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r

EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK IN

THE MERCHANT MA

W

Job prospects
Duties
Training
Earnings
Working conditions

UNITED STATES D EPA R TM EN T C
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary

In cooperatio

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK







EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK IN

THE MERCHANT MARINE

Bulletin No. 1054

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R STA TISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
In cooperation with

VETERANS ADMINISTRATION

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 30 cents




Letter of Transm
ittal
U nited S tates D epartm ent of L abor ,
B u r ea u of L abor S tatistics ,

Washington , D. C., December 18, 1951.

The S ecretary of L a b o r :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the employment outlook
in merchant marine occupations. This is one of a series of reports based on
studies conducted in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Service for use in
vocational counseling of veterans, young people in schools, and others interested
in choosing a field of work. These reports describe the Nation’s needs for
trained workers in each major industry and occupation under the defense
mobilization program. The study was financed largely by the Veterans Ad­
ministration, and the report was orginally published as a Veterans Administra­
tion pamphlet for use in vocational rehabilitation and education activities.
The study was prepared by Eugene P. Spector under the supervision of
Raymond D. Larson. The Bureau wishes to express its deep appreciation to
the following organizations who provided valuable information or read and
commented upon all or part of the manuscript:
American Radio Association—CIO.
CIO Maritime Committee.
Economic Cooperation Administration.
Military Sea Transportation Service—Department of Defense.
National Federation of American Shipping, Inc.
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association—CIO.
National Maritime Union of America—CIO.
National Organization of Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America—
AFL.
National Shipping Authority—Department of Commerce.
Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers
Association—Ind.
Radio Officers Union of the Commercial Telegraphers Union—AFL.
Sailors’ Union of the Pacific—AFL.
Seafarers’ International Union of North America—AFL.
United States Coast Guard—Treasury Department.
United States Maritime Administration—Department of Commerce.




Hon. M aurice J. T o bin ,

Secretary of Labor.

E w an C lague , Commissioner .

Contents
Introduction___________________________________
The Merchant Marine Industry____________________________________________
Employment Outlook_______________________________________________
Labor Turn-Over_________________________________________________________
Jobs at Sea______________________________________________________________
Deck Department____________________________________________________
Engine Department___________________________________________________
Steward’s Department________________________________________________
How To Get a Job on a Ship.______________________________________________
Requirements, Training, and Advancement_______________
Unlicensed Crewmen_________________________ ._______________________
Requirements____________________________________________________
Training Opportunities and Advancement____________________________
Licensed Officers_____________________________________________________
Requirements__________
Training Opportunities and Advancement____________________________
Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions_____________________________________
Wages______________________________________________________________
Hours______________________________________________________________
Living and Working Conditions_________________________________________
Maritime Unions_________________________________________________________
APPENDIXES
Appendix I—Major Legal Requirements for Specified Deck and Engine Ratings___
Appendix II—Major Legal Requirements ForDeck Licenses on Ocean Vessels_____
Appendix III—Major Legal Requirements for Engineer Licenses on Ocean Steam
Vessels______________
Appendix IV—Subjects Covered by Coast Guard Examinations for Deck Officers
of Ocean Vessels________________________________________________________
Appendix V—Subjects Covered by Coast Guard Examinations for Qualified Members
of Engine Department _________________________________________________
Appendix VI—Suggested Readings__________________________________________
TABLES
1. —Duration of employment of merchant seamen, July 1945-June 1946________
2.—Basic monthly wages aboard dry-cargo vessels, November 1951_____________ CHARTS
1. —70 percent of fleet in foreign trade_____________________________________
2.—Merchant marine employment rises to meet defense needs__________________3. —What happened to our war-built merchant fleet?________________________
4. —Employment in principal deep-sea occupations—July 1951_______
5. —Typical crew of a dry-cargo ship _____ ______ __________ ____ ____ — - - 6. —Basic U. S. able seamen wages highest__________ -__________________ —




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Employment Outlook in the Merchant Marine

Introduction
Since the Nation’s earliest days, almost every
American boy has at least toyed with the idea
of following the sea. The call of the sea was
especially powerful during Colonial times, when
the oceans were the main highways to adventure
and fortune and the sole link with the civilized
world. Then there were no airplanes, railroads,
or automobiles to compete for the interest of
adventuresome boys.
The exploits of such naval heroes as John Paul
Jones and John Barry, the success of privateers
and traders, and later such novels as “ Moby
Dick” and “ Two Years Before the Mast” helped
to fire the imagination of American youth.
Energetic boys of 12 and 15 went to sea as fore­
mast hands to learn to become skilled mariners
and traders. A few became captains at 18 and
with their share of the ship’s profits progressed
to positions as shipowners and wealthy merchants.
The crews of those pioneer generations lived
hard lives aboard sailing ships. Pay was meager
and living quarters were cramped, wet, cold, and
poorly ventilated. The food was invariably bad,
the voyages extremely long, and discipline severe.
But the crews accepted these miserable condi­
tions, because they looked forward to shares and

bonuses at the end of profitable voyages. Many
lads acquired comfortable fortunes before they
reached 20. Little wonder that American youth
flocked to sea to take advantage of the chance
for wealth in preference to hacking a farm out
of the wilderness.
The transition from sail to steam in the latter
part of the nineteenth century changed this
picture radically. Although living conditions for
sailors remained rough, the period of great profits
for seamen ended when ships started charging
fixed fees for carrying cargo. More and more
young men turned to the free farm lands of the
West for the opportunities they once sought at
sea. It became hard to hire men of any de­
scription for merchant ships, and there was a
sharp decline in the quality and efficiency of
American seamen. Some shipowners resorted
to unscrupulous methods to man ships. “Crimps”
roved the waterfronts getting men drunk or drug­
ged in order to “shanghai,” or kidnap them to
man ships.
Fortunately, these conditions no longer exist.
Today seamen have shorter voyages, greatly im­
proved living conditions, and receive wages com­
paring favorably with those in other industries.

The M
erchant Marine Industry
The American merchant marine is a vital link
in the Nation’s transportation system. It moves
our raw materials and products not only in for­
eign commerce but also, to a lesser extent, in
domestic trade. In time of war it becomes an
indispensable aid to our Armed Forces. The
term “merchant marine” in this report refers to
vessels of 1,000 gross tons or over engaged in
ocean transportation. It does not cover trans­



portation on the Great Lakes and other inland
waterways which is different in many respects.
There were about 1,980 vessels in the active
American merchant marine on October 1, 1951.
About two-thirds of them were privately owned.
Government-owned ships were operated by the
Military Sea Transportation Service with civilian
crews or by private steamship companies as gen­
eral agents or under charter arrangements with
1

Merchant vessel plunging through heavy sea.

the Government. Most of the Government ships
and about 70 percent of those privately owned
were engaged mainly in foreign trade. (See chart
1.) However, in 1951 only about one-third of
the Nation’s ocean-borne trade was carried in
ships flying the American flag.
Merchant seamen work on three types of
vessels—dry-cargo, tankers, and combination pas­
senger and dry-cargo ships. But a majority of
them work on dry-cargo ships, which accounted
for about 67 percent of the fleet in 1951 as com­
pared with 27 percent which were tankers and 6
percent which were combination cargo. Drycargo ships carry a wide variety of goods including
such bulk items as ores, coal, grain, and such
manufactured items as machinery and trucks.
2




Tankers, comprising the largest proportion of the
ships in domestic trade, primarily transport petro­
leum and petroleum products, although they
occasionally carry molasses, vegetable oils, and
other liquids. Combination dry-cargo and pas­
senger vessels specialize in carrying passengers,
mail, and freight with high value in relation to
bulk. In wartime they are used primarily as
troop transports, whereas dry-cargo ships carry
supplies to overseas troops.
Merchant seamen work on ships operating in
and out of 70 ports in the United States but more
than half of the Nation’s shipping activity is
carried on in 16 deep-sea ports along the Atlantic,
Gulf, and Pacific coasts. The port of New York
handles the greatest volume of trade. Other

important Atlantic ports are Philadelphia, Balti­
more, Boston, Norfolk, Charleston, and Savannah.
The Gulf ports handle a substantial volume of
cargo, principally petroleum and petroleum prod­
ucts. The chief ports in the Gulf area are Hous­
ton, Galveston, New Orleans, Port Arthur, Mobile,
and Tampa. On the West Coast the principal
ports are those in the San Francisco Bay area,
the San Pedro-Wilmington-Los Angeles area, and
the Seattle and Portland areas in the north.
American ship operators must compete for
business in a highly competitive world market.
They are at a disadvantage because of their high
operating costs compared with those of foreign
ships. Labor costs, which make up a large pro­
CHART 1.
70% OF FLEET IN FOREIGN TRADE
Percentage Distribution of Privately Owned Fleet
on a Tonnage Basis, by Types of Trade

Automobile being loaded aboard a ship bound for South America.

cost disadvantage. A drop in rates, however,
would make it difficult for American operators
to meet foreign competition.
Under the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 the
Federal Government provides financial aid to
American flag operators on essential foreign trade
routes to offset lower foreign costs in ship con­
struction and operation. In 1951, 262 ships, or
20 percent of the privately owned American mer­
chant marine, received such aid.
Tanker with deckload of planes and parts.

un ited s tates department of labor
bureau of labor s ta tis tic s

S ource: National Federation of
American Shipping, Inc.

portion of total expenses, are more than twice as
great on United States vessels as they are on those
of her chief competitors. Mass-production tech­
niques, enabling many other American industries
to pay higher wages than are paid by their foreign
competitors, cannot be used in the operation of
a merchant vessel. American ship operators are,
therefore, in a disadvantageous competitive posi­
tion. When there is a heavy demand for ship­
ping space, as in 1951, freight rates are high
enough to allow profitable operations despite the



3

C -3 cargo ship being tow ed to dock.

The act sets forth the maritime policy of the
United States in these words:
I t is n ec essa ry for th e n a tio n a l d efen se an d d e v e lo p m e n t
o f its foreign an d d o m e stic co m m erce th a t th e U n ite d S ta te s
sh a ll h a v e a m erch a n t m a rin e (a) su ffic ie n t to carry its
d o m e stic w a ter -b o r n e co m m erce an d a su b sta n tia l p ortion
o f th e w a ter -b o r n e ex p ort an d im p ort foreign co m m erce of
th e U n ite d S ta te s an d to p ro v id e sh ip p in g serv ic e on all
ro u te s esse n tia l for m a in ta in in g th e flow o f su ch d o m e stic
a n d fo reig n w a ter-b o rn e co m m erce a t all tim es, ( b) ca p ab le
o f serv in g as a n a v a l a n d m ilita r y a u x ilia ry in tim e o f w ar
or n a tio n a l e m e rg en c y , (c) o w n e d an d o p e ra te d u n d er th e
U n ite d S ta te s flag b y c itiz e n s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s in sofar

as m a y be p ra ctica b le , a n d (d) co m p o sed of th e b e steq u ip p ed , sa fe st, a n d m o st su ita b le ty p e s o f v e sse ls co n ­
str u c te d in th e U n ite d S ta te s an d m a n n ed w ith a train ed
an d efficien t citiz en p erso n n el. It is h er eb y d ecla red to
b e th e p o lic y o f th e U n ite d S ta te s to fo ste r th e d e v e lo p m e n t
a n d en c o u r a g e th e m a in te n a n c e o f su c h a m er ch a n t m arin e.

