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E M P LO YM E N T O U TL O O K FOR

ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
SCHOOL TEACHERS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary

in cooperation with VETERANS ADMINISTRATION

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK SERIES




BULLETIN No. 972




Employment Outlook For
ELEMENTARY A N D
SCHOOL

For s a le by



SECONDARY

TEACHERS

Bulletin No. 972
U NITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU O F L A B O R STATISTICS
Ewan Clasue, Commissioner

in cooperation with
V E T E R A N S A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

the Su p e r in t e n d e n t of D o c u m e n t s

U. S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g Office, W a s h i n g t o n 25, D. C.

Price 35 cents




Letter of Transmittal
U n it e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ,
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

Washington, D. C., July 15, 1949.
The

S ecr etar y of L a b o r :

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the employment outlook for ele­
mentary and secondary school teachers. This is one of a series of occupational studies
conducted in the Bureau's Occupational Outlook Branch for use in schools, colleges,
offices of the Veterans Administration, local offices of the State employment services
affiliated with the United States Employment Service, and other agencies engaged in
vocational counseling of veterans, young people, and others interested in choosing a
field of work. This study was financed largely by the Veterans' Administration, and
the report was originally published as Veterans' Administration Pamphlet 7-4.13 for
use in vocational rehabilitation and education activities.
The study was prepared by Cora E. Taylor under the supervision of Helen Wood,
with contributions by John S. McCauley, Chester F. Schimmel, and Cora S. Cronemeyer. The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance and cooperation
received in connection with the study from the U. S. Office of Education, State depart­
ments of education, National Education Association, State education associations, and
many other organizations and individuals in the field of education.
E w a n C l a g u e , Commissioner.
Hon. M a u r i c e J. T o b i n ,
Secretary oj Labor.

863788— 49










C O N TEN TS
Page
EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS:
The Teaching P rofession ______________________________
Certification andT ra in in g______________________________
Outlook for Elementary Teachers_____________________
Outlook for High School Teachers______________________
E arnings______________
Where To Get Additional Inform ation________________

1
1
2
7
8
8

EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS,
BY STATE:
Alabama ________________
A r iz o n a ________
Arkansas______________________________________________
C a liforn ia_____________________________________________
C o lora d o______________________________________________
Connecticut ___________________________________________
Delaware______________________________________________
District o f Colum bia__________________________________
Florida _______________________________________________
G e o rg ia _______________________________________________
I d a h o _________________________________________________
Illin o is________________________________________________
In d ia n a _______________________________________________
Iowa _________________________________________________
K ansas________________________________________________
Kentucky _____________________________________________
Louisiana __________________________________
M aine_________________________ .______________________
Maryland _____________________________________________
Massachusetts ________________________________________
M ichigan___________________________
M innesota_____________________________________________
Mississippi ____________________________________________
Missouri ______________________________________________
Montana ________________________ . ___________________
_
Nebraska______________________________________________
Nevada _______________________________________________
New H am pshire______________________________________
New Jersey ___________________________________________
New M e x ico __________________________________________
New Y o r k _____________________________________________
North C arolina_______________________________________
North D a k o ta _________________________'_______________
O h io __________________________________________________
O klahom a_____________________________________________

11
12
14
15
18
19
21
22
24
25
27
29
30
32
33
35
37
38
40
41
43
44
45
46
48
50
51
53
54
56
58
59
61
62
63

v




C O N T EN TS — C o n tin u e d
Page
EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS,
BY STATE— Continued:
O regon________________________________________________
Pennsylvania_________________________________________
Rhode Isla n d _________________________________________
South C arolina_______________________________________
South D akota_________________________________________
Tennessee _____________________________________________
T e x a s _________________________________________________
U ta h __________________________________________________
Vermont ______________________________________________
Virginia ______________________________________________
Washington ___________________________________________
West V irg in ia ________________________________________
W iscon sin _____________________________________________
Wyoming _____________________________________________

64
66
68
69
71
72
74
75
76
77
79
81
82
84

SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND ESTIMATING
PROCEDURES------------------------------------------------------------

86

CHARTS:
1. Teacher Supply and Demand, 1949 _________________
2. Forecasts of School Enrollments 1948-1960 (Percent
Change Over April 1947)__________________________
3. More Teachers Are Needed as Replacements Than for
New Positions (Estimated Annual Demand for Ele­
mentary and High School Teachers, 1949-1960)_____

3
4

6

EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL
TEACHERS
The Teaching Profession

Teaching is by far the largest of all the profes­
sions. In the school year 1948-49, about a million
classroom teachers, principals, and supervisors
were employed in the elementary and secondary
schools to teach nearly 26,000,000 pupils. About
100,000 o f these teachers and 3,000,000 of the
pupils were in private and parochial schools.
This profession is especially important as a
source o f employment for women, who normally
constitute about four-fifths of the teachers below
the college level. Most men teachers—three out of
every four in public school systems—are in high
schools. However, educational authorities in many
States would like to increase the number of
men teachers and supervisors in the elementary
schools.
Teaching offers widespread opportunities for
employment. Every community in the United
States employs teachers, and numerous job open­
ings occur each year. Over half the public school
teachers are in rural schools—that is, in schools
outside incorporated towns of 2,500 population or
more.
A far greater number o f Negroes are employed
in elementary and high school teaching than in
any other profession. Separate school systems for
Negroes are maintained in 17 States and the Dis­
trict o f Columbia. Many cities in the northern
part of the country employ Negroes in schools
with white or mixed enrollments.
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
make up nearly two-thirds of the entire teach­
ing profession below the college level. They num­
bered about 590,000 in 1948-49 (counting only
those in public schools).1 Teaching in the lower
grades usually involves working with one group
o f pupils during the entire day, thus covering a
wide range of subjects and activities. The teach­
ers o f art, music, and physical education em1
National Education Association, Advance Estimates of Pub­
lic Elementary and Secondary Schools for 1948-1949.
(See section on “ Sources of Information and Estimating
Procedures” for definition of elementary and secondary schools.)




ployed in many schools are an exception. Some
school systems have departmentalized instruction
in the upper elementary grades or have separately
organized junior high schools, in which case
teachers usually handle two or three subjects with
several different groups of pupils during the
school day. Teachers in small rural schools may
have to teach all subjects in several grades; the
trend toward consolidated rural schools is, how­
ever, rapidly reducing the number of one-teacher
schools. High school teachers, of whom about
325,0002 were employed in 1948-49, generally
teach only one or a few subjects to several groups
of students. In addition, they are usually expected
to supervise extracurricular activities.
A 5-day week is the customary work schedule
in this profession. However, all teachers must
spend considerable time on record keeping, lesson
planning, grading of papers, and similar activi­
ties outside their scheduled hours. Much longer
Christmas and spring holidays and summer vaca­
tions are given than in other professions. Often,
a part of the summer vacation period must be
spent in further study.
Many teachers devote much time to community
activities and find that rewarding opportunities
for civic leadership often accompany teaching.
For the person who enjoys working with young
people, teaching offers a stimulating and satisfy­
ing career in helping to mold the lives of future
citizens.
Certification and Training

The requirements for certification to teach in
public schools vary considerably by State. Typi­
cal requirements for high school teachers’ certifi­
cates are a bachelor’s degree, with the equivalent
of about one-half year of professional education
courses including student teaching, and with
specialization in one or more subjects commonly
taught in high school. The following three States
and the District of Columbia require a fifth year
2 Op. cit.

i

o f training for high-school certificates: Cali­
fornia, New York, and Washington. Require­
ments for teaching in elementary schools are
usually somewhat lower but generally include
several professional courses in elementary educa­
tion. Many school systems, especially in large
cities, have additional requirements—with respect
to educational preparation or successful teaching
experience—beyond those needed for State certifi­
cates. Many States and local systems also have re­
quirements concerning age, citizenship, and other
factors.
During and since the war, all States have found
it necessary to issue “ emergency” or temporary
certificates. The emergency teachers have a wide
variety o f qualifications. Some of them have
bachelor’s degrees and regular teaching certifi­
cates of some type, though they do not meet the
exact specifications for the positions they are
occupying. On the other hand, in some States it
has been necessary to issue permits to people
with no college training at all.
Satisfactory teacher-training curricula are o f­
fered at universities with schools of education,
by colleges with strong education departments
and adequate facilities for practice teaching, and
by teachers colleges. A student who wishes to
specialize in vocational subjects, such as agricul­
ture, home economics, commercial work, or the
like, should choose an institution accredited for
work in the specific field and should take enough
hours o f education and practice teaching to meet
certification requirements.
The prospective teacher should start early in
planning his training. Before embarking on a
course o f study, he should find out about the edu­
cation needed to become a good teacher and
should also inform himself of his State’s specific
requirements for the type of position to which he
aspires. Brief statements on the certificate re­
quirements in each State as of 1948-49 are in­
cluded in the second part of this report, but these
do not give full details. Furthermore, State and
city requirements, particularly the latter, are con­
tinually being changed.
Inexperienced teachers often start in rural
schools or small-town school systems. Opportun­
ities for advancement are by way of moderate
salary increases in the same system, by transfer­
ring after a few years of experience to systems
with higher salary schedules or other advantages,
or by promotion to supervisory, administrative,
or other specialized positions.

2



Outlook for Elementary Teachers

In 1948-49, there were shortages of qualified
elementary teachers in practically every State.
The teaching profession suffered serious losses
both in numbers and in the educational prepara­
tion of its members during the war and first few
postwar years. This was largely a result o f the
increased employment opportunities in other
fields and the fact that teachers’ salaries lagged
behind the rapidly rising earnings in many other
occupations. In order to meet the demand, ap­
proximately 90,000 emergency permits had to be
issued in 1948-49, most of them to elementary
teachers.
Enrollments in elementary - teacher - training
courses dropped very sharply during the war and,
though the numbers have increased considerably
again, the supply of new teachers is still far
from adequate. Only in Negro schools is the num­
ber of teachers approaching the demand. The
1949 output o f new teachers qualified for regular
elementary certificates has been estimated at only
about 25,000—or 77 percent of the number who
qualified in 1941, when the need was less (see
chart 1). Many of these teachers meet minimum
requirements o f only 30 semester hours o f college
training; those with 4 years of college prepara­
tion for elementary work are estimated to number
less than 15,000.3 The supply will be far from
adequate to meet the estimated demand for 75,000
new teachers for the 1949-50 school year.4
The total number of teachers needed for grades
below the high school level will continue to mount
until the late 1950’s, owing to increasing elemen­
tary school enrollments resulting from the abrupt
rise in the birth rate since 1940. Assuming that
1947 was the peak year for births, total enroll­
ment in grades 1 to 8 will be greatest (about 26y2
million) in 1957.5 Chart 2 shows the sharp in­
crease in elementary school enrollments which
may occur during the next 8 years and the
gradual decline expected during the 3 years fo l­
lowing. The estimated number o f teaching posi­
tions is, of course, directly related to enrollments.
Assuming a ratio of one teacher for each 30
3 Maul, Ray C., Teacher Supply and Demand in the United
States. National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street,
N.W., Washington 6, D. C., 1949.
4 National Education Association, Probable Demand for Teach­
ers in the United States for the Decade 1949—
50 through
1958-59. Mimeographed, 29 pp.
8 U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Series P -25, No. 18, Forecasts of Population and School En­
rollment in the United States : 1948 to 1960, 1949.

CHART I

TEACHER

SUPPLY

AND

DEM AND,

1949

THOUSANDS

90

80

.ELEM ENTARY TEACHERS
Demand

70

60

HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
Supply

50

40

30

20

I0

UNITED S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T I S T I C S




S OUR CE : S U P P L Y F I G U R E S FR OM " T E A C H E R S U P P L Y
AND D E M AN D I N TH E U N I T E D S T A T E S " B Y
R A Y C. M A U L . DEM AN D F I G U R E S FROM
N A TIO N A L E D U C A TIO N A S S O C IA T IO N ,
" P R O B A B L E DEM AN D F O R T E A C H E R S I N
TH E U N ITED S T A T E S "

3

CHART 2

FORECASTS

OF

SCHOOL

ENROLLMENTS

1948 - 1960
Percent Change Over April 1
947

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

4



Source-. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, SERIES P-25,
NO. 18, FEBRUARY 1949, p. 16

pupils (the highest ratio regarded as generally
acceptable by educational authorities), the total
number o f elementary teaching positions in all
schools—public, private, and parochial—may in­
crease by more than 260,000 by 1957. The number
o f new teachers required annually will be greatest
about 1953, when over 40,000 may be needed to
take care o f the increase in enrollments (on the
above assumption as to the pupil-teacher ratio).
Whether new teachers will actually be added at
this rate will depend on many factors, notably
the availability of personnel and of the necessary
classroom space.
In the teaching profession many more teachers
are required each year as replacements than for
new jobs, even in a period of rapid growth of
school population (see chart 3). The large num­
ber o f young women who enter the profession
and then withdraw because of marriage or for
other reasons creates an attrition rate higher than
for most occupations. While there have been some
studies made of attrition in the teaching profes­
sion, there is little data on which to base an over­
all replacement rate. On the basis of a conserva­
tive rate o f 7 percent, it is estimated that 560,000
elementary school teachers will be required in the
next 10 years to replace those who die, retire, or
leave the classrooms for other reasons. The drop­
out rate varies greatly among States; estimates
ranged from 3 percent to 18 percent for 1948-49
in 19 States for which information was available.6
One factor which greatly influences this rate is
the amount o f preparation which elementary
teachers have had in the given State. In general,
those who have invested four full years in
teacher-training are likely to regard the profes­
sion as their career and to have a much lower
drop-out rate than those with little or no special
training for elementary teaching.
Besides the teachers who die, retire, or with­
draw for other reasons, many o f the persons who
are now teaching on emergency certificates will
need to be replaced. However, there is no way of
knowing what proportion of these teachers will
remain in the profession and, by taking addi­
tional training, meet standard certification re­
quirements in their respective States.
Summing up the demand for elementary teach­
ers in the next 10-year period (1949-50 through
1958-59), it is estimated that at least 800,000
new teachers will be required to handle new en­
6 Maul, Ray C., op. cit., p. 2.




rollments and replace teachers who withdraw
from the profession. In addition, a sizeable but
unknown number will be needed to replace emer­
gency teachers.
It appears extremely unlikely that enough ade­
quately trained elementary teachers will be pro­
duced in the next few years to meet the rising
demand. It is, of course, impossible to predict
the number o f persons who may enroll in teachertraining institutions or the proportion of gradu­
ates who will go into teaching. But the shortage
of elementary teachers is no new development.
The great increase in the number of occupations
open to women and the better earnings offered in
some other fields had an adverse effect on the sup­
ply of elementary teachers in the 1920’s. This
trend was interrupted during the depression years
of the 1930’s and then became most pronounced
of all during and after W orld War II.
In the future as in the past, the other employ­
ment opportunities available and the relative
salaries offered will be chief among the many
factors affecting the supply of new teachers.
Teachers’ salaries have recently had an upward
trend. And “ single-salary schedules,” providing
the same pay for elementary as for secondary
teachers with equivalent education and experi­
ence, are being established in more and more
communities; this development should help to
attract more prospective teachers into the elemen­
tary field. I f the economic situation should be­
come worse and considerable unemployment
should develop, many young people may enter
teacher-training and many former teachers may
return to the profession; because of its relative
stability and because salaries usually decrease less
rapidly in the teaching field than in many others,
the profession is considered more desirable in
periods of economic depression than in boom pe­
riods. The present oversupply of teachers trained
for high school teaching may also result in many
transfers to elementary teaching; a number of
States have already established special courses
to prepare teachers for such transfers. Thus, the
shortage of elementary teachers could, under cer­
tain circumstances, be greatly reduced within a
short time. Requirements for elementary teachers
will be raised in many States as soon as the
supply permits; so the prospective teacher will
do well to get the best possible training in an
approved teacher-training institution.
On the other hand, the number o f elementary
teachers needed could well exceed the estimates

5

M O RE

TEACHERS

ARE

NEEDED

THAN

FOR

N EW

AS

REPLACEMENTS

POSITIONS

i2or Estimated Annual Demand For Elementary Teachers

100

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

THOUSANDS

I9 6 0

THOUSANDS

80[-Estimated Annual Demand For High School Teachers

180

60

60

40

40

20

20

T949

1950

1951

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

6



1952

1953

1954

1955

*No deduction has been made for
positions which may be left un­
filled because of decreasing en­
rollments.

1956

1957

1958

1959

I9 6 0

S o u rc t : N A T IO N A L E D U C A T IO N A S S O C IA T IO N ," P R O B A B L E D EM AN D
F O R T E A C H E R S IN THE U N IT E D S T A T E S F O R THE D E C A D E
1 9 4 9 -5 0 THROUGH 1 9 5 8 -5 9 , F O R THE P E R IO D 1 9 4 8 -B O ,
IN C L U S IV E ," M IM E O G R A P H E D , 2 9 P A G E S '

given above. These estimates do not take into ac­
count any extension of school services to the pre­
school group. If, by 1960, school services were
provided for 25 percent of children 2 to 5 years
o f age, at least 100,000 new nursery and kinder­
garten teachers would be needed.7 Furthermore,
the estimates do not include any provision for
the reduction of class size in many schools where
the average is over 30 pupils per teacher. While
the over-all average for the elementary schools
o f the country is slightly under 30 to 1, the dis­
tribution o f the school-age population is such
that it is impossible to shift pupils from over­
crowded schools to those (usually rural schools)
with underaverage enrollments. Many school
authorities recommend a ratio o f not more than
25 pupils per teacher. Reduction of average class
size to 25 to 1 would require an additional 142,000
teachers by the end o f the decade.8
It is of interest to consider the probable trends
in the employment o f teachers beyond 1960. The
Bureau o f the Census has prepared forecasts of
population to the year 2000.9 Though the age
groups for which forecasts are given do not cor­
respond with the age composition o f the elemen­
tary grades, the projections for the group 5 to 14
years o f age serve to show the general trends ex­
pected. The outlook for the 5-14 group after
1960 is for a continuation o f the downward trend
to 1970 (according to Census Bureau estimates
assuming medium fertility, medium mortality,
and no immigration). From 1970 to 1980, a slight
increase is anticipated, as the children o f the
babies bom during the war enter the school-age
group. The forecast from 1980 to 2000 is for a
decline in population aged 5 to 14. What these
estimates mean in terms o f teacher employment
cannot be determined because of such varying
factors as amount of support o f education, chang­
ing pupil-teacher ratios, enrichment o f the cur­
riculum, and increased holding power o f the
schools. However, it appears likely that teacher
employment will not fall below the 1945 level for
at least the following 40 years. There are many
reasons to believe that 1985 teacher employment
may exceed the earlier level.
7 National Education Association, op. cit., p. 2.
8 National Education Association, op. cit., p. 2.
9 Bureau of the Census, Forecasts of the Population of the
United States 191^5-1975. Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington, D. C., 1947.




Outlook for High School Teachers

In most States, an oversupply of high school
teachers in many subject fields is developing and
may well continue for at least a few years. The
number of students completing training for high
school teaching in 1949 has been estimated at
nearly 56,000— a higher number o f such gradu­
ates than were produced in any previous year and
over twice the number of students completing
preparation for elementary work in 1949 (see
chart 1). The supply of secondary teachers ex­
ceeds the annual demand anticipated during the
next few years by at least 40,000. O f course many
of these graduates will not seek teaching posi­
tions. Moreover, the distribution both by locality
and by subject field is such that some schools may
suffer shortages while others have many appli­
cants for each job. In general, shortages are most
prevalent in rural areas. Among the subject fields
in which widespread shortages of personnel were
expected to continue at least during 1949-50, and
probably longer, were home economics, commer­
cial work, and industrial arts. The greatest over­
supply of teachers appears to be in the social
sciences, men’s physical education, and English.
The proportion of teacher-trainees preparing
for high school positions will probably tend to de­
crease as the practice of equal pay for equal
preparation and experience, regardless of posi­
tion, becomes more widespread, and as elementary
teachers receive greater recognition, and training
programs are improved. Thus, the imbalance be­
tween the supply o f ' elementary and secondary
teachers may be reduced. While some o f the
people trained for high school teaching may find
employment in the seventh and eighth grades,
particularly in organized junior high schools,
training for high school teaching is not generally
acceptable in the lower grades. As already indi­
cated, many States now have retraining pro­
grams, so that persons trained as high school
teachers may take short courses to prepare for
elementary teaching.
Enrollments in grades 9 to 12 are expected to
decline until about 1952, rise slowly for the fol­
lowing 3 years, and then increase rapidly to about
1961 or 1962 (see chart 2). These are the de­
velopments anticipated in the Nation as a whole;
in individual States, the trends will be somewhat
different, as indicated in later sections of this re­
port. It is probable, however, that the need for
high school teachers will be limited largely to re­

7'

placements for the next few years in the great
majority o f States. Available information on at­
trition in the profession indicates that the rate
o f withdrawal is generally lower among high
school teachers than elementary teachers ; the Na­
tional Education Association estimates the aver­
age annual replacement rate over the next decade
at 5 percent. Based on this rate, the annual de­
mand for teachers in grades 9 to 12 will be around
17,000 in 1949-50 and the succeeding year or two.
As enrollments increase, additional teachers will
be required for new classes. Assuming a ratio of
25 pupils per teacher, approximately 85,000 new
teachers will probably be needed between 1952
and 1960 to handle additional enrollments. The
number o f teachers required for replacement pur­
poses will probably be over 20,000 per year by
the end of the 1950 decade (see chart 3).
There are several factors which may increase
high school enrollments beyond the estimates
given above. Past trends show a tendency toward
a rising standard of education in the United
States, and it is expected that these trends will
continue. The proportion of young people at­
tending high school increased from 32 per 100
population 14 to 17 years of age in 1920, to 51 in
1930, and 73 in 1940. The number graduated
from high school increased from 29.1 per 100
persons 17 years o f age in 1930 to 50.8 in 1940.
A further increase in high school attendance is
anticipated as educational facilities are extended
and job requirements are raised to require a high
school education for entry into more jobs. Greatly
increased Federal or State aid to education might
expand high school enrollments considerably. Be­
cause of the desirability of enriching the cur­
riculum and reducing the number o f pupils per
teacher, the number of teachers may increase at
a greater rate than has been allowed for in the
projections of teacher employment to 1960.
The long-run outlook in employment of high
school teachers beyond 1960 is indicated to some
extent by the forecasts of population in the age
group 15 to 19.1 These forecasts follow some­
0
what the same pattern as those for the 5 to 14
year group discussed in the previous section.
Based on population alone, it appears that em­
ployment o f secondary teachers should be higher
throughout the 40-year period (1960 to 2000)
than in 1950. Because of the factors mentioned
in the preceding paragraph, teacher employment
1 Bureau of the Census, op. cit., p. 7.
0

8




may well be substantially higher during this
period than in 1950.
Earnings

In 1948-49, the estimated average salary o f all
instructional staff (classroom teachers, principals,
and supervisors) in the Nation’s public schools
was $2,750. This represents an increase o f ap­
proximately $200 over the average for the previ­
ous year, and an increase of about $1,300 over the
1939-40 average. There is evidence that salaries
will be higher in 1949-50 than in 1948-49 in many
localities.
The salaries of individual teachers have a wide
range both above and below the national average.
In general, salary scales are lowest in rural
schools. Some school systems still have higher
pay schedules for men than for women, but this
practice is becoming less and less prevalent, espe­
cially in large cities. There are also many school
systems which pay elementary teachers less than
those in high school. However, schedules of the
single-salary or preparation type, in which the
salary is dependent on the teacher’s educational
preparation and experience rather than on the
position held, are being adopted more and more
widely. Under this plan, for example, a teacher
with a bachelor’s degree and 5 years’ experience
would receive the same salary regardless of
whether his pupils were kindergarten children or
high school seniors. More than 9 out of every 10
cities with over 100,000 population now have
single-salary schedules, but this type o f schedule
is still rare in small towns and rural schools.
Figures on salaries in the different States are
given in the second part of this report.
Where To Get Additional Information

Information on State certification requirements
may be secured from the department of education
at the State capitol or from one o f the accredited
teacher-training institutions in the State. In­
formation on a specific school system may be re­
quested from the superintendent or principal in
charge.
General information on teaching may be ob­
tained from :
Office of Education
Federal Security Agency
Washington 25, D. C.
National Education Association
1201 Sixteenth Street NW.
Washington 6, D. C.

American Federation of Teachers
28 E. Jackson Boulevard
Chicago 4, 111.
Most beginning teachers and many experienced
ones secure their positions through the placement
services conducted by the institutions of higher
education which they attended.
State-wide
teacher-employment services are conducted by
several State departments o f education, State




education associations, and State employment
services. There are also many private (commer­
cial) teacher-placement agencies (a list o f those
agencies belonging to the National Association
of Teachers5 Agencies may be secured from the
Federal Security Agency, Office o f Education,
Washington 25, D. C.). Many teachers find posi­
tions through contacts made in educational or­
ganizations or at educational conferences.

9




EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL
TEACHERS BY STATE
ALABAMA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 65 percent of the 20,800 classroom teach­
ers, principals, and supervisors in the Alabama
public schools in 1948-49 were engaged in teach­
ing 492,000 children in the elementary grades.
Approximately 161,000 students were enrolled in
the secondary schools. Only about 5 percent of
the public school teachers were in one-teacher
schools, since many of the pupils (about onethird) are transported to larger schools by bus.
About 30 percent o f the teachers and 35 percent
o f the pupils were Negroes.

Subject

Quarter hours

Education ________________________________________
English ___________________________________________
Social studies ___________________________________
Academic major in an approved subject_______
Academic minor in an approveds u b je c t_______

27
18
18
27
18

The class A professional secondary certificate
requires the master’s degree and is valid for 10
years.
Emergency certificates are issued to those not
meeting the requirements for other certificates
when qualified applicants are not available.
Outlook

Certification Requirements

Alabama issues several types of certificates, de­
pending on training, experience, previous type of
certificate held, and subjects taught. The class C
elementary professional certificate is the lowest
regular certificate granted to inexperienced per­
sons and requires completion o f a 3-year program
in a standard institution approved for the train­
ing of elementary teachers. The curriculum of
144 quarter hours must include 30 quarter hours
o f education courses, of which 3 to 12 must be
in directed teaching. A class C certificate is
valid for 6 years and entitles the holder to teach
in grades 1 to 6 or in junior high school grades
as conditions may require.
The class B and class A elementary profes­
sional certificates require a bachelor’s degree and
a master’s degree, respectively, and the prescribed
credits in professional education, English and
social studies courses, are considerably higher
than for a class C certificate. Class B certificates
are valid for 8 years; class A certificates, for 10
years.
The minimum educational requirements for a
class B secondary temporary professional certifi­
cate, which is good for 3 years only, are a bache­
lor’s degree from an approved institution and
prescribed credits as follow s:



Employment prospects for elementary teachers
in white schools are excellent for 1949-50 and the
next few years. Teachers are needed to take care
of increasing enrollments as well as to replace
some of the persons employed on emergency
certificates (4,700 such certificates were issued in
1948-49, most of them for elementary teaching).
In addition, it is estimated that about 12 percent,
or 1,600, o f the elementary staff (those in grades
1 to 8) leave teaching in the State each year, and
new teachers are needed to replace them. Only
about 420 white students were expected to com­
plete preparation in teacher-training institutions
in the State in June 1949. However, large enroll­
ments in summer school were anticipated in this
State and school authorities expected a few hun­
dred additional teachers to complete preparation.
Even so, the total number of qualified teachers
for white schools will be far from adequate.
The supply of Negro elementary teachers is ap­
proaching the demand; 694 students completed
preparation for elementary teaching in teachertraining institutions in the State in 1948, and
only 506 new teachers were hired in 1948-49.
It is expected that employment of elementary
teachers will continue to rise for at least the next
6 or 7 years. Enrollments in grades 1 to 8 will in­

11

crease’ each year until about 1956-57, when they
may be almost 160,000 higher than in 1948-49. On
the basis o f 30 pupils to a teacher, the increased
enrollments would require about 5,300 additional
teaching positions over the 8-year period. While
these additions to the staff may tend to increase
the number of replacements needed, the propor­
tion who leave the profession is expected to de­
crease somewhat from the 1949 rate of 12 percent.
Even if the attrition rate is reduced to as low as
7 percent, approximately 1,300 new teachers will
be needed annually as replacements during the
latter years o f the 1950 decade.
High-school teachers, on the other hand, are
already in oversupply in most subject fields.
Secondary school enrollments are expected to re­
main at about the same level through 1952. Some
few new teaching positions may be added as the
secondary schools now under construction are put
into operation, but the need for new teachers will
be chiefly as replacements for those who leave the
profession in the State; this number is estimated
to be approximately 7 percent or 500 annually.
The supply of newly trained teachers (over 1,300
were expected to graduate in 1949) indicated that
the number o f secondary teachers would be ample
to meet the demand in most localities and in most
teaching subjects. An oversupply of English and
social science teachers was already in evidence.
However, there still existed a shortage of library
science, physical science, and music teachers.
After 1952, the number of high school students
and teaching positions will increase each year, as
the peak enrollments pass from the elementary
into the secondary schools. By 1959-60, enroll­
ments in grades 9 to 12 are expected to be about
50,000 higher than in 1952-53. On the basis of
25 pupils per teacher, the expanded enrollments
would require 2,000 new teaching positions over
the period. In addition, the annual need for
teachers as replacements will probably increase
with the expansion in the staff and could well re­
quire 650 teachers in the latter years of the 1950
decade.

Earnings

Classroom teachers in the secondary schools o f
Alabama had an average salary of about $2,150
in 1948-49; elementary teachers averaged about
$1,600. A study of teacher salaries in 1947 showed
that elementary teachers were better paid in rela­
tion to their training than high school teachers
and that rural teachers were better paid, relative
to their training, than city teachers.
The following cities have single-salary sched­
ules which provide for pay in terms o f training
completed rather than for the positions held.
Thus, a grade school teacher receives the same
salary as a high school teacher if she has equal
preparation. In 1948-49, the salary schedules
were as follow s:
Annual salary
Educational preparation
Minimum

Increments

Master’s degree------

$2,052

11 @ $135
1 @ 105

Bachelor’s degree —

1,962

11 @
1 @

135
95

3,542

3 years

1,200

7 @
1 @

108
44

2,000

Maximum

Birmingham :
$3,642

2 years

1,100

6 @

108

1,748

1 year

1,000

3 @

108

1,324

@
@
@
@

50
100
50
100

3,100

Mobile County, including .
Mobile 1
Master’s degree____

1,850

Bachelor’s degree__

1,750

3 years

1,600

14 @

50

2,300

2 years
Less than 2 years—

1,450

13 @

50

2,100

1,150

13 @

50

1,800

Master’s degree-------

2,016

3 @
1 @
4 @

63
126
63

2,583

7 @

63

2,331

5
10
5
9

2,900

Montgomery County, in­
cluding Montgomery :

Bachelor’s degree —

1,890

3 years

1,395

None

1,395

2 years

1,260

None

1,260

Less than 2 years__

1,125

None

1,125

1 Salaries shown are exclusive of cost-of-living adjustment; in
1947-48 the amount was $105.

ARIZONA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

The public schools o f Arizona employed about
4,500 teachers, principals, and supervisors to
teach approximately 140,000 pupils in 1948^9.
About three-fourths of the teachers and pupils

12




were in the elementary schools. The proportion
of men teachers in all schools was unusually
large, amounting to nearly 25 percent. The school
systems of Phoenix and Tucson together em­
ployed almost 1,000 teachers.

Certification Requirements

Arizona has one of the best trained staffs in
the country. Almost 95 percent of the elementary
teachers have at least a bachelor’s degree.
Minimum State educational requirements for
regular kindergarten-primary certificates (valid
for grades K to 3) and elementary certificates
(good for grades 1 to 9) are as follows:
(a) Bachelor’s degree from a university or
college authorized to prepare teachers.
(&) 24 semester hours in education and psy­
chology appropriate to kindergarten-primary
or elementary school teaching, including 8
semester hours of directed practice teaching.
For presecondary certificates, valid for 2 years
for teaching grades 7 to 12, new applicants must
have:
(a) Bachelor’s degree from an accredited
university or college and, in addition, not less
than 6 semester hours of graduate credit.
(&) A major of 24 semester hours and a
minor of not less than 15 semester hours in
fields or subjects usually taught in high schools
or a major in a non-high school field and two
minors in fields or subjects usually taught in
high schools.
(c) 18 semester hours in education and psy­
chology appropriate to secondary school teach­
ing, of which 5 hours must be directed practice
teaching in grades 7 to 12.
A presecondary certificate may be renewed
once, if the holder has completed 12 additional
semester hours of acceptable graduate work and
2 years of successful teaching in Arizona public
schools. By the end of the second 2-year period,
the holder must qualify for a regular secondary
certificate. For this type o f permit, a master’s
degree, or not less than 30 hours of acceptable
graduate work is required. Course requirements
are the same as for the presecondary certificate,
except that 6 hours of graduate courses in educa­
tion are added.
Outlook

Arizona expects a shortage o f primary teachers
in 1949-50. The supply of teachers for other elei-,
mentary grades will probably be ample in metro­
politan areas though not in all outlying districts.
In 1948-49 it was still necessary to employ some
teachers with only emergency certificates, chiefly
in rural schools; 160 such certificates were issued
to elementary teachers. In the fall of 1949 an
effort will be made to find qualified teachers to



replace many of these people, as well as to supply
new teachers where needed because of increased
enrollments and to fill positions vacated by teach­
ers leaving Arizona grade schools. The number
of vacancies arising from deaths, retirements, and
withdrawals will probably be about the same as
in 1948-49; about 216 or 7 percent of the elemen­
tary teaching staff. The supply of new elemen­
tary teachers completing preparation at the
State’s teacher-training institutions in 1949 has
been estimated at 220. In addition, Arizona will
probably attract some out-of-State teachers, since
the salaries offered are higher than in nearby
States.
Elementary enrollments (grades 1 to 8) are
expected to increase, as a result o f the high birth
rates of the war and postwar years and continued
in-migration, until about 1957-58, when approxi­
mately 42,000 more children may be enrolled than
in 1948-49. I f one teacher were hired for every
30 new pupils, then about 1,400 additional teach­
ers would need to be recruited during that 9-year
interval to handle the increased enrollments. As
the size of the teaching staff grows, the number
of vacancies created each year by teachers who
retire or withdraw for other reasons will tend to
increase; assuming that the rate o f withdrawals
remains about 7 percent of the elementary teach­
ing staff, there may well be over 300 such va­
cancies each year in the late 1950’s.
The supply o f high school teachers is expected
to be enough or more than enough to wipe out
shortages in 1949-50 except in homemaking de­
partments. It was estimated that 254 students in
Arizona colleges would qualify for standard high
school teaching certificates in 1949. Very few
teachers will be needed for new classes, as high
school enrollments (grades 9 to 12) will proba­
bly decline somewhat. The supply of secondary
teachers will, no doubt, be far greater than the
number needed to replace those withdrawing
from Arizona schools (only about 110 replace­
ments were needed in 1948-49) and the few re­
maining staff members with substandard qualifi­
cations. Competition for positions will generally
be keen, especially in such fields as social science
and men’s physical education.
Employment opportunities for secondary
teachers will increase considerably during the
1950 decade. Enrollments are expected to rise
each year from about 1952 to 1960 and beyond.
By 1959-60 there may be about 13,000 more high

13

school students than were enrolled in 1950-51.
Assuming a ratio of 25 students per teacher, this
would call for the employment of 520 more teach­
ers than were employed 10 years before. The de­
mand for teachers as replacements for those who
die, retire, or withdraw for other reasons will also
tend to rise. I f the rate of withdrawal is around
9 percent, as it was in 1947-48, then the annual
replacement need is likely to rise to about 150
by the end of the 1950 decade.
Earnings

Annual salary
Educational
preparation
Minimum

Increments

(°)

(a)

2,600

(°)

3,200

Union High School
District:
Less than Bachelor’s
degree
Bachelor’s degree__
Master’s degree____

(°)
( ) 2,000

Doctor’s degree___

Merit recognition c

200
150
100

3,500

100

4,000

5 @
2 @
2 @

200
150
100

3,700

5 @

2,200

5 @
2 @
2 @
5 @

Merit recognition0

In 1948-49, Arizona high-school teachers had
an average salary o f about $3,700, the third high­
est average for any of the States. Elementary
teachers had a higher average salary than in any
other State—$3,400.
The salary schedules for the two largest cities
in 1948^9 were as follow s:

Maximum

100

4,200

TU CSO N

Minimum

Increments

96
192
96

4,416

2,688

1 @

96

4,512

2,784

1 @

96

4,608

Maximum

P H O E N IX 1

Elementary School
District:
Bachelor’s degree__

$2,470

Bachelor’s degree
plus 18 hours -----

2,565

10 @

190

4,465

Master’s degree-------

2,660

10 @

190

4,560

10 @ $190

2 @
8 @
1 @

Master’s d eg re e ___

Educational
preparation

2,592

Bachelor’s degree
plus 30 hours____

Annual Salary

Bachelor’s degree —

$4,370

1 Salaries shown are exclusive of cost-of-living adjustment
amounting in 1948-49 to $1,514.
a Master’s degree and 1 year of teaching experience are re­
quired of new applicants ; therefore, schedule does not specify
minimum salaries for teachers without master’s degree.
6 Teachers with master’s degree but no teaching experience
(not more than 5 percent of teaching staff) are employed at
$1,800, plus cost-of-living adjustment, for their first year.
c Merit recognition increments are granted teachers who
show superior interest in contributing to the improvement of
education.

ARKANSAS
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

In the 1948-49 school year there were 13,000
classroom teachers, principals, and supervisors
for 422,000 pupils in the public schools; only
about one-fourth were in urban schools (those in
cities with a population of 2,500 or more). The
elementary schools employed 8,000 teachers for
338.000 pupils; about 2,000 of these teachers and
91.000 of the pupils were in schools for Negroes.
Secondary schools had 5,000 teachers and 84,000
students, including about 660 Negro teachers and
10,160 Negro students.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for a 3year elementary certificate is 30 semester hours of
the elementary curriculum in an approved college.
For the junior high school certificate, comple­
tion o f at least 60 semester hours of the high
school curriculum at an approved college is re­

14




quired. The courses taken must include 12 hours
of education, of which 3 must be in directed
teaching.
To qualify for a high school certificate, one
must be a graduate o f an approved 4-year col­
lege. The training must include at least 18 hours
of education, of which 5 must be in directed
teaching. The minimal semester hours required
for teaching specified subject fields vary con­
siderably, ranging from 8 for physics and several
other subjects to as high as 24 for English.
Certification at all teaching levels requires a
course in natural resources or nature study.
Emergency certificates are issued when neces­
sary to those whose qualifications do not meet
regular certification requirements.
The prospective teacher must be at least 18
years of age and must furnish proof of good
health.

