View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Employment Outlook in the
S O C IA L SC IEN C ES

F i e l d s o f E m p lo y m e n t
Ed u catio n al Requirem ents
E m p lo y m e n t O u t l o o k
E a rn in g s

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
in c o o p e r a t i o n w ith V e t e r a n s

O c c u p a t io n a l O u t lo o k S e r i e s
Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague-Com m issioner

Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n

Bulletin No. 1167

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

E m p lo y m e n t O u t lo o k
S O C IA L

in t h e

S C IE N C E S

ECONOMICS
POLITICAL SCIENCE
HISTORY
SOCIOLOGY
STATISTICS
ANTHROPOLOGY

Fields of employment
Educational requirements
Employment outlook
Earnings

B u lle tin
UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT

N o .1167
OF

LABOR

BURBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Bwa* Ctoflve# Commiiiioner
in


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e se rv e Bank o f St. Louis

co o p eratio n

w ith

V e te ra n s

A d m in istra tio n

For sale b y the Superintendent of D ocuments, U. S. G overnm ent Printing Office
W ashington 25, D . C. - Price 30 cents

L E T T E R O F T R A N S M IT T A L

U n ited S ta tes D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r ,
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
W a sh in g to n , D . C . , A p r il 23, 1954.

The S e c r e ta ry o f L a b or:
I h a v e the h o n o r to t r a n s m it h e r e w ith a r e p o r t o n e m p lo y ­
m e n t o u tlo o k in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . T h is is one o f a s e r i e s o f
r e p o r t s m a d e a v a ila b le th rou g h the B u r e a u 's O c c u p a t io n a l O u t­
lo o k S e r v ic e f o r u s e in the v o c a t io n a l c o u n s e lin g o f you n g p e o p le
in s c h o o l , v e t e r a n s , and o t h e r s in t e r e s t e d in s e le c t in g an o c c u p a ­
t io n . T h e s tu d y w as fin a n c e d l a r g e l y b y the V e te r a n s A d m in is t r a ­
tio n , an d the r e p o r t w as o r ig in a lly p u b lis h e d as a V e te r a n s A d ­
m in is t r a t io n p a m p h le t f o r u se in v o c a t io n a l r e h a b ilit a t io n a n d ed u ca­
tion a c t i v i t i e s .
T h is stu d y w as c o n d u c te d in the B u r e a u 's D iv is io n o f M a n p o w e r
an d E m p lo y m e n t S t a t is t ic s . T h e r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d b y R o s e K .
W ie n e r u n d er the im m e d ia t e s u p e r v is io n o f C o r a E . T a y lo r . T h e
B u re a u w is h e s to a c k n o w le d g e the g e n e r o u s a s s is t a n c e an d c o o p e r a ­
tio n r e c e i v e d in c o n n e c t io n w ith the stu d y f r o m the o f f i c i a l s o f
p r o f e s s io n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o l l e g e s , a n d G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s , an d
m a n y o th e r s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s .
E w an C la g u e , C o m m is s io n e r .

H on . J a m e s P . M it c h e ll,
S e cre ta ry o f L a b or.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ii

CONTENTS

Page
In tr o d u c tio n

............................................................................................

1

T h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n s .....................................................

3

N a tu re o f w o r k an d f ie ld s o f s p e c ia liz a t io n
A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ...............................................................................
S o c i o l o g i s t s ........................................................................
P o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s .....................................................................
H i s t o r i a n s .........................................................................................
E c o n o m i s t s ..........................
S t a t i s t i c i a n s ......................................................................................

5
8
11
13
14
16

F ie ld s o f e m p lo y m e n t ........................................................................
C o lle g e s an d u n i v e r s i t i e s ........................................................
T e a c h i n g ......................................................................................
R e s e a r c h ......................................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t ...........................................................
F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s .....................................................................
S ta te , l o c a l , and in te r n a tio n a l g o v e r n m e n t s . . . .
P r iv a t e e m p lo y m e n t ..........................
R e la t e d fie ld s o f e m p lo y m e n t ................................

18
18
18
19
21
21
25
25
27

T r a in in g an d e d u c a t i o n .........................................................................
U n d e rg ra d u a te t r a i n i n g ...............................................................
G ra d u a te t r a i n i n g ................

29
29
32

H ow to e n te r .....................................................................................
T e a c h i n g ............................................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t .............................................
P r iv a t e e m p lo y m e n t ..................................................................

35
35
36
37

E m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s and o u t l o o k .....................................................
P a s t e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s ...........................................................
S u p p ly o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ........................................................
E m p lo y m e n t o u t lo o k ..................................................................

38
38
41
46

E a r n in g s ......................................................................................................
S o c ia l s c ie n t is t s w ith g ra d u a te d e g r e e s .................... ... .
C o lle g e s an d u n i v e r s i t i e s ........................................................
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................
O th e r ty p e s o f e m p l o y m e n t .....................................................

30
50
51
53
55

W h e re to g et fu r t h e r in fo r m a tio n

57

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

...............................................

iii

C o n t e n t s ( C o n t in u e d )

A p p e n d ix
L i s t o f u n iv e r s it ie s a w a r d in g the g r e a t e s t n u m b e r s
o f P h .D . 1 s in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , 1 9 4 8 -5 3 .................

59

L i s t o f a d d itio n a l c o l l e g e s and u n iv e r s it ie s a w a r d ­
in g P h .D . 1 s in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s in 1953 .................

60

T e x t T a b le s
1.

N u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s in r u r a l s o c i a l
s c i e n c e in la n d -g r a n t c o l l e g e s an d a g r ic u lt u r a l
e x p e r im e n t sta tio n s f o r s p e c i f i e d y e a r s .................

20

D is t r ib u t io n o f F e d e r a l e m p lo y e e s in s o c i a l
s c i e n c e o c c u p a t io n s b y a g e n c y , June 3 0 , 1951 . .

22

G e o g r a p h ic a l c o n c e n t r a t io n o f s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s
e m p lo y e d b y F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , in C o n tin e n ­
ta l U n ited S t a t e s , June 3 0 , 1951 .................................

24

P h . D . d e g r e e s a w a r d e d b y the 10 in s titu tio n s
c o n f e r r in g the l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f d e g r e e s in the
s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , 1 9 4 8 -5 3
..............................................

34

N u m b e r o f e c o n o m is t s and s ta t is t ic ia n s e m p lo y e d
in F e d e r a l C iv il S e r v ic e p o s it io n s in W a sh in g ton ,
D . C . in s e l e c t e d y e a r s
............. . ................................

40

D o c t o r a l d is s e r t a t io n s a c c e p t e d in a ll s u b je c t
f ie ld s and in s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , 1 9 2 6 -5 0 ....................

44

7 . M e d ia n s a la r ie s o f s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s e m p lo y e d b y
c o l l e g e s and u n iv e r s it ie s and p r o p o r t io n r e c e i v ­
in g s u p p le m e n t a r y p r o f e s s i o n a l i n c o m e , 1952 . .

51

8 . G r a d e d is t r ib u t io n and a v e r a g e annual s a la r y o f
F e d e r a l e m p lo y e e s in s o c i a l s c i e n c e o c c u p a t io n s ,
June 3 0 , 1951 .........................................................................

54

2 .

3.

4.

5.

6.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

iv

C o n t e n t s (C o n t in u e d )

C h a rts
1.

2.

„
Page
G ro w th in m e m b e r s h ip o f l a r g e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l
a s s o c ia t io n s in 5 s o c i a l s c ie n c e f ie ld s . . . . „ .

42

N u m b e r s o f g ra d u a te d e g r e e s a w a r d e d in b a s ic
s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d s , 1 9 4 8 -5 3 .................................

45

A p p e n d ix T a b le s
A.

B.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N u m b e r o f d e g r e e s a w a r d e d in a ll s u b je c t fie ld s
and in b a s ic s o c i a l s c ie n c e f i e l d s , 1 9 4 8 -5 3 . .

62

S o u r c e s o f a d d itio n a l in c o m e o f s o c i a l s c ie n ­
t is t s b y p r in c ip a l typ e o f e m p lo y e r , 1952 . . .

64

v

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Employment Outlook in the Social Sciences

IN T R O D U C T IO N

E v e r y hum an b e in g m u s t le a r n to liv e a s a m e m b e r o f
s o c i e t y . M e r e l y to b e b o r n is to b e c o m e p a r t o f a f a m ily and a
m e m b e r o f on e o f the r a c e s o f m a n . T o b e b o r n in a p a r t ic u la r
p la c e is to b e c o m e p a r t o f a g r o u p o f p e o p le w ho m a k e up a
c o m m u n it y , w ith its ow n c u s t o m a r y w ays o f o b ta in in g f o o d and
s h e lt e r , e d u ca tin g and p r o t e c t in g its c h ild r e n , and m a in ta in in g
o r d e r . E a c h c o m m u n it y — v i l l a g e , tow n , o r city — is p a r t o f a
n a tio n , a n d a ll n a tio n s h ave b e e n m a d e n e a r n e ig h b o r s b y
m o d e r n m e a n s o f c o m m u n ic a t io n and t r a n s p o r t a t io n . A s m e n
and n a tio n s a r e d ra w n c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , it b e c o m e s e v e r m o r e
im p o r ta n t f o r th e m to le a r n to liv e in h a r m o n y w ith e a c h o t h e r .
T h e m a jo r a im o f the s o c ia l s c ie n c e s is to th r o w lig h t on
the p r o b le m s o f liv in g in s o c i e t y . S o c ia l s c ie n t is t s stu d y the
b e h a v io r o f in d iv id u a ls in t h e ir r e la t io n s w ith t h e ir f e llo w m e n
and s e e k to d i s c o v e r p a tte r n s o f g ro u p b e h a v io r and h ow th e s e
d e v e lo p and c h a n g e . T h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith the w h o le ra n g e
o f hum an h is t o r y and hum an a c t i v i t i e s , f r o m the o r ig in o f m an
to the la t e s t d e v e lo p m e n t s in the c o s t o f liv in g .
S o v a s t an u n d e rta k in g r e q u ir e s a d iv is io n o f l a b o r , and
m o s t s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s a r e s p e c ia lis t s in on e o f s e v e r a l m a jo r
f i e l d s , e a c h o f w h ich is c o n c e r n e d w ith the stu d y o f m a n f r o m a
d iffe r e n t v ie w p o in t . T h e f ie ld s g e n e r a lly c l a s s i f i e d a s b a s ic
s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e a n t h r o p o lo g y , s o c i o l o g y , p o li t i c a l s c i e n c e ,
h i s t o r y , e c o n o m i c s , and s t a t i s t i c s . H o w e v e r , a n t h r o p o lo g y
o v e r la p s the n a tu ra l s c i e n c e s , and h is t o r y is o fte n r e g a r d e d as
on e o f the h u m a n itie s . S t a t is t ic s is a b o r d e r lin e f i e l d b e c a u s e
s t a t is t ic a l te c h n iq u e s a r e a p p lie d not o n ly in the s o c ia l s c ie n c e s
but a ls o in a v a r ie t y o f o th e r s u b je c t m a t t e r f i e l d s . S o c ia l
p s y c h o lo g y and e c o n o m ic and hum an g e o g r a p h y a r e u s u a lly in­
c lu d e d a m on g the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , but o th e r b r a n c h e s o f p s y c h o l­
o g y and g e o g r a p h y a r e g r o u p e d w ith the n a tu ra l s c i e n c e s . T h e


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

-

1 -

-

2

-

fie ld s o f b u s in e s s a d m in is tr a t io n and s o c i a l w o r k a r e a p p lie d
s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 1 B e c a u s e the s o c i a l s c ie n c e s p e c ia lt ie s o v e r ­
la p and a r e in te r d e p e n d e n t, it is im p o r ta n t that m e m b e r s o f
e a c h o c c u p a t io n h a v e a b r o a d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f the r e la t e d s o c i a l
s c ie n c e fie ld s .
E m p lo y m e n t in the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s h as m o r e than
t r ip le d in the p a s t 15 y e a r s and is e x p e c t e d to r i s e o v e r the lo n g
r u n . H o w e v e r , in the m a jo r a r e a s o f e m p lo y m e n t — c o lle g e
te a c h in g an d G o v e r n m e n t— the d em a n d f o r p e r s o n n e l is n ot e x ­
p e c t e d to be g r e a t in the im m e d ia t e fu t u r e . T h e n e e d f o r c o l l e g e
t e a c h e r s w ill ex p a n d m a r k e d ly in the e a r l y I 9 6 0 1 s , a s the la r g e
n u m b e r s o f c h ild r e n b o r n d u rin g and a ft e r W o r ld W a r II e n te r
c o l l e g e . The. d em a n d f o r s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s in the G o v e r n m e n t w ill
p r o b a b ly co n tin u e to flu c tu a te w ith d o m e s t ic and in te r n a tio n a l
c o n d it io n s . A s lo w but s te a d y g ro w th in e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n i­
t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r e c o n o m is t s , s t a t is t ic ia n s , and s o c i o l o g i s t s ,
i s e x p e c t e d in p r iv a t e in d u s t r y .
T h is r e p o r t is d e s ig n e d to g iv e you n g p e o p le in t e r e s t e d in
p r e p a r in g f o r c a r e e r s as s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s an o v e r a ll p ic t u r e o f
the b a s ic s o c i a l s c i e n c e fie ld s lis t e d a b o v e and the e m p lo y m e n t
o p p o r t u n itie s th ey o f f e r . A ft e r a b r i e f d is c u s s io n o f the s iz e
and s c o p e o f the s o c i a l s c ie n c e f ie ld s as a w h o le , s e p a r a te ch a p ­
t e r s d e s c r i b e the n a tu re o f the w o r k and the m a in s p e c ia lt ie s
w ith in e a c h o f th e s e b a s ic f i e l d s . O th e r c h a p t e r s d is c u s s the
m a jo r fie ld s o f e m p lo y m e n t , e d u c a tio n and t r a in in g n e e d e d , u s u a l
m e th o d s o f e n t r y in to p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , and e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s
and o u t lo o k . T h e r e p o r t c o n c lu d e s w ith a s e c t io n on e a r n in g s .
A lth ou gh the p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f th is r e p o r t is to a cq u a in t
stu d en ts w ith the s o c i a l s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n s a s f ie ld s o f e m p lo y ­
m e n t, it sh o u ld b e m a d e c l e a r that e d u c a tio n in the s o c ia l s c ie n c e s
h a s a m o r e b a s i c v a lu e — that o f h e lp in g in d iv id u a ls to m e e t th e ir
p e r s o n a l an d s o c i a l r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s in e v e r y d a y liv in g . B e c a u s e
t e c h n o lo g ic a l a d v a n c e s h a v e o u t s tr ip p e d m a n 's a b ilit y to c o p e
w ith s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , b oth d o m e s t ic and in t e r n a t io n a l, th e r e is
an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g n e e d f o r c it iz e n s w ith tr a in in g w h ich w ill en ­
a b le th em to c o n tr ib u te to the s o lu tio n o f s u c h p r o b l e m s .

1 F o r in fo r m a t io n on p s y c h o l o g i s t s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s and
o t h e r o c c u p a t io n s s e e , O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k , B u lle tin
N o . 9 98 , U .S . D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
195 1. D e ta ile d in fo r m a t io n o n g e o g r a p h e r s is a v a ila b le in
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s B u lle tin N o . 10 5 0 , E m p lo y m e n t Out­
lo o k f o r E a r th S c ie n t is t s , 195 1.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 3 -

TH E S O C IA L S C IE N C E P R O F E SSIO N S

T h e v a r io u s s o c i a l s c ie n c e p r o f e s s io n s a r e s o c l o s e l y r e ­
la t e d that no h a r d and fa s t lin e s can b e d raw n b e tw e e n th e m .
H o w e v e r , e a c h p r o f e s s i o n h as c e r t a in r e c o g n iz e d a r e a s o f a p p li­
c a t io n . T h e stu d y o f the o r ig in and p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
the r a c e s o f m e n and o f the p a tte r n s o f liv in g o f v a r io u s c u lt u r a l
g r o u p s is the s p e c ia l p r o v in c e o f a n t h r o p o lo g is t s . S o c io lo g is t s
a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith the r e la t io n s h ip s and p r o b le m s a r is in g f r o m
the m a n y k in d s o f g r o u p s w h ich m e n f o r m — f a m i l i e s , c lu b s , c o m ­
m u n it ie s , and r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and n a tio n a l g r o u p s . P o l i t i c a l
s c ie n t is t s d e a l w ith g o v e r n m e n t— its s tr u c t u r e and o p e r a t io n s .
H is t o r ia n s r e v ie w the r e c o r d s o f p a s t e v e n ts and m a k e s y s t e m ­
a tic s tu d ie s to e x p la in the p a s t and th ro w lig h t on w hat is h ap p en ­
in g to d a y . E c o n o m is t s e x a m in e the w ays in w h ich m e n m a k e a
liv in g and the f a c t o r s w h ich h e lp o r h in d e r th em in s a t is fy in g
t h e i r m a t e r ia l n e e d s . S t a tis tic ia n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith the c o l ­
l e c t io n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n a ly s is and e v a lu a tio n o f q u a n tita tiv e
d a ta . S t a t is t ic s is a t o o l s u b je c t u s e d n ot o n ly in th e s o c i a l
s c ie n c e s bu t in a ll fie ld s in w h ich n u m e r ic a l data a r e u s e d in the
s o lu tio n o f p r o b l e m s . T h is b r i e f r e v ie w s u g g e s t s h ow g r e a t ly
the v a r io u s s o c ia l s c i e n c e s o v e r la p e a c h o t h e r , c o v e r in g m u c h
the s a m e s u b je c t m a t t e r w ith d iffe r e n t e m p h a s e s and p o in ts o f
v ie w .
A n e s tim a t e d 3 5 ,0 0 0 p e o p le w e r e e a r n in g t h e ir liv in g b y
w o rk in g p r o f e s s i o n a l l y in the b a s ic s o c i a l s c i e n c e s in e a r ly 19 5 4 .
In a d d itio n , m a n y th ou sa n d s w e r e e m p lo y e d in o t h e r p o s it io n s
f o r w h ich s o c ia l s c i e n c e tr a in in g i s , in v a r y in g d e g r e e s , a p r e ­
r e q u is it e — in c lu d in g p r o f e s s io n a l w o r k in b u s in e s s and p u b lic
a d m in is tr a t io n , a d m in is tr a t iv e and r e s e a r c h p o s it io n s in s o c ia l
w e lfa r e , and h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h in g . T h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ,
f o r e x a m p le , e m p lo y s p e r s o n s w ho q u a lify a s s o c i a l s c ie n c e
a n a ly s ts f o r s u ch p o s it io n s as p e r s o n n e l a s s is t a n t , c la im s
a s s is t a n t (t r a in e e ), r e s e a r c h a n a ly s t, b u d g et e x a m in e r , and
m a n y o t h e r s . 2 T e a c h e r s o f h is t o r y o r e c o n o m ic s o r o t h e r s o c i a l
s c ie n c e s in s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls o fte n h a v e a d v a n c e d g ra d u a te tr a in ­
ing in t h e ir s u b je c t m a tte r f i e l d s , b u t th ey a r e c u s t o m a r ily
c l a s s i f i e d a s h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s r a th e r than p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l
s c i e n t i s t s . M a n y im p o r ta n t a d m in is tr a t iv e and r e s e a r c h p o s it io n s
w ith p h ila n th r o p ic and g o v e r n m e n t w e lfa r e o r g a n iz a t io n s a r e h e ld
b y s o c i o l o g i s t s , bu t s o c i a l w o r k e r s take the f i e l d o f s o c i a l w e l­
f a r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a s t h e ir d o m a in . T h e s e r e la t e d fie ld s a r e
n o t c o v e r e d b y th is r e p o r t , w h ich is lim it e d to a d is c u s s io n o f
p e r s o n s in the b a s i c s o c i a l s c ie n c e f i e l d s .

2
S e e U .S . C iv il S e r v ic e C o m m is s io n , F o u r th R e g io n a l
O f f i c e , A n n o u n ce m e n t N o . 4 - 2 7 (1 9 5 2 ), J u n io r P r o f e s s i o n a l
A s s is t a n t , S o c ia l S c ie n c e A n a ly s t.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 4 -

T e a c h in g and r e s e a r c h w o r k a r e the c h ie f a c t iv it ie s o f
s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . N e a r ly h a lf ( 1 5 ,0 0 0 - 1 6 ,0 0 0 ) te a c h in c o l l e g e s
and u n iv e r s it ie s . M o s t o f the r e m a in d e r a r e e n g a g e d in r e ­
s e a r c h — p r i m a r i l y f o r G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s , bu t a ls o f o r p r iv a t e
b u s in e s s and f o r n o n p r o fit r e s e a r c h and c i v i c g r o u p s .
E c o n o m is t s a r e the la r g e s t g r o u p o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .
N e a r ly h a lf o f a ll s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s (r o u g h ly 1 6 ,0 0 0 in 1954) a r e
e c o n o m is t s o r s t a t is t ic ia n s w o r k in g p r i m a r i l y on e c o n o m ic
s t a t i s t i c s . H is t o r ia n s c o m p r i s e the n ex t l a r g e s t g r o u p o f s p e ­
c i a l i s t s , n u m b e r in g a b ou t 6 ,0 0 0 . T h e r e a r e p r o b a b ly m o r e than
3 ,0 0 0 p o lit ic a l s c ie n t is t s and a s o m e w h a t s m a lle r n u m b e r o f
s o c i o l o g i s t s . 3 A n th r o p o lo g is t s c o m p r is e the s m a lle s t g r o u p —
fe w e r than 1 ,0 0 0 .
A b ou t 6 ,0 0 0 p r o f e s s io n a l s o c i a l s c ie n t is t s a r e e m p lo y e d in
p o s it io n s r e q u ir in g b r o a d tr a in in g in the co n te n t and m e th o d s o f
s e v e r a l f ie ld s o r o f the s o c ia l s c i e n c e s as a w h o le . S o m e p e o p le
in th is g ro u p a r e c o l l e g e fa c u lt y m e m b e r s w ho t e a c h s e v e r a l o f
the s o c ia l s c i e n c e s ; s o m e a r e in in t e llig e n c e o r f o r e ig n a ffa ir s
w o r k , w h e re s p e c ia lis t s w ith an in te n s iv e k n o w le d g e o f p a r t ic u ­
la r a r e a s o f the w o r ld a r e n e e d e d ; o t h e r s a r e in s o c i a l a d m in is ­
t r a t io n o r r e s e a r c h , w h ich m a y cu t a c r o s s the f ie ld s o f e c o n o m i c s ,
p o lit ic a l s c i e n c e , s o c io lo g y ,a n d p s y c h o lo g y .
E a c h o f the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s in c lu d e s a n u m b e r o f s p e ­
c i a l t i e s , w h ich l a r g e l y d e t e r m in e the n a tu re o f the w o r k p e r f o r m e d
and the ty p e s o f e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s a v a ila b le . The m a jo r
o c c u p a t io n a l s p e c ia lt ie s in e a c h o f the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e
d e s c r i b e d in the s e c t io n s w h ich f o llo w .

3
T h e s e e s t im a t e s do n ot in c lu d e p e r s o n n e l in th e f i e l d o f
p u b lic a d m in is tr a t io n o th e r than th o s e te a c h in g a t the c o lle g e
le v e l.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 5 -

N A T U R E O F W O R K AN D F IE L D S O F S P E C IA L IZ A T IO N

A N T H R O P O L O G IS TS

N a tu re o f W o rk
A n t h r o p o lo g y , the stu d y o f m a n and h is w o r k s , i s the m o s t
w id e -r a n g in g o f the s o c ia l s c i e n c e s . P e r h a p s it s ou tsta n d in g
c o n t r ib u t io n has b e e n the d e v e lo p m e n t o f the c o n c e p t o f c u lt u r e .
T h is is the id e a th at the to ta l w a y o f lif e o f a t r ib e o r g r o u p — its
c u s t o m s , t r a d it io n s , m a t e r ia l p o s s e s s i o n s , s o c i a l and r e lig io u s
o r g a n iz a t io n — p la y s a d om in a n t r o le in the d e v e lo p m e n t o f h u m an
b e i n g s . 4 U ntil the la s t d e c a d e a n t h r o p o lo g is t s lim it e d t h e ir
s tu d y l a r g e l y to p r e h i s t o r i c and p r im it iv e m an and to r a c i a l and
c u lt u r a l g r o u p s o u ts id e the m a in s t r e a m o f w e s t e r n c iv i l i z a t i o n .
H o w e v e r , th e y a r e , m o r e and m o r e , tu rn in g to the s tu d y o f
m o d e r n A m e r ic a n and E u r o p e a n c u lt u r e s a s w e l l . M o s t a n th r o ­
p o lo g is t s a r e e n g a g e d in c o l l e g e te a c h in g b u t a ls o do s o m e r e ­
s e a rch w ork .
B a s ic r e s e a r c h in a n t h r o p o lo g y u s u a lly in v o lv e s t r ip s to
the p la c e s w h e r e the c u ltu r e w h ich is b e in g s tu d ie d is lo c a t e d .
If the a n t h r o p o lo g is t is in t e r e s t e d in the w a y o f lif e o f a p r i m i ­
tiv e p e o p le , he m a y liv e a m on g th e m , o fte n u n d e r d iff ic u lt c o n ­
d it io n s . He m u s t tak e a c c u r a t e , d e t a ile d , and c o m p le t e n o te s
d e s c r ib in g the p e o p l e 's p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l c u s ­
t o m s , and m a t e r ia l p o s s e s s i o n s , u s u a lly le a r n in g t h e ir la n ­
gu age d u r in g the p r o c e s s . He a ls o c o l l e c t s e x a m p le s o f t h e ir
p o t t e r y , t o o l s , w e a p o n s , and o t h e r a r t i c l e s . If he is c o n c e r n e d
w ith an a n c ie n t c iv i l i z a t i o n , he m a y m ak e e x c a v a t io n s to lo o k
f o r r e m a in s o f the p e o p le and o f t h e ir h o m e s , c lo t h in g , u t e n s ils ,
and o r n a m e n t s . T h e a n t h r o p o lo g is t u s u a lly a n a ly z e s h is n o te s
an d m a t e r ia ls in a la b o r a t o r y o r l i b r a r y a ft e r h is r e tu r n f r o m
a f i e l d t r ip ; s u p p le m e n ts h is f i e l d w o r k w ith l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h ,
s o that h e c a n c o m p a r e h is ow n o b s e r v a t io n s w ith p u b lis h e d
r e p o r t s o n the s a m e s u b je c t ; and w r it e s r e p o r t s p r e s e n t in g h is
fin d in g s and c o n c l u s i o n s „
S o m e a n t h r o p o lo g is t s a r e e m p lo y e d as c u r a t o r s o r d i r e c ­
t o r s o f m u s e u m s o r a s m u s e u m c o n s u lta n ts , id e n tify in g and
c l a s s i f y i n g s p e c im e n s an d a r r a n g in g c u lt u r a l o b je c t s f o r e x h ib i­
t io n . A d v a n c e d tr a in in g and r e s e a r c h is u s u a lly r e q u ir e d f o r
su ch w o rk .

