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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL M EEKER, Com m issioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
B U R EA U O F LA BO R S T A T IS T IC S ) *
W ORKM EN’S

IN S U R A N C E

AND

/WHOLE 0 1 7
’ \N U M B E R l
LY I

C O M P E N S A T IO N

S E R IE S :

N O.

11

EFFECT OF WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAWS
IN DIMINISHING THE NECESSITY OF INDUSTRIAL
EM PLOYM ENT OF W O M EN AND CHILDREN




B Y MARY K. C O N Y N G T O N

D E C E M B E R , 1917

W A S H IN G TO N
GO VE R N M EN T PR IN T IN G OFFICE
1918




A D D IT IO N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

15 CENTS P E R COPY
V

CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction and summary............................................................................................... 7-13
Purpose and scope of the investigation..................................................................
7-9
Number of cases studied............................................................................................
9
K illed and disabled workers..................................................................................... 9,10
Families of married m en............................................................................................ 10-12
Compensation received............................................................................................... 12,13
The investigation in Connecticut.................................................................................... 13-40
Terms of the Connecticut compensation law ........................................................ 13-15
Data concerning victim s and accidents................................................................. 15-21
Age of victim s....................................................................................................... 16,17
Marital condition..................................................................................................
17
Wages....................................................................................................................... 17,18
Industry and occupation.................................................................................... 18,19
Causes of accidents.............................................................................................. 19,20
Blood poisoning and infection.......................................................................... 20,21
21
Interval between accident and death............................................................
Condition of families before and after loss of injured wage earner................... 21-34
Families of married m en.................................................................................... 22-29
Economic importance of deceased to fam ily................................ ........
22
Insurance and death benefits........................................................... •._ 22, 23
_
Effect on income of decedent’s loss and of compensation................ 23-25
Condition of families whose awards were contested....... ................... 25,26
Methods of making up deficit in family incom e.................................. 26-28
Effect of decedent’s loss on ownership of property.................. ; ........28, 29
Families of single m en........................................................................................ 29,30
Cases of permanent total disability.................................................................
30
Cases in which there was no family group....................................................
31
Cases with nonresident dependents................................................................ 31,32
Cases dismissed, withdrawn, or settled by agreement...............................
32
Contested cases................................................................................................. 33,34
D etails concerning working of the compensation law ........................................ 34-40
D elay....................................................................................................................... 34-37
E xpense.................................................................................................................. 37,38
Uncertainty........................................................................................................... 38,39
Incidence of loss due to industrial fatalities................................................. 39,40
The investigation in Ohio.................................................................................................. 40-77
Terms of the Ohio compensation law ..................................................................... 40-43
Data concerning victim s and accidents................................................................. 43-52
Age of victim s....................................................................................................... 43,44
Marital condition.................................................................................................. 44,45
Wages......................................................................................................................
45
Industry and occupation.................................................................................... 46-^9




3

4

CONTENTS.

The investigation in Ohio—Concluded.
Data concerning victim s and accidents—Concluded.
Page.
Causes of accidents.............................................................................................. 49-51
Blood poisoning and infection..........................................................................
51
52
Interval between accident and death............................................................
Condition of families before and after loss of injured wage earner................ 52-68
Families of married m en.................................................................................... 53-63
Economic importance of deceased to fam ily........................................ 53, 54
Insurance and death benefits.................................................................... 54, 55
Effect on income of decedent’ loss and of compensation................ 55-58
Condition of families whose awards were contested........................... 58, 59
Methods of making up deficit in family incom e.................................. 59-63
Taking children from school to work.............................................. 59, 60
Moving into cheaper quarters...........................................................
60
Gainful employment of widows....................................................... 60, 61
Other methods...................................................................................... 61-63
Effect of d ecedent’s loss on ownership of property.............................
63
Families of remarried widows........................................................................... 63, 64
Families of single m en........................................................................................ 64, 65
Cases of permanent total disability................................................................. 65, 66
Cases in which there was no family group....................................................
66
Unvisited cases................................................................................................. ... 66, 67
Cases dismissed or withdrawn........................................................................... 67, 68
Contested cases.....................................................................................................
68
Details concerning working of the compensation law ........................................ 68-77
D elay....................................................................................................................... 68-70
Expense.................................................................................................................. 70, 71
Uncertainty............................................................................................................ 71-73
Incidence of loss due to industrial fatalities................................................. 73-75
Commutation of awards...................................................................................... 75-77
The investigation in Pennsylvania................................................................................ 77-105
Data concerning victim s and accidents................................................................. 78-84
Age, marital condition, and wages of victim s.............................................. 79, 80
Industry'and occupation.................................................................................... 80, 81
Causes of accidents.............................................................................................. 82, 83
Blood poisoning and infection..........................................................................
83
Interval between accident and death............................................................ 83, 84
Condition of families before and after loss of injured wage earner............... 84-102
Fam ilies of married m en.................................................................................... 85-97
Economic importance of deceased to fam ily........................................
85
Insurance and death benefits................................................................... 85, 86
Effect on income of decedent’s loss........................................................ 87-92
Methods of making up deficit in family incom e.................................. 92-97
Taking children from school to work..............................................
92
Moving into cheaper quarters...........................................................
93
Gainful employment of widows....................................................... 93-95
Breaking up families, and combining fam ilies............................ 95, 96
Charitable relief.................................................................................... 96, 97
Effect of the death of the wage earner on ownership of property..
97
Families of remarried widows........................................................................... 97, 98
Families of widowers........................................................................................... 98, 99
Families of single m en...................................................................................... 99-101
Cases in which there was no family group....................................................
101
U nvisited cases.......................... ................ ..................................................... 101,102




CONTENTS.

5

The investigation in Pennsylvania—Concluded.
Page.
Details concerning the working of the liability law ....................................... 102-105
Amounts received by families of victim s..................................................
102
Delay, expense, and uncertainty................................................................. 103,104
Incidence of loss due to industrial fatalities............................................. 104,105
Summary of condition of families under compensation and under liability
laws.................................................... : ............................................................................ 105-109
A ppendix............................................................................................................................ 110-170
General tables:
Table 1.—Age, marital condition, and occupation of injured wage earn­
ers, and details as to accidents and awards—C onnecticut.. 110-118
Table 2.—Condition, before and after the accident, of fam ilies of 69
wage earners killed or permanently disabled by industrial
accidents—Connecticut................................................................. 119-124
Table 3.—Age, marital condition, and occupation of injured wage earn­
ers, and details as to accidents and awards—Ohio.................125-136
Table 4.—Condition, before and after the accident, of fam ilies of 252
wage earners killed or permanently disabled by industrial
accidents—Ohio............................................................................... 137-151
Table 5.—Age, marital condition, and occupation of injured wage earn­
ers, and details as to accidents and awards—Pennsylvania. 152-161
Table 6.—Condition, before and after the accident, of fam ilies of 166
wage earners k illed or permanently disabled b y industrial
162-170
accidents—Pennsylvania........................................................ ..




This report was prepared under the supervision of Miss Mary
Conyngton, who also wrote all the text. The material was collected
and tabulated by Miss Elizabeth A. Hyde, Mrs. M. E. Patterson,
Miss Ida M. Peck, and Miss Frances W. Valentine.




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WHOLE NO. 217.

WASHINGTON.

DECEMBER, 1917.

EFFECT OF WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION LAWS IN DIMINISHING
THE NECESSITY OF INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND
CHILDREN.
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF TH E INVESTIGATION.

The present investigation was undertaken for the purpose of
throwing some light on the question of how, from the standpoint
of the women and children in the families of injured wage earners,
workmen’s compensation laws compare with employers’ liability
laws. How do the family fare under the workmen’s compensation
and insurance systems which are being so generally adopted? Do
they receive more in the way of compensation than under the older
system? Is it paid promptly and certainly? Does a compensa­
tion law lessen the number of cases in which widows or children
must go to work to make up for the loss of their chief wage earner ?
How do the people who are affected by the new laws regard them ?
And how do different types of compensation laws compare in effec­
tiveness ?
I t is only within recent years th a t such an investigation has
become possible. All of the State workmen’s compensation laws now
in operation were enacted subsequent to 1910; 10 years before th at
the agitation which has led to the adoption of such laws in nearly
two-thirds of our States had scarcely begun. The progress of com­
pensation legislation has been so rapid th a t although within six
years it has been adopted in 32 States there has as yet been no
detailed study of its workings. States having compensation laws
usually publish annual reports concerning their operations, which
vary all the way from mere tables of statistics to studies of the
good and bad features of the particular law under consideration.
Sometimes they give case data, showing the amounts received by
the families of the injured, or call attention to some particular point
of superiority of compensation over liability laws, or discuss adminstrative features. All these are m atters of interest and importance,




7

8

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AND CH ILD LABOR.

b u t there seems room in addition for a study of the effects upon
workingmen's families—and through them upon the community as
a whole—of compensation laws designed to protect the victims of
industrial accidents and their dependents.
For this purpose, two compensation States, Connecticut and Ohio,
were selected, these being chosen because in both States the laws had
been in operation long enough to provide a considerable body of
material, and because they present two distinctly different types of
compensation legislation. Connecticut has an elective compensation
system, Ohio a compulsory insurance system. In Connecticut the
employer m ust either insure his risks in a private company or
provide self-insurance; in Ohio, insurance in the State fund is re­
quired, though employers may be permitted to carry their own risks.
In Connecticut the law is administered by five commissioners, each
supreme in his own district; in Ohio by an industrial commission of
three members having jurisdiction throughout the State. There are
differences also in regard to the scale and amount of compensation
allowed, and provisions for alien nonresident dependents, in which
the two systems present an interesting contrast.
As it was impossible, owing to limitations of time and money, to
include all cases of injuries occurring in the course of employment,
the investigation was confined to industrial fatalities and cases of
permanent total disability. Copies were made from the official
records of data concerning all fatalities and permanent total disa­
bilities dealt with during the year ending September 1, 1915. The
families of the victims were then visited, whenever possible (in the
case of nonresident dependents visits were obviously impracticable),
and information was sought as to the condition of the family before
and after the accident, the economic effect of the wage earner's death
or disability, the extent to which compensation had made up for
the lost earnings, and the methods by which any deficit had been met.
Special attention was given to such points as whether it had been
necessary to take children from school and put them to work, whether
mothers had been obliged to take up work apart from their home
duties, whether property partly paid for had been lost, and whether
the family had found it necessary to seek help from relatives, or
apply for charity, or give up one or more children. In brief the
effort was made to discover the economic effects due to the accident,
ranging from a mere moderate lowering of the standard of living to
a complete disintegration of the family life.
The information thus gained gives a picture of what actually
happens under compensation laws, b u t it was felt th a t this would
be more decisive if coupled with corresponding data of actual condi­
tions in the families of injured workmen under employers' liability
laws. Accordingly the inquiry was made to include a noncom­




9

INTRODUCTION AND SUM M ARY.

pensation State, and Pennsylvania, which, up to January 1, 1916,
was under an employers’ liability law, was selected for study. I t
was impossible to cover the whole State within the time limits set,
so two groups of counties were selected, one on the western border of
the State, including the Pittsburgh district, and the other consisting
of two counties in the heart of the anthracite region. The Bureau of
Statistics and Inform ation a t Harrisburg was visited, and copies
made of data concerning all the industrial fatalities recorded there
as having occurred within the selected counties during a specified
period. Visits were then made to the families of the victims, and the
same inquiries made as in Connecticut and Ohio.
NUMBER OF CASES STUDIED.

In the two compensation States the period covered was the year
ending September 1, 1915; in Pennsylvania only cases occurring
during the first eight months of 1915 were included. From the three
States records were obtained of 862 fatalities and 15 cases of per­
manent total disability. By visits to the homes of victims who had
left resident dependents, family schedules were secured as follows:
T a b l e 1 . —N U M B E R

OF D E P E N D E N T FAM ILIES OF VICTIMS OF IN D U ST R IA L ACCI­
D E N T S IN C L U D E D IN INV E ST IG A TIO N .
Permanent total dis­
abilities.

Fatalities.

Total
families '
included.

Families
of married
men.

Families of
widowed,
divorced,
or sepa­
rated men.

Connecticut...................................
O hio...............................................
Pennsylvania...............................

53
206
137

1
7
7

12
33
22

3
4

2

60
252
166

T otal...................................

396

15

67

7

2

487

State.

Families
of single
men.

Families
of married
men.

Families
of single
men.

KILLED AND DISABLED WORKERS.

While the study is mainly devoted to the effect of industrial acci­
dents on workers7 families, some space is given to the victims of the
accidents. In 68 cases in Ohio and Connecticut the deaths were
held not to come within the scope of the compensation laws,
and these cases were omitted from consideration. As a group the
remaining 794 decedents seem to have been a fairly representative
body of workers. The conspicuously old and the conspicuously
young were alike exceptional, the majority (71.3 per cent) being
between 20 and 50, and 13.6 per cent more between 50 and 60.
Only four were women. Something over two-thirds (67.8 per cent)




10

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

of the decedents had been getting from $10 to $20 a week; 8.4 per
cent got under $10. Married men formed 71.4 per cent of the group,
single, 23 per cent, and widowed, divorced, or separated, 5.4 per
cent. In Connecticut and Ohio a larger number came from manu­
facturing industries than from any of the other large industrial
groups, but in Pennsylvania 73 per cent had been engaged in mining
or quarrying. This preponderance of miners was, of course, largely
due to the selection of districts made in Pennsylvania.
The accidents to which the deaths or disabilities were due ranged
all the way from a scratch which, becoming infected, caused death,
to a boiler explosion or a fall of coal. Falls, either of the person
injured or of something which struck or crushed the victim, accounted
for almost two-fifths of the total number of cases; machinery was
responsible for nearly one-sixth; and explosives, electricity, and the
like for about the same proportion. In 68.0 per cent of the fatal
cases death occurred on the day of the accident, in 15.5 per cent the
interval between accident and death was a t least one day b u t under
a week, and in, only 5.5 per cent was it four weeks or over. In this
respect the two compensation States present a decided contrast to
the liability State. In Connecticut 10.8 per cent of the 102 dece­
dents, and in Ohio 7.8 per cent of the 387 decedents lived for four
weeks or more after the accidents by which their deaths were caused,
while in Pennsylvania the interval between accident and death was
four weeks or more in only 0.98 per cent of the 305 cases studied.
This difference is partly due to the fact th a t the study covered mining
accidents primarily in Pennsylvania, while in Ohio and Connecticut
industrial accidents predominated. In fatal mining accidents death
as a rule is immediate, while industrial accidents frequently result in
blood poisoning and death does not occur until several weeks later.
I t is also possible th a t a part, a t least, of the difference is due to the
more careful following up of industrial accidents in compensation
States, where it is to the immediate interest of the worker, if he is
injured, or of his dependents, if he is killed, to see th a t his condition
is a m atter of record.
FAMILIES OF MARRIED MEN.

The main emphasis of the report is laid upon the effect produced
by industrial fatalities upon the families of the decedents, more
especially of the married decedents. More than four-fifths of the
family schedules obtained were for families of married men. In the
main, the families were such th a t the economic effect of the fatalities
would be severely felt. Of the 396 married decedents from whose
families schedules were secured 289 left a child or children under 18,
as well as a widow, and in 113 cases the family included from three to
seven children under 14. The decedent was usually the principal if




INTRODUCTION AN D SUM M ARY.

11

not the sole support of the family. In 283 cases (71 per cent) the
decedent was the only wage earner, and in 219 (55 per cent) his
earnings were the only income. The difference made in the average
weekly income by the loss of the decedent’s earnings, in the families
reporting on this fact, was as follows:
T a b l e 2.-—D ECREASE IN FAM ILY INCOME CAUSED B Y LOSS OF D E C E D E N T ’S E A R N IN G S.

Number of
families
reporting
income
before and
after
fatality.1

State.

Connecticut........................
Ohio.....................................
Pennsylvania.....................

47
196
120

Average
weekly
family
income
before loss
of dece­
dent’s
earnings.
$19.67
19.46
20.43

Average
weekly
family
income
after loss
of dece­
dent’s
earnings.
$6.05
5.42
6.33

i Families in which the widow had remarried are excluded from this table, but families which had com­
bined w ith other families for the sake of greater economy in living are included, the income given being
that of the combined families.

The income after the fatality is th a t which was reported a t the
time of the agents’ visits, compensation and charitable assistance
alike being omitted. The average membership of these families
after the fatality was in Ohio 3.2, in Connecticut 3.6, and in Penn­
sylvania 4.3.
An average income, however, indicates very little. A inore def­
inite idea of the economic effect of industrial fatalities is gained from
the number of families left with no income, or with one wholly
and obviously inadequate. There were 367 families of married
decedents in which the widow had not married again and from which
reports were secured as to the family income after the fatality.
.Table 3 shows the number and per cent of these having either no
cash income or one of less than $5 a week:
T able 3 . —FAM ILIES H A VING NO INCOME OR INCOME OF U N D E R $5 P E R W E E K .
[This table includes families whose income after, but not before, the fatality is reported, and also families
which had combined w ith relatives or in some other way given up their separate family existence. For
these two reasons the figures given here do not coincide w ith those used in other tables.]

State.

Number of
families
whose in­
come after
fatality
was re­
ported.

Families having no
cash income after
fatality.

Families having cash
income of less than $5
a week.

Number.

Number.

Per cent.

Per cent.

Connecticut..........................................................
Ohio.......................................................................
Pennsylvania......................................................

47
198
122

18
65
32

38.3
32.8
26.2

10
51
35

21.3
25.8
28.7

Total...........................................................

367

115

31.3

96

26.1

From a little more than one-fourth to nearly two-fifths of the
families in the several States were left with no regular income, while




12

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AND CH ILD LABOR.

the proportion having less than $5 a week varies from a little over
one-fifth to nearly three-tenths. To some extent this situation was
helped by the insurance carried by the decedent or by the benefits
paid by his union. Not all the families had such resources, however,
and the men with large families were most frequently the ones who
had either no insurance or only small amounts. In Connecticut 5, in
Ohio 26, and in Pennsylvania 7 of the families with no income were
left without insurance or death benefits of any kind. The average
amount received by the others was $543 in Connecticut and $409 in
Ohio, while in Pennsylvania 24 families received an average of $523
and the twenty-fifth family $12;600. Except in the case of the last
mentioned family, and of one other with insurance amounting to
$2,200, the amounts received were in the main inconsiderable, rang­
ing from $30 upward. Of the 96 families whose incomes after the
fatality were less than $5 a week, 21 in Ohio, 5 in Connecticut, and
7 in Pennsylvania received neither insurance nor death benefits of
any kind. The amounts received by the others ranged from $34 to
$2,050, the average being in Connecticut $526, in Ohio $496, and in
Pennsylvania $470.
COMPENSATION RECEIVED.

In Connecticut $5 a week is the minimum amount of compensation
when the decedent leaves total dependents, the wife and minor chil­
dren being considered such; in Ohio the minimum is $5, or actual
wages of decedent if such wages were less th an $5 per week. In Con­
necticut one-half and in Ohio two-thirds of the decedent's average
weekly wages or earnings may be awarded for a term of six years,
though the maximum weekly payments may not exceed $101 in
Connecticut and $12 in Ohio. In Pennsylvania at the time of the
investigation there were three possibilities in regard to compensatory *
payments. The employer might voluntarily or under threat of legal
action make a settlem ent with the decedent’s family; the employer
might refuse a settlem ent and the dependents might bring suit; or
the employer might refuse to pay anything and the dependents,
feeling themselves unable to bring suit, might simply submit and
bear the loss as best they could.
Taking the families of married decedents who after the fatality had
neither income nor insurance, the average amount awarded as com­
pensation was in Connecticut $2,278 and in Ohio $2,925, or in the one
State a little over $7 and in the other a little over $9 a week for
312 weeks. In Pennsylvania the families in the corresponding
group received an average amount of $66§ from the decedents'
employers. A somewhat similar contrast is found when any of the




* Raised to $14 in 1917.

13

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

other groups are compared. Table 4 shows the amounts received by
specified groups of families in the three States:
T a b l e 4:.—A V ER A G E COM PENSATION OR PA Y M E N T TO FAM ILIES OF M A RR IED

D E C E D E N TS.
Connecticut.

Fam ily group.

Families having n o . cash income after
fatality..................... ' ......................................
Families having income of less than $5 a
week after fatality.........................................
A ll families scheduled, including those in
which widow had remarried......................

Pennsylvania.

Ohio.

Average
Average
Average
compen­
compen­
Number compen­ Number sation or Number sation or
sation or
of
of
of
families. payment families. payment families. paym ent
per
per
per
family.
family.
family.

18

$2,298

65

$3,082

131

$216

10

2,148

51

3,063

2 33

154

53

2,055

206

3,008

3 134

261

1 N ot including one family receiving a pension of $15 a m onth for an indefinite period.
2 N ot including tw o families receiving, respectively, $10 and $20 a m onth for an indefinite period.
» N ot including three families receiving m onthly paym ents for an indefinite period.

The average in Pennsylvania would be lower still b u t for the fact
th at some large employers had voluntarily established insurance sys­
tems and in case of a fatality paid the victim’s dependents as much
or even more than they would have received under any of the com­
pensation systems in operation in other States. The families of men
working for these employers were as well protected as if they were
in a compensation State, but the low average received in Pennsyl­
vania shows how far a voluntary system falls short of the need.

THE INVESTIGATION IN CONNECTICUT.
Connecticut was chosen as a field for this investigation partly
because its compensation law presents, especially in its adminis­
trative features, some points of particular interest, and partly because
as a State of diversified manufactures with no one or two predomi­
nating industries, it should give a fairly representative picture of the
effects of industrial fatalities. During the period covered by this
investigation the munitions plants in the State were not unusually
busy. Industrially the 12 months covered, ending September 1,
1915, were rather quiet, employment in Connecticut, as elsewhere,
being below its normal level during the first half, but sharing in the
general revival which marked the latter half of this period.
TERM S OF THE CONNECTICUT COMPENSATION LAW.

The Connecticut workmen’s compensation law was passed in 1913
and became effective January 1, 1914. I t is of the elective type,
neither employers nor employees being obliged to come under its
provisions if they prefer to remain under the provisions of the em­
ployers’ liability law. If, however, the employer does not elect




14

COM PENSATION L A W S: EFFEC T ON W O M AN AN D CH ILD LABOE.

the compensation law he is deprived, in any suit for damages brought
against him by an employee, of the common-law defenses of assump­
tion of risk, fellow servant, and contributory negligence. If the em­
ployee elects not to come under the law, then in any suit he may
bring against his employer, the latter is entitled to the common-law
defenses. Both parties are required to give notice in writing if they
elect not to come under the law, and in the absence of such notice
they are held to have elected it. The law applies to all employing
five or more persons, outworkers and casual workers being excepted.
In practice the commissioners held th a t if an employer having fewer
than five employees failed to give notice th a t he did not accept the
law, he came under its terms. To ascertain the number a man em­
ploys, all who work for him are counted, although they may be engaged
in totally different kinds of work. Thus in one case in which a domes­
tic servant was injured, her employer was regarded as coming within
the scope of the law because, although she was his only household
servant, he employed a number of men upon his farm. The em­
ployer may insure his risks with any stock or m utual company
authorized by the insurance commissioner to do business in the
State under the terms of the act, or he may insure his own lia­
bility, provided he furnishes the compensation commissioner of his
district satisfactory evidence of his financial ability to meet claiiAs
arising under the act; or with the approval of the insurance com­
missioner, he may establish some form of private agreement with
his employees, providing a substitute system of insurance; or he
may simply file with the insurance commissioner security guaranteeing
the performance of the obligations of the act. The cost of insurance
is borne by the employer alone.
The workman is entitled to compensation for all injuries received
in the course of his employment and rising out of it which cause disa­
bilities of more than 10 days'1 duration. In case of death, the dece­
dent’s total dependents are entitled to compensation, the maximum
allowance being 50 per cent of the average weekly earnings of the
deceased for the year preceding his death, continued for six years
(312 weeks). The amount thus awarded, however, m ust not be less
than $5 nor more than $10 a week. Funeral expenses to the amount
of $100 and reasonable and necessary medical and hospital expenses
are allowed in addition to the above amount. In cases of permanent
total disability, compensation determined as in the case of death
may be awarded for a period not exceeding 520 weeks. If the victim
of an industrial fatality has no total dependents, a smaller amount of
compensation proportioned to the degree of dependency may be
awarded his partial dependents. A widow, if she was living with her
husband at the time of his death, is regarded as a total dependent.




i 7 days since 1917.

TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NN ECTIC UT.