Outlook

Employment opportunities for elementary
teachers will be excellent over the next few years.
Teachers are needed to take care of increasing
enrollments resulting from the high birth rates
o f the early 1940’s and to fill about 200 positions
that were vacant in 1948-49, as well as to re­
place some of the persons teaching on emergency
certificates (2,400 such certificates were issued in
1948-49). In addition, it is estimated that around
750 teachers were needed in 1948-49 as replace­
ments for those who left teaching in the State; it
is probable that a similar number will be needed
in 1949-50. That the supply of elementary teach­
ers is inadequate to meet the demand is indicated
by the fact that only about 1,238 students were ex­
pected to complete preparation in State teachertraining institutions in 1949. Shortages of men
teachers and o f teachers for rural schools are
particularly acute.
Furthermore, demand for elementary teachers
will remain high throughout the next decade.
Enrollments in the first eight grades are ex­
pected to increase each year until about 1955-56,
when they may be 54,000 higher than in 1948-49.
On the basis of 30 pupils to a teacher, this in­
crease in enrollments would require 1,800 addi­
tional teaching positions, an average of about 250
per year over the 7-year period. I f the number
o f new" elementary teachers needed as replace­
ments for those who leave teaching in the State
remains around 9 percent, as in 1948-49, nearly
900 may be needed annually in the mid-1950’s
and throughout the last part of the decade.
Very few teachers will be needed to fill new
high school positions betw-een 1949 and 1952, since
enrollments are expected to remain at about the
same level or even decrease slightly. However,
teachers will be needed for the 100 to 150 posi­
tions left unfilled in 1948-49 and to replace some
of the teachers holding emergency certificates;
about 700 such certificates were issued to second­
ary teachers in 1948-49. In addition, it is likely
that as many new teachers will be needed in 194950 as replacements for those who leave high school
teaching in the State as were needed the previous
year (about 250 or 5 percent of the high school

teaching staff). In relation to these needs, teachertraining institutions in the State were expected to
prepare 1,068 students for high school teaching
certification in 1949, as compared vT
ith 722 in
1948 and 557 in 1941. It appears that the supply
will be adequate to meet the demand for teachers
in most subject fields.
Some new secondary school positions will open
up after 1952. About that time, enrollments in
grades 9 to 12 will begin to increase. By 1959-60,
they may be around 32,000 higher than in 194849. On the basis o f a 25 to 1 pupil-teacher ratio,
this increase in enrollments would require 1,280
additional teaching positions, or an average of
160 per year over the 8-year period from 195253 through 1959-60. As the staff is expanded,
the number of teachers who leave the profession
will tend to increase; in the latter years of the
1950 decade, as many as 300 new teachers may be
needed as replacements, assuming a continued
withdrawal rate of 5 percent.
Earnings

Average annual salaries in 1948-49 were $1,223
for elementary teachers and $1,770 for secondary
teachers. The single-salary schedules in effect in
1948-49 in two o f the largest cities, Little Rock
and Fort Smith, were as follow s:
Annual salary
Educational preparation
Minimum

Increments

$1,223

14 @ $11

Maximum

L IT T L E R O C K

Majority credit from nonaccredited institution-

$1,377

Less than 3 years of
college

1,503

14 @

33

1,965

3 years of college

1,643

14 @

35

2,133

Bachelor’s degree

1,803

14 @

42

2,391

Master’s degree

1,938

14 @

55

2,708

60 semester hours of
college

1,500

4 @

50

1,700

90 semester hours of
college

1,600

6 @

50

1,900

PORT S M I T H

Bachelor’s degree

1,700

10 @

70

2,400

Master’s degree

1,800

10 @ 100

2,800

CALI]
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

In 1948-49 about 51,200 full-time teachers were
employed in the California public schools (kin­
dergarten through grade 12). There were 31,000



teachers for 1,152,800 pupils in the elementary
grades (K to 8), and 20,200 teachers for 353,300
students in the secondary schools (grades 9 to
12). Nearly a fourth of all the teachers were men.

15

Less than 3 percent of all teachers were in oneteacher schools.
Kindergartens are organized to serve a large
part of the population. The above figures for
1948-49 include over 122,000 kindergarten pupils
and their 2,420 teachers. Separate junior high
schools serve over half the pupils in that age
group (12 to 14 years).
Certification Requirements

The basic minimum educational requirements
for all regular credentials for elementary or
junior high school teaching are completion of
one approved 4-year college course, with a bache­
lor’s degree, and either completion of a course
or passing o f an examination on the provisions
and principles of the Constitution of the United
States. Preparation for the credential which au­
thorizes the holder to teach in kindergarten and
grades 1, 2, and 3, must include a major in kin­
dergarten-primary education and 24 semester
hours o f professional work in education of
which not less than 8 semester hours must be
directed teaching. For the general elementary
credential the candidate must have completed 24
semester hours of professional work in education,
including 8 semester hours of directed teaching
and adequate preparation in teaching the basic
elementary school subjects. For the junior high
school credential, 18 semester hours o f profes­
sional work in education must be completed, in­
cluding 4 hours o f directed teaching; also, a
major and a minor in subjects taught in high
school, or a major in education and two minors
in high school subjects.
For a general secondary school credential, the
candidate must have a bachelor’s degree and have
completed a full year of graduate work (not less
than 24 semester hours), including at least 6
hours of professional work in education. His
total training must include 18 semester hours of
professional work in education, of which 4 hours
were in directed teaching. He also must have
completed either (a) one major (24 hours, of
which at least 12 were in graduate courses) and
one minor (12 hours, including at least 6 in
graduate courses) in high school subjects or (b)
a major in a field not commonly accepted for high
school graduation and two minors in high school
subjects.
Emergency credentials are issued to persons
with lower qualifications through the county
superintendent for specific positions and only if

16




no qualified regularly certified applicant o f the
type needed is available. Such credentials may be
converted to provisional elementary or provi­
sional kindergarten-primary credentials after
completing 2 years of successful experience and
contain 2 years of college work.
A ll applicants must be 18 years of age and sub­
mit a certificate o f good health; must swear
allegiance to the United States; and must be an
American citizen or intend to become one.
Outlook

The acute shortage of kindergarten and ele­
mentary school teachers indicates excellent em­
ployment prospects in this field for the next few
years at least. Expanded enrollments, brought
about by the high birth rates o f the early 1940’s
and an unprecedented migration to California
during and since the war, have necessitated con­
siderable expansion in the teaching staff. The in­
crease in enrollments is expected to continue and,
according to a recent study,1 will require 2,180
additional elementary teachers ( including kinder­
garten) in 1949-50. Moreover, many new teachers
are needed annually to replace those who die, re­
tire, or otherwise leave the profession each year;
the same study estimated the replacement need
for 1949-50 at 4,550. In contrast, the study indi­
cated that only about 1,635 students would com­
plete elementary-teacher-training courses in Cali­
fornia institutions in 1949, as compared with
1,092 in 1948 and 1,507 in 1941. Even though
many additional teachers will come to California
from other States (a total of over 4,000 newly
employed teachers in 1948-49 were from outside
the State), it is evident that the total supply for
1949-50 will be far from adequate to meet the
demand.
Presumably, the deficit will have to be made
up, as in the past few years, by employing emer­
gency teachers. According to the study already
cited, 13,000 such teachers were employed in Oc­
tober 1948, and it was not known how many
were in process of preparing themselves to meet
regular credential requirements or how many
ever intend to meet the regular standards. If,
eventually, many emergency teachers must be
replaced, this will mean a large additional need
for new teachers.
Enrollments at the elementary level (grades
K to 8) are expected to increase each year
1 Teacher Supply and Demand, by James C. Stone and Aubrey
A. Douglass. In California Schools, April 1949, p. 89.

through 1957-58, when they may be some 865,000
higher than in 1948^9. On the basis of one
teacher for each 30 added students, the teaching
staff would have to be expanded by approxi­
mately 29,000, or by an average of about 3,200 per
year over the 9-year period. The peak demand
for elementary teachers will probably occur about
1954, when as many as 5,000 new teachers may
be needed in one year to handle the expansion in
enrollments. Furthermore, if the attrition rate
remains as high as the estimated 1948-49 figure
of about 15 percent, more than 9,000 replacements
would be needed annually during the latter years
of the 1950 decade.
Competition for jobs is anticipated in some
high school teaching fields in 1949-50. Secondary
school enrollments may increase moderately in
1949-50 and 1950-51, requiring a few new teach­
ing positions in certain localities, but the chief
need for new teachers will be as replacements for
those who leave teaching. In 1948-49, such re­
placements totaled around 1,850,2 or nearly 10
percent of the secondary teaching staff. It is
likely that about the same number will also be
needed in 1949-50. The supply o f secondary teach­
ers is partially indicated by the 2,792 students ex­
pected to graduate from California teacher-train­
ing institutions in 1949—94 percent more than
in 1948. While many of these graduates may not
enter the teaching profession, large numbers of
teachers from other States will be seeking sec­
ondary school positions in California. It appears
that, in 1949-50, California will have an over­
supply of regularly credentialed teachers in the
usual academic teaching fields, while at the same
time experiencing a continued shortage in certain
specialized areas, such as industrial arts, home­
making, commerce, physical science, and agricul­
ture.
Rapid expansion in high school staffs is fore­
seen after 1951. Beginning about that time, en­
rollments in the secondary schools will increase
considerably each year; by 1959-60, they may be
approximately 345,000 higher than in 1948-49.
These increased enrollments would require nearly
14,000 additional teaching positions if a teacher
is provided for each 25 added enrollments. The
greatest increase in enrollments will probably
occur in 1957-58 and 1958-59, requiring about
2,500 additional teachers per year. The expanded
staff may require about 3,000 replacements an­
2 Ibid. The figure includes a small number of replacements in
junior colleges.




nually during the late 1950’s if the attrition rate
remains as high as the 1948-49 rate of 10 percent.
The above estimates of enrollments, upon which
the teacher needs are based, take into considera­
tion not only the record number of births in the
State in the 1940 decade and the large number of
people who have migrated to California from
other States, but also the fact that migration to
California is expected to continue throughout the
1950 decade.
Earnings

The median annual salary for full-time elemen­
tary school teachers was $3,291 in 1948-49; onefourth of the teachers received less than $2,971,
and one fourth received more than $3,799. The
median for all high school teachers was $4,051;
with one-fourth receiving less than $3,525, and
one-fourth receiving more than $4,646. The
State-wide minimum for all teachers was $2,400.
Classroom teachers in Los Angeles and San
Francisco had average salaries of $4,294 and
$4,075, respectively, in 1948-49. These cities
ranked fourth and sixth among the 20 largest
cities with respect to average salaries paid.
There are considerable differences in salary
levels among the various school districts in the
State. The minimum and maximum annual
salaries for teachers with a bachelor’s degree, or
holding the general elementary credential, were
as follows in several school districts in 1948-49:
Annual salary
School district
Minimum
Del Norte County a
Fresno County a
Inyo County a
Kern County a
Kings County a
Merced County a
San Bernardino County a
Siskiyou County a
Sonoma County a
Trinity County a
Los Angeles City Schools
San Francisco Unified School DistrictOakland Public Schools
San Diego Unified Schools
Long Beach Unified Schools
Pasadena City Schools
Richmond Schools
Sacramento City Schools
City of Fresno
Glendale Unified School District
San Jose Unified School District
Berkeley Public Schools
Burbank Unified School District
Vallejo City Unified School District__
Santa Monica City Schools

$2,620
2,700
3,000
3,000
2,600
2,680
2,650
2,700
2,900
2,600
2,830
2,700
2,940
2,900
2,830
2,700
3,050
2,760
2,700
2,825
3,000
2,600
2,665
2,700
2,600

Maximum
$3,020
3,600
3,800
4,000
3,500
3,544
3,750
4,020
4,220
3,100
4,510
4,800
4,260
4,200
4,780
4,300
4,850
4,320
3,900
4,650
4,090
4,100
4,375
3,618
4,400

a County-wide schedules.

17

COLORADO
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 9,150 classroom teachers, principals and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the
public schools o f Colorado, to teach approximate­
ly 200,000 pupils. About 75 percent of the pupils
and 70 percent of the teachers were in elementary
schools. The city of Denver employed about 1,600
classroom teachers.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for an ele­
mentary certificate is 90 semester hours credit
from an accredited college. For a high school
certificate, one must have a bachelor’s degree. For
each type of certificate, 20 semester hours in pro­
fessional education courses, including 4 hours in
practice teaching, are required.
Emergency certificates are issued to certain ap­
plicants who do not meet the regular certification
requirements if requested by the school board of
the employing district. In the school year 194950, the educational requirement for an applicant
who has never held such a certificate will be 90
quarter hours credit from an accredited institu­
tion. In case of extreme need, an applicant with
12 quarter hours of college credit earned since
January 1, 1948, may obtain a certificate. An
applicant who has previously held an emergency
certificate must have earned 12 quarter hours of
college credit. These hours must be in profes­
sional education if the applicant has a college
degree but lacks the credits in education required
for a regular certificate.
Outlook

The acute shortage o f elementary teachers
which has existed since the war is expected to
continue in 1949-50. This shortage is especially
acute in rural schools. The estimated number of
trainees from Colorado colleges who were ex­
pected to qualify for the standard certificate in
1949 was only 415. Even if all these trainees
should enter teaching in Colorado they would
not be numerous enough to fill the vacancies
created by turn-over and supply the additional
teachers needed because of increasing enrollments
in the lower grades. In addition, teachers are
needed to replace many who were employed on
emergency certificates in 1948-49; the bulk o f the
1,800 emergency certificates issued in that year
were held by elementary teachers. However,

18




some of the emergency teachers will gradually
complete the requirements for regular certificates,
thus increasing the supply of fully qualified per­
sonnel.
The number o f new teachers needed annually
will increase until about 1958-54. In that year
about 800 may have to be recruited, assuming a
ratio of 80 pupils per teacher and a turn-over
rate of only 7 percent. After that, the demand
for teachers will remain at a high level, since ele­
mentary enrollments will continue to increase—
though more gradually—until about 1957, when
approximately 50,000 more pupils may be en­
rolled than in 1948-49.
The shortage of high school teachers will
probably be ended in most subject fields in 194950. The estimated supply of graduates from
teacher-training institutions in 1949 was about
740; this should be more than enough to provide
replacements for emergency teachers and those
dying, retiring, or leaving the profession for
other reasons. An oversupply of teachers is ex­
pected in such fields as social science, English,
and boys’ physical education. However, shortages
of teachers in home economics, agriculture, and
certain other subjects may continue through
1949-50.
Since high school enrollments will probably
decline slowly until about 1952, the demand for
teachers will be limited largely to normal turn­
over after those not teaching on regular certifi­
cates are replaced. I f graduations from teachertraining institutions continue high, the competi­
tion for high school positions will probably be­
come increasingly keen.
In the long run, employment opportunities for
high school teachers will increase. From 1952 to
1960, enrollments are expected to increase by
about 11,000 making it necessary to form extra
classes. I f one teacher is provided for each 25
students, nearly 450 additional teachers will be
required over the period; greater numbers of
teachers will be needed as replacements. However,
even in the year of peak hiring, about 1957, the
total demand will probably not exceed the num­
ber trained in 1949.
Earnings

The average salary of classroom teachers for
1948-49 was estimated at $2,480. The basic salary
schedules in the largest cities were as follows:

Annual salary

Annual salary
Educational preparation

Educational preparation
Minimum

Increments

$2,040

7 @ $100
1 @
10

DENVER

Less than 2 years

Maximum

8 @
1 @

120
20

3,020

3 years

2,040

9 @
1 @

120
50

3,170

2 years

(a)

$100

$2,820

3 years

2,040

Bachelor’s degree

Increments

COLORADO S P R IN G S

$2,750

2 years

4 years, without bache­
lor’s degree

Minimum

Maximum

(°)

100

3,030

4 years, without bache­
lor’s degree

(a)

100

3,300

$2,400

2,040

2,400

11 @
1 @

120
60

3,420

9 @
1 @

150
50

3,800

12 @

100

3,600

2,500

Bachelor’s degree
Master’s degree

11 @
1 @

120
80

3,900

2,000

6 @

100

2,600

PUEBLO

No degree

_ _

Master’s degree

2,400

10 @
1 @

150
100

4,000

Bachelor’s degree

2,400

8 @

100

3,200

Master’s degree

2,500

9 @

100

3,400

° Bachelor’s degree is required of new applicants ; therefore,
schedule does not specify minimum salary for teachers without
degrees.

CONNECTICUT
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

There were approximately 180,000 pupils and
7,200 teachers in Connecticut’s public elementary
schools in 1948-49; 2,400 teachers and 60,000
pupils were in the high schools. In addition,
slightly over 500 kindergarten teachers were em­
ployed to instruct about 26,000 pupils. An un­
usually large proportion of the public school
teachers were in urban schools (almost 75 per­
cent). The cities of Bridgeport, Hartford, and
New Haven together employed over 2,000 class­
room teachers, 100 principals, and 25 supervisors.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for the ele­
mentary certificate is graduation from an ap­
proved 4-year elementary teacher-training insti­
tution; course requirements include 30 semester
hours in education. For the kindergarten certifi­
cate, one must be a graduate of a 4-year normal
course or a 4-year course at a kindergartenpreparation institution and have had 90 clock
hours of practice teaching.
The educational prerequisite for the secondary
certificate, needed for teaching in junior or senior
high school, is graduation from a 4-year second­
ary teacher-preparation curriculum at an ap­
proved college or university. The curriculum
must include 18 semester hours in education—
6 o f them in practice teaching. In addition, speci­
fied numbers o f hours must be completed in the
subject to be taught; the minimum for most
teaching fields is 15 hours. There is a trend in



many communities toward requiring more prepa­
ration ; the State Department of Education
recommends that persons planning to teach in
high schools should complete 5 years of college
work.
Outlook

The shortage of qualified elementary teachers
is expected to continue during the next few years
at least, A survey made by the State Department
of Education revealed that about 620 new teach­
ers would be needed in the 1949-50 school year
to take care o f increased enrollments, and that
about 360 additional elementary teachers would
be needed as replacements for those leaving the
profession. Although a considerable number of
teachers had been obtained from other States, as
of June 15, 1949, about 200 vacancies in elemen­
tary schools still remained to be filled. Monthly
lists of vacancies are available from the State
Department of Education, Hartford, Connecti­
cut, or from the local offices o f the Connecticut
State Employment Service.
The annual need for new teachers will con­
tinue at a high level. The State Department of
Education has made detailed estimates of the
number o f teachers that will be needed each year
until 1960. The number o f births in a given year
was related to the number of pupils enrolled in
kindergarten 5 years later, and the persistence o f
enrollments from grade to grade was determined.
The resulting enrollment figures were then trans­
lated into teachers needed on a basis of 25 pupils

19

per teacher. The number of additional teachers
needed to replace those who retire or withdraw
from the profession for other reasons was then
calculated on the assumption of 5 percent annual
attrition. The total number of new teachers
estimated to be needed are as follows :3
Year

Elementary
(grades 1-8)

1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61

There will no doubt be a surplus of high school
teachers during the next few years. As is indi­
cated in the foregoing table, the State Department
of Education estimates that only 30 new teachers
will be needed at this level in 1949-50. However,
about 340 students were expected to complete col­
lege courses preparing them for high school
teaching in 1949. This compares with about 230
in 1948, 135 in 1945, and 215 in 1941.
While current needs are small, the high schools
will require an increasing number of new teachers
each year, especially after 1954 when enrollments
will be increased by the high birth rates o f the
1940 decade. It is expected that about 560 new
high school teachers will be needed in 1957-58.

Secondary
(grades 9-1 2)

980
780
780
1,050
1,200
1,105
925
600
475
615
620
370

30
85
125
165
165
170
300
550
560
340
210
340

Earnings

A survey made by the State Department of
Education revealed that during the 1948-49
school year the average salary o f elementary
teachers was approximately $3,160. This repre­
sented an increase of about $265 over the previous
year. About 15 percent o f the elementary teach­
ers earned $3,750 or more. Although most school
districts have a single-salary schedule, senior
high school teachers averaged about $500 more
than elementary teachers; this is owing to the
fact that secondary teachers tend to have more
experience and preparation than those in elemen­
tary positions. The $3,669 averaged by senior
high school teachers in 1948-49 was a $250 in­
crease over the previous year. Junior high school
teachers (mostly employed in large cities) aver­
aged about $3,750, an increase of about $400 over
1947- 48.
The basic salary schedules in selected cities in
1948- 49 as compiled by the Connecticut Educa­
tion Association, are shown below :

The teachers colleges in Connecticut are too
small, at present, to accommodate the number of
students who would have to be trained to meet
the demand for teachers. It was estimated that
only about 230 students would complete prepara­
tion for elementary teaching in 1949. This figure
compares with 186 in 1948, 160 in 1945, and 220
in 1941. To meet the teacher-shortage crisis, the
State Board of Education has worked out a 10year plan for expansion of training facilities in
the teachers colleges. In the meantime, an emer­
gency training program has been set up at the
four State teachers colleges to prepare high
school teachers and other college graduates for
elementary teaching. Connecticut will probably
also continue to attract elementary teachers from
neighboring States because of its relatively high
salary schedules.
3 Ross, Maurice J., “ How Many Teachers Will a State Need,”
The American School Board Journal, February 1949, p. 15.

Five years’ training

Four years’ training
City
Minimum
salary

Maximum
salary

Number of
increments

Minimum
salary

Maximum
salary

Number of
increments

Amount of
annual
increments

$2,100

$3,400

14

$2,200

6 $3,700

19

$100

Hartford c

2,500

4,500

21

2,580

4,725

22

75, 100, 125

New Haven d

2,200

4,500

24

2,500

4,500

21

100, 200

Waterbury

2,400

4,000

16

2,600

4,200

16

100

Bridgeporta ----------------------------------------

■ Effective April 1, 1949, new schedule with 4-year maximum, $4,000; M. A. maximum $4,500.
«
* With master’s degree $3,900.
c Figures include $260 cost-of-living adjustment for 1948-49.
< Effective July 1, 1949, new schedule with 4 year maximum, $4,500; M. A. $4,800; Ph. D. $5,000.
d


20


DELAWARE
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 1,800 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the pub­
lic schools o f Delaware to teach approximately
44,500 pupils. About 250 of the teachers were
Negroes. Approximately 50 percent of the teach­
ers and 60 percent of the pupils were in the ele­
mentary schools.
O f the 1,277 persons on the educational staff
outside o f Wilmington as of December 1948, 27
percent were men.4 Most of these 1,277 people had
many years o f teaching experience: 32 percent
had 20 or more years o f experience; 49 percent,
between 5 and 20 years; and only 19 percent, less
than 5 years. The group’s educational prepara­
tion was as follow s: 15 percent had the masters
degree; 56 percent, the bachelor’s degree; 29
percent had no degree but usually had two or
more years o f normal school training.
Certification and Other Requirements

For the collegiate certificate in elementary or
kindergarten education it is necessary to have
completed the work for a bachelor’s degree. The
training must include 30 semester hours of either
elementary or kindergarten education courses
(depending on which type of certificate is de­
sired).
To obtain a high school certificate, it is neces­
sary to be a graduate of a standard college or
university and to have earned 18 semester hours
credit in the academic field for which the certifi­
cate is issued and 18 hours in education, 6 of
which must be high school practice teaching.
Because of the shortage of job applicants who
qualify for standard certificates, emergency cer­
tificates are issued to certain people who do not
meet the regular requirements.
Outlook

The demand for elementary teachers will prob­
ably exceed the supply available for 1949-50. It
has been estimated that 90 replacements were
needed for teachers who did not return to elemen­
tary schools in 1948-49; about the same number
will probably have to be replaced in 1949-50. A d ­
ditional instructors will be needed to handle the
expanding enrollments in the lower grades.
4 Educational Personnel Data of the State Board Units and
Special Districts of Delaware, Bulletin No. 203-49, Department
of Public Instruction, Dover, Delaware.




Qualified teachers will also be needed to take the
places of some of the emergency teachers (about
115 emergency permits were issued in 1948-49).
One source o f supply is the estimated 32 Dela­
ware college students who were expected to com­
plete requirements for elementary certificates in
1949. Other recruits will probably also be avail­
able, as in 1948-49, from nearby States. How­
ever, it is doubtful that enough qualified teachers
can be obtained from these sources to meet all
needs. Shortages will probably be worse in the
white than in the Negro schools. The replacement
rate is lower for Negro than for white teachers,
and there were relatively few emergency teachers
in the Negro schools in 1948-49. Furthermore,
the supply of teachers available from Negro in­
stitutions in Delaware will be much larger in
proportion to the total number employed than
the supply from white institutions.
Elementary enrollments (grades 1 to 8) and
teaching positions will continue to rise until
about 1956-57, when there may be approximately
15,000 more children in school than in 1948-49.
I f the pupil-teacher ratio were 30 to 1, then this
source of employment alone would furnish jobs
for 500 additional teachers during the 8-year
interval. As the size of the teaching staff grows,
the number of teachers dropping out will prob­
ably tend to increase also; if the replacement rate
should continue to be 10 percent, as in 1948-49,
then about 150 vacancies would probably have to
be filled yearly during the late 1950’s.
The supply of high school teachers may be
sufficient in 1949-50 to provide all except certain
specialized personnel. Seventy-seven Delaware
college students (42 white and 35 Negro) were
expected to complete courses o f study qualifying
them for high school teaching in 1949. This
group should supply enough applicants to meet
normal replacement needs—which, in 1948-49
amounted to a demand for only about 59 teachers
in the entire State. The small replacement de­
mand will be almost the only source of positions
for new high school teachers in the near future,
since enrollments are declining and few if any
emergency teachers will need to be replaced; only
22 emergency high school certificates were issued
in 1948-49. There may be strong competition
among applicants for positions in certain fields

21

such as men's physical education in the white
schools and social studies in the Negro schools.
After 1951, employment in the high schools
will probably rise slowly. About that year, en­
rollments in grades 9 to 12 are expected to begin
an upward trend which will continue for the re­
mainder of the decade. By 1959-60, approxi­
mately 6,700 more youths may be enrolled in high
school than 9 years earlier. Assuming a ratio of
25 students per teacher, these increased enroll­
ments would call for the employment of almost
270 additional teachers. Furthermore, if the
annual replacement rate should continue to be 7
percent, as in 1948-49, then the number of va­
cancies to be filled would be likely to rise to
around 75 per year by the end of the 1950’s.

Earnings

The new salary schedule for classroom teachers
which will be in effect in all of Delaware outside
of Wilmington in 1949-50 is as follow s:
Annual salary
Educational preparation
Minimum
No degree

$2,000

Increments
10 @ $160

Maximum
$3,600

Bachelor’s degree _

2,400

10 @

160

4,000

Master’s degree

2,600

10 @

160

4,200

Doctor’s degree

3,000

10 @

160

4,600

In previous years, Wilmington has paid some­
what higher salaries than those provided by the
State schedule.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

District of Columbia public schools had an en­
rollment of over 91,000 pupils in 1948-49, of
whom approximately 48,000 were white and 43,000 Negro. About 2,100 white and 1,500 Negro
teachers, principals, and supervisors were em­
ployed to instruct these pupils. About half of all
the teachers and three-fifths o f the students were
in the elementary schools (kindergarten through
grade 6).
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for an
elementary teaching license (for kindergarten
through grade 6) is a bachelor’s degree from an
accredited college. The applicant must have
earned 40 semester hour credits in professional
courses representing a definite program of prepa­
ration for teaching in the elementary schools;
the training must include practice teaching in
the elementary schools and other specified sub­
jects. For a junior high school license to teach
academic, commercial, and scientific subjects it
is necessary to have a bachelor’s degree with 24
semester hour credits in approved professional
courses—including practice teaching in junior
high schools and other specified courses oriented
to teaching at that level and majors in two sub­
jects. For a senior high school certificate to
teach academic, commercial, and scientific sub­
jects, one must have a master’s degree, with a

22



majoi* in the subject to be taught, and 24 semester
hour credits in specified professional courses in­
cluding practice teaching in secondary schools.
For each of these licenses, 2 years’ successful
teaching experience at the appropriate level may
be substituted for practice teaching.
Special requirements are made for certificates
to teach special subjects such as music, industrial
arts, and physical education in either elementary
or secondary schools.
Besides meeting the educational requirements,
applicants must pass oral, written, and physical
examinations and, for some kinds of licenses, a
practical examination or demonstration. Those
who pass the examinations are ranked according
to their score, and appointments are made from
the top of the list. After a year’s probation, the
appointment becomes permanent.
Temporary teachers who do not qualify for
licenses are appointed when lists are exhausted.
In making such appointments, the teachers chosen
are those who come closest to fulfilling the re­
quirements.
Outlook

The elementary schools o f the District o f
Columbia are expecting a shortage o f white
teachers and a surplus of Negro teachers in
1949-50. According to the Superintendent o f
Schools, the white schools will need replacements
for at least 23 members of the permanent staff

who do not expect to return to teaching in 194950. A few additional vacancies may be created
by resignations during the 1949-50 school year.
Efforts will also be made to find replacements for
about 60 of the 235 white temporary teachers who
were employed in 1948-49. While enrollments
will probably increase above the 1948-49 level,
appropriations are not sufficient to permit the
employment o f additional teachers in 1949-50.
In July 1949, the available supply of qualified
white teachers consisted o f the 45 on the eligible
list who had passed the examinations required for
a license. New temporary appointments will be
made to those positions which cannot be filled
from the eligible list. According to the Superin­
tendent of Schools, there will be about the same
number o f temporary white teachers as were em­
ployed in 1948-49. However, as a whole, these
teachers will be better qualified than those who
have taught in recent years.
In the Negro elementary schools, on the other
hand, the supply will be more than adequate.
In July 1949, there were 126 names on the
eligible list—more than are likely to be needed in
1949-50. Only 16 Negro teachers left the Negro
elementary schools between July 1, 1948, and
July 1, 1949. Most o f them were replaced during
the school year. The number of withdrawals
from July 1, 1949, to July 1, 1950, will probably
be about the same. An increase in appropriations
was made to furnish jobs for 16 additional teach­
ers, who will be used chiefly to handle increased
enrollments. Only 18 Negroes were employed on
a temporary basis in 1948-49, chiefly to replace
permanent teachers on leave or to fill vacancies
in specialized fields where no qualified teacher
could be found; the very few temporary appoint­
ments expected in 1949-50 will be made for simi­
lar reasons.
Employment of elementary teachers will prob­
ably rise gradually, along with enrollments, until
about 1957-58. In that year, there are likely to
be over 25,000 more children in grades 1 to 6
than there were 9 years before, unless out-migra­
tion increases. Assuming appropriations are
passed to provide one additional teacher for every
36 pupils, more than 700 additional positions
would be created during this period. Drop-outs
are likely to show a slight increase with the ex­
pansion in the teaching staff. I f the replacement
rate should continue to be 2 percent, as in 1948


49, almost 50 teachers would be needed each year
to fill vacancies during the late 1950’s.
In white junior and senior high schools and
vocational schools, the supply and demand pic­
ture for 1949-50 differs from one subject field to
another. Fifty teachers left the permanent staff
during the year ending July 1, 1949. The num­
ber doing so in 1949-50 is expected to be about
the same. Some vacancies may not be filled, on
account of the decline in high school enrollments.
Eighty white teachers were on the eligible lists
for the various junior and senior high school
fields and vocational courses in July 1949; this
supply should be sufficient, in most instances, to
furnish needed replacements for permanent staff
members and to replace some of the 141 white
teachers employed on a temporary basis in 194849. Shortages are expected to continue, at least
in 1949-50, in certain fields such as mathematics,
physics, general science, and some shop subjects,
but surpluses are anticipated in such fields as so­
cial studies, English, and history.
An oversupply of Negro secondary teachers is
expected in most subject fields in 1949-50. In
July 1949, 106 were on the eligible lists for
junior and senior high schools and vocational
schools. Only 21 vacancies existed at that time;
a few more may arise during the 1949-50 school
year. The vocational schools will probably not
be able to obtain a sufficient number of fully
qualified teachers to fill all positions. In the
academic schools, there is likely to be a sur­
plus of eligibles, especially for positions in the
fields of foreign languages, history, and social
studies.
The number o f secondary teachers needed an­
nually will continue to be very small in the next
few years, while enrollments are declining (tak­
ing all secondary schools together). Beginning
about 1951-52, however, high school enrollments
are expected to increase ; by 1959-60, the number
of students in grades 7 to 12 may be approxi­
mately 15,000 higher than 8 years previously. In
the late 1950’s the staff additions needed to take
care of expanding enrollments will probably
become a much larger source of employment than
the replacement of drop-outs. I f an extra teacher
is employed for every 25 additional high school
students, the demand arising from this source,
together with replacement needs, may mean a
need for over 200 teachers in a single year at the
end of the decade.

23

Earnings

Annual salary

The average salary for Washington classroom
teachers for 1948-49 has been estimated at $3,486,
not including the $330 increase granted retro­
actively to June 1948.
A single-salary schedule applies to all teachers
from kindergarten through the teachers colleges.
For 1949-50, the basic schedule including the
$330 increase is as follow s:

College training
Minimum
Bachelor’s degree_______
Master’s degree

$2,830
3,330

Increments
15 @ $100
15 @

100

Maximum
$4,330
4,830

Experienced teachers entering District schools
are granted salary credit for years of previous
experience up to a maximum of 5 years.

FLORIDA
About 16,900 teachers, principals, and super­
visors were employed in the Florida public school
system in 1948-49; 9,500 o f them taught 296,000
pupils in elementary schools, and 7,400 were in
high schools where there were about 173,000
students. Over a fourth of all elementary pupils,
a fifth of all high school students, and similar
proportions of classroom teachers were Negroes.

dition, elementary teachers must have had at least
12 hours in professional education courses; junior
high school teachers, 12 hours; both must have
completed 3 hours in practice teaching or one o f
the alternatives in practical experience acceptable
for graduate certificates.
A t least 9 semester hours of all prospective
teachers academic credit must have been com­
pleted within the past 8 years.

Certification Requirements

Outlook

Florida issues two major kinds of regular
teaching certificates: a graduate certificate to
those completing 4 years of college, and a provi­
sional undergraduate certificate to those with at
least 2 years of college. Emergency certificates
are given to persons not meeting either of these
requirements if a sufficient number o f fully quali­
fied applicants is not available.
For a graduate certificate in elementary or
secondary teaching, the applicant’s college train­
ing must include at least 45 semester hours of
general academic work and 14 semester hours of
professional education courses, plus 6 hours of
practice teaching. In lieu of practice teaching,
completion o f an approved internship program or
3 years’ teaching experience and 6 semester hours
o f other prescribed education courses may be ac­
cepted. The specified types of education courses
differ for the elementary and high school certifi­
cates. In addition, candidates for high school
certificates must have completed specified num­
bers o f hours in their chosen subject fields; the
minimum semester hours required range from
12 in some fields to 36 in social studies, English,
and science.
The 2 years o f college work needed for a provi­
sional undergraduate certificate for elementary
or junior high school teaching must include 30
semester hours of general academic work. In ad­

The need for elementary teachers (grades 1 to
8) in Florida is considerable but by no means as
acute as in many other States. High wartime
birth rates and in-migration are causing school
enrollments to grow rapidly; the proportionate
increase is greater for white than Negro children.
In 1949-50, a greater shortage of teachers may
develop than existed in the previous year, mainly
as a result of the great expected increase in en­
rollments, Approximately 750 teachers will also
be needed (at an 8 percent attrition rate) to re­
place those dying, retiring, or otherwise leaving
the profession. It would also be desirable to re­
place some of the teachers holding emergency
certificates (400 held such certificates in 1948-49)
with fully, qualified personnel. However, the
supply of such teachers is likely to be less in
1949-50 than in the previous year, since only
about 560 students were expected to complete
their training in Florida institutions in 1949 as
compared to 670 in 1948. Many teachers are be­
ing attracted from neighboring States where
wages and working conditions are not as good as
in Florida schools, but, with shortages every­
where, it is doubtful if all openings in the next
few years can be filled with qualified teachers.
Employment o f elementary teachers will prob­
ably rise, along with enrollments, until about
1956-57, when there may be about 200,000 more
students in grades 1 to 8 than in 1948-49. The

Number of Teachers and Enrollments

2&




enrollment increase is estimated at approximately
25.000 pupils per year until about 1952; then it
is likely to take a sharp upturn until about 1954
and to taper off in the following 2 or 3 years. To
care for this growing school population, annual
needs for teachers (based on a pupil-teacher ratio
of 30 to 1) will increase from about 800 to about
1,200 at the peak enrollment period and then
drop rapidly. Replacement needs, on the other
hand, will probably tend to increase until the
latter part o f the decade, as the teaching staff
grows; if the replacement rate should remain at
8 percent, they would probably amount to about
900 per year in the early 1950’s and increase to
about 1,300 per year during the last years of the
decade.
The proportion of Negro elementary teachers
needed in the next few years will probably remain
just over one-fourth. However, long-run trends
indicate that the white population in Florida is
increasing at a slightly faster rate than the Negro
population, so that by the end of the 1950’s the
proportion o f Negroes on the elementary teaching
staff may drop slightly.
A t the high school level, there are likely to be
more teachers seeking jobs than there are open­
ings in the next few years. Enrollments in grades
9 to 12 have been dropping somewhat and will
probably continue to do so until about 1952. The
need for new high school teachers will therefore
be limited, in general, to replacements. In 194849, replacement needs amounted to more than 700,
or 10 percent o f the staff. The supply o f high
school teachers is more than adequate in most
subject fields. In 1949, the estimated number of
people expected to complete high school teacher­
training courses in the State was about 1,270, as
compared with 820 in 1948 and 360 in 1941. An
oversupply was already apparent in 1948 in sub­
ject fields such as social science and men’s physi­
cal education. Home economics and industrial
arts teachers may continue in short supply for
the next few years.
Starting about 1952, high school enrollments
are expected to show an upward trend into the
1960’s, and by 1959-60 will probably be nearly
70.000 above the 1951 low point. On the basis of
a 25 to 1 pupil-teacher ratio, 2,800 teachers would

be needed to take care of the additional students.
The replacement rate may decline somewhat;
however, assuming continuation of the 1948-49
rate of 10 percent, the number o f teachers needed
to fill vacancies would average about 700 per year
in the early part o f the decade and may be almost
1,000 by 1959-60.
The proportion of Negro high school teachers,
presently about a fifth of the total teaching staff
at this level, may increase in the long run. Present
enrollments show a much larger proportion of
Negro children attending high schools than be­
fore the war. This trend is expected to continue
as transportation facilities are improved for
students in the rural areas and greater emphasis
is put on vocational training in Negro high
schools.
In order to stimulate recruitment into the
teaching profession, the State scholarship pro­
gram was expanded in 1947 to provide about 260
new scholarships annually to qualified Florida
residents interested in taking teacher-training
courses in any institution in the State (about 35
of the scholarships give the student an option of
preparing either for teaching or for municipal
or State government work). H alf the scholar­
ships amount to $200 per year, the rest, $400;
most of them are for 4 years. In all cases the
student must promise that after graduation he
will teach 1 year for every year he attended col­
lege on a State scholarship, or return the money
to the State at 5 percent interest.
Earnings
The average annual salary in 1948-49 for all
classroom teachers was $2,694. Elementary teach­
ers averaged $2,585; those in high schools, $2,835.
The year before, when the average for all class­
room teachers and other instructional staff (ex­
cluding supervisors) was about $2,629, white
teachers averaged $2,721; Negroes, $2,163. In
Florida, teachers’ salaries are on a county-wide
basis. The amounts received by individual teach­
ers have an extremely wide range depending on
the county, amount o f educational preparation,
length o f experience, and also, in some counties,
the rating received under the established rating
system for the particular county.

GEORGIA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

In 1948-49, about 23,000 classroom teachers,
supervisors, and principals— one-third of whom



were Negroes—were employed to teach 700,000
pupils in the public schools. Nearly 7,000 of the
teachers and 160,000 pupils were in the secondary

25

schools. Less than 10 percent of all the teachers
were in one-room schools.
Certification Requirements

The minimum State educational requirement
for standard elementary certificates is 2 years of
college, with 6 courses or 18 semester hours of
professional education including 3 hours o f prac­
tice teaching. For the professional certificate for
junior and senior high school teaching, a bache­
lor’s degree with 18 semester hours of profes­
sional education, including 3 semester hours of
student teaching and observation, is required.
Subject matter requirements for high school cer­
tificates vary with the field o f specialization; they
range from 12 semester hours in physical educa­
tion and the teacher-librarian field to 45 semester
hours in industrial and trade arts. Provisional
and other types of certificates are issued to ap­
plicants with somewhat lower qualifications. Cer­
tificates based on less than 2 years of college are
designated as emergency teaching permits and
are valid for 1 year only. The minimum age for
teachers is 18 years.
Outlook

Opportunities for employment o f elementary
teachers in this State will be excellent in the
immediate future. There was an acute shortage
of teachers at this level in 1948-49, which neces­
sitated issuance of about 2,000 emergency certifi­
cates. Even so, there were still about a hundred
vacancies in the elementary schools. The short­
age of teachers is expected to continue for the
next few years, since enrollments are increasing
rapidly owing to the high birth rates of the
early 1940’s. Enrollments and attendance are
also being increased by better enforcement of the
State’s compulsory attendance law ; visiting
teachers increased daily attendance by 33,000 in
the past 2 years. In addition, experience indi­
cates that approximately 5,000 people leave ele­
mentary and high school teaching in the State
each year and have to be replaced; the large
majority o f these vacancies occur in elementary
schools. Additional qualified personnel are
needed to replace many of the people employed on
emergency certificates and to enable a reduction
o f the pupil load per teacher. In contrast, only
about 500 persons completed elementary-teacher
education programs in Georgia’s teacher-training
institutions in 1949; over half were Negroes. It
is obvious that shortages in the white elementary
schools will not be relieved to any great extent

26




in the near future. The supply of Negro teachers
is more adequate but is expected to be still some­
what short of the demand in 1949-50.
Elementary teachers are likely to continue in
great demand throughout the 1950 decade. Peak
enrollments, occurring about 1956-57, will prob­
ably be nearly 150,000 greater than in 1948-49.
At a ratio of 30 pupils per teacher, this would
mean a need for 5,000 additional positions during
the 8-year period. The number of teachers needed
as replacements will, of course, depend upon the
attrition rate, which will probably decrease some­
what. I f it should be as low as 10 percent, the
number needed annually would be over 2,000 in
the late 1950’s.
High school teachers are also expected to be in
strong demand, though enrollments in grades 9
to 12 will remain at about the 1948-49 level for
the next year or two. There were some 800
teachers employed on emergency certificates and
about 50 vacancies in 1948-49. The need for
special-subject teachers for physical sciences,
mathematics, and library science is especially
acute. The recent addition of the twelfth grade
in 95 percent o f the school systems requires more
teachers. Replacement rates will probably remain
high during the next few years at least. A lto­
gether, many more new high school teachers will
be needed in 1949-50 than the training institu­
tions in the State are providing. According to a
survey made by the Regents of the University
System of Georgia, only about 750 graduates of
1948-49 plan to teach at the secondary level;
many of these teachers may go to other States.
Negro teachers may soon meet considerable com­
petition for jobs, as the supply is approaching
the demand.
Beginning about 1951-52, secondary school en­
rollments and teaching positions will have an
upward trend. By 1960 the number of students
may be nearly 62,000 higher than in 1948-49.
This expansion in enrollment would require about
2,500 additional teaching positions, on the basis
of one teacher for each 25 pupils. While the re­
placement rate is expected to decrease somewhat,
the expanded staff will tend to increase the nu­
merical turn-over; if the attrition rate should be
10 percent, around 950 new teachers would be
needed as replacements each year during the
latter 1950’s.
Earnings

The average salary of Georgia’s classroom
teachers was about $1,800 in 1948-49 ; elementary

teachers averaged $1,600 and secondary teachers,
$2 ,200.