Few industries are as directly affected by actions
of the Federal Government. Government policies
regarding subsidies, foreign aid, ship sales, charters,
transfers of ships to foreign registry, and tariffs,
all sharply affect the level of employment in the
merchant marine.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the merchant marine has fluc­
tuated widely over the years. These ups and
downs have been caused by war and national
defense needs as well as by world political and
economic conditions.
Before the Civil War, shipping general^ was a
4



profitable business, and the industry grew rapidly.
Foreign trade ship tonnage grew from 124,000
gross tons in 1789 to 2,379,000 gross tons by 1860.
Thereafter, rising costs in building and manning
ships in this country, compared with the costs in
foreign countries, made it difficult for the shipping

industry to prosper. Foreign trade tonnage car­
ried in 1910 was one-third of the 1860 tonnage,
and United States ships carried 10 percent of our
foreign trade in 1910 compared to 75 percent in
1860.
When the United States entered World War I
in 1917 the American merchant marine was totally
inadequate to carry the required troops and
supplies to Europe. The Government ordered
hundreds of ships, and from 1917 to 1921 Amer­
ican shipyards turned out about 11 ^-million gross
tons of deep-sea shipping, almost eight times as
much as in the preceding 5 years. To man the
new ships coming off the ways, thousands of mer­
chant seamen were hired. When peace came most
of the emergency ships were left to rot or were sold
as scrap, and employment dropped sharply.
Chart 2 shows the rise in employment during the
prosperous 1920’s. The number of seamen at
work dropped sharply during the depression, from
63,825 in 1929 to 52,600 in 1932. Thereafter em­
ployment began to rise slowly until 1937, when
international developments caused world trade to
d ecline. World War II revived the ailing ind us try,
and average monthly employment soared to a
record high of 158,755 in 1945. This expansion
in employment was accomplished only with great
difficulties in a period characterized by general
manpower shortages.
To handle the job of providing ships and men,
the War Shipping Administration was established.
The first emergency step in providing the needed
manpower for the merchant marine was to bring
back into the industry ex-merchant seamen not vi­
tally needed ashore. A Nation-wide registration of
seamen was undertaken, with the aid of the United
States Employment Service in September 1942.
This was followed by a direct personal recruitment
program. To help the recruitment program, Pub­
lic Law 87, passed by Congress in mid-1943, guar­
anteed seniority and reemployment rights in their
shore jobs to men who went back to sea. The
War Shipping Administration reported that in all
nearly 100,000 men with previous sea experience
working ashore were recruited into the wartime
merchant marine.
Despite this program many more men were
needed to man the thousands of new ships as they
came off the ways. The War Shipping Adminis­
tration expanded the maritime training program
begun in 1938. From 1938 to December 1, 1945,
985651—1-----52




the training program graduated and made avail­
able to the merchant marine more than 250,000

seamen to help man the merchant fleet which
reached a peak of 5,500 ships. In order to retain
in the industry the men recruited and trained, the
Selective Service System delegated to the War
Shipping Administration authority to certify
active seamen to their local draft boards for
occupational deferments.
At the end of the war the fleet was far too large
for peacetime needs and many of the ships were
retired to reserve anchorages. (See chart 3.) Em­
ployment dropped sharply and many seamen re­
turned to their old jobs ashore or remained unem­
ployed “on the beach.” Employment remained
above the prewar level, however. In the fall of
1949 shipping activity fell off and many more sea­
men were thrown out of work.
The outbreak of hostilities in Korea on June 25,
1950, marked a turning point for the shipping
industry. Ships were needed to transport troops
and supplies to the Korean fighting fronts, to
bolster our European defense, and to help our
allies stockpile strategic materials. In addition
5

CHART 3.

W H A T HA PPENED TO OUR
W A R BUILT M E R C H A N T FLEET?
August

In National
Reserve

1951

AAj
LAAAAj m
L.

Defense

Fleet

1656

Sold or Transferred
to Foreign Countries

1128

AAiiLAA

Sold or Returned
to U.S. Steamship

1102

Companies

A j& i.

Chartered to U.S.
Steamship Companies

Sunk or
Scrapped

410

With Armed
Services

400

Lend Lease to
Foreign Countries

JL,
39

SOURCE National Federation of
American Shipping, Inc.
•

U N ITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTICS

6



to direct military requirements arising from the
war in Korea a large volume of coal, grain, and
foodstuffs also began to move to Europe in the
latter part of 1950. Employment climbed to more
than 100,000 by August 1951. The large reserve
force of seamen that existed in June 1950 had al­
most disappeared and there were recurring short­
ages of radio operators; engineers, particularly
those with high pressure experience; able seamen;
experienced engine room men such as oilers,
firemen, water tenders, and electricians; and stew­
ards. These shortages caused sailing delays and
some vessels had to sail short-handed.
The immpdiate employment outlook for seamen
is very bright. Employment is likely to increase
at a slow rate for the next few years, and a large
number of job openings will arise from turn-over,
as men leave the sea for other kinds of work. The
demand for shipping is likely to remain high.
The Mutual Security Administration is carrying
on a heavy coal shipment program to Europe and
in early 1952 grain shipments are expected to in­
crease substantially. At the same time the mili­
tary requirements for a European build-up will
strengthen the industry’s position. Heavy Gov­
ernment spending for defense, stockpiling of stra­
tegic materials, and foreign aid will mean a high

level of international trade. If the present tempo
of the limited mobilization program continues,
shipping requirements throughout the world prob­
ably will call for the addition of vessels, making
the total fleet about 2,200 ships by the end of 1952.
This would probably represent the peak of mari­
time expansion under current mobilization plans.
Over the long run, the number of workers
employed aboard oceangoing ships will tend to
decrease, unless the Nation decides to maintain
the merchant fleet at about its present size.
Many nations are engaged in heavy shipbuilding
programs which will add considerable numbers
of ships to the world merchant fleet. This will
result in more intensive world-wide shipping com­
petition for available cargo, which will be only
partly offset by increases in world trade. Rates
will drop and the cost disadvantages under which
American ships operate will cause many American
ships to be again laid up. Employment can be
expected to decline substantially from the 1951
level, especially if there is a drop in our foreign
aid and military shipments. A third World War,
of course, would change the outlook. It would
create such a tremendous demand for ships and
men that there would be a serious shortage of
merchant seamen.

Labor Turn-Over
The nature of seafaring life encourages frequent
change of jobs and causes many men to seek other
ways of making a living. Ocean voyages are
generally long and confining so that seamen cus­
tomarily take time off between trips for relaxation
ashore. Others leave the sea for short periods
of time because of illness or for personal or business
reasons. Many tire of sea life and its frequent
spells of unemployment and quit the industry
for shore employment. A study of the United
States merchant marine during the year July
1945-June 1946 showed that an estimated total
of 383,000 persons were employed for at least
part of the year, well over twice the average
monthly employment of 161,000 persons. (See
table 1.)
To replace men who temporarily or permanently
leave the industry there must be an adequate



T able

1.— D u ration

o f em ploym en t of m erchant seam en,
J u ly 1 9 4 5 - J u n e 1946

Employment status i
Total_______________________
Regularly employed__________ ____
Irregularly employed_______ ____ _
W ithdrawals2... — ___________ —
New entrants___ —. ___ _ _ —

Number em­
ployed during
the year

Average number
of months
worked

382,700

5.5

125,800
53,800
141, 200
61, 900

7.9
3.4
4.4
5.1

1 Regularly employed seamen were those employed before and after the
period studied and at some time during the year.
Irregularly employed seamen were those employed at some time during
the year but not employed before or after the period studied.
Withdrawals—Seamen employed before and during the period studied
but not afterward.
New entrants—Seamen not employed before the period studied but em­
ployed at some time during the year and afterward.
2 The sharp drop in employment in the postwar period accounts for the
large number of withdrawals. In a period of rising employment, entrants
outnumber withdrawals, and in a period of stable employment, entrants and
withdrawals nearly balance.
Source: S ta b ility of E m p lo ym en t in the A m e ric a n M erch a n t M a rin e , Herman
M. Sturm, Unpublished Thesis, American University, 1949.

7

CH A R T 4.
EM PLOYM ENT IN PRIN CIPAL D EEP-SEA O C C U P A T IO N S
JULY 1951

OCCUPATION

0

2

4

Thousands of Workers

6

8

10

12

14

DECK DEPARTMENT
Able Seam an
M ates
O rd in ary S eam an
Ship's C arpen ters
R ad io O p e ra to r
B oatsw ain
M a s te rs

ENGINE DEPARTMENT
A s s is ta n t E ng ineers
O ile rs
F ir e m e n -w a te r te n d e rs
W ip e rs
E le c tric ia n s
C h ie f E n g in ee rs

T O T A L OCCUPATIONS
IN EA CH D EPA RTM EN T

D e c k E n g in e e rs

Thousands

M a in te n a n c e Men

deck

Pum pm en

e n g in e

R e fr ig e r a tin g E n g in ee rs

s t e w a r d 's

mmtm.iw

X'///X'///////,z*'A

STEWARD'S DEPT.
U tility m e n
M essm en

V////A

C ooks & B a k e rs
C h ie f S te w a rd s
A s s is ta n t Cooks

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

8



i

reserve of seamen. The size of this reserve is
estimated at roughly 25 to 30 percent of the num­
ber of men employed in the industry. Actually
this reserve force varies from time to time. In a
period of depressed shipping activity the reserve
force is generally larger than 30 percent because of

the large number of men looking for work. When
maritime activity expands and absorbs these un­
employed seamen, the reserve force falls below the
25 percent mark. Today, the reserve force is
inadequate to man the active fleet promptly and
fully.

Jobs at Sea

About 100,000 men were working in the American
merchant marine in August 1951. About twothirds of them were in professional, managerial, or
skilled jobs. Masters, mates, engineers, able and
ordinary seamen, qualified members of the engine
department, stewards, and cooks are only some of
the occupational groups found aboard ship. Chart
4 shows how many workers were in each major
seagoing occupation. Omitted from the chart are
occupations such as bartender and musician, found
only aboard luxury passenger liners. Also ex­
cluded are longshoremen, who load and unload
ships in port, and clerical and administrative occu­
pations on shore. Many of these occupations are
discussed in the Occupational Outlook H andbook}
Every dry-cargo, tanker, and passenger vessel
afloat has a captain or master who is directly
responsible for the safety of the ship, its cargo,
and passengers. From his vantage point on the
bridge of the ship high above the deck he directs
the operation of his vessel. He must see that the
ship is well run, trips are made on schedule, and
all reports are properly made out. In time of dan­
ger when the vessel is blanketed by fog or buffeted
by storms he personally takes charge of the ship
from the bridge and issues instructions to the ship’s
officers and crew. Ordinarily, officers called
“mates” run the ship under his close supervision.
The number of men in the crew varies with the
size and type of vessel. Cargo vessels and tankers
have crews ranging from 36 to 55 men; passenger
vessels may have as many as 680 crewmen aboard.
Chart 5 shows the typical crew aboard one of the
dry-cargo vessels which make up the bulk of our
merchant fleet. Each ship is organized into
departments. The deck department navigates the
ship and maintains hull and deck equipment; the1
1 Occupational Outlook Handbook, TJ. S. Departm ent of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Bulletin No. 998, 1951 edition prepared in cooperation
w ith the Veterans Adm inistration. For sale by the Superintendent of
Docum ents, U . S. Governm ent Printing Office, W ashington 25, D . C.
Price $3.




engine department operates and maintains the
machinery that propels the ship; and the steward’s
department performs the household duties in­
volved in making a home for the crew and pas­
sengers while they are at sea.

M a ste r and watch o ffic e r on the bridge of a L ib e rty ship.

Deck Department

A ship at sea operates around the clock and men
must be on deck at all times to navigate the vessel.
This is accomplished through a 3-watch system.
Each watch period is 4 hours long and crewmen
assigned to watch duty stand 2 watches daily.
They are directed by one of the ship’s officers act­
ing for the captain. The chief mate usually takes
the 4 to 8 watch, the second mate the 12 to 4 watch,
and the third mate the 8 to 12 watch. The watch
officer from his position on the bridge is responsible
for the ship’s navigation during his period on duty.
On taking over a watch he must familiarize him­
self with the master’s standing orders as to such
things as the ship’s speed and course. He must
9

maintain the speed and course set by the master;
plot the ship’s position at frequent intervals; post
lookouts if needed; record his 4-hour tour of duty
in the ship’s “log” or record of the voyage; and
immediately notify the master of any unusual
occurrence.
At sea there are no rails or highways to help

guide a vessel to its destination. Each officer
must be a competent navigator able to set and
follow a course across the trackless seas. Early
each morning and evening the ship’s officers use an
instrument called a “sextant” to fix the ship’s
position by the stars. During the day they take
sun line readings to check on the course set.

CHART 5.
TYPICAL CREW OF A D R Y - C A R G O SHIP

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LA BO R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

10




Besides acting as watch officer each deck officer
has other duties to perform. The chief mate
assists the master in assigning duties to the crew,
lays out daytime work for the deck crew, and
sees that the deck department is kept clean and
orderly. He also plans and carries out the load­
ing and unloading of cargo and assists the master
in taking the ship in and out of port. The sec­
ond mate is by custom designated as the navi­
gating officer. He sees that the ship is provided
with the necessary navigation charts and lie is
responsible for the care and maintenance of all
navigating equipment. He must daily check a
Radio operator receiving a message.

