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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
L. B. Schwellenbach, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, A ctin g Commissioner

Factors A ffecting Earnings in
Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering

Bulletin ?<lo. 881

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Governm ent Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 10 cents




Letter of Transmittal
U n it ed S t a te s D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ,
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
Washington, D. C., July 8 , 19J+6.

The S e c r e t a r y o & L a b o r :
I have the honor of transmitting a bulletin presenting the results of a survey of
factors affecting earnings in chemistry and chemical engineering in 1943. The
bulletin was prepared in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Division for use in
vocational counseling of veterans, young people in schools, and others considering
the choice of an occupation. The study was prepared by Cora E. Taylor, under
the supervision of Harold Goldstein. The Bureau wishes to express appreciation
to members of the staffs of the American Chemical Society and the National
Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel for their helpful comments on the
report. The Bureau assumes full responsibility for the analysis of the data.
A r y n e ss J oy W ic k e n s , Acting Commissioner.
Hon. L. B. SCHWELLENBACH,
Secretary of Labor.

Contents
Page

Summary______________________________________________
Scope and method of survey------------------------Sex, age distribution, and years of experience_______________________
Major field of education and educational level__________________________
Geographical distribution---------------------------------------------------------------------Source of employment_________________________________________________
Occupational status------------------------------------------------------------------------------Field of specialization__________________________________________________
Earnings______________________________________________________________
Median annual income____________________________________________
Base monthly salary rate_____________________________ ,_____________
Earnings by occupational field_________________________________
Earnings by educational level__________________________________
Women in chemistry_____________________________
Comparison of prewar and wartime data____________
Shifts in source of employment_____________________________________
Shifts in occupational status_______________________________________
Changes in base monthly salaries___________________________________
Facsimile of questionnaire______________________________________________




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B ulletin 7<lo. 881 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics
[Reprinted from the M onthly L abor R e v ie w , June 1946, with additional data]

Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering
Sum m ary

T H E incomes of persons employed in chemistry and chemical engi­
neering vary widely, depending on the type of work done, the amount
of education, and the years of experience, as well as on individual
abilities. These factors were evidenced in the results of two surveys
of the economic status of those engaged in chemistry and chemical
engineering in 1941 and 1943.
In making these surveys, no attempt was made to define member­
ship of the chemical profession; the surveys included reports from
persons who stated that they were employed in the fields of chemistry
or chemical engineering. Persons who performed routine work in
such jobs as testing were included, as well as those who advanced
through research and production into administrative positions requir­
ing executive ability in addition to a knowledge of chemistry. This
is reflected, in part, in the wide range of earnings. The report, there­
fore, is not intended to show the earnings of members of the chemical
profession as such. Infoxmation on the economic status of those work­
ing in the field in the many different types of jobs which may be open
will be helpful in the guidance of young people and veterans interested
in appraising the possibilities open to students of chemistry, and in
planning their education.
M ost of those working in the field had college training in chemistry
or chemical engineering: the combined data show that about 87 per­
cent of those reporting had at least a bachelor’s degree in either of
these fields; an additional 6 percent had no degree, but had taken at
least some college courses in chemistry or chemical engineering;
another 3 percent had degrees in some other field of science or
engineering.
The chemical manufacturing industries employed nearly two-thirds
of all those in the field of chemistry, and about 82 percent of those in
chemical engineering. Those employed in chemistry were engaged
chiefly in analysis and testing, industrial research, and technical ad­
ministration; other major fields weie teaching, production, develop­
ment, research in basic science, and technical service. In chemical
engineering, highest proportions were employed in technical adminis­
tration or production work; large numbers were also engaged in devel­
opment, industrial research, technical service, and design. In general,
administrative jobs paid the highest salaries; technical service and
industrial research paid more than analysis and testing or secondary
school teaching.



a>

2
There was a marked tendency for the earnings of chemists holding
a doctor’s degree to exceed those of persons employed in the field of
chemistry at the same age or experience levels and holding a master’s
or bachelor’s degree, or none. This was true to a lesser extent, and
less consistently, among chemical engineers.
Charts and tables accompanying this report indicate clearly that
years of experience are a major factor in differences in earnings.
Earnings reported for 1943 were higher than in 1941. The median
base monthly salary of those employed in chemistry increased by 21.5
percent and in chemical engineering b y 26.4 percent, in the 2-year
period. There is some evidence that salaries have advanced further
since the time of the survey.
Scope and M ethod o f Survey

Early in 1944, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with
the American Chemical Society, made a survey of the economic status
of members of the society by means of a questionnaire mailed to all
members.1 A t approximately the same time the Bureau also made a
sample survey of persons employed in the field of chemistry and chemi­
cal engineering who were not society members. After the elimination
of members of the armed forces and those reporting a field of employ­
ment other than chemistry or chemical engineering, there were about
19.000 questionnaires in the sample of American Chemical Society
members, and 2,500 in the sample of nonmembers. Taking the two
groups as representing, respectively, the total membership and the
total number employed in the field who were not members of the
society, weights were established to give the two groups their proper
proportions as related to the total estimated number of persons em­
ployed in chemistry and chemical engineering in 1943. Information
from reliable sources placed the total number of chemists at about
71.000 and of chemical engineers at about 26,000, as of January 1944.
It is difficult to decide who ought to be included in a survey of a
professional field. Professional society memberships are likely to
include a higher proportion o f those who have succeeded in their
profession than of those who have been relatively unsuccessful; on
the other hand, an attempt to correct this bias may dredge up large
numbers of persons on the fringe of the profession and hence equally
bias the figure in a downward direction. The fact is that some pro­
fessions as fields of economic opportunity are not precisely definable.
On the one hand, the young college graduate is often assigned to a
variety of routine jobs of a subprofessional sort, serving, as it were,
an informal apprenticeship. On the other hand, the more able young
people with no more than a high-school education may rise to jobs of
this sort and higher. The ceiling for those with little formal training
is often higher than the floor for those with degrees. Beyond this
fact of overlapping there is an enormous spread of professional capacity
ranging from an undefined lower level of competence to a level that
calls for genius or near-genius. The Bureau has tried, therefore, to
include the complete range of capacities in the field of chemistry and
chemical engineering.
i Professional Chemical Workers in War and Peace. An analysis of the economic status of the members
of the American Chemical Society, 1941 to 1943, by Andrew Fraser, Jr. (Available in Chemical and Engi­
neering News Jssues of May 25, July 10, August 25, and October 10,1944, or in reprint form from the Mack
Printing Co., Easton, Pa.)




3
The sample for the nonmember survey was selected from among
registrants in chemistry and chemical engineering in the files of the
National Eoster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel. The regis­
trations are filed according to numbers which were assigned on a
random basis. Approximately every sixth registration was examined
and after omitting registrants who stated they were members of the
American Chemical Society and those with inadequate addresses, a
mailing list of 8,214 chemists and chemical engineers was obtained.
Tw o months were allowed for the return of completed questionnaires
and at the end o f that period there were 4,500 returns or 55 percent
of the original mailing list. (See p. 21 for facsimile of questionnaire.)
About 55 percent of those who returned questionnaires were employed
in the fields of chemistry or chemical engineering in 1943. M any
of the others were employed in other fields of science or engineering,
were in the armed forces, or were members of the American Chemical
Society although their registration data failed to show them as such.
In order to evaluate the extent to which the returns were repre­
sentative of the randomly selected mailing list— an important ques­
tion in any voluntary reporting survey— the date of birth was
recorded from the National Eoster files for each name selected, and
the age distribution of the persons in the mailing list was compared
with that of the respondents. It was found to correspond very
closely except in the age group 24 to 30 years, in which the proportion
of questionnaires returned was somewhat lower than for the other age
groups. This was largely due to the fact that a high percentage from
this age group was serving in the armed forces. The median age for
the mailing list (chemists and chemical engineers combined) was 31.4
years, while the median age of all respondents was 32.4 years. A
comparison of the geographical distribution of the mailing list and
respondents was also made. There was almost no variation between
the two groups in this respect.
Since this study is primarily concerned with the economic status of
persons employed in chemistry and chemical engineering, all returns
from members of the armed forces and those employed in other types
of work were excluded from the analysis. The survey, therefore,
includes only persons employed in chemistry or chemical engineering;
87 percent held at least a bachelor's degree in the field, 6 percent had
partial college education in chemistry or chemical engineering, 3
percent had at least a bachelor's degree in some other field of science
or engineering, and only 4 percent reported either college-level
education in other fields or no college education.