The minimum State salary schedule in effect
for the 1949-50 school year is as follow s:
Monthly salary (12 months)

Educational preparation and
type of certificate

White

Colored

Certificate based on less than 1
year of college

$94

$73

General elementary certificate
based on :
1 year of college

102

79

1 year of college plus 49 or
more months of experience.

112

86

Elementary or high school— Provi­
sional certificate based o n :
2 years of college

124

101

3 years of college

134

109

4 years of college

145

132

5 years of college

165

154

Professional certificates based on :
2 years of college

134

109

3 years of college

145

118

4 years of college

155

141

5 years of college

173

162

Life professional certificate °
based on :
2 years of college

145

118

3 years of college

155

126

4 years of college

165

150

5 years of college

182

170

Atlanta had a single-salary schedule in effect
in 1948-49 to which cost-of-living adjustment of
40 percent was added. The first-year salary was
within the range of $840 to $1,440. Assignment to
a specific “ track,” made at the beginning of the
second year, is based on teaching efficiency and
related factors. Maximum salaries for the four
tracks for teachers without the master’s degree
were $1,560, $1,920, $2,280, and $2,316; for those
with the master’s degree, $1,980, $2,340, $2,700,
and $2,772.
The single-salary schedule for Bibb County,
including Macon, provided minimum salaries
based on the State schedule and maximum sal­
aries of $3,250, $4,000 and $5,000 depending on
the teacher’s preparation.
Columbus had a position-preparation schedule
in effect in 1948-49, which paid a minimum of
$1,350 and a maximum of $2,050 to kindergarten
teachers. Elementary and secondary teachers had
minimum salaries of $1,700, $2,000, or $2,200 and
maximum salaries o f $2,400, $2,700, and $3,650,
depending on preparation.

° Life certificates will not be issued after July 1, 1950.

IDAHO
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 4,600 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the pub­
lic schools of Idaho to handle approximately
120,000 pupils. About 74 percent of the pupils
and 68 percent o f the teachers were in elementary
schools. One-room school districts have been de­
creasing rapidly; and only 165 teachers were in
one-room schools in 1948-49.
Certification Requirements

In 1947, the Idaho State Legislature passed a
law providing for progressively rising standards
of academic credit to qualify for a standard ele­
mentary teaching certificate. Until September 1
of the following years, the requirements will be
as follow s:
1949—
1950—
1951—
1952—
1953—
1954—

Completion
Completion
Completion
Completion
Completion
Completion




of 64 semester
of 75 semester
o f 85 semester
of 96 semester
of 107 semester
o f 117 semester

hours.
hours.
hours.
hours.
hours.
hours.

Eighteen hours of professional education courses,
six of which are practice teaching, must be in­
cluded. Certain specified general courses are also
required.
To qualify for a high school certificate, it is
necessary to have a bachelor’s degree and 20 hours
of professional education courses, 3 of which must
be high school practice teaching. A further re­
quirement is 15 semester hours in each of two
teaching fields.
Emergency certificates are issued on request of
the local school superintendent to certain appli­
cants who do not have all the qualifications
needed for a standard certificate. Requirements
for an emergency certificate for the year 1949-50
are as follow s: for elementary teaching, 32
semester hours of college work or 1 year’s teach­
ing experience on a valid certificate; for high
school teaching, 64 semester hours of college
work. In order to retain an emergency certificate,
a teacher who held one in 1948-49 must either
have completed 3 semester hours of approved
courses within the preceding year or have taken

27

6 semester hours of approved work in residence
at an accredited teacher-training school within
the preceding 2 years. The requirement of addi­
tional professional training each year probably
will be continued as long as emergency permits
remain necessary. In-service training classes are
being offered in most parts of the State, so that
emergency certificate holders can meet this re­
quirement.
Outlook

The elementary teacher shortage which existed
in the previous year will probably continue in
1949-50. I f as large a proportion of the elemen­
tary teaching staff withdraws from Idaho grade
schools as did in 1947-48, then about 470 (or 15
percent) will have to be replaced. Additional
teachers will be needed to handle increasing en­
rollments in the lower grades. The supply of
fully qualified teachers will probably not be ade­
quate to meet these demands; only 150 teachertrainees were expected to complete courses of
study at Idaho institutions in 1949 qualifying
them for regular elementary certificates. The
number o f teachers recruited from other States
will not be large. Only about 50 out-of-State
teachers had their certificates endorsed for Idaho
elementary schools in 1948-49. In all probability
as many substandard teachers will have to be
employed in 1949-50 as in the preceding year,
when over 1,000 emergency certificates were
issued.
The annual need for elementary teachers will
remain high throughout the 1950 decade. En­
rollments in grades 1 to 8 will probably rise to a
peak about 1957-58, when some 29,000 more chil­
dren may be enrolled than in 1948-49. I f one
teacher were hired for every 30 children, this
would call for the employment of nearly 1,000
additional teachers during the 9-year interval.
After 1958, enrollments are expected to drop off
slowly, but the expanded teaching force will
tend to bring with it an increased number of
vacancies owing to death, or other causes. I f the
withdrawal rate should continue to be 15 percent,
then the yearly demand for teachers to fill va­
cancies w’ould probably rise to about 600 in the
late 1950’s.
The high school teacher shortage will be sub­
stantially reduced in 1949-50 but may not be
entirely eliminated. I f the proportion of teach­
ers who retire or otherwise leave Idaho schools

28




should be the same as in the previous year, about
175 teachers (12 percent of the teaching staff)
would have to be replaced in the fall of 1949.
In addition, qualified teachers will be sought to
replace some of those who were teaching on
emergency certificates in 1948-49 (200 such certi­
ficates were issued that year). Most of the supply
of new high school teachers will probably come
from Idaho institutions, which were expected to
graduate about 211 students in this field in 1949.
About 100 teachers from outside the State had
their certificates endorsed for use in Idaho sec­
ondary schools in 1948-49; however, since many
States will have an oversupply of secondary
teachers, a somewhat larger number may be avail­
able from this source in 1949-50. Competition
for jobs is likely to develop soon in some subject
fields. Shortages are expected to continue longest
in rural high schools and in special subjects such
as agriculture and industrial arts.
Beginning in 1950, the number of high school
students enrolled and, therefore, the number o f
teachers needed will probably increase, first gradu­
ally and later rapidly. By 1959-60, there may be
over 10,000 more youths in high school than in
1948-49. Assuming a ratio o f 25 pupils per
teacher, this would mean staff additions totaling
about 400 over the 11-year period. Growth in
size o f staff will tend to bring about an increase
in the number of yearly withdrawals; if the at­
trition rate continues at approximately 12 per­
cent, the replacements needed may rise to about
220 annually by the late 1950’s.
Earnings

The average salary for secondary classroom
teachers in 1948-49 was around $2,650; for ele­
mentary teachers, about $2,360.
The minimum annual salary schedule provided
by State law was as follow s:

Educational preparation

Less than 2 years

Starting
salary

Annual
increments

$1,200

5 @ $45

Salary with
maximum
credit for
experience
$1,425

2 years, but less than 3_

1,400

7 @

45

1,715

3 years, but less than 4_

1,500

7 @

45

1,815

4 years, but less than 5_

1,600

10 @

45

2,050

5 years or more

1,800

10 @

45

2,250

N ote .— M ost school systems paid more than the legal mini­
mum.

ILLINOIS
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

There were about 32,500 teachers, supervisors,
and principals and about 865,000 pupils in the
public elementary schools during the school year
1948-49. The public high schools (including
junior high schools) employed approximately
13,200 teachers for their 330,000 students. A
large portion of the State’s school population is
concentrated in the city o f Chicago. During the
1947-48 school year there were about 300,000 ele­
mentary pupils and about 110,000 high school
students enrolled in the Chicago public schools.
Certification Requirements

To obtain a regular State teaching certificate,
one must have a bachelor’s degree from an ac­
credited college with at least 16 semester hours
in professional education courses, including 5
semester hours o f practice teaching. In addition,
candidates for high school teaching certificates
must have specified numbers o f semester hours
in subjects to be taught. A limited elementary
school certificate, valid for 4 years, may be issued
after successful examination to those who have
60 semester hours credit, including 10 hours in
education o f which 5 were in practice teaching.
Requirements for regular certificates to teach
in Chicago public schools are higher in several
respects. A ll candidates must have had either 2
years of successful teaching experience in the
appropriate grade or specified amounts of prac­
tice teaching. Those desiring to teach academic
subjects in high schools must have at least a
master’s degree in their major field. In addition
to the educational requirements, the Chicago
Board of Education has specified that candidates
must be citizens of the United States; must be
between the ages of 19 and 49; and must pass a
physical examination. Certificates are issued only
upon passing an examination with special refer­
ence to the position desired.
When fully qualified teachers are not available,
emergency State certificates are issued to persons
with slightly lower qualifications. To obtain a
temporary certificate to teach in Chicago elemen­
tary schools, one needs a bachelor’s degree but
only 15 semester hours in professional education
courses.
Outlook

A severe shortage of elementary teachers
existed in 1948-49 and is expected to continue



during the next few years. Illinois education
officials estimate that about 12 percent of the
State’s elementary teachers left the profession
during the 1947-48 school year. I f attrition con­
tinues at this rate, about 4,000 new elementary
teachers would be needed annually during the
next 2 or 3 years to replace those leaving the
profession. Some of the 2,517 elementary teachers
issued emergency certificates in 1948-49 will also
need to be replaced; emergency certification will
end July 1, 1951. In addition, based on a ratio of
30 pupils per teacher, it is estimated that an
average of about 700 new teachers per year would
be required to handle the 65,000 increase in en­
rollments expected from 1949-50 to 1951-52.
However, in some parts of the State consolida­
tion of school facilities may make it possible to
take care of increased enrollments without hiring
additional teachers.
The supply o f students at Illinois colleges com­
pleting courses qualifying them for elementary
positions in 1949 has been estimated at only about
825, a small fraction of anticipated demand. This
is considerably lower than the 1,666 who com­
pleted such preparation in 1941.
The most rapid rise in enrollments and the
peak need for teachers is expected to occur from
about 1952 to 1956. On the basis of 30 pupils per
teacher, an average of approximately 1,500 new
teachers would be needed annually to take care
of the increase of about 180,000 in enrollments
expected during this 4-year period. I f the attri­
tion rate should continue to be about 12 percent,
between 4,000 and 5,000 new elementary teachers
would be needed annually during this period to
replace those who leave the profession.
At the high school level, there will probably be
an oversupply of teachers in 1949-50 in most sub­
ject fields, especially social science and men’s
physical education. However, additional mathe­
matics, shop, home economics, and music teachers
will be needed that year.
There has recently been a considerable increase
in the number o f persons preparing to enter sec­
ondary teaching. About 3,500 students are ex­
pected to complete college courses qualifying
them for high school positions during 1949, a
considerable increase over the figure of 2,576 for
1948, 1,070 for 1945, and 1,830 for 1941. However,
it is likely that some of these students do not plan
to enter the teaching profession.

29

The demand for teachers anticipated during
the next 5 years is far less than this supply. An
average of about 100 new high school teachers
would be needed annually to handle the 10,000
increase in enrollment expected during the next
5 years or so, if we assume a pupil-teacher ratio
of 25 to 1. Almost 1,000 additional teachers will
be needed each year to replace those lost to the
profession during this period because o f deaths,
retirements, or transfers to other fields of work
(based on the 1947-48 attrition rate of 7 percent).
The demand for high school teachers will in­
crease most rapidly during the last part of the
1950 decade, as the peak enrollments pass from
the elementary grades to the high school. Assum­
ing a ratio of 25 students per teacher, an average
of about 900 new teachers would be needed each
year to take care of the 70,000 increase in high
school enrollment that is expected in the period,
1955-56 to 1957-58. A t the same time (based on
an attrition rate of 7 percent) about 1,100 new
teachers would be needed annually as replace­
ments. High school enrollments are expected to
remain at a high level during the rest of the
decade and in the early 1960’s.

Annual salary
Type of
position

Minimum

Increments

Maximum

Elementary :
Lower group

$2,200

4 @ $200

Upper group

3,200

4 @

200

4,000

High school:
Lower group

2,640

4 @

240

3,600

Upper group

3,840

4 @

240

4,800

$3,000

Three requirements must be fulfilled for pro­
motion from lower group to upper group: (1)
one year of service at the maximum salary of
the lower group; (2) an efficiency rating o f satis­
factory, excellent, or superior; (3) completion of
additional training or written examination. A
study of the distribution of salaries paid indi­
cates that the upper group is reached by most
teachers who remain in the system.
Salary schedules for two other large cities in
Illinois for 1948-49 are as follow s:
Annual salary
Amount of college
training

S P R IN G F IE L D

Minimum

Increments

Maximum

a

2 years

$2,200

Earnings

3 years

2,300

15 @

100

3,800

The average teaching salary in Illinois during
the 1948-49 school year was about $2,250 for ele­
mentary teachers and $3,000 for high school
teachers. During the 1948-49 school year the
average salary in Chicago was $4,104, fifth high­
est among the Nation’s 20 largest cities. During
the calendar year 1948, Chicago had the follow­
ing salary schedule:

Bachelor’s degree

2,800

17 @

100

4,500

Master’s degree

3,000

17 @

100

4,700

2 years

2,300

22 @

50

3.400

Bachelor’s degree

2,400

17 @
5 @

70
50

3,840

Master’s degree

2,540

15 @
9 @

70
50

4,040

EAST

ST.

15 @ $100

$3,700

L O U IS

a This schedule was effective January 1, 1949.

INDIANA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Indiana’s public elementary schools had ap­
proximately 13,000 teachers and 470,000 pupils
in the school year 1948-49. The public high
schools employed 11,400 teachers for about 165,000 students.
Certification Requirements

The minimum requirement for a provisional
elementary certificate is graduation from a 4-year
college course, with 6 to 8 semester hours of prac­
tice teaching and 32 additional semester hours
in professional education courses. This certificate
is valid for teaching all grades from kinder­
garten through grade eight, inclusive, and also
for teaching the ninth grade in junior high school

30



when the teacher has the required amount o f col­
lege credit in the appropriate teaching field.
One may obtain a provisional secondary certifi­
cate by meeting stringent requirements which in­
clude : graduation from an accredited college ;
18 semester hours in professional education, o f
which 5 are in student teaching; and completion
of a specified amount of college work in the field
to be taught. This certificate entitles the holder
to teach the subject or subjects indicated on the
certificate in grades 7 through 12 in any second­
ary school and also in a departmentalized ele­
mentary school. A provisional certificate is valid
for 5 years and may be renewed for one addi­
tional 5-year period only. It may be converted

into a permanent elementary or secondary certifi­
cate after the holder has had 5 years’ experience
and has earned a master’s degree. When persons
meeting all these requirements are not available,
emergency permits are issued to persons with
slightly lower qualifications.
About 85 percent of the city teachers and about
75 percent of the town teachers employed in 194849 were college graduates. However, only about
one-fourth of the rural elementary teachers were
college graduates. A recent survey disclosed that
about 85 percent of Indiana’s teachers had se­
cured some additional college training during the
last 3 years.

new teachers needed to satisfy these needs has
been estimated by the Indiana School Study
Commission as follow s:5

Estimated number of new teachers needed
fo r Indiana schoolsa
For 10-year period, 1948-49
through 1957-58
Elementary
To fill present vacancies
To offset annual losses 6

Secondary

114

115

9,510

5,590

854

702

457

268

To replace holders of emergency
p e r m it s c

To replace present overage

Outlook

te a ch e rs

The severe shortage of elementary teachers
which existed during the 1948-49 school year is
expected to continue during the next few years.
The Indiana School Study Commission had made
a detailed study of the impact of the anticipated
increase in enrollments upon the demand for
teachers in the State. Their estimates of teacher
demand are given in the following table.

Estimated number of new teachers needed to provide
fo r increased enrollments a
Year
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
Total

Elementary
(grades 1 - 8 ) 6

Secondary
(grades 9 -1 2 ) 6

463
468
268
636
1,013
1,004
883
676
628

—55
-9
82
210
152
122
207
374
384

6,039

1,467

a Indiana School Study Commission, Employed School Person­
nel (Mimeographed), 1948, p. (G) 17. Derived from estimates
of school enrollment (based on the assumption that births would
continue at the 1947 rate) reported in a study by M. E. Stapley,
“ Elementary Teacher Demand in Indiana,” in School and
Society, Vol. 67, No. 1725, January 17, 1948. It should be noted
that these estimates are based on the assumption that births
would continue at the 1947 rate.
6 Based on a ratio of one new teacher to each 35 additional
pupils enrolled in elementary grades and one to each 25 addi­
tional pupils enrolled in high school.

Besides the new teachers needed to handle
increased enrollments, many will be required to
fill existing vacancies, to replace those who retire
or leave the profession for other reasons and to
reduce oversized classes. Still other teachers
would be needed to replace older teachers and
holders of emergency permits. The number of



To reduce present average pupilteacher ratio

1,962 6

To provide for increased enrollment

6,555

1,263

19,452

7,938

Total

( ')

a Indiana School Study Commission, Employed School Person­
nel (Mimeographed), 1948, p. (G) 19. This table deals with
teaching positions only and excludes administrative and super­
visory positions. All estimates are based upon or derived from
available records, reports, and studies and are conservative in
all instances.
6 These figures were derived by projecting the average annual
number of retirements and withdrawals from the Indiana State
Teachers Retirement Fund for the period from January 1, 1945,
to September 17, 1948. Division between elementary and second­
ary was made on same basis as ratio of total elementary to the
total secondary teachers in the State.
c As reported by superintendents in reply to inquiry of Re­
search Service, Indiana State Teachers Association, spring, 1948.
d Estimated number of teachers in service, 1947-48, 66 years
of age or older, October 1, 1947, as derived from sampling study
of records of the Indiana State Teachers Retirement Fund.
e Estimated number of new elementary teachers needed to
reduce elementary pupil-teacher ratio in accordance with median
proposal of superintendents.
f No reduction proposed in average secondary pupil-teacher
ratio for the State as a whole. Many individual schools should
reduce secondary pupil-teacher ratios from present high figures
in those schools.

Altogether, according to these estimates, an
average of about 2,000 new elementary teachers
per year will be needed during the period from
1948-49 to 1957-58. However, only about 250
students completed college courses in 1949 quali­
fying them for elementary positions. This figure
compares with 280 in 1948, 220 in 1945, and 215
in 1941. It is evident that a much larger number
of graduates are needed.
5 Indiana School Study Commission, Employed School Person­
nel (Mimeographed), 1948, p. (G) 19.

31

In contrast to the situation in the elementary
grades, keen competition is developing for high
school positions. The Indiana School Study Com­
mission reported during the 1948-49 school year:

Earnings

Indiana’s new State-mandated minimum salary
schedule for 1949-50 is as follow s: for a 9-month
term:

The total high school teacher output of Indiana col­
leges and universities in 1948 was approximately equal
to the demand. There is evidence that the supply is ris­
ing above the demand in the total number with a grow­
ing oversupply in the fields of English, Mathematics,

Educational
preparation

2,025

2,400

5 wars

2,400

Health and Boys’ Physical Education.6

According to the above table, an average of
about 800 new high school teachers will be needed
annually during the next 9 or 10 years. A p ­
proximately 2,000 students completed college
courses preparing them for high school positions
in 1949; this compares with 1,776 in 1948 and
1,229 in 1941. Although some of these students
may not enter the profession, it is likely that
there will be a surplus of high school teachers in
most teaching fields during the next few years.
However, additional teachers will be needed in
home economics and agriculture for 1949-50.
6 An Evaluation of Indiana Public Schools, Indiana School
Study Commission, November 1948, Indianapolis, Indiana, p. 34.

$2,070

6 @ $45

$1,800

4 years

Modern Languages, Social Studies, Biological Sciences,

2 years
3 years

With full
credit for
experience

Increments

Minimum

6 @
/
)
\

45

2,295

10 @
2 @
1 @

45
90
95

3,125

23 @ 52.86
1 @ 184.47

3,800

According to a survey by the Indiana State
Teachers Association, median salaries of Indiana
teachers were as follows in 1948-49:
Size of community

Entire State
Cities of 30,000 and over_
Cities of 10,000—
30,000----Cities of 5,000-10,000____
Cities of 2,500-5,000
Town schools
Township sch o o ls________

Kinder­
garten

Elemen­
tary

Junior
high
school

High
school

$2,917
3,245
3,105
2,350
2,333
2,550
—

$2,698
3,587
3,395
2,730
2,655
2,384
2,317

$3,506
3,819
3,621
3,069
3,017
2,767
2,961

$3,224
4,147
3,949
3,274
3,230
2,980
2,894

IOWA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

During the school year 1948-49 there were
about 14,000 teachers, principals, and supervisors
and 328,500 pupils in the public elementary
schools. The public high schools employed about
7,650 teachers for their 137,450 students.
Certification Requirements

Regular certificates to teach in elementary
schools are granted to persons who have com­
pleted 2 years of college work. Graduation from
a 4-year college course is required for high school
teaching. The training of candidates for this
certificate must have included 15 semester hours
o f professional education courses, at least 3 hours
o f which are in student teaching and observation.
The State Superintendent of Public Instruction
has also issued emergency certificates to persons
who did not meet these requirements.
Outlook

There was a shortage of elementary teachers
in Iowa during 1948-49, and this is expected to
continue during the next few years. It is esti­

32




mated that about 1,500 new teachers were needed
during the 1948-49 school year to replace those
who left the profession, and it is expected that a
similar number of replacements will be needed
annually during the next few years. An average
of about 100 additional teachers will probably
be needed annually during the next 3 years to
handle an expected 10,000 increase in enrollments.
Other qualified teachers are needed to replace
some of those holding emergency certificates
(about 1,000 such certificates were in force in the
spring of 1949). About 850 students from Iowa
teacher-training institutions were expected to
complete preparation to teach in elementary
schools in 1949, as compared with 684 in 1948 and
789 in 1941. Even the 1949 supply will obviously
fall far short of the number needed.
Employment of elementary teachers will have
an upward trend until the late 1950’s, It is esti­
mated that in the fall of 1956 enrollments in ele­
mentary schools (grades 1 to 8) will be about
64,000 higher than in the 1948-49 school year.
About 2,100 additional teachers would be needed

to handle this increase in enrollment, on the basis
of a 30 to 1 pupil-teacher ratio. In addition, as­
suming an attrition rate o f 10 percent, applied to
the expanded staff, an average of about 1,600 ele­
mentary teachers will probably be needed annu­
ally during the late 1950’s to replace those who
leave the profession each year owing to death, re­
tirement, or transfer to another occupation.
The demand for high school teachers is not as
great as for elementary teachers, but many wellqualified people will be able to find positions as
replacements for those who leave the profession.
I f we assume an attrition rate of 10 percent,
about 800 new teachers would be needed annually
as replacements during the next 2 or 3 years.
Additional persons may also be hired to replace
some of the teachers now employed on substand­
ard certificates.
There has recently been an increase in the
number o f students preparing to enter high school
teaching. About 1,800 students are expected to
complete courses in 1949 qualifying them for
high school teaching. This compares with 1,450
in 1948 and 982 in 1941. Although some of these
graduates will not enter the teaching profession,
it is likely that there will be an oversupply o f
high school teachers in the near future.
As the peak enrollments pass from the elemen­
tary grades to high school (grades 9 to 12),
there will be an increased demand for high school
teachers. It is estimated that an average of about
150 additional high school teachers will be needed
per year to take care of the increase of about
15,000 students in high school enrollments be­
tween 1954-55 and 1957-58. On the basis of a

10-percent attrition rate, about 850 will be needed
each year to replace those who leave the profes­
sion during this period. High school enrollments
will continue to increase slightly during the
early 1960’s but at a less rapid rate.
Earnings

In 1948-49 the average teaching salary in
Iowa was $2,400. The median salary for elemen­
tary teachers was $3,500 in cities of 15,000 and
over, $2,300 in cities from 2,000 to 14,999, and
about $2,000 in smaller communities. Men high
school teachers had a median salary of $3,600 in
large cities, $3,200 in small cities, and about
$2,850 elsewhere. Women secondary teachers had
median earnings o f $3,200 in large cities, $2,600
in small cities, and $2,500 elsewhere.
Des Moines had a single-salary schedule in
1948-49, which began at $1,900 for 60 semesterhour certificates. Holders of the bachelor’s degree
certificates started at $2,200 and may eventually
work up to $3,250, while those who have earned
the master’s degree start at $2,400 and may reach
$3,550. A cost-of-living adjustment of $600 was
added to the scheduled salaries.
The minimum scheduled salary (no bonus) for
holders of bachelor’s degree certificates in Cedar
Rapids, Council Bluffs, and Davenport was $2,400
in 1948-49. In Waterloo, it was $2,160, plus a
$240 cost-of-living adjustment. In Ottumwa, a
position-preparation schedule was in effect which
provided $2,200 for women elementary teachers
and $2,300 for women holding degree certificates
as junior and senior high school teachers; men
receive $100 to $300 more.

KANSAS
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Roughly 17,000 teachers, principals, and super­
visors were employed in 1948-49 in the public
schools of Kansas to teach about 340,000 pupils.
There were about 10,000 teachers for 252,000
pupils in the elementary schools and 7,000 teach­
ers for 88,000 high school students.
About one-fifth of the teachers but only oneeighth o f the pupils were in one-teacher rural
schools in 1947-48. Less than two-fifths of the
teachers taught in towns of 2,000 or more popula­
tion, where half the total student body was en­
rolled. Cities o f 15,000 or jnore—including
Topeka, Wichita, and Kansas City—had one


fifth of the teachers and a quarter o f the public
school pupils.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for a regu­
lar high school certificate is a bachelor’s degree,
with 18 semester hours in education courses.
Holders of this certificate may teach in second­
ary or elementary schools; however, beginning
in 1952, only teachers with training in elementary
education will be permitted to teach in elemen­
tary grades. The requirements as to training in
subject fields are different for teachers in class A,
B, and C high schools. In general, for class A
schools—the top-ranking ones—it is necessary to

33

have 15 semester hours in the general subject field
and 5 hours in the particular subject taught. To
qualify for a special secondary certificate, which
entitles the holder to teach only those subjects
specified on the certificate, one must meet addi­
tional requirements.
For a regular 2-year elementary certificate, the
applicant must be a high school graduate and
must have completed 60 semester hours in an ac­
credited college, including 5 semester hours in
observation and participation in classroom work.
Three years’ experience will be accepted in place
of the latter requirement.
Elementary provisional certificates will be is­
sued in 1949-50 to persons who have completed 24
semester hours o f college work; this requirement
will be raised to 30 hours in 1950-51. Starting
in 1952, training in elementary education will be
required. Emergency certificates, issued during
the war to persons with lower qualifications, and
several forms of standard certificates issued
prior to the war have been discontinued. Present
holders o f emergency certificates will have to
complete 8 additional semester hours of college
work to obtain a renewal for the 1949-50 school
year.
As in other States, many school boards, par­
ticularly in the cities, make additional require­
ments with respect to experience and education,
over and above the State minimum standards.
Outlook

Kansas has had a great shortage of elementary
teachers since the w^ar. In 1948-49, nearly 1,600
elementary teachers not in the system the preced­
ing year were taken on, largely as replacements
for those dying, retiring, or leaving for other
reasons. Yet only about 630 students completed
elementary-teacher-training courses of 30 se­
mester hours or more at Kansas institutions in
1948. The deficit of 970 teachers was made up
to some extent by recruits from other States and
personnel returning to the profession after pe­
riods in other fields of work or out of the labor
force, but it w also necessary to take on many
^as
teachers with less than 30 hours of college training.
In 1949-50, the situation is likely to be much
the same. Replacement needs will probably be
about as great as in the preceding year. The
supply of students completing training in 1949
has been estimated at 640 (including 183 with
only 30 semester hours of training, 280 with 60

34




semester hours, 1 with 90 hours, and 176 college
graduates). Obviously, the State’s elementary
schools, particularly those in rural areas, will
take on many teachers who meet only the 24-hour
requirement set for provisional certificates. Little
if any progress will be possible toward replacing
the large group of teachers with still lower
qualifications wdio were hired in previous years
on emergency certificates or other types of per­
mits no longer issued to new recruits. The State
Department of Public Instruction anticipates,
however, that many of these teachers will,
through summer school attendance, gradually in­
crease their training until they qualify for pro­
visional or still higher types of certificates.
Long-run employment prospects are good for
holders of even the lowest grade of certificate
currently issued. Elementary enrollments are ex­
pected to continue rising in Kansas until about
1956-57, when they may be about 50,000 higher
than in 1948-49. At a pupil-teacher ratio of 30
to 1, this would call for the employment of about
1,600 additional teachers over the 8-year period.
The greatest increase in enrollments and therefore
the heaviest demand for teachers is expected from
1952 to 1956, when a pupil-teacher ratio of 30
to 1 would call for the employment of about
1,300 additional teachers over the 4-year period.
In addition, a sizeable number of teachers will
be needed each year as replacements. It is likely
that the attrition rate may drop from the 194849 figure of about 16 percent; if it should, for
example, be as low as 10 percent, an average of
about 1,000 or 1,100 teachers per year would still
be needed during the middle and late 1950’s.
These estimates do not allow for consolidations o f
rural schools, which, no doubt, will tend to reduce
the number of new teachers needed.
At the high school level, competition for jobs
is in prospect for the next few years. High school
enrollments are declining; so teachers will, in
general, be taken on only to meet replacement
needs; in 1948-49, these amounted to about 800
and will probably be of the same general magni­
tude in 1949-50. The supply of students com­
pleting training for high school work in ' the
State in 1949 has been estimated at nearly 1,200.
In some subject fields—including boys’ physical
education, English, and social sciences—the State
Department of Public Instruction anticipates a
surplus of applicants in 1949-50. However, there
will be continuing shortages in that year in some
fields. Teachers trained for secondary school

work should be able, if they wish, to find em­
ployment in the elementary schools in the next
few years, since no special training in elementary
education will be required until 1952.
High school enrollments will have a downward
trend until the middle of the 1950 decade but
are expected to reach a turning point about 1955,
when the relatively large number of children
born during the war years begin to enter high
school. By 1959-60, enrollments may be ap­
proximately 12,000 higher than at the low point
5 years previously but not much more than 5,000
higher than in 1948-49. With a pupil-teacher
ratio of 25 to 1, this gain would mean a total
expansion of only about 200 in the teaching force
above the 1948-49 level.

will tend to bring about some further salary in­
creases, particularly in rural schools.
In Kansas City and Wichita, the salary sched­
ules for women teachers were as follows in 194849:
Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Minimum

Increments

$1,838

11 @ $77

Maximum

K A N S A S C IT Y

60 semester hours

$2,688

90 semester hours

2,147

7 @

77

2,688

Bachelor’s degree

2,379

11 @

77

3,229

Master’s degree

2,456

15 @

77

3,615

W IC H IT A

According to a survey by the Kansas State
Teachers Association, the average salary of ele­
mentary classroom teachers in 1948-49 was about
$1,950. There was wide variation, however, by
size of community: in one-teacher rural schools,
the average was about $1,530; in towns of 2,000
or more population, about $2,180; and in cities
with 15,000 or more, $2,750. Junior and senior
high school teachers, employed mostly in the
cities, averaged $2,820 and $2,830, respectively;
these averages were from $100 to $200 higher than
corresponding figures for the previous year. The
new State aid law passed in the spring of 1949

Bachelor’s degree

2,300

12 @ 100

3,500

140 hours

Earnings

2,400

12 @ 100

3,600

Master’s degree or bache­
lor’s degree, plus 40
hours of graduate work

2,500

12 @ 100

3,700

In Kansas City men may earn 5 more incre­
ments, resulting in a maximum of $3,615 for those
with a bachelor’s degree and $4,002 for those with
a master’s degree.
In Wichita they receive a $200 differential.
In Kansas City additional training is required
every 5 years to advance on the schedule and to
remain at the maximum; a similar proviso will
apply to Wichita contracts for 1950-51 and fol­
lowing years.

KENTUCKY
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

The public school system o f Kentucky em­
ployed about 19,000 classroom teachers, princi­
pals, and supervisors and had 540,200 pupils
enrolled in 1948-49. Only about one-fourth of the
enrollments and teachers were in urban schools
(cities with 2,500 or more population) ; nearly
3,300 teachers were in one-teacher schools. The
elementary schools employed 13,290 teachers and
had 422,975 pupils enrolled; secondary schools
had 5,610 teachers and 117,225 pupils. Approxi­
mately 1,330 teachers and 38,000 pupils were in
schools for Negroes.
Certification Requirements

The educational requirements for the provi­
sional elementary teaching certificate, which is
valid for 3 years, are a minimum o f 2 years of



college preparation (64 semester hours) with at
least 9 semester hours in English, 6 in science,
9 in social sciences, 6 in fine arts, 4 in health, and
17 in professional education, including 4 in super­
vised teaching. For the standard elementary cer­
tificate, valid for 4 years, the bachelor’s degree
with 28 semester hours in professional education,
including 8 in supervised teaching is required.
The bachelor’s degree is required for the high
school provisional certificate which is valid for
4 years. Training must include at least 18 se­
mester hours in professional education subjects,
of which 8 to 9 hours must be in student teaching.
The standard high school certificate, valid for
5 years, is issued to applicants who have com­
pleted the requirements for a master’s degree in
a standard graduate school.
Emergency certificates are issued under certain

35

circumstances to applicants not meeting regular
requirements. New applicants for such certifi­
cates in 1949-50 must have at least 1 year of col­
lege training for elementary teaching and at least
the bachelor’s degree for the high school level.
Outlook

Elementary teachers for white schools will be
in strong demand in Kentucky during the next
few years. Shortages in rural schools are ex­
pected to continue to be especially acute. In
1948-49 more than 4,000 emergency certificates
w^ere issued; nevertheless 15 one-teacher schools
did not open. Qualified teachers will be needed
to replace some of those employed on emergency
certificates, as well as to take care of the increas­
ing enrollments resulting from the high birth
rates in the early 1940’s. In addition, many
teachers retire, die, or otherwise leave the profes­
sion each year and replacements are needed for
them. In 1948-49, about 1,750 new teachers were
employed in the elementary schools mostly as re­
placements; it is expected that at least as many
will be needed in 1949-50 as in the preceding
year. That the supply of white elementary teach­
ers is inadequate to meet the demand is indicated
by the fact that less than 600 white students were
expected to complete preparation in teacher­
training institutions in the State in 1949. The
supply of colored teachers appears to be ade­
quate to meet the demand in most localities.
The demand for elementary teachers is ex­
pected to remain high during the 1950’s. Ele­
mentary enrollments (grades 1 to 8) will proba­
bly continue to rise each year until about. 1956-57,
when they may be some 90,000 higher than in
1948-49. On the basis of 30 pupils per teacher,
the increased enrollments would require 3,000
new teaching positions. The replacement rate for
teachers is expected to decrease somewhat, but
even at the prewar rate of around 7 percent there
would be need for over 1,000 new teachers annu­
ally during the last half of the 1950 decade.
Competition is expected during the next few
years for secondary school positions in most sub­
ject fields, particularly English and social science.
However, in 1948-49 there was still a shortage of
music, library science, and home economics teach­
ers. A few new positions may be required, as en­
rollments are expected to rise moderately because
o f increasing efforts to bring rural pupils into the
high schools. About 280 new teachers will prob­
ably be needed annually for replacements, assum­

36




ing an attrition rate of 5 percent. Also, some o f
the 300 teachers employed on emergency certifi­
cates in 1948-49 may be replaced by fully quali­
fied personnel.
In relation to these demands, teacher-training
institutions in the State expected to graduate
1,156 students qualified for secondary school
teaching in 1949, as compared with 727 in 1948
and 1,195 in 1941. Some of the surplus o f teach­
ers with high school certificates may take posi­
tions in the elementary schools. Such persons
may teach in the elementary grades for 1 year
on an emergency basis, but they must take 8
semester hours of work in elementary education
to serve again. Opportunities for Negro teachers
are very few in relation to the supply.
About 1952, the number of secondary teachers
needed will start to increase, as the peak enroll­
ments begin to reach the high schools (grades 9
to 12). Enrollments in these grades will increase
each year thereafter through 1960 or later. On
the basis of 25 pupils per teacher, it is estimated
that these increased enrollments will require
about 950 (more teaching positions in 1959-60
than there were in 1948-49. The greatest increase
for any one year will probably occur about
1956-57, requiring some 260 more teaching posi­
tions than in the previous year, on the above as­
sumption as to class size. As the teaching staff
is expanded, the number who leave the profession
each year will increase and will probably amount
to over 300 annually in the latter years of the
1950 decade if an attrition rate o f 5 percent pre­
vails. Nevertheless, it appears that a high school
teacher supply as large as that of 1949 would
more than meet the needs in the 1950’s.
Earnings

According to a report issued by the Depart­
ment of Education, median annual salaries of
full-time teachers in 1948-49 were as follows :
White

Colored

County schools:
Elementary

$1,197

$1,343

1,766

1,771

Elementary

2,052

2,178

High school

2,625

2,467

High School

..

Independent schools in cities :

The single-salary schedules in effect in 1948-^9
for teachers in the cities of Louisville, Covington,,
and Lexington are given on page 37.

Annual salary

Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Minimum

Increments

Maximum

Educational
preparation
Bachelor’s degree_____

Minimum
$2,075

Increments
15 (a $80

Maximum
$3,275

L O U IS V IL L E

3 years

$ 2 ,0 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

12 @ $75
12 (a
1 @

75

$2,900

Master’s degree

2,175

15 @

80

3,375

3,200

Doctor’s degree

2,275

15 @

80

3,475

3,900

Bachelor’s d egree------

2 ,0 0 0

11 @

25-75

2,700

4,200

Bachelor’s degree plus
15 hours

2,050

12 @

50-75

2,800

Master’s degree

2 years

2,150

13 @

50-75

2,950

Master’s degree plus
15 hours

2 ,2 0 0

13 @

50-75

3,000

100
L E X IN G T O N

Bachelor’s d eg ree------

2,400

11

(a

100

2 @

2,600

12 @

100

2 @

Master’s degree

200

200

C O V IN G T O N

No degree

1,975

15 @

80

3,175

LOUISIANA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

This State’s public schools had about 15,550
classroom teachers, principals, and supervisors in
1948- 49, only 15 percent of whom were employed
in cities with 2,500 or more population. The ele­
mentary schools employed approximately 10,900
teachers for 372,000 pupils; about 4,000 of these
teachers and 156,000 of the students were in
Negro schools. Secondary schools had 4,650
teachers and 85,000 pupils; the numbers of
Negroes included were about 800 teachers and
17,000 students.
In 1948^49 the State schools were in process of
shifting from an 11-grade to a 12-grade system.
The transition was expected to be completed in
1949- 50.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirements for the
lowest grade regular elementary certificate (type
C) are a bachelor’s degree with 46 semester hours
in general courses, 31 hours in specific subjects
applicable to elementary teaching, and 24 hours
in professional education courses including 4
hours of student teaching and 14 hours appropri­
ate to elementary schools. Negro teachers with 2
years o f college—including a 4-semester-hour
course in practice teaching in the elementary
grades unless they have had 5 years of teaching
experience—can obtain elementary certificates
valid for 5 years.
For the regular high school certificate the re­
quirements include a bachelor’s degree with 46
semester hours in general courses and 18 hours in
professional education, including 4 hours in stu­
dent teaching. In addition, stipulated numbers
of hours must have been completed in the subjects
to be taught.