While at sea a ship’s only contact with the
world is through its radio officer. A passenger
ship usually carries three operators; the average
cargo vessel employs only one. The radio officer
operates and adjusts the ship’s radio-transmit­
ting and -receiving equipment. He sends and
receives messages by voice or international
Alorse code and copies messages received, and
delivers them to the chief mate or the master.
He also regularly receives and records time signals,
weather reports, position reports, and other navi­
gation and technical data. The radio operator
must also be able to make emergency radio repairs.
Some ships have a purser, who acts as the ship’s
clerk. He does the bookkeeping aboard ship
such as keeping accounts for the captain, mainS h ip ’ s carpenter “ batte n in g d o w n " a hatch.
O ffic e r at sea "s h o o tin g ” the sun.

very accurate clock called the “chronometer”
with radio time. He also checks the gyrocompass
(an instrument not affected by the earth’s mag­
netism) against the magnetic compass. If the
gyrocompass breaks down he must make neces­
sary emergency repairs. The third mate is
responsible for the care and the maintenance of
the bridge and the chart house. He also must
make periodic checks of the ship’s lifeboats and
other lifesaving equipment to be sure they are
ready for use in case of fire or shipwreck. The
safety of the crew and passengers in time of
danger depends on how well the third mate does
this job.



11

giving shots and pills for minor ailments. In
that case they may be called purser-pharmacist
mates.
The unlicensed deck crew consists of a boat­
swain, one or two maintenance carpenters, and a
group of able seamen, and ordinary seamen. The
boatswain is a foreman in charge of the deck crew,
who relays the officers’ orders and is responsible
for their execution. He assists the chief mate in
laying out day work for crew members not assigned
to watch duty and directs such maintenance tasks
as cleaning decks, polishing metalwork, cleaning
lifeboats, the chipping, scraping, and painting of
iron and woodwork, overhauling canvas work,
and splicing wire cable and rope. When the ship
docks or anchors, he supervises the deck crew in
handling lines and hawsers (the ropes used for
mooring).
A ble seaman on bow lookout.

taining payroll records of each worker aboard
ship, and keeping track of the hours worked and
overtime earned. While at sea, he prepares
many of the ship’s papers such as entry and
clearance papers and manifests (a list or in­
voice of a ship’s cargo) for cargo taken aboard in
a foreign port. The purser does the typing for
the deck, engine, and steward’s departments,
typing such papers as the ship’s log, the engineroom log, and various supply requisitions. In ad­
dition, some pursers also attend to minor medical
needs of the crew by performing first aid and
M o rn in g watch w ashing down the decks.

Seaman in b oa tsw a in ’ s ch air w ip ing down the mast.

The larger dry-cargo ships often carry more
than one sh ip ’s carpenter. The job varies some­
what from ship to ship but the following duties
are typical: repairing or rebuilding of spars and
booms; “battening down,” or making the hatches
(which cover the storage spaces in the ship’s hold)
secure; building and repairing lockers, shelves,
tables, and other interior woodwork; making and
recording soundings of the “bilge” (compartments
1 2




C rew m en stow ing hawsers on deck.

in the bottom of the hull); standing by and operat­
ing the windlass which hoists and drops the anchor,
and sealing the hawsepipes when anchor and chain
are not in use.
Freighters usually carry six able-bodied seamen,
called “AB’s,” who comprise the largest occupa­
tional group aboard ship. Two AB’s are assigned
to every watch; they act as helmsmen to steer the
ship and as lookouts at night or whenever visibil­
ity is poor, reporting objects sighted in the sea to
the watch officer. When no lookout is needed,
two able seamen take 2-hour turns at the wheel.
During the day one of the AB’s is generally as­
signed to the boatswain to perform general deck
maintenance work, such as washing the deck,
chipping paint, painting wood and metal fixtures,
splicing wire and rope, and overhauling the life­
985651— 52--- 3




boats to keep them seaworthy. AB’s must also
participate in periodic boat drills, know how to
take depth soundings in unfamiliar or shallow
water, and be able to perform other regular and
emergency duties as required in the deck service of
a merchant vessel.
O rdinary seamen are the beginners in the deck
department. Most cargo vessels carry three
ordinary seamen. One is assigned to each watch
to “spell” (relieve) the helmsman and the lookout,
carry messages, run errands, and bring coffee to
the other members of the watch. During the day
ordinary seamen are assigned to general deck
maintenance work, such as scrubbing decks, coil­
ing and splicing rope, chipping rust, and painting.
To keep ships seaworthy, exposed parts must be
painted frequently.
13

Engine Department
This department is run by a chief engineer who
has complete charge of all engines, boilers, electri­
cal equipment, refrigeration equipment, sanitary
equipment, deck machinery, and steam connec­
tions aboard ship. He supervises the handling of
the main engines and auxiliary equipment while
the vessel is under way and is responsible for taking
on enough fuel for the voyage plus an ample
reserve for emergencies.
The engine-room crew also operates on a threewatch system. The chief engineer assigns each
of his three assistant engineers, who are licensed
officers, to a watch period during which the
watch officer is responsible for the operation of
the ship’s engines and for the supervision of
such unlicensed personnel as oilers, firemen ,
water tenders, and wipers. The officers on watch
must notify the chief engineer of any unusual
occurrences and keep a record or log of equipment
performance.
The first assistant engineer, in addition to
serving as one of the watch officers, is in charge
of operating and maintaining power machinery
equipment aboard ship. He has direct respon­
sibility for operations in the engine room, such
as starting, stopping, and controlling the speed
of the main engines, and for the supervision of
engine-room personnel. He supervises and in­
spects lubrication of engines, pumps, electric
motors and generators, and other machinery;
directs the installation of steam and water pipes
and electrical wiring; and with the aid of the
chief engineer directs all types of repairs.
The second assistant engineer, in addition to
his duties as a watch officer, has direct charge
of the boilers and boiler-room equipment, such
as the water-feed system, pumps, and condensers.
He is responsible for the maintenance of proper
steam pressure and oil and water temperatures.
He oversees the cleaning of boilers, oil burners,
and fireboxes, and is usually directly responsible
for the operation, supervision, and maintenance
of the fireroom.
The third assistant engineer supervises the
operation and maintenance of ship pumps and
engine-room auxiliary engines and stands one
of the three engine-room watches.
In addition to the above licensed engine-room
officers, some cargo vessels carry unlicensed day
14



engineers who, according to their duties, are

junior engineers, refrigerator engineers, or deck
engineers.
The junior engineer, who may or may not be

licensed, operates engine-room controls upon
signals from the bridge, checks boiler pressure
and oil and water temperatures, assists in making
all types of repairs, and sometimes stands watch.
The refrigerator engineer is found primarily
on ships carrying cargo requiring refrigeration.
These ships, called “reefers,” usually carry
three refrigerator engineers, who operate or
supervise the operation of electric motors and
pumps, or steam boilers and pumps, or ammonia
compressors, water filters and coolers, and other
refrigerating equipment; record temperatures
produced by the machines; and make necessary
adjustments to effect desired temperatures. They
also repair and keep equipment in good running
order.
The deck engineer repairs and keeps in working
order machinery installed on the deck of the ship,
such as mooring and cargo winches, which are
like elaborate windlasses or reels. When deck
machinery breaks down, he determines the
causes of faulty operation, takes the machinery
apart, and replaces the defective parts. He also
adjusts new installations, using machinist’s hand
tools; reassembles machinery, using hoists and
rollers; and sometimes repairs the ship’s plumbing
system.
The engine department may carry a ship's
electrician who keeps the ship’s electrical equip­
ment in good repair and operating condition.
He tests defective electrical systems and units
to determine the location or cause of defect and
restores them to good working order; makes
small or emergency repairs on generators and
motors; arranges emergency conversions of electric
power or driving units when necessary to keep
equipment operating until major repairs can be
made; and repairs such electrical fixtures and
equipment as controllers, switchboxes, distribution
panels, and circuit breakers.
Tankers usually carry two pumpmen who tend
and maintain one or more power-driven pumps to
pump liquid cargoes, such as oil or molasses, into
or out of the tanks. The pumpmen arrange and
connect suction and discharge pipelines and hose,
and operate valves as required; start the pumps
and stand by while the pumps are working in




O fficers at the engine control panel of a m erchant ship.

order to increase or decrease the force of pumping
as conditions warrant; and clean, lubricate, and
adjust pumps. Pumpmen must keep a close
watch on the temperatures of cargo and equip­
ment to keep the cargo below dangerous flash and
fire points while the pumps are in operation, and
must be thoroughly familiar with fire-extinguish­
ing equipment and fire-fighting procedures.
The unlicensed engine room ‘'‘gang” consists of
oilers, water tenders, firem en , and wipers. Cargo
ships usually employ three oilers, one on each
watch, who lubricate the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment. They make
regular rounds of ship machinery, checking oil
pressures and oil flow, and inspect for overheat­

ing; supply proper grade of oil or grease to all
ship machinery; and help the engineer in charge
to overhaul and repair main and auxiliary engines.
Three water tenders, also, are assigned to each
watch. They check and regulate the amount of
water in the boilers; inspect gages attached to the
boilers of the water-feeding system to bring water
to desired safe levels; note readings of steam pres­
sure gages to determine the need for increasing or
diminishing boiler fires; regulate fuel-oil valves as
necessary to keep steam pressure constant; and
direct firemen as to when they must change and
clean burner nozzles. They also check the opera­
tion of evaporators and condensers and test boiler
water for salt content.

O ile r checking s h ip ’s generator.

16




Cargo vessels employ also &firem an on each of
the three watches. They fuel the boilers to keep
specified steam pressures in the boilers; clean oil­
burning equipment; shut down boiler oil burners
that are clogged with carbon or otherwise operat­
ing inefficiently; remove the burners and replace
them, after using hand tools to remove carbon or
other obstructions from them; and clean strainers
used to filter dirt from oil before use in the burners.
Many vessels combine the two jobs of fireman and
water tender.
The beginning job in the engine department is
that of wiper. Most cargo vessels carry two
wipers, who clean machinery in the engine room,
using cloths and cotton waste and chemical sol­
vents as necessary. They assist in keeping the
engine room clean by wiping up spilled fuel, oil,
or lubricants, washing paint, and polishing metal
fixtures. Wipers help dismantle and repair ma­
chinery under the direction of the engineer in
charge and assist in such general engine-room
maintenance work as chipping or scaling boilers,
or making fuel- or water-line connections.
Steward's Department
A chief steward heads the steward’s department
and supervises the operation and maintenance of
the living and eating quarters of officers, crew, and
passengers. He has charge of, directs, and super­
vises all the department’s personnel, orders and
purchases food supplies, inspects and stores sup­
plies, and generally supervises the preparation
and serving of meals and the care and upkeep of
living quarters.
The chief cook and assistant cooks prepare the
meals aboard ship. The chief cook helps the stew­
ard plan the meals, draws pantry supplies from
the storeroom, draws meat from the ice box, and

butchers and cuts meat for cooking. He cooks
meats and sauces and dishes up food for serving
at meals. He also supervises the other galley
(ship’s kitchen) workers and is responsible for
keeping the galley clean and orderly.

Cooks preparing “ c h o w ” in s h ip ’s galley.

The second cook assists the chief cook in pre­
paring meals and also is the ship’s baker. He
bakes breads, rolls, biscuits, and pastries; cooks
breakfast; prepares and cooks vegetables for other
meals and helps dish up cooked foods; prepares
desserts; and helps to keep the galley equipment
clean and orderly.
Six u tility men and messmen make up the re­
mainder of the crew in the steward’s department.
These are beginning jobs requiring little skill.
Generally, u tility m en carry food supplies from
the storeroom and ice boxes; peel, cut, and other­
wise prepare vegetables; wash cooking utensils;
scour galley equipment; and scrub decks; whereas
messmen set tables, serve meals, clean off tables,
wash dishes, and care for living quarters.

How To G et a Job on a Ship

The usual way for an inexperienced man to get
a job on a ship is to apply for work at. a central
hiring hall in one of the chief ports of the country.




These hiring halls are operated by unions (see p. 24)
which generally require that applicants for jobs
be union members. On registering at the hiring

17

hall, the job seeker is given a “shipping card” on
which is stamped a number and the date he regis­
tered. Shipping companies send job orders to a
dispatcher in the hiring hall, where the names of
the ships and the jobs available are announced and
posted. The applicant longest out of work is en­
titled to first job preference on a job for which he
is qualified if he is present during the hiring hours.
If he is absent when a job is called, he misses out
on that job but does not lose his first place on the
list for subsequent jobs until he has missed out
on or turned down three job offers.
The worker receiving a job gets an assignment
slip, which he presents to the shipping company.
The company usually reserves the right to reject
an applicant whom it considers unqualified or
unacceptable for any valid reason. A rejected
job seeker must then report back to the dispatcher
to await another assignment.
Seamen a w a itin g e m ploym ent in union h irin g hall.