15

Children under 18, or over 18 if mentally or physically incapable of
earning a living, are also considered total dependents. Parents,
brothers and sisters, and other relatives may be partial dependents,
the degree of dependency being decided according to the facts in each
case. Alien nonresident dependents of deceased workmen are al­
lowed half the amounts which would be payable to resident depen­
dents.
The law is administered by five commissioners, each having charge
of a separate district. Under the terms of the law all industrial acci­
dents and all accidental deaths, whether or not they are due to indus­
trial causes, m ust be reported to the commissioner in whose district
they occur. If there are dependents who wish to claim compensation
they m ust give notice at once and p u t in their claims within on©
year from the date of the accident. After receiving this claim, the
commissioner arranges a hearing at which both sides m ust be repre­
sented, and a t which the evidence in support and rebuttal of the
claim is presented. When there is difficulty in securing witnesses or
producing evidence, more than one hearing may be necessary. After
the evidence is in, the commissioner, acting as judge, gives his decis­
ion; if this is not satisfactory, either p arty may appeal to the courts,
and the paym ent of compensation may be withheld until a final decis­
ion has been reached. No new testimony, however, may be intro­
duced before the courts; the reasonableness and legality of the com­
missioner’s decision on the basis of the facts before him are the only
m atters on which they pass.
The employer and the dependents of the deceased may come to an
agreement w ithout a hearing. In such case the terms of the agree­
ment m ust be subm itted to the commissioner, who m ust either ap­
prove or disallow them. Several cases were found in which the em­
ployer had made voluntary settlem ent as a m atter of good feeling,
knowing th a t under the terms of the law the dependents either had
no case a t all or had so poor a one th a t the commissioner’s award
would almost certainly have been less than the am ount the employer
voluntarily gave.
DATA CONCERNING VICTIMS AND ACCIDENTS.

The investigation included all cases of industrial fatality or of
permanent total disability dealt w ith by the commissioners during
the year ending September 1, 1915. In some cases the death had
occurred earlier than September, 1914, b u t the decision was reached
during the year covered. In a few cases deaths had occurred and
hearings had been held during the specified year, b u t the decision
was reached after its close while the investigation was in progress.
In such cases the decision was included, although falling outside of
the prescribed period. The earliest death included occurred Febru­
ary 28, 1914; the latest award was made September 24, 1915.
2141°—18—B u ll. 217------2



16

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AND CH ILD LABOK.

The investigation did not cover all deaths reported to the commis­
sioners during the selected year, since, as already mentioned, all acci­
dental deaths, whether or not they come within the scope of the com­
pensation law, m ust be reported to them. B ut accidental deaths, if
of a nonindustrial character, had no bearing upon the present inquiry,
and the records of such deaths were therefore omitted. The investi­
gation was confined wholly to those cases of death or of permanent
total disability handled by the commissioners during the year ending
September 1,1915, in connection with which a claim for compensation
was entered, or in which some voluntary settlem ent, sometimes quite
outside the terms of the law, had been made.
W ithin these limits, the investigation dealt with 118 fatalities and
three cases of permanent total disability. In 95 of these cases com­
pensation had been awarded, in 10 a decision was pending, and in 16
the claims had been disallowed, withdrawn, compromised, or settled
outside of the law.
The details relative to age, conjugal condition, earnings, and nature
of the accident are shown for each decedent or permanently disabled
worker in Appendix Table 1. The workers included seem to be a
fairly average group as to age and wages and are scattered through a
wide variety of industries and occupations. Of the 105 whose cases
came within the scope of the compensation law only one was a woman.
The ages of 14 of the decedents were not reported.
AGE OF VICTIMS.

The age grouping of the 91 cases in which age was reported is as
follows:
^ able 5 . —N U M B E R A N D PE R CENT OF D E C E D E N T S A N D OF PE R M A N E N T L Y D IS­
A B L E D IN SP E C IFIE D AGE G ROUPS.
Number.

Per c*nt.

Under 18 years..........................................
18 and under 20 years.............................
20 and under 30 years.............................
30 and under 40 years.............................
40 and tinder 50 years...........................
50 and under 60 years.............................
60 years and over......................................

2
4
21
22
16
14
9

2.3
4.5
23.9
2-5.0
18.2
15.9
10.2

Total..................................................

88

100.0

2
1

66.7
33.3

3

100.0

Age group.
DECEDENTS.

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

40 and under 50 years............................. >
50 and under 60 Vears.............................
Total...................................................

The average age of the 88 decedents whose ages were ascertained
was 39.3 years, while of the three permanently disabled it was 50.3
years. The two decedents who were under 18 years old were respec­




TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NN ECTIC UT.

17

tively 15 and 17, the first employed in a departm ent store and the
other in a manufacturing establishment. A little less than one-half
of those killed were between 20 and 40; over two-thirds were between
20 and 50. In other words, the m ajority were in the age groups in
which men would be most likely to have wives and children dependent
upon them.
MARITAL CONDITION.

Of the 102 decedents whose m arital condition is reported, 73 or
71.6 per cent were married, 23 or 22.5 per cent were single, 3 were
widowed, and 3 were divorced or separated. The 3 permanently
disabled were married.
According to the census of 1910,1 of the total male population of
Connecticut; 15 years of age and over, 55.3 per cent were married,
39.3 per cent were single, 4.8 per cent were widowed, and 0.3 per cent
were divorced.
Two possible reasons may be suggested for the disproportionate
number of married among the victims studied. The general popu­
lation naturally contains a larger number of boys in their teens than
the working population does, and these are usually single. Also,
the classes in which industrial accidents are most frequent are the
classes in which early marriages are most common. The professional
and business men who are apt to m arry late, and who, therefore, swell
the proportion of single in the general population, are almost unrep­
resented here.
WAGES.

The wage grouping of the 99 for whom reports on this subject were
received was as follows:
T a b l e 6 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R C E NT

OF D E C E D E N T S A N D OF PE R M A N E N T L Y D IS­
A B L E D IN SP E C IF IE D W AGE GROUPS.

W eekly wages or earnings.

Number.

Per cent.

Under $7.....................................................
$7 and under $10......................................
$10 and under $12.....................................
$12 and under $15.................................
$15 and under $20.....................................
$20 and over...............................................

3
2 19
13
25
23
13

3.1
19. 8
13.5
26.0
24.0
13.5

T otal................................................

96

100.0

$10 and under $12...................................
$12 and under $15.....................................
$15 and under $20.....................................

1
1
1

33.3
33. 3
33.3

T otal................................................

3

100.0

DECEDENTS.

PEKMANENTLY DISABLED.

1 Thirteenth Census of the U nited States, V ol. I , Population, p. 550.
2 Including 6 whose earnings were under $10—exact amount not reported.




18

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CHILD LABOR.

I t is quite evident th at in the case of most of these workers their
wages did not include any compensation for the risk involved in the
work they were doing. Over one-fifth of those killed were earning
less than $10 a week; over one-third were earning less than $12;
over one-fourth earned between $12 and $15; and only 37.5 per cent
are known to have reached the comparative affluence of $15 or over
per week.
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION.

The distribution by industry and occupation of the 105 workers
studied is as follows:
CLASSIFICATION OF D ECED EN T A N D PER M A N EN TLY IN JU R E D W O R K E R S, B Y IN D U ST R Y
A N D OCCUPATION.

A gricultu re.

Agricultural laborers.............................

Construction.

3

Quarrying.

Stone or slate:
Laborers............................................
Foremen...........................................

7
1

Total.............. .............................. ..... 8
M anufacturing.

Earth and stone products: Laborers.. 1
Iron and steel:
Cranemen.............................................. 1
Iron molders......................................... 1
Machinists............................................. 1
Repair m en ...........................................1
T o ta l.............................................
Machinery, instruments, and metal
products:
Machinists........................................
Laborers.................
Millwrights............
Cartridge loaders..
Electricians..........
Fulminate mixers.
Machine operators
Shipping clerk. . .
Salesmen................
Window washers. .
Occupation not reported..............

Building:
Carpenters........................................
Bricklayers.......................................
Laborers............................................
Painters.............................................
Tinners..............................................
Apprentices.....................................
Plumbers..........................................
Roofers..............................................
Shinglers...........................................
Occupation not reported...............

5
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
I
2

3

22

T o ta l.............................................

4

Total..............................................
Other:
Laborers............................................
Not reported....................................

4

2
2

Transportation and pu blic utilities.

Steam railroads:
Bridgemen.......................................
Gang foremen..................................
Machinists........................................
W atchmen........................................
Occupation not reported..............

1
1
1
1
1

Total..............................................
Other:
Laborers............................................
Grinders............................................
Tailors...............................................
W atchmen........................................

16

Total..............................................
Electric railroads:
Conductors.......................................
Carpenters........................................
Motormen.........................................
Repair m en ......................................

5
1
1
1

Total..............................................
Transportation by water :
Deckhands.......................................
Firem en............................................

5

Total..............................................

8

Total..............................................

2




2

5
2
1
X
1

1
X

TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NNECTICUT.
T ransportation and public u tilities —Con­

cluded.
Electric light and power:
Linem en...........................................
E lectricians......................... „..........
Superintendents.............................

3
1
1

Total..........................
Telegraph and telephone:
Linem en.......................
Drivers..........................

19

Service.

Public service:
Farm foremen............
Janitors.......................
T otal.....................................
Domestic and personal service:
Chauffeurs...............................
Domestics................................
T otal.............................................. ..... 2
Professional: Insurance agents.......... ..... X

Total................................
Cartage and storage: Drivers.
Other transportation:
Drivers...............................
Occupation not reported.

In du stry not reported.

Laborers.................................................... ..... 2
Occupation not reported...................... ..... 2
T otal.

T otal...............................
Trade.

Trade:
Laborers.
Drivers. .
T otal..............................................

6 I

The three large groups of industries—manufacturing, construction,
and transportation and public utilities—are nearly equal in the num­
ber of casualties they furnish, being responsible, respectively, for 27.6
per cent, 24.8 per cent, and 22.9 per cent of the total number. Of the
less numerously represented industries, quarrying makes the most
impressive showing with eight victims—7.6 per cent of the total
number.
Turning to the occupations as opposed to the industry, laborers
form by far the largest group—30. This is natural enough, as the
laborer may be employed anywhere and share the dangers of any
industry. The next largest occupational group is composed of those
engaged in building occupations—carpenters, bricklayers, painters and
the like. The remainder are widely scattered.
CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS.

A classification, by causes, of the accidents from which these work­
ers suffered gives the following results:
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS B Y C A U S E S .

Machine,ry.

E xplosives , electricity, fire s , hot a n d
corrosive substances.

2
8
3

E lectricity.................................................. 11
E xplosives.................................................. 3
Hot substances and flames..................... 3

T o ta l........................................................ 13

T o ta l........................................................ 17

................
Transmission apparatus....................
Working m achinery.................................
Hoisting apparatus and con veyers...




20

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AND CH ILD LABOR.
Pow er vehicles.

F a llin g objects.

Rock, earth, e tc ........................................
Collapse of buildings and w alls............
Collapse of scaffold? and staging..........
Stored or piled-up m aterial...................
All other.....................................................
Total....................................................

5
Operated on tracks (or cables)..............
1
Not operated on tracks...........................
2
2
T otal....................................................
2
12

F alls o f persons.

3
2
5

R u n n in g into or strikin g against
objects.

T o ta l...........................................................

From ladders.............................................
From scaffolds and platforms................
From vehicles (trucks, wagons, cars,
e t c ) ..........................................................
From structures (all others)..................
From other elevations.............................
All other.....................................................

2
5

Handling sharp objects...........................
Loading and unloading..........................
Carrying and lifting heavy objects
(not loading or unloading).................
All other....................................... - ............

1
1

M iscellaneous.

Animals.......................................................
5 Asphyxiation and suffocation...............
9 Heat prostration.......................................
1 F ro stb ite...................................................
3 Drowning........... ........................................
Other reported ca u se s............................
Total.................................................... 25
Total.
12
H andlin g o f tools and objects.
N ot reported.

T otal...........................................................14

2
1

Total.

Omitting the 14 cases in which the cause of the accident was not
reported, it will be seen th a t falls of one kind or another are by far the
most im portant cause of injury, falls of persons accounting for 27.5
per cent of the total number, and falling objects for 13.2 per cent
more. Explosives, electricity, etc., account for the next largest
group, 18.7 per cent, while machinery is responsible for only 14.3 per
cent. The accident did not always bear a close relation to the occupa­
tion. Thus one of the quarrymen was run over by an auto, one elec­
trician fell down an elevator shaft and another was crushed by ma­
chinery, a janitor and a worker in a munitions factory both ran splin­
ters under their nails and died of the resultant blood poisoning, a tailor
was thrown from an auto and killed, and a salesman who had been
abroad on a business trip went down with the Lusitania. On the other
hand, of the six linemen, five were electrocuted and one was killed by
falling from a pole. A fulminate mixer was killed and a cartridge loader
blinded by an explosion. Of the 17 engaged in building trades whose
occupations were given, 15 were unmistakably victims of occupational
dangers. They fell from roofs or stagings or were electrocuted by
contact with live wires in the course of their work, or crushed under
falling walls.
BLOOD POISONING AND INFECTION.

Among the 102 fatalities coming within the scope of the law, there
were 11 cases (10.8 per cent) in which death was not directly caused




T H E INVESTIGATION IN CO NNECTICUT.

21

by the accident, but was due to blood poisoning developing from
injuries which in the m ajority of cases were trifling. In one of these
cases exposure and freezing resulted in erysipelas, in another septic
pneumonia was held to have been caused by running a sliver under the
thumb-nail, and in a third lockjaw followed an injury to the thumb.
The remainder were all straight cases of blood poisoning. A point of
interest is th at seven of these 11 cases occurred in cities where one
would naturally expect to find a knowledge of the dangers of infection
and of the necessity of guarding against it.
INTEBVAL BETWEEN ACCIDENT AND DEATH.

In many States in which reports of fatal accidents are required, it is
believed that a considerable but unknown number escape record
because if death is not immediate the case is likely to be lost sight of.
I t may be reported as a serious accident, but when later on death
ensues it is at least possible that the report may not be corrected.
Under a compensation law, however, it is very much to the interest of
claimants to see th at a case is recorded, and omissions are much less
likely to occur.
The following statement, giving the interval between accident and
death in the 102 fatal cases studied, shows what opportunities exist
for inaccuracies where there is no such incentive to make the records
correct:
Interval between accident and death.

Under 1 d ay....................................
1 day..................................................
2 days................................................
Over 3 and under 7 days.............
1 week and under 2 w eeks...........
2 and under 3 w eeks.....................

65
9
3
3
7
1

3 and under 4 w eeks.........................
4 and under 8 w eeks.........................
8 and under 12 w eeks........................
12 weeks and over............................
Total......................................

The majority of the deaths (63.7 per cent) occurred on the same
day as the accident, but in 22 cases (21.6 per cent) death did not
take place for a week or more, and in 11 of these more than a month
elapsed between the accident and its fatal result. Obviously where
there is such a lapse of time as this between injury and death, there
is a very good chance that the accident will not be reported as fatal.
CONDITION OF FAMILIES BEFORE AND AFTER LOSS OF INJURED WAGE
EARNER.

Naturally this study of family conditions could not include all
eases. If a decedent left no dependents, or his dependents were in
another State or country, the case was necessarily omitted. Pending
cases were also omitted, as in these it had not yet been decided
whether or not the death was an industrial fatality. In four cases
the decedent, although contributing to the support of relatives, was
not a member of any family group. This fact caused such a difference
in detail that these cases are discussed separately.




22

CO M PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON W OM AN A N D CH ILD LABOR.

The family conditions, both before and after the accident, are
shown in detail in Appendix Table 2.
FAMILIES OF MARRIED MEN.
ECONOMIC IM PORTANCE OF DECEASED TO FAM ILY.

Taking up first the cases in which a widow or a widow and children
were left—in the m ajority of these 53 cases the make-up of the family
was such that the economic loss involved in the death of the head
would be severely felt. Large families were numerous. In nearly
one-fifth of the cases (18.9 per cent) the family consisted of from 7 to
10 members and in not far from two-fifths (37.7 per cent) of from
5 to 10 members. Families of only two or three members formed
less than one-third (32.1 per cent) of the whole group. The economic
importance of the decedent becomes more apparent as the amount
and sources of the family income are studied. There were 10 families
consisting of from 7 to 10 members; in 7 of these the decedent was
the only wage earner, and in 6 his earnings were the only income the
family had. Taking the group of 53 families as a whole, in 34 the
decedent was the only wage earner, and in 23 the family had no
income apart from his earnings; in other words, in more than twofifths of these cases the family depended entirely upon the decedent.
IN S U R A N C E A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

Where the family welfare depends so largely on one man’s life,
he would naturally, if he could, make some provision for his dependents
in case of his death. There seemed a very general desire to do this,
b ut in the case of men in the lower wage groups the cost of insurance
was evidently an obstacle. Sometimes the decedent belonged to a
union which paid a death benefit; sometimes he was a member of a
fraternal order or beneficial society. Table 7 shows to what extent
the men who left widows or children had provided for their families
by any of these methods:
T a b l e 7 . —INSU R A N C E

OR D E A T H B E N E F IT R E C E IV E D B Y D E C E D E N T S’ FA M ILIES
IN CONNECTICUT, B Y C L A SSIFIED W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF T H E D E C E A SE D .
Fam ilies receiving in­
surance.

Classified weekly earnings of
decedent.
Amount
reported.
$7 to $9.99......................................
$10 to $11.99..................................
$12 to $14.99..................................
$15 to $19.99..................................
$20 and over.................................

4
5
9
9
7

T o ta l...................................

34

Amount
not re­
ported.

Total
Average
Families Number of
families
received
per family
not re­
in each
by families for those
ceiving
earnings
reporting
reporting
insurance.
group.
amount.
amount.

1

3
1

1
2

8
11

7
14
17
9

$1,290
3,592
4 ,2S5
5,840
4,997

$323
718
476
649
714

2 18

54

20,004

588

1 Insurance premiums were paid by a relative to whom the insurance went.
2 Including 1 family whose insurance premiums were paid by a relative to whom the insurance went.




TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NNECTICUT.

23

This does not tell the whole story, as in several cases a single family
carrying large insurance brings the average up unduly for the whole
group. Of the whole group of 54 families, 18 received nothing, seven
$100 or less, eight over $100 to $200, and only six received $1,000
or over. Unfortunately these larger sums were usually received by
the families who least needed them, where either a small family group
or a group in which most of the children had reached working age
had rendered it possible for the deceased to insure himself. The one
exception to this was found in a case where a man with five children
under 14 and earning only $15 a week had yet managed to carry
$2,000 insurance and to belong to two fraternal societies, each of
which paid $100 at his death.
On the whole it is fairly evident th a t even when insurance was
received it did not in any way constitute an adequate provision for
the family deprived of its principal wage earner, while in one-third of
the cases considered the families were left with no provision of the
kind.
E F F E C T ON INCOME OF D E C E D E N T ’S LOSS A N D OF COM PENSATION.

There were, of course, some families in the group much better able
than others to meet the economic loss of the husband’s or father’s
death. As nearly as can be determined there were seven families
who would not have been likely to suffer had they received no com­
pensation. I t is worthy of aote th at four of these families owrned
property before the accident, th at not one had more than four mem­
bers, and th a t not one had been wholly dependent upon the decedents
earnings.
These cases are, however, exceptional. In the remaining 47, the
loss, even when modified by compensation, was a serious m atter, in
some cases amounting to disaster. A rough measure of the extent
of the loss may be found by comparing the family income before and
after the accident. This is not a satisfactory measure, because after
the accident the income sometimes consists of the earnings of children
who have been taken from school to work or of mothers who m ust
leave their children to go out and earn food for them, but at least it
gives some idea of w hat the worker’s death has meant financially to
his family. Table 8 has been constructed showing, by size of family,
the family income at the time of the accident and at the time of the
agent’s visit, omitting compensation. Then to show the degree to
which a compensation system modifies the loss, a third part has been
constructed showing the income at the time of the agent’s visit,
including the weekly compensation payments. I t was not possible
to carry the whole 54 families through these three tables. Five
were omitted because the exact amount of their income could not be
learned, and five others because, although compensation had been




24

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OMAN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

awarded them, the award had been contested and they had as yet
received nothing. In another case the family had been broken up
and is, therefore, omitted. The family of the widow who remarried is
left out because at the time of the agent's visit the decedent wage
earner had been replaced and the economic loss made good. Finally
the widower's family was omitted, because, as it contained neither
a widow nor young children, it was on a different footing from the
others considered.
T a b l e 8 . — N U M B E R OF FA M ILIE S HA V IN G EACH C L ASSIFIED W E E K L Y INCOME B E ­

FO R E T H E A C CIDENT, A F T E R T H E ACCIDENT W ITH O U T C O M PENSATION, A N D
A F T E R T H E ACCIDENT W ITH COM PENSATION, B Y SIZE OF FA M ILIE S.
Part 1.—Income before accident.
No
Under S5 and $10 and $12 and $15 and $20 and
under under under under under
income.
*5.
$20.
$10.
$12.
$15.
$25.

Persons in family.

$25 or
over.

T w o.....................
T hree..................
F o u r ...................
F iv e .....................
S ix .......................
Seven..................
Eight and over.

Total
fami­
lies.

7
14
4
3
2

Total........
Part 2.—Income after accident, without compensation.
3
3
4
1

O ne..............................................
T w o..............................................
Three...........................................
Foui1............................................
F iv e.........................i ..................
S ix ...............................................
*§©ven..........................................
Eight and over.........................

1
1
1

T otal................................

14

10

2
2
4

1

3
3
2
1

1
1

|
!

1
1

1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .
.

2
1

. .

i
1

.I

.1

8
14
4
2
3
1
3

2

41

1

|

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .| . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

10

6

1

.........

2

3

!

.

...

1

i
Part 3.—Income after accident, with compensation.

............

2
4
5
2

T w o.....................
Three..................
Four....................
F iv e ....................
S i x .......................

1
1
1

S
even..........

E ight and over.

&
8
i 2

1

i 2

T o ta l.

i 14
4
2
3

1

23
3 41

1 Including one family whose award was commuted to a lump sum.
2 Including two families whose award was commuted to a lum p sum.
a Including three families whose award was commuted to a lump sum.

These figures are in themselves too striking to need much comment.
Before the accident only three families had less than $10 a week;
after it, 34 families—82.9 percent of the whole number—had less than
that amount. Fourteen families—over one-third—had absolutely
no cash income, and ten others had less than $5 a week. In these
ca?es the lack or the scantiness of a cash income was very little modi-




T H E INVESTIGATION I N CO NN ECTIC UT.

25

fied by other factors. Among the 14 with no income, one family
owned a home, mortgaged, and another owned a small farm from
which they got uncertain returns. The remaining 12 had nothing.
Among the 10 families with incomes under $5 a week, two owned
their homes and one owned three acres of land, while 7 had nothing.
The significance of these facts is increased when it is remembered th a t
in all these cases the family had had some time to adjust itself, as far
as it could, to its loss before the visit of inquiry was made. In two of
the cases showing no income, from one to two months, and in three,
from two to three months had elapsed between the death and the
visit; in the remaining nine cases the interval varied from three months
to over a year.
N either was the situation greatly improved by insurance or death
benefits. Of the 24 families who had either no income or under $5 a
week, 9 had nothing in the way of insurance, 7 received amounts
ranging from $25 upward but under $150, 6 received as much as $150
but under $600, while 2 received, respectively, $2,050 and $2,200. I t
is evident th at with the exception of the last two cases these amounts
are too small to form any appreciable addition to the income if
invested, or to provide for the family lor any length of time if used for
living expenses. Most of these 24 families, if forced to depend either
on their own earning power or on such provision as the decedent had
been able to make for them, must have suffered severely.
The extent to which the situation was helped by the compensation
awarded is shown by the third part of the same table. This shows no
families receiving less than $5 a week, and only 18, as against 34 in the
second part of the table, receiving less than $10. The level of income
is greatly reduced as a consequence of the accidents; 68.3 per cent of
the families, for instance, had weekly incomes of $15 or over before
the accidents, while only 26.8 per cent had such incomes afterward,
including the compensation payments. But the incomes are so much
better than if there had been no compensation th at the situation
seems relatively happy.
This appeared to be the view of the beneficiaries themselves, even
when an outsider might feel th at the compensation was too small to be
of much help. “ My God, what would I do without it V ’ said a Polish
widow when questioned as to her views on compensation,. Her
award was only $5.75 a week, but as she had 4 children under 14 and
earned b u t $3 a week herself by taking in washings, her emphasis was
pardonable. Others expressed the same sentiment less vehemently.
CONDITION OF FAM ILIES W HOSE A W A R D S W ER E C O NTESTED.

A statem ent of the condition of the 5 families in whose cases the
awards were contested seems necessary as a supplement to this table.
Details as to membership and income are as follows:




26

COM PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

T a b l e 9 . — INCOME A N D SIZE OF 5 FAM ILIES W HOSE A W A R D S W E R E C O NTESTED.

[The serial numbers in this table correspond with those in appendix Tables 1 and 2.]

Serial number.

36...........................
15...........................
10...........................
8...........................
7...........................