,

Sex, A g e D istribution and Years o f Experience

It is evident that those employed in chemistry and chemical
engineering were predominantly male. W omen in 1943 formed only
slightly more than 4 percent of the total in the field of employment of
chemistry and about 0.2 percent in chemical engineering. Slightly
less than 3 percent of the total number of persons employed as chem­
ists and 0.4 percent of those employed as chemical engineers were
women, according to the 1940 census.
The median age of those employed in chemistry in 1943 was 33.5
years; that of women so employed was 29.4 years. The median age




4
of those employed in chemical engineering was 32.6. The 1940 census
shows a median age of 33.6 yeais for male employed chemists but does
not give age data for chemical engineers. A question on year of birth
was included on the questionnaire sent out to nonmembers but was
not included on that sent to members of the American Chemical
Society. The age data for this combined survey were determined by
establishing the relationship of year of entering the profession to the
age of respondents. It was found, by comparing year of birth and
year of entering the profession as given on the nonmember survey,
that the median year of entry into the profession was 23 years of age.
This fact was also established in an earlier survey of members made
b y the American Chemical Society in 1942.2 It is therefore reasonable
to conclude that a median age can be estimated by adding 23 to the
number of years in the profession reported by each individual.
In 1943, the median years of experience were 10.5 for chemists and
9.6 for chemical engineers.
M a jor Field o f Education and Educational Level

A high percentage of persons engaged in chemistry hold degrees
above the bachelors level (table 1). Nearly a fourth have a m asters
degree, while almost 19 percent have obtained the degree of doctor.
A bout 8 percent of those employed in chemistry are without a degree,
but almost all have done some college work. Fewer chemical engi­
neers than chemists have advanced formal education beyond the
bachelor’s degree. Almost two-thirds have the bachelor’s degree,
about 22 percent have acquired the master’s degree, but only 7.6
percent hold the degree of doctor. Relatively few employed engineers
are without a degree.
A bout 9 percent of those employed in the field of chemistry in 1943
had received their education in the chemical engineering field, but as
many as 17.6 percent of those employed as chemical engineers had
been trained as chemists. In absolute numbers, however, the shift
was in the other direction: some 6,500 persons whose m ajor field of
education had been chemical engineering were employed as chemists,
while only about 4,500 persons made the reverse shift. As many as
6.6 percent of the chemists, mostly with a master’s degree, were
educated in some field other than chemistry or chemical engineering.
Am ong the chemical engineers, 5 percent reported some other field
of education.
* The Economic Status of the Members of the American Chemical Society, 1942, by Andrew Fraser, Jr.
(Available in Chemical and Engineering News, issues of October 25, November 25, December 10, and
December 25, 1942, or in reprint form from the Mack Printing Co., Easton Pa.)




5
T a b le

1.— Distribution

o f Persons Em ployed in Chemistry and Chemical Engineerings
by M ajor Field o f Education and Educational Level 1943

,

Major field of education
Num ber
employed

Educational level

Chemical
Chemistry engineering

All other

CHEMISTRY
Number1of persons employed: Total.
2

71,000

59.700

6,600

4.700

Doctors................................................ .
Masters.................................................
Bachelors............................................. .
Incomplete college...............................
No college............................................ .

13,300
17,300
34,700
6,200
500

12,400
14,400
28,000
4,400
500

300
900
4,900
500

600
2,000
1,800
300
0

Percent, by educational level *
Persons employed: Total.

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Doctors..............................
Masters. ......................... .
Bachelors......................... .
Incomplete college........... .
No college..........................

18.7
24. 4
48.9
7.3
.7

20.8
24.1
46.9
7.3
.9

3.6
14.0
74.6
7.8

12.8
43 8
37.8
5.6
0

Percent, by major field of education 3
Persons employed: Total.

100.0

84.2

9.2

66

Doctors.................
Masters ..............
Bachelors....... ......
Incomplete college.
No college ..........

100.0
100 0
100 0
100 o
100.0

98.7
82.8
80.8
86.0
99 8

1.8
5.3
14 1
9.9

4.5
11.9
5.1
5.1
.2

20.100

1,300

1,300
4. < 0
50
13. 200
900
100

100
300
800
100

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Number1of persons employed: Total............... ............

26. ono

Doctors____________________ ____ __________________
Masters________________________________________ _
Bachelors______________ ___________________________
Incomplete college_________________________________
No college______________________ ___________________

2. 000
5,800
18,800
1,300
100

4,600 |
600
900
2,800
300
0

0

Percent, by educational level3
Persons employed: Total___ _______________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

Doctors___________________________________________
Masters . . . _______________________________________
Bachelors_________________________________________
Incomplete college_________________ _____ __________
No college
_ _
_ ....... ......
...

7.6
22.3
64.5
5.1
.5

13.9
19.2.
59.5
7.1
.3

6.3
23.1
65.7
4.4
.5

5.7
20.2
64.6
9.4
.1

Percent, by major field of education3
Persons employed: Total

_ _

_ . ...

Doctors
_ ...
___
Masters . ....
Bachelors,.___________________________ ___________
Incomplete college _________ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ .____
No college__________________ ______ ________________

100.0

17.6

77.4

5.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

32.2
15.1
16.2
24.5
9.7

64.1
80.4
78.8
66.4
89.5

3.7
4.5
5.0
9.1
.8

1Estimated numbers of persons in this part of the table are shown rounded to the nearest 100.
2Less than 50.
3 Percentages computed before rounding.
<Less than a tenth of 1 percent.




6

CHART I

EDUCATIONAL LEVELS OF PERSONS
IN EACH MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL FIELD
CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
1943
MASTERS

I DOCTORS

I INCOMPLETE OR
I NO COLLEGE

BACHELORS

CHEMISTRY
0

20

40

PERCENT

60

80

100

80

100

TOTAL
TEACHING, COLLEGE
OR UNIVERSITY
RESEARCH IN
BASIC SCIENCE
RESEARCH,
INDUSTRIAL
ADMINISTRATION,
TECHNICAL
DEVELOPMENT
TECHNICAL SERVICE
PRODUCTION
ANALYSIS
AND TESTING
TEACHING,
SECONDARY SCHOOL

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
O

20

40

60

TOTAL
RESEARCH,
INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT
ADMINISTRATION,
TECHNICAL
TECHNICAL SERVICE
DESIGN
PRODUCTION

UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S




♦ LESS THAN TW O-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT
REPORTED INCOMPLETE COLLEGE OR NO COLLEGE

7
Geographical Distribution

Employment opportunities for those in the field of chemistry are
concentrated in the Middle Atlantic States, with New York State
employing the greatest numbers. The three States comprising the
M iddle Atlantic region (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania)
and the five comprising the East North Central region (Illinois, Ohio,
Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin) employed over half the chemists
and chemical engineers in the United States in 1943. California and
Massachusetts each employed more than 4 percent of those in the
field. The South Atlantic States employed about the same proportion
of chemical engineers as chemists. Chemists had a higher proportion
of jobs in the West North Central region; engineers were proportion­
ately more numerous in the West South Central region, where the
petroleum industries are important.
T a b l e 2.— Percentage D istribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical
Engineering , by R egion and Slate, 1943
Percent employed in—
Region and State
Chemistry

Chemical en­
gineering

Middle Atlantic.................
New York______ ____
Pennsylvania...............
New Jersey..................
East North Central...........
Illinois.........................
Ohio.............................
Michigan....................
Other States.................
South Atlantic...................
New England....................
Massachusetts............
Other States................
Pacific................................
California..................
Other States................
West North Central..........
West South Central...........
East South Central............
Mountain..........................
District of Columbia.........
Territories and possessions.
Not reported......................

32.5
13.5
9.7
9.3
23.4
8.0
6.2
4.4
4.8
10.0
7.9
4.3
3.6
7.2
5.3
1.9
6.0
5.2
3.2
1.9
1.7
.9
.1

29.4
10.8
8.1
10.5
23.2
6.9
8.2
3.1
5.0
10.3
7.2
4.0
3.2
6.8
5.6
1.2
4.6
9.5
4.8
1.4
1.3
1.0
.5

Total........................