Requirements for emergency certificates are not
standardized throughout the State and are, of
course, much lower in some of the school districts
than the State minimum requirements for regu­
lar certification.
Outlook

Employment opportunities for elementary
teachers will be excellent over the next few years.
Additional personnel are needed to teach the in­
creased numbers of children reaching school age,
and fully qualified teachers are needed to re­
place many of the persons teaching on emergency
permits (nearly 1,000 such permits were issued
in 1948-49). In addition, about 550, or 5 percent,
o f the elementary staff leave teaching in the State
each year and replacements are needed for them.
Approximately 35 percent o f these new teacher
needs are for Negro teachers. In 1948 only 130
white and 190 Negro students from Louisiana
teacher-training institutions had completed prep­
aration for elementary teaching. Even if this
supply were doubled in 1949, the supply of ele­
mentary teachers would be inadequate to meet
the demand.
Many additional elementary teachers will have
to be employed during the next decade. Enroll­
ments at the elementary level (grades 1 to 8) will
continue to increase each year until about 195758, when they may be nearly 131,000 higher than
in 1948-49. On the basis o f 30 pupils to a teacher,
the increased enrollments would require about
4,350 more teaching positions over the 9-year pe­
riod. During the latter years o f the decade nearly
800 new teachers would be needed annually to
replace those who leave the profession, if the
attrition rate remains about 5 percent.
The employment outlook for high school teach­

37

ers is similar to that for elementary teachers. The
secondary schools will need personnel in 1949-50
to take care of increasing enrollments, as replace­
ments for some of the 240 teachers employed on
emergency permits in 1948-49, and to implement
the shift from an 11-year to a 12-year school
system. In addition, it was estimated that in
1948-49, 465 teachers— 10 percent of the total
number employed—were needed as replacements
for those leaving the profession; approximately
the same number will probably be needed in the
fall o f 1949. Contrary to the situation in most
States, the supply of secondary teachers from
training institutions in Louisiana is not expected
to be adequate to meet the demand. In 1948, 711
students completed preparation for secondary
teaching in 18 out of 19 of the State’s teacher­
training institutions. A supply of this size in
1949 may eliminate some emergency certificates.
Around 1953, secondary school enrollments
(grades 9 to 12) and the number of teachers
needed will begin to increase more rapidly, rising
each year throughout the decade or longer. By
1959-60, enrollments may be about 64,000 higher
than in 1948-49; on the basis of 25 pupils per
teacher, this increase would require about 2,500
additional teaching positions. The number of re­
placements needed during the latter part of the
1950 decade, estimated on the basis of a 10-percent
attrition rate, would be about 700 annually.

Earnings

A minimum salary schedule for public ele­
mentary and secondary school teachers was
adopted in 1948 by the State legislature. The
schedule provided for $100 increments for each
added year of experience to the maximum, and
the rates were for a 9-month school session. I f
the school session was shorter, rates were reduced
accordingly; i. e., for a 7-month session, the
salary would be seven-ninths of the stipulated
rate. The schedule was as follow s:
Educational preparation
Years of
experience

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Less
than
1 year

1
year

2
years

3
years

$1,200

$1,500

$1,800
1,900
2,000
2,100

$2,100
2,200
2,300
2,400
2,500

Bache­
lor’s
degree
$2,400
2,500
2,600
2,700
2,800
2,900
3,000
3,100
3,200

Master’s
degree

$2,500
2,G O
O
2,700
2,800
2,900
3,000
3,100
3,200
3,300
3,400
3,500
3,600

The salary schedules in effect in New Orleans,
Baton Bouge, and Shreveport in 1948-49 were
approximately the same as the State schedule, al­
though there were slight variations in rates.

MAINE
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Maine is unusual in that 99.8 percent of all
children between the ages of 5 and 17 were regis­
tered in some school program in 1948-49. The
public school enrollment was approximately 160,000; three-fourths were in the elementary schools.
Over 6,000 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed, 72 percent in the
elementary schools. About two-thirds of the total
instructional staff was in rural schools.
Certification Requirements

Minimum academic requirement for a standard
professional elementary certificate is graduation
from a 4-year college course, with a bachelor’s
degree. A professional elementary certificate can
be obtained upon graduation from a 3-year nor­
mal course in the elementary field in an approved
normal school. A nonprofessional elementary
certificate can be obtained upon completion of
two or more years of college work, including 6

38




semester hours in the field of elementary teacher
training.
Requirements for the junior high certificate—
professional grade—are completion of either an
approved 3-year junior high school course in an
accredited normal school or a 4-year college
course including 18 semester hours of education,
12 of which must be in the junior high school
field.
To obtain a secondary certificate—professional
grade—one must be a graduate o f an accredited
college and have earned 18 semester hours credit
in education courses. To obtain a nonprofessional
secondary certificate, it is necessary to be a gradu­
ate of an accredited college with 12 semester
hours credit in professional courses.
Emergency certificates are issued to applicants
who do not meet regular requirements, when
qualified candidates are not available.
A survey based on 1947-48 data showed that

the majority (52 percent) of all Maine teachers
had between 2 and 4 years of college education.
Thirteen percent had less than 2 years’ training
beyond high school, and 35 percent had some
training beyond the A. B. degree.
Outlook

The shortage of elementary teachers may be
more pronounced in 1949-50 than in the previous
year. The State Department of Education7 esti­
mates that 450 elementary teachers are needed
annually for normal replacement of personnel
losses. Additional teachers will be needed to
meet the anticipated expansion in enrollments in
the lower grades. It would be desirable also to
have qualified teachers to replace many of the
325 to whom emergency certificates were issued
in 1948-49 and to make it possible to reduce the
size of classes; the Department estimated that
almost half of the elementary units had more
than 30 pupils per teacher in 1948-49. However,
it is doubtful if teachers can be found for either
o f the two last-mentioned purposes, since the im­
mediate needs of the 1949-50 school year will
probably be larger than the available supply.
Only 169 college students from 15 teacher-train­
ing institutions in Maine completed requirements
for regular elementary certificates in 1948; the
number doing so in 1949 is likely to be about the
same. The supply from this and other sources
w ill probably be so small that it will be neces­
T
sary to hire more emergency teachers and over­
crowd the classrooms to a greater extent in 194950 than in the previous year.
To take a longer view, the State Department of
Education estimates that, on the basis of 30
pupils per teacher, 1,200 additional elementary
teachers will have to be added between 1948 and
1956 to handle increased enrollments. This de­
mand will be added to normal replacement needs
(estimated at about 450 annually) and to the
number of teachers needed to bring the staff up
to more desirable levels of training and class load.
After 1956 enrollments are expected to decrease
somewhat, and needs for new teachers will be
limited largely to replacements.
The supply of high school teachers will prob­
ably be more than adequate to fill all positions in
the next few years. The Department of Educa­
tion has estimated that 150 secondary teachers are
7 Estimates attributed to the Maine State Department of Edu­
cation are taken from the following article in the Maine
Teacher’s Digest: Maine’s Teacher Supply, by E. H. Scott,
Deputy Commissioner of Education, December 1948, p. 111.




needed each year for normal replacements. Since
enrollments are expected to increase slightly over
the 1948-49 level, a few new teachers may have
to be recruited to take care o f the additional
pupils. Efforts will also be made to wipe out the
shortage that still remained in 1948-49; in that
year 125 teachers were still employed on an
emergency basis and about one-sixth of the classes
were too large. The number of new graduates
from Maine institutions which train high school
teachers will probably be about 310, as in 1948.
Applicants from among these graduates, together
with those from outside of the State, should be
sufficient to meet all needs except, perhaps, a few
positions requiring specialized training. There
will probably be considerable competition for
positions in the social sciences and some other
fields.
Between 1947-48 and 1955-56, the Department
expects high school enrollments to rise by only
4,000 and the consequent demand for additional
teachers to amount to only 160 during the 8-year
period. After 1956, however, a much sharper
rise in enrollments is forecast. The Department
estimates that there may be 9,500 more high
school students in 1959-60 than 4 years previ­
ously. At a pupil-teacher ratio of 25 to 1, this
rise would necessitate the hiring of 380 teachers
in addition to normal replacements.
Earnings

The State salary law in effect in 1949 set a
minimum of $1,500 for teachers with the lowest
grade of certificate, one of $1,700 for those with
a bachelor’s degree, and a floor of $1,800 for
those with the master’s degree. However, the
estimated average annual salary of secondary
classroom teachers for 1948-49 was $2,530; for
elementary teachers, $1,843. These averages were
about $60 or $70 more than the corresponding
figures for 1947-48.
Earnings o f classroom teachers in both elemen­
tary and secondary grades for the year 1947-48
were distributed as follows, according to figures
from the State Department of Education:
Five percent made less than $1,500 a year;
Eleven percent made $1,500 to $1,799 a year;
Fifty-six percent made $1,800 to $2,399 a
year;
Twenty-one percent made $2,400 to $2,999 a
year;
Seven percent made $3,000 to $3,999 a year ;
A negligible number made over $4,000 a year.

39

MARYLAND
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

In 1948-49, Maryland public schools employed
about 10,000 classroom teachers, supervisors, and
principals to instruct about 310,000 pupils, of
whom nearly half were in rural schools. Nearly
three-fifths of the teaching staff and four-fifths
o f the pupils were in the elementary schools.
About 20 percent o f the instructional staff were
Negroes.
Certification Requirements

The minimum educational requirement for
regular certification of high school teachers in the
State of Maryland is a bachelor’s degree (appli­
cant must rank in upper four-fifths of class).
The college training must include from 18 to 27
semester hours in the major subject field; in
special subjects such as music and art, 30 semester
hours are required. In addition, 16 semester hours
o f education courses, including 5 in practice
teaching and observation must be completed.
Two years’ teaching experience may be substi­
tuted for the practice teaching.
Applicants for regular junior high school
certificates must have completed at least a 4-year
college course, including 12 semester hours each
of English, social studies, and science; 18 semes­
ter hours in the major subject field; and 16
semester hours in education, of which 25 clock
hours must be practice teaching.
The basic requirement for elementary school
certificates is a bachelor’s degree in elementary
education.
Emergency certificates are issued when neces­
sary to applicants not meeting all the above re­
quirements.
Outlook

The great shortage of qualified elementary
teachers which developed in Maryland during
and since the war is expected to continue for the
next few years at least. In-migration plus high
wartime birth rates caused greatly increased en­
rollments in the lower grades, at a time when ex­
cellent employment opportunities were available
for teachers in other jobs, especially in industrial
cities such as Baltimore, and in Government work
in nearby Washington, D. C. The greatest in­
creases in enrollments have been in Anne Arun­
del, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Prince Georges
Counties. The two latter counties are adjacent to

40



Washington, D. C., and have received added
school-age population as a result of the trend for
families with children to move into suburban
areas. It was estimated that more than 75 percent
of the State’s increase in enrollments occurred
in these four counties in 1947.
In addition to the need for teachers to handle
increased enrollments in the elementary schools
(grades 1 to 8) and to replace many of the
emergency teachers (about 950 emergency certifi­
cates were issued in 1948-49), there is an annual
need for many teachers to fill vacancies caused
by deaths, retirements, and other withdrawals
from the profession. In 1948-49, as many as 750
elementary teachers (or 13 percent of the staff)
were estimated to have been needed to replace
such losses. The demand for teachers in 1949-50
is expected to be at least as great as in the previ­
ous year. To meet the needs, only 150 elementary
teachers (including 46 Negroes) were expected to
be graduated from Maryland institutions in 1949;
this is about the same number as completed train­
ing in 1941, when the demand was considerably
less. A good many teachers are being drawn from
other States, especially those in the South; how­
ever, since shortages at the elementary level exist
all over the country, it is doubtful if enough
qualified personnel for all jobs in this State can
be supplied in the next few years.
The number of elementary teaching positions
will probably increase until the mid-1950’s. En­
rollments in the elementary schools are expected
to continue to rise until about 1955-56, when
they may reach a point about 115,000 above the
1948-49 level. To provide enough teachers for
these additional pupils, on the basis of one for
every 30 students, about 3,800 new positions
would have to be filled during the 7-year period.
I f the replacement rate should remain about 13
percent, approximately 1,250 teachers may be
needed annually in the mid-1950’s to replace
those withdrawing from the profession. Enroll­
ments are expected to decrease somewhat in the
latter part o f the decade, but replacement needs
may well continue to be over 1,000 per year.
The teacher supply and demand situation is
more nearly in balance in the high schools
(grades 9 to 12) than in the lower grades. En­
rollments are expected to increase only slightly
for the next few years and few new teaching
positions will be created; therefore, secondary

teachers will be needed chiefly as replacements
for those leaving the profession in the State. In
1948-49, it was estimated that 750 or 17 percent
o f the high school teachers had to be replaced; the
number may be this high in 1949-50. To meet
this demand, the teacher-training institutions in
Maryland expected to graduate about 530 high
school teachers (including 110 Negroes) in 1949
—as compared with 370 in 1948 and 320 in 1941.
The new graduates, plus the large number of
teachers coming from other States where an oversupply of secondary school personnel is already
evident, are expected to provide enough teachers
in most subject fields. Teachers of science, mathe­
matics, music, and industrial arts may still be in
short supply.
Considerably expanded opportunities are antici­
pated in Maryland high schools after about 1954.
Beginning about that time, enrollments in grades
9 to 12 are expected to increase rapidly. They
will have an upward trend till the end of the
decade and beyond, with the greatest increases
occurring about 1956 to 1958; on the basis of 25
students per teacher, over 1,000 new teachers
would be required during this 2-year period to
take care o f the increased enrollments. From
1958 to the end of the decade, between 200 and
300 additional teachers may be needed annually.
The replacement rate will probably decline from
the 1949 figure, but even at a 10-percent rate
about 600 new teachers would be needed annually
as replacements in the last part of the 1950
decade.
Earnings

Maryland’s State-mandated minimum salary
schedule for 1948-49 provided a starting sal­
ary of $2,200 for degree teachers, plus annual
increments o f $100 each. The maximum in

1952-53 will be $3,800 after 17 years’ experience.
Ten counties and the city of Baltimore have
higher schedules. Their starting salaries for
degree teachers ranged from $2,300 to $2,600 in
1948-49. By 1952-53, the maximum in these
districts will range from $3,900 to $4,700.
The full salary schedules for teachers in Balti­
more and in Allegany and Prince Georges
Counties were as follows in 1948-49:
Annual salary
Educational
preparation

B A L T IM O R E

Minimum

Increments

Maximum

«

2 years

$2,200

3 years

2,400

9 @ $200

$4,000

200

4,200

9 @

4 years

2,600

10 @

200

4,600

5 years

2,800

10 @

200

4,800

6 years

3,000

10 @

200

5,000

Without degree

2,200

13 @

100

3,500

Bachelor’s degree

2,400

13 @

100

3,700

Master’s degree

2,600

13 @

100

3,900

1,800

11 @

100

2,900
3,100

ALLEGANY COUNTY

b

P R IN C E GEORGES C O U N T Y c

Provisional certificate__
2d grade certificate____

2,000

11 @

100

1st grade certificate____

2,200

16 @

100

3,800

Bachelor’s degree

2,400

16 @

100

4,000

Master’s degree

2,600

16 @

100

4,200

a Additional training is required before the third, sixth and
final increments are given. No increment is given in the tenth
year of service to teachers with less than 4 years’ of prepara­
tion.
6 No increment is given in the second year of service. Bache­
lor’s degrees are required of new applicants. In 1949—
50, maxi­
mum salaries will be $100 higher than the schedule shown; in
1950-51, they will be $200 higher.
c Increments are given only to teachers who are rated firstclass ; all teachers are rated second-class until they have taught
at least 2 years in Maryland public schools.

MASSACHUSETTS
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Certification Requirements

Massachusetts public schools employed about
24,000 classroom teachers, principals, and super­
visors to teach approximately 590,000 pupils in
1948-49. About 73 percent of the pupils and 67
percent of the teachers were in elementary
schools. An exceptionally high proportion (al­
most 90 precent) of the public school teachers
were in urban schools. The city of Boston em­
ploys about 4,000 classroom teachers.

Massachusetts has no State-wide certification
system. However, a bill to establish certification
was introduced in the Massachusetts Legislature
in 1949.
Local school districts usually require 3 years
of college training for elementary teaching.
Junior and senior high school teachers are usu­
ally required to have 4 years of college, including
12 semester hours of professional education




41

courses. I f qualified teachers are not available,
persons unable to meet these standards are hired
on a temporary basis.
Outlook

Well-qualified elementary teachers should have
good employment prospects in Massachusetts in
the near future, though the need for them is
likely to be less acute than in most other States.
The Massachusetts Department of Education re­
ports that an adequate number of elementary
teachers will be available for the 1949-50 school
year. The number of college students completing
education courses in the State will probably be
within a few hundred o f the total number needed
to replace withdrawals and handle increased en­
rollments. Additional teachers may be obtained
by employing more married women and by re­
training high school teachers and college gradu­
ates with training in entirely different fields.
During the 4-year period 1948-52, an increase
of about 72,000 in elementary school enrollments
(grades 1 to 8) is expected. On the basis of 30
pupils per teacher, an average of about 600 new
positions would be needed each year to take
care of the increased enrollments. From 1,000 to
1,300 additional elementary teachers would be
needed annually during this period as replace­
ments, if 7 percent of the staff retire or leave
the profession for other reasons. The supply of
elementary teachers will increase also, judging
from the current peak enrollments in education
courses as reported by the Director of State
Teachers Colleges.
The peak demand for elementary teachers will
probably come in 1953-54 and 1954-55, when an
increase in enrollments of almost 60,000 is ex­
pected to occur. With a pupil-teacher ratio of
30 to 1, this would mean an average of about
1,000 new positions each year. After 1955, en­
rollments are likely to decrease somewhat; how­
ever, the number of teachers needed as replace­
ments, based on an attrition rate of 7 percent,
would remain well over 1,000 each year to 1960.
A surplus of high school teachers is in pros­
pect in 1949-50. From 1949 to 1951, enrollments
in the high schools (grades 9 to 12) will prob­
ably decline. Needs during this period will be
confined chiefly to the replacement o f teachers
who die, retire, or leave the profession for other
reasons. Based on an attrition rate o f 5 percent,
about 400 teachers would be needed each year for
this purpose. The supply o f high school teachers

42




will probably increase a great deal beginning
about 1950, because enrollments in teacher-train­
ing courses in this State are at the highest level
since 1927.
Starting about 1951, enrollments will climb and
extra teachers will be called for to handle newly
formed classes. From 1952 to 1959, an increase
of about 50,000 pupils is expected; on the basis
of 25 pupils per teacher, this would mean an
average of about 300 new positions each year.
Assuming an attrition rate o f 5 percent, approxi­
mately 500 additional teachers would be needed
annually as replacements during this period.
Earnings

The estimated average annual salary for sec­
ondary classroom teachers in 1948-49 was $3,360 ;
for elementary teachers, $2,960; for principals,
$4,390. The city of Boston, with an average
annual salary of $3,771, ranked eleventh among
the Nation’s 20 largest cities in this respect.
Basic salary schedules for four of the State’s
1argest cities are given below :
Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Minimum

Increments

Elementary and junior
high ----------------------------------------

$2,484

10 @ $144

Senior h ig h -------------------

2,916

bo sto n

,

Maximum

1949-50

F A L L R IV E R ,

13

$3,924

@

144

4,788

1949-50

Less than 4 years of
college -----------------------

2,280

8 @

120

3,240

Bachelor’s degree----------

2,280

10 @

120

3,480

2,280

12 @

120

3,720

2,250

2
1

250
224

2,974

Master’s degree -----------LOW ELL,

1948-49

Elementary and junior
high

Senior high

@
@

2,250

3 @
1 @

250
200

3,200

2 years

2,116

9 @

100

3,016

3 years

2,266

11 @
1 @

100
50

3,416

4 years

2,416

14 @

100

3,816

5 years

2,566

16 @
1 @

100
50

4,216

2,716

17 @

100

4,416

S P R IN G F IE L D ,

6 years

_

1948-1949 a

— _

° A cost-of-living adjustment of $208 was added to scheduled
salaries for Springfield in 1948-49. Four years’ training is re­
quired of new applicants.

MICHIGAN
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

This State had about 23,000 teachers and 740,000 pupils in the public elementary schools dur­
ing the school year 1948-49. The public high
schools employed about 13,300 teachers for their
213,600 students.
Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 4-year college course is re­
quired for the standard teaching certificate. Can­
didates for the certificate must have completed 20
semester hours of professional education courses,
including at least 5 in student teaching. In ad­
dition, high school teachers must have a total of
24 hours in their major field and at least 15 hours
in two minor subjects. A limited certificate to
teach in rural schools may be granted to persons
who have completed only 2 years o f college work,
with 15 hours of professional education courses.
Emergency certificates are granted to persons not
satisfying these requirements.
Outlook

A severe shortage of elementary teachers
existed in 1948-49 and is expected to continue
during the next few years. Michigan education
officials estimate that about 2,500 new elementary
teachers will be needed in 1949-50 to replace
those leaving the profession and that an addi­
tional 1,000 will be required to handle increased
enrollments, if present class size is maintained.
About 1,900 more teachers would be required to
reduce the average class size to a ratio of 30
pupils per teacher. The shortage was so acute
in some districts during 1948-49 that elementary
teachers had to teach one grade in the morning
and another in the afternoon. The State Super­
intendent o f Public Instruction reported: “ More
than 12,000 elementary school children, not
counting those in kindergarten, are attending less
than full-day sessions. Classes of more than 50
pupils are not uncommon.” Furthermore, many
of the 4,000 teachers who held emergency certifi­
cates in 1948-49 will need to be replaced.
The supply of students from Michigan’s col­
leges completing courses qualifying them for
elementary positions was estimated at only about
1,200 in 1949—much less than the number needed.
Enrollments in teachers colleges are considerably



lower than before the war. Moreover, many of
these students do not intend to enter teaching.
During the 1950’s, an even larger number of
elementary teachers will be needed to handle in­
creased enrollments (grades 1 to 8) owing to
the record number of births during the 1940
decade (1947 births in Michigan were about
double the 1933 number ) . On a basis o f 30 pupils
per teacher, almost 1,500 new teachers would be
needed annually to take care of the increase of
about 130,000 in enrollments expected in the 3year period 1952-55. I f an attrition rate of 10
percent is assumed, which is slightly lower than
the 1948-49 rate, another 2,800 new elementary
teachers would be needed annually during this
period just to replace those who leave the profes­
sion.
A t the high school level (grades 9 to 12), there
will probably be an oversupply of teachers in
1949-50 in most subject fields, especially English,
social science, and men’s physical education;
however, additional agriculture, commerce, and
home economics teachers will be needed. A p ­
proximately 300 new high school teachers will be
needed annually to handle the 25,000 increase in
enrollment expected during the next 3 or 4 years,
if we assume a pupil-teacher ratio of 25 to 1.
Based on an attrition rate of 10 percent, about
1,300 additional teachers will be needed each
year to replace those who are lost to the profes­
sion during this period because o f deaths, retire­
ments, or transfers to other fields of work. About
2,270 students are expected to complete college
courses qualifying them for high school positions
during 1949— a considerable increase over the
figure of 1,718 for 1948, 629 for 1945, and 1,349
for 1941. Though some of these students do not
plan to enter the teaching profession, it is likely
that there will be an oversupply in most high
school teaching fields in 1949-50.
The demand for high school teachers will in­
crease during the 1950’s, as the peak enrollments
pass from the elementary grades to the high
school. Assuming that there will be an increase
in the holding power o f the school system and a
ratio of 25 students per teacher, over 850 new
teachers will be needed each year to take care of
the 65,000 increase in high school enrollment that
is expected in the 3-year period 1955-57. A t the
same time (based on an attrition rate of 10 per­
cent) about 1,600 new teachers will be needed

43

annually as replacements. High school enroll­
ments are expected to continue to mount during
the rest of the decade and in the early 1960’s.
Earnings

The average salary in Michigan during the
1948-49 school year was estimated at about $3,000
for elementary teachers and $3,600 for high

school teachers. Detroit has a single-salary
schedule which begins at $2,983; holders of the
bachelor’s degree may eventually work up to
$4,583, while those who have earned the master’s
degree may reach $4,708. In 1948-49 the average
teaching salary in Detroit was $4,381, third high­
est among the Nation’s 20 largest cities.

MINNESOTA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Minnesota’s public elementary schools had
about 12,000 teachers and 327,500 pupils in 194849. The public high schools employed about 8,500
teachers for their 172,500 students.
Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 1-year normal training
course is required for a certificate valid in rural
schools, while completion of a 2-year college
course is required for the urban elementary certi­
ficate. To obtain a high school certificate, an ap­
plicant must hold a bachelor’s degree from the
Education Department of the University of Min­
nesota, one of the State teachers colleges, or an
educational institution with a similar curriculum.
Emergency licenses have also been granted to
certain persons who do not satisfy these require­
ments.
Outlook

There was a severe shortage of elementary
teachers in Minnesota in 1948-49, and no sub­
stantial improvement in the situation appears
likely in the next few years. Elementary enroll­
ments are increasing; on the basis of 30 pupils
per teacher, an average o f about 400 new teach­
ing positions are likely to be needed annually in
the next 2 or 3 years. A large number of new
teachers is needed each year just to replace
those who leave the profession; approximately
2,300 quit teaching after the 1947-48 school year.
The State Department o f Education estimates
that the attrition rate was about 18 percent in
that year. In addition, some of the teachers hold­
ing emergency licenses may be replaced by fully
qualified personnel. In contrast, the number of
students completing courses during 1949 which
would qualify them for elementary positions has
been estimated at 960. This figure compares with
922 in 1948, 777 in 1945, and 1,337 in 1941.
The demand for elementary teachers will reach

44




its peak near the middle of the 1950 decade.
Based on a ratio of 30 pupils per teacher, an
average of about 800 additional teachers would
be needed each year to handle the increase in
enrollment that is expected between 1952 and
1954. Even though the attrition rate declines
during this period, this would probably be offset
by the increase in the size of the teaching force.
Thus, as many annual replacements would be
needed as were required in 1947-48. It appears
that a total of over 3,000 new elementary teach­
ers is likely to be needed annually during this
period.
In contrast to the elementary situation, there
is expected to be a surplus of high school teachers
in many fields in the fall of 1949. However, in
1949-50 there will probably still be a shortage o f
persons qualified to teach home economics, agri­
culture, commercial subjects, and women’s physi­
cal education. About 870 new high school teachers
were hired in 1948-49, mostly as replacements.
It is expected that a similar number of new
teachers will be needed in 1949-50 to replace those
leaving the profession.
The number of persons taking college courses
preparing them for high school positions has in­
creased considerably in recent years. Approxi­
mately 2,000 students completed courses in 1949
entitling them to standard teaching certificates,
as compared with 1,553 in 1948, 1,037 in 1947,
657 in 1945, and 1,217 in 1941. However, some
of these students will not enter teaching. A
survey by the State Department of Education
indicates that about 30 percent o f the students
who completed teacher-training courses in 194748 were not teaching in Minnesota the following
year; about 12 percent were teaching in other
States, 7 percent were continuing their education,
8 percent were otherwise employed, and 2 per­
cent had married and left the labor force. Never­
theless, the supply of high school teachers exceeds

the prospective demand, and there will probably
be a surplus in most subject fields during the
next 2 or 3 years.
During the late 1950’s, as the peak enrollments
pass from the elementary grades to high school,
there will be an increased need for high school
teachers. Based on a ratio of 25 students per
teacher, it is estimated that an average of about
300 additional high school teachers will be re­
quired each year to take care o f the expected
increase of over 20,000 in high school enrollments
betwen 1954 and 1957. High school enrollments
will continue to climb during the early 1960’s,
though at a slower rate. The expansion of the
teaching force will tend to increase the number
of new teachers needed yearly for replacements.
I f the attrition should continue at the same rate
as in 1947-48, approximately 1,000 or more new
teachers would probably be needed as replace­
ments beginning about 1954.
Earnings

The average teaching salary in Minnesota was
about $2,300 for elementary teachers and $2,850
for high school teachers in 1948-49. The State
Division of Teacher Personnel reports that in
rural schools the median salary was about $215
a month, with one out of 12 teachers receiving
less than $180 and one out of seven $250 or

more. In cities having a population of over 2,500
about 15 percent of the classroom teachers earned
over $4,000 per year; about 36 percent earned
from $3,000 to $4,000 per year; only about 18
percent were paid less than $2,400 per year.
Minneapolis had a single-salary schedule under
which, in the calendar year 1948, holders of the
bachelor’s degree began at $2,400 and could work
up to $4,400. Those with a master’s degree had
a minimum of $2,600 and a maximum of $4,600,
and holders of the Ph. D. began at $2,800 and ad­
vanced to $4,800. In 1948-49, the average salary
in Minneapolis was $3,897; only 8 of the Nation’s
20 largest cities had higher averages than this.
St. Paul also has a single-salary schedule ; in
1948, the beginning salary was $2,000 for holders
of the bachelor’s degree and the maximum salary
was $3,500. The minimum salary for those with
a master’s degree was $2,200 and the maximum
was $3,700. Minimum and maximum salaries for
holders of the doctor’s degree were $2,400 and
$3,900, respectively. Duluth’s teachers are also
under a single-salary schedule. In 1948-49 hold­
ers of the bachelor’s degree began at $1,800 and
could work up to $3,000; teachers with a master’s
degree started at $2,000 and could work up to
$3,200. A cost-of-living adjustment of $852 was
added to the scheduled salaries in Duluth in
1948-49.

MISSISSIPPI
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The public school system had about 15,565
classroom teachers, principals, and supervisors in
1948-49; four-fifths were in rural schools. The
elementary schools employed 10,915 teachers for
466.000 pupils ; about 5,514 of these teachers and
250.000 o f the students were Negroes. Secondary
schools had 3,615 teachers and 77,600 pupils; 650
teachers and 17,000 students were Negroes.
Certification Requirements

To qualify for the regular elementary certifi­
cate, one needs a minimum of two years’ credit
from an accredited college, including 8 semester
hours in elementary education courses. For the
secondary certificate, one must be a graduate
from an accredited college or university, with
18 semester hours credit in education courses ; 12
semester hours each in English, social science, and
physical sciences (including mathematics) ; and



6 hours in physical education and health. Addi­
tional requirements for teaching academic sub­
jects range from 12 hours for a foreign language
to 27 hours for science. The minimum age for
teacher certification is 18 years.
Emergency certificates may be issued, when
necessary, to persons with considerably lower
qualifications.
Outlook

Employment prospects for qualified elementary
teachers will be excellent over the next few
years. Teachers are needed to take care of the
increasing enrollments resulting from the high
birth rates of the early 1940’s, as well as to re­
place many o f the persons teaching on emergency
certificates (700 such certificates were issued in
1948^9). Moreover, it is estimated that about
1,325 teachers, or 12 percent of the elementary
staff, leave teaching in the State annually and

45

must be replaced. Slightly over half of the above
demands are for Negro teachers. That the supply
o f teachers is inadequate to meet the demand is
indicated by the fact that only 270 white and 389
Negro students were expected to complete prepa­
ration for elementary certification in the State
in 1949.
Employment of elementary teachers will prob­
ably continue to rise for at least the next 6 or
7 years. Enrollments at this level (grades 1 to
8) will increase each year until about 1956-57
when they may be 75,000 higher than in 1948-49.
On the basis o f 30 pupils per teacher, the in­
creased enrollments would require 2,500 addi­
tional teaching positions over the 8-year period.
I f the replacement rate should remain approxi­
mately 12 percent, the number of new teachers
needed annually would increase to about 1,600
in the mid-1950’s. Even after 1957, when enroll­
ments are expected to decrease somewhat, the
total number of new teachers needed annually
will probably be in excess o f 1,000 for several
years.
High school (grades 9 to 12) needs for teachers
in the next 3 or 4 years will be primarily as re­
placements for those who leave the profession,
since enrollments are not expected to increase sub­
stantially during this priod. The number of re­
placements needed is estimated at about 400, or
10 percent of the secondary teaching staff. There
were a few high school teaching vacancies and
about 100 teachers employed on emergency certi­
ficates in 1948-49, but the supply for 1949-50 will
be sufficient to fill most of the demands. In 1949,
teacher-training institutions in the State expected
to graduate 1,040 students qualified for secondary

school teaching (including 110 Negroes), as com­
pared with 1,047 in 1948 and 687 in 1941. While
the supply of teachers appears to be adequate in
most fields, it is likely that there will still be a
shortage in some special subjects, particularly
science, commerce, and home economics.
About 1952-53, high school enrollments and
the number of teaching positions needed will be­
gin an upward trend which will persist through­
out that decade. By 1959-60, enrollments may be
38,000 higher than in 1948-49; on the basis o f a
ratio of 25 pupils per teacher, this rise would re­
quire some 1,500 additional teaching positions.
I f the replacement rate for high school teachers
in Mississippi remains approximately 10 percent,
the number o f new teachers needed as replace­
ments for the expanded staff would be about 550
per year in the late 1950’s.
Earnings

Elementary and secondary teachers had aver­
age annual salaries of $1,125 and $1,775, respec­
tively, in 1948-49. The average salaries for
teachers and administrative personnel during
1948-49 were as follow s:
White
Superintendents

Negro

$3,663

$1,720

Principals

3,109

1,816

Vocational teachers

2,492

1,728

Supervisors

2,588

2,194

High school teachers

1,937

1,050

Elementary teachers

1,617

613

MISSOURI
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Approximately 17,000 teachers were employed
in Missouri elementary schools in 1948-49 to teach
about 500,000 pupils. The high schools employed
about 6,400 teachers for their 150,000 students.
Over a fifth o f all students and more than a
fourth of the teachers were in rural districts.
Certification Requirements

For a 5-year State certificate to teach in junior
or senior high school, a bachelor’s degree is re­
quired. The training must include certain general
academic courses; at least 18 semester hours in
professional education, of which 5 were in prac­
tice teaching; and a specified number of hours

46



(at least 24 in most cases) in the subject-matter
field in which the teacher wishes to specialize.
Five-year certificates may be converted into per­
manent certificates after 3 years of satisfactory
service.
For a 5-year State elementary certificate, the
candidate likewise needs a bachelor’s degree, with
18 hours of education including 5 in practice
teaching. The course requirements are geared to
the elementary teaching level. As in the case
of secondary certificates, the 5-year elementary
certificate may be made permanent after 3 years
of service.
Besides these types of permits, a 2-year certifi­

cate is issued for elementary teaching. This is
the lowest-grade regular State certificate ; to ob­
tain it, one must have completed at least 60 se­
mester hours of college work, including 10 hours
o f education o f which 2 were in practice teach­
ing. This certificate is valid for only 2 years and,
in order to renew it, the teacher must complete
at least 5 additional hours of college work.
Emergency State certificates are issued to
teachers not meeting the above requirements
when sufficient fully qualified teachers are not
available. These certificates are valid for only 1
year; for renewal, it is necessary to complete 5
more semester hours of college work. In addition,
three grades of county certificates are issued
either on the basis of examinations in a wide
range of subjects taught in elementary schools
or to those who have earned credits in similar
subject areas at Missouri colleges.
Outlook

This is another State in which a continuing,
severe shortage of qualified elementary teachers
is expected in the next few years. The number of
students completing training for elementary
teaching at Missouri institutions in 1949 has
been estimated at about 556. This is only a small
fraction of the number that will probably be re­
quired in 1949-50 to meet normal replacement
needs—which in 1948-49 amounted to about 10
percent of the elementary teaching force (or
roughly 1,700). Furthermore, a few hundred ad­
ditional teachers will be needed in 1949-50 to
handle expanding enrollments. Because of the
personnel shortage, about 1,100 emergency per­
mits had to be issued for elementary teaching in
1948-49; very likely, the number will be similar
in 1949-50. Replacement of all emergency teach­
ers with personnel holding regular certificates
will be impossible in the near future; however,
the State Department of Education anticipates
that many such teachers will take additional
summer school training each year and thus qual­
ify before long for higher-grade certificates.
Demand for elementary teachers will remain
high at least until the late 1950’s. Elementary
enrollments (kindergarten through grade 8) are
expected to keep on increasing until about 1955,
when they may be about 125,000 above the 194849 level. On the basis of 30 pupils per teacher,
this increase would mean a need for about 4,200
new teachers over the 7-year period; between



1952-54, when the greatest influx of pupils is
expected, as many as 800 to 1,000 additional
teaching positions may be needed yearly. After
1955-56, enrollments will probably decline, and
the demand for teachers will once more be
limited, in general, to replacements. Assuming
that the attrition rate continues to be 10 percent,
over 2,000 teachers would probably be needed
annually to fill vacancies in the middle and late
1950’s. These estimates do not take account of
the trend toward consolidation of rural schools,
which over the long run, will probably tend to
reduce the need for elementary teachers some­
what. Improvement of the roads, especially in
the northern part o f the State, would greatly
facilitate consolidations.
The supply of high school teachers, unlike
that o f elementary teachers, will probably be
more than adequate to meet the demand in most
subject fields in the near future. Secondary en­
rollments are expected to decline slowly till 1951,
and replacement needs have recently (in 1947-48
and 1948-49) amounted to less than 7 percent o f
the teaching force, or not much more than 400
per year. In contrast, the number o f secondary
teachers completing training at Missouri colleges
in 1949 has been estimated at about 1,160, as com­
pared with 940 in 1948 and 1,010 in 1941. Even
though about one out of every three graduates
of Missouri teachers colleges find employment in
other States offering higher salaries, the State
Director of Teacher Education and Certification
estimated in the spring of 1949 that there would
be only about two jobs for every three new sec­
ondary teachers in the State in 1949-50. English
and social studies are among the fields where the
greatest surplus of teachers was anticipated.
However, in certain other fields—including home
economics, commercial subjects, and music—a
continuing shortage o f teachers is likely in 194950.
About 1951, high school enrollments and teach­
ing staffs are expected to begin a steady upward
climb lasting throughout the decade. By 1959,
there may be over 50,000 more students in grades
9 to 12 than were enrolled in 1948-49. This means
that, over the 11-year period, Missouri school
systems would have to create about 2,000 more
teaching positions to provide one teacher for
every 25 additional students. The most rapid rise
in enrollments is anticipated about 1956 to 1958,
when the number of new teachers needed annu­

47

ally may reach 450 (at the 25 to 1 pupil-teacher
ratio). Replacement needs are likely to grow
also—to about 550 per year by 1959-60—unless
the attrition rate is reduced below the 1947-48
figure.
Earnings

Elementary teachers had an average annual
salary o f about $2,050 in 1948-49; secondary
teachers, an average of about $2,900. Both these
figures were about $200 higher than the corre­
sponding averages for 1947-48.
Salaries vary widely by size o f community, as
can be seen from the following table of average
salaries of classroom teachers in 1947-48:8
Size of district
Rural district

Elementary
$1,273

High school
—

Under 2,500 population

1,480

$2,013

2,500-9,999 population

1,889

2,329

10,000-29,999 population

2,257

2,627

30,000-99,999 population

2,574

2,874

100,000 population and over

3,112

3,896

The 2,800 teachers in St. Louis had an average
salary o f about $3,550 in 1948-49. The city had a

single-salary schedule which started at $2,400.
The number of annual increments varied, how­
ever, according to the teacher’s preparation.
Those without a bachelor’s degree were permitted
$200 increments, to bring their maximum up to
$3,800; those with a bachelor’s, 9 increments of
$200, a $4,200 maximum; those with a master’s
degree, 10 increments o f $200 and 1 more of $100,
making their top salary $4,500.
Kansas City teachers had an average salary
of about $3,770 in 1948-49. Under the city’s
single-salary schedule, holders of a bachelor’s
degree began at $2,400 and might work up to
$4,400; teachers with an M. A. degree started at
$2,775 and might reach $4,775; for those with
a Ph. D., the starting salary was $3,275 and the
maximum, $5,275. A ll these college graduates
were allowed 16 annual increments o f $125.
Teachers not holding college degrees but having
80 or more hours’ credit, also started at $2,400
like those with B. A .’s but were allowed fewer
annual increments. To advance on the salary
schedule, additional training was required every
4 years for teachers without degrees and every
6 years for teachers with degrees. For teachers
with less than 80 hours of training, the schedule
specified only that $2,400 should be the maximum
salary.

