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Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 8, 2020

USDL-20-0815

Technical information:
Household data:
cpsinfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/cps
Establishment data: cesinfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/ces
Media contact:

(202) 691-5902 • PressOffice@bls.gov

THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION — APRIL 2020
Total nonfarm payroll employment fell by 20.5 million in April, and the unemployment rate rose to
14.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The changes in these measures reflect
the effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it. Employment fell sharply
in all major industry sectors, with particularly heavy job losses in leisure and hospitality.
Chart 1. Unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted,
April 2018 – April 2020

Chart 2. Nonfarm payroll employment over-the-month change,
seasonally adjusted, April 2018 – April 2020

Percent

Thousands

16.0
0

14.0
12.0

-5,000

10.0

-10,000

8.0

-15,000

6.0
-20,000

4.0

-25,000

2.0
Apr-18

Jul-18

Oct-18

Jan-19 Apr-19

Jul-19

Oct-19

Jan-20 Apr-20

Apr-18

Jul-18

Oct-18

Jan-19

Apr-19

Jul-19

Oct-19

Jan-20

Apr-20

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures labor
force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about the
concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.
Household Survey Data
In April, the unemployment rate increased by 10.3 percentage points to 14.7 percent. This is the
highest rate and the largest over-the-month increase in the history of the series (seasonally adjusted data
are available back to January 1948). The number of unemployed persons rose by 15.9 million to 23.1
million in April. The sharp increases in these measures reflect the effects of the coronavirus pandemic

and efforts to contain it. (See table A-1. For more information about how the household survey and its
measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box note on page 5.)
In April, unemployment rates rose sharply among all major worker groups. The rate was 13.0 percent
for adult men, 15.5 percent for adult women, 31.9 percent for teenagers, 14.2 percent for Whites, 16.7
percent for Blacks, 14.5 percent for Asians, and 18.9 percent for Hispanics. The rates for all of these
groups, with the exception of Blacks, represent record highs for their respective series. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)
The number of unemployed persons who reported being on temporary layoff increased about ten-fold
to 18.1 million in April. The number of permanent job losers increased by 544,000 to 2.0 million. (See
table A-11.)
In April, the number of unemployed persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks increased by 10.7
million to 14.3 million, accounting for almost two-thirds of the unemployed. The number of
unemployed persons who were jobless 5 to 14 weeks rose by 5.2 million to 7.0 million. The number of
long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 939,000, declined by 225,000 over the
month and represented 4.1 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)
The labor force participation rate decreased by 2.5 percentage points over the month to 60.2 percent,
the lowest rate since January 1973 (when it was 60.0 percent). Total employment, as measured by the
household survey, fell by 22.4 million to 133.4 million. The employment-population ratio, at 51.3
percent, dropped by 8.7 percentage points over the month. This is the lowest rate and largest over-themonth decline in the history of the series (seasonally adjusted data are available back to January 1948).
(See table A-1.)
The number of persons who usually work full time declined by 15.0 million over the month, and the
number who usually work part time declined by 7.4 million. Part-time workers accounted for one-third
of the over-the-month employment decline. (See table A-9.)
The number of persons at work part time for economic reasons nearly doubled over the month to 10.9
million. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. This group includes
persons who usually work full time and persons who usually work part time. (See table A-8.)
The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 9.9 million, nearly doubled
in April. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for
work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)
Persons marginally attached to the labor force—a subset of persons not in the labor force who
currently want a job—numbered 2.3 million in April, up by 855,000 over the month. These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in
the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them,
numbered 574,000 in April, little changed from the previous month. (See Summary table A.)

-2-

Establishment Survey Data
Total nonfarm payroll employment fell by 20.5 million in April, after declining by 870,000 in March.
The April over-the-month decline is the largest in the history of the series and brought employment to its
lowest level since February 2011 (the series dates back to 1939). Job losses in April were widespread,
with the largest employment decline occurring in leisure and hospitality. (See table B-1. For more
information about how the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus, see
the box note on page 5.)
In April, employment in leisure and hospitality plummeted by 7.7 million, or 47 percent. Almost threequarters of the decrease occurred in food services and drinking places (-5.5 million). Employment also
fell in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry (-1.3 million) and in the accommodation industry
(-839,000).
Employment declined by 2.5 million in education and health services in April. In health care,
employment declined by 1.4 million, led by losses in offices of dentists (-503,000), offices of physicians
(-243,000), and offices of other health care practitioners (-205,000). Employment also declined in social
assistance (-651,000), reflecting job losses in child day care services (-336,000) and individual and
family services (-241,000). Employment in private education declined by 457,000 over the month.
Professional and business services shed 2.1 million jobs in April. Sharp losses occurred in temporary
help services (-842,000) and in services to buildings and dwellings (-259,000).
In April, employment in retail trade declined by 2.1 million. Job losses occurred in clothing and
clothing accessories stores (-740,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (-345,000), miscellaneous store
retailers (-264,000), and furniture and home furnishings stores (-209,000). By contrast, the component of
general merchandise stores that includes warehouse clubs and supercenters gained 93,000 jobs.
In April, manufacturing employment dropped by 1.3 million. About two-thirds of the decline was in
durable goods manufacturing (-914,000), which saw losses in motor vehicles and parts (-382,000) and in
fabricated metal products (-109,000). Nondurable goods manufacturing shed 416,000 jobs.
Employment in the other services industry declined by 1.3 million in April, with nearly two-thirds of
the decline occurring in personal and laundry services (-797,000).
Government employment dropped by 980,000 in April. Employment in local government was down by
801,000, in part reflecting school closures. Employment also declined in state government education
(-176,000).
Construction employment fell by 975,000 in April, with much of the loss in specialty trade contractors
(-691,000). Job losses also occurred in construction of buildings (-206,000).
Employment fell in transportation and warehousing in April (-584,000). Transit and ground passenger
transportation and air transportation lost 185,000 jobs and 141,000 jobs, respectively.
Wholesale trade shed 363,000 jobs in April, largely reflecting losses in the durable and nondurable
goods components.

-3-

Employment in financial activities fell by 262,000 over the month, with the vast majority of the decline
occurring in real estate and rental and leasing (-222,000).
Employment in information fell by 254,000 in April, driven by a decline in motion picture and sound
recording industries (-217,000).
Mining lost 46,000 jobs in April, with most of the decline occurring in support activities for mining
(-33,000).
In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by $1.34 to
$30.01. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
increased by $1.04 to $25.12 in April. The increases in average hourly earnings largely reflect the
substantial job loss among lower-paid workers; this change, along with earnings increases, put upward
pressure on the average hourly earnings estimates. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)
The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 34.2
hours in April. In manufacturing, the workweek declined by 2.1 hours to 38.3 hours, and overtime
declined by 0.9 hour to 2.1 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory
employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised down by 45,000 from
+275,000 to +230,000, and the change for March was revised down by 169,000 from -701,000 to
-870,000. With these revisions, employment changes in February and March combined were 214,000
lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of
seasonal factors.)
_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 5, 2020, at 8:30
a.m. (EDT).

-4-

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on April 2020 Establishment and Household Survey Data

Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The household
survey is generally collected through in-person and telephone interviews, but personal interviews were
not conducted for the safety of interviewers and respondents. The household survey response rate, at 70
percent, was about 13 percentage points lower than in months prior to the pandemic. In the
establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the data is collected at four regional data collection
centers. Although these centers were closed, about half of the interviewers at these centers worked
remotely to collect data by telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to report electronically.
The collection rate for the establishment survey in April was 74.9 percent, essentially unchanged from
collection rates prior to the pandemic.
In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any part of the pay period
including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even if they were not actually at their jobs.
Workers who are temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not
counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period
does vary across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a weekly pay
period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount
monthly.
There was a change to the estimation method used in the establishment survey for April. Business births
and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. Therefore, the
establishment survey estimates use a model to account for the relatively stable net employment change
generated by business births and deaths. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the relationship
between the two was no longer stable in April. Therefore, the establishment survey made modifications
to the birth-death model. For more information, see www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19faq-april-2020.pdf .
In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force
based on their answers to a series of questions about their activities during the survey reference week
(April 12th through April 18th). Workers who indicate they were not working during the entire survey
reference week and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be classified as unemployed on temporary
layoff. In April, there was an extremely large increase in the number of persons classified as
unemployed on temporary layoff.
However, there was also a large increase in the number of workers who were classified as employed but
absent from work. As was the case in March, special instructions sent to household survey interviewers
called for all employed persons absent from work due to coronavirus-related business closures to be
classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. However, it is apparent that not all such workers were so
classified.
If the workers who were recorded as employed but absent from work due to “other reasons” (over and
above the number absent for other reasons in a typical April) had been classified as unemployed on
temporary layoff, the overall unemployment rate would have been almost 5 percentage points higher
than reported (on a not seasonally adjusted basis). However, according to usual practice, the data from
-5-

the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to
reclassify survey responses.
More information is available at www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2020.pdf .

-6-

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Change from:
Mar. 2020Apr. 2020

Apr.
2020

Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force.......................................................... .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed.................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio......................................... .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

258,693
162,546
62.8
156,696
60.6
5,850
3.6
96,147

259,628
164,546
63.4
158,759
61.1
5,787
3.5
95,082

259,758
162,913
62.7
155,772
60.0
7,140
4.4
96,845

259,896
156,481
60.2
133,403
51.3
23,078
14.7
103,415

138
-6,432
-2.5
-22,369
-8.7
15,938
10.3
6,570

Unemployment rates
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adult men (20 years and over). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adult women (20 years and over). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Teenagers (16 to 19 years). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity................................................ .

3.6
3.4
3.1
12.9
3.1
6.6
2.2
4.2

3.5
3.3
3.1
11.0
3.1
5.8
2.5
4.4

4.4
4.0
4.0
14.3
4.0
6.7
4.1
6.0

14.7
13.0
15.5
31.9
14.2
16.7
14.5
18.9

10.3
9.0
11.5
17.6
10.2
10.0
10.4
12.9

Total, 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Less than a high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High school graduates, no college. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some college or associate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelor’s degree and higher............................................. .

2.9
5.3
3.4
3.1
2.1

2.9
5.7
3.6
3.0
1.9

3.5
6.8
4.4
3.7
2.5

13.1
21.2
17.3
15.0
8.4

9.6
14.4
12.9
11.3
5.9

Reason for unemployment
Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers..................................................................... .
Reentrants...................................................................... .
New entrants................................................................... .

2,660
728
1,899
535

2,723
777
1,803
505

3,946
727
1,778
509

20,626
570
1,477
389

16,680
-157
-301
-120

Duration of unemployment
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks.................................................................. .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over............................................................ .

1,906
1,835
860
1,227

2,013
1,803
825
1,102

3,542
1,794
808
1,164

14,283
7,004
833
939

10,741
5,210
25
-225

Employed persons at work part time
Part time for economic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons......................................... .

4,706
2,868
1,447
21,356

4,318
2,776
1,317
22,175

5,765
4,043
1,321
20,601

10,887
9,939
697
12,355

5,122
5,896
-624
-8,246

Persons not in the labor force
Marginally attached to the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers....................................................... .