Member­
Weekly
ship be­
cash in­
come be­
fore
death of fore death
head.
of head.
3
5
7
7
7

$37.08
16.50
9.07
33.69
9.50

Weekly
Member­
cash in­
ship
after
come after
death of
death of
head.
head.
2
4
6
6
7

$19.08
26.09

The first family consisted, after the accident, of a widow and a daugh­
ter of 19 who was at work both before and after the accident. The
widow owned property and with the rent from this and the girl’s earn­
ings they lived very comfortably. In the second family a widow with
3 children, ranging from 1 to 7 years old, has a farm of 41 acres with a
mortgage of $900 on it. She is trying to carry on the farm, doing all
the work herself—u Was shucking corn when interviewed.7 The
’
third family consisted, after the accident, of a widow and five children,
ranging from 6 months to 7 years old. In this case there was no
property and the family, four months after the husband’s death,
were still living on their savings and on a collection of $70 which had
been raised by sympathetic neighbors. In the fourth family the
children were older and the deficiency in income was partly made up
by taking three, the oldest 17 at the time of the accident, from school
and putting them to work. In the fifth case the deceased owned a
100-acre farm, mortgaged for $2,500, on which the family live and from
which they hope in time to get a comfortable income, a grown son
having come home to manage it. Of these five families who had been
awarded compensation but who had not received it, therefore, one
was sufficiently well-to-do not to suffer distress thiough the failure to
receive compensation, and one, owning a farm and having members of
a suitable age to work it, would probably come to no harm. Of the
other three, in one the widow was trying to carry on work almost cer­
tainly too heavy for her, in one the education of three children had
been cut short, and in one the family was living on its savings with
nothing in view when these should be exhausted.
M ETHODS OF MAKING U P D E FIC IT IN FA M ILY INCOME.

As the amount of compensation which might be awarded could
not exceed half of the decedent’s earnings, the family income, even
with compensation, did not always meet the family needs. There
are several ways in which such a situation might be met. Children
might be taken out of school and put to work, the family might move
into cheaper quarters, the widow might go to work, or friends or
relatives or charitable organizations might be called upon for help.
These methods were resorted to in varying degrees. Taking children




TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NNECTICUT.

27

out of school to work was the method least frequently used. Only two
cases were found in which this had been done. One of these was a
contested case, in which the decedent’s death left a family of six with
only two wage earners, each earning $5 a week. There were three
children in school, aged 17, 15, and 13. The two eldest were at once
p u t to work and earned together $10 a week, precisely the amount
th a t was awarded b u t not yet paid as compensation. The youngest,
a boy, was kept in school until 15 and then put to work. In this
family it had been the intention to give these children a good educa­
tion. In the second case a widow left with six children and an aged
mother-in-law to support took the eldest child, a boy of 14, from
school and put him to work. She maintained th a t she did this
because the boy was in poor health and could not stand the confine­
ment of school life, b u t as she herself could earn only a dollar a
week, as the compensation which was paid her in a lump sum was
only $1,500, as there was no insurance, and as the boy was a t once
put to work, it is at least probable th a t economic reasons had some­
thing to do with the change.
Moving into cheaper quarters w^as a more common means of
meeting the situation. Eight families, not counting those to whom
relatives gave a home, made this change, the saving thus effected
varying from $1 to $9 a month. In a ninth case the family remained
in the same house at a reduced rent, and in one of the contested
cases the landlord had “ let the rent g o ” since the accident.
The commonest method of meeting the emergency was for the
widow to find some way of earning money, or if she was already
earning, to increase her gains. The widow who remarried had
been teaching music and earning $10 a week before her husband’s
death. After the accident she continued to teach and also took in
home work from a factory until she remarried, when her new husband
declared he was able to earn the family living and would not consent
to her working for pay. Of the other 52 widows 2 had kept lodgers
before the accident but gave them up afterward. One took this course
because her baby was ill, and she could not care for it and the lodgers
also. As an offset to the extravagance of letting the lodgers go, how­
ever, she moved into cheaper quarters. The other widow did not
really need the income from the lodgers and gave them up as a m atter
of convenience. Of the remaining 50 widows, 10 worked for money
both before and after the fatality, and 11 who had not been gainfully
employed before took up such employment after losing their hus­
bands. In all, 22 worked after the accident. Of these, 7 kept roomers
or boarders, 6 did some form of domestic work, 4 were employed in
factories, 1 was a milliner, 1 ran a farm, 1 taught music, 1 went into
chicken raising on a large scale, and 1 went out as a companion.
One of those not working until after the accident was employed for




28

c o m p e n s a tio n la w s : e f f e c t o n w o m a n a n d c h ild

la b o r .

only six weeks, and another for only eight; in both these eases the
women gave up their outside work because they were so urgently
needed at home.
Of the 11 women who took up work for pay as a result of the
husband’s death, 5 worked away from home even though they had
small children. In three cases the children were looked after by rela­
tives during the m other’s absence; one woman placed her two children,
aged, respectively, 3 and 5, in a day nursery, paying 60 cents a week
for their care; and the fifth paid a neighbor a dollar a week to look
after her youngest child, aged 4, while the two older ones, aged
8 and 10, went to school and took care of themselves for the rest of
the day. This was one of the two women who gave up outside work
because they were so much needed at home. As far as could be
judged, at the time of the investigation, no children were being
neglected nor running wild because the mothers had been obliged
to go out to work owing to the loss of the father.
Only one case was found in which the family had been obliged to
seek charitable relief. In this instance a non-English-spe a king
widow was left w ith five children ranging from 1 to 14 years old. The
full amount of compensation possible—$5.77 a week—was awarded,
but as this was insufficient, the town authorities paid her rent, her
compatriots took up a collection for her, and neighbors gave help
from time to time. In five other cases friends or the dead m an’s
fellow workers took up collections for the family, the amount raised
varying from $70 to $156. In one of these cases the award had been
contested and the family had not at the time of the visit received
any compensation, and in one the family had been left in extreme
distress, but in the others the collection seemed to be given rather as
an expression of friendly sympathy than because there was any
acute need for it. In seven cases relatives were said to have “ given
home.” I t was practically impossible to decide in most cases
whether this ought really to be classed as help, or whether it was
merely a family arrangement, adopted for the convenience of all con­
cerned. The widow usually either paid a fixed sum or contributed
te r services, and while she may have received more in return than
she would have received from strangers, it was by no means certain
th a t she did, There was no indication in any case th a t the arrange­
ment was a burden to the relatives concerned.
E F F E C T OF D E C E D E N T ’S LOSS ON O W N E R SH IP OF P R O P E R T Y .

Another form of economic loss which might be expected to follow
the death of the family’s principal wage earner, is the loss of real
estate not wholly paid for. Seventeen families owned their homes,
either d ear or mortgaged, and five of these owned other property
also. Not a case was found of a mortgage being foreclosed. In




TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NN ECTIC UT.

29

on© instance the deceased had paid $700 on a house worth $3,500.
Later he had borrowed $155 on his interest in the house. The
widow, feeling herself unable to keep on with the purchase, sold her
equity for $50, which involved a loss of about $500. This was the
only case in which there was a loss on property owing to the acci­
dent. In one case the family had reduced and in another case had
cleared off a mortgage by means of the compensation money; in a
third case the widow having the compensation to live on had used
her husband’s insurance to clear off a mortgage on her home; and in
a fourth case a widow who on her husband’s death had been obliged
to put a mortgage of $800 on the home, in order to satisfy the claims
of her stepchildren, was paying off the mortgage with her award of
$2,315.
Summing up results then for the families of married decedents, it
appears th a t in a large majority of cases the death of the principal
wage earner left the family either without means of support or with
very inadequate resources. The payment of compensation so far
improved the situation th at the evils, which in the investigations of
accidents under employers’ liability laws were found to follow with
unfortunate frequency upon the death of a married wage earner,
either did not appear at all or were present only in a slight degree.
Only four children, none of them under 14, were taken out of school
to work as a consequence of their fathers’ death. Eleven widows
who had not been gainfully employed before the accident became
wage earners afterwards, five of them being employed away from
home. There were no cases in which it could be learned th a t the
children were neglected because the mother was obliged to work.
One case was found in which partially purchased property had to be
disposed of at a loss, but to offset th a t there were three cases in which
a mortgage had been paid off or was being paid off with the compensa­
tion awarded.
FAMILIES OF SINGLE MEN.

Turning to the 12 single men with resident dependents who fell
victims to industrial fatalities, it is at once apparent th a t their deaths
affected their families far less seriously from an economic point of
view than was the case with married men. Most of them were young
men still living with their parents. Not one was the only son of his
mother, a widow, nor was there one case in which a family was really
dependent upon the decedent’s earnings. In two cases mothers had
gone out to work since the fatality. In one of these the decedent
belonged to a family in which before his death there were four wage
earners and two young children. After his death the family income,
which had been a trifle over $30, sank to $21.50, and to meet part
of the deficit the mother “ worked o u t” two days every other week




30

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOB.

In the second case the award was contested, and at the time of the
visit, 17 months after the death, nothing had been paid. In this case
the son had done little more than pay his board, and the mother’s
going to work was due not to his death but to th a t of her husband,
which had occurred after the son’s.
In general the compensation awarded the families of the single men
was $5 a week for six years. In one case the allowance was for only
175 weeks; in this case the decedent had no brothers or sisters, and
his mother, having married a second time, was regarded as princi­
pally dependent for support on his stepfather. In two cases the
award was higher. In both of these the decedent was living with a
widowed mother; in both cases there were other children who helped
to care for her but the deceased was looked upon as practically the
head of the family, and the highest amount permissible was awarded,
CASES OF PERM ANENT TOTAL DISABILITY.

From the economic standpoint the permanent and total incapaci­
tation of a wage earner is a heavier loss than his death, since though
his earning power is wholly gone the necessity for his support remains.
Only three such cases were found in Connecticut. All were married
men, and in each case it was difficult to see how, without compensa­
tion, the family could have escaped severe suffering. In the first case
the victim, a worker in a munitions factory, dropped a box of car­
tridges and was totally blinded, as well as badly burned, by the re­
sulting explosion. His only child, aged 11, was too young for wage
earning and about the time of his accident his wife met with an
injury which kept her in a hospital for weeks. The award was de­
layed, and before the compensation was received, nine months after
the accident, the family had used up all their savings and relatives
had been called on to aid. In this case the award, $10 a week for
10 years, less hospital expenses of $560, had been commuted and at
the time of the ag en ts visit the man was planning to use p art of the
lump sum thus received in starting a small cigar store, by which he
hoped to make a living in spite of his blindness.
In the second case the worker, a bridgeman, fell from a trestle and
received injuries resulting in paralysis. In this case there were adult
children, self-supporting, b u t not in a position to take care of the
parents. As the man is helpless, his wife is taking boarders to add
to the amount awarded—$9.10 a week for a little over six years. In
the third case an iron bar used to fasten window shutters at night
fell and in falling struck the victim on the head. He went about
his work for some weeks, until it became evident th a t as a result of
the blow his mind was failing. Both he and his wife were over 60;
they had no children and no relatives able to help. The award of
$5 a week during incapacity keeps them at least from u tter destitution.




31

TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NN ECTIC UT.

CASES IN WHICH THERE WAS NO FAMILY GROUP.

None of the four decedents listed as having no family* group was
living w ith his own family, so the cases could not be tabulated as
were those in the preceding groups, but each was giving more or less
help to relatives who had valid claims for aid. A man sent money
irregularly to an aged father, a woman in domestic service sent money
from time to time to a married sister, the elder of two orphans was
keeping his younger brother in school, and a man of 30 who “ had
always been rather irresponsible,” steadied by the death of his father,
was paying off the medical and funeral bills then incurred and pre­
paring to make a home for his mother. In the last case the mother
was awarded full compensation—half the decedent’s weekly wages
for 312 weeks—but in the others lesser awards, varying according to
the degree of help actually given, were assigned.
CASES WITH NONRESIDENT DEPEND ENTS.

In these cases it was impossible to learn the family circumstances.
Table 10 shows for each case what compensation was awarded and
who benefited by it:
T a b l e 1 0 .—D E P E N D E N T S A N D A W A R D S IN CASES OF D E C E D E N T S W IT H N O N R E S I­

D ENT D EPEN D EN TS.
Award.

Award.
Relationship and number
of dependents.

Per Num­
Total
ber of
week. weeks. amount.

ALIENS.

W idow and 4 minor chil­
dren .......................................
Widow and daughter (12
years)...................................
W idow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D o ......................................
D o ........................ .
D o......................................
Relationship not reported,
2 dependents ......................
Son (15) totally dependent
and father and mother
partially dependent..........
Mother.....................................
D o......................................
...............

$2.61

1312

$740.98

2.50
2.96
2.50
2.50
3.56

312
312
312
312
312

780.00
923.52
780.00
780.00
1,109.82

2.50
3.10
2.50
2.50
2.50

Relationship and number
of dependents.

Per N um ­ T otal
ber of
week. weeks. amount.

a l i e n s — concluded.
Father and mother............... $2.50
D o ...................................... 1.25
2.78

312
312
312

$780.00
390.00
773.86

9.93
10.00
7.41

312
312
312

3,098.16
3.120.00
2,311.92

10.00

312

3.120.00
500.00

8.68

312

2,708.16

5.00
5.00

312
312

1.535.00
1.560.00

NONALIENS.

W id o w ...........................
D o .......................................
D o ......................................
Widow, daughter (8 years),
278 2 627.30
and son (4 years)................
W idow......................................
W idow and daughter (21
312
967.20
m o n th s)...............................
780.00 W idow and daughter (4
312
m o n th s)...............................
780.00
312
Father and mother
780.00 Mother......................................
312

1 Paym ents for the last 282 weeks commuted at 4 per cent.
2 Discounted and paid in lump sum.

Alien dependents resident outside the United States or its posses­
sions (except those residing in Canada) are entitled to only half as
much as those living in this country, which accounts for the smallness
of some of the above awards. Small as they are, however, it is
entirely possible th at, taking into consideration the standard of liv­
ing and the greater purchasing power of money abroad, these awards
m eant as much to the recipients as the larger ones granted in non2141°—18— Bull. 217------ 3




32

COM PENSATION L A W S : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN|> CH ILD LABOR.

alien cases. I t does not require much imagination to realize what
$740 m ay have m eant to the widow with four minor children, or
$2.50 a week for six years to the old father and m other abroad*
Moreover, in addition to the amounts shown in the table, $100 was
awarded in every case for funeral expenses, so th at the survivors
were spared the thought of a pauper funeral and the potter’s field.
CASES DISM ISSED, WITHDRAWN, OR SETTLED BY AGREEMENT.

There were 16 cases which either fell outside the scope of the law—
such for instance, as the death of a worker engaged in interstate com­
merce—or were of such a doubtful nature th a t the claimants withdrew
their case or accepted a compromise. The main grounds for dis­
missing a claim were th a t the death was not due to an industrial acci­
dent or th at the claimant was not in any sense dependent on the
deceased. In the three cases dismissed on this second ground the
claimants were respectively a married daughter living at a distance
to whom her father occasionally sent a few dollars, a m other in Europe
who could not show th a t the deceased had ever sent her anything, and
a man who had taken the decedent, a boy of 15, into his family
w ithout legal adoption. I t was also on this second ground th a t one
of the cases was settled by agreement, while another was withdrawn.
In eight cases claims were dismissed or withdrawn or settled by agree­
m ent because of medical testimony th at death was due to disease,
rather than to industrial accident. In two of these cases, although
the immediate cause of death was disease, it was adm itted th at an
injury received while at work had had much to do either with causing
the disease or rousing it from a dormant condition, under which cir­
cumstances compensation would have been granted in some States.
In one case the claim was made th a t the decedent died from pneu­
monia due to exposure while at work, but this was not proved and
the case was accordingly dismissed.
The remaining three cases had no common ground of treatm ent.
In one the decedent was employed in interstate commerce and con­
sequently was excepted from the action of the Connecticut compen­
sation law. In another the fatality occurred outside of the State, so
th a t it was dubious whether the law could be held to apply, and there
was a question as to whether the decedent, who was selling goods on
an agreement giving him part of the profits of each sale, could be
regarded as in the employ of the company furnishing the goods. In
another, although the deceased m et death on the way to his work, it
was while taking a short cut across a high trestle at some distance
from his place of employment. H ad the accident happened within
the employer’s grounds it was adm itted th a t the claim would have
been valid, but it was held th a t an employer’s responsibility did not
extend over the whole distance from an employee’s home to his place
of worko




T H E INVESTIGATION IK CON NEC XTCtTT.

8S

CONTESTED CASES.

The effect of the compensation law in ameliorating the situation in
which a wage earner’s death or permanent disablement leaves his
family has been considered in some detail. Before summarizing the
results of this discussion, the contested cases, to which allusion has
frequently been made in the preceding pages, require some attention.
According to the terms of the law, if either side is dissatisfied with
a commissioner’s award, an appeal m ay be made to the courts for a
decision as to the reasonableness and legality of the commissioner’s
findings. If the aggrieved party is dissatisfied with the first decision
secured, the case m ay be carried up in the usual way until it reaches
the supreme court, whose decision is final.
In 9 of the 95 cases in which an award had been rendered an appeal
had been taken. In one of these the insuring company was entirely
willing to admit liability but thought th a t the award was too high in
view of the fact th a t the decedent was a single man, none of whose
relatives was really dependent on him. They were therefore con­
testing the amount of the award, but meanwhile were making the
weekly payments ordered. In the other eight cases no payments were
made pending the final decision.
The grounds on which these other cases were appealed varied from
a denial th at the death was connected with the decedent’s employ­
ment to a denial th at the claimants were in any sense dependent
upon the deceased. Three cases involved rather interesting points
of law. In the first the decedent, a collector for an industrial insur­
ance company, had his nose frozen while making his rounds in
bitter weather, and erysipelas set in, from which he died. The em­
ploying company claimed th at as he was working on a commission it
was a m atter for his own choice whether or not he should go out in
bad weather, and if he chose to go they could not fairly be held
responsible for his action. The widow, however, claimed th a t the
decedent had no choice as to going out, since if he did not cover his
route at the regular time he would lose his position. The issue thus
joined is now before the supreme court.1
In two other cases the victims had been employed in different
capacities by the same towboat company and the boat on which they
worked foundered. When it became evident th a t it was about to go
down these two jumped overboard and tried to swim to safety. Both
were drowned, while the remainder of the crew clung to the wreck
and were taken off by a passing vessel. The insurance company con­
tested the award on several grounds, the most im portant being th a t
the accident had occurred beyond the limits of Connecticut (in R aritan
Bay, near P erth Amboy, N. J.), and th a t therefore it was outside the
i Since this investigation was closed the supreme court has rendered a decision in this case in the
w idow ’s favor, sustaining the award of the commissioner.




34

COM PENSATION LAW S:. EFFECT ON W OM AN A N D CHILD LABOR.

scope of the Connecticut law. Another ground was th a t in jumping
off the decedents had not acted as reasonable beings, th a t they had
given way to panic, and th a t their deaths were due not to an indus­
trial accident b u t to their own hasty and illjudged action. This
amounts to a charge of contributory negligence, which was a perfectly
valid defense under the old systems but for which no provision is
made in compensation laws. On both grounds the supreme court
has, since this investigation was undertaken, decided against the
defendants and sustained the award rendered by the commissioners.
DETAILS CONCERNING WORKING OF TH E COMPENSATION LAW.

The foregoing discussion of the cases studied has shown the heavy
economic loss suffered by the family of a wage earner who is killed
or permanently disabled and the extent to which this is modified
by the paym ent of compensation, b u t there are some features of
the working of a compensation law which do not appear in a con­
sideration of individual cases. I t was urged against liability systems
th a t they were slow, expensive, and uncertain in operation and th a t as
a consequence in the m ajority of cases the cost of an industrial acci­
dent was borne by the sufferer himself, his family, the charitably
inclined, or the community, instead of by the industry in which it
occurred. How far has the Connecticut compensation law proved
itself free from these objections?
DELAY.

Taking up first the question of time, Table 11 shows the interval
between death and award in the 92 fatal cases which had been
settled.
T a b l e 1 1 . — IN T E R V A L B E T W E E N D E A T H A N D AW A R D IN G OF COM PENSATION.

Dependents.

Under
2
weeks.

2
2
3
6
1
weeks month months months months Over
Not
and
and
and
and
and
12
re­
under under under under under months. ported.
6
1
2
12
3
month. months. months. months. months.

Total
cases.

R esidents...................................
Nonresidents.............................

7

16
3

26
2

8
1

8
6

5
8

1

1

70
22

T otal.................................

7

19

28

9

14

13

1

3

1 92

1 Not including 10 cases in which award had not been rendered at time of visit.

In the three cases of permanent total disability the interval iii one
case fell into the group “ 3 months and under 6 ” and in two into th a t
of “ 6 months and under 12” . These m ight fairly be considered with
the fatalities, making a total of 73 cases with resident dependents in
which an award had been rendered. Of these n o t far from one-third
(31.5 per cent) were settled within less than a m onth after the acci­
dent occurred, over two-thirds (67.1 per cent) were settled within




35

TH E INVESTIGATION IN CO NNECTICUT.

two months, and only 21.9 per cent remained unsettled at the end of
three months. Concerning this last group it must be observed th a t it
includes the cases of permanent incapacitation, in which some time
might often be required to determine the nature and extent of the
injury. In one of these cases, for instance, the victim remained a t his
work for nearly two months before it became apparent th a t as a result
of the accident, his mind was failing. Again this group includes six of
the nine contested cases; th at is to say, it includes a considerable
proportion of the doubtful cases, in which numerous hearings and
long consideration might well be necessary.
The table deals only with the interval between death and award,
but a further element of delay may enter when a case is contested. In
one of the nine contested cases no delay was caused as the employer
began the weekly payments at once, contesting only the duration of
the award. Two of the remaining cases were settled after a delay of
eight and one-half months. In the six other cases the delay a t the time
the information was secured was as follows: In 2 cases, 1 m onth and
under 2 months, in 3 cases, 3 months and under 6 months, and in 1
case 6 months and under 12 months.
If the added delay due to the appeals be taken into account, then
the distribution of cases with resident dependents according to the
waiting period is as follows:
Waiting period.

Cases.

Under 2 w eeks...................................................................................................
2 weeks and under one m o n th .....................................................................
1 month and under 2 months.......................................................................
2 months and under 3 .....................................................................................
3 months and under 6 ......................................................................................
6 months and under 12....................................................................................
12 months and o v er.........................................................................................

7
15
24
7
11
4
5

Even with this added period of delay very nearly three-fourths of
the 73 cases (72.6 per cent) were settled within three months of the
accident. Nevertheless, the delay caused b y ' appeals is real and
serious. I t is entirely possible th a t it might be as protracted as the
delay caused by legal proceedings under a liability law. I t is to be
remembered, though, th a t such delays will become less usual as a
body of precedent is built up. When a compensation law first goes
into effect there are commonly a number of doubtful points over which
contests may easily arise. As one after another of these is passed upon
by the courts, the field of possible disagreement grows smaller, both
sides know better what are their rights and limitations, and delays
due to legal proceedings will naturally grow progressively less fre­
quent.
I t is a t once evident th at when a decedent leaves nonresident
dependents a much longer time is required for settling the case than
when resident dependents are involved. The delay, of course, is due




36

CO M PENSATION L A W S; EFFECT OK W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

to the necessity of transacting the affair by mail. Even with this draw­
back, over one-fourth of the cases (27.3 per cent) were settled within
three months of the accident, and over* one-half within six months.
The pending cases also have a bearing upon the question of delay.
There were 10 such cases. I t is impossible to say how much delay
there will be in these eases, but at the end of the year covered the
periods which had passed since the deaths were as follows:
Cases.

Under 1 m onth.................................................................................................. ..... 2
1 month and under 2 m onths....................................................................... ..... 4
2 months and under 3 ........................................................................................... 2
3 months and under 6 ........................................................................................... 1
6 months and over............................................................................................ ..... 1

The two cases in which there had been a delay of over three months
involved foreign dependents. The delay is regrettable, but it is
difficult to see how ‘it is to be avoided. Under a liability law such
dependents are not entitled to any damages, so th a t the delay, while
a hardship, is a t least a lesser one than th a t they suffered before the
compensation law was enacted.
In cases of resident dependents the frequency and extent of delay
depend to a considerable degree upon the attitude of the commissioner
who administers the law. The commissioner in one district, for in­
stance, explained the time required for making an award by the
difficulty of getting the two parties together for the hearings; a
date which suited one would not suit the other; after a date was set
one or the other would want a postponement, and the delays seemed
interminable. Another commissioner had little or no trouble from
this cause. “ I set a day and send word to both parties th a t a t such
a date I shall hold a hearing and if they have anything to say they
m ust be there a t th a t time. They are usually there.” The propor­
tion of cases with resident dependents which required two months or
more for settlem ent was for the five districts, respectively, 33.4 per
cent, 25 per cent, 20 per cent, 33.3 per cent, and 41.7 per cent. Not
all of this difference, of course, is due to the commissioner. I t is
more difficult to get claimants, defendants and witnesses together
in a thinly settled district than in a city, and some cases are far more
intricate and puzzling than others; but the commissioner’s attitude
is certainly one element in the problem.
To sum up the situation, then, it appears th a t in cases of foreign
dependents a considerable delay in reaching an award may take place
under the Connecticut compensation law, b u t th a t the great majority
of cases with resident dependents are settled within less than three
months after the death occurs. For the 70 fatalities studied in
which awards were made to resident dependents the average time
required to reach a decision was exactly two months; for the three
cases of permanent total disability it was eight months and three




T H E INVESTIGATION

m

C O K K EC M C UT.