MONTANA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The 1948-49 enrollment of the public schools
of Montana was about 100,000— about 25,000 in
high schools (grades 9 to 12) and 75,000 in ele­
mentary schools (kindergarten through grade 8).
There were about 1,325 teachers in the 182 high
schools and 3,442 teachers in more than 1,200
elementary schools. The teachers of the elemen­
tary schools were distributed as follows in 194748: 926 one-room schools employed 931 teachers;
96 two-room schools employed 192 teachers; 212
city and town school systems employed 2,319
teachers.
Certification Requirements

In 1948-49, the minimum educational require­
ment for a State certificate for elementary school
teaching was graduation from a 2-year normal
college which gave specific training in the teach­
8 State Department of Education, 99th Report of the Public
Schools of the State of Missouri, school year ending June 30,
1948, pp. 338-339, Jefferson City, Mo., 1949.

48




ing of elementary school subjects. Teachers
trained for secondary school teaching might
qualify also for elementary certification by com­
pleting necessary training in elementary educa­
tion courses.
The minimum requirement for junior and
senior high school certificates was a degree from
a fully accredited 4-year college, with 16 semester
hours in education courses plus a major o f 30
semester hours and a minor of 20 hours in sub­
jects taught in high schools.
Montana has a new certification law which
tends to raise qualifications for certificates. By
1955, 4 years’ training will be required of all new
teachers, with a fifth year to be completed dur­
ing the probation period.
Many Montana schools, particularly those in
cities, require experience or further training in
addition to the minimum certification require­
ments. On the other hand, emergency certificates
are issued when necessary to certain applicants
who do not meet the regular requirements. In

1949-50, such permits will be issued only to per­
sons with at least 1 year o f training, except in
the case of candidates who held emergency per­
mits in 1948-49 and took additional training in
summer school.
Outlook

The teacher recruitment problems which existed
in 1948-49 are expected to be carried over into
1949-50. In the former year there was an acute
shortage of teachers. Almost 800 of the grade
school teachers were considered substandard;
about half this number were older teachers who
had come back to the field after an absence of 5
to 20 years, and the rest had had less than 2
years’ training. Recruitment was particularly
difficult in the rural areas, especially where
schools were situated in the mountains or out on
the prairie, far from any railroad or other means
o f transportation.
The number of Montana college students who
were expected to qualify for the standard ele­
mentary certificate in 1949 was only about 130.
This falls far short of the number who will
probably be needed to fill vacancies left by teach­
ers withdrawing from Montana schools and to
teach additional pupils in the lower grades. Un­
less this deficit can be made up by out-of-State
teachers and by substandard teachers who have
taken enough training to qualify for a standard
certificate, many emergency certificates will have
to be issued in 1949-50.
During the 1950 decade, demands for elemen­
tary teachers will become even heavier. Enroll­
ments are expected to continue to rise at least
until 1959-60. In that year at least 18,500 more
children will probably be enrolled in the first
eight grades than in 1948-49. I f the pupil-teacher
ratio were 30 to 1, then this source of employment
alone would furnish jobs for over 600 additional
teachers during the 11-year interval. The num­
ber of teachers dropping out is likely to increase
with the size of the teaching staff. Assuming a
continuation o f the rate of drop-outs which pre­
vailed in 1947-48 (about 9 percent), over 350
such vacancies would probably occur each year
during the late 1950’s.
In the high schools, on the other hand, the
shortage o f teachers was just about over in the
spring o f 1949. The State Department of Pub­
lic Instruction anticipated an oversupply o f high



school teachers in the 1949-50 school year, except
in certain fields such as vocational courses, music,
and commercial subjects, where the supply was
still inadequate. The Montana teacher-training
institutions alone expected to turn out 265 new
high school teachers in 1949. The number of new
teachers taken on will probably be well below this
figure. Assuming that drop-outs are about as
numerous as in the preceding year, then approxi­
mately 175 vacancies would have to be filled in
1949-50. Only a few additional teachers will be
needed to handle the expected small increase in
enrollments. The new teachers employed will
probably be better trained than those who were
taken on in the recent past.
Employment of high school teachers will tend
to grow over the long run. Enrollments are ex­
pected to increase slowly in the near future but
to rise more rapidly for a few years after 1954,
when the large number of children born in the
early war years reach high school age. In 195758, secondary school enrollments are likely to be
at least one-third larger than in 1948-49; if one
teacher is taken on for every 25 additional pupils,
the resulting expansion in staff would amount to
almost 300 over the 9-year period. After about
1958, enrollments may fall off slightly and tempo­
rarily, but they will increase again in the 1960’s.
It is possible that the proportion of teachers who
have to be replaced each year may decline; how­
ever, if it should continue at the 1948-49 figure of
about 13 percent, then about 200 or more teachers
wmuld be needed annually as replacements in the
late 1950’s.
The estimates of future enrollments and de­
mand for teachers given above assume a continua­
tion of the prewar pattern of out-migration.
They do not take into account the reclamation
project which has been authorized in the State.
I f this program cuts down out-migration sub­
stantially or brings about in-migration, there
would be greater increases in enrollments and the
demand for teachers would be raised accordingly.
Earnings

The estimated average annual salary for sec­
ondary classroom teachers in 1948-49 was $3,210 ;
for elementary teachers, $2,600.
The following is a basic minimum salary scale
suggested for use, with an added cost-of-living
adjustment, by the Montana Education Assoc­
ia tion :

49

Annual salary
Educational
preparation
Beginners

With full
credit for
experience

Increments
10 @ $60

2 years

$2,100

3 years

2,250

10 @

75

3,000

Bachelor’s degree

2,400

12 @

90

3,480

Master’s degree

2,550

15 @ 105

4,125

$2,700

According to the State Department of Educa­
tion, schedules based on this standard had been
adopted for 1949-50, by over 85 percent o f the
schools in Montana.
Many school districts pay salaries above the
suggested basic schedule. For example, salaries
in Billings will be $250 higher in 1949-50 than
those provided by this schedule and, in Great
Falls, $350 higher.

NEBRASKA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The public elementary schools in Nebraska em­
ployed about 9,100 teachers to instruct 160,000
pupils during the 1948-49 school year. Over half
these teachers were in one-room rural schools.
During the 1948-49 school year the high schools
enrolled about 63,000 students and employed
about 3,400 teachers. A large proportion of the
secondary teachers were in small high schools;
about two-thirds o f these schools had fewer than
100 pupils. The distribution of high schools by
size of the student body in 1948-49 was as fol­
lows :
Number of students
enrolled
25 and under

Number of
high schools
35

26-50

151

51-100

153

101-150

73

151-250

55

251 and over

43

Total

510

Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 4-year college course is re­
quired for the high school teacher’s certificate.
At least 18 semester hours in education, includ­
ing 3 hours o f student teaching, must be com­
pleted. A total of at least 15 semester hours of
college credit must be earned in the major sub­
ject to be taught. However, only 9 semester
hours o f college work are required for a minor
teaching field if 3 high school courses have been
taken in that subject.
A 1-year certificate to teach in rural elementary
schools may be granted to persons who have com­
pleted the teacher-preparation course in an ap­
proved high school. However, under a law en­
acted in 1949, holders of this type of certificate

50




must obtain additional training each year, before
their certificates may be renewed. A t least 9
semester hours of college work, including 3 hours
in education, are required for each renewal. Two
years of college work are required for the town
and city elementary certificate. Emergency teach­
ing certificates are granted when school authori­
ties are unable to find fully qualified personnel.
Outlook

The severe shortage of elementary teachers
which existed in 1948-49, especially in the lower
grades in town and city schools, is expected to
continue for several years at least. About 1,250
new teachers had to be hired in Nebraska in
1948-49 to replace those who left teaching in the
State or to fill new positions created by increas­
ing enrollments. About the same number will
probably be needed annually for the next few
years, unless the present replacement rate of
around 15 percent drops, as it may if jobs other
than teaching become less plentiful. In spite of
the great need for elementary teachers, only
about 640 persons completed college courses, dur­
ing the year ending June 1949, which prepared
them to teach at this level; this compares with
892 in 1941. To provide the necessary teachers
for the immediate future, many with only the
high school normal training courses would have
to be hired and possibly also many who qualify
only for emergency certificates (2,400 such certifi­
cates were issued in 1948-49).
Employment of elementary teachers is ex­
pected to rise until the late 1950’s. Because of
the high birth rates during the 1940 decade, en­
rollments will continue to increase in the elemen­
tary schools until about 1956-57, when they may
be about 27,000 greater than in 1948-49. The
number of additional teachers that will be re­
quired to take care of the increased enrollments
will be influenced by the fact that the State has

many small schools which will be able to take
care of additional students without increasing
the staff. Moreover, the 1949 session o f the
legislature passed a bill to encourage consolida­
tion and reduce the number o f small schools; this
may eliminate a few positions. Nevertheless, it
appears that at least 800 new elementary teachers
will be needed between 1948-49 and 1956-57 just
to take care of the additional pupils expected
to enroll. In addition, many elementary teachers
will be needed to make up for losses to the pro­
fession owing to death, retirement, or transfer to
other fields of work. I f the replacement rate
should continue at the 1948 level of 15 percent,
the number o f new teachers needed annually in
the mid-1950’s will be about 1,300.
The demand for high school teachers in the
next few years will be largely for replacements
inasmuch as enrollments at that level will be de­
creasing somewhat. In 1948-49 about 400 new
high school teachers were hired in Nebraska,
About 750 students completed preparation for
teaching in the State at this level in 1948, and in
June 1949 about 800 students were expected to
complete such training. Though many of these
persons never enter the teaching profession, an
oversupply of high school teachers is developing
in some subject fields. However, there were sev­
eral fields in which additional teachers were
especially needed in 1948-49: home economics,
music, and commercial work.
Beginning about 1955 there will be an increased
demand for high school teachers as the peak en­
rollments pass into high school from the elemen­
tary grades. Although some o f Nebraska’s small
high schools will be able to enroll additional stu­
dents without increasing the staff, it appears that
in the last 3 or 4 years o f the 1950 decade about
50 new high school teachers will be needed each
year to take care of the annual increase of 2,500

to 3,000 in enrollments expected in that period. I f
the replacement rate for these teachers is about
10 percent, this would mean that nearly 400
teachers would be required annually as replace­
ments, making the total demand about 450 per
year.
Earnings

Salaries averaged about $1,900 for elementary
teachers and $2,600 for high school teachers in
1948-49, according to a survey made by the
Nebraska Education Association. The distribu­
tion o f teachers by salary level was found to be
as follows in 436 school districts:
Number of teachers
Salary
Elementary
$1,500 and under

73

High school
5

$1,501—
$2,000

1,462

24

$2,001—
$2,500

1,065

472

$2,501—
$3,000

331

1,005

$3,001—
$3,500

220

402

$3,501 and over

151

379

The city of Omaha during 1948-49 had about
1,100 teachers on a single-salary schedule which
began at $2,250 for those without a degree and
went up to $3,780 for holders of the bachelor’s
degree.
Lincoln also has a salary schedule based on
preparation rather than position. The bachelor’s
degree is required of new applicants and the
beginning salary is $1,900, with increases to
$3,050 for those holding only this degree. Teach­
ers with the master’s degree start at $2,100 and
may advance to $3,300. To advance on the sched­
ule, evidence of professional growth is required
every 6 years.

NEVADA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Certification Requirements

Nevada has the smallest school enrollment and
teaching staff o f any State. The public schools of
Nevada employed about 1,200 classroom teachers,
principals, and supervisors to teach approxi­
mately 28,000 pupils in 1948-49. About 75 per­
cent o f the students and 70 percent of the teachers
were in the elementary schools. Because o f a
large rural population, over half the elementary
schools are one-teacher schools.

Minimum educational requirement for a secondgrade elementary certificate, valid for 3 years, is
graduation from a 1-year course at the Nevada
State Normal School. Second-grade certificates,
valid only for 2 years, may be issued to graduates
of standard 1-year normal courses in institutions
other than the University o f Nevada. Neither o f
these types of certificates is renewable. Mini­
mum requirement for a first-grade elementary




51

certificate is graduation from a 2-year normal
,
course, equivalent to that given at the Nevada
State Normal School, or graduation from a
liberal arts course or a science course where the
professional training includes 18 semester hours
o f education, 4 of which are in methods of teach­
ing elementary school and 4 in practice teaching
in elementary grades.
For the junior high school certificate, valid in
grades 7, 8, and 9 only, one must have completed
3 years o f college work including 15 hours of
education. Ten o f these hours must be training
specifically qualifying for teaching in the junior
high school and 4 must be practice teaching in
the 7th, 8th, or 9th grades.
To qualify for the high school certificate, valid
for 4 years, it is necessary to hold a bachelor’s
degree and to have earned 18 semester hours
credit in education, 10 hours o f which must be
courses in the secondary field and 4 hours must
be in practice teaching. Two years of successful
teaching experience may be substituted for prac­
tice teaching. Graduates of the University of
Nevada who have completed the courses pre­
scribed by the School o f Education are granted
high school certificates valid for 5 years.
Examinations in Nevada School Law and Con­
stitutions o f the United States and the State of
Nevada are required for all certificates. Emer­
gency certificates are issued to applicants not
meeting all the regular requirements.
Outlook

The Nevada Department o f Education expects
that it will be possible to fill practically every
teaching position in the State in 1949-50. Addi­
tional teachers will be required to take care of an
unusually large increase in elementary enrollments
caused by the high birth rates o f the early 1940’s
and a large amount of in-migration. However, re­
cent improvement in the retirement system is ex­
pected to render teaching positions more attractive
than in former years. Thus, the number of elemen­
tary teachers leaving Nevada schools during and
after the 1948-49 school year may be smaller than
the 200 or so who left the preceding year. Also, the
Department o f Education anticipates that more
elementary teachers will be drawn from other
States. This should help to compensate for the
smaller supply available from Nevada institu­
tions—which expected only 18 students to com­
plete courses qualifying them for elementary
certificates in 1949, compared to 34 in 1948. It

52




seems likely, however, that some positions will
have to be filled with emergency teachers in
1949-50, as in the preceding year when 57 emer­
gency permits were issued.
In the long run, a greater number of elemen­
tary teachers may be needed annually as a result
o f rapid enrollment increases. Migration into the
State is expected to continue for the next several
years, and a larger proportion of the migrants
will probably be children of grade school age
than of high school age. Another factor in in­
creasing enrollments is the high birth rates of
the postwar years; the children of the peak year
of births (1947) will be entering the schools
about 1953. This rise in elementary enrollments
will probably continue until about 1956-57, when
nearly 13,000 more children may be enrolled in
grades 1 to 8 than in 1948-49. I f the pupilteacher ratio were 30 to 1, then this source of
employment alone would furnish jobs for more
than 400 elementary teachers in the course of 8
years. The expansion in staff will tend to bring
with it an increase in the number of teachers
dying or leaving for other reasons each year; on
the other hand, this tendency may be more than
offset by efforts to reduce the current high rate
of personnel losses (approximately 25 percent of
the total elementary teaching staff in 1947-48).
In the high schools, the supply of teachers is
expected to be adequate in 1949-50. Positions
which need to be filled will be mostly those va­
cated by teachers leaving Nevada schools. In
1948-49 an estimated 50 replacements were
needed; a smaller number will probably be
needed in 1949-50. Only seven college students
(compared with 38 in 1941) were expected to
graduate in Nevada in 1949 with qualifications
for a regular high school certificate. However,
Nevada high schools should be able to obtain
more out-of-State teachers in 1949-50 than the
preceding year; the new retirement system is
expected to attract recruits, and teacher-training
institutions in many other States have produced
more than enough high school teachers to fill
positions in the country as a whole.
Beginning in 1950, the number of high school
students enrolled will probably increase, first
gradually and later rapidly until by 1959-60
there may be over 5,000 more youths in grades 9
to 12 than 10 years before. I f one additional
teacher were hired for each 25 of these pupils,

staff additions would total at least 200 over the
10-year period. Whether this expansion in staff
will lead to an increase in the total number of
vacancies which have to be filled each year will
depend on how far the drop-out rate is reduced
from the current high figure (about 14 percent
in 1947-48).

mated at $3,250 and for elementary teachers at
$2,900.
The single-salary schedule in effect in 1948-49
in Las Vegas was as follows :

Earnings

Less than bachelor’s
degree

The minimum annual salary for the State was
$2,400 as of 1948-49. The average salary for sec­
ondary classroom teachers in that year was esti­

Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Maximum

Minimum

Increments

$2,400

7 (a $60

$2,820

Bachelor’s degree

2,600

10 @ 100

3,600

Master’s degree

2,800

10 @ 100

3,800

NEW HAMPSHIRE
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 2,900 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the pub­
lic schools of New Hampshire to teach approxi­
mately 70,000 pupils. About three-fourths o f
the pupils and nearly two-thirds of the teachers
were in elementary schools. About 400 of the
teachers were in Manchester and Nashua.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for a stand­
ard certificate is the completion of a 4- or 5-year
teacher preparation course in a standard collegelevel institution. Training must include 45 se­
mester hours of professional education courses for
the elementary certificate or 21 semester hours
for the high school certificate. For either certifi­
cate, 6 of these hours must be supervised student
teaching. However, 3 years of successful teaching
experience can be substituted for student teach­
ing provided the last year o f teaching has been
within the preceding 3 years. There are certain
additional academic requirements for the high
school certificate in the subject fields to be taught,
such as 18 semester hours in major field of teach­
ing and at least 6 semester hours in any subject
taught.
Emergency certificates are issued when neces­
sary, to applicants who do not meet regular re­
quirements.
Outlook

The shortage o f fully qualified elementary
teachers is likely to be more severe in 1949-50
than in the previous year. New Hampshire train­
ing institutions expected only 24 students to com­
plete courses in 1949 qualifying them for regular
elementary certificates. This is only a small frac­



tion of the number needed just to replace teach­
ers leaving the schools each year because of
death, retirement, or other reasons. I f the re­
placement rate for drop-outs is the same as in
1948-49, 12 percent (around 200) o f the elemen­
tary teaching staff will need to be replaced.
Moreover, additional teachers will be sought to
handle new classes formed to take care of the
increasing enrollments in the lower grades. In­
stead o f being able to replace those who were
teaching on emergency permits in 1948-49 (when
about 300 such permits were issued), the elemen­
tary schools will probably have to hire more
teachers not meeting regular certification require­
ments.
Demands for elementary teachers will doubt­
less become even heavier in future years. Nearly
19,000 more children may be enrolled in grades 1
to 8 by 1958-59, when the peak in elementary en­
rollments is expected, than were in the schools in
1948-49. Assuming a ratio of one teacher to
every 30 pupils, this would call for the employ­
ment of about 630 additional teachers over the
10-year interval. As the size o f the teaching staff
grows, more vacancies will probably occur each
year owing to deaths, retirements, or other rea­
sons. I f the annual attrition rate continues at 12
percent, the number of drop-outs will probably
increase to about 300 annually in the latter part
of the 1950’s.
Some shortages o f high school teachers are
anticipated in 1949-50, but not the year after—
except, possibly, in a few special subjects. It was
expected that 238 students would graduate from
high school teacher-training courses in 1949. The
supply from this source and out-of-State sources
may provide more applicants than the number

53

needed to replace teachers who leave New Hamp­
shire high schools. This number,, in the previous
year, was estimated to be about 150 or 15 per­
cent of the high school teaching staff; about the
same number will probably be needed in 1949-50.
Therefore, part of the supply should be available
for replacing some of the emergency teachers
who were employed in 1948-49 (about 200 emer­
gency certificates were issued in that year).
Home economics, agriculture, and commerce are
expected to be the greatest shortage fields. I f
the supply of high school teachers keeps up at
the 1949 level, the shortages will probably dis­
appear in most subject fields in another year. En­
rollment increases in the early 1950’s will be very
small and only a few extra teachers will have to
be hired for additional classes.
An increasing number of high school teachers
will be needed as the expanded enrollments of
the elementary schools pass into the higher
grades during the 1950 decade. As many as 4,700
more pupils may be attending high school by
1958-59 than were enrolled 10 years earlier. I f
one teacher were hired for each additional 25
pupils, this would mean about 190 staff additions
over that period. I f the rate of teacher with­
drawals continues to be about 15 percent, the

number of replacements needed will be about
175 per year during the last part o f the 1950
decade.
Earnings

The median salary for classroom teachers in
1948-49 was estimated at $2,760 for secondary
teachers and $2,280 for elementary teachers.
Minimum salaries of $1,700 for the lowest certifi­
cate recognized and $1,800 for teachers with a
bachelor’s degree have been established by the
State Board of Education.
The single-salary schedule for Nashua for
1948-49 is shown below. A cost-of-living adjust­
ment of $260 was added to scheduled salaries.
Annual salary
Educational
preparation
Minimum
No degree 0

Increments

$2,012

3 @ $100
16 @
50

Maximum
$3,112

Bachelor’s degree

2,012

2 @
1 @
18 @

100
200
50

3,312

Master’s degree

2,312

2 @
1 @
18 @

100
200
50

3,612

a Four years’ preparation now required of all new applicants.

NEW JERSEY
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The 1948-49 public school enrollment was
about 670,000, and the instructional staff num­
bered about 27,000. Approximately 60 percent
of the teachers and pupils were in elementary
schools.
Eighty-five percent of the teachers were in
urban communities. The teaching staffs in the
largest urban school systems ranged from around
500 in Bayonne to 2,100 in Newark.
Certification Requirements

The limited elementary certificate for all
grades from kindergarten to 8 is issued to candi­
dates who meet the general requirements, with
respect to health, moral character, and other mat­
ters and who have a bachelor’s degree from an
accredited 4-year college with a teacher-training
program equivalent to that of the New Jersey
State Teachers colleges. Approximately half of
the degree program must be in specified subjects
taught in elementary school; approximately onethird in general background courses of designated

54




types; and approximately one-sixth in basic pro­
fessional background courses in education, psy­
chology, and related subjects. The program must
also include 150 clock hours of approved student
teaching.
For a limited secondary certificate entitling the
holder to teach specified subject fields in grades
7 to 12, a bachelor’s degree is required. The
course of study must include at least 30 semester
hours in certain general background courses; a
minimum of 18 semester hours of professional
courses; preparation in two teaching fields, one
with 30 semester hours and one with 18 semester
hours; and 150 clock hours of approved student
teaching.
Comparable detailed requirements are made for
certificates to teach special subjects (such as art,
business education, health, and industrial arts)
in the elementary and secondary schools.
A limited certificate remains valid for 5 years
and may be made permanent on evidence of 3
years of successful experience in New Jersey in

the type o f public school work for which the cer­
tificate was issued.
Various types of substandard certificates are
issued to certain people who do not meet these
qualifications. The provisional certificate can be
kept valid by completing each year a minimum
o f 6 semester hours toward the requirements for
a standard certificate. The temporary limited cer­
tificate is issued for the most part to teachers re­
cruited from those who had left teaching. This
certificate terminates at the end of the year unless
renewed on recommendation of the employer.
The emergency certificate is issued upon recom­
mendation of the county superintendent and
terminates at the end of the year unless he re­
affirms that the emergency continues.
Outlook

The shortage of elementary teachers will be
worse in this State in 1949-50 than in the preced­
ing school year. According to the New Jersey
Department of Education, the unfilled needs in
that year were as follows :9
0
1
To
To
To
To
To

replace teachers with substandard certificates__1,117
replace temporary substitute tea ch e rs________
338
fill vacant p o sitio n s_____________________________
11
reduce oversize c la sse s___________________________
323
provide additional auxiliary se r v ic e s________
113
Total

____________________________________________ 1,902

It should be noted that several hundred of the
teachers with substandard permits hold provi­
sional certificates which they can keep valid by
earning 6 semester hours credit each year; many
o f these teachers will probably not be replaced.
On the other hand, additional teachers will be
needed to fill vacancies owing to deaths, retire­
ments, and withdrawals, and to handle the antici­
pated increase in enrollments. The Department
predicts that, even if the schools retain all teach­
ers on substandard certificates and all temporary
substitutes, there will still be a need for 1,672
elementary teachers in the fall o f 1949. It also
estimates that the available supply of fully
qualified teachers, including not only New Jersey
trainees but also those who may be recruited
from outside the State, will amount to only 705,
less than half the number needed.
Elementary enrollments are expected to rise
rapidly until 1955-56. Allowing one teacher for
every 30 additional pupils expected and estimat­
9 How Many Teachers Will New Jersey Need During the Next
10 Years? by Robert H. Morrison, Assistant Commissioner for
Higher Education, New Jersey State Department of Education,
March 31, 1949.




ing the annual replacement need at 1,079, the De­
partment calculates that the number of new
teachers needed yearly will average 1,873 during
the period 1949-58. The peak demand will come
in the early 1950’s, when enrollments are rising
most rapidly. Needs will dwindle after 1956,
when enrollments begin to decline and teachers
are needed only to fill vacancies.
To meet the estimated average yearly need for
1,873 new teachers, the Department suggests an­
nual quotas from the following sources:
State teachers c o lleg es________________________________ 1,100
Other teachers colleges and liberal arts colleges__
250
Teachers migrating to New Jersey from other
States ______________________________________________
175
Former teachers retu rn in g __________________________
100
Eligh school teachers retrained and transferred to
200
elementary g r a d e s _________________________________
Other sources ________________________________________
48

The quota suggested for the State teachers col­
leges would necessitate a three-fold increase
over the number of graduates trained for elemen­
tary work in recent years; the Department rec­
ommends that the number of students admitted
annually for training in elementary work be in­
creased to 700 and that an additional 400 be
trained for both elementary and high school
teaching.
In the high schools, an oversupply of teachers
is developing in many subject fields. For the
next few years? the demand for new secondary
teachers will arise primarily from personnel
losses owing to death, retirement, or other causes.
The Department of Education estimates that
about. 515 new teachers will be needed in 1949-50
to make up for such losses (after allowing for
the fact that high school enrollments are declin­
ing and that some vacancies will not have to be
filled). Though there were still several hundred
high school teachers employed on provisional or
other substandard certificates in 1948-49, it was
anticipated that many of these teachers would
complete the additional courses needed to keep
their certificates valid and would not need to be
replaced. Thus, the supply of 1,140 new high
school teachers which the Department expected
would be available in the fall of 1949 (from
New Jersey training institutions and other
sources) will probably be more than enough to
meet the over-all demand. Surpluses of teachers
are anticipated in some fields, particularly Eng­
lish, social studies, and men’s physical education.
However, 1949-50 will probably see continued

55

shortages in certain special fields,, including home
economics, physical education for women, music,
and art. Teachers unable to find high school
positions may find employment in elementary
schools after a summer of retraining; summer
session classes in the State teachers colleges will
be available for this purpose.
High school enrollments are expected to de­
cline until the mid-1950’s and then show a de­
cided increase in the last 3 or 4 years of the
decade. Annual teacher requirements will there­
fore be much higher in the late 1950’s than in
the early part o f the decade, when personnel will
be needed only as replacements. Taking the
9-year period from 1949 to 1958 as a whole, the
Department o f Education anticipates an average
annual need for about 664 new secondary teach­
ers. According to the Department’s estimates, it
would be possible to meet this need even if there
were a great reduction in the number of students
specializing in secondary education at the State
teachers colleges. Unless the number is reduced,
there will be a continuing surplus of secondary
teachers. The Department recommends that only
about 200 students be admitted for specialized
training in high school teaching each year,
though 400 others should receive both secondary
and elementary training. I f these recommenda-

tions are carried out, it should be possible to
meet the present emergency at the elementary
level and, later, provide sufficient high school
teachers to handle expanding high school en­
rollments.
Earnings

A State-mandated minimum salary of $2,200
for the academic year (which must be 180 days)
goes into effect September 1,1949.
The minimum and maximum salaries for teach­
ers with bachelor’s degrees provided by the
salary guides in the State’s largest school systems
were as follows in 1948-49 :1
0
Number of
teachers

Minimum
salary

Maximum
salary

2,108

$2,600

$4,600

12

1,360

2,600

5,000

8

Paterson

768

2,000

4,500

17

E lizabeth____

620

2,000

4,000

14

Camden

594

2,000

3,650

12

Trenton

588

2,500

4,800

—

Bayonne

513

1,800

4,350

16

System

Newark
Jersey City —

Number
of steps

N ote — Newark teachers had an average annual salary of
$4,423 in 1948-49. The city ranked second among the Nation’s
20 largest cities in this respect.

NEW MEXICO
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

New Mexico has a larger number of school-age
children in proportion to the total population
than any other State in the Union; in 1947, it
had about 285 children, aged 5 to 17, per 1,000
population. Public school enrollments totaled
approximately 142,000 in 1948-49, including
about 118,000 elementary pupils and 24,000 high
school youths. Instructional staffs totaled 3,000
in the grade schools and 1,400 in the high schools.
Nearly three out of every four teachers were in
rural schools. The largest of the urban school
systems, that o f Albuquerque, had a staff of
about 250 classroom teachers in 1948-49.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for the pro­
fessional elementary certificate is 2 years of col­
lege work. This must include 30 hours in certain
specified academic subjects and 10 hours of pro­
fessional education courses, 2 of which must be
observation and practice teaching. To obtain the

56




“ master” teacher’s elementary certificate one must
be a graduate of an approved 4-year college
course, with 34 semester hours credit in certain
specified academic subjects and 18 hours in edu­
cation courses, 4 of which must be in supervised
teaching.
The requirement for the junior or senior high
school certificate is graduation from a 4-year col­
lege course, with 24 semester hours in a major
subject, 15 in a minor subject, and 18 in educa­
tion courses including 4 in supervised teaching.
Emergency certificates are sometimes issued to
certain applicants who do not meet the above re­
quirements.
Outlook

The shortage of elementary teachers which de­
veloped during and since the war will probably
continue in the near future. Most of the demand
for teachers in 1949-50 will probably be created1
0
1
0 New Jersey Teachers’ Salaries, 1948-49 as reported to the
Committee on Educational Research. New Jersey Educational
Review, October 1948.

by deaths, retirements, and losses of personnel
for other reasons. It was estimated that in 194849 about 550 teachers were needed as replace­
ments; the number will probably be about the
same in 1949-50. Others will be needed for new
classes created to take care of expanding enroll­
ments. A few will be needed to take the places
o f some of the emergency teachers (about 100
emergency permits were issued in 1948-49). One
source of supply is the 212 New Mexico college
students who were expected to complete require­
ments for the elementary certificate in 1949.
However, the number of applicants from other
States may be larger than the number from
New Mexico; in 1948-49, many more new certifi­
cates were issued to out-of-State applicants,
chiefly from Oklahoma and Texas, than to ap­
plicants from New Mexico. Nevertheless, the
total supply of fully qualified elementary teach­
ers will probably not be large enough to meet
all the demands.
Rising employment of elementary teachers is
likely to occur in the years that follow. Enroll­
ments in grades 1 to 8 will probably not reach
their peak until about 1958-59, when 42,000 more
children may be enrolled than in 1948-49. The
elementary teaching staff would be larger by
1,400 teachers if one teacher were hired for
every 30 additional pupils during the 10-year
interval. Ah even greater source of job oppor­
tunities will be the openings created by deaths,
retirements, and other withdrawals. I f the at­
trition rate continues at around 18 percent, as in
1947- 48, the number of replacements needed
yearly would increase to almost 800 by the time
the peak enrollment is reached. However, the
rate is not likely to continue at such a high level;
if it should drop to 10 percent, the number of
teachers needed at the peak would be about 450
per year.
Many facts point to an oversupply of high
school teachers in 1949-50 and the following 2
or 3 years. It was estimated that 320 New
Mexico students would qualify for standard high
school teaching certificates in 1949, and appli­
cants from out of the State may again outnumber
applicants from New Mexico as they did in
1948- 49. The demand for teachers will, no doubt,
be far below the supply. Enrollments in grades
9 to 12 will probably decline, so that almost no
teachers will be needed for newT positions; in
general, demand will be limited to replacements



for those who leave the profession in the State.
It has been estimated that, in 1948-49, about 200
teachers were needed for this purpose and the
same number will probably be required in 194950. There is likely to be keen competition for
nearly all jobs especially in the social science,
English, and men’s physical education fields.
In the long run, greater numbers o f high
school teachers will be needed. Beginning about
1952-53, secondary enrollments will have an up­
ward trend which will continue throughout the
rest of the decade. By 1959-60, perhaps 11,000
more youths will be enrolled in high school than
11 years before. Assuming a pupil-teacher ratio
of 25 to 1, about 440 new teachers would have
to be taken on to handle the additional pupils.
The demand for teachers as replacements for
those who die, retire, or withdraw for other
reasons will also tend to rise. I f the rate of with­
drawal should continue at the 1947-48 figure o f
14 percent, then annual withdrawals would pro­
duce about 250 vacancies in the late 1950’s.
However, this rate is likely to drop.
Earnings

The average salary for 1948-49 was estimated
at $3,550 for secondary classroom teachers and
$2,950 for elementary teachers in the State as a
whole.
The basic salary schedules in effect in Albu­
querque and Santa Fe in 1948-49 were as follow s:
Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Minimum

Increments

« $2,400

b 12 @ $100
60
5 @

Maximum

A LB U Q U E R Q U E

Bachelor’s degree
Master’s degree

« 2,600

b 12 @
5 @

100
60

$3,900
4,100

S A N T A FE 1

2,400

20 @

60

3,600

4^3 years

2,460

20 @

60

3,660

4% years

2,520

20 @

60

3,720

Master’s degree

2,600

1 @
19 @

220
60

3,960

Bachelor’s degree

1 Figures given are exclusive of cost-of-living adjustment of
$240 added to scheduled salaries in 1948-49.
a Actual beginning salaries in 1948-49 were $2,640 for
teachers with bachelor’s degrees, and $2,840 for those with
master’s degrees.
b Additional training is required every 5 years to advance on
the schedule.

57

NEW YORK
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Approximately 76,000 teachers were employed
in the New York public school system in 1948-49,
according to estimates from the State Education
Department. The elementary schools (kinder­
garten through grade 8) had about 49,000 teach­
ers for their 1,355,000 pupils; the high schools
(grades 9 to 12) had about 27,000 teachers for
560,000 students. Slightly over two-fifths of all
the State’s public school teachers were employed
in New York City.
Certification Requirements

For a permanent certificate in New York ele­
mentary schools, one must have a bachelor’s de­
gree, with at least 36 semester hours in approved
education courses. This latter requirement is one
o f the highest made by any State. The 36 se­
mester hours in elementary education must in­
clude at least 12 to 15 hours in observation and
practice teaching, 8 to 12 hours in teaching
methods and materials; 6 to 10 hours in psychol­
ogy, and 2 to 6 hours in the history, principles,
problems, or philosophy of education.
The requirements for permanent certificates
to teach academic subjects in secondary schools
are likewise among the highest made by any
State. A bachelor’s degree (or equivalent prepa­
ration) plus 30 semester hours of approved ad­
vanced courses are required. The training must
include at least 18 semester hours in approved
education courses and the following minimum
semester hours in the subject fields to be taught :
15 for mathematics; 18 for English, a foreign
language, history, biological sciences, or physical
sciences; 30 for the romance languages (any
tw o), classical languages, social studies, or gen­
eral science. For all fields except English and the
sciences, the specified requirements assume at
least 2 units of high school credit in the subject;
candidates without such credit must complete
6 additional semester hours o f college work in the
field. To teach a modern language, a candidate
must pass a written examination, unless he has
an M. A. degree in that language; for permanent
approval as a language teacher, he must pass an
oral examination.
Comparable, detailed requirements are made
for certificates to teach special subjects (such as
art, music, home economics, or physical educa­
tion) in either elementary or secondary schools,

58




and industrial arts, trades, or technical subjects
offered in vocational schools.
Temporary certificates are issued to applicants
not meeting all the regular specifications, when
fully qualified candidates are not available.
Outlook

The total number of teaching positions in New
York’s elementary schools will probably increase
each year until the mid-1950’s. Elementary en­
rollments (kindergarten through grade 8) are
expected to grow until about 1955, when they may
be more than 400,000 greater than in 1948-49,
according to estimates by the State Education
Department which are described as conserva­
tive.1 The Department further estimates that
1
the number o f elementary teachers, supervisors,
and principals needed will increase by about
14,000 in the 6-year period from 1948-49 to
1954-55. In the late 1950’s, enrollments will de­
cline, but the expanded teaching force will tend
to bring with it a corresponding expanded need
for personnel to replace those dying, retiring, or
withdrawing from the teaching force. I f an at­
trition rate of 6 percent is assumed, the number
of elementary teachers needed annually as re­
placements would probably average about 3,600
or 3,700 in the last half of the decade, as com­
pared with about 2,900 or 3,000 in the next couple
of years. In addition, qualified teachers will be
needed in the near future to replace some of the
holders of temporary certificates; according to
an estimate by the New York State Teachers
Association, about 1,700 such certificates were
issued for elementary teaching in 1948-49, mostly
in rural areas where the personnel shortage is
particularly acute.
The supply of fully qualified, new elementary
teachers is expected to fall far short o f the needs,
at least in the next couple of years. The number
of people completing training for elementary
teaching in 1949 in all New York colleges, except
New York University and Columbia’s Teachers
College, has been estimated at only 1,680, and
not all these graduates will enter teaching in New
York. Though the State teachers colleges will have
somewhat larger graduating classes in 1950 than
in 1949, no end to the employment o f teachers
with only temporary certificates is yet in sight.1
1
1 Soper, Wayne W., How Many Public School Teachers Does
New York State Need? The State Education Department,
Albany, New York, April 25, 1949, pp. 12-14.

In contrast to the shortage of elementary
teachers, an oversupply is anticipated in most
high school teaching fields, at least in the next
couple of years. Enrollments in the secondary
schools have recently been decreasing, and they
will probably continue to do so until about 1951.
The demand for new high school teachers will
therefore be limited largely to replacements dur­
ing this period; on the basis of a 6 percent attri­
tion rate, about 1,500 would be needed annually in
the next couple of years to take the place of
teachers dying,, retiring, or withdrawing from
the profession. In contrast, the number of people
completing training for secondary school teach­
ing in New York in 1949 is estimated at approxi­
mately 3,380, not counting graduates of New
York University or Columbia’s Teachers College.
The competition for jobs is likely to be especially
great in such fields as English, social studies, and
men’s physical education. On the other hand,
1949-50 may see a continued shortage of teachers
in a few fields, such as home economics and voca­
tional agriculture.
Expanding employment opportunities are ex­
pected in secondary schools after 1952. About
that time, high school enrollments will begin to
increase, and they will have an upward trend into
the 1960’s. According to estimates by the State
Department o f Education, they may be about
200,000 higher in 1959-60 than at the low point
reached early in the decade. The Department’s
estimates also indicate an average annual need
for about 900 additional high school teachers,
supervisors, and principals during the last 7 years
o f the decade. The number of teachers needed
annually as replacements, with an attrition rate
of 6 percent, would probably average about 1,600

or 1,700 during this period and might be as high
as 1,900 by 1959-60.
Earnings

Median annual salaries of classroom teachers
outside New York City in 1948-49 were about
$2,725 in elementary schools and $3,248 in sec­
ondary schools. Only 25 percent of the ele­
mentary and 5 percent of the secondary school
teachers made less than $2,400. New York City
salaries for classroom teachers in 1948-49 aver­
aged $4,630—higher than in any large city in the
country.
Under the State minimum salary schedule in
effect in 1948-49, salaries started at $2,000 in dis­
tricts with eight or more teachers and less than
100,000 population (except in Nassau and West­
chester Counties) ; at $2,200 in those with 100,000
to 1,000,000 population and all districts in Nassau
and Westchester Counties; and at $2,500 in still
larger districts (that is, New York City). Annual
salary increases are provided, but at specified
intervals teachers may be required to meet cer­
tain qualifications and be moved to a higher pro­
motional level to receive further increments. The
maximum salaries provided for those with less
than a master’s degree under the State schedule
were $4,100, $4,510 and $5,125, respectively, in
districts of the three sizes specified above. Teach­
ers holding master’s degrees or having 30 se­
mester hours o f graduate credit are entitled to a
salary differential of $200.
In rural districts employing less than eight
teachers, the minimum rate for beginners is
$2,000 a year. The State law makes no provision
either for higher rates for teachers possessing
graduate degrees or for automatic yearly in­
creases in these districts.