4
K r o e b e r , A . L . , A n t h r o p o lo g y , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 5 0 , S c ie n t ific
A m e r ic a n , S e p t e m b e r 195 0, p p . 8 7 -9 0 .


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

-

6

-

S o m e a n t h r o p o lo g is t s a r e e m p lo y e d in G o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c ie s a s lin g u is t s , stu d y in g and in t e r p r e t in g p r im it iv e la n ­
g u a g e s . A fe w a r e e m p lo y e d a s c o n s u lta n ts in w o r k r e la t in g to
is la n d t e r r i t o r i e s ( P a c i f i c Is la n d s and A la s k a ), to r e v ie w p r o ­
p o s e d le g is la t io n in the lig h t o f t r ib a l c u s t o m s and t r a d it io n s ,
s e tt le in h e r it a n c e c la im s a c c o r d in g to t r ib a l la w s , o r g a n iz e
e l e c t i o n s , an d h e lp s m o o t h ou t the p r o b le m s w h ich a r i s e f r o m
d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n w e s t e r n and t r ib a l c u lt u r e s . O th e r s s e r v e
a s p r o g r a m o f f i c e r s in the a d m in is tr a tio n o f f o r e ig n a id p r o ­
g r a m s , p a r t ic u la r ly in the M id d le E a s t and in L a t in A m e r i c a ,
o r a d m in is t e r in te r n a tio n a l stu den t e x c h a n g e and f e llo w s h ip
g ra n t p r o g r a m s . A n th r o p o lo g is t s a r e a ls o o c c a s i o n a l l y e m p lo y e d
as c o n s u lta n ts o n s u c h p r o b le m s as p e r s o n n e l and in d u s t r ia l
r e la tio n s .
F ie ld s o f S p e c ia liz a t io n
T h e r e a r e tw o m a jo r b r a n c h e s o f a n th r o p o lo g y — p h y s ic a l
a n t h r o p o lo g y a n d c u lt u r a l o r s o c ia l a n t h r o p o lo g y .
P h y s ic a l a n t h r o p o lo g y is the stu d y o f m a n as an o r g a n ­
i s m — tiis o r i g i n , e v o lu tio n , and lif e c y c l e — and o f the p h y s ic a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d is t r ib u t io n o f the r a c e s o f m a n . P h y s ic a l
a n t h r o p o lo g y is b a s e d o n h u m an b i o l o g y , a n t h r o p o m e t r y (the
s c ie n t if ic m e a s u r e m e n t o f the b o d y and its p a r t s ) , and b i o ­
m e t r i c s (the u s e o f s t a t is t ic a l m e th o d s in a n a ly z in g b i o l o g i c a l
d a ta ). It is p r i m a r i l y a n a tu ra l s c i e n c e .
C u ltu ra l a n t h r o p o lo g y in c lu d e s e t h n o lo g y , a r c h e o lo g y ,
p r im it iv e l i n g u i s t i c s , and a p p lie d a n t h r o p o lo g y . T h e e th n o lo ­
g is t s tu d ie s p r im it iv e t r ib e s and t r i e s to le a r n t h e ir w h o le w a y
o f l i f e — g o v e r n m e n t; s o c i a l ana f a m ily o r g a n iz a t io n ; r e lig io u s
and m a g ic p r a c t i c e s ; m e th o d s o f p r o c u r in g f o o d , c lo t h in g ,
s h e lt e r ; w a y s o f m a k in g t o o l s , u t e n s ils , w e a p o n s ; r u le s f o r
o w n e r s h ip o f p r o p e r t y ; and a r t and r e c r e a t i o n . S o m e e th n o lo ­
g is t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y in t e r e s t e d in the w a y in w h ich the p e r s o n ­
a lit y and b e h a v io r o f the in d iv id u a l a r e in flu e n c e d b y the c u s ­
t o m s o f the g r o u p ; in th is r e s p e c t t h e ir w o r k is c l o s e l y a llie d
to p s y c h o lo g y .
A r c h e o l o g i s t s s e a r c h f o r e v id e n c e s o f the p a s t b y d ig g in g
in to the p la c e s r e p o r t e d b y h is t o r y o r le g e n d to b e s it e s o f
f o r m e r c i v i l i z a t i o n s . T h e ir r e s e a r c h e s h a v e r e c o n s t r u c t e d the
w a y o f lif e o f the p e o p le w ho o n c e in h a b ite d b u r ie d c i t i e s and
e x te n d e d o u r k n o w le d g e o f the d iffe r e n t r a c ia l and c u lt u r a l g r o u p s
w ho liv e d and d ie d in the lo n g h i s t o r y o f m a n 1 s s o c i a l and in ­
t e lle c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t . A lth ou gh a n t h r o p o lo g is t s c u s t o m a r ily
in c lu d e a r c h e o lo g y a m o n g the s p e c ia liz e d b r a n c h e s o f th e ir

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 7 -

p r o f e s s i o n , a r c h e o l o g y is s o m e t im e s c o n s id e r e d a s e p a r a te
p r o fe s s io n .
P r im it iv e lin g u is t ic s in c lu d e s the stu d y o f the la n g u a g e s
o f p r im it iv e and n o n lit e r a t e p e o p le s — th o s e w ho do n o t h a v e a
w r itte n la n g u a g e . 5 S p e c ia lis t s in the f i e l d a ls o stu d y p h o n e tic s
(the s p o k e n s o u n d s ), the g r a m m a r and the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p ­
m e n t o f la n g u a g e s . B y c o m p a r a t iv e s tu d ie s th ey h a v e b e e n a b le
to c l a s s i f y la n g u a g e s in to g r o u p s o f s im ila r e le m e n t s and to
s im p lif y g r e a t ly the p r o b le m o f fr a m in g a lp h a b e ts an d g r a m m a r s
and the te a c h in g o f d iff ic u lt la n g u a g e s to s tu d e n ts . T h e ir r e ­
s e a r c h e s h a v e b e e n o f g r e a t v a lu e in te a c h in g s u c h la n g u a g e s as
C h in e s e , R u s s ia n , an d A r a b ic to a r m y p e r s o n n e l d u rin g and
s in c e W o r ld W a r II. 6
A p p lie d a n t h r o p o lo g y is c o n c e r n e d w ith the a p p lic a t io n o f
the k n o w le d g e and m e th o d s o f a n t h r o p o lo g y to the s o lu tio n o f
p r a c t i c a l p r o b le m s in v a r io u s f i e l d s , in c lu d in g p e r s o n n e l and
in d u s t r ia l r e la t io n s , s o c i a l w o r k , p r o b le m s o f m in o r it y p e o p le s ,
an d n a tiv e and c o lo n ia l a d m in is t r a t io n , and e d u c a t io n .

5 P r im it iv e lin g u is t ic s is a b r a n c h o f s c ie n t if ic l i n g u i s t i c s .
T h e b r o a d f i e l d o f s c ie n t if ic lin g u is t ic s — the stu d y o f h u m an
s p e e c h in a ll it s a s p e c t s — is g e n e r a lly c l a s s i f i e d w ith the h u m a n i­
tie s .
6 K ro e b e r, A . L . , op . c it.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

8

-

SO C IO L O G IST S

N a t u r e

of

W o r k

S o c io lo g y is o fte n c a lle d the " s c i e n c e o f s o c i e t y , " s in c e
m e m b e r s o f th is p r o f e s s i o n stu d y the m a n y k in d s o f o r g a n iz a ­
tio n s w h ich m e n f o r m — in c lu d in g s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l ,
n a tio n a l, p r o f e s s i o n a l , and b u s in e s s o r g a n iz a t io n s , as w e ll as
f a m i l i e s , c o m m u n it ie s , s t a t e s , and n a tio n s . T h e s o c i o l o g i s t
t r a c e s the o r ig in and g ro w th o f th e s e s o c i a l g r o u p s and a n a ly z e s
t h e ir a c t iv it ie s and the w a y th ey in flu e n c e , and a r e in tu rn in ­
flu e n c e d b y , the h u m an b e in g s w ho b e lo n g to th e m . S o m e s o c i ­
o l o g i s t s a r e in t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y in the w a y in d iv id u a ls a r e
a f fe c t e d b y the r o l e s th ey p la y in s o c i e t y . O th e r s a r e m o r e
c o n c e r n e d w ith the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c ia l g r o u p s and in s titu ­
t io n s .
A lth ou g h c o l l e g e te a c h in g and r e s e a r c h a r e the c h ie f fu n c ­
t io n s o f m o s t s o c i o l o g i s t s , s o m e a r e e n g a g e d in c o n s u lt in g w o r k ,
t e c h n ic a l w ritin g and e d itin g , m a n a g e m e n t, and a d m in is t r a t io n . 7
In th e ir r e s e a r c h , s o c i o l o g i s t s u s e c a s e s t u d ie s , s u r v e y s ,
and o t h e r m e t h o d s . F o r e x a m p le , th ey m a y m a k e c a s e stu d ie s
o f in d iv id u a ls o r f a m i l i e s , c o l l e c t lif e h is t o r ie s o f p r i s o n e r s in
p en a l in s t itu tio n s , o r s tu d y the p a tte r n s o f liv in g in c o m m u n i­
t ie s o f d iffe r e n t s iz e s and t y p e s . T h e k in d s o f s t a t is t ic a l
s tu d ie s w h ich th ey m a k e in c lu d e p u b lic o p in io n p o l l s , s tu d ie s o f
m a s s m e th o d s o f c o m m u n ic a t io n and a d v e r t is in g — r a d io , t e le ­
v i s i o n , n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z in e s , and c i r c u l a r s — and s u r v e y s
d e s ig n e d to s u p p le m e n t the data o b ta in e d th ro u g h c a s e s t u d ie s .
S o c io lo g is t s e n g a g e d in c o n s u ltin g w o r k g iv e a d v ic e in
su ch fie ld s as p e n a l a f f a i r s , m a r r ia g e and f a m ily p r o b le m s ,
p u b lic r e la t io n s w o r k , c it y p la n n in g , and o t h e r s itu a tio n s in­
v o lv in g an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f s o c ia l r e la t io n s . T h e y p r e d i c t the
p r o b a b le o u t c o m e in the u s e o f p r o b a t io n and p a r o le p r o c e d u r e s
in the tr e a tm e n t o f d e lin q u e n ts . T h e y s u p e r v is e m a r r ia g e and
f a m ily c l i n i c s w h ich t r y to h e lp p e o p le im p r o v e t h e ir f a m ily r e ­
la t io n s h ip s and to r e d u c e the n u m b e r o f d i v o r c e s . T h e y a d v is e
a d v e r t is in g a g e n c ie s on the m o s t e f fe c t iv e m e th o d s o f p r o m o t in g
p u b lic in t e r e s t in p a r t ic u la r p r o d u c t s . T h e y a id c it y p la n n e r s
in d e c id in g o n the p a r k s , p la y g r o u n d s , s c h o o l s , c o m m u n ity
c e n t e r s , and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s n e e d e d to p r o m o t e h e a lth fu l c o m ­
m u n ity r e la t io n s h ip s .

7
F o r a fu r th e r d is c u s s io n o f the w o r k o f s o c i o l o g i s t s , s e e
"T h e R o le s o f the S o c i o l o g i s t — An A n a ly s is o f the M e m b e r s h ip
o f the S o c ie t y w ith S p e c ia l R e f e r e n c e to N o n -T e a c h in g O c c u p a t io n s , "
B u lle tin o f the A m e r ic a n S o c i o l o g i c a l S o c ie t y , S e p t e m b e r 1951.
Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

9

-

A m o n g the ty p e s o f o r g a n iz a t io n s in w h ich s o c i o l o g i s t s m a y
p e r f o r m m a n a g e m e n t and a d m in is tr a t iv e fu n c tio n s a r e s e tt le m e n t
h o u s e s , b o y s ' c lu b s , c o m m u n ity c e n t e r s , and r e lig io u s g r o u p s .
F ie ld s o f S p e c ia liz a t io n
T h e s u b je c t s w h ich a r e o f m o s t in t e r e s t to s o c i o l o g i s t s a r e
c o n s ta n t ly c h a n g in g . P a r t ly f o r th is r e a s o n , no fu lly s a t is f a c t o r y
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the fie ld s o f s p e c ia liz a t io n in s o c i o l o g y h as b e e n
d e v e lo p e d . H o w e v e r , the m a jo r b r a n c h e s o f stu d y a r e in d ic a t e d
b y the fo llo w in g l i s t , b a s e d on c la s s if ic a t io n s d e v e lo p e d b y the
N a tion a l R o s t e r o f S c ie n t ific and S p e c ia liz e d P e r s o n n e l,.
H is t o r ic a l and t h e o r e t ic a l s o c i o l o g y . — T h e s o c i o l o g i s t in
th is f i e l d t r a c e s the o r ig in and d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r e s e n t - d a y c u s ­
t o m s and in s t itu tio n s , s u ch as m a r r ia g e and the f a m ily . He is
c o n c e r n e d w ith the w h o le g r o u p o f p r o b le m s a r is in g f r o m m e n 1 s
r e la t io n s w ith e a c h o t h e r , w ith the h is t o r y o f s o c i a l id e a s , and
w ith the fo r m u la t io n o f s c ie n t if ic t h e o r ie s to e x p la in the n a tu re
o f s o c ie ty .
S o c ia l p s y c h o l o g y . — T h is s p e c ia lt y d r a w s upon the k n o w l­
ed g e and m e th o d s o f b oth s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o lo g y in o r d e r to
a n a ly z e the m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s and r e a c t io n s o f in d iv id u a ls a c tin g
in g r o u p s , the w ays in w h ich p u b lic o p in io n is f o r m e d , the in­
flu e n c e o f v a r io u s ty p e s o f p r o p a g a n d a on p e o p l e 's a c t io n s , and
the w a y in w h ich ’ the b e h a v io r o f c r o w d s d if f e r s f r o m that o f
s in g le in d iv id u a ls .
E d u c a tio n a l s o c i o l o g y . — S p e c ia lis t s in th is b r a n c h a r e c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith the s tr u c t u r e o f the e d u c a tio n a l s y s t e m and the in ­
flu e n c e o f e d u c a tio n on the c o m m u n ity and n a tio n .
R u r a l s o c i o l o g y . — T h e r u r a l s o c i o l o g i s t s tu d ie s the c u s ­
t o m s and in s titu tio n s o f r u r a l c o m m u n it ie s . He is c o n c e r n e d
w ith b a s ic a ttitu d es and b e h a v io r p a tte r n s in v a r io u s ty p e s o f
r u r a l c o m m u n it ie s ; w ith r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , and e c o n o m ic r e l a ­
tio n s h ip s in r u r a l a r e a s , and w ith the im p r o v e m e n t o f r u r a l
liv in g . He is p a r t ic u la r ly in t e r e s t e d in the s o c i a l e f fe c t s o f
r u r a l, as c o n t r a s t e d w ith u rb a n and su b u rb a n liv in g .
U rban s o c i o l o g y . — T h e u rb a n s o c i o l o g i s t s u r v e y s the d if­
f e r e n t ty p es o f c i t i e s — th e ir o r i g i n , g r o w th , p o p u la tio n , and the
s o c i a l and e c o n o m ic p a tte r n s o f liv in g . He is in t e r e s t e d in a ll
the p r o b le m s w h ich a r is e f r o m c it y liv in g — c it y p la n n in g , h o u s ­
in g , r e c r e a t i o n , h ig h w a y f a c i l i t i e s , h e a lth s e r v i c e s , and c iv ic
r e f o r m . S u ch r e la t e d p r o b le m s as w o r k m a n 's c o m p e n s a t io n ,
la b o r r e la t io n s , and u n e m p lo y m e n t a r e a ls o w ith in h is p r o v in c e .


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

-

10 -

R a c e and m i n o r i t i e s . — S p e c ia lis t s in th is f i e l d a r e c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith the r e la t io n s b e tw e e n the v a r io u s r a c i a l , n a tio n a l,
and r e lig io u s g r o u p s ( p a r t ic u la r ly N e g r o e s and m in o r it y g r o u p s
o f f o r e ig n o r i g i n ) , the c a u s e s o f c o n f l i c t a m on g th e m , and the
w a y s in w h ich p r e ju d ic e s m a y b e o v e r c o m e and m o r e h a r m o n io u s
r e la t io n s e s t a b lis h e d .
I n s t it u t io n s . — S o c io lo g is t s in th is s p e c ia lt y stu d y the o r ­
g a n iz a tio n s w h ich h a v e e m e r g e d as a r e s u lt o f the m a jo r s o c i a l
in t e r e s t s o f g r o u p s — the s ta te , the c h u r c h , and the fa m ily ,a s
w e ll a s th o s e in s titu tio n s c e n t e r e d a b ou t e c o n o m i c , r e c r e a t i o n ,
and a r t in t e r e s t s . T h e y e m p h a s iz e the stu d y o f m a r r ia g e and
the f a m ily , and the w a y in w h ich f a m ily l i f e is in flu e n c e d b y the
la w s , m o r a l c o d e s , id e a s , h a b it s , and v a lu e s o f the c o m m u n it y .
P o p u la t io n . — S o c i o l o g i s t s in this f i e l d a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith
the c o m p o s it io n , d is t r ib u t io n , and g ro w th o f p o p u la tio n and w ith
the c a u s e s and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p o p u la tio n c h a n g e . T h e y d e a l
w ith s t a t is t ic s r e la t in g to b ir t h s , d e a th s , m a r r i a g e , d i v o r c e , and
the g e o g r a p h ic m o v e m e n t o f p o p u la tio n . T h e y a ls o s tu d y ch a n g e s
in p o p u la tio n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s s e x , a g e , and r a c e . A
r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n t in th is f i e l d is h um an e c o l o g y , w h ich
d e a ls w ith the e f f e c t o f the p h y s ic a l e n v ir o n m e n t o n the o c c u p a ­
t io n s , h e a lth , and a c t iv it ie s o f in d iv id u a ls and g r o u p s .
C r i m i n o l o g y . — T h is a r e a o f s p e c ia liz a t io n d e a ls w ith the
c a u s e s and m e th o d s o f p r e v e n tin g c r i m e and ju v e n ile d e lin ­
q u e n c y . C r im in o lo g is t s a ls o stu d y p e n a l in s t itu tio n s , ty p e s o f
p u n is h m e n t, and m e th o d s o f r e h a b ilit a t in g c r im in a ls — e s p e c i a l l y
p a r d o n , p a r o le , and p r o b a t io n p r o c e d u r e s .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- II P O L I T I C A L SC IE N T IS T S

N a t u r e

o f

W o r k

P o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e is the stu d y o f g o v e r n m e n t — w hat it i s ,
w hat it d o e s , and h ow and w h y . P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s a r e in t e r ­
e s t e d in g o v e r n m e n t at e v e r y l e v e l — l o c a l , c o u n ty , S ta te , r e ­
g io n a l, n a tio n a l an d in te r n a t io n a l. A lth ou g h c o l l e g e te a c h in g
and a d m in is tr a t io n a r e t h e ir m a jo r fu n c t io n s , s m a ll n u m b e r s
a r e e n g a g e d p r i m a r i l y in r e s e a r c h and c o n s u lt in g w o rk .
P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h in F e d e r a l , S ta te , o r
l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s — th is m a y r e q u ir e a f ir s t - h a n d stu d y
o f a g e n c y p r o g r a m s . T h e y a ls o m a y fin d r e s e a r c h p o s it io n s in
p r iv a t e o r g a n iz a t io n s s u c h as c i v i c and t a x p a y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s ,
and in g r o u p s c o n c e r n e d w ith in te r n a tio n a l p r o b le m s ; g e n e r a lly ,
h o w e v e r , th e s e p o s it io n s a r e o p e n a ls o to p e r s o n s t r a in e d in
o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s m a y a c t as c o n s u lta n ts
to g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s , c i v i c b o d ie s , r e s e a r c h a g e n c ie s , p o lit ic a l
p a r t i e s , and o t h e r o r g a n iz a t io n s .
M a n y p o lit ic a l s c ie n t is t s a r e e n g a g e d in a d m in is tr a t iv e and
m a n a g e m e n t w o rk in the fie ld s o f p e r s o n n e l, b u d g e t and a d m in is ­
t r a t iv e a n a ly s is w ith F e d e r a l , State and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s and
w ith b u s in e s s o r g a n iz a t io n s . H o w e v e r , th e s e p o s it io n s m a y b e
h e ld a ls o b y p e r s o n s w ith b a c k g r o u n d s in s u c h f ie ld s as b u s in e s s
a d m in is t r a t io n , a c c o u n t in g , la w , o r p e r s o n n e l w o r k , as w e ll as
in the o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .
S in ce it is i m p o s s ib le to id e n t ify
the p o lit ic a l s c ie n t is t s e m p lo y e d in the a p p lie d p u b lic a d m in is t r a ­
tio n f i e l d , th ey a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th is r e p o r t . H o w e v e r , c o l l e g e
t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s who a r e s p e c ia lis t s in p u b lic
a d m in is tr a t io n a r e in c lu d e d in the data on n u m b e r s e m p lo y e d in
the b a s ic s o c ia l s c i e n c e s .
F ie ld s o f S p e c ia liz a t io n
P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s u s u a lly s p e c ia liz e in on e o f 8 m a jo r
b r a n c h e s o f the f i e l d , e a c h o f w h ich is b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . 8

8
A d a p te d f r o m N a tion a l R o s t e r o f S c ie n t ific and S p e c ia liz e d
P e r s o n n e l, S o c ia l S c i e n c e s , P a m p h le t N o . 7, U n ited S ta tes E m ­
p lo y m e n t S e r v i c e , U oS . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r , W a sh in g to n , D . C . ,
U n d ated .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

1 2

-

A m e r ic a n G o v e r n m e n t and c o m p a r a t iv e g o v e r n m e n t . — T h is
in c lu d e s the stu d y o f the o r ig in and d e v e lo p m e n t o f the A m e r ic a n
p o lit ic a l s y s t e m , the p r o v is io n s and p u r p o s e s o f the A m e r ic a n
C o n s titu tio n , the s t r u c t u r e and fu n c tio n s o f A m e r ic a n G o v e r n m e n t
at e v e r y l e v e l , the s t r u c t u r e and m e th o d s o f o p e r a t io n o f f o r e ig n
g o v e r n m e n t s , and a c o m p a r is o n o f the s im i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s
o f v a r io u s f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t .
In te r n a tio n a l la w and r e l a t i o n s . — P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s in th is
a r e a a r e c o n c e r n e d w ith the c o m p le x o f r u le s and m e th o d s w h ich
n a tion s h a v e d e v e lo p e d f o r d e a lin g w ith e a c h o t h e r — in te r n a tio n a l
la w , d ip lo m a c y and a g r e e m e n t s , and in te r n a tio n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
c o n f e r e n c e s , an d c o n g r e s s e s .
P o l i t i c a l p a r t ie s and p u b lic o p i n i o n .— P o l i t i c a l s c ie n t is t s in
th is f i e l d stu d y the n a tu re and m e th o d s o f p o lit ic a l p a r t ie s and
p r e s s u r e g r o u p s . T h e y c o n d u c t p u b lic o p in io n s u r v e y s , a n a ly z e
p r o p a g a n d a and stu d y the v a r io u s ch a n n e ls o f p u b lic c o m m u n ic a ­
tio n — in c lu d in g r a d io , t e le v is io n , n e w s p a p e r s , and m a g a z in e s .
C o n s titu tio n a l and a d m in is tr a t iv e la w . — T h is s p e c ia lt y is
c o n c e r n e d w ith the fu n d a m en ta l p o w e r s o f g o v e r n m e n ts and the
r ig h ts o f c i t i z e n s , as e s t a b lis h e d b y w r itte n c o n s titu tio n s s u ch as
the A m e r ic a n C o n s titu tio n , o r u n w ritten c o n s titu tio n s s u c h a s the
B r it is h ; w ith la w s p a s s e d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith c o n s titu tio n a l p o w e r s ;
and w ith the a d m in is tr a t iv e p o w e r s o f G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s and
c o m m is s io n s ( e . g . , the In te r s ta te C o m m e r c e C o m m is s io n ) , to
w h ich p o w e r to e s t a b lis h r e g u la tio n s and e n f o r c e la w s has b e e n
d e le g a t e d b y le g is la t iv e b o d i e s .
P o l i t i c a l t h e o r y and p h ilo s o p h y .— T h e p o lit ic a l s c ie n t is t s w ho
te a c h and w r ite in th is f ie ld d e a l w ith the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f
the n a tio n a l s ta te , the ju s t ific a t io n f o r and lim it s o f g o v e r n m e n ta l
p o w e r , an d the r e la t io n o f the sta te to o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s and to
in d iv id u a ls . T h e y a ls o fo r m u la t e la w s w h ich d e s c r i b e the u n d e r ­
ly in g p r in c ip le s o f p o lit ic s and g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t io n s .