100.0

100.0

Source o f Em ploym ent

Over 60 percent o f those working in chemistry and as many as 82
percent o f those in chemical engineering found employment in the
manufacturing industries in 1943, with by far the greatest numbers in
the chemical industries (table 3). The second largest employer was
the petroleum industry, where the proportion of engineers is con­
siderably higher than that of chemists. State, county, and munici­
pal governments employed nearly 12 percent of the chemists, while
the Federal Government and educational institutions each employed
about 7 percent. The Federal Government employed 4.7 percent of
the chemical engineers, bpt other public authorities afforded little
employment opportunity for this group.
711648°— 46----- 2




s
T a b l e 3.— Percentage Distribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical
Engineering, by Source o f Em ploym ent, 1943
Percent of persons em­
ployed in—
Source of employment
Chemistry
Public authorities_____________________________________________________
Federal Government____ ______________________________________ _
State, county, and municipal governments__________________________
Other public authorities________ __________________________________
Nonpublic organizations_______________________________________________
E ducational institutions________________ ________________ ____ ______
Private firms or companies_________ _________ _______ ______________
Manufacturing____________________ __ _____ ____________________
Food.................. ......... ....................................................................
Textiles.............................................................................................
Paper and allied products___________________________________
Chemical........................................................................ .................
Paints, varnishes, and colors_______ _____________________
Miscellaneous chemical industries_______ ________________
Petroleum and coal products_____ ______________ ____________
Rubber products__________________ ______ __________ ____ __
Iron and steel and their products.............................. ............ ......
Nonferrous metals and their products.......................................
Other manufacturing industries___________________________ _
Other private organizations1___________________________________
Other non public organizations2__________ _____________________ ____
Retired, unemployed, or direct relief............................. ......... - ................. ......
Not reported.. ____________________________________________________ _
Total...........................................................................................................

Chemical
engineering

20.7
7.6
11.6
1.6
78.1
6.8
66.4
63.1
4.9
2.1
2.3
28.1
5.9
22.2
7.7
4.0
3.1
3.1
7.8
3.3
4.9
1.2

6.7
4.7
1.7
.3
91.7
1.6
86.4
82.2
3. 3
1.4
4.1
35.6
3.9
31.7
17.1
4.9
2.1
4.1
9.6
4.2
3.7
.1
1.5

100.0

100.0

(3
)

1Includes mining, construction, public utilities, etc.
* Includes research institutes, consulting laboratory firms, technical or trade associations, etc.
* Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

Occupational Status

In 1943, over 60 percent of the chemists surveyed were engaged in
analysis and testing, industrial research, and technical administration.
Almost half the engineers were engaged in technical administration
or production. The distribution according to occupational status is
shown in the accompanying tabulation.
Occupational status, 1943:
Research, industrial_______________________________
Administration, technical_________________________
Teaching, college or university_______
Analysis and testing______________________________
Research in basic science__________________________
Development_____________________________________
Production_____________________
Technical service __________________________________
Teaching, secondary schools____ _____ _____________
Design...............................................................................
All other_________________________________________
Total_________________________ _______ _________
1

Percent engaged in —
Chemical
engineering

Chemistry

22. 6
14. 9
6. 5
23. 8
4. 8
5. 9
7. 7
2. 1
5.7
0)
6. 0
100.0

11.9
27.2
0)
(*)
(l)
15.1
21.7
6.2
0)
5. 1
12.8
100.0

Number reporting is too small to be significant and is included in “ all other.”

Persons interested in chemistry as a career may be concerned with
the extent of formal education which may be necessary to facilitate
entrance and success in the various fields of work. In some fields
advanced degrees are essential; in others, they are held by a relatively



9
small proportion. (See chart 1 and table 4.) For example, in
research in basic science, nearly 60 percent of those employed in
chemistry held a doctor's degree; 25 percent held a master's degree.
The doctorate was also held by nearly 60 percent of those in college or
university teaching, and an additional 30 percent held a master's degree.
On the other hand, in secondary school teaching only 1 or 2 percent
were doctors, but nearly 60 percent held a master's degree. In
analysis and testing only 2 percent, and in production only 5 percent,
held a doctor's degree.
Among chemical engineers, a high proportion of advanced degrees
was found in design work. Analysis and testing and production jobs
were filled largely by those with a bachelor's degree. Since bachelors
account for nearly two-thirds of all the chemical engineers, it is not
surprising to find them predominating in most fields of work.
T a ble 4.— Percentage D istribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical
E ngineering by Selected O ccupational Status A ccording to Educational Level, 1943
Percent employed in chemistry
Occupational status

Doctor’s
degree

Master’s
degree

Bachelor’s Incomplete
degree
or no college

Total

Total.............................................................

18.7

24.7

48.8

7.8

100.0

Research, industrial................................... Administration, technical...... .....................
Teaching, college or university.-................
Analysis and testing....................................
Research in basic science......... .................Development........ .................... - ................
Production------------------- ----------------------Technical service.........................................
Teaching, secondary school.........................

27.8
17.8
58.7
2.1
59.1
11.4
5.3
6.2
1.5

25.3
19.7
31.5
19.2
25.0
16.2
17.0
23.8
58.3

41.4
52.2
9.7
66.3
15.8
64.1
64.4
59.9
40.2

5.5
10.3
.1
12.4
.1
8.3
13.3
10.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(0

Percent employed in chemical engineering
Total.......... ...... .....................- ..................—

7.5

22.5

64.4

5.6

100.0

Research, industrial.....................................
Administration, technical_ _............ - .........
Development..............................................
Production......... ..........................................
Technical service.....................................—
Design........................ ................ ......... ........

11.1
7.0
10.3
3.5
5.6
5.1

23.2
22.2
21.4
17.4
25.8
40.8

61.2
64.7
65.0
71.6
61.6
52.1

4.5
6.1
3.3
7.5
7.0
2.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

Field o f Specialization

The greatest number of persons employed in chemistry reported
physical, analytical, and inorganic chemistry as their fields of spe­
cialization, with general industrial chemistry, general chemistry
(basic science), and petroleum ranking next in importance. (See
table 5.) Each of the following fields also showed more than 5 percent
of the total number of chemists: pharmaceuticals, biologicals, and
vitamins; foods and kindred products; organic chemistry (basic
science); paints, varnishes, and lacquers; and organic chemical tech­
nology. About 40 percent of those employed in engineering were
specialized in the general chemical engineering field or in petroleum
and its products.




10
T a b l e 5.— Percentage Distribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chemistry and Chemical

,

,

Engineering by Field o f Specialization 1943
Percent employed in—
Field of specialization
Chemistry
Agricultural chemistry.......................................
Biological and physiological chemistry 1...........
Chemical engineering, general...........................
General chemistry1............................................
Industrial chemistry, general............................
Inorganic chemical technology2........................
Medical chemistry3...........................................
Organic chemical technology............................
Organic chemistry1............................................
Physical, analytical, and inorganic chemistry1
Public health 3....................................................
Ceramic industries •
...........................................
Equipment for process industries......................
Explosives...........................................................
Fertilizers and insecticides................................
Foods and kindred products..............................
Gas and fuels7....................................................
Laboratory apparatus and equipment..............
Leather and its manufactures............................
Machinery and implements3
.............................
Metallurgical technology, ferrous......................
Metallurgical technology, nonferrous................
Motor vehicles.. .................... ...........................
Paints, varnishes, and lacquers.........................
Paper and forest products
..........................
Petroleum and its products...............................
Pharmaceuticals, biologicals, and vitamins___
Rubber and its products....................................
Synthetic fiber technology..... ...........................
Synthetic resins and plastics.............................
Textiles and their products1 ............................
0
Transportation equipment11.............................
Other field of science or engineering..................
Other nonprofessional............ ...........................
Not reported.......................................................
Total..........................................................