NORTH CAROLINA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

The public e le m e n t a r y school system employed
about 20,000 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors for the 692,000 pupils enrolled in
the 1948-49 school year. High schools employed
nearly 7,000 teachers; approximately 170,000
pupils were enrolled. The high school teaching
force includes about 400 home economics teachers
and 100 trade and industrial subjects teachers.
About one-fourth of all the public school teachers
were in schools for Negroes. There were under
600 one-teacher public schools in operation, with



average daily attendance of nearly 16,000 pupils,
about 12,000 of whom were Negroes.
Certification Requirements

Graduation from a standard 4-year college is
required for a class A elementary or high school
certificate; the high school certificate is required
for grades 9 to 12 and may be used in grades 7
and 8. For the class A elementary certificate,
one requirement is 21 semester hours of profes­
sional education; for the class A high school
certificate, 18 semester hours. As of July 1, 1950,
there will be some changes in the specific require­
ments. Emergency teachers who do not meet

59

regular requirements are employed when neces­
sary.
Outlook

The shortage of qualified elementary white
teachers in the State—evidenced by the approval
in 1948-49 of about 1,200 teachers not meeting
regular requirements—is expected to continue
for at least the next few years. Greatest shortage
is in the rural, white, one-teacher schools. Over
500 new teachers are needed each year to replace
those who leave the profession in the State. In­
creasing enrollments resulting from high birth
rates (1947 births were 30,000 above the 1940
figure) will require additional teaching positions,
and many of the teachers now employed on emer­
gency certificates will be needed to be replaced.
There would be further need for teachers if the
1948-49 pupil-teacher ratio of nearly 35 to 1 were
reduced to the more desirable 30 to 1 ratio. The
demand for white elementary teachers is far in
excess o f the supply; training institutions in the
State prepared only 238 white graduates for ele­
mentary teaching in 1949. The supply of Negro
teachers exceeds the demand in most localities;
456 graduated from training institutions in the
State in 1949. The replacement rate is much
lower for Negro than for white teachers and con­
siderable competition for positions is expected
during the next few years.
Employment of elementary teachers will have
an upward trend along with enrollments, until
about 1957-58 when about 159,000 more students
may be enrolled in grades 1 to 8 than in 1948-49.
On the basis of 30 pupils per teacher, this in­
crease in enrollments would require 5,300 addi­
tional teaching positions or an average of over
650 annually. The greatest increase in any single
year will occur about 1954-55, when about 1,000
more teaching positions may be needed than in
the preceding year. After 1957-58, the demand
for new teachers will be limited, in general, to re­
placements. However, owing to the expanded
teaching staff, the number of vacancies to be filled
each year will probably be much larger than at
present—perhaps higher than 1,700.
In high schools, new teachers will be needed
for the next 3 or 4 years, largely to replace some
of the 150 now employed on emergency certifi­
cates and to fill vacancies created by deaths, re­
tirements, and other losses to the profession. The
normal replacement need is estimated at about
500 annually. In 1948-49, teachers already ex­

60




ceeded the demand in many subject fields, par­
ticularly physical education, social science, and
English; however, there was some shortage o f
science and industrial arts teachers in white
schools. In 1949, over 2,000 new graduates o f
North Carolina colleges qualified for high school
teaching, 350 more than in 1948 and 750 more
than in 1941. The outlook is for an overall sur­
plus of high school teachers at least for several
years. Competition among Negro teachers will
be especially sharp.
About 1953, high school enrollments will be­
gin to expand, increasing by approximately
62,000 between 1948 and 1960. Assuming a ratio
of 25 pupils per teacher, this gain would require
a third more teachers than were employed in
1948-49.
Earnings

Average annual salaries in the State for 194849 were estimated as follows :
White teachers Negro teachers
Elementary

$1,919

$1,999

High school

1,942

1,939

The State salary schedule for 1949-50 is shown
below. This schedule reflects an increase of about
one-third in the appropriations for 1949-50 and
1950-51 over the previous appropriation.
State

minimum monthly salary schedule for 1949-50
(9 months)
Type of certificate

Experi­
ence in
years

A
0
1
9
R
4
5
a
7
8
9
10
11
12

Elementary

Class 6
Gradu­
ate a

$258
265
273
281
289
297
305
314
323
332
341

$229
234
239
245
251
258
265
273
281
289
297

B
$204
209
214
219
224
229
234

C
$165
170
175
180
185
190

A
$153
157
161
165
169

B
$141
146
151
156

Non­
standard
$120

306

a Applies to both elementary and secondary teachers who have
the master’s degree.
b Primary, grammar grade, and secondary.

In some areas, particularly in cities, the State
schedule of salaries is increased by a local sup­
plement. For example, in Asheville 10 percent
was added to the State schedule in 1948-49, in
Durham 20 percent was added, and in Greensboro
the supplement was approximately 20 percent.

NORTH DAKOTA
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

The public elementary schools employed about
4,600 classroom teachers, principals, and super­
visors and had 87,500 pupils enrolled in 1948-49;
secondary schools employed 1,860 teachers for
27,000 enrollments. Less than 1,000 o f the teach­
ers were in schools in cities o f 2,500 or more
population; about 2,800 were in one-teacher
schools.
Certification Requirements

Minimum requirements for the professional
elementary certificate are graduation from a 2year teacher-training course o f 64 semester hours,
with 16 hours in professional education includ­
ing 3 in student teaching.
Lower-grade certificates are the “ first-grade
elementary certificate,5 for which graduation
5
from a 1-year teacher-training course o f 48
quarter hours is required, and the “ second-grade
elementary certificate,5 which is issued on the
5
basis o f examinations held once a year and quali­
fies the holder o f the certificate for teaching in
rural schools unless a higher grade of certificate
is required by local authorities.
Requirements for a professional high school
certificate are a bachelor’s degree from an ac­
credited college or university, 16 semester hours
in education of which 3 must be in student teach­
ing, and specific numbers of hours in the candi­
date’s major and minor subjects. Special certifi­
cates are issued for certain subjects, such as art
and music.
Emergency certificates are issued when neces­
sary to persons not meeting regular qualifica­
tions.
Applicants for certification must be at least
18 years of age.
Outlook

Employment opportunities will be very good
for elementary school teachers in the near future.
For the next 2 or 3 years, such teachers will be
needed primarily as replacements for those who
leave the profession and for some o f those em­
ployed on emergency certificates in 1948-49, since
enrollments are not expected to increase substan­
tially in this State until about 1952. The number
o f elementary teachers needed to replace those
leaving the profession was about 400 in 1948-49,
or about 9 percent o f the total elementary teach­



ing force; it is likely that about the same num­
ber will be needed in the fall of 1949. In addi­
tion, there were some 235 elementary teaching va­
cancies in 1948-49, even though more than 1,400
emergency certificates had been issued. It ap­
pears that the demand for elementary teachers
will exceed the supply in 1949-50, since only 273
students in North Dakota teacher-training insti­
tutions were expected to become qualified for ele­
mentary certificates in 1949, as compared with
925 in 1941.
Employment o f elementary teachers will prob­
ably rise somewhat from 1952-53 through 195657, when enrollments in grades 1 to 8 are likely
to increase by about 1,600 each year; this gain
would require 50 to 75 new teaching positions
annually, if an additional teacher is provided for
each 30 added enrollments. After 1956-57, enroll­
ments will probably tend to decrease, and op­
portunities for teachers will arise chiefly from
replacement needs.
Openings for high school teachers in the next
few years will also be chiefly as replacements for
those who leave teaching in the State. These
needs were estimated at 300, or about 16 percent
of the 1948-49 high school teaching staff, and it
is likely that about this many will be needed in
1949-50. A few teachers may also be required
to fill positions which were vacant the previous
year. However, the teacher-training institutions
in the State were expected to graduate 395 stu­
dents qualified for secondary teaching in 1949;
the supply of new teachers should be sufficient
to meet the need in most localities, except in a
few subject fields.
Enrollments and teacher employment in the
secondary schools are not expected to increase
very much over the long run. By 1959-60, how­
ever, there may be about 3,000 more pupils en­
rolled in grades 9 to 12 than in 1951-52. On the
basis of 25 pupils per teacher, this increase would
require 120 additional teachers over the period.
The attrition rate may decline from the 1948-49
rate of 16 percent; if it should decrease by half,
about 150 teachers would still be needed annually
in the late 1950’s as replacements for those who
leave high school teaching in the State.
Earnings

The estimated average annual salary of ele­
mentary teachers was $1,550 in 1948-49; for sec­
ondary teachers it was $1,900.

61

State law set the minimum salary for teachers
with the lowest certificate at $900 in 1948-49 and
provided a $1,350 minimum for those with a
B. A. degree.
The single-salary schedule in effect in Fargo
in 1948-49 is given below. The figures cited are
exclusive of a cost-of-living adjustment of $200.
Furthermore, they are for women teachers; men
teachers received $300 more.

Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Maximum

Minimum

Increments

2 years

$2,000

8 @ $50

3 years

2,100

8 @

75

2,700

1 years

2,200

8 @ 100

3,000

5 years

2,300

8 @ 125

3,300

$2,400

OHIO
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

There were about 24,500 teachers and about
770,000 pupils in the public elementary schools
during the school year 1948-49. The secondary
schools employed 19,500 teachers for their 391,500
students.
Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 4-year college course is re­
quired for the high school teacher’s certificate.
The candidate’s training must include 17 semester
hours of professional education courses, at least
3 o f which were in student teaching and ob­
servation, and not less than 15 semester hours
in each of three teaching fields. In certain spe­
cial fields more than 15 semester hours are re­
quired.
Certificates to teach in elementary schools may
be granted to persons who have completed only
3 years o f college work. This training must in­
clude 19 semester hours of education courses, of
which 5 were in student teaching.
Ohio teacher-training institutions have recently
organized a 4-year course which enables a student
to obtain certification for both elementary and
secondary teaching. The State Supervisor of
Teacher Education and Certification feels that a
trend is developing toward this type of dual cer­
tification.
Temporary certificates -are granted to persons
not having these qualifications when fully quali­
fied persons are not available. About 80 percent
o f the emergency certificates in force during the
school year 1948-49 were in the rural schools.
Outlook

A severe shortage of elementary teachers
existed in 1948-49 and is expected to continue
during the next 4 years. The Ohio Supervisor of
Teacher Education and Certification estimates
that during the next 4 years approximately 2,000
new elementary teachers will be needed annually
to replace those leaving the profession, that 1,000

62


will be required each year to handle increased en­
rollments, and that an additional 1,000 should be
recruited annually to replace some of those hold­
ing emergency certificates.12 Thus, a total o f
about 4,000 new elementary teachers will be re­
quired each year. In contrast, the number o f
students from Ohio’s colleges completing courses
qualifying them for elementary positions was
estimated at only 940 in 1949.
In the mid-1950’s, an even larger number o f
teachers will need to be added to handle increased
enrollments in grades 1 to 8, owing to the record
numbers of births during the early postwar years
(1947 births in Ohio were more than double the
1933 number). On the basis of 30 pupils per
teacher, an average of about 2,000 new teachers
would be needed annually to take care of the
increase of about 230,000 in enrollments expected
in the 4-year period 1952-56. I f the attrition
rate continues to be approximately 10 percent
as in 1948^49, about 3,300 new elementary teach­
ers would be needed annually during this period
to replace those who leave the profession.
Competition for high school positions in most
teaching fields is expected during the next few
years. The demand for high school teachers will
then be largely for replacements, since not much
increase in secondary enrollments (grades 9 to
12) is expected until 1951-52. It is estimated that
about 10 percent of the high school teachers left
the profession in 1947-48. I f this rate o f attri­
tion continues during the next few years, nearly
2,000 replacements will be needed annually. How­
ever, about 3,280 students from Ohio colleges
were expected to complete college courses quali­
fying them for high school positions during
1949—a considerable increase over the figure o f
2,913 for 1948; 1,287 for 1945; and 1,947 for
1941.
1
2 Bowers, Harold J., “ Teacher Shortage in Ohio,” Educational
Research Bulletin, College of Education, Ohio State University,
January 19, 1949, p. 2.

There will probably be an over-supply of sec­
ondary teachers in 1949-50 in most subject fields,
with the greatest surplus in men’s physical educa­
tion. Fields in which a surplus is not anticipated
in 1949-50 are agriculture, commerce, science,
mathematics, and industrial arts.
The demand for high school teachers will in­
crease during the 1950’s, as the peak enrollments
pass from the elementary grades to the high
schools. Assuming a ratio of 25 students per
teacher, over 1,800 new teachers would be needed
to take care o f the 45,000 increase in high school
enrollments that is expected in the 2-year period
1956-58. At the same time, if the attrition rate
should remain approximately 10 percent, about
2,100 new teachers would be needed annually as
replacements. After 1958, enrollments and teacher
employment will probably rise more slowly, but
a continued upward trend is anticipated at least
until 1960.
Earnings

A survey made by the Ohio Education Associa­
tion shows that the average teaching salary in
Ohio during the 1948-49 school year was ap­
proximately $2,900, about $140 more than in the
previous year. The average for high school teach­
ers increased by about $120 between the 2 years;
that for the elementary teachers, by about $155.

H alf of the elementary teachers earned over
$2,500 in 1948-49; about 10 percent received less
than $2,000 for the year. The median salary for
high school teachers was $3,073, with about 13
percent earning less than $2,400. In 92 percent
of Ohio’s school districts single-salary schedules
are in effect, and an elementary school teacher
may expect the same salary as a high school
teacher with an equal amount of educational
preparation and experience.
As would be expected, the teachers employed in
city school systems earned considerably more than
those in village and country districts. During
1948-49, the median salary in cities was $3,255;
in villages, $2,576, and in country districts, $2,387.
The city of Cleveland had slightly over 3,000
teachers on a single-salary schedule which began
at $2,400. Holders of the bachelor’s degree might
eventually work up to $4,200, while those who
had earned the master’s degree might reach
$4,500. The average salary of all Cleveland
teachers was $3,684.
In Cincinnati, the minimum salary at the be­
ginning of the 1948-49 school year for teachers
with a bachelor’s degree was $2,300, and the
maximum was $4,000. In Columbus, the mini­
mum salary for teachers with this amount of
training was $2,050; in Akron, $2,200; and in
Dayton and Toledo, $2,400.

OKLAHOMA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The public school system of Oklahoma em­
ployed about 17,500 classroom teachers, princi­
pals, and supervisors and had 505,000 pupils in
1948^49. Only about 6,400 teachers and 220,000
pupils were in urban schools (those in cities or
towns with a population of 2,500 or m ore). About
9 percent o f all the teachers and 8 percent of all
enrollments were in schools for Negroes. The
elementary schools employed approximately 11,100 teachers, principals, and supervisors for some
355,000 pupils. Close to 2,200 elementary teachers
were in one-teacher schools.
Certification Requirements

For the elementary or the secondary life certi­
ficate, the candidate must have an A. B. or a B. S.
degree (124 semester hours), with 18 hours of
professional education courses including 6 hours
o f student teaching. For the elementary 1-year
certificate, 60 semester hours of preparation, in­
cluding 6 hours in education courses, are needed.



Applicants for the high school 1-year certifi­
cate need 90 semester hours of preparation with
12 hours in education courses including 6 hours
in student teaching. An additional requirement
for each o f the above certificates is 3 semester
hours in educational methods and management
and Oklahoma school law.
Emergency certificates are issued, when neces­
sary, to those not meeting regular requirements.
The minimum age for teacher certification is 20
years.
Outlook

Employment opportunities for qualified white
elementary school teachers will be plentiful over
the next few years. Teachers are needed to take
care of increasing enrollments, to fill positions
vacant in 1948-49, and to replace many of the
persons employed on emergency certificates
(about 400 such certificates were issued in 194849). In addition, approximately 1,100 teachers
or 10 percent of the elementary teaching staff

63

leave teaching in the State annually and have to
be replaced. That the supply of white elementary
teachers will be inadequate to fill the needs in
1949-50 is indicatd by the fact that a total of
only 756 students in teacher-training institutions
in the State were expected to complete prepara­
tion for elementary teaching in 1949, as compared
with 1,133 in 1948 and 1,653 in 1941. The supply
o f Negro elementary teachers will generally be
sufficient to meet the demand, and there will be
considerable competition for positions in some
localities.
Demand for elementary teachers will remain
high during the next decade. Enrollments in
grades 1 to 8 are expected to increase each year
until at least 1954-55, when they may be over
40,000 higher than in 1948-49. On the basis of
30 pupils per teacher, the increased enrollments
would require a total of 1,300 additional teachers
over the 6-year period. I f the replacement rate
should remain approximately 10 percent, as many
as 1,250 new teachers would be needed annually
for this purpose during the mid-fifties. Even
after 1955-56, when enrollments are expected to
decrease somewhat, the total number of new
teachers needed annually would probably remain
about 1,000 for several years.
High school needs for teachers in the next 3
or 4 years will be primarily as replacements for
those who leave the profession, since enrollments
are expected to remain at about the same level
or possibly decrease slightly during this period.
It is estimated that approximately 10 percent, or
about 640, o f the teachers leave the profession in
the State each year and have to be replaced.
While there were a few high school teaching
vacancies in 1948-49 and about 80 teachers were
issued emergency certificates, it appeared that
the supply in 1949-50 would be more than ade­
quate to fill the demands (except, possibly, in
certain areas). Teacher-training institutions in
the State were expected to prepare 1,831 students
for secondary school teaching in 1949, as com­
pared with 1,412 in 1948 and 1,575 in 1941. Com­
petition for positions is expected to be particu­
larly keen among Negro teachers.

Beginning about 1952-53, high school enroll­
ments—and therefore the number of teachers
needed—are expected to increase each year
through 1960 and beyond. By 1959-60, enrollments
in grades 9 to 12 may be some 12,500 higher than
in 1948-49; this gain would require 500 addi­
tional teaching positions, on the basis of 25 pupils
per teacher. The greatest expansion in any one
year will probably occur about 1957-58, when
about 250 new positions may be required. I f the
attrition rate for secondary teachers should re­
main at 10 percent, the number of new teachers
needed as replacements would be about 700 per
year in the late 1950’s.
Earnings

Classroom teachers’ salaries averaged $2,100
in this State in 1948-49—$2,450 in secondary
schools and $1,800 in elementary schools. The
minimum salaries set by State law for 1949-50
were $1,500 for teachers with 2 years’ training,
$2,000 for those with a bachelor’s degree and
$2,200 for those with a master’s degree, with 5
increments of $100 each for each level.
Salary schedules providing minima in excess
of these amounts have been established in some
school systems particularly in the cities. An in­
dication of the variations is shown in the follow­
ing single-salary schedules in effect in Oklahoma
City and Tulsa in 1948-49 :
Annual salary
Educational
preparation
Minimum

Increments

$1,500

22 @ $50

Maximum

O K L A H O M A C IT Y

No degree

$2,600

Bachelor’s degree

2,000

22 @

50

3,100

Master’s degree

2,100

4 @
18 @

75
50

3,300

TULSA

a

Bachelor’s degree

2,200

5 @ 100
4 @ 75
6 @ 50

3,300

Master’s degree

2,400

5 @ 100
4 @ 75
8 @ 50

3,600

a Salaries given are for women teachers; men receive $200
more.

OREGON
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

In 1948-49 there were about 9,500 classroom
teachers, principals, and supervisors in the pub-

64



lie school system of Oregon; about half were in
urban schools (those in cities or towns with a
population of 2,500 or more). The elementary

schools had some 6,500 teachers and 200,000
pupils; secondary schools employed approxi­
mately 3,000 teachers to teach 67,000 pupils.

for high school teaching were discontinued as o f
June 30,1949.

Certification Requirements

Demand for elementary school teachers will be
high for the next few years to take care of in­
creasing enrollments and to replace many of the
teachers employed on emergency certificates (well
over 1,000 such certificates were issued in 194849). In addition, it was estimated that approxi­
mately 900 teachers, or 14 percent of the elemen­
tary staff had to be replaced in 1948-49. It is
likely that approximately that number of replace­
ments will be needed in 1949-50. That the supply
of elementary teachers is far from adequate to
meet the demand is indicated by the fact that
only 500 students were expected to complete prep­
aration in Oregon teacher-training institutions in
1949; 389 completed preparation in 1948. Many
out-of-State teachers will probably be hired
(about 400 were hired in 1947-48), but even this
added supply will not meet the demand.
Elementary school enrollments (grades 1 to 8)
are expected to have an upward trend until about
1958-59, when they may be 98,000 higher than in
1948-49. On the basis of 30 pupils per teacher,
this would require nearly 3,300 additional teach­
ing positions, or an average of about 330 per year,
over the 10-year period. While these additions to
the staff may tend to increase the number of re­
placements needed, the proportion who leave the
profession may decrease somewhat from the 1949
rate of 14 percent. Even if the attrition rate is
reduced to as low as 7 percent, about 700 new
teachers would probably be needed annually as
replacements during the latter years of the 1950
decade.
An oversupply of secondary teachers in many
subject fields is in prospect in the near future.
Secondary school enrollments (grades 9 to 12)
may increase moderately in the next couple of
years, requiring a few new teaching positions in
certain localities, but the chief demand for high
school teachers will be as replacements for those
who leave teaching; this number is estimated to
have been about 3 percent, or 100, in 1948-49.
Shortages in some special subject fields, particu­
larly home economics, physical education, com­
merce, and music may continue in the fall of 1949.
For most other subjects the supply is approach­
ing or exceeding the demand, and in some locali­
ties considerable competition for positions is fore­
seen. How large the over-all supply will be is

For the State elementary 1-year certificate, a
candidate must have completed a 3-year elementary-teacher-training course or its equivalent at
a standard normal school or teachers college.
The training must include not less than 6 quarter
hours o f supervised teaching and 4 quarter hours
o f Oregon history and Oregon school law and
system of education, besides meeting other speci­
fications. The requirement as to Oregon history
and related subjects may be waived for 1-year to
allow an otherwise fully qualified teacher to re­
ceive a 1-year certificate. A teacher may obtain
a 5-year certificate after teaching for 6 months
on a 1-year State certificate.
A new applicant for a State secondary provi­
sional certificate must have completed a 4-year
secondary-teacher-training course in a standard
college or university and have received a bache­
lor’s degree. The course must include 17 quarter
hours in education, 6 of them in supervised teach­
ing and specified numbers in other subjects. Two
quarter hours of Oregon history are also re­
quired. A State provisional certificate is good
for 1 year only. To obtain another certificate of
this type, the teacher must complete 9 quarter
hours (6 semester hours) of approved study.
After completing 45 hours o f additional ap­
proved study, the teacher may qualify for a
regular secondary certificate.
For this latter type of permit—the regular 5year secondary State certificate—the basic re­
quirements are completion of a 5-year secondaryteacher-training course and 1 year of teaching
experience in Oregon, on a provisional certificate
or on a high school emergency certificate. The
candidate must have a bachelor’s degree; his
training must include 45 quarter hours of upperdivision or graduate work beyond the require­
ments for the baccalaureate degree and 32 quarter
hours of education.
Other requirements are specified for certificates
in special subjects such as home economics or
music.
Elementary emergency certificates are issued
on the recommendation of the employing school
district and are valid for 1 year in the district
for which they are issued. Emergency certificates



Outlook

65

indicated to some extent by the fact that 568 stu­
dents were expected to qualify for secondary
teaching in the State in 1949. In addition to this
potential supply, many teachers from other States
will probably be seeking secondary school posi­
tions in Oregon (over 200 out-of-State high school
teachers were hired in 1947-48).
Beginning about 1951-52, enrollments in the
secondary schools will increase each year and by
1959-60, they may be about 37,000 higher than in
1948-49. These increased enrollments would re­
quire some 1,500 additional teaching positions if
a teacher were provided for each 25 added pupils.
The greatest increase in enrollments is expected
to occur about 1957-58, when about 330 more
teachers may be required than in the previous
year. In addition, approximately 135 teachers
would be needed annually as replacements during
the late 1950’s if the attrition rate remains about
3 percent.
The above estimates of enrollments, upon which
the teacher needs are based, take into considera­
tion the record number of births in the State in
the 1940 decade, the large number of people
who have migrated to Oregon from other States,
and the expectation that in-migration will con­
tinue throughout the 1950 decade.

and third-class districts, and from $1,836 to
$3,900 for elementary teachers in first-class dis­
tricts (exclusive of Portland). The range of
salaries for high school teachers was from $2,400
to $3,800 in third-class districts, from $2,400 to
$4,000 in second-class districts, and from $2,300
to $4,800 in first-class districts.
The following single-salary schedules were in
effect in Portland, Salem, and Pendleton in
1948-49:
Annual salary
Amount of college
training

Minimum

Increments

$2,300

Maximum

5 @ $200
1 @ 100

PO R T L A N D

No degree

$3,400

Bachelor’s degree or
State vocational
certificate

2,400

8 @
1 @

200
100

4,100

5-year secondary
certificate

2,500

8 @
1 @

200
100

4,200

Master’s degree

2,600

9 @
1 @

200
100

4,500

2,730

7 @

60

3,150

SALEM

a

2 years
3 years

The State-wide minimum salary for teachers
with a bachelor’s degree was $2,100 in 1948-49.
Estimated average salary for elementary class­
room teachers in 1948-49 was $3,000; for sec­
ondary classroom teachers, $3,400. According to
a survey by the Oregon Education Association,
1947-48 salaries ranged from $1,500 to $3,200 for
teachers in one- and two-room schools, from
$1,800 to $3,600 for elementary teachers in second-

2,880

11 @

60

3,540

4 years

Earnings

3,030

12 @

60

3,750

5 years

3,180

13 @

60

3,960

Master’s degree

3,240

14 @

60

4,080

3-year normal school
diploma

2,920

4 @

50

3,120

Bachelor’s degree

3,280

4 @

50

3,480

Master’s degree

3,520

6 @

100

4,120

PENDLETON

a

° Additional training required to advance on schedule.

PENNSYLVANIA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Certification Requirements

Pennsylvania has the third largest public school
enrollment and teaching staff in the country.
About 59,000 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the
State’s public schools to teach approximately
1,533,000 pupils. About 60 percent of the teachers
and pupils were in the elementary schools. The
Philadelphia public schools had a teaching staff
o f around 7,000; Pittsburgh, a staff o f about
2,500.

Provisional college certificates are issued to
graduates of accredited colleges who have com­
pleted curricula approved for the fields of teach­
ing service designated on their certificates. For
an elementary or kindergarten-primary certifi­
cate, the curriculum must include not less than 36
semester hours of professional education courses,
6 to 12 hours of which must be in appropriate
student teaching. For a certificate to teach an
academic subject in junior or senior high school,

66




the college course must include 18 semester hours
in the subject to be taught and 18 semester hours
in education courses, 6 of which must have been
in student teaching. The same requirements as
to education courses are for a certificate in a
special field (i. e., art, business education, indus­
trial arts, health and physical education, home
economics, music, or school librarian), but 30
semester hours must have been completed in the
selected field. Still other requirements are made
for certificates in vocational subjects or in special
services such as guidance or classes for handi­
capped or gifted children.
Provisional college certificates are good for
3 years. After a teacher has completed 3 years
of satisfactory experience and 6 semester hours
o f approved courses beyond those he had when
first certificated, he may be granted a permanent
certificate.
A teacher with a valid secondary school certifi­
cate may obtain an elementary-temporary stand­
ard certificate on request o f the local superin­
tendent o f schools. This type of certificate is
good for only 1 year; renewal is dependent on
satisfactory teaching performance and comple­
tion of 6 additional semester hours of approved
preparation. Special emergency certificates are
also issued when necessary, on superintendent’s
requests, to people who do not meet the regular
requirements.
Outlook

The elementary teacher shortage is likely to
grow worse in 1949-50. Only about 957 students
from colleges in the State were expected to com­
plete training in 1949 qualifying them for ele­
mentary teaching certificates. This is much less
than half the number which the Pennsylvania
Department o f Public Instruction expects will be
needed to replace teachers withdrawing from the
profession and to handle increased enrollments.
In all probability, even more emergency teachers
will have to be employed in 1949-50 than in the
preceding year, when about 1,700 elementary
teachers held emergency permits.
In the years that follow, enrollments in grades
1 to 8 will continue to rise. They are expected to
reach a peak about 1955-56, when at least 225,000
more children will probably be enrolled than in
1948-49 (according to some estimates, the in­
crease will be much greater than this). A gain
of 225,000 students would call for the employ­
ment of about 7,500 additional teachers during



the 7-year period, assuming a ratio o f one teacher
to every 30 pupils (this estimate is, likewise, con­
servative in that the pupil-teacher ratio will be
lower than 30 in the case of 7th and 8th grade
pupils in junior high schools). There will also
be a need for qualified teachers to replace some
of those with emergency certificates ; estimates of
teacher needs made by the State Department of
Public Instruction call for the replacement of 300
emergency elementary teachers each year at
least until 1954-55. Furthermore, the growing
size of the teaching staff will tend to bring with
it an increasing number of vacancies owing to
deaths or withdrawals for other reasons; assum­
ing an attrition rate of 6 percent, there may be
as many as 2,500 such vacancies annually in the
late 1950’s.
A t the high school level, on the other hand,
growing competition for jobs is anticipated in
the near future. The number of Pennsylvania
students qualifying for high school teaching
certificates in 1949 has been estimated at 5,270,
a larger number than in any other State. In
certain subject fields—notably English, social
studies, and men’s physical education—the supply
of teachers will be considerably larger than the
demand in the near future. In some other fields—
including mathematics and foreign languages—
the supply of teachers is expected to be about
adequate in 1949-50. In still others—industrial
arts, science, women’s physical education, art,
music, and trade school subjects—continuing
shortages of teachers are in prospect for that
year.
Enrollments in grades 9 to 12 will probably
decline slightly until about 1952. During that
period hiring of secondary teachers will be
limited, in general, to filling vacancies. But in
1952-53 enrollments are expected to begin an
upward trend which will continue until about
1958-59. In the latter year, as many as 60,000
more youths may be enrolled in grades 9 to 12
than in 1948-49; according to some estimates, the
increase will be much greater than this. A t a
ratio of 22 students per teacher, a gain of 60,000
students would call for the employment of some
2,600 additional teachers. Replacement needs will
provide a much larger number of jobs than this;
as many as 1,500 high school teachers may well
be needed annually to fill vacancies in the late
1950’s, assuming an attrition rate of 6 percent.
Nevertheless, the total number of new teachers
needed in a single year is not likely to reach 3,000

67

even in 1957-58, when high school enrollments
will be growing at the fastest rate, I f the output
of new graduates trained for secondary school
teaching should remain at the 1949 level, there
would no doubt continue to be stiff competition
for high school positions.

School districts are permitted to pay higher
salaries than are specified by the State schedule.
Many do this. The schedules in effect in Phila­
delphia and Pittsburgh in 1948-49 were as fol­
lows:
Annual salary

Earnings

The new State-mandated minimum salary sched­
ule, which will be in effect during the 1949-50
school year, is as follows for classroom teachers
in second-, third-, and fourth-class school districts
(all except Philadelphia and Pittsburgh) :

Educational
preparation
Minimum

Increments

$2,200

7 @ $200

Maximum

P H IL A D E L P H IA

Standard certificate------

$3,600

Increments

Standard certificate___

$2,000

7 @ $200

College certificate_____

2,000

With full
credit for
experience

200

3,800

2,400

8 @

200

4,000

2,400

9 @

200

4,200

Master’s degree

2,600

9 @

200

4,400

No degree

2,200

8 @
1 @

200
100

3,900

2,200

10 @
1 @

200
100

4,300

Master’s degree

Beginners

8 @

Bachelor’s degree

Type of certificate
field

2,200

College certificate plus

Annual, salary

Standard certificate plus a
College certificate (bache­
lor’s degree plus 1 year)

2,400

10 @
1 @

200
100

4,500

P IT T S B U R G H

College certificate plus
master’s degree

2,200

9 @
9 @

200
200

$3,400
3,800
4.000

Pennsylvania’s new schedule is one of the few
State-wide single-salary schedules. The $200 in­
crements provided are a larger annual increase
than is given under most State laws.

« The designation “plus” applies to teachers who meet cer­
tain standards established in October 1947 by the Board of
Education.

RHODE ISLAND
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

About 3,900 classroom teachers, principals, and
supervisors were employed in 1948-49 in the
public schools of Rhode Island to teach approxi­
mately 95,000 pupils. Nearly 75 percent of the
pupils and 53 percent of the teachers were in
elementary schools. An unusually large propor­
tion of the teachers were employed in urban
schools (almost 90 percent). The city of Provi­
dence employed over 1,200 classroom teachers.
Certification Requirements

The provisional certificate, which is valid for
1 year, can be obtained upon graduation from a
4-year course at the college level including 200
clock hours o f professional education courses. A
graduate o f a 3-year State normal school with 5
years of experience or a graduate o f a 2-year
State normal school with 10 years of experience
may be also certified provisionally. In order to
obtain the professional certificate, which is valid
for 5 years, it is necessary to graduate from an
approved college and to have completed 400

68



clock hours of professional education courses and
also 400 clock hours of practice teaching in the
Rhode Island public schools under the super­
vision of a critic teacher. However, the practice
teaching requirement may be waived after 5 years
of satisfactory service in Rhode Island public
schools, following visitation and inspection of
classes by the State Supervisor of Certification.
These requirements pertain to elementary and
junior and senior high schools alike. Completion
of college courses in certain “ special” fields are
also required for teaching music, art, agriculture,
shop, physical education, home economics, and
business education.
Outlook

The shortage of elementary teachers which
existed in 1948-49 is likely to continue for the
next few years. Elementary enrollments (grades
1 to 8) are expected to increase by about 10,000
between 1948^49 and 1951-52—creating an an­
nual need for over 100 new teachers, if personnel
is added at the rate of one teacher for every 30

students. In addition, approximately 150 addi­
tional elementary teachers would be needed an­
nually as replacements for the next few years, if
an attrition rate of 7 percent is assumed. In spite
o f the great need for elementary teachers, only
about 50 persons were expected to complete col­
lege courses in the State in 1949 preparing them
to teach at the elementary level, as compared with
95 in 1941.
The most rapid increase in elementary enroll­
ments and teaching positions is expected to occur
from about 1952 to 1955. Based on a ratio of 30
pupils per teacher, about 200 new positions may
be required each year during this period to take
care of the 17,000 additional pupils anticipated.
Moreover, a replacement rate of 7 percent would
mean an annual need for about 200 additional
elementary teachers from 1952 to 1959.
A surplus of high school teachers is likely dur­
ing the next few years. The demand for second­
ary teachers will be largely for replacements,
inasmuch as little increase in enrollments is ex­
pected at that level (grades 9 to 12) until the
late 1950’s. I f attrition takes place at the rate of
5 percent during the next few years, 100 replace­
ments would be needed annually. However, about
115 students at Rhode Island institutions com­
pleted preparation for secondary teaching in
1949, compared with 76 in 1948 and 84 in 1941.

These Rhode Island graduates together with ap­
plicants from nearby States which already have
an oversupply of secondary teachers, may cause
considerable competition for positions in the
Rhode Island high schools.
Beginning about 1952, there will be an increase
in the number of high school teaching positions,
as the expanded enrollments pass into high school
from the elementary grades. I f teachers are added
at the rate of one for every 25 additional pupils,
an average o f about 25 new positions per year
will probably be needed between 1952 and 1955
and about 100 per year between 1956 and 1958.
Furthermore, a replacement rate of 5 percent
would mean an annual need for another 100-odd
new teachers in the late 1950’s.
Earnings

The minimum teaching salary set by State
legislation was $1,800 per year as of 1948-49. In
that year, the average salary of elementary teach­
ers was about $2,800; of secondary teachers,
about $3,200. The cities of Pawtucket, Cranston,
and East Providence have single-salary sched­
ules; minimum and maximum salaries for regu­
lar classroom teachers with 4 years o f training
were as follows in 1948-49 :
Pawtucket _______________________________ $2,400 and $4,000
Cranston ________________________________ 2,200 and 4,200
East P rovidence________________________ 2,300 and 4,000

SOUTH CAROLINA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

This State’s public schools had about 16,000
classroom teachers in 1948-49, two-thirds of
whom were in rural schools. The elementary
schools employed 11,500 teachers for 388,500
pupils; about 5,300 of these teachers and 194,000
of the students were in Negro schools. Secondary
schools had 4,500 teachers and 115,500 pupils;
about 1,000 teachers and 33,000 enrollments were
Negroes, a relatively smaller number than in the
elementary grades. The State school system re­
cently changed from an 11-grade to the standard
12-grade type, and the first full graduating class
under the 12-year program was that of 1948-49.
Certification Requirements

The regular elementary teaching certificate re­
quires a bachelor’s degree with 21 semester hours
in professional education courses, including 6



hours of directed teaching. Secondary school
certificates also require a bachelor’s degree, with
a minimum o f 18 semester hours in professional
education including 6 hours of directed teaching.
The number of semester hours required for the
various subject fields range from 18 for history,
general science, and some other fields to 48 for
agriculture.
Several types of certificates are issued depend­
ing on the applicant’s experience and educational
preparation. In addition, each certificate is
graded A, B, C, or D, according to the teacher’s
score on the National Teacher Examination. All
applicants must take this examination. A ppli­
cants for certification must also be 18 years of
age; provide a certificate of good health; submit
an acceptable evaluation of their personal and
professional qualities from the training institu­
tion attended; and sign a statement of intention

69

to teach during the current year in South
Carolina.
Emergency permits, good for 1 year only, are
issued at the request of school authorities to
teachers who do not qualify for a standard certifi­
cate, provided no regularly certified teachers in
the area are available.
Outlook

Employment prospects for qualified white
teachers at the elementary level will be excellent
over the next few years. Teachers are needed to
take care o f the greatly increasing enrollments
resulting from the high birth rates of the early
1940’s, as well as to replace many of the persons
teaching on emergency certificates (600 such cer­
tificates were issued in 1948-49). In addition,
nearly 1,500 teachers, or 13 percent of the ele­
mentary staff, leave teaching in the State and
have to be replaced. That the supply of white
elementary teachers is inadequate to meet the de­
mand is indicated by the fact that only 123
white students completed preparation in teachertraining institutions in the State in 1949. On the
other hand, the supply of Negro teachers (204
graduated in 1949) is approaching the demand.
The replacement rate for these teachers is much
lower than for white teachers; considerable com­
petition is expected to develop over the next few
years.
It is expected that employment of elementary
teachers will continue to rise for at least the next
6 or 7 years. Enrollments at this level will con­
tinue to increase each year until about 1956-57
when they may be about 115,000 higher than in
1948-49. On the basis of a 30 to 1 pupil-teacher
ratio the increased enrollments would require
about 3,800 additional positions over the next
8 years. The replacement rate for teachers is ex­
pected to decrease somewhat from the current 13
percent; if the rate should drop to about 7 per­
cent, as many as 1,000 teachers would still be re­
quired each year to replace those who leave
teaching in the State. Even after 1957, when en­
rollments are expected to decrease somewhat, the
total number of teachers needed annually will
probably remain approximately 1,000 for several
years.
An oversupply of secondary teachers is in pros­
pect for the next few years except in a few
special subjects. High school needs for teachers
in the next 2 or 3 years will be primarily as re­

70



placements for those who leave the profession,
since enrollments are not expected to increase
substantially during this period. While there
were a few high school teaching vacancies and
about 50 teachers emplo3r on substandard cer­
ed
tificates in 1948-49, the supply in 1949-50 will be
adequate to fill most o f the demands. In June
1949, teacher-training institutions in the State
graduated 1,060 secondary school teachers (387
Negroes), as compared with 887 in 1948 and 733
in 1941. However, it is expected there will still
be a shortage of teachers in some special subjects,
particularly science, commerce, and home eco­
nomics. Negro teachers were already in oversupply in 1948-49 and many were having diffi­
culty finding openings.
Beginning in 1951-52 high school enrollments
will increase each year during the following 10 to
15 years. A t a ratio of 25 pupils per teacher,
some 2,000 additional teaching positions will be
required by 1960. The greatest expansion for any
single year will probably occur about 1957-58,
when as many as 500 new positions may be re­
quired. The replacement rate for high school
teachers in South Carolina is expected to become
lower; it was about 25 percent in 1948. I f this
rate should be cut in half, the number of new
teachers needed as replacements would still be
about 800 per year in the late fifties.
Several factors which are expected to increase
enrollments in the South Carolina schools have
been allowed for in these estimates. More and
better facilities are being built; school attend­
ance laws are being more strictly enforced; the
transportation provided for pupils is being im­
proved ; industrial activity in the State is increas­
ing, and with it the number of children in urban
areas where it is relatively easy to get to school;
vocational education is being expanded and is
expected to hold the older children in the high
schools longer; new high schools, particularly
for Negroes, are increasing enrollments; exten­
sion of junior high school facilities is keeping
pupils in school longer.
Earnings

The average salary for elementary teachers
in South Carolina was $1,570 in 1948-49. For
secondary school teachers it was $2,040. Negro
and white teachers are paid on an equal basis.
The State-mandated minimum salary schedule
in effect in 1948-49 was as follow s:

Annual salary
Educational preparation
or type of certificate

Beginners

With full
credit for
experience

and Greenville in 1948-49. The minimum salaries
indicated are the beginning figures for persons
with grade D certificates,* the maximums are the
top figures for holders of grade A certificates.