L e g is la t u r e and l e g i s l a t i o n . — T h is s p e c ia lt y d e a ls w ith the
s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t io n s o f la w -m a k in g b o d ie s and the a n a ly s is
o f la w s p r o p o s e d o r e n a c t e d .
G o v e r n m e n t and e c o n o m ic e n t e r p r i s e s . — T h is in c lu d e s the
s tu d y o f g o v e r n m e n t r e g u la tio n s and p o l i c i e s r e la t in g to p u b lic
u t ilit ie s , la b o r r e la t io n s , a g r ic u lt u r e , and g e n e r a l b u s in e s s
a c t i v i t i e s , the e f f e c t s o f ta x a tio n on b u s in e s s and o t h e r e c o n o m ic
a c t i v i t i e s , and the w h o le f i e l d o f g o v e r n m e n t p la n n in g and c o n t r o l .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

13

-

H ISTO RIAN S

H is t o r ia n s stu d y the r e c o r d s o f the p a s t and d e r iv e f r o m
th em a s y s t e m a t ic a c c o u n t and e x p la n a tio n o f p a s t e v e n ts , w h ich
w ill h e lp to e x p la in p r e s e n t - d a y h a p p e n in g s.
H is t o r ia n s m a y s p e c ia liz e in the h is t o r y o f a p a r t ic u la r
r e g io n o r c o u n tr y o r in a p a r t ic u la r p e r io d o f t im e — a n c ie n t,
m e d ie v a l, o r m o d e r n . S o m e t im e s th ey s p e c ia liz e in the stu d y
o f c e r t a in p h a s e s o f h is t o r y — the e c o n o m ic and s o c i a l lif e o f a
p a r t ic u la r c o u n t r y o r p e r io d , o r in t e r n a t io n a l, d ip lo m a t ic , m i l i ­
t a r y , c h u r c h , p o lit ic a l o r c u lt u r a l h is t o r y , o r o th e r s p e c ia liz e d
s u b je c t s .
M o s t h is t o r ia n s a r e e n g a g e d in c o lle g e te a c h in g o r a d m in ­
is t r a t io n , bu t m a n y o f th e s e c o lle g e fa c u lt y m e m b e r s a ls o c o n ­
d u ct h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . S o m e h is t o r ia n s w o r k as a r c h i v i s t s ,
who s e l e c t , p r e s e r v e , and m ak e a v a ila b le d o c u m e n t a r y m a t e r ia ls
o f h is t o r ic a l v a lu e . O th e rs a r e m u s e u m o r l i b r a r y s p e c ia lis t s
e m p lo y e d b y h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , m u s e u m s and s p e c ia l li b r a r i e s
to e d it h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r ia ls , p r e p a r e h i s t o r i c a l e x h ib it s , and do
r e la t e d w o r k . S o m e h is t o r ia n s do w ritin g and e d itin g f o r G o v e r n ­
m e n t o r g a n iz a t io n s o r f o r p u b lis h in g f ir m s o r o th e r b u s in e s s o r ­
g a n iz a t io n s . T h e m a jo r it y o f h is t o r ia n s in G o v e r n m e n t do r e ­
s e a r c h and w ritin g in the f i e l d o f m ilit a r y h is t o r y f o r the D e p a r t­
m e n t o f D e fe n s e . In r a r e in s ta n c e s h is t o r ia n s a r e e m p lo y e d b y
v e r y la r g e b u s in e s s f ir m s as a r c h iv is t s o r to p r e p a r e c o m p a n y
h is to r ie s .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

1 4

-

E C O N O M IST S

N a t u r e

o f

W o r k

E c o n o m is t s stu d y the w ays in w h ich m e n m a k e t h e ir liv in g
and o b ta in f o o d , s h e lt e r , s e r v i c e s , and r e c r e a t i o n . T h e y a r e
in t e r e s t e d in the m e th o d s b y w h ich g o o d s and s e r v i c e s a r e
p r o d u c e d , d is t r ib u t e d , and p a id f o r . T h e y d e s c r i b e and a n a ly z e
the o r g a n iz a t io n o f in d u s t r ie s ; the la b o r s u p p ly ; the c o m m e r c i a l
ban k in g and c r e d i t s tr u c t u r e and g o v e r n m e n t fin a n c e ; in t e r ­
n a tio n a l tr a d e ; the n a tion a l in c o m e and w ea lth and its p r o d u c t io n
and d is t r ib u t io n ; and the u s e and c o n s e r v a t io n o f n a tu r a l r e ­
s o u r c e s . T h e y a ls o stu d y the e f fe c t s o f s h ifts and g r o w th in p op u ­
la tio n ; liv in g s ta n d a r d s ; the c o n d itio n s w h ich h e lp o r h in d e r e c o ­
n o m ic g ro w th and d e v e lo p m e n t ; the im p r o v e m e n t o f tr a d e ; and
the r a is in g o f liv in g s ta n d a r d s .
M o s t e c o n o m is t s a r e c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s o r f u l l - t i m e r e s e a r c h
w o r k e r s . A lm o s t a ll e c o n o m ic r e s e a r c h in v o lv e s the u se o f
s t a t is t ic a l p r o c e d u r e s an d the a n a ly s is o f s t a t is t ic a l d a ta , and it
is lik e ly to r e q u ir e a ls o in te n s iv e tr a in in g in the p a r t ic u la r b r a n c h
o f e c o n o m ic s in v o lv e d . R e s e a r c h e c o n o m is t s u s u a lly s u m m a r iz e
the r e s u lt s o f th e ir w o r k in w r itte n r e p o r t s .
S o m e e c o n o m is t s h o ld a d m in is tr a t iv e p o s t s in c o n n e c t io n
w ith p r o g r a m s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a ly s is o f e c o n o m ic d a ta .
M a n y s u p e r v is e g r o u p s o f o t h e r e c o n o m is t s and s t a t is t ic a l c l e r k s .
A fe w e c o n o m is t s a r e e n g a g e d in c o n s u lt in g w o r k f o r b u s i­
n e s s f i r m s . T h e y m a k e f o r e c a s t s o f g e n e r a l e c o n o m ic c o n d itio n s
o r o f c o m p a n y p r o s p e c t s w ith r e s p e c t to s a le s v o lu m e , o p e r a t in g
c o s t s , and e a r n in g s , o r g iv e a d v ic e c o n c e r n in g in v e n t o r ie s , p r i c e
p o l i c i e s , la b o r r e la t io n s , fin a n c ia l p o l i c i e s , and o t h e r b u s in e s s
p r o b le m s .
F ie ld s o f S p e c ia liz a t io n
E c o n o m is t s u s u a lly s p e c ia liz e in on e o f s i x m a jo r f i e l d s . 9
E c o n o m ic t h e o r y . — S p e c ia lis t s in th is f i e l d a r e c o n c e r n e d
p r i m a r i l y w ith the a n a ly s is o f v a r io u s s y s t e m s o f e c o n o m ic o r ­
g a n iz a tio n (s u c h a s c a p it a lis m , sta te s o c i a l i s m , and fe u d a lis m )
and the s y s t e m s o f thought u n d e r ly in g th e m . T h e y a ls o stu d y
e c o n o m ic h is t o r y .
9
B a s e d on N a tio n a l R o s t e r o f S c ie n t ific an d S p e c ia liz e d
P e r s o n n e l, o p . c it.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

1 5

-

M o n e y , ban k in g and f i n a n c e . — T h is s p e c ia lt y d e a ls w ith
the n a tu re and fu n c tio n s o f m o n e y and fin a n c ia l in s t it u t io n s , the
w a y s in w h ich m o n e y is c r e a t e d b y ban k lo a n s o r o t h e r f o r m s o f
c r e d i t , the r e la t io n o f s u c h p u r c h a s in g p o w e r to the g e n e r a l
l e v e l o f e c o n o m ic a c t iv it y , and m e th o d s o f r e g u la tin g b a n k le n d ­
in g . F i s c a l e c o n o m is t s c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r o b le m s o f g o v e r n ­
m e n t f in a n c e , e x p e n d it u r e s , ta x a tion and the w ays in w h ich th e s e
g o v e r n m e n t a c t iv it ie s a f fe c t b u s in e s s . T h e y w o r k ou t m e th o d s
o f d is tr ib u tin g the tax lo a d a m on g a ll e le m e n t s o f the p o p u la t io n .
In d u str y e c o n o m i c s . — T h e e c o n o m is t s p e c ia liz in g in in d u s ­
t r y s tu d ie s the v a r io u s ty p e s o f b u s in e s s o r g a n iz a t io n s , the
m e th o d s o f p r o d u c in g and m a r k e tin g g o o d s and s e r v i c e s , and the
v a r io u s f a c t o r s w h ich d e t e r m in e c o s t s and p r i c e s . He is a ls o
c o n c e r n e d w ith the e f f e c t on e m p lo y m e n t and p r o d u c t io n o f s u c h
f a c t o r s a s g o v e r n m e n t r e g u la t io n s , s p en d in g and ta x a tio n , w a g e
p o l i c i e s , and p r iv a t e in v e s tm e n t in n ew p la n ts and e q u ip m e n t.
E c o n o m is t s in th is s p e c ia lt y m a y b e c o m e e x p e r t s in one in d u s t r y
o r s e v e r a l r e la t e d o n e s .
A g r ic u lt u r a l e c o n o m i c s . — T h e a g r ic u lt u r a l e c o n o m is t is
c o n c e r n e d w ith the f a c t o r s w h ich a ffe c t f a r m p r o d u c t io n , p r i c e s ,
and in c o m e — in c lu d in g f a r m m a n a g e m e n t, c r o p e s tim a t in g ,
a g r ic u lt u r a l c r e d i t , c r o p m a r k e tin g m e t h o d s , and c o m m o d it y
e x c h a n g e s (e x c h a n g e s w h ich d e a l in fa r m p r o d u c t s s u c h as c o r n
and w h e a t). A g r ic u lt u r a l e c o n o m is t s m ak e d e t a ile d a n a ly s is
o f the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t io n (la n d , c a p it a l, and la b o r ) and the
a llo c a t io n o f r e s o u r c e s a m o n g d iffe r e n t f a r m p r o d u c t s . T h e y
a ls o stu d y the r e la t io n b e tw e e n f a r m p r o d u c t io n and in c o m e and
s u c h f a c t o r s as in te r n a tio n a l tr a d e and t a r i f f s , the a v a ila b ilit y
o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n , m o n e y and b a n k in g p o l i c i e s , t a x e s , and the
s u p p ly o f l a b o r .
L a b o r e c o n o m i c s . — L a b o r e c o n o m is t s stu d y the v a r io u s
f a c t o r s w h ich a f f e c t the e m p lo y m e n t , e a r n in g s , and w e lfa r e o f
la b o r ; the r e la t io n s b e tw e e n m a n a g e m e n t and la b o r ; and the e f f e c t
o f la b o r p o l i c i e s on in d u s tr y and the N a tio n . T h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d
a ls o w ith s u c h s u b je c t s as the s u p p ly and d em a n d f o r l a b o r , w a g e s
and h o u r s , la b o r l e g is la t io n , la b o r d is p u t e s , la b o r u n io n s , c o l ­
l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , c o n c ilia t io n , a r b it r a t io n , p e n s io n and in s u r ­
a n c e p la n s , and o t h e r w e lfa r e m e a s u r e s .
S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s . — E c o n o m is t s s p e c ia liz in g in th is a r e a
s tu d y s u c h b r o a d d e v e lo p m e n t s as p o p u la tio n g ro w th and m ig r a ­
t io n , the r e la t iv e n u m b e r s o f p e o p le in d iffe r e n t o c c u p a t io n s , the
d is t r ib u t io n o f n a tio n a l in c o m e a m o n g d iffe r e n t s e g m e n t s o f the
p o p u la tio n , the c o n s e r v a t io n and u se o f n a tu ra l r e s o u r c e s (s u c h
as la n d , w a te r p o w e r , and m in e r a ls ) , and r e g io n a l p la n n in g .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

16

-

STATISTICIANS
S ta tisticia n s u se sc ie n tific m ethods to c o lle c t, o rg a n iz e,
a n a ly ze, and in te r p r e t n u m erica l data. T hey a re often c la s s i­
fied as s o c ia l sc ie n tis ts b eca u se the u se of s ta tis tic s h as b een
so h ighly d evelop ed in the so c ia l s c ie n c e s . H o w ev er, as one
ex p ert o b se r v e d , " . . . .s ta tis tic s a re app lied today not m e r e ly
to d e sc r ib e the b eh avior of m an as a so c ia l and econ om ic a n im al,
but a lso to d esc r ib e plant and anim al lif e , the w ea th er, and,
in d eed , the shape of the u n iv e r se . 1,10
S in ce s ta tis tic s is a tool w hich is u sed by s p e c ia lis ts in
p a rticu la r su b jec t-m a tte r fie ld s , it is freq u en tly im p o ssib le to
d istin g u ish b etw een p eople who a re p r im a r ily sta tistic ia n s and
th ose who a re c h ie fly e c o n o m ists, s o c io lo g is ts , or other su b jectm a tter s p e c ia lis ts , but who have train ing in s t a t is t ic s .11 E co ­
n o m ists p rovid e in fo rm atio n on econ om ic con d ition s in the fo rm
o f s t a tis t ic s . L ife in su ra n ce a ctu a r ie s u se s ta tistic a l p ro ced u res
to p rep are life exp ectan cy ta b les on w hich life in su ran ce fe e s and
p aym en ts to b e n e fic ia r ie s a re b a se d . A g ricu ltu ra l s c ie n tis ts u se
s ta tis tic a l m eth od s to aid in d evelop in g new v a r ie tie s of plants
w hich w ill be d ise a se r e s is ta n t, w ill m atu re e a r ly , o r w ill r e s is t
bad w eath er co n d itio n s. M arket r e se a r c h w ork ers fo r e c a st con­
su m er accep tan ce of new p rodu cts on the b a sis of s ta tistic a l su r­
v e y s . F a cto r y m a n a gers u se s ta tistic a l quality con tro l p ro ced u res
to ch eck and con trol the quality of ite m s turned out on a m a ss
p roduction b a s is .
M ost p eople who a re p r im a r ily sta tistic ia n s and who are
w orking in so c ia l sc ie n c e fie ld s are engaged in r e s e a r c h . S m a ller
n um bers a re em p loyed in c o lle g e teach in g and in a d m in istra tiv e
and con su ltin g w ork.

10 W ick en s, A ry n ess Joy , S ta tistic s and the P u b lic In te r e st,
rep rin ted fro m the Journal of the A m erica n S ta tistic a l A sso c ia tio n ,
M arch 1953, V o l. 48, pp. 1 -1 4 .
11 In th is rep o rt, the e stim a te of the num ber o f sta tistic ia n s
and the d isc u ssio n of fie ld s of em p loym en t and em p loym en t outlook
have b een lim ite d , in so fa r as p o ss ib le , to te a ch e rs of s ta tis tic s
and sta tistic ia n s w orking in the fie ld of so c ia l s c ie n c e .

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

17 -

The r e se a r c h sta tistic ia n has two m ain fu nctions to p erform :
(l) to d ev ise m eth od s of obtaining, c la ssify in g , and su m m a rizin g
q uantities of data so as to p rovid e u sa b le inform ation ; and (2) to
an alyze the data and d eterm in e its m ean in g. S in ce it is im p o ssib le
to c o lle c t com p lete in form ation -w ith r e sp e c t to m o st p ro b lem s un­
der in v estig a tio n , the d esig n of su rv ey s b a sed on sc ie n tific a lly
se le c te d sa m p les is often the sta tistic ia n 's p rin cip a l ta sk .
In planning sta tistic a l in q u iries or su r v e y s , sta tistic ia n s
draw up q u estio n n a ires or rep o rt fo r m s, p rep are in str u c tio n s,
and s e le c t so u r c e s w hich w ill p rovid e a r e p r e sen ta tiv e sam p le
o f r e tu rn s— that i s , retu rn s w hich sta tistic a l th eory and p r a c ti­
ca l know ledge in d icate to be rep r e sen ta tiv e of a ll the data that
w ould be obtained b y a com p lete su rv e y . T hey a lso p rep are tabu­
lation p la n s, to in d icate the stru ctu re and content of the tab les
w hich w ill be u sed to su m m a rize the data obtained.
In analyzin g a study, the sta tistic ia n p r e se n ts the data in
su m m ary ta b le s, ch a rts or grap h s, and d is c u s s e s the sig n ifica n ce
of fin d in g s. R ep orts m a y be p ub lish ed for the in form ation of the
p u b lic, as in the c a se of sta tistic a l data p rep ared by G overn m en t
a g en cies w ith r e sp e c t to econ om ic co n d itio n s, taxation , and other
m a tte r s of public in te r e s t. O ften, rep o rts are u sed as the b a sis
for action b y a d m in istra to rs or e x e c u tiv e s— a s in the c a se of
m a rk et r e se a r c h rep o rts ind icating the m o st e ffe c tiv e m edium for
a d v ertisin g p a rticu la r p ro d u cts, or tax rep o rts in d icatin g the
y ield fro m p a rticu la r typ es of ta x e s.
S in ce the in te llig e n t ap p lication of s ta tistic a l tech n iq u es to
the study of sp e c ific p ro b lem s req u ires a sound know ledge o f the
fie ld in w hich the study is being m ad e, m o st sta tistic ia n s m u st be
w e ll-tr a in e d in the p a rticu la r su b ject-m a tter fie ld s in w hich th ey
u se th eir sta tistic a l sk ills: for ex a m p le, b io lo g y , public h ealth ,
a g r icu ltu r e , e c o n o m ic s, so c io lo g y , p sy ch o lo g y , en g in eerin g , and
m a rk et or oth er b u sin e ss p ro b le m s. A pplied sta tistic ia n s u su a lly
rem a in in th eir own sp e c ia l fie ld or in rela ted fie ld s o f stud y, b e­
c a u se , in th eir c a s e , know ledge of the su b ject m a tter is u su a lly
a s im p ortan t a s know ledge of sta tistic a l m eth o d s. M ath em atical
sta tis tic ia n s , on the oth er hand, can tr a n sfer w ith r e la tiv e e a se
am ong the v a rio u s fie ld s of w ork.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

18

-

FIELD S O F EM PLOYM ENT
C o lleg es and u n iv e r sitie s and G overnm ent a g e n cie s a re the
two m ajor fie ld s of p r o fe ssio n a l so c ia l sc ie n c e em p loy m en t.
S m all num bers of so c ia l sc ie n tists are p r o fe ssio n a lly em p loyed in
p riv ate in d u stry or by n on profit r e se a r c h or w elfa re o rg a n iz a tio n s.
A few a re se lf-e m p lo y e d .
C o lle g e s and U n iv e r sitie s
T each in g . — The la r g e s t fie ld of p r o fe ssio n a l em p loym en t
for so c ia l s c ie n tis ts is in c o lle g e s and u n iv e r s itie s . R oughly
1 5 ,0 00 s o c ia l sc ie n tists w ere em p loyed fu ll tim e in tea ch in g , or
a com b in ation of teach in g and educational a d m in istra tio n , in su ch
in stitu tio n s in 1950; the num ber had probably not changed g rea tly
by 1954. The app roxim ate num ber of c o lleg e te a ch e rs in each
of the m ajor p ro fe ssio n a l sp e c ia ltie s is show n below :

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P r o fe ssio n a l sp ec ia lty
A nthropology .

.

S o c io lo g y ..........................................
H isto ry .............. . ........................
P o litic a l sc ie n c e . . . . . . .
E co n o m ics . . . . . . . . . . . .
S t a t is t i c s ..........................................
S o cia l sc ie n c e s ( n .e .c .) . . .

A pproxim ate num ber of
c o lle g e te a c h e r s1
400
1 ,9 0 0
4, 900
2, 000
4, 200
800
1 ,1 0 0

1 A ll fig u r e s rounded to n e a r e s t 100. N um ber of ec o ­
n om ics and s ta tis tic s te a ch e rs taken fro m 1950 C ensus
R ep o rts. N um bers of te a ch e rs in other fie ld s b a sed on
an unpublished study by the B ureau of L abor S ta tistic s
and the A m erica n C ouncil of L earned S o c ie tie s .

-

19 -

In addition to the a p p roxim ately 1 5 ,0 0 0 fu ll-tim e te a ch e rs
in the b a sic s o c ia l s c ie n c e s , th ere w ere su b stan tial n u m b ers,
p erh ap s se v e r a l thousands em p loyed as p a r t-tim e so c ia l sc ie n c e
in str u c to r s. T h ese p a r t-tim e te a ch e rs include graduate students
studying for th eir P h .D . d eg r ee s and p eople w ith fu ll-tim e jobs
ou tsid e the so c ia l s c ie n c e s (for ex a m p le, in accounting or leg a l
p r a c tic e ).
S in ce the so c ia l s c ie n c e s a re taught in p r a c tic a lly a ll in­
stitu tio n s of h igher ed u cation , th ere is a w ide g eo g ra p h ica l d is­
tribution of em p loym en t in the teach in g fie ld . H ow ever, the b e st
op p ortu n ities fo r advan cem en t and the h ig h est sa la r ie s a re u su a lly
found in u n iv e r sitie s w hich train m any graduate stu d en ts, p a rti­
cu la rly th ose w hich con fer the la r g e s t n um bers of d o c to r a tes.
T ea ch ers in in stitu tio n s situ ated in or n ear la rg e in d u stria l cen ­
te r s freq u en tly have an opportunity to com b in e con su ltin g w ork
w ith th eir teach in g d u tie s. The g r e a te st dem and fo r co n su lta n ts—
e sp e c ia lly in in d u stria l rela tio n s and other fie ld s of e c o n o m ic s,
public opinion and com m u n ication s r e se a r c h , and so c ia l w elfa r e,
w ork—-is in su ch c e n te r s.
R e s e a r c h .— S o cia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h in c o lle g e s and u n iver­
s itie s has long b een h am p ered by a se r io u s la ck of fin a n cia l sup­
p o rt. Sin ce the end of W orld War II, th ere has b een so m e in­
c r e a se in funds, due in p art to la r g e r grants by foundations and
in part to funds obtained fro m b u sin e ss and G overnm ent co n tra cts
to p erfo rm sp e c ific r e se a r c h jo b s. A num ber of F e d e r a l agen­
c ie s , including the D ep artm en ts of the A ir F o r c e , A rm y, N avy,
S tate, and A g ricu ltu re, have sp o n so red r e se a r c h in the so c ia l
s c ie n c e s . 1 2
The in c r e a se d in te r e st in so c ia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h is r e ­
fle c te d in the fa ct that n e a r ly o n e-th ird of the o rg a n iza tio n s
lis te d in the 1950 D ir e c to r y of S o cia l S cien ce R e se a r c h O rgani­
zatio n s in U n iv e r sitie s and C o lleg es had been o rg a n ized during
the p reced in g 5 y e a r s .* 3 The in c r e a se had im p rov ed op p ortu ni1 2 H ubbert, E rin and R osen b erg , H erb ert H . , O pportuni­
tie s for F e d e r a lly S p on sored S o cia l S cien ce R e s e a r c h , S y ra cu se
U n iv e r sity . The M axw ell G raduate School of C itizen sh ip and
P u b lic A ffa ir s, 1951.
13 S o cia l S cien ce R ese a r ch C ou ncil, A D ir e c to r y of S o cia l
S cien ce R ese a r ch O rgan ization s in U n iv e r sitie s and C o lle g e s,
N ew Y ork, N 0 Y . , 1950, (p .3 ).

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

20

-

T able 1 . — N um ber of r e se a r c h w o rk ers in ru ral so c ia l
sc ie n c e in la n d -g ra n t c o lle g e s and a g ricu ltu ra l
ex p erim en t sta tio n s for sp e c ifie d y ea r s
Y ear
1929-30 .........................

N um ber of w ork ers ^
R ural
A g ricu ltu ra l
T otal
eco n o m ics
so c io lo g y

1939-40

.........................

191
270

1 94 7 -48

.........................