1.6
3.4
.9
7.8
8.5
2.1
.7
5.0
5.1
10.0
1.7
1.1
.1
3.3
.7
5.6
1.1
.5
.6
.2
1.4
1.8
(4
)

5.1
2.5
7.3
5.7
3.8
.7
4.4
3.0
.3
2.8
.2
1.0
100.0

'

Chemical engineering
.1
.1
24.4
.1
2.9
5.9
(0

(*)

3.7
.3
.5
1.3
1.8
2.0
6.5
.9
2.8
2.2
.2
.1
.7
.8
2.8
3.1
4.2
15.3
1.3
4.6
1.3
4.0
1.4
.3
3.5
.3
.6
100.0

7 Basic science.
2 Includes heavy chemicals.
3 Includes clinical.
* Less than a tenth of 1 percent.
8 Includes water, sewage, and sanitation.
8 Includes glass and cement technology.
7 Includes natural and manufactured gas, and power generation.
3 Includes mechanical and electrical equipment.
•Includes naval stores.
7 Excludes synthetic fiber technology.
3
7 Other than motor vehicles.
7

Earnings
MEDIAN ANNUAL INCOME

Respondents in the survey were asked to report their annual income
including salaries, fees, and bonuses, regardless of whether or not
earned in their profession. The median for all employed in chemistry,
without regard to any attribute, was $3,280 in 1943; for those employed
in chemical engineering, it was $3,998. The median income ranged
from $2,152 for beginners in chemistry to $4,751 for those with 36 to
40 years of experience. Those in chemical engineering began at an
average of $2,452, and the average steadily increased to $6,620 at
levels o f 26 to 30 years’ experience. Median annual incomes, by
years of experience, are shown in chart 2 and in table 6.




11
T able 6.— M edian Annual Incom e o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical

,

,

Engineering by Years o f Experience 1943
Median annual income
Years of experience
Chemistry

Median annual income
Years of experience

Chemical
engineering

Total..........................

$3,280

$3,998

Under 1 year..............
1 year................... ......
2 years........................
3 years.......................
4 years.......................
5 years........................
6 years........................
7-9 years.....................

2,152
2,514
2,659
2,754
2,786
3,003
3,116
3,262

2,452
2,802
3,017
3,156
3,291
3,472
3,616
3,913

Chemistry

10—A J Cdl OlU 12
X)
13-15 years.................
16-20 years .................
21-25 years ._ ..............
26-30 years................
31-35 years................
36-40 years_____ ____
41-43 years.................
44 years and over____

$3,454
3,694
3,980
4,597
4,439
4,497
4,751
4,527
0)

Chemical
engineering

$4,414
4,799
5,838
5,788
6,620
(0

i Total number too small to compute median.

[

CHART 2

MEDIAN ANNUAL INCOME OF PERSONS
EMPLOYED IN CHEMISTRY AND
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE
THOUSANDS
OF DOLLARS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1943

THOUSANDS
OF DOLLARS

12

In interpreting the data on income, it should be noted that those
persons employed in the.field of chemistry are relatively young (median
ages being 33.5 years for chemists employed in 1943 and 32.6 years
for chemical engineers), and that the median income, therefore, reflects
the preponderance of younger men. Actually, income increased with
experience, according to the survey, the older and more experienced
chemists and chemical engineers having earned, on the average, well
over the indicated median for the groups as a whole.
BASE M ONTHLY SALARY R A TE

The base monthly salary rate was reported in two ways— (1) exclu­
sive of overtime payments, fees, and bonuses; (2) exclusive of fees and
bonuses, but inclusive of overtime. It was found that after about 13
to 20 years of experience total annual income tended to exceed by
substantial amounts a figure 12 times the base monthly salary rate
inclusive of overtime. This would indicate that, on the average, those
persons at the higher-experience levels began to receive appreciable
additional income from fees, bonuses, and sources other than base
salary.
Median monthly salary rates, with and without overtime, for per­
sons employed in chemistry and chemical engineering in 1943, are
shown in table 7, by length of experience.
T a b le 7.— M edian B ase M onthly Salary Botes o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and
Chem ical Engineering , by Years o f E xperience , 1943

Median base monthly salary rate in—
Years of experience

Chemistry

Chemical engineering

Excluding
overtime

Including
overtime

Excluding
overtime

All persons employed......... ............................................

$243

$268

$297

$324

Under 1 year.....................................................................
1 year.................................................................................
2 years...............................................................................
3 years...............................................................................
4 years...............................................................................
5 years...............................................................................
6 years...............................................................................
7-9 years............................................................................
10-12 years.........................................................................
13-15 years.........................................................................
16-20 years.........................................................................
21-25 years........................................... : ...........................
26-30 years.........................................................................
31-35 years.........................................................................
36-40 years.........................................................................
41-43 years.........................................................................
44 years and over..............................................................

170
177
194
204
210
216
235
241
257
274
300
340
336
341
357
360

201
206
222
230
229
248
256
262
286
298
329
359
357
357
371
414

176
204
225
240
246
259
268
297
333
358
411
434
510

213
237
256
261
273
294
302
322
370
387
437
451
512

O
')

(0

0)
(0
(0
0)

Including
overtime

(0
(0
0)
(0

i Number reporting is too small to compute median.

Earnings of those in chemistry seem to have had an almost steady
increase until a median of $360 a month was reached after 40 years’
experience. Those in chemical engineering, with 26 to 30 years’
experience, advanced rapidly to as high as $510. In 1943, chemists, on
the average, earned $25 each month in overtime payments; chemical
engineers earned as much as $27. Apparently the beginners benefited
most from overtime, as chemists with less than 1 year of experience



13
had a median income of $201 a month including overtime, or $31 more
than the straight-time median. A similar group of chemical engineers
earned, with overtime, $37 more than the straight-time median.
Earnings by Occupational F ield

Highest salaries were earned in administrative jobs. Teachers in
colleges and universities received slightly above the median salary
of all employed in chemistry; chemistry teachers employed in second­
ary schools received considerably less remuneration. Analysis and
testing, in which field more than a fifth of those employed in chemistry
were engaged at the time of the survey, showed a comparatively low
rate of pay. The median base monthly salaries for those in chemistry
and those in chemical engineering engaged in the principal fields
of work are shown in the accompanying tabulation.
M edian base monthly salary,

194$
Chemistry

$243

$297

259
335
249
218
210
243
229
255
281
Q)

256
370

All principal fields__________________
Research, industrial_________________
Administration, technical____________
Teaching, college or university_______
Teaching, secondary_________________
Analysis and testing_________________
Research in basic science_____________
Development________________________
Production__________________________
Technical service____________________
Design______________________________

Chemical
engineering

(*)
0
0)
0)
262
278
268
301

1Number too small to compute median.

Among the reasons for differences in earnings between those
employed in chemistry and those in chemical engineering was the
concentration of persons in some fields of higher remuneration in
chemical engineering. For example, more than a quarter of those in
engineering were engaged in technical administration, as compared to
about a seventh of the persons who classified themselves in the field
of chemistry. The latter group, on the other hand, had higher
proportions in such fields as analysis and testing and secondary
school teaching, in which salaries seemed to be lower than the general
average. Within a particular field of work, in some cases those em­
ployed in chemistry earned more, on the average, than those in
chemical engineering; in other cases the reverse was true.
Earnings by Educational Level

The income of those employed in chemistry and chemical engineering
seems to vary with the extent of their education. Differentials in
earnings between holders of the bachelor’s degree and holders of the
master’s degree were neither large nor consistent, but the median base
monthly salaries of those holding the doctor’s degree significantly
exceeded those of the other groups. Chemists with a doctor’s degree
and with 6 to 12 years’ experience reported average monthly base
salaries about $65 higher than those of chemists at the same experience
levels who held lower degrees. The differentials ranged between $72
and $104 for chemists.with 13 to 20 years of experience, and averaged



14
CHART 3

MEDIAN BASE MONTHLY SALARY OF
PERSONS EMPLOYED IN CHEMISTRY AND
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
ACCORDING TO YEARS OF EXPERIENCE
1943
MEDIAN SALARY
DOLLARS

MEDIAN SALARY
DOLLARS

CHEMISTRY

500

400

300

200

100

10
MEDIAN SALARY
DOLLARS

15

20

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

25

30

35
MEDIAN SALARY
DOLLARS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

500

40 0

300

200

100
0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE
U N ITE D S TA TE S DEPARTM ENT O F LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S

well over $125 a month for chemists with more than 30 years in the
field. A similar pattern of generally widening differences in salaries
between doctors and the other two groups is found among the chemical
engineers.