Lowest certificate :

Columbia a

Grade D

$522

$675

Grade A

801

1,422

Grade D

954

1,368

Less than 2
years

Grade A

1,296

2,169

2 years

Grade D

1,008

1,305

Grade A

1,359

2,286

Greenville

Educational
preparation

Salaries vary widely among the school districts,
as indicated by the schedules in effect in Columbia

Minimum

$828

$1,896

$525

$1,550

936

1,992

740

1,650

1,032

2,088

740

2,000

Bachelor’s
degree

1,128

2,892

955

2,650

Master’s degree

Master’s degree or 5 years :

Maximum

3 years

Bachelor’s degree or 4 years :

Minimum

1,332

3,096

1,010

3,000

Maximum

a Salaries are for women ; men receive $204 more.

SOUTH DAKOTA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Outlook

The public elementary schools in South Dakota
employed about 5,300 classroom teachers, prin­
cipals, and supervisors to instruct 85,000 pupils
during the 1948-49 school year. Over 60 percent
o f these teachers were in one-room schools. Dur­
ing the 1948-49 school year the high schools en­
rolled about 30,000 students and employed about
1,800 teachers.

The shortage of elementary teachers which
existed in 1948-49 is expected to continue for the
next few years at least. It was estimated that
about 15 percent of South Dakota’s elementary
teachers left the profession in the State after
the 1947-48 school year. I f attrition continues
at this rate, approximately 800 new elementary
teachers will probably be needed annually as re­
placements in the next few years. In spite of the
great need for elementary teachers, only about 315
persons completed college courses in 1949 which
prepared them to teach at the elementary level,
as compared with 1,150 in 1941. To provide the
necessary teachers for the immediate future, it
will probably continue to be necessary to employ
many with only emergency certificates; about
1,000 such certificates were issued to elementary
teachers in 1948-49.
Because of the high birth rates during the
1940’s there will be some increase in elemen­
tary school enrollments and teaching positions
during the 1950’s, even though out-migration
from this State is assumed to be at about the
same rate as in the immediate prewar years.
Based on a ratio of 30 pupils per teacher, an
average of about 50 new teachers would be re­
quired each year to take care of the 8,000 addi­
tional enrollment expected in grades 1 to 8 be­
tween the fall of 1951 and the fall o f 1956. A
considerably larger number o f new elementary
teachers will be needed to make up for losses to
the profession owing to deaths, retirements, or

Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 4-year college course is re­
quired for the high school teacher’s certificate.
At least 15 semester hours in education, including
3 hours of student teaching, must be completed.
A total o f at least 24 semester hours of college
credit must be earned in the major subject to be
taught; 9 semester hours are required for a minor
teaching field.
Two years o f college work are required for the
elementary certificate. A t least 15 semester hours
of this work must be in professional education
courses, including 3 hours of practice teaching.
A 1-year certificate to teach in elementary schools
may be granted to persons who have completed
12 semester hours of college work and passed the
teachers’ examination. However, holders of this
type o f certificate must obtain additional college
training before their certificates may be renewed.
Emergency teaching permits are granted when
school authorities are unable to find fully quali­
fied personnel.



71

transfers to other fields of work. I f the re­
placement rate should continue at approximately
15 percent, the number of new teachers needed
annually in the late 1950’s to make up for losses
to the profession would be about 850.
The demand for secondary teachers in the next
few years will be largely for replacements, inas­
much as little increase in high school enrollments
(grades 9 to 12) is expected until about 1956.
It was estimated that approximately 15 percent of
the high school teachers, as of the elementary
staff, left the profession after the 1947-48 school
year. I f this rate of attrition continues during the
next few years, nearly 300 replacements will be
needed annually. However, about 400 students
completed preparation for secondary school teach­
ing in 1949. Though some o f these persons may
never enter the teaching profession, an oversupply of high school teachers is expected in
most subject fields.
Beginning about 1956, there may be a slight
increase in the number of high school teaching
positions. Although some of South Dakota’s
small high schools will be able to enroll addi­
tional students without increasing the staff, it
appears that in the last 4 years of the 1950 decade
a total of approximately 60 new positions would
be needed to take care of the enrollment increase
of about 1,500 expected in that period (assuming

a ratio of 25 pupils per teacher). I f the replace­
ment rate for these teachers continues to be ap­
proximately 15 percent during the period, about
275 teachers would be required annually as re­
placements.
Earnings

Yearly salaries averaged about $1,700 for ele­
mentary teachers and $2,050 for high school
teachers in 1948-49. City elementary teachers
earned an average o f $2,135 per year, while city
high school teachers averaged $2,875. The high­
est 10 percent of the secondary teachers earned
over $3,500 per year, while the same proportion
o f the elementary teachers earned over $3,000.
Rural teachers averaged $185 per month; many
of them teaching only an 8-month term. Only
about 2 percent of the rural teachers had annual
earnings of $2,200 and over, while the lowest paid
1 percent earned less than $1,200 per year.
The city of Sioux Falls had a single-salary
schedule which began at $1,800 and went up to
$2,500 in 1948-49 for teachers without a degree.
Holders of the bachelor’s degree began at $2,000
with increases to $3,200. Teachers with the
master’s degree started at $2,200 and advanced
to $3,400. Married men received an additional
$200 per year. A cost-of-living adjustment of
$150 was also added to the annual salaries of all
Sioux Falls teachers in 1948-49.

TENNESSEE
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

The public elementary schools employed about
15,850 classroom teachers, principals, and super­
visors, and had 522,000 pupils enrolled in 194849; secondary schools employed 5,400 teachers for
128,000 pupils. About 3,100 of the elementary
and high school teachers and 110,000 of the pupils
were in schools for Negroes. Only about 28 per­
cent of the pupils and 23 percent of the teachers
were in cities with populations of 2,500 or more.
Certification Requirements

For the regular professional certificate for
elementary school teaching in Tennessee, one must
have at least 2 years of college preparation, with
18 quarter hours of education courses including
3 in directed teaching. Junior high school and
high school professional teaching certificates re­
quire at least 4 years of college preparation; a
minimum o f 27 quarter hours in professional
education subjects must be included, at least 3
o f which must be student teaching and not less

72




than 18 quarter hours of credit in each subject to
be taught. Emergency permits may be issued to
those not meeting other certification requirements.
The minimum age for teachers is 18. Citizen­
ship and proof of good health are required.
Outlook

Employment opportunities for qualified white
elementary teachers in the public schools of Ten­
nessee will be plentiful over the next few years.
Teachers are needed to take care of increasing en­
rollments, as well as to replace many of the
teachers employed on emergency permits (4,800
such permits were issued in 1948-49). In addi­
tion, about 1,000 elementary teachers leave teach­
ing in the State each year and have to be re­
placed. That the supply of elementary teachers
is inadequate to meet the demand is indicated by
the fact that less than 600 students from Tennes­
see teacher-training institutions completed work
in 1949 preparing them for elementary teaching.
While there will be some openings in the Negro

schools, competition for these jobs is developing.
The supply is expected to be adequate to meet the
demand in most localities in 1949-50.
Enrollments at the elementary level (grades
1 to 8) will continue to increase until about 195657, when they may be about 150,000 higher than
in 1948-49. On the basis of 30 pupils to a teacher,
the increased enrollments would require about
5,300 additional positions over the 8-year period.
The number of replacements needed will, of
course, tend to increase with the expanded staff,
and may be about 1,300 annually during the latter
years of the 1950 decade (assuming a continued
6 percent attrition rate).
Considerable competition for secondary school
teaching positions is expected. However, the
1948-49 shortage of high school teachers in cer­
tain special subjects—music, band directing, com­
merce, physical education, health, and the physi­
cal sciences—may continue for a year or two.
Also, 358 teachers were issued emergency high
school permits in 1948-49, and many of them
may be replaced by fully qualified personnel.
Turnover, estimated at 5 percent, will require
approximately 250 new teachers annually as re­
placements. The supply of newly trained per­
sonnel seeking positions will probably far exceed
these needs; about 1,400 teachers were graduated

from Tennessee teacher-training institutions in
1949. Negro secondary school teachers are al­
ready in oversupply, and competition for the few
annual openings will be keen.
High school enrollments and teaching positions
are expected to increase each year during the
1950 decade and beyond, as the expanded ele­
mentary enrollments progress into the higher
grades. The expected increase in the number of
students in grades 9 to 12 would require about
3,000 more teaching positions in 1959-60 than in
1948-49 (on the basis of a 25 to 1 pupil-teacher
ratio). In addition to these new positions, an­
other 3,500 high school teachers would be needed
during the next decade to replace those who die,
retire, or otherwise leave teaching in the State,
assuming a continued 5-percent attrition rate.
The number needed each year for such replace­
ment is expected to rise gradually to around 400
in the late 1950’s as the teaching staff is expanded.
However, a supply of new teachers equal to that
of 1949 would be sufficient to meet the anticipated
demand.
Earnings

The State salary schedule for certified teachers
for the 1949-50 school year, which applies to both
white and Negro teachers in grades 1 through 12,
is as follow s:
Monthly salary
Years of teaching experience

Educational
preparation
Under
1

1

2

4

3

5

6

10 or
over

9

8

7
|

$131

45

q n q r fp r

hours

$133

$135

$137

$139

$141

136

Less than 45 quarter hours

138

140

142

144

146

90 quarter hours

163

166

169

172

175

178

$181

135

182

185

188

191

194

197

200

q n q r tp r

hours

223

226

229

232

235

240

243

$246

$249

Master’s degree

250

253

256

259

262

267

270

273

276

Master’s plus 45 quarter hours__

266

269

272

275

278

283

286

289

292

295

298

Doctor’s degree

282

285

288

291

294

299

302

305

308

311

314

■ R a r h o lo r ’ s

rlp g rp p

$279

$282

The following annual salary schedules were in effect in Nashville and Knoxville in 1948-49:
Annual salary

Annual salary
Educational
preparation

Educational
preparation
Minimum

Increments

$2,250

16 @ $50

N A S H V IL L E

Bachelor’s degree
Master’s degree or
equivalent _




Minimum

Maximum

Increments

Maximum

K N O X V IL L E

16 @

50

Bachelor’s degree

2,000

12 @

100

3,200

Master’s degree
2,350

$3,050

2,100

12 @

100

3,300

3,150

73

TEXAS
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

In 1948-49, about 46,000 classroom teachers,
principals, and supervisors were employed in the
Texas public school system, and 1,330,000 pupils
were enrolled. The elementary schools employed
about 30,000 teachers for 1,030,000 pupils.
Slightly over one-sixth of the elementary and
secondary teachers and students were in Negro
schools. A little more than half o f the students
and two-fifths of the teachers were in urban
schools (those in cities of 2,500 or more popula­
tion) .
Certification Requirements

The elementary 4-year or the high school 2year certificate requires a minimum of 30 hours
of college credit with 6 hours in English and 6
hours in education and a course in Texas and
Federal Constitutions. Completion of a regular
college course in any State teachers college is re­
quired for the permanent elementary certificate.
For the permanent high school certificate, re­
quirements are a bachelor’s degree, with courses
in education (minimum of 24 semester hours)
including 8 hours of secondary education courses
and 6 hours of methods, observation, and prac­
tice teaching. In addition, there are specified
requirements for special subjects, such as art and
music. Two semester hours on the Constitutions
o f the United States and Texas are also required,
but this credit may be acquired after contracting
for a position.
Emergency certificates are issued only to teach­
ers from other States whose preparation fails
to meet the Texas requirements.
Outlook

Employment prospects for elementary teachers
will be good over the next few years. Teachers
are needed to take care of the greatly increasing
enrollments resulting from the high birth rates
o f the early 1940’s, as well as to replace those
teachers who die, retire, or otherwise leave teach­
ing in the State each year. This latter demand,
based on an estimated 6-percent attrition, would
require 1,800 new teachers annually. While wellqualified teachers should have no difficulty find­
ing jobs, the State Department of Education
stated in early 1949 that there was no acute short­

74



age. Though approximately 1,000 emergency cer­
tificates were issued in 1948-49, many teachers
holding such certificates are attending summer
school and will soon become qualified for regular
certificates.
It is expected that enrollments at the elemen­
tary level will continue to rise each year until
about 1957-58, when they may be about 475,000
higher than in 1948-49. With a ratio of 30 pupils
per teacher, the increased enrollments would
require about 16,000 additional teaching posi­
tions, or an average of nearly 1,800 per year. The
greatest increase in any single year is expected
to occur about 1954-55, when some 2,800 more
teaching positions may be needed than in the
previous year. In addition, approximately 2,800
new teachers would be needed annually as re­
placements for those leaving the expanded staff
during the latter years of the 1950 decade if the
attrition rate for elementary teachers should re­
main about 6 percent.
A surplus of secondary teachers in many,
though not all, subject fields is indicated for the
near future. During the next 2 or 3 years, needs
for teachers at this level will be primarily as re­
placements for those who leave the profession,
since enrollments in grades 9 to 12 are not ex­
pected to increase substantially until about 1952.
The number of high school teachers needed as
replacements during this period is estimated to be
approximately 1,000 per year, or about 6 percent
of the teaching force. The supply o f new sec­
ondary teachers greatly exceeds this demand and
is higher than before the w ar; reports from only
two-thirds of the teacher-training institutions in
the State indicated that 3,745 students completed
training for secondary school teaching in 1949
and 3,805 in 1948, as compared with 2,236 in
1941. The oversupply of personnel will prob­
ably be greatest in the English and social science
fields. Continuing shortages of qualified teachers
were anticipated in the following areas in 194950: physics, chemistry, mathematics, choral sing­
ing, band directing, and athletic coaching.
After 1952, secondary school enrollments are
expected to increase considerably each year
through 1960 and beyond. By the 1959-60 school
year, enrollments may be 175,000 higher than in

1948-49; this increase would require 7,000 new
teaching positions if a teacher were provided for
every 25 additional students. As the staff is
expanded, the number who leave the profession
will probably increase; in the late 1950’s, the
number of new teachers needed annually as re­
placements, with an attrition rate of 6 percent,
would be approximately 1,400.
Earnings

The minimum salary schedule for 1949-50
established by the State Equalization Aid Law
is as follows for a 9-month term:

Educational
preparation

Beginners

_ ____

$1,395

1 year

Increments
12 @ $54

With full
credit for
experience
$2,043
2,268

1,620

12 @

54

3 years

1,845

12 @

54

2,493

Bachelor’s d e g re e ____

2,403

12 @

54

3,051

Master’s d e g r e e __

2,628

26 @

54

4,032

2 years

___

The State salary schedule is not applicable in
all school districts. In some localities the pay
scales were below those specified in the State
schedule in 1947-48. However, the single-salary
schedules in effect in 1948-49 in most cities were
at or above the State minimum which was in
effect in that year.

UTAH
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Enrollment in the public schools of Utah was
150,000 in 1948-49; about 5,000 teachers were
employed. Thirty-nine percent o f the students
and 45 percent of the teaching staff were in the
secondary schools, including junior high schools.
About 290 teachers were in schools o f three rooms
or less; only 25 taught in one-room schools. The
largest school system in the State is that o f Salt
Lake City, with a 1948-49 enrollment of 31,000
and a teaching staff o f about 900. The Utah
teaching staff has an unusually large proportion
of men teachers—almost 30 percent.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for elemen­
tary and general secondary certificates is the com­
pletion o f a standard 4-year college curriculum,
including certain academic and professional
courses. For teaching at the elementary level,
the curriculum must include 45 quarter hours of
professional courses, o f which 12 must be in stu­
dent teaching. For the secondary certificate
(junior and senior high school), one must com­
plete 33 quarter hours of professional courses, 15
of which must be in student teaching.
Letters o f authorization are issued to certain
applicants who do not meet the minimum certifi­
cation requirements.
Outlook

While the shortage of elementary teachers was
acute in 1948-49, there are indications that it will
ease considerably in the near future. Over 1,000
teachers were issued letters o f authorization in
1948-49, and many classes were far larger than
the ideal size. The situation has been particularly
bad in one- and two-room rural schools. About
350 new teachers were hired in 1948-49, mainly



to replace teachers leaving Utah schools; it is
probable that this number will be needed annually
as replacements for the next 2 or 3 years at least.
In addition, new teachers will be required for the
increasing enrollments and to replace some o f
the substandard elementary teachers. T o meet
these demands, some 400 students in Utah institu­
tions were expected to become eligible for elemen­
tary teaching in 1949 (only 274 were trained in
1948). The supply of new graduates seems likely
to increase for at least the next few years, since
enrollments in education courses have risen con­
siderably. Some emergency teachers may also
become qualified for standard elementary certifi­
cates through additional training. Thus, in addi­
tion to supplying teachers for the increased en­
rollments and for replacement purposes, the num­
ber of substandard teachers who have to be
employed will probably be reduced. However,
employment opportunities are expected to be
plentiful for well-qualified teachers. The short­
age will persist longer in rural than in urban
areas; as long as vacancies exist in urban areas,
teachers prefer to accept placement there rather
than to go into remote, isolated schools.
Enrollments in the elementary schools will con­
tinue to increase until about 1956-57, when they
will probably be about 30,000 higher than in
1948-49. A t a ratio o f 30 pupils per teacher, this
increase would require 1,000 new teachers over
the 8-year period. I f the attrition rate should
remain about 13 percent as in 1948-49, approxi­
mately 500 teachers would be needed annually as
replacements in the last half o f the decade. How­
ever, the rate o f withdrawal is likely to drop
somewhat.
Shortages o f teachers in Utah high schools are
expected to be overcome in most subject fields in

75

1949-50. Enrollments in grades 9 to 12 will
probably decrease slightly. However, new teach­
ers will be needed to replace some o f the sub­
standard teachers (there were about 200 letters
of authorization in 1948-49) ; also to replace the
250 or so teachers who annually leave the schools
because o f death, retirement, or for other reasons.
The universities and colleges were expected to
produce about 550 new high school teachers in
1949; this number should eliminate shortages in
most subject fields. In fact, surpluses are likely
to develop in some fields such as social science,
the natural sciences, and English.
After about 1951, high school enrollments
and teaching positions will begin to increase.
By 1960, enrollments in grades 9 to 12 will
probably be about 10,000 higher than in 1950-51;
on the basis o f 25 pupils per teacher, this would
mean a need for 400 new teachers over the period.
I f the replacement rate should remain about 12
percent as in 1948-49, there would be an addi­
tional need for approximately 300 teachers annu­
ally during the last few years of the 1950’s.

Earnings

The estimated average annual salary for sec­
ondary classroom teachers for 1948-49 was
$3,325; for elementary teachers, $2,750.
The basic salary schedules in the two largest
cities were as follow s:
Educational
preparation

Annual salary
Minimum

Increments

Maximum

S A L T L A K E C IT Y

No degree

_

(a )

$2,070

Bachelor’s degree

2,280

Master’s degree

$3,378

@ $60
@ 72
@ 84
@ 96
@ 108
@ 120
@ 72

3,732

(a
)

1
1
1
1
1
5
6

3,942

2,490

OGDEN

Less than degree

1,660

Bachelor’s degree or
equivalent

2,280

16 @

Master’s degree

2,380

15

5 @ 85
9 @ 90
1 @ 80
1 @ 105

@

1 @

3,080

90

3,720

95
105

3,910

° Increments are the same as for the bachelor’s degree.

VERMONT
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

In the school year 1948-49 about 2,500 class­
room teachers, principals, and supervisors were
employed by the public schools to teach approxi­
mately 55,000 pupils. Nearly 75 percent o f the
pupils and 70 percent of the teachers were in
elementary schools. The proportion o f men em­
ployed was unusually small (only 13 percent,
taking all grades together). About two-thirds o f
the teachers were employed in rural areas. The
largest urban teaching staffs were in Bar re,
Brattleboro, Burlington, and Rutland, where en­
rollments ranged from 1,800 to 3,500 and instruc­
tional staffs from 60 to 110.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for an ele­
mentary professional probationary certificate is
the bachelor’s degree from an approved college or
university. I f the institution does not offer
courses in elementary education, an approved ad­
ditional course must be completed which is usu­
ally the equivalent o f at least a year of college
work. This may, in most cases, be completed
through summer study.
Junior high school certificates are issued to ap­
plicants with a bachelor’s degree in the junior

76



high school course from an approved college or
university. Senior high school certificates are
granted to applicants holding a baccalaureate de­
gree from an approved institution. Twelve se­
mester hours in professional education, 3 of which
are in practice teaching, must be included.
Emergency certificates are issued to applicants
who do not meet these requirements, in cases
where no qualified teacher can be found.
Students with legal residence in Vermont are
not charged tuition at the State teachers colleges.
Some scholarships covering board and room are
available.
Outlook

The shortage of elementary teachers will prob­
ably be more acute in 1949-50 than it was in
1948—
49. In the latter year approximately 500
emergency elementary certificates were issued.
Greatest shortages were in rural areas. Forecasts
of 1949 supply and demand indicate that, unless
additional teachers can be recruited from sources
other than local colleges, the supply will not be
sufficient to meet even the replacement needs, to
say nothing of relieving the shortage. The State
Department of Education estimates that 242 ele­
mentary teachers will be needed in 1949-50 to

replace those leaving Vermont schools and to
handle the increased enrollments. The estimated
number o f teacher-trainees at State institutions
who were expected to qualify for elementary cer­
tificates in 1949 was 108; this is about the maxi­
mum number o f graduates that can be expected
in any one year from Vermont institutions be­
cause present capacity of teachers colleges is only
about 450 students. Some teachers will, no doubt,
be obtained from training institutions in Massa­
chusetts and other States. However, there ap­
pears to be little chance of eliminating emergency
certificates in the near future.
Elementary enrollments (grades 1 to 8) will
rise to a peak about the year 1958-59, when ap­
proximately 15,500 more children may be enrolled
than in 1948-49. With a pupil-teacher ratio of
30 to 1, this increased enrollment would furnish
jobs for over 500 additional teachers during the
10-year interval. As the size of the training staff
grows, the number o f teachers dropping out prob­
ably will tend to increase also ; if the rate of
drop-out should continue to be about 13 percent
as it was in 1947-48, then over 300 such vacancies
would be created each year during the late 1950’s.
The State Department o f Education predicts
“ There will be a large number of high school
teachers available in most academic fields in
1949-50. Shortages will continue in some subject
fields, such as home economics, agriculture, and
business education. In June 1950 there will prob­
ably be a good supply o f agriculture teachers.
The shortage of commercial teachers will prob­
ably grow worse for four years or more.” 1
3
The demand for high school teachers for the
next few years will be limited largely to replace­
ment needs. I f the same proportion of high
school teachers leave Vermont schools as did in
1947-48, about 21 percent of the high school
teaching positions will be vacated. However, it
may not be necessary to fill all these vacancies,

since a decrease in high school enrollments is ex­
pected in the fall o f 1949 and for the following
2 or 3 years. An estimated 175 teacher-trainees
from Vermont institutions were expected to
qualify for high school certificates in 1949. This
source, along with other sources of supply, should
provide enough new teachers to fill vacancies and
replace emergency teachers in all but a few
special subject fields, such as those mentioned
above.
About 1953, high school enrollments will begin
to climb and create new openings for teachers.
The greatest increase in any single year will
occur about 1957-58, when enrollments may in­
crease by almost 1,000 over the previous year.
Assuming a ratio o f 25 students per teacher, this
rise would call for the hiring o f about 40 new
teachers. Enrollments will probably continue to
increase throughout the 1950 decade and, by
1959-60, may be about 3,300 higher than in 194849. I f the rate of teacher withdrawal were to
remain at 21 percent, there would be need for
200 new teachers annually by the end o f the
decade, to replace those leaving the high schools
of this State. However, this high attrition rate
is likely to be reduced.
Earnings

The average salary for 1948-49 was estimated
at $2,550 for secondary classroom teachers and
$1,945 for elementary classroom teachers. How­
ever, the wider choice o f positions in the elemen­
tary schools may make it possible for an appli­
cant to obtain a higher paying position in an ele­
mentary school than in a high school.
The minimum wage in 1948-49 for teachers
meeting the minimum educational requirements
was $1,500; for those completing 2 years o f the
approved teacher-preparation course, $1,600; and
for those who have completed the 4-year approved
course, $1,800.

VIRGINIA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Virginia’s public elementary schools had about
13,800 teachers and 438,000 pupils in 1948-49.
The senior and junior high schools employed
about 6,600 teachers for their 142,000 students.
About one-fourth of all the teachers in public
schools were Negroes.*
3
2
1 Memorandum to Superintendents of Schools from Arthur
3
B. Elliott, Director of Teacher Education and Certification;
State Department of Education; Montpelier, Vermont, February
23, 1949.




A survey conducted by the Virginia Education
Association indicates some of the characteristics
of Virginia’s teaching force. Almost 90 percent
of the teachers are women. The average age of
rural teachers was 36 years, while those in city
schools averaged about 39. In rural schools, male
teachers had, on the average, about 9 years of
teaching experience, whereas women teachers
averaged 11 years o f experience. In city schools,

77

the figures were 14 years of experience for men
and 18 for women.
Certification Requirements

The “ collegiate professional certificate,5 which
5
is the only renewable certificate issued in V ir­
ginia, requires a bachelor’s degree and at least 18
semester hours of professional education courses,
including 6 semester hours of student teaching,
and entitles one to teach in both elementary
schools and high schools. However, in order to
teach in grades 1 through 5, at least 10 semester
hours o f this college work must be taken in
courses that apply directly to those grades and
must include student teaching in lower grades.
High school teachers with two or more years of
successful teaching experience may have this ac­
cepted in lieu o f student teaching. A “ collegiate
certificate,5 which remains in effect for 4 years
5
and is not renewable, may be given to graduates
of a 4-year college course who have not yet com­
pleted the professional education courses required
for the collegiate professional certificate. Emer­
gency licenses may be granted to persons who do
not meet these qualifications.
Outlook

A severe shortage o f elementary teachers in
Virginia is expected in the fall o f 1949. The rec­
ord number o f births in recent years and inmigration, particularly from the District of
Columbia to nearby Arlington County, are re­
sulting in a sharp increase in school enrollments.
Assuming a ratio o f 30 pupils per teacher, about
600 additional teachers will be needed annually
over the next 2 or 3 years to handle this increase
in enrollments. In addition, a large number of
new elementary teachers will be needed to re­
place those who leave the profession each year
owing to death, retirement, or transfer to an­
other occupation. An attrition rate o f only 7 per­
cent would mean an annual demand for about
1,000 teachers above the need for 600 or so new
teaching positions. Still more teachers would be
required if the school systems replaced, with fully
qualified personnel, many of the 2,700 teachers
now teaching without certificates on emergency
licenses.
In 1949, only about 240 students were expected
to complete preparation to teach in elementary
schools in Virginia, as compared with about 350
in 1948 and 470 in 1941. This number obviously
falls far short of the needs; therefore more emer­
gency certificates will have to be issued, and over­

78


sized classes will not be relieved until there is a
considerable increase in the number of graduates
from teacher-training institutions.
The demand for elementary teachers will
continue to increase until about 1957, when en­
rollments will be roughly 155,000 more than in
1948-49. An average o f approximately 900 new
teachers would be needed each year, on the basis
o f a pupil-teacher ratio of 30 to 1, to handle the
increase in enrollments that is expected during
the period 1953-54 to 1955-56. I f an attrition
rate of 7 percent is assumed, about 1,300 teachers
would be needed for replacements each year be­
ginning in 1955-56.
Although the shortage of high school teachers
is not as acute as that in the elementary field, it
appears that well-qualified people will be able to
find positions in most subject fields during the
next 2 or 3 years. In 1948-49, the fields o f Eng­
lish and social studies were the only ones in
which the supply o f teachers approached ade­
quacy. Enrollments in high schools are not ex­
pected to increase for the next year or two. How­
ever, many teachers will be needed as replace­
ments. There is an increase in the number of per­
sons qualifying for high school teaching. About
1,400 students were expected to complete such
preparation in 1949, as compared with about
1,300 in 1948, 1,000 in 1947, 930 in 1945, and 1,200
in 1941. However, because professional educa­
tion courses are not required for the collegiate
certificate the above figure includes all persons
graduating from liberal arts courses in Virginia.
A considerable proportion o f these graduates do
not plan to enter the teaching profession.
During the 1950’s there will be an increased
demand for high school teachers, as the peak
enrollments pass from the elementary grades to
high school. Additional enrollments will also
result from the provision o f an extra year of
schooling in districts which now operate on an
11-year basis. In 1948-49, about half o f the
State’s school children were attending 11-year
systems. In Virginia the extra year is usually
added to the high school curriculum. It is ex­
pected that high school enrollments will increase
about 70,000 between 1953 and 1960. A t a rate
of 25 pupils per teacher, this would represent a
need for about 350 additional teachers each year.
Approximately 600 new teaching positions would
be required annually from about 1956 to 1958—
the period of most rapid growth in enrollments.
High school enrollments will no doubt continue

to climb during the early 1960’s, though at a
somewhat slower rate.
Earnings

The average teaching salary in Virginia during
the 1948-49 school year was estimated at about
$2,000 for elementary teachers and $2,275 for
high school teachers. A survey by the Virginia
Education Association indicates that in 1948-49,
the median beginning salary for holders of the
bachelor’s degree was $1,750 in country schools
and $1,900 in city schools.

The city of Richmond had 1,215 teachers (not
including supervisors and administrators) on a
single-salary schedule under which holders of
the bachelor’s degree began at $2,100 and might
eventually work up to $3,400, while those with a
master’s degree might reach $3,600. Norfolk had
about 915 teachers on a single-salary schedule
beginning at $2,000 for holders o f the bachelor’s
degree; teachers might work up to $3,300 with
a bachelor’s degree or $3,500 with a master’s
degree.

WASHINGTON
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

The public elementary schools in the State of
Washington employed about 10,800 classroom
teachers, principals, and supervisors and had 320,000 pupils enrolled in 1948-49; secondary schools
employed 4,650 teachers for 109,000 pupils.
Certification Requirements

For the regular elementary certificate (valid
for 3 years) it is necessary to have a bachelor’s
degree from an accredited institution, with ade­
quate courses in elementary education, practice
teaching or teaching experience in the elementary
grades, and courses in Washington State manual
and Washington State history and government,
A temporary certificate, valid for 1 year and not
renewable, may be issued to an out-of-State appli­
cant who meets the requirements for the regular
elementary certificate with the exception of the
courses relating to Washington. A “ qualifying
certificate” is issued on the basis of 3 full years
and 12 additional quarter hours of college prepa­
ration applicable towards regular elementary
preparation, including practice teaching or ex­
perience. This latter certificate is valid for 3
years, and the holder is expected to qualify for
regular certification by the end of that period.
The basic educational requirement for the
regular secondary school certificate (valid for 3
years) is 5 years of college work and a degree
(bachelor’s or master’s) in secondary education
conferred by an accredited institution. The col­
lege work must include the follow ing: 24 quarter
hours in education courses; 15 quarter hours in
contemporary social problems; one major of 30
quarter hours and two minors of 15 hours each
in subjects regularly offered in the State’s sec­
ondary schools, and courses in Washington State
manual and Washington State history and gov­
ernment. A temporary certificate, good for 1



year only, may be issued to an out-of-State
teacher meeting all requirements except the last
one. A “ qualifying certificate” is issued on the
basis o f 4 years and 12 quarter hours o f college
preparation applicable toward regular secondary
certification, including practice teaching or ex­
perience. This certificate is valid for 3 years only.
Emergency certificates may be issued to appli­
cants not meeting all the regular certification re­
quirements.
Outlook

Employment opportunities for qualified ele­
mentary teachers in the public schools o f Wash­
ington are expected to be very numerous over the
next few years. Teachers are needed to take care
of rapidly increasing enrollments; also to replace
many o f those employed on emergency certifi­
cates (about 3,000 such certificates were issued in
1948-49) ; and to provide replacements for those
who die, retire, or leave teaching for other rea­
sons (some 600 teachers, amounting to about 5.5
percent of the elementary staff, were taken on as
replacements in 1948-49). To meet these needs,
only 578 students were expected to complete
preparation in teacher-training institutions in
the State in 1949. While a number o f teachers
will enter Washington from other States (over a
fourth o f the teachers hired in the smaller school
districts in 1948-49 were from other States), the
total number o f fully qualified elementary teach­
ers available will probably be far from adequate
to meet the demand.
Enrollments at the elementary level (grades
1 to 8) will continue to increase each year until
about 1956-57, when they may be about 175,000
higher than in 1948-49. A ratio of 30 pupils per
teacher would require nearly 6,000 additional
teaching positions for the added enrollments, or
an average o f approximately 750 a year over the

79

8-year period. These additions to the staff will
tend to increase the number of replacements
needed, and if the rate remains about 5.5 percent,
nearly 1,000 new teachers would be needed as re­
placements each year during the late 1950’s.
The short-run employment outlook is less fa­
vorable for secondary than for elementary teach­
ers, though continuing shortages o f personnel in
some subject fields are anticipated for at least
the next year or two. Enrollments in grades 9
to 12 are expected to increase moderately each
year through about 1955-56, requiring an average
of nearly 150 new teaching positions annually if
a teacher is provided for each 25 added enroll­
ments. Larger numbers o f new teachers will be
needed as replacements for those who leave the
profession in the State (about 500 were taken on
for this purpose in 1948-49). Also, some of the
1,400 teachers issued substandard certificates in
1948-49 may be replaced. In relation to these
needs, teacher-training institutions in the State
were expected to prepare only 260 graduates
eligible for secondary certificates in 1949. It is
likely that out-of-State teachers will be available
in large numbers because o f the oversupply at
this level in many States and the continuing
migration into Washington.
After 1955-56, secondary school enrollments
are expected to increase more rapidly, requiring
500 to 600 new teaching positions each year
through 1959-60. The number of replacements
needed may increase to about 800 for the ex­
panded staff if the attrition rate remains about
10 percent (the 1948-49 figure). In recapitula­
tion regarding the number o f new teaching posi­
tions needed—by 1959-60 the enrollments in the
secondary schools will probably be 82,000 higher
than in 1948-49, and if a new position should be
created and filled for each 25 added enrollments,
this would require approximately 8,300 more
teachers than in 1948-49, a 70-percent increase.
The above estimates of elementary and sec­
ondary school enrollments take into consideration
the record number of births in the 1940 decade
(in 1947 the number o f births w as double the
T
number in 1940), the large wartime and postwar
migration into Washington, and the expectation
that in-migration will continue, throughout the
1950 decade.
Earnings

The State minimum salary is $2,400 per year
for regularly certified teachers.

80



However, beginning salaries tend to be higher
than this in some school districts, as is shown
by the following tabulation o f median minimum
salaries in 1948-49:

Size of school district

3 years of 4 years of 5 years of 6 years of
college
college
college
college

Large 1st class
districts

$2,400

$2,448

$2,688

$2,780

Smaller 1st class
districts

2,460

2,600

2,700

•2,800

Large 2d class
districts

2,400

2,500

2,600 |

2,700

Middle 2d class
districts

2,300

2,400

2,520

2,600

Most districts give their teachers 10 to 15
annual salary increments o f $100.
The salary schedules in effect in 1948-49 in the
three largest Washington cities— Seattle, Spo­
kane, and Tacoma—were as follows:

Annual salary
Educational
preparation
Minimum
SEATTLE

Increments

$2,400

2 @ $50
10 @ 100

$3,500

2,400

14 @ 100

3,800

2,500

14 @ 100

3,900

3 @ 100

4,200

Maximum

a

Less than 4 years

Bachelor’s degree —

—

Master’s degree
Additional training-

—

SPOKANE 6

3 years

2,370

15 @
7 @

60
30

3.480

4 years

2,550

15 @
7 @

60
30

3,660

5 years without master’s
degree

2,730

15 @
7 @

60
30

3,840

Master’s degree

2,780

15 @
- 7 @

60
30

3,890

Additional training-

4,020

TACOM A c

Bachelor’s degree

2,520

11 @ 120

3,840

5 years

2,640

12 @ 132

4,224

Master’s degree

2,772

12 @ 132

4,356

* Figures exclude cost-of-living adjustment amounting to $120
in 1948-49.
6 Figures exclude cost-of-living adjustment amounting to $200
in 1948-49.
c No increment given until end of second year.

WEST VIRGINIA
Number o f Teachers and Enrollments

Public elementary schools employed 10,292
teachers, principals, and supervisors in 1948-49
and had an enrollment o f 299,373; considerably
over half the elementary schools had only one
teacher. In the secondary schools there were
5,391 teachers and 126,271 pupils, including 26,504
pupils in separately organized junior high
schools. Public schools for Negroes employed
about 1,000 teachers for 25,000 pupils.
Certification Requirements

Two years o f college training, with a minimum
of 9 semester hours of professional education
courses, are required for the regular third-class
elementary certificate. For the second-class cer­
tificate, 96 semester hours o f college with a mini­
mum o f 14 hours o f education courses are re­
quired. For the first-class certificate, a bachelor’s
degree with 20 hours o f education courses is
needed.
Requirements for the high school certificate are
graduation and recommendation from a standard
college. For a first-class high school certificate,
valid for 5 years in junior and senior high
schools, the applicant’s college training must in­
clude 20 semester hours o f professional courses,
with 5 semester hours o f student teaching and
observation, and academic requirements ranging
from 24 semester hours in most teaching fields to
50 semester hours in vocational agriculture. For
the provisional certificate, valid for 1 year, 15
semester hours o f professional education are re­
quired.
The “ public school certificate” is issued to per­
sons completing the single curriculum in West
Virginia colleges approved for giving this train­
ing. These certificates are valid for 5 years for
teaching in the elementary and secondary schools.
There is a trend toward the 12-year integrated
program which requires teachers with training
in the single-curriculum course.
Emergency certificates are issued when neces­
sary to some persons not meeting the regular re­
quirements.