1,484
446

1,440
405

1,426
514

2,281
574

855
60

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will
not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced
annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)
Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210
185
28
0
26
2
0
-2.9
2
157
13.4
-11.8
7.0
-2.6
-6
14
50
-0.4
65
49.9
13
15
25

230
199
56
2
46
8
6
8.3
2
143
-3.3
3.0
-0.4
-0.8
0
22
6
-6.3
52
62.5
59
6
31

-870
-842
-74
-7
-33
-34
-20
-3.2
-14
-768
-2.9
-44.8
-7.2
0.3
-4
-3
-69
-57.9
-101
-64.1
-499
-38
-28

-20,500
-19,520
-2,355
-50
-975
-1,330
-914
-381.5
-416
-17,165
-362.8
-2,106.9
-584.1
-3.3
-254
-262
-2,128
-841.9
-2,544
-2,086.9
-7,653
-1,267
-980

(3-month average change, in thousands)
Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119
104

209
181

-142
-155

Category

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES2
Total nonfarm women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private production and nonsupervisory employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES
Total private
Average weekly hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average hourly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average weekly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)5
Total private (258 industries). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing (76 industries). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

49.8
48.5
82.3

50.0
48.7
82.3

50.0
48.6
82.1

34.4
$27.81
$956.66
110.5
-0.1
146.9
0.1

34.4
$28.52
$981.09
112.0
0.4
152.7
0.7

34.1
$28.67
$977.65
110.3
-1.5
151.2
-1.0

62.4
53.9

53.7
46.7

28.5
26.3

-7,047
-6,721

49.2
47.6
80.2

34.2
$30.01
$1,026.34
93.9
-14.9
134.7
-10.9

4.8
2.6

Includes other industries, not shown separately.
Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the
service-providing industries.
3
The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate
hours.
4
The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average
aggregate weekly payrolls.
5
Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal
balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.
2

Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates
1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?
The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates of
employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey employment series
has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-month change than the household
survey because of its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of about
100,000 is statistically significant in the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically
significant change in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a
more expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed workers
whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private
household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also
provides estimates of employment for demographic groups. For more information on the differences
between the two surveys, please visit https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.
2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?
It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However, neither the
establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal status of workers. Therefore,
it is not possible to determine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does
not collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does include questions which
identify the foreign and native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the
foreign born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of The
Employment Situation news release.
3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?
The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by incorporating
additional information that was not available at the time of the initial publication of the estimates.
The establishment survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding
2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.
On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that re-anchors
estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment insurance tax
records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more
information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.
4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?
Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business establishments
with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is designed to maximize the
reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and
industries are appropriately sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?
Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for the net
employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment comes from an
econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of business births and deaths based
on the actual past values of the net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census
of Employment and Wages. The establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this
purpose because the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and
availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a year.
6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
insurance benefits?
No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households. All persons
who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are included among the
unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if they do not actively seek work.) There
is no requirement or question relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.
7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
looking for work?
Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who want a job,
including those who are not currently looking because they believe no jobs are available (discouraged
workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor underutilization (some of which include
discouraged workers and other groups not officially counted as unemployed) are published each
month in table A-15 of The Employment Situation news release. For more information about these
alternative measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.
8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes the 12th of the
month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on average weekly hours than
on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid time during the pay period, including
pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates
typically, but not always, results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some
employees may be off work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed,
while some workers, such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on payroll
employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce employment estimates,
employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. Employees
who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are counted in the payroll
employment figures. For more information on how often employees are paid, please visit
https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-businesses-pay-workers.htm.
In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that includes the 12th
of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-related events are counted as
employed whether or not they are paid for the time off. The household survey collects data on the
number of persons who had a job but were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure
of the number of persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather.
Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested statistics page,
please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.

Technical Note
This news release presents statistics from two major
surveys, the Current Population Survey (CPS; household
survey) and the Current Employment Statistics survey (CES;
establishment survey). The household survey provides
information on the labor force, employment, and
unemployment that appears in the "A" tables, marked
HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000
eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
The establishment survey provides information on
employment, hours, and earnings of employees on nonfarm
payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables, marked
ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each
month from the payroll records of a sample of
nonagricultural business establishments. Each month the
CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and
government agencies, representing approximately 697,000
individual worksites, in order to provide detailed industry
data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on
nonfarm payrolls. The active sample includes approximately
one-third of all nonfarm payroll jobs.
For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a
particular week or pay period. In the household survey, the
reference period is generally the calendar week that contains
the 12th day of the month. In the establishment survey, the
reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which
may or may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent
of the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the
labor force as a percent of the population, and
the employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population. Additional information
about the household survey can be found at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

Differences in employment estimates. The numerous
conceptual and methodological differences between the
household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the
surveys. Among these are:

Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect
the entire civilian noninstitutional population. Based on
responses to a series of questions on work and job search
activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in
the labor force.
People are classified as employed if they did any work
at all as paid employees during the reference week; worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or
worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or
farm. People are also counted as employed if they were
temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.
People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of
the following criteria: they had no employment during the
reference week; they were available for work at that time;
and they made specific active efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting
recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The unemployment data derived from the
household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility for
or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.
The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and
unemployed persons. Those persons not classified as
employed or unemployed are not in the labor force. The

Establishment survey. The sample establishments are
drawn from private nonfarm businesses such as factories,
offices, and stores, as well as from federal, state, and local
government entities. Employees on nonfarm payrolls are
those who worked or received pay for any part of the
reference pay period, including persons on paid leave.
Persons are counted in each job they hold. Hours and
earnings data are produced for the private sector for all
employees and for production and nonsupervisory
employees. Production and nonsupervisory employees are
defined as production and related employees in
manufacturing and mining and logging, construction
workers in construction, and non-supervisory employees in
private service-providing industries.
Industries are classified on the basis of an
establishment’s principal activity in accordance with the
2017 version of the North American Industry Classification
System. Additional information about the establishment
survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

•

The household survey includes agricultural
workers, self-employed workers whose businesses
are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and
private household workers among the employed.
These groups are excluded from the establishment
survey.

•

The household survey includes people on unpaid
leave among the employed. The establishment
survey does not.

•

The household survey is limited to workers 16 years
of age and older. The establishment survey is not
limited by age.

•

The household survey has no duplication of
individuals, because individuals are counted only
once, even if they hold more than one job. In the
establishment survey, employees working at more
than one job and thus appearing on more than one
payroll are counted separately for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

Reliability of the estimates

Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor
force and the levels of employment and unemployment
undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These events may
result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and
the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such
seasonal variation can be very large.
Because these seasonal events follow a more or less
regular pattern each year, their influence on the level of a
series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation.
These
adjustments
make
nonseasonal
developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to
spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number
of youth entering the labor force each June is likely to
obscure any other changes that have taken place relative to
May, making it difficult to determine if the level of economic
activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about
20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying
employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal
employment changes at the end and beginning of the school
year can be estimated, the statistics can be adjusted to make
underlying employment patterns more discernable. The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with
which to analyze changes in month-to-month economic
activity.
Many seasonally adjusted series are independently
adjusted in both the household and establishment surveys.
However, the adjusted series for many major estimates, such
as total payroll employment, employment in most major
sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the
adjusted series for four major age-sex components; this
differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the
duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.
Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently
seasonally adjusted component series, and will not
necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally
adjusted total unemployment level. Additional information
about seasonal adjustment in the household survey can be
found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.
For both the household and establishment surveys, a
concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in
which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using
all relevant data, up to and including the data for the current
month. In the household survey, new seasonal factors are
used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are
used each month to adjust the three most recent monthly
estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year
revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Statistics based on the household and establishment
surveys are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may
differ from the true population values they represent. The
component of this difference that occurs because samples
differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally
conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
For example, the confidence interval for the monthly
change in total nonfarm employment from the establishment
survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000. Suppose the
estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from
one month to the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on
the monthly change would range from -60,000 to +160,000
(50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the
sample results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that
there is about a 90-percent chance that the true over-themonth change lies within this interval. Since this range
includes values of less than zero, we could not say with
confidence that nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased
that month. If, however, the reported nonfarm employment
rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case,
it is likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm
employment had, in fact, risen that month. At an
unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent
confidence interval for the monthly change in unemployment
as measured by the household survey is about +/- 300,000,
and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is
about +/- 0.2 percentage point.
In general, estimates involving many individuals or
establishments have lower standard errors (relative to the
size of the estimate) than estimates which are based on a
small number of observations. The precision of estimates
also is improved when the data are cumulated over time, such
as for quarterly and annual averages.
The household and establishment surveys are also
affected by nonsampling error, which can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents
in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information on a timely basis, mistakes made
by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.
For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for
the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns;
for this reason, these estimates are labeled preliminary in the
tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received,
that the estimate is considered final.
Another major source of nonsampling error in the
establishment survey is the inability to capture, on a timely

basis, employment generated by new firms. To correct for
this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an
estimation procedure with two components is used to
account for business births. The first component excludes
employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains
from business births. This is incorporated into the samplebased estimation procedure by simply not reflecting sample
units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This
procedure accounts for most of the net birth/death
employment.
The second component is an ARIMA time series model
designed to estimate the residual net birth/death employment
not accounted for by the imputation. The historical time
series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived
from the unemployment insurance universe micro-level
database, and reflects the actual residual net of births and
deaths over the past 5 years.

The sample-based estimates from the establishment
survey are adjusted once a year (on a lagged basis) to
universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance
program. The difference between the March sample-based
employment estimates and the March universe counts is
known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy
for total survey error. The new benchmarks also incorporate
changes in the classification of industries. Over the past
decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from
-0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.
Other information
Information in this release will be made available to
sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone:
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, sex, and age

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

258,693
162,097
62.7
156,710
60.6
5,387
3.3
96,596
4,951

259,758
162,537
62.6
155,167
59.7
7,370
4.5
97,221
5,215

259,896
155,830
60.0
133,326
51.3
22,504
14.4
104,066
9,761

258,693
162,546
62.8
156,696
60.6
5,850
3.6
96,147
5,105

260,181
164,556
63.2
158,803
61.0
5,753
3.5
95,625
4,832

259,502
164,606
63.4
158,714
61.2
5,892
3.6
94,896
4,904

259,628
164,546
63.4
158,759
61.1
5,787
3.5
95,082
4,962

259,758
162,913
62.7
155,772
60.0
7,140
4.4
96,845
5,509

259,896
156,481
60.2
133,403
51.3
23,078
14.7
103,415
9,916

Men, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125,114
86,027
68.8
82,963
66.3
3,064
3.6
39,087

125,639
85,914
68.4
81,794
65.1
4,120
4.8
39,725

125,707
82,820
65.9
71,810
57.1
11,010
13.3
42,887

125,114
86,233
68.9
82,999
66.3
3,234
3.8
38,881

125,852
87,049
69.2
84,034
66.8
3,015
3.5
38,803

125,513
87,088
69.4
83,940
66.9
3,147
3.6
38,426

125,575
87,008
69.3
83,871
66.8
3,137
3.6
38,568

125,639
86,123
68.5
82,357
65.6
3,765
4.4
39,516

125,707
83,139
66.1
71,916
57.2
11,223
13.5
42,569

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116,665
83,415
71.5
80,711
69.2
2,703
3.2
33,251

117,254
83,174
70.9
79,448
67.8
3,726
4.5
34,080

117,330
80,379
68.5
70,041
59.7
10,338
12.9
36,951

116,665
83,421
71.5
80,609
69.1
2,812
3.4
33,244

117,413
84,008
71.5
81,390
69.3
2,618
3.1
33,405

117,110
84,087
71.8
81,345
69.5
2,743
3.3
33,023

117,181
84,001
71.7
81,202
69.3
2,799
3.3
33,180

117,254
83,176
70.9
79,832
68.1
3,344
4.0
34,078

117,330
80,461
68.6
69,977
59.6
10,483
13.0
36,870

Women, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133,579
76,069
56.9
73,747
55.2
2,323
3.1
57,510