15
Persons who reported not having completed college or not having
gone to college attained lower median base monthly salaries, among
the chemical engineers, than each of the other groups at each experi­
ence level, but, among those employed in chemistry, their salaries were
not consistently or significantly different from those of chemists with
the bachelor’s or the master’s degree. M any persons in this group
attained success because of special abilities or because of valuable
practical experience. Of the total employed in both chemistry and
chemical engineering, less than 1 percent was without college training
(table 1); so that the combination of those having incomplete college
training, and those without college experience entirely, actually
represents a group composed chiefly of persons who may have had a
great deal of formal college education but who lacked the precise re­
quirements for a degree.
In general, salaries of chemists and chemical engineers seem to rise
steadily for at least the first 20 or 30 years of professional work. It
should be emphasized, however, that the data do not permit of definite
statements as to the progression of salaries of individuals. What is
shown is a cross section at one time, of the salaries of persons employed
in the field with varying amounts of experience. The curves shown
in the charts reflect many factors in the history of the profession over
the past 30 or more years, as well as the mere factor of the increasing
years of experience of the individuals.
Information on median base monthly salary in chemistry and chem­
ical engineering, analyzed by educational level according to years of
experience, as of 1943, is given in table 8 and chart 3.
T a b l e 8.— M edian B ase M onthly Salary o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical

Engineering, b y Educational Level and Years o f E xperience , 1943
Median base monthly salary of persons employed, with—
Years of experience

Doctor’s Master’s Bach­
elor’s
degree degree degree

Incom­
plete and Doctor’s Master’s Bach­
elor’s
no
degree degree degree
college

Chemical engineering

Chemistry
A1J persons............................

$312

$232

$226

Less than 6 years...................
6-12 years..............................
13-20 years............................
21-30 years.............................
31 years and over.................

244
297
345
405
461

199
232
267
313
329

196
232
273
346
337

Incom­
plete and
no
college

$252
206 }
226
241
323 >
327

$406

$312

$282

235
316
389
481
. 0)

230
299
383
466
0)

312 f
489

$285
(?)

8

254
329

i Number too small to compute median.

W om en in Chemistry

In 1943 women constituted slightly more than 4 percent of all per­
sons employed in chemistry and considerably less than 1 percent of all
employed in chemical engineering. It is impossible with so small a
sample to give any reliable data for women engineers, and the number
of chemists is also too small to make detailed analyses with any degree
of accuracy. The material presented in this section is considered to
be less reliable than for the entire group, but, in general, indicates the
status of women in relation to all chemists.



16

The distribution of women employed in chemistry by years of
srience shows a concentration in the lower experience levels. Over
the women had less than 7 years of experience. The median ago
was 29.4 years, as compared to a median age of 33.5 years for all
chemists. Over 30 percent had been in the field less than 2 years
at the time o f the survey, and represent an age group of 25 years or
less.
B y comparing the occupational status of women (as shown in the
following tabulation) with that of all chemists (p. 8), it is evident that
analysis and testing is relatively a much more important field for
women than for men, inasmuch as about 31 percent of all women
were in that status as compared with only 23.8 percent of all chemists.
Teaching in colleges and research in basic science have higher pro­
portions of women, while the reverse is true in such fields as technical
administration and industrial research. The distribution of women
employed in chemistry in 1943 is shown by occupational status.

a

Occupational status:
Percent
Research, industrial_____________________________ 14.3
Administration, technical______________________
5. 1
Teaching, college or university__________________
14.1
Analysis and testing___________________________ 31. 1
Research in basic science________________________ 13.0
Development__________________________________
3. 9
Technical service______________________________
3. 7
Teaching, secondary school____________________
4. 0
All other_______________________________________
10.8
Total_____ ______________ ______ ________ ____ 100.0

In examining the earnings of women employed in chemistry, such
factors as experience and type of job in influencing income become
especially important. The largest number of women were engaged
in analysis and testing— the field in which many beginners find em­
ployment, and therefore one in which the salaries are comparatively
low. The concentration in the low-experience levels greatly affected
the income median for the group. It is not surprising, therefore, to
find the income of women considerably below that of the entire group
o f chemists, of which nearly 96 percent are men. While income may
be influenced also by employment and personnel policies, such factors
are beyond the scope of this survey.
Salaries of women were, on the average, below those of men who
had the same number of years of experience. The median base
m onthly salaries of women employed in chemistry, by years of ex­
perience, are shown for 1943:
M edia n base monthly
salary , 1948

All women employed______________ _______ $170
Less than 6 years’ experience________________
6-15 years’ experience_______________________
16 years’ experience and over_________ .______

159
195
225

Comparison o f Prewar and W artim e Data

Since information was requested for the year 1941 as well as for
1943, it is possible to make some comparisons of the prewar and war­
time statuses of those employed in the field of chemistry.
Changes in employment, occupational status, and earnings are
evaluated in this study, on the basis of reports by those in the occupa­
tions early in 1944 as to their experience in 1941 and in 1943. Like



17
all retrospective surveys of individuals, therefore, it is subject to some
bias resulting from the inclusion of persons who entered the field
between 1941 and 1943, and the exclusion of those who left the field
during that period because of death or other reasons. T o some extent,
the bias is corrected by tabulating data only on those individuals
reporting for both years; but even such data reflect not only the
changes in the profession as a whole but also the progress of the
careers o f individuals— their advancement in occupational status and
in income normally tending to occur with age and experience. Further­
more, the data for the earlier year do not reflect the higher incomes
and advanced occupational status of the older men who died or
retired during the period. Fortunately the period was so short that
the data are not affected very much by deaths, and it is likely that,
as in the labor force as a whole, retirement rates among chemists
and chemical engineers were lower in this period because of the
great wartime needs for experienced workers.
SHIFTS IN SOURCE OF EM PLOYM ENT

Using only the data from those respondents who.reported source of
employment both in 1941 and in 1943 (86 percent of those in chemistry,
88 percent of those in chemical engineering), it was found that em­
ployment shifts among those chemists already working in the field in
1941 were mainly into manufacturing, especially into the miscellaneous
chemical industries. Chemists left employment in State and local
governments, educational institutions, and textile manufacturing.
Chemical engineers did less shifting, because their normal employ­
ment is principally in the manufacturing industries. Some engineers
left State and local government jobs, educational institutions, and
paint, varnish, and color manufacturing. (See table 9.)
T a b le 9.— Percentage D istribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical
Engineerii\g R esponding fo r Roth Years, by Source o f Em ploym ent, 1941 and 1943

Percent employed in—
Source of employment

Chemical <
mgineering

Chemistry
1941

1943

1941

1943

Public authorities.._________ _______ _______________
Federal Government______ ____ ________________
State, county, and municipal governments_____ __
Other public authorities______________ ____ _____

22.5
5.5
14.7
2.3

20.8
7.4
11.2
2.2

6.6
3.2
2.9
.5

7.4
4.9
1.5
1.0

N onpublic organizations............................................. .
E ducational institutions......................................... .
Private firms or companies..... ..................................
Manufacturing........ ...........................................
Food............. .............................. .................
Textiles............... ........... ........... —„ . ...........
Paper and allied products............................
Chemical______________________________
Paints, varnishes, and colors................
Miscellaneous chemical industries— —
Petroleum and coal products.......................
Rubber products................ ......................
Other manufacturing industries...................
Other private organizations1 ........................
.....
Other nonpublic organizations 3................................

77.4
9.3
63.1
58.6
5.2
4.5
.5
26.0
6.6
19.4
7.5
3.2
11.7
4.5
5.0

79.2
6.9
67.4
64.0
5.2
2.1
2.3
28.8
6.2
22.6
7.7
3.8
14.1
3.4
4.9

93.4
2.4
86.7
82.0
3.6
1.6
4.9
36.3
5.4
30.9
17.2
4.1
14.3
4.7
4.3

92.5
1.5
87.2
82.9
3.2
1.6
4.4
36.5
4.2
32.3
17.1
4.5
15.6
4.3
3.8

100.0

100.0 j

100.0

Retired, unemployed, or direct relief____________ ____

.1

T otal.......................................................................

100.0

.1

* Includes mining, construction, public utilities, etc.
3 Includes research institutes, consulting laboratory firms, technical or trade associations, etc.