287

173

18

239
235

31
52

F u ll-tim e eq u iv a len ts.
S ou rce: 1929-30 and 1939—40 fro m S ch u ltz, T heodore W. ,
T rainin g and R ecru itin g P e rso n n e l in the R ural S o cia l Studies ,
A m erica n C ouncil on E ducation, W ashington, D. C ., 1941, p. 89.
1 947-48 fro m Human R ela tion s in A g ricu ltu re and F a rm L ife ,
F a rm Foundation, C hicago, Illin o is, 1950, p. 16.
tie s fo r stu d en ts in te r e ste d in p a r t-tim e so c ia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h
w ork. H o w ev er, the num ber of fu ll-tim e r e se a r c h p o sitio n s in
su ch o rg a n izatio n s is v e r y sm a ll— probably few er than a thousand.
Som e in d ication o f the lim ite d num ber o f p eop le w orking in
c o lle g e and u n iv e r sity so c ia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h c e n te r s and the
slo w grow th in th is type of em p loym en t m ay be obtained b y exa m ­
in in g the situ atio n in ru ral so c ia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h (table 1).
The num ber of r e se a r c h w ork ers in th is fie ld r o se a p p reciab ly
b etw een 1930 and 1940 but r e g iste r e d little gain in the 8 -y ea r
p erio d that fo llo w ed .
O pportunities for r e se a r c h in so c io lo g y (oth er than rural
so cio lo g y ) a re b eliev e d to have in c r e a se d m o re in r e ce n t y ea rs
than o p p ortu n ities in other so c ia l sc ie n c e fie ld s . H ow ever, only
8 p er c e n t of the 1 ,5 2 6 m em b ers o f the A m erica n S o c io lo g ic a l
S o c iety who resp on d ed to a S o c iety q u estion n aire in 1951 w ere
em p loyed as d ir e c to r s of r e se a r c h or as r e se a r c h a s s o c ia te s in
edu cational in s titu tio n s .-^
W arner, W ellm an J. , The R o les of the S o c io lo g ist,
B u lletin o f the A m erica n S o c io lo g ic a l S o c ie ty , N ew Y ork, N . Y .,
S ep tem b er 1951, (p. 6).
Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

21

-

G overnm ent E m p loym en t
G overnm ent a g e n c ie s— F e d e r a l, S tate, lo c a l, and in te r ­
n ation al— em p loy n e a r ly as m any p r o fe ssio n a l so c ia l sc ie n tists
a s do c o lle g e s and u n iv e r s itie s — p erh ap s a s m any a s 1 3 ,0 0 0 or
1 4 ,0 0 0 , The g rea t m a jo rity of th e se m en and w om en w ork fo r
the F ed era l G overn m en t.
F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s ,— The F e d e r a l G overnm ent em p loyed about
9 ,4 0 0 so c ia l s c ie n tis ts in con tinen tal U nited S tates and about 2 ,0 0 0
in the te r r ito r ie s and fo reig n co u n tries in June 1951. S in ce that
tim e , the num ber o f so c ia l sc ie n tis ts in the F e d e r a l s e r v ic e has
d eclin ed m o d e r a tely .
E co n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s con stitu ted m o re than h alf (57
p ercen t) o f the F e d e r a l so c ia l s c ie n tis ts in 1951 (table 2 ) .1 An
additional 8 p ercen t w ere em p loyed in such so c ia l sc ie n c e occu pa­
tion s a s h isto r ia n , a r c h iv ist, m u seu m w o rk er, or a n th ro p o lo g ist.
A p p ro x im a tely 35 p er c e n t of the G overn m en t1 s so c ia l
s c ie n tis ts w ere em p loyed in g en era l so c ia l sc ie n c e o ccu p a tio n s,
including n ea r ly 2, 600 in in tern ation al a ffa irs w ork (foreign
a ffa ir s , m ilita r y and other in te llig e n c e r e se a r c h ,a n d in te r ­
n ation al rela tio n s s p e c ia lis ts ), m o re than 300 in so c ia l a d m in is­
tra tio n , and about 475 in so c ia l s c ie n c e s not e lse w h e r e c la s s i­
fie d . The G overn m en t w ork ers holding p o sitio n s in the la tte r
c a teg o ry (table 2) in clu d e s o c io lo g is ts , 6 p o litic a l s c ie n tis ts ,
and r e se a r c h w o rk ers in occu p ation s w hich cut a c r o ss se v e r a l
so c ia l sc ie n c e fie ld s . M any other G overn m en t e m p lo y e e s,
p a r tic u la r ly in a d m in istra tiv e p o sts q u alified for th eir jobs
p a rtly on the b a sis o f th eir so c ia l sc ie n c e b ack grou n d s, but th eir
job title s do not r e v e a l th is background.

1 5 T able 2 in clu d es a ll sta tistic ia n s in the F e d e r a l G overn­
m en t. A sm a ll num ber of th ese sta tistic ia n s deal w ith p ro b lem s
o u tsid e the so c ia l sc ie n c e fie ld .
1 6 F or fu rth er in form ation on the em p loym en t of so c io l­
o g ists in G overnm ent s e e , "P articip ation of S o c io lo g ists in G ov­
ern m en t P r o g r a m s, " B u lletin of the A m erica n S o c io lo g ic a l
S o c ie ty , A pril 1951.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 2 . — D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F e d e r a l e m p l o y e e s in s o c i a l s c i e n c e o c c u p a t i o n s b y a g e n c y ,

June 3 0,

195 1

(Continental United States)

Occupation

T otal, all socia l scie n ce
e m p l o y e e s - ^ ..........................
S o c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ...................
E c o n o m i c s ............... .............................
G eneral econ om ics
. . . .
B u sin ess e c o n o m ic s . . . .
In tern a tion a l tra d e and
developm en t e c o n o m ic s .
F is c a l and fin a n cial
e c o n o m i c s ..............................
T ran sp ortation e co n o m ics
L a b o r e c o n o m i c s ...................
A gricu ltu ra l e co n o m ics . .
F o r e s t e c o n o m i c s ...................
F o r e i g n a f f a i r s ..................................
I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s ...............
I n t e l l i g e n c e r e s e a r c h ...................
M ilita ry in tellig en ce r e s e a r c h
H i s t o r y . . . . . . . . ................... .
G en eral a n th ropology . . . . . .
P h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y ...................
A r c h e o l o g y .............................................
E th n ology . . .
. ..............................
S c i e n t i f i c l i n g u i s t i c s ...................
M u s e u m ......................................... ... . .
A r c h i v e s ................................................
S t a t i s t i c s .................................................
S o c i a l s c i e n c e ( n . e . c . ) ...............

11

Total

9,377
321
3,261
20 8
1,219

Arm y

1 ,2 1 8

N avy

A ir
Force

518

662

50
11
24

10
2
2

392

—

4

21 7
13 4
4 62
58 8
41
1,136
210
336
89 4
294
6
29
38
5
14
49
273
2 ,0 3 8
473

—
12
3
—

Treas­
ury

—
—
2

22
—

100
—

18

9

—

—

—
—

91
—
—

90 7

245
66
63

7

136

2

3
67
1

__

—
18
6
443
40
1

65

57

—

3
426
10 4

—

3
237
100
3
16

—

228
10

—

—

—
-—

—
—

—
-—

—
—
—
—

—
—

—
—

27

338
24

2
—
-1
11
31
213

—
—
-—
—
24
180
1

2
4
21 4
4

-2

355

50 5
2
277

—

—

Inte­
rior

531
6
11

377

B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistics B u lletin N o.

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

89 7

Com ­
m erce

3
1

S o c io lo g is ts and p o litica l s cie n tists a r e not c la s s ifie d as such,

Source:

129

A g ricul­
ture

—
—
3

19
~~
6
—
—
—
—

1
112
1
7
—
—
—
41

E con om ic
S tabiliza­
tion A d m i n ­
istration

G eneral
S ervices
A d m in is­
tratio n

State

Labor

Veterans
A d m in is­
tration

44

1,439

939

41 3

50 7

276

174

69 9

__

283
4
—
4

__

__

196
—

33
73 5
45
297

27 0
5
24 1

5
4
1

5
546
62
231

35
—

7
5
2

All
others

34

5

—

150

—

—

—

1

—

92

34

_
_

__

__

7
—
—598

39 3
—
—
—
__

—
—
—
—.
__
__
__
__

1
1
21
—

__
—
—

87
36
25

—
___

13

—

3

10

__

15

1
—
—
—1
—
—
__
—

—
—

2
11
—

—
—
—
—
—
__

37 8
18

15
6

5
3

5
23
—

Federal
Security
Agency

Jus­
tice

_
_

—
—
—
—
__
__ _
_
_

20

—

—

—

__
—
__
__
—
__

20 9
330
_
_

-—
11
—
30
15
30

158
13

1

3
—
__
__
__

1
—
__
___
__

__

15
100
288

163
56

5

but a r e i n c l u d e d in m a n y o f the c a t e g o r i e s h e r e l i s t e d .

1117, F e d e r a l W h ite -C o lla r W o r k e r s — T h e ir O ccu p a tion s and S a la r ie s ,

___

June 1951.

1
158
7

24
220
30

- 23

-

S ocial sc ie n tis ts a re em ployed in n ea rly e v e r y G overnm ent
a gen cy . The D efen se D ep a rtm en t--A rm y , N avy, and A ir F o r c e - ­
em p loys the la r g e s t num ber (n early o n e-fou rth of such em p lo y ees
in the F ed e r a l s e r v ic e in 1951) and the State D epartm ent has the
secon d la r g e s t group (15 p ercen t in 1951). The D ep artm en ts of
L abor, C o m m erce, and A gricu ltu re are a lso la rg e em p lo y ers of
su ch p erso n n el.
N ea rly tw o -th ird s of a ll sta tistic ia n s on F e d e r a l p a y ro lls
in 1951 w ere in the D ep artm en ts of D efen se, C om m erce, and
A g ricu ltu re, but e v e r y agen cy em p loys som e sta tistic ia n s. E c o ­
n o m ists a re a lso w id ely em ployed. H ow ever, the g rea t m a jo rity
of lab or e c o n o m ists a re in the D epartm ent of L abor, n ea rly a ll
fo r e s t eco n o m ists a re in the D epartm ent of A g ricu ltu re, and m o st
a g ricu ltu ra l eco n o m ists a re in the D ep artm en ts of A g ricu ltu re and
In terio r.
The g rea t m a jo rity of fe d e r a lly em ployed h isto r ia n s (about
th r ee -fo u r th s in 1951) a re in the D efen se D ep artm en t, w ith an
ap p reciab le num ber in the In terior and State D ep a rtm en ts. A r ­
c h iv ists, h ow ev er, a re em ployed p rin cip a lly by the G en eral S e r v ­
ic e s A d m in istra tio n , w hich has ju risd ictio n o ver the N ational
A r c h iv e s .17 A n th ro p o lo g ists, a r c h e o lo g ists, e th n o lo g ists, and
m useu m and sc ie n tific lin g u istic s s p e c ia lis ts a re em p loyed m ain ly
in the In terio r, D efen se , and State D ep artm en ts.
M ilita ry in te llig e n c e r e se a r c h w ork ers are em ployed in the
D epartm ent of D efen se . Other in te llig e n c e r e se a r c h p erso n n el
and in tern ation al rela tio n s s p e c ia lis ts a re em ployed m a in ly in the
State D ep artm en t. F o re ig n a ffa irs s p e c ia lis ts , w ith few e x c e p ­
tions a re in the D efen se and State D ep artm en ts. S o cia l a d m in is­
tration p erso n n el a re found m ain ly in the D ep artm en t of H ealth,
E ducation, and W elfare (known as the F e d e r a l S ecu rity A gen cy in
1951), and other so c ia l sc ie n c e a n a ly sts are em ployed in the
V eteran s A d m in istra tion .
About th r ee -fo u r th s of the F e d e r a l so c ia l sc ie n tis ts in the
con tin en tal U nited S tates a re stationed in W ashington, D. C. The
rem a in d er a re in G overnm ent o ffic es sc a ttered throughout the
cou ntry (table 3).
17 The N ation al A rch iv es s to r e s , p r e s e r v e s , and m ak es
ava ila b le reco rd s of h isto r ic a l value from in active file s of other
F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s.

Digitized for FR A SE R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R eserv e Bank o f St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 24 -

T able 3 . --G e o g r a p h ic a l con cen tration of so c ia l sc ie n tists em ployed
by F e d e r a l G overn m en t, in C ontinental U nited S ta te s,
June 30, 1951
O ccupation

In
O utside
A ll
W ashington, W ashington,
em p loy ees
Do C.
D. C.

T otal, a ll so c ia l sc ie n c e em ployees-^. . . .

9 ,3 7 7

7, 155

2, 222

S o cia l a d m in is tr a tio n .............................................
E co n o m ics
G en eral econ om ics ......................................
B u sin e ss eco n o m ics .......................................
In ternational trade and
d evelopm en t eco n o m ics ........................
F is c a l and fin an cial eco n o m ics . . . .
T ran sp ortation e c o n o m ic s ........................
Labor e c o n o m ic s .............................................
A gricu ltu ra l eco n o m ics ............................
F o r e st e c o n o m ic s ..........................................
F o reig n a f f a i r s ...........................................................
International r e la t i o n s ..........................................
In tellig en ce r e se a r c h .............................................
M ilitary in te llig e n c e r e s e a r c h .........................
H isto ry ............................................................................
G en eral a n th r o p o lo g y .............................................
P h y sic a l a n th r o p o lo g y ..........................................
A r c h e o lo g y .....................................................................
E th n o lo g y .........................................................................
S cien tific lin g u istic s .............................................
M u se u m ............................................................................
A r c h i v e s .........................................................................
S t a t is t i c s .........................................................................
S o cia l sc ie n c e ( n . e . c . ) ..........................................

321

200

121

208
1 ,2 1 9
392
217
134
462
588
41
1, 136
210
336
894
294
6
29
38
5
14
49
273
2 ,0 3 8
473

96
891
391
210
123
366
40 8
11
1,0 9 3
210
331
803
137
3
6
5
5
14
31
219
1 ,4 5 8
144

112
328
1
7
11
96
180
30
43
—
5
91
157
3
23
33
—
—
IS
54
580
329

^ S o cio lo g ists and p o litic a l sc ie n tists a re not c la s s ifie d a s su ch but a re
included in m any of the c a te g o r ie s h ere lis te d .
Source: B ureau of L abor S ta tis tic s , B u lletin N o. 1117, F e d e r a l W hiteC ollar W ork ers— T heir O ccupations and S a la r ie s, June 1951.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 25 -

State, lo c a l, and in tern ation al g ov ern m en ts. - -O nly rough
e stim a te s can be m ade of the num bers of so c ia l sc ie n tis ts e m ­
p loyed in govern m ent a g en cies of th ese k inds. State and lo c a l
govern m en ts em p loy perhaps 1,500 to 2 ,0 0 0 s o c ia l s c ie n tis ts ,
of whom m o re than o n e-th ird are s ta tistic ia n s, w orking m ain ly
in the fie ld s of lab or sta tistic s and so c ia l in su ra n ce. A su rv ey
in 1944 rep orted m o re than 600 sta tistic ia n s em p loyed in State
a g e n c ie s and the num ber is known to have in c r e a se d sin ce that
tim e . 18 Som e in d ication of the num ber of so c ia l sc ie n tists in
other p r o fe ssio n a l sp e c ia ltie s who w ere em ployed by State and
lo c a l govern m ent o rgan ization s is fu rn ish ed by a 1952 su rv ey of
so c ia l s c ie n tis ts . 19 The p erso n s respond in g to the su rv ey r e p ­
resen ted n ea rly h alf the total num ber of so c ia l sc ie n tists and in ­
cluded m o re than 500 p o litic a l s c ie n tis ts , e c o n o m ists, h isto r ia n s,
a n th ro p o lo g ists, and so c io lo g is ts who w ere p r o fe ssio n a lly e m ­
p lo y ed by State and lo c a l g o v ern m en ts.
International govern m en t a g e n c ie s --p r im a r ily the U nited
N ations - -em p lo y ed se v e r a l hundred c itiz e n s of the U nited S tates
in so c ia l sc ie n c e occu p ation s ea rly in 1954, a ccord in g to a rough
e stim a te . H ow ever, opp ortu nities for A m erica n s in th ese a g e n ­
c ie s a re r e str ic te d by the quotas s e t on em p loym en t of p eop le
of each n ation ality.
P riv a te E m ploym ent
The to ta l num ber of so c ia l sc ie n tists p r o fe ssio n a lly e m ­
p loyed in p riv a te b u sin e ss and other non govern m en tal o rg a n iza ­
tion s p robab ly did not ex ceed 6 ,0 0 0 in e a r ly 1954. A ccord in g to
rough e stim a te s b ased on the 1952 Survey of S o cia l S c ie n tists,
about 60 p ercen t of the so c ia l sc ie n tists in p riv ate em p loym en t
w ere w orking for p riv a te fir m s or w ere se lf-e m p lo y e d . The r e ­
m ain d er w orked for a w ide v a r iety of nonprofit g r o u p s--r e s e a r c h
18 S ch n eid er, D avid M. , O pportunities for S ta tistic a l W ork
in State and L ocal G overn m en ts, Journal of the A m erica n S ta tis­
tic a l A sso c ia tio n , M arch 1945, p. 62.
19 B ased on a su rv ey of ap p roxim ately 5 6 ,0 0 0 so c ia l s c ie n ­
tists and h u m a n ists, m ade by the A m erica n C ouncil of L earned
S o c ie tie s in coo p era tion w ith the p r o fe ssio n a l a sso c ia tio n s and
finan ced by the D epartm ent of D efen se. The su rv ey retu rn s,
w hich included 2 6 ,0 0 0 u sa b le sc h e d u le s, w ere p r o c e s se d by the
B ureau of L abor S ta tis tic s . The B ureau is p r e se n tly engaged
in the a n a ly sis of the su rv ey , and r e fe r e n c e s in this rep ort to
1952 Survey of S o cia l S c ie n tists, allude to data from the a fo r e ­
m entioned su rv ey . C om plete inform ation on the su rv ey w ill be
included in a fo rth com in g rep ort on P e r so n n e l R eso u rc e s in the
S ocial S cie n c e s and H u m an ities.


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 26 -

b u rea u s, philanthropic foun dations, w elfa re o rg a n iza tio n s, and
other c iv ic o rg a n iza tio n s. Only the eco n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s
w ere found in su b stan tial n um bers in p riv ate in d u stry or s e lf ­
em ploym ent; th ey con stitu ted 85 p ercen t of the so c ia l sc ie n tists
w orking in th e se a r e a s . S o c io lo g ists and p o litic a l s c ie n tis ts each
accoun ted for about 6 p ercen t of the total em p loyed in p riv a te in ­
dustry; h isto ria n s and a n th rop olo gists m ade up the rem a in in g 3
p ercen t.
M any eco n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s in p riv a te in d u stry a re
em ployed by the econ om ic r e se a r c h d ep artm en ts of la r g e c o r ­
p o ra tio n s, e sp e c ia lly c h e m ic a ls, p etro leu m , and food com p an ­
i e s . 20 M em b ers of th e se p r o fe ssio n s a re a lso em p loyed in p r i­
vate r e se a r c h b ureaus w hich o ffer th eir s e r v ic e s on a fe e b a s is .
N ot only eco n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s but a lso s o c ia l sc ie n tis ts
in other p r o fe ssio n a l sp e c ia ltie s a re engaged in m a rk et r e se a r c h
and a n a ly sis and s a le s fo r ec a stin g for a w ide v a r iety of b u sin e ss
o rg a n iza tio n s, including m a n u fa ctu rers, w h o le sa le r s, d ep a rt­
m en t s to r e s , and a d v e rtisin g a g e n c ie s . H ow ever, m a rk et r e ­
se a rc h w ork is freq u en tly lim ited in ran g e, and so c ia l sc ie n c e
train in g is not a p r e r e q u isite for m o st m a rk et r e se a r c h p o s i­
tio n s. 2^
F ew nonprofit o rg a n izatio n s are engaged in econ om ic r e ­
se a r c h , but so m e of them a re w e ll esta b lish e d and em p loy as
m any a s 20 or 30 ec o n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s on a fu ll-tim e
b a s is . M any n onprofit o rg a n izatio n s engage in r e se a r c h in p o li­
tic a l sc ie n c e , but m o st of them have v er y sm a ll fu ll-tim e r e ­
se a rc h sta ffs. A p p roxim ately 5 p ercen t of the p eop le included in
the 1952 Survey of S o cia l S c ie n tis ts 22 rep o rted that th ey w ere
em ployed by nonprofit in stitu tio n s, m a in ly r e se a r c h o rg a n iz a ­
tions .
S ev era l hundred p r o fe ssio n a l p erso n n el a re a lso em ployed
in the r e se a r c h d ep artm en ts of trade u n ion s. A lthough train in g
in eco n o m ics is u su a lly req u ired for su ch p o sitio n s, the w ork
cuts a c r o ss a ll the so c ia l s c ie n c e s . S ta tisticia n s a re u su a lly
20
The N ational In du strial C on feren ce B oard, Inc. , E c o ­
nom ic R ese a r ch in Industry, The C on feren ce Board B u sin ess
R eco rd , S ep tem ber 1950, N ew Y ork, p. 366.
2
1 L ongm an, D onald R. , Status of M arketing R e se a r c h ,
Journal of M arketing, O ctober 1951.
22 See footnote 19.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 27 -

req u ired to have train in g in so c ia l sc ie n c e su b jec ts, m o st often
ec o n o m ic s, to be a ccep ted for such r e se a r c h w ork.
R elated F ie ld s of E m ploym ent
M any thousands of p eople w ith so c ia l sc ie n c e train in g are
em ployed in p o sitio n s c lo s e ly rela ted to the b a sic so c ia l sc ie n c e
p r o fe ssio n s. E ntran ce req u irem en ts for so m e of th e se p o sitio n s
include edu cational c o u r se s in one or m o re of the so c ia l s c ie n c e s .
In other rela ted p o sitio n s, so c ia l sc ie n c e tra in in g is one of se v e r a l
types of education w hich m e e t the req u irem en ts for en tra n ce.
High sch o o l teach in g is the m o st im portant so u rce of e m ­
p lo ym en t for so c ia l sc ie n tists ou tsid e the b a sic s o c ia l sc ie n c e
p r o fe ssio n s. It is estim a te d that, in 1953, about 5 5 ,0 0 0 high
sch o o l te a ch e rs (ap p roxim ately 16 p ercen t of the total num ber)
w ere c h ie fly engaged in teach ing so c ia l s tu d ie s --m o s t often h is ­
to ry . A su rv ey of high sch o o l en ro llm en ts show ed that about
th ree-fo u rth s of the stud en ts en ro lled in so c ia l stu d ies c o u r se s
w ere studying h isto r y and c iv ic s (or govern m en t), only 6 p ercen t
w ere studying eco n o m ics or so c io lo g y , and the rem a in d er w ere
taking c o u r se s in geograp hy, p sy ch o lo g y , con su m er education,
occu p a tion s, and rela ted s u b je c ts .23
E co n o m ists and sta tistic ia n s can often com p ete on equal or
b etter-th a n -eq u a l te r m s w ith b u sin e ss a d m in istra tion graduates
for a d m in istra tiv e and b u sin e ss r e se a r c h p o sitio n s. T hose w ith
train ing in corp ora tion fin an ce and accoun ting can find jobs w ith
banks, in v estm en t and b rok erage fir m s , analyzin g corp oration
rep o rts or studying the stock and bond m a r k e ts. T h ose who have
stud ied a g ricu ltu ra l eco n o m ics and have som e farm background
hold jobs as tech n ica l s p e c ia lis ts w ith la rg e d istrib u to rs of a g r i­
cu ltu ra l p ro d u cts, including farm c o o p e r a tiv e s, and w ith the
U nited States D ep artm en t of A g ricu ltu re. S ta tisticia n s a lso m ay
be em ployed in departm ent sto r e s to se t up and u se s ta tistic a l
m ethods of in ven tory con tro l, in fa c to r ie s to d ev ise m eth od s of
con tro llin g the q u ality of goods m anu factured, and in other b u si­
n e s s e s to do a d m in istra tiv e w ork. P rob ab ly th ree or four tim es
a s m any sta tistic ia n s a re em p loyed in b u sin e ss a d m in istra tio n ,
B ased on F e d e r a l S ecu rity A gency, O ffice of E ducation,
C ircu lar N o. 294, N ational Sum m ary of O fferin gs and E n r o ll­
m en ts in High School S u b jects, 1 9 4 8 -4 9 , W ashington. D. C. .
M ay 1951.
2 3



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

^

- 28 -

the natural s c ie n c e s , public h ealth and m e d ic in e , edu cation, and
other fie ld s a s in s o c ia l sc ie n c e r e se a r c h and tea ch in g , 24
S o c io lo g ists freq u en tly obtain p o sitio n s as c a se w o r k e r s,
c o u n se lo r s, or r e cr e a tio n w o rk ers w ith public and p riv a te w e l­
fa re o rg a n iza tio n s. H ow ever, the b e st p o sitio n s in s o c ia l w ork
a re r e se r v e d fo r p er so n s w ith sp e c ific so c ia l w ork tra in in g .
S o cia l sc ie n tis ts w ith train ing in p erso n n el a d m in istra tion
and in d u stria l rela tio n s m ay a lso be able to obtain p erso n n el or
in d u stria l rela tio n s p o sitio n s w ith la r g e b u sin e ss fir m s and w ith
G overnm ent a g e n c ie s.

