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U3.3>2&3 i! ? TT G szr employment etohe for women *» I \ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR James P. Mitchell, Secretary z&3 Bulletin 263 no. WOMEN'S BUREAU Mis. Alice K. Leopold, Director WASHINGTON 25, D. C. unacc o^jpy T)\ r" '&m AY Grinnell College LIBRARY UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR James P. Mitchell, Secretary WOMEN’S BUREAU Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, Director Employment Opportunities for Women as SECRETARIES, STENOGRAPHERS, and as Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers Women’s Bureau Bulletin No. 263 U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1957 TYPISTS, For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office Washington 25, D. C. Price 20 cents Foreword Employment opportunities for women in various occupations and professions have long been a major subject of study by the Women’s Bureau. Since the Department of Labor inaugurated the Women’s Affairs Program in 1954, the Bureau has published reports on op portunities for women in beauty-service occupations, as professional engineers, accountants, mathematicians and statisticians, and on careers in the Federal Government. In addition, reports on a num ber of occupations of special interest to women have been pre pared by the Bureau for use in the Department’s 1957 Occupational Outlook Handbook. In the clerical occupations considered in this report, the over whelming majority of workers are women. Of every 20 secretaries, stenographers, and typists, 19 are women; of every 20 office-machine operators and cashiers, 16 are women. These are occupations in which shortages of well-qualified workers—particularly secretaries and stenographers have plagued the Nation’s business establish ments for more than a decade. In times of labor shortage, hiring standards are of necessity lowered with resultant waste and inefficiency. There is a pressing need in these fields to improve standards of training in shorthand, typing, and other clerical skills; to encourage more women with good educa tional backgrounds to obtain the necessary specialized training; and to promote greater employment opportunities for mature women and more adequate training programs, including those on the job. This report, addressed primarily to women students and their coun selors, should prove of value also to employers, schools, placement workers, and others interested in improving the skills of the Nation’s work force. The report was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Program Planning, Analysis, and Reports by Mildred S. Barber and Nora R. Tucker under the general direction of Stella P. Manor, Alice K. Leopold, Director, Women's Bureau Acknowledgments Photographs used in this report were furnished through the courtesy of the following: Bank of America (fig. 3-B); Burroughs Corporation (fig. 3-A); Methodist Board of Education (fig. 2). iv CONTENTS Introduction—The clerical field Part 1. Secretaries, stenographers, and typists_________ _______________ In offices everywhere The job outlook ___________ Some typical jobs______________________________________ __ _ The secretarial field__________ Stenographic wrork _ Typing jobs------------------------------------------------------------------------Qualifications and training Earnings and hours 15 Advantages of office work 17 Advancement_____ _ _____________ ______ Organizations Part 2. Office-machine operators and cashiers Some typical jobs_____ _________ __ ___________________ Office-machine operators 21 Cashiers _ ___ Qualifications and training____ _________________________________ Where employed 26 Earnings and working conditions 26 The job outlook _ For further reading v Page, 1 3 3 4 g g 9 10 ]2 jg 20 21 21 24 25 28 29 Introduction— the Clerica I Field The typewriter and other machines for store and office use have revolutionized office and recordkeeping work in business within a single lifetime. They perform feats of recording, copying, calculating, coding, and tabulating that could not possibly be done “by hand” in the same period of time. It is evident that today’s high economic and cultural levels could not have been reached—nor could they be maintained—without them. One result of the general use of typewriters, office machines, and cash registers is that entirely new and expanded areas of employ ment have opened up. Increasing numbers of girls and women have acquired the necessary skills and are working in offices, stores, and service industries throughout the country. Jobs in which shorthand and typing skills are basic requirements are discussed in part 1 of this report. Secretarial work, stenography, and typing, as well as various combination jobs and specializations, are included in this group. Jobs involving the operation of certain other types of office machines—such as bookkeeping, calculating, key punch, and tabulating machines—and the cashier’s job are covered in part 2. It is not within the scope of this report to cover all the occupations in which typing is useful. Many clerical jobs, not covered here, combine typing with other duties; for example, file clerks, general clerks, receptionists, and telephone or “switchboard” operators. In addition, typing skill is very useful, and to some degree necessary, in certain jobs outside the clerical field. In newspaper work, for example, reporters customarily type their own stories. College graduates often seek entry jobs in professional and administrative fields where, during their training for higher-level positions, they per form a variety of clerical duties which require the use of typewriters and other office machines. Secretarial work is often regarded by college women as a stepping stone to professional or administrative work—in a publishing house, advertising agency, or other business establishment. A survey of women graduated from college in June 1955, made by the Women’s Bureau in cooperation with the National Vocational Guidance As sociation, found that about 1 in 12 of the employed graduates held a secretarial or stenographic job. 1 Figure 1.—Clerks in insurance companies use a variety of office machines. 1 Secretaries, Stenographers, and Typists IN OFFICES EVERYWHERE Secretarial, stenographic, and typing jobs all belong to a group of occupations generally defined as office-work occupations. Office workers record data, file records, and perform other clerical work which facilitates business operations. They handle mail and cor respondence; they record sales, purchases, and inventories; they make up payrolls and maintain employee records; they collect, pay out, and keep account of money; and they may help in many other ac tivities relating to their employers’ business. How many women More women are employed as secretaries, stenographers, and typists than in any other work at these land of work—an estimated 2 million in 1957. jobs? These jobs are by far the most numerous in office work; they employ about one-third of all the women clerical workers in the country. Despite the very large number of women already working as secretaries, stenographers, and typists, the demand for additional women for these positions continues strong. Secretaries, stenographers, and typists are employed Where do wherever there are offices. Nearly nine-tenths of them they work? work in urban centers. Geographically, the Northeast and North Central regions account for about three-fifths of the total. The majority (almost 8 out of 10) work for private employers for a specified wage or salary; nearly 2 out of 10 are employed by Federal, State, and local governments; the remainder are either self-employed persons or unpaid family workers. 