Requirements, Trainins, and Advancement

Unlicensed Crewmen
Requirements

Every person going to sea for the first time in a
job or “ rating” that does not require a license must
obtain a merchant mariner’s document from a Ma­
rine Inspection Office of the United States Coast
Guard. He must present satisfactory proof that
he has a job offer as a member of the crew of a
United States merchant vessel. After a security
check, the Marine Inspection Office will give the
newcomer a merchant mariner’s document en­
dorsed by the Coast Guard for his particular entry
rating. This document is a pocket-size plastic
card which can be carried in the wallet, and is used
as a certificate of service and identification. On
one side it identifies the holder, and on the other
side it lists the ratings for which he is qualified.
He may hold any of the jobs aboard ship for which
he has secured Coast Guard endorsement. The
Coast Guard will, upon application and without
a professional examination, endorse a merchant
mariner’s document for any of the following entry
ratings: ordinary seaman in the deck department;
wiper in the engine department; and messman or
utility man in the steward’s department. For the
18




work in the steward’s department where food is
handled, the applicant must also produce a certifi­
cate from a medical officer of the United States
Public Health Service, or other reputable physi­
cian, stating that he is free from communicable
disease.
After the 1-year minimum required period of
service, the ordinary seaman may apply to the
Coast Guard for a limited endorsement to his
merchant mariner’s document as able seaman.
After 3 years he may secure an unlimited endorse­
ment as able seaman. The requirements for an
AB (able-bodied seaman) certificate or endorse­
ment are summarized in appendix I. An
applicant must be at least 19 years of age, be in
good physical condition, and pass an examination
designed to test his knowledge of seamanship and
his ability to carry out effectively all the duties
that may be required of an able seaman, including
those of lifeboat man. Once the seaman’s papers
are endorsed as able seaman he may serve in any
unlicensed rating in the deck department.
After a minimum period of 6 months’ service, a
wiper may have his merchant mariner’s document
endorsed as “qualified Member of the Engine
Department,” or “QMED,” and for a more skilled

Front

Back
Reproduction of validated M e rcha n t M a rin e r’s D ocum ent.

job, if he can pass the examination and meet the
other requirements listed in appendixes I and V.
The possible QMED ratings are junior engineer,
machinist, refrigerator engineer, deck engineer,
pumpman, boilermaker, electrician, water tender,
fireman, and oiler. When an applicant qualifies
for all these ratings, his papers will state
‘‘QMED—Any Rating'.”
Training Opportunities and Advancement

Inexperienced men get their initial training
aboard ship. After 6 months’ sea service in an
entry job they may apply to the United States
Maritime Administration for training designed to
help them advance in their work and to bring
them up-to-date with new developments in the
industry. For unlicensed deck personnel there is
a 4-week course in practical seamanship and a
6-week course in “ deck pre-license.” Unlicensed
engine personnel are offered 4-week courses in
machine-shop practice, marine refrigeration, ma­
rine engineering, and “ engine pre-license,” and an
8-week course in marine electricity. Steward’s
department personnel may take 4-week courses
in cooking, baking, butchering, and chief steward
training. Any merchant seaman may attend a
5-day course in lifeboat training. The above
courses are conducted at the United States Mari­
time Service Training Stations at Sheepsliead Bay,
in Brooklyn, N. Y., and at Alameda, Calif.
All unlicensed personnel are furnished quarters
and subsistence while attending school. For
further information concerning these training
courses, write to or apply at one of the following



United States Maritime Service enrolling offices:
1. 19 Trinity Place, New York 6, N. Y., or
2. Room 105-6 Customs House, 555 Battery
Street, San Francisco 4, Calif., or
3. 642 Federal Building, 600 South Street,
New Orleans 7, La.
Thousands of American sailors take advantage
of the educational and technical training offered
through the correspondence courses of the Mari­
time Service Institute at a cost of $3 a course.
These courses give the beginner a chance to
acquire the technical information needed for a
certificate while he is at sea getting the necessary
practical experience. For complete information,
write the United States Maritime Service Institute,
Sheepsliead Bay, Brooklyn 29, N. Y., and ask for
their Catalog of M odern Correspondence Courses.
Seamen in the deck department advance along
well-defined lines of promotion. When the ordi­
nary seaman has met the legal qualifications for
an AB ticket, he applies for that rating and takes
the required examinations. If successful he gets
his AB ticket and can then bid for an AB job.
To become a boatswain, a man must have ability
to handle men as well as have an unlimited AB
ticket. A seaman having skill with tools may
advance to the position of ship’s carpenter.
In the engine department a wiper may advance
to any one of many jobs, provided legal qualifi­
cations are met. The usual line of advancement
is from wiper to fireman or water tender and then
to oiler. From there the next step is to a rating
as deck engineer, refrigerator engineer, junior engi­
neer, or electrician. In the steward’s depart­
ment, advancement is from messman or utility-

man to assistant cook to chief cook, and finally
to steward.

radio experience at sea. A ship's radio officer
may have his license endorsed as a ship radar
technician by passing a written examination on
specialized theory, installation, servicing, and
Licensed Officers
maintenance of ship radar equipment.
Anyone who has served for 3 years in the deck
Requirements
or engine department can apply for either a
To be eligible to serve as a deck, engine, or third mate's license or for a third assistant engi­
radio officer aboard a merchant vessel, a seaman neer's license. However, 3 years of experience
must hold a license issued by the Coast Guard. alone does not usually enable a crew member
He must pass a physical and comprehensive writ­ to pass the Coast Guard examinations for license
ten examination designed to test his knowledge as deck or engine officers. A seaman who wishes
of the work for which he is seeking a license. For to become an officer should supplement his ship­
a deck license the applicant should have a knowl­ board experience with courses of study such as
edge of navigation, cargo handling, and the opera­ those given by the United States Maritime
tions of the deck department in all its phases. Administration.
For a license as master or mate at least 20/40
vision in one eye and 20/70 in the other are re­ Training Opportunities and Advancement
quired. For an engineer's license a seaman must
Another way to become a licensed officer is
pass a written examination covering a wide knowl­
edge of marine steam, Diesel engines, and marine by graduating from the United States Merchant
boilers. He must have vision of at least 20/50 in Marine Academy, or from one of four State acad­
one eye and at least 20/70 in the other, correct­ emies, from the Coast Guard Academy, or from
able to 20/30 in one eye and 20/50 in the other. the United States Naval Academy. The Mer­
The requirements for the Coast Guard licenses chant Marine Academy at Kings Point, Long
Island, was established by the Maritime Commis­
are summarized in appendixes IT, III, and IV.
For a Coast Guard license as radio operator sion to insure an adequate supply of well-trained
one must be at least 19 years of age. He must officers for the American Merchant Marine. The
have, either with or without glasses, at least 20/30 academy gives a 4-year course of study which
vision in one eye and at least 20/50 in the other, includes college academic courses, along with
but without glasses he must have a minimum practical sea experience as “cadet midshipmen."
vision of 20/50 in one eye and at least 20/70 in the On graduation the cadet receives a license as
other. In addition, he must hold a valid first- third mate or third assistant engineer, a commis­
or second-class radiotelegraph operator's license sion as ensign in the United States Maritime
issued by the Federal Communications Commis­ Service and the United States Naval Reserve
sion. The FCC requires that applicants pass (inactive), and a degree of bachelor of science.
written examinations on such subjects as laws The Government pays the cadets $65 per month,
regulating communications at sea; radio and tele­ out of which they are required to buy their
graph operating practices; technical, legal, and uniforms, textbooks, and other specified equip­
other matters relating to the operation of all ment.
Admission is through a Nation-wide competi­
classes of radiotelegraph stations; message traffic
routing and accounting, and radio navigational tive examination, usually given in April and
aids. The applicant must also pass a code test November. Applicants must be at least 16 years
in both the transmitting and receiving of the of age and under 21. Discharged veterans and
international Morse code for 1 minute without men with 1 year of sea service are granted an
error. For a second-class license the speed re­ age waiver to 24, and 5 points are automatically
quirements are 16 code groups per minute; for a added to their test scores. Successful candidates
first-class license 20 code groups per minute and 25 between the ages of 19 and 26 subject to induction
words per minute in uncoded language. For a license into the Armed Forces are deferred from the
to serve on a cargo vessel as the sole radio operator draft as long as they are cadet midshipmen in
aboard, the Coast Guard requires also 6 months' the United States Merchant Marine Cadet Corps.
20




C adet m idshipm en lea rn in g to m aster navigation in stru m e n ts.

But they must agree to serve in the Navy as
ensigns for at least 2 years after graduation from
the Academy if called to active duty. However,
if the graduated student goes to sea, it is unlikely
that he will be called for military duty. Veterans
are not required to agree to answer a call to active
duty. For application forms and detailed infor­
mation, write to the United States Merchant
Marine Cadet Corps, Office of Maritime Training,
United States Maritime Administration, Wash­
ington 25, D. C.
In addition, the following State maritime
academies qualify students for deck or engineer
officer’s license:
1. California Maritime Academy, Vallejo,
Solano County, Calif.
2. Main Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine.
3. Massachusetts Maritime Academy, 100
Nashua Street, Boston, Mass.
4. New York State Maritime Academy,
Fort Schuyler, New York, N. Y.
These schools operate training ships which
make annual training cruises to foreign shores
and give such courses as:
Deck department —navigation, trigonometry,
seamanship, ship construction, elements of



marine engineering, maritime law, cargo
handling, and foreign trade.
Engineering department —physics, mechanical
drawing, steam engineering, electrical engi­
neering, gas and Diesel engineering, thermo­
dynamics, and ship construction.
The Maritime Administration’s training stations
at Alameda and Brooklyn also offer a number of
training courses to licensed personnel to upgrade
them or prepare them for specialist ratings. Deck
officers who have a valid license as third mate, or
higher, and who have completed 6 months’ sea
service in the last 12 months are eligible for any
of the following 4-week courses: Deck upgrade,
advanced navigation, and advanced seamanship.
The latter two courses are offered at Alameda as
a combined 6-week course. Also offered are
courses of instruction in the operation of Loran
and other radar navigation instruments.
Engine officers who hold a valid license as third
assistant engineer, or higher, and who meet the
6 months’ service requirement are eligible for the
following 4-week courses: Engine upgrade, ma­
chine-shop practice, marine refrigeration, and highpressure turbine. An 8-week course in marine
21

electricity is also offered to those engine officers
having 12 months’ sea service during the preceding
2-year period.
The Sheepshead Bay station in Brooklyn, N. Y.,
offers an 8-week course of instruction in radar and
electronics for radio operators. The objective is
to train merchant marine radio officers in the
maintenance and servicing of radar and other
electronic aids to ship operation. To be eligible
an applicant must hold a valid FCC license as a
second-class radiotelegrapher or higher, a valid
United States Coast Guard officer’s license, and
must have completed 12 months’ sea service as a
radio operator in the preceding 2 years.
Both Maritime Administration schools furnish
quarters and subsistence. Assignments to train­
ing courses at Alameda are made through the
United States Maritime Service Enrolling Office,
Room 105-6 Customs House, 555 Battery Street,
San Francisco 4, Calif.; those to courses at the
Sheepshead Bay station are made through the
United States Maritime Service Enrolling Office,
19 Trinity Place, New York 6, N. Y. A limited
number of assignments at both schools can be
made through the New Orleans enrolling office,

642 Federal Building, 600 South Street, New
Orleans 7, La.
Advancement for deck and engine officers is
also along well-defined lines. The deck officer
must start as third mate; after a minimum of
1 year’s service he is eligible to take a second mate’s
examination. Another way of qualifying for the
examination is through 5 years of service in the
deck department, 2 years of which must be spent
as a boatswain or quartermaster. The next step
forward to the position of chief mate requires at
least 1 year of service as second mate or 2 years
of service as a watch officer while holding a
license as second mate. The chief mate may apply
for master’s papers after 1 year of service as chief
mate, or 2 years of service as second mate while
holding a chief mate’s license. The qualifications
that must be met for each license are summarized
in appendixes II and IV.
An officer in the engine department starts as a
third assistant engineer. After 1 year of service,
he may apply for a second assistant’s license.
When he meets the qualifications outlined in
appendix III, he may get a first assistant’s license
and finally a chief engineer’s license.

Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions
Wages

Earnings aboard American flag deep-sea vessels
are the highest in the world. Wages vary accord­
ing to the type and size of vessel. They are high­
est on multiple-screw passenger vessels of 35,000
tons and over. In late 1951, the starting wage
aboard freighters in the deck and steward’s de­
partments was approximately $226 per month,
plus subsistence, quarters, and medical care while
at sea. The entry wage in the engine department
was about $260 a month. Table 2 shows typical
monthly basic wages paid to unlicensed personnel
and licensed officers aboard an average dry-cargo
vessel. These basic monthly wages are higher
than those in the maritime service of any other na­
tion; they are three to six times those received by
most foreign seamen. (See chart 6.)
Basic wages, however, tell only part of the story,
because the seaman receives a considerable sum in
22




overtime and premium payments and has other
benefits such as medical care and free room and
board.
T

a b l e

2 .

— B a sic m onthly wages aboard dry-cargo vessels,
N ovem ber 1 9 5 1 1

Job title

M onthly
wages

Deck department
M aster__________________
First m ate___ ___________
Second m ate____________
T h ir d m a te ... ________ .
Radio officer____________
B o a tsw a in -.______ _____
Carpenter- __ _________
Able seaman- _________
Ordinary seam an_______

M onthly
wages

Engine department
$833
515
455
419
412
334
300
263
226

Steward’s department
Chief steward__________
Chief cook______________
Second cook and baker...
Assistant cook__.................
M essm an. ___ ____
U tility m a n ._____ _______

Job title

326
300
273
260
226
226

Chief engineer__
First assistant engineer. _.
Second assistant engineer.
Third assistant engineer. _
Junior engineer—D a y ___
Junior engineer—W a tch Chief electrician
Assistant electrician
Reefer engineer.-_ __ __
Pum pm an______________
Deck engineer___________
Oiler—D iesel____________
Oiler—Steam
Fireman—water tender—
W ater tender___________
F irem an.. . . .
Wiper

$756
515
455
419
333
300
419
330
385
356
300
287
263
263
263
263
260

1 Compiled from files of the M aritime Adm inistration and from union
and m anagement publications.

The workday is 8 hours long between 8 a. m. and
5 p. m. and overtime is paid for all other work.
Most vessels observe the following 9 holidays and
pay overtime for work performed on these days:
New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday, Lin­
coln’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence
Day, Labor Day, Armistice Day, Thanksgiving,
and Christmas.
Seamen with 1 year of service aboard ship are
generally given a 2-week vacation with pay; those
with 2 years of service have 4 weeks. Some
tanker companies grant a 4-week vacation after
1 year of continuous service and a 5-week vacation
after 2 years of continuous service.

The workweek for seamen is both long and irreg­
ular. At sea the daily hours of licensed officers,
able and ordinary seamen, firemen, oilers, and
water tenders are scheduled according to 3 watches
during each 12-liour period. Each watch is 4
hours long and each man stands 2 watches, 7 days
a week; overtime pay is received for the seventh
day worked.2
Nonwatch personnel in the deck and engine de­
partments work 44 hours a week while at sea.
Their workday is 8 hours long between 8 a.m. and
5 p.m., Monday through Friday, with 1 hour for
lunch; and from 8 a.m. to 12 noon on Saturday.
Overtime is paid for all work performed between
5 p.m. and 8 a.m. daily, after 12 noon on Saturday,
and on Sundays and holidays.
The steward’s department while at sea operates
on a 48-hour week with pay for Sundays and holi­
days at a rate 50 percent more than the weekday
rate. The schedule calls for 8 hours of work
within a 12-hour period.
When the ship is in port, members of the crew
work a 40-hour week, Monday through Friday.
2
Beginning December 15, 1951, the workweek was dropped to 40 hours
and overtim e pay is received for additional hours worked.




C adet engineers in th e steam la b o ra to ry at K ings Point.

Living and Working Conditions

Space for living quarters is limited aboard ship.
An unlicensed crewman must usually share his quar­
ters with from two to four other men. The ship pro­
vides bedding (including a weekly change of sheets
and pillow cases) and bath facilities including soap
and clean towels. Some vessels issue cots to the
crew to enable them to sleep on deck while in
tropical climates. Crewmen have their own mess
hall, which often doubles as a recreation room
where they can spend free time reading, writing
letters, playing cards, or listening to the radio.
Each officer, as a rule, has a small private room
with hot and cold running water, and eats with
other officers in a wardroom separate from the mess
hall in which unlicensed crewmen eat. His room
is kept clean and made up each morning by a mess23

C rew m en relax in quarters aboard L ib e rty ship.

Seamen e njo ying leisure m om ent in messroom.

man. Living conditions aboard ship have im­
proved greatly over the last 20 years, but at the
best the quarters are cramped and there is little
chapce for privacy. When a man signs aboard
ship he limits his freedom of action for a given
period as well as his choice of entertainment,
companions, and food. Food on American ves­
sels is generally good, but much depends upon the
skill and standards of food planning and prepa­
ration which vary from vessel to vessel. The
deck hand may face the heat of the tropics or the
cold blasts of a wintry sea. The engine-room
worker is confined below deck in a noisy and hot
engine room, performing work which is often dirty.
The messman and utility man do personal service
work, often distasteful.
Foreign voyages are long, sometimes lasting 12
months. Even on shorter voyages the seaman is

out of touch with home most of the time. This
makes it difficult for him to marry, establish a
home, and raise a family. After months at sea
he often leaves ship for a fling at shore life and
must then look for another berth. In bad times
jobs are hard to find. On the other hand, coastal
and other domestic voyages are relatively short;
the seaman is in and out of port quite frequently
and usually has regular employment with a partic­
ular company.
Ordinarily the duties of seamen are not par­
ticularly hazardous, but at sea, there is always
a possibility of fire, collision, and sinking. In
case of sudden illness, moreover, the seaman can
get first-aid treatment only. Despite these draw­
backs, for many men the romance and adventure
of the sea more than compensate for the hard
work and lack of normal family life.

Maritime Unions

Most shipping companies have contracts with
maritime labor unions. In the contracts the com­
panies and the unions agree on wages, hours, and
working conditions. The following paragraphs
briefly describe the jurisdiction, size, and quali­
fications for membership in some of the more im­
portant seafaring unions in 1951.
Many licensed deck and engine officers are
members of labor unions. The National Organi­
24



zation of Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America,
which dates back to 1887, represents deck officers.
It is affiliated with the American Federation of
Labor and has a membership of 9,000. This
union is open to any licensed deck officer. Dues
are $3 per month and there is a minimum $50
initiation fee. Licensed marine engineers are
represented mainly by the National Marine
Engineers’ Beneficial Association, which is affili-

ated with the Congress of Industrial Organization
and has a membership of about 12,000. Any
licensed marine engineer who is a citizen of the
United States and not engaged in the sale of intox­
icating liquors is eligible for membership. Dues
are $3 per month, and the initiation fee is $50.
The two largest unions representing unlicensed
personnel are the National Maritime Union and
the Seafarers International Union. They both are
industrial-type unions representing unlicensed
deck, engine, and steward’s department employees.
The National Maritime Union, a CIO-affiliated
union organized in 1937, is open to “all workmen,
directly or indirectly engaged in the maritime in­
dustry.” Applicants must be approved by a
membership committee, serve a 6-month proba­
tionary period, pay dues of $4 per month and an
initiation fee of $25. The Seafarers International
Union or “SIU” represents “bona fide seamen,
fishermen, fish cannery workers, and workers in
allied maritime trades . . .” and is affiliated with
the AFL. It had a membership of about 45,000
in 1950, including some fishermen and cannery




workers. Membership is scattered along the
Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic coasts. Members pay
a charter fee of $10 on joining and a per capita
tax of 20 cents per month in addition to dues of
$3 per month. The Sailor’s Union of the Pacific
is the West Coast branch of the SIU. It is a
craft-type union representing about 7,000 seamen,
most of them in deck jobs, but on some tankers
it represents deck, engine, and steward’s depart­
ment employees. The Pacific Coast Marine Fire­
men, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers Association
operates on the West Coast and represents many of
the unlicensed men in engine rooms and firerooms,
the machine shop, and refrigeration plants aboard
ship. It is an independent union with a member­
ship of 6,300. Dues are $4.50 per month and the
initiation fee is $50.
Ship radio operators are represented by two
unions: The CIO’s American Radio Association,
in which dues are $25 per quarter year and the
AFL’s Radio Officers’ Union of the Commercial
Telegraphers Union in which dues are $15 per
quarter.

25

Appendix I
Major Legal Requirements for Specified Deck and Engine Ratings1
Type of
Requirement

Able Seaman

Lifeboat Man

Qualified Member of the Engine Department

Minimum age:
19
Certification
Merchant mariner’s document endorsed as Merchant mariner’s document endorsed as Certificate as qualified member of engine
required:
lifeboat man or able seaman.
able seaman.
department.
Physical
Pass a physical examination by an officer of No legal requirement.
Pass a physical examination by an officer of
requirements: the U. S. Public Health Service. The medical
the U. S. Public Health Service. The medical
examination is the same as for an original
examination is the same as for an original license
as a deck officer. (See appendix II.)
license as engineer (see appendix III) except that
the exemption regarding monocular vision does
not apply.
Service or
For unlimited certificate:
(1) At least 1 year’s service in the deck (a) An applicant for a certificate of service
training
(1) 3 years’ service on deck in vessels of 100 department, or at least 2 years’ service in the as qualified member of the engine department
requirements: gross tons or over operating on ocean or coast­ other departments of ocean, coastwise, Great shall furnish the Coast Guard proof that he
wise routes or on the Great Lakes. (Time Lakes, and other lakes, bays, or sounds vessels; possesses one of the following requirements of
training or service:
spent by an applicant in a course of able sea­ or
man’s training in an approved school may be (2) Graduation from an approved school (1) 6 months’ service at sea in a rating at
least equal to that of coal-passer or wiper in the
accepted as the equivalent of sea service up to ship; or
(3) Satisfactory completion of basic training engine department of vessels operating on the
a maximum of 1 year.)
(2) Satisfactory completion of 18 months’ by a cadet of the U. S. Merchant Marine high seas or Great Lakes, or on the bays or
training in an approved seagoing training ship. Cadet Corps; or
sounds directly connected with the sea; or
For limited certificate: holders limited to one- (4) Satisfactory completion of 3 years’ (2) Graduation from a school ship approved
fourth of the number of able seamen required training at the U. S. Naval or Coast Guard by and conducted under rules prescribed by the
by law to be employed on a vessel.
Academies, including two training cruises; or commandant; or
(1) 12 months’ service on deck in vessels of (5) Satisfactory completion of an approved (3) Satisfactory completion of a course of
100 gross tons or over operating on ocean or course of training and served aboard a training training approved by the commandant, and
served aboard a training vessel; or
vessel; or
coastwise routes or on the Great Lakes; or
(2) Satisfactory completion of a course of (6) Successful completion of an approved (4) Graduation from the U. S. Naval or Coast
training at a U. S. Maritime Service training training course, such course to include a min­ Guard Academies.
station of at least 9 months, 6 months of which imum of 30 hours’ actual lifeboat training, pro­
shall have been served aboard a seagoing vided that the applicant produces evidence of
having served a minimum of 3 months at sea
vessel.
aboard ocean or coastwise vessels.
Examination
(a) Before an applicant is certified as able (a) Before a lifeboat man’s certificate may be (a) Applicants for certification as qualified
and
seaman, he shall prove to the satisfaction of the granted, the applicant must prove to the Coast members of the engine department in the rating
demonstration Coast Guard by oral or written examination and Guard’s satisfaction that he has been trained in of oiler, water tender, fireman, deck engineer,
by actual demonstration, his knowledge of sea­ all the operations connected with launching life­ refrigerator engineer, junior engineer, electri­
of ability:
manship, and his ability to carry out effectively boats and life rafts and the use of oars and sails; cian, and machinist shall be examined orally or
all the duties that may be required of an able that he is acquainted with the practical han­ in writing on the subjects listed in appendix V.
seaman including those of a lifeboat man. He dling of the boats themselves; and further, that The applicant’s general knowledge of the sub­
he is capable of understanding and answering jects must be sufficient to satisfy the examiner
shall demonstrate that:
(1) He has been trained in all the operations the orders relative to lifeboat service. An oral that he is qualified to perform the duties of the
connected with the launching of lifeboats and examination and practical demonstration of rating for which he makes application.
ability may be required.
life rafts and the use of oars and sails;
(2) He is acquainted with the practical han­ (b) The oral examination shall consist of
questions regarding:
dling of the boats themselves; and



(3) He is capable of taking command of
boat’s crew.
(b) The examination shall consist of ques­
tions regarding:
(1) Lifeboats and life rafts, the names of
their essential parts, and a description of the
required equipment;
(2) The clearing away, swinging out, and
lowering of boats and rafts, the handling of
boats under oars and sails, including questions
relative to the proper handling of a boat in
running before a heavy sea, in pulling into a
sea, etc.;
(3) The construction and functions of grav­
ity, radial, and quadrantal types of davits;
(4) The applicant’s knowledge of nautical
terms; boxing the compass, either by degrees or
points according to his experience; running
lights, passing signals, and fog signals; and
distress signals; and
(5) The applicant’s knowledge of commands
in handling the wheel by obeying orders passed
to him as “wheelsman” and knowledge of the use
of engine-room telegraph or bell-pull signals.
(c) In the actual demonstration, the appli­
cant shall show his ability by taking command
of a boat and directing the operation of clearing
away, swinging out, lowering the boat into the
water, and acting as coxswain in charge of a
boat, under oars. He shall demonstrate his
ability to row by actually pulling an oar in the
boat. He shall also demonstrate knowledge of
the principal knots, bends, splices, and hitches
in common use, by actually making them.

a (1) The construction of lifeboats and life
rafts, the names of their different parts, and a
description of the equipment required;
(2) The construction and functions of the
gravity, radial, and round-bar types of davits;
(3) Clearing away, swinging out, and lower­
ing boats and rafts;
(4) Handling boats under oars and sails; and
(5) Nautical terms used in connection with
launching and handling lifeboats.
(c) The practical examination shall consist of
a demonstration of the applicant’s ability to
carry out the orders incident to launching life­
boats, and the use of the boat’s sail, and to row.