134,119
76,623
57.1
73,373
54.7
3,250
4.2
57,496

134,189
73,010
54.4
61,516
45.8
11,494
15.7
61,179

133,579
76,313
57.1
73,697
55.2
2,616
3.4
57,266

134,329
77,507
57.7
74,769
55.7
2,738
3.5
56,822

133,988
77,518
57.9
74,774
55.8
2,744
3.5
56,470

134,053
77,538
57.8
74,888
55.9
2,651
3.4
56,514

134,119
76,790
57.3
73,415
54.7
3,375
4.4
57,329

134,189
73,343
54.7
61,487
45.8
11,855
16.2
60,847

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125,332
73,382
58.5
71,327
56.9
2,055
2.8
51,950

125,915
73,789
58.6
70,908
56.3
2,881
3.9
52,126

125,991
70,790
56.2
60,124
47.7
10,666
15.1
55,202

125,332
73,440
58.6
71,136
56.8
2,304
3.1
51,892

126,082
74,584
59.2
72,200
57.3
2,383
3.2
51,498

125,770
74,512
59.2
72,097
57.3
2,415
3.2
51,258

125,841
74,501
59.2
72,179
57.4
2,323
3.1
51,340

125,915
73,840
58.6
70,886
56.3
2,954
4.0
52,075

125,991
70,913
56.3
59,947
47.6
10,966
15.5
55,079

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,696
5,300
31.7
4,672
28.0
628
11.9
11,395

16,590
5,574
33.6
4,811
29.0
763
13.7
11,015

16,574
4,661
28.1
3,161
19.1
1,500
32.2
11,913

16,696
5,685
34.1
4,951
29.7
734
12.9
11,010

16,686
5,964
35.7
5,213
31.2
752
12.6
10,722

16,622
6,007
36.1
5,273
31.7
734
12.2
10,614

16,606
6,043
36.4
5,378
32.4
665
11.0
10,562

16,590
5,897
35.5
5,054
30.5
843
14.3
10,693

16,574
5,108
30.8
3,479
21.0
1,628
31.9
11,467

1
The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, race, sex, and age

WHITE
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

200,576
125,627
62.6
122,036
60.8
3,591
2.9
74,950

201,023
125,761
62.6
120,660
60.0
5,101
4.1
75,261

201,082
120,795
60.1
104,083
51.8
16,713
13.8
80,287

200,576
125,911
62.8
121,964
60.8
3,947
3.1
74,665

201,326
127,197
63.2
123,175
61.2
4,022
3.2
74,129

200,918
127,288
63.4
123,332
61.4
3,957
3.1
73,630

200,968
127,146
63.3
123,189
61.3
3,957
3.1
73,821

201,023
126,021
62.7
121,042
60.2
4,979
4.0
75,002

201,082
121,242
60.3
104,065
51.8
17,176
14.2
79,840

65,852
71.7
64,014
69.7
1,838
2.8

65,501
71.1
62,842
68.2
2,659
4.1

63,595
69.0
55,863
60.6
7,732
12.2

65,815
71.6
63,915
69.6
1,900
2.9

66,076
71.6
64,238
69.6
1,839
2.8

66,279
72.0
64,341
69.9
1,938
2.9

66,153
71.8
64,204
69.7
1,950
2.9

65,522
71.1
63,120
68.5
2,402
3.7

63,645
69.1
55,776
60.5
7,869
12.4

55,639
57.7
54,309
56.3
1,330
2.4

55,894
57.8
53,974
55.8
1,921
3.4

53,581
55.4
45,735
47.3
7,846
14.6

55,657
57.7
54,120
56.1
1,538
2.8

56,429
58.3
54,827
56.6
1,602
2.8

56,324
58.3
54,807
56.7
1,517
2.7

56,247
58.2
54,692
56.6
1,555
2.8

55,878
57.8
53,878
55.7
2,000
3.6

53,634
55.4
45,563
47.1
8,071
15.0

4,136
33.8
3,713
30.3
423
10.2

4,366
35.9
3,844
31.6
521
11.9

3,620
29.8
2,485
20.4
1,135
31.3

4,438
36.2
3,930
32.1
509
11.5

4,692
38.4
4,111
33.6
581
12.4

4,686
38.4
4,184
34.3
502
10.7

4,746
39.0
4,294
35.2
452
9.5

4,621
38.0
4,043
33.2
578
12.5

3,963
32.6
2,727
22.4
1,236
31.2

32,955
20,537
62.3
19,262
58.4
1,275
6.2
12,418

33,238
20,455
61.5
19,018
57.2
1,438
7.0
12,783

33,267
19,425
58.4
16,248
48.8
3,177
16.4
13,841

32,955
20,587
62.5
19,235
58.4
1,352
6.6
12,368

33,215
20,949
63.1
19,712
59.3
1,238
5.9
12,266

33,184
20,790
62.6
19,549
58.9
1,241
6.0
12,395

33,211
20,946
63.1
19,730
59.4
1,216
5.8
12,266

33,238
20,596
62.0
19,208
57.8
1,387
6.7
12,642

33,267
19,487
58.6
16,240
48.8
3,247
16.7
13,780

9,449
68.3
8,827
63.8
622
6.6

9,404
67.2
8,691
62.1
713
7.6

8,856
63.2
7,431
53.0
1,425
16.1

9,451
68.3
8,823
63.8
628
6.6

9,591
68.6
9,034
64.6
557
5.8

9,445
67.6
8,918
63.9
526
5.6

9,499
68.0
8,945
64.0
554
5.8

9,477
67.7
8,812
63.0
665
7.0

8,880
63.4
7,448
53.2
1,432
16.1

10,406
62.5
9,907
59.5
499
4.8

10,363
61.6
9,806
58.3
558
5.4

9,997
59.4
8,413
50.0
1,584
15.8

10,416
62.6
9,860
59.2
556
5.3

10,625
63.3
10,094
60.1
530
5.0

10,617
63.3
10,067
60.0
550
5.2

10,721
63.8
10,207
60.8
514
4.8

10,374
61.7
9,830
58.5
543
5.2

9,995
59.4
8,351
49.6
1,644
16.4

681
27.6
527
21.3
155
22.7

687
28.3
521
21.4
167
24.2

573
23.6
405
16.7
168
29.4

720
29.2
552
22.4
168
23.3

734
29.9
583
23.8
151
20.6

728
29.8
564
23.1
164
22.5

725
29.8
578
23.7
148
20.4

745
30.7
566
23.3
180
24.1

612
25.2
441
18.2
171
28.0

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age — Continued
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, race, sex, and age
ASIAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Apr.
2019
16,290
10,166
62.4
9,954
61.1
212
2.1
6,124

Mar.
2020
16,419
10,486
63.9
10,058
61.3
428
4.1
5,932

Apr.
2020
16,363
9,893
60.5
8,476
51.8
1,418
14.3
6,470

Apr.
2019
16,290
10,194
62.6
9,969
61.2
225
2.2
6,096

Dec.
2019
16,482
10,478
63.6
10,214
62.0
264
2.5
6,004

Jan.
2020
16,178
10,332
63.9
10,017
61.9
315
3.0
5,847

Feb.
2020
16,421
10,574
64.4
10,312
62.8
262
2.5
5,848

Mar.
2020
16,419
10,470
63.8
10,037
61.1
433
4.1
5,948

1
The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are
introduced annually with the release of January data.

Apr.
2020
16,363
9,938
60.7
8,499
51.9
1,438
14.5
6,425

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted
Employment status, sex, and age

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio.............. .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio.............. .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio.............. .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio.............. .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

43,289
28,474
65.8
27,415
63.3
1,059
3.7
14,814

43,895
29,372
66.9
27,531
62.7
1,841
6.3
14,523

43,975
27,752
63.1
22,625
51.5
5,126
18.5
16,223

43,289
28,561
66.0
27,364
63.2
1,198
4.2
14,727

43,986
29,517
67.1
28,286
64.3
1,231
4.2
14,468

43,742
29,672
67.8
28,397
64.9
1,275
4.3
14,070

43,820
29,852
68.1
28,531
65.1
1,322
4.4
13,968

43,895
29,443
67.1
27,672
63.0
1,771
6.0
14,452

43,975
27,841
63.3
22,579
51.3
5,263
18.9
16,133

15,595
79.8
15,074
77.2
521
3.3

15,836
79.9
14,943
75.4
893
5.6

15,319
77.2
12,817
64.6
2,502
16.3

15,615
79.9
15,034
76.9
581
3.7

15,875
79.9
15,393
77.5
483
3.0

16,114
81.6
15,571
78.9
543
3.4

16,035
81.1
15,519
78.5
516
3.2

15,844
80.0
15,037
75.9
807
5.1

15,337
77.2
12,776
64.3
2,561
16.7

11,776
59.6
11,381
57.6
395
3.4

12,208
60.8
11,462
57.1
746
6.1

11,341
56.4
9,090
45.2
2,251
19.8

11,770
59.5
11,337
57.3
433
3.7

12,293
61.1
11,736
58.4
558
4.5

12,242
61.2
11,701
58.5
541
4.4

12,441
62.1
11,834
59.1
607
4.9

12,245
61.0
11,507
57.3
738
6.0

11,348
56.4
9,060
45.0
2,288
20.2

1,103
27.7
961
24.2
142
12.9

1,328
33.2
1,126
28.1
202
15.2

1,092
27.3
719
18.0
373
34.2

1,177
29.6
992
25.0
184
15.7

1,349
33.6
1,157
28.8
191
14.2

1,316
32.9
1,125
28.1
191
14.5

1,377
34.4
1,177
29.4
199
14.5

1,354
33.8
1,128
28.2
225
16.7

1,157
28.9
743
18.6
414
35.8

The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted
columns.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the
release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Educational attainment

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Less than a high school diploma
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,081
45.7
9,554
43.3
527
5.2

9,184
45.3
8,439
41.6
745
8.1

8,688
43.3
6,872
34.2
1,816
20.9

9,985
45.2
9,453
42.8
532
5.3

9,895
46.5
9,379
44.0
516
5.2

9,621
45.9
9,090
43.4
531
5.5

9,710
47.8
9,160
45.1
550
5.7

9,251
45.7
8,626
42.6
625
6.8

8,595
42.8
6,774
33.7
1,821
21.2

High school graduates, no college1
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35,900
57.9
34,729
56.0
1,172
3.3

35,142
57.3
33,460
54.6
1,682
4.8

33,203
54.5
27,557
45.2
5,646
17.0

35,895
57.9
34,658
55.9
1,237
3.4

36,094
58.5
34,764
56.3
1,330
3.7

36,230
58.7
34,861
56.5
1,369
3.8

36,309
58.3
34,986
56.2
1,323
3.6

35,232
57.4
33,687
54.9
1,545
4.4

33,252
54.6
27,505
45.1
5,747
17.3

Some college or associate degree
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37,494
64.9
36,405
63.0
1,089
2.9

37,256
64.5
35,803
62.0
1,453
3.9

35,935
62.6
30,634
53.4
5,301
14.8

37,348
64.7
36,199
62.7
1,149
3.1

37,509
64.7
36,491
63.0
1,018
2.7

37,283
64.6
36,243
62.8
1,040
2.8

37,325
64.8
36,209
62.9
1,116
3.0

37,381
64.7
36,013
62.3
1,368
3.7

35,860
62.5
30,485
53.1
5,376
15.0

Bachelor’s degree and higher2
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58,335
73.8
57,235
72.4
1,099
1.9

60,888
73.5
59,405
71.7
1,484
2.4

60,075
71.5
55,151
65.7
4,924
8.2

58,361
73.8
57,150
72.3
1,211
2.1

59,938
73.5
58,778
72.1
1,160
1.9

60,176
73.7
59,002
72.3
1,174
2.0

59,894
73.1
58,736
71.7
1,158
1.9

60,487
73.0
59,000
71.2
1,487
2.5

60,127
71.6
55,084
65.6
5,043
8.4

1

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
Includes persons with bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the
independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