37

days. Unfortunately no corresponding data for conditions under the
liability law in Connecticut are available, b u t the following quota­
tion shows w hat delays were common elsewhere; there is no reason
to suppose th a t the law worked more rapidly in Connecticut than in
New York and Illinois.
In Ohio it requires two years, on the average, to reach final judg­
ment in a fatal accident case. In Cook County, 111., of 42 suits begun
in 1908 only 2 had been decided by October, 1910. In 30 nonfatal
cases in the same county the average length of time required to
reach a settlem ent by “ due process o fla w ” was more than 2\ years,
while 15 out of 45 cases were still pending in court after periods
ranging from 4 to 84 months and averaging nearly four years. In
New York State the “ waiting period” in employers7 liability cases
lasts from six months to six years, with a marked tendency toward
the higher figure in populous centers where work accidents are most
numerous and court calendars most crowded. Of 47 court cases ex­
amined in Illinois, 11 were still pending after intervals ranging from
three to seven years.1
EXPENSE.

The contrast, between a compensation and a liability law in this
respect is marked. Under the liability system if an employer did not
voluntarily pay damages the dependents of the injured workman had
the choice of accepting the situation or of engaging a lawyer and be­
ginning legal proceedings. If they elected the latter course the lawyer’s
fee was usually contingent, and the am ount the dependents received
in the event of success was certain to be greatly diminished by the
cost of securing it. In 51 cases studied in New York it was found
th a t the proportion of the amount awarded which went to the lawyer
as his fee was as follows:2 Less than 25 per cent in 14 cases; 25 to
34.9 per cent in 16 cases; 35 to 49.9 per cent in 7 cases; and 50
per cent or over in 14 cases.
Under the compensation law the claimant is not expected to have
any expenses beyond w hat may be involved in going to the place
appointed for the hearing. In the 70 fatal cases with resident de­
pendents studied in Connecticut in which an award had been rendered,
only one instance was found in which the family had a lawyer. In
this case the award was $1,560 and the lawyer’s fee $50—3.2 per
cent of the award. The three cases of permanent total incapacity
were settled without lawyers and so were the 22 cases with nonresi­
dent dependents. Among the 16 cases dismissed, withdrawn, or
settled by agreement were 5 in which the claimants had employed,
or a t least consulted, a lawyer. In three of these cases the lawyer’s
services seem to have been confined to recommendations to drop the
case or to accept any compromise the employer might offer. In
two of these cases there is no mention of any fee, and in the third,
1 D owney, History of Work Accident Indem nity in Iowa, p. 79.
2 First Report of the N ew York Commission on Em ployers’ Liability, 1910, p. 99*




38

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CHILD LABOR.

though one was paid, it could not have been oppressively heavy, since
it is noted th a t the widow “ employed two doctors and a lawyer and
now has to pay them $35.” In one of the other cases the claim was
settled for $250, of which the lawyer took $40—16 per cent. In the
remaining instance the widow, who spoke no English, p u t her case
in the hands of a lawyer of her own race. The death of the deceased
had no connection whatever with his employment, but as a m atter of
good feeling the employer paid funeral expenses and $155. Of this
am ount the lawyer retained $50 for his services.
In several of the contested cases lawyers had been employed to
defend the claimants’ interests, b u t no information was obtained as
to their prospective fees.
On th e whole, it may be said, therefore, th a t the Connecticut law
is intended to work without expense to the claimant, th a t in the ma­
jority of cases it does so work, and th a t as the law becomes better
known and as its doubtful points receive legal interpretation, the
instances in which the claimant is p u t to any expense will become
fewer and fewer.
UNCERTAINTY.

In this respect, also, the compensation law differs widely from the
liability systems. The charge of uncertainty was preferred against
the latter almost more frequently and more vehemently than any
other. W hether or not any damages could be obtained was as un­
certain as what, if any were obtained, they might be. Of 49 indus­
trial fatalities investigated in New York the dependents got nothing
in 10 cases, $500 or less in 25 cases (in 10 of these the am ount was
$100 or less), from $501 to $2,000 in 12, and over $2,000 in 2.1 In
another group of 103 fatalities the dependents received nothing in
38 cases and over $2,000 in eight cases.2 In Minnesota, of six men
permanently and totally disabled one received $150, one $175, one
$4,500, and three got nothing.3 Under a compensation law this ele­
m ent of uncertainty is reduced to a minimum. When a fatality is
clearly an industrial accident an award follows as a m atter of course,
and the am ountof theaward can vary only within clearly defined limits.
In Connecticut the commissioners seem to have adopted the policy
of fixing the award a t the maximum am ount permissible when the
deceased left a widow or dependent children, or, if he were single,
when he was the main support of a widowed mother. If, being
single, he had no special responsibilities, b u t was merely taking his
p art in the family group, the award was generally fixed a t the
minimum.
There are, however, several features of the law as a t present ad­
ministered from which uncertainty may arise. One of these is the
1 First report of the New York Commission on Em ployers’ Liability, 1910, p. 22.
2 Idem ., p. 20.
s Twelfth Biennial Report of the Minnesota Bureau of Labor, 1909-10, p. 156.




T H E INVESTIGATION I N CO NNECTICUT.

39

treatm ent of cases in which death does not result directly from an
industrial accident, b u t is due to disease caused or accelerated by
some accident or exposure connected with the decedent’s work.
These cases are always debatable, and in Connecticut as yet no
uniform rule of treatm ent seems to have been adopted. Four such
cases were found.
A second ground of uncertainty is found in the fact th a t decisions
rendered by a commissioner may be carried into court for review, and
the commissioner’s ruling upset. No case was found in which the
courts had overruled an award, but seven contested cases were still
unsettled. Like the first cause, this will tend to diminish as the
courts make their position plain and precedents are established in
the doubtful cases.
A third cause of uncertainty is due to the fact th a t after an award
is rendered it may prove impossible to collect it. Legally all employ­
ers are bound either to insure their risks or to satisfy the commis­
sioners of their ability to pay any award which may be rendered
against them. I t is hardly practicable, however, for the commis­
sioners to visit every employer in the State and make sure th a t he
complies with this provision. A certain, or rather, an uncertain,
number of employers take advantage of this fact to avoid the expense
of insurance. If no accident happens, they are not detected; if one
does, they are unable to pay the award, and the victim’s family suf­
fers. Only one case of this kind was m et with in this investigation.
In this case a painter was killed by a fall due to a scaffold’s breaking.
His employer adm itted the industrial character of the fatality, but
claimed inability to pay anything. A t the time of the agent’s visit,
about seven weeks after the award had been rendered, the commis­
sioner was still trying, with very little prospect of success, to get some
portion of the award of $2,574 from the employer. This was a case1
of decided hardship, as the deceased left a widow and three children,
the oldest only 7.
On the whole, then, in the m atter of certainty the working of the
Connecticut law is susceptible of improvement. This improvement
will almost certainly be made as precedents are established and deter­
minations made on doubtful points. B ut in spite of some unsettled
questions, the situation is immensely better than it is under the
employers’ liability laws. The uncertainty which there prevails as
to the outcome of every case is here restricted to certain borderland
cases, and these are steadily becoming smaller in number.
INCIDENCE OF LOSS DUE TO INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES.

A fourth complaint brought against the working of the employers’
liability systems was th a t in the m ajority of cases the dependents of
the victim of an industrial fatality received nothing, or next to noth-




40

CO M PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.
4

ing. Their chief economic asset was swept away and they received
no compensation, 110 substitute, for the lost earning power. Conse­
quently distress and economic disaster were common.1 Widows were
forced to work outside their homes to the neglect of their children,
charitable societies were called upon for aid, homes were broken up,
children were put to work or ran wild; in fact the disastrous results
on the family of the wage earner were obvious and generally admitted.
Under the compensation law, as shown by the study of the families
of wage earners killed or permanently disabled, the burden is divided
between the industry and the dependents. The compensation paid
does not make up for the loss of the decedent’s earnings, b u t it makes
sure th a t the family will not be left utterly destitute. In the families
of small membership the compensation was often enough to meet
their needs; in large families, where the decedent was not so often the
sole wage earner, it might make the difference between a sufficient
or a wholly insufficient income. The Connecticut compensation law
does not provide as liberal payments as the laws of some other States,
but the data given in the preceding pages show th a t the worst results
of industrial fatalities are averted. In general, mothers are not
obliged, in consequence of their husbands’ deaths, to go out to
work, leaving their children uncared for; homes are not broken up;
charitable associations are not called upon to aid; it is a marked
exception for children to be taken out of school to work; and while
in a number of cases relatives helped the bereaved family, it could
not be learned th a t in doing so they assumed any undue burden.

THE INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.
Ohio was chosen partly because, as a large industrial State, it would
afford a wide field for observing the working of a compensation law,
, and partly because its law providing for a compulsory insurance sys­
tem with a State insurance fund administered by a central body
presents some features of decided interest. Industrially the year
covered was not abnormal. The State had, of course, shared in the
depression which followed the outbreak of the European war, but
the character and variety of its industries had prevented the degree
of stagnation felt in some localities. The number of industrial
fatalities occurring during the year was considered normal.
TERM S OF THE OHIO COMPENSATION LAW ..

In 1911 Ohio passed an elective workmen’s compensation law which
in 1913 was amended and made compulsory. The amended law pro­
vides for a State insurance fund in which all employers subject to
the act must insure unless permission is granted by the commission
1 First report of the New York Commission on Employers’ Liability, 1910, p. 27; Report of the Illinois
Em ployers’ Liability Commission, 1910, p. 201; Eastm an, Work A ccidents and the Law, 1910, pp. 135-142.




T H E INVESTIGATION I N OHIO.

41

to carry their own risk. The State itself amk all its political sub­
divisions are required to insure their employees in this fund. Am
exception is made in the case of policemen and firemen in commu­
nities maintaining policemen’s and firemen’s pension funds. P rivate
employers, whether individuals, firms, or corporations, m ust either
insure their risks in the State fund or carry their own insurance.
In the latter case they m ust satisfy the industrial commission of
their ability to provide medical care and compensation for injure4
employees during disability, and in case of death to make a provisioa
for the victim’s dependents at least equal to th a t paid from the State
fund when the employer has insured with it and in addition m ust
contribute their proportionate share to the State insurance fund sur­
plus. Employers carrying their own insurance may pay compensa­
tion directly to the injured employee or his dependents, but the
terms of the compensation agreement must be approved by the
industrial commission.
Under the terms of the law if an injury received by an employee
in the course of his regular employment results in death his depen­
dents may receive as compensation two-thirds of his average wages, to
be paid weekly for a period of six years from the date of the injury,
or for such a part of this period as the commission may decide.
The weekly payments, however, may not be less than $5 or more
than $12. Funeral expenses, not to exceed $150, and reasonable hos­
pital and medical expenses, not to exceed $200, shall be allowed.
Wives and children under 16 are regarded as total dependents, and
so are children over 16 if they are physically or mentally disqualified
for self-support. In the case of parents, brothers and sisters, and
other relatives, whether or not they are dependents is a question to
be settled according to the facts in each case. The amount of the
award is not determined by the number of dependents; the full twothirds of the deceased s average wages m ay be paid to a widow with
no children, and no more can be paid to one with six or eight. The
award may, however, be divided among the various dependents as
the eommission sees fit, and cases will be observed in the following
tables in which a specific portion of the award is assigned to a de­
cedent’s children by his first wife and the rest to his widow and the
children of the second marriage. No distinction is made between
resident and nonresident or alien dependents in regard to the am ount
of the award to which they are entitled. In cases of permanent total
disability the injured employee is entitled to two-thirds of his average
wages for life, but the weekly payments are not to exceed $12 nor
fall below $5. In case the sufferer’s wages had been less than $5
he is to receive his full weekly wage.
The adm inistration of the law rests with an industrial eommission
of three members, who are continuously in session at their headquar­




42

CO M PENSATION L A W S : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CHILD LABOR.

ters in Columbus. In all cases of industrial accident, a notice must
be sent to the commission stating the time, place, nature of the
injury, and the employer’s name. A supplemental application m ust
be made within a specified time thereafter, claiming an award and
presenting proof th a t the case falls within the commission’s jurisdic­
tion, and th at the applicant under the terms of the law is entitled to
an award. Ordinarily in cases of death there are only two points
to be established: First, the connection between the accident and the
employment, and second, the dependency of the claimant. In the
case of a widow, not separated from her husband, or a minor child,
establishing the relationship is all the proof th at is needed; the law
considers these classes as dependent; but if the claim is advanced by
other relatives, the fact and degree of dependency must be proved.
As soon as possible after the second application has been received
the claim is given a hearing. Applicants may appear before the
commission either in person or by agent or attorney, or m ay make
no appearance at all, leaving their claim to stand or fall according to
the proofs they have presented. In case of an unsatisfactory or
contested claim the commission may take testimony, require medical
or other examinations, or make any investigations they think neces­
sary. The policy is to settle cases as quickly as possible, and con­
tinuances of a hearing are unusual. Cases will be found in the fol­
lowing pages of awards rendered within one, two, or three days after
a death. The decision of the commission is final and not subject to
review, except th at if a claim is denied on the ground th at the injury
was self-inflicted, or did not occur in the course of employment, or
upon any other ground going to the basis of the claim ant’s right* the
claimant m ay appeal to the civil eourts on the question of right.
If the court or the jury determine in favor of the claimant, they fix
his compensation within the limits of the act, and this award is then
paid in precisely the same manner as if it had been fixed by the
commission in the first place.
Another feature of the law, of importance in its bearing upon
some of the cases to be discussed hereafter, relates to what are briefly
known as Section 27 cases. The law requires every employer either
to insure in the State fund or to make some other provision satis­
factory to the commission. An uncertain number of employers who
are carrying on business in a small way—a large employer would be
too easily discovered to attem pt such an evasion—prefer to do
neither and take their chance of being found out. If in such a case
an employee is killed his dependents m ay either bring suit for damages
or appeal to the commission, which will fix compensation on the same
terms as if the deceased had been insured in the State fund, and
may require the employer to pay this amount at once. If the em­
ployer is* unable or unwilling to do this the commission may bring




43

T H E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

suit against him and, if he continues obdurate, may finally force him
into bankruptcy. This presumably has a good effect upon othei
employers, but virtually leaves the victim’s dependents as badly oft
as if a compensation law had never been passed.
DATA CONCERNING VICTIMS AND ACCIDENTS.

The period covered was the same as in Connecticut, from Septem­
ber 1, 1914, to September 1, 1915. The total number of cases dealt
with was 451. Of these, 52 cases had been dismissed or disallowed
as not coming within the scope of the law; either the death was not
an industrial fatality, or the decedent fell within one of the groups
excluded from compensation, such as city employees for whom- a
pension fund existed, employees engaged in interstate commerce, or
those working for an employer who had fewer than five employees.
Of the 399 cases which came under the terms of the law 387 were
fatalities and 12 were cases of permanent total incapacity. In 391
cases an award had been made, while in 8 cases a final decision had
not yet been reached; in these the death was adjudged an industrial
fatality, and the funeral expenses were awarded, but the alleged
dependents had not furnished satisfactory proof of dependency and
further hearings were needed.
Appendix Table 3 shows for each decedent and permanently dis­
abled worker the age, m arital condition, wages, occupation, and data
relative to the accident.
AGE OF VICTIMS.

Table 12 gives the age grouping of the 391 decedents and perma­
nently disabled for whom age was reported:
T a b l e 1 2 . — N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF D E C E D E N T S A N D OF PE R M A N E N T L Y D IS­

A B L E D IN SP E C IFIE D AGE G R O U PS.
Number.

Per cent.

Under 18 years..........................................
18 to 19 years.............................................
20 to 29 years.............................................
30 to 39 years.............................................
40 to 49 years.............................................
50 to 59 years.............................................
60 years and over....................
....

6
9
87
96
87
55
40

1.6
2.4
22.9
25.3
22.9
14.5
10.5

T otal....................................................

380

100.0

18 to 19 years.............................................
20 to 29 years.............................................
40 to 49 years.............................................
50 to 59 years.............................................
60 years and over.....................................

2
4
3
1
1

18.2
36.4
27.3
9.1
9.1

T otal................................................

11

100.0

Age group.
DECEDENTS.

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

The average age of the 380 decedents whose ages were ascertained
was 39.7 years, while of the 11 permanently disabled it was 34.5 years.




44

CO M PENSATION L A W S : EFFEC T ON W OM AN A N D CHILD LABOR.

The younger workers are decidedly in evidenee among the dece­
dents. The proportion under 20 is small, b u t over one-fourth are
under 30 and 52.1 per cent are under 40. R ather a large proportion
(10.5 per cent) are 60 or over. Among those who are permanently
disabled the proportion of young workers is still larger, over one-half
being under 30. As these unfortunates are totally disabled for life, the
gravity of the situation is evidently increased by this large proportion
of young men. None of the permanently disabled were under 18, but
of those who were killed one was 14, three were 15, and two 16. One
boy of 15, employed in a picture-frame factory, tried to board a mov­
ing elevator > and another of 16, a printer’s apprentice, was caught
between an elevator and its door. In each of these cases it is possible
th a t youthful recklessness may have brought about the accident, b u t
in the other cases there is no such indication. The two aged 15 were
killed in collisions, the boy of 14, a chore boy on a farm, was thrown
from a wagon when the team ran away, and a miner of 16 was crushed
by a fall of slate. Among the 40 who were 60 or over was 1 aged 81,
3 who were 70, and 10 others who were over 65.
MARITAL CONDITION.

The m arital condition of the 397 victims for whom report on this
subject was received was as follows:
T a b l e 1 3 .—M A RITA L C ONDITION OF D E C E D E N T S A N D OF PE R M A N E N T L Y D IS A B L E D .

Marital condition.

Number.

Per cent.

Married.......................................................
W idowed....................................................
Single...........................................................
Divorced or separated.............................

281
12
83
10

72.8
3.1
21.5
2.0

T otal.................................................

386

100.0

Married.......................................................
Single...........................................................

6
5

54.5
45.5

T otal........................................... . . .

11

100.0

DECEDENTS.

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

According to the census of 1910, the distribution by m arital con­
dition of the male population of Ohio aged 15 and over was as follows:1
Married, 58.2 per cent; widowed, 4.8 per cent; single, 36.1 per cent;
and divorced, 0.6 per cent.
The disparity between the proportion of married men in the gen­
eral population and among the victims of industrial fatalities is very
striking, especially in view of the established theory th a t a married
man of a given age has a greater life expectancy than a single man of
the same age group. As suggested before, it is possible th a t the dis­




1 Thirteenth Census of the U . S., Vol. I, Population, p. 564.

45

T H E INVESTIGATION IK OHIO,

crepancy is partly due to the fact th a t the classes in which late m ar­
riage is customary are not covered by the compensation law. Also
since a married man invariably leaves at least one dependent while a
single man may have none at all, failure to put in a claim for com­
pensation and to prove th a t a given death was an industrial fatality
would be more likely to occur in the case of a single th an of a married
man. I t is impossible to say whether or to w hat extent such omis­
sions occur, but it is at least conceivable th a t they account for some
p art of the preponderance of married men among the decedents.
WAGES.

The wage grouping of the 392 cases for whom wages were reported
is shown in Table 14:
T a b l e 1 4 . —NUMBER, A N D P E R CENT OF D E C E D E N T S A N D OF P E R M A N E N T L Y DIS-

A B L E D IN S P E C IF IE D W A G E G R O U PS.
W eekly wages or earnings.

Number.

Per cent.

Under $7............... .....................................
$7 and under $10.......................................
$10 and under $12.....................................
$12 and under $15............
$15 and under $20.....................................
$20 and over...............................................

2
21
53
104
125
75

0.5
5.5
1?. 9
27. 4
32. 9
19.7

T otal................................................

380

100.0

$7 and under $10.......................................
$10 and under $12:.....................................
$12 and under $15....... .............................
$15 and under $20.....................................
$20 and over.......................

2
1
1
6
2

16.7
8.3
a S
50.0
16.7

Total.................................................

12

DECEDENTS.

p e r m a n e n t l y d is a b l e d .

m o

The great majority of the decedents (74.2 per cent) were making
from $10 to $20 a week, but over one-half were making $15 or more,
and very nearly one-fifth were making $20 or over. Among those
permanently disabled, two-thirds were making $15 or more a week.
As in Connecticut, there does not seem to be much connection between
the wages received and either the age of the worker or the danger
incurred. The two who made less than $7 a week were, it is true,
very young, one being 14 and the other 15. But the 21 who made
between $7 and $10 a week included only 3 who were under 20, and
only 1 who was 60. Six of the 21 worked in coal mines, 2 in machine
shops, 2 in steel works or rolling mills, and 1 in a quarry, in all of
which places the occupational risk is high.
The group earning $20 or over is relatively far more numerous
here than among the Connecticut decedents. Most of these earned
from $20 to $25, and only 8 made $30 or over per week. Two in
this group held supervisory positions earning respectively $37 and
$58 a week.




46

C O M PE N S A T IO N L A W S : E F F E C T O N W O M A N A N D C H IL D LABOR.

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION.

The grouping by industry and occupation of the 399 cases studied
is shown in the following statem ent:
CLASSIFICATION OF D ECED EN T A N D PER M A N ENTLY IN JU R E D W O R K E R S, B Y IN D U ST R Y
A N D OCCUPATION.

A griculture,

Agricultural laborers.............................
Fishing.

Fisherm en................................................
L um bering .
Laborers...................................................
M ining.

Coal:
Miners...............................................
Motormen.........................................
Drivers..............................................
Foremen...........................................
Laborers............................................
Loaders.............................................
Teamsters.........................................
Trip riders........................................
Total..............................................
Quarrying.

Stone or slate:
Laborers...........................................
Miners...............................................
Blasters’ helpers.............................
Pulverizer tenders.........................
Track foremen.................................
Occupation ntft reported..............
Total..............................................
Clay digging:
Clay diggers.....................................
Overseers..........................................
Total..............................................
Sand or gravel:
Cranemen.........................................
Engineers.........................................
Laborers............................................
Occupation not reported..............
Total..............................................
M anufacturing.

Stone and earth products:
Laborers............................................
Foremen...........................................
Machinists........................................
Potters.............................................
Occupation not reported..............
T o ta l..................................................




Man ufacturing —Continued.
2 Iron and steel:
Laborers............................................
Carpenters........................................
2
Foremen...........................................
Engineers.........................................
1
Grinders............................................
Molders.............................................
Pipe fitters.......................................
36
Bricklayers..............
2
Cranemen’s help ers...
1
Cleaners, buggy track
1
Craneman.....................
1
Conductors, yard........
1
Coke pullers................
1
Door boys.....................
1
Electricians.................
Inspectors....................
44
Iron workers................
Janitors.........................
Machine operators___
7
M achinists....................
2
Mill workers................
1
Pig machine m en.......
1
Pump tenders.............
1
Polishers.......................
1
P icklers........................
Hollers..........................
13
Slate pickers...............
Steel pourers...............
1
1
Sw itchm en..................
Tappers.........................
2
Tap grinders................
W atchmen...................
1
Yardmen......................
1
Occupation not reported..............
1
2
Total............................................j

5 Machinery, instruments, and metal
products:
Laborers............................................
Night watchm en............................
10
Electricians.....................................
1
Pipe fitters.......................................
1
Buffers..............................................
1
Bolt cutters.....................................
1
Carpenters........................................
14
Machine hands...............................

18
4
3
2
2
2
2

3
62

8
4
2
2
1
l

1

l

TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.
Man ufacturing —Concluded.

47

Construction —Concluded.

Bridge building:
Carpenters........................................
Bridge workers...............................
Laborers...........................................
Total..............................................
Building:
Laborers............. : ............................
Carpenters........................................
Structural iron workers................
Painters..............................
Stone masons....................
Steam fitters......................
Bricklayers........................
Decorators..........................
Plasterers...........................
Riggers................................
Slaters.................................
Occupation not reported

4
1
1
6
10
8
4
t t CO
o o

Machinery, etc.—concluded.
Millwrights..................................
Machine operators......................
Metal workers.............................
Polishers.......................................
Pattern makers...........................
Painters........................................
Stove mounters..........................
Weighmasters..............................
Window cleaners........................
Total..............................................
Food, beverages, and tobacco:
Laborers...........................................
Bakers..............................................
Brewers.............................................
Chauffeurs........................................
General managers...........................
Stable bosses...................................
Teamsters.........................................