Outlook
Employment opportunities will be plentiful for
white elementary school teachers for the next few
years, particularly in rural schools. Qualified
teachers are needed to replace some of the 1,885



teachers with emergency certificates in 1948-49.
The number o f teachers who leave the State’s ele­
mentary schools because o f death, retirement, or
other reasons and who must be replaced is conserv­
atively estimated at about 700 annually. In addi­
tion, elementary school enrollments (grades 1 to
8) are already increasing because o f the high
birth rates in the early part o f the 1940’s. The
supply o f teachers from training institutions in
the State is far below the demand; only about
410 students, 60 of whom were Negroes, were ex­
pected to complete preparation for elementary
teaching in 1949. It is likely that additional
emergency certificates will have to be issued and
many teachers without standard qualifications
will be in the classrooms for at least another few
years. However, this does not apply to Negro
teachers, o f whom there will be more than enough
with regular certificates to meet the demand in
most localities.
Demand for elementary teachers is expected to
remain high through the 1950 decade. Enroll­
ments will continue to rise each year, and by
1959-60 may be approximately 50,000 higher than
in 1948-49; on the basis of 30 pupils per teacher
this increase would require at least 1,600 addi­
tional teaching positions. With the expansion o f
the staff, it is estimated on the basis of a 7-per­
cent attrition rate that about 850 new teachers
may be needed annually as replacements during
the latter part of the 1950’s.
High school needs for teachers in the next 2
or 3 years will be primarily as replacements for
those who leave the profession, since enrollments
are not expected to increase substantially until
after 1951. Replacement needs will probably not
exceed 300 annually. There was some shortage of
industrial arts, commerce, and mathematics and
other physical science teachers in 1948-49 and
some vacancies in certain districts o f the State
where housing was a problem; some o f these
shortages may persist in 1949-50 but, in general,
there is evidence of an oversupply o f high school
teachers. Teacher-training institutions in West
Virginia were expected to graduate 940 white and
240 Negro students prepared for high school
teaching in 1949. Considerable competition for
positions is expected in urban areas and among
Negro teachers.
Enrollments and teaching positions needed in
the secondary schools are expected to increase

81

each year through most of the 1950 decade, with
the greatest increase occurring about 1955. En­
rollments in grades 9 to 12 may be approximately
19,000 higher in 1958-59 than in 1948-49 and if
so would require 760 additional teaching posi­
tions over the period, on the basis o f 25 pupils
per teacher. A replacement rate of 5.5 percent
would mean a further need for some 340 new
teachers annually during the last half of the 1950
decade.
Elementary teachers had an estimated average
salary of $2,064 for the year 1948-49. Secondary
teachers had an average annual salary of about
$2,580.
The minimum monthly single-salary scale for
the State, as o f 1949-50, was as follow s:
Emer gency
certiiflcate

Regular certificate
Years
of
experi­
ence

Master’s
degree

First
Class
(A. B.
degree)

Second
class
(3-yr.
college)

Third
class

Short
course

First
(lowest)
grade

0

$225

$200

$170

$165

$150

$145

1

231

206

176

171

156

151

o

237

212

182

177

162

157

188

183

168

163

3

243

218

4

249

224

194

189

174

169

195

180

175

186

5 _______

255

230

200

6 _______

261

236

206

201

242

212

207

7

Master’s
degree

First
Class
(A. B.
degree)

267

181

_ _ _

Second
class
(3-yr.
college)

8

273

248

218

9 _______

279

254

Third
class

Short
course

First
(lowest)
grade

224
230

10

285

260

11

291
297

272

13

303

278

14

309

15

315

16

213

266

12

Earnings

Emergency
certificate

Regular certificate
Years
of
experi­
ence

321

Variations above the State salary schedule were
in effect in some school districts in 1948-49,
particularly in those with large urban popula­
tions. For example, in Kanawha, Harrison, and
Ohio Counties (where Charleston, Clarksburg,
and Wheeling are located), minimum 1948-49
salaries for holders of certificates requiring the
bachelor’s or master’s degree were from $8 to $20
higher per month than the starting salary speci­
fied in the State schedule. In Harrison County
the increments were the same as the State sched­
ule provides. In the schedules for Kanawha and
Ohio Counties, the annual increments were larger,
leading to maximum salaries from $41 to $50
higher than those given in the State schedule.

WISCONSIN
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

During the school year 1948-49, the public
high schools employed 6,600 classroom teachers,
principals, and supervisors for their 140,000 stu­
dents. There were about 14,000 teachers and 360,000 pupils in the public elementary schools. About
one-fourth o f the elementary pupils attended oneroom rural schools. An average o f 19 students
were enrolled in each one-room school during the
1946-47 school year. However, 21 one-room
schools had five or less pupils enrolled. Almost
two-thirds o f these schools had between 10 and
24 pupils; 56 schools had 45 or more pupils en­
rolled.
Certification Requirements

Graduation from a 4-year college course is re­
quired for high school teaching. At least 18

82



semester hours must be completed in professional
educational courses, including 5 hours o f student
teaching. In addition, teachers of academic sub­
jects must have at least 24 semester hours in their
major field and 15 semester hours in each of two
minor fields, besides meeting certain other re­
quirements.
For a certificate to teach in city elementary
schools, one must have completed 3 years’ work
in a teacher-training institution, including stu­
dent teaching and observation and other profes­
sional education courses. Certificates to teach in
rural schools, State graded schools, and village
elementary schools are given after the completion
of 2 years at a teacher-training institution.
During the shortage o f teachers the State
Superintendent o f Public Instruction has issued

emergency permits, upon request of the county
or city superintendents, to certain people who do
not qualify for standard certificates. In addition,
a holder of a high school certificate may obtain
a special permit to teach in the elementary
grades if he has been offered an elementary teach­
ing position and has completed at least 6 se­
mester hours of college work in preparation for
such teaching. This permit is good only for 1
year and only for the position mentioned in the
application. Wisconsin teachers colleges are giv­
ing intensive summer school courses in elemen­
tary teaching which are especially designed for
persons already qualified for high school teach­
ing.
Outlook

The severe shortage of qualified elementary
teachers which existed in 1948-49 is expected to
continue for at least the next few years. Over
2,700 new elementary teachers were hired during
the 1948-49 school year; most of these were
needed to replace those lost to the profession
owing to death, retirement, transfer to other fields
o f work, or other reasons. Losses due to turn­
over may remain nearly as great for the next
few years. Additional teachers will be needed to
take care of increasing elementary school enroll­
ments and to replace many of the 3,500 holders
of emergency credentials. Altogether, the Board
o f Normal School Regents estimates that W is­
consin will need 3,400 new elementary teachers
each year until at least 1955.
To meet these needs, only about 1,160 students
from Wisconsin teacher-training institutions were
expected to complete preparation for elementary
teaching in 1949. This is less than the number
that completed similar preparation in 1941 and
reflects the failure o f enrollments at teachertraining institutions to reach prewar levels. A
faculty committee of the University of Wisconsin
reports “ the State needs elementary teachers far
in excess o f its present supply before it can move
in the direction of improving the quality of
teaching by raising the standards of certifica­
tion.” The State school authorities are consider­
ing various measures to stimulate attendance at
teacher-training institutions, including construc­
tion of new dormitory facilities so that rooms
may be rented to students at extremely low rates.
Even so, it will probably be necessary to continue
to issue emergency certificates for some time.
During the 1950's, a considerable number of



new elementary teachers will be needed to take
care o f the increased number o f pupils. Elemen­
tary school enrollments will probably continue to
rise until about 1956, when they are expected to
be about 90,000 higher than in 1948-49. Some
o f the additional pupils may be added to exist­
ing small classes without increasing the need for
teachers. The consolidation o f one-room schools
may also eliminate certain teaching positions.
Therefore, it is likely that, during the period
1950-56, the number o f new teachers actually
needed to take care o f increased enrollments will
be somewhat less than the 3,000 additional teach­
ers that would be required on the basis of one
for every 30 added pupils. More teachers will
also be needed to take care o f the expected expan­
sion o f kindergarten facilities, particularly in
those counties where kindergarten classes have
not yet been provided. In addition, the number
of teachers needed as replacements each year will
probably grow, as the size of the elementary
teaching force increases. Thus, during the late
1950’s, even if the attrition rate is somewhat re­
duced, over 2,500 new teachers may be needed
annually to replace those who leave the profes­
sion.
The demand for teachers is not expected to
be nearly as great in the high school as in the
elementary field during the next few years. In
1948-49, the demand for personnel grew out of
the need to replace high school teachers who had
left the profession; about 1,750 new teachers were
hired. It is expected that a similar number will
be needed during the 1949-50 school year. To
meet these needs about 1,900 persons from col­
leges in the State completed preparation for
high school teaching during 1949. In 1949 there
was already an oversupply of teachers in men’s
physical education, art, history, and other social
studies, while a shortage still existed in Latin,
music, women’s physical education, and home
economics.
There will be an increased demand for second­
ary teachers as the peak enrollments pass from the
elementary grades to the high schools. Beginning
about 1956, the number of new teachers needed
each year to take care of increased enrollments
may exceed 300, if a ratio of 25 pupils per
teacher is assumed. The peak enrollments in
Wisconsin high schools will probably not occur
until the early 1960’s. Approximately a thousand
new teachers will be needed annually during the
late 1950’s to provide for increased enrollments

83

and replacements, assuming no decrease in the
attrition rate.
Earnings

The average teaching salary in Wisconsin in
1948-49 was about $2,600, as compared with
$2,300 in 1947-48.
A survey by the Wisconsin Education Associa­
tion revealed that 1948-49 median salaries in
city schools, exclusive o f Milwaukee, were $3,300
for high school teachers and about $2,850 for
elementary teachers. Teachers in one-room rural
schools had median earnings o f about $2,000,

while the median for those in State graded
schools was around $2,200.
The city o f Milwaukee has a single-salary
schedule which begins at $1,400. Holders of the
bachelor’s degree may eventually work up to
$3,000, while those who have earned the master’s
degree may reach $3,300. These figures do not
include the cost of living adjustment of approxi­
mately $1,200 added to salary schedules in 1949.
In 1948-49 the average salary in Milwaukee was
about $4,035, seventh highest among those for
the Nation’s 20 largest cities.

WYOMING
Number of Teachers and Enrollments

Wyoming public schools had 54,000 students
and nearly 2,700 classroom teachers, principals,
and supervisors in 1948-49. About three-fourths
o f the pupils and two-thirds o f the teachers were
in elementary schools ; 584 o f the teachers were
employed in rural one-teacher schools.
Certification Requirements

Minimum educational requirement for the ele­
mentary certificate is 2 years o f college work,
with 12 semester hours in English and social
studies and 20 semester hours in specified educa­
tion courses, including supervised teaching. The
kindergarten certificate, valid for teaching in
kindergarten or grades 1, 2, and 3, is likewise
issued upon the completion of 2 years of college
work—with 20 semester hours in specified educa­
tion courses, including kindergarten techniques.
For the junior and senior high school certifi­
cates, one must graduate from a 4-year college
course, with 15 semester hours o f credit in speci­
fied academic courses and 16 hours in specified
professional education courses, including super­
vised teaching.
Emergency certificates are sometimes issued to
persons who do not meet regular requirements.
Outlook

The elementary teacher shortage which existed
in 1948-49 is likely to continue in 1949-50. Only
about 50 students were expected to complete
training in Wyoming institutions qualifying
them for standard elementary teaching certifi­
cates in 1949. This is only a fraction of the ex­
pected needs. It has been estimated that 250 new
teachers (14 percent of the staff ) were needed in
1948-49 to replace those leaving Wyoming
schools; it is likely that almost as many will be

84



required for this purpose in the next year or two.
An additional need will be for teachers to replace
some of those who held emergency elementary
certificates in 1948-49; 187 such certificates were
issued in that year. A third need will be for
teachers to handle the anticipated increases in
enrollment. Altogether, these demands will prob­
ably add up to a sum far greater than the
supply available from Wyoming colleges and
other sources. The rural and small consolidated
schools will suffer most from the inadequate
supply.
Demands for elementary teachers will be even
heavier during most of the 1950 decade. Enroll­
ments in grades 1 to 8 will rise to a peak about
1957-58, when about 9,000 more children may
be enrolled than in 1948-49. Assuming a ratio
of one teacher to every 30 pupils, this would call
for the employment of about 300 additional
teachers during the 9-year interval to handle the
increased enrollment. As the size of the teaching
staff grows, the number of vacancies owing to
deaths or resignations may tend to increase also ;
if the attrition rate should remain about 14
percent, there would be nearly 300 such vacancies
annually in the late 1950’s.
The high schools (grades 9 to 12) are likewise
expecting a continued shortage of qualified teach­
ers in 1949-50, though the situation is less acute
than in the lower grades. The estimated number
needed in 1948-49 to replace people leaving
Wyoming schools was 200, or 22 percent o f the
staff; the number needed for this purpose in
1949-50 will probably be about as high. In addi­
tion, a considerable number of emergency teach­
ers may need to be replaced, and perhaps a few
extra teachers will need to be hired because of
slightly increased enrollments. The number of

Wyoming college students expected to complete
courses of study in 1949 entitling them to regular
high school certificates was estimated at 97. Even
after this source and out-of-State sources have
been tapped, there will probably still be short­
ages, especially in certain subject fields, such as
music, fine arts, industrial arts, and commerce.
Enrollment and staff increases in high schools
are expected to be small in future years. The
probable gain in enrollments is estimated to be
about 3,500 between 1948-49 and 1958-59. As­
suming a ratio of 25 pupils per teacher, this in­
crease would require an average of only about
15 additional teachers per year. The withdrawal
rate will probably drop from the high level of
the late 1940’s. There is little indication, there­
fore, that the annual demand for high school
teachers will show much increase in the next
decade.




Earnings

The average 1948-49 salary was $1,764 for
rural teachers, $2,552 for other elementary teach­
ers, and $3,013 for high school teachers.
Cheyenne’s single-salary schedule for 1949-50
is shown below :
Annual salary
Educational
preparation

2 years

Minimum

Increments

$1,920

8 @ $120

Maximum
$2,880

3 years

2,040

8 @

120

3,000

Bachelor’s degree

2,160

14 @

120

3,840

Master’s degree

2,280

14 @

120

3,960

Salary schedules in some school districts are
better than the one for Cheyenne, especially with
respect to beginning salary.

85

SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND ESTIMATING PROCEDURES
In analyzing the employment- outlook for ele­
mentary and secondary school teachers, the basic
data are, o f course, prospective enrollments. The
over-all forecasts of elementary and high school
enrollments in public and private schools for the
United States, as discussed in the first section of
this report, are taken from the Census Bureau’s
current population report Series P-25, No. 18,
Forecasts o f Population and School Enrollment
in the United States: 191^8 to 1960. The teacher
estimates for the country as a whole, based on
the Census Bureau enrollment forecasts, are
largely from the mimeographed report of the
National Education Association, Probable De­
mand for Teachers in the United States for the
Decade 191±9-50 through 1958-59M
The forecasts of enrollments and teachers
needed in the public day schools by State were
prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, un­
less otherwise specified in the individual State
reports. A few State departments of education
or other local agencies have developed their own
detailed projections of school enrollments and
forecasts o f teachers required; these studies have
been used wherever possible. The general pro­
cedure used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
estimating pupil enrollments and teacher needs
by State is described below.
For purposes of projection, United States
Office of Education estimates of enrollment in
public day schools by grade in the school year
1945-46 (the latest year available) served as the
point o f departure. Estimates o f the proportion
o f students continuing into later grades were
based on a projection of prewar trends in the
length o f schooling for each State. It was as­
sumed that the increase in the “ holding-power”
o f the schools would follow the patterns shown
by Office of Education data in the prewar period.
The increase projected in the length of school
attendance between 1950 and 1960 for a given
State was based on the 1930-40 rates of increase
shown by States that started in 1930 with a level
1 In these estimates, elementary schools have been defined as
4
grades 1 to 8 (including kindergarten where established), and
secondary schools as grades 9 to 12. This is the procedure
followed insofar as possible in this report. However, because of
differences in school organization and in the methods of re­
porting used in different States, the seventh and eighth grades
in junior high schools have no doubt been classed with sec­
ondary schools in some instances.

86




of ‘holding-power” similar to that of the given
State in 1940.
It should be noted that rates of attrition be­
tween successive grades are influenced not only by
the differentials in “ holding-power” of the schools
but also by the pattern of inter-State migration.
The projection of prewar trends in attrition as­
sumes, in general, a continuation o f prewar pat­
terns o f interstate migration.
In projecting the prospective inflow of students
into the school system, use was made o f estimates
of births by State of residence which were avail­
able from the National Office o f Vital Statistics
through the year 1948. Forecasts o f births for
the years 1949-53 were based on projections of
national trends by the Bureau o f the Census.
These forecasts assume a fairly sharp and con­
tinuous decrease in births between 1949 and 1953.
In order to determine the number o f addi­
tional teachers needed in each State, the increase
in enrollments was calculated and a ratio of 30
pupils per teacher in grades 1 to 8 and 25 pupils
per teacher in grades 9 to 12 was then applied.
No allowance was made for a change in the pupil
load carried by teachers already on the staff.
A second major factor in estimating teacher
demand by State is that o f replacing the large
number of teachers who, each year, leave the
teaching profession or transfer to teaching in
another State. The chief sources of information
used for determining replacement rates were the
Maul report15 and the 1949 study conducted by
the Council of State Governments.16 These rates,
which vary considerably by State and for ele­
mentary and high school teachers, were applied
to the total number of teachers.
The source of information on teacher supply
was the number of college and university stu­
dents completing standard certification require­
ments as reported by the Maul study or as given
by the States.
A large amount of the statistical data, other
than the State forecasts, used in this report were
taken from other published sources. Much of the
basic information is from the biennial reports of
1 Maul, Ray C., Teacher Supply and Demand in the United
5
States. National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street,
N.W., Washington 6, D.C.
1 Council of State Governments, The Forty-Eight State School
6
Systems, Chicago, Illinois.

the U. S. Office of Education. The 1948-49 figures
on enrollments, numbers of teachers, numbers of
emergency certificates, and average salaries are esti­
mates from the mimeographed release, Advance
Estimates of Public Elementary and Secondary
Schools for 191^8-1$, prepared by the Research
Division, National Education Association. Salary
schedules for most of the cities are from the N EA




publication, Educational Research Service, Cir­
cular No. 9, 1948, and Circular Nos. 2 and 4,
1949; some were supplied by State education as­
sociations.
In addition, the various State departments of
education and educational organizations fur­
nished much useful information through their
publications or through interviews.

ft U. S. Government Printing Office: 1949— S55370

87

Occupational Outlook Publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
Studies of employment trends and opportuni­
ties in the various occupations and professions
are made by the Occupational Outlook Branch of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Reports are prepared for use in the vocational
guidance of veterans, young people in schools,
and others considering the choice of an occupation.
Schools concerned with vocational training and
employers and trade-unions interested in on-thejob training have also found the reports helpful
in planning programs in line with prospective
employment opportunities.
Two types of reports are issued, in addition to
the Occupational Outlook Handbook:
Occupational outlook bulletins describe the longrun outlook for employment in each occupation
and give information on earnings, working con­
ditions, and the training required.
Special reports are issued from time to time on
such subjects as the general employment outlook,
trends in the various States, and occupational
mobility.
The reports are issued as bulletins of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, and may be purchased from

the Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D. C.
Occupational Outlook Handbook— Employment
Information on Major Occupations for use in
Guidance Bulletin 940 (1948). Price $1.75. Illus.

Occupational Outlook Handbook
Includes brief reports on each of 288 occupa­
tions of interest in vocational guidance, including
professions; skilled trades; clerical, sales, and serv­
ice occupations; and the major types of farming.
Each report describes the employment trends and
outlook, the training qualifications required, earn­
ings, and working conditions. Introductory sec­
tions summarize the major trends in population
and employment, and in the broad industrial and
occupational groups, as background for an under­
standing of the individual occupations.
The Handbook is designed for use in counseling,
in classes or units on occupations, in the training
of counselors, and as a general reference. It is
illustrated with 79 photographs and 47 charts.

Occupational Outlook Bulletins
Employment Opportunities for Diesel-Engine Mechanics
Bulletin 813 (1945). 5 cents.
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Bulletin 837-1 (1945). (Edition sold out; copies are on file in many libraries.)
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Working Conditions
Bulletin 837-2 (1946). 25 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Automobile Mechanics
Bulletin 842 (1945). 10 cents.
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Bulletin 844 (1945). 10 cents.
Postwar Outlook for Physicians
Bulletin 863 (1946). 10 cents.
88



89
Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations
Bulletin 880 (1946). 15 cents. Ulus.
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Bulletin 892 (1947). 15 cents. Illus.
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Bulletin 895 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
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Bulletin 902 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
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Bulletin 905 (1947). 10 cents. Illus.
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Occupational Outlook Mailing List
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☆ U . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949— 863788

Effect of Defense Program on

EmpiovniEnT summon in ELEm
EDTDRV
nnn s e io r d r r v sih o o i t e r ih ir g




August 1951
Supplem ent to B u lletin 9 7 2 ,
Em p loym en t O utlook fo r E le m e n ta ry
and S eco n d a ry School T e ach ers

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin - Secretary
BU REAU OF LA BO R STA T IS TIC S
Ewan Clague - C o m m issio n er

Letter of Transmittal

United States Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Washington, D. C,
August 15, 1951

The Secretary of Labor*
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the effect
of the defense program on the employment situation in elementary
and secondary school teaching. This is one of a series of reports
made available through the Bureau's Occupational Outlook Service
for use in vocational counseling of young people in school, vet­
erans, and others interested in the choice of an occupation. The
report supplements and brings up to date the discussion of employ­
ment trends and outlook in Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No.
972, Employment Outlook for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers,
which was written in 1949.
The report was prepared by Cora E. Taylor of the Occupational
Studies Branch, Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics. The
Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance received from
the United States Office of Education and the National Education
Association.
Ewan Clague, Commissioner.

Hon. Maurice J. Tobin,
Secretary of Labor.




Contents
Page

Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1

Demand for teachers - - - - - - Elementary school enrollments
Secondary school enrollments
Teacher replacement - - - - -

-

1

Supply of teaohers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - timbers prepared for elementary school teaohing - - - - - - Numbers prepared for secondary school teaohing - - - - - - -

4
4

5

Prospective employment situation, 1951-52

- - - - - - - - - - - -

5

Earnings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

3

Tables
1.

2*

3.




Indexes of average salaries paid elementary
and secondary publio school teaohers in cities
of 50,000 or more, 1939-49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

9

Indexes of average salaries for publio school
teachers in cities of 50,000 or more population,
by region, 1939-49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

10

Median salaries paid classroom teachers in oity
school systems, 1950-51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

11

Chart
More than a third of all students prepared for
high school teaching in 1950-51 were in three
already crowded subject fields - - - - - - - - - - - - -

7

EFFECT OF DEFENSE PROGRAM ON EMPLOYMENT SITUATION
IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHING

Introduction

Dio teaching profession has always suffered losses of personnel
during periods of full employment when oollege-trained workers are
in great demand* Defense mobilisation is already increasing the
withdrawal rate of teaohers in some localities, and it is expeoted
that further losses will occur throughout the oountry as defense
production expands*
What are the chances of meeting the demand for teaching personnel
during a period of defense mobilization? This report sheds some light
on the question by presenting data on the prospective supply of and
demand for teachers in 1951-52, and by giving data on salary changes
and other faotors influencing employment in a highly competitive labor
market*
The report supplements and brings up to date the chapter on
teaohers in Bulletin 996, Occupational Outlook handbook, as well as
the seotions analyzing the Nation-wide situation in Hie teaching
profession presented in the Bureau's 1949 report, Employment Outlook
for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers (Bulletin 972)*
Briefly summarized, the employment situation in the teaching
profession is as follows!
Die shortage of elementary sohool teaohers
is more acute than last year, in spite of the fact that greater
numbers of students have completed preparation* More than 25,000
teaohers are needed to take care of the increasing enrollments
expeoted in the grade sohools in September 1951* A still larger
number of teachers will be required to replaoe those leaving the
profession*
The need for teaohers in the secondary sohools, where no
increase in enrollment is anticipated, will be limited almost entirely
to the replacement of persons withdrawing from the field*
The number
of persons prepared for high sohool teaching is far in exoess of the
number of openings expeoted for the 1951-52 school year, though
shortages exist in some subject fields*
Demand for Teachers
Demand for teaohers is based primarily on the number of pupils to
be taught and on the personnel required to replaoe those teaohers
retiring, transferring to other employment, or otherwise leaving the
profession* Fairly accurate estimates of future enrollments oan be
made on the basis of records on numbers of births and on school entranoe
and drop-out rates*
It is much more difficult, however, to estimate
teaoher-replacenient needs*




2

—

Elementary school enrollments.— Over 800,000 more pupils are expected
to be enrolled in the country’s elementary schools this fall than were
in the classrooms in 1950-51. This will bring the total number of pupils
in these schools to about 24,500,000, of whom approximately 12 percent
will be in private and parochial schools.
In general, enrollment in grades 1 to 8 for the next school year
will be made up of children born in the years 1937 to 1945. Since the
birth rate was much lower during the late depression years than during
World War II, the highest enrollment next year and therefore the greatest
need for teachers will be in the first 4 or 5 grades. Furthermore, during
the last few years, the outgoing eighth grades have been"small in
comparison to the incoming first grades, so that total enrollment in the
elementary schools has been increasing rapidly. The increase will be
even greater in the next few years, owing to the very high birth rates
of the immediate post-war period.
What will an additional 800,000 pupils arriving at the Nation’s
schools this fall mean in terms of teachers needed? Much has been said
about the overcrowding of classrooms and the heavy teaching loads in
the elementary schools. Little improvement in this situation can be
expected during the defense mobilization period. A recent study l/
of teachers showed the average number of pupils per teacher in elementary
schools to be 30 in rural schools and 32 in urban schools. Using the
higher average number of pupils per teacher (32), at least 25,000
additional teachers will be needed in September 1951 to provide for the
800,000 new pupils.
Secondary school enrnlIments.— Enrollment in grades 9 to 12 this fall
will continue to reflect the low birth rates of the 1930 decade.
No in­
crease is anticipated in the high-school-age population. Moreover, it is
probable that the current trend for young people to stay iii school longer
will be offset by greater numbers dropping out to take readily available
jobs or to enlist in the armed services. It appears, therefore, that
the total number of highschool teachers need not be increased in 1951-52,
though many new positions will be created because of population shifts
and the opening of newly constructed schools. Beginning in 1952-53,
however, enrollments in grades 9 to 12 are expected to rise slowly for
about 3 years and then increase rapidly into the 1960*s.

II

National Education Association, Teaching Load in 1950f Research Bulletin,
Vol. XXIX, No. 1, February 1951.




Teacher replacement.— In the next school year, more teachers will
be required to replace those leaving the profession than will be needed
to handle new enrollments. This will be true in both elementary and
secondary schools. Past experience indicates that the proportion of
teachers withdrawing from the field increases greatly when other more
attractive employment opportunities are readily available. The impact
of the current shortage of personnel in many areas and occupations on
the teaching profession cannot be easily estimated, however, in
quantitative terms.
Teacher withdrawal rates vary greatly from State to State and
among localities within a State for many reasons. In general, the rates
are relatively high in States or localities where salaries are low and
in rural areas where living conditions are unsatisfactory. They tend
to be higher among elementary than among secondary teachers and are
much greater among women than among men.
Because of variation in withdrawal rates, it is very difficult to
arrive at Nation-wide estimates of replacement needs. Estimates based
on data for years prior to World War II indicated a minimum annual
replacement rate of 7 percent for elementary school teachers and 5
percent for secondary school teachers. On the basis of these percentages,
the minimum demand for new elementary teachers to replace those who fail
to return to teaching jobs in the fall of 1951 would be about 4.2,000,
and the number of new high school teachers required would be about
16,000. However, there is considerable evidence indicating that current
withdrawal rates are much higher than the prewar figures used in
deriving these estimates. For example, it has been estimated that
replacement of elementary teachers in September 1950 approximated 60,000,
or about 10 percent of all grade school teachers. 2J
Certainly the
rate will have risen still higher by the fall of 1951, largely because
of the increasing availability of high-paying jobs. As the defense
production expands, a repetition of the World War II situation can be
expected in less acute form. In that period 300,000 teachers, over and
above the usual turn-over, were reported to have left the profession. 3/
(Figures used here refer to net replacement needs and do not include
data on the movement of teachers from one school system to another.)

1/
3/

Maul, Ray C ., Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States. National
Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards, 1951, p . 1 3 .
Armstrong, W. E arl, Teacher Situation C r itic a l— What Can Be Done?.
School L ife , Vol. 33, No. A, Januaiy 1951.




-

4

-

Another serious replacement problem, but one that cannot be met
at this time, concerns inadequately trained teachers. Approximately
95,000 elementary school teachers now in service have not completed
2 years of college preparation; as many as 53,000 of these have not
completed even 1 year of college. Another 200,000 teachers have two
or more years of training but have not yet obtained bachelor*s degrees,
Most school administrators believe that many of these teachers should
be replaced with better qualified personnel.

ij

5/
Supply of Teachers
Numbers prepared for elementary school teaching.— To meet the
elementary school demand for more than 70,000 new teachers for the
1951-52 term, the colleges and universities prepared only 4-6,000 students
during the year ending June 1951. These students completed standardcertificate requirements in the States in which they were trained, though
nearly 14,000 had preparation of less than 120 semester hours (the usual
requirement for a bachelor's degree). The total number (4-6,000) prepared
in 1951 is an increase of nearly 4-,000 over the number prepared in 1950.
Nevertheless, if all the newly prepared teachers entered the profession,
the supply would still be far from adequate.
Some other sources of teacher personnel exist but cannot be con­
sidered as likely to yield any appreciable numbers at this time. A large
group of persons who obtained adequate teacher-training at an earlier
date have gone into other jobs, have become full-time housewives, or are
outside the teaching profession for other reasons. This group is more
likely to gain members rather than to contribute to the teaching ranks.
Nevertheless, in some localities a house-to-house canvass is being made
in an effort to recruit from this inactive teacher group. Still another
source of additional teachers is the conversion programs new established
in 13 States. These programs are designed to give short courses in
elementary school teaching methods to college graduates who either have
not prepared to teach or who have prepared to teach at the secondary school
level. Most of these programs provide the opportunity for college gradu­
ates to take a full summer's work in elementary education. They can then
teach in elementary schools on a provisional certificate until such time
as the remaining work in elementary education can be completed either
through extension work or summer session programs. In spite of these and
other special recruitment programs, it is obvious that school administra­
tors will have to continue to employ many teachers with only partial pre­
paration. Emergency certificates will have to continue to be issued,
probably in greater numbers than last year.

JJ
jj/

Maul, Ray C., op. cit.
Statistical data for this section are taken largely from the
publication, Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States. The
report was prepared by Ray C. Maul under the sponsorship of the Nation­
al Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards,
National Education Association, 1201-l6th Street, N. W ., Washington 6,
D. C.




- 5 -

Numbers prepared for secondary school teaching.— Approximately
77,600 college and university students completed standard-certificate
requirements for high school teaching in 1951• This figure represents
a decrease of nearly 10,000 from the numbers so trained in 1950.
Even so, the number of new teachers needed at this level continues to
be considerably less than the number trained.
The supply of high school teachers for each subject field has much
greater significance than the total supply for all fields taken
together. Following is the distribution of students completing high
school teacher training in 1951:
Subject field
Agriculture
Art
Commerce
English
Foreign languages
Home economics
Industrial arts
Journalism
Library science
Mathematics
Music
Physical education - Men
Physical education - Women
General science
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Social sciences
Speech
Other

Number prepared

2,64.8
2,210
6,269

8,24.6
2,326
4,841
4,085
137
448
4,412

4,860
8,325
2,939
2,744
3,294
1,474
817
12,627
1,743
3,196

Prospective Employment Situation. 1951-52
The shortage of elementary school teachers may be more acute in
1951-52 than last year, in spite of the increased numbers completing
preparation. This is partly the result of the defense mobilization
program which is creating numberous competing job opportunities at a
time when enrollments in grades 1 to 8 are expanding rapidly.




-

6 -

The employment situation for elementary teachers is not uniform
throughout the country, however. In general, positions are most
readily available for white teachers in rural areas. Requirements
are higher and competition is greater for the most desirable positions
in large-city schools. Competition is great among Negro teachers for
nearly all types of positions. States paying salaries lower than
adjoining States have particular difficulty in filling positions.
For example, Georgia continues to lose teachers to Florida and other
nearby States. States with a great deal of in-migration are facing
serious teacher shortages. The outlook for elementary teachers on
a State-by-State basis is now approximately the same as in 19U9. 6/
The number of persons prepared for secondary school teaching is
far in excess of the number of openings expected for the 1951-52
school year. However, many persons completing certification require­
ments never seek teaching positions. This is especially true at a
time such as the present defense mobilization period, when other jobs
are easily obtained. Therefore, it is likely that shortages of teachers
for grades 9 to 12 will exist in certain localities and in certain
subject fields despite the general oversupply.
Home economics teachers have continued in short supply since the
early 19U0’sj girls' physical education teachers are in demand; teachers
with library science training meet little competition} mathematics
and certain physical science teachers have little difficulty finding
openings. On the other hand, English and social science majors are
in excess supply in nearly all localities (see chart )•
The field
of men's physical education (second largest field of preparation in
195l) has been overcrowded for the past 3 years} however, competition
is already easing off, as many veterans return to the Armed Forces
or take defense jobs. A recent survey by the United States Office
of Education indicates that 18 percent of the male teachers are sub­
ject to military call either through Selective Service or through the
active Reserves. It may well be that all teaching fields staffed
primarily by men will have personnel shortages within the next few
years, as the defense program progresses*
Earnings
A chief factor affecting the supply of teaching personnel is
the salaries offered. Traditionally, teachers' salaries have been low,
especially at the elementary school level, considering the amount of
preparation required. However, teachers' salaries have moved steadily
upward in the last decade. Increases were generally small in the

bj

See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 972, Employment Outlook
for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers.




7

MORE THAN A THIRD OF ALL STUDENTS PREPARED FOR
HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING IN 1950-51 WERE IN THREE
ALREADY CROWDED SUBJECT FIELDS

Source: NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




"TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THE
UNITED STATES” BY RAY C. MAUL.

-

8

—

early war years, but beginning in 1943 the rise was more rapid. In
cities of 50,000 population or more, the increase in average salaries
from 1939 to 1949 totaled 62 percentj between 1945 and 1949 it was
40 percent. Elementary school teachers started at lower levels but
had a greater increase in average salary than secondary school
teachers. This was due, in part, to the widespread adoption of the
single-salary schedule, providing equal pay for equal preparation
regardless of grade level taught. Table 1 gives an index showing
average salary increases for the 10-year period ending 1949.
Salary indexes point to sharp differences in the rate of change
among the nine geographic regions into which the cities were classified.
Table 2 shows the greatest increases to be in the Southeast and
Southwest^ the smallest in the Middle Atlantic States.
Further increases in teachers' salaries have taken place since
1949. Median salaries of all classroom teachers were from 5 to 8
percent higher in 1950-51 than in 1948-49, depending on size of city.
Table 3 shows the median salaries paid classroom teachers at various
grade levels in 1950-51. Some evidence is available that points to
further increases for the 1951-52 school year.




Table 1.— Indexes of average salaries paid elementary and secondary
public school teachers in cities of 50,000 or more, l/
1939-4-9
/I939 = 100/
All cities of 50,000
or more
Year

Total

1939....
194-1....
194-3....
19A5....
19LI....
194-9....

l/
2/
3/

100
102
107
116
132
162

Ele­
men­
tary
teach­
ers 2/
100
103
108
116
131
163

Secon­
dary
teach­
ers 3/

100
101
107
115
133

160

Elementary and secondary
teachers in cities of —
500,000
or
more

100
101
105
109
126
14-8

250,000

100,000

50,000

4-99,999

24-9,999

99,999

100
102
111
121
135
173

100
102
109
123
138
176

100
103
109
121
138
176

Based on 194-0 Census classifications.
Includes kindergarten, regular, and atypical elementary school teachers.
Includes junior and senior high school teachers.

Sources

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "City Public
School Teachers:
Salary Trends, 1925-4-9", Wage Movements - Series 3,
Number 5* Available from the Bureau upon request.




10

Table 2.— Indexes of average salaries for public school teachers
in cities of 50,000 or more population, by region, 1/
1939-49

/L939 = 1007
Year
1939...
1941...
1943...
1945...
1947...
1949...

1/

New
England
100
102
108
115
126
160

Middle
Atlantic
100
101
104
107
123
139

Border
states
100
103
109
123
139
179

South­
east
100
103
113
137
159
201

Great
Lakes

Middle
west

100
101
110
124
138
177

100
101
109
118
138
175

South­
west
100
102
109
126
149
198

Moun­
tain

Pa­
cific

100
102
108
115
137
158

100
103
109
118
137
173

The 9 regions are composed as follows: New England— Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont; Middle Atlantic—
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania;
Border— Delaware, District of Columbia,
Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, Vest Virginia; Southeast— Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee;
Great
Lakes— Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin; Middle
Vest— Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota;
South­
west— Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas; Mountain— Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; and Pacific— California, Nevada,
Oregon, Washington.

Source:

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "City Public
School Teachers:
Salary Trends, 1925-49", Wage Movements - Series 3,
Number 5. Available from the Bureau upon request.




11 -

Table- 3.— Median salaries paid classroom teachers in city school
systems, 1950-51
Population of city
Level taught

10,000

5,000

2,500

500,000
and
over

499,999

99,999

29,999

9,999

4,999

Total - regular
classroom teachers...

#4,456

#3,595

$3,407

#3,150

#2,985

$2,831

Kindergarten............
Elementary school......
Junior high school.....
High school.............

4,029
4,172
4,501
4,947

3,409
3,395
3,719
3,995

1/
^2,998
3,204
3,490

1/
^2,831
3,005
3,220

1/
•=2,683
2,903
3,067

1/

100,000
-

30,000
-

3,216
3,231
3,569
3,782

-

-

-

Includes kindergarten teachers.

Source:

National Education Association, Salaries and Salary Schedules of
City-School Employees, 1950-51. Research Bulletin, Vol. XXIX, No. 2,
April 1951.




- 12 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Studies of employment trends and opportunities in the various occu­
pations and professions are made available by the Occupational Outlook
Service of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
These reports are for use in the vocational guidance of veterans,
in assisting defense planners, in counseling young people in schools,
and in guiding others considering the choice of an occupation.
Schools
concerned with vocational training and employers and trade-unions inter­
ested in on-the-job training have also found the reports helpful in plan­
ning programs in line with prospective employment opportunities.
Two types of reports are issued, in addition to the Occupational
Outlook Handbook:
Occupational outlook bulletins describe the long-run outlook for
employment in each occupation and give information on earnings, working
conditions, and the training required.
Special reports are issued from time to time on such subjects as
the general employment outlook, trends in the various States, and occupa­
tional mobility.
The reports are issued as bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Employment Information on Major Occupations for use in Guidance
Bulletin 998 (1951 Revised edition). $3.00. Illus.
Includes brief reports on more than A00 occupations of interest in
vocational guidance, including professions; skilled trades; clerical,
sales, and service occupations; and the major types of farming. Each re­
port describes the employment trends and outlook, the training qualifica­
tions required, earnings, and working conditions. Introductory sections
summarize the major trends in population and employment, and in the broad
industrial and occupational groups, as background for an understanding of
the individual occupations.
The Handbook is designed for use in counseling, in classes or •units
on occupations, in the training of counselors, and as a general reference.
Its 600 pages are illustrated with 103 photographs and 85 charts.




- 13 Occupational Outlook Bulletins
Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupations, Part II —
Qualifications, Earnings, and Working Conditions
Bulletin 837-2 (194-6). 25 cents. Illus.

Duties,

Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations
Bulletin 880 (1946). 15 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Business Machine Servicemen
Bulletin 892 (1947). 15 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Machine Shop Occupations
Bulletin 895 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Printing Occupations
Bulletin 902 (1947). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in the Plastics Products Industry
Bulletin 929 (1948). 20 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Electric Light and Power Occupations
Bulletin 944 (1948). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Radio and Television Broadcasting Occupations
Bulletin 958 (1949). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Railroad Occupations
Bulletin 961 (1949). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in the Building Trades
Bulletin 967 (1949). 50 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook for Engineers
Bulletin 968 (1949). 50 cents.

Illus.

Employment Outlook for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers
Bulletin 972 (1949). 35 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Petroleum Production and Refining
Bulletin 994 (1950). 30 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in M e n 1s Tailored Clothing Industry
Bulletin 1010 (1951)* 25 cents. Illus.
Employment Outlook in Department Stores
Bulletin 1020 (1951). 20 cents. Illus.




- Hi Occupational Outlook Supplements

Effect of Defense Program on Employment Outlook in Engineering
(Supplement to Bulletin 968, Employment Outlook for
Engineers)
(1961)*
(in press).

Speoial Reports

Occupational Data for Counselors. A Handbook of Census Information
Seleoted for Use in Guidance
Bulletin 817 (1945). 15 oents (prepared jointly with the
Occupational Information and Guidance Service, U. S.
Office of Education).
Factors Affeoting Earnings in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Bulletin 881 (1946). 10 cents.
Occupational Outlook Information Series (By States)
VA Pamphlet 7-2 (1947). 10 oents eaoh.
(When ordering,
speoify State or States desired).
Employment, Education, and Earnings of Amerioan Men of Soienoe
(1951).
(In press).

Occupational Outlook Mulling List
Schools, vocational guidance agencies, and others who wish to
receive brief summaries of each new Occupational Outlook report
usually accompanied by a wall ohart, may be placed on a mailing list
kept for this purpose.
Requests should be addressed to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.,
specifying the Occupational Outlook Mailing List. Please give your
postal zone number.
F or sa le b y th e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , U . S. G o v e r n m e n t P r in tin g O ffice, W a s h in g to n 25, D . C .




U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1951 O — 964945

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P r ic e 15 c e n ts