443163°—57- 3 ■2 4 Employment Opportunities for Women THE JOB OUTLOOK For a number of years—certainly more than a decade—unfilled job openings for secretaries and stenographers have been reported con sistently in most sections of the country. There have also been plenty of jobs for skilled typists. Private business schools and junior col leges report that they have requests for more graduates than they can supply. Private and public placement agencies also report large numbers of openings and few qualified applicants to fill them. The “help wanted” columns in newspapers throughout the country ad vertise many job offers for these workers; in some, the number of offers is greater than for any other type of work. Much concern has been expressed by both industry and Govern ment over the persistent shortage of stenographers and typists and the decreasing number of young persons taking secretarial training. In August 1955, the Women’s Bureau and the Bureau of Employment Security of the U. S. Department of Labor jointly sponsored a survey in 31 selected major metropolitan areas to determine the nature and extent of the shortages. It was found that “substantial and continued demand characterized the labor market for secretaries, stenographers, and typists.” From all indications, this demand will not be satis fied within the near future. For some time to come, employment will continue to rise because of anticipated further expansion of private business and Government activities at all levels—local, State, and National. Since turnover rates will probably remain high among young women in the field, there will be many job opportunities. Stenographers and secretaries will probably continue to have a wider choice of jobs than persons with only typing skills. Stenographic and typing positions generally offer steady employ ment. Unless there is a major decline in economic activity, these -workers are usually assured of jobs. The causes of the shortage of stenographers and typists Will the are rooted deeply in the social and economic conditions shortage that prevail. For a number of years, high levels of continue? economic activity and continued growth in the size and complexity of business operations have increased the amount of recordkeeping and correspondence. This has simultaneously created additional jobs in the stenographic and typing fields. At the same time, the number of persons available for these jobs has been reduced by several factors. The low birthrate of the 1930’s has resulted in a smaller labor supply for all occupations in the 1950’s. As a conse quence, fewer young women are available for stenographic and typing Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 5 careers Also, the recent trend toward earlier marriages and larger families has affected the supply situation. In 1940, for example, about 22 percent of all women 18 and 19 years old were married, whereas in 1956 some 29 percent were married. Similarly, in 1940 about 51 percent of the women 20 to 24 years of age were married, and in 1956, the proportion was 63 percent. Live births have risen from less than 20 per 1,000 population in the 1930’s and early 1940’s to 25 per 1,000 population. The effect has been to reduce still further the number of young women who enter the labor market and con tinue to work for an extended period of time. Another limitation affecting the supply is the decreasing number of students taking commercial courses in high school with the intention of working as typists and stenographers. In Washington, D. C., high schools, for example, about 3,200 students studied shorthand in 1940; in 1954, only 1,000. This is a decline of almost 70 percent. Total high-school enrollments during this period dropped only 31 percent. Typing enrollments presented a similar picture. In 1940, there were 4,600 students enrolled in typing courses; in 1954, there were only 3,300. This decrease becomes especially significant when the continuing need of Federal Government agencies in Washington for secretaries, stenographers, and typists is considered. Clearly, the supply of young people trained in typing and stenog raphy is being affected not only by the relatively smaller numbers in the population available for such training but also by the increasing numbers of girls and boys who are preparing to go to college. College enrollments of women have increased by more than 50 percent in the last 10 years, despite a decrease of 10 percent in the number of collegeage (18 to 24) women in the population. In 1946, there were 661,000 women enrolled in college; in 1956, more than a million. Thus, secre tarial, stenographic, and typing jobs, as well as other clerical occupa tions, are receiving increasing competition from professional and semiprofessional fields which offer greater prestige and, possibly, higher income potential. High-school students preparing for college must follow a curriculum which qualifies them for college entrance. Customarily, this does not include typing and shorthand though some may take these courses in order to obtain short-term or part-time jobs or to use these skills in connection with college studies. There are shortages in professions in which women have tradi tionally found good employment opportunities, such as teaching, library and social work, and nursing and other health specialties, as well as in fields where men predominate. An increasing number of girls are going to college to prepare for careers in these occupations. 6 Employment Opportunities for Women In addition to competition from professional and semiprofessional fields, there is competition from factory and service jobs. The num ber of women in these jobs has increased by some 80 percent since 1940; the number under 35 years of age increased more than 20 per cent. High levels of consumer demand for goods and services, modernization of industrial plants and service facilities, and generally higher wage levels, have undoubtedly attracted many women workers who might otherwise have considered office work. Since office work ordinarily demands relatively high expenditures for personal appear ance and dress, many women may prefer factory or service work in which less emphasis is placed on personal appearance or where uni forms are substituted for the usual mode of dress. For women who are homemakers as well as workers, this may constitute a substantial cost differential in their clothing, personal care—and also in luncheon budgets. A high-school education is sufficient for most factory jobs and, for many, less may be acceptable. The initial wage may be higher than that for a beginning typist or stenographer, and, as mentioned above, work expenses may be lower and, therefore, white-collar work may not offer enough compensating prestige. Perhaps of greater significance than the diminishing Are present number of students in training for stenographic and training typing jobs is the fact that many who acquire such methods training do not meet employment standards. The adequate? Civil Service Commission reports that in 1956 only 36 percent of those who took the qualifying typist’s examination for work in Washington offices of the Federal Government passed the test. Inaccuracy was a major disqualifying factor. Several local public employment offices throughout the country also report that many applicants for stenographic and typing jobs are low in speed and accuracy, and that some employers who place job offers with the local offices have had to relax their entrance standards. In 1953, a few local offices testing shorthand applicants for jobs in private industry began to test at the rate of 60 words per minute, which is a relatively slow rate of speed. One area reports that 85 percent of applicants tested could not take dictation at 60 words per minute and that only 5 percent could achieve 80 words—formerly the lowest acceptable speed. This suggests some action on the part of both the women who are interested in securing these jobs and the employers who are badly in need of help. The women themselves, through their schools, coun selors, and communities, can make a genuine effort to obtain the kind Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 7 of training that meets higher-than-average standards and to take advantage of any special training offered in their fields. Employers, on the other hand, can meet the challenge by giving full support to recognized training facilities in the community and by providing for themselves a well-organized program of training on the job. There are numerous examples of situations in which an employer (or group of employers) has solved problems associated with a shortage of quali fied workers by introducing a well-planned training program. Some have used “vestibule” training—that is, training on the actual job but in a separate section away from the regular work areas; others have instituted planned programs for training in the customary job situation and surroundings; and others have paid for all or part of the cost of specialized training off the job. In every case, positive re sults have been reported. Can age ceilings !" spit° of tl,e increasing number of job openings ™r typists and stenographers and the reported be raised? shortage of qualified workers, hiring practices and preferences of employers (as well as preferences of jobseekers) continue to intensify the shortage. Age ceilings have tended to limit the employment of many available workers. Employer preferences for secretaries, stenographers, and typists in the 18- to 35-year old range arc responsible in part for the shortage, since women in these age groups available for careers are few in number. Employment opportunities for the more mature women workers have been, therefore, limited. Recently, however, there have been indications that age restrictions are beginning to lessen. To the extent that industry accepts older