29

Total..............................................

14

T otal..............................................

35

10
3
2
2
2

Concrete construction:
Laborers...........................................
Firem en............................................
Carpenters........................................
Electricians.....................................
Teamsters.........................................
Occupation not reported..............

4
2
1
1
1
1

Other:
Laborers...........................................
Paper makers..................................
Carpenters........................................
Machinists........................................
Teamsters.........................................
Assistant superintendents.
Bricklayers..........................
Chauffeurs............................
Drivers..................................
Ice m en................................
Iron workers........................
Janitors.................................
Machine wipers..................
Picture frame workers___
Printers’ apprentices........
Rubber workers..................
Sawyers................................
Tanners.................................
W atchm en...........................

8
1
1
1
1
1
1

Total..............................................
Other:
Laborers...........................................
Building cleaners...........................
Forem en...........................................
Occupation not reported..............

10

Total..............................................

9

T ransportation and public u tilities.

Road making and sewer construc­
tion:
Laborers...........................................
Forem en...........................................
Inspectors........................................

10
1
1

Steam railroads:
Section hands.................................
Electric railroads:
Motorm en.........................................
Laborers............................................
Linem en...........................................
Division superintendents............
Substation operators......................
Wiremen...........................................
Occupation not reported..............

Total..............................................

12

Total..............................................

T otal..............................................

33

Construction.

2141°—18—Bull. 217------4




6
1
1
1

1
6
2
2
1
1
1
1
14

48

COM PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AND CH ILD LABOR.

Transportation and pu blic u tilitie s —Con.

Cartage and storage:
Teamsters.........................................
Chauffeurs........................................
Machinists........................................

2
1
1

Total..............................................
Transportation by water:
Stevedores........................................
Captains, tu g ...................................
Engineers..........................................
F irem en,.........................................Mates......................................... ........
Sailors................................................

4

T otal..............................................
Electric light and power:
Linem en...........................................
Electricians............................*
.........
Drivers..............................................
Ground m en......................................
Laborers............................................
Underground m en..........................

7

Total..............................................
Waterworks:
Foremen...........................................
Laborers............................................

2
1
1
1
1
1

6
4
1
1
1
1
14
2
1

Trade.

Trade:
Laborers.....................
Teamsters...................
Janitors.......................
Chauffeurs’ help ers..
Porters.........................
Chauffeurs..................
Foremen, coal yard.
Icem en........................
Painters......................
Salesmen....................
Stenographers...........
Total........................
Service.

P ublic service:
Laborers......................
Teamsters...................
Firem en......................
Engineers...................
Linem en.....................
Painters......................
Patrolmen..................
Prison guards.............

T otal..............................................
T otal..............................................
3
Telegraph and telephone:
Other:
.............. 5
Linem en.......................................
D etectives........................................
......
Laborers........................................ ....1
E levatorm en...................................
Firem en............................................
T otal.............................................. ..... 6
W atchmen........................................
Other transportation and p u : lie utili­
Window washers.............................
ties:
Occupation not reported..............
Ditchers............................................ ..... 3
Laborers............................................ ..... 2
Pipem en........................................... ..... 2
Total......................................
Assistant superintendents, pipe
In du stry n o t reported.
line.
1
Carpenters.................
1 M achinists...........................
Drill drivers.. . . ___
1 Occupation not reported.
1
Foremen, pipe lin e.
Total......................

H

23

15

T o ta l.........................

Manufacturing furnishes more than twice as many of these cases
(152) as come from any other industrial group; construction comes
next with 72; mining and quarrying, and transportation and public
utilities, with 64 and 60, respectively, are nearly equal. These
figures, however, show little about the relative peril of the great
industrial divisions. The census figures showing the industrial dis­
tribution of the male population of Ohio aged 10 years and over are
not so arranged th a t a complete comparison is possible.




TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

49

Turning to the occupational distribution it appears th a t common
laborers are far and away the largest group, numbering 113—28.3 per
cent of the total. Miners come next with 38, carpenters follow w ith
21, and drivers and teamsters with 19. Only 8 are definitely classed
as electricians, b u t there are 14 linemen, 1 wireman, 1 groundman,
and 8 motormen. Only 39 (9.8 per cent) were engaged in strictly
building occupations. Supervisory positions are more numerously
represented than m ight be expected, there being 13 foremen or over­
seers and 4 superintendents or general managers. Clerical work is
scantily represented by one stenographer, and one salesman also
appears in the list of victims.
CAUSES OE ACCIDENTS.

The causes of the 399 accidents were grouped according to the form
tentatively recommended by the committee on standard classification
of accidents, appointed by the joint conference on standardization
of accident reports and tabulations, held at Chicago, October, 1914.1
This committee suggested th a t for mining accidents the form used
by the United States Bureau of Mines be adopted and for railroad
accidents the form used by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
The number of mining and of railroad accidents did not seem suffi­
cient to justify two additional tables and the data at hand were in
many cases not full enough for use in these detailed classifications.
The mining and railroad accidents, therefore, with a rough assign­
ment of causes, have been placed by themselves at the end of the
following statem ent:
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS B Y CAUSES.
Machinery.

Boilers and steam pip es........................
Prime movers (engines and motors).
Transmission apparatus................ ........
Working m achinery...............................
Hoisting apparatus and conveyors..
Miscellaneous..........................................
Total.

F a llin g objects.

4
3
10
16
44
4
81

E xplosives , electricity , fires, hot and cor­
rosive substances.

Corrosive substances..............................
E lectricity................................................
E xplosives........... ...................................
Hot substances and burns....................

1
27
25
9

Total......................................................

62

Rock, earth, etc......................................
Collapse of building and w alls..........
Collapse of scaffold and staging..........
Stored or piled-up material................
Objects dropped b y other p erson s.. .
Obj ects falling from trucks or vehicles
(not loading or unloading)...............
Objects falling from buildings, tres­
tles, or scaffolds..................................
A il other...................................................
T otal......................................................

9
8
5
2
3
1
4
12
44

F alls o f persons.

From ladders...........................................
From scaffolds and platforms.............
From vehicles (trucks, wagons, cars,
etc).........................................................

5
19
12

3 B ulletin of the U . S. Bureau of I/abor Statistics, No. 157, Industrial Accident Statistics, pp. 160-162.




50

CO M PENSATION LAWS ! EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CHILD LABOR.
F alls o f persons —Concluded.

S te p p in g on sharp objects.

From structures in course of erec­
tio n ..............................................................4
From structures (all others)..................... 7
From other elevations................................ 6
Into excavations.......................................... 2
Into other openings............................... ..... 3
On le v e l......................................................... 3
A ll others....................................................... 1
62

Total.
H andling o f tools and objects.

Handling sharp objects...............................4
Loading and unloading...............................9
Carrying and lifting heavy objects
(not loading or unloading).............. ......2
A ll other objects..................................... ......5
Total.

N ails..........................................................

2

R un ning in to or striking against objects .

T otal.........................................................

5

M iscellaneous.

Animals.....................................................
Asphyxiation and suffocation.............
H eat prostration.....................................
Drowning..................................................
Intentional violence..............................
A ll others..................................................
Total.

3
2
2
14
6
2
29

C oal-m ining accidents.

Fall of slate, roof coal, etc...................
Mine cars and locom otives...................
Other.........................................................

30
9
6

20
Total.
Power vehicles.

Operated on tracks (or ca b les)...........
Not operated on tracks.........................
Total.

45
R ailroad accidents.

26
9

Total.

35

Total.

13
N ot reported.

Falls, either of persons or of objects upon persons, are the most
frequent cause of injury shown here, accounting for 136, or 34 per
cent of the total. In mines such accidents would obviously be the
most likely cause of injury, b ut even with the mine accidents excluded
from the group, falls of one kind or another caused 29.9 per cent of
the remaining accideiits studied. Second in importance as a cause
is machinery, to which 81 accidents (20.3 per cent) are due. Explo­
sives, electricity, etc., account for about 16 per cent of the accidents.
Some of the causes in the miscellaneous group are rather unex­
pected. H eat prostration is strictly reasonable in view of the fact
that one of the victims was overcome by heat while working around
a kiln, and the other, a roller in a steel mill, died of cramps and
exhaustion due to the heat in which he worked. Intentional vio­
lence as a cause of industrial accidents seems more open to question.
In two of these cases the death was very plainly due to an occupa­
tional risk, one victim being a hotel detective who was shot while
trying to make an arrest and the other a prison guard who was
stabbed by a prisoner. In three other cases the victims, who were,
respectively, a paper maker, the driver of a street-cleaning machine,
and the foreman of a paving gang, were assaulted by fellow workmen
as a consequence of altercations arising during their work. In the
sixth case the victim was a woman stenographer; a fellow employee
fell in love wjth her and when he found she did not return his affec­




51

T H E INVESTIGATION’ IN OHIO.

tion he shot her. In the last four cases the injury was sustained in
the course of employment, yet it certainly could not be said to repre­
sent an occupational risk.
BLOOD POISONING AND INFECTION.

In 30 cases death was due not to the accident itself b u t to some
form of infection or blood poisoning. Often the original injury was
trivial almost to the point of absurdity—a man scratched his finger
or cut his thumb on a broken bottle or ran a splinter into his hand,
or met with some other trifling mishap which he might hardly con­
sider worth mentioning, b u t which being neglected resulted in death.
There was only one instance among these deaths which seemed to
represent an occupational risk, th a t being a case in which a buffer
in a brass manufacturing establishment cut his hand on a piece of
brass he was polishing and infection promptly followed. The other
29 cases show a wide variety of occupations; 9 of the victims were
laborers, 2 were miners, 2 janitors, 2 teamsters, while the remaining
14 ranged from a tanner up to the vice president and general mana­
ger of a brewing company. In 5 of these 30 cases lockjaw, and in
one erysipelas was the immediate cause of death.
Table 15 shows the nature of the accidents resulting in death from
blood poisoning or infection, and the interval between the accident and
death:
T a b l e 1 5 .—D E A T H S R E SU LT IN G FROM BLOOD POISONING A N D IN FECTIO N .

Serial
No.

Nature of the injury.

Interval be­
tween accident;
and death.
Months. D a y s.

14
18
30
38
47
55
61
63
64
88
99
107
109
110
112

115
117
122
137
200
202
209
213
275
346
347
367
368
384
301

Slipped and fell, striking left hip; blood poisoning followed....................................
Caught between crane and iron column; sepsis followed injury.............................
Scratched finger w ith wire; infection..............................................................................
Stepped on nail; lockjaw followed...................................................................................
Caught finger in chain of motor truck; lacerated finger; tetanus............................
Pinched finger in machinery; slight laceration followed by blood poisoning—
While buffing brass shell it slipped and cut hand; septic infection.......................
Lifting steam shovel dipper; crane tipped; body was scalded; septic infection..
Piece of ice fell on hand, crushing and lacerating it; tetanus developed..............
Jumped off truck in front of car; multiple injuries; sepsis caused death..............
Slipped and fell, striking leg; abrasion became infected...........................................
Fall of coal drove pick into thigh; flesh wound; infection........................................
Pinched finger on emery wheel; gangrene set in .........................................................
Shovel rubbed against leg, making bruise; ulcer and blood poisoning.................
Broken bottle cut thumb; infection................................................................................
Ran nail into thum b while unpacking boxes; blood poisoning followed.............
Caught fingers in gear of machinery; tetanus...............................................................
Septicemia from burns; standing before fire w ith back toward flames.................
Foot lacerated by machinery; infection........................................................................
Scratched finger on nail; infection and gangrene........................................................
Scratched hand while sweeping; infection followed...................................................
Splinter in hand; blood poisoning developed...............................................................
Package fell on and bruised great toe; infection..........................................................
Jammed finger between truck and door; infection.....................................................
Stepped on nail, gangrene set in; amputation failed to save life.............................
Stooped and struck head against nail, cutting it; infection and erysipelas........
Iron oar dropped on foot; superficial wounds followed by tetan us.......................
Struck on elbow b y pick; blood poisoning followed...................................................
Piece of ice fell back on hand, lacerating it; infection followed...............................
Traveling crane ran over hand; infection followed.....................................................




15

11
11

24
20

11
IS

27
8
23
13
9
7

13
25
7
19
4
3
9

1

7
4
15
14

12
8
18

17
7

52

C O M PE N S A T IO N ’ L A W S : E F F E C T ON W O M A N AN D C H IL D LABOR.

INTERVAL BETWEEN ACCIDENT AND DEATH.

The following statem ent shows for the 387 decedents the interval
between accident and death:
Interval betiveen accident and death .

Under 1 day....................................
1 d ay..................................................
2 days................................................
3 days................................................
Over 3 and under 7 d ays.............
1 week and under 2 w eek s.........
2 and under 3 w eeks.....................

232
30
17
7
15
31
16

3 and under 4 w eeks............... ........
4 and under 8 w eeks...............
8 and under 12 w eeks............. ____
12 weeks and over.................... ........
Interval not reported..............
Total................................

7
16
3
11
2
337

In the majority of these cases (232, or 60 per cent) death occured
on the same day as the accident, in many cases being instantaneous.
In 8 per cent more of the cases death occurred on the day following
the accident, and only about one-fifth (21.7 per cent) of the victims
lived for one week or more. In 11 instances death did not come for
12 weeks or more, and in some of these the interval was so long
th a t under an accident-reporting system not coupled with compensa­
tion these cases might very easily have escaped record as industrial
fatalities.
CONDITION OF FAMILIES BEFORE AND AFTER LOSS OF INJURED WAGE
EARNER.

In Ohio, as in Connecticut, visits were made when possible to the
families of the workers who had been killed or totally incapacitated
and details were gathered as to the economic effect of the accident
and the way in which the dependents had accommodated themselves
to the altered circumstances. Unfortunately it was not possible to
make this visitation complete; in a number of instances the families
lived in such remote or inaccessible places th at visiting them would
have required an undue expenditure of time or money or both. Non­
resident dependents, of course, could not be visited. Neither could
those who, although resident at the time of the accident, had since
moved out of the State. Altogether visits were made and data
gathered concerning the dependents of 246 decedents and 6 per­
m anently disabled workers.
The work of visiting in Ohio was begun toward the end of October,
1915, and continued till the latter part of November. As the period
covered ended September 1, 1915, there had in every case been some
little interval between the victim’s death and the agent’s visit, so th at
the dependents had at least partially adjusted themselves to the new
order, and in m any cases the adjustment was complete. The longest
interval between death and visit was 21 months and 26 days, the
shortest 3 months and 9. days.1
i Records were taken of deaths occurring up to 7 weeks before the agents w ent into the field, but as it
happened that in these cases either the decedents had only nonresident dependents or an award had not
yet been rendered, no visits were made in connection w ith these more recent deaths.




T H E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

53

The family conditions both, before and after the accident are
shown in detail in Appendix Table 4.
FAMILIES OF MARRIED MEN.

Of the 246 decedents 206 left widows or widows and children, 4
were either widowed or divorced—only 1 of this group having children
under 18—and 36 were single. Of the 6 permanently disabled, 4
were married.
ECONOMIC IM PORTANCE OF D E C E A SE D TO FAM ILY.

A glance at the make-up of the families of the married decedents
before the accidents shows th a t in m any cases the wage earner was
sorely needed. In 26 families, one-eighth of the whole group, the
family membership ranged from 7 to 10; in 76 families (36.9 per cent)
it ranged from 5 to 10. In 16 of the 26 families having 7 or more
members the decedent was the only wage earner, and in 13 of the.se
his earnings were the family’s only income. In one of these families
wholly dependent upon the earnings of the head there were 7 chil­
dren under 14; in two families there were 6 children; in eight, 5; and
in two, 4; so th a t the death of these men left 13 widows and 67 chil­
dren under 14 deprived of their natural means of support. Fiftytwo of these children were under 10 years old. In the whole group
of 206 families the decedent was the sole wage earner in 153 cases
(74.3 per cent) and in 125 cases, or 60.7 per cent of the total, the
family had no income except his earnings. There were 20 families
with 6 members and 30 with 5. In 32 of these 50 families with 5
and 6 members the decedent was the only wage earner and in 26
his earnings were the sole income. In 27 of the 40 families with 4
members and in 32 of the 41 with 3 members the deceased was the
sole wage earner, while in the 49 families without children the wife
worked in only three instances.
A detail of interest, as showing the degree to which the family
depended upon the decedent, is found in the number of posthumous
children. Under any circumstances there are drawbacks about a
woman’s going out to work for the support of herself or her family,
but if she is anticipating motherhood it m ay be absolutely impossible
for her to do so. Posthumous children had been born or were
expected in 15 families. In 13 of these the decedent had been the sole
wage earner and in 11 the family had had no income except his
earnings. In four cases the widows were young women from 19 to 25
years old, the posthumous child being the first. In the other cases
the family membership before the accident ranged from 3 to 7.
The four cases in which the decedent was a widower o r divorced
show a very different position as to dependency. In one instance
the decedent had 4 children under 14. He had made his home with
his wife’s family, to whom he was paying board for himself and the




54:

CO M PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CHILD LABOR.

children. The grandparents looked upon the children as practically
their own, and while their support, had there been no compensation,
would have been a strain upon the family resources, the children
would have been sure of a home. In the three other cases there were
no children under 18, and the father’s death, even without compensa­
tion, would not have involved great hardship to any of the children
over th a t age.
These four cases, however, are rather exceptional. In the m ajority
of the 210 cases in which the decedents left widows or children or
both, it is evident th a t their earnings were imperatively needed,
and th a t the fatality which deprived the family of its chief means of
support necessarily m eant a severe economic loss.
IN S U R A N C E A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

Table 16 shows the extent to which the decedents had been able
to make provision for their families by insurance or by membership
in fraternal orders:
T a b l e 1 6 .—IN SU R AN C E OR D E A T H B E N E F IT R E C E IV E D B Y D E C E D E N T S’ FAM ILIES

IN OHIO, B Y C L ASSIFIED W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF T H E D E C E A SE D .
Fam ilies receiving in­
surance.
Classified weekly earnings of
decedent.

Amount
reported.

$7 to $9.99......................................
$10 to $11.99..................................
$12 to $14.99..................................
$15 to $19.99..................................
$20 and over.................................

5
9
38
48
35

T otal...................................

135

Amount
not re­
ported.

Total
Average
Fam ilies Number of received
families
per family
not re­
in each
by families for those
ceiving
reporting
earnings
reporting
insurance.
amount.
group.
amount.

1

4
12
16
26
16

9
21
54
74
52

$1,780
3,384
16,062
i 31,886
19,190

$358
376
423
664
548

1

74

210

72,302

536

1 In one instance the amount reported as insurance includes pay for 5 w eeks’ disability.

Not far from two-thirds (65 per cent) had secured some kind of
provision for their families in case of their death, this provision rang­
ing all the way from industrial insurance of $100 or less, through
benefits from friendly orders, up to life insurance in good-sized
amounts. The sums received by the families ranged from $30 from a
lodge the decedent had joined two weeks before his death to $3,000
life insurance.
N aturally the men with the lowest earnings were least able to make
suitable provision of this kind. There were 30 men earning under $12
a week; not quite half of their families received any benefits or insur­
ance on their deaths. Of the 14 families who did receive something,
two got less than $100, seven $100 but under $200, three $500 but
under $1,000, and two $1,000 or over. The average amount received
by these 14 families tails well under $400. On the other hand, among
those who were earning $20 a week or over, nearly seven-tenths (69
per cent) ot the families received insurance or benefits. The highest




TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

55

average received is found among the families of decedents who had
earned $15 but under $20 a week. In this group 37.5 per cent of the
48 families who received insurance received $1,000 or over, while only
five received less than $100.
On the whole, however, it is quite evident th at here, as in Connec­
ticut, the workers were unable to make sufficient provision for their
families by insurance. Of the whole 210 families 35 per cent received
nothing, 36.7 per cent received something, but less than $500, and the
average received by the 135 families for whom definite information
on this point could be obtained was only $536. The failure to receive
insurance did not always mean a lack of effort to secure it. In one
case, for instance, a man whose* earnings averaged $11 a week and
who had a wife and two young children, had been insured for $1,000,
but on account of sickness in his family he had been unable to meet
the premiums and his policy had lapsed. Another, with nearly the
same wages and the same-sized family, had been out of work all the
winter preceding the accident and had been unable to keep up his pre­
miums. No effort was made to ascertain in how many cases the fail­
ure to receive insurance was due to something of this kind, but enough
was learned incidentally to make it evident th at the workers as a whole
were alive to the advantages of insurance, and anxious to carry it
when possible. Frequently the decedent had made more than one
arrangement for the future. In 29 cases the families received bene­
fits from unions, in 45 from fraternal orders, and in 90 the decedent
had carried either industrial or ordinary life insurance.
E F F E C T OK INCOME OF D E C E D E N T ’S LOSS A N D OF COM PENSATION.

To show, as far as possible, how the family income was affected by
the loss of the decedent’s earnings, Table 17 was prepared giving
the income by size of family before and after the accident, not
including compensation. A third part shows the income after the
accident, including compensation. I t was not possible to make this
table include all the families. The four cases in which widows had
remarried were excluded, as these families were on a wholly different
footing from those in which the widow did not remarry. The families
of widowers and divorced men were omitted, as they presented some
irregularities as compared with the families of married men which
made it difficult to group them together. The four families whose
income could not be definitely learned were omitted; so were the
seven cases in which paym ent of the award had been contested, be­
cause in these no compensation had been received and the families
could not be carried through to the third part of the table. Seventeen
cases were omitted because the widow had either returned to her
parents, or the family had been broken up, or for some other reason it
was impossible to correlate family membership and income. Finally,
nine cases were omitted in which it was impossible to separate income




56

COM PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT OX W OM AN AND CHILD LABOR.

and compensation; the award had been commuted and p u t into some
business or investment from which the income was derived. Thus in
one case the award was paid in a lump sum, w ith which the widow
bought a good house in a residence section. Carrying this on as a
rooming house, she is making a fairly comfortable living. I t is clearly
impossible to say what her income without compensation would be.
After these omissions were made there remained 165 iamilies whose
incomes before the accident, after the accident without compensation,
and after the accident w ith compensation were as follows:
1 7 .—N U M B E R OF FA M ILIES HAVING EACH C L A S SIF IE D W E E K L Y INCOME
B E F O R E TH E ACCIDENT, A F T E R T H E ACCIDENT W IT H O U T COM PENSATION, A N D
A F T E R TH E ACCIDENT W ITH COM PENSATION, B Y SIZE OF FA M ILIES.

T able

Part 1.—Income before accident.

No in­
come.

Persons in family.

Under
So.

$5 and $10 and $12 and $16 and $20 and $25 and Total
under under under under under
fami­
over.
$12 .
$25.
$10 .
$15.
$20 .
lies.

Tw o..............................................
Three...........................................
Four................................... ........
F ive..............................................
S ix ................................................
Seven...........................................
Eight and o v e r ........................

2

T otal................................

5

2
1

1

4
1
1
2

9

14

5
5
5

10

5
7
9

10
6

6

13

1

5
3

3
3

25

59

2

4
4

7
6
2

7
4
1

1

3

36

30

34
32
31
25
20

13
10

165

Part 2.—Income after accident without compensation.
O n e .............................................
Two..............................................
Four............................................
Five.............................................
B ix...............................................
Seven...........................................
Eight and over.........................
Total................................

1 14
7
9
21
22
29
24
* 10
11
1
12
6
Three...........................................
U
2 12
2
2
4
7
2
*3
5
2
2
2
2
4
1
760

M3

6 34

8 10

1

1

22

1

2

3
2

11
4

1
1
29

1

J3

# 34
*26
32
6 33
*19
12

4
5

1

24

6165

i Including one family whose income from property is being held pending settlement of estate.
8 Income of one family not from compensation, but due to compensation.

3 Including one family whose income from property is being held pending settlem ent of estate, and tw o
families whose income is not from compensation, but due to compensation.
4 Including one family who get partial living from farm.
b Including one family who get partial living from farm, and three families whose income is not from com­
pensation, but due to compensation.
« Income of two families not from compensation, but due to compensation.
7 Including one family whose income from property is being held pending settlem ent of estate, and one
iamily who get partial living from farm.
s Including one family whose income from property is being held pending settlement of estate, one fam ily
who get partial living from farm, and eight families whose income is not from compensation, but due to
compensation.
Part 3.—Income after accident with compensation.
O ne............................................
T w o ............................................
Three...........................................
Four............................................
Five-............................................
Six
...................
Seven
....................
Eight and over

5
*5

T otal................................