24 F o r in form ation on opp ortu nities for sta tistic ia n s ou t­
sid e the so c ia l sc ie n c e fie ld se e J o n es, H oward L . , and R o b erts,
H arry V . , S ta tistic s a s a C a r e e r , The A m erica n S ta tisticia n ,
O ctober 1952, (pp. 6-lO J.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 29 -

TRAINING AND EDUCATION
The m inim um req u irem en t for p r o fe ssio n a l w ork in the
s o c ia l sc ie n c e s is u su a lly a b a c h e lo r 's d eg ree w ith a m ajor in
the fie ld of sp e c ia liz a tio n m o st c lo s e ly rela ted to the w ork to be
p erfo rm ed . U ndergraduate train in g is su fficien t fo r appointm ent
to m any beginning p o sitio n s in the F e d e r a l G overnm ent. H o w ever,
p eop le w ith m a ste r 's or d octo r's d eg r ee s or p rev io u s w ork e x ­
p erien ce m ay en ter the G overnm ent s e r v ic e at h igher le v e ls . Out­
standing graduate students a re freq u en tly h ired a s p a r t-tim e
teach ing a ssista n ts in c o lle g e s and u n iv e r s itie s . A dvanced grad u ­
ate training, including com p letio n of a ll p re lim in a r y req u irem en ts
for the P h . D. d eg ree excep t the d isse r ta tio n , is a com m on p r e ­
r eq u isite for in str u c to r s. The P h. D . is in d isp en sa b le for a d ­
van cem en t to the rank of p r o fe sso r in a h igh-ranking c o lle g e or
u n iv e r sity . 2&
U ndergraduate T raining
U ndergraduate tra in in g in the so c ia l sc ie n c e s is u su a lly co n ­
sid ered to h av e, a s its p rim a ry o b jectiv e, p rep ara tio n fo r c itiz e n ­
ship, i. e. , the m eetin g of o n e's p erso n a l and so c ia l r e sp o n s ib ili­
tie s . W hile it is true that undergraduate education in the so c ia l
sc ie n c e s is an e x c e lle n t background for a v a r iety of jo b s, the
w ork p erfo rm ed on th e se jobs often has little or no d ir e c t r e la tio n ­
ship to the education.
The num ber and v a r iety of so c ia l sc ie n c e c o u r se s a va ila b le
to the undergraduate v ary w id ely am ong c o lle g e s . Students w ork ­
ing for the b a ch elo r's d eg ree in a given field of sp e c ia liz a tio n
m a y, th e re fo r e , r e c e iv e m o re in ten siv e train in g in so m e ed u ca ­
tio n a l in stitu tio n s than in o th e r s.
U ndergraduate c o u r se s in p o litic a l s c ie n c e , e c o n o m ic s,
so c io lo g y , and h isto r y a re given in p r a c tic a lly e v e r y in stitu tio n
of h igh er education in the N ation. 26 E ach y ea r , hundreds of
25 S tig le r , G eorge J . , E m ploym ent and C om p en sation in
E ducation, N ational B ureau of E con om ic R ese a r ch , Inc. , N ew
Y ork, N . Y. , 1950, (p. 36).
26 Data on p o litic a l sc ie n c e a re from G oals for P o litic a l
S cie n c e , op. c it. , and on so c io lo g is ts from Odum, H. W. ,
A m erica n S o cio lo g y , L on gm an s, G reen and C om pany, N ew Y ork,
1951. H isto ry and eco n o m ics w ere in ferred from O ffice of E du­
cation data on the n um bers of in stitu tion s co n ferrin g d e g r e e s.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

30 -

in stitu tio n s aw ard b a c h e lo r 's d eg r ee s to students m ajorin g in
th ese f i e ld s .27 A stea d ily in crea sin g num ber of sch o o ls offer
c o u r se s in anth rop ology. In 1950, m o re than 300 c o lle g e s and
u n iv e r sitie s offered at le a s t one c o u rse in anth rop ology, and
about 50 in stitu tio n s o ffered an undergraduate m ajor in this
fie ld . 28 No com p lete data a re a v a ila b le on the num ber of sch o o ls
w hich o ffer c o u r se s or an u ndergraduate m ajor in sta tistic s; h ow ­
e v e r , u nd ergrad uates in te r e ste d in so c ia l sc ie n c e w ork u su a lly
m ajor in som e sp e c ific su b ject fie ld and a lso take s ta tis tic s and
m a th em a tics as e s s e n tia l tool c o u r se s.
E c o n o m ic s. - -U n d ergrad u ate train ing in eco n o m ics is
u su a lly begun in the soph om ore y e a r , a 1 -y ea r c o u r se p roviding
an introdu ction to econ om ic th eory and a d escrip tio n of so m e
im portant seg m en ts of our econ om ic sy ste m is g en e ra lly the only
eco n o m ics c o u rse s p e c ific a lly req u ired . The num ber of s e m e s ­
ter hours req u ired for a m ajor m ay be as low a s 18 or a s high
as 30 in eco n o m ics a lo n e, w ith a total of 30 to 45 se m e ste r hours
b eing req u ired in eco n o m ics plus rela ted fie ld s . The rela ted
su b jects m ay include the other so c ia l s c ie n c e s , E n g lish , or even
the n atu ral or p h y sic a l s c ie n c e s . The c o u r se s in eco n o m ics m o st
freq u en tly o ffered includ e m oney and banking, public fin an ce,
lab or p ro b le m s, econ om ic h isto r y , s ta tis tic s , in tern ation al e c o ­
n o m ic s, co rp o ra tio n s, econ om ic th eory , accou n tin g, h isto r y of
econ om ic th eory , co m p ara tive e c o n o m ic s, and b u sin e ss c y c l e s .29
P o litic a l s c ie n c e . --In m o st c o lle g e s a c o u r se in A m erica n
G overnm ent is a p r e r e q u isite to a lm o st e v ery other c o u rse
offered by the p o litic a l sc ie n c e d ep artm en t. Students m ajorin g
in p o litic a l sc ie n c e a re u su a lly req u ired to co m p lete 27 se m e ste r
hours of w ork in the fie ld . H ow ever, the m inim um req u irem en ts
in d ifferen t in stitu tio n s range from 6 to 48 s e m e s te r h o u rs.
C ou rses in oth er so c ia l s c ie n c e s , m o st often h isto r y and e c o ­
n o m ics, a re freq u en tly req u ired a lso .
27 U. S. O ffice of E ducation, F ed era l S ecu rity A gen cy,
E arned D eg r ee s C on ferred by H igher E ducational Institutions
(issu ed annually).
28 V oeg elin , E . W. , A nthropology in A m erica n U n iv e r sitie s ,
A m erica n A n th ro p o lo g ist, Jan uary-M arch 1950.
29 The U ndergraduate E con om ics C urriculum and R elated
A rea s of Study, A m erica n E con om ic R ev iew , D ecem b er 19^0,
P a rt 2, Supplem ent.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 31

In a num ber of in stitu tion s students m a y m ajor in public
a d m in istra tion at the undergraduate l e v e l.30 Students m a jo r ­
ing in th is fie ld a re g en era lly exp ected to take c o u r se s dealing
w ith a d m in istra tiv e p rob lem s such as p erso n n el m an agem en t,
accou n tin g, budgeting, and public r e la tio n s. Som e u n iv e r sitie s
offer a fo rm a l in tern sh ip p rogram for u n d ergrad u ates. Such
in tern sh ip s m ay req u ire that the student w ork for a stated num ­
ber of hours each w eek in a lo c a l govern m ent a gen cy or spend a
su m m er w orking in a F e d e r a l G overnm ent dep artm en t or w ith a
le g isla tiv e o ffic ia l. 31
Students m ay a lso m ajor in in tern a tio n a l rela tio n s at the
undergraduate le v e l. C u rricu la a re u su a lly s e t up to m eet F o re ig n
S er v ic e req u irem en ts and include c o u r se s in in tern ation al p o litic s ,
in tern ation al law and orga n izatio n , in tern ation al e c o n o m ic s, A m e r ­
ican and E uropean d ip lom atic h isto r y , fo reig n la n g u a g es, and
in tern ation al a sp e c ts of other so c ia l s c ie n c e s .32
S o cio lo g y . -- A m ajor in so c io lo g y g en e ra lly req u ires at
le a s t 24 se m e ste r h ou rs of w ork in th is su b ject. The c o u rses
m o st freq u en tly sp e c ifie d , in addition to an in trod u ctory c o u r se ,
includ e s ta tis tic s , so c ia l p sy ch o lo g y , and c o u r se s con cern in g the
fa m ily . Som e sch o o ls req u ire students to take c o u r se s in m ethods
of so c ia l r e se a r c h , so c io lo g ic a l th eory, crim in o lo g y , so c ia l d is ­
orga n izatio n , or so c ia l r e la tio n s. C ou rses in so c ia l w ork m a y be
a ccep ted as e le c tiv e s .
A nthropology. - -S tudents m ajorin g in anthropology sp e c ia liz e
eith er in p h y sic a l anth rop ology or in cu ltu ra l and so c ia l (or applied)
anthropology. T hose in the fo rm er sp e c ia lty m ay be req u ired to
take a B. S. rath er than a B .A . d eg ree.
Som e train in g in p h y sic a l anthropology is co n sid ered n e c ­
e ssa r y for a ll a n th ro p o lo g ists, a s is a lso train in g in a rch eo lo g y .
Students sp e c ia liz in g in s o c ia l anthropology, h o w ev er, take
c o u r se s m a in ly in su ch su b jects as con tem p o rary c u ltu r e s, the
rela tio n betw een cu ltu re and p er so n a lity , eth nology, and lin g u is­
t i c s . 33
30 M artin, R o sc o e , C. , P o litic a l S cien ce and P u b lic A dm in­
istr a tio n , A m eric a n P o litic a l S cien ce R eview , S ep tem b er 1952,
(p. 664).
31 G oals for P o litic a l S c ie n c e , op. c it. , (pp. 8 3 -8 5 , 2 7 9 -8 1 ).
32 G oals for P o litic a l S cie n c e , op. c i t ., (pp. 5 3 -5 6 ).
33 The Am e rica n A n th rop ologist, J u ly -S ep tem b er 1952,
S y m p o siu m --T h e T rainin g of the P r o fe ssio n a l A n th rop ologist,
(pp. 3 4 0 -3 4 4 ).



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

3 2

-

C o u r s e s in p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o lo g y and li n g u i s t i c s a r e w id e ly
a v a i l a b l e in s c h o o l s w h i c h o f f e r a n t h r o p o l o g y t r a i n i n g . F r e q u e n t l y
a v a i l a b l e a r e c o u r s e s in c u l t u r e a n d p e r s D n a l i t y a n d in a r c h e o l o g y .
A m o r e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s o f f e r c o u r s e s d e a l i n g with s p e —
c ific a r e a s o r r a c ia l g r o u p s — for e x a m p le , O c e a n ia , S o u th e a st
A sia ,

N e a r and M id d le E a s t ,

and A f r i c a , 34

H i s t o r y . — A t l e a s t 2 4 s e m e s t e r h o u r s in h i s t o r y a r e u s u a l l y
r e q u i r e d f o r a m a j o r in th i s f i e l d .
P r a c t i c a l l y all c o lle g e s o ffe r
c o u r s e s in the h i s t o r y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; t h e s e c o u r s e s c o m ­
p r i s e a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f the t o t a l s e m e s t e r h o u r s o f f e r e d .
Stu­
d e n t s m a j o r i n g in h i s t o r y a r e c o m m o n l y r e q u i r e d to ta k e a t l e a s t
o n e c o u r s e in U n i t e d S t a t e s h i s t o r y a n d o n e c o u r s e in E u r o p e a n
o r w o rld h is to r y .
T h e s e a r e l i k e l y to b e f o l l o w e d b y tw o o r m o r e
advanced c o u r s e s .
A m e r i c a n c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y , the h i s t o r y o f
the A m e r i c a n W e s t , r e c e n t A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h h i s t o r y ,
a n cien t h is t o r y , m ed iev a l h is t o r y , m o d e r n E u r o p e a n h is t o r y ,
L a tin A m e r ic a n h is t o r y , and F a r E a s te r n h is t o r y a r e am on g oth er
c o u r s e s c o m m o n ly o ffe re d by h isto ry d epartm en ts 0
S t a t i s t i c s . — S t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in
s t a t i s t i c s o f t e n ta k e d e g r e e s in the f i e l d s in w h i c h t h e y i n t e n d
to a p p l y t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l t r a i n i n g
m o s t c o m m o n ly e c o n o m ic s .
H o w e v e r , i t i s a d v i s a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s to ta k e a s m a n y u n d e r ­
g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s in m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l t h e o r y a s
p o ssib le .
C o u r s e s c o n s id e r e d e s s e n t i a l in c lu d e : e le m e n t a r y
s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s o r s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s c o u r s e s a p p l i e d to
p a r tic u la r fie ld s o f stu dy such as e c o n o m ic s and s o c io lo g y ,
a n a ly tica l g e o m e tr y ,

G radu ate T ra in in g
A m i n i m u m o f 1 y e a r o f s t u d y i s n e e d e d to o b t a i n a
m a s t e r * s d e g r e e in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , a n d a n u m b e r o f l e a d ­
in g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r a 2 - y e a r p r o g r a m in o n e o r m o r e f i e l d s
of sp e c ia liza tio n .

3 4

V o eg elin ,

E.

W .,

op.

c it.

3 5
R e q u i r e d T r a i n i n g f o r the S t a t i s t i c i a n , ( m i m e o
r e le a s e ) > A m e r ic a n S ta tistic a l A s s o c ia t io n , U ndated.


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

-

3 3

-

G r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g in the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s m u c h l e s s
w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e th a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g .
In th e a c a d e m i c
y e a r 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , o n l y 5 8 i n s t i t u t i o n s a w a r d e d th e P h . D . d e g r e e in
h isto ry .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 s c h o o l s a w a r d e d the d o c t o r a t e in
e c o n o m i c s , 6 p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , a n d s o c i o l o g y , a n d f e w e r th a n
1 5 i n s t i t u t i o n s a w a r d e d the d o c t o r a t e i n a n t h r o p o l o g y .
It i s n o t e ­
w o r t h y t h a t n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f the d o c t o r a l d e g r e e s c o n f e r r e d in
the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s in the 6 - y e a r p e r i o d , 1 9 4 8 - 5 3 , w e r e
a w a rd e d b y th ree u n iv e r s it ie s — C h ic a g o , C o lu m b ia , and H a r v a r d .
D u r i n g t h i s s a m e 6 - y e a r p e r i o d , the 10 i n s t i t u t i o n s g r a n t i n g the
l a r g e s t n u m b e r s o f d e g r e e s in e a c h o f th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d s
(n o t th e s a m e 10 i n s t i t u t i o n s in a l l f i e l d s ^ a w a r d e d m o r e th a n
h a l f o f a l l th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e d e g r e e s ( t a b l e 4 ) .

A t l e a s t 3 y e a r s o f g r a d u a t e s t u d y a r e n e c e s s a r y to c o m p l e t e
the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the P h . D . d e g r e e .
A stu d y o f p e r s o n s h o ld ­
i n g P h . D . ' s in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y s p e n t a n
a v e r a g e o f 3 to 3 1 / 2 y e a r s in f u l l - t i m e s t u d y a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l
5 y e a r s in o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ( m o s t l y e a r n i n g a l i v i n g ) b e f o r e c o m ­
p l e t i n g th e d i s s e r t a t i o n a n d o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the P h . D . T h e
s a m e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s th a t p e r s o n s w h o o b t a i n the d o c t o r a l d e g r e e
long a f t e r c o l l e g e g r a d u a tio n
a r e l e s s l i k e l y to b e c o n s p i c u o u s l y
s u c c e s s f u l th a n t h o s e w h o do s o m o r e q u i c k l y . 37
C a n d i d a t e s f o r th e d o c t o r a l d e g r e e a r e e x p e c t e d to o b t a i n
b r o a d t r a i n i n g in th e m a j o r b r a n c h e s o f t h e i r f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i z a ­
ti o n a n d to p r e p a r e a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n w h i c h s h o w s t h e i r
c o m p e t e n c e in r e s e a r c h w o r k a n d r e p r e s e n t s a n o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u ­
ti o n to the s c i e n c e .
T h e s u b j e c t o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s c h o s e n f r o m
the b r a n c h o f t h e i r s u b j e c t in w h i c h t h e y w i s h to s p e c i a l i z e . S p e ­
c i f i c c o u r s e w o r k v a r i e s , a t the g r a d u a t e a s a t the u n d e r g r a d u a t e
l e v e l , w i t h the o f f e r i n g s o f the d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s .
The m a jo r
b r a n c h e s o f s t u d y in e a c h o f th e b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e i n d i c a t e d
b y the l i s t s o f s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s i n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s o f th is
report.

3
6
A l i s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a w a r d i n g g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s in e c o ­
n o m i c s , a s w e ll a s d eta iled in fo r m a tio n on o th er a s p e c ts of edu­
c a t i o n in e c o n o m i c s i s p r e s e n t e d in the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t : " G r a d u a t e
E d u c a t io n in E c o n o m i c s , " b y H o w a r d R . B o w e n , A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c
R e v i e w ,V o l . X L I I I , N o . 4 , P a r t 2, S u p p le m en t, S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 3 .

3 7

S ib le y , E lb r id g e ,

The R ecru itm en t,

S e lectio n and T ra in ­

in g o f S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s , S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , N e w
Y o r k , N . Y . , B u lle tin 5 8 , 1 9 4 8 .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

3 4

-

T a b l e 4 . — P h . D . d e g r e e s a w a r d e d b y th e 10 i n s t i t u t i o n s
c o n f e r r i n g th e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f d e g r e e s in
th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , 1 9 4 8 - 5 3

N u m b er of P h .D . d e g re es P ro p o rtio n
aw arded by —
of degrees
aw arded
1 0
A ll
b y 10
in stitu tio n s
in stitu tion s in stitu tion s

S u b ject fie ld

190

174

91. 6

, 162

715

6 1 .5

H i s t o r y ..............................................

1 ,5 9 2

875

5 5 .0

P o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e .......................

934

538

57. 6

S o c io lo g y

674

434

6 4 .4

A n t h r o p o l o g y ...................................
E c o n o m ics

Source:

. . - ...........................

...........................................

1

S e e A p p e n d ix L i s t o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and T a b le A .

A n u m b e r o f u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e e x p e r im e n t in g w ith " g e n e r a l
s o c i a l s c i e n c e " d e g r e e p r o g r a m s , s e t up to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g in
s e v e r a l rela te d s o cia l s c ie n c e s .
T he m ost w id ely a v a ila b le p r o ­
g r a m s a r e in th e f i e l d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s .
M a n y u n i v e r s i t i e s n o w o f f e r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d to
t r a i n a r e a s p e c i a l i s t s — p e r s o n s w ith a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f
p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o f the w o r l d .
Such p r o g r a m s in clu d e a c o m p r e ­
h e n s i v e g r o u p o f c o u r s e s in the l a n g u a g e , s o c i a l c u s t o m s , e c o ­
n o m i c a r r a n g e m e n t s , g e o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f the
area.
In 1 9 5 1 , e i g h t p r o g r a m s w e r e o f f e r e d w i t h r e g a r d to the
F ar E ast.
T h e r e w e r e 6 p r o g r a m s c o n c e r n e d w ith L a t in A m e r i c a ,
5 w e r e c o n c e r n e d w ith R u s s i a , an d 4 w ith E u r o p e .
O n e o r tw o
p r o g r a m s w e r e o f f e r e d o n S o u t h A s i a , S o u t h e a s t A s i a , the N e a r
E a s t , and A f r i c a .
S o m e in s titu tio n s g ive a c e r t i f i c a t e o r a
m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e in a r e a s t u d y , b u t a d o c t o r a t e in a r e a s t u d y i s
r a r e l y a w a r d e d . A r e a s p e c i a l i s t s u s u a l l y ta k e the P h . D . i n o n e
o f the b a s i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .
S i n c e the a r e a s t u d y p r o g r a m i s
a d d i t i o n a l to th e c o u r s e s r e g u l a r l y r e q u i r e d f o r d o c t o r a t e s in t h e s e
f i e l d s , i t t a k e s l o n g e r to b e c o m e a n a r e a s p e c i a l i s t th a n to c o m ­
p le te train in g fo r o th e r s o c i a l s c ie n c e p r o f e s s i o n s . - ^

^
sitie s,
(p p .

B en n ett,

4 - 1 0 and 2 8 ).

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W e n d e l l C . , A r e a S t u d i e s in A m e r i c a n U n i v e r ­

S o c ia l S c ien ce R e s e a r c h C o u n c il,

New Y o rk ,

June 1 9 5 1 ,

-

3 5

-

HOW TO E N TE R

T each in g
P r o f e s s o r s and c h a ir m e n of s o c ia l sc ie n c e departm en ts a re
the p r i n c i p a l a g e n t s in the p l a c e m e n t o f t h e i r o u t s t a n d i n g s t u d e n t s
in c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s .
M a n y p o s itio n s a s c o lle g e tea ch in g
a s s i s t a n t s an d i n s t r u c t o r s a r e fi lle d b y o u tsta n d in g p r e s e n t o r
f o r m e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o f th e p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d m o s t
h ig h e r l e v e l p o s it io n s a r e f i l l e d th rou gh p r o m o t i o n . T h u s , c a r e ­
fu l c h o ic e o f a g r a d u a te s c h o o l , and e v e n an u n d e r g r a d u a te
s c h o o l , i s i m p o r t a n t f o r p e r s o n s w h o p l a n a c a r e e r in c o l l e g e
teach in g. 3 9

Stud en ts s e e k in g c o lle g e te a ch in g o r o th e r p r o f e s s i o n a l
p o s i t i o n s m a y a l s o f i n d i t h e l p f u l to j o i n th e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y
i n t h e i r f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . ( S e e l a s t s e c t i o n o f th i s r e p o r t ,
W h e r e to G e t F u r t h e r I n f o r m a t i o n . ) R e c r u i t i n g f o r s u c h p o s i ­
t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s p l a c e a t the s o c i e t i e s ' a n n u a l m e e t i n g s .
In a d d i t i o n , a n u m b e r o f s o c i e t i e s a r e g i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n
to the p r o b l e m o f a i d i n g t h e i r m e m b e r s to o b t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l
e m p lo y m e n t.
The A m e r ic a n S o c io lo g ic a l S o c ie ty , fo r e x a m p le ,
p u b l i s h e s a n E m p l o y m e n t B u l l e t i n d e v o t e d e n t i r e l y to l i s t i n g e m ­
p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s ,.a p p lic a n ts fo r p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t io n s , and
in fo r m a tio n about gradu ate s c h o la r s h ip s and fe llo w s h ip s .
The
A m e r ic a n S ta tis tic a l A s s o c ia t io n p u b lish es a b i-m o n th ly new s
b u lle tin f o r its m e m b e r s ,
T h e A m e r i c a n S t a t is t ic ia n , w h ich
o c c a s io n a lly l is t s jo b op p ortu n ities and s c h o la r s h ip s and fe llo w ­
sh ip in fo r m a t io n .
T h is b u lle tin a ls o c on ta in s a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b ­
in g s t a t i s t i c a l w o r k in v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f e m p l o y m e n t .
The A m e r i­
can E c o n o m ic R e v ie w r e g u la r ly l i s t s jo b o p p o r tu n itie s and job
a p p l i c a n t s in th e f i e l d o f e c o n o m i c s .
The A m e r ic a n A n th r o p o lo g i­
ca l A s s o c ia t io n is s u e s a N ew s B u lle tin fo r its m e m b e r h i p ,
w h ich
i n c l u d e s l i s t s o f j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . M o s t p o s i t i o n s l i s t e d b y th e
p u b l i c a t i o n s o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e in c o l l e g e s a n d
u n i v e r s i t i e s , bu t in fo r m a t io n is a ls o g iv en c o n c e r n in g op en in gs
in G o v e r n m e n t and in p r iv a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

3 9
S t i g l e r , G e o r g e J . , E m p l o y m e n t a n d C o m p e n s a t i o n in
E d u ca tio n , N ation al B u r e a u o f E c o n o m ic R e s e a r c h , In c . , N ew

York,

N.


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

Y .,

1950,

(pp.

3 5 -3 9 ).

-

3 6

-

G overnm ent
T h e u su a l m eth o d o f en terin g p r o fe s s io n a l s o c ia l s c ie n c e
w o r k in th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t i s to q u a l i f y a s a j u n i o r m a n a g e ­
m e n t a s s i s t a n t o r j u n i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n t b y t a k i n g the a p ­
p ro p ria te C iv il S e r v ic e ex a m in a tio n .
T o b e e l i g i b l e to t a k e t h e s e
e x a m in a t io n s , a p p lic a n ts m u s t h ave c o m p le te d a 4 - y e a r c o lle g e
c o u r s e l e a d i n g to a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e w i t h a m a j o r in o n e o r a
c o m b i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e s o r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s (t h e s p e c i f i c
c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y i n g w i t h th e o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d ) . A n
e q u iv a le n t c o m b in a tio n o f ed u ca tio n and c e r t a in s p e c if ie d ty p es
o f e x p e r ie n c e , is a ls o a c c e p ta b le . The ju n ior p r o f e s s io n a l a s ­
s is ta n t e x a m in a tio n is p r i m a r i l y a t e s t o f g e n e r a l a b i l i t i e s . T h e
ju n io r m a n a g e m e n t e x a m in a tio n , w h ich in c lu d e s o r a l a s w e ll a s
w r i t t e n t e s t s , i s m u c h m o r e d i f f i c u l t — o f the 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s w ho
w e r e e x a m i n e d in e a r l y 1 9 5 4 , o n l y 4 p e r c e n t p a s s e d b o t h the
w r i t t e n a n d o r a l t e s t s a n d w e r e th u s e l i g i b l e f o r a p p o i n t m e n t . 40
S in c e th is e x a m in a t io n e li m i n a t e s a l l c a n d id a te s e x c e p t th o se
j u d g e d to b e q u a l i f i e d f o r c a r e e r s l e a d i n g to h i g h - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s ,
m a n y a g e n c i e s p r e f e r to r e c r u i t t h e i r j u n i o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e p e r ­
s o n n e l f r o m th e j u n i o r m a n a g e m e n t r e g i s t e r .
F o r p o s i t io n s o f h ig h e r g r a d e a d d itio n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w ith
r e s p e c t to t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e a r e s t i p u l a t e d .
P o s itio n s one
g r a d e a b o v e th e j u n i o r l e v e l a r e f r e q u e n t l y f i l l e d b y a p p l i c a n t s
w ith m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s .
M o s t p o s i t i o n s a b o v e th e tw o l o w e s t
p r o f e s s i o n a l g r a d e s a r e f i l l e d b y p r o m o t i o n f r o m w i t h i n . 41
A l t h o u g h s o c i a l s c i e n c e p o s i t i o n s in the S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t
c a n b e o f f e r e d t h r o u g h the C i v i l S e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r j u n i o r
p r o fe s s io n a l a s s is ta n t o r ju n io r m a n a g em e n t a s s is ta n t, perh aps
the m o s t p r o m i s i n g w a y to b e g i n a c a r e e r in th i s d e p a r t m e n t i s
t h r o u g h th e F o r e i g n S e r v i c e o f f i c e r e x a m i n a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d
a n n u a l l y b y the S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t .
No sp e c ific c o lle g ia te b a c k ­
g r o u n d i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s b u t b r o a d t r a i n i n g in
the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s h a s b e e n f o u n d to b e th e m o s t h e l p f u l t y p e o f
e d u ca tio n a l b a c k g r o u n d .4 2

4 0
U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a f r o m the U . S .
C o m m issio n .