2

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service,
and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service

Apr.
2019

Men
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Women
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18,903
9,337
49.4
9,120
48.2
217
2.3
9,566

18,544
8,944
48.2
7,894
42.6
1,050
11.7
9,600

17,022
8,219
48.3
8,049
47.3
171
2.1
8,803

16,644
7,854
47.2
6,956
41.8
898
11.4
8,790

1,881
1,118
59.4
1,072
57.0
46
4.1
763

1,900
1,090
57.4
938
49.4
152
14.0
810

Gulf War-era II veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,248
3,390
79.8
3,331
78.4
59
1.7
858

4,453
3,478
78.1
3,025
67.9
453
13.0
975

3,552
2,913
82.0
2,880
81.1
33
1.1
639

3,710
2,949
79.5
2,601
70.1
347
11.8
761

697
477
68.5
451
64.8
26
5.4
220

743
530
71.3
424
57.0
106
20.0
213

Gulf War-era I veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,119
2,413
77.4
2,360
75.7
53
2.2
705

3,076
2,260
73.5
2,100
68.3
160
7.1
816

2,593
2,056
79.3
2,011
77.5
45
2.2
538

2,563
1,946
75.9
1,817
70.9
129
6.6
617

525
357
68.0
349
66.6
8
2.2
168

513
315
61.3
283
55.1
32
10.1
198

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,298
1,480
20.3
1,442
19.8
38
2.6
5,818

6,907
1,294
18.7
1,073
15.5
221
17.0
5,613

7,047
1,405
19.9
1,373
19.5
33
2.3
5,642

6,666
1,262
18.9
1,043
15.6
220
17.4
5,404

251
75
29.9
70
27.8
5
7.3
176

241
31
13.0
31
12.7
1
–
210

Veterans of other service periods
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,238
2,054
48.5
1,986
46.9
67
3.3
2,184

4,108
1,912
46.5
1,696
41.3
216
11.3
2,196

3,830
1,846
48.2
1,785
46.6
60
3.3
1,984

3,705
1,698
45.8
1,495
40.4
203
11.9
2,007

408
208
51.0
201
49.3
7
3.2
200

403
214
53.1
201
49.9
13
6.2
189

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230,997
150,960
65.4
146,047
63.2
4,913
3.3
80,038

232,724
145,311
62.4
124,330
53.4
20,980
14.4
87,414

103,613
76,873
74.2
74,093
71.5
2,780
3.6
26,740

104,740
74,246
70.9
64,288
61.4
9,958
13.4
30,494

127,385
74,087
58.2
71,953
56.5
2,133
2.9
53,298

127,985
71,065
55.5
60,042
46.9
11,023
15.5
56,920

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the
U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August
1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service
periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the
selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not
shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally
adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Persons with a disability
Employment status, sex, and age

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

Persons with no disability
Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population..................................................... .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate.................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................ .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate.............................................................. .
Not in labor force...................................................................... .

30,770
6,384
20.7
5,978
19.4
405
6.3
24,386

29,846
5,923
19.8
4,805
16.1
1,117
18.9
23,923

227,923
155,713
68.3
150,731
66.1
4,982
3.2
72,210

230,051
149,907
65.2
128,520
55.9
21,387
14.3
80,143

Men, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate.................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................ .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate.............................................................. .
Not in labor force...................................................................... .

2,732
36.6
2,522
33.8
210
7.7
4,735

2,611
35.4
2,096
28.4
515
19.7
4,764

77,629
82.5
74,947
79.6
2,682
3.5
16,470

74,556
79.3
64,877
69.0
9,680
13.0
19,431

Women, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate.................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................ .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate.............................................................. .
Not in labor force...................................................................... .

2,402
30.2
2,249
28.3
152
6.3
5,547

2,157
30.0
1,731
24.1
426
19.7
5,035

68,967
71.3
66,927
69.2
2,039
3.0
27,760

66,201
68.2
55,927
57.6
10,275
15.5
30,938

Both sexes, 65 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate.................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................ .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate.............................................................. .
Not in labor force...................................................................... .

1,250
8.1
1,208
7.9
43
3.4
14,104

1,154
7.6
978
6.4
177
15.3
14,124

9,117
24.6
8,857
23.9
260
2.9
27,979

9,150
23.5
7,717
19.8
1,432
15.7
29,774

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty
seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or
emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as
visiting a doctor’s office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status and nativity

Apr.
2019

Men
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Women
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.................................. .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................................. .
Employed......................................................... .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed...................................................... .
Unemployment rate........................................... .
Not in labor force................................................... .

43,527
28,439
65.3
27,660
63.5
779
2.7
15,088

42,504
26,285
61.8
21,961
51.7
4,324
16.5
16,219

21,187
16,521
78.0
16,122
76.1
400
2.4
4,665

20,489
15,238
74.4
12,908
63.0
2,330
15.3
5,251

22,340
11,918
53.3
11,539
51.7
379
3.2
10,422

22,015
11,047
50.2
9,053
41.1
1,994
18.1
10,968

Native born, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.................................. .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................................. .
Employed......................................................... .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed...................................................... .
Unemployment rate........................................... .
Not in labor force................................................... .

215,166
133,657
62.1
129,049
60.0
4,608
3.4
81,509

217,392
129,545
59.6
111,365
51.2
18,180
14.0
87,847

103,927
69,506
66.9
66,842
64.3
2,664
3.8
34,421

105,218
67,582
64.2
58,902
56.0
8,680
12.8
37,636

111,239
64,151
57.7
62,208
55.9
1,944
3.0
47,087

112,174
61,963
55.2
52,463
46.8
9,500
15.3
50,211

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born
in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.
Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Category

CLASS OF WORKER
Agriculture and related industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government.................................... .
Private industries.............................. .
Private households. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other industries............................. .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME2
All industries
Part time for economic reasons3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries
Part time for economic reasons3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

2,281
1,571
687
23
154,429
145,849
21,189
124,661
825
123,835
8,543
37

2,263
1,580
661
22
152,904
144,149
21,414
122,735
712
122,023
8,717
37

2,303
1,585
693
25
131,023
123,485
19,485
104,001
492
103,509
7,514
23

2,389
1,661
693
–
154,369
145,694
20,848
124,876
–
124,046
8,559
–

2,533
1,849
684
–
156,241
147,431
21,323
126,069
–
125,250
8,821
–

2,412
1,750
647
–
156,337
147,467
21,390
126,042
–
125,234
8,808
–

2,466
1,829
645
–
156,283
147,347
20,943
126,282
–
125,487
8,897
–

2,399
1,715
660
–
153,359
144,494
21,081
123,412
–
122,693
8,818
–

2,424
1,695
701
–
131,052
123,401
19,156
104,200
–
103,713
7,544
–

4,483
2,782
1,473
22,160

5,879
4,159
1,404
20,764

10,684
9,843
728
13,149

4,706
2,868
1,447
21,356

4,148
2,657
1,215
21,586

4,182
2,655
1,294
22,154

4,318
2,776
1,317
22,175

5,765
4,043
1,321
20,601

10,887
9,939
697
12,355

4,424
2,750
1,461
21,830

5,788
4,090
1,392
20,392

10,524
9,694
723
12,779

4,645
2,834
1,437
21,008

4,111
2,613
1,209
21,180

4,091
2,580
1,308
21,784

4,225
2,719
1,313
21,770

5,681
3,965
1,312
20,236

10,730
9,780
695
11,971

Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for
the entire week.
3
Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business
conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
4
Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or
training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to
34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment
of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
2

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

AGE AND SEX
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156,710
4,672
1,543
3,129
152,038
14,114
137,923
100,890
35,602
33,001
32,287
37,033

155,167
4,811
1,636
3,175
150,356
13,248
137,107
100,141
35,429
33,050
31,662
36,966

133,326
3,161
1,101
2,060
130,165
9,951
120,214
87,910
30,456
29,658
27,796
32,304

156,696
4,951
1,728
3,201
151,744
14,207
137,525
100,691
35,586
32,943
32,162
36,834

158,803
5,213
1,874
3,339
153,590
14,142
139,426
101,653
36,230
33,406
32,017
37,773

158,714
5,273
1,949
3,311
153,441
14,214
139,215
101,487
36,129
33,412
31,945
37,728

158,759
5,378
1,972
3,401
153,381
14,278
139,188
101,426
36,123
33,402
31,901
37,762

155,772
5,054
1,800
3,269
150,719
13,428
137,392
100,313
35,501
33,168
31,644
37,079

133,403
3,479
1,302
2,154
129,924
10,023
119,906
87,769
30,453
29,607
27,709
32,137

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82,963
2,252
821
1,430
80,711
7,161
73,551
53,870
19,170
17,815
16,884
19,681

81,794
2,346
724
1,622
79,448
6,688
72,760
53,170
18,957
17,687
16,527
19,590

71,810
1,769
566
1,203
70,041
5,183
64,858
47,282
16,390
16,090
14,803
17,575

82,999
2,390
894
1,492
80,609
7,212
73,389
53,789
19,170
17,770
16,849
19,600

84,034
2,644
876
1,766
81,390
7,152
74,217
54,005
19,364
17,881
16,761
20,212

83,940
2,596
860
1,733
81,345
7,307
74,057
53,840
19,145
17,884
16,810
20,217

83,871
2,669
891
1,784
81,202
7,272
73,982
53,770
19,175
17,874
16,720
20,213

82,357
2,525
817
1,715
79,832
6,818
73,159
53,374
19,002
17,790
16,582
19,785

71,916
1,939
632
1,277
69,977
5,222
64,758
47,236
16,396
16,049
14,792
17,522

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73,747
2,420
721
1,699
71,327
6,954
64,373
47,020
16,432
15,186
15,402
17,352

73,373
2,465
912
1,553
70,908
6,561
64,347
46,971
16,472
15,363
15,135
17,376

61,516
1,392
536
856
60,124
4,768
55,356
40,627
14,066
13,568
12,993
14,729

73,697
2,561
834
1,709
71,136
6,995
64,136
46,902
16,416
15,173
15,313
17,234

74,769
2,568
999
1,573
72,200
6,990
65,208
47,648
16,866
15,525
15,256
17,561

74,774
2,677
1,089
1,578
72,097
6,907
65,158
47,647
16,984
15,528
15,135
17,510

74,888
2,709
1,081
1,616
72,179
7,006
65,206
47,657
16,949
15,528
15,180
17,549

73,415
2,529
983
1,554
70,886
6,610
64,232
46,939
16,499
15,378
15,062
17,293

61,487
1,541
670
877
59,947
4,801
55,147
40,533
14,058
13,558
12,917
14,615

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45,927
36,414
9,698

45,901
36,700
9,402

41,843
32,034
7,908

45,758
36,205
–

46,177
36,631
–

46,257
36,869
–

46,067
36,597
–

45,920
36,353
–

41,683
31,860
–

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS
Full-time workers3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129,212
27,498

127,981
27,187

113,656
19,670

129,816
26,943

131,755
26,992

131,099
27,529

131,109
27,726

129,298
26,553

114,322
19,106

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent of total employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,765
5.0

7,358
4.7

5,360
4.0

7,849
5.0

7,946
5.0

8,152
5.1

8,070
5.1

7,268
4.7

5,451
4.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Self-employed workers, incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,094
9,230

6,285
9,378

6,405
8,207

–
9,252

–
9,506

–
9,455

–
9,542

–
9,478

–
8,245

1

Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex
married couples only.
2
Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020,
referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
3
Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
4
Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment rates