229

8

4
4
3

i 11
4
6

5
1

4
1

i 32

8

9
7

12
-6
1
1

6
6

7
3
3

1
1
2

5
4

3
1
2

4
1

134

2 26

32
33
19
12

3

2
1
1

2
1

1

4
5

47

29

16

12

3 165

i Including one family whose income from property is being held pending settlement of estate.
* Including one family who get partial living from farm.
3 Including one family who get partial living from farm, and one family whose income from property is
being held pending settlement of estate.




T H E INVESTIGATION I N

OHIO.

57

The contrast between the incomes before and after the accident is
so great th a t it hardly needs comment. Before, 66 families had in­
comes of $20 or more a week; afterwards, only 5 families were in
this group. Before the accident only 3 per cent of the families had
incomes of less than $10 a week; after the accident 83 per cent had
fallen back into this group, and 62 per cent had either nothing at all
or less than $5 a week. Even this showing is unduly favorable, for
in eight cases p art or all of the income shown is derived directly from,
compensation. Thus in one of the cases in which the family income
is under $5 a widow with three children was left with a mortgaged
house. Having the compensation money to live on, she used $1,000
insurance to clear off the mortgage, then secured a partial commuta­
tion of the award, used the money received to remodel the house, part
of which she ren ted ; and on this rent and the remainder of the com­
pensation she expects to get along without difficulty until the children
are able to work. To the few families in the higher income groups
who have made somewhat similar arrangements the amount thus
“ due to compensation but not from compensation” is relatively un­
im portant, but to the families with low incomes it makes a very
material difference.
In Ohio, as in Connecticut, the situation of those most likely to
suffer was not greatly helped by insurance or death benefits of any
kind. Of the 103 families shown in Table 17 who had either no
income or less than $5 a week, 58 had received insurance or benefits
ranging from $30 up to $1,800. In 34 of these cases the amount
received was less than $500.
P art 3 of the table shows the extent to which the payment of com­
pensation helped the situation.
To a considerable extent this part of the table is theoretical. In a
large number of the Ohio cases the award had been commuted or paid
in a lump sum to enable the widow to buy a farm, pay off a mortgage,
establish a rooming house, or make some other business venture.
In such cases to give the actual income might misrepresent the situa­
tion seriously. If the widow bought a place with an acre or two of
ground, for instance, which she and the children cultivated, the com­
pensation, reduced perhaps to $5 a week, might be her only income,
yet the family might be living comfortably. Again, if an award is
commuted and used to pay off a mortgage the family may be relieved
of a steady drain on their income and consequently m aybe as well off
as if the full amount of the weekly award were added to their earn­
ings, yet there is nothing in the mere statem ent of income to show
this gain. Consequently, in computing the weekly receipts for this
part of this table, any income derived from the investm ent of part
or all of the compensation has been omitted and the compensation
has been reckoned at the weekly amount fixed in the award.




58:

CO M PENSATION L A W S; EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

The improvement brought about by the payment of compensation
is at once evident. In the third part of the table there are no families
without an income, none with less than $5 a week, and only about
one-sixth (17.6 per cent) with less than $10 a week. The proportion
which without compensation had under $10 a week (83 per cent) has
in this table become the proportion with less than $20 a week. The
four families with a membership of eight or more who without compen­
sation had no income at all are each receiving at least $10, and three
receive $12 per week. In these particular families there is nothing
theoretical about the figures given; the actual cash incomes are $10
and $12 a week.
Other family groups present equally striking changes. Of the 12
families with a membership of 6, without compensation, 9 had
incomes of less than $10 a week; with compensation, only 3 had so
little. Of the 33 families with a membership of 4, 23 had either
nothing or less than $5 a week without compensation, while with
compensation only 4 had under $10 a week and 24 had $12 or over.
Of the 32 families consisting of 3 members, without compensation,
only 3 had as much or more than $10 a week; with compensation, 24
reached or exceeded this sum. In the face of such figures it seems
hardly necessary to enlarge upon the importance of compensation in
enabling a family to adjust itself to the loss of its principal wage
earner.
CONDITION OF FA M ILIES W HOSE A W A R D S W ER E C O N T ESTE D .

Among the families of married decedents there were seven cases
in which, although an award had been made, the employer had con­
tested it and the family up to the time of the visit had received noth­
ing. A brief statem ent of the effect upon these families of the loss of
the decedent’s earnings seems in place here.
Most of these families were of small size, the membership in six
cases ranging after the accident from three to one. In the seventh
case there were nine members after the accident. Three of the chil­
dren w^ere of wage-earning age, ranging from 19 to 22 years. One of
these was out of work. Another had broken his arm, but as he was
receiving $8 a week as compensation for temporary disability he was
still able to help the family. The weekly income was $17, and on this
the family got along without finding it necessary to take the younger
children out of school, or otherwise greatly change their accustomed
w^ay of living.
In two cases only widows were left. In one instance the widow
lived for a time on $500 insurance and then returned to her parents
who W'ere able to give her a home. The other was a case of decided
hardship. The widow, who was left with nothing, sold her furniture
and lived on the proceeds and on help from the husband’s relatives
until after the birth and the death of her posthumous child, when she




TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

59

sought work. At the time of the visit she was out of work, in arrears
with her board, and greatly distressed over the outlook. The com­
pensation awarded but not received was $12 a week for six years.
Another case of much hardship was th a t of a widow left with a
son of 7 and nothing but $125 insurance to depend on. She broke
up her home, boarded her boy with relatives, and worked as a do­
mestic. In two other cases the widows, each left with two depen­
dents, supported them by their own work, one taking boarders, the
other going out as a cook. In another case, the widow and her son of
21 both went to work, the latter leaving college for the purpose.
Between them they are keeping the younger child, 14, in school and
buying a house.
In five out of the seven cases, therefore, the lack of compensation
forced the widow to become a wage earner; in one, a boy’s college
course had to be given up; and in two, it resulted, even w ith the
widow’s work as partial substitute, in actual hardship and distress.
METHODS OF MAKING UP DEFICIT IN FAMILY INCOME.

Taking childrenfrom school to work.—As the compensation awards
were never more than two-thirds of the decedent’s earnings, various
methods had sometimes to be adopted to make up all or a part of the
deficit. Taking children from school or cutting short their special
training was an infrequent method. Reference has just been made to
one case in which the award was contested and a son of 21 left college
and went to work. A part from this case there were 17 instances in
which children had left school between the father’s death and the
agent’s visit. Nine were boys and eight girls. In 10 cases—4 boys
and 6 girls—there appeared to be no economic necessity for this
course. W ith the boys, especially, who were from 15 to 18 years old,
it appeared to be simply a m atter of having reached an age when they
felt it was the proper thing to go to work and so went. W ith the
girls, who ranged from 12 to 16, there Were different, noneconomic
reaeons. In two cases, including one child of 12, the mothers thought
they had had sufficient schooling and wanted their help a t home.
One girl was threatened with tuberculosis and dropped out of school
on the doctor’s advice, and the others, all 15 or 16 years old, seemed
to act more from a feeling th at it was time to begin work than from
necessity.
In the cases of four boys and two girls their earnings were plainly
needed. The boys ranged in age from 14 to 17. In one case the
necessity arose from the fact th at the decedent’s employer, who was
self-insured, after making the compensation payments regularly for
a year, defaulted and the family was left with no income. In the
other cases the boys were 15 or 16, the families were of a good size,
and the compensation was not sufficient income. Of the two girls,
one aged 15 was kept at home to care for the house while her mother




60

COM PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT OK W OM AN AND CHILD LABOR.

worked out, and the other, 20, gave up a business college course,
partly because the family income could no longer stand the expense
of it and partly because her help was needed, and took whatever
work she could find. Finally, a young man of 21 gave up a college
course and went into business, not so much because his earnings
were necessary as because his mother could no longer meet the rather
heavy expenses of his stay in college.
Moving into cheaper quarters.—This was by no means a general way
of meeting the exigencies of the reduced income, but was adopted in 23
cases, or 11 per cent of the whole number of families of married dece­
dents. In nine cases cheaper quarters were sought by widows with no
children. Occasionally the move was made in order to live with
relatives, or to get into the same house with friends. In not one of
the contested cases in which no compensation was received was this
method of economizing adopted; it was, however, in the case in
which payments were defaulted after having been made for a year.
Perhaps the frequency with which awards were devoted to buying
homes had something to do with the tact th a t families did not more
often seek to secure cheaper quarters.
Gainful employment of widows.—I t is evident th at work in addition
to her household duties is more likely to affect both the woman and
her home injuriously when she has young children than when she has
either no children or children old enough to look after themselves
to a considerable extent. Consequently, in this discussion the wid­
ows have been grouped according to the number of their children
under 14. Table 18 shows how many were gainfully employed before
the accident and how many secured such employment as a result of
the accident:
T a b l e 1 8 .—W OM EN AT W O R K B E F O R E A N D A FT E R

Children in fam ily un­
der 14 years of age.

W omen
W omen
working
woridng before and
before acci­
after
dent only. accident.
1

ACCIDENT.

Women
working
after acci­
dent only.

F iv e ......................................
Fou r.....................................
Three...................................
T w o......................................
O ne......................................
N o n e..................................

1
2

8

23

Total.......................:

3

28

58

4

5

2

4
9

11
11

1

7

The cases in which the women worked before the accident but not
after it require no particular comment. In two cases the widow did
not feel physically able to continue her work. In the third case
the widow had a boarder; b u t after the accident, when his work took
him away from the neighborhood, she had not thought it worth while
to take another. Most of the women who worked both before and




TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

61

after the accident kept on at their usual work; one, who before
her husband’s death had taken in sewing at home, after it went into
a glass factory, but this was exceptional. Fourteen of these women
took boarders or lodgers, eight did washing, cleaning, or the like, and
the remaining six were scattered in various occupations, two being
in factories and one in a laundry.
To a very considerable extent the women who worked for money
after, but not before, the accident sought occupations which would
not take them away from their homes. This was particularly true
of those who had young children. Thirty-five had a t the time of
the accident a child or children under 14. In one of these cases the
family was broken up altogether, the widow’s stepdaughter going to
her father’s relatives and her own daughter to an uncle, so th at
although the widow went to work outside her home there were no
children to be neglected. Of the others, 19 either kept boarders or
lodgers, or took in washing or some other work a t home; one took
care of a church; six went out from one to three days a week washing
or cleaning; and eight were regularly employed away from home.
Only three of these eight had more than one child under 14, and one
of the three had worked for only a few weeks» Of the 23 who had
no children under 14,. eleven worked a t home.
Of the whole number working only after their husbands’ deaths, 26
took boarders or lodgers, 12 did washing and ironing and cleaning at
home or elsewhere, 5 did other forms of domestic work outside the
home, and the remaining 15 were scattered through a variety of
pursuits from rug making to salesmanship. Their earnings ranged
up to $15 a week, only one woman, a childless widow who took up
nursing, earning the latter figure. I t was rather exceptional for these
women to earn over $5 a week when working away from home.
When they kept boarders they might take in larger sums, but it was
impossible to say what part of these was profit. In the main the
widows with young children kept boarders, or took in washing, or in
some other way tried to avoid leaving home. When this was impos­
sible, unless there was a daughter old enough to look after the little
ones, the help of relatives was usually enlisted, and tho babies were
left with a mother, aunt, or sister. No instances were found in which
the children appeared to be neglected or suffering because of their
m other’s absence a t work.
Other methods.—I t is always possible, when the chief wage earner
of a family is gone, th a t the work of the widow and children m ay not
be sufficient to make up the deficit, and th a t recourse m ust be had
to friends or charity, or the family be broken up, or property they
have been buying be sacrificed, or some other disastrous loss suffered.
I t is known th a t under the liability laws such results were not un­
common. Among the Ohio cases studied, on the other hand, under




62

COM PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

the compensation law such unfortunate outcomes were exceptional.
Fourteen widows had given up their own homes, it is true, and were
living with relatives, b u t this step had been taken as a convenience
rather than as a necessity. In some instances the young widow with
no children had simply returned to her father’s house and taken up
life again where her marriage had interrupted it; in other cases, the
widow and some relative had combined their resources, both sides
profiting by the arrangement. In some of these cases it was tolerably
evident th a t it would have been a hardship for the relative to assume
the full support of the widow, especially when she had a child, but
when she could contribute from $8 to $12 a week to the common
purse, or could clothe herself and the child, setting off her work in
the household against their board, the situation took on a wholly
different aspect.
Only two cases were found in which charitable aid was given to
recipients of compensation. A widow with a family of seven, only
one old enough to work, was in poor health and burdened with debts
incurred before her husband’s death. Her husband’s earnings had
averaged only $10 a week, so the compensation was necessarily
small, and the city had to help out from time to time with groceries,
coal, and shoes. In a second case the man had'been a drinker and a
wastrel, and the burden of the family support, even before hi? death,
had fallen largely on his wife. A baby was born two months before
the accident and the Associated Charities had had to give help at
th a t time. After the accident they gave help again up to the time
compensation was awarded, after which, with the compensation and
her own earnings, the widow supported herself and her children.
B ut her health had been too severely tried and a few months later
she broke down altogether. At the time of the visit she was in a
hospital and her two children were in a home, their board being paid
from the compensation. This was the most pronounced case of
disaster found, and here the distress was largely due to conditions
existing before the accident.
In five other cases collections had been taken up by friends for
the widow’s benefit, the amounts ranging from $25 to $100. These
collections seemed to have no relation to the widow’s necessity—
the largest amount was for a widow with no children and $10 a week
compensation—and probably should be regarded as an expression of
friendship rather than of charitable help. On the whole, it may be
said th a t recourse to charity was very rare among the families
receiving compensation.
The breaking up of a family, also, was scarcely found among the
cases studied. In four instances the decedent’s children by an
earlier marriage went, after his death, to their own relatives instead
of staying with the stepmother. A proportionate share of the com-




TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

6a

pensation had been awarded them and their going was more a m atter
of family feeling than of economic need. In one case of this kind the
widow felt th a t the diminished compensation was too little to sup­
port herself and her own child, so she let the latter go to relatives
who wanted her. In another case, where there were no stepchildren,
the widow left her two children with her mother and went off to a
neighboring city to get work, intending, as soon as she was estab­
lished, to send for her children and make a home in the new loca­
tion. These were the only cases in which a family could be said to
have been broken up, even temporarily, as a result of the accident,
except in one case in which the award was contested.1
E F F E C T OF D E C E D E N T ’S LOSS ON O W N E R SH IP OF P R O P E R T Y .

Turning to the result of the fatality upon the family ownership of
property, not a single case appears in which there was any loss.
Before the accident 71 families owned their homes, 27 clear and 44
mortgaged. In the families receiving compensation the mortgages
were cleared off altogether in 27 cases and reduced in 9 others.
Twenty-four families owned property other than homes, 13 owning it
clear and 11 mortgaged. In one case, after the accident, the prop­
erty wasLsold for the sake of making a better investment, in four
cases the mortgage was cleared off, and in two others it was reduced.
After ttfe accident two families who had owned their homes sold them
for the sake of buying others which were more satisfactory, and 42
others bought homes with their compensation or insurance, or both.
In one of the six cases of permanent total disability the victim bought
a home with part of his award. As net results, therefore, it appears
th at after the accident 31 mortgages were cleared off of property
already owned and none put on, and th a t no homes were lost through
failure to meet payments as they came due, but 45 were purchased,
29 of these being fully paid for and 16 taken with a mortgage.
FAMILIES OF REMARRIED WIDOWS.

Although at the time of the visit of investigation these families
may be regarded as economically reestablished, the brief history
obtained gives some idea of the effect of compensation during the
interval before the remarriage. In the first case a foreign widow
found herself left with five children under 9 and absolutely no
income. Twenty-four days after her husband’s death she was
awarded $7 a week. She could not leave her children to go to work,
and the provision, for a family of six, was scanty, so 10 weeks after
her husband’s death she married again. This is the only case in
which the remarriage might be attributed to economic pressure.
Two other widows were left each with three children under 7 and no
1 See p. 59.

2141°— 18— B u ll. 217-------5




64

CO M PENSATION U W S : EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

income, but in each case there were relatives to help until the award
was received, and the compensation, $12 in one case, $8.60 in the
other, was not so disproportionate to the size of the family as in the
first case. In still another ease the widow had only one child—post­
humous—and compensation of $11.67 a week, In the last three cases
the compensation seemed sufficient to avert actual suffering up to
the time of the remarriage.
FAMILIES OF SINGLE M EN.

Three men in this group had been married, b u t as they were either
widowers or separated from their wives, and as they had no minor
or dependent children, they had no responsibilities beyond those of
single men; hence their inclusion here. In one case the decedent,
who had been separated from his wife for years, lived w ith his parents
and turned in all his wages to help support the family, which included
four grandchildren, ranging from 14 years downward. After his
death his wife claimed the compensation, and payments were with­
held pending an examination of her claim. In this ease, there is no
question th a t the loss of the decedent’s earnings was seriously felt.
This is one of the cases in which there was an interval of six months
between the accident and death. During this time the injured man
was awarded $ 12 a week as compensation for total disability, and with­
out this it is hard to see how the family could have m et the situa­
tion. In the other two cases the decedents lived, respectively, with
a m other and a sister-in-law, each of whom had equally near rela­
tives ready to help if it were necessary; their deaths m eant a loss,
but no economic disaster.
In two of the 33 cases in which the decedent was single it was im­
possible to learn the amount of the family income and consequently
the importance of the decedent’s earnings. The remaining 31 cases
fall into three groups. In the first, consisting of 5 cases, the dece­
dent’s contributions formed the only computable income; in the
second, numbering 11 cases, they formed one-half or more of the
income; and in the th ird they formed less than half, b u t in only 5
cases fell to less than one-fourth. In the first group the death would
in every case have meant hardship and in some instances disaster to
the family had there been no compensation. In three of these cases
the decedent was the only support of a widowed mother. In the
second group were five cases in which the death would have caused
acute economic distress had no compensation been received. In
three of these cases the deceased was the main support of a widowed
mother, and had, in addition, an invalid or crippled sister to care for.
In the two other cases both parents were living, but the fath er’s age or
illness in the family or unemployment or some other cause operated
to make the decedent’s contribution necessary if the family were not




T H E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

65

to suffer. In the third group 11 of the 15 decedents lived with both
parents, three with widowed mothers, and one with a widowed sister.
In two of these cases the families were in comfortable circumstances,
and the loss of the decedent’s contributions, even w ithout compensa­
tion, would not have been a serious m atter; in the others, the loss
would have been felt with varying degrees of severity, b u t in none
would it have caused anything like destitution.
To sum up the situation, then, it appears th a t in two of these 36
cases the effect upon the family welfare of the loss of the decedent’s
contributions was doubtful, in 23, without compensation, it would have
been felt with varying degrees of severity ranging from a mere moder­
ate reduction of a fairly comfortable income to a serious deprivation,
and in 11 it would have caused severe economic suffering or absolute
disaster.
CASES OF PERMANENT TOTAL DISABILITY.

In eases of permanent total disability, under the Ohio law, com
pensation is to be paid for life. The weekly payments, as in the case
of a fatality, may run up to 6 6 | per cent of the injured m an’s average
weekly earnings, $12 being the maximum. The award may be com­
muted, the expectation of life a t the victim’s age being taken as the
basis for calculating commutation.
Records were secured for 12 cases of perm anent total incapacity.
Four of the injured men had been blinded, two had had both hands
cut off, two had lost both feet, one was paralyzed, one hopelessly
crippled, one had received brain injuries resulting in epilepsy and
other troubles, and in one case the nature of the injury was not
learned. Two of the men thus injured were 19, four were 20 but
under 30, three between 40 and 50, one just 50, one 65, and in one
case the age was not reported. Ju st half, it will be noticed, were
under 30. Six were married, five single, and in one case the conjugal
condition was not reported.
In six cases it was not possible to visit the injured man. One had
gone back to Syria, one lived outside the State, and four lived in
places which could not be easily reached.
Of the six who were visited, four were married and two had children
under 14. In the first case, th a t of the man who had been crippled,
compensation seemed to have met the needs of the case very satis­
factorily. His award of $12 a week had been partially commuted,
giving him a lump sum of $3,744, with which he had bought and
stocked a farm th a t his two sons carried on. He was still receiving
$7.75 a week compensation, which would be continued for the
remainder of his life. In the second case, in which the m an’s brain
had been injured, the effect of compensation is even more marked.
The family consisted of the man’s wife, who was in feeble health,
and two children, 6 and 2 years old. As the wife was not strong




66

COMPENSATION LAWS I EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

enough to work and there were no relatives able to help, without
compensation it would apparently have been necessary to call upon
charity and probably the family would have been broken up. As
it was, they had moved to cheaper quarters, b u t were keeping to­
gether and did not consider themselves actually suffering upon the
$10.67 a week awarded them. In the third case the victim, who, in
addition to being totally blinded, lost one hand in the accident, had
a wife and two children aged 9 and 6, respectively. He was awarded
$12 a week for life b u t his employer, who was self-insured, refused to
pay the award. The industrial commission has taken legal steps to
compel payment and the case is now in the courts.
The remaining cases need no comment; the importance of the com­
pensation is apparent enough. To a boy of 19 who has lost both feet,
or a man of 27 whose sight is gone forever, $8 or $10 a week is no
recompense for his loss, but, at least, it means th a t he will neither be
a burden upon his friends nor forced to seek charity. In these cases
of total disability the need for compensation is greater and its effect
in preventing suffering and disaster is more marked even than in
the fatal cases.
CASES IN WHICH THERE WAS NO FAMILY GROUP.

Of the 10 men having no family group, six were either widowed,
divorced, or separated from their wives. None of these men were
doing anything toward the support of the family due to their marriage.
The two widowers had, respectively, one and two minor children, but
relatives cared for these. Two others had deserted their wives, who
had found work and were trying to support themselves. One of
the two who were divorced supported a sister who was elderly and
in poor health; in this case there would apparently have been real
hardship had there been no compensation. The other sometimes
helped his father, who had a large family of grown children. Of the
four single men only one could be said to have anyone dependent to
any considerable extent upon him. In this case the decedent had
a deaf-mute brother whom he helped as need arose. The latter was
55 years old, and owing to his infirmity and his years had found it
increasingly difficult to secure work as a stonemason, th a t being his
trade, and depended more and more upon his brother. Apparently,
charitable aid would have been necessary had he not received com­
pensation.
UN VISITED CASES.

Omitting the pending cases in which the fact of dependency had
not yet been proved, and the cases in which the decedent was known
to have left no dependents, there remained 111 cases in which it




THE INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

67

was impossible to visit the dependents, either because they were non­
resident or for some other reason. In these cases it is not possible to
say how greatly the compensation award was needed, nor how far it
prevented hardship and suffering, b u t something may be inferred
from the dependents of the decedents. Thirty-six of the victims of
the fatalities were single, 6 were widowers or separated, and 69 were
married. Fifteen of the single men were contributing to the support
of their parents, 11 to the support of parents and brothers and sisters,
4 took care of widowed mothers, and the rem ainder'helped other
relatives. Three of the widowers had young children dependent upon
them. Of the 69 married men, 20 left widows only (in one of these
cases a child was born two months after its father’s death), 5 left
widows with children either over 14 or their ages not stated, and 44
left widows with children, under 14. Ohio makes exactly the same
award to alien nonresident dependents as to any other, so th a t for
all these families the compensation would be sufficiently large to be
of real importance.
CASES DISM ISSED OB WITHDBAWN.

Fifty-two cases were dismissed or disallowed. In six of these cases
the preliminary notice of death was not followed by any claim, so
th a t the question of whether or not the death was really an industrial
fatality never came up for decision. In nine cases the accident on
which the claim was based did not occur in the course of employment.
A boy, during the noon hour, went in swimming and was drowned;
a man left his work, went up onto a roof to watch a fire, fell off, and
was killed; a boy of 16, running with a glass tube in his m outh while
playing with others during the noon hour, ran against a post, forced
the tube into his throat, and cut an artery; and so on. In each of
these cases there was an accident, b u t it could hardly be attributed to
the employment. In two instances the deceased was proved to have
committed suicide; in 22, death had no connection with an industrial
accident; and in eight cases, although there had been an accident, medi­
cal testimony showed th a t death was due to a diseased condition exist­
ing before it. The other five cases were all industrial accidents, b u t
one of the decedents, being engaged in interstate commerce, and an­
other being a city employee whose dependents were already provided
for by a special fund, did not come under the operation of the law ; one
was an independent contractor, not an employee; one had not been
employed by the company against whom the claim was brought;,
and one had worked for a man who employed fewer than five workers.
The grounds for refusing awards seem pretty definitely settled.
Occupational diseases are not considered accidents within the mean­
ing of the law; neither is compensation due when death results from
a preexistent disease, even though the disease m ay have been aggra-




68

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR,

vated by the conditions of employment. On the other hand, if a
disease results directly from an accident, as septic pneumonia, for
instance, m ay follow an injury, compensation is due. Also, if a
latent disease is roused into activity by an injury the accident m ay
be regarded as the prim ary cause. The general principle is th a t there
m ust have been accident or violence and th at this m ust have been
closely connected with the employment, if not actually arising out
of it.
CONTESTED CASES.