C iv il S e r v ic e

4 1
F o r fu r th e r in fo rm a tio n on s o c i a l s c ie n c e p o s itio n s
i n the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t w r i t e to the U . S . C i v i l S e r v i c e
C o m m i s s i o n , W a sh in gton 2 5 , D . C .
4
2
The D ep artm en t of S tate, The U .S . F o re ig n S e r v ic e ,
F o r e ig n S e r v ic e B u lle tin N o . 2 8 , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g
O ffic e , W ash in g to n 2 5 , D . C . , A p r il 1 9 5 2 .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

3 7

-

R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e p o s i t i o n s in
the S t a t e a n d c i t y g o v e r n m e n t s v a r y w i d e l y . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
s u c h p o s it io n s s h o u ld be o b ta in e d d i r e c t ly f r o m State and lo c a l
c iv il s e r v ic e c o m m i s s i o n s .
P riv a te E m p lo y m e n t
S t u d e n t s s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t w ith p r i v a t e r e s e a r c h o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y to f i n d t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s a n d d e p a r t m e n t a l c h a i r ­
m e n th e m o s t h e l p f u l s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n .
C o lleg e p r o fe s s o r s
a r e u s u a l l y w e l l i n f o r m e d a s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s in the v i c i n i t y
w h ich u s e p e r s o n n e l in e a c h s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d and m ay have
p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h the s t a f f o f s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
C o lleg e
p la c e m e n t b u r e a u s m a y be h elp fu l but a re u s u a lly l e s s e ffe c tiv e
th a n th e p r o f e s s o r s in p l a c i n g s t u d e n t s in p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y .
P o s it io n s can s o m e t i m e s be o b ta in ed th rough
a n s w e r i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t s in p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s o r l e s s o f t e n
th o se in la r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n d a ily n e w s p a p e r s and f i n a n c ia l j o u r ­
n als .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

EMPLOYMENT

3 8

-

TRENDS AND OUTLOOK

P a s t E m p lo y m e n t T ren d s
E m p l o y m e n t in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s h a s i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y
d u r i n g the p a s t f e w d e c a d e s — f r o m f e w e r th a n 1 0 , 0 0 0 in 1 9 3 1 to
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 5 , 0 0 0 in 1 9 5 4 .
C o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s it i e s w e r e ,
i n 1 9 3 1 , the o n e l a r g e f i e l d o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l
sc ie n tists.
In th a t y e a r , th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e d o n l y
about 600 e c o n o m i s t s and s t a t is t ic ia n s and a fe w h i s t o r i a n s and
a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ; 43 p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e d p o s i t i o n s f o r a m u c h
s m a l l e r n u m b e r o f e c o n o m i s t s a n d s t a t i s t i c i a n s ; 44 a n d n o n p r o f i t
o r g a n iz a tio n s o u tsid e o f ed u cation e m p lo y e d a few s o c ia l s c ie n ­
tis ts , m a in ly s o c io lo g is ts .
B y 1 9 5 4 , the p r o p o r t i o n o f s o c i a l
s c i e n t i s t s in i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g h a d d r o p p e d to l e s s
th a n h a l f the t o t a l e m p l o y e d ; a b o u t a t h i r d w e r e in G o v e r n m e n t
w ork,
a n d m o r e th a n o n e - t e n t h w e r e in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y a n d in
n on p rofit o r g a n iz a t io n s .
The n u m b er of s o c ia l sc ie n tists em p loy e d as c o lle g e te a ch ers
p r o b a b l y m o r e th a n d o u b l e d b e t w e e n 1 9 3 1 a n d 1 9 5 4 .
E x a ct sta tis­
t i c s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e o n the i n c r e a s e in c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s in the
s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , b u t c o l l e g e e n r o l l m e n t s m o r e th a n d o u b l e d d u r ­
i n g th is p e r i o d , a n d s o d i d the t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s .
A n d the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l
s t u d e n t s , a n d p r e s u m a b l y o f a l l t e a c h e r s , w h o w e r e in th e s o c i a l
s c i e n c e s r e m a i n e d a b o u t th e s a m e .
T h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e in the n u m b e r o f c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s w a s
s l o w b u t f a i r l y s t e a d y f r o m 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 to 1 9 4 1 - 4 2 .
T h e n , a s stu­
d e n t s e n t e r e d the A r m e d F o r c e s , c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s d e c r e a s e d .
T h e y e x p a n d e d s h a r p l y in 1 9 4 5 - 4 6 w h e n th e v e t e r a n s b e g a n to
enter c o lle g e s .
In 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 , th e y e a r o f p e a k e n r o l l m e n t s , the
n u m b e r o f c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 p e r c e n t l a r g e r
th a n in 1 9 4 3 - 4 4 . 4 5 C o l l e g e e n r o l l m e n t s d e c l i n e d b e t w e e n 1 9 5 0

S i m s , L e w i s B . , S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s in th e F e d e r a l S e r v i c e ,
Y e a r b o o k o f the G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H a r v a r d
U n iv e r s ity , 1940
(p . 2 8 6 ) .
4 3

4 4
T he N a tio n a l In d u stria l C o n fe r e n ce B o a r d , E c o n o m ic
R e s e a r c h in I n d u s t r y , T h e C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d B u s i n e s s R e c o r d ,
V o l. V II, N o . 9, S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 0 , N ew Y o r k
(p . 3 6 6 ).

F e d e r a l S e c u rity A g e n c y , O ffice of E d u ca tion , S ta tistic s
o f H ig h e r E d u c a t io n , F a c u l t y , S tud en ts and D e g r e e s , 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 ,
U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g O ffic e , W a sh in gton 2 5 , D . C . , 1 9 5 2 .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

4 5

-

3 9

-

a n d 1 9 5 2 , b u t t h e y w e r e a g a i n o n the u p t r e n d b y the 1 9 5 2 - 5 3
school y e a r.
T h e total n u m b e r o f f u ll - t i m e c o lle g e te a c h e r s is
b e l i e v e d to h a v e d e c l i n e d o n l y s l i g h t l y f o l l o w i n g 1 9 5 0 , a nd the
n u m b e r o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s in 1 9 5 4 w a s p r o b a b l y n o t f a r
b e l o w th e 1 9 5 0 e s t i m a t e o f 1 5 , 0 0 0 o r 1 6 , 0 0 0 . 4 6
T h e m o s t r a p i d e x p a n s i o n in e m p l o y m e n t o f s o c i a l s c i e n ­
t i s t s h a s ta k e n p l a c e in the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h , e a r l y
i n 1 9 5 3 , e m p l o y e d a t o t a l o f a b o u t 1 1 , 0 0 0 s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in
the U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d a b r o a d .
T h is in c r e a s e has r e s u lte d f r o m
a l o n g - t e r m g r o w t h in b o t h d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s o f th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
T h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e in
e m p l o y m e n t b e g a n in 1 9 3 3 , w i t h the e n a c t m e n t o f n e w r e g u l a t o r y
a n d s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the r e g u l a t i o n o f the s a l e o f
s e c u r i t i e s , a n d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f b a n k d e p o s i t i n s u r a n c e ,
s o c ia l s e c u r ity b e n e f i t s , f a r m c o m m o d ity c o n tr o ls and p r ic e
s u p p o r t s , and m i n i m u m w age and m a x i m u m h ou r s t a n d a r d s . The
p r o b l e m s o f w a g e , p r i c e , and m a t e r i a l s c o n tr o l du ring W o r l d W a r
II a n d a g a i n d u r i n g the p a r t i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n p e r i o d w h i c h f o l l o w e d
the o u t b r e a k o f h o s t i l i t i e s in K o r e a b r o u g h t f u r t h e r t e m p o r a r y
i n c r e a s e s in the n e e d f o r p e r s o n n e l w ith s o c i a l s c i e n c e t r a i n i n g .
S t a t i s t i c s o n G o v e r n m e n t s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in a l l f i e l d s o f s p e c i a l ­
i z a t i o n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r e a r l y y e a r s , b u t the g r e a t r i s e in e m ­
p l o y m e n t o f e c o n o m i s t s a n d s t a t i s t i c i a n s in W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . ,
s in c e 1931 i s sh o w n in ta b le 5.

4 6
The e m p lo y m e n t of c o lle g e te a c h e r s flu ctu a te s ro u gh ly
in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h v a r i a t i o n s in e n r o l l m e n t o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s o f
t i m e , b u t s h o r t - r u n e m p l o y m e n t c h a n g e s t e n d to l a g b e h i n d e n ­
ro llm e n t c h a n g e s.
T h e n u m b e r o f f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y m e m b e r s in
6 8
la n d -g r a n t in stitu tion s (e m p lo y in g o v e r o n e -fift h of a ll c o lle g e
t e a c h e r s ) d r o p p e d o n l y 6 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n the p e a k e n r o l l m e n t
p e r i o d 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 and 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 , when e n r o l l m e n t s h a d d e c lin e d
sh a rp ly .
See F e d e r a l S e c u r ity A g e n c y , O ffic e o f E d u cation C i r ­
c u l a r N o . 2 8 3 , F a c u l t y S a l a r i e s in L a n d - G r a n t C o l l e g e s a nd
U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 9 4 9 -5 0 and C ir c u la r N o . 3 5 8 , F a c u lt y S a la r ie s
in L a n d - G r a n t C o l l e g e s a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 , U . S .

G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g O f f i c e , W ash in gton 2 5 ,
in 1951 and 1 9 5 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

D.

C . , p u b lish ed

- 40

-

Table 5 .— Number of economists and statisticians employed
in Federal Civil Service positions in Washington, D. C.
in selected years

Year

Total

Economists Statisticians

1 9 3 1 .......................................

616

537

79

1937 .......................................

2,067

1, 675

392

1939 ....................... ...............

2,419

1,946

473

1 9 5 1 .......................................

3, 954

2,496

1,458

Source: See table 3, p. 24 for 1951 data. Data for other
years from Sims, Lewis B. , Social Scientists in the Federal
Service, Yearbook of the Graduate School of Public Administra­
tion, Harvard University, 1940, p. 286.

The Federal Government has also greatly increased its em­
ployment in professional occupations which cut across all or sev­
eral of the social science fields. The State Department in 1938,
employed approximately 500 clerical and professional personnel
in work relating to social science problems. In 1951, it had
over 1,100 professional employees (excluding economists) in in­
ternational relations, foreign affairs, and intelligence work. In
addition, Foreign Service officers more than doubled in number
(from 715 to 1,500) between 1938 and 19 5 1 .-^

1938 data from Task Force Report on Foreign A ffairs,
Appendix H; Prepared for the Commission on Organization of the
Executive Branch of the Government, January 1949, (pp. 76 and
108); 1951 data from Sayre, Wallace S. , and Thurber, Clarence
F . , Training for Specialized Mission Personnel, Public Adminis tration Service, Chicago, Illinois , 1952, (p. 55).


D
igitized for FRASER

Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou

-

41

-

The number of historians, anthropologists, and sociolo­
gists employed in the Government rose from a handful in the
1930's to more than 700 in 1951. This increase, however, af­
fected only a small proportion of the social scientists in these
fields of specialization.
Some increase has occurred in the employment of social
scientists in State and local governments, especially since the
late 1930' s. Statisticians and economists have been in demand
to aid in the administration of social insurance systems estab­
lished during the past 20 years. The establishment of the United
Nations in 1945 led to some growth in employment in international
organizations, but opportunities have remained limited.
In private industry a great increase in employment of social
scientists appears to have taken place during and since World War
II. A survey of the economic research departments of the largest
corporations in the United States reported that only 13 of 42 such
departments (for which information on the date of establishment
was available) were set up prior to 1930; seven were organized
during the 1930' s, and 22 during the 1940' s . 48 Growth in em­
ployment in nonprofit organizations has been slow, and has re­
sulted mainly from the setting up of new organizations.
A further indication of the growth of the basic social science
fields is the rapid increase in membership in the various profes­
sional societies and the establishment of new societies (chart 1).
Society membership, however, provides only a rough guide to the
growth of the various fields, since many persons belong to more
than one society and few societies restrict membership to pro­
fessionally trained or professionally employed social scientists.
Furthermore, many social scientists do not join any of the pro­
fessional organizations.
Supply of Social Scientists
Students who take graduate degrees in the social sciences
are the core of the supply of professional personnel in these
fields. During the 6-year period ending June 1953 about 26,000
m aster's degrees and 4,700 doctorates were awarded. Compara­
ble data on numbers of graduates prior to this period are not
available. However, the National Roster of Scientific and Spe­
cialized Personnel, which was not complete, listed some 5,200
P h .D .' s and 5, 500 masters in social science fields as of
December 31, 1945. In addition, some of the best trained of the
great number of students who take bachelor's degrees in the
social sciences (240,000 in 1948-53) engaged in professional work
in these fields and must be included in the supply of trained
48 The National Industrial Conference Board, op, cit.


D
igitized for FRASER

Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou

-4 2 -

Chart 1 Growth in Membership of Largest Professional
.
Associations in 5 Social Science Fields y
M em bers

M em bers
8 ,0 0 0

8 ,0 0 0

7 ,0 0 0

7 ,0 0 0

AM ERICAN E C O N O M IC

6 ,0 0 0

6 ,0 0 0

A S SO C IA T IO N

5 ,0 0 0

5 .0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0
AM ERICAN HISTORICAL
A S S O C IA T IO N

3 ,0 0 0

3 .0 0 0

AM ERICAN
2 ,0 0 0

2 ,0 0 0

STATISTICAL
A S SO C IA T IO N
AM ERICAN SO CIO LO G IC A L
SO C IE TY

1,000

1.000

AM ERICAN A N TH R O PO LO G IC AL
A S SO C IA T IO N

1920


D
igitized for FRASER

F
ederal Reserve B of L is
ank
ou

1925

1930

1935

1940

1945

1950

Excludes institutional membership
Source: Data provided by the Associations

-

43 -

social scientists,49 as must the smaller numbers of persons
with education in related fields who qualify as social scientists
through extensive experience. On the other hand, by no means
all persons with graduate training in the social sciences are
employed in these fields; this is evident from a comparison of
the estimated number (35,000) of persons currently employed
in the social sciences with the above information on the supply
of potential social scientists.
As the chart indicates, far more graduate degrees are
awarded in history than in any other social science. Approxi­
mately one-third of all social science doctorates conferred
during the 6-year period, 1948-53, were in history; about onefourth were in economics, one-fifth in political science, and
one-fifth in all other social science fields taken together. Of
the m aster's degrees conferred in the social sciences during
the same period, more than one-third were in history. The
number of m aster's degrees granted in political science was
also relatively high (23 percent) probably owing to the tendency
of schools of public administration and international relations
to concentrate on the training of masters in these fields.
Because social scientists with advanced training, especially
those with doctorates, are such an important part of the social
science labor force, it is interesting to compare the trends in the
numbers of doctoral degrees granted in the social sciences with
doctoral degrees granted in all subject fields. The proportion
of all doctoral degrees conferred on social scientists decreased
slightly in the first half of the 1930' s and then remained constant
until World War II— when it dropped somewhat owing largely to
the wartime emphasis on natural sciences and engineering
(table 6). Data on the m aster's degrees granted’in the social
sciences are not available prior to 1948, but the general trend
has probably been similar to that in doctorates.
With the end of World War II and the sharp increase in en­
rollment of veterans in colleges, the supply of social scientists
with graduate degrees began to increase rapidly. The number
of m aster's degrees awarded reached a peak of nearly 5, 000 in
the year ending June 1950; the largest number of doctorates
was conferred in the following year (chart 2 and appendix table
A).

49
The 1952 Survey of Social Scientists (footnote 19) in­
dicated that approximately one-sixth of those currently employed
in one of the basic social sciences had only a bachelor's degree
or even less formal education.

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

44 -

Table 6 .— Doctoral dissertations accepted in all subject fields and'
in social sciences, 1926-50

5-year period

All
fields

T o t a l ............................................. 67,016

Social
sciences'7

Percent in
social
sciences

10,180

15.2

8,410

1,438

17. 1

1931-35 .......................................... 12,282

1,852

15. 1

193 6-40 .......................................... 14,176

2, 135

15. 1

1941-45 .......................................... 13,151

1,869

14. 2

1946-50 .......................................... 18,997

2, 886

15.2

1926-30 ..........................................

Includes anthropology, economics, history, international law
and relations, political science and sociology. Dissertations of
statisticians are usually classified in the subject fields in which
their statistical training is applied— most often in economics.
Source: Compiled from: Marsh, Clarence Stephen, American
Universities and Cdleges, American Council on Education,
Washington, D. C. , 1936: Henry, Edward A. , Doctoral D isser­
tations Accepted by American Universities, 1940-41, and
Trotier, Arnold H. , and Harmon, Marion, Doctoral Disserta­
tions Accepted by American Universities, 1949-50, The H. W.
Wilson Company, New York.

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Chari 2. Num
bers of Graduate Degrees
Awarded in Basic Social Science Fields
1948-53
PH.D.

Numbe

MASTER'S

Number

2000

1 1
— --------------1-----------------1
1
1 »
1
1
•
1
•
1
.

2250 f

HISTORY .

1500

%
.
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
\

-

POLITICAL .
SCIENCE X

1000
-------'
ECONOMK

SOCI OLOGY x
V

500

//


D
igitized for FRASER

F
ederal Reserve B of L is
ank
ou

-4 5 -

-

"

ANTHROPO LOGY
,______\
*-------- )
1
1
i
1948

1949

1950

1951

t——
1952

X— — >
1953

Source: U.S. Office of Education
U IT D S A E D P R M N Of L B R
N E TT S EA T E T
AO
B RA O UIOI SAISIC
UEU f
TT T S

-

46 -

In the social sciences, as in all other fields of study, the
drop in college enrollments since 1950 has caused a decrease
in the number of graduates with majors in these fields. How­
ever, the number of P h.D . 's awarded in the year ending June
1953 (943) was far above the highest prewar figure. No sub­
stantial decline in the number of doctorates is likely in the
next few years, because the proportion of students taking post­
graduate work is rising.

Employment Outlook
The demand for personnel in most of the social sciences
was low in early 1954 in both major fields of employment— college
teaching and Government. Sharp competition for available open­
ings was expected to continue in the immediate future. However,
employment in these occupations is likely to rise in the long run,
especially in teaching.
Employment opportunities for college teachers in most
social science fields will increase slowly until the late 1950rs.
College enrollments are expected to rise only moderately for the
next few years, when the college age population will be relatively
small owing to the low birth rates during the 1930' s. Some in­
crease is anticipated, hq,wever, because of the trend for a greater
proportion of high school graduates to attend college— and this
may be accelerated by the enrollment of Korean and other veter­
ans. However, growth in the number of students will not neces­
sarily result in a corresponding increase in demand for college
teachers. Between 1950 and 1952, employment of college teachers
fell much less sharply than enrollments. Though enrollments
started upward again in 1953, the number of teachers will prob­
ably not rise substantially until the increase in students becomes
fairly sizable.
In all social science fields some college teaching opportuni­
ties will occur as a result of replacement needs. Probably five
or six hundred new instructors will be required annually during
the next few years as a result of the normal turnover of faculty
personnel. However, employment prospects in the individual
fields of specialization will vary with the supply of trained people.
In history, where the number of P h.D . 1s conferred each year
tends to be relatively large, there will be keen competition for

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•

- 47 -

positions in colleges, and some Ph.D . 1s will probably enter the
high school teaching fie ld .50 Economists will be in a more
favorable position than sociologists and anthropologists because
many will be qualified to teach in schools of business adminis­
tration as well as in liberal arts schools.
It is expected that employment opportunities for instructors
of statistics will expand at a greater rate than those for teachers
of other social science subjects. The rising demand for statis­
tically trained people in business administration, engineering,
and the natural sciences, as well as in traditional social science
fields, has already resulted in an increase in the number of in­
stitutions offering courses in statistics, and further expansion
is likely. At the same time, since relatively few schools offer
advanced training in this field, the supply of highly trained statis­
ticians is limited. Increased demand for well trained statisticians
and a limited supply of available entrants, will result in very
good employment prospects in teaching.
In the Federal Government, opportunities for new graduates
to enter professional social science work dropped sharply in
early 1953. The Civil Service Commission suspended plans to
hold new examinations for economists because of the size of the
registers of displaced career employees in social science occu­
pations o Opportunities for new entrants will probably improve
somewhat during the next few years as agencies seek to replace
personnel lost through turnover, but it is unlikely that any sharp
increase in employment in social science occupations will occur
in this period. Even in 1951 there was evidence that the expan­
sion of social science employment in the Federal Government
was slowing down. Between 1947 and 1951, Federal employment
in social science occupations increased only 14 percent, whereas
Government employment increased by a third in all white-collar
occupations taken together and by 80 percent in physical science
occupations.

50
High school enrollments will, of course, rise much
sooner than will college enrollments. It is anticipated that there
will be a sharp increase in the number of high school students by
1957, which will markedly increase the demand for high school
teachers in the social studies courses. History teachers will
benefit most from this expansion in demand, but teachers trained
in other social science fields will also have greater opportunities
for employment in this field.

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Reserve B of
ank
L is
ou
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

48

-

E m p lo y m e n t o p p ortu n ities fo r s o c ia l s c ie n tis ts a r e e x p ec te d
to i n c r e a s e , in the l o n g r u n , p a r t i c u l a r l y in c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g .
The
d e m a n d f o r c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s w i l l e x p a n d m a r k e d l y e a r l y in the
I 9 6 0 's.
B y 1 9 6 5 the c o l l e g e - a g e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l b e a b o u t 4 5 pern
c e n t h i g h e r th a n in 1 9 5 3 , a n d in 1 9 7 0 i t w i l l b e n e a r l y 7 5 p e r c e n t
h i g h e r . In a d d i t i o n , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f the y o u n g p e o p l e e n t e r i n g
c o l l e g e i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e f u r t h e r .
If th is p r o p o r t i o n r i s e s at
a b o u t the s a m e r a t e d u r i n g the n e x t d e c a d e a s in th e 1 9 2 0 - 4 0
p e r i o d (w h e n th e i n c r e a s e w a s f r o m 8 to o v e r 1 5 p e r c e n t o f the
1 8 - 2 1 y e a r a g e g r o u p ) the n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d w i l l b e
a p p r o x im a t e ly 3 . 8 m i ll i o n b y 1 9 7 0 , as c o m p a r e d w ith 2 . 2 5 m i ll i o n
in 1 9 5 3 .
T h is e s t i m a t e is b a s e d on v e r y c o n s e r v a t iv e a s s u m p t io n s ,
a n d it i s p o s s i b l e th a t e n r o l l m e n t s w i l l i n c r e a s e m u c h m o r e
ra p id ly. 5
I n a n y c a s e , the d e m a n d f o r c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s w i l l r i s e
a t a n i n c r e a s i n g l y s w i f t p a c e d u r i n g the I 9 6 0 1 s .
T h is e x p a n sio n ,
c o m b i n e d w ith r e p l a c e m e n t n e e d s , w ill p r o b a b ly p r o v id e s u f f i­
c i e n t t e a c h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s l i k e l y to
b e g r a n t e d P h . D . ' s in m o s t s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d s ; p e r s o n s w i t h
l e s s e r d e g r e e s w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e to h a v e d i f f i c u l t y in o b t a i n ­
i n g p e r m a n e n t a p p o i n t m e n t s in h i g h - r a n k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .

E m p l o y m e n t o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in G o v e r n m e n t i s d e p e n d ­
e n t o n p u b l i c p o l i c y , e x p r e s s e d in l e g i s l a t i o n a n d f u n d s a p p r o ­
p r i a t e d a n d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w .
These
d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e d i f f i c u l t to a n t i c i p a t e . M a n y o f the l e g i s l a t i v e
e n a c t m e n t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s ( i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , a i d to
a g r ic u ltu r e , reg u la tio n o f s e c u r itie s e x c h a n g e s , la b o r -m a n a g e ­
m e n t r e la t i o n s , and m i n i m u m la b o r sta n d a rd s) w h ich c r e a t e d
a n e e d f o r th e e m p l o y m e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s n o w
a p p e a r to b e e s t a b l i s h e d a s b a s i c p u b l i c p o l i c y .
T h a t the U n i t e d
S t a t e s w i l l c o n t i n u e to h a v e a l e a d i n g r o l e in w o r l d a f f a i r s i s
g e n e r a ll y r e c o g n i z e d . T h is w ill r e q u ir e k n o w le d g e o f s o c i a l and
e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s in f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , s u p p l i e d to a l a r g e
extent by s o c ia l s c ie n t i s t s .
O n the o t h e r h a n d , e m p l o y m e n t p r o s ­
p e c t s a r e a ffe c t e d b y p u b lic o p in io n , a la r g e s e g m e n t o f w h ich
f a v o r s a r e d u c t i o n in G o v e r n m e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s .

