.7

1.8

1.3

1.8

1.6

1.4

2.2

2.0

-0.0

1.0

1.2

1.7

2.3

2.3

1.4

2.5

1.9

0.3

1.5

1.8

-0.3

0.5

-1.0

0.3

0.5

1.0

-1.7

-0.7

-0.6

1.3

1.4

2.1

2.7

2.1

3.8

2.0

1.7

1.8

Asia

Latin America

CONSUMER PRICES 3
Total Foreign
Advanced Foreign Economies
of which:
Canada
Japan
United Kingdom 4
2

2.0

2.3

2.3

1.8

2.9

2.3

0.3

1.2

1.3

Germany

1.1

2.1

2.2

1.3

3.1

1.7

0.3

1.0

1.1

3.1

3.9

3.0

2.9

5.1

4.6

1.7

2.4

2.5

Euro Area

Emerging Market Economies
Asia

2.3

3.1

2.6

2.4

5.5

3.7

0.6

2.1

2.2

Korea

3.5

3.4

2.5

2.1

3.4

4.5

2.0

2.2

2.3

China

2.7

3.3

1.4

2.1

6.7

2.7

-0.2

1.7

1.9

4.9

5.6

3.8

4.1

4.2

6.5

4.0

2.9

3.0

3.9

5.3

3.1

4.1

3.8

6.2

4.0

2.5

2.5

Latin America
Mexico

Brazil

11.5

7.2

6.1

3.2

4.3

6.2

4.1

3.7

3.7

1. Foreign GDP aggregates calculated using shares of U.S. exports.  Return to table
2. Harmonized data for euro area from Eurostat.  Return to table
3. Foreign CPI aggregates calculated using shares of U.S. non-oil imports.  Return to table
4. CPI excluding mortgage interest payments, which is the targeted inflation rate.  Return to table

Outlook for U.S. International Transactions
Projected
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
2009

2010

2011

NIPA REAL EXPORTS and IMPORTS
Percentage point contribution to GDP growth, Q4/Q4
Net Goods & Services

-0.1

-0.9

-0.2

0.4

1.0

0.7

1.0

-0.0

-0.1

Exports of G&S

0.6

0.7

0.7

1.1

1.2

-0.4

-0.5

1.0

1.0

Imports of G&S

-0.7

-1.6

-0.8

-0.7

-0.2

1.2

1.5

-1.0

-1.1

Percentage change, Q4/Q4
Exports of G&S

6.2

7.1

6.7

10.2

10.2

-3.4

-4.1

8.7

8.8

4.3

9.1

3.6

12.0

13.0

-3.5

-1.6

6.0

5.9

Computers

11.3

5.8

14.2

8.4

1.3

-2.4

5.0

9.5

9.5

Semiconductors

Services

38.3

-6.0

17.6

2.1

29.1

-12.7

19.5

11.0

11.0

Core Goods 1

4.8

7.2

7.2

9.9

8.4

-3.1

-6.6

10.1

10.2

Imports of G&S

5.1

10.9

5.2

4.1

0.9

-6.8

-9.5

7.0

7.7

 

 

Services

3.3

8.8

2.3

7.1

2.0

0.2

-3.5

3.9

5.9

Oil

1.3

10.7

1.3

-8.2

0.0

0.3

-10.7

-2.9

-0.8

Natural Gas

1.3

4.9

13.7

-10.1

13.4

-24.0

4.8

8.6

0.9

Computers

17.1

23.2

12.5

14.3

8.8

-11.3

14.5

15.5

15.5

Semiconductors

-0.1

9.8

7.5

-0.8

3.6

-9.7

7.2

5.0

5.0

5.3

10.9

5.8

5.8

0.2

-9.8

-12.8

10.1

10.0

Core Goods 2

Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars
Net Goods & Services

-603.9 -688.0 -722.7 -729.2 -647.7 -494.3 -352.0 -341.8 -349.2

Exports of G&S

1116.8 1222.8 1305.1 1422.0 1546.1 1629.3 1456.6 1582.7 1723.1

Imports of G&S

1720.7 1910.8 2027.8 2151.2 2193.8 2123.5 1808.5 1924.5 2072.3
Billions of dollars

US CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE -521.5 -631.1 -748.7 -803.5 -726.6 -706.1 -426.0 -457.9 -464.4
Current Acct as Percent of GDP

-4.7

-5.3

-5.9

-6.0

-5.2

-4.9

-3.0

-3.1

 

-3.0
 

Net Goods & Services (BOP)

-495.0 -610.0 -715.3 -760.4 -701.4 -695.9 -378.0 -439.0 -453.5

 

 

Investment Income, Net

51.0

73.4

78.8

54.7

97.9

125.5

83.9

108.9

117.0

Direct, Net

112.7

150.9

173.2

174.0

236.7

249.9

205.0

230.8

252.0

Portfolio, Net

-61.7

-77.5

-94.4 -119.4 -138.8 -124.3 -121.1 -121.9 -135.0

 

 

Other Income & Transfers,Net

-77.5

-94.5 -112.2

-97.9 -123.1 -135.7 -131.9 -127.9 -127.9

1. Merchandise exports excluding computers and semiconductors.  Return to table
2. Merchandise imports excluding oil, natural gas, computers, and semiconductors.  Return to table

Outlook for U.S. International Transactions
2006
Q1

Q2

2007
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

2008
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

NIPA REAL EXPORTS and IMPORTS
Percentage point contribution to GDP growth
Net Goods & Services

0.4

0.0

-0.7

1.9

-0.3

0.7

1.4

2.2

0.4

2.4

-0.1

0.5

Exports of G&S

1.6

0.7

0.1

1.8

0.4

0.6

2.0

1.6

-0.0

1.5

-0.5

-2.7

Imports of G&S

-1.2

-0.7

-0.8

0.1

-0.7

0.1

-0.6

0.6

0.4

0.9

0.4

3.1

Percentage change from previous period, s.a.a.r.
Exports of G&S

16.5

6.9

0.6

17.8

3.5

5.2

18.5

14.5

-0.1

12.1

-3.6

-19.5

Services

13.6

5.6

1.5

29.1

4.7

2.8

27.2

19.2

-9.0

7.8

-7.7

-4.3

Computers

18.1

8.9

-9.6

19.0

11.6

-15.4

11.5

0.0

8.7

33.5

1.3

-38.3

Semiconductors

22.1

19.5

-14.2

-13.3

23.7

26.3

4.7

69.9

15.0

-3.8

6.5

-50.7

Core Goods 1

17.6

6.7

1.6

14.5

1.5

6.4

15.4

10.8

3.5

14.3

-2.2

-23.7

 

 

Imports of G&S
Services

7.8

4.5

4.9

-0.5

4.3

-0.5

3.7

-3.6

-2.5

-5.0

-2.2

-16.7

16.1

1.8

1.3

10.0

0.4

2.1

8.6

-2.9

3.0

-7.1

6.1

-0.9

Oil

-20.8

5.0

22.1

-30.1

0.8

14.7

-3.4

-10.4

-1.5

-9.3

2.7

10.3

Natural Gas

-50.2

80.0

26.1

-42.2

52.8

54.0

36.5

-48.5

-5.0

-38.2

12.2

-49.5

Computers

24.8

13.0

17.3

3.1

39.0

-15.4

-2.2

21.6

12.7

8.6

-15.9

-39.9

2.4

-2.8

17.4

-17.3

7.3

2.6

-0.4

4.9

5.6

8.9

-6.3

-38.2

14.0

3.1

0.6

5.8

3.1

-3.6

4.1

-2.5

-5.1

-3.2

-5.1

-24.2

Semiconductors
Core Goods 2

Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, s.a.a.r.
Net Goods & Services

-732.6 -732.8 -756.5 -694.9 -705.0 -683.4 -638.4 -564.0 -550.9 -476.0 -479.2 -470.9

Exports of G&S

1388.8 1412.1 1414.1 1473.2 1485.9 1504.8 1569.9 1624.0 1623.4 1670.4 1655.2 1568.0

Imports of G&S

2121.3 2144.9 2170.5 2168.1 2190.8 2188.1 2208.3 2188.0 2174.3 2146.5 2134.4 2038.9
Billions of dollars, s.a.a.r.

US CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE -794.6 -808.3 -859.2 -752.1 -796.4 -762.1 -686.5 -661.3 -717.2 -750.9 -736.7 -619.5
Current Account as % of GDP

-6.0

-6.1

-6.4

-5.5

-5.8

-5.4

-4.8

-4.6

-5.0

-5.2

-5.1

-4.3

 

 

Net Goods & Services (BOP)

-766.5 -764.7 -797.2 -713.1 -712.2 -710.2 -685.9 -697.4 -730.6 -731.4 -743.8 -578.0

 

 

Investment Income, Net
Direct, Net
Portfolio, Net

62.4

57.7

44.0

54.6

45.8

58.2

120.7

167.0

154.0

112.3

143.7

92.1

173.9

175.2

163.1

183.9

186.7

204.4

252.7

303.0

284.6

241.9

268.0

205.1

-111.5 -117.5 -119.1 -129.3 -140.9 -146.2 -132.0 -136.0 -130.6 -129.6 -124.2 -113.0

 

 

Other Inc. & Transfers, Net

-90.5 -101.3 -106.0

-93.6 -130.0 -110.1 -121.3 -130.9 -140.6 -131.8 -136.7 -133.6

1. Merchandise exports excluding computers and semiconductors.  Return to table
2. Merchandise imports excluding oil, natural gas, computers, and semiconductors.  Return to table

Outlook for U.S. International Transactions
Projected
2009
Q1
NIPA REAL EXPORTS and IMPORTS

Q2

2010
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

2011
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Percentage point contribution to GDP growth
Net Goods & Services

2.6

1.7

-0.6

0.1

-0.1

0.2

-0.1

-0.0

-0.3

-0.0

-0.1

0.0

Exports of G&S

-4.0

-0.5

1.5

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

Imports of G&S

6.6

2.1

-2.0

-0.9

-1.0

-0.8

-1.1

-1.1

-1.3

-1.0

-1.1

-1.1

Percentage change from previous period, s.a.a.r.
Exports of G&S
Services

-29.9

-4.1

14.7

9.6

8.2

8.5

8.9

9.4

8.9

8.5

8.5

9.1

-13.6

0.1

2.8

5.5

5.2

5.8

6.3

6.7

6.3

5.8

5.7

5.7

Computers

-14.0

-10.8

30.2

21.4

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.5

Semiconductors

-17.1

27.7

61.7

19.3

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

Core Goods 1

-38.3

-7.2

19.7

11.1

9.6

9.9

10.2

10.8

10.2

9.9

9.9

10.9

 

 

Imports of G&S

-36.4

-14.7

16.3

6.4

7.4

5.5

7.5

7.7

8.9

7.1

7.6

7.3

Services

-11.5

-7.5

2.8

3.1

6.4

-0.1

4.2

5.1

5.5

5.9

6.0

6.1

Oil

-15.9

-21.9

1.4

-4.5

-3.4

-4.5

-1.4

-2.3

3.9

-4.6

-1.0

-1.4

Natural Gas

5.9

-2.4

-17.6

41.6

41.3

-13.3

30.6

-12.9

9.6

-15.9

27.2

-11.6

Computers

-22.3

24.7

57.3

12.9

15.5

15.5

15.5

15.5

15.5

15.5

15.5

15.5

Semiconductors

-47.8

24.7

57.0

29.2

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

Core Goods 2

-46.7

-18.6

21.7

9.2

9.6

9.7

10.0

10.9

10.8

10.3

9.3

9.5

Billions of Chained 2005 Dollars, s.a.a.r.
Net Goods & Services

-386.5 -330.4 -348.3 -342.7 -345.9 -339.7 -340.8 -340.7 -348.0 -348.3 -351.0 -349.7

Exports of G&S

1434.5 1419.5 1469.1 1503.2 1533.0 1564.7 1598.4 1634.6 1669.9 1704.5 1739.7 1778.1

Imports of G&S

1821.0 1749.8 1817.3 1845.9 1879.0 1904.4 1939.2 1975.3 2017.9 2052.8 2090.7 2127.8
Billions of dollars, s.a.a.r.

US CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE -417.8 -395.2 -436.1 -455.1 -476.0 -452.3 -453.5 -449.9 -472.0 -456.2 -464.9 -464.6
Current Account as % of GDP

-2.9

-2.8

-3.1

-3.2

-3.3

-3.1

-3.0

-3.0

-3.1

-2.9

-3.0

 

-2.9
 

Net Goods & Services (BOP)

-369.6 -332.0 -383.3 -427.2 -441.0 -435.4 -438.4 -441.3 -453.4 -451.8 -454.6 -454.4

 

 

Investment Income, Net
Direct, Net
Portfolio, Net

80.4

72.8

86.7

95.7

102.5

106.5

111.9

114.9

118.8

119.0

116.7

113.3

204.8

196.8

204.8

213.6

220.6

227.9

234.4

240.3

246.8

251.3

254.0

255.8

-124.4 -124.0 -118.1 -117.9 -118.2 -121.4 -122.6 -125.3 -128.0 -132.3 -137.3 -142.4

 

 

Other Inc. & Transfers, Net

-128.6 -135.9 -139.5 -123.6 -137.5 -123.4 -127.0 -123.6 -137.5 -123.4 -127.0 -123.6

1. Merchandise exports excluding computers and semiconductors.  Return to table
2. Merchandise imports excluding oil, natural gas, computers, and semiconductors.  Return to table

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Part 2 Tables and Charts†
Domestic Nonfinancial Developments
Changes in Employment
(Thousands of employees; seasonally adjusted)

2009
2008
Measure and sector

Q1

Q2

Q3

July

Average monthly change
Nonfarm payroll employment
       (establishment survey)  

Aug.

Sept.

Monthly change

Natural resources and mining
Manufacturing

-257

-691

-428

-256

-304

-201

-263

-270

Private

-695

-425

-213

-246

-182

-210

4

-12

-11

-4

-6

-6

-1

-73

-140

-53

-41

-66

-51

-176

-117

-58

-73

-52

-48

-57

Construction

-202

-58

Ex. motor vehicles

-124

-80

-64

-69

-60

-64

Residential

-35

-53

-26

-18

-20

-20

-13

Nonresidential

-22

-71

-54

-47

-50

-40

-51

Wholesale trade

-16

-36

-20

-10

-14

-13

-5

Retail trade

-44

-55

-27

-31

-45

-9

-39

Financial activities

-19

-51

-35

-16

-14

-25

-10

Temporary help services

-44

-73

-28

-5

-6

-7

-2

19

-25

19

6

10

24

-16

14

4

-3

-43

-58

-19

-53

3

10

3

0

9

-2

-6

-246

-817

-230

-444

-155

-392

-785

-3.3

-8.9

-7.8

-3.0

.1

-.2

-.5

33.6

33.2

33.1

33.1

33.1

33.1

33.0

40.8

39.6

39.5

39.9

39.9

39.9

39.8

Nonbusiness services 1
Total government
Federal government
Total employment (household survey)
Memo:
Aggregate hours of private production
       workers (percent change) 2
Average workweek (hours)

3

Manufacturing (hours)

1. Nonbusiness services comprises education and health, leisure and hospitality, and "other."  Return to table
2. Establishment survey. Annual data are percent changes from Q4 to Q4. Quarterly data are percent changes from preceding quarter at an annual rate. Monthly data are percent changes from
preceding month.  Return to table
3. Establishment survey.  Return to table

Figure: Changes in Private Payroll Employment
Line chart, by thousands, 2000 to September 2010. Data are 3-month moving averages. The series begins at about 250 and generally decreases to about -315 by
late 2001. It then generally increases to about 280 by mid-2004, and generally decreases to about -700 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 210.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Aggregate Hours and Workweek of Production and Nonsupervisory Workers
Line chart, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Aggregate hours" (index, 2002 = 100) and "Workweek" (hours). These two series use two different
scales. Aggregate hours begins at about 103.2 and generally increases to about 104 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about 98.2 by mid-2003, and
generally increases to about 107.8 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 98.8. Workweek begins at about 34.4 and generally decreases to about

33.6 by early 2003. It then generally increases to about 34.05 by late 2006, and generally decreases to end at about 33.0.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Selected Unemployment and Labor Force Participation Rates
(Percent; seasonally adjusted)

2009
Rate and group

2008
Q1

Q2

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

Civilian unemployment rate
Total

5.8

8.1

9.2

9.6

9.4

9.7

9.8

Teenagers

18.7

21.3

22.7

25.1

23.8

25.5

25.9

20-24 years old

10.2

13.0

15.0

15.1

15.3

15.1

14.9

Men, 25 years and older

4.8

7.4

8.8

9.4

9.0

9.5

9.7

Women, 25 years and older

4.4

6.2

6.9

7.1

6.9

7.0

7.3

Labor force participation rate
Total

66.0

65.6

65.8

65.4

65.5

65.5

65.2

Teenagers

40.2

38.3

38.4

37.5

38.0

37.7

36.9

20-24 years old

74.4

73.7

74.1

72.9

73.5

73.0

72.3

Men, 25 years and older

75.4

74.6

74.9

74.9

74.8

75.0

74.8

Women, 25 years and older

60.0

60.0

60.3

59.9

60.1

59.9

59.7

Figure: Unemployment Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2001 to September 2009. The series begins at about 4.3 and generally increases to about 6.4 by mid-2003. It then generally decreases to
about 4.5 by late 2006, and generally increases to end at about 9.8. It is at about 4.8 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: Shaded bar indicates a period of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): March 2001-November 2001. A vertical line indicates the NBER
peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.

Figure: Labor Force Participation Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2001 to September 2009. The series begins at about 67.25 and generally decreases to about 65.8 by 2006. It then generally increases to
about 66.3 by late 2006, and generally decreases to end at about 65.2. It is at about 66.05 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: See the note to the immediately preceding figure, "Unemployment Rate."

Figure: Persons Working Part Time for Economic Reasons
Line chart, by percent of household employment, 2001 to September 2009. The series begins at about 2.45 and generally increases to about 3.5 by early 2003. It
then generally decreases to about 2.75 by 2006, and generally increases to end at about 6.6.

Figure: Job Losers Unemployed Less Than 5 Weeks
Line chart, by percent of household employment, 2001 to September 2009. There are two series, "Job Losers Unemployed Less Than 5 Weeks" and "3-month
moving average". These two series track closely together throughout the chart. They begin at about 0.9 and generally increase to about 1.3 by late 2001. They
then generally decrease to about 0.85 by early 2007, and generally increase to about 1.59 by early 2009. They then generally decrease to end at about 1.4.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Labor Market Indicators
Figure: Insured Unemployment
Line chart, by millions, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Incl. extended and emergency benefits" and "Regular state programs". Incl. extended and emergency
benefits begins at about 0 and generally increases to about 5.1 by 2002. It is also 0 from about 2004 to mid-2008, and then generally increases to end at about 10

by October 3, 2009. Regular state programs begins at about 2.1 and generally decreases to about 2 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 3.7 by 2002, and
generally decreases to about 2.5 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 6.8 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 6 by October 10, 2009.
Note: 4-week moving averages.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.

Figure: Layoffs and Initial Claims
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Layoffs and discharges", which is by percent of private employment, and "Initial claims", which is by thousands.
These two series use two different scales. Layoffs and discharges begins at about 1.6 by late 2000, and generally increases to about 2.1 by 2001. It then generally
decreases to about 1.3 by early 2006, and generally increases to about 2.23 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.0 by August. Initial claims
begins at about 288 and generally decreases to about 265 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 448 by 2002, and generally decreases to about 280 by
early 2006. It then generally increases to about 660 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 530 by October 17.
Note: Data for initial claims are 4-week moving averages.
Source: For layoffs and discharges, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey; for initial claims, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.

Figure: Hiring and Hiring Plans
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Hires", which is by percent of private employment, and "Hiring plans", which is by percent. Hiring plans data are 3month moving averages. These two series use two different scales. Hires begins at about 4.5 by late 2000, and generally increases to about 4.98 by 2001. It then
generally decreases to about 3.8 by 2003, and generally increases to about 4.75 by early 2005. It then generally decreases to about 3.3 by mid-2009, and
generally increases to end at about 3.5 by August. Hiring plans begins at about 19 and generally decreases to about 6 by early 2003. It then generally increases to
about 16.5 by late 2006, and generally decreases to end at about -4.5 by September.
Note: Hiring plans is percent planning an increase in employment minus percent planning a reduction. Seasonally adjusted by FRB staff.
Source: For hires, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey; for hiring plans, National Federation of Independent Business.

Figure: Job Openings
Line chart, 2000 to 2010. There are two series, "Job openings", which is by percent of private employment plus job openings, and "Composite Help Wanted Index"
(1980=100). These two series use two different scales. Job openings begins at about 4.0 and generally decreases to about 2.5 by early 2003. It then generally
increases to about 3.6 by 2006, and generally decreases to end at about 1.9 by August. Composite Help Wanted Index begins at about 93 and generally decreases
to about 49 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 76 by late 2006, and generally decreases to about 40 by 2009. It then generally increases to about 47 by
mid-2009, and generally decreases to end at about 42.
Note: Composite Help Wanted Index is an index of staff composite help wanted advertising as a percent of payroll employment.
Source: For job openings, Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey; for Help Wanted Index, Conference Board and staff calculations.

Figure: Job Availability and Hard-to-Fill Positions
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Job availability", an index, and "Hard-to-fill", which is by percent. These two series use two different scales. Job
availability begins at about 142 and generally decreases to about 78 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 110 by early 2007, and generally decreases
to end at about 58 by October. Hard-to-fill begins at about 32 and generally increases to about 33.5 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 16 by 2003, and
generally increases to about 27.5 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 8 by September.
Note: Job availability is proportion of households believing jobs are plentiful, minus the proportion believing jobs are hard to get, plus 100. Hard-to-fill is percent of small businesses surveyed with
at least one "hard-to-fill" job opening; seasonally adjusted by FRB staff.
Source: For job availability, Conference Board; for hard-to-fill, National Federation of Independent Business.

Figure: Expected Labor Market Conditions
Line chart, an index, 2000 to October 2009. There are two series, "Conference Board" and "Reuters/Michigan". Conference Board begins at about 107 and
generally decreases to about 85 by early 2001. It then generally increases to about 107 by 2002, and generally decreases to about 60 by early 2009. It then
generally increases to about 95 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to end at about 90. Reuters/Michigan begins at about 96 and generally decreases to about
50 by 2001. It then generally increases to about 108 by mid-2004, and generally decreases to about 38 by late 2008. It then generally increases to about 90 by
2009, and generally decreases to end at about 78.
Note: The proportion of households expecting labor market conditions to improve, minus the proportion expecting conditions to worsen, plus 100. Reuters/Michigan October 2009 plotted value is
preliminary.
Source: Conference Board; Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers.

Selected Components of Industrial Production
(Percent change from preceding comparable period)

Proportion
2008
(percent)

Component

2009
2008 1

Q2

2009
Q3

July

Aug.

Annual rate

Sept.

Monthly rate

Total

100.0

-6.7

-10.3

5.2

.9

1.2

.7

Previous

100.0

-6.7

-10.5

…

1.0

.8

…

79.0

-8.7

-8.7

7.1

1.2

1.2

.9

74.5

-7.8

-8.7

3.8

.5

.9

.5

70.3

-7.8

-9.1

3.4

.3

1.0

.5

Mining

10.6

.8

-21.7

3.7

1.2

1.1

.7

Utilities

10.4

.3

-11.2

-5.8

-1.5

1.9

-.7

 

 

Manufacturing
Ex. motor veh. and parts
Ex. high-tech industries
 

 

 

 

Selected industries
Energy

23.9

1.3

-14.4

-2.5

-.4

1.1

.5

High technology

4.2

-6.9

-.1

10.7

2.8

.0

.0

Computers

1.0

-11.9

-25.1

-16.9

-1.2

-1.4

-1.4

Communications equipment

1.3

10.4

-4.1

6.3

.5

.3

-1.1

Semiconductors 2

1.8

-15.0

22.3

33.2

7.1

.4

1.8

 

 

 

 

Motor vehicles and parts

4.5

-23.3

-10.4

103.0

17.8

6.1

8.1

2.3

-13.2

-18.5

4.7

2.0

-.7

1.8

Total ex. selected industries

65.1

-8.3

-9.1

3.6

.3

1.2

.3

Consumer goods

20.7

-4.2

-4.9

1.4

-.4

1.3

.3

3.5

-14.7

-12.9

1.6

1.4

-.5

.2

17.1

-1.8

-3.3

1.4

-.7

1.6

.3

 

 

Aircraft and parts
 

 

Durables
Nondurables
 

 

Business equipment

6.6

-4.8

-22.5

-.2

.3

1.4

-.2

Defense and space equipment

1.1

-2.1

4.0

15.9

2.0

1.3

1.2

 

 

Construction supplies

4.8

-11.8

-10.7

2.9

.5

.4

-.4

Business supplies

7.3

-9.8

-10.7

-1.2

-.4

.4

-.5

24.6

-11.7

-8.6

8.0

.9

1.4

.7

Durables

12.4

-11.4

-24.0

7.7

1.6

1.4

.7

Nondurables

12.2

-12.0

7.7

8.3

.3

1.4

.7

Aug.

Sept.

 

 

Materials

1. From fourth quarter of preceding year to fourth quarter of year shown.  Return to table
2. Includes related electronic components.  Return to table
… Not applicable.  Return to table
Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Capacity Utilization
(Percent of capacity)

Sector

Total industry
 

19722008
average
80.9

199495
high
84.9

200102
low
73.5

2009
Q1
70.4

Q2
68.7

Q3
69.8

69.9

70.5
 

Manufacturing

79.6

84.5

71.4

66.7

65.4

66.8

66.8

67.5

Mining

87.6

89.1

84.9

86.8

81.8

82.8

82.9

83.6

Utilities

86.8

93.3

84.2

82.4

79.6

78.1

78.7

78.1

 

 

Stage-of-process groups
Crude

86.6

89.9

81.7

80.9

79.5

81.4

81.4

82.5

Primary and semifinished

82.0

87.9

74.3

68.4

66.2

66.9

67.0

67.3

Finished

77.7

80.3

70.0

68.4

67.1

68.4

68.6

69.3

Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Indicators of Industrial Activity
Figure: IP Diffusion Index
Line chart, an index, 1997 to September 2009. The series begins at about 59 and generally increases to about 71 by late 1997. It then generally decreases to
about 30 by early 2001, and generally increases to about 68 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about 16 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at
about 69. It is at about 49 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: The diffusion index equals the percentage of series that increased relative to 3 months earlier plus one-half the percentage that were unchanged. A shaded bar indicates a period of
business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): March 2001-November 2001. A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007.
Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Figure: Motor Vehicle Assemblies
Line chart, by millions of units, 2002 to October 2009. There are two series, "Autos and light trucks" and "Medium and heavy trucks". These two series use two
different scales. Autos and light trucks begins at about 12 and generally increases to about 12.8 by mid-2002. It then generally decreases to about 3.7 by early
2009, and generally increases to end at about 7. October 2009 is marked at about 0.48. Medium and heavy trucks begins at about 0.2 and generally increases to
about 0.55 by mid-2006. It then generally decreases to about 0.1 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 0.18. October 2009 is marked at about 0.15.
Note: October values are based on latest industry schedules.
Source: Ward's Communications.

Figure: Manufacturing Capacity Utilization
Line chart, by percent, 1997 to September 2009. The series begins at about 82.2 and generally increases to about 84 by late 1997. It then generally decreases to
about 72 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 80 by late 2005. It then generally decreases to about 65 by mid-2009, and generally increases to end at
about 67.5. It is at about 78 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: Horizontal line is 1972-2008 average, approximately 77 percent. A shaded bar indicates a period of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER):
March 2001-November 2001. A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007.
Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Figure: ISM New Orders Diffusion Index and Change in Real Adjusted Durable Goods Orders
Line chart, 2002 to September 2009. There are two series, "ISM", which is a diffusion index, and "RADGO", which is by percent. These two series use two different
scales. ISM begins at about 55 and generally increases to about 6 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 47 by early 2003, and generally increases to
about 72 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about 23 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 61. It is at about 53 at the time of the NBER
peak in December 2007. RADGO begins at about -1 and generally increases to about 2.8 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about -2.2 by early 2004,
and generally increases to about 2.5 by mid-2005. It then generally decreases to about -5.2 by 2008, generally increases to about 2 by mid-2009, and generally
decreases to end at about 0. It is at about -1 at the time of the NBER peak in December 2007.
Note: The measure for real adjusted durable goods orders (RADGO) is a 3-month moving average.
Source: Institute for Supply Management (ISM). RADGO is compiled by FRB staff based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau.

Figure: New Orders: Regional Survey Average
Line chart, an index, 2002 to October 2009. The series begins at about 53 and generally increases to about 58 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 45 by
2003, and generally increases to about 65 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about 31 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 54. The
series is about 54 at the time of the NBER peak in December 2007.
Note: The regional average includes new orders indexes from the Chicago, Dallas, Kansas City, New York (Empire State), Philadelphia, and Richmond surveys. The chart includes a horizontal
line at about 50.

Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Weekly Production Index excluding Motor Vehicles
Bar chart, an index, October 2008 to October 2009. The bar chart, showing monthly aggregate of weekly index, begins at about 17.4 and generally decreases to
about 16.0 by June. It then generally increases to end at about 16.75. There is also a curve, "Weekly index". It begins at about 17.5 and generally decreases to
about 15.5 by June. It then generally increases to about 16.7 by early July, and generally decrease to about 15.7 by July. It then generally increases to end at
about 16.8.
Note: One index point equals 1 percent of 2002 total industrial output.
Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Production of Domestic Light Vehicles
(Millions of units at an annual rate except as noted)

2009

2009

Item
Q1
1

Q2

Q3

Q4

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

4.4

4.5

6.4

6.8

4.1

5.6

6.3

7.1

Autos

1.7

1.9

2.5

2.7

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.8

Light trucks

2.8

2.5

3.8

4.0

2.2

3.4

3.8

4.3

Days' supply2

93

70

50

n.a.