18
SHIFTS IN OCCUPATIONAL STATUS

The shifts in occupational status, or type of work, were more
pronounced than the shifts in source of employment. The shifts in
occupational status are shown in table 10. For chemists, the greatest
increases were in the fields of industrial research and technical ad­
ministration, the shift being away from analysis and testing, and
teaching. For chemical engineers, the chief shift (9.7 percentage
points) was into the technical administration field. Employment in
production increased by 3.7 percentage points. Among the engineers,
the greatest reduction (9.5 percentage points) was in analysis and
testing; the proportion engaged in industrial research dropped by
3.1 percentage points. While these changes, as shown by the data,
represent largely the real changes in status which took place in the
field of chemistry in this period, to a small extent they also reflect the
bias mentioned above.
The distribution of the “ total group” of chemists and engineers in
1943 is presented in table 10 in order to show whether the shifts in
occupational status of individuals responding for both years is repre­
sentative of real shifts in the profession. The total group includes
those entering the field in 1942 and 1943, but, of course, excludes
those who left in that period. Very slight differences appear when
the two groups are compared for 1943. The shifts all reflect the
emphasis on war production. The greater proportion of chemists
engaged in analysis and testing in the total group in 1943, as compared
with the identical group in the same year, indicates that this field
absorbs many beginners. Beginners in chemical engineering ap­
parently secure jobs more readily in analysis and testing and pro­
duction; a smaller proportion of beginners than of the older group
were employed in technical administration.
T a b l e 10.— Percentage D istribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical

E ngineering R eporting O ccupational Status fo r 1941 and 1943
Chemistry
Occupational status

Identical
group *
1941

Chemical engineering

Total
group2

1943

Research, industrial.......................................................
Administration, technical..............................................
Teaching, college or university......................................
Analysis and testing.......................................................
Research in basic science................................................
Development..................................................................
Production......................................................................
-Technical service............................................................
Teaching, secondary school..........................................
Design.............................................................................
All other..........................................................................

17.6
10.7
8.0
26.2
4.2
4.5
7.1
2.1
7.5

23.1
16.2
6.6
21.7
4.9
6.0
7.7
2.1
5.6

13.1

6.1

Total......................................................................

100.0

100.0

1943

Identical
group *
1941

1943
11.5
28.4
(3
)
1.9
(3
)
14.9
21.3
5.9

Total
group2
1943

22.6
14.9
6.5
23.8
4.8
5.9
7.7
2.1
5.7

14.6
18.7
(3
)
11.4
(3
)
14.1
17.6
4.8

(3)

6.0

4.7
14.1

5.2
10.9

11.9
27.2
(3
)
2.5
(3
)
15.1
21.7
6.2
(3
)
5.1
10.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

(3)

1Includes only those who reported occupational status for both years.
2 Includes all who reported occupational status for 1943.
* Number reporting is too small to be significant and is included in “ all other.”
CHANGES IN BASE MONTHLY SALARIES

In making comparisons o f earnings in 1941 and 1943 for the same
group o f workers (table 11), it should be borne in mind that the respond­



19
ents had 2 years more experience when reporting 1943 salaries. In
1941, 7.5 percent of those employed in chemistry earned less than
$100 per month, but in 1943 there were only 2.2 percent earning less
than this amount. As many as 31.7 percent earned less than $160
per month in 1941; 2 years later there were only 8.0 percent. It is
not known to what extent those reporting the low salaries may have
been engaged in routine work in such jobs as analysis and testing or
production. A t the other end of the scale, 14 percent made $400 or
more per month in 1943, compared to 8.7 percent in 1941.
Among those employed in chemical engineering, as many as 18.2
percent earned less than $160 per month in 1941, but only 1.6 per­
cent in 1943. In 1941, 17.2 percent earned more than $400; 2 years
later 26.8 percent fell in that salary bracket.
The extent to which the increases in earnings shown in table 11
reflect the professional advancement of individuals rather than a
general advance in income levels in the field is partially suggested by
data in table 12, which includes all persons employed in chemistry and
chemical engineering who reported income in either year. The
median base monthly salaries for 1941 are nearly identical in the two
tables, both in the case of chemists and in that of chemical engineers.
In 1943, however, the tabulation for all those reporting (table 12),
shows lower median incomes than the tabulation (table 11) which covers
only those reporting in both years (chemists, $243 as compared with
$252; chemical engineers, $297 as compared with $308); i. e., those
who entered the field between 1941 and 1943 had lower-than-average
salaries, as would be expected. Since the survey omits the income in
1941 of persons who left the field since, including largely those who
died or retired and whose incomes in 1941 were very likely higher than
the average, the 1941 average shown by the survey may be slightly
lower than the true average in that year, and the increase in income
levels indicated b y table 12 may be somewhat greater than actually
took place.
T a b l e 11.— Percentage D istribution o f Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chemical
Engineering R eporting B ase M onthly Salary, 1941 and 1943
Percentage distribution
Base monthly salary
rate

Chemical en­
gineering

1941
Under $100...............
$100-$119...................
$120-$139_.................
$140-$159..................
$160-$179_.................
$180-$199...................
$200-$219...................
$22n-$93Q
$240-$259— ..............
$260-$299...................

Chemistry
1943

1941

7.5
5.4
8.6
10.2
9.7
8.5
10.6
5.6
5.8
7.0

2.2
.9
1.5
3.4
6.8
8.3
11.9
9.4
9.1
13.2

2.1
1.7
4.9
9.5
9.3
8.1
9.3
6.6
6.9
8.7

Percentage distribution
Base monthly salary
rate

Chemical en­
gineering

1941

1943

1941

$300-$339..................
$340-$399...................
$400-$479__..............
$480-$569..................
$570-$679..................
$680-$849..................
$850 and over...........

7.2
5.2
3.5
2.1
1.0
.8
1.3

10.8
8.5
6.5
3.1
1.6
1.1
1.7

9.1
6.6
6.6
4.0
2.4
1.9
2.3

13.5
12.3
11.4
6.6
3.5
2.1
3.2

Total..............

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1943
0.5
.2
.3
.6
1.7
3.8
6.3
8.4
10.1
15.5

Chemistry

1943

Nevertheless, it is significant that an increase of nearly 22 percent
occurred in the median base monthly salaries of those employed in
chemistry, and that the salaries of those employed in chemical engi­
neering advanced slightly more than 26 percent in the 2-year period,



20

reflecting the great needs of war industry for the services of these
workers. It is also of interest that the salaries of the lowest-paid
groups in both fields of employment increased by the greatest amounts
proportionately (table 12).
T a b l e 12.— Com parison o f F ive Levels o f B ase M onthly Salaries in 1941 and 1943fo r A ll

Persons Em ployed in Chem istry and Chem ical Engineering

Percent earning more
than specified salary

Base monthly
salary
1941

1943

Increase from
1941 to 1943
Amount Percent




$107
148
200
276
383

$160
194
243
318
426

$53
46
43
42
43

1941

1943

Increase from
1941 to 1943
Amount Percent

Chemical engineering

Chemistry
90 percent..............................
75 percent..............................
50 percent-.............................
25 percent.................... ..........
10 percent..............................

Baso monthly
salary

49.5
31.1
21.5
15.2
11.2

$14.4
174
235
333
490

$199
236
297
400
540

$55
62
62
67
50

38.2
35.6
26.4
20.1
10.2

21
Boreao Budget No. 44-4408. 1
Approval e s p iro a September SO. 1044
8URVEY OP THE CHEMICAL PROFESSION
COBDOCTBD BT TUB

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS o f the U. S. DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
IB COOPERATION WITB THE

NATIONAL ROSTER OF SCIENTIFIC AN SPECIALIZED PERSONNEL OF THE VAR M POW
D
AN
ER COMMISSION

1
.