The grounds on which awards were contested throw little additional
light on the meaning and scope of the law, as in general contests were
not based on questions of interpretation. There were 11 cases in
which awards had been rendered, but in which up to the time of the
agent’s visit no payments had been made. • Seven of these were cases
in which the employer had neither insured in the State fund nor made
any equivalent arrangement; he had simply ignored the law, hoping
th a t no accident would occur to betray th a t he had done so. When
the accident did occur, he either was, or professed to be, unable to pay
the award. In an eighth case in which the employer had not insured,
he was trying to evade paym ent on the ground th a t the death did not
fairly come within the scope of the law, a point on which the commis­
sion differed from him absolutely. The* industrial commission had
taken action against all eight of these employers to compel payment,
but the cases were still unsettled. In a ninth case the decedent’s
parents regarded the award as insufficient, and were insisting on
further discussion in the hope of securing more. In another case a
wife from whom the decedent had been separated for years demanded
part of the compensation which had been awarded to the parents, and
the award was held up until her claim could be investigated. The
eleventh case concerned a fireman who had been blown off a vessel
and drowned. His employers, an Ohio firm, claimed th a t as the
accident had occurred on the lake outside of the State limits, the
Ohio law did not cover it, and on this ground they were fighting the
award. Not a case was found in which the constitutionality of the
law itself was impugned, or any attem pt made to set up the old de­
fences of assumption of risk, etc.
DETAILS CONCERNING WORKING OF THE COMPENSATION LAW.
DELAY.

Turning to the working of the compensation law as compared with
th a t of the liability laws, and taking up first the question of delay,
Table 19 shows the interval between death and award, or, in the cases
of permanent total disability, between accident and award:




69

THE INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.
T a b l e 1 9 . — IN T E R V A L B E T W E E N

D E A T H OR ACCIDENT A N D A W A R D IN G OF COM­
P E N SA T IO N .

2
2
3
6
1
weeks month months months months Over
Total
and
and
and
and
and
N ot re­ num­
12
under under under under under m onths. ported. ber of
weeks.
12
1
2
3
6
cases.
month. months. months. months. months.

Under

D ependents.

2

DEPENDENTS OF DECEDENTS.

R esidents.................................
N onresidents...........................

21

T otal...............................

21

79

94

34

44

6

20

10

22

22
11

1

2
1

296
71

85

114

44

66

33

1

3

367

3

1

1

44

69

34

2

3

1 379

DEPENDENTS OF PERMA­
NENTLY DISABLED.

R esid en ts.................................

1

1

5

Grand total...................

22

86

119

12

i N ot including 20 cases in which dependency had not y e t been determined, or in which there were no
dependents.

As in the 12 cases of permanent incapacity the claimants were up
to the time of the award residents of the State, they may be grouped
with the fatal cases having resident dependents. This gives 306
cases with resident claimants in which the time required for making
an award is definitely reported. The distribution of these cases by
intervals is curiously close to th at found among the Connecticut cases
studied. One-third were decided within less than a month, almost
another third (32.4 per cent) took one month but less than two months,
11.1 per cent required two months but less than three, and not far
from one-fourth (23.2 per cent) were still unsettled at the end of
three months. A t the end of six months all but 7.8 per cent had
been decided.
The delay in this last group seemed due to a variety of causes. In
three of the fatal cases death was due to blood poisoning. Such
cases are always open to doubt and require careful investigation to
establish beyond question the connection between the accident and
the death. Three were cases in which the employer had not insured
and sought unsuccessfully to escape payment. In one case the
m an’s wife was out of the country, making a visit to her old home
when the accident occurred, and proceedings were delayed until she
could return. In a number of cases whether or not the death ought
to be considered an industrial fatality was open to question, and very
careful investigation and consideration were necessary before reaching
a conclusion, especially since these conclusions would establish pre­
cedents for the future.
Naturally there was more delay when the claimants were non­
resident. Practically half of these cases for which the time was
definitely reported were settled within three months after death,
as against about three-fourths of the cases with resident dependents
settled in the same period. Nearly one-third of the nonresident




70

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

cases required from three to six months for settlement, and a trifle
over one-sixth (17.1 per cent) took more than six months.
A delay of months in receiving compensation might easily cause
hardship to the victim ’s family, and if such delays were frequent they
would constitute a serious reflection upon the working of the law.
The large majority of the cases, however, are settled within the first
three months, and the proportion of prompt awards is likely to
increase steadily as the law becomes more and more familiar to all
affected by it and as precedents are established on difficult and per­
plexing questions. Meanwhile, unfortunate as it is th at there should
be some long-delayed awards, the situation is immensely better than
under the system prevailing before the compensation law was passed,
so far as facts can be obtained for comparison. The Employers’
Liability Commission reporting in 1911 on fatal accidents in Cuyahoga
County, Ohio, says th a t in 244 cases settled out of court the average
time required for settlem ent was eight months and one day; in 87
cases settled in the United States circuit court the average time was
nine months and nine days; and for 36 cases settled in the court of
common pleas the average time required was two years and one
month.1 By contrast,,of the 376 cases studied in this investigation
for which the time required for settlement was definitely reported,
90 per cent were settled within six months and in only 14 cases did
the time required reach or exceed eight months.
EXPENSE.

Ordinarily the claimant has no expenses in connection with getting
the award. The commission supplies the necessary forms for making
application and beyond filling these out the claimant has little to do.
If there is any doubt as to whether the death was really an industrial
fatality the claimant may, if he chooses, employ a lawyer to look
after his interests, and in such case what th e lawyer will charge seems
a very uncertain m atter. Nine cases were found in which the claim­
ants had employed lawyers; in one case the charge was $25, in one
$145; in two cases $250, in two $350; in one case $500, in one $600;
while in one case the amount was not reported. The higher charges
constituted a distinct hardship, since they ran up in one case to 22 per
cent of the award received. If the known expense of these cases is
looked upon as applying to the whole body of claimants, however, it
is inconsiderable, amounting to only $9.80 for each of the 252 cases
visited. This compares favorably enough with the findings of the
Ohio commission already quoted. In studying the fatal cases in
Cuyahoga County, they became convinced “ th at there is a tariff
rate, pretty generally accepted, of 25 per cen t”—of the amount of
damages secured—“ for a settlement out of court and 33 per cent
for a court award necessitating only one trial.” This was for lawyers’
i Report of the Employers’ Liability Commission of Ohio, 1911, pp. XLIII-XLV.




T H E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

71

fees only; in addition the investigators found other costs ranging
from an average of $9.06 in cases settled out of court up to $573.65
in appealed cases.1
I t is worth noticing th a t in three of the nine cases in which a
lawyer had been employed the decedent’s employer was carrying his
own insurance. In each of these cases the employer at first either
refused to pay the award or seemed inclined to contest it, the ground
of contest usually being one of the old employers’ defences. When
an employer is insured in the State fund such a ground of contest is
never considered for a moment and as it becomes generally under­
stood among the self-insured th at such a claim has no standing, this
particular reason for employing a lawyer will probably disappear
altogether. In two of the remaining cases the deceased had been
killed by a fellow employee. There was considerable doubt as to
whether such cases were really entitled to compensation, and lawyers
were employed to present the cases as the claimants saw them. In
one of the remaining cases the widow secured a lawyer to defend her
claims against the decedent’s grown children by a former marriage;
in one, because the award was long delayed and she grew anxious; in
one, to secure a reopening of the case which resulted in a larger award;
and in one, no reason was assigned.
I t is doubtful whether a compensation law can reach a condition
of such perfection th a t there will be no need for claimants to secure
legal aid. Questions of fact will arise and also disputes among
claimants themselves as to their respective rights to the compensa­
tion and in such cases the parties in interest will naturally wish
legal representation. But as the treatm ent of claims becomes better
understood and as the standards by which degree of dependency and
the industrial or nonindustrial character of a fatality are determined
become established, the incentive to employ lawyers will be reduced.
Meanwhile it is to be observed th a t in 96 per cent of the 252 cases
visited the award was made without the claimant having found it
necessary or desirable to call in legal aid.
UNCERTAINTY.

Under the liability system the dependents, in case of an industrial
fatality, were confronted by a double uncertainty—whether they
would get any damages at all and, if so, how much. On both points
there was very considerable room for doubt. The Ohio commission
already quoted found th a t a settlem ent was made in 36 per cent of
the fatal industrial accidents occurring in Cuyahoga County in the
period covered by their investigation. They also found th a t these
settlements varied widely in amount.
There was a settlement made for 370 fatal industrial accidents
of $351,200. Approximately one-half (52 per cent) of this amount
1 Report of the Employers’ Liability Commission of Ohio, 1911, p. XLII.




72

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

was paid for 12 per cent of these accidents, whereas the remaining
half was distributed among 88 per cent of the cases. Sixty per cent
of the cases received amounts ranging somewhere between $50
and $500. * * * The amounts received varied from funeral
expenses to $5,000. * * * Approximately one-fourth of the
amount received was paid out as plaintiffs’ attorney fees and court
costs.1
Elsewhere it is stated th a t settlements were made in 42 per cent
of the eases in which widows were left. T hat is, when a man was
killed at work there was not quite an even chance th a t his widow
would receive something in the way of damages, while if she did re­
ceive something there was absolute uncertainty as to w hat the amount
would be; also, as to what part of this amount she would have to
pay for securing a settlement.
Under the compensation law, on the other hand, as seen in this
investigation, in ordinary industrial fatalities there is no uncer­
tain ty as to the fact of an award and very little as to its amount;
the limits within which it may vary are sharply fixed and where
claimants are really dependent the tendency is to award the maximum.
There are, it is true, some cases in which the industrial character
of the death is questionable and in these the claimant has no cer­
tainty as to the decision which will be reached. B ut each case of this
kind, as it is decided, reduces the field of possible future uncertainty.
A decision once reached establishes a precedent throughout the
State.
The principal uncertainty in Ohio arises from the fact th a t if an
employer in defiance of the law does not insure and if, as a conse­
quence, when an accident takes place he is unable to pay the com­
pensation awarded, there is no provision made for the claim ant’s
protection. An award unenforced is small comfort to a needy
family, but there is no recourse. The decedent was in no way
responsible for his employer’s failure to comply w ith the law, yet his
family must suffer for it. Such cases are fortunately unusual, yet,
as the preceding pages show, they were found and sometimes involved
severe hardship. In all these instances the industrial commission was
taking legal measures against the delinquent employers, with the
avowed purpose of making examples of them for the sake of deterring
others from a similar disregard of the law. This policy will probably
be effective in the long run. I t is not impossible also th a t some
change in the law may be made. There seemed to be rather a wide­
spread feeling th a t the State ought to stand back of its law and see
th a t all those entitled to compensation get it. As one official put
it, “ If the State doesn’t enforce its own law requiring employers to
make satisfactory insurance arrangements, then the State ought to
bear the cost of its failure, not let it fall on a dead m an’s family.”
1 Report of the Ohio Employers' Liability Commission, 1911, p. XXXVI.




THE INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

73

Meanwhile such cases were far from numerous. Only seven were
found in which, owing either to this cause or to a question of jurisdic­
tion, widows had up to the time of the agent’s visit received no
compensation. As there were 206 cases in which widows had been
left, we have 96.6 per cent who received a settlement as against the
42 per cent found by the Employers’ Liability Commission; th at is,
under the old system a widow had something less than one chance in
two of getting damages, while under the new system she has someting less than one chance in 25 of not getting them.
INCIDENCE OF LOSS DUE TO INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES.

Jn d e r the liability system if no damages were received the dece­
dent’s family were expected to bear the whole burden of the loss of
the wage earner; widows went out to work, children became wage
earners, and if the income was still below what was needed for abso­
lute necessities, charity was solicited. There are no satisfactory
data to show what proportion of the families of men killed at their
work had to resort to any or all of these methods, but there is evi­
dence that' all were used frequently. In the investigation in Cuya­
hoga County, it was found th a t in 48 out of 86 families (55.8 per cent)
the widows had been obliged to go to work as a result of the acci­
dent.1 I t is not stated whether these widows went into factories,
shops, and the like, or took in work at home, b ut the average earnings
reported, $5.51 per week, make it seem probable th a t they took
positions outside the home with regular wages. Of the 206 widows
visited in this investigation 58 took up gainful pursuits as a conse­
quence of the fatality; but 23 of these had no children under 14, and
the majority of the others took boarders or let rooms, occupations
which did not involve leaving their homes.
As to charitable relief it was impossible to get exact data concern­
ing the situation before the passage of compensation laws. Social
workers declared th at the loss of income due to industrial accidents
was one of the main causes of poverty and th at, both in the burden
thrown on the charitable resources of the community and in the effect
on the character of the dependents, it was a source of wide-spread and
serious evil.2 The discussion in the preceding pages shows how
1 Report of Ohio Employers’ Liability Commission, 1911, p. X L V .
2 These consequences were emphasized in the hearings before the New York commission, as shown in

First Report of N ew York Commission on Employers’ L iability, 1910, p. 28, as follows:
“ W e see consequences on the character and permanent social standing of the family which are far more
serious. T hey are the direct result of the cutting off of th e income. W e see people becoming chronic
dependents and begging for charitable assistance, who never would have gotten in that position except
for the accident to the wage earner. W e see people becoming careless who couldn’t have been careless
before the situation arose as the result of this accident. W e see people dispossessed for the first tim e in
their lives because of this accident and going into the ranks of people who expect to be dispossessed w hen­
ever they m ove. W e see people pawning their furniture; w e see people using up w hat little savings-bank
account th ey have had; w e see people obliged to turn in humiliation and w ith permanent injury to the
charitable societies or to relatives and friends and other people who have heretofore been entirely independ­
ent and self-supporting.”




74

COM PENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON W OM AN A N D CHILD LABOR.

seldom the families studied in this investigation found it necessary
to seek outside aid; recourse to charity was hardly known among
them.
I t was entirely possible, however, th at a family's own statem ent
concerning this m atter might not be wholly reliable, so the question
was taken up, when possible, with the charitable agencies. In the
larger cities, where such work is organized and a central registration
bureau kept, lists of the families who had lost a wage earner by an
industrial accident within the year covered were submitted to the
central registration agency and a report asked for as to whether any
, of these had received help since or as a consequence of the wage earn­
er's death. The answers confirmed very fully the findings of the
investigation. In one city in which a list of 20 names was submitted
only one had been recorded as applying for aid since the wage earner's
death. In this case a widow with two small children, whose husband
had earned under $12 a week and whose compensation was, therefore,
necessarily small, had applied for a widow's pension, but the appli­
cation was refused.
“ I was surprised myself," writes the official in charge, “ to see the
extent to which your list is entirely self-supporting. This is par­
ticularly significant when you consider th a t our general registration
bureau has listed with it the names of all persons dealt with by such
other agencies as the district nursing association, the tuberculosis
society, juvenile court, and many other groups."
In another city in which a list of 24 names was submitted a similar
report was given; when compensation was received aid was not
necessary.
lt On the whole, our conclusion is th at the law has had an appreciable
effect in lessening dependency and is a splendid social proposition,"
is the way one social worker summed up the experience of his bureau.
In fact, wherever the inquiry was made the answer was practically
the same; the families of workers killed in industrial accidents were
not found to any appreciable extent among those receiving charitable
relief. This particular part of the economic loss involved in a wage
earner's death appears to have been shifted from the general public
to the industry in which the fatality occurred.
I t is not meant, of course, th at the family does not suffer. Under
the best of circumstances, compensation is only a part of the de­
cedent's earnings, and the reduction in income is often a serious
m atter. In many cases, even, with compensation the resources ap­
peared altogether disproportionate to the size of the family, and in a
few living conditions were miserably poor. These were for the most
part foreign families who have not yet adopted American standards,
and who consequently took as a m atter of course conditions which
other families simply would not have accepted. Three cases were
encountered in which bad conditions were obviously due to intemper­



TH E INVESTIGATION IN OHIO.

75

ance or general worthlessness on the part of the decedents or of the
survivors, or both. In other families the same causes may have
been at work, less obviously, but in general the evidence was all the
other way. As to the adequacy of the awards, it was an interesting
fact th at the widows with the largest families and apparently the
most discouraging outlook had no complaints to make on this score.
Presumably it was such a relief to have this amount as a certainty
that it hardly occurred to them to think of it as too little. When
the family was large, as a rule one or more of the children would reach
working age before the 312 weeks had passed; when the family was
smaller, and the children too young to work, not infrequently the
widow was trying to save part of the compensation to provide against
the time when it would cease.
Only a few cases were found in which the widow was inclined to
complain of the compensation. One with four children ranging from
15 downward and having an award of $2,496 in weekly installments
of $8 was dissatisfied, thinking th at she could have sued the company
and gotten more than compensation gave her. One widow of 26 with
two small children and a third expected, found it almost impossible
to get along on $12 a week, and realizing th at the compensation would
come to an end while the children were still under 14, was much dis­
couraged. A widow of 60 with $7 a week complained th at the
amount was too small to do anything with—“ couldn’t even buy
admission to an old ladies’ home,” and didn’t know what she would
do when the six years came to an end. One or two others were found
who took a similar attitude, but these were exceptions. For the
most part all shared the attitude of one widow who, after recounting
her troubles, explained th at she never stayed downhearted long
because her sister cheered her up by saying: “ Look how much better
off you are than if he’d a died natural.”
COMMUTATION OF AWARDS.

One reason for the effectiveness of compensation in Ohio may be
found in the flexibility of the awards. The general intention is th at
compensation shall be paid in weekly installments extending over
six years, but the commissioners are authorized to make any other
arrangement they consider wise, and they take full advantage of this
authorization. I t often happens th at a sum of money in hand will
do the family more good than the same amount received in weekly
payments. If the decedent’s work was irregular, or there had been
much illness in the family, they may at the time of the fatality be
handicapped by debt. They may have been buying a home, and
may find themselves quite unable to keep up the payments out of
the weekly compensation payment. They may own a home larger
than they need for their own use, which for a few hundred dollars
can be so altered th at a part of it may be rented, or a widow may see



76

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

a good chance of buying a rooming house or establishing herself in
some other business.
In such cases an application is made for a complete or partial com­
m utation of the award, and if the purpose avowed seems on investi­
gation a right and sensible one, the request is usually granted. Some­
times the whole award is paid in a lump sum; more often a part is
commuted and the remainder paid in weekly installments. In this
case it is optional with the commissioners whether the amount of the
weekly payments shall be decreased or the time during which they
are to run shall be shortened.
Among the families visited there were 30 cases of total and 76 of
partial commutation; among those not visited, 25 of total and 8 of
partial. The difference in the proportion of total commutations is
probably explained by the fact th at all the nonresident dependents
were among those not visited; the difficulty under war conditions
of sending weekly payments to families in Europe would be a strong
reason for commuting the award.
Of the whole number of commutations, total and partial, 46 were
to purchase homes, and 29 to clear off mortgages from homes already
bought; 10 were to pay off debts not connected with property; 10 to
purchase or clear property not intended for homes; two to improve
homes; five to return to the old country; four to invest; and in 33
cases, mostly among the unvisited families, the purpose of the com­
m utation was not learned.
The way in which commutation increases the effectiveness of an
award is well illustrated in one case in which a widow with four
children, two of them boys of 12 and 14, was left with nothing but
the compensation award of $2,409, paid at the rate of $7.72 per week.
This was insufficient, and work she could do was difficult to find.
Half the award was paid her in a lump sum, and with this she bought
a small farm, a cow, and some furniture and tools. W ith the help
of the boys she can easily raise enough to meet their own needs, and
hopes before the compensation payments are at an end to be doing
much more. W hether or not these hopes are realized, however,
they are now able to live comfortably, whereas without the com­
m utation it was a question how they were to live at all.
If commutations were made carelessly there would be much danger
of money being wasted and the intent of the law frustrated. As far
as could be seen in this investigation, however, commutation, was
granted only after careful investigation, both as to the value of the
plan proposed and as to the ability of the claimants to carry it out.
As a result the effectiveness of the compensation was increased, and
family after family was found living in reasonable comfort owing to
a judicious investment of part or all of the award.
To sum up the situation, then, it m ay be said th at in Ohio the com­
pensation law seems to have been successful in shifting a large pro­




T H E INVESTIG ATIO N I N O HIO.

77

portion of the economic loss caused by industrial fatalities from the
victims’ dependents and the general public to the industry in which
they occurred. Compensation does not make up the loss of the dece­
dent’s earnings, b u t it greatly diminishes th e economic hardships of
the bereaved family. In the 256 families visited practically no chil­
dren under 14 had been taken out of school to work because their
earnings were necessary, no children were found neglected and run­
ning wild because their mothers had been forced to become wage
earners, no homes had been lost because payments could not be kept
up. Breaking up a home because a widowed mother could no
longer support her children was almost unknown, and so was recourse
to charity, public or private. There were m any cases in which com­
pensation left the family still insufficiently provided for, m any in
which they could not have made it answer without thrift and selfdenial and hard work; but given these qualities, the compensation
made it possible for them to keep together, to preserve their inde­
pendence and to look forward hopefully to the better times to come
as the children grew older. In these cases, compensation m eant the
difference between having a hard time to get on and absolute dis­
aster. In many others it m eant saving the family from a hard time,
enabling them to live in relative comfort, and making it possible for
the children to have a fair education or some special training before
they entered the industrial world.

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
The purpose in going into Pennsylvania was to obtain some data
concerning the condition of dependents of workers killed in industrial
accidents under a liability system, for comparison with similar data
obtained in Connecticut and Ohio concerning conditions under a
compensation law, The investigations which have been frequently
referred to in the preceding pages, conducted by various State com­
missions on employers’ liability, are all a t least five years old, and
conditions m ay change greatly in five years. Also those investigations
were conducted on a different basis from th a t adopted in this case, so
th a t satisfactory comparisons between the two sets of results are
difficult or impossible.
Limitations of time and money alike forbade an investigation
covering the whole State, nor did such a comprehensive study seem
necessary for the purpose in mind. In order to get as fair a distribu­
tion of workers as possible, two districts were selected, a group of
counties including Pittsburgh and its vicinity and two counties in the
heart of the anthracite region. The first, it was thought, would give
a fair representation of ordinary urban industries, and would also in­
clude some of the great iron and steel plants, as well as a portion of
the bituminous coal fields. The second was selected solely for the
purpose of studying conditions among the families of the anthracite




73

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

miners, though other than mining accidents occurring in this region
were included.
According to the Pennsylvania law employers m ust report to the
departm ent of labor and industry all accidents befalling employees
in the course of their employment which involve a disability of more
than two days. From these reports, filed in the bureau of informa­
tion, department of labor and industry, Harrisburg, copies were made
of the data concerning all industrial fatalities occurring in the se­
lected localities between December 31, 1914, and September 1, 1915.
The four months of 1914 covered in the other States were not in­
cluded here, partly because a number of cases quite sufficient for the
desired comparison was obtained from the eight-month period, but
more because of the difficulty of locating the families as the interval
between accident and visit increased. This difficulty was a serious
one under any circumstances, as the people were very generally for­
eigners, their names were often incorrectly given in the report, and
the addresses were apt to be very vague. If the accident was of recent
occurrence, the victim’s dependents could usually be located, but if
it had happened some months before and the family, as was often the
case, had moved once or twice in the interval, tracing them became a
.m a tte r of time and trouble. The number of those whom it was im­
possible to locate was greater, both absolutely and proportionately,
in Pennsylvania than in the other States visited.
No attem pt was made to secure records of cases of permanent total
disability, as it was evident th a t such records would be unsatisfactory.
The law requires th a t accidents shall be reported within th irty days
of their occurrence, which is too short an interval in m any cases to
show the full extent and character of the injuries. Of course addi­
tional reports are expected, b ut the chance th a t the final decision
as to the character of the injury m ay escape record is considerable.
Even deaths were frequently not reported, and the chance th a t cases
of nonfatal injury would be followed up until their real nature was
established seemed too slight to justify the time required for search­
ing the files of accidents not causing the deaths of the victims.
DATA CONCERNING VICTIMS AND ACCIDENTS.

Records were obtained of 305 industrial fatalities occurring in the
selected localities during the eight months covered. Visits were made
to the dependents of the victims, when they could be located, ^nd in­
formation was obtained as to the financial condition of the family
before and after the accident, methods of meeting the deficit caused
by the loss of the decedent’s earnings, etc.
In Appendix Table 5, the age, m arital condition, earnings, occu­
pation, and data relating to the accident are shown in detail for each
decedent.




79

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, AND WAGES OF VICTIMS.

Owing to the way in which the cases for study were selected these
tables can not be considered as representative in any respect of the
industrial distribution or the industrial risks of the workers of Penn­
sylvania. They represent merely conditions prevailing among a few
hundred men killed by industrial fatalities in two selected regions of
Pennsylvania. The data concerning these decedents do not, there­
fore, require detailed examination. The ages, conjugal condition, and
wages of the decedents for whom these items were reported are sum­
marized in Tables 20, 21, and 22.1
T a b l e 2 0 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT

OF D E C E D E N T S IN SPEC IFIE D AGE GROUPS.