70

55

36

63

Autos

93

78

46

n.a.

76

55

32

59

Light trucks

93

64

55

n.a.

64

55

40

66

2.05

1.63

1.38

n.a.

1.63

1.50

1.20

1.38

.92

.82

.63

n.a.

.82

.75

.56

.63

1.13

.81

.75

n.a.

.81

.75

.64

.75

4.6

4.6

6.5

7.0

4.2

5.7

6.5

7.3

U.S. production

Inventories3
Autos
Light trucks
Memo: U.S. production,
    total motor vehicles 4

Note: FRB seasonals. Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.
1. Production rates for the fourth quarter of 2009 reflect the latest industry schedules.  Return to table
2. Quarterly values are calculated with end-of-period stocks and average reported sales.  Return to table
3. End-of-period stocks.  Return to table
4. Includes medium and heavy trucks.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.  Return to table
Source: Ward's Communications.

Figure: Inventories of Light Vehicles
Line chart, by millions of units, 1998 to September 2009. The series begins at about 2.7 and generally increases to about 2.8 early 1998. It then generally
decreases to about 2.45 by mid-1998, and generally increases to about 3.4 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2009, and generally increases to
end at about 1.38.
Source: Ward's Communications. Adjusted using FRB seasonals.

Figure: Days' Supply of Light Vehicles
Line chart, 1998 to September 2009. Unit is days. The series begins at about 70 and generally decreases to about 55 by mid-1998. It then generally increases to
about 80 by late 2000, and generally decreases to about 40 by late 2001. It then generally increases to about 100 by early 2009, and generally decreases to about
35 by 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 64.
Source: Constructed from Ward's Communications data. Adjusted using FRB seasonals.

Indicators of High-Tech Manufacturing Activity
Figure: Industrial Production in the High-Tech Sector

Line chart, 2002 = 100, ratio scale, 2002 to September 2009. There are three series, "Semiconductors", "Computers", and "Communications equipment".
Semiconductors begins at about 90 and generally increases to about 315 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 218 by early 2009, and generally
increases to end at about 250. Computers begins at about 101 and generally increases to about 238 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 158.
Communications equipment begins at about 105 and generally decreases to about 98 by late 2002. It then generally increases to end at about 170.
Source: Federal Reserve, G.17 Statistical Release, "Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization."

Figure: U.S. Personal Computer and Server Absorption
Line chart, by millions of units, ratio scale, 2002 to 2009. There are two series, "Servers" and "PCs". These two series use two different scales. Servers begins at
about 0.435 and generally increases to about 0.79 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 0.48 by 2009, and generally increases to about 0.59 by
2009. 2009 is marked at about 0.61. PCs begins at about 11.3 and generally decreases to about 11.15 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 16.7 by late
2007, and generally decreases to about 16.0 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 17.3 by 2009:Q3.
Note: FRB seasonals. PC and server units represent the most recent U.S. data available from IDC. Q3 PC units are from the IDC Top 10 data release. Q3 server units are implied from the IDC
Top 10 data release.
Source: IDC.

Figure: MPU Shipments and Intel Revenue
Line chart, by billions of dollars, ratio scale, 2002 to 2009. There are two series, "Intel revenue" and "Worldwide MPU shipments". Intel revenue begins at about
6.88 and generally decreases to about 6.5 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 10.4 by early 2008, and generally decreases to about 7.75 by early 2009.
It then generally increases to end at about 9.8 by 2009:Q4. Worldwide MPU shipments begins at about 6.0 and generally increases to about 6.3 by 2002. It then
generally decreases to about 5.75 by 2002, and generally increases to about 9.4 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 5.8 by early 2009, and generally
increases to end at about 8.75 by August.
Note: FRB seasonals. MPU is a microprocessor unit. Q4 Intel revenue is the midpoint of the range given by the company's guidance as of October 13, 2009. MPU shipments are a 3-month sum.
Source: Intel; Semiconductor Industry Association.

Figure: Circuit Board Orders and Shipments
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2002 to August 2009. There are two series, "Orders" and "Shipments". Orders begins at about 97 and generally increases to about
101 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 68 by 2003, and generally increases to about 132 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 70 by early
2009, and generally increases to end at about 77. Shipments begins at about 91 and generally increases to about 101 by 2002. It then generally decreases to
about 70 by 2003, and generally increases to about 115 by 2006. It then generally decreases to about 70 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 75.
Note: U.S. and Canadian orders and shipments of bare and loaded circuit boards.
Source: Institute for Printed Circuits.

Figure: Bookings and Billings for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2002 to September 2009. There are two series, "Billings" and "Bookings". Billings begins at about 0.85 and generally decreases to
about 0.8 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 1.02 by 2002, and generally decreases to about 0.76 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 1.7
by mid-2007, and generally decreases to about 0.38 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 0.6. Bookings begins at about 0.68 and generally
increases to about 1.15 by mid-2002. It then generally decreases to about 0.7 by mid-2003, and generally increases to about 1.7 by 2006. It then generally
decreases to about 0.24 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 0.72.
Note: FRB seasonals.
Source: Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International.

Figure: High-Tech Spending Plans
Line chart, a diffusion index, 2003 to 2009:Q3. The series begins at about 65 and generally decreases to about 64 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 79
by 2005, and generally decreases to about 43 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 67.
Note: Based on survey question on firms' plans to increase or decrease their spending on high-tech equipment in the next 12 months.
Source: NABE Industry Survey.

Sales of Light Vehicles
(Millions of units at an annual rate; FRB seasonals)

2009
Category

2008
Q1

Q2

Q3

July

Aug. Sept.

Total

13.1

9.5

9.6

11.5

11.2

14.1

9.2

Autos

6.7

4.8

4.9

6.4

6.2

8.0

5.0

Light trucks

6.4

4.7

4.7

5.1

5.1

6.1

4.2

North American1

9.8

6.8

7.1

8.4

8.3

10.2

6.7

Autos

4.5

3.1

3.2

4.2

4.2

5.3

3.3

Light trucks

5.3

3.7

3.9

4.2

4.2

4.9

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4

3.1

2.9

3.9

2.5

Autos

2.2

1.7

1.6

2.1

2.0

2.7

1.7

Light trucks

1.1

1.0

.8

.9

.9

1.2

.8

48.3

44.1

46.8

43.1

44.8

41.3

43.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign-produced

Memo:
Detroit Three
     market share (percent) 2

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.
1. Excludes some vehicles produced in Canada that are classified as imports by the industry.  Return to table
2. Includes domestic and foreign brands affiliated with the Detroit Three.  Return to table
Source: Ward's Communications. Adjusted using FRB seasonals.

[Content redacted.]

Figure: Market Share of Small and Midsize Autos
Line chart, by percent, 2004 to September 2009. The series begins at about 35 and generally increases to about 37.5 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about
30 by mid-2005, and generally increases to about 51 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 43.
Note: As a share of total light vehicle sales.
Source: Ward's Communications. Adjusted using FRB seasonals.

Figure: Car-Buying Attitudes
Line chart, 2002 to October 2009. There are two series, "Appraisal of car-buying conditions", an index, and "Good time to buy: low prices", which is by percent.
These two series use two different scales. Appraisal of car-buying conditions begins at about 155 and generally decreases to about 140 by early 2003. It then
generally increases to about 160 by early 2004, and generally decreases to about 90 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 140 by mid-2009, and
generally decreases to end at about 127. Good time to buy: low prices begins at about 36 and generally decreases to about 27 by early 2005. It then generally
increases to about 56 by 2005, and generally decreases to about 29 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 66 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to end
at about 54.
Note: October 2009 values are preliminary.
Source: Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers.

Figure: Average Value of Incentives on Light Vehicles
Line chart, by current dollars per vehicle, ratio scale, 2004 to October 18, 2009. The series begins at about 2200 and generally increases to about 2950 by 2004. It
then generally decreases to about 1100 by early 2007, and generally increases to about 2450 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to about 1580 by 2009, and
generally increases to end at about 1850.
Note: Weekly weighted average of customer cash rebate and the present value of interest rate reduction.
Source: J.D. Power and Associates. Adjusted using FRB seasonals.

Real Personal Consumption Expenditures
(Percent change from preceding comparable period)

2009
Category

Q1

Q2
Annual rate

2009
Q3

July

Aug.
Monthly rate

Sept.

Total real PCE1

.6

-.9

n.a.

.2

.9

n.a.

Motor vehicles

9.5

-6.3

54.3

6.2

17.2

-24.8

Goods ex. motor vehicles

2.0

-2.8

4.3

.0

1.3

.5

Services

-.3

.2

n.a.

.1

.2

n.a.

-.2

.7

n.a.

.2

.2

n.a.

1.3

-2.5

3.6

.0

1.1

.4

1.9

-2.8

1.7

-.2

.7

.5

Ex. energy
Memo:
Real PCE control 2
Nominal retail control

3

1. The values for Q3, July, August, and September are staff estimates based on available data.  Return to table
2. Durables excluding motor vehicles, nondurables excluding gasoline, and food services.  Return to table
3. Total sales less outlays at building material and supply stores, automobile and other motor vehicle dealers, and gasoline stations.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Change in Real PCE Goods
Line chart showing 6-month moving average, by percent, 1991 to September 2009. The series begins at about -0.54 and generally increases to about 0.72 by early
1999. It then generally decreases to about -0.63 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -0.0. It is at about 0.2 at the time of the NBER peak.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2006 to September 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average
begins at about 0.4 and generally decreases to about -0.6 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 0. Monthly begins at about 1.4 and generally
decreases to about -1.9 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 2.6 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -2.0.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Change in Real PCE Services
Line chart showing 6-month moving average, by percent, 1991 to August 2009. The series begins at about 0.38 and generally decreases to about -0.06 by early
1991. It then generally increases to about 0.5 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -0.08 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 0.8. It is at
about 0.8 at the time of NBER peak.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2006 to August 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at
about 0.16 and generally increases to about 0.3 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to about -0.1 by 2008, and generally increases to end at about 0.18.
Monthly begins at about -0.1 and generally increases to about 0.58 by 2006. It then generally decreases to about -0.36 by 2008, and generally increases to end at
about 0.2.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Fundamentals of Household Spending
Figure: Household Net Worth and Dow Jones Total Market Index
Line chart, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Ratio of household net worth to DPI" and "Total Market Index". These two series use two different scales. Ratio of
household net worth to DPI begins at about 5.75 and generally increases to about 6.2 by late 1999. It then generally decreases to about 5.0 by 2002, and generally
increases to about 6.4 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to about 4.5 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 4.72 by 2009:Q2. Total
Market Index begins at about 11500 and generally increases to about 14400 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 7600 by 2002, and generally increases
to about 15600 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to about 7400 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 10750 by October 27.
Note: For ratio of household net worth to DPI, the value for 2004:Q4 excludes the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in December 2004.
Source: Federal Reserve Board; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Wall Street Journal.

Figure: Change in Real Disposable Personal Income
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to August 2009. The series begins at about 4.4 and generally decreases to about 1.9 by 1999. It then generally
increases to about 6 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -1.9 by mid-2009. It then generally increases to end at about 1.4.

Note: Values for December 2004 to December 2005 exclude the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in December 2004.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Personal Saving Rate
Line chart, by percent, 1999 to August 2009. The series begins at about 4.6 and generally decreases to about 1 by 2001. It then generally increases to about 4.4
by 2002, and generally decrease to about 0.7 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 5.9 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 3.
Note: The value for December 2004 excludes the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in that month.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Target Federal Funds Rate and 10-Year Treasury Yield
Line chart, by percent, 1999 to October 27, 2009. There are two series, "Treasury yield" and "Federal funds rate". Treasury yield begins at about 4.7 and generally
increases to about 6.8 by late 1999. It then generally decreases to about 2 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 3.5. Federal funds rate begins at
about 4.8 and generally increases to about 6.5 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 1 by mid-2003, and generally increases to about 5.3 by 2006. It then
generally decreases to end at about 0.1.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Consumer Confidence
Line chart, 1990 to October 2009. There are two series, "Reuters/Michigan" (index, 1966 = 100) and "Conference Board" (index, 1985 = 100). Reuters/Michigan
begins at about 82.5 and generally decreases to about 65 by 1990. It then generally increases to about 111 by late 1999, and generally decreases to about 55 by
late 2008. It then generally increases to about 75 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 70. It is at about 75 at the time of the NBER peak. Conference
Board begins at about 108 and generally decreases to about 49 by early 1992. It then generally increases to about 144 by 2000, and generally decreases to about
62 by early 2003. It then generally increases to about 110 by mid-2007, generally decreases to about 25 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 49.
It is at about 90 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER. Reuters/Michigan October 2009 value is preliminary.
Source: Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers; Conference Board.

Private Housing Activity
(Millions of units, seasonally adjusted; annual rate except as noted)

2009
Sector

2008
Q1

Q2

Q3

July

Aug. Sept.

All units
Starts

.91

.53

.54

.59

.59

.59

.59

Permits

.91

.53

.53

.57

.56

.58

.58

.62

.36

.43

.50

.51

.48

.50

.58

.36

.41

.46

.46

.46

.45

.58

.37

.42

.48

.49

.47

.47

.49

.34

.37

.41

.41

.42

.40

10.68 11.61

9.44

7.62

7.85

7.51

7.49

Single-family units
Starts
Permits
Adjusted permits

1

New homes
Sales
Months' supply

2

Existing homes
Sales

4.35

4.12

4.24

4.66

4.61

4.47

4.89

Months' supply2

9.98

9.68

8.78

7.97

8.03

8.61

7.27

Multifamily units
Starts

.28

.17

.12

.09

.09

.11

.09

Built for rent

.22

.14

.10

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Built for sale

.07

.03

.02

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Permits

.33

.17

.12

.11

.10

.12

.12

.56

.47

.52

.64

.63

.62

.68

Condos and co-ops
Existing home sales

1. Adjusted permits equal permit issuance plus total starts outside of permit-issuing areas.  Return to table
2. At current sales rate; expressed as the ratio of seasonally adjusted inventories to seasonally adjusted sales. Quarterly and annual figures are averages of monthly figures.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Private Housing Starts and Permits
Line chart, by millions of units (seasonally adjusted annual rate), 1999 to September 2009. There are three series, "Single-family starts", "Single-family adjusted
permits" and "Multifamily starts". Single-family starts and Single-family adjusted permits begin at about 1.34 and generally decrease to about 1.12 by mid-2000.
They then generally increase to about 1.83 by 2005, and generally decrease to about 0.38 by early 2009. They then generally increase to end at about .5.
Multifamily starts begins at about .4 and generally decreases to about .3 by 1999. It then generally increases to about .5 by early 2000, and generally decreases to
about to end at about .1.
Note: Adjusted permits equal permit issuance plus total starts outside of permit-issuing areas.
Source: Census Bureau.

Indicators of Single-Family Housing
Figure: New Single-Family Home Sales
Line chart, by millions of units (annual rate), 2001 to September 2009. There are two series, "Total" and "Large homebuilders". These two series use two different
scales. Total begins at about 0.92 and generally increases to about 1.4 by mid-2005. It then generally decreases to about 0.32 by early 2009, and generally
increases to end at about 0.4. Large homebuilders begins at about 0.24 and generally decreases to about 0.21 by 2001. It then generally increases to about 0.43
by mid-2005, and generally decreases to end at about 0.12.
Source: For total, Census Bureau; for large homebuilders, National Association of Home Builders.

Figure: Inventories of New Homes and Months' Supply
Line chart, 2001 to September 2009. There are two series, "Inventories of new homes", which is by thousands of units, and "Months' supply", which is by months.
These two series use two different scales. Inventories of new homes begins at about 300 and generally increases to about 575 by mid-2006. It then generally
decreases to end at about 250. Months' supply begins at about 3.8 and generally increases to about 4.3 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 3.6 by 2003,
and generally increases to about 11.2 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 7.4.
Note: Months' supply is calculated using the 3-month moving average of sales.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Existing Single-Family Home Sales
Line chart, 2001 to 2009. There are two series, "Existing home sales", which is by millions of units (annual rate), and "Pending home sales", an index (2001=100).
These two series use two different scales. Existing home sales begins at about 4.5 and generally increases to about 6.35 by 2005. It then generally decreases to
about 4.0 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 4.88 by September. Pending home sales begins at about 101 and generally increases to about 108
by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 90 by 2001, and generally increases to about 127 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 80 by early 2009,
and generally increases to end at about 104 by August.
Source: National Association of Realtors.

Figure: Mortgage Rates
Line chart showing 30-year conforming FRM, by percent, 2001 to October 21, 2009. The series begins at about 7.15 and generally decreases to about 5.25 by
mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 6.8 by mid-2006, and generally decreases to end at about 4.9.
Note: 2-week moving average.
Source: Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.

Figure: Prices of Existing Homes
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2001 to August 2009. There are three series, "LP price index", "Monthly FHFA purchase-only index", and "20-city
S&P/Case-Shiller monthly price index". LP price index begins at about 10 and generally decreases to about 8 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about

17.5 by early 2005, and generally decreases to about -20 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about -10. Monthly FHFA purchase-only index begins
at about 7.5 and generally increases to about 10 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -8 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -3. 20-city
S&P/Case-Shiller monthly price index begins at about 12.5 and generally decreases to about 7 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 17.5 by mid2004, and generally decreases to about -19 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about -13.
Source: For FHFA, Federal Housing Finance Agency; for S&P/Case-Shiller, Standard & Poor's; for LP, LoanPerformance, a division of First American CoreLogic.

Figure: House Price Expectations
Line chart, a diffusion index, 2007 to October 2009. There are two series, "5 years ahead" and "1 year ahead". 5 years ahead begins at about 65 and generally
decreases to about 42 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 54. 1 year ahead begins at about 30 and generally decreases to about -20 by early
2009. It then generally increases to end at about 10.
Note: Diffusion index is constructed by subtracting expectations of decrease from expectations of increase. October 2009 values are preliminary.
Source: Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers.

Orders and Shipments of Nondefense Capital Goods
(Percent change; seasonally adjusted current dollars)

2009
Category

Q2

Q3

July

Annual rate
Shipments
Excluding aircraft

Aug.

Sept.

Monthly rate

-17.5

-.2

.6

-2.6

2.2

-14.4

-1.9

.3

-2.2

-.2

Computers and peripherals

-8.1

-4.0

1.8

-4.3

.4

Communications equipment

-3.5

24.7

3.8

-4.6

-4.9

-15.9

-3.9

-.2

-1.8

.2

13.3

22.2

7.0

-7.7

2.5

All other categories 1
Orders
Excluding aircraft

3.8

11.2

-1.3

-.8

2.0

Computers and peripherals

13.0

-1.7

-3.7

-2.8

.4

Communications equipment

48.2

34.9

4.8

-4.4

-8.4

-.6

10.4

-1.7

-.2

3.3

36.8

n.a.

34.1

32.6

n.a.

All other categories 1
Memo:
Shipments of complete aircraft2

1. Excludes most terrestrial transportation equipment.  Return to table
2. From Census Bureau, Current Industrial Reports; billions of dollars, annual rate.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Communications Equipment
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, ratio scale, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Shipments" and "Orders". Shipments begins at about 9
and generally increases to about 10 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about 5 by 2002, and generally increases to about 7 by mid-2006. It then generally
decreases to end at about 5.8. Orders begins at about 9.8 and generally increases to about 14 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 2.4 by late 2002, and
generally increases to about 8.5 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 5.5.
Note: Shipments and orders are deflated by a price index that is derived from the quality-adjusted price indexes of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and uses the producer price index for
communications equipment for monthly interpolation.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Non-High-Tech, Nontransportation Equipment
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, ratio scale, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Orders" and "Shipments". They begin at about 44 and
generally decrease to about 42 by early 2000. They then generally increase to about 36 by early 2002. Orders generally increases to about 49 by 2006, and
generally decreases to about 33 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 35. Shipments generally increases to about 46 by late 2006, and
generally decreases to end at about 35.

Note: Shipments and orders are deflated by the staff price indexes for the individual equipment types included in this category. Indexes are derived from the quality-adjusted price indexes of the
Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Computers and Peripherals
Line chart, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Industrial production", 2000 = 100, and "Real M3 shipments", which is by billions of chained (2005)
dollars, ratio scale. These two series use two different scales. Industrial production begins at about 97 and generally increases to about 108 by 2001. It then
generally decreases to about 97 by early 2003, and generally increases to about 230 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 150. Real M3 shipments
begins at about 8.4 and generally increases to about 16.2 by mid-2006. It then generally decreases to about 12.6 by 2006, and generally increases to about 18 by
late 2007. It then generally decreases to about 14.2 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 16.
Note: Shipments are deflated by the staff price index for computers and peripheral equipment, which is derived from the quality-adjusted price indexes of the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Source: Census Bureau; FRB Industrial Production.

Figure: Medium and Heavy Trucks
Line chart, by thousands of units, ratio scale, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Net new orders of class 5-8 trucks" and "Sales of class 4-8 trucks".
Net new orders of class 5-8 trucks begins at about 400 and generally decreases to about 300 by 2001. It then generally increases to about 960 by early 2006, and
generally decreases to about 150 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 300. Sales of class 4-8 trucks begins at about 525 and generally
decreases to about 290 by early 2003. It then generally increases to about 580 by late 2006, generally decreases to about 190 by 2009, and generally increases to
end at about 200.
Note: Annual rate, FRB seasonals.
Source: For sales, Ward's Communications; for orders, ACT Research.

Fundamentals of Equipment and Software Investment
Note: In each panel, shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). A vertical line indicates
the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.

Figure: Real Business Output
Line chart, by 4-quarter percent change, 1990 to 2009:Q2. The series begins at about 2.9 and generally decreases to about -2 by early 1991. It then generally
increases to about 6 by 2000, and generally decreases to about 0 by late 2001. It then generally increases to about 5 by 2004, and generally decreases to end at
about 5.2. It is at about 2.3 at the time of the NBER peak.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: User Cost of Capital
Line chart, by 4-quarter percent change, 1990 to 2009:Q2. There are two series, "Non-high-tech" and "High-tech". Non-high-tech begins at about -2 and generally
increases to about 1.5 by late 1990. It then generally decreases to about -8 by late 1991, and generally increases to about 13 by late 1994. It then generally
decreases to about -11.5 by 2003, and generally increases to about 19 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 12. It is at about 0 at the time of
the NBER peak. High-tech begins at about -8 and generally increases to about -6 by late 1990. It then generally decreases to about -12.5 by 1992, and generally
increases to about -1 by 1994. It then generally decreases to about -13.8 by late 2003, and generally increases to about 2.4 by late 2008. It then generally
decreases to end at about -2.5. It is at about -5 at the time of the NBER peak.
Source: Staff calculation.

Figure: Corporate Bond Yields
Line chart, by percent, 1990 to October 2009. There are two series, "10-year high-yield" and "10-year BBB". 10-year high-yield begins at about 14.5 and generally
decreases to about 9by 1997. It then generally increases to about 13.7 by late 2000, and generally decreases to about 7.3 by late 2003. It then generally increases
to about 17.8 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 9.3. It is at about 9.3 at the time of the NBER peak. 10-year BBB begins at about 10.1 and
generally decreases to about 7 by 1993. It then generally increases to about 9 by late 1993, and generally decreases to about 5.2 by 2004. It then generally
increases to about 10 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 6. It is at about 6.4 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: End of month. October value as of October 27.
Source: Merrill Lynch.

Figure: NFIB: Survey on Loan Availability
Line chart, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. There are two series, "Credit expected to be higher" and "Credit more difficult to obtain". These two series use two

different scales. Credit expected to be higher begins at about 8 and generally increases 13 by late 1990. It then generally decreases to about 0 by early 1997, and
generally increases to about 16.2 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to about 11.5 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 15. It is at about 8.5 at
the time of the NBER peak. Credit more difficult to obtain begins at about 7 and generally increases to about 13 by early 1991. It then generally decreases to about
0 by early 1998, and generally increases to about 16 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 14. It is at about 6.5 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: Of borrowers who sought credit in the past 3 months, the proportion that reported or expected more difficulty in obtaining credit less the proportion that reported or expected more ease in
obtaining credit. Seasonally adjusted.
Source: National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB).

Figure: Surveys of Business Conditions
Line chart, a diffusion index, 1990 to 2009. There are two series, "ISM" and "Philadelphia Fed". These two series use two different scales. ISM begins at about 49
and generally decreases to about 40 by early 1991. It then generally increases to about 62 by 2003, and generally decreases to about 32 by late 2008. It then
generally increases to end at about 53 by September. It is at about 50 at the time of the NBER peak. Philadelphia Fed begins at about 40 and generally increases
to about 45 by 1990. It then generally decreases to about 25 by late 1990, and generally increases to about 70 by late 1992. It then generally decreases to about
32 by early 2000, and generally increases to about 68 by early 2003. It then generally decreases to about 30 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at
about 57 by October. It is at about 50 at the time of the NBER peak.
Source: Institute for Supply Management (ISM), Manufacturing ISM Report on Business; Philadelphia Fed Business Outlook Survey.

Nonresidential Construction and Indicators
(All spending series are seasonally adjusted at an annual rate; nominal CPIP deflated by BEA prices through Q2 and by staff projection thereafter)

Figure: Total Structures
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, 1999 to August 2009. The series begins at about 320 and generally increases to about 360 by 2000. It then
generally decreases to about 250 by mid-2005, and generally increases to about 360 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 312.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Office, Commercial, Communication, and Other
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, 1999 to 2009. There are four series, "Other", "Commercial", "Office", and "Communication". Other begins at about
90 and generally decreases to about 75 by mid-2005. It then generally increases to about 108 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about 91.
Commercial begins at about 74 and generally increases to about 85 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about 64 by early 2003, and generally increases
to about 78 by 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 42 by August. Office begins at about 60 and generally decreases to about 56 by early 2000. It
then generally increases to about 72 by late 2000, and generally decreases to about 34 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 48 by mid-2008, and
generally decreases to end at about 33. Communication begins at about 16 and generally increases to about 27 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 15
by late 2003, and generally increases to about 25 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 16.
Note: Other consists of structures for religious organizations, education, lodging, amusement and recreation, transportation, and health care.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Manufacturing and Power
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, 1999 to August 2009. There are two series, "Power" and "Manufacturing". Power begins at about 32 and generally
increases to about 38 by early 1999. It then generally decreases to about 22.5 by 1999, and generally increases to about 53 by late 2001. It then generally
decreases to about 23 by mid-2004, and generally increases to end at about 64. Manufacturing begins at about 50 and generally decreases to about 22.5 by early
2003. It then generally increases to about 68 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 65.
Source: Census Bureau.

Figure: Drilling and Mining Indicators
Line chart, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Footage drilled", which is by millions of feet, and "Drilling rigs in operation", which is by number. These two series
use two different scales. Footage drilled begins at about 8 and generally increases to about 16 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 12 by 2002, and
generally increases to about 32 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to about 13.8 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 15 by August. Drilling rigs
in operation begins at about 600 and generally decreases to about 520 by 1999. It then generally increases to about 1280 by 2001, and generally decreases to
about 800 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 1925 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 900 by mid-2009. It then generally increases to end at
about 1000 by October.
Note: The October readings for drillings rigs are based on data through October 23, 2009. Both series are seasonally adjusted by FRB staff.
Source: For footage drilled, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Agency; for drilling rigs, Baker Hughes.

Figure: Vacancy Rates
Line chart, by percent, 1999 to 2009:Q2. There are three series, "Office", "Industrial", and "Retail". Office begins at about 9.5 and generally decreases to about 7.8
by 2000. It then generally increases to about 16.8 by early 2003, and generally decreases to about 12.5 by mid-2007. It then generally increases to end at about
15.5. Industrial begins at about 7.8 and generally decreases to about 6.8 by mid-2000. It then generally increases to about 12 by early 2004, and generally
decreases to about 9.3 by mid-2007. It then generally increases to end at about 13.2. Retail begins at about 8 and generally decreases to about 7 by early 2001. It
then generally increases to about 8.2 by early 2002, and generally decreases to about 7.5 by early 2006. It then generally increases to end at about 11.8.
Note: Industrial space includes both manufacturing structures and warehouses.
Source: Torto Wheaton Research.

Figure: Architectural Billings and Nonresidential Construction Employment
Line chart, 1999 to September 2009. There are two series, "Billings", which is a diffusion index, and "Change in employment", which is by percent. These two
series use two different scales. Billings begins at about 54.5 and generally decreases to about 43.5 by late 2001. It then generally increases to about 59 by 2005,
and generally decreases to about 34 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 42.5. Change in employment begins at about 0.0 by 2001 and
generally decreases to about -0.75 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 0.8 by 2006, and generally decreases to about -2.0 by early 2009. It then
generally increases to end at about -1.25.
Note: Both series are 3-month moving averages. Employment consists of industrial, commercial, and specialty trade construction.
Source: For billings, American Institute of Architects; for employment, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Nonfarm Inventory Investment
(Billions of dollars; seasonally adjusted annual rate)

2008

2009

Measure and sector
Q4

Q1

Q2

June

July

Aug.

Real inventory investment (chained 2005 dollars)
Total nonfarm business

-35.7

-114.9

-163.1

…

…

…

-.7

-63.6

-48.1

…

…

…

Nonfarm ex. motor vehicles

-35.1

-51.3

-115.1

…

…

…

Manufacturing and trade ex. wholesale and retail motor vehicles and parts

-19.8

-49.3

-110.9

-137.5

-109.1 e

n.a.

-44.8

-36.4 e

n.a.