Before answering any questions. plaaso read accompanying fe t t e r . In each question
p lease note that only ONE code fe t t e r or nuaber i s to be recorded tor any one year;
otb e re ise the questionnaire cannot be used for tabulation purposes.
W
AR-TIME STATUS A D POST-W E PLO M N EXPECTATION; CIRCLE O E CO E N M
N
AR M Y E T
N
D U BER.
(1 ) Does your present employment, whether as a member o f the armed forces o r as a c iv ilia n , require training o r experi­
ence In chemistry, chemical engineering, or a c lo s e ly related fie ld ?
YES 1
N 2
O
(2 ) Are you now
A member o f the armed forces........................ ...............................................1
A male c iv ilia n o f d raft age (18-37 years in clu siv e):
C la ssifie d 4-F..................................................................................................2
O ccupationally d e fe r r e d .............................................................................. 3
Other d ra ft c la s s ific a tio n .......................................................................... 4
A male c iv ili a n not o f draft age.................................................................. 5
A female c iv ilia n ........................................................................................... 6
(3) I f you are a member o f the armed fo rces c i r c l e one o f each o f the month and year codes that corresponds to the period
when you entered the s erv ice.
MONTH
YEAR

coos
January.
February
March. .
A pril. .
(4 )
(5 )

(6 )

. .
. .
. .
. .

T
2
3
4

CODE
BOBBER

May. .
June .
July .
August

5
6
7
8

CODE
BOM
BER

September.
October. .
November .
December .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

9
0
X
8

CODE
B BER
OM

1940 o r b efore. . . 0
1941..................
1
1 9 4 2 ................................. 2
1943................................3
1944.................................4

I f you are now a c iv ilia n do you consider your present employment
PER4ANENT 1
TEM
PORARY (Including "duration on ly *) 2
I f you a r e ln t h e armed forces or marked "Temporary 2" ln (4 ) above (OTHERW
ISE OMIT THIS ITEM ),circle the code number
beside the O E ITEM that best d escribes your post-war employment prospects.
N
N W O LEAVE from permanent p osition .................................................................................................................................................. 1
O N
O ER DEFINITE PROSPECT o f post-war employment:
TH
In the p rofession al fie l d In which now employed....................................................................................... ............................... 2
In some other profession or occupation.......................................................................................................................................... 3
NO DEFINITE PROSPECT o f post-war employment, but Intend to:
Seek employment in the p rofessional fie l d In which now employed . .
........................................................................... 4
Oet addition al training in this professional fie ld before seeking employment............................................................... 5
Seek employment in another p rofession o r o ccu p a tio n ........................................................................... ... ............................... 6
Oet training In another profession or occupation before seeking employment...................................................................7
R etire......................................................................................................................................................................................................... •
Do n ot know
.......................................................................................................................... ... ................................................... 9
Whatever your present economic status and expectations, do you consider your post-war employment prospects to be:
C D B ME
O E D BR
(C irc le enly one)

2.
3.
4.

Better than your pre-war s t a t u s ? ............................................ I
Same as your pre-war s t a t u s ? ........................................; . .
2
Worse than your pre-war s t a t u s ? . ............................................ 3
(7 ) I f you are a c iv ilia n (OTHERW
ISE OM THIS ITO 0, c ir c le the code besid e the ON ITEM that best d escribes your post­
IT
E
war Intentions with respect to your place o f residence.
W in stay In present lo c a lit y (c it y , town, v illa g e , e t c . ) ........................................1
Will move to d iffe r e n t lo c a lit y only I f you lo s e your jo b ........................................ 2
Will move to d iffe r e n t lo c a lit y In any e v e n t ............................................................... 3
Do not k n o w ............................................................................................................................... 4
SEX: CIRCLE PROPER CO E N M
D U BER. M
ALE 1 FEM
ALE 2
YEAR OF BIRTH; EN
TER PROPER TEAR.____________________________
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL: CIRCLE B LO IN O E A D ON ONE OF THE FOLLOW G FO R FIELDS TH ONE CODE N M E THAT CORRESPON TO
E W
N N
LY
IN
U
E
U BR
DS
THE HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL LEVEL REACH BT YOU.
ED
BDOCATIOBAL LBVBL
(C i r c le eae and o n ly one codo nueber)

Incomplete c o lle g e
No cot lego
Hester
Bachelor
Doctor
(or equiv. )
training
training
14
13
15
12
Chemistry........................................
24
23
25
22
Chemical engineering ................
34
33
35
Other f ie l d o f s c ie n c e ‘or engineering. • < .
. .
31
32
44
45
43
42
Any other f i e l d ............................
YEAR OF ENTERING PROFESSION:
E
U AVE A BACHELOR'S DEGREE, CIRCLE TH YEAR In which I t was awarded. or
(1 ) IF TO H
U O
AVE A BACHELOR'S DEGREE, CIRCLE TH TEAR In whlchyou consider you rself to have entered the profession.
E
(8 ) IF TO D NOT H
1899 or before
07
00
01
03
04
05
02
08
09
06
19
13
14
15
17
10
11
12
16
18
19
23
24
25
27
26
20
21
22
28
29
33
34
35
36
37
30
31
38
39
32
40
41
43
42
F i e l d

6.

STATE IN \HICH EM YE : Under each o f the follow ing years, PLACE the CO E N M ER corresponding to the STATE in which you
PLO D
D U B
were employed fo r the major part o f that year. D NOT ENTER any Item fo r any year p r io r to the one in Which you received
O
your b a ch elor's degree, or, i f a nongraduate, the year in which you consider you rself to have entered the profession.
1941
1942
1943
State:
CD
OR
CD
OB
CD
OB
CD
OB
STATE
8TATB
BTtTt
8TATK
B MR
O BR
B MR
O BR
B MR
O BR
B ME
O BR
98
Alabam a...................... . 73
Nevada........................
South Dakota. . . .
Iowa............................
32
Tennessee ................
New Hampshire . . . .
Arizona........................ . 96
Kansas........................
Kentucky....................
02
Arkansas .................... . 61
New Jersey. . . . . .
Texas ........................
95
C a li f o r n ia ................ . 43
Louisiana ................
New Mexico....................
Utah............................
01
Vernon t ....................
M aine........................
New Y o r k .....................
C o lo ra d o.................... . 94
25
Connecticut................ . 36
North Carolina. . . ..
V i r g i n i a .................
Maryland....................
54
WasSmgton................
Delaware .................... . 21
34
North Dakota. . . . .
Massachusetts . . . .
West V irginia . . . .
24
D is t r ic t o f Columbia . 89
11
Michigan. . . . . . .
Ohio............................ ...
63
Wisconsin . . . . * .
Oklahoma. . . . t . .
Florida. ..................... . 28
Minnesota
Wyoming....................
42
Georgia........................ . 27
Oregon.................... .
M ississippi . . . .
03
U, S. T erritories
Pennsylvania................
I d a h o ......................... . 92
M issouri....................
35
and possessions . .
X6
Rhode Island................
I lli n o is .................... . - 13
Montana....................
26
87
Nebraska.....................
Indiana........................ . 12
South Carolina. . . ,
Foreign Countries .




22
IN
COM AN RATEOF EARNINGS: Under each o f the follow ing years, PLACE the O E CODE N M
E D
N
U BER Of the IN M BRACKET that contains
CO E
(1) your A N A IN M INCLUDING sa la ries, fees, and bonuses, regardless o f whether or not earned in your profession; and
N U L CO E
(2) your M N LY SALARY RATE fo r TIME ACTU
O TH
ALLY EM YE in your major fie ld :
PLO D
(a) exclusive o f overtime payment, fees,
and bonuses; and (b) exclusive o f fees and bonuses, but inclusive o f overtime. (In sert figure in (b) even i f (a) and
(b) are the same. Otherwise the resu lts cannot be tabulated.) D NOT ENTER any Item fo r any year p rio r to the one in
O
itolch you received your bach elor's degree, or, i f a nongraduate, the year in which you consider you rself to have entered
the profession.
1943
1943
1941
( I ) Annual Incoma:
'
"
ySCDSS BRACKET
t l,2 0 0
1,400
1 ,60 0
1 ,8 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
2 ,2 0 0
2 ,4 0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

Under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

j

$1 ,2 00
1 ,4 0 0 ..
1 ,6 0 0 ..
1 ,8 0 0 ..
2 ,0 0 0 ..
2 ,2 0 0 ..
2 ,4 0 0 ..
2 ,6 0 0 ..