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

AGE AND SEX
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years.................................... .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over............................. .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years............................ .
35 to 44 years............................ .
45 to 54 years............................ .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,850
734
274
453
5,116
989
4,141
3,156
1,422
898
836
975

7,140
843
354
479
6,297
1,281
5,007
3,725
1,534
1,157
1,034
1,276

23,078
1,628
496
1,126
21,449
3,466
18,008
12,909
5,176
3,849
3,884
5,071

3.6
12.9
13.7
12.4
3.3
6.5
2.9
3.0
3.8
2.7
2.5
2.6

3.5
12.6
13.7
12.1
3.2
6.3
2.8
3.0
3.6
2.8
2.6
2.4

3.6
12.2
11.8
12.5
3.3
6.6
2.9
3.0
3.7
2.8
2.5
2.6

3.5
11.0
9.8
12.0
3.2
6.4
2.9
3.0
3.7
2.8
2.5
2.6

4.4
14.3
16.4
12.8
4.0
8.7
3.5
3.6
4.1
3.4
3.2
3.3

14.7
31.9
27.6
34.3
14.2
25.7
13.1
12.8
14.5
11.5
12.3
13.6

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years.................................... .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over............................. .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years............................ .
35 to 44 years............................ .
45 to 54 years............................ .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3,234
422
125
300
2,812
598
2,234
1,707
720
495
491
527

3,765
421
142
265
3,344
681
2,651
1,951
842
584
525
700

11,223
739
168
567
10,483
1,601
8,886
6,477
2,711
1,870
1,896
2,409

3.8
15.0
12.3
16.7
3.4
7.7
3.0
3.1
3.6
2.7
2.8
2.6

3.5
13.0
14.6
12.8
3.1
7.2
2.7
2.9
3.6
2.5
2.5
2.2

3.6
13.5
14.4
12.9
3.3
6.8
2.9
3.0
3.9
2.6
2.5
2.6

3.6
11.2
10.8
12.0
3.3
6.7
3.0
3.1
3.9
2.8
2.5
2.7

4.4
14.3
14.8
13.4
4.0
9.1
3.5
3.5
4.2
3.2
3.1
3.4

13.5
27.6
21.0
30.8
13.0
23.5
12.1
12.1
14.2
10.4
11.4
12.1

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years.................................... .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over............................. .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years............................ .
35 to 44 years............................ .
45 to 54 years............................ .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,616
312
148
153
2,304
391
1,907
1,449
702
403
344
476

3,375
422
212
214
2,954
600
2,356
1,774
692
573
509
582

11,855
889
328
558
10,966
1,865
9,122
6,432
2,464
1,979
1,988
2,671

3.4
10.9
15.1
8.2
3.1
5.3
2.9
3.0
4.1
2.6
2.2
2.7

3.5
12.1
12.9
11.3
3.2
5.5
2.9
3.1
3.5
3.0
2.7
2.6

3.5
11.0
9.6
12.1
3.2
6.5
2.9
3.0
3.5
2.9
2.5
2.4

3.4
10.8
8.9
12.0
3.1
6.1
2.8
2.9
3.4
2.8
2.6
2.4

4.4
14.3
17.8
12.1
4.0
8.3
3.5
3.6
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.3

16.2
36.6
32.9
38.9
15.5
28.0
14.2
13.7
14.9
12.7
13.3
15.5

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

830
678
501

1,065
1,114
526

4,457
4,811
1,495

1.8
1.8
4.9

1.6
2.1
4.2

1.7
2.1
5.4

2.0
2.2
4.1

2.3
3.0
5.3

9.7
13.1
15.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS
Full-time workers3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,687
1,171

5,477
1,712

16,885
6,194

3.5
4.2

3.4
3.9

3.5
4.1

3.5
3.7

4.1
6.1

12.9
24.5

1

Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to
persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
2
Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members,
but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an
opposite-sex spouse.
3
Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time
jobs.
4
Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from
part-time jobs.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment
of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Reason

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Permanent job losers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persons who completed temporary jobs. . . .
Job leavers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reentrants........................................... .
New entrants........................................ .

2,484
574
1,910
1,287
623
685
1,761
457

4,441
2,223
2,219
1,559
660
695
1,784
449

20,384
17,878
2,506
1,951
555
520
1,329
271

2,660
722
1,938
1,314
625
728
1,899
535

2,686
807
1,880
1,295
585
829
1,655
551

2,665
742
1,923
1,289
634
836
1,838
557

2,723
801
1,922
1,279
644
777
1,803
505

3,946
1,848
2,099
1,456
643
727
1,778
509

20,626
18,063
2,563
2,000
563
570
1,477
389

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reentrants........................................... .
New entrants........................................ .

46.1
10.6
35.5
12.7
32.7
8.5

60.3
30.2
30.1
9.4
24.2
6.1

90.6
79.4
11.1
2.3
5.9
1.2

45.7
12.4
33.3
12.5
32.6
9.2

46.9
14.1
32.9
14.5
28.9
9.6

45.2
12.6
32.6
14.2
31.2
9.4

46.9
13.8
33.1
13.4
31.0
8.7

56.7
26.5
30.2
10.5
25.5
7.3

89.4
78.3
11.1
2.5
6.4
1.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reentrants........................................... .
New entrants........................................ .

1.5
0.4
1.1
0.3

2.7
0.4
1.1
0.3

13.1
0.3
0.9
0.2

1.6
0.4
1.2
0.3

1.6
0.5
1.0
0.3

1.6
0.5
1.1
0.3

1.7
0.5
1.1
0.3

2.4
0.4
1.1
0.3

13.2
0.4
0.9
0.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the
independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Duration

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks....................................... .
15 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 26 weeks................................... .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,585
1,572
2,231
997
1,234

3,118
2,008
2,244
999
1,245

13,880
6,728
1,897
968
929

1,906
1,835
2,087
860
1,227

2,065
1,730
1,998
812
1,186

2,059
1,755
2,053
887
1,166

2,013
1,803
1,927
825
1,102

3,542
1,794
1,971
808
1,164

14,283
7,004
1,772
833
939

Average (mean) duration, in weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Median duration, in weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.2
11.2

17.5
7.3

7.7
4.0

22.8
9.3

20.8
9.0

21.9
9.3

20.9
9.1

17.1
7.0

6.1
2.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks....................................... .
15 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 to 26 weeks................................... .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29.4
29.2
41.4
18.5
22.9

42.3
27.2
30.4
13.6
16.9

61.7
29.9
8.4
4.3
4.1

32.7
31.5
35.8
14.8
21.1

35.6
29.9
34.5
14.0
20.5

35.1
29.9
35.0
15.1
19.9

35.1
31.4
33.6
14.4
19.2

48.5
24.5
27.0
11.1
15.9

61.9
30.4
7.7
3.6
4.1

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the
independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employed
Occupation

Total, 16 years and over1............................................ .
Management, professional, and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . .
Management, business, and financial operations
occupations.................................................... .
Professional and related occupations......................... .
Service occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sales and office occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sales and related occupations................................. .
Office and administrative support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
occupations....................................................... .
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction and extraction occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. . . . . . . . . . .
Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations....................................................... .
Production occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Unemployed

Unemployment
rates

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

156,710
63,560

133,326
61,152

5,387
1,040

22,504
5,079

3.3
1.6

14.4
7.7

26,645
36,915
26,921
33,295
15,211
18,084

26,437
34,715
18,042
26,546
12,218
14,328

375
664
1,132
1,254
625
629

1,742
3,337
6,723
4,599
2,519
2,080

1.4
1.8
4.0
3.6
3.9
3.4

6.2
8.8
27.1
14.8
17.1
12.7

14,141
1,198
8,274
4,669

11,827
1,079
6,549
4,199

725
140
453
132

2,301
153
1,529
619

4.9
10.5
5.2
2.7

16.3
12.4
18.9
12.8

18,792
8,534
10,257

15,758
6,380
9,378

768
340
427

3,502
1,457
2,045

3.9
3.8
4.0

18.2
18.6
17.9

Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect
the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification
system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly
comparable with earlier years.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted

Industry and class of worker

Total, 16 years and over1............................................................... .
Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction................................... .
Construction......................................................................... .
Manufacturing....................................................................... .
Durable goods.................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information........................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services.............................................. .
Education and health services.................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services....................................................................... .
Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government workers.................................................................. .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment
rates

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

5,387
4,254
17
439
483
265
218
829
255
87
210
611
512
647
164
121
347
208

22,504
19,167
77
1,531
1,992
1,416
576
3,223
989
279
545
1,697
2,552
4,860
1,421
163
2,017
886

3.3
3.3
2.4
4.7
3.0
2.6
3.6
4.3
3.4
3.5
2.1
3.5
2.1
4.5
2.5
7.3
1.6
2.2

14.4
15.6
10.2
16.6
13.2
15.1
10.2
17.1
13.5
11.0
5.4
9.8
10.9
39.3
23.0
9.6
9.4
9.7

Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the
introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from
the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Not seasonally adjusted
Measure

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer,
as a percent of the civilian labor force. . . . . . . . .
U-2 Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian
labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the
civilian labor force (official unemployment
rate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged
workers, as a percent of the civilian labor
force plus discouraged workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged
workers, plus all other persons marginally
attached to the labor force, as a percent of
the civilian labor force plus all persons
marginally attached to the labor force. . . . . . . . .
U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons
marginally attached to the labor force, plus
total employed part time for economic
reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor
force plus all persons marginally attached to
the labor force.................................... .

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2019

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Dec.
2019

Jan.
2020

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020

Apr.
2020

1.4

1.4

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.5

2.7

13.1

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

2.4

13.2

3.3

4.5

14.4

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.5

4.4

14.7

3.6

4.8

14.8

3.9

3.7

3.8

3.8

4.7

15.1

4.2

5.3

15.6

4.5

4.2

4.4

4.4

5.2

16.0

6.9

8.9

22.4

7.3

6.7

6.9

7.0

8.7

22.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and
are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have
given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are
available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of
January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Category

Apr.
2019

Men
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Women
Apr.
2020

Apr.
2019

Apr.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE
Total not in the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marginally attached to the labor force1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers2........................................ .
Other persons marginally attached to the labor force3. . .

96,596
4,951
1,417
454
963

104,066
9,761
2,211
585
1,626

39,087
2,420
742
288
455

42,887
4,792
1,170
309
860

57,510
2,531
674
166
508

61,179
4,969
1,041
275
766

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders4............................................ .
Percent of total employed......................................... .
Primary job full time, secondary job part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both full time...................... .
Hours vary on primary or secondary job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,765
5.0
4,317
2,098
252
1,045

5,360
4.0
3,202
1,170
275
671

3,693
4.5
2,227
738
168
535

2,641
3.7
1,709
387
145
381

4,072
5.5
2,090
1,360
84
510

2,719
4.4
1,493
783
130
290

1

Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference
week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
2
Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks
schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
3
Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and
transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
4
Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Industry

Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

150,430
127,482
20,884

151,076
128,040
20,771

150,583
127,531
20,785

131,071
108,956
18,622

150,492
127,939
21,039

152,442
129,697
21,205

151,572
128,855
21,131

131,072
109,335
18,776

Change
from:
Mar.2020 Apr.2020p
-20,500
-19,520
-2,355

Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, except oil and gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coal mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal ore mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmetallic mineral mining and
quarrying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support activities for mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

732
45.9
686.0
144.8
191.4
51.4
42.4

700
53.6
646.7
155.0
182.9
50.0
40.5

697
53.0
644.2
155.2
185.0
49.5
40.9

646
46.6
599.6
149.3
179.2
43.7
40.7

741
48.6
692.4
146.1
192.6
51.5
42.6

714
54.5
659.7
156.6
188.6
50.4
40.8

707
54.6
652.7
156.6
188.5
49.8
41.0

657
49.6
606.9
151.8
180.6
43.8
40.8

-50
-5.0
-45.8
-4.8
-7.9
-6.0
-0.2

97.6
349.8

92.4
308.8

94.6
304.0

94.8
271.1

98.4
353.7

97.4
314.5

97.7
307.6

96.0
274.5

-1.7
-33.1

Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction of buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heavy and civil engineering construction. . . . . .
Specialty trade contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential specialty trade contractors. . . . . .
Nonresidential specialty trade contractors. . .