-81.6

-56.5 e

n.a.
n.a.

Motor vehicles

Manufacturing

8.2

Wholesale trade ex. motor vehicles & parts

-10.2

-28.9
-8.8

-39.8
-52.5

-17.8

-11.6

-18.6

-11.2

-16.1 e

-155.9

-143.2

-150.2

-178.0

-138.6

-110.1

Manufacturing

-65.2

-77.3

-63.6

-68.9

-55.2

-47.2

Wholesale trade ex. motor vehicles & parts

-55.7

-47.3

-62.9

-90.6

-63.4

-51.8

Retail trade ex. motor vehicles & parts

-34.9

-18.6

-23.7

-18.5

-20.0

-11.0

Retail trade ex. motor vehicles & parts
Book-value inventory investment (current dollars)
Manufacturing and trade ex. wholesale and retail motor vehicles and parts

n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
e Staff estimate of real inventory investment based on revised book-value data.  Return to table
Source: For real inventory investment, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; for book-value data, Census Bureau.

Figure: Inventory Ratios ex. Motor Vehicles
Line chart, by months, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Staff flow-of-goods system" and "Census book-value data". Staff flow-of-goods system begins at about
1.76 and generally decreases to about 1.52 by late 2007. It then generally increases to about 1.67 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 1.62 by
September. Census book-value data begins at about 1.35 and generally increases to about 1.41 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.18 by late 2005,
and generally increases to about 1.38 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.29 by August.
Note: Flow-of-goods system covers total industry ex. motor vehicles and parts, and inventories are relative to consumption. Census data cover manufacturing and trade ex. motor vehicles and
parts, and inventories are relative to sales.
Source: Census Bureau; staff calculation.

Figure: ISM Customers' Inventories: Manufacturing
Line chart, an index, 2000 to September 2009. The series begins at about 47 and generally increases to about 56 by early 2001. It then generally decreases to
about 37.2 by 2004, and generally increases to about 57.5 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 38.8.
Note: A number above 50 indicates inventories are "too high."
Source: Institute for Supply Management (ISM), Manufacturing ISM Report on Business.

Federal Government Budget
(Unified basis; adjusted for payment-timing shifts and financial transactions; data from Monthly Treasury Statement)

Figure: Surplus or Deficit (-)
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 1996 to September 2009. Data are 12-month moving sums. The series begins at about -190 and generally increases to about 270
by 2001. It then generally decreases to about -450 by 2004, and generally increases to about -160 by 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about -1150.
There is a second series series, represented by a thin line, that begins at about -480 in 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -1400.
Note: Thin line includes deficit effects of financial transactions related to Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) and government-sponsored enterprise equity purchase programs.

Figure: Outlays and Receipts
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 1996 to September 2009. Data are 12-month moving sums. There are two series, "Receipts" and "Outlays".
Receipts begins at about 7.5 and generally increases to about 11.8 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about -12.5 by mid-2002, and generally increases
to about 15 by late 2005. It then generally decreases to end at about -17. Outlays begins at about 4 and generally decreases to about 2 by mid-1998. It then
generally increases to about 8 by mid-2006, and generally decreases to about 3 by 2007. It then generally increases to end at about 10.

Recent Federal Outlays and Receipts
(Billions of dollars except as noted; adjusted for payment-timing shifts and financial transactions)

Sum of July-September
Function or source
2008
Outlays

2009

12 months ending in September

Percent
change

2008

2009

Percent
change

739.7

818.6

10.7

2,961.5

3,258.1

10.0

63.9

42.1

-34.2

248.9

190.8

-23.3

National defense

163.0

171.0

4.9

624.5

665.7

6.6

Major transfers1

399.9

481.3

20.4

1,642.0

1,898.3

15.6

Other

112.9

124.2

10.0

446.2

503.3

12.8

Net interest

 

 

Receipts
Individual income and payroll taxes

589.7

515.9

-12.5

2,523.6

2,104.6

-16.6

468.7

424.5

-9.4

1,996.5

1,759.5

-11.9

Corporate income taxes

67.8

36.3

-46.4

304.3

138.2

-54.6

Other

53.2

55.2

3.7

222.8

206.9

-7.1

-150.0

-302.7

…

-437.9

-1,153.5

…

-168.9

-330.8

…

-454.8

-1,417.1

…

 

Surplus or deficit (-)

 

Memo:
Unadjusted surplus or deficit (-)

1. Includes Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and income security programs.  Return to table
… Not applicable.

State and Local Indicators
Figure: Real Spending on Consumption and Investment
Line chart, by percent change, annual rate, 1999 to 2009:Q2. There are two series, "Spending" and "4-quarter moving average". Spending begins at about 4.5 and
generally decreases to about 0 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 8.8 by 2001, and generally decreases to about -3 by mid-2001. It then generally

increases to about 9 by late 2001, and generally decreases to about -1.8 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 4.2. 4-quarter moving average
begins at about 6 and generally decreases to about 2 by late 2000. It then generally increases to about 4.8 by late 2001, and generally decreases to about -1 by
2005. It then generally increases to about 1.8 by early 2007, and generally decreases to about -1 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 0.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; national income and product accounts.

Figure: Net Change in Employment
Bar chart, by thousands of jobs, monthly average, 1999 to 2009:Q3. The series begins at about 40 and generally decreases to about 24 by early 2000. It then
generally increases to about 46 by early 2001, and generally decreases to about 0 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 22 by 2007, and generally
decreases to end at about -42.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Situation.

Figure: Real Construction
Line chart, by billions of chained (2005) dollars, annual rate, 1999 to 2009:Q3. The series begins at about 202 and generally increases to about 238 by early 2002.
It then generally decreases to about 215 by late 2004, and generally increases to about 232 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 218 by early 2009, and
generally increases to end at about 229 in 2009:Q2. 2009:Q3 is marked with a dot at about 232.
Note: Nominal CPIP deflated by BEA prices through Q2 and by a staff projection thereafter. Observation for Q3 is the average for July and August.
Source: Census Bureau, Construction Spending.

Figure: State Revenues
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 1999 to 2009:Q2. There are two series, "Individual and corporate income taxes" and "Total revenues". Individual
and corporate income taxes begins at about 4 and generally increases to about 18 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about -19 by 2002, and generally
increases to about 27 by mid-2005. It then generally decreases to end at about -23.5. Total revenues begins at about 4 and generally increases to about 12.5 by
early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -10 by 2002, and generally increases to about 16 by 2005. It then generally decreases to end at about -16.5.
Source: Census Bureau, Quarterly Summary of State and Local Government Tax Revenue.

Figure: Local Revenues
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 1999 to 2009:Q2. There are two series, "Property taxes" and "Total revenues". Property taxes begins at about 6
and generally decreases to about -1 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 22.8 by 2002, and generally decreases to about -8 by 2003. It then generally
increases to about 16 by 2003, and generally decreases to end at about 0. Total revenues begins at about 2.8 and generally increases to about 15 by 2002. It then
generally decreases to about -5 by 2003, and generally increases to about 13 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to end at about -2.5.
Source: Census Bureau, Quarterly Summary of State and Local Government Tax Revenue.

Price Measures
(Percent change)

12-month change

3-month change

1-month change

Annual rate

Measures

Monthly rate

Sept. 2008 Sept. 2009
June 2009 Sept. 2009 Aug. 2009 Sept. 2009
CPI
Total

4.9

Food
Energy
Ex. food and energy
Core goods
Core services

-1.3

3.3

2.5

.4

.2

6.2

-.2

-1.5

-1.1

.1

-.1

23.1

-21.6

22.1

21.1

4.6

.6

2.5

1.5

2.4

1.3

.1

.2

.5

1.6

4.1

.9

-.3

.3

3.2

1.5

1.8

1.4

.2

.1

Shelter

2.4

.7

1.4

-.1

.1

.1

Other services

4.5

2.6

2.1

4.0

.4

.3

Memo: core ex. tobacco

2.4

1.2

2.0

1.1

.1

.2

 

Chained CPI (n.s.a.) 1

 

4.2

-1.4

…

…

…

…

Ex. food and energy 1

2.0

1.1

…

…

…

…

PCE prices 2
Total

4.1

Food and bev. at home
Energy
Ex. food and energy

-.5

2.8

2.0

.3

.1

7.0

-1.2

-2.8

-2.3

.1

-.2

24.5

-22.6

26.9

23.6

5.1

.7

2.5

1.3

2.0

1.3

.1

.1

.6

1.2

2.7

-.1

-.2

.2

3.2

1.3

1.8

1.7

.2

.1

Housing services

2.7

1.4

1.4

-.4

.1

-.1

Other services

3.3

1.3

2.0

2.4

.2

.2

Memo: core ex. tobacco

2.5

1.1

1.7

1.2

.1

.1

Core market-based

2.6

1.6

2.0

1.1

.1

.1

Core non-market-based

2.1

-.7

2.6

2.4

.1

.2

8.8

-4.8

9.0

1.2

1.7

-.6

7.8

-4.2

4.4

-4.9

.4

-.1

23.4

-22.1

40.8

12.0

8.0

-2.4

Core goods
Core services

 

 

PPI
Total finished goods
Food
Energy
Ex. food and energy

4.0

1.8

2.1

.0

.2

-.1

Core consumer goods

4.2

2.2

2.4

.0

.1

-.1

Capital equipment

3.6

1.2

1.3

.0

.3

-.1

Intermediate materials

15.3

-11.7

6.8

7.2

1.8

.2

Ex. food and energy

11.8

-7.5

-2.1

7.2

.6

.9

24.2

-31.5

54.4

-11.3

3.8

-2.1

16.4

-19.7

37.3

63.3

6.0

3.6

 

 

Crude materials
Ex. food and energy

1. Higher-frequency figures are not applicable for data that are not seasonally adjusted (n.s.a.).  Return to table
2. PCE prices in September 2009 are staff estimates.  Return to table
… Not applicable.
Source: For consumer price index (CPI) and producer price index (PPI), U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for personal consumption expenditures (PCE), U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Consumer Prices
(12-month change except as noted; PCE prices in September are staff estimates)

Figure: PCE Prices
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Total PCE" and "Core PCE". Total PCE begins at about 2.2 and generally increases to
about 3 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 0.6 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 4.5 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at
about -0.5. Core PCE begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 2.5 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally increases
to about 2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Measure of Core PCE
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to 2009. There are three series, "PCE excluding food and energy", "Market-based components" and "Trimmed mean". PCE excluding
food and energy begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 2 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2001, and generally increases to
about 2.5 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally increases to about 2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about
1.4 by September. Market-based components begins at about 1.4 and generally increases to about 2 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by
2003, and generally increases to about 2.7 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.6 by August. Trimmed mean begins at about 2 and generally
increases to about 2.6 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.7 by late 2003, and generally increases to about 3 by early 2007. It then generally
decreases to end at about 1.7 by August.

Source: For trimmed mean, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas; for all else, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: CPI and PCE ex. Food and Energy
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are three series, "CPI", "PCE", and "CPI chained". CPI begins at about 2 and generally increases to about
2.8 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.1 by late 2003, and generally increases to about 3 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about
1.5. PCE begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 2 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by late 2001, and generally increases to
about 2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3. CPI chained begins at about 1.85 by late 2000, and generally increases to about 2.2 by
2002. It then generally decreases to about 0.8 by early 2004, and generally increases to about 2.7 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.
Source: For CPI, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for PCE, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: PCE Goods and Services
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Services ex. energy" and "Goods ex. food and energy". Services begins at about 2.6 and
generally increases to about 3 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 2 by 2001, and generally increases to about 4 by 2002. It then generally
decreases to end at about 1.2. Goods begins at about -1 and generally increases to about 0 by early 2001. It then generally decreases to about -2.4 by 2003, and
generally increases to end at about 1.4.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Total PCE
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Total PCE" and "3-month change, annual rate". Total PCE begins at about 2 and generally
increases to about 3 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 1 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 4.5 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases
to end at about -1. 3-month change, annual rate begins at about 3 and generally increases to about 4.5 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -1.5 by
2001, and generally increases to about 8 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -8 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 4 by 2009. It then
generally decreases to end at about 2.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: PCE excluding Food and Energy
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "PCE excluding Food and Energy" and "3-month change, annual rate". PCE excluding Food
and Energy begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 2.6 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally increases to about
2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3. 3-month change, annual rate begins at about 2.2 and generally increases to about 2.8 by 2000.
It then generally decreases to about -1.1 by 2001, and generally increases to about 4 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to about 0.2 by late 2008, and
generally increases to about 2.2 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.5.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Energy and Food Price Indicators
(Data from U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, except as noted)

Figure: Total Gasoline Margin
Line chart, by cents per gallon, 2005 to October 19, 2009. Data are retail price less average spot crude price: regular grade seasonally adjusted by FRB staff, less
average spot crude price: 60% West Texas Intermediate, 40% Maya heavy crude; includes gasoline taxes. The series begins at about 98 and generally increases
to about 110 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 80 by mid-2005, and generally increases to about 166 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 70
by mid-2008, and generally increases to about 159 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 88.

Figure: Gasoline Price Decomposition
Line chart, by cents per gallon, 2005 to October 19, 2009. There are three series, "Retail price", "Rack price", and "Average spot crude price". Retail price begins
at about 190 and generally increases to about 300 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 225 by late 2005, and generally increases to about 400 by mid2008. It then generally decreases to about 178 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 165. Rack price begins at about 135 and generally increases
to about 235 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 155 by early 2007, and generally increases to about 350 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to
about 120 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 215. Average spot crude price begins at about 98 and generally increases to about 330 by mid2008. It then generally decreases to about 75 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 180.
Note: Retail price is regular grade seasonally adjusted by FRB staff. Average spot crude price is 60% West Texas Intermediate, 40% Maya heavy crude.

Figure: Gasoline Inventories

Line chart, by millions of barrels, 2006 to October 23, 2009. The series begins at about 197 and generally increases to about 241 by early 2008. It then generally
decreases to about 195 by 2008, and generally increases to about 223 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 214.
Note: Bounds are defined as the monthly mean over the preceding five years, plus or minus the standard deviation for each month. The bounds generally track the series throughout the chart,
typically being about 20 million barrels wide, with the series typically being toward the center of the bounds. Monthly data through June 2009, weekly data thereafter. The RBOB component of
total motor gasoline inventories is adjusted for ethanol use after 2006, boosting reported stocks; estimated by FRB staff.

Figure: Natural Gas Prices
Line chart, by dollars per million BTU, late 2004 to mid-2010. The series begins at about 5.2 and generally increases to about 15.2 by late 2005. It then generally
decreases to about 4.1 by 2006, and generally increases to about 13.4 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 2.1 by 2009, and generally increases to
end at about 4.8 on October 27, 2009. Futures price begins at about 4.8 on October 27, 2009 and generally increases to end at about 6.
Note: National average spot price.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: PCE: Food and Home and Core Prices
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 2005 to September 2009. There are two series, "Food and beverages" and "Ex. food and energy". Food and beverages
begins at about 2.1 and generally decreases to about 0.9 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 7 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -1.2.
Ex. food and energy begins at about 2.2 and generally increases to about 2.6 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.4.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. September 2009 values are staff estimates.

Figure: Spot Prices of Agricultural Commodities
Line chart, by dollars per bushel, 2005 to October 27, 2009. There are three series, "Corn", "Soybeans", and "Wheat". Corn uses one scale and Soybeans and
Wheat use another scale. Corn begins at about 2 and generally increases to about 7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 3 by 2009, and generally
increases to end at about 3.8. Soybeans begins at about 5.2 and generally increases to about 7.2 by mid-2005. It then generally decreases to about 5.2 by 2006,
and generally increases to about 16 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 8 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 12.5 by mid-2009. It then
generally decreases to end at about 9.9. Wheat begins at about 4 and generally increases to about 13 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 4.2 by
2009, and generally increases to end at about 5.2.
Source: Commodity Research Bureau.

Measures of Expected Inflation
Figure: Survey Measures (Reuters/University of Michigan)
Line chart, by percent, 1978 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "Median, next 5 to 10 years" and "Median, next 12 months". Median, next 5 to
10 years begins at about 6.8 by early 1981, and generally decreases to about 4.8 by late 1985. There is no data from late 1985 to mid-1990, where it begins at
about 4.4 by 1990 and generally decreases to end at about 3. Median, next 12 months begins at about 6, and generally increases to about 10.2 by 1980. It then
generally decreases to about 2.6 by early 1983, and generally increases to about 4.9 by late 1990. It then generally decreases to about 1 by late 2001, and
generally increases to about 5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.8.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2005 to October 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Median, next 5 to 10 years" and "Median, next 12
months". Median, next 5 to 10 years begins at about 2.7 and generally decreases to about 3.5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 2.6 by early 2009, and
generally increases to end at about 2.9. Median, next 12 months begins at about 2.9 and generally increases to about 4.6 by 2005. It then generally decreases to
about 3 by late 2006, and generally increases to about 5.25 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 1.7 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about
2.8.
Source: Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers.

Figure: Inputs to Models of Inflation
Line chart, by percent, 1971 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "FRB/US long-run expectations measure for PCE inflation" and "Distributed lag
of core PCE inflation". FRB/US long-run expectations measure for PCE inflation begins at about 3.1 and generally increases to about 7.5 by early 1981. It then
generally decreases to end at about 2.2. Distributed lag of core PCE inflation begins at about 5 and generally decreases to about 3.4 by early 1973. It then
generally increases to about 8.8 by 1981, and generally decreases to about 1.3 by late 1990. It then generally increases to end at about 2.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "FRB/US long-run expectations measure for PCE inflation" and
"Distributed lag of core PCE inflation". FRB/US long-run expectations measure for PCE inflation begins at about 2 and generally increases to about 2.3 by 2009. It
then generally decreases to end at about 2.2. Distributed lag of core PCE inflation begins at about 1.8 and generally increases to about 2.5 by early 2008. It then
generally decreases to about 1.9 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 2.1.

Note: The distributed lag of core PCE inflation is derived from one of the reduced-form Phillips curves used by Board staff.
Source: For the distributed lag of core PCE inflation, FRB staff calculations; for the FRB/US measure, for 2007 forward, the median projection for PCE inflation over the next 10 years from the
Survey of Professional Forecasters (SPF); for 1990 to 2006, the equivalent SPF projection for the CPI; for 1981 to 1989, a related survey for the CPI conducted by Richard Hoey; and for the
period preceding 1981, a model-based estimate constructed by Board staff. The survey data before 2007 are adjusted down 0.5 percentage point to put the CPI projections approximately on a
PCE basis.

Figure: Inflation Compensation from TIPS
Line chart, by percent, 2001 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "5 to 10 years ahead" and "Next 5 years". 5 to 10 years ahead begins at about
2.1 and generally increases to about 3.1 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about 2.5 by 2005, and generally increases to end at about 3. Next 5 years
begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 1.9 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2002, and generally increases to about 2.6 by early
2005. It then generally decreases to about -0.7 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 1.1.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2005 to October 27, 2009. Data are weekly. There are two series, "5 to 10 years ahead" and "Next 5 years". 5 to 10 years
ahead begins at about 2.7 and generally increases to about 3.5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 2 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at
about 3. Next 5 years begins at about 2.7 and generally decreases to about -1.6 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 1.6.
Note: Based on a comparison of an estimated TIPS (Treasury inflation-protected securities) yield curve with an estimated nominal off-the-run Treasury yield curve, with an adjustment for the
indexation-lag effect.
Source: FRB staff calculations.

Commodity Price Indexes
Figure: Journal of Commerce
Line chart, an index (2006 = 100), ratio scale, 1991 to October 27, 2009. There are two series, "Industrials" and "Metals". Industrials begins at about 57 and
generally decreases to about 50 by late 1991. It then generally increases to about 68 by early 1995, and generally decreases to about 48 by late 2001. It then
generally increases to about 138 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 60 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 99. Metals begins at about
47 and generally decreases to about 38 by 1993. It then generally increases to about 57 by early 1995, and generally decreases to about 32 by late 2001. It then
generally increases to about 160 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 60 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 110.
Note: The Journal of Commerce (JOC) industrial price index is based almost entirely on industrial commodities, with a small weight given to energy commodities. Copyright for JOC data is held by
CIBCR, 1994.

Figure: Commodity Research Bureau
Line chart, an index (1967 = 100), ratio scale, 1991 to October 27, 2009. There are two series, "Spot industrials" and "Futures". Spot industrials begins at about
300 and generally decreases to about 250 by 1993. It then generally increases to about 352 by mid-1995, and generally decreases to about 220 by late 2001. It
then generally increases to about 560 by early 2008, and generally decreases to about 315 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 450. Futures
begins at about 225 and generally decreases to about 200 by 1992. It then generally increases to about 260 by 1996, and generally decreases to about 190 by
early 1999. It then generally increases to about 610 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to about 340 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about
450.
Note: The Commodity Research Bureau (CRB) spot industrials index consists entirely of industrial commodities, excluding energy. The CRB futures index gives about a 60 percent weight to food
commodities and splits the remaining weight roughly equally among energy commodities, industrial commodities, and precious metals.

Selected Commodity Price Indexes
(Percent change)

Index

2008 1

12/30/08
to
9/15/09 2

9/15/09 2
to
10/27/09

52-week
change to
10/27/09

JOC industrials

-41.4

43.4

4.2

20.0

JOC metals

-48.2

66.3

7.7

56.1

CRB spot industrials

-34.3

33.2

.9

17.2

CRB spot foodstuffs

-14.1

6.1

5.3

3.2

CRB futures

-24.7

21.9

6.3

27.2

1. From the last week of the preceding year to the last week of the year indicated.  Return to table
2. September 15, 2009, is the Tuesday preceding publication of the September Greenbook.  Return to table

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Part 2 Tables and Charts†
Domestic Financial Developments
Selected Financial Market Quotations
(One-day quotes in percent except as noted)

2008

2009

Change to Oct. 27 from selected dates (percentage points)

Instrument
Sept. 12

Aug. 11

Sept. 22

Oct. 27

2008 Sept. 12

2009 Aug. 11

2009 Sept. 22

Short-term
FOMC intended federal funds rate

2.00

.13

.13

.13

-1.87

.00

.00

3-month

1.46

.18

.11

.08

-1.38

-.10

-.03

6-month

1.80

.28

.20

.17

-1.63

-.11

-.03

1-month

2.39

.22

.18

.16

-2.23

-.06

-.02

3-month

2.75

.29

.21

.25

-2.50

-.04

.04

3-month

2.79

.32

.25

.22

-2.57

-.10

-.03

6-month

3.09

.46

.35

.31

-2.78

-.15

-.04

1-month

2.60

.50

.40

.32

-2.28

-.18

-.08

3-month

3.00

.80

.55

.45

-2.55

-.35

-.10

5.00

3.25

3.25

3.25

-1.75

.00

.00

2-year

2.24

1.20

.99

.99

-1.25

-.21

.00

5-year

2.97

2.70

2.44

2.41

-.56

-.29

-.03

10-year

3.93

3.97

3.74

3.72

-.21

-.25

-.02

5-year

1.33

1.54

1.11

.78

-.55

-.76

-.33

10-year

1.77

1.89

1.69

1.51

-.26

-.38

-.18

4.54

4.65

4.20

4.31

-.23

-.34

.11

4.26

3.98

3.67

3.70

-.56

-.28

.03

4.36

4.35

4.12

4.04

-.32

-.31

-.08

6.62

5.41

5.11

5.10

-1.52

-.31

-.01

7.22

6.72

6.36

6.22

-1.00

-.50

-.14

10.66

10.61

9.90

9.44

-1.22

-1.17

-.46

5.78

5.29

5.04

5.00

-.78

-.29

-.04

Treasury bills1

Commercial paper (A1/P1 rates)2

Large negotiable CDs 1

Eurodollar deposits3

 

 

Bank prime rate
Intermediate- and long-term
U.S. Treasury 4

U.S. Treasury indexed notes 5

 

 

Municipal general obligations (Bond Buyer) 6
Private instruments
10-year swap
10-year FNMA
10-year AA

7

8

10-year BBB 8
10-year high yield

8

Home mortgages (FHLMC survey rate)
30-year fixed

1-year adjustable

5.03

4.72

Record high

4.52

4.54

2009

-.49

-.18

.02

Change to Oct. 27 from selected dates (percent)

Stock exchange index
Aug. 11

Sept. 22

Dow Jones Industrial

Level
14,165

10-9-07

9,241

9,830

9,882

-30.23

6.93

.53

S&P 500 Composite

1,565

10-9-07

994

1,072

1,063

-32.06

6.95

-.77

Nasdaq

5,049

3-10-00

1,970

2,146

2,116

-58.09

7.43

-1.41

856

7-13-07

562

621

587

-31.41

4.42

-5.43

15,807

10-9-07

10,243

11,083

10,928

-30.87

6.68

-1.40

Russell 2000
D.J. Total Stock Index

Date

Oct. 27

Record high

2009 Aug. 11

2009 Sept. 22

1. Secondary market.  Return to table
2. Financial commercial paper.  Return to table
3. Bid rates for Eurodollar deposits collected around 9:30 a.m. eastern time.  Return to table
4. Derived from a smoothed Treasury yield curve estimated using off-the-run securities.  Return to table
5. Derived from a smoothed Treasury yield curve estimated using all outstanding securities and adjusted for the carry effect.  Return to table
6. Most recent Thursday quote.  Return to table
7. Constant-maturity yields estimated from Fannie Mae domestic noncallable coupon securities.  Return to table
8. Derived from smoothed corporate yield curves estimated using Merrill Lynch bond data.  Return to table
NOTES:
September 12, 2008, is the last business day before Lehman Brothers Holdings filed for bankruptcy.
August 11, 2009, is the day before the August 2009 FOMC monetary policy announcement.
September 22, 2009, is the day before the most recent FOMC monetary policy announcement.

Policy Expectations and Treasury Yields
Figure: Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, September 16, 2009 to October 27, 2009. There are two series, "10-year Treasury yield" and "March 2010 Eurodollar". These two series
use two different scales. 10-year Treasury yield begins at about 3.4 and generally increases to about 3.5 by September 22. It then generally decreases to about
3.12 by October 2, and generally increases to about 3.56 by October 27. It then generally decreases to end at about 3.45. March 2010 Eurodollar begins at about
0.62 and generally increases to about 0.74 by September 17. It then generally decreases to about 0.60 by October 2, remains about constant until October 27, and
generally decreases to end at about 0.51. The FOMC statement is marked in the time series at about late September 23. ISM index is marked in the time series at
about October 1. Nonfarm payroll is marked in the time series at about October 2. Retail sales is marked in the time series at about October 14. PPI is marked in
the time series at about October 20. Consumer confidence is marked in the time series at about October 27.
Note: 5-minute intervals. 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. No adjustments for term premiums.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: Implied Federal Funds Rate
Line chart, by percent, September 2009 to January 2012. There are two series, "September 22, 2009" and "October 27, 2009". September 22, 2009 begins at
about 0.2 and generally increases to end at about 2.75. October 27, 2009 begins at about generally increases to end at about 2.5.
Note: Estimated from federal funds and Eurodollar futures, with an allowance for term premiums and other adjustments.
Source: CME Group.

Figure: Treasury Yield Curve
Line chart, by percent, 1 to 20 years ahead. There are two series, "October 27, 2009" and "September 22, 2009". They begin at about 0.2 and generally increase
together to about 4.2 by about 13 years ahead. October 27, 2009 generally increases to end at about 4.3 and September 22, 2009 generally increases to end at
about 4.25.
Note: Smoothed yield curve estimated from off-the-run Treasury coupon securities. Yields shown are those on notional par Treasury securities with semiannual coupons.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: 10-Year Treasury Implied Volatility
Line chart, by percent, January 2007 to October 27, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series begins at
about 4.5 and generally decreases to about 3.2 by May 2007. It then generally increases to about 13.5 by October 2008, and generally decreases to about 6.8 by
April 2009. It then generally increases to about 11.7 by May 2009, and generally decreases to about 6.8 by October 2009. It then generally increases to end at
about 8.2. It is at about 7.8 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.

Note: 10-year Treasury note implied volatility derived from options on futures contracts.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: Inflation Compensation
Line chart, by percent, January 2007 to October 27, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series,
"5 to 10 years ahead" and "Next 5 years". 5 to 10 years ahead begins at about 2.5 and generally increases to about 3.6 by November 2008. It then generally
decreases to about 2 by December, and generally increases to end at about 3. It is at about 2.9 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Next 5 years
begins at about 2.3 and generally decreases to about 1.9 by March 2008. It then generally increases to about 2.6 by June 2008, and generally decreases to about
-1.4 by early December. It then generally increases to end at about 1.7. It is at about 1.3 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Estimates based on smoothed nominal and inflation-indexed Treasury yields. Next 5 years is adjusted for lagged indexation of Treasury inflation-protected securities.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Financial Institutions, Short-Term Funding Markets, and Liquidity Facilities
Figure: Bank ETFs
Line chart, January 2008 to October 27, 2009. January 2, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
two series, "Large banks" and "Regional and smaller banks". Large banks begins at about 190 and generally decreases to about 172 by January. It then generally
increases to about 212 by late January, and generally decreases to about 40 by March 2009. It then generally increases to about 110 by October 2009, and
generally decreases to end at about 100. It is at about 102 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Regional and smaller banks begins at about 121
and generally decreases to about 80 by July 2008. It then generally increases to about 140 by late September 2008, and generally decreases to about 42 by March
2009. It then generally increases to end at about 73. It is at about 75 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Large bank ETF consists of 24 banks; regional and smaller bank ETF consists of 51 banks.
Source: Keefe, Bruyette & Woods (KBW) and Bloomberg.