Additional information may
1
The requirements listed are those given in part 12 of the U. S. Coast Guard’s “ Rules and Regulations for Licensing and Certificating of Merchant Marine Personnel.’
obtained from the United States Coast Guard, Washington, D. C., or any Coast Guard regional office.

to




be

K>
00

Appendix II
M ajor Legal Requirements for Deck Licenses on O cean Vessels 1

Type of
Requirement

Minimum age:
Citizenship:

Master

Chief Mate

Second Mate

21

21

21

Same as master.

Same as master.

19
Same as master.

Same as master.

Same as master.

Same as master.

Same as master.

Same as master.

Same as master.

Must present documentary evi­
dence of United States citizenship.
Physical
(1) All applicants for an origi­
nal license shall be required to pass
standards:
a physical examination given by a
medical officer of the U. S. Public
Health Service. This certificate
shall attest to the applicant’s acuity
of vision, color sense, and general
physical condition.
(2) Epilepsy, insanity, senility,
acute venereal disease or neuro­
syphilis, badly impaired hearing,
or other defect that would render
the applicant incompetent to per­
form the ordinary duties of an offi­
cer at sea are causes for certification
as incompetent.
(3) Applicant must have, either
with or without glasses, at least
20/20 vision in one eye and at least
20/40 in the other. Applicants
who wear glasses, however, must
also be able to pass a test without
glasses of at least 20/40 in one eye
and at least 20/70 in the other.
The color sense will be tested by
means of the “Stillings” test, but
any applicants who fail this test
wiil be eligible if they can pass the
“Williams” lantern test.
Written endorsements of a master
Character
and engineer of a vessel on which
reference:
they have served with the applicant
together with one other licensed
officer.
(1) 1 year’s service as chief mate
Experience
vessels of
requirements: of ocean steam or motor or
1,000 gross tons or over;
(2) 1 year’s service as chief mate
of coastwise steam or motor vessels
of 2,000 gross tons or over; or
(3) 2 years’ service as second
mate of coastwise steam or motor




(1) 1 year’s service as second
mate of ocean steam or motor
vessels of 1,000 gross tons or
over; or
(2) 1 year’s service as second
mate of coastwise steam or motor
vessels of 2,000 gross tons or
over; or

(a) In order to be eligible for an
unlimited ocean license, an appli­
cant must have obtained his service
on ocean or coastwise vessels of
1,000 gross tons or over.
(1) 1 year’s service as officer in
charge of a deck watch on ocean
or coastwise steam or motor vessels

Third Mate

(a) In order to be eligible for an
unlimited ocean license, an appli­
cant must have obtained his service
on ocean or coastwise vessels of
1,000 gross tons or over.
(1) 3 years’ service in the deck
department of ocean or coastwise
steam or motor vessels, 6 months

vessels of 1,000 gross tons or over
while holding a license as chief
mate of such vessels; or
(4) 2 years’ service as second
mate of coastwise steam or motor
vessels of 2,000 gross tons or over
while holding a license as chief
mate of such vessels; or
(5) 1 year’s service as master of
coastwise steam or motor vessels of
2,000 gross tons or over; or
(6) 2 years’ service as master of
ocean or coastwise sail vessels of
700 gross tons or over, for license
as master of freight or towing,
steam or motor vessels of not more
than 3,000 gross tons; or
(7) 3 years’ service as master of
steam or motor vessels of 4,000
gross tons or over, except ferry
vessels, on the Great Lakes, to­
gether with 1 year’s service as
second mate of ocean steam or
motor vessels of 1,000 gross tons
or over.

12

S ee fo o tn o te s a t en d o f ta b le.




(3) 2 years’ service as officer in
charge of a deck watch on ocean
steam or motor vessels of 1,000
gross tons or over while holding a
license as second mate of such
vessels; or
(4) 2 years’ service as officer in
charge of a deck watch on coast­
wise steam or motor vessels of
2,000 gross tons or over while
holding a license as second mate
of such vessels; or
(5) 2 years’ service as master of
Great Lakes or other lakes, bays,
or sound steam or motor vessels
of 1,000 gross tons or over except
ferry vessels, together with 1 year’s
service as officer in charge of a
deck watch on ocean steam or
motor vessels of 1,000 gross tons
or over, or together with 1 }^ear
of such service on coastwise steam
or motor vessels of 2,000 tons or
over; or
(6) 5 years’ service in the deck
department of ocean or coast­
wise sail vessels of 200 gross tons
or over, 2 years of such service
shall have been as master of such
vessels, for license as chief mate of
ocean freight or towing vessels of
not more than 3,000 gross tons; or
(7) 1 year’s service as master of
any class of ocean steam or motor
vessels of more than 250 gross tons
for license as chief mate of ocean
freight or towing vessels of not
more than 1,500 gross tons.

while holding a license as third
mate; or
(2) 6 months’ service as second
mate of coastwise steam or motor
vessels; or
(3) 5 years’ service in the deck
department of ocean or coastwise
steam or motor vessels of 1,000
gross tons or over, 2 years of which
shall have been as boatswain or
quartermaster while holding a cer­
tificate as able seaman; or
(4) 1 year’s service as first-class
pilot of steam or motor vessels of
4,000 gross tons or over, except
ferry vessels, on the Great Lakes,
or other lakes, bays, or sounds,
together with 6 months’ service in
the deck department of ocean
steam or motor vessels of 1,000
gross tons or over, while holding
a license as such first-class pilot; or
(5) 2 years’ service as assistant
(junior officer of the wratch) to the
officer in charge of the watch on
ocean steam or motor vessels,
while holding a license as third
mate of such vessels, or
(6) 4 years’ service in the deck
department of ocean or coastwise
sail vessels of 200 gross tons or
over, 1 year of such service shall
have been as second mate of such
sail vessels.

of which shall have been as able
seaman, boatswain, or quarter­
master while holding a certificate
as able seaman; or
(2) 6 months’ service as third
mate of coastwise steam or motor
vessels; or
(3) Graduation from:
(i) the U. S. Merchant Marine
Academy (deck);
(ii) the deck class of a State
nautical schoolship;
(iii) the U. S. Naval Academy;
or
(iv) the U. S. Coast Guard
Academy.
(4) Satisfactory completion of
the prescribed course (deck) at a
U. S. Maritime Service or other
Government-operated t r a i n i n g
school, approved by the comman­
dant, may be accepted as the
equivalent of sea service up to a
maximum of 4 months, provided
the applicant has obtained the
additional qualifying experience
prior to enrollment; or
(5) 1 year’s service as secondclass pilot of steam or motor
vessels of 4,000 gross tons or over,
except ferry vessels on the Great
Lakes, or other lakes, bays, or
sounds, together with 6 months’
service in the deck department of
ocean steam or motor vessels of
1,000 gross tons or over, while
holding a license as such secondclass pilot; or
(6) 3 years’ service in the deck
department of steam or motor
vessels on the Great Lakes, other
lakes, bays, or sounds or rivers
together with 1 year’s service in
the deck department of ocean
steam or motor vessels, 6 months
of which shall have been as able
seaman, boatswain, or quartermaster
while holding a certificate as able
seaman; or
(7) 3 years’ service in the deck
department of steam or motor
vessels of 100 gross tons or over
engaged in the ocean or coastwise
fisheries, together with 6 months’
service as able seaman, boatswain,
or quartermaster on ocean steam
or motor vessels, while holding a
certificate as able seaman.

u>

o

A p p en d ix II— Continued
M ajor Legal Requirements for Deck Licenses on O cean Vessels 1— Continued

T ype o f
R equirem ent

Knowledge:

M aster

(1) Applicant must secure a
certificate from the U. S. Public
Health Service that he has passed
a satisfactory examination based
on the contents of “The Ships’
Medicine Chest and First Aid at
Sea.”
(2) Applicant must pass a satis­
factory examination as to his
knowledge of the subjects listed
in appendix IV.

Chief M ate

Same as master.

Second M ate

Same as master

Th ird M ate

Same as master.

1 The requirements listed are those given in part 10 of the U. S. Coast Guard’s “ R u les an d R egulations for L icen sin g an d C ertificating of M erch a n t M a rin e P ersonnel L” Additional information may be obtained
from the United States Coast Guard, Washington, D. C., or any Coast Guard regional office.

Appendix III
Major Legal Requirements for Engineer Licenses on Ocean Steam Vessels1
Type o f
Requirement

Minimum age:
Citizenship:
Physical
standards:

Chief Engineer
21

Must present documentary evi­
dence of United States citizenship.
(1) All applicants for an original
license shall be required to pass a
physical examination given by a
medical officer of the United States
Public Health Service. This cer­
tificate shall attest to the appli­
cant’s acuity of vision, color sense,
and general physical condition.
(2) Epilepsy, insanity, senility,
acute venereal disease or neurosyph­
ilis, badly impaired hearing, or
other defect that would render the
applicant incompetent to perform
the ordinary duties of an officer at
sea are causes for certification as
incompetent.




First Assistant Engineer
21

Second Assistant Engineer
21

Third Assistant Engineer

19

Same as chief engineer.

Same as chief engineer.

Same as chief engineer.

Same as chief engineer.

Same as chief engineer.

Same as chief engineer.

Character
reference:
Experience
requirements

u>

(3) Applicants for original engi­
neer’s licenses shall be examined
only as to their ability to distin­
guish the colors red, blue, green,
and yellow.
(4) Applicant must have, either
with or without glasses, at least
20/30 vision in one eye and at least
20/50 in the other. The applicant
who wears glasses, however, must
be able to pass a test without glasses
of at least 20/50 in one eye and at
least]|20/70 in the other. Any ap­
plicant possessed of monocular
vision and who has lost the sight of
one eye since first obtaining his
qualified member of the engine de­
partment certificate may be per­
mitted to sit for a license if eligible
in all other respects. Vision of at
least 20/30 without glasses in the
remaining eye shall be required in
all such cases.
Written endorsements of a mas­ Same as chief engineer.
ter and engineer of a vessel on which
they have served with the appli­
cant together with one other
licensed officer.
(a) The minimum service re­ (a) The minimum service re­
quired to qualify an applicant for quired to qualify an applicant for
license as chief engineer of steam license as first assistant engineer of
steam vessels is:
vessel is:
(1) 1 year’s service as first assist­ (1) 1 year’s service as second
ant engineer of steam vessels; or assistant engineer of steam vessels;
(2) 2 years’ service as second or
assistant or junior first assistant (2) 2 years’ service as third assist­
engineer in charge of a watch on ant or junior second assistant engi­
steam vessels while holding a neer in charge of a watch on steam
license as first assistant engineer of vessels, while holding a license as
second assistant engineer of steam
steam vessels; or
(3) While holding a license as vessels; or
chief engineer of motor vessels, (3) While holding a license as
first assistant engineer of motor
either:
(i) 6 months’ service as observer vessels, either:
chief engineer on steam vessels; or (i) 6 months’ service as second
(ii) 6 months’ service as observer assistant engineer of steam vessels;
chief engineer on steam vessels; or (ii) 6 months’ service as observer
(iii) 1 year’s service as oiler, first assistant engineer of steam ves­
water tender, or junior engineer of sels; or
(iii) 1 year’s service as oiler,
steam vessels.
water tender, or junior engineer of
steam vessels; or
(4) 3 years’ service as oiler,
water tender, or fireman on steam
vessels for a license as first assistant

S ee fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




Same as chief engineer.
(a) The minimum service re­
quired to qualify an applicant for
license as second assistant engineer
of steam vessels is:
(1) 1 year’s service as engineer in
charge of a watch, while holding a
license as third assistant engineer of
steam vessels; or
(2) 2 years’ service as assistant
engineer to the engineer in charge
of watch, while holding a license as
third assistant engineer of steam
vessels; or
(3) While holding a license as
second assistant engineer of motor
vessels, either:
(i) 6 months’ service as observer
second assistant engineer on steam
vessels; or
(ii) 6 months’ service as third
assistant engineer of steam vessels;
(iii) 1 year’s service as oiler,
water tender, or junior engineer of
steam vessels.