7,377
1,629.2
801.3
827.9
1,064.7
4,682.9
2,052.3
2,630.6

7,276
1,636.0
814.1
821.9
994.3
4,645.6
2,036.0
2,609.6

7,328
1,640.7
818.1
822.6
1,019.7
4,667.9
2,041.9
2,626.0

6,544
1,453.2
711.4
741.8
1,002.6
4,087.8
1,791.0
2,296.8

7,469
1,649.4
811.6
837.8
1,078.8
4,741.0
2,079.2
2,661.8

7,639
1,689.1
841.3
847.8
1,098.9
4,850.7
2,124.7
2,726.0

7,606
1,681.2
839.7
841.5
1,094.8
4,830.2
2,112.4
2,717.8

6,631
1,475.1
722.1
753.0
1,015.9
4,139.7
1,815.0
2,324.7

-975
-206.1
-117.6
-88.5
-78.9
-690.5
-297.4
-393.1

Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmetallic mineral products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fabricated metal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machinery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and electronic products. . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and peripheral equipment. . . . . .
Communications equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Semiconductors and electronic
components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous computer and electronic
products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical equipment and appliances. . . . . . . .
Transportation equipment1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and related products. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous durable goods
manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile product mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and paper products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing and related support activities. . . . . . .
Petroleum and coal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastics and rubber products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous nondurable goods
manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,775

12,795

12,760

11,432

12,829

12,852

12,818

11,488

-1,330

8,038
407.4
418.5
387.9
1,490.6
1,126.1
1,069.1
159.7
83.7

8,036
407.8
413.4
373.5
1,478.9
1,110.5
1,095.9
169.0
84.3

8,020
406.0
417.0
372.3
1,474.8
1,104.5
1,096.0
169.4
84.7

7,107
380.8
363.1
336.1
1,367.3
1,023.7
1,083.8
169.5
83.5

8,056
409.2
419.7
388.4
1,492.9
1,128.3
1,073.2
160.3
83.9

8,058
410.6
425.6
372.7
1,483.9
1,109.9
1,098.2
169.3
84.6

8,038
410.1
424.4
371.7
1,477.8
1,105.9
1,097.6
169.7
84.6

7,124
382.2
362.8
337.4
1,369.1
1,026.4
1,088.0
170.5
83.7

-914
-27.9
-61.6
-34.3
-108.7
-79.5
-9.6
0.8
-0.9

374.2
419.2

377.7
432.0

377.1
431.7

373.1
425.0

375.3
420.7

378.0
433.1

377.0
432.9

374.5
426.2

-2.5
-6.7

32.3
403.5
1,732.5
1,004.6
387.8

32.9
404.2
1,746.2
1,004.1
385.4

33.1
401.9
1,743.8
1,002.1
385.6

32.7
381.4
1,316.5
615.7
326.1

32.9
404.9
1,733.9
1,002.9
388.4

33.2
404.5
1,742.9
998.7
386.4

33.4
403.9
1,739.8
995.5
386.0

33.1
383.1
1,318.5
614.0
326.8

-0.3
-20.8
-421.3
-381.5
-59.2

614.6

620.3

618.0

528.6

616.6

622.9

620.6

529.8

-90.8

4,737
1,614.2
110.4
113.9
111.9
365.0
423.3
113.8
846.7
732.7

4,759
1,636.3
107.0
110.4
104.7
362.5
415.2
110.2
849.9
746.0

4,740
1,629.6
105.0
108.7
104.4
362.9
411.7
110.2
849.5
745.2

4,325
1,539.3
85.6
88.2
62.4
355.4
332.6
103.8
817.2
680.4

4,773
1,636.7
110.4
114.3
111.9
365.4
425.5
115.2
848.5
733.7

4,794
1,655.4
106.5
111.3
105.0
363.6
417.2
114.3
851.1
746.2

4,780
1,653.5
105.3
109.7
104.6
363.4
413.4
113.7
850.3
746.0

4,364
1,567.2
85.8
88.6
62.4
355.2
334.4
105.0
819.2
680.5

-416
-86.3
-19.5
-21.1
-42.2
-8.2
-79.0
-8.7
-31.1
-65.5

305.0

316.4

312.8

260.2

310.9

323.5

320.5

265.6

-54.9

Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106,598

107,269

106,746

90,334

106,900

108,492

107,724

90,559

-17,165

Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27,425

27,481

27,459

24,508

27,671

27,830

27,776

24,719

-3,057

Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

5,878.5
3,188.4
2,161.5

5,902.7
3,209.9
2,162.8

5,906.3
3,215.7
2,158.2

5,552.6
3,032.2
2,019.4

5,893.7
3,195.2
2,167.0

5,934.2
3,221.0
2,180.4

5,931.3
3,224.4
2,174.1

5,568.5
3,039.4
2,025.9

-362.8
-185.0
-148.2

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
— Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Change
from:
Mar.2020 Apr.2020p

Wholesale trade - Continued
Electronic markets and agents and
brokers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

528.6

530.0

532.4

501.0

531.5

532.8

532.8

503.2

-29.6

Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle and parts dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automobile dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other motor vehicle dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores. . .
Furniture and home furnishings stores. . . . . .
Electronics and appliance stores. . . . . . . . . . . .
Building material and garden supply
stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food and beverage stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and personal care stores. . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing and clothing accessories stores. . . .
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music
stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General merchandise stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Department stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General merchandise stores, including
warehouse clubs and supercenters. . . . .
Miscellaneous store retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonstore retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15,474.7
2,027.8
1,299.7
165.7
562.4
468.5
474.9

15,424.9
2,050.3
1,308.0
158.2
584.1
468.2
473.1

15,408.8
2,048.6
1,298.7
161.1
588.8
459.4
469.3

13,408.4
1,711.3
1,034.5
126.1
550.7
247.3
441.8

15,631.1
2,029.2
1,302.2
164.6
562.3
473.7
479.0

15,672.0
2,063.7
1,309.4
165.6
588.7
470.7
475.3

15,627.2
2,058.2
1,301.9
165.4
590.9
462.0
472.5

13,520.3
1,713.5
1,037.3
124.7
551.5
253.0
445.2

-2,106.9
-344.7
-264.6
-40.7
-39.4
-209.0
-27.3

1,334.0
3,046.0
1,043.8
928.9
1,273.0

1,261.5
3,069.2
1,053.4
934.4
1,263.2

1,331.1
3,057.1
1,050.9
932.0
1,229.5

1,320.0
3,022.8
950.7
894.0
513.0

1,287.6
3,072.1
1,051.7
937.4
1,316.8

1,309.3
3,090.2
1,058.3
947.2
1,289.1

1,322.5
3,087.2
1,057.0
944.0
1,269.6

1,269.8
3,045.2
957.7
900.6
530.0

-52.7
-42.0
-99.3
-43.4
-739.6

534.5
2,958.0
1,038.8

537.1
2,969.5
1,044.0

518.8
2,978.5
1,041.2

339.5
2,916.7
885.7

551.4
3,026.7
1,078.3

549.8
3,046.8
1,078.5

535.9
3,055.3
1,081.6

351.0
2,987.9
920.8

-184.9
-67.4
-160.8

1,919.2
825.1
560.2

1,925.5
802.6
542.4

1,937.3
790.0
543.6

2,031.0
540.8
510.5

1,948.3
837.8
567.7

1,968.3
820.4
551.2

1,973.7
812.9
550.1

2,067.1
548.7
517.7

93.4
-264.2
-32.4

Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rail transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transit and ground passenger
transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pipeline transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenic and sightseeing transportation. . . . . . .
Support activities for transportation. . . . . . . . . .
Couriers and messengers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warehousing and storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,525.7
499.5
179.5
64.7
1,517.2

5,609.5
508.0
158.9
62.8
1,503.4

5,598.1
511.3
159.2
62.0
1,500.7

5,006.8
371.8
157.2
57.3
1,419.8

5,598.6
500.3
179.6
65.5
1,530.5

5,678.1
511.2
159.9
64.9
1,527.3

5,670.9
512.7
159.6
64.3
1,523.9

5,086.8
372.0
157.2
58.5
1,435.6

-584.1
-140.7
-2.4
-5.8
-88.3

516.6
50.8
31.5
749.1
746.9
1,169.9

520.5
50.4
28.0
762.2
816.8
1,198.5

516.6
51.3
27.8
753.9
808.5
1,206.8

332.4
50.4
12.6
687.8
786.7
1,130.8

502.0
51.0
36.0
751.0
797.5
1,185.2

508.2
50.5
36.7
763.8
847.8
1,207.8

503.3
51.4
35.4
756.5
846.7
1,217.1

318.0
50.5
13.9
689.6
848.5
1,143.0

-185.3
-0.9
-21.5
-66.9
1.8
-74.1

Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

546.5

543.9

545.7

539.7

548.0

546.1

546.4

543.1

-3.3

Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing industries, except Internet. . . . . . . . . .
Motion picture and sound recording
industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadcasting, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data processing, hosting and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other information services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,832
750.7

2,881
767.8

2,876
768.4

2,629
749.9

2,845
755.9

2,894
770.0

2,890
771.7

2,636
754.6

-254
-17.1

437.4
266.8
711.0

444.7
263.9
701.2

442.6
262.8
698.5

240.4
250.3
689.4

437.8
266.9
716.2

456.3
263.3
700.5

452.3
262.3
697.7

235.8
250.3
694.6

-216.5
-12.0
-3.1

334.7
331.1

349.4
353.9

348.2
355.2

344.0
355.4

335.5
333.1

349.6
354.4

349.0
357.4

342.5
357.9

-6.5
0.5

Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finance and insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monetary authorities - central bank. . . . . . . . . .
Credit intermediation and related
activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depository credit intermediation1. . . . . . . . . .
Commercial banking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondepository credit intermediation. . . . . . .
Activities related to credit intermediation.. .
Securities, commodity contracts,
investments, and funds and trusts. . . . . . . .
Insurance carriers and related activities. . . . .
Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . . . . . . . .
Real estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental and leasing services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,678
6,387.5
19.8

8,797
6,474.4
19.1

8,794
6,477.8
19.6

8,536
6,425.8
19.6

8,721
6,408.6
19.9

8,845
6,486.4
19.3

8,842
6,491.0
19.6

8,580
6,451.1
19.7

-262
-39.9
0.1

2,635.0
1,770.8
1,388.7
565.4
298.8

2,673.6
1,786.3
1,394.7
582.6
304.7

2,676.7
1,783.7
1,391.5
584.8
308.2

2,642.8
1,772.5
1,385.0
572.0
298.3

2,645.3
1,774.7
1,391.5
570.9
299.6

2,680.5
1,788.1
1,393.8
587.2
305.2

2,684.3
1,785.8
1,391.2
589.7
308.8

2,653.1
1,776.4
1,386.7
577.7
299.0

-31.2
-9.4
-4.5
-12.0
-9.8

957.7
2,775.0
2,290.4
1,696.0
571.4

965.8
2,815.9
2,322.3
1,732.1
566.9

965.7
2,815.8
2,316.6
1,728.2
565.1

960.1
2,803.3
2,109.7
1,634.7
452.3

961.5
2,781.9
2,312.0
1,707.5
581.2

968.8
2,817.8
2,358.5
1,750.0
584.8

969.6
2,817.5
2,350.7
1,747.8
579.4

965.2
2,813.1
2,128.8
1,646.5
459.2

-4.4
-4.4
-221.9
-101.3
-120.2

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
— Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Change
from:
Mar.2020 Apr.2020p

Real estate and rental and leasing Continued
Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets. . . .