Figure: Senior CDS Spreads for Banking Organizations
Line chart, January 2008 to October 27, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
two series, "Large bank holding companies" and "Other banks". Large bank holding companies begins at about 50 and generally increases to about 210 by March
2008. It then generally decreases to about 65 by May 2008, and generally increases to about 370 by March 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 100.
It is at about 115 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Other banks begins at about 55 and generally increases to about 240 by late September
2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 120. It is at about 98 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Median spreads for 6 large bank holding companies and 10 other banks.
Source: Markit.

Figure: Libor over OIS Spread
Line chart, July 2007 to October 28, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are three
series, "1-month", "3-month", and "6-month". They begin at about 10 and generally increase to about 95 by September 2007. 1-month generally decreases to
about 22 by November 2007, and generally increases to about 330 by October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 10. It is at about 10 at the time of
the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 3-month generally decreases to about 38 by late January 2008, and generally increases to about 355 by October. It then
generally decreases to end at about 10. It is at about 10 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 6-month generally decreases to about 48 by late
January 2008, and generally increases to about 330 by October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 40. It is at about 45 at the time of the September
2009 FOMC meeting.
Source: British Bankers' Association and Prebon.

Figure: Spreads on 30-day Commercial Paper
Line chart, July 2007 to October 26, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two
series, "ABCP" and "A2/P2". They begin at about 0 and generally increase to about 200 by December 2007. They then generally decrease to about 48 by February
2008. ABCP generally increases to about 390 by October 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 20. It is at about 10 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting. A2/P2 generally increases to about 610 by January 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 20. It is at about 5 at the time September 2009
FOMC meeting.
Note: The ABCP spread is the AA ABCP rate minus the AA nonfinancial rate. The A2/P2 spread is the A2/P2 nonfinancial rate minus the AA nonfinancial rate.
Source: Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation.

Figure: Usage of TALF and other lending facilities

Line chart, by billions of dollars, January 2007 to October 27, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
two series, "Other facilities" and "TALF". Other facilities begins at about 0 and remains about constant until about January 2008. It then generally increases to
about 285 by December 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 45. It is at about 60 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. TALF begins at
about 0 and remains about constant until about late March 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 45. It is at about 45 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting.
Note: Other facilities includes primary, secondary, and seasonal credit; TAF; PDCF; dollar liquidity swaps; CPFF; and AMLF.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Federal Reserve Large-Scale Asset Purchases
Line chart, by billions of dollars, December 2008 to October 28, 2009. Data are weekly. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There
are three series, "Agency MBS", "Agency debt", and "Treasury securities". Agency MBS begins at about 0 and generally increases to end at about 990. It is at
about 880 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Agency debt begins at about 0 and generally increases to end at about 150. It is at about 140 at the
time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Treasury securities begins at about 0, remains about constant until about late February 2009, and generally increases
to end at about 300. It is at about 300 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Due to settlement lags and other factors, cumulative purchases may be substantially higher than current holdings in the SOMA portfolio.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Corporate Yields, Risk Spreads, and Stock Prices
Figure: Selected Stock Price Indexes
Line chart, June 2008 to October 27, 2009. September 22, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There
are two series, "S&P Financial" and "S&P 500". S&P Financial begins at about 160 and generally decreases to about 40 by early March. It then generally increases
to end at about 97. It is at about 98 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. S&P 500 begins at about 130 and generally decreases to about 63 by
March 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 100. It is at about 98 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source: Standard & Poor's.

Figure: Expected Real Equity Return and Long-Run Treasury Yield
Line chart, by percent, 1990 to October 27, 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Expected 10-year real equity return" and "Expected real yield on 10year Treasury". Expected 10-year real equity return begins at about 7.5 and generally increases to about 9.5 by late 1990. It then generally decreases to about 2
by early 2000, and generally increases to about 12 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 8.2. Expected real yield on 10-year Treasury begins at
about 4.4 and generally decreases to about 2 by 1993. It then generally increases to about 4.8 by late 1994, and generally decreases to end at about 1.4.
Note: Expected real yield on 10-year Treasury is off-the-run 10-year Treasury yield less Philadelphia Fed 10-year expected inflation. There are two marks on the chart, at about 8.2 for Expected
10-year real equity return and about 1.5 for Expected real yield on 10-year Treasury that denote the latest observation using daily interest rates and stock prices and latest earnings data from
I/B/E/S.
Source: Thomson Financial.

Figure: Implied Volatility on S&P 500 (VIX)
Line chart, by percent, 2002 to October 27, 2009. Data are weekly, as measured on Fridays or the most recent business day. The September 2009 FOMC meeting
is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 21 and generally increases to about 42 by mid-2002. It then generally decreases to about 11 by 2006, and
generally increases to about 79 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 25. It is at about 28 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source: Chicago Board of Exchange.

Figure: Corporate Bond Yields
Line chart, by percent, 2002 to October 27, 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series, "10-year
high-yield" and "10-year BBB". 10-year high-yield begins at about 11 and generally decreases to about 10.2 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 12.2 by
2002, and generally decreases to about 7.2 by early 2005. It then generally increases to about 20 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 9.5. It is at
about 10.2 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 10-year BBB begins at about 7.6 and generally decreases to about 5 by 2003. It then generally
increases to about 10 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 6.2. It is at about 6.4 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Yields from smoothed yield curves based on Merrill Lynch bond data.

Figure: Corporate Bond Spreads
Line chart, 2002 to October 27, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series,
"10-year high-yield" and "10-year BBB". 10-year high-yield begins at about 550 and generally decreases to about 500 by 2002. It then generally increases to about
900 by 2002, and generally decreases to about 260 by early 2005. It then generally increases to about 1650 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about

580. It is at about 650 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 10-year BBB begins at about 200 and generally increases to about 300 by late 2002. It
then generally decreases to about 125 by early 2005, and generally increases to about 680 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 270. It is at
about 290 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Corporate yields from smoothed yield curves based on Merrill Lynch bond data and spreads measured relative to comparable-maturity Treasury securities.

Figure: Estimated Median Bid-Asked Spread for Corporate Bonds
Line chart, 2005 to October 27, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series,
"High-yield" and "Investment-grade". High yield begins at about 125 and generally increases to about 230 by late 2005. It then generally decreases to about 105 by
2008, and generally increases to about 320 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 120. It is at about 115 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting. Investment-grade begins at about 80 and generally increases to about 120 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 50 by late 2006, and
generally increases to about 150 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 80. It is at about 95 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Source: Staff estimate using data from the National Assn. of Securities Dealers' Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine.

Corporate Earnings and Credit Quality
Figure: S&P 500 Earnings Per Share (Seasonally Adjusted)
Line chart, by dollars per share, 2000 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. The series begins at about 14 and generally increases to about 14.5 by 2000. It then
generally decreases to about 10.5 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 24 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 5.7 by late 2008, and generally
increases to end at about 16.
Note: 2009:Q3 is an estimate.
Source: Thomson Financial.

Figure: Revisions to Expected S&P 500 Earnings
Line chart, by percent, 2002 to mid-October 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "All firms" and "Nonfinancial firms". They begin at about -1 and
generally increase to about 0.8 by 2002. They then generally decrease to about -3.8 by late 2002, and generally increase to about 2.5 by 2004. All firms generally
decreases to about -17.8 by early 2009, and generally increases to about 2.4 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 0. Nonfinancial firms generally
decreases to about -17.5 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 1.
Note: Index is a weighted average of the percent change in the consensus forecasts of current-year and following-year earnings per share for a fixed sample.
Source: Thomson Financial.

Figure: Financial Ratios for Nonfinancial Corporations
Line chart, by ratio, 1990 to 2009:Q2. There are two series, "Debt over total assets" and "Liquid assets over total assets". These series use two different scales.
Debt over total assets begins at about 0.335 and generally decreases to about 0.282 by 1996. It then generally increases to about 0.31 by early 2002, and
generally decreases to about 0.24 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 0.295 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 0.285. Liquid assets
over total assets begins at about 0.05 and generally increases to about 0.102 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 0.088 by 2008, and generally increases
to end at about 0.101.
Note: Data are annual through 1999 and quarterly thereafter; fixed investment is at an annual rate.
Source: Compustat.

Figure: Bond Ratings Changes of Nonfinancial Companies
Line chart, by percent of outstandings, 1991 to 2009:Q3. Data are annual rate. There are two series, "Upgrades" and "Downgrades". Upgrades begins at about 12
and generally decreases to about 8 by 1994. It then generally increases to about 20 by 1995, and generally decreases to about 4 by 2002. It then generally
increases to about 10 by 2007, and generally decreases to about 4 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 8. Downgrades begins at about 28 and
generally increases to about 35 by 1992. It then generally decreases to about 8 by 1995, and generally increases to about 38 by 2002. It then generally decreases
to about 10 by 2004, and generally increases to about 28 by 2009:H1. It then generally decreases to end at about 9.
Source: Calculated using data from Moody's Investors Service.

Figure: Selected Default and Delinquency Rates
Line chart, by percent of outstandings, 1990 to 2009. There are two series, "C&I loan delinquency rate" and "Bond default rate". C&I loan delinquency rate begins
at about 5 and generally increases to about 6.2 by 1991. It then generally decreases to about 1.7 by late 1997, and generally increases to about 4 by 2002. It then
generally decreases to about 1.2 by late 1006, and generally increases to end at about 3.8. Bond default rate begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about
3.2 by early 1991. It then generally decreases to about 0 by late 1993, and generally increases to about 3.8 by late 2002. It then generally decreases to about 0 by
late 2007, and generally increases to about 7.2 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.5.

Note: Bond default rate is 6-month trailing defaults divided by beginning-of-period outstandings, at an annual rate.
Source: For default rate, Moody's Investors Service; for delinquency rate, Call Report.

Figure: Expected Nonfinancial Year-Ahead Defaults
Line chart, by percent of liabilities, 1994 to October 2009. Data are monthly. The series begins at about 0.5 and generally decreases to about 0.3 by late 1997. It
then generally increases to about 4.4 by 2002, and generally decreases to about 0.2 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 5 by early 2009, and generally
decreases to about 1.7.
Note: Firm-level estimates of default weighted by firm liabilities as a percent of total liabilities, excluding defaulted firms.
Source: Calculated using firm-level data from Moody's KMV.

Business Finance
Gross Issuance of Securities by U.S. Corporations
(Billions of dollars; monthly rates, not seasonally adjusted)

2009
Type of security

2005

2006

2007

2008
H1

Q3

Sept.

Oct. p

Nonfinancial corporations
Stocks 1

4.6

4.7

5.5

3.7

5.3

5.4

8.1

4.2

Initial public offerings

1.7

1.8

1.6

.3

.2

.6

1.4

1.2

Seasoned offerings

2.8

2.9

3.8

3.4

5.1

4.8

6.7

3.0

18.7

29.3

35.1

27.7

50.1

30.4

39.9

23.0

Investment grade

8.7

13.1

17.5

19.5

32.6

13.4

17.1

7.0

Speculative grade

5.2

6.2

7.5

1.8

5.3

7.4

12.4

8.0

Other (sold abroad/unrated)

4.8

10.1

10.0

6.4

12.2

9.7

10.4

8.0

 

 

Bonds 2

Memo
Net issuance of commercial paper3

-.2

2.4

-.4

1.6

-12.4

-.9

2.0

22.0

10.2

11.1

21.2

12.8

-17.7

-34.6

-42.3

-26.0

Stocks 1

5.0

5.3

8.6

13.5

15.9

5.4

8.3

3.5

2

170.4

180.6

151.7

45.4

44.5

38.9

52.2

40.0

Change in C&I loans at commercial banks 3
Financial corporations

Bonds

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.
1. Excludes private placements and equity-for-equity swaps that occur in restructurings.  Return to table
2. Data include regular and 144a private placements. Bond totals reflect gross proceeds rather than par value of original discount bonds. Bonds are categorized according to Moody's bond ratings
or to Standard & Poor's if unrated by Moody's.  Return to table
3. End-of-period basis, seasonally adjusted.  Return to table
p Forecast based on preliminary data.  Return to table
Source: Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation; Thomson Financial; Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Selected Components of Net Debt Financing
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2005 to October 2009. Data are monthly rate, nonfinancial firms. There are three series, "Commercial paper", "C&I loans", and
"Bonds". There is also a "Total" series plotted as a curve which shows the sum of the other series. Approximate values are: 2005: Bonds 6, C&I loans 9,
Commercial paper 0, Total 15. 2006: Bonds 18, C&I loans 10, Commercial paper 4, Total 32. 2007: Bonds 27, C&I loans 21, Commercial paper 0, Total 48. 2008:
Bonds 18, C&I loans 12, Commercial paper 2, Total 32. 2009:H1: Bonds 40, C&I loans -18, Commercial paper -12, Total 10. 2009:Q3: Bonds 22, C&I loans -33,
Commercial paper -2, Total -13. October 2009: Bonds 12, C&I loans -26, Commercial paper 22, Total 8.
Note: Commercial paper and C&I loans are seasonally adjusted, period-end basis. October 2009 values are preliminary.
Source: Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation; Thomson Financial; Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Components of Net Equity Issuance
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2005 to 2009:Q2. Data are monthly rate, nonfinancial firms. There are four series, "Public issuance", "Private issuance",

"Repurchases", and "Cash mergers". There is also a "Total" series plotted as a curve which shows the sum of the other series. Approximate values are: 2005:
Private issuance 9, Public issuance 4, Repurchases -28, Cash mergers -15, Total -30. 2006: Private issuance 12, Public issuance 6, Repurchases -37, Cash
mergers -23, Total -42. 2007: Private issuance 19, Public issuance 6, Repurchases -45, Cash mergers -38, Total -58. 2008: Private issuance 22, Public issuance
14, Repurchases -30, Cash mergers -16, Total -10. 2009:Q1: Private issuance 17, Public issuance 3, Repurchases -10, Cash mergers -6, Total 4. 2009:Q2:
Private issuance 13, Public issuance 10, Repurchases -8, and Cash mergers -8, Total 7.
Note: Private issuance was revised back to 2005. 2009:Q2 values are estimates.
Source: Thomson Financial, Investment Benchmark Report; Money Tree Report by PricewaterhouseCoopers, National Venture Capital Association, and Venture Economics.

Commercial Real Estate
Figure: Commercial Mortgage Debt
Line chart, by percentage change, annual rate, 2000 to 2009:Q2. Data are quarterly. The series begins at about 10.6 and generally increases to about 12.5 by
2000. It then generally decreases to about 7.2 by 2002, and generally increases to about 17 by late 2005. It then generally decreases to end at about -2.8.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Commercial Real Estate Sales
Line chart, 2001 to September 2009. There are two series, "Dollar value of all sales", which is by billions of dollars, and "Percent of properties sold at nominal loss",
which is by percent. These two series use two different scales. Dollar value of all sales begins at about 7 and generally increases to about 72 by early 2007. It
then generally decreases to end at about 8. Percent of properties sold at nominal loss begins at about 5 and generally increases to about 17 by late 2001. It then
generally decreases to about 7 by 2002, and generally increases to about 16 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to about 9 by early 2008, and generally
increases to end at about 47.
Note: 3-month moving averages.
Source: Real Capital Analytics.

Figure: Prices of Commercial Real Estate
Line chart, 1994 to 2009. Index, 2001:Q1=100. There are two series, "NCREIF TBI", data are quarterly, and "Moody's index", data are monthly. NCREIF TBI
begins at about 75 and generally increases to about 200 by 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 130 by 2009:Q2. Moody's index begins at about 100
by early 2001, and generally increases to about 190 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 114 by August.
Source: NCREIF; MIT Center for Real Estate; Moody's.

Figure: Delinquency Rates on Commercial Mortgages on Existing Properties
Line chart, by percent, 1996 to 2009. There are three series, "At commercial banks", "At life insurance companies", and "CMBS". At commercial banks begins at
about 3.4 and generally decreases to about 1 by 2006. It then generally increases to end at about 4.1 by 2009:Q2. At life insurance companies begins at about 2.4
and generally increases to about 2.6 by 1996. It then generally decreases to about 0 by late 2006, and generally increases to end at about 0.15 by 2009:Q2. CMBS
begins at about 0.5 by early 1999, and generally increases to about 1.95 by late 2003. It then generally decreases to about 0.3 by 2007, and generally increases to
end at about 4.3 by September.
Note: CMBS are commercial mortgage-backed securities. At commercial banks is excluding farmland.
Source: Citigroup; Call Reports; ACLI.

Figure: Commercial Mortgage CDS Index Prices (CMBX)
Line chart, by percent, April 2007 to October 27, 2009. Data are daily, by rating. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are three
series, "Senior AAA", "Junior AAA", and "BBB-". Senior AAA begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 83 by March 2008. It then generally increases
to about 94 by May 2008, and generally decreases to about 56 by late November 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 80. It is at about 81 at the time
of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. Junior AAA begins at about 98 by early January 2008 and generally decreases to about 66 by March 2008. It then
generally increases to about 90 by May 2008, and generally decreases to about 25 by April 2009. It then generally increases to about 60 by late September, and
generally decreases to end at about 50. It is at about 60 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. BBB- begins at about 100 and generally increases to
about 105 by June 2007. It then generally decreases to about 30 by March 2008, and generally increases to about 48 by May 2008. It then generally decreases to
about 9 by April 2009, and generally increases to about 20 by September 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 15. It is at about 20 at the time of the
September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Each index corresponds to pools of mortgages securitized in 2006:H1.
Source: JPMorgan Chase & Co.

Figure: REIT Funds Raised

Bar chart, by billions of dollars, 2004 to 2009. Data are quarterly. There are two series, "Capital" and "Debt". Capital begins at about 6.9 and generally decreases to
about 2.5 by late 2005. It then generally increases to about 9.5 by late 2006, and generally decreases to about 1.2 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end
at about 14. Debt begins at about 6 and generally decreases to about 2.6 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 10.3 by early 2007, and generally
decreases to about 0.2 by early 2008. It then generally increases to about 4.2 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 1 by 2008. It then generally increases to
end at about 2.8.
Source: NAREIT.

Residential Mortgages
Figure: Mortgage Rate and MBS Yield
Line chart, by percent, October 2006 to October 2009. Data are weekly. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are two series,
"30-year conforming fixed-rate mortgage rate" and "MBS yield". 30-year conforming fixed-rate mortgage rate begins at about 6.3 and generally decreases to about
6.1 by December 2006. It then generally increases to about 6.75 by June 2007, and generally decreases to about 5.5 by late January 2008. It then generally
increases to about 6.65 by July 2008, and generally decreases to about 5.8 by April 2009. It then generally increases to about 5.6 by June 2009, and generally
decreases to about 4.8 by October 2009. It generally increases to end at about 5.0 by October 21. It is at about 5.0 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting. MBS yield begins at about 5.75 and generally increases to about 6.4 by June. It then generally decreases to about 4.8 by January 2008, and generally
increases to about 6.2 by July 2008. It then generally decreases to about 3.75 by January 2009, and generally increases to about 5.0 by June. It then generally
decreases to about 4.1 by September, and generally increases to end at about 4.5. It is at about 4.4 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: For MBS yield, Fannie Mae 30-year current coupon rate.
Source: For mortgage rate, Freddie Mac; for MBS yield, Bloomberg.

Figure: Spread of Mortgage Rate to Treasury Yield
Line chart, October 2006 to October 21, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are weekly. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. There are
two series, "30-yr FRM to 10-yr Treasury" and "5/1 ARM to 2-yr Treasury". 30-yr FRM to 10-yr Treasury begins at about 160 and generally decreases to about 140
by January 2007. It then generally increases to 250 by late August 2008, and generally decreases to about 90 by June 2009. It then generally increases to end at
about 135. It is at about 135 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting. 5/1 ARM to 2-yr Treasury begins at about 145 and generally decreases to about
105 by January 2006. It then generally increases to about 525 by December 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 345. It is at about 350 at the time of
the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Spreads are relative to corresponding off-the-run Treasury yields.
Source: Bloomberg; Freddie Mac.

Figure: Agency and Non-Agency MBS Issuance
Stacked bar chart, by billions of dollars, 2002 to August 2009. Data are monthly rate. There are three series, "Non-agency", "GSEs", and "Ginnie Mae".
Approximate values are: 2002: Ginnie Mae 15, GSEs 110, Non-agency 25, total 150. 2003: Ginnie Mae 20, GSEs 160, and Non-agency 40, total 220. 2004:
Ginnie Mae 12.5, GSEs 67.5, and Non-agency 70, total 150. 2005: Ginnie Mae 5, GSEs 75, and Non-agency 90, total 170. 2006: Ginnie Mae 6, GSEs 70, and
Non-agency 84, total 160. 2007: Ginnie Mae 8, GSEs 90, and Non-agency 52, total 150. 2008:H1: Ginnie Mae 20, GSEs 94, and Non-agency 6, total 120.
2008:H2: Ginnie Mae 27, GSEs 51, total 78. 2009:Q1: Ginnie Mae 30, GSEs 82, total 112. 2009:Q2: Ginnie Mae 40, GSEs 110, total 150. July 2009: Ginnie Mae
48, GSEs 104, total 152. August 2009: Ginnie Mae 45, GSEs 100, total 145.
Source: For non-agency issuance, Inside Mortgage Finance; for agency, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae.

Figure: Prices of Existing Homes
Line chart, by percent change from a year earlier, 2002 to August 2009. Data are monthly. There are three series, "FHFA price index", "LP price index", and "20city S&P/Case-Shiller price index". FHFA price index begins at about 7.2 and generally increases to about 10 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -9 by
late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -3.5. LP price index begins at about 9 and generally increases to about 17.5 by early 2005. It then generally
decreases to about -20.2 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about -10. 20-city S&P/Case-Shiller price index begins at about 7.5 and generally
increases to about 17.5 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about -18.5 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about -11.
Note: LoanPerformance data are confidential until publicly released.
Source: For FHFA, Federal Housing Finance Agency; for LP, LoanPerformance, a division of First American CoreLogic; for S&P/Case-Shiller, Standard & Poor's.

Figure: Delinquencies on Prime Mortgages
Line chart, by percent of loans, 2001 to September 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Variable-rate" and "Fixed-rate". Variable-rate begins at about
2.6 and generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2005. It then generally increases to end at about 14. Fixed-rate begins at about 1.25 and remains about constant until
mid-2007. It then generally increases to end at about 4.8.
Note: Percent of loans 90 or more days past due or in foreclosure. Prime includes near-prime mortgages.
Source: McDash Analytics.

Figure: Delinquencies on Subprime and FHA-Backed Mortgages
Line chart, by percent of loans, 2001 to 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "FHA" and "Subprime". These two series use two different scales. FHA
begins at about 3.4 and generally increases to end at about 7.7 by September. Subprime begins at about 8 and generally increases to about 9.8 by early 2003. It
then generally decreases to about 5.5 by 2005 and generally increases to end at about 32.5 by August.
Note: Percent of loans 90 or more days past due or in foreclosure. For subprime mortgages, rates are for securitized loans.
Source: For FHA-backed mortgages, McDash Analytics; for subprime mortgages, LoanPerformance, a division of First American CoreLogic.

Consumer Credit and Mutual Funds
Figure: Consumer Credit
Line chart, by percent change, annual rate, 2004 to August 2009. Data are 3-month change. There are two series, "Revolving" and "Nonrevolving". Revolving
begins at about 3 and generally increases to about 5 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 1 by 2004, and generally increases to about 8 by 2004. It then
generally decreases to about 2.5 by early 2005, and generally increases to about 9.5 by mid-2007. It then generally decreases to about -12 by 2009, and generally
increases to end at about -7. Nonrevolving begins at about 6 and generally increases to about 7 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 4 by 2004, and
generally increases to about 9 by late 2004. It then generally decreases to about 3 by late 2006, and generally increases to about 6.5 by 2007. It then generally
decreases to end at about -7.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Gross Consumer ABS Issuance
Bar chart, by billions of dollars, 2005 to October 2009. Data are monthly rate. There are two series, "TALF eligible" and "Non-TALF". Approximate values are:
2005: Non-TALF 19.5, TALF eligible 0. 2006: Non-TALF 19.5, TALF eligible 0. 2007: Non-TALF 19.5, TALF eligible 0. 2008:H1: Non-TALF 18, TALF eligible 0.
2008:H2: Non-TALF 3.8, TALF eligible 0. 2009:Q1: TALF eligible 2.8, Non-TALF 3.7. 2009:Q2: TALF eligible 10, Non-TALF 4.5. July 2009: TALF eligible 12, NonTALF 4. August 2009: TALF eligible 7, Non-TALF 1. September 2009: TALF eligible 14.8, Non-TALF 4.2. October 2009: TALF eligible 3, Non-TALF 1.
Note: Credit card, auto, and student loan ABS. October 2009 plotted values are through October 23.
Source: Inside MBS & ABS; Merrill Lynch; Bloomberg; Federal Reserve.

Figure: Credit Card Rates and Volume of Mail Offerings
Line chart, 2007 to August 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Volume of mail offerings", which is by millions, and "Interest rates", which is by percent.
These two series use two different scales. Volume of mail offerings begins at about 600 and generally decreases to about 490 by 2007. It then generally increases
to about 550 by 2007, and generally decreases to end at about 100. Interest rates begins at about 13.5 and generally decreases to about 11.1 by early 2009. It
then generally increases to end at about 12.6.
Source: Mintel.

Figure: Delinquencies on Consumer Loans
Line chart, by percent, 1997 to 2009. There are three series, "Credit card loans in securitized pools", "Nonrevolving consumer loans at commercial banks", and
"Auto loans at captive finance companies". Credit card loans in securitized pools begins at about 5.4 and generally increases to about 5.6 by 1997. It then
generally decreases to about 3.2 by late 2005, and generally increases to about 6.4 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 6 by September.
Nonrevolving consumer loans at commercial banks begins at about 3.1 and generally decreases to about 2.1 by 2005. It then generally increases to end at about
3.8 by 2009:Q2. Auto loans at captive finance companies begins at about 3.3 and generally increases to about 3.7 by 1997. It then generally decreases to about 2
by 2004, and generally increases to end at about 3.4 by August.
Source: For auto loans, Federal Reserve; for credit cards, Moody's Investors Service; for nonrevolving consumer loans, Call Report.

Net Flows into Mutual Funds
(Billions of dollars, monthly rate)

2008

2009

Assets

Fund type
H1
Total long-term funds

H2

Q1

Q2

July

Aug.

Sept. e

Aug.

11.8

-49.7

0.5

46.1

45.7

50.0

48.2

7,061

Equity funds

-3.6

-36.0

-14.4

14.2

9.2

3.9

-10.4

4,511

Domestic

-5.0

-20.7

-7.8

9.7

2.3

-2.0

-11.0

3,375

International

1.3

-15.3

-6.5

4.4

6.9

5.9

0.5

1,136

Hybrid funds

1.7

-4.7

-2.9

2.3

1.8

3.2

11.0

577

Bond funds

13.8

-9.0

17.8

29.7

34.7

42.9

47.6

1,973

High-yield

-0.2

0.1

2.7

2.9

1.9

1.0

1.2

167

Other taxable

11.1

-7.4

11.2

21.1

26.0

32.9

36.2

1,386

2.9

-1.6

3.9

5.7

6.8

9.1

10.2

420

56.1

59.6

0.1

-54.6

-50.0

-55.6

-139.9

3,569

Municipals
Money market funds

Note: Excludes reinvested dividends.
e Staff estimate.  Return to table
Source: Investment Company Institute.

Treasury Finance
Figure: Treasury Auction Amounts
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2005 to 2009:Q3. Data are quarterly. There are four series, "2-year", "3-year", "5-year", and "10-year". 2-year begins at about 72
and generally decreases to about 55 by 2007. It then generally increases to end at about 128. 3-year begins at about 22 and generally decreases to about 0 by
late 2007. It then remains about constant until about late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 110. 5-year begins at about 44 and generally decreases to
about 40 by 2007. It then generally increases to end at about 117. 10-year begins at about 22 and remains about constant until late 2007. It then generally
increases to about 60 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to end at about 41.
Source: U.S. Treasury Dept.

Figure: Foreign Participation in Treasury Auctions
Line chart, by percent of total issue, 2000 to October 15, 2009. Data are 6-month moving averages. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time
series. There are two series, "Indirect bids" and "Actual foreign allotment". Indirect bids begins at about 28 by late 2003 and generally increases to about 44 by
2004. It then generally decreases to about 25 by 2008, and generally increases to end at about 43. It is at about 42 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC
meeting. Actual foreign allotment begins at about 9.8 and generally increases to about 26 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 15 by mid-2006, and
generally increases to end at about 27. It is at about 27 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Indirect bids and actual allotment are a percentage of the total amount accepted, including the amount tendered to the Federal Reserve. Moving averages include 2-, 5-, and 10-year
original auctions and reopenings.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Average Absolute Nominal Yield Curve Fitting Error
Line chart, 2001 to October 27, 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are daily. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series begins at
about 3 and generally decreases to about 2 by early 2007. It then generally increases to about 22.5 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 3. The
series peaks to about 13 by 2001. It is at about 4 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Calculated from securities with 2 to 10 years until maturity, excluding on-the-run and first off-the-run securities.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Daily Treasury Market Volume
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2004 to October 2009. Data are monthly averages. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series
begins at about 75 and generally increases to about 200 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 75 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about
80. It is at about 70 at about at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: October observation is the month-to-date average.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: Treasury On-the-Run Premium
Line chart showing 10-year note, 2001 to October 2009. Unit is basis points. Data are monthly averages. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the
time series. The series begins at about 15 and generally increases to about 28 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 16 by 2005, and generally increases
to about 60 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 22. It is at about 28 at the time of the September 2009 FOMC meeting.
Note: Computed as the spread of the yield read from an estimated off-the-run yield curve over the on-the-run Treasury yield. October observation is the month-to-date average.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Treasury Fails-to-Deliver

Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2007:Q1 to October 14, 2009. Data are weekly. The September 2009 FOMC meeting is marked in the time series. The series
begins at about 250 and generally decreases to about 0 by 2007:Q1. It then generally increases to about 1200 by 2008:Q2, and generally decreases to about 0 by
2008:Q3. It then generally increases to about 2700 by 2008:Q4, and generally decreases to end at about 0. It is at about 0 at the time of the September 2009
FOMC meeting.
Source: Federal Reserve Board, FR 2004, Government Securities Dealers Reports.