workers who are available, shortages of stenographic and typing workers in some areas may be partly alleviated. Together with training possibilities men tioned earlier, the elimination of artificial age barriers undoubtedly offers the greatest challenge and opportunity to employers to solve their problems in this skill area. Examples of successful programs of this type are numerous. (See Women’s Bureau Bulletin No. 248, “Older Women as Office Workers.”) What other measures 0ther sources of potential stenographic and would increase the typmg service, afe groups. In supply? several areas ol the country, local customs and attitudes have prevented or limited their employment in private industry. Preferences of the job applicant regarding the location of the job, duties, hours, and working conditions also tend to aggravate the 8 Employment Opportunities for Women shortage for some employers. For example, even where job openings are plentiful, the applicant may be reluctant to take a job because of transportation problems. In the case of married women this is an important consideration. Where an individual applicant needs to take additional training in order to qualify for a beginning job as typist or stenographer, the cost may seem too high relative to the beginning salary and she may, therefore, decide to take a job which requires no previous training. Some firms have met this problem by offering to share the cost of business-school training if the worker remains on the job for a stated period of time. SOME TYPICAL JOBS The Secretarial Field The key occupation in this group is that of secretary. The secretary attends to such matters as correspondence and records of a private or confidential character. Frequently, she has a minor executive status and serves as the representative of her employer. She relieves him of many detailed and routine duties. She may be called upon to super vise the work of other clerical employees. Every office has certain methods and requirements of its own with which a competent secretary must be completely familiar. She “learns the business,” so to speak, fi'om the executives with whom she works. The secretary must be skilled at typing and taking dictation and must have a thorough knowledge of grammar, spelling, and punctua tion since much of her work consists of correspondence. Many secretaries use shorthand or voice-recording machines instead of taking dictation “by hand.” Some secretaries also compose replies to letters for their employers. The experienced secretary is expected to understand her employer’s policies and procedures and to acquire a detailed knowledge of the records maintained and used in her own office. In a large office, the actual filing and maintenance of records is usually delegated to others, often under the supervision of the secretary. It is frequently ad vantageous for a secretary to have some acquaintance with various types of office machines, such as adding machines, calculators, and duplicating machines, although she may seldom be expected to operate them. The degree of skill, knowledge, and experience required and the amount of responsibility involved in a specific job depends, to a large extent, upon the relative rank of the executive for whom a secretary works. For example, the secretary-stenographer usually performs Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 9 secretarial duties for one or more junior executives. She may take dictation, type, keep records, and perform other routine office work that does not involve a great deal of responsibility. The junior secre tary usually performs the same kind of duties for executives at the next higher level. She may also be responsible for the flow of clerical work in the office, interviews, arranging appointments, and routine correspondence. The private or senior secretary’s duties are usually performed for a key executive. Consequently, she occupies a posi tion of greater responsibility and has more varied work assignments than the secretary-stenographer or junior secretary. She customarily performs a number of assignments on her own initiative. Secretaries with a special interest in a particular profession or field of activity such as medicine, law, education, or politics, can usually find opportunities in these fields. Previous experience in the field or certain specialized training may be required, however. Stenographic Work A stenographer must be skilled in shorthand, transcription of notes, and typing. Stenographers who take and transcribe dictation of a routine nature are sometimes called junior stenographers. They are expected to have a general knowledge of the employer’s business practices, and to be able to use general business terms and expressions correctly. Usually they work under relatively close supervision. A stenographer who knows her employer’s specific policies and practices and who works under a minimum of supervision is usually called a senior stenographer. Competent and experienced senior stenographers are often chosen to fill secretarial jobs. In addition to taking dictation and transcribing notes, many stenographers compile and type reports, answer telephones, or operate a telephone switchboard. Some operate office machines, such as adding machines, calculators, and duplicators, or perform other clerical duties. These workers are usually called clerk-stenographers, and may be either junior or senior, depending on their experience and the amount of responsibility assigned to them. One of the lines of advancement for stenographers is through spe cialization in a field requiring a technical background and knowledge. Those who develop such a specialty are frequently called technical stenographers. Foreign language, legal, police, engineering, ad vertising, radio-script, public relations, and medical stenography are some of the fields in which many acquire specialized backgrounds. Public stenographers usually are self-employed; however, some work for firms that provide public stenographic services. Since most public stenographers serve a wide variety of business and professional 10 Employment Opportunities for Women people, they must know the terminology and practices of many types of businesses and professions. Those who specialize in a particular field, such as patents or law, have usually had many years of previous experience in the field. The court reporter is also a special kind of stenographer. In this work, great emphasis is placed upon speed and absolute accuracy. These workers record testimony, judicial opinion, and other pro ceedings in a court of law. They may use either shorthand or a short hand machine. Within the job field for stenographers, experienced shorthandmachine operators or stenotypists have a relatively high status in terms of salary and developed skills. A stenographer, secretary, or court reporter may use a shorthand machine in her work. Highly skilled operators are able to take dictation much faster with a machine than is usually possible by hand. Typing Jobs The typist makes copies of all kinds of written material and may cut stencils for the reproduction of much of this material. She may type material reproduced in sound on a recording machine. In addition to typing, she often performs a variety of other clerical duties, such as answering telephones, checking and proofreading copy, and filing. Each business has its own requirements and specialities, and the duties of a typist, as well as her job title, vary accordingly. In many cases she combines specified clerical duties with typing. Such workers are generally classified as clerk-typists, but their job title in a par ticular firm frequently identifies the forms or documents on which they work. Among some of the jobs of this type are address-change clerks, policy writers, and cancellation clerks in insurance offices; ticketing clerks and tabular typists in banks; record clerks in hotels and restaurants; and lithography typists in printing and publishing firms. A more complete list of these jobs and descriptions of the duties is given in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, published by the U. S. Department of Labor and available in most libraries. Junior, or class “B,” typists usually type fairly simple copy, such as routine forms from hand written or typed drafts which are rela tively clear. Senior, or class “A,” typists copy material in final form from “rough” or involved di'afts requiring ability to understand tech nical terms, abbreviations, and printer’s symbols and to rearrange or combine materials from various sources. They may have to plan how to type complicated statistical tables. Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 11 There are several specialized machines equipped with a keyboard similar to that of a typewriter. The typist who learns to operate such a machine, either through a special training course or on the job, can often increase her employment and advancement opportunities! Varitypists type materials for reproduction by various offset proc esses, using a machine with removable type faces of several different styles and sizes. A skilled varitypist designs layouts, plans compli cated forms and tables, and selects suitable type faces. Automatictypewriter operators use a machine that types copies of letters or other materials from a specially prepared perforated roll similar to a playerpiano roll. One operator may attend several automatic typewriters at the same time. Telegraph or teletype operators use a machine with a typewriter keyboard to send and receive messages to and from vari ous destinations. The operator may be required to code messages, names, addresses, or destinations, and count the number of words in the message, as well as to perform other clerical duties. Embossingmachine operators run a machine which automatically embosses names, addresses, code numbers, and similar information on metal plates for use in duplicating and addressing machines. Figure 2. Typing skills are basic to most clerical occupations. This picture shows a beginner’s hands on the typewriter keys. How can you tell that she is not an ex perienced typist? 443163°—57-------- 3 Employment Opportunities for Women 12 QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING Job requirements for secretaries, stenographers, and typists vary with the size and function of the office in which the job is located, the kind of industry, and the particular requirements of the individual employer. Employers frequently demand combinations of skills and backgrounds for specific jobs. For example, in hiring a typist, the employer may specify that she know, or be willing to learn, how to operate a switchboard, keep records of a certain kind, and operate a particular office machine or cash register—in addition to typing. Private secretaries are usually required to take care of certain personal matters for their employers, for example, a personal checking account, travel arrangements, and personal appointments of various kinds. mucfl Although employer specifications differ widely, there f n are some requirements which are almost universal. ‘ n eded? ^1C basic educational requirement is high-school graduis ne • ation. The job applicant should possess a good knowl edge of spelling, punctuation and grammar, particularly for steno graphic and secretarial positions. She should be able to read rapidly and to understand and remember what she reads. Additional training; beyond high school is helpful and may be specified for certain types of positions, such as legal or medical stenographer or secretary. College training may be required where the job is clearly designated as a “stepping stone” or trainee position for a higher-level professional or administrative position. Business-administration and liberal-arts graduates with typing and stenographic skills have a distinct ad vantage over most other applicants for positions as stenographers and secretaries. The great majority of women employed as secretaries, stenographers, and typists in 1950 were high-school graduates. Sixty-three percent had completed 4 years of high school; and another 24 percent had at least 1 year of education beyond high school, as the following table shows: . Educational level All educational levels: College: 4 years or more 1 to 3 years 18 High school: 4 years or more 63 1 to 3 years------------------------------Eighth grade or less--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Percent distribution 100 ------6 9 4 Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 13 Even for a beginning job as typist or clerk-typist, high-school graduation is preferred, and increasingly it is becoming a requirement of many firms. Because of the shortage, however, applicants 16 to 18 years of age who have completed 2 or more years of high school and can type 40 to 50 words a minute are accepted for some typing jobs. But their opportunities for advancement are very limited unless they succeed in adding to their formal education after working hours. How many words skill is required for all these positions. per minute? For secretaries and stenographers, speed and accuracy in taking dictation and transcribing notes are also expected. Most employers have their own speed standards for dictation, transcription, and typing; some standards are higher than average; others, lower. The following tables indicate some average working speeds acceptable to many employers: Acceptable working speeds for secretaries and stenographers Words per minute Occupation Dictation Beginning stenographer_________ Senior stenographer and secretary. Court reporter_________________ 80-100 100-140 150 or more Transcription Typing 25-35 35-40 55-65 40-50 50-60 70-80 Typists are not required to know shorthand, but they must have the ability to type rapidly and accurately. An indication of average typing speeds generally acceptable for specific typing occupations is as follows: Minimum typing speeds generally acceptable for typists Words Occupation minute Clerk typist---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40-50 General typist-------------------------------------------------------------------------------49-55 Technical typist ________________________________ _______ _ 50-65 Dictating machine typist. _ 45-65 Teletypist-------------------------------------------------------------------------- ■40-60 Varitypist___________________ 40-50 Where can specialized ^ourses typinS> shorthand, and office training be obtained? P™ctlf and Procedure are now being offered in most large high schools and a considerable number of smaller ones, as well as in private business schools and in some colleges. Such courses, together with English and other required courses, provide the basic skills and knowledge needed by the prospective workers in this field. Business arithmetic, business law, bookkeeping, and training in the operation of various 14 Employment Opportunities for Women business machines are also helpful and can be important “stepping stones” to more responsible positions in firms where such skills are widely used. Training above the high-school level is needed for many stenographic positions and may be required as a substitute for ex perience in secretarial positions. Some secretaries find that special courses in the principles of business administration, also home study of books and publications about the industry in which they wish to work, are very valuable in helping them to understand the employer’s business. Many legal secretaries either have some legal training or have taken special courses to acquaint themselves with legal practices and ter minology. The medical secretary must be thoroughly familiar with medical terms. Junior colleges and some private schools offer spe cialized courses in medical secretaryship, including training in simple laboratory techniques. Some offer elementary courses in anatomy and physiology, first aid, and psychology. . Aptitude and interest tests can be very helpful in a ° f1" evaluating the skills, potential capacity, and posqua i ca *ons sjj^e interests of a person who is planning to pursue a are needed. particular career, such as that of secretary, stenog rapher, or typist. Available on request at many local public em ployment offices are aptitude tests for clerical occupations as well as proficiency tests in typing, stenography, and spelling. The results of these tests, as interpreted by the public employment service counselor, may be used by both the applicant and her school ad visers. These tests are given without charge, as a public service. For most types of office work, manual and finger dexterity and good vision are essential. A number of business organizations and Gov ernment agencies require that applicants pass a proficiency test before they can be hired. Many also require a routine physical ex amination, which is usually made by the company physician or through arrangements with private or public health physicians. Stenographic and typing workers must be able to maintain a sitting position for long periods of time and to use eyes, hands, and fingers constantly. A physical handicap need not be a barrier to employment, however, so long as the handicap does not interfere with job performance. The work is not strenuous. Promptness, neatness, a pleasant and friendly manner, and an attractive personal appearance, particularly where meeting the public is involved, arc usually specified as desirable for all office workers. For responsible secretarial positions, discretion, good judgment, initiative, and ability to make decisions are important. Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 15 “Want-ad” sections of newspapers repeatedly request secretaries, stenographers, and typists who are “attractive,” “personable,” “pleasant,” and “able to get along with others.” One of the specifica tions most frequently included in employer requirements is a limita tion on maximum age. A strong preference is expressed for younger workers. Many employers specify an age range of 18 to 35 years; others specify an upper age limit of 45 years. In 1950, the average (median) age of women working in these occupations was 25.8 years. This was 11 years below the average age reported for all women workers. EARNINGS AND HOURS How much do ^am‘n£s secretaries, stenographers, and typists Qfflce vary according to location, size, and type of business workers earn? in which the>T are employed, responsibility or skill ' level of the job, length of the workweek, and length of service and experience. Average salaries tend to conceal variations. For example, an ex perienced secretary in one organization may be receiving $65 per week and one in another organization with similar responsibilities may he getting $85. A survey of wages and related benefits for office workers in 17 metropolitan areas in 1956-57 was made by the Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics. Of all the occupations included, those of secretary, general stenographer, and typist (class B) had the largest numbers of women. Among women office workers, secretaries had the highest average weekly salaries in most areas, ranging from $65.50 in Memphis to $84 in Los Angeles. Weekly salaries of general stenographers were roughly $12 below those of secretaries, and class B typists earned on the average about $12 less than stenographers. Slightly more than half of the women office workers (all occupations, including office-machine operators) had a workweek of 40 hours. Most of the others worked somewhat less than 40 hours a week, typically about 87% hours. The wages reported here are the standard rates paid for a standard workweek. They do not include overtime pay; and they do not apply to part-time workers. The accompanying table indicates the general salary level of secre taries, stenographers, and typists in the 17 cities surveyed. Employment Opportunities for Women 16 Average weekly wage of secretaries, stenographers, and typists in 17 metropolitan areas during 1956-57 Typists Stenographers Metropolitan area Secretaries General $73. 00 72. 50 67. 50 76. 00 83. 00 83. 00 74. 00 74. 00 84. 00 65. 50 Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn __ 72. 00 82. 50 New York, N. Y_____ — 74. 00 Philadelphia, Pa _ 79. 00 Pittsburgh, Pa - ~ 77. 00 San Francisco-Oakland, Calif— 82. 50 Seattle, Wash----------------- - 77. 00 Birmingham, Ala -- Boston, Mass . . .. Buffalo, N. Y - ----Chicago, 111 _____ _ Cleveland, Ohio........ ........... Dallas, Tex _ _ . .. Kansas City, Mo -Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif__ Technical $61. 00 62. 50 $62. 00 58. 50 ______ 69. 50 64. 00 70. 00 78. 00 77. 50 68. 00 79. 00 64. 00 63. 00 72. 00 ______ 82. 00 56. 50 60. 50 79. 00 66. 50 70. 00 60. 50 65. 50 71. 00 65. 00 71. 00 69. 00 66. 50 69. 50 Source: U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Class A $56. 00 63. 00 55. 50 61. 50 67. 50 68. 50 56. 50 66. 00 69. 00 55. 50 56. 00 64. 50 58. 00 61. 00 62. 50 66. 00 62. 00 Class B $48. 50 51. 00 48. 50 52. 50 58. 50 57. 00 49. 00 51. 50 59. 00 45. 50 50. 50 56. 50 49. 50 52. 00 54. 50 57. 00 51. 50 Bull. 1202 Series—Individual areas. Salaries for white-collar workers in the Federal Government are established for specified grades, each higher grade denoting a more advanced level of skill or responsibility. Each grade has a salary range, and each employee is given periodic increases until the top salary for the grade is reached. Most clerical workers enter Government service through examina tion at the grade 2 or 3 level. There are, however, a few clerical workers employed at grade 1. At the present time, beginning and top salaries of the first 6 grades are as follows: Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Annual salary $2,690 to $2,960 to $3,176 to $3,415 to $3,670 to $4,080 to $3,200 $3,470 $3,685 $3,925 $4,480 $4,890 Most secretarial workers are working at grades higher than the entrance grades. In August 1954, nine-tenths of the 22,783 women employed as secretaries by Government agencies were in grades 4, 5, and 6. Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 17 The majority of women stenographers and clerk-stenographers in the Government also are working in grades higher than the entrance grades. In 1954, 9 out of every 10 of the 3,555 stenographers, and nearly all of the 46,349 clerk-stenographers were in grades 3 and 4. Of the 77,368 women employed as clerk-typists in 1954, about two-thirds were in grade 3, and most of the others were in grade 2. About 9 out of 10 typists (junior typists) were in grade 2 jobs, but the majority of the specialty typists, such as varitypists and telegraphictypewriter operators, were employed in grade 3 positions. Highly qualified secretaries who have many years of experience in the work of a particular office or agency of the Government may be able to advance to administrative assistant positions above the top grade indicated on page 16. ADVANTAGES OF OFFICE WORK The chances of steady jobs for stenographic and typing workers are generally good. Unless some major business decline occurs and per sons of relatively high educational attainment combined with office skills begin to compete for available office jobs, these workers are usually assured of employment. This is particularly true when they possess stenographic as well as typing skills and experience. In addition to the regularity of employment, office work is rela tively free from hazards, and job surroundings are likely to be pleasant. Some secretaries and stenographers have private offices or share an office with one or two persons. What about ^wo wee^s’ Paid vacation each year, regardless of vacations? length of service, is the usual practice in private in dustry. A few firms specify 1 week’s vacation after the first year of employment and 2 weeks after the second and suc cessive years; and a few grant 3 weeks. Vacations can usually be taken whenever the employee desires, provided that the office can spare her services at the time. Vacation leave for Federal office workers is divided into three categories according to length of em ployment. For workers with less than 3 years of full-time employ ment, 13 days of annual leave is the general rule. Twenty days per year is allowed with 3 years but less than 15 years of service and 26 days to those with 15 years or more of service. Annual leave in the Federal Government is used to cover not only vacations but all authorized absence from the job except for illness. 18 Employment Opportunities for Women Sick-leave plans vary with the employer. Some employers in private industry grant sick leave with pay, but each has his own regu lations as to the number of days allowed. A uniform sick-leave plan is in effect in the Federal Government. Each employee is entitled to 13 days per year, with unused sick leave carried over from year to year. Office workers generally receive several holidays with pay. The actual number and specific type of holiday depend upon the location and the employer. National holidays are almost always granted, and some workers are given State and local holidays as well. A substantial number of employers provide group . a a °l* life insurance of some type for their office workers. insurance/ T some instances, the premium is paid nby ,, em . . ,, ■ ■ •, In the ployer; in others, it is shared by employee and employer; and in still others, the entire premium is paid by the employee. Coverage may be provided through life, sickness, accident, or hospitalization insurance. Retirement or pension plans are also becoming customary in private industry. In 1956-57, from 61 to 85 percent of all office workers in 17 major metropolitan areas were employed in businesses which pro vided a retirement or pension plan in addition to coverage under oldage and survivors insurance. In the Federal Government, all workers appointed to a permanent job share in a retirement plan. What other Stenographic and typing occupations offer many ad vantages. Several of these have been indicated in the U ,,<fhcre’S Prcc(;ding sections. Clerical work is usually clean, indoors, and relatively nonhazardous; it offers con tinuous employment, regular hours, paid vacations and holidays, and opportunities for advancement to higher positions and higher salaries. On the other hand, the work may be too confining to suit an athletic or outdoor type person. Although some of the work may be diversi fied, there is a substantial