23.0

23.3

23.3

22.7

23.3

23.7

23.5

23.1

-0.4

Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and technical services. . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting and bookkeeping services. . . . . .
Architectural and engineering services. . . . . .
Specialized design services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer systems design and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management and technical consulting
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scientific research and development
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advertising and related services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other professional and technical services. . .
Management of companies and enterprises. . .
Administrative and waste services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrative and support services. . . . . . . . .
Office administrative services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Facilities support services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment services1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business support services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Travel arrangement and reservation
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Investigation and security services. . . . . . . .
Services to buildings and dwellings. . . . . . .
Other support services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waste management and remediation
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21,169
9,522.1
1,140.6
1,102.3
1,495.1
144.1

21,246
9,760.4
1,156.0
1,144.8
1,522.9
143.6

21,186
9,730.6
1,156.5
1,142.8
1,521.5
142.9

19,264
9,209.9
1,092.1
1,058.6
1,443.4
128.4

21,226
9,477.7
1,146.0
1,018.5
1,507.0
143.8

21,529
9,687.0
1,162.7
1,038.0
1,539.8
145.1

21,460
9,702.7
1,161.6
1,042.5
1,539.4
144.4

19,332
9,193.7
1,097.6
974.9
1,454.2
129.1

-2,128
-509.0
-64.0
-67.6
-85.2
-15.3

2,179.3

2,250.5

2,228.1

2,155.5

2,185.1

2,252.7

2,254.6

2,161.4

-93.2

1,510.0

1,549.6

1,544.3

1,474.7

1,518.5

1,561.1

1,562.7

1,484.2

-78.5

716.9
488.7
745.1
2,406.1
9,241.2
8,794.2
524.5
162.1
3,558.2
2,886.0
873.4

743.9
491.1
758.0
2,433.4
9,052.6
8,593.4
526.4
163.3
3,499.4
2,804.6
869.9

746.8
487.5
760.2
2,434.7
9,021.1
8,560.9
525.6
164.0
3,465.0
2,773.9
862.6

726.5
451.1
679.6
2,351.5
7,702.5
7,251.3
488.1
153.2
2,581.1
1,985.1
769.0

720.8
489.4
748.6
2,417.0
9,331.4
8,881.1
525.1
162.5
3,631.2
2,950.8
882.4

749.5
492.6
766.1
2,447.3
9,395.0
8,928.0
530.3
164.3
3,650.2
2,939.8
869.4

750.9
490.0
766.8
2,447.3
9,309.6
8,842.5
529.7
164.7
3,587.5
2,881.9
867.2

730.8
452.0
682.5
2,365.4
7,773.2
7,319.2
489.3
153.8
2,641.7
2,040.0
773.7

-20.1
-38.0
-84.3
-81.9
-1,536.4
-1,523.3
-40.4
-10.9
-945.8
-841.9
-93.5

218.5
952.8
2,167.8
336.9

218.5
965.7
2,009.7
340.5

211.2
957.6
2,036.9
338.0

172.5
883.1
1,918.9
285.4

218.0
956.1
2,169.5
336.2

222.5
970.2
2,178.8
342.3

212.4
965.6
2,175.4
340.0

172.4
888.3
1,916.0
284.0

-40.0
-77.3
-259.4
-56.0

447.0

459.2

460.2

451.2

450.3

467.0

467.1

454.0

-13.1

Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ambulatory health care services. . . . . . . . . .
Offices of physicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offices of dentists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offices of other health practitioners. . . . .
Outpatient care centers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medical and diagnostic laboratories. . . .
Home health care services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other ambulatory health care
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nursing and residential care facilities. . . . .
Nursing care facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential mental health facilities. . . . . .
Community care facilities for the
elderly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other residential care facilities. . . . . . . . . .
Social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Individual and family services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency and other relief services. . . . . .
Vocational rehabilitation services. . . . . . . . .
Child day care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24,206
3,907.5
20,298.7
16,172.5
7,640.7
2,650.0
966.4
961.0
957.5
280.1
1,513.6

24,711
3,995.5
20,715.4
16,463.3
7,831.4
2,716.9
972.9
985.1
979.0
289.2
1,565.2

24,600
3,933.3
20,666.3
16,433.7
7,799.3
2,702.4
957.5
975.8
984.0
288.7
1,570.8

22,111
3,506.1
18,604.5
15,005.8
6,618.9
2,458.9
455.4
773.3
895.9
257.1
1,482.2

24,046
3,740.1
20,306.0
16,200.7
7,648.7
2,655.8
968.0
961.2
957.6
280.2
1,514.1

24,586
3,828.5
20,757.7
16,507.2
7,855.2
2,722.9
977.0
987.8
980.2
289.6
1,572.4

24,485
3,791.6
20,693.6
16,468.7
7,815.0
2,707.7
959.3
980.2
982.7
289.1
1,575.3

21,941
3,334.5
18,606.7
15,032.4
6,626.7
2,464.4
456.0
775.1
894.8
257.9
1,481.7

-2,544
-457.1
-2,086.9
-1,436.3
-1,188.3
-243.3
-503.3
-205.1
-87.9
-31.2
-93.6

312.1
5,168.9
3,362.9
1,593.0
644.8

323.1
5,255.6
3,376.3
1,586.0
650.7

320.1
5,261.5
3,372.9
1,582.0
651.5

296.1
5,123.4
3,263.5
1,536.4
624.7

311.8
5,178.3
3,373.7
1,599.1
645.9

325.3
5,261.0
3,391.0
1,592.2
653.0

320.7
5,264.9
3,388.8
1,590.2
653.4

296.8
5,130.0
3,275.7
1,543.0
626.5

-23.9
-134.9
-113.1
-47.2
-26.9

962.1
163.0
4,126.2
2,594.2
182.4
321.1
1,028.5

973.0
166.6
4,252.1
2,697.4
185.3
323.4
1,046.0

972.6
166.8
4,232.6
2,693.9
185.7
319.3
1,033.7

940.8
161.6
3,598.7
2,463.3
175.5
256.6
703.3

965.0
163.7
4,105.3
2,590.6
182.7
322.7
1,009.4

977.9
167.9
4,250.5
2,699.9
186.0
326.0
1,038.6

977.7
167.5
4,224.9
2,698.0
185.6
321.8
1,019.5

944.3
161.9
3,574.3
2,456.7
176.4
257.9
683.3

-33.4
-5.6
-650.6
-241.3
-9.2
-63.9
-336.2

Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing arts and spectator sports. . . . . . . .
Museums, historical sites, and similar
institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,406
2,369.9
537.1

16,264
2,260.6
474.8

15,965
2,270.4
470.4

8,655
1,100.0
284.8

16,507
2,421.3
517.0

16,867
2,472.4
511.7

16,368
2,447.2
496.4

8,715
1,124.4
279.4

-7,653
-1,322.8
-217.0

169.2

160.3

162.8

127.5

172.4

175.2

173.3

129.5

-43.8

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
— Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted

Seasonally adjusted

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Change
from:
Mar.2020 Apr.2020p

Amusements, gambling, and recreation. . . . .
Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food services and drinking places. . . . . . . . . .

1,663.6
14,036.0
2,020.2
12,015.8

1,625.5
14,003.4
2,002.0
12,001.4

1,637.2
13,694.5
1,976.3
11,718.2

687.7
7,555.1
1,157.4
6,397.7

1,731.9
14,085.6
2,066.8
12,018.8

1,785.5
14,394.1
2,091.0
12,303.1

1,777.5
13,920.6
2,045.0
11,875.6

715.5
7,590.3
1,206.0
6,384.3

-1,062.0
-6,330.3
-839.0
-5,491.3

Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repair and maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and laundry services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Membership associations and organizations. . .

5,882
1,351.8
1,529.9
3,000.7

5,889
1,373.2
1,515.9
2,999.6

5,866
1,368.7
1,498.2
2,999.1

4,631
1,154.7
717.0
2,758.8

5,884
1,347.0
1,525.9
3,011.3

5,941
1,378.6
1,537.2
3,025.6

5,903
1,370.9
1,512.2
3,019.5

4,636
1,151.0
715.3
2,769.4

-1,267
-219.9
-796.9
-250.1

Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal, except U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . .
Local government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . .

22,948
2,815.0
2,210.0
604.6
5,339.0
2,657.7
2,680.8
14,794.0
8,311.0
6,482.9

23,036
2,848.0
2,252.7
595.1
5,344.0
2,645.9
2,698.3
14,844.0
8,333.6
6,510.7

23,052
2,866.0
2,270.6
595.0
5,299.0
2,599.4
2,699.7
14,887.0
8,353.0
6,534.3

22,115
2,874.0
2,278.7
595.2
5,119.0
2,425.5
2,693.2
14,122.0
7,891.4
6,230.3

22,553
2,823.0
2,217.2
605.8
5,169.0
2,487.4
2,681.8
14,561.0
7,994.9
6,565.7

22,745
2,867.0
2,265.3
601.6
5,199.0
2,489.9
2,709.3
14,679.0
8,042.0
6,636.8

22,717
2,886.0
2,285.8
599.8
5,153.0
2,447.8
2,705.1
14,678.0
8,037.0
6,640.6

21,737
2,887.0
2,286.4
600.3
4,973.0
2,271.7
2,700.8
13,877.0
7,568.2
6,308.3

-980
1.0
0.6
0.5
-180.0
-176.1
-4.3
-801.0
-468.8
-332.3

Industry

Arts, entertainment, and recreation Continued

1

Includes other industries, not shown separately.
Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
3
Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.
2

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS
Total private............................................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging............................................................... .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods............................................................. .
Private service-providing........................................................... .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade..................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.......................................................................... .
Information........................................................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services.................................................................... .

34.4
40.3
46.8
39.2
40.6
40.9
39.9
33.3
34.3
39.0
30.7
38.7
41.8
36.2
37.7
36.2
33.0
25.9
31.9

34.4
40.4
45.6
39.3
40.7
41.1
40.0
33.2
34.2
38.8
30.7
38.2
42.6
36.3
37.6
36.1
33.1
25.8
32.0

34.1
40.1
45.2
39.1
40.4
40.8
39.8
32.9
34.1
38.8
30.6
38.0
42.3
36.4
37.6
36.1
32.9
24.2
31.4

34.2
38.3
43.1
37.8
38.3
38.1
38.5
33.4
33.8
37.6
30.6
37.3
42.6
36.5
37.6
35.8
32.5
24.2
32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS
Manufacturing.......................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods.................................................................. .