State and Local Government Finance
Gross Offerings of Municipal Securities
(Billions of dollars; monthly rate, not seasonally adjusted)

2009
Type of security

2005

2006

2007

2008
H1

Total
Long-term

Q3

Sept.

Oct. p

38.4

Refundings

2

New capital

36.1

40.4

37.5

36.5

41.9

42.5

33.0

34.2

1

32.5

35.5

32.4

32.9

30.7

29.9

31.0

15.6

10.6

12.6

14.6

12.5

11.0

11.1

14.0

18.6

21.9

22.9

17.8

20.5

19.7

18.8

17.0

4.2

3.7

4.9

5.0

3.6

11.2

12.7

2.0

2.1

2.5

2.4

2.3

4.5

7.9

8.4

1.3

Short-term
Memo: Long-term taxable

1. Includes issues for public and private purposes.  Return to table
2. All issues that include any refunding bonds.  Return to table
p Forecast based on preliminary data through October 22, 2009.  Return to table
Source: Thomson Financial.

Figure: Ratings Changes
Bar chart, by number of ratings changes, 1991 to 2009:Q2. Data are annual rate. There are two series, "Upgrades" and "Downgrades". Upgrades begins at about
150 and generally increases to about 1000 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 450 by 2002, and generally increases to about 2200 by 2006. It then
generally decreases to about 1950 by 2007, and generally increases to about 2900 by 2009:Q1. It then generally decreases to end at about 2450. Downgrades
begins at about 600 and generally decreases to about 150 by 1999. It then generally increases to about 1400 by 2007, and generally decreases to end at about
380.
Note: Recent upgrades reflect S&P's change of rating standard.
Source: S&P's Credit Week Municipal; S&P's Ratings Direct.

Figure: Municipal Bond Yields
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are two series, "20-year general obligation" and "7-day SIFMA swap index". 20-year general
obligation begins at about 4.5 and generally decreases to about 4 by late 2006. It then generally increases to about 6 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at
about 4.3 by October 22, 2009. 7-day SIFMA swap index begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 3.9 by late 2006. It then generally decreases to
about 1.2 by early 2008, and generally increases to about 8 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 0.3 by October 14.
Note: SIFMA is the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association.
Source: Municipal Market Advisors; Bond Buyer.

Figure: Municipal Bond Yield Ratio
Line chart showing 20-year for 2002 to October 22, 2009. Data are weekly ratio, General Obligation over Treasury. The series begins at about 0.9 and generally
increases to about 0.99 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about 0.85 by 2006, and generally increases to about 1.87 by late 2008. It then generally
decreases to end at about 1.0.
Source: Bond Buyer.

M2 Monetary Aggregate
(Based on seasonally adjusted data)

Percent change (annual rate) 1

Level
(billions

Aggregate and components

2009
2007

2008
Q2

M2

Q3

Sept.

Oct. (e)

of dollars),
Oct. (e)

5.9

8.3

2.7

0.1

4.0

3.0

8,354

2.0

5.8

6.9

3.4

5.3

0.6

863

4.3

6.9

12.5

12.7

20.6

21.5

5,503

Components 2
Currency
Liquid deposits

3

Small time deposits

4.3

11.7

-16.6

-26.5

-37.9

-43.1

1,133

20.2

13.1

-22.1

-33.0

-38.0

-46.7

850

40.2

24.7

6.4

-9.6

-17.9

-40.8

2,341

2.0

Retail money market funds

70.4

24.2

-2.1

67.8

109.8

1,967

Memo:
Institutional money market funds
Monetary base

1. For years, Q4 to Q4; for quarters and months, calculated from corresponding average levels.  Return to table
2. Nonbank traveler's checks are not listed.  Return to table
3. Sum of demand deposits, other checkable deposits, and savings deposits.  Return to table
e Estimated.  Return to table
Source: Federal Reserve.

Commercial Bank Credit
(Percent change, annual rate, except as noted; seasonally adjusted)

Type of credit

2007

Total

2008

H1
2009

July
2009

Aug.
2009

Sept.
2009

Level1
Sept. 2009

10.0

4.9

-5.8

-7.1

-6.9

-12.5

9,131

10.8

4.6

-7.2

-16.8

-15.2

-18.4

6,793

9.6

5.2

-4.4

-8.8

-12.8

-17.9

6,036

19.0

16.3

-13.9

-16.3

-26.5

-32.0

1,411

9.4

6.0

-1.6

-5.8

-6.8

-9.2

1,677

5.5

-3.0

-1.4

-7.4

-11.8

-21.2

2,099

5.6

13.0

6.6

-6.5

-5.3

-5.7

604

Loans2
Total
Core
To businesses
Commercial and industrial
Commercial real estate
To households
Residential real estate
Revolving home equity
Closed-end mortgages

Other

-7.9

-4.3

-7.9

-14.4

-27.2

1,496

7.1

.0

-5.2

-3.0

-3.2

849

6.5

5.6

-1.7

-2.3

-7.4

-5.8

1,245

.7

-25.4

-76.1

-34.4

-21.9

757

7.7

Memo: Originated 3

5.5
6.8

18.7

Consumer

6.0

-.9

23.4

18.6

4.8

2,338

-5.4

15.0

-1.7

48.1

33.7

11.9

1,399

28.1

-4.2

.2

-10.1

-2.9

-5.5

939

Securities
Total
Treasury and agency
Other

4

Note: Yearly annual rates are Q4 to Q4; quarterly and monthly annual rates use corresponding average levels. Data have been adjusted to remove the effects of mark-to-market accounting rules
(FAS 115) and the initial consolidation of certain variable interest entities (FIN 46). Data also account for the effects of nonbank structure activity of $5 billion or more.
1. Billions of dollars. Pro rata averages of weekly (Wednesday) levels.  Return to table
2. Excludes interbank loans.  Return to table
3. Includes an estimate of outstanding loans securitized by commercial banks that retained recourse or servicing rights.  Return to table
4. Includes private mortgage-backed securities; securities of corporations, state and local governments, and foreign governments; and any trading account securities that are not Treasury or
agency securities.  Return to table
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Total Loans at Commercial Banks
Line chart, by billions of dollars, June 2007 to September 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Large" and "Small". Large begins at about 3800 and
generally increases to about 4200 by October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 3740. It is at about 4100 at the time of the NBER peak. Small
begins at about 2275 and generally increases to about 2600 by late February 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2500. It is at about 2450 at the time
of the NBER peak.
Note: A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the Nation Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Large
domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as the top 25 domestically chartered commercial banks, ranked by domestic assets as of the previous commercial bank Call Report to which
the H.8 release data have been benchmarked. Small domestically charted commercial banks are defined as all domestically chartered commercial banks not included in the top 25.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Allowance for Loan Losses at Commercial Banks
Line chart, by billions of dollars, June 2007 to September 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Large" and "Small". Large begins at about 44 and
generally increases to end at about 139. It is at about 52 at the time of the NBER peak. Small begins at about 26 and generally increases to about 56 by August
2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 53. It is at about 30 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the Nation Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Large
domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as the top 25 domestically chartered commercial banks, ranked by domestic assets as of the previous commercial bank Call Report to which
the H.8 release data have been benchmarked. Small domestically charted commercial banks are defined as all domestically chartered commercial banks not included in the top 25.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Appendix: Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices
Measures of Supply and Demand for Commercial and Industrial Loans, by Size of Firm Seeking Loan
Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Tightening Standards for Commercial and Industrial Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Loans to large and medium-sized firms" and
"Loans to small firms". Loans to large and medium-sized firms begins at about 58 and generally decreases to about -20 by 1993. It then generally increases to
about 60 by early 2001, and generally decreases to about -25 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 84 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at
about 14. It is at about 32 at the time of the July survey. Loans to small firms begins at about 52 and generally decreases to about -12 by late 1996. It then
generally increases to about 45 by early 2001, and generally decreases to about -24 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 85 by late 2008, and generally
decreases to end at about 12. It is at about 32 at the time of the July survey.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Increasing Spreads of Loan Rates over Banks' Costs of Funds

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Loans to large and medium-sized firms" and
"Loans to small firms". Loans to large and medium-sized firms begins at about 12 and generally increases to about 60 by early 1991. It then generally decreases to
about -60 by 1994, and generally increases to about 60 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about -70 by 2005, and generally increases to about 100 by 2008.
It then generally decreases to end at about 40. It is at about 60 at the time of the July survey. Loans to small firms begins at about 8 and generally increases to
about 38 by early 1991. It then generally decreases to about -40 by late 1997, and generally increases to about 41 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to
about -54 by 2005, and generally increases to about 92 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 42. It is at about 62 at the time of the July
survey.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Reporting Stronger Demand for Commercial and Industrial Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1991 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Loans to large and medium-sized firms" and
"Loans to small firms". Loans to large and medium-sized firms begins at about -28 and generally increases to about 38 by 1994. It then generally decreases to
about -70 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 46 by early 2005. It then generally decreases to about -60 by 2009, and generally increases to end at
about -30. It is at about -7 at the time of the July survey. Loans to small firms begins at about -27 and generally increases to about 38 by 1994. It then generally
decreases to about -49 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 40 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about -64 by 2009, and generally increases to
end at about -38. It is at about -56 at the time of the July survey.

Measures of Supply and Demand for Commercial Real Estate Loans
Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Tightening Standards for Commercial Real Estate Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 70 and generally decreases to about -10 by
1997. It then generally increases to about 47 by early 2002, and generally decreases to about -24 by early 2005. It then generally increases to about 88 by late
2008, and generally decreases to end at about 33. It is at about 47 at the time of the July survey.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Reporting Stronger Demand for Commercial Real Estate Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1995 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 12 and generally increases to about 26 by late
1995. It then generally decreases to about -2 by 1996, and generally increases to about 48 by 1998. It then generally decreases to about -51 by late 2001, and
generally increases to about 26 by mid-2004. It then generally decreases to about -77 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about -42. It is at about -61 at
the time of the July survey.

Measures of Supply and Demand for Residential Mortgage Loans
Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Tightening Standards for Residential Mortgage Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to early 2007. The series, "All residential", begins at about 10 and generally increases to about 33 by early 1991. It then generally
decreases to about -17 by late 1993, and generally increases to about 11 by early 2003. It then generally decreases to about -9 by 2006, and generally increases
to end at about 16.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2007:Q2 to 2009:Q4. There are two series, "Prime" and "Nontraditional". Prime begins at about 14 and generally increases
to about 72 by 2008:Q3. It then generally decreases to about 21 by 2009:Q3, and generally increases to end at about 25. Nontraditional begins at about 46 and
generally decreases to about 40 by 2007:Q3. It then generally increases to about 90 by 2008:Q4, and generally decreases to end at about 30.
Note: For data starting in 2007:Q2, changes in standards for prime and nontraditional mortgage loans are reported separately.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Reporting Stronger Demand for Residential Mortgage Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to early 2007. The series, "All residential", begins at about -48 and generally decreases to about -59 by early 1991. It then generally
increases to about 60 by 1991, and generally decreases to about -76 by early 1995. It then generally increases to about 63 by 1998, and generally decreases to
about -62 by early 2000. It then generally increases to about 48 by 2003, and generally decreases to about -60 by late 2006. It then generally increases to end at
about -37.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2007:Q2 to 2009:Q4. There are two series, "Prime" and "Nontraditional". Prime begins at about -20 and generally
increases to about -10 by 2007:Q3. It then generally decreases to about -60 by 2008:Q1, and generally increases to about 38 by 2009:Q2. It then generally
decreases to about 17 by 2009:Q3, and generally increases to end at about 30. Nontraditional begins at about -17 and generally decreases to about -72 by
2008:Q4. It then generally increases to end at about -3.
Note: For data starting 2007:Q2, changes in demand for prime and nontraditional mortgage loans are reported separately.

Measures of Supply and Demand for Consumer Loans
Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Tightening Standards for Consumer Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1996 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. There are two series, "Credit card loans" and "Other consumer loans".
Credit card loans begins at about 27 and generally increases to about 50 by 1996. It then generally decreases to about -5 by 2000, and generally increases to
about 20 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about -10 by 2007, and generally increases to about 68 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 15.
It is at about 36 at the time of the July survey. Other consumer loans begins at about 16 and generally increases to about 25 by 1996. It then generally decreases
to about -2 by early 1999, and generally increases to about 20 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about -9 by 2005, and generally increases to about 68 by
2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 15. It is at about 36 at the time of the July survey.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Reporting Increased Willingness to Make Consumer Installment Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to 2009. The July 2009 survey is marked in the time series. The series begins at about 8 and generally increases to about 10 by mid1990. It then generally decreases to about -14 by early 1991, and generally increases to about 30 by early 1994. It then generally decreases to about -7 by late
2001, and generally increases to about 21 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -46 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -2. It is at about
-7 at the time of the July survey.

Figure: Net Percentage of Domestic Respondents Reporting Stronger Demand for Consumer Loans

Line chart, by percent, 1991 to 2009. The July survey is marked in the time series. The series begins at about -28 and generally increases to about 38 by 1994. It
then generally decreases to about -36 by early 2001, and generally increases to about 32 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about -48 by late 2008, and
generally increases to end at about -25. It is at about -21 at the time of the July survey.

Figure: Percentage of Domestic Banks Reporting Each of the Following Was a "Very" Important Source in the Contraction of C&I Loans
Bar chart, by percent weighted by C&I loans. There are eight bars, one for each source. Approximate values are: Decreased origination of term loans: 42.
Decreased draws on revolving credit: 32. Paydowns on revolving credit lines: 13. Increased write-downs: 4. Term loans not rolled over or extended: 3. Paydowns
of bridge loans: 2. Increased sales or syndication of loans: 0. Increased prepayments of term loans: 0.

Distribution of Extensions and Refinancings of Maturing CRE Loans Across Domestic Banks
Figure: Construction and Land Development Loans

Bar chart, by percent of banks, 0-25 percent of maturing loans to 75-100 percent of maturing loans. There are two series, "Extensions" and "Refinancings".
Approximate values are: 0-25: Extensions 20, Refinancings 87.5. 25-50: Extensions 35, Refinancings 12.5. 50-75: Extensions 37, Refinancings 5. 75-100:
Extensions 14, Refinancings 0.
Note: Percent of banks is weighted by construction and land development loans.

Figure: Loans Secured by Nonfarm/Nonresidential Real Estate

Bar chart, by percent of banks, 0-25 percent of maturing loans to 75-100 percent of maturing loans. There are two series, "Extensions" and "Refinancings".
Approximate values are: 0-25: Extensions 18, Refinancings 77. 25-50: Extensions 22, Refinancings 20. 50-75: Extensions 39, Refinancings 5. 75-100: Extensions
24, Refinancings 1.
Note: Percent of banks is weighted by loans secured by nonfarm/nonresidential real estate.

Figure: Effect of Credit CARD Legislation on Credit Card Terms
Bar chart, by "Net Percent Tightening Weighted by Credit Card Loans (positive=tightening)". There are two series, "Prime borrowers" and "Nonprime borrowers".
Approximate values are: Spreads over cost of funds (wider spreads = tighten): Prime borrowers 97, Nonprime borrowers 95. Minimum required credit score
(increase score = tighten): Prime borrowers 97, Nonprime borrowers 86. Credit limits: Prime borrowers 92, Nonprime borrowers 86. Extent to which loans are
granted to customers not meeting credit thresholds: Prime borrowers 76, Nonprime borrowers 83. Annual fees: Prime borrowers 44, Nonprime borrowers 53.
Interchange fees charged to merchants: Prime borrowers 1, Nonprime borrowers 0. Minimum percent of outstanding balances required to be repaid each month:
Prime borrowers 1, Nonprime borrowers 0. Length of grace period: Prime borrowers -19, Nonprime borrowers -7. Penalty fees: Prime borrowers -37, Nonprime
borrowers -38.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Part 2 Tables and Charts†
International Developments
Trade in Goods and Services
Annual rate

Monthly rate

2009

2009

2008
Q1

Q2

Q3 e

June

July

Aug.

Percent change
Nominal BOP
Exports

-3.4

-40.7

-4.6

19.2

2.1

2.5

.2

Imports

-7.3

-55.4

-11.4

26.6

2.5

4.9

-.6

Exports

-3.4

-29.9

-4.1

…

…

…

…

Imports

-6.8

-36.4

-14.7

…

…

…

…

-695.9 -369.6 -332.0 -375.4

-27.5

-31.9

-30.7

-840.2 -496.1 -461.9 -508.0

-38.3

-42.8

-41.9

10.8

10.9

11.2

Real NIPA

Billions of dollars
Nominal BOP
Net exports
Goods, net
Services, net

144.3

126.5

129.9

132.6

n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.  Return to table
BOP Balance of payments.  Return to table
NIPA National income and product accounts.  Return to table
e BOP data are two months at an annual rate.  Return to table
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau.

U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services
(Quarterly)

Figure: Trade Balance
Line chart, by billions of dollars, annual rate, 1999 to August 2009. The series begins at about -210 and generally decreases to about -800 by 2006. It then
generally increases to about -340 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -370. August 2009 is marked at about -375.

Figure: Contribution of Net Exports to Growth of Real Gross Domestic Product
Bar chart, by percentage points, annual rate, 1999 to 2009. The series begins at about -1.55 and generally increases to about 0.3 by 2001. It then generally
decreases to about -1.75 by 2004, and generally increases to about 2.65 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.6.

Figure: Selected Exports
Line chart, by billions of dollars, annual rate, 1999 to 2009. There are four series, "Capital goods ex. aircraft", "Industrial supplies", "Consumer goods", and
"Aircraft". Capital goods ex. aircraft begins at about 245 and generally increases to about 326 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 230 by early 2002, and
generally increases to about 390 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 300 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 315. Industrial supplies begins
at about 125 and generally increases to about 400 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 237 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 278.

Consumer goods begins at about 80 and generally increases to about 165 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 150. Aircraft begins at about
55 and generally decreases to about 47 by early 2000. It then generally increases to end at about 70.

Figure: Selected Imports
Line chart, by billions of dollars, annual rate, 1999 to 2009. There are four series, "Capital goods", "Consumer goods", "Industrial supplies", and "Oil". Capital goods
begins at about 278 and generally increases to about 365 by mid-2000. It then generally decreases to about 275 by late 2001, and generally increases to about
465 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 347 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 365. Consumer goods begins at about 228 and generally
increases to about 498 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 420. Industrial supplies begins at about 140 and generally increases to about 190 by
early 2001. It then generally decreases to about 150 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 350 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 185.
Oil begins at about 45 and generally increases to about 125 by mid-2000. It then generally decreases to about 80 by early 2002, and generally increases to about
528 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 210 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 252.

Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau.

U.S. Exports and Imports of Goods and Services
(Billions of dollars; annual rate, balance of payments basis)

Change 1

Levels
2009
Q2
Exports of goods and services

2009

Q3 e

July

2009

Aug.

Q2

2009

Q3 e

July

Aug.

1471.3 1537.3 1536.0 1538.7

-17.5

66.1

37.4

2.7

984.5 1041.4 1041.2 1041.6

-13.0

56.8

32.6

.4

15.2

-1.5

1.6

.8

2.4

972.2 1027.4 1028.4 1026.4

-11.4

55.2

31.8

-2.0

373.1

378.2

386.1

370.3

-20.7

5.1

9.0

-15.8

Aircraft & parts

73.4

68.8

76.0

61.6

-5.6

-4.6

1.8

-14.4

Computers & accessories

35.5

37.9

39.1

36.6

-1.4

2.4

4.0

-2.5

Goods exports
Gold
Other goods
Capital goods

Semiconductors
Other capital goods

12.3

13.9

12.7

35.0

38.6

38.5

38.8

1.6

3.6

1.6

.2

229.2

232.9

232.5

233.3

-15.3

3.7

1.6

.8

 

 

66.7

84.6

81.6

87.5

-3.4

17.8

16.1

6.0

Ind. supplies (ex. ag., gold)

Automotive

249.8

276.3

272.4

280.3

9.6

26.5

4.6

8.0

Consumer goods

144.2

148.4

149.3

147.6

-1.8

4.3

4.5

-1.7

Agricultural

101.0

100.0

98.8

101.2

6.6

-.9

-4.9

2.4

37.4

39.9

40.3

39.4

-1.7

2.4

6.8

-.8

All other goods
 

 

Services exports
Imports of goods and services
Goods imports
Oil

486.7

495.9

494.8

497.1

-4.6

9.2

4.8

2.4

1803.3 1912.7 1918.2 1907.2

-55.1

109.4

89.7

-11.0

1446.5 1549.4 1554.2 1544.5

-47.2

102.9

85.6

-9.7

18.9

32.2

8.5

-15.4

227.8

Gold
Other goods
Capital goods

260.0

267.7

252.3

8.4

8.9

10.1

7.7

1.1

.5

-1.3

-2.5

1210.3 1280.5 1276.5 1284.6

-67.2

70.2

78.4

8.1

15.1

14.9

-.8

345.6

360.8

361.2

360.4

-20.7

Aircraft & parts

31.4

29.3

33.6

24.9

1.2

-2.2

2.1

-8.7

Computers & accessories

84.4

94.5

95.0

94.1

3.8

10.1

5.9

-.9

Semiconductors

20.4

22.0

21.2

22.8

1.4

1.6

.4

1.6

209.4

215.0

211.4

218.5

-27.1

5.5

6.4

7.1

126.8

168.2

161.2

175.1

-2.6

41.4

28.3

13.9

Other capital goods
 

 

Automotive

Ind. supplies (ex. oil, gold)

178.7

185.2

182.2

188.2

-34.2

6.5

9.4

Consumer goods

6.0

419.1

421.0

425.2

416.7

-4.4

1.8

20.4

-8.5

Foods, feeds, beverages

81.5

81.1

81.9

80.3

-.2

-.3

-.4

-1.6

All other goods

58.6

64.3

64.8

63.8

-5.1

5.7

5.9

-1.0

356.8

363.3

363.9

362.7

-8.0

6.5

4.1

-1.2

 

 

Services imports
Memo:
Oil quantity (mb/d)

11.62

10.99

11.58

10.39

-2.16

-.65

-.08

-1.20

Oil import price ($/bbl)

53.70

64.88

63.26

66.50

12.10

11.16

2.41

3.24

1. Change from previous quarter or month.  Return to table
e Estimate based on average of two months.  Return to table
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau.

Prices of U.S. Imports and Exports
Figure: Merchandise Imports
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Core goods" and "Non-oil goods". Core goods begins at about -1.8 and generally
increases to about 1.8 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -3.8 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 8.7 by mid-2008. It then generally
decreases to about -6.4 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about -4.8. Non-oil goods begins at about -2.7 and generally increases to about 2.2 by early
2001. It then generally decreases to about -5.2 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 7.9 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about -7.3 by
2009, and generally increases to end at about -5.8.

Figure: Categories of Core Imports
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Material-intensive goods" and "Finished goods". Material-intensive goods begins at
about -4.5 and generally increases to about 7 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -10 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 19 by mid2008. It then generally decreases to about -17 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about -13. Finished goods begins at about 0 and generally decreases to
about -1.5 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 4 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -1.

Figure: Oil
Line chart, by dollars per barrel, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Spot West Texas Intermediate" and "Import unit value". Spot West Texas Intermediate begins
at about 12 and generally increases to about 35 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about 20 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 135 by 2008.
It then generally decreases to about 37 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 72. Import unit value begins at about 10 and generally increases to
about 30 by mid-2000. It then generally decreases to about 17 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 127 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 37
by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 72.

Figure: Natural Gas
Line chart, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Import price index", 2000 = 100, and "Spot Henry Hub", which is by dollars per million Btu. Import price index
begins at about 55 and generally decreases to about 50 by 1999. It then generally increases to about 220 by late 2001, and generally decreases to about 60 by
early 2002. It then generally increases to about 275 by late 2005, and generally decreases to about 120 by late 2006. It then generally increases to about 285 by
mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about 75. Spot Henry Hub begins at about 2 and generally increases to about 9 by late 2000. It then generally
decreases to about 2.5 by 2001, and generally increases to about 14.5 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 4 by 2006, generally increases to about 13 by
2008, and generally decreases to end at about 3.5.

Figure: Merchandise Exports
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Core goods" and "Total goods". Core goods begins at about -2 and generally
increases to about 3 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -2.5 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 14 by mid-2008. It then generally
decreases to about -11 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about -7. Total goods begins at about -3 and generally increases to about 2 by early 2000. It
then generally decreases to about -3 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 10 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about -8 by 2009, and
generally increases to end at about -5.5.

Figure: Categories of Core Exports
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Material-intensive goods" and "Finished goods". Material-intensive goods begins at
about -6 and generally increases to about 7 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about -6.5 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 24 by mid-2008. It

then generally decreases to about -22 by mid-2009 and generally increases to end at about -15.2. Finished goods begins at about 0 and generally increases to
about 3.5 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.5.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics; Wall Street Journal; Commodity Research Bureau.

Prices of U.S. Imports and Exports
(Percentage change from previous period)

Annual rate

Monthly rate

2009

2009

Q1

Q2

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

BLS prices
Merchandise imports

14.9

11.7

-.7

1.6

.1

Oil

-72.6 246.9

86.5

-2.5

7.7

-1.1

Non-oil

-10.9

-3.3

1.0

-.2

.3

.4

-11.3

-1.2

2.2

-.2

.4

.7

Core goods1
Finished goods

-24.3

-1.2

-.5

.2

-.0

-.0

.1

Cap. goods ex. comp. & semi.

-.7

-1.4

.4

.1

.0

.0

Automotive products

-.5

.0

1.9

.2

.2

.1

-1.8

-.1

-.9

-.3

-.1

.1

-30.1

-2.9

7.1

-.5

1.3

2.3

-9.6

.8

.8

-1.1

1.3

.4

-35.4

-4.2

8.8

-.3

1.4

2.8

-8.3

-4.2

1.3

.6

.0

.2

Semiconductors

-10.9

7.1

-7.1

-2.1

.5

.0

Natural gas

-61.0

-74.8

-41.0

-8.4

-.1

-16.5

-8.8

2.4

3.5

-.3

.7

-.3

-11.1

2.6

3.8

-.5

.8

-.4

1.6

.4

1.9

.2

.1

.0

3.1

2.5

1.8

.3

.1

.0

.5

-.6

-.7

-.2

.1

.0

-1.2

-3.9

4.3

.5

.2

.1

Material-intensive goods

-24.4

5.3

6.2

-1.3

1.6

-.9

Agricultural products

-12.3

19.6

-7.6

-4.9

.2

-2.8

Industrial supples ex. ag.

-28.4

1.3

11.6

-.1

2.1

-.2

-9.1

-3.4

.9

-.5

.3

2.0

7.4

12.3

5.2

1.2

.1

.1

Consumer goods
Material-intensive goods
Foods, feeds, beverages
Industrial supplies ex. fuels
 

 

Computers

 

 

Merchandise exports
Core goods2
Finished goods
Cap. goods ex. comp. & semi.
Automotive products
Consumer goods

 

 

Computers
Semiconductors

NIPA prices
Chain price index
Imports of goods & services
Non-oil merchandise
Core goods1
Exports of goods & services
Total merchandise
2

-28.3

4.2

n.a.

…

…

…

-10.5

-3.9

n.a.

…

…

…

-9.4

-2.3

n.a.

…

…

…

-12.6

.1

n.a.

…

…

…

-14.8

1.9

n.a.

…

…

…

Core goods

-12.5

2.4

n.a.

…

…

…

1. Excludes computers, semiconductors, and natural gas.  Return to table
2. Excludes computers and semiconductors.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Return to table
NIPA National income and product accounts.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Summary of U.S. International Transactions
(Billions of dollars; not seasonally adjusted except as noted)

2008
2007

2009

2008
Q3

Official financial flows
1. Change in foreign official assets in the U.S. (increase, +)
a. G-10 countries + ECB
b. OPEC
c. All other countries
2. Change in U.S. official assets (decrease, +) 1
Private financial flows

Q4

Q1

Q2

July

Aug.