Same as chief engineer.
(a) The minimum service re­
quired to qualify an applicant for
license as third assistant engineer of
steam vessels is:
(1) 3 years’ service in the engine
department of steam vessels, 2
years and 6 months of which must
have been as fireman, oiler, water
tender, or other qualified member
of the engine department, one-third
of the required service may have
been on motor vessels; or
(2) 3 years’ service as an appren­
tice to the machinist trade engaged
in the construction or repair of
marine, locomotive, or stationary
engines together with 1 year’s serv­
ice in the engine department of
steam vessel as oiler, water tender,
or junior engineer, one-third of such
service may have been on motor
vessels; or
(3) Graduation from:
(i) The U. S. Merchant Marine
Academy (engineering).
(ii) The engineering class of a
State nautical school ship;

u>

A p p e n d ix III— Continued

hO

M ajor Legal Requirements for Engineer Licenses on O cean Steam Vessels 1 Continued
—

Type of
Requirement
E x p e r ie n c e
r e q u ir e m e n ts—
C o n tin u e d

C hief Engineer

First Assistant Engineer

o f ste a m v e sse ls o f n o t m o re th a n
1,000 h orsep ow er.

Second Assistant Engineer

T hird Assistant Engineer

or

(iv) T h e U . S. C o a st G uard A ca d ­
em y; or
(4) S a tisfa c to r y co m p le tio n o f
th e p rescrib ed co u rse (en gin eerin g)
a t a U . S. M a r itim e S erv ice or o th e r
G o v e r n m e n t - o p e r a t e d tr a in in g sc h o o l a p p r o v e d b y th e co m m a n ­
d a n t m a y b e a c c e p te d a s th e e q u iv ­
a le n t o f sea serv ic e up to a m a x im u m
o f 4 m o n th s, p r o v id e d th e a p p lic a n t
h a s o b ta in e d th e a d d itio n a l q u a li­
fy in g ex p erien ce p rior to en rollm en t;
or
(5) G ra d u a tio n fro m th e m arin e
en g in ee rin g co u rse o f a d u ly reco g ­
n iz ed sch o o l o f te c h n o lo g y to g eth e r
w ith 3 m o n th s ’ ser v ic e in th e en gin e
d e p a r tm e n t o f s te a m v esse ls, o n e th ir d o f su ch serv ic e m a y h a v e b een
o n m o to r v e sse ls; or
(6) G ra d u ation from th e m ec h a n ­
ic a l o r e lec trica l en g in eerin g cou rse
o f a d u ly reco g n ized sch o o l o f te c h ­
n o lo g y to g e th e r w ith 6 m o n th s ’
serv ic e in th e e n g in e d e p a r tm e n t o f
s te a m v e sse ls; o n e -th ir d m a y h a v e
b een o n m o to r v e sse ls; or
(7) 1 y e a r ’s serv ic e a s o iler,
w a te r ten d er, o r ju n io r en g in eer on
s te a m v e sse ls, w h ile h old in g a
lic e n se a s th ird a s s is ta n t en gin eer
o f m o to r v esse ls.

i The requirements listed are those given in part 10 of the U . S. Coast Guard’s “Rules and Regulations for Licensing and Certificating of Merchant M arine Personnel.'
from the U nited States Coast Guard, W ashington, D . C., or any Coast Guard regional office.




(iii) T h e U . S. N a v a l A ca d em y ;

Additional information nay be obtained

Appendix IV
Subjects Covered by Coast Guard Examinations for Deck Officers of Ocean Vessels 1
Subjects

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

Master

Chief mate

Second mate

Third mate

L a titu d e b v P o la r is . _
_
„ ____ _ _
X
X
____
L a titu d e b v m erid ia n a ltitu d e _ •
_
S u n or s t a r ___ Su n
L a titu d e b y e x -m e r id ia n _
__
_ _______ __
A n y b o d y _____ S u n or s t a r .
F ix or ru n n in g f ix .
_
_
__
A n y b o d ie s ___ A n y b od ies
L o n g itu d e b y p o sitio n lin e or tim e s i g h t 2
„ _ __ _
S u n or s t a r ___ S u n
___
S ta r id e n tific a tio n
_
_ _
X
X
D e v ia tio n o f th e co m p a ss b v a m p litu d e
_ _ __
X
D e v ia tio n o f th e co m p a ss b v a z im u th _ _ _
A n y b o d y _____ S u n or s ta r ___ S u n or s t a r ___ S u n
P o sitio n fin d in g b y d ea d r e ck o n in g — tr a v e r se or M er­
ca to r sa ilin g _ _ _
____ _ __ _
X
P o sitio n fin d in g b y d ea d re ck o n in g — g re a t circle, M er­
ca to r, tr a v er se , or m id d le la titu d e s a ilin g ______ ______
X
G reat circle sa ilin g _ _
_________
X
T ra v erse sa ilin g _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____
X
X
M e rca to r sa ilin g _
_ _
_ _
X
M id d le la titu d e sa ilin g _ _ _ _
X
D is ta n c e off a fixed o b je c t a n d la n d b ea rin g s .
___
X
X
X
X
S p eed b y r e v o lu tio n s
_
_
___ __
X
P ra ctica l ch a rt w ork _ _
__
_____
______
X
X
X
X
F u e l co n se rv a tio n _
___
___
____
X
In str u m e n ts a n d a cc esso rie s _
_ _
X
X
X
X
M a g n e tism , d e v ia tio n , a n d co m p a ss c o m p en sa tio n
X
X
C o n str u c tio n o f a d e v ia tio n ta b le
X
C h art n a v ig a tio n . _
__
_
X
X
X
X
C h art c o n stru ctio n
_ _
_
_ __
X
A id s to n a v ig a tio n
_
_
_ _
X
X
X
T id es a n d cu rren ts, in c lu d in g u se of ta b le s
_ _
X
X
O cean w in d s, w ea th er , a n d cu rren ts _ ______
X
X
N a u tic a l a str o n o m v
_
_ _
_ _
X
In te r n a tio n a l a n d in la n d ru les o f th e road
___ __ _
X
In te r n a tio n a l ru les of th e road
_
_ _
X
X
X
S ig n a lin g b y in te r n a tio n a l cod e flags, M orse, a n d s e m a ­
X
X
X
X
p h ore; life sa v in g , d istre ss, sto r m , a n d sp e c ia l s ig n a ls .
S ta b ility a n d h u ll c o n stru ctio n _ __ _
_ _
X
S e a m a n s h ip . _ _ _ _
___
__
__
_ _
X
X
X
X
X
T e m p o ra ry rep airs to h u ll a n d eq u ip m e n t
X
S ea te r m s a n d n a v ig a tio n d efin itio n s _ _____
____
X
X
X
S to w a g e a n d cargo h a n d lin g , _
__ ___________
X
C h an g e in d ra ft d u e to ch a n g e in d e n sity
__ __ _
X
D e te r m in a tio n o f a rea a n d v o lu m e _ _ __ ___________
X
X
X
L ife sa v in g a p p a ra tu s _
______ __
_ _ _ ___
S h ip s a n ita tio n
X
X
X
X
X
X
G en eral ru les a n d re g u la tio n s fo r v e sse l in s p e c tio n . _
U n ite d S ta te s n a v ig a tio n la w s
X
X
S u ch fu r th er e x a m in a tio n o f a n o n m a th e m a tic a l ch ar­
a c te r as th e officer in ch arge, M a rin e In sp e c tio n , m a y
co n sid er n ec essa ry to esta b lish th e a p p lic a n t’s p rofiX
X
X
X
o ie n c v . _
_ _
_______
__
____

1 The requirements listed are those given in part 10 of the U. S. Coast Guard’s “Rules and Regulations for Licensing and Certificating of Merchant M arine
Personnel.'* Additional information m ay be obtained from the U nited States Coast Guard, W ashington, D . C., or any Coast Guard regional office.
2 Candidates m ay use any navigational m ethods they wish in the solution of problems, provided they are correct in principle. Because of the m any different
methods of com puting a position line it is necessary, in order to obtain uniform ity in examinations, to require as an answer either the longitude based on the
D . R. latitude as solved by tim e sight or the longitude of the com puted point as obtained by any position line m ethod either w ith plotting or traverse tables.
Computed point is the point at which a perpendicular from the D . R. position (for the instant of the sight) intersects the line of position.




33

A p p e n d ix V

Subjects Covered by Coast Guard Examinations for Qualified Members of Engine Department1
Subjects

1. A p p lic a tio n , m a in te n a n c e , a n d u se of
h a n d to o ls a n d m ea su r in g in str u ­
m e n ts ________
2. U se s of b a b b itt, co p p er, b rass, ste e l,
a n d o th e r m eta ls __ _______ __
3. M e th o d s o f m ea su r in g p ip e , p ip e fittin g s, sh e e t m e ta l, m a ch in e b o lts a n d
___ _
n u ts, p a c k in g , e tc
4. O p eratio n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f m ec h a n ic a l re m o te c o n tr o l e q u ip m e n t
5. P r e c a u tio n s to b e ta k e n fo r th e p rev e n tio n o f fire a n d th e p ro p er u se of
fire -fig h tin g e q u ip m e n t. _
6. P rin c ip le s o f m e c h a n ic a l refrig era tio n ;
a n d fu n c tio n s, o p e ra tio n s, a n d m a in ­
te n a n c e of v a r io u s m a c h in e s a n d
p a r ts o f th e s v s t e m ,___ _ _
7. K n o w le d g e of p ip in g s y s te m s as u se d in
a m m o n ia , F reo n , a n d C 0 2, in c lu d ­
in g te s tin g fo r le a k s, o p e ra tio n o f b y p a sse s, a n d m a k in g u p o f jo in ts
8. S a fe ty p r e ca u tio n s to b e o b ser v e d in
th e o p e ra tio n o f v a r io u s re fr ig er a t­
in g sy s te m s , in c lu d in g sto r a g e o f re­
fr ig er a n ts, a n d th e u se o f gas m a sk s
a n d fire -fig h tin g e q u ip m e n t. _
9. C o m b u stio n of fu e ls, p ro p er te m p e r a ­
tu r e, p ressu res, a n d a to m iz a tio n
10. O p eratio n of th e fu e l-o il s y s te m on o il­
b u rn in g b oilers, in c lu d in g th e tr a n s­
fer a n d sto r a g e o f fu e l oil
11. H a za rd s in v o lv e d a n d th e p re ca u tio n s
ta k e n a g a in st a c c u m u la tio n of oil in
fu r n a ce s, b ilg es, floor p la te s, a n d
ta n k to p s; flare b a c k s; lea k s in fu e lo il h ea te rs; clo g g ed stra in ers a n d
b u rn er tip s
12. P r e c a u tio n s n e c e ssa r y w h en fillin g
e m p ty b o ile rs, s ta r tin g u p th e fu e l­
o il-b u r n in g s y s te m , a n d ra isin g s te a m
fr o m a co ld b o ile r _
13. T h e fu n c tio n , o p e r a tio n , a n d m a in te ­
n a n c e o f th e v a r io u s en g in e -r o o m
a u x il ia r ie s ___
14. P ro p er o p e r a tio n o f th e v a r io u s ty p e s
o f lu b r ic a tin g s y s te m s
15. S a fe ty p r e c a u tio n s to b e o b se r v e d in
c o n n e c tio n w ith th e o p e r a tio n of e n ­
g in e-ro o m a u x ilia r ie s, e le c tr ic a l m a ­
c h in e ry , and_ sw itc h b o a r d e q u ip m e n t16. T h e fu n c tio n , o p e r a tio n , a n d m a in te ­
n a n c e o f th e b ilg e , b a lla st, fire, fr e sh ­
w a te r , s a n ita r y , a n d lu b r ic a tin g s y s ­
te m s - _
17. P ro p er care o f sp a re m a c h in e p a r ts a n d
id le e q u ip m e n t _ _
18. T h e p ro ce d u r e in p re p a r in g a tu r b in e ,
r e c ip r o c a tin g , or D ie se l e n g in e fo r
s ta n d -b y ; a lso th e p ro ce d u r e in s e ­
c u r in g - _ _
19. O p er a tio n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f th e
e q u ip m e n t n e c e ssa r y fo r th e s u p p ly
o f w a te r to b o ile rs, th e d a n g ers of
h ig h a n d lo w w a te r a n d re m ed ia l
a c t io n , _____

See footnotes at end of table.