amount of routine and repetitive work. Except in the more responsible secretarial jobs, opportunities for using one’s own initiative or doing creative work are likely to be very limited. Office work has many attractions for the girl planning to work a few years before marrying. First, the training period required for em ployment is not a lengthy one. Many persons with a comparatively short training period have become skilled typists and stenographers. This may be significant to young women who do not plan to attend college directly after high school. Second, jobs are usually available in all sections of the country, and qualified workers have excellent Secretaries, Stenographers, Typists 19 chances of obtaining employment in practically any community or industry. In addition, these occupations offer good avenues for meeting people, both occupationally and socially. ADVANCEMENT Persons working in stenographic and secretarial occupations have opportunities for advancement to responsible positions both within and outside the clerical field. Many of today’s successful business women started their careers as secretaries, stenographers, or typists. What are the Wit^n the clerical field, the promotional path for possibilities a general secretary can lead to a more responsible for promotion? J°b as a Private or personal secretary. It may also lead to such positions as office manager, ad ministrative assistant, or a highly specialized clerk. In many cases, advancement comes in terms of more responsibilities and higher salaries without any change in job title. The positions outside the clerical field to which a woman, starting as a secretary, may advance depend on the knowledge she acquires, and her ability and efficiency, as well as on the policy of the firm. It is interesting to note that a well-traveled road to many jobs in ad vertising, public relations, radio, television, and writing is the secre tarial route. In the field of industrial editing, for example, many women who write and edit publications for industrial and business organizations spend a large part of their working time performing secretarial duties. Especially ambitious secretaries often continue their education by taking evening courses in nearby colleges and studying published materials in their special field of interest. A general stenographer may advance to such positions as technical stenographer, secretary, or administrative assistant. Many stenog raphers become office supervisors or operators of shorthand and other special office machines. There is generally a high degree of transferability in typing occupa tions since they all involve the use of standard, electric, or special machines equipped with a keyboard. Junior typists can advance to positions as technical typists or as operators of specialty typewriters. When a typist has mastered shorthand, she can be promoted to the position of a stenographer. Many typists have also become highly skilled in the operation of various office machines, such as bookkeeping and billing machines. The typist who takes advantage of oppor tunities to learn both on and off the job often finds the way to a better job and a higher salary. 20 Employment Opportunities for Women ORGANIZATIONS There are several professional associations in this field. The largest is the National Secretaries Association, which has been organized for about 15 years. A major purpose of this organization is to elevate standards in the secretarial field. To this end, it has developed an examination for certified professional secretaries sponsored by the Institute for Certifying Secretaries. The association aims to define more clearly the status of the secretary in the business structure, to establish high educational standards and, thereby, to gain recogni tion for secretaries as professional workers. At present, the organiza tion has about 17,000 members. The National Shorthand Reporters Association, with over 2,000 members, is another outstanding professional organization. Many office workers, particularly among employees of large or ganizations but also in small firms, belong to one of the labor unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO. In private industry, many are mem bers of the Office Employees’ International Union, which reports a membership of more than 50,000. Clerical workers in the Federal Government may join the American Federation of Government Em ployees or other unions; and in State, county, and local government, the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees. Clerical workers in the post offices have access to several large unions for postal workers. In addition, some office workers are members of the union that bargains for production, sales, service, or other non office employees of their firm. Still others belong to independent organizations which represent only the workers in a single establishment and are not affiliated with a national union. 2 Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers The specialized machines used in business today make possible the smooth and efficient recording and processing of a tremendous amount of information and data. These machines—calculators, bookkeeping machines, tabulators, cash registers, key-punch machines, duplicators, and others—save an incalculable amount of time in office and trade activities. The number of women office-machine operators and cashiers far exceeds the number of men; more than 4 out of 5 are women. Women doing this work in 1950 numbered close to one-third million. SOME TYPICAL JOBS Office-Machine Operators One of the specialty machines used widely in offices is the billing machine, on which statements, bills, and invoices are prepared. Billing machines may bo of the computing or the noncomputing type. The operator of a computer-type billing machine transcribes from office records the customer’s name, address, and items purchased or services rendered, using keys similar to those of a typewriter. She calculates totals, net amounts, and discounts, and then enters the results on a bill, using a set of numbered keys. The operator of a noncomputing billing machine, sometimes called a fanfold operator, may use an adding machine or a calculating machine for computations. Calculating machines are used to perform automatically the basic arithmetical computations of adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. They are also used for other mathematical computations which involve several combinations of the basic computations. They 21 22 Employment Opportunities for Women are especially useful in computing discounts, interest, percentages, indexes, and calculations involved in taking inventories. The calculating-machine operator must press numbered keys on a keyboard in a particular order and manipulate various other keys or levers in order to obtain the correct computations. She must acquire considerable operating skill and experience, as well as a high degree of accuracy, for her calculations cannot be veri fied except by repeating the entire operation or by special rechecking. Verification of computations is done by highly skilled and experienced operators. Calculating-machine operators have various job titles in different kinds of businesses, including calculation checker, comp tometer operator, extension clerk, final-and-delayed bill analysis clerk, balancing clerk, integrator operator, policy change calculator, rate analysis clerk, and subtraction clerk. The bookkeeping-machine operator calculates totals and net amounts and records them on an account record. She also records such in formation as name, address, items purchased or sold, and services rendered. The operator must adjust and set the machine carriage and manipulate the keyboard in order to record the desired informa tion. Bookkeeping-machine operators may be designated as I, II, III, or A, B, C—depending upon the complexity of the accounts and items on which they work, the amount of skill required, and super visory duties required of them. In some offices, bookkeeping-machine operators are required to know bookkeeping procedures. These operators are known by a variety of job titles; among them are account clerk, accounting-machine operator, bookkeeper, poster, postingmachine operator, and recording clerk. The duplicating machine is a familiar piece of equipment in most offices. These machines reproduce copies of material typed on stencils or imprinted on a gelatin surface. The duplicating-machine operator attaches the stencil to the cylinder, or rolling device, of the machine and places on the “feed” table the paper on which the printed matter is to be reproduced. She then makes adjustments for ink flow, paper-feed counter, and cylinder speed; and presses the levers or buttons that start and stop the machine. Duplicating-machine opera tors may be classified in several different categories, according to the complexity of the machine. Many operators are given the job title of the trade name of the machine. Certain office machines are used primarily by large firms that find it necessary to record and process a great deal of information. Such firms frequently use a number of different types of coding, sorting, and tabulating machines to record and compile information. The following machine operations are among those most commonly used. Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers 23 Key-punch machines are used to record information which has been coded for special cards. The machines, similar in operation and action to typewriters, punch a series of holes in the cards in a specified se quence. The operator places the card in the machine and sets the A.—Here, a bookkeeping ma chine of a type found in many industries is being used to make entries in a ledger. B.—This automatic bookkeep ing machine, which is suitable for large banking systems, can handle all bookkeeping de tails of 50,000 checking ac counts daily. Figure 3. These women operate bookkeeping machines. 24 Employment Opportunities for Women carriage for the perforating operation. She then depresses the cor rect symbols on the keyboard, thereby transcribing the information into perforations on the cards. Frequently, these cards go to a verifier operator who operates a key board-type machine that checks and verifies the accuracy of the in formation punched on the cards to make sure that the correct entries have been made. The verifier operator presses keys on a keyboard corresponding to the keyboard used when the card was originally punched. The verifying machine fails to operate when a key is pressed on an incorrectly punched card, that is, when the hole punched is not in the correct position. The operator, therefore, removes the incorrect card and makes a new card on the key-punch machine. Sorting machines are used to select automatically from a large group of cards certain ones of a desired series and classification, T-he sorting-machine operator places the cards in the feed box of the machine and sets the controls of the selecting device. She starts the machine, which feeds the cards past a selecting device, and then re moves the cards from the separate bins into which they fall. After the cards have been sorted, they go to the tabulating-machine operator, who places them in a machine that automatically translates the information represented by the holes in the cards and prints it on form sheets or other records. The operator sets or adjusts the machine to make the desired calculations and “print-out.” Cashiers The cashier’s job is a very familiar one to most people, since cashiers deal directly with the public in restaurants, hotels, theaters, grocery stores, and many other retail and service establishments, as well as in offices. The cashier uses a cash register to record by means of num bered and lettered keys and a recording tape, cash receipts and pay ments. She may record amounts due on accounts, balance the ac counts when payments arc made, make change, prepare bank deposits, and perform a variety of related duties. In doing some of this work, she may use an adding machine, calculator, or other office machine. Some cashiers are responsible only for recording on the machine tape the prices of items selected by a customer, totaling these prices by machine, receiving payment, making change, and balancing out the receipts and items listed at the end of the day. Others, however, may be responsible for the receipts and payments of a number of other cashiers, or for preparing payrolls, or keeping accounts. Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers 25 Many cashiers who work in retail stores are members of the Retail Clerks International Association or the Retail, Wholesale and De partment Store Union. These unions are affiliated with the AFL-CIO and include some office workers, as well as salespersons and cashiers. QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING Office-machine operators and cashiers are required to be able to operate their machines with a high degree of speed and accuracy. Cashiers must also be able to make change rapidly and correctly, and some may be required to have a knowledge of bookkeeping. Training in the operation of various business machines, including cash registers, is given in many high schools and private business schools and busi ness colleges. Some firms train their own workers on the job and pay them a trainee’s rate until they reach a certain level of proficiency. The training time required for these jobs varies from a short demon stration and practice period on the job to as much as one or two years in school, depending upon whether the worker needs to know only the routine operation of the machine or whether greater responsi bilities are involved. This is particularly true for bookkeepingmachine operator and cashier jobs which involve payroll or special accounts work and require a good knowledge of bookkeeping pro cedures and practices. Beginner jobs for operators of sorting machines, duplicating ma chines, bookkeeping machines, and for cashiers (for example, grocery checkers) can be learned on the job through a short demonstration and practice period up to about 30 days. Where the job involves more than the routine operation of the machine, however, the training time may run as long as 3 to 6 months. Calculating-machine or comptometer operators average 30 days to 3 months of training time, while operators of billing machines, key punch machines, tabulating machines, and verifiers average 3 to 6 months of training. Accuracy is extremely important in this work, particularly for cashiers who frequently handle large amounts of cash. Hand and finger dexterity is a requirement for all operators of business machines. For most of these jobs persons with a high-school education are pre ferred. Cashiers, computing-machine, and key-punch operators may be required to be high-school graduates. In addition, cashiers and operators of bookkeeping machines and computing machines must be good at numbers. Typing ability is helpful in operating most of these machines. Good vision is needed for some types of machines. A memory for details is another important asset and, es 26 Employment Opportunities for Women pecially in the case of cashiers who must be “bonded” (insured against theft), honesty is a prime requirement. In cooperation with business firms, some manufacturers of special ized business machines provide training courses in the operation of their particular machines. After a specified training period, the trainee usually receives a certificate which indicates that she has satisfactorily completed the course. WHERE EMPLOYED Office-machine operators and cashiers are employed in almost every industry. Some 30 percent of 117,000 office-machine operators in 1950 were employed by manufacturing industries, the largest numbers being in firms manufacturing electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies and motor vehicles and equipment. These two industries together employed more than 5 percent of the group. Wholesale and retail trade firms employed more than 20 percent of the total. General merchandise and department stores alone employed about 5 percent of the total, and wholesale food firms were next in impor tance. Finance, insurance, and real estate employed almost 15 per cent of all office-machine operators, with some 5 percent in banking and credit agencies and more than 5 percent in insurance companies. Federal, State, and local governments employed just over 10 percent of the total. The majority of cashiers—more than 60 percent of the 184,000 re ported in 1950—were employed in retail trade. The largest numbers were working in food stores (more than 20 percent of the total); restaurants and other eating and drinking places (over 10 percent); general merchandise and department stores (over 10 percent); and clothing and drug stores. Additional large numbers were employed by theaters and motion-picture houses (10 percent of the total), and by hotels and lodging houses, insurance companies, and banking and credit agencies. EARNINGS AND WORKING CONDITIONS Many of the working conditions described for secretaries, stenog raphers, and typists also apply to office-machine operators and cashiers. However, some office-machine operators, and also some typists, work in large rooms where many machines are in use. Unless the ceilings and walls are soundproofed, the noise of the machines may make it difficult to talk or to hear what others say. Cashiers Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers 27 may work in the box-office of a theater, in a restaurant, or in a grocery or other retail store