451.1

-54.6

-108.9

-286.5

313.5

316.1

82.6

32.9

475.2

480.0

117.5

-17.9

70.7

124.6

44.9

20.5

36.8

-8.4

8.9

-16.0

-7.4

15.5

6.6

5.7

33.0

45.5

16.1

-3.4

-5.0

-0.3

-0.5

1.4

405.5

430.0

92.5

-11.4

83.1

117.4

38.8

13.4

-24.1

-534.6

-226.4

-268.7

242.8

191.4

37.7

12.4

212.5

559.7

252.0

374.8

-278.1

-257.8

…

…

-81.7

17.7

-86.7

316.8

-271.4

-200.8

-109.1

10.8

673.9

68.6

-26.4

52.7

-3.8

-8.0

-14.8

-15.6

Banks
3. Change in net foreign positions of banking offices in the U.S. 2
Securities3
4. Foreign net purchases (+) of U.S. securities
a. Treasury securities

67.1

196.4

78.5

81.6

52.4

-22.4

-19.1

-17.9

b. Agency bonds

-8.6

-186.6

-71.8

-21.5

-49.7

-0.3

-1.8

2.2

c. Corporate and municipal bonds

384.7

2.5

-35.4

-3.8

-12.5

-21.0

-17.5

-9.7

d. Corporate stocks 4

230.7

56.4

2.4

-3.6

6.0

35.7

23.5

9.8

5. U.S. net acquisitions (-) of foreign securities

-366.8

45.9

75.9

57.6

-35.2

-91.9

-31.5

-7.1

a. Bonds

-218.5

46.6

61.8

23.1

-33.9

-54.6

-15.9

7.3

b. Stock purchases

-136.4

6.4

14.1

38.8

0.6

-37.3

-15.6

-14.4

-11.9

-7.1

0.0

-4.3

-1.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

-398.6

-332.0

-54.1

-84.5

-40.3

-44.9

…

…

275.8

319.7

62.8

96.8

23.9

26.1

…

…

c. Stock swaps 4
Other flows 5
6. U.S. direct investment (-) abroad
7. Foreign direct investment in the U.S.
8. Net derivatives (inflow, +)

6.2

-28.9

-4.9

-17.7

7.2

11.3

…

…

9. Foreign acquisitions of U.S. currency

-10.7

29.2

5.8

29.9

11.8

-1.9

…

…

10. Other (inflow, +) 6

114.4

439.4

279.7

-76.8

29.6

52.2

…

…

-726.6

-706.1

-184.2

-154.9

-104.5

-98.8

…

…

Capital account balance7

-1.9

1.0

3.0

-0.7

-0.7

-0.7

…

…

Statistical discrepancy 5

64.9

200.1

38.1

67.2

69.8

41.2

…

…

U.S. current account balance5

Note: Data in lines 1 through 5 differ in timing and coverage from the balance of payments data published by the Department of Commerce. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
1. Includes changes in U.S. official reserve assets and in outstanding reciprocal currency swaps with certain foreign central banks.  Return to table
2. Changes in dollar-denominated positions of all depository institutions and bank holding companies plus certain transactions between broker-dealers and unaffiliated foreigners (particularly
borrowing and lending under repurchase agreements). Includes changes in custody liabilities other than U.S. Treasury bills.  Return to table
3. Includes commissions on securities transactions and therefore does not match exactly the data on U.S. international transactions published by the Department of Commerce.  Return to table

4. Includes (4d) or represents (5c) stocks acquired through nonmarket means such as mergers and reincorporations.  Return to table
5. Quarterly data; seasonally adjusted.  Return to table
6. Transactions by nonbanking concerns and other banking and official transactions not shown elsewhere plus amounts resulting from adjustments made by the Department of Commerce and
revisions (in lines 1 through 5 and 8) since publication of the quarterly data in the Survey of Current Business.  Return to table
7. Seasonally adjusted; consists of transactions in nonproduced nonfinancial assets and capital transfers.  Return to table
G-10 Group of Ten (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kindom, United States).  Return to table
ECB European Central Bank.  Return to table
OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.  Return to table
… Not applicable.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; U.S. Treasury International Capital reports with staff adjustments.

Foreign Official Financial Inflows (+) through August 2009
(Billions of dollars; monthly rate, not seasonally adjusted)

Figure: Total
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 28 and generally decreases to
about 18 by mid-2005. It then generally increases to about 65 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 8 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at
about 33. Monthly begins at about 18 and generally decreases to about 3 by early 2005. It then generally increases to about 64 by mid-2006, and generally
decreases to about -19 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 110 by late 2007, and generally decreases to about -10 by 2008. It then generally increases to
about 56 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to end at about 20.

Figure: Treasury Securities
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 16 and generally decreases to
about 8 by mid-2005. It then generally increases to about 20 by late 2006, and generally decreases to about 0 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 56 by
early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 44. Monthly begins at about 10 and generally decreases to about -10 by late 2005. It then generally increases
to about 33 by early 2006, and generally decreases to about -30 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 80 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about
33.

Figure: Long-Term Agency Securities
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 5 and generally increases to
about 28 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 5 by late 2007, and generally increases to about 30 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about -19 by
late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -4. Monthly begins at about 8, and fluctuates but generally increases to about 36 by early 2007. It then
decreases to about -3 by late 2007, increases to about 38 by early 2008, and decreases to about -40 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about -2.

Figure: Foreign Official Balances Held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Daily through October 16, 2009
Line chart, 2007 to 2009. There are two series, "Treasury securities" and "Agency securities". Treasury securities begins at about 1150 and generally increases to
end at about 2060. Agency securities begins at about 600 and generally increases to about 1000 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 750.

Note: Total foreign official inflows consists of net purchases of Treasury securities, long-term agency securities, short-term securities, corporate stocks and bonds,
and bank flows.

Source: U.S. Treasury International Capital reports with staff adjustments and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Private Securities Flows through August 2009
(Billions of dollars; monthly rate, not seasonally adjusted)

Foreign Net Purchases (+) of U.S. Securities
Figure: Total

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 40 and generally increases to
about 92 by 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 0. Monthly begins at about 40 and generally increases to about 58 by 2005. It then generally
decreases to about 8 by 2005, and generally increases to about 150 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about -80 by early 2009, and generally increases to
about 40 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about -19.

Figure: Treasury Securities

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 0 and generally increases to
about 20 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -12 by 2006, and generally increases to about 29 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about -1.
Monthly begins at about 12 and generally increases to about 45 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -39 by early 2006, and generally increases to about
90 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about -19.

Figure: Agency Bonds

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 10 and generally decreases to
about -18 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about -4. Monthly begins at about 10 and generally decreases to about -20 by early 2007. It then generally
increases to about 15 by 2007, and generally decreases to about -45 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 8 by 2009, and generally decreases to end
at about 2.

Figure: Corporate and Municipal Bonds

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 27 and generally decreases to
about 20 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 60 by late 2006, and generally decreases to end at about -8. Monthly begins at about 13 and generally
increases to about 87 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about -7 by mid-2007, and generally increases to about 42 by 2008. It then generally decreases to
about -20 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 33 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about -10.

Figure: Corporate Stocks

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about 10 and generally decreases to
about 5 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 27 by 2005, and generally decreases to about 0 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 13.
Monthly begins at about 12 and generally decreases to about 2 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 44 by 2007, and generally decreases to about -30 by
mid-2007. It then generally increases to about 40 by late 2007, and generally decreases to end at about 10.

Source: U.S. Treasury International Capital reports with staff adjustments.

U.S. Net Acquisitions (-) of Foreign Securities
Figure: Total

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about -12 and generally decreases to
about -45 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 25 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -21. Monthly begins at about -13 and generally
decreases to about -80 by late 2006. It then generally increases to about 30 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to about -35 by mid-2009. It then generally
increases to end at about -7.

Figure: Bonds

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about -10 and generally increases to
about -4 by late 2005. It then generally decreases to about -29 by 2007, and generally increases to about 17 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to about -16
by mid-2009, and generally increases to end at about -10. Monthly begins at about -5 and generally decreases to about -12 by 2005. It then generally increases to
about 13 by 2005, and generally decreases to about -45 by early 2007. It then generally increases to about 32 by 2008, and generally decreases to about -30 by
late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 8.

Figure: Stock Purchases & Swaps

Line chart, 2005 to 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average begins at about -6 and generally decreases to

about -20 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 10 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -10. Monthly begins at about -8 and generally
decreases to about -24 by late 2005. It then generally increases to about 8 by mid-2006, and generally decreases to about -36 by late 2006. It then generally
increases to about 20 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -12.

Source: U.S. Treasury International Capital reports with staff adjustments.

Exchange Value of the Dollar and Stock Market Indexes
Percent change since
September Greenbook

Latest
Exchange rates*
Euro ($/euro)

1.4821

-1.4

Yen (¥/$)

92.040

1.2

Sterling ($/£)

1.6334

0.6

Canadian dollar (C$/$)

1.0644

-1.1

102.1

-0.9

Nominal dollar indexes*^
Broad index
Major Currencies index

73.9

-0.8

133.5

-1.1

DJ Euro Stoxx

265

-0.3

TOPIX

895

-4.0

FTSE 100

5201

3.2

S&P 500

1063

1.0

OITP index
Stock market indexes

* Positive percent change denotes appreciation of U.S. dollar.  Return to table
^ Indexed to 100 in Jan. 1997 for the Broad and OITP indexes and Mar. 1973 for the Major Currencies index.  Return to table

Figure: Exchange Value of the Dollar
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. January 4, 2005 = 100. Data are weekly. There are three series, "Major currencies index", "Euro", and "Yen". Major currencies index
begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 108 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 87 by 2008, and generally increases to about 107 by 2009.
It then generally decreases to end at about 91. Euro begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 114 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 84 by
2008, and generally increases to about 106 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 90. Yen begins at about 100 and generally increases to about
119 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 85 by early 2009, and generally increases to about 97 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 88.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. September 15, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series.
There are three series, "Major currencies index", "Euro", and "Yen". Major currencies index begins at about 101.8 and generally increases to about 105 by June. It
then generally decreases to about 98 by mid-October, and generally increases to end at about 99.5. Euro begins at about 103 and generally increases to about 106
by June. It then generally decreases to about 97.8, and generally increases to end at about 98.8. Yen begins at about 106 and generally decreases to about 105.2
by June. It then generally increases to about 106.5 by June, and generally decreases to about 101.8 by July. It then generally increases to about 107.2 by August,
and generally decreases to about 97.2 by October. It then generally increases to about 101.8 by October, and generally decreases to end at about 100. They are at
about 100 at the time of the October 2009 Greenbook.

Figure: Stock Market Indexes
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. January 4, 2005 = 100. Data are weekly. There are three series, "DJ Euro Stoxx", "TOPIX", and "S&P 500". DJ Euro Stoxx begins at
about 100 and generally increases to about 162 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 65 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 100. TOPIX
begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 150 by 2006. It then generally decreases to about 60 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about
80. S&P 500 begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 130 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 57 by early 2009, and generally increases to
end at about 86.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. September 15, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series.
There are three series, "DJ Euro Stoxx", "TOPIX", and "S&P 500". DJ Euro Stoxx begins at about 88 and generally decreases to about 80 by July. It then generally
increases to about 105 by October, and generally decreases to end at about 98. TOPIX begins at about 97.5 and generally increases to about 102 by June. It then
generally decreases to about 91 by July, and generally increases to about 105 by August. It then generally decreases to about 93 by early October, and generally
increases to end at about 95. S&P 500 begins at about 90 and generally decreases to about 84 by July. It then generally increases to about 105 by October, and

generally decreases to end at about 101. They are at about 100 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Industrial Countries: Nominal and Real Interest Rates
Percent

3-month Libor
Change since
Sep. Greenbook

Latest
Germany

10-year nominal

0.68

-0.04

10-year indexed

Change since
Sep. Greenbook

Latest
3.27

-0.02

Change since
Sep. Greenbook

Latest
1.04

0.02

Japan

0.32

-0.03

1.40

0.08

2.26

-0.05

United Kingdom

0.59

-0.02

3.61

-0.01

0.81

-0.20

Canada

0.50

-0.00

3.49

0.12

…

…

United States

0.28

-0.01

3.49

0.02

1.60

-0.12

… Not applicable.
Libor: London interbank offered rate.  Return to table

Figure: Nominal 10-Year Government Bond Yields
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "Germany", "Japan", and "United States". Germany begins at about 3.6 and
generally decreases to about 3 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 4.7 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to about 2.95 by late 2008. It then generally
increases to end at about 3.4. Japan begins at about 1.4 and generally increases to about 2 by 2006. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by late 2008, and
generally increases to end at about 1.5. United States begins at about 4.3 and generally decreases to about 4 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 5.2 by
2007, and generally decreases to about 2.2 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 3.6.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series,
"Germany", "Japan", and "United States". Germany begins at about 3.7 and generally decreases to about 3.3 by July. It then generally increases to about 3.5 by
August, and generally decreases to end at about 3.35. It is at about 3.4 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Japan begins at about 1.5 and generally
decreases to about 1.3 by early October. It then generally increases to end at about 1.4. It is at about 1.3 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. United
States begins at about 3.7 and generally increases to about 4 by June. It then generally decreases to about 3.4 by July, and generally increases to about 3.9 by
August. It then generally decreases to about 3.3 by early October, and generally increases to end at about 3.5. It is at about 3.4 at the time of the September 2009
Greenbook.

Figure: Inflation-Indexed 10-Year Government Bond Yields
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "France", "Japan", and "United States". France begins at about 1.2 and generally
decreases to about 1 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 2.9 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 0.9. Japan begins at about 0.6 and
generally decreases to about 0.2 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 4.9 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2.4. United States begins
at about 1.7 and generally increases to about 2.8 by mid-2007. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2008, and generally increases to about 3.6 by late
2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.6.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series, "France",
"Japan", and "United States". France begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 1.7 by June. It then generally decreases to about 0.8 by early October,
and generally increases to end at about 1. It is at about 0.9 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Japan begins at about 3.5 and generally decreases to
about 2.1 by early October. It then generally increases to end at about 2.3. It is at about 2.3 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. United States begins at
about 2 and generally increases to about 2.2 by June. It then generally decreases to about 1.5 by October, and generally increases to end at about 1.6. It is at
about 1.7 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Measures of Market Volatility
Figure: Dollar-Euro Options-Implied Volatility
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are two series, "1-month" and "3-month". They begin at about 10 and generally decrease to about 5
by mid-2007. They then generally increase to about 27.5 by 2008, and generally decrease to end at about 11.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. 1-month begins at about 15.6
and generally increases to about 16.2 by early June. It then generally decreases to about 10 by September, and generally increases to end at about 10.9. It is at
about 10.9 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. 3-month begins at about 15.6 and generally increases to about 16.2 by early June. It then generally
decreases to about 10.9 by late September, and generally increases to end at about 11.8. It is at about 12 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Note: Annualized volatility derived from at-the-money options.

Figure: Yen-Dollar Options-Implied Volatility
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are two series, "1-month" and "3-month". They begin at about 10 and generally decrease to about 7
by 2007. 1-month generally increases to about 35 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 14. 3-month generally increases to about 25 by 2008, and
generally decreases to end at about 14.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are two series, "1-month"
and "3-month". 1-month begins at about 15.3 and generally increases to about 15.8 by early June. It then generally decreases to about 13.0 by early July, and
generally increases to about 16.0 by July. It then generally decreases to about 12.6 by September, and generally increases to about 14.5 by late September. It
then generally decreases to about 13.2 by October, and generally increases to end at about 13.45. It is at about 13.8 at the time of the September 2009
Greenbook. 3-month begins at about 15.0 and generally increases to about 15.3 by early June. It then generally decreases to about 13.25 by late June, and
generally increases to about 15.4 by July. It then generally decreases to about 13.4 by September, and generally increases to end at about 13.8. It is at about 14.1
at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.
Note: Annualized volatility derived from at-the-money options.

Figure: Realized Stock Market Volatility
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "DJ Euro Stoxx", "TOPIX", and "S&P 500". DJ Euro Stoxx begins at about 10 and
generally increases to about 22 by 2006. It then generally decreases to about 10 by late 2006, and generally increases to about 62 by late 2008. It then generally
decreases to end at about 20. TOPIX begins at about 15 and generally decreases to about 10 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 38 by early 2008, and
generally decreases to about 22 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 64 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 20. S&P 500 begins at
about 10 and remains about constant until 2006. It then generally increases to about 73 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 18.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series, "DJ Euro
Stoxx", "TOPIX", and "S&P 500". DJ Euro Stoxx begins at about 30 and generally decreases to about 18 by late September. It then generally increases to end at
about 19. It is at about 20 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. TOPIX begins at about 30 and generally decreases to about 18 by August. It then
generally increases to end at about 19. It is at about 19 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. S&P 500 begins at about 35 and generally decreases to
end at about 16.It is at about 18 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.
Note: Annualized standard deviation of 60-day window of daily returns.

Figure: Realized 10-Year Bond Volatility
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "Germany", "Japan", and "United States". Germany begins at about 4 and generally
increases to about 5 by mid-2006. It then generally decreases to about 3 by early 2007, and generally increases to about 10 by 2009. It then generally decreases
to end at about 6. Japan begins at about 4 and generally decreases to about 3.2 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 5.8 by 2006, and generally
decreases to about 3 by mid-2007. It then generally increases to about 6.5 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2.5. United States begins at
about 6 and generally decreases to about 4 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 16.1 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 9.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series,
"Germany", "Japan", and "United States". Germany begins at about 9, generally decreases to about 6 by early September, and remains about constant until the
end. It is at about 6 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Japan begins at about 3.4, generally decreases to about 2.5 by late August, and remains about
constant until the end. It is at about 2.5 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. United States begins at about 13 and generally decreases to about 11.8 by
June. It then generally increases to about 13.8 by August, and generally decreases to end at about 9. It is at about 10.5 at the time of the September 2009
Greenbook.
Note: Annualized standard deviation of 60-day window of daily returns.

Emerging Markets: Exchange Rates and Stock Market Indexes
Exchange value of the dollar

Stock market index

Percent change since
Latest

Percent change since
Latest

Sep. Greenbook*
Mexico
Brazil
Venezuela

Sep. Greenbook

13.2300

-0.8

29313

-1.1

1.7308

-4.2

63161

6.6

2.14

0.0

50100

-6.9

China

6.8292

0.0

3021

-0.4

Hong Kong

7.7495

-0.0

22170

6.2

Korea

1190.0

-2.3

1650

-0.2

Taiwan

32.46

-0.3

7657

4.2

Thailand

33.41

-1.4

715

1.6

* Positive percent change denotes appreciation of U.S. dollar.  Return to table

Figure: Exchange Value of the Dollar
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. January 4, 2005 = 100. Data are weekly. There are four series, "Mexico", "Brazil", "Korea", and "China". Mexico begins at about 104 and
generally decreases to about 90 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 138 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 116. Brazil begins at about
104 and generally decreases to about 60 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 91 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 65. Korea
begins at about 104 and generally decreases to about 88 by late 2007. It then generally increases to about 150 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at
about 113. China begins at about 104 and generally decreases to about 80 by mid-2008. It then remains about constant until the end.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. September 15, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series.
There are four series, "Mexico", "Brazil", "Korea", and "China". Mexico begins at about 99.5 and generally increases to about 102.8 by June. It then generally
decreases to about 98 by late June, and generally increases to about 104 by July. It then generally decreases to about 96 by August, and generally increases to
about 102.5 by early October. It then generally decreases to end at about 96. It is at about 100 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Brazil begins at
about 102.5 and generally increases to about 112.5 by July. It then generally decreases to about 94 by October, and generally increases to end at about 99. It is at
about 100 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Korea begins at about 101 and generally increases to about 107.6 by July. It then generally decreases to
about 100 by early August, and generally increases to about 102.5 by late August. It then generally decreases to about 95 by October, and generally increases to
end at about 98. It is at about 100 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. China begins at about 100 and remains about constant until the end. It is at
about 100 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Figure: Stock Market Indexes
Line chart, 2005 to 2009. January 4, 2005 = 100. Data are weekly. There are four series, "Mexico", "Brazil", "Korea" and "Hong Kong". Mexico begins at about 90
and generally increases to about 250 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 128 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 225. Brazil begins
at about 90 and generally increases to about 285 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 128 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 250.
Korea begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 230 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 115 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at
about 235. Hong Kong begins at about 100 and generally increases to about 220 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about 80 by early 2009, and generally
increases to end at about 152.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. September 15, 2009 = 100. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series.
There are four series, "Mexico", "Brazil", "Korea" and "Hong Kong". Mexico begins at about 86 and generally decreases to about 78 by June. It then generally
increases to about 106 by October, and generally decreases to end at about 100. Brazil begins at about 93 and generally decreases to about 84 by July. It then
generally increases to about 116 by October, and generally decreases to end at about 107. Korea begins at about 93 and generally decreases to about 83 by late
June. It then generally increases to about 106 by September, and generally decreases to end at about 98. Hong Kong begins at about 92 and generally decreases
to about 84 by July. It then generally increases to about 104 by September, and generally decreases to about 99 by early October. It then generally increases to
about 109 by October and generally decreases to end at about 105. They are at about 102 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Emerging Markets: Short-Term Interest Rates and Dollar-Denominated Bond Spreads
Percent

Short-term interest rates*
Change since
Sep. Greenbook

Latest
Mexico
Brazil

Dollar-denominated bond spreads**

4.53

Change since
Sep. Greenbook

Latest
0.04

2.10

0.31

8.60

-0.40

2.40

0.16

11.94

-0.50

6.75

-0.72

China

…

…

0.80

-0.06

Korea

2.10

0.00

…

…

Taiwan

1.11

-0.02

…

…

Singapore

0.31

0.00

…

…

Hong Kong

0.07

-0.07

…

…

Argentina

* One-month interest rate except 1-week rate for Korea. (No reliable short-term interest rate exists for China.)  Return to table
** EMBI+ Spreads or EMBI Global Spreads over similar-maturity U.S. Treasury securities.  Return to table
… Not applicable. Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have no outstanding dollar-denominated sovereign bonds.  Return to table

Figure: EMBI+ Spreads
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "Overall", "Mexico", and "Brazil". Overall begins at about 3.6 and generally
decreases to about 1.3 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 8 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 3.1. Mexico begins at about 1.5 and
generally decreases to about 0.8 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 5.9 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2. Brazil begins at about 4
and generally increases to about 4.8 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about 1.5 by 2007, and generally increases to about 5.8 by 2008. It then generally
decreases to end at about 2.2.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series, "Overall",
"Mexico", and "Brazil". Overall begins at about 4.4 and generally decreases to about 4 by June. It then generally increases to about 4.7 by June, and generally
decreases to about 2.9 by October. It then generally increases to end at about 3.3. It is at about 3.3 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Mexico begins
at about 2 and generally increases to about 2.9 by July. It then generally decreases to about 1.8 by August, and generally increases to end at about 2.5 by late
August. It then generally decreases to about 1.8 by September, and generally increases to end at about 2.1. It is at about 1.8 at the time of the September 2009
Greenbook. Brazil begins at about 2.8 and generally increases to about 3.1 by June. It then generally decreases to about 2.1 by September, and generally
increases to end at about 2.4. It is at about 2.2 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Figure: EMBI Global Spreads
Line chart, by percent, 2005 to 2009. Data are weekly. There are three series, "China", "Malaysia", and "Indonesia". China begins at about 1 and remains about
constant until mid-2007. It then generally increases to about 3 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 1. Malaysia begins at about 1.2 and remains
about constant until mid-2007. It then generally increases to about 5 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 1.8. Indonesia begins at about 2.5 and
generally decreases to about 2 by 2005. It then generally increases to about 3 by 2005, and generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2007. It then generally increases
to about 10.2 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2.5.

There is a second line chart, June to October 2009. Data are daily. The September 2009 Greenbook is marked in the time series. There are three series, "China",
"Malaysia", and "Indonesia". China begins at about 1 and generally decreases to about 0.5 by June. It then generally increases to about 1.6 by July, and generally
decreases to end at about 0.9. It is at about 1 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Malaysia begins at about 2 and generally decreases to about 1.2 by
early August. It then generally increases to end at about 1.7. It is at about 1.7 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook. Indonesia begins at about 4.1 and
generally decreases to about 3.6 by June. It then generally increases to about 4.7 by June, and generally decreases to about 2.3 by October. It then generally
increases to end at about 2.8. It is at about 2.9 at the time of the September 2009 Greenbook.

Advanced Foreign Economies
Figure: Average Real Gross Domestic Product
Line chart, by annualized percent change, s.a., 1999 to 2009. Data are quarterly. The series begins at about 3.6 and generally increases to about 5.5 by early
2000. It then generally decreases to about -5 by 2001, and generally increases to about 3.8 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to about -8 by early 2009,
and generally increases to end at about -1.5.
Note: Chain weighted by moving bilateral shares in U.S. merchandise exports.
Source: FRB staff calculations.

Figure: Consumer Prices
Line chart, by 12-month percent change, s.a., 1999 to 2009. Data are monthly. There are four series, "Japan", "Euro area", "Canada", and "United Kingdom".
Japan begins at about 0.2 and generally decreases to about -1.5 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 0.9 by 2004, and generally decreases to about
-1.3 by late 2005. It then generally increases to about 2.4 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about -2.3. Euro area begins at about 0.8 and generally
increases to about 3 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2006, and generally increases to about 4 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at
about -0.2. Canada begins at about 0.8 and generally increases to about 4 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 0.7 by late 2001, and generally increases
to about 4.6 by early 2003. It then generally decreases to about 0.8 by 2006, and generally increases to about 3.4 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at
about -0.9. United Kingdom begins at about 1.6 and generally decreases to about 0.6 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 5.2 by 2008, and generally
decreases to end at about 1.1.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Official or Targeted Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 1999 to 2009. There are four series, "Japan", "Euro area", "Canada", and "United Kingdom". Japan begins at about 0.3 and generally
decreases to about 0 by early 2001. It remains about constant until mid-2006, and generally increases to about 0.5 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to
end at about 0.1. Euro area begins at about 3 and generally decreases to about 2.5 by 1999. It then generally increases to about 4.8 by 2000, and generally
decreases to about 2 by 2003. It remains about constant until about late 2005, and generally increases to about 4.3 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to
end at about 1. Canada begins at about 5 and generally decreases to about 4.5 by 1999. It then generally increases to about 5.7 by 2000, and generally decreases
to about 2 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 3.3 by 2003, and generally decreases to about 2 by 2004. It then generally increases to about 4.5 by
mid-2007, and generally decreases to end at about 0.2. United Kingdom begins at about 6 and generally decreases to about 5 by 1999. It then generally increases
to about 6 by early 2000, and generally decreases to about 3.5 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 5.8 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to end
at about 0.6.

Source: Bloomberg.

Japanese Real GDP
(Percent change from previous period except as noted, s.a.a.r.)

Component

2008

2007 1 2008 1
Q3

GDP

2009
Q4

Q1

Q2

-12.8

-12.4

2.3

1.9

-4.5

-5.1

Total domestic demand

.5

-1.8

-4.6

-1.9

-9.1

-4.0

Consumption

.3

-.2

.5

-2.9

-4.6

3.0

Private investment

-1.9

-8.8

-14.0

-20.7

-28.6

-20.7

Public investment

-4.3

-4.7

6.4

8.8

10.5

33.6

3.2

.1

-.7

5.5

.4

-1.3

.3

.1

-2.0

2.2

-1.2

-2.8

Exports

9.8

-12.9

-2.9

-44.2

-63.9

28.1

Imports

1.4

2.6

.7

10.3

-47.7

-18.9

Net exports 2

1.3

-2.3

-.6

-9.5

-5.9

5.1

Government consumption
Inventories2

1. Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Percentage point contribution to GDP growth.  Return to table
Source: Haver Analytics.

Japan
Figure: Economic Activity
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. 2005 = 100. There are two series, "Industrial production" and "Tertiary services". Industrial production begins at about 96 and generally
increases to about 103 by late 2000. It then generally decreases to about 87 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 110 by early 2008. It then generally
decreases to about 68 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 84. Tertiary services begins at about 94 and generally decreases to about 93 by
2000. It then generally increases to about 104 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to end at about 97.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Real Trade
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. 2005 = 100. There are two series, "Real exports" and "Real imports". Real exports begins at about 75 and generally increases to about
82 by mid-2000. It then generally decreases to about 67 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 134 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 77
by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 102. Real imports begins at about 80 and generally increases to about 110 by early 2007. It then generally
decreases to about 82 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 98.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Labor Market
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Unemployment rate", which is by percent, and "Job openings to applications", which is a ratio. These two series
use two different scales. Unemployment rate begins at about 4.7 and generally increases to about 5.6 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 3.55 by mid2007, and generally increases to about 5.8 by mid-2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 5.5. Job openings to applications begins at about 0.51 and
generally increases to about 0.65 by early 2001. It then generally decreases to about 0.5 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 1.08 by early 2007. It
then generally decreases to end at about 0.42.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Consumer Price Inflation
Line chart, by percent, 12-month basis, n.s.a., 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Consumer price inflation" and "Core". Consumer price inflation begins at about
-0.7 and generally decreases to about -1.6 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 2.4 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about -2.3. Core
begins at about -0.4 and generally decreases to about -1.2 by early 2001. It then generally increases to about 0 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about
-0.9.

Note: Core excludes all food and energy; staff calculations.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period except as noted; seasonally adjusted)

2009

2009

Indicator
Q1

Q2

-10.6

-15.7

--

-1.2

-.5

-9.9

-4.9

--

9.7

-9.3

.5

n.a.

-1.9

.9

--

.2

.3

.2

n.a.

New car registrations

-12.0

14.4

19.0

7.4

10.9

-.0

3.1

Business sentiment 2

-46.0

-45.0

-38.0

…

…

…

…

-1.8

-5.5

-8.3

-6.7

-8.5

-8.5

-7.9

Housing starts
Machinery orders

1

Household expenditures

Wholesale prices

3

Q3

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

-9.3

n.a.

1. Private sector, excluding ships and electric power.  Return to table
2. Tankan survey, diffusion index. Level.  Return to table
3. Percent change from year earlier; not seasonally adjusted.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Euro-Area Real GDP
(Percent change from previous period except as noted, s.a.a.r.)

Component

2008

2007 1 2008 1
Q3

2009
Q4

Q1

Q2

GDP

2.2

-1.8

-1.5

-7.1

-9.6

-.7

Total domestic demand

1.9

-.4

.8

-2.5

-7.3

-3.0

Consumption

1.2

-.7

.0

-1.8

-2.1

.3

Investment

3.2

-5.5

-5.7

-13.3

-19.8

-6.0

Government consumption

2.0

2.4

2.1

2.4

2.6

3.0

.1

.6

1.4

.7

-2.5

-2.4

Exports

4.1

-6.6

-3.8

-25.3

-32.0

-6.0

Imports

3.4

-3.7

1.1

-17.1

-27.9

-11.3

.3

-1.4

-2.2

-4.6

-2.3

2.3

1.1

Inventories2

Net exports 2

Memo: GDP of selected countries
France

2.1

-1.7

-1.1

-5.7

-5.4

Germany

1.6

-1.8

-1.3

-9.4

-13.4

1.3

.1

-2.9

-3.1

-8.1

-10.4

-2.0

Italy
1. Q4/Q4.  Return to table

2. Percentage point contribution to GDP growth.  Return to table
Source: Haver Analytics.

Euro Area
Figure: Nominal Exports and Imports
Line chart, by billions of U.S. dollars, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Exports" and "Imports". These two series track closely together throughout the chart.
They begin at about 75 and generally increase to about 220 by 2008. They then generally decrease to about 130 by early 2009, and generally increase to end at
about 145.

Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Economic Sentiment
Line chart, by percent balance, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Consumer confidence" and "Industrial confidence". Consumer confidence begins at about 0
and generally increases to about 3 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about -22 by early 2003, and generally increases to about 0 by 2007. It then generally
decreases to about -35 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about -19. Industrial confidence begins at about 0 and generally increases to about 6 by
2000. It then generally decreases to about -17 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 16 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about -38 by early 2009,
and generally increases to end at about -24.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Unemployment Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to 2009. The series begins at about 8.6 and generally decreases to about 7.8 by late 2000. It then generally increases to about 9.0 by
early 2005, and generally decreases to about 7.1 by early 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 9.65.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Consumer Price Inflation
Line chart, by percent, 12-month basis, n.s.a., 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Consumer price inflation" and "Core". Consumer price inflation begins at about
1.9 and generally increases to about 3.3 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.6 by early 2004, and generally increases to about 4.2 by 2008. It then
generally decreases to about -0.9 by mid-2009, and generally increases to end at about -0.3. Core begins at about 1 and generally decreases to about 0.9 by
2000. It then generally increases to about 2.4 by early 2002, and generally decreases to end at about 1.3.
Note: Core excludes all food and energy; staff calculations.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period except as noted; seasonally adjusted)

2009

2009

Indicator
Q1
Industrial production
Retail sales volume

1

2

New car registrations

Q2

Q3

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

-8.6

-1.1

--

.9

.2

1.1

n.a.

-.8

-.3

--

.0

-.2

-.2

n.a.

Producer prices 3
M33

.9

12.2

1.4

2.1

-2.0

1.0

-.9

-.7

-.5

--

…

…

…

…

-2.0

-5.2

--

-5.9

-7.6

-6.8

n.a.

6.5

Employment

4.7

2.8

4.2

3.5

3.0

2.0

1. Excludes construction.  Return to table
2. Excludes motor vehicles.  Return to table
3. Eurostat harmonized definition. Percent change from year earlier.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
M3 Manufacturers' shipments, inventories, and orders.  Return to table
Source: Haver Analytics.

U.K. Real GDP
(Percent change from previous period except as noted, s.a.a.r.)

Component

2007 1 2008 1

2008
Q4

2009
Q1

Q2

Q3

GDP

2.4

-2.0

-6.9

-9.6

-2.3

-1.6

Total domestic demand

3.1

-3.3

-8.7

-9.9

-3.2

n.a.

Consumption

2.2

-.8

-4.7

-6.0

-2.6

n.a.

Investment

4.9

Government consumption

1.2

3.1

4.0

.3

2.4

n.a.

.6

-1.9

-5.3

-1.5

1.3

n.a.

Exports

3.4

-3.5

-15.2

-25.5

-5.5

n.a.

Imports

5.6

-8.0

-20.2

-25.2

-8.4

n.a.

Net exports 2

-.8

1.5

2.1

.6

1.0

n.a.

Inventories2

-8.7

-8.4

-26.2

-19.3

n.a.

1. Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Percentage point contribution to GDP growth.  Return to table
Source: Haver Analytics.

United Kingdom
Figure: Consumer Price Inflation
Line chart, by percent, 12-month basis, n.s.a., 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Consumer price inflation" and "Core". Consumer price inflation begins at about
0.8 and generally decreases to about 0.5 by 2000. It then generally increases to about 5.3 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 1. Core begins at
about -0.1 and generally decreases to about -0.4 by mid-2000. It then generally increases to about 1.8 by mid-2008, generally decreases to about 0.6 by late 2008,
and generally increases to end at about 1.7.
Note: Core excludes all food and energy; staff calculations.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Unemployment Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Labor Force Survey" and "Claimant count". Labor Force Survey begins at about 5.8 and generally
decreases to about 4.8 by mid-2004. It then generally increases to end at about 8. Claimant count begins at about 3.8 and generally decreases to about 2.4 by
early 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 5.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Purchasing Managers Survey
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. 50+ = expansion. There are two series, "Services" and "Manufacturing". Services begins at about 57 and generally increases to about
58.5 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 46 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 61 by late 2006. It then generally decreases to about 40 by
late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 55. Manufacturing begins at about 52 and generally decreases to about 45.5 by late 2001. It then generally
increases to about 56 by 2004, and generally decreases to about 35 by late 2008. It then generally increases to about 51 by mid-2009, and decreases to end at
about 50.
Source: Reuters.

Figure: Labor Costs
Line chart, by percent, 12-month basis, 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Unit wage costs" and "Average earnings". Unit wage costs begins at about -0.5 and
generally decreases to about -3 by early 2000. It then generally increases to about 5 by 2002, and generally decreases to about -6 by 2003. It then generally
increases to about 12 by early 2009, and generally decreases to about 2 by mid-2009. It then increases to end at about 4.5. Average earnings begins at about 6
and generally decreases to about 3 by late 2008. It then decreases to about -2 by early 2009, increases back to about 3 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to
end at about 2.
Note: Unit wage costs for manufacturing industries. Average earnings for whole economy, including bonuses.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period except as noted; seasonally adjusted)

2009

2009

Indicator
Q1
Producer input prices
Industrial production
Business confidence 2
Consumer confidence

Q3

.7

-8.9

-8.8 -12.2

-5.1

1

Q2

-.5

Aug. Sept.

Oct.

-7.7

-6.5

n.a.

.6

-2.5

n.a.

n.a.

-7.0 -14.0

-5.0

-2.0

4.0

-31.0 -19.9 -14.1 -16.0 -16.2

-10.1

n.a.

-45.0 -22.0
2

July

--

Trade balance 3
Current account

-10.5 -13.3

--

-4.3

-3.8

n.a.

n.a.

-5.9 -17.7

3

--

…

…

…

…

1. Percent change from year earlier.  Return to table
2. Percent balance.  Return to table
3. Level in billions of U.S. dollars.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: Haver Analytics; FRB staff calculations.

Canadian Real GDP
(Percent change from previous period except as noted, s.a.a.r.)

Component

2008

2007 1 2008 1
Q3

GDP

2009
Q4

Q1

2.8

-1.0

.4

-3.7

-6.1

Q2
-3.4

Total domestic demand

6.6

-1.1

.6

-6.1

-10.9

-.0

Consumption

5.4

.2

.6

-3.1

-1.2

1.8

Investment

4.5

-3.6

.6

-14.8

-22.8

-5.6

Government consumption

3.7

3.1

-.0

2.5

2.1

3.2

Inventories2

1.7

-1.1

.1

-1.2

-5.1

-.4

Exports

-1.5

-7.3

-4.1

-17.7

-30.4

-19.3

Imports

8.5

-7.7

-3.4

-23.4

-38.9

-8.5

-4.2

.7

-.4

2.2

4.1

-3.4

Net exports 2
1. Q4/Q4.  Return to table

2. Percentage point contribution to GDP growth.  Return to table
Source: Haver Analytics.

Canada
Figure: Real Gross Domestic Product by Industry
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2000 to 2009. The series begins at about 7.7 and generally decreases to about 0.3 by 2001. It then generally
increases to about 4.5 by 2004, and generally decreases to end at about -4.7.
Note: Constructed from various Statistics Canada surveys and supplements to the quarterly income and expenditure-based estimates.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Real Trade
Line chart, 2000 to 2009. Index, 2002 = 100. There are two series, "Real exports" and "Real imports". Real exports begins at about 100, and fluctuates between
about 90 and 110 but generally increases until about late 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 80. Real imports begins at about 100, dips to about 95
by late 2001, generally increases to about 145 by mid-2008, decreases to about 107 by early 2009, and increases to end at about 119.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Unemployment Rate
Line chart, by percent, 2000 to 2009. The series begins at about 6.72 and generally increases to about 8.0 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to about 5.8
by early 2008, and generally increases to about 8.7 by mid-2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 8.4.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Figure: Consumer Price Inflation

Line chart, by percent, 12-month basis, n.s.a., 2000 to 2009. There are two series, "Consumer price inflation" and "Core". Consumer price inflation begins at about
2.2 and generally increases to about 4.1 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 0.6 by late 2001, and generally increases to about 0.6 by early 2004. It then
generally increases to about 3.6 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about -0.8. Core begins at about 1.4 and generally increases to about 4.3 by late
2002. It then generally decreases to about 0.9 by 2004, and generally increases to about 2.4 by mid-2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 0.7.
Note: Core excludes all food and energy; staff calculations.
Source: Haver Analytics.

Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period and seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009

2009

Indicator
Q1
Industrial production

Q2

Q3

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

-5.2

-4.7

--

-.7

-.4

n.a.

n.a.

-12.0

-1.1

--

18.9

-16.0

7.9

n.a.

Retail sales

-1.1

.4

--

.4

-.1

.4

n.a.

Employment

-1.4

-.4

-.2

-.0

-.3

.2

.2

Wholesale sales

-7.3

.7

--

1.2

2.3

-.8

n.a.

Ivey PMI 1

41.5

53.4

56.4

58.2

51.8

55.7

61.7

New manufacturing orders

1. PMI Purchasing managers index. Not seasonally adjusted. 50+ indicates expansion.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
Source: Haver Analytics; Bank for International Settlements.

Chinese Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
Indicator

2007

2008
Q2

Real GDP

1

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

12.3

Merch. trade balance

3

18.5

9.8

…

…

…

1.8

4.4

5.4

-.7

1.7

1.3

6.5

Consumer prices 2

6.9

19.5

Industrial production

1.2

-1.5

-1.3

-1.8

-1.2

-.8

262.7

298.1

142.7

100.9

69.6

133.8

99.3

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Quarterly data estimated by staff from reported 4-quarter growth rates. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year-earlier period, except annual data, which are Dec./Dec.  Return to table
3. Billions of U.S. dollars, annualized. Imports are valued at cost, insurance, and freight.  Return to table
… Not applicable.
Source: CEIC.

Indian Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
Indicator

2007

2008
Q2

1

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

9.3

5.8

7.3

n.a.

…

…

…

Industrial production

9.9

4.4

3.5

n.a.

-.6

1.8

n.a.

Consumer prices 2

5.5

9.7

8.2

n.a.

10.9

10.7

n.a.

3.8

6.2

.5

-.2

-.7

-.3

.5

-79.2 -121.9

-60.2

n.a.

-76.4

-93.6

n.a.

-11.3

-23.2

n.a.

…

…

…

Real GDP

Wholesale prices

2

Merch. trade balance
Current account

4

3

-36.1

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year-earlier period, except annual data, which are Dec./Dec.  Return to table

3. Billions of U.S. dollars, annualized.  Return to table
4. Billions of U.S. dollars, not seasonally adjusted, annualized.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: CEIC.

China and India
Figure: Industrial Production
Line chart, 2003 to 2009. January 2000 = 100. There are two series, "China" and "India". China begins at about 140 and generally increases to about 330 by 2008.
It then generally decreases to about 300 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 373. India begins at about 114 and generally increases to end at
about 190.
Source: CEIC.

Figure: Consumer Prices
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "China" and "India". China begins at about 0.3 and generally increases to
about 5.3 by mid-2004. It then generally decreases to about 0.8 by early 2006, and generally increases to about 9 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to
about -1.9 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about -0.7. India begins at about 3.5 and generally increases to about 5.2 by 2003. It then generally
decreases to about 2.3 by 2004, and generally increases to about 10.5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to about 7.5 by 2009, and generally increases to end
at about 10.9.
Source: China Statistic and Consultancy Service Center; CEIC.

Figure: Merchandise Trade Balances
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2003 to 2009. Data are 3-month moving averages (n.s.a.). There are two series, "China" and "India". China begins at about 3 and
generally decreases to about 0 by 2004. It then generally increases to about 44 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 9. India begins at about -1
and generally decreases to about -14 by 2008. It then generally increases to about -4 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -6.
Source: China Statistic and Consultancy Service Center; CEIC.

Figure: Benchmark Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "China" and "India". China begins at about 5.4 and generally increases to about 7.5 by late 2007. It
then generally decreases to end at about 5.4. India begins at about 5.5 and generally increases to about 7.6 by early 2003. It then generally decreases to about
4.5 by 2003, and generally increases to about 9 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 4.7.
Source: Bloomberg; CEIC.

Figure: Gross External Debt
Line chart, by percent of gross domestic product, 2003 to 2009. The India series begins at about 22 and generally decreases to about 17 by 2006. It then generally
increases to about 23 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 22.
Source: Bank for International Settlements; Haver Analytics.

Figure: Short-Term External Debt
Line chart, by percent of reserves, 2003 to 2009. The India series begins at about 6.5 and generally increases to about 7.5 by 2003. It then generally decreases to
about 4 by early 2004, and generally increases to end at about 20.5.
Source: Bank for International Settlements; CEIC.

Economic Indicators for Newly Industrialized Economies: Growth
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
2007

2008
Q2

Q3

July

Aug. Sept.

Real GDP 1
Hong Kong

7.1

-2.7

13.9

n.a.

…

…

…

Korea

5.7

-3.4

11.0

12.3

…

…

…

Singapore

5.8

-4.0

20.7

n.a.

…

…

…

Taiwan

6.5

-8.5

11.8

n.a.

…

…

…

-1.5

-6.6

-.3

n.a.

…

…

…

Korea

7.0

3.0

11.4

n.a.

2.1

-1.3

n.a.

Singapore

5.9

-4.2

15.4

8.0

26.2

-5.7

-13.9

Taiwan

7.8

-1.8

17.3

6.8

.9

-.2

6.5

Industrial production
Hong Kong

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: CEIC; Reuters.

Economic Indicators for Newly Industrialized Economies: Merchandise Trade Balance
(Billions of U.S. dollars; seasonally adjusted, annualized)

2009
2007

2008
Q2

Hong Kong

Q3

July

Aug. Sept.

-23.5 -25.9 -15.5 -39.3 -39.9 -33.7

-44.3

Korea

28.2

6.0

68.0

n.a.

61.0

55.4

n.a.

Singapore

36.2

18.4

26.8

21.9

33.6

30.1

1.9

Taiwan

16.8

4.4

21.7

24.4

23.0

27.9

22.3

n.a. Not available.
Source: CEIC.

Economic Indicators for Newly Industrialized Economies: Consumer Price Inflation
(Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year earlier except as noted)

2009

2007 1 2008 1
Q2
Hong Kong

3.8

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

2.1

-.1

-.9

-1.5

-1.6

.5

Korea

3.6

4.1

2.8

2.0

1.6

2.2

2.2

Singapore

4.4

4.3

-.5

-.4

-.5

-.3

-.4

Taiwan

3.3

1.3

-.8

-1.3

-2.3

-.8

-.9

1. Dec./Dec.  Return to table
Source: CEIC.

Newly Industrialized Economies
Figure: Industrial Production
Line chart, 2003 to 2009. January 2000 = 100. There are four series, "Korea", "Singapore", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan". Korea begins at about 115 and generally
decreases to about 112 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 173 by early 2008, and generally decreases to about 134 by late 2008. It then generally
increases to about 172 by mid-2009, and generally decreases to end at about 170. Singapore begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 90 by early
2003. It then generally increases to about 180 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to about 114 by 2009. It then generally increases to about 165 by mid-2009,
and generally decreases to end at about 134. Hong Kong begins at about 78 and generally increases to about 85 by mid-2005. It then generally decreases to end
at about 73. Taiwan begins at about 104 and generally increases to about 151 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 96 by early 2009, and generally

increases to end at about 134.
Source: CEIC.

Figure: Consumer Prices
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2003 to 2009. There are four series, "Korea", "Singapore", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan". Korea begins at about 4
and generally increases to about 5.7 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about 2 by 2007, and generally increases to about 6 by mid-2008. It then generally
decreases to about 1.5 by 2009, and generally increases to end at about 2. Singapore begins at about 0.4 and generally increases to about 2.4 by 2004. It then
generally decreases to about -0.2 by 2005, and generally increases to about 7.6 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about -0.4. Hong Kong begins at
about -1.6 and generally decreases to about -4 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 6.5 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to about -2.7 by 2009.
It then generally increases to end at about 0.5. Taiwan begins at about 1 and generally decreases to about -2 by early 2003. It then generally increases to about
3.8 by mid-2004, and generally decreases to about -1.2 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 6 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to about -1.6 by
2009. It then generally increases to end at about -0.9.
Source: CEIC; Bank of Korea; Reuters.

Figure: Merchandise Trade Balances
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2003 to 2009. Data are 3-month moving averages (n.s.a.). There are four series, "Korea", "Singapore", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan".
Korea begins at about 1 and generally decreases to about 0.8 by early 2003. It then generally increases to about 3.6 by early 2005, and generally decreases to
about -1.1 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 6.3 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 5. Singapore begins at about 1.6 and generally
increases to about 3.4 by late 2006. It then generally decreases to about 0.7 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 2.4 by 2009. It then generally
decreases to end at about 1.9. Hong Kong begins at about -0.5 and generally decreases to about -1.8 by 2004. It then generally increases to about -0.6 by late
2004, and generally decreases to about -3.1 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about -0.6 by early 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -3.3.
Taiwan begins at about 1.4 and generally increases to about 1.7 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about -0.4 by late 2004, and generally increases to about
2.7 by 2007. It then generally decreases to about -0.1 by 2008, and generally increases to about 2.3 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.
Source: CEIC.

Figure: Benchmark Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2003 to 2009. There are three series, "Korea", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan". Korea begins at about 4.3 and generally decreases to about 3.2
by late 2004. It then generally increases to about 5.2 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2. Hong Kong begins at about 2.8 and generally decreases
to about 2.6 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 6.8 by 2006, and generally decreases to end at about 0.6. Taiwan begins at about 1.7 and generally
decreases to about 1.3 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 3.7 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 1.2.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: Gross External Debt
Line chart, by percent of gross domestic product, 2003 to 2009. There are three series, "Korea", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan". Korea begins at about 25 and remains
about constant until 2006. It then generally increases to about 50 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 49. Hong Kong begins at about 215 and
generally increases to about 330 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 300. Taiwan begins at about 20 and generally increases to about 30 by
2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 25.
Source: Bank for International Settlements.

Figure: Short-Term External Debt
Line chart, by percent of reserves, 2003 to 2009. There are three series, "Korea", "Hong Kong", and "Taiwan". Korea begins at about 45 and generally decreases to
about 30 by 2004. It then generally increases to about 78 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to end at about 65. Hong Kong begins at about 195 and generally
increases to about 355 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 230. Taiwan begins at about 25 and generally increases to about 35 by mid-2006.
It then generally decreases to end at about 25.
Source: Bank for International Settlements.

ASEAN-4 Economic Indicators: Growth
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
Indicator

2007 2008
Q1

Real GDP

Q2

June July

Aug.

1

Indonesia

5.8

Malaysia

7.2

5.3

4.4

4.5

…

…

…

.1 -17.6

14.5

…

…

…

Philippines

6.4

2.9

-8.3

9.8

…

…

…

Thailand

5.9

-4.2

-7.2

9.6

…

…

…

Industrial production 2
Indonesia 3

5.6

3.0

1.9

-.6

-2.9

-1.6

4.4

Malaysia

2.1

.5

-4.5

2.0

.2

5.7

-1.4

.3 -20.3

12.4

.1

1.8

-1.5

9.6

2.3

1.8

-3.6

Philippines
Thailand

-2.7
8.2

5.3

-8.7

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Annual data are annual averages.  Return to table
3. Staff estimate.  Return to table
Note: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
… Not applicable.
Source: CEIC.

ASEAN-4 Economic Indicators: Merchandise Trade Balance
(Billions of U.S. dollars; seasonally adjusted, annualized)

2009
Indicator

2007 2008
Q1

Q2

June July

Aug.

Indonesia

39.6

31.6

29.8

36.9

34.1

31.8

35.9

Malaysia

29.2

42.7

38.1

30.8

31.1

29.9

30.3

Philippines

-5.0

-7.7

-8.7

-5.0

-6.3

-7.0

.4

Thailand

12.8

.1

32.6

22.6

12.2

11.8

26.7

Note: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Source: CEIC; Bank of Thailand; Philippines Economic Indicators Telegram (PEIT); Monetary Authority of Singapore.

ASEAN-4 Economic Indicators: Consumer Price Inflation
(Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year earlier except as noted)

Indicator

2009

2007 1 2008 1
Q2

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

Indonesia

5.8

11.1

5.6

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.8

Malaysia

2.4

4.4

1.3

-2.3

-2.4

-2.4

-2.0

Philippines

3.9

8.0

3.2

.3

.2

.1

.7

Thailand

3.2

.4

-2.8

-2.2

-4.4

-1.0

-1.0

1. Dec./Dec.  Return to table
Note: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Source: CEIC; IMF International Financial Statistics database.

ASEAN-4
Figure: Industrial Production
Line chart, 2003 to 2009. January 2000 = 100. There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and "Thailand". Indonesia begins at about 138 and
generally increases to about 170 by 2004. It then generally decreases to about 130 by late 2005, and generally increases to end at about 165. Malaysia begins at
about 112 and generally increases to about 162.5 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 130 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about
139. Philippines begins at about 100 and generally decreases to about 60 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at about 75. Thailand begins at about
136 and generally increases to about 212 by early 2008. It then generally decreases to about 164 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 195 by mid-2009.
It then generally decreases to end at about 187.

Source: CEIC; Bank of Philippines.

Figure: Consumer Prices
Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2003 to 2009. There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and "Thailand". Indonesia begins at
about 8 and generally decreases to about 4.5 by early 2004. It then generally increases to about 18 by late 2005, and generally decreases to about 5 by late 2006.
It then generally increases to about 12 by 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 2.8. Malaysia begins at about 2 and generally decreases to about 1 by
2003. It then generally increases to about 5 by 2006, and generally decreases to about 2 by early 2007. It then generally increases to about 8.5 by mid-2008, and
generally decreases to end at about -2. Philippines begins at about 3 and generally increases to about 8 by late 2004. It then generally decreases to about 2 by
early 2007, and generally increases to about 12.5 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to about 0 by mid-2009, and generally increases to end at about 0.8.
Thailand begins at about 2.5 and generally decreases to about 1 by late 2003. It then generally increases to about 6.5 by late 2005, and generally decreases to
about 1 by mid-2007. It then generally increases to about 9.5 by mid-2008, and generally decreases to about -4.8 by 2009. It then generally increases to end at
about -1.
Source: IMF International Financial Statistics; CEIC.

Figure: Merchandise Trade Balances
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2003 to 2009. Data are 3-month moving averages (n.s.a.). There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and
"Thailand". Indonesia begins at about 2 and generally increases to about 3.8 by late 2006. It then generally decreases to about 2.1 by late 2008, and generally
increases to about 3.2 by 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.8. Malaysia begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 4.7 by mid-2008. It
then generally decreases to end at about 2.7. Philippines begins at about -0.5 and generally increases to about -0.1 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to
about -0.9 by early 2008, and generally increases to end at about -0.3. Thailand begins at about 0.2 and generally increases to about 0.8 by 2003. It then generally
decreases to about -1.2 by 2005, and generally increases to about 1.3 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to about -1.3 by late 2008, and generally increases
to about 2.9 by early 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.4.
Source: CEIC; Philippines Economic Indicators Telegram (PEIT); Bank of Thailand Monthly Statistical Release.

Figure: Benchmark Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2003 to 2009. There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and "Thailand". Indonesia begins at about 12.8 and generally
decreases to about 7.5 by early 2004. It then generally increases to about 12.5 by late 2005, and generally decreases to end at about 7. Malaysia begins at about
7.5 and remains about constant until late 2005. It then generally increases to about 3.5 by 2006, and generally decreases to end at about 2.2. Philippines begins at
about 7.2 and generally decreases to about 7 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 7.5 by 2005, and generally decreases to end at about 4. Thailand
begins at about 2.3 and generally decreases to about 1.5 by mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 5 by mid-2006, and generally decreases to end at
about 1.5.
Source: Bloomberg; Haver Analytics.

Figure: Gross External Debt
Line chart, by percent of Gross Domestic Product, 2003 to 2009. There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and "Thailand". Indonesia begins at
about 57 and generally decreases to about 25 by mid-2008. It then generally increases to about 33 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 30.
Malaysia begins at about 44 and generally increases to about 50 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about 30 by late 2007, and generally increases to end at
about 44. Philippines begins at about 75 and generally decreases to about 30 by late 2007. It then generally increases to about 37 by early 2009, and generally
decreases to end at about 33. Thailand begins at about 40 and generally decreases to about 22 by late 2007. It then generally increases to end at about 25.
Note: ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Source: CEIC; Bank for International Settlements.

Figure: Short-Term External Debt
Line chart, by percent of reserves, 2003 to 2009. There are four series, "Indonesia", "Malaysia", "Philippines" and "Thailand". Indonesia begins at about 48 and
generally decreases to about 38 by early 2004. It then generally increases to about 62 by 2005, and generally decreases to about 15 by 2006. It then generally
increases to about 42 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 34. Malaysia begins at about 30 and generally increases to about 32 by 2003. It then
generally decreases to about 19 by early 2007, and generally increases to end at about 34. Philippines begins at about 48 and generally decreases to about 45 by
late 2003. It then generally increases to about 57 by early 2004, and generally decreases to about 20 by early 2008. It then generally increases to about 27 by
2008, and generally decreases to end at about 17. Thailand begins at about 37 and generally decreases to about 20 by 2004. It then generally increases to about
29 by mid-2006, and generally decreases to end at about 16.
Source: Bank for International Settlements.

Mexican Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
Indicator

2007

2008

Q2
Real GDP

1

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

3.7

-1.7

-4.4

n.a.

…

…

…

Overall economic activity

3.1

1.0

-1.3

n.a.

2.5

n.a.

n.a.

Industrial production

2.4

-.9

-1.2

n.a.

2.8

-.2

n.a.

Unemployment rate2

3.7

4.0

5.7

5.9

5.7

5.9

6.1

3

3.8

6.5

6.0

5.1

5.4

5.1

4.9

4

-10.1

-17.3

-4.8

-9.6

-12.8

-9.6

-6.4

4

281.9

308.6

218.6

232.0

228.4

230.6

237.1

Merchandise exports 4

271.9

291.3

213.7

222.4

215.6

221.0

230.7

-8.2

-15.7

2.2

n.a.

…

…

…

Consumer prices

Merch. trade balance
Merchandise imports

Current account

5

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Percent; counts as unemployed those working 1 hour a week or less.  Return to table
3. Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year-earlier period, except annual data, which are Dec./Dec.  Return to table
4. Billions of U.S. dollars, annualized.  Return to table
5. Billions of U.S. dollars, not seasonally adjusted, annualized.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: Haver Analytics; Bank of Mexico.

Brazilian Economic Indicators
(Percent change from previous period, seasonally adjusted, except as noted)

2009
Indicator

2007

2008
Q2

Q3

July

Aug.

Sept.

Real GDP 1

6.1

1.2

7.8

n.a.

…

…

…

Industrial production

6.0

3.1

3.8

n.a.

2.2

1.2

n.a.

Unemployment rate2

9.3

7.9

8.2

7.9

8.0

8.0

7.7

4.5

5.9

5.2

4.4

4.5

4.4

4.3

40.0

25.0

43.2

21.6

23.4

32.0

9.6

1.6

-28.2

-8.5

-19.2

-20.0

-9.9

-27.7

Consumer prices

3

Merch. trade balance

4

Current account 5

1. Gross domestic product. Annual rate. Annual data are Q4/Q4.  Return to table
2. Percent.  Return to table
3. Non-seasonally adjusted percent change from year-earlier period, except annual data, which are Dec./Dec. Price index is IPCA.  Return to table
4. Billions of U.S. dollars, annualized.  Return to table
5. Billions of U.S. dollars, not seasonally adjusted, annualized.  Return to table
n.a. Not available.
… Not applicable.
Source: Haver Analytics; IMF International Financial Statistics database; Intituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica.

Latin America
Figure: Industrial Production
Line chart, 2003 to 2009. January 2000 = 100. There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 107 and generally decreases to about 105 by
mid-2003. It then generally increases to about 144 by 2008, and generally decreases to about 113 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 129.
Mexico begins at about 115 and generally decreases to end at about 114.
Source: Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Lationamericanas; Haver Analytics.

Figure: Consumer Prices

Line chart, by percent change from year earlier, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 14.8 and generally increases to
about 17.5 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about 3 by late 2006, and generally increases to about 6.5 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about
4.5. Mexico begins at about 5.2 and generally decreases to about 3 by late 2005. It then generally increases to about 7 by late 2008, and generally decreases to
end at about 5.
Source: IMF International Financial Statistics; Getulio Vargas Foundation; Haver Analytics; Bank of Mexico.

Figure: Merchandise Trade Balances
Line chart, by billions of dollars, 2003 to 2009. Data are 3-month moving averages (n.s.a.). There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 1.6
and generally increases to about 4.3 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2008, and generally increases to about 3.6 by 2009. It then
generally decreases to end at about 2.1. Mexico begins at about -0.2 and generally increases to about 0 by 2003. It then generally decreases to about -1.4 by
early 2005, and generally increases to about 0.3 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to about -2.1 by late 2008, and generally increases to about -0.4 by
2009. It then generally decreases to end at about -0.8.
Source: IMF International Financial Statistics, Bank of Mexico.