34



Refrigera­
M achinist ting engineer

X

W ater
tender

Oiler

Electri­
cian

Junior
engineer

D eck engi­
neer

X

X

Y
A

X

X

X

X

A

x

X

X

x

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

x
x

Fireman

X

X

x

x
A

X

X

X

X

X

X
X

x

X

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

V
A

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

Y
A

X

X

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

x
X

x

X

X

X

X

x

X

X
A

X

x
A

X

X

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

X
A

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

A p p e n d ix V — Continued

Subjects Covered by Coast Guard Examinations for Qualified Members of Engine Department—
Continued
Subjects

2 0 . O p era tio n , lo c a tio n , a n d m a in te n a n c e
o f th e v a r io u s b o ile r fittin g s a n d
a cc esso rie s ___
___
_______
21. T h e p r a c tic a l a p p lic a tio n a n d so lu tio n
o f b a sic e le c tr ic a l c a lc u la tio n s (O h m ’s
la w , p o w e r fo rm u la , e tc .)
___
2 2 . E le c tr ic a l w ir in g c ir c u its o f th e v a r io u s
tw o -w ir e a n d th r e e -w ir e d. c. s y s ­
te m s a n d th e v a r io u s s in g le -p h a se
a n d p o ly p h a se a . c. sv s te m s _ ______
2 3 . A p p lic a tio n a n d ch a r a c te r istic s o f p a r­
a lle l a n d series c ir c u its ____ __ __
2 4 . A p p lic a tio n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f e le c ­
tr ic a l m eter s a n d in s tr u m e n ts __ _
2 5 . T h e m a in te n a n c e a n d in s ta lla tio n o f
lig h tin g a n d p o w e r w irin g in v o lv in g
te s tin g fo r lo c a tin g a n d co r rec tin g
g ro u n d s, sh o r t c irc u its a n d o p en
circ u its, a n d m a k in g sp lice s
2 6. T h e o p e r a tio n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f th e
v a r io u s ty p e s o f g en er a to r s a n d m o ­
to rs, b o th a. c. a n d d. c
2 7 . O p era tio n , in s ta lla tio n , a n d m a in te ­
n a n c e o f th e v a r io u s ty p e s o f e le c tr i­
ca l c o n tr o ls a n d s a fe ty d e v ic e s
2 8 . T e s tin g a n d m a in te n a n c e o f sp e c ia l
e le c tr ic a l e q u ip m e n t su c h a s te le ­
g ra p h s, te le p h o n e s , a la rm s y s te m s ,
fir e -d e te c tin g s y s te m s , a n d ru d d er
a n g le in d ic a to r s
2 9. R u le s a n d r e g u la tio n s, a n d req u ire­
m e n ts fo r in s ta lla tio n , rep air, a n d
m a in te n a n c e o f e le c tr ic a l w ir in g a n d
e q u ip m e n t in s ta lle d a b o a rd sh ip s _
3 0. S u c h fu r th e r e x a m in a tio n o f a n o n m a th e m a tic a l ch a ra cter as th e officer
in ch a rg e, M a rin e In s p e c tio n , m a y
co n sid e r n e c e ssa r y to e s ta b lis h th e
a p p lic a n t’s p r o fic ie n c y . _ _______ __

Refrigera­
M achinist ting engi­
neer

W ater
tender

Oiler

X

X

Fireman

X

Electri­
cian

X

Junior
engineer

D eck engi­
neer

X
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

i The requirements listed are those given in part 12 of the IT. S. Coast Guard’s “Rules and Regulations for Licensing and Certificating of Merchant M arine
P e r s o n n e l Additional information m ay be obtained from the U nited States Coast Guard, W ashington, D . C., or any Coast Guard regional office.




35

Appendix VI
Suggested Readings1
America’s Maritime History.

1944.

B y A . C . D e n iso n , G . P . P u tn a m ’s S on s, N e w Y ork , N . Y .,

American Maritime Industries and Public Policy, 1789-1914 .

B y J o h n G reen w o od B ro w n
H a rv a r d U n iv e r s ity P ress, C am b rid ge, M a ss., 1 941.
Economic Survey of The American Merchant Marine. U . S. M a ritim e C o m m issio n , G o v e rn ­
m e n t P r in tin g O ffice, W a sh in g to n , D . C ., 1937.
Economics of Transportation. B y D a v id P h ilip L o ck lin , B u sin e ss P u b lic a tio n s In c ., C h ica g o,
111., 1938.
Fo’s’le and Glory Hole. B y J a m e s C . H e a le y , O xford U n iv e r s ity P re ss, N e w Y ork , N . Y .,
1936.
He’s in the Merchant Marine Now. B y J o h n S c o tt D o u g la s a n d A lb er t S alz, M c B r id e & C o.,
N e w Y ork , N . Y ., 1943.
Merchant Marine for Trade and Defense. U n ite d S ta te s M a ritim e C o m m issio n , W a sh in g to n ,
D . C ., 1946, R e v ise d 1949.
The United States Merchant Marine At War. R e p o r t o f th e W ar S h ip p in g A d m in istr a to r to
th e P r e sid e n t. W a sh in g to n , D . C ., J a n u a r y 15, 1946.
The United States Merchant Marine—Its Development and Problems. P re p a re d b y th e
U n ite d S ta te s M a ritim e A d m in istr a tio n , W a sh in g to n , D . C .
Merchant Marine and World Frontiers. B y R o b e r t E arle A n d e rso n , C orn ell M a ritim e P ress,
N e w Y o rk , N . Y ., 1945.
Our Ships. B y th e E d ito r s o f F o r tu n e . O xford U n iv e r s ity P ress, N e w Y ork , N . Y ., 1938.
The Postwar Outlook for American Shipping. A rep o rt s u b m itte d to th e U n ite d S ta te s
M a ritim e C o m m issio n b y th e P o stw a r P la n n in g C o m m itte e , W a sh in g to n , D . C ., J u n e 15,
1 946.
Principles of Transportation. B y E m o r y R . J o h n so n , G rover G . H u eb n er , a n d G . L lo y d
W ilso n . D . A p p le to n -C e n tu r y C o., I n c ., N e w Y ork , N . Y ., 1930,
Ships and Sailors, the Story of Our Merchant Marine. B y W illia m H . C lark , L . C . P a ig e
C o., B o sto n , M a ss., 1938.
What You Should Know About the Merchant Marine. B y C arl O . L a n e. W . W . N o r to n
& C o., In c ., 1 943.
H u tc h in s .

1
For additional references, consult Bibliography issued by the M aritime Adm inistration. U . S. Departm ent of Com­
merce, W ashington 25, D . C.

36



Occupational Outlook Publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
Studies of employment trends and opportuni­
ties in the various occupations and professions are
made available by the Occupational Outlook Serv­
ice of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
These reports are for use in the vocational
guidance of veterans, in assisting defense planners,
in counseling young people in schools, and in
guiding others considering the choice of an occupa­
tion. Schools concerned with vocational training
and employers and trade-unions interested in onthe-job training have also found the reports helpful
in planning programs in line with prospective
employment opportunities.
Two types of reports are issued, in addition to
the O ccu pation al O utlook H an dbook: Occupational
outlook bulletins describing the long-run outlook
for employment in each occupation and giving
information on earnings, working conditions, and
the training required; and special reports issued
from time to time on such subjects as the general
employment outlook, trends in the various States,
and occupational mobility.
These reports are issued as bulletins of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Most of them may
be purchased from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C., at the prices listed
with a 25-percent discount on 100 copies or more.
Those reports which are listed as free may be
obtained directly from the United States Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wash­
ington 25, D. C., as long as the supply lasts.
Occupational Outlook Handbook

Employment Information on Major Occupations
for Use in Guidance. Bulletin 998 (1951
revised edition). $3. Illus.
Includes brief reports on more than 400 occupa­
tions of interest in vocational guidance, including
professions; skilled trades; clerical, sales, and serv­
ice occupations; and the major types of farming.
Each report describes the employment trends and
outlook, the training qualifications required, earn­
ings, and working conditions. Introductory sec­
tions, as background for an understanding of the
individual occupations, summarize the major



trends in population and employment, and in the
broad industrial and occupational groups.
The Handbook is designed for use in counseling,
in classes or units on occupations, in the training
of counselors, and as a general reference. Its 576
pages are illustrated with 103 photographs and
85 charts.
Occupational Outlook Bulletins

Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupa­
tions, Part II—Duties, Qualifications, Earn­
ings, and Working Conditions. Bulletin
837-2 (1946). 25 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations.
Bulletin 880 (1946). 15 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Business Machine Serv­
icemen. Bulletin 892 (1947). 15 cents.
Illus.
Employment Outlook in Machine Shop Occupa­
tions. Bulletin 895 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Printing Occupations.
Bulletin 902 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in the Plastics Products
Industry. Bulletin 929 (1948.) 20 cents.
Illus.
Employment Outlook in Electric Light and Power
Occupations. Bulletin 944 (1948). 30
cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Radio and Television
Broadcasting Occupations. Bulletin 958
(1949). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Railroad Occupations.
Bulletin 961 (1949). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in the Building Trades.
Bulletin 967 (1949). 50 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Engineers. Bulletin
968 (1949). 55 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Elementary and Sec­
ondary School Teachers. Bulletin 972 (1949).
40 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Petroleum Production
and Refining. Bulletin 994 (1950). 30
cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Men’s Tailored Clothing
Industry. Bulletin 1010 (1951). 25 cents.
Illus.
37

Employment Outlook in Department Stores.
Bulletin 1020 (1951). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Earth Scientists. Bul­
letin 1050 (1951). 30 cents.
Employment Outlook in Accounting. Bulletin
1048 (1951). 20 cents.
Employment Outlook in Electronics Manufactur­
ing. Bulletin 1072 (1952). (In press.)
Occupational Outlook Supplements

Effect of Defense Program on Employment Out­
look in Engineering. Supplement to Bulletin
968, Employment Outlook for Engineers
(1951). 15 cents.
Effect of Defense Program on Employment Sit­
uation in Elementary and Secondary School
Teaching. Supplement to Bulletin 972, Em­
ployment Outlook for Elementary and Sec­
ondary School Teachers (1951). 15 cents.

Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. Bulletin 881 (1946).
10 cents.
Occupational Outlook Information Series. (By
States.) VA Pamphlet 7-2 (1947). 10 cents
each. (When ordering, specify State or
States desired.)
Employment, Education, and Earnings of Ameri­
can Men of Science. Bulletin 1027 (1951).
45 cents.
Fact Book on Manpower (1951). Free.
Employment Opportunities for Student Personnel
Workers in Colleges and Universities (1951).
Free.
Elementary and Secondary School Principalships—Chief Advancement Opportunity for
Public School Teachers (1951). Free.
Employment Opportunities for Counselors in
Secondary and Elementary Schools (1951).
Free.
Occupational Outlook Mailing List

Special Reports

Occupational Data for Counselors. A Handbook
of Census Information Selected for Use in
Guidance. Bulletin 817 (1945). 15 cents.
(Prepared jointly with the Occupational
Information and Guidance Service, U. S.
Office of Education.)

38



Schools, vocational guidance agencies, and
others who wish to receive brief summaries of each
new Occupational Outlook report and wall chart
may be placed on a mailing list. Requests should
be addressed to the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.,
specifying the Occupational Outlook Mailing List.
Please give your postal zone number.

II. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1952


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102