5 1
S e v e r a l e s t i m a t e s o f fu tu re c o lle g e e n r o llm e n t s b a s e d
on le s s c o n s e r v a tiv e a ssu m p tio n s have been p u b lish ed . F o r
e x a m p l e , an e s t i m a t e o f e n r o l l m e n t s b e t w e e n 4 . 3 m i l l i o n and
4 . 6 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 7 0 w a s m a d e b y W e l l e m e y e r a n d L e r n e r in
H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t y R e q u i r e m e n t s in th e H u m a n i t i e s a n d
the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 7 0 , S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , N o v e m b e r
1 4 , 1 9 5 3 , V o l . 7 8 , N o . 2 0 2 0 , (p p . 1 4 5 - 1 5 2 ) .


Digitized for

Bank of

-

4 9

-

In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e d i v e r s e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e m p l o y ­
m e n t o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in G o v e r n m e n t i s the f a c t t h a t in p e r i o d s
o f c r i s i s th e n e e d f o r s u c h p e r s o n n e l t e n d s to r i s e s h a r p l y .
D ur­
i n g the p a s t 2 0 y e a r s , e x p a n s i o n in e m p l o y m e n t o f s o c i a l s c i e n ­
t i s t s h a s b e e n m o s t m a r k e d in t i m e s o f d o m e s t i c o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l
em e rg e n cies.
F o r e x a m p l e , the e m p l o y m e n t o f e c o n o m i s t s a n d
s t a t i s t i c i a n s i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s a n d
a g a in d u rin g W o r l d W a r II.
T h e p o s t - W o r l d W a r II i n c r e a s e in
e m p lo y m e n t o f m i l i t a r y and o th e r in t e llig e n c e s p e c i a l i s t s w a s
m a d e n e c e s s a r y b y th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n in t h i s p e r i o d .
F u t u r e c r i s e s w o u l d b e l i k e l y to h a v e s i m i l a r e f f e c t s .
In p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y t h e r e w i l l p r o b a b l y b e a s l o w b u t s t e a d y
in c re a se
in o p p o r tu n itie s f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s — e s p e c i a l l y e c o ­
n o m i s t s , s t a t i s t i c i a n s , a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s — o v e r the l o n g r u n . M a n y
c o m p a n i e s a r e t u r n i n g to s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s o f b u s i n e s s t r e n d s
in f o r e c a s t i n g s a l e s , p l a n n i n g p u r c h a s i n g a n d p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d ­
u l e s , and d e te r m in in g p e r s o n n e l n e e d s .
B u s i n e s s and in d u s t r y
w i l l p r o b a b l y e m p l o y m o r e s t a t i s t i c i a n s a s n e w w a y s a r e fo u n d
to s a v e t i m e a n d m o n e y t h r o u g h the u s e o f s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l s in
qu ality c o n tr o l and o th e r b u s in e s s o p e r a t i o n s .
R e p l a c e m e n t o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e p e r s o n n e l w i l l c o n t i n u e to b e
a m a j o r s o u r c e o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s in the l o n g r u n a s
w e l l a s in the i m m e d i a t e f u t u r e .
T h e r a t e o f t u r n o v e r in c o l l e g e
f a c u l t y — d u e in p a r t to r e t i r e m e n t s a n d d e a t h s , a n d in p a r t to
m o v e m e n t o f p e r s o n n e l in to o t h e r f i e l d s o f w o r k b e c a u s e c o n ­
tracts a re not ren e w e d o r b u s in e s s o ffe r s a re m o r e a ttra ctive
f i n a n c i a l l y — i s l i k e l y to b e h i g h e r th a n t h a t i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f
em p lo y m e n t.
T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s w ho m u s t b e r e p l a c e d
e a c h y e a r f o r th e s e r e a s o n s m a y run a s high as 3 o r 4 p e r c e n t .

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

50 -

E A R N IN G S

S o c ia l S c ie n tis t s w ith G ra d u a te D e g r e e s
S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s w i t h P h . D . Ts e a r n s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e , o n
th e a v e r a g e , t h a n t h o s e w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n .
A c c o r d i n g to a
s u r v e y l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y m e m b e r s , P h . D . rs
had m e d i a n ann ual s a l a r i e s in 1 9 5 2 r a n g in g f r o m $ 5 , 5 00 f o r h i s t o r ­
ia n s to $ 7 , 5 0 0 f o r s t a t i s t i c i a n s .
F o r h o ld e rs of m a s t e r 's d e g r e e s ,
m e d i a n s a l a r i e s w e r e $ 1 , 3 0 0 and $ 1 , 500 l e s s in t h e s e tw o f i e l d s ,
a s s h o w n b y th e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : 52
1952 m ed ian annual s a la r y
M aster*s
degree

O cc u p atio n
A n th r o p o lo g ists
E con o m ists
...
............ .
H isto ria n s
P o litic a l sc ie n tists
S o c io lo g ists
............
S t a t i s t i c i a n s ............ .........................................

6 ,0 0 0

D octor*s
degree
$ 5 ,8 0 0
7 , 200
5, 500
6 , 100
5 , 800
7 , 500

T h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s a l a r y l e v e l s b e t w e e n P h . D . *s a n d
m a s t e r * s a r e a c c o u n te d f o r p a r t l y b y th e h ig h e r a v e r a g e a g e , and
h e n c e th e g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e , o f th e P h . D . l s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , in
n e a rly e v e r y ag e grou p , m e d ia n s a la r ie s w e r e h ig h est fo r p e r s o n s
w i t h th e d o c t o r a t e . 53

5
2 D ata
o b t a i n e d in a s u r v e y w h i c h w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d b y the
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s in a f o r t h c o m i n g b u lle t in on p e r s o n n e l
r e s o u r c e s i n th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a n d h u m a n i t i e s . T h e s u r v e y w a s
l i m i t e d to m e m b e r s o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d to p e r s o n s
n o m i n a t e d b y m e m b e r s o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , a n d p r o b a b l y t e n d s to
i n c l u d e a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the m o s t s u c c e s s f u l p e o p l e in th e v a r i ­
ous fie ld s o f w o r k .
S a l a r i e s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y h i g h e r th a n a c t u a l
a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s p r e v a i l i n g f o r a l l s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n e a c h o f the
field s lis te d .
F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n the s u r v e y s e e f o o t n o t e 1 9 .

5 3
F o r e x a m p l e , in the a g e g r o u p 3 0 - 3 4 y e a r s , m e d i a n a n n u a
s a la r ie s of P h .D . 's w ere a s fo llo w s: a n th ro p olo g ists, $ 4 ,7 0 0 ;
e c o n o m is ts , $ 5 ,4 0 0 ; h isto r ia n s, $ 4 ,4 0 0 ; p o litica l s c ie n tis ts , $ 4 ,7 0 0
s o c io lo g ists, $ 5 ,1 0 0 ; sta tisticia n s, $ 6 ,7 0 0 .
T he c o rresp o n d in g
s a l a r i e s o f h o l d e r s o f m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s in th e s a m e a g e g r o u p w e r e :

$ 4 ,2 0 0 ;

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$ 5 ,0 0 0 ; $ 3 ,9 0 0 ; $ 4 ,8 0 0 ;

$ 3 ,9 0 0 ; and $ 5 ,5 0 0 .

- 51 -

T a b le 7 . — M ed ia n s a la r ie s of s o c ia l sc ie n tists e m p lo y e d by
c o lle g e s o r u n iv e r s itie s and p ro p o rtio n re c e iv in g
su p p le m e n ta ry p r o fe ssio n a l in c o m e , 1952

F ie ld of e m p lo y m e n t

M ed ian
sa la ry ^

Percent
receivin g
su p p le m e n ta ry
in co m e

A n t h r o p o l o g y ......................................................

$ 5 ,2 0 0

5 6 .3

E c o n o m i c s .............................................................

5 , 500

6 6 .4

H i s t o r y .....................................................................

5 ,0 0 0

54. 9

P o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ..............................................

5 , 100

6 9 . 0

S o c i o l o g y .................................................................

5, 000

6 0 .6

S t a t i s t i c s .................................................................

5 ,8 0 0

64. 2

M e d i a n s a l a r i e s r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t 1 0 0 .
S o u r c e : P e r s o n n e l R e s o u r c e s in th e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d
H u m a n i t i e s , a f o r t h c o m i n g b u l l e t i n to b e p u b l i s h e d b y the B u r e a u
Of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .

C o l l e g e s a nd U n i v e r s i t i e s
S a la r ie s o f s o c ia l s c ie n t is t s e m p lo y e d b y c o l l e g e s and u n i­
v e r s i t i e s do not v a r y g r e a t l y b y s u b je c t s p e c ia lt y .
M ed ia n s a la r ie s
in c o l l e g e - l e v e l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1 9 5 2 r a n g e d f r o m $ 5 , 0 0 0 f o r h i s t o r ­
i a n s a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s to $ 5 , 8 0 0 f o r s t a t i s t i c i a n s ( t a b l e 7 ) .
S a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s a r e m o r e a f f e c t e d b y th e s i z e a n d t y p e
o f i n s t i t u t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e m p l o y e d th a n b y t h e i r s u b j e c t
fie ld .
T h e m e d i a n s a l a r y f o r a l l f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y m e m b e r s in 51
l a n d - g r a n t c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s in 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 w a s $ 5 , 1 6 7 ; i n
5 v e r y l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , th e m e d i a n w a s $ 5 , 9 1 1 , b u t i n 2 6 s m a l l
s c h o o l s it w a s $ 4 , 7 2 l . 54 In 17 l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r N e g r o e s

5 4
U . S. O f f ic e of E d u c a tio n , F a c u l t y S a l a r i e s in L a n d - G r a n t
C o l l e g e s a nd S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 , C i r c u l a r 3 5 8 , G o v e r n m e n t
P rin tin g O ffic e , W a sh in g to n 2 5 , D . C . , 1 95 2.

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

52

-

i n s o u t h e r n S t a t e s , th e m e d i a n s a l a r y w a s $ 4 , 0 6 3 .
The m ed ian
s a l a r y in 2 0 S t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s in 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 w a s $ 5 , 2 0 8 - - s o m e ­
w h a t h i g h e r t h a n t h a t in th e l a n d - g r a n t c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
b u t d i f f e r e n c e s in s a l a r y l e v e l s a m o n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f v a r i o u s
s i z e s w e r e l e s s m a r k e d in S t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a n i n l a n d - g r a n t
in stitu tio n s.
S a l a r y l e v e l s in p r i v a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n ­
s t i t u t i o n s v a r y m u c h m o r e w i d e l y . 55
C o lle g e t e a c h e r s ’ s a la r ie s a r e m o r e a ffe c te d b y th eir rank
th an b y a n y o th e r f a c t o r .
T h e d i f f e r e n c e s in m e d i a n s a l a r i e s o f
c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s o f v a r i o u s r a n k s a r e s h o w n in th e f o l l o w i n g t a b u ­
la tio n :

F a c u lty ran k

M e d i a n s a l a r i e s on
1 2 -m o n th b a s is
i n 1 9 5 1 - 52 1

D e a n . ..................................................................... ..............
P r o f e s s o r .........................................................................
A s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r ............................. .. ..............
A s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r ................................................
I n s t r u c t o r .................... ...........................................

$ 8 , 697
7 ,1 6 6
5, 888
5, 066
4 , 178

1 U . S. O ffic e of E d u ca tio n , C ir c u la r N o .
(p .

358

16).

M a n y s o c ia l s c ie n tis ts e m p lo y e d b y c o lle g e s or u n iv e r s itie s
r e c e iv e su p p le m e n ta ry p r o fe s s io n a l in c o m e f r o m such s o u r c e s as
s u m m e r s c h o o l te a c h in g , r o y a l t i e s f r o m p u b lic a t io n s , and c o n s u lt ­
in g f e e s .
O p p o rtu n ities fo r earn in g su p p le m e n ta r y in c o m e a r e
g r e a te s t fo r p o litic a l s c ie n tis ts , e c o n o m is ts , and s ta tistic ia n s.
In a l l f i e l d s e x c e p t s t a t i s t i c s , th e m a j o r s o u r c e o f s u c h i n c o m e i s
e x tra tea ch in g .
In 1 9 5 2 , a b o u t 2 5 p e r c e n t o f th e s t a t i s t i c i a n s w h o
w e r e r e g u la r ly e m p lo y e d as c o lle g e te a c h e r s r e p o r te d c o n su ltatio n
a s th e ir p r in c ip a l s o u r c e o f a d d itio n a l in c o m e (ap p en d ix ta b le B ).
S o m e i n d i c a t i o n o f th e a m o u n t o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n c o m e r e ­
c e i v e d b y c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s f r o m s u m m e r te a c h in g i s p r o v id e d in
a r e p o r t o n t h e e a r n i n g s o f f u l l - t i m e f a c u l t y m e m b e r s in l a n d g ra n t in stitu tio n s.
T h is r e p o r t show ed a d iffe r e n c e of n e a r ly $ 9 0 0

5 5
F o r a c o m p a r is o n of s a l a r i e s of t e a c h e r s in l a n d -g r a n t
i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h t h o s e in o t h e r t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , s e e S a l a r y S c h e d u l e P r o v i s i o n s o r S a l a r i e s P a i d in D e g r e e - G r a n t i n g
In stitu tio n s, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , N ation al E d u ca tion A s s o c i a t io n , R e s e a r c h
B u lle tin , V o l. X X X I , N o . 4 , D e c e m b e r 1 95 3.

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

53

-

in 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 b e t w e e n th e m e d i a n s a l a r i e s o f f a c u l t y m e m b e r s
te a c h in g on a 9 - m o n t h b a s i s ( $ 4 , 8 4 8 ) a s c o m p a r e d w ith t h o s e
on a y e a r - r o u n d ( 1 1 - 1 2 m onth ) b a s i s ( $ 5, 7 4 7 ) . 5 6
F ed eral G overnm ent
P o s i t i o n s in th e F e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e a r e g r a d e d a c c o r d i n g
t o th e t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , a n d s k i l l r e q u i r e d a n d th e d e g r e e o f
r e s p o n s ib ility in v o lv ed .
S a la ry ra te s have b een e sta b lish e d for
each gra d e of p o sitio n .
N e w g r a d u a t e s w i t h th e b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e
a p p o i n t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s u s u a l l y b e g i n a t g r a d e 5 w i t h
a y e a r l y s a l a r y of $ 3 , 4 1 0 (a s of e a r l y 1 9 5 4 ); th o s e w ith a m a s t e r ' s
d e g r e e ( o r th e e q u i v a l e n t in e d u c a t i o n a nd q u a l i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e )
u s u a l ly b e g in at g r a d e 7 w ith a s a l a r y of $ 4 , 2 0 5 . S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s
w i t h a P h . D . ( o r e q u i v a l e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a nd e x p e r ­
ie n ce) a r e e lig ib le fo r a p p oin tm en t at g ra d e 9 ( $ 5 , 0 6 0 ), but jo b s
at th is l e v e l a r e u s u a lly fille d b y p r o m o t io n f r o m w ith in .
P e r i o d i c i n - g r a d e i n c r e a s e s a r e g i v e n a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , up
to th e s p e c i f i e d m a x i m u m s a l a r y f o r th e e m p l o y e e 1 s g r a d e , p r o ­
v ided w o r k is r a te d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
A v e r a g e s a la r ie s of F e d e r a l G o v e rn m e n t s o c ia l sc ie n tists
i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d th e r e l a t i v e n u m b e r s
i n e a c h g r a d e a r e s h o w n , a s o f June 3 0 , 1 9 5 1 , i n t a b l e 8 .
S a la rie s
o f G o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e d b y 10 p e r ­
c e n t o f th e m i n i m u m r a t e f o r e a c h g r a d e , s o t h a t th e a v e r a g e s
s h o w n a r e r o u g h l y 10 p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n th e a v e r a g e s i n J u l y 1 9 5 1
w h e n th e l a t e s t c h a n g e in F e d e r a l w h i t e - c o l l a r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s
took p la c e .
E c o n o m i s t s , w h o c o n s t i t u t e d th e l a r g e s t g r o u p o f G o v e r n m e n t
s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , had a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s r a n g in g f r o m a lo w o f
$ 5 , 7 8 2 f o r l a b o r e c o n o m i s t s to a h ig h o f $ 7 , 2 31 f o r f i s c a l
e c o n o m i s t s i n J u ne 1 9 5 1 .
S t a t i s t i c i a n s , th e n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p ,
averaged $ 5 , 698.
S a l a r i e s in m i l i t a r y i n t e lli g e n c e r e s e a r c h and
f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , th e tw o l a r g e s t e m p l o y m e n t s p e c i a l t i e s i n th e
g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d , a v e r a g e d $ 5 , 7 3 9 and $ 5 , 8 4 3 ,
re sp e ctiv e ly ,
T h e s m a l l g ro u p of g e n e r a l a n t h r o p o lo g is t s had
th e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e s a l a r y , $ 8 , 6 8 6 ; a r c h i v i s t s a n d a r c h e o l o g i s t s
th e l o w e s t ,

$ 4 , 8 5 9 and $ 4 , 7 6 2 ,

re sp e ctiv ely .

R e l a t i v e l y f e w s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t
r e c e iv e s u p p le m e n ta r y p r o f e s s io n a l in c o m e f r o m s o u r c e s ou tsid e
th eir r e g u la r w o r k .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f o u r t h o f th e
5 6

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

U.

S.

O ffic e of E d u ca tion ,

op.

c it.

T a b le 8 . - - G r a d e d istribu tion and a v e r a g e annual s a la r y o f F e d e r a l e m p lo y e e s
in s o c i a l s c i e n c e o c c u p a t i o n s , J u n e 3 0 , 1951
(C on tin en tal U n ited S ta tes)

15 -18

Not
sp eci­
fied

668

460

24

--

. 3

—

G rade
T ota l

O ccu p a tion

T ota l,

a ll so c ia l scien ce em p loy ees^

5

. . .

P e r c e n t .................................................................................
S o c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ................................................
E con om ics
G e n e r a l e c o n o m i c s ............... ...
B u s i n e s s e c o n o m i c s .............................................
In tern ation a l trade and d e v e lo p m e n t
e c o n o m i c s ............... ... .................................... . .
F i s c a l a n d f i n a n c i a l e c o n o m i c s ...................
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e c o n o m i c s ............... ... . . .
E a b 6 r e c o n o m i c s ....................................................
A g r i c u l t u r a l e c o n o m i c s .....................................
F o r e s t e c o n o m i c s ....................................................
F o r e i g n a f f a i r s ...............................................................
I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s ................................................
I n t e l l i g e n c e r e s e a r c h ................................................
M i l i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e r e s e a r c h ..........................
H i s t o r y .................................................................................
G e n e r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y ................................................
P h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y .............................................
A r c h e o l o g y ..........................................................................
E t h n o l o g y ..............................................................................
S cie n tific lin g u is tics
................................................
M u s e u m .................................................................................
A r c h i v e s ..................................................................................
S t a t i s t i c s ..............................................................................
S o c i a l s c i e n c e (n . e . c . ) .............................................

6

7

8

10

9

11

12

13

9 ,3 7 7

811

14

1, 5 0 4

27

1 ,6 1 6

14

1 ,3 6 9

1, 6 9 6

1 0 0 .0

8. 6

.2

1 6 .0

. 3

17. 2

. 2

14. 6

18. 1

12. 5

7. 1

4 .9

321

8

51

__

66

87

69

19

11

—

208
1 ,2 1 9

22
117

—
—

25
183

41
212

28
158

27
98

17
67

5
—

6 , 643
6 ,0 7 2

392
217
134
462
588
41
1 ,1 3 6
210
336
894
294
6
29
38
5
14

54
20
16
65
101
7
131
14
44
152
44

44
19
33
77
121
6
94
30
48
15 0
50

—
—

9
3
2
4
3
25
314
324

65
35
13
25
55
1
95
31
31
52
7
4
__

57
37
4
19
9
—

6
5
1
4
6
39
366
20

71
44
23
53
110
11
110
51
46
99
23
2
1
1
1
2
5
11
238
17

7 , 103
7 ,2 31
6 ,4 3 1
5, 78 2
6, 308
6 ,0 5 1
5 ,8 4 3
7 ,4 5 4
6 , 158
5 ,7 3 9
5 , 51 2
8 , 68 6
5 , 647
4 , 76 2
6 , 210
6, 479
5 ,6 1 6
4 , 85 9
5, 698
6 ,3 6 2

49
273
2 ,0 3 8
473

10
—
—

19
212

2
1

22
171

16
10
6
39
20
—

—
2
—
—
—
—

1
1
1
—

19 7
10
26
69
19

4
2
—
1
—

40
19
12
112
70
8
217
20
49
154
48

44
30
21
72
97
8
186
12
71
194
89

—

—
—
—

3
10
1

—

3

10
79
376
35

—

9
—
1
50
175
17

—
2

—
—
2
—
—
4
7

—
—

1
7

10
9
—
2
16
62
409
40

—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
—
3
2
—
—
—
1
—
2
5

1, 1 7 4

14

1
—
—
3
1
91
14

100
40
21
16
5
—
—
—
—
1
2
3
46
5

5
—
4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
__
__
—
—

—
- 9
1

S o c i o l o g i s t s a n d p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s a r e n o t c l a s s i f i e d as s u c h b u t a r e i n c l u d e d in m a n y o f the c a t e g o r i e s h e r e l i s t e d .
Source:

B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tistics B u lletin N o .

D
igitized for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A verage
annual
sa la ry

1117, F e d e r a l W h ite -C o lla r W o r k e r s — T h eir O ccu p a tio n s and S a la r ie s ,

June 1951

$ 6 , 578

-

55

-

a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s a n d o n e - f i f t h o f th e o t h e r f e d e r a l l y e m p l o y e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s r e p o r t e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n c o m e i n th e
1 9 5 2 s u r v e y o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ( a p p e n d i x t a b l e B)„
S a l a r i e s o f F o r e i g n S e r v i c e o f f i c e r s a r e s u b je c t to a c l a s s i ­
fic a tio n s y s te m s p e c ific a lly d e v ise d fo r th e m .
T here are seven
c l a s s e s , w i t h c a r e e r m i n i s t e r s a t th e t o p .
N ew a p p o in te e s e n te r
in c l a s s 6 , w h e r e s a l a r i e s r a n g e f r o m $ 4 , 0 0 0 to $ 5 , 1 0 0 d ep e n d in g
on a g e , e x p e r ie n c e , and q u a lific a tio n s.
F o re ig n S e rv ice o ffic e rs
s t a t i o n e d a b r o a d g e t " q u a r t e r s " a l l o w a n c e o r a s s i g n m e n t to f r e e
G o v e r n m e n t q u a r t e r s , a nd i f th e c o s t o f l i v i n g i s h i g h e r a t th e e m ­
p l o y e e ^ s t a t i o n t h a n i t i s in W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , a n e x t r a c o s t o f-liv in g a llo w a n ce is g ra n ted . 5 7
O ther T y p e s of E m p lo y m e n t
S a la r ie s of s o c ia l s c ie n tis ts e m p lo y e d b y oth er a g e n c ie s
t e n d to v a r y m o r e w i d e l y t h a n t h o s e in th e tw o m a j o r a r e a s o f
e m p l o y m e n t — c o l l e g e s a n d th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
State and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s u s u a lly h ave s o m e w h a t lo w e r
p a y s c a l e s th a n th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
H o w e v e r , a few s o c i a l
s c i e n t i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e c o n o m i s t s and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , m a y
e v e n tu a lly a ttain h ig h -p a y in g a d m in is t r a tiv e p o s t s in l a r g e c ity or
State G o v e r n m e n t s .
S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s e n g a g e d in p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in p r i v a t e in ­
d u s t r y r e c e i v e h i g h e r s a l a r i e s , o n th e a v e r a g e , th a n e i t h e r c o l l e g e
teach ers or G overn m en t e m p lo y e es.
T he o n ly g r o u p s w ith su b ­
s t a n t i a l n u m b e r s e m p l o y e d in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y - - e c o n o m i s t s a n d
s t a t i s t i c i a n s - - h a d h i g h e r m e d i a n s a l a r i e s in t h i s t y p e o f e m p l o y ­
m e n t i n 1 9 5 2 th a n th e a v e r a g e f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s in a l l t y p e s o f
e m p l o y m e n t t a k e n t o g e t h e r / 58 M e n s t u d e n t s g r a d u a t i n g f r o m
c o l l e g e in 1 9 5 4 w i t h a m a j o r in e c o n o m i c s r e c e i v e d a b o u t t h e s a m e
s a la r ie s a s oth er g e n e ra l b u s in e s s t r a i n e e s - - a n a v e r a g e of a p p ro x i­
m a t e ly $ 3 1 0 p e r m on th .

5 7

D e p a r tm e n t of State, T he U .

S.

F o reig n S e rv ic e , A p ril

1 9 5 2 (p p . 1 2 - 1 3 ) .
5
8
D a t a o b t a i n e d in a s u r v e y w h i c h w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d b y the
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s in a f o r t h c o m i n g b u l l e t i n o n p e r s o n n e l

r e s o u r c e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a n d h u m a n i t i e s .
See a ls o ,
A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , G r a d u a t e E d u c a t i o n in E c o n o m i c s ,
b y H o w a rd R . B o w e n , S u p p le m e n t, P a r t 2 , S e p t e m b e r 1953
(p .

29).