Figure: Benchmark Interest Rates
Line chart, by percent, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 25.5 and generally increases to about 26 by 2003. It then
generally decreases to about 16 by 2004, and generally increases to about 20 by 2005. It then generally decreases to end at about 9. Mexico begins at about 9
and generally decreases to about 4 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 10 by 2005, and generally decreases to end at about 4.9.
Source: Bloomberg.

Figure: Gross External Debt
Line chart, by percent of gross domestic product, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 187.5 and generally decreases
to about 48 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 62 by late 2008, and generally decreases to end at about 58. Mexico begins at about 25 and generally
decreases to about 20 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 25.
Source: Haver Analytics; Bank for International Settlements.

Figure: Short-Term External Debt
Line chart, by percent of reserves, 2003 to 2009. There are two series, "Brazil" and "Mexico". Brazil begins at about 81 and generally decreases to about 24 by late
2006. It then generally increases to about 33 by early 2007, and generally decreases to end at about 17. Mexico begins at about 48 and generally decreases to
about 24 by 2006. It then generally increases to end at about 31.
Source: Bank for International Settlements.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015

Accessible Material
November 2009 Greenbook Supplement Tables and Charts†
Supplemental Notes
The Domestic Nonfinancial Economy
Real Gross Domestic Product and Related Items
(Percent change from previous period at a compound annual rate; based on seasonally
adjusted data, chain-type quantity indexes)

2009:Q1
Third

Item
Gross Domestic Product

2009:Q2
Third

2009:Q3
Advance

-6.4

Goods

.7

2.5

.6

Consumer spending

3.5

-4.1

Final sales

-.7

-.9

3.4

2.5

-3.1

8.1

Durables

3.9

-5.6

22.3

Nondurables

1.9

-1.9

2.0

Services

-.3

Equipment and software

1.2

-9.6

-2.5

-43.6

Nonresidential structures

.2

-39.2

Business fixed investment

-17.3

-9.0

-36.4

State and local government

1.1

-23.3

23.4

-4.3

Federal government

-4.9

-38.2

Residential investment

11.4

7.9

-1.5

3.9

-1.1

Exports of goods and services

-29.9

-4.1

14.7

Imports of goods and services

-36.4

-14.7

16.4

Inventory investment 1

-113.9

-160.2

-130.8

Net exports of goods and services 1

-386.5

-330.4

-348.3

-4.6

-.8

4.3

-5.9

-2.6

n.a.

185.4

249.8

n.a.

59.1

43.8

n.a.

8.3

8.6

n.a.

.2

3.8

-3.4

3.7

4.9

3.3

ADDENDA:

Nominal GDP
Nominal GDI
Statistical discrepancy

2

Change in economic profits

2

Profit share 3
Real disposable personal income
Personal saving rate (percent)

1. Level, billions of chained (2005) dollars.  Return to table
2. Billions of dollars.  Return to table
3. Economic profits as a share of GNP.  Return to table
n.a. not available.  Return to table
Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Output per Hour
(Percent change from preceding period at an annual rate; seasonally adjusted)

Sector

2007:Q3
to

2008:Q3
to

2008

2009
1

2008:Q3

2009:Q3 1

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3 

Nonfarm business
All persons

1.2

3.8

.8

.3

7.0

7.5

.8

All employees 2

3.7

-1.0

1.1

7.7

7.2

1. Staff estimates.  Return to table
2. Assumes that the growth rate of hours of non-employees equals the growth rate of hours of employees.  Return to table
Source: For output, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; for hours, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Real Personal Consumption Expenditures
(Percent change from preceding comparable period)

2009
Category

Q1

2009

Q2

Q3

July

Aug.

Annual rate
Total real PCE

Sept.

Monthly rate

.6

-.9

3.4

.2

1.0

-.6

Motor vehicles

9.5

-6.3

69.1

6.4

19.7

-23.0

Goods ex. motor vehicles

2.0

-2.8

3.9

.0

1.2

.3

Services

-.3

.2

1.2

.0

.2

.1

-.2

.7

1.3

.1

.2

.1

1.3

-2.5

3.2

.0

.9

.3

1.9

-2.8

1.7

-.2

.7

.5

Ex. energy
Memo:
Real PCE control 1
Nominal retail control

2

1. Durables excluding motor vehicles, nondurables excluding gasoline, and food services.  Return to table
2. Total sales less outlays at building material and supply stores, automobile and other motor vehicle dealers, and gasoline stations.  Return to table
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Change in Real PCE Goods

Line chart showing 6-month moving average, by percent, 1991 to September 2009. The series begins at about -0.52 and generally increases to about 0.72 by early
1999. It then generally decreases to -0.62 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about -0.0. It is at about 0.2 at the time of the NBER peak.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2006 to September 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average
begins at about 0.4 and generally decreases to about 0.2 by 2006. It then generally increases to about 0.4 by late 2006, and generally decreases to about -0.55 by
late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 0. Monthly begins at about 1.4 and generally decreases to about -2.0 by 2008. It then generally increases to
about 2.8 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about -2.0.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Change in Real PCE Services

Line chart showing 6-month moving average, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. The series begins at about 0.38 and generally decreases to about -0.07 by
early 1991. It then generally increases to about 0.5 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -0.09 by 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 0.09. It is
at about -0.09 at the time of the NBER peak.

There is a second line chart, by percent, 2006 to September 2009. There are two series, "6-month moving average" and "Monthly". 6-month moving average
begins at about 0.18 and generally increases to about 0.3 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to about -0.1 by 2008, and generally increases to end at
about 0.09. Monthly begins at about 0.12 and generally increases to about 0.55 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to about -0.35 by 2008, and generally
increases to about 0.26 by late 2008. It then generally decreases to about -0.12 by 2009, and generally increases to about 0.23 by 2009. It then generally
decreases to end at about 1.2.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Fundamentals of Household Spending
Figure: Household Net Worth and Dow Jones Total Market Index

Line chart, 1999 to 2009. There are two series, "Ratio of household net worth to DPI" and "Total Market Index". These two series use two different scales. Ratio of
household net worth to DPI begins at about 5.75 and generally increases to about 6.18 by late 1999. It then generally decreases to about 5.0 by 2002, and
generally increases to about 6.4 by early 2006. It then generally decreases to about 4.5 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 4.9 by 2009:Q3.
Total Market Index begins at about 11500 and generally increases to about 14500 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 7650 by 2002, and generally
increases to about 15500 by late 2007. It then generally decreases to about 7600 by early 2009, and generally increases to end at about 1100 by October 29,
2009.
Note: For the ratio of household net worth to DPI, the value for 2004:Q4 excludes the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in December 2004.
Source: Federal Reserve Board; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Wall Street Journal.

Figure: Change in Real Disposable Personal Income

Line chart, by 12-month percent change, 1999 to September 2009. The series begins at about 4.5 and generally decreases to about 2 by 1999. It then generally
increases to about 6 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -0.4 by early 2008. It then generally increases to about 4.9 by 2008, and generally decreases to
about -1.9. It then generally increases to end at about 1.
Note: Values for December 2004 and December 2005 exclude the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in December 2004.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Personal Saving Rate

Line chart, by percent, 1999 to September 2009. The series begins at about 4.5 and generally decreases to about 1.9 by 1999. It then generally increases to about
4.8 by 2001, and generally decreases to about 1.7 by 2008. It then generally increases to about 5.9 by 2009, and generally decreases to end at about 3.3.
Note: The value for December 2004 excludes the effect on income of the one-time Microsoft dividend in that month.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Target Federal Funds Rate and 10-Year Treasury Yield

Line chart, by percent, 1999 to October 29, 2009. There are two series, "Treasury yield" and "Federal funds rate". Treasury yield begins at about 4.7 and generally
increases to about 6.8 by late 1999. It then generally decreases to about 3.4 by 2003, and generally increases to about 5.2 by 2006. It then generally decreases to
about 2.1 by late 2008, and generally increases to end at about 3.5. Federal funds rate begins at about 4.8 and generally increases to about 6.5 by 2000. It then
generally decreases to about 1 by 2003, and generally increases to about 5.3 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 0.1.
Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Figure: Consumer Confidence

Line chart, 1990 to October 2009. There are two series, "Reuters/Michigan" (index, 1966 = 100) and "Conference Board" (index, 1985 = 100). These two series
use two different scales. Reuters/Michigan begins at about 93.5 and generally decreases to about 64 by 1990. It then generally increases to about 112 by early
2000, and generally decreases to about 55 by late 2008. It then generally increases to end at about 71. It is at about 76 at the time of the NBER peak. Conference
Board begins at about 108 and generally decreases to about 47 by early 1992. It then generally increases to about 145 by early 2000, and generally decreases to
about 60 by 2003. It then generally increases to about 112 by mid-2007, and generally decreases to about 26 by early 2009. It then generally increases to end at
about 48. It is at about 89 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: Shaded bars indicate periods of business recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER): July 1990-March 1991, and March 2001-November 2001. A vertical
line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the NBER.
Source: Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers; Conference Board.

Price Measures
(Percent change)

12-month change
Sept. 2008 Sept. 2009

1-month change

Annual rate

Measures

3-month change

Monthly rate

June 2009 Sept. 2009 Aug. 2009 Sept. 2009
CPI
Total

4.9

Food
Energy
Ex. food and energy
Core goods
Core services

-1.3

3.3

2.5

.4

.2

6.2

-.2

-1.5

-1.1

.1

-.1

23.1

-21.6

22.1

21.1

4.6

.6

2.5

1.5

2.4

1.3

.1

.2

.5

1.6

4.1

.9

-.3

.3

3.2

1.5

1.8

1.4

.2

.1

Shelter

2.4

.7

1.4

-.1

.1

.1

Other services

4.5

2.6

2.1

4.0

.4

.3

Memo: core ex. tobacco

2.4

1.2

2.0

1.1

.1

.2

4.2

-1.4

…

…

…

…

2.0

1.1

…

…

…

…

4.1

-.5

2.8

2.0

.3

.1

7.0

-1.4

-2.8

-2.8

.1

-.4

24.5

-22.6

26.9

23.6

5.1

.8

 

 

Chained CPI (n.s.a.) 1
Ex. food and energy 1
PCE prices
Total
Food and bev. at home
Energy
Ex. food and energy

2.5

1.3

2.0

1.3

.1

.1

.6

1.3

2.7

.0

-.2

.3

3.2

1.3

1.8

1.7

.2

.1

Housing services

2.7

1.4

1.4

-.4

.1

-.1

Other services

3.3

1.3

2.0

2.4

.2

.1

Memo: core ex. tobacco

2.5

1.0

1.7

1.2

.1

.1

Core market-based

2.6

1.6

2.0

1.1

.1

.1

Core non-market-based

2.1

-.7

2.6

2.4

.1

.2

8.8

-4.8

9.0

1.2

1.7

-.6

7.8

-4.2

4.4

-4.9

.4

-.1

23.4

-22.1

40.8

12.0

8.0

-2.4

4.0

1.8

2.1

.0

.2

-.1

Core consumer goods

4.2

2.2

2.4

.0

.1

-.1

Capital equipment

3.6

1.2

1.3

.0

.3

-.1

Intermediate materials

15.3

-11.7

6.8

7.2

1.8

.2

Ex. food and energy

11.8

-7.5

-2.1

7.2

.6

.9

24.2

-31.5

54.4

-11.3

3.8

-2.1

16.4

-19.7

37.3

63.3

6.0

3.6

Core goods
Core services

 

 

PPI
Total finished goods
Food
Energy
Ex. food and energy

 

 

Crude materials
Ex. food and energy

1. Higher-frequency figures are not applicable for data that are not seasonally adjusted (n.s.a.).  Return to table
… Not applicable.  Return to table
Source: For consumer price index (CPI) and producer price index (PPI), U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for personal consumption expenditures (PCE), U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Consumer Prices
Figure: PCE Prices

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Total PCE" and "Core PCE". Total PCE begins at about 2.3 and generally increases to
about 3 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 0.7 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 4.5 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at
about -0.5. Core PCE begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 2.6 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally increases
to about 2.7 by 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Measures of Core PCE

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are three series, "PCE excluding food and energy", "Market-based components" and "Trimmed mean". PCE
excluding food and energy begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 2.5 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally
increases to about 2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3. Market-based components begins at about 1.2 and generally increases to
about 1.9 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.2 by 2003, and generally increases to about 2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about
1.6. Trimmed mean begins at about 2 and generally increases to about 2.6 by 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.8 by late 2003, and generally increases
to about 3 by early 2007. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.5.
Source: For trimmed mean, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas; for all else, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: CPI and PCE ex. Food and Energy

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are three series, "CPI", "PCE", and "CPI chained". CPI begins at about 2 and generally increases to about
2.9 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to about 1 by late 2003, and generally increases to about 3 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.5.
PCE begins at about 1.5 and generally increases to about 2 by mid-2001. It then generally decreases to about 1.1 by 2001, and generally increases to about 2.7
by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3. CPI chained begins at about 1.9 and generally increases to about 2.2 by early 2002. It then generally
decreases to about 0.8 by late 2003, and generally increases to about 2.7 by 2006. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.
Source: For CPI, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for PCE, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: PCE Goods and Services

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Services ex. energy" and "Goods ex. food and energy". Services ex. energy begins at
about 2.7 and generally increases to about 4.1 by 2002. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.3. Goods ex. food and energy begins at about -1 and
generally increases to about 0 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about -2.5 by 2003, and generally increases to end at about 1.5.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: Total PCE

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "Total PCE" and "3-month change, annual rate". Total PCE begins at about 2 and generally
increases to about 3 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to about 1 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 4.5 by mid-2008. It then generally
decreases to end at about -1. 3-month change, annual rate begins at about 3 and generally increases to about 4.5 by early 2000. It then generally decreases to
about -1.8 by 2001, and generally increases to about 8 by 2005. It then generally decreases to about -8 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 4 by mid2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Figure: PCE excluding Food and Energy

Line chart, by percent, 2000 to September 2009. There are two series, "PCE excluding Food and Energy" and "3-month change, annual rate". PCE excluding Food
and Energy begins at about 1.6 and generally increases to about 2.6 by 2002. It then generally decreases to about 1.4 by 2003, and generally increases to about
2.7 by mid-2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.4. 3-month change, annual rate begins at about 2.2 and generally increases to about 2.8 by early
2000. It then generally decreases to about -1.1 by 2001, and generally increases to about 3.9 by late 2001. It then generally decreases to about 0.9 by early 2003,
and generally increases to about 3.3 by early 2005. It then generally decreases to about 0.2 by late 2008, and generally increases to about 2.2 by early 2009. It
then generally decreases to end at about 1.4.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Broad Measures of Inflation
(Percent change, Q3 to Q3)

Measure
Product prices

2006

2007

2008

2009

GDP price index

3.3

2.6

2.5

.7

3.3

2.6

2.7

.3

3.0

2.1

1.9

.8

3.4

2.6

4.0

-.8

3.2

2.6

2.9

.2

2.8

2.3

4.3

-.6

2.5

2.2

2.6

1.3

2.9

2.0

4.6

-.6

2.5

1.9

2.6

1.7

3.3

2.3

5.2

-1.6

2.8

2.1

2.5

1.5

3.1

2.0

4.5

-1.6

2.6

1.7

2.1

1.1

Median CPI

3.0

2.9

3.2

1.7

Trimmed mean CPI

2.8

2.5

3.6

1.1

Trimmed mean PCE

2.8

2.5

2.9

1.6

Less food and energy
Nonfarm business chain price index
Expenditure prices
Gross domestic purchases price index
Less food and energy
PCE price index
Less food and energy
PCE price index, market-based components
Less food and energy
CPI
Less food and energy
Chained CPI
Less food and energy

Source: For CPI, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for median and trimmed mean CPI, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland; for all else, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of
Economic Analysis.

Surveys of Inflation Expectations
(Percent)

Reuters/Michigan Survey
Period

Actual
CPI
inflation1

1 year2
Mean

Professional
forecasters
(10 years) 4

5 to 10 years 3
Median

Mean

Median

CPI

PCE

2007: Q4

4.0

4.1

3.3

3.3

2.9

2.4

2.1

2008: Q1

4.1

4.2

3.8

3.3

3.0

2.5

2.2

Q2

4.4

6.4

5.0

3.8

3.3

2.5

2.2

Q3

5.3

5.4

4.7

3.6

3.1

2.5

2.2

Q4

1.6

3.0

2.8

2.9

2.8

2.5

2.2

2009: Q1

.0

2.4

2.0

3.3

2.9

2.4

2.2

Q2

-1.2

3.4

2.9

3.1

2.9

2.5

2.3

Q3

-1.6

3.1

2.6

3.2

2.9

2.5

2.2

-1.4

3.9

3.1

3.2

3.0

…

…

July

-2.1

3.6

2.9

3.4

3.0

…

…

Aug.

-1.5

3.0

2.8

3.1

2.8

2.5

2.2

Sept.  

-1.3

2.8

2.2

3.2

2.8

…

…

Oct.

n.a.

3.2

2.9

3.2

2.9

…

…

2009: June

1. Percent change from the same period in the preceding year.  Return to table
2. Responses to the question, By about what percent do you expect prices to go up, on average, during the next 12 months?  Return to table
3. Responses to the question, By about what percent per year do you expect prices to go up, on average, during the next 5 to 10 years?  Return to table
4. Median CPI and PCE price projections.  Return to table
… Not applicable.
n.a. Not available.
Source: For CPI, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; for Reuters/Michigan Survey, Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers; for professional forecasters, the Federal
Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

Hourly Compensation and Unit Labor Costs

(Percent change from preceding period at compound annual rate; based on seasonally adjusted data)

Category

2007:Q3
to
2008:Q3

2008:Q3
to
2009:Q3e

2008

2009

Q4

Q2 e

Q1

Q3 e

Compensation per hour
Nonfarm business

3.1

.1

2.9

-4.7

.4

1.9

1.2

3.8

.8

.3

7.0

7.2

1.9

-3.6

2.0

-5.0

-6.2

-5.0

Output per hour
Nonfarm business
Unit labor costs
Nonfarm business
e Staff estimate.  Return to table
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Compensation per Hour

Line chart, by percent change from year-earlier period, 1996 to 2009:Q3. There are two series, "Productivity and costs" and "ECI". Productivity and costs begins at
about 3 and generally increases to about 8.4 by 2000. It then generally decreases to about 2.8 by early 2002, and generally increases to about 5.8 by late 2003. It
then generally decreases to end at about 0. ECI begins at about 2.8 and generally increases to about 4.7 by 2000. It then generally decreases to end at about 1.1.
Note: Productivity and costs value for 2009:Q3 is a staff estimate.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Unit Labor Costs

Line chart, by percent change from year-earlier period, 1996 to 2009:Q3. The series begins at about 1 and generally decreases to about 0.5 by 1996. It then
generally increases to about 4.9 by early 2000, and generally decreases to about -3.4 by early 2002. It then generally increases to about 3.7 by early 2007, and
generally decreases to end at about -3.7.
Note: Value for 2009:Q3 is a staff estimate.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Average Hourly Earnings

Line chart, by percent change from year-earlier period, 1996 to September 2009. The series begins at about 3.25 and generally decreases to about 3.0 by early
1996. It then generally increases to about 4.4 by early 1998, and generally decreases to about 1.5 by early 2004. It then generally increases to about 4.3 by late
2006, and generally decreases to end at about 2.5.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Markup, Nonfarm Business

Line chart showing nonfarm business markup, 1996 to 2009:Q3. The markup is the ratio of output price to unit labor costs. The series begins at about 1.61 and
generally increases to about 1.63 by 1997. It then generally decreases to about 1.53 by early 2001, and generally increases to end at about 1.745. A horizontal line
plots the average, 1968-present, at approximately 1.58.
Note: Value for 2009:Q3 is a staff estimate.
Source: For output price, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; for unit labor costs, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Change in Employment Cost Index of Hourly Compensation for Private-Industry Workers
2008

2009

Measure
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Quarterly change
(compound annual rate) 1
Total hourly compensation
Wages and salaries

2.6

1.9

.7

.7

1.8

2.6

1.8

.7

.7

1.8

Benefits

2.3

1.5

.7

.7

1.1

1.5

1.2

12-month change
Total hourly compensation

2.8

2.4

1.9

Wages and salaries

2.9

2.6

2.0

1.6

1.4

Benefits

2.4

2.0

1.6

1.3

1.1

1. Seasonally adjusted.  Return to table
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Change in ECI Benefits (unpublished)*

(Private-industry workers; 12-month change)

Figure: Health Insurance

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. The series begins at about 12 and generally decreases to about 0 by 1995. It then generally increases to about
11.5 by 2002, and generally decreases to end at about 4.8.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Nonproduction Bonuses

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. The series begins at about 14 and generally decreases to about -9 by early 1999. It then generally increases to
about 12 by 2000, and generally decreases to about -7.5 by 2002. It then generally increases to about 10 by late 2005, and generally decreases to end at about 7.6.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Retirement and Savings

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. The series begins at about 5 and generally decreases to about 2 by early 1991. It then generally increases to
about 26.5 by late 2004, and generally decreases to about -5 by 2007. It then generally increases to about 7.5 by early 2008, and generally decreases to end at
about -2.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Figure: Workers' Compensation Insurance

Line chart, by percent, 1990 to September 2009. The series begins at about 12 and generally decreases to about -6.5 by early 1998. It then generally increases to
about 13 by early 2003, and generally decreases to end at about -1.5.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

* The data on the costs of individual benefits should be interpreted with care because, with the exception of health insurance, they do not meet BLS's standard
publication criteria.  Return to text

The Domestic Financial Economy
Commercial Bank Credit
(Percent change, annual rate, except as noted; seasonally adjusted)

Type of credit
Total

2007
10.0

2008
4.9

H2
2008
4.6

H1
2009
-5.8

July
2009
-7.1

Aug.
2009
-6.9

Sept.
2009
-12.5

Oct.
2009e
-10.8

Level1
Oct. 2009e
9,049

Loans2
Total

10.8

4.6

3.1

-7.2

-16.4

-15.3

-18.3

-15.6

6,708

9.6

5.2

3.4

-4.4

-8.8

-12.6

-17.9

-14.4

5,964

19.0

16.3

14.0

-13.9

-15.7

-26.5

-31.9

-28.5

1,378

9.4

6.0

3.2

-1.6

-5.5

-6.8

-9.2

-10.3

1,663

5.5

-3.0

-5.2

-1.4

-8.0

-11.3

-21.1

-14.0

2,074

Revolving home equity

5.6

13.0

12.8

6.6

-6.5

-5.3

-5.7

-4.2

601

Closed-end mortgages

5.5

-7.9

-11.1

-4.4

-8.6

-13.7

-27.1

-17.9

1,473

6.8

7.1

7.6

.0

-5.2

-3.0

-3.2

-.6

848

6.5

5.6

4.5

-1.7

-2.3

-7.4

-5.7

-2.0

1,243

18.7

.7

1.3

-25.4

-72.4

-35.8

-22.0

-25.1

743

Core
To businesses
Commercial and industrial
Commercial real estate
To households
Residential real estate

Consumer
Memo: Originated 3
Other
Securities
Total

7.7

6.0

9.8

-1.0

22.1

18.7

4.9

3.2

2,341

Treasury and agency

-5.4

15.0

29.0

-1.7

48.3

33.4

11.9

6.6

1,407

Other 4

28.1

-4.2

-12.0

.1

-13.6

-2.3

-5.5

-2.1

934

Note: Yearly annual rates are Q4 to Q4; quarterly and monthly annual rates use corresponding average levels. Data have been adjusted to remove the effects of mark-to-market accounting rules
(FAS 115) and the initial consolidation of certain variable interest entities (FIN 46). Data also account for the effects of nonbank structure activity of $5 billion or more.
1. Billions of dollars. Pro rata averages of weekly (Wednesday) levels.  Return to table
2. Excludes interbank loans.  Return to table
3. Includes an estimate of outstanding loans securitized by commercial banks that retained recourse or servicing rights.  Return to table
4. Includes private mortgage-backed securities; securities of corporations, state and local governments, and foreign governments; and any trading account securities that are not Treasury or
agency securities.  Return to table
e Estimated.  Return to table
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Total Loans at Commercial Banks

Line chart, by billions of dollars, June 2007 to October 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Large" and "Small". Large begins at about 3800 and
generally increases to about 4200 by October 2008. It then generally decreases to end at about 3720. It is at about 4050 at the time of the NBER peak. Small
begins at about 2280 and generally increases to about 2600 by March 2009. It then generally decreases to end at about 2500. It is at about 2400 at the time of the
NBER peak.
Note: A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Large
domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as the top 25 domestically chartered commercial banks, ranked by domestic assets as of the previous commercial bank Call Report to which
the H.8 release data have been benchmarked. Small domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as all domestically chartered commercial banks not included in the top 25.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Figure: Allowance for Loan Losses at Commercial Banks

Line chart, by billions of dollars, June 2007 to October 2009. Data are monthly. There are two series, "Large" and "Small". Large begins at about 43 and generally
increases to end at about 140. It is at about 50 at the time of the NBER peak. Small begins at about 25 and generally increases to end at about 57. It is at about
30 at the time of the NBER peak.
Note: A vertical line indicates the NBER Peak in December 2007. The NBER peak is the last business cycle peak as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Large
domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as the top 25 domestically chartered commercial banks, ranked by domestic assets as of the previous commercial bank Call Report to which
the H.8 release data have been benchmarked. Small domestically chartered commercial banks are defined as all domestically chartered commercial banks not included in the top 25.
Source: Federal Reserve.

Selected Financial Market Quotations
(One-day quotes in percent except as noted)

2008

2009

Change to Oct. 29 from selected dates (percentage points)

Instrument
Sept. 12

Aug. 11

Sept. 22

Oct. 29

2008 Sept. 12

2009 Aug. 11

2009 Sept. 22

Short-term
FOMC intended federal funds rate

2.00

.13

.13

.13

-1.87

.00

.00

3-month

1.46

.18

.11

.06

-1.40

-.12

-.05

6-month

1.80

.28

.20

.17

-1.63

-.11

-.03

1-month

2.39

.22

.18

.19

-2.20

-.03

.01

3-month

2.75

.29

.21

.22

-2.53

-.07

.01

3-month

2.79

.32

.25

.22

-2.57

-.10

-.03

6-month

3.09

.46

.35

.32

-2.77

-.14

-.03

1-month

2.60

.50

.40

.30

-2.30

-.20

-.10

3-month

3.00

.80

.55

.45

-2.55

-.35

-.10

Treasury bills1

Commercial paper (A1/P1 rates)2

Large negotiable CDs 1

Eurodollar deposits3

 

 

Bank prime rate

5.00

3.25

3.25

3.25

-1.75

.00

.00

2.24

1.20

.99

.99

-1.25

-.21

.00

Intermediate- and long-term
U.S. Treasury 4
2-year
5-year

2.97

2.70

2.44

2.44

-.53

-.26

.00

10-year

3.93

3.97

3.74

3.76

-.17

-.21

.02

5-year

1.33

1.54

1.11

.76

-.57

-.78

-.35

10-year

1.77

1.89

1.69

1.51

-.26

-.38

-.18

U.S. Treasury indexed notes 5

 

 

Municipal general obligations (Bond Buyer) 6

4.54

4.65

4.20

4.39

-.15

-.26

.19

10-year swap

4.26

3.98

3.67

3.65

-.61

-.33

-.02

10-year FNMA7

4.36

4.35

4.12

4.09

-.27

-.26

-.03

6.62

5.41

5.11

5.16

-1.46

-.25

.05

7.22

6.72

6.36

6.28

-.94

-.44

-.08

10.66

10.61

9.90

9.59

-1.07

-1.02

-.31

30-year fixed

5.78

5.29

5.04

5.03

-.75

-.26

-.01

1-year adjustable

5.03

4.72

4.52

4.57

-.46

-.15

.05

Private instruments

10-year AA

8

10-year BBB

8

10-year high yield

8

Home mortgages (FHLMC survey rate)

Record high

2009

Change to Oct. 29 from selected dates (percent)

Stock exchange index
Aug. 11

Sept. 22

Dow Jones Industrial

Level
14,165

10-9-07

9,241

9,830

9,963

-29.67

7.80

1.35

S&P 500 Composite

1,565

10-9-07

994

1,072

1,066

-31.88

7.22

-.52

Nasdaq

5,049

3-10-00

1,970

2,146

2,098

-58.45

6.49

-2.27

856

7-13-07

562

621

580

-32.20

3.22

-6.52

15,807

10-9-07

10,243

11,083

10,924

-30.89

6.64

-1.43

Russell 2000
D.J. Total Stock Index

Date

Oct. 29

Record high

1. Secondary market.  Return to table
2. Financial commercial paper.  Return to table
3. Bid rates for Eurodollar deposits collected around 9:30 a.m. eastern time.  Return to table
4. Derived from a smoothed Treasury yield curve estimated using off-the-run securities.  Return to table

2009 Aug. 11

2009 Sept. 22

5. Derived from a smoothed Treasury yield curve estimated using all outstanding securities and adjusted for the carry effect.  Return to table
6. Most recent Thursday quote.  Return to table
7. Constant-maturity yields estimated from Fannie Mae domestic noncallable coupon securities.  Return to table
8. Derived from smoothed corporate yield curves estimated using Merrill Lynch bond data.  Return to table
NOTES:
September 12, 2008, is the last business day before Lehman Brothers Holdings filed for bankruptcy.
August 11, 2009, is the day before the August 2009 FOMC monetary policy announcement.
September 22, 2009, is the day before the most recent FOMC monetary policy announcement.

† Note: Data values for figures are rounded and may not sum to totals.  Return to text

Last update: April 1, 2015