CODS
IBMBSR
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08

CODS
H M
U BER
3 ,0 0 0 .,,. 09
3 ,4 0 0 .,.. 10
3 ,8 0 0 .,,. 11
4 ,2 0 0 .,,. 12
4 ,6 0 0 .,.. 13
5 ,0 0 0 ..,. 14
5 ,4 0 0 .,
15
6 ,0 0 0 .,.. 16

IXCPSE BRACKET
$2 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,0 00
3 ,4 0 0
3 ,8 0 0
4 ,2 0 0
4 ,6 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
5 ,4 0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

CODS

INC0MS BRACKET
$6 ,0 00
6 ,6 0 0
7 ,2 0 0
7,8 0 0
8 ,4 0 0
9 ,0 0 0
9 ,6 0 0
10,200

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

ISCOMS BRACKST

MMBSR

under 6 ,6 0 0 . .
under 7,20 0. .
under 7,80 0. .
under 8 ,4 0 0 . .
under 9 ,0 0 0 . .
under 9 .60 0. .
under 10,300. .
under 12,000. .

$12,000
13,8 00
15,6 00
17 ,4 0 0
19 ,2 00

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
e v e r ..

13 ,8 00 .
16 ,6 00 .
17,400.
19,200.

CODS
B MPER
U
. 25
. 26
. 27
. 28

(2 ) Monthly Salary Rate:
la)

E x clu siv e o f o v e rtim e p a y m e a ts , f e e s ,

lb )

B x c la s iv e o f f e e s sad b oa sses b i t

sad bonuses)
1943
CODS

jracoas

atmsir
$100
110
130
130
140
ISO
160

end
end
end
end
end
end
end

Under $100___
under 1 1 0 ....
under 130___
under 1 30..
under 1 4 0 ..
under iso....
under 1 6 0..
under 1 7 0 ....

iaelu sive o f overtime)
1943

1941

$170
180
190
. .300
. :330
240
. .360
280

end
end
end
end
end
end
end
and

* " coms_,bracket

under 180...........
under 190...........
under 30 0 ..........
under 330...........
under 340...........
under 260...........
under 280...........
under 300...........

09
10
11
13
13
14
IS
16

$300
320
340
370
400
440
480
S20

and
and
and
and
end
and
end
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

1941

IBCOlIt RRACSBT

$S7b
620
680
750
850
1,000

3 2 0 ...
3 4 0 ...
3 7 0 ...
4 0 0 . ..
4 4 0 ...
4 8 0 . ..
5 2 0 ...
5 7 0 ...

CODS
HOUSSR

end under 620..........
and under. 680.........
end under 7S0.........
end under 8S0.........
end under1.000..........
and over.............. .

25
26
27
38
29
30

24

EM Y E T STATUS Under each o f the follow ing years place the O E CO E N M
PLO M N
N
D
U BER corresponding to your a c tiv ity during the
major part o f the year with respect to:
(U your G N R L FIELD OF E P O M N S (2) your OCCUPATIONAL STATUS (3) Your
EEA
ML Y E T
SO R E OF E PLO M N and (4) your field of SPECIALIZATION, do not enter any item fo r any year p rio r to the one m
UC
M Y E T:
which you received your bach elor's degree, or, i f a nongraduate, the year in which you consider you rself to have entered
the profession.
( 1 ) G N RAL F ield o f Employment:
EE

1943

1942

1941

OSHSRAL FIELD OF SMPLOTMEHT

Chemistry..................................................
Chemical Engineering.......... ..
( 2 ) Occupational Statua:

Administration, nontechnical.08
Administration, t e c h n ic a l ....02
Analysis and testin g................. 04
Construction b in s ta lla tio n ..21
Consultation, independent.. . . 11
Design.............................................14
Development............................... ..0 6
( 3 ) Source a t Employment:

Editing end writing......... ..1 8
Library ft information
service........................... . 19
Maintenance.............................23
Patents................................... 13
Postgraduate study............... 16
Product io n ........................... . . . 0 7

Reseach ind ustrial................. 01
R e t i r e d .................................. 20
Safety engineering................. 24
Sales.......................
09
Teaching secondary sch ool.. 12
Teaching, co lle g e or
u n iv e r s ity .... . . . . . . . . . .,0 3

Research in basic science.OS
1943
CODS
BUM
BER

80URCE OP
EMPLOTMEBT

Teaching, o t h e r ................ 22
Technical s e r v i c e . . . . . . ..1 0
Other p r o f e s s i o n a l .......15
N o n -p r o fe s s io n a l....... . . 17
Unemployed............................25
R e lie f, d i r e c t . . . . , . . . . . . 26

1942
CODS
BUM
BER

1941
SOURCE OP
EMPLOTMEBT

Nen-pubtic organisations—Cent’ d
Non-public ortanita tiona —Cont’ d
Public a u th o ritiee:
Private firm, company, etc.
Armed forces.......... ..............
.0 10 0
Stone.cl ay, and glass products.. . . . . . 2012
Mining..............*.......................... ........ 2001
County government................................. 1500
Iron and steel and their p ro d u cts .... 2013
Federal government............................... 1200
Const ruction........................................ 2002
Nonferrous metals and their p roducts.2014
Municipal government............................1300
Manufacturing:
3015
Machinery.....................................
Food......................................................2003
State government...................................1200
Transportation equipment.........................2016
T extiles.............................................. 2004
V.P.A. or work r e l i e f ......................... 1600
Other manufacturing ind ustries.............2017
Paper and a llie d products. . . . . . . 2005
Transportation, communication,
Other p u b lic authority....................... 1*00
Chemical:
and other public u t i l i t i e s . . . ............... 2018
Rayon..................................................2006
Non-public organisations:
Trade, or service firm (other
Paints, varnishes, and c o lo r s .. 2007
Consulting laboratory, firm or
than those liste d s e p a ra te ly )............ 2019
Miscellaneous chemical
o f f i c e .............................................. ...2 2 0 0
Other private o r g a n is a t io n s ............... 2020
ind ustries...................................... 2008 Other non-public organisations................ 2500
Educational ih stitu tion .ex clu siv e
Petroleum and coal products..
o f those under p ublic authorities2100
.2009 Retired............................................................. 3100
Rubber products..................................2010 Unemployed or d irect r e li e f .
Research in s titu te ...............................2300
.4 1 0 0
Leather and leather products........ 2011
Technical or trade a ssociation
and publishing organisation........... 2400

194L

( 4 ) F ield o f Sped el i ta t ion:
PISLD OP 8PECIALIEATI0M

PISLD OP 8PSCI ALHATIOB

Agricultural chemistry.............. ...............
B iologica l and p h ysiological
chemistry (b a sic s cien ce).............. .
Ceramic industries, including glass
and cement technology..............................
Chemical engineering, general..
Equipment fo r process in d u stries..
Explosives.............................................
F e r t ilis e r s and in s e c tic id e s ..
Foods and kindred products......................
Gas and fu els, natural and
manufactured, and power generation..
General chemistry (basic scien ce).........'
Industrial chemistry, g e n e ra l..............
Inorganic chemical technology,
including heavy c h e m i c a l s . . . . . . . . . . . .




IW
BBR

16 Laboratory apparatus and equipawnt...
Leather and it s manufactures..........
Machinery, isplements, and
mechanicat and e le c tr ic a l equipment.
24 Medical chemistry, including c lin ic a l
M etallurgical technology, ferrous..
___
31 M etallurgical, technology, nonferrous.
....................
18 Motor v e h i c l e s ........................
Organic chemical technology.
03 Organic chemistry (basic s c ie n c e )....
Paints, varnishes and la c q u e r s ....
22 Paper and forest products, including
naval stores.............................................
14
Physical, analytical, and inorganic
chemistry (basic s c ie n c e )..................
15 Petroleum and it s p ro d u cts .................

30
32

08

26
21
34
06
12
17

PISLD OP 8PBCIALIZATI0H

,m ,lt

Pharmaceuticals, b io lo g ica l a,
aqd vitamins..................................... . . . . . 0 9
Public health, including water,
sewerage, and s a n i t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . r . . 20
Rubber and i t s products............................10
Synthetic fib er technology............ . . . . . 2 3
Synthetic resins and p l a s t i c s . . . . . . . . . 11
T extiles and their products,
exclusive o f synthetic fiber
technology.................................. . . . . . . . 1 9
Transportation equipment other than
motor veh icles........................................... 33
Other fie l d o f science or engineering. 13
Other non-professional..

01
02

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1946