3.3
3.3
3.4

3.2
3.2
3.3

3.0
2.9
3.3

2.1
1.8
2.7

Industry

p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing...................................... .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction......................................... .
Manufacturing....................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities................ .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities.................................. .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services.................... .
Leisure and hospitality............................. .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$27.81
28.81
33.33
30.63
27.48
28.95
24.95
27.57
24.01
31.12
19.48
24.66
41.55
41.97
35.73
33.43
27.49
16.45
25.09

$28.52
29.57
34.72
31.31
28.24
29.66
25.79
28.27
24.68
31.81
20.19
25.17
42.52
43.03
36.85
34.41
27.90
16.85
25.63

$28.67
29.62
34.72
31.33
28.33
29.71
25.94
28.45
24.75
31.81
20.30
25.19
42.58
43.28
36.81
34.46
27.95
16.86
25.69

$30.01
30.13
34.99
31.38
29.11
30.69
26.56
29.98
25.70
32.38
21.20
26.01
43.28
43.78
37.44
35.71
28.30
18.00
27.40

$956.66
1,161.04
1,559.84
1,200.70
1,115.69
1,184.06
995.51
918.08
823.54
1,213.68
598.04
954.34
1,736.79
1,519.31
1,347.02
1,210.17
907.17
426.06
800.37

$981.09
1,194.63
1,583.23
1,230.48
1,149.37
1,219.03
1,031.60
938.56
844.06
1,234.23
619.83
961.49
1,811.35
1,561.99
1,385.56
1,242.20
923.49
434.73
820.16

$977.65
1,187.76
1,569.34
1,225.00
1,144.53
1,212.17
1,032.41
936.01
843.98
1,234.23
621.18
957.22
1,801.13
1,575.39
1,384.06
1,244.01
919.56
408.01
806.67

$1,026.34
1,153.98
1,508.07
1,186.16
1,114.91
1,169.29
1,022.56
1,001.33
868.66
1,217.49
648.72
970.17
1,843.73
1,597.97
1,407.74
1,278.42
919.75
435.60
882.28

p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by
industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls2

Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Percent
change
from:
Mar.
2020 Apr.
2020p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods.......................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . .
Utilities................................... .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110.5
96.6
109.0
100.9
93.7
92.8
95.1
114.6
103.6
101.4
97.4
124.5
99.1
94.1
107.7
120.5
129.6
122.0
108.2

112.0
97.6
102.3
103.5
94.1
93.2
95.7
116.0
103.9
101.6
97.7
124.6
100.7
95.9
109.0
121.9
132.9
124.2
109.6

110.3
96.5
100.4
102.5
93.2
92.3
95.0
114.1
103.3
101.5
97.1
123.8
100.0
96.1
108.9
121.5
131.5
113.0
106.9

93.9
81.9
89.0
86.4
79.2
76.4
83.9
97.4
91.2
92.4
84.0
109.0
100.1
87.9
105.7
108.5
116.4
60.2
86.1

-14.9
-15.1
-11.4
-15.7
-15.0
-17.2
-11.7
-14.6
-11.7
-9.0
-13.5
-12.0
0.1
-8.5
-2.9
-10.7
-11.5
-46.7
-19.5

1

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Percent
change
from:
Mar.
2020 Apr.
2020p

146.9
125.8
145.8
134.3
119.7
119.3
120.3
153.6
134.1
132.0
125.4
156.2
136.1
140.6
150.1
163.1
171.4
161.9
148.8

152.7
130.4
142.6
140.8
123.6
122.8
125.3
159.3
138.2
135.1
130.4
159.6
141.4
147.0
156.6
169.8
178.4
168.8
154.0

151.2
129.2
140.0
139.6
122.7
121.8
125.0
157.8
137.9
135.1
130.3
158.7
140.7
148.0
156.4
169.5
176.9
153.7
150.5

134.7
111.6
125.0
117.8
107.2
104.2
113.0
141.9
126.4
125.1
117.7
144.3
143.1
137.0
154.4
156.9
158.5
87.4
129.3

-10.9
-13.6
-10.7
-15.6
-12.6
-14.4
-9.6
-10.1
-8.3
-7.4
-9.7
-9.1
1.7
-7.4
-1.3
-7.4
-10.4
-43.1
-14.1

The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007
annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
2
The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the
corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly
earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Women employees (in thousands)

Percent of all employees

Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods................................. .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.......................................... .
Information........................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services.................................... .
Government............................................ .

75,016
62,003
4,688
95
962
3,631
1,927
1,704
57,315
11,078
1,773.2
7,758.0
1,414.9
131.5
1,130
4,946
9,651
18,584
8,780
3,146
13,013

76,291
63,148
4,769
95
994
3,680
1,957
1,723
58,379
11,156
1,787.2
7,767.0
1,468.5
132.8
1,149
5,000
9,897
19,027
8,995
3,155
13,143

75,804
62,667
4,753
95
990
3,668
1,951
1,717
57,914
11,117
1,787.0
7,734.5
1,462.6
132.8
1,146
5,002
9,858
18,935
8,716
3,140
13,137

64,546
52,023
4,207
93
894
3,220
1,719
1,501
47,816
9,467
1,651.4
6,450.8
1,232.1
132.8
1,046
4,864
8,754
16,825
4,565
2,295
12,523

49.8
48.5
22.3
12.8
12.9
28.3
23.9
35.7
53.6
40.0
30.1
49.6
25.3
24.0
39.7
56.7
45.5
77.3
53.2
53.5
57.7

50.0
48.7
22.5
13.3
13.0
28.6
24.3
35.9
53.8
40.1
30.1
49.6
25.9
24.3
39.7
56.5
46.0
77.4
53.3
53.1
57.8

50.0
48.6
22.5
13.4
13.0
28.6
24.3
35.9
53.8
40.0
30.1
49.5
25.8
24.3
39.7
56.6
45.9
77.3
53.3
53.2
57.8

49.2
47.6
22.4
14.2
13.5
28.0
24.1
34.4
52.8
38.3
29.7
47.7
24.2
24.5
39.7
56.7
45.3
76.7
52.4
49.5
57.6

p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted1
[In thousands]
Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction......................................................................... .
Manufacturing....................................................................... .
Durable goods.................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................... .
Wholesale trade.................................................................. .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing............................................... .
Utilities............................................................................. .
Information........................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services.............................................. .
Education and health services.................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services....................................................................... .

105,335
15,086
549
5,558
8,979
5,547
3,432
90,249
23,405
4,738.4
13,341.3
4,887.2
438.4
2,288
6,754
17,294
21,117
14,516
4,875

106,696
15,165
514
5,688
8,963
5,529
3,434
91,531
23,527
4,753.1
13,375.3
4,961.5
437.0
2,325
6,852
17,497
21,611
14,812
4,907

105,740
15,101
506
5,665
8,930
5,506
3,424
90,639
23,466
4,747.8
13,330.0
4,951.8
436.1
2,318
6,830
17,373
21,472
14,327
4,853

87,640
13,092
460
4,808
7,824
4,686
3,138
74,548
20,707
4,418.1
11,470.1
4,385.7
433.3
2,087
6,437
15,328
19,145
7,134
3,710

1

Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory
employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm
payrolls.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS
Total private............................................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging............................................................... .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods............................................................. .
Private service-providing........................................................... .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade..................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.......................................................................... .
Information........................................................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services.................................................................... .

33.7
41.2
47.3
39.8
41.6
42.0
41.1
32.4
33.9
38.7
30.5
38.0
42.2
35.3
36.9
35.4
32.2
24.7
30.8

33.7
41.0
45.6
39.6
41.6
41.9
41.2
32.5
34.1
38.6
30.6
38.3
43.0
35.2
36.8
35.5
32.3
24.7
31.0

33.4
40.8
45.5
39.6
41.3
41.5
41.1
32.1
33.9
38.4
30.6
37.9
42.7
35.3
36.7
35.4
32.2
22.8
30.5

33.5
38.7
43.0
38.2
38.7
38.4
39.1
32.6
33.6
37.0
30.6
37.1
42.4
35.8
36.7
35.2
31.7
22.4
31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS
Manufacturing.......................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods.................................................................. .

4.3
4.3
4.3

4.0
4.1
3.9

3.9
3.9
3.9

2.7
2.5
3.0

Industry

1

Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory
employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm
payrolls.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing...................................... .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction......................................... .
Manufacturing....................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities................ .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities.................................. .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services.................... .
Leisure and hospitality............................. .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$23.33
24.60
29.88
28.45
21.96
22.88
20.44
23.07
20.53
25.98
16.49
22.38
36.78
33.41
27.50
27.52
24.14
14.38
21.27

$23.96
25.17
30.97
28.97
22.52
23.51
20.89
23.71
20.94
26.25
16.94
22.76
37.80
34.55
28.25
28.43
24.80
14.90
21.84

$24.08
25.24
30.88
29.06
22.57
23.56
20.97
23.83
20.94
26.34
17.00
22.60
37.85
34.62
28.30
28.49
24.87
14.63
21.91

$25.12
25.25
30.99
28.74
22.76
23.68
21.41
25.10
21.66
26.83
17.61
23.33
38.11
35.58
28.72
29.73
25.33
14.71
23.10

$786.22
1,013.52
1,413.32
1,132.31
913.54
960.96
840.08
747.47
695.97
1,005.43
502.95
850.44
1,552.12
1,179.37
1,014.75
974.21
777.31
355.19
655.12

$807.45
1,031.97
1,412.23
1,147.21
936.83
985.07
860.67
770.58
714.05
1,013.25
518.36
871.71
1,625.40
1,216.16
1,039.60
1,009.27
801.04
368.03
677.04

$804.27
1,029.79
1,405.04
1,150.78
932.14
977.74
861.87
764.94
709.87
1,011.46
520.20
856.54
1,616.20
1,222.09
1,038.61
1,008.55
800.81
333.56
668.26

$841.52
977.18
1,332.57
1,097.87
880.81
909.31
837.13
818.26
727.78
992.71
538.87
865.54
1,615.86
1,273.76
1,054.02
1,046.50
802.96
329.50
720.72

1

Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory
employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm
payrolls.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on
private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
[2002=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls3

Industry

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Percent
change
from:
Mar.
2020 Apr.
2020p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods.......................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . .
Utilities................................... .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118.3
95.0
138.0
110.8
85.7
87.5
83.1
124.6
111.0
108.8
103.0
140.6
94.6
92.2
117.3
136.9
145.0
131.3
105.3

119.8
95.0
124.6
112.8
85.6
87.0
83.4
126.7
112.2
108.9
103.6
143.8
96.1
93.4
118.7
138.9
148.8
134.0
106.7

117.7
94.2
122.3
112.3
84.7
85.9
82.9
124.0
111.2
108.2
103.2
142.0
95.2
93.4
118.0
137.5
147.4
119.7
103.8

97.8
77.4
105.1
92.0
69.5
67.6
72.3
103.5
97.3
97.0
88.8
123.1
94.0
85.3
111.2
120.6
129.4
58.5
81.2

-16.9
-17.8
-14.1
-18.1
-17.9
-21.3
-12.8
-16.5
-12.5
-10.4
-14.0
-13.3
-1.3
-8.7
-5.8
-12.3
-12.2
-51.1
-21.8

1

Apr.
2019

Feb.
2020

Mar.
2020p

Apr.
2020p

Percent
change
from:
Mar.
2020 Apr.
2020p

184.4
143.1
239.8
170.2
123.1
125.0
120.0
197.1
162.8
166.9
145.5
200.2
145.2
152.5
198.5
224.0
231.0
214.5
163.2

191.9
146.4
224.3
176.4
126.1
127.8
123.1
206.1
167.9
168.7
150.3
208.3
151.6
159.8
206.3
234.8
243.6
226.8
169.8

189.4
145.5
219.7
176.3
125.0
126.3
122.9
202.6
166.5
168.2
150.4
204.3
150.4
160.1
205.4
233.0
242.0
198.8
165.7

164.3
119.7
189.4
142.7
103.5
100.0
109.4
178.3
150.6
153.6
134.0
182.9
149.5
150.2
196.5
213.3
216.3
97.8
136.6

-13.3
-17.7
-13.8
-19.1
-17.2
-20.8
-11.0
-12.0
-9.5
-8.7
-10.9
-10.5
-0.6
-6.2
-4.3
-8.5
-10.6
-50.8
-17.6

Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory
employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm
payrolls.
2
The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002
annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
3
The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the
corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly
earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
p Preliminary
NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.