where the surroundings are quite different from an office. For some jobs, they may have to work at night or may have to be on their feet most of the time. Since opportunities for employ ment exist in a wide variety of industries, a competent worker may be able to choose the kind of job surroundings which best suit her. Many aspects of office work are the same for all employees, and girls interested in becoming office-machine operators or cashiers will want to look through part 1, especially the section on “Advantages of Office Work.” This section contains information they will want to have about the usual office practices with regard to working hours, holidays, vacations, sick leave, and health and insurance plans. Average wages of office-machine operators are reported by the De partment of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics in the same report that covers secretaries, stenographers, and typists. In any city, beginning pay rates would be lower, and top rates would be higher, than the average. Moreover, the figures are for a standard work week (usually 37K to 40 hours) and do not include any overtime pay. The average wages of women operators of eight different kinds of office machines are provided in the following table. Average weekly wage of women in selected office-machine occupations, in 1 7 metropolitan areas during 1956-57 Billers, machine Bookkeeping machine operators Metropolitan area Billing machine Atlanta, Ga............. Birmingham, Ala.-Boston, Mass. Buffalo, N. Y____ Chicago, 111 _ ___ Cleveland, Ohio_ _ Dallas, Tex Kansas City, Mo... Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif Memphis, Tenn___ Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn____ New York, N. Y Philadelphia, Pa_ _ Pittsburgh, Pa____ Portland, Oreg____ San FranciscoOakland, Calif__ Seattle, Wash.......... Book keeping machine $56.00 54.00 56. 00 58. 50 65.00 61.50 55.50 58.50 $54.00 53.00 48. 50 53.00 64.50 67.00 54.00 65.00 51.00 Dupli cating opera tors (mimeo graph . or ditto) Class A Class B $62.00 67.00 61.00 65.00 77.00 74.50 63.50 66.00 $56.00 51.00 52.50 51.50 65.00 59.50 54.00 56. 00 $59. 00 54.00 54.00 57.00 68. 50 66.00 58.50 62. 50 $51. 50 50. 50 49. 50 52.50 60.50 59.50 70.00 44.50 79.00 62. 00 60. 00 51. 50 72. 50 52. 50 55.50 64.00 57.50 57.00 57.50 58.50 65.00 56.00 55. 50 59.00 66. 50 71.50 64. 00 68. 50 75.00 55. 50 61.00 53. 50 53. 00 55. 50 70.00 59. 50 63. 50 65. 50 76. 00 68. 50 60. 00 57.00 Source: U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Comp tometer opera tors Key punch opera tors Tabu lating machine opera tors $56. 00 59. 00 54. 50 59.00 67. 00 66.00 55.00 60. 50 $59.00 63. 50 61.00 70.00 74.00 74.50 66.00 70.00 63. 50 71.50 57.00 82. 00 67. 50 59.50 66. 00 58. 50 62. 00 63. 50 56. 50 58.00 52. 50 52. 50 55. 50 54.50 61.00 58. 50 61.00 64. 50 62. 50 71.00 64.00 76. 00 73.00 69. 00 64. 50 62. 50 53. 50 65. 50 62.00 76.50 67.50 53.00 Bull. 1202 Series—Individual areas. 28 Employment Opportunities for Women Office-machine operators usually enter Government employment at the grade 2 level, which has a starting rate of $2,960 a year. However, a study recently published by the Women’s Bureau, entitled Govern ment Careers for Women, shows that in 1954 three out of five women employed by the Federal Government as office-machine operators had advanced to grade 3 or 4, or even higher. The salary range for grade 2 is $2,960 to $3,470 per year, and that for grade 4 is $3,415 to $3,925 per year. The woman supervisor of a large office-machine section may advance to grade 7, which currently pays $4,525 to $5,335 per year. Some supervisors of office-machine operators reach even higher grades. THE JOB OUTLOOK Employment opportunities for both office-machine operators and cashiers are expected to continue good during the remainder of the 1950’s and perhaps longer. The tremendous growth in the size and complexity of business firms, increased Government activity, and anticipated continued expansion of trade and service industries, to gether with the exceptionally high employee turnover typical of this field, will provide large numbers of job openings. In addition, a number of new jobs for cashiers will be created by greater use of self service systems in retail trade. In part because of the current shortage of available workers for these jobs, a number of banks, insurance companies, and other firms have hired part-time workers and people in the older-age groups. Barring a significant change in the employment situation, additional firms can be expected to follow these practices. The introduction of new office equipment, especially electronic data processing machines, will in time no doubt create a greater need for persons capable of performing more skilled jobs and reduce the num ber of office-machine operators required to perform routine jobs. However, the cost of installing such machines is a significant factor in limiting their widespread use to very large organizations. Smaller firms may be expected to continue and expand their use of less com plicated and expensive office machines, thereby increasing the need for office-machine operators. Office-Machine Operators and Cashiers 29 For Further Reading Persons interested in the occupations covered in this report, or in other kinds of clerical or office work, will want to consult a number of additional reports in this field. Listed below are some publications which provide a great deal of information about various kinds of office work. Most of them are available in public libraries. Publi cations of U. S. Government agencies for which prices are shown can he purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Govern ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Secretarial Field Calling Professional Secretaries. National Secretaries Association, 222 West 11th Street, Kansas City 5, Mo. [Undated.] 11 pp. Careers for Specialized Secretaries, by Juvenal L. Angel. Latin American In stitute Press. 1950. 12 pp. 25(4. The Legal Secretary. Fact Sheet from the Job Department. Glamour Magazine. 1954. 5 pp. 100. The Medical Secretary. Fact Sheet from the Job Department. Glamour Maga zine, 1954. 4 pp. 100. Secretarial Work. High School Career Series, No. 4. Ladies Home Journal. 1948. 5 pp. Stenographers and Typists Help Wanted—Stenographers, Secretaries, Typists. Reprint from Employment Security Review, November 1955. Bureau of Employment Security, U. S. Department of Labor. 11 pp. (Free copies available from the Women’s Bureau.) Stenographic Occupations—Occupational Guide No. 27. Michigan Employ ment Security Commission, Employment Service Division, Detroit, Mich. Revised 1955. 24 pp. 250. Typing Occupations—Occupational Guide, Detroit area. Michigan Employ ment Security Commission, Unemployment Compensation Division, Detroit 2, Mich. 1949. 23 pp. 250. Office Occupations—General Office Occupations. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Guidance and Student Personnel Section. February 1956. 4 pp. Clerical Salary Survey. National Industrial Conference Board (460 Park Avenue, New York), Conference Board Reports. Studies in Labor Statistics, No. 18. 1957. 32 pp. $1.50. (Distribution of Conference Board Reports is generally limited to members and associates, but exception is made in the ease of schools, colleges, and government agencies.) Occupational Outlook Handbook: Employment information on major occupations for use in guidance. 1957 edition. U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1215. 697 pp. U. S. Government Printing Office, 30 Employment Opportunities for Women Washington, D. C., $4. Includes reports on the outlook in all major fields of work. Preprints of the report on “Secretaries, Stenographers, and Typists” are available free from the Women’s Bureau. Reprints of reports in other fields employing large numbers of clerical workers, such as “Department Stores and Their Workers,” “Insurance Occupations,” and “Banking Oc cupations,” will be available later. The Occupational Outlook. Published quarterly by the U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash ington, D. C., $1 per year; $0.30 per copy. See particularly Vol. I, No. 1 (Feb. 1957), which contains an article, “Employment Outlook for Clerical Occupations.” Employment Opportunities for Women in Professional Accounting. U. S. De partment of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Bulletin 258. 1955. 40 pp. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 200. “Older” Women as Office Workers. U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Bulletin 248. 1953. 64 pp. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 250. 1956 Handbook on Women Workers. U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Bulletin 261. 96 pp. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 350.