Digitized for

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Bank of
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

5 6

S a l a r i e s o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s e m p l o y e d b y n o n p r o f it o r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s , s u c h a s fo u n d a t io n s and r e s e a r c h c o u n c i l s , a r e e x t r e m e l y
v a r i e d , but in g e n e r a l , the a v e r a g e is s o m e w h a t a b o v e that f o r
c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .
S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s w h o e n te r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h in g r e c e i v e
s a l a r i e s c o m p a r a b l e w ith t h o s e o f high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t r a in e d in
o t h e r s u b j e c t f i e l d s . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s in p u b lic s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s had an e s t im a t e d a v e r a g e s a l a r y o f a b o u t $ 4 ,0 0 0 in the
1 9 5 3 - 5 4 s c h o o l y e a r . 59 A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s w e r e o v e r $ 4 ,5 0 0 in
C a l i f o r n i a , New Y o r k , New J e r s e y , and W a s h in g to n , but w e r e
u n d e r $ 3 , 5 0 0 in s o m e s o u t h e r n States and in o t h e r States w ith a
l a r g e r u r a l p o p u la t io n .

59 N a tio n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n ,
" A d v a n c e E s t i m a t e s o f P u b l i c E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s
f o r the S c h o o l Y e a r 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 , " N o v e m b e r 1953 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

5 7

-

W H E R E T O G E T F U R T H E R IN F O R M A T IO N

T h e f o l l o w i n g o r g a n iz a t io n s in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d s w ill
f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e ir r e s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n s :
A m e r ic a n A n th rop olog ica l A s s o cia tio n
R . S . P e a b o d y F o u n d a tio n
A ndover, M ass.
A m e rica n E co n o m ic A sso cia tio n
N o r t h w e s t e r n U n iv e r s it y
E v a n s t o n , 111.
A m e rica n H isto rica l A sso cia tio n
L ib r a r y o f C on gress Annex
W a s h in g ton 2 5 , D . C .
A m e r ic a n P o litic a l S cie n ce A s s o cia tio n
1785 M a s s a c h u s e t t s A v e . , N . W .
W a s h in g to n 6, D . C .
A m e r ic a n S o c io lo g ic a l S ociety
N ew Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y
W a s h in g to n S q u a re
N ew Y o r k 3, N . Y .
A m e r i c a n S t a t is t ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n
1108 - 16th St. , N . W .
W a s h in g to n 6, D . C .
T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s s tip u la te the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
m e m b e r s h i p , s e ttin g d if f e r e n t s ta n d a r d s f o r a s s o c i a t e and o t h e r
t y p e s o f m e m b e r s h i p . T h e i r d e fin itio n s o f the a m o u n ts o f ed u ­
c a t io n and e x p e r i e n c e n e e d e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p have
an im p o r t a n t e f f e c t up on the c o l l e g e c o u r s e s o f s tu d y s e t up f o r
t r a in in g p u r p o s e s . T h e s o c i e t i e s i n t e r p r e t t h e ir p r o f e s s i o n to
the p u b lic at l a r g e and o fte n s e r v e a s s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n
r e g a r d i n g e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n it ie s , tr a in in g f a c i l i t i e s , and
o t h e r s u b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t t o p r o s p e c t i v e e n t r a n t s . T h e y u s u a lly
p u b lis h p r o f e s s i o n a l jo u r n a l s and r e s e a r c h p a p e r s , and h o ld
n a tio n a l, r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l c h a p t e r m e e t i n g s . S o m e o f the
s o c i e t i e s m a in ta in a p l a c e m e n t s e r v i c e f o r m e m b e r s .
T h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c il, 230 P a r k A v e . ,
N ew Y o r k 17, N . Y . , w as o r g a n i z e d f o r the p u r p o s e o f p lanning
and p r o m o t i n g r e s e a r c h in the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and r e l a t e d f i e l d s .
Its m e m b e r s a r e c h o s e n f r o m the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s l i s t e d
a b o v e , and the A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

5 8

-

The A m e r i c a n C o u n c il o f L e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s , 1219 S ixteen th
St. , N . W . , W a s h in g ton 6, D . C . is a f e d e r a t i o n o f 25 n a tio n a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and h u m a n it ie s .
R e c e n t l y the C o u n c il has b e e n a c t i v e in e s t a b lis h in g a r e g i s t e r
o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s .
C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s
Students and p r o s p e c t i v e stu den ts c a n o b ta in i n f o r m a t i o n on
s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s c i e n c e f i e l d s f r o m m a n y c o l l e g e - l e v e l in s t it u t io n s ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y th o s e that have w e l l - o r g a n i z e d gu id a n c e f a c i l i t i e s .
T h e h e a d s o f the d e p a r t m e n t s in w h ic h the v a r io u s s u b j e c t f i e l d s
a r e taught c a n o fte n f u r n is h v a lu a b le i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the
n a tu re o f the w o r k o f the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
e n t e r in g v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f e m p l o y m e n t , and p l a c e m e n t o p p o r t u n i­
ties.
G overnm ent S ources
A n n o u n c e m e n t s o f e x a m in a t io n s f o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e p o s it io n s
w ith the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a r e a v a ila b le f r o m the U . S . C iv il
S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n , W a s h in g to n 2 5 , D . C . , o r its 12 r e g io n a l
o f f i c e s , and a r e p o s t e d in m a n y p o s t o f f i c e s .
I n fo r m a t io n on f o r e i g n s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s m a y b e o b t a in e d
d i r e c t l y f r o m the U. S . F o r e i g n S e r v i c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f S ta te,
W a s h in g to n 25, D . C .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

- 59 APPENDIX
L ist

of

’u n i v e r s i t i e s
in

the

Anthropology
Columbia University
University of Chicago
Harvard University
University of California
Yale University
Northwestern University
University of Michigan
University of New M exico
C ornell University
University of Pennsylvania

aw a rd in g
so cia l

Number of
Ph. D . ' s
47
30
24
22
17
10
7
7
5
5

E c o n o m ic s
Harvard U niversity
U niversity of Chicago
U niversity of W isconsin
Columbia University
U niversity of Illinois
U niversity of California
Iowa State College A and M
M assachusetts Institute of
Technology
U niversity of Pennsylvania
Ohio State U niversity

the

g rea test

s c ie n c e s ,

n u m b e rs

of

P h .D . 1s

1948-53

P o litic a l Science
Harvard University
University of Chicago
Columbia University
University of California
Georgetown U niversity
Princeton U niversity
Fordham University
New York U niversity
University of W isconsin
University of Minnesota

Number of
P h .D . ' s
145
81
73
49
34
34
33
31
30
28

S ociology
218
85
84
73
51
47
42
41
40
34

University of Chicago
H arvard U niversity
Columbia University
University of North Carolina
Ohio State University
Cornell U niversity
Yale University
University of Southern
California
University of W isconsin
Catholic U niversity

111
85
42
41
36
26
26
23
23
21

H istory
H arvard University
Columbia University
U niversity of California
U niversity o f Chicago
University of W isconsin
University of Texas
Stanford University
Yale University
U niversity of Pennsylvania
University of North Carolina

190
145
123
95
78
53
50
49
46
46

Source: Com piled f r o m U. S. O ffice of Education, Annual R ep orts on Earned
D egrees C on ferred by Higher Educational Institutions. U. S. G overnm ent P rin t­
ing O ffice, Washington 25, D. C.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

L i s t

of

a d d i t i o n a l

c o l l e g e s
in

th e

a n d

s o c i a l

A n th rop olog y
U n iv ersity o f A riz o n a
Indiana U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f W a sh in g ton

E con om ics
S tanford U n iv e rsity
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a lif o r n ia
U n iv ersity o f C olora d o
Y a le U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity o f F lorid a
Indiana U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f K e n tu c k y
L o u is ia n a State U n i v e r s i t y
Johns H o p k in s U n i v e r s i t y
C la r k U n i v e r s i t y
R a d cliffe C olleg e
U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n
U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o t a
St. L o u is U n iv e r s it y
W a s h in g to n U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity of N ebraska
P r in c e to n U n iv ersity
C o rn e ll U n iv ersity
N ew S c h o o l o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h
S y ra cu se U n iv ersity
Duke U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o lin a
U n i v e r s i t y o f C in cin n a ti
U n iv ersity o f O reg on
B row n U n iv ersity
U n i v e r s i t y ox T e x a s
U n i v e r s i t y o f V ir g in ia
A m e r ic a n U n iv ersity
C a t h o lic U n i v e r s i t y
G eorgetow n U n iv ersity
State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa

S ee f o o tn o te at end o f L i s t .

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6 0

-

u n i v e r s i t i e s
s c i e n c e s

in

a w a r d i n g

P h . D .

's

1 9 5 3 1

H istory
C la r e m o n t C o lle g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a
U n iv ersity of C olora d o
N orth w estern U n iv ersity
U n i v e r s i t y o f I llin o is
Indiana U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity of N otre D am e
State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa
U n iv e rsity o f K entucky
L o u is ia n a State U n i v e r s i t y
T u lan e U n i v e r s i t y
Johns H opk in s U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y la n d
B oston U n iv ersity
C la r k U n i v e r s i t y
R a d c l i f f e C o lle g e
M ic h ig a n State C o lle g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n
U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o t a
St. L o u is U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity of N ebraska
P rin ce to n U n iv ersity
U n i v e r s i t y o f N ew M e x i c o
C orn ell U n iv ersity
F ord h a m U n iv ersity
New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y
St. John s U n i v e r s i t y
S yracu se U n iv ersity
Duke U n i v e r s i t y
O h io State U n i v e r s i t y
W estern R e s e r v e U n iv ersity
U n i v e r s i t y o f O k la h o m a
U n iv ersity of O reg on
B ry n M aw r C olleg e
D r o p s i e C o lle g e
P e n n s y lv a n ia State C o lle g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f P it t s b u r g h
U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o lin a
G eo rg e P e a b o d y C olleg e
R i c e Institute
Texas T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e
U n iv ersity of V irg in ia
U n i v e r s i t y o f W a sh in g ton
W est V irg in ia U n iv ersity
A m e r ic a n U n iv ersity
C a th o lic U n i v e r s i t y
G e o r g e W a s h in g to n U n i v e r s i t y
G eorg etow n U n iv ersity

-

L i s t

of

a d d i t i o n a l
in

t h e

c o l l e g e s

s o c i a l

a n d

s c i e n c e s

P o litic a l S cien ce
S t a n fo r d U niversityU n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a lif o r n ia
U n iv e rsity o f C olora d o
Y a le U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity of F lo r id a
N orth w estern U n iv ersity
U n i v e r s i t y o f I llin o is
Indiana U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity o f N otre D am e
State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a
U n iv ersity of K ansas
Johns H o p k in s U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y la n d
R a d c l i f f e C o lle g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n
U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o t a
St. L o u is U n i v e r s i t y
W a s h in g to n U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity o f N ebraska
R u tg ers U n iv ersity
N ew S c h o o l o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h
S y ra cu se U n iv ersity
Duke U n i v e r s i t y
B ry n M aw r C olleg e
P e n n s y lv a n ia State C o l l e g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia
U n iv ersity o f T ex a s
U n i v e r s i t y o f Utah
U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h in g ton
A m e r ic a n U n iv ersity
C a th o lic U n i v e r s i t y
G eorg etow n U n iv ersity

1 S ee p a g e 59 f o r
g r e e s in e a c h f i e l d .

61

-

u n i v e r s i t i e s
in

1 9 5 3 1 —

a w a r d i n g

P h . D . ' s

C o n t i n u e d

S o cio lo g y
S t a n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y
U n i v e r s i t y o f C a lif o r n ia
U n iv ersity of C o lo ra d o
N orth w estern U n iv ersity
Indiana U n i v e r s i t y
Purdue U n iv e rs ity
Iow a State C o l l e g e
State U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a
L o u is ia n a State U n i v e r s i t y
M ic h ig a n State C o l l e g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n
U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o t a
W a s h in g to n U n i v e r s i t y
U n iv ersity of N ebraska
N ew Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y
N ew S c h o o l o f S o c i a l R e s e a r c h
St. Johns U n i v e r s i t y
S yra cu se U n iv ersity
Duke U n i v e r s i t y
B ry n M aw r C olleg e
P e n n s y lv a n ia State C o l l e g e
U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia
U n i v e r s i t y o f P it t s b u r g h
V a n d e r b ilt U n i v e r s i t y
State C o l l e g e o f W a sh in g ton
U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h in g ton
A m e r ic a n U n iv ersity
G e o r g e W a s h in g to n U n i v e r s i t y

the 10 u n i v e r s i t i e s g iv in g the l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f d e ­

S o u r c e : U. S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , " E a r n e d D e g r e e s C o n f e r r e d b y H ig h e r
E d u c a t io n a l In stitu tio n s 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 , " C i r c u l a r N o. 3 8 0 , U . S. G o v e r n m e n t
P r in t in g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n 25, D. C. , 1954.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

62

-

Table A. - -Number of d egrees awarded in all subject fields and in
ba sic s ocia l scien ce fie ld s , 1948-53

Total
d egrees

B ach elor

M aster

P h .D .

................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
. ..........................................

318,749
422,754
498,588
456,822
403,078
374,189
2 ,4 7 4 ,1 8 0

272,144
366, 634
433,733
384,352
331,924
304,857
2 ,0 9 3 ,6 4 4

42,417
50,827
58,218
65,132
63,471
61,023
341,088

4, 188
5,293
6, 637
7, 338
7, 683
8,309
39, 448

Social s c ie n c e :^
1947-48 ................................................
1948-49 ................................................
1949-50 ................................................
1950-51 ................................................
1951-52 ................................................
1952-53 ................................................
Total ................................................

36, 386
4 5 ,536
57,210
49, 909
42,494
39,172
270,707

32,032
40,821
51,422
44,126
37,192
34,090
239,683

3,895
4, 107
4, 966
4, 801
4, 372
4, 139
26,280

459
608
822
982
930
943
4, 744

Anthropology:
1947-48 ................................................
1948-49 ................................................
1949-50 ................................................
1950-51 ................................................
1951-52 ................................................
1952-53 ................................................
Total ...............................................

227
379
440
373
370
332
2, 121

168
299
324
255
257
214
1, 517

43
61
82
67
76
85
414

16
19
34
51
37
33
190

A ca d em ic year
A ll subject fields:
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
Total

E con om ic s:
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
Total

...............................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
...............................................

10,040
12,548
15,694
11,529
9, 529
8,117
67,457

9,002
11,536
14,573
10,484
8, 595
7,313
61,503

922
863
921
809
695
582
4,792

116
149
200
236
239
222
1,162

History:
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
Total

................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
...............................................

10,973
12,312
15,643
14,339
11,978
11,171
76,416

9,245
10,491
13,567
12,321
10,216
9, 576
65,416

1, 566
1,609
1,801
1,693
1,445
1,294
9, 408

162
212
275
325
317
301
1,592

See footnotes at end of table.

Digitized for F R A S E R

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

63

-

Table A . — Number o f d egrees awarded in all subject fields and in
b a s ic s o cia l s cien ce fie ld s , 1948-53 — Continued

A ca d em ic year

Total
degrees

B a ch elor

M aster

P h .D .

P olitica l science:-^
1947-48 .............................................
1948-49 .............................................
1949-50 .............................................
1950-51 .............................................
1951-52 .............................................
1952-53 .............................................
Total .............................................

5,779
7,056
8, 944
7,959
6, 967
7,235
43, 940

4, 874
6, 116
7, 599
6, 685
5, 731
6,022
37,027

806
821
1,179
1,093
1,059
1,021
5,979

99
119
166
181
177
192
934

Sociology:
1947-48 .............................................
1948-49 . „ .........................................
1949-50 .............................................
1950-51 .............................................
1951-52 .............................................
1952-53 .............................................
T o t a l ......... ...................................

6, 767
7, 192
8, 537
8,033
7,355
6, 763
44,647

6, 271
6, 706
7, 887
7,320
6, 697
6, 102
40,983

430
403
552
584
517
504
2,990

66
83
98
129
141
157
674

2, 600
6,049
7, 952
7, 676
6, 295
5, 554
36,126

2,472
5, 673
7,472
7,061
5, 696
4, 863
33,237

128
350
431
555
580
653
2, 697

—

Social s cie n ce (r^ ot^ se where c l a s s i 1947-4 8 .............................................
1948-49 .............................................
1949-50 .............................................
1950-51 .............................................
1951-52 .............................................
1952-53 .............................................
T o t a l .............................................

26
49
60
19
38
192

Includes anthropology, e c o n o m ic s , p olitica l s c ie n c e , s o c io lo g y , h is to ry , and
s o cia l s c ie n c e , not elsew h ere c la s s ifie d . Excludes s o cia l w ork, p sy ch o lo g y , g e o ­
graphy, and other b ord er fie ld s . M ost students specializing in statistics take their
d eg rees in the fields in which they intend to apply their training — m ost often, in
e c o n o m ic s .
^ Includes international relations and public adm inistration.
Source: Com piled f r o m U. S. O ffice o f Education, Annual R ep orts on Earned
D egrees C on ferred by Higher Educational Institutions. U. S. G overnm ent Printing
O ffice, Washington 25, D. C.


Digitized for F R A S E R
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of St. Louis

Table B . — Sources of additional income of social scientists by principal type of em ployer, 1952
(Percent distribution)

Type of em ployer^

Total

.....................................................................................

A n t h r o p o lo g y ....................................................................
College or u n iv e r s ity .................................................
F ed eral G o v e r n m e n t .................................................
Nonprofit resea rch organ ization ..........................
E c o n o m ic s ...........................................................................
C ollege or u n iv e r s it y .................................................
International government o rg a n iza tio n ............
F ed eral G o v e r n m e n t'.................................................
State and local g o v e r n m e n t...................................
Nonprofit resea rch organ ization ..........................
Other nonprofit o r g a n iz a tio n ................................
Private industry (employee) ................................
H i s t o r y .................................................................................
College or u n iv e r s ity .................................................
Other educational in s titu tio n ................................
F ed eral G o v e r n m e n t .................................................
State and local g o v e r n m e n t....................................
P olitical science ..............................................................
College or u n iv e r s ity .................................................
F ed eral G o v e r n m e n t .................................................
State and local g o v e r n m e n t....................................
Nonprofit research organization .......................
Other nonprofit o r g a n iz a tio n ................................

See footnotes at end of table.


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of S . Louis
t

Total
report­
ing

1 0 0 . 0

1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0

1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0

1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0

1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0
1 0 0 . 0

No
addi­
tional
income

Total r e ­
porting
additional
income

Source of additional income
Extra
teach­
ing

5 3 .2

46. 8

53. 1
43. 7
74. 5
6 3 .4

46. 9
56. 3
25. 5
3 6 .6

51. 6
33. 6
64. 9
7 8 .8
7 0 .0
52. 7
48. 7
56. 7

48. 4
6 6 .4
35. 1
3 0 .0
47. 3
5 1 .3
4 3 .3

5 0 .0
45. 1
65. 2
7 9 .3
6 4.0

5 0 .0
54. 9
34. 8
20. 7
3 6 .0

28. 1
3 1 .6
2 1 .3
1 0 . 8

52. 9
3 1 .0
80.1
6 8 . 9
59. 6
5 8 .3

47. 1
69. 0
19. 9
3 1 .1
4 0 .4
4 1 .7

23. 1
36. 9
8 . 7
1 1 .5
6 .4
16. 7

2 1 . 2

22. 7
.
27.
1 0 .
13.

9
6
6
3

.
30.
1 0 .
8 .
12.
18.
16.
17.

8
2
8
1
5
2
2
7

2 0

2 0

8 . 0

Consul­
tation

8 . 0

.1
6 .3
—

6

1 0 . 0

1 2
1 6

.2
.3

1 0 . 8

4. 8
1 0 . 0

1 0 .9
1 3 .5
1 1 . 8

1 .3
1 . 1
2 . 2

.8
4 .0
7. 7
9 .3
2. 7
9 .8
12. 7
12. 5

R oyal­
ties
5 .3
4. 7
5. 7
2 . 1
3 .3

Other
2

1 0

1

.8

15. 2
16. 7
1 2 . 8
1 0 . 0

5 .0
6 . 7
5 .4
3 .1
—
3. 6
8 . 1
3 .0

.4
13. 2
8 . 1
5. 2
7. 5
14. 6
13. 5

7 .9
8 . 5
3 .4
6 . 6

12. 7
13. 7
7 .9
2. 5
16.0

8 . 0

5 .3
8 .4
2 . 2
1 . 0

—
8 .3

1 0

1 0 . 8

1 1 . 0

1 4 .4
6 . 3
8 . 8

2 1 .3
4 .2

Table B . — Sources of additional income of social scientists by principal type of em ployer, 1952— Continued
(Percent distribution)

Type of employer-^

Sociology
...........................................................................
College or university . . .......................... ...
F ed eral G o v e r n m e n t .................................................
State and local g o v e r n m e n t....................................
Nonprofit research organization ................
Other nonprofit organization
.............................
Private industry (employee)
.............................
Statistics
...........................................................................
C ollege or u n iv e r s it y ................................................
F ed era l G o v e r n m e n t ................................................
State and local g o v e r n m e n t....................................
Nonprofit resea rch organization .......................
.............................
Other nonprofit organization
Private industry (em ployee)....................................

Total
report­
ing

1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0

1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0

No
addi­
tional
income

Total re­
porting
additional
income

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

4 6 .0
39. 4
7 5 .4
62. 5
58. 1
7 3 .3

5 4 .0
60. 6
24. 6
37; 5
38. 2
4 1 .9
26. 7

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

6 8 . 9
35. 8
79. 1
8 2 .0
69. 6
67. 7
72. 5

3 1 .1
64. 2
2 0 . 9
18. 0
3 0 .4
32. 3
27. 5

6 1 . 8

Source of additional income
Extra
teach­
ing

Consul­
tation

27. 7
32. 2
13. 7
2 1 . 4
4. 8
1 2 . 9
3. 3

1 0 . 0

14. 2
.0
1 1 . 1
6 . 4
8 . 7
1 2 . 9
17. 1

9. 6
25. 2
3. 9
9 .0
8 . 7
16. 2
5 .4

2 2

7 .0
7. 2
4. 1
5 .4
4. 8
9. 7

Royal­
ties

Other

h

5 .4
6 . 2
2. 7
—
4. 8
6 .4
6 . 7

13. 9
15.0
4. 1
1 0 .7
23. 8
1 2 . 9
6 . 7

2. 5
6 .3
1 .7
1 .3
8 . 7
—

4. 8
1 0 .7
4. 2
1.3
4. 3
3. 2
3. 8

1 . 2

-^Employer groups with fewer than 20 people omitted.
-^Includes income from lectu res, other fees and honoraria, and other sources of professional incom e.
Source: Data obtained in a survey which will be published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in a forthcoming
bulletin on personnel resources in the social sciences and humanities.



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of S . Louis
t
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

6 6

-

P U B L IC A T IO N S O F TH E B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
ON M A N P O W E R A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K
Studies of em p lo y m e n t tren d s and op p ortunities in the v a rio u s o c c u ­
pations and p r o fe s s io n s a re m ade a v a ila b le by the O ccu pation al Outlook
S e r v ic e of the B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .
T h e se r e p o rts a r e fo r u se in the vo ca tio n a l guidance o f v e te r a n s ,
in co u n selin g young p eop le in s c h o o ls , and in guiding o th e r s c o n s id e r ­
ing the ch oice o f an occu p ation . S ch o o ls c on cern ed with vocation al
trainin g and e m p lo y e r s and trade unions in te r e ste d in o n -t h e -jo b tr a in ­
ing have a ls o found the re p o rts helpful in planning p r o g r a m s in line
with p ro sp e c tiv e e m p lo y m en t op p o rtu n ities.
U n le ss o th erw ise d esig n a ted , b u lletin s are fo r sa le by the S u p er­
intendent of D ocu m en ts at the p r ic e s in d icated . A d d r e s s your o r d e r to
the Superintendent of D o c u m e n ts, G ov ern m en t P rintin g O ffic e , W a sh ­
ington 2 5 , D . C . , with rem itta n ce by check o r m on ey o r d e r . C u r re n c y
is sent at s e n d e r 's r is k . P o sta g e sta m p s a re not a c ce p te d .
T h o se r e p o rts w hich a r e lis te d as fr e e m a y be obtained d ir e c tly
fr o m the U . S. D ep artm en t of L a b o r , B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s ,
W ash ington 2 5 , D . C . , a s long as the supply l a s t s .
O ccu pation al O utlook B u lletin s
O ccu pa tion al O utlook Handbook — E m p lo y m en t In form ation on M a jo r
O ccu pa tion s fo r U se in G u idan ce.
B u lle tin N o . 998 (1951 R e v . E d . ) . U lu s . $ 3 .
Includes b r ie f re p o rts on m o r e than 400 occu pation s of
in te r e s t in vocation al gu idan ce, including p r o fe s s s io n s ;
s k ille d tr a d e s ; c l e r i c a l , s a l e s , and s e r v ic e o ccu p a tio n s;
and the m a jo r types of fa r m in g . E ach re p o rt d e s c r ib e s
the em p loym en t trends and outlook , the training q u a lific a ­
tions r e q u ir e d , e a r n in g s, and w orking c o n d itio n s. Intro­
d uctory se c tio n s su m m a r iz e the m a jo r trends in population
and em p loym en t and in the b road in d u strial and occu pation al
g r o u p s, a s a background fo r an under standing of the individual
o c c u p a tio n s.
The Handbook is d esign ed fo r u se in c o u n se lin g , in c la s s e s
o r units on o c cu p a tio n s, in the training of c o u n s e lo r s , and as
a g e n e ra l r e fe r e n c e . Its 575 p a g es a r e illu str a te d with 103
p hotograph s and 85 c h a r ts .



http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

☆

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1954 O —3 0 3 6 7 2


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102