Age group.

Number.
15
75

18 to 19 years__ : ......................................
20 to 29 years.............................................
30 to 39 years.............................................
40 to 49 years.............................................
50 to 59 years.............................................
60 years and over.....................................

88

T otal................................................

303

74
39
12

Ter cent.
5.0
24.7
29.0
24.4
12.8

4.0
100.0

T a b l e 2 1 .—MARITAL CONDITION OF D E C ED EN TS.

Number.

Per cent.

Married.......................................................
W idowed....................................................
Single...........................................................
Divorced or separated.............................

213
13
77
2

69.8
4.3
25.2
.7

T otal................................................

305

100.0

Marital condition.

T a b l e 2 2 .—N U M BER A N D P E R CENT OF D E C E D E N TS IN SPEC IFIE D W AGE GROUPS.

Number.

Per cent.

Under $7.....................................................
$7 and under $10.......................................
$10 and under $ 1 2 .....................................
$12 and under $15.....................................
$15 and under $20......................... ...........
$20 and over..............................................

4
18
39
67
89
30

7.0
15.2
26.2
34.8
15.2

T otal................................................

256

100.0

Weekly wages or earnings.

1.6

The average age of the 303 decedents whose ages were ascertained
was 37 years.
On the whole, although there are none under 18, this group of
decedents is a ’ younger body than those of Connecticut or Ohio.
Taking certain significant age groups, the proportions found in each
group are for the three States as follows:
Per cent
under
20 years.

Connecticut...................................................
Ohio.................................................................
Pennsylvania.................................................

Per cent
20 to
39 yea rs.

Per cent
over
50 years.

6.8
4 .0
5 .0

48.9
48.2
53.7

26.1
25.0
16.8

i Two of the decedents were members of the same family. Hence Appendix Table 5, which is num ­
bered w ith respect to families, shows only 304, while some of the text tables, dealing w ith individuals,
show 305.

2141°— 18—Bull. 217------ 6



80

COMPENSATION LAW S: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

The Pennsylvania group shows a smaller proportion over 50 and a
larger proportion between 20 and 40 than either of the other groups,
i. e., it is more largely composed of men in the prime of life than the
other two.
Naturally enough, considering the age grouping of the decedents,
the m ajority were or had been married. Racial characteristics and
nature of industry followed appeared also to have something to do
with this. In the mining communities wives seemed to be looked
upon as useful and almost necessary adjuncts, and though single
men were abundant their bachelorhood appeared to be due not to
choice b ut to the natural excess of men in communities of recent immi­
grants.
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION.

The industrial distribution of the 305 decedents was as follows:
CLASSIFICATION OF DECEDENTS BY INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION.

M ining.

Quarrying.

Coal:
Miners............................................... 109
Miners’ laborers.............................. 51
Loaders............................................. 12
Runners............................................. 11
Drivers...............................................
7
3
Door tenders....................................
Motormen..........................................
3
Carpenters........................................
2
Plane m en........................................
2
Rock m en.........................................
2
Scrappers.........................................
2
Timbermen......................................
2
Assistant foremen............
Coal pocket tenders..........
Charge m en.......................
Clerks, office......................
Drivers, boss.....................
Drill runners......................
Fan engineers...................
F ootm en.............................
Jig runners.........................
Locomotive brakem en. .
Locomotive helpers.........
Outside foremen...............
Pickers in breaker............
Rock slowers......................
Slope engineers.................
Section forem en...............
Superintendents...............
Shot firers and rib bosses.
Unloaders, rock.................
Total.




225

Sand and gravel, bargemen............ ..
Stone, blockm akers
Clay, head shooters

1
1
1

T o ta l............................................. ..... 3
M anufacturing.

Iron and stee l:
Laborers........................................... ..... 8
Millwrights’ helpers........................... 2
B illet foremen and stock clerks..
Boiler makers’ helpers..................
Cranemen.........................................
E ngineers.........................................
Hooker-ons.......................................
Heaters’ helpers..............................
Lever m en .......................................
Larry car h elpers...........................
Motor inspectors.............................
Oilers.................................................
Oilers and m illwrights..................
Open hearth slag m e n ..................
Pattern makers...............................
P ipe machine hands.....................
Second drill pressm en..................
Water tenders and painters.........
Occupation not reported..............
Total..............................................
Machinery, instruments, and metal
products:
Cranemen.........................................
M illwrights......................................
Pipe fitters.......................................
Riveters............................................
Total.

2

4

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
T ran sportation and pu blic u tilitie s .

M anufacturing —Concluded.
Food products, beverages, and to­
bacco :
Laborers...........................................
Still runners.....................................

Steam railroads:
Laborers........................................... ..... 5
Blacksm iths’ helpers.......................... 1
Forem en........................................... ..... 1
Foremen, car sh o p .............................. 1
Machine h an d s............................... ......1
Piecework in sp ectors........................ L
Repair m en ..................................... ..... 1

Total............................
O ther:
Electricians...................
Laborers....................... .
Boiler makers’ helpers
E ngineers......................
H elpers..........................
Picker-house h a n d s...
Salesmen...................... .
Superintendents......... .
Total..............................................

Total..........................
E lectric railway: O ilers..
Electric light and power:
Linem en.......................
Trouble m en................
10

Total..............................................
Other: Gas field superintendents-----

Construction.

Bridge building:
Cupola tenders..........................
Painters and bridgemen..........
Punching machine operators.
T otal........................................
B u ild in g:
Laborers.....................................
Carpenters..................................
Painters.......................................
Riggers........................................
Teamsters...................................
Tin roofers.................................

81

i

l

1
1
1
2
1

Trade.

Trade:
Coal teamsters...........
Lumber handlers. . .
Window cleaners. . Total.
Service.

N ight w atchm en.
Window cleaners.
Total..........

Total........................................
Other:
D rillers.......................................
Laborers.....................................
TotaL

Mining accounts for very nearly three-fourths of the group (73.8
per cent), manufacturing, with 14.4 per cent, forming a poor second.
Only 4.3 per cent come from the various building activities and 4.9
per cent from transportation and public utilities. Agriculture is
wholly, and trade almost, unrepresented. I t m ust be remembered
th a t these figures are not in the least indicative of conditions in gen­
eral; they merely show the facts concerning a certain selected group.
Turning to the occupational distribution, for the first time we find
laborers holding the second place numerically among th e victim s of
fatalities, miners taking the first. Miners and laborers together
make up practically three-fifths of the group—59.3 per cent. No
other occupation accounts for as much as 5 per cent of the total.
Eight of the decedents held supervisory positions, being foremen,
assistant foremen, or superintendents.




82

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOB.
CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS.

The accidents in which members of this group met their fate, classi­
fied by causes, are as follows:
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS B Y C A U SE S.

Accidents other than m in in g —Concluded.

M ining accidents.

K illed underground:
Fall of coal or rock........................ 112
Mine cars and locom otives..........
36
Explosives........................................ 28
Gas explosions and burning gas. 15
Electricity—shocks and b u rn s..
2
Mining machines............................
1
Other causes....................................
7
Cause not reported.........................
5
Total..............................................206
K illed in shaft:
5
Falling down shafts or slopes___
Objects falling down shafts or
slopes.............................................
1
Cages or skips..................................
2
Total..............................................
Killed on the surface:
Mine cars and locomotives...........
Machinery........................................
Boiler explosions............................
Railroad cars or locomotives.......
Other causes....................................
Total..............................................
Location not reported...........................
Accidents other than m ining.

Machinery:
Prime movers (engines and
motors)..........................................
Transmission apparatus................
Working machinery.......................
H oisting apparatus and convey­
ors...................................................
N ot reported....................................
Total..............................................

8

Explosives, electricity, fires, hot and
corrosive substances:
E lectricity.......................................
E xplosives.......................................
Hot substances and flames..........

4
3
6

T o ta l.............................................

13

Falling objects:
Rock, earth, e tc.............................
Collapse of buildings and walls..
Collapse of scaffolds and staging.
Stored or piled-up m aterial.........
Objects falling from buildings,
trestles, or scaffolds....................
All others.........................................

1
3

Total..............................................

8

3 Falls of persons:
1
From ladders...................................
1
From scaffolds and platforms___
1
From vehicles.................................
4
From structures in course of
erection.........................................
10
From other elevations..................
1
Total..............................................

1
2
5
21
4
33

1
1
1
1

1
4
2
2
2
11

Handling sharp objects...........
Miscellaneous causes:
Asphyxiation and suffocation. . .
Drowning.........................................
All others..........................................

1

T otal..............................................

4

Crushed by or between railroad cars.
Nature of accident not reported

9
1

1
2
1

Of the 225 decedents engaged in mining all but 12 were killed by
accidents closely related to the nature of their work. Of the 109
miners, one was killed by a falling object outside of the mine and for
two the cause of the accident was not reported; with these exceptions
all died in accidents due to conditions peculiar to the industry. For
them, as for the whole group engaged in mining, the commonest
cause was the fall of coal or rock; this accounted for 67 per cent of
the deaths among the miners and for practically 50 per cent of the




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

83

deaths among all engaged in mining. Mine cars and locomotives
occasion the next largest group of deaths, causing 17.3 per cent of the
mining accidents. Explosives and gas explosions and burning gas
are the next most im portant causes, accounting together for 19.1 per
cent of the mining accidents. Among the other causes none stands
out prominently.
Among the causes of other than mining accidents, machinery leads,
accounting for 41.3 per cent, while the next most numerous cause,
falls either of persons or of objects, accounts for only 23.8 per cent.
I t is probable th at the selection of localities has much to do with this
excess of machine accidents. Pittsburgh is predominantly a manu­
facturing center. Moreover, some very large concerns are located in
that district, and accidents occurring in large plants are much more
apt to be reported than those occurring in small and scattered
establishments.
Precisely one-eighth of the accidents other than mining were con­
nected with or due to cranes, although the crane does not necessarily
appear as the cause. Thus, a laborer by means of a crane was hoisting
a pouring ladle full of molten m etal; something went wrong, the
ladle tipped, and the metal splashed over the unlucky workman
below, who died of the burns. Two cranemen fell from cranes and
died of their injuries; a hooker-on was crushed between a crane and a
car; two laborers were caught and crushed between cranes and col­
umns ; a riveter was killed by a load slipping from a chain which swung
loose; and so on. No other single piece of machinery at all approached
the crane in effective deadliness, although five accidents are ascribed
to elevators.
BLOOD POISONING AND INFECTION.

The deaths resulting from infection of trivial wounds, which fig­
ured so prominently in the lists of Connecticut and Ohio decedents,
scarcely appear in the Pennsylvania list. A driver, employed by a
coal company, was thrown from his wagon and his head injured; lock­
jaw followed and he died seven days later. An employee in the
weaving departm ent of a company manufacturing woven wire fencing
scratched his finger in the course of his work. The scratch became
infected, blood poisoning developed, and the man died 11 days later.
These were the only cases of blood poisoning or infection found in the
whole list of 305 decedents.
INTERVAL BETWEEN ACCIDENT AND DEATH.

The interval between the accident and the death is shown in the
following statem ent.




84

COM PENSATION L A W S : EFFEC T ON W OM AN A N D CH ILD LABOR.
In terval between accident and death.

Under 1 day............................................. 243
1 day.......................................................... 17
2 days.............................................. ..........
8
3 days.........................................................
7
7
Over 3 and under 7 days........................
1 week and under 2 w eek s..................... 11

2 and under 3 w eek s.................................... 6
3 and under 4 w eek s............................... ..... 2
4 and under 8 w eeks................................... 3
Interval not reported................................. 1
Total.

305

A considerably larger proportion of the deaths reported followed
closely on the accidents than in either of the other States. Of the 305
victims shown here 79.7 per cent died on the day of the accident, as
against 63.7 per cent in Connecticut and 60 per cent in Ohio. Before
the end of the first week 92.5 per cent had died and only three are
known to have lived more than four weeks after the accident.
To some extent this difference is probably accounted for by the
nature of mining accidents, which are responsible for so many of the
Pennsylvania deaths. When a man is crushed under a fall of roof
coal, or falls down a shaft, or is blown to pieces by a dynamite explo­
sion, death is not likely to be long drawn out. B ut some p art of the
difference, also, is almost certainly due to failures to report fatalities
as such when death does not occur for weeks or even months after the
accident.
CONDITION OF FAMILIES BEFORE AND AFTER LOSS OF INJURED WAGE
EARNER.

As in Connecticut and Ohio visits were made, when possible, to the
families of decedents, and information gained as to their circumstances
a t the time of the accident and the economic effect of the fatality.
Locating the families was a m atter of difficulty and in many cases
was impossible. When the deceased was a single man, perhaps with
no relatives, or only distant ones in this country, it was not surprising
th a t no one could be found who had known him ; he m ight drop out
of memory easily enough. B ut the families of married men were
also hard to find. In the fatalities which happened outside of large
cities the victims were very ap t to be non-English-speaking for­
eigners living in little communities of their own race. If the family
remained in the house they occupied when the accident occurred
there was no trouble in finding them, b u t if they had moved out­
side the limits of their racial community, tracing them became a
m atter of decided difficulty, especially as this first move was often
only the beginning of numerous changes.1
The investigation in Pennsylvania was begun in the latter p art of
November and ended before Christmas. As no records were taken
of deaths occurring later than August 31, the survivors had had
i “ The liability law seems to result in so much greater hardship to the bereaved that they disappear
from their accustomed haunts and the place thereof knows them no more. And kind neighbors tell you
they think the widow moved to Blank street, near Dash; a saloon at the corner, a grocery behind that,
and then a stable, and she lives tw o or three houses farther on. And you go, and can't find the stable
nor the widow, because the stable has been made into a confectionery store and the widow into a bride.”
{Extract from letter of agent in field.]




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

85

periods varying from three months to nearly a year in which to adapt
themselves to the change in their circumstances. The shortest
interval between the fatality and the visit was 3 months, the longest
11 months and 7 days. In 116 of the 166 cases in which families
were found six months or more had elapsed between the accident
and the visit.
In Appendix Table 6 the condition of the families, both before and
after the accident, is shown in detail.
FAMILIES OF MARRIED MEN.
ECONOMIC IM PORTANCE OF DECEASED TO FAM ILY.

Visits were made to the families of 166 decedents, of whom 137 had
been married men, 7 widowers or divorced men, and 22 single men.1
The families of the married men, naturally, were of the most impor­
tance, from both the economic and the social standpoint. A glance a t
the tables shows th at large families were numerous and th a t the earn­
ings of the decedents had played a very im portant part in the family
budgets. Considering only the cases in which a widow was left, there
were 34 families in which the membership before the accident had
been from 7 to 10, and 36 in which it had been 5 or 6. In other words,
of the 137 families of married decedents, 70, or 51 per cent, had had
a membership ranging from 5 to 10. In 12 of the families with 7 to
10 members the husband had been the sole wage earner, and in 9
his earnings were the only income. In one of these families there
were 7 children under 14, in four there were 6, and in four others 5,
so th a t the death of these 9 men left 9 widows and 51 children under
14 with absolutely no income. Among the whole 137 families there
were 97 in which the husband had been the only wage earner, and in
71 of these the family had had no income except his earnings. More
than half, then, were wholly dependent upon the decedent, and his
death swept away their livelihood a t one stroke.
The situation was rendered still more difficult by the fact th a t in
22 families—almost one in every six—posthumous children had been
born or were expected a t the time of the agent’s visit. In 13 cases
the families in which these children were born had depended wholly
upon the decedent’s earnings and in 7 of these 13 there were already
three or four children under 14 a t the time of the father’s death.
IN SU R A N C E A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

Provision for some kind of insurance or death benefit was both
more usual and more liberal among the victims of industrial acci­
dents studied in Pennsylvania than in Ohio or Connecticut. One
reason for this was th a t several of the large companies have relief
or beneficial societies which all employees are expected to join. A
1 Twenty-three single men were included, but as one was the son of one of the married decedents the
family is counted only in connection w ith the father.




86

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

specified sum is deducted monthly from each man’s wages and paid
into a fund from which medical attendance and disability and death
benefits are provided. Sometimes the employing company con­
tributes to this fund w hat may be needed to keep it solvent. In
others, there is considerable reason to suppose th a t the contributions
from the employees are more than sufficient to meet all demands.
The amount received by the decedent’s family from such organiza­
tions varied widely, ranging from about $200 to over $1,000. An­
other reason for the extent to which death benefits were received is
th a t so many of the decedents were miners; the anthracite miners
especially are strongly organized and union benefits figured largely
in the list of receipts. Still a third reason was the realization of the
workers, more especially of the foreigners, th a t their work was dan­
gerous and th a t their families were apt to suffer unless they united
for m utual helpfulness. Seventy-two of the 137 married decedents
had belonged to some fraternal order, generally formed among mem­
bers of the same race. The extent to which the families of the
married men and of the widowers were provided for by such means
is shown in Table 23:
T a b l e 2 3 .—IN SU R A N C E OR D E A T H B E N E F IT S R E C E IV E D B Y D E C E D E N T S’ FA M ILIES

IN PE N N SY L V A N IA , B Y C LASSIFIED W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF T H E D E C E A SE D .
Fam ilies receiving in­
surance.

Classified w eekly earnings of
decedent.

Under $7........................................
$7 to $9.99......................................
$10 to $11.99..................................
$12 to $14.99..................................
$14 to $19.99..................................
$20 and over..................................
N ot rexDorted................................
Total....................................

Fam ilies
not receiv­
ing insur­
Reporting N ot report­
ance.
amount. ing amount.
1

Total
Average
Number of ceived re­ per family
families in familiesby
re­ for those
each earn­
porting
reporting
ings group. amount.
amount.

1

4

16
* 10
2

7
14
32
61
27

$224
3,150
5,085
14,283
33,561
29,087

$224
788
462
549
685
1,163

3 24

144

85,390

736

3
3

11

26
49
25

2

116

4

2

2

1 Including one case in which a policy of $750 was contested and paym ent had not been received.
2 Including one case in which a policy of $1 ,000 was contested ana paym ent had not been received.

3 Including tw o cases in which policies were contested and no paym ents were received.

I t appears th a t 83.3 per cent of these families received some form
of insurance or death benefit, against 66.7 per cent in Connecticut
and 64.8 per cent in Ohio. The average amount received by those
for whom the amount was reported is noticeably larger than in the
other States, being $736, while in Connecticut it was $588 and in
Ohio $536.
This average embraced wide extremes. Six families received less
than $100 and 26 received $100 b u t under $200. On the other hand,
37 received $1,000 or more and 3 of these received $3,000 or over.
N aturally these larger amounts were for the most p art received by the
families of the men in the higher earnings groups.




87

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
E F F E C T ON INCOME OF D E C E D E N T ’S LOSS.

The extent to which families were dependent upon the decedent
has already been discussed. N aturally this dependence m eant th a t
the loss of his earnings would be severely felt. To show the effect
on the family income of the sudden stoppage of this item, a summary
table was prepared showing, by size of family, the income before and
after the accident in cases where a widow or a widow and children
was left. I t was not possible, however, to make this table include
all these cases. The 14 widows who had remarried were omitted,
since they had replaced the lost wage earner. Twenty others were
omitted because they had gone to live with relatives or friends, merg­
ing the two families in such a way th a t it was impossible to say just
w hat resources should be allotted to each. In a number of these
cases the widow had no cash income and was being supported by the
family with whom she lived, b u t she usually gave her services
about the house. I t was open to question, therefore, whether she
should be looked upon as wholly dependent upon others or as having
an indefinite income paid to her in the form of food and shelter in
return for her work. In two cases the amount of income was not
reported; in three the women were working, b u t the arrangement
was so vague th a t it was impossible to reduce it to a definite state­
ment; and in one case the widow had died and the children had been
taken by relatives, so th a t the family, as such, had really ceased to
exist. F orty cases, accordingly, were omitted. For the remaining
97 the weekly cash income before and after the accident is shown in
Table 24:
2 4 ,—N U M B E R OF FAM ILIES H A VING EACH C L ASSIFIED W E E K L Y INCOME
B E F O R E T H E ACCIDENT A N D A F T E R T H E A C CIDENT, B Y SIZE OF FAM ILIES.

T able

Persons in family.

No in­
come.

Under
$5.

$5
and
under
$10 .

$12

$10

and
under
$12 .

and
under
$15.

$15
and
under
$20 .

$20

and
under
$25.

$25
and
over.

Total
number
of fami­
lies.

BEFORE ACCIDENT.

2
1

T wo..............................................
T hree...........................................
F our............................................
Five..............................................
S ix ................................................
S even...........................................
Eight or m ore...........................

1

1

2

3
3
3

12

31

19 !
[

28

1

6

2
5
5

1
2

7

1
2

1
2
1
1
2

2
2

4
7
4

2
2

3
4

3

T otal................................

1

3
5
4
3
5
7

2
1
1
1
1

8

5
1

6
10

23
12

17

12

17
97

AFTER ACCIDENT.

O ne..............................................
Two..............................................
Three...........................................
Four............................................
Five..............................................
S ix ..............................................
Seven...........................................
Eight or m ore...........................
T otal................................




1

3
5
3
2

3

2

6

4
4

1

3
1

4

31

18

9

2
2
1
1

7

6

13
17

2

1

1
1
1

7

4

4

2

18

1
1

12
2
1

3

15
17
9
8

97

88

COM PENSATION l a w s : e f f e c t o n w o m a n a n d c h i l d

la b o r .

The change in the wage grouping is striking. Before the acci­
dent only one family had an income of less than $10 a week; at the
time these data were taken 67 families, 20 of them having a member­
ship of six or more, had fallen back into this group. A comparison
of the percentage found in each of the principal wage groups before
and after the accident brings out the degree to which the incomes
were affected b y the fatality.
P er cent o f fam ilies in each specified income group .
to-

v,
W eekly income.

Under $10......................................................... ..................
$10 and under $15.............. .............................................
$15 and under $20.............................................................
$20 and under $25............................................................
$25 and o v e r ............................................. „....................

Before acci- After accident.
dent.

1.0
18.6
32.0
19. 6
28.9

69.1
16.5
7.2
4.1
3.1

Before the accident four-fifths of the families had incomes of $15
or more a week, while at the time of the visit less than one-sixth
were in this group. In considering these figures it must be remembered
th a t they do not tell the whole tale, since the cases in which the
families were forced through poverty to give up their separate family
existence are necessarily omitted.
In Connecticut and Ohio, when the tables of income without
compensation showed families in the “ No cash income” group, the
fact th at they were receiving compensation solved the question
of how they managed to keep alive. In Pennsylvania they might
or might not have received a payment in settlement of all claims
arising from the accident; if they had the amount might range from
$50 upward, but the whole m atter is too uncertain to permit the
assumption th at the families have at least something in the way of
damages or settlement payments to fall back on. To show just
how they are faring it seems worth while to give a brief statem ent
concerning each of the 18 families found to be without any cash
income. The numbers are those by which the cases are designated
in Appendix Tables 5 and 6; the interval is the time between the
victim’s death and the visit of investigation.
C a s e 118.—Interval 8J months. Widow, aged 70. Living on insurance, $1,100,
and compensation, $90.
C a s e 88.—Interval 8J months. Widow, 60; son, 14. Insurance, $224; compensa­
tion, $100; poor relief, $5 a month. Boy looking for work.
C a s e 99.—Interval 3J months. Widow, over 70; daughter, 40. No insurance, no
compensation. Live in small house owned b y deceased. Married children con­
tribute to their support, though they are working people who find it hard to support
their own families.
C ase 100.—Interval 4} months. Widow and child of 9. Insurance, $100. Em­
ployer gives use of house, fuel is picked up, and grocer gives credit, hoping widow
may get something from employer. Claim in lawyer’s hands.




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

89

C ase 68.—Interval 4 months. Widow, 42; eon, 5, and mother, 74. Insurance,
$12,600; deceased owned home and left $800 savings. Fam ily living comfortably.
Case 77.—Interval 8J months. Widow and two children under 3. Insurance,
$500; no compensation. Living on insurance and living very poorly as widow does
not know what to do when this money is gone.
C ase 82.—Interval 7^ months. Widow and two children under 10. Insurance,
$300; paid funeral expenses and mortgage on house, leaving $60; employer gives
coal; town gives $5 a month poor relief.
C ase 85.—Interval 6J months. Widow and two children under 8. Insurance,
$500; widow’s pension, $5 a month. Employer gives coal. Widow is taking a business
course and expects to get a position as stenographer soon.
C ase 69.—Interval 4£ months. Widow and two sons, 16 and 13. Insurance,
$1,250; own house. Boy, 16, ill and not working at present. Are livin g on insurance,
but hope company w ill make some settlement.
C ase 42.—Interval 4J months. Widow and three children under 10. No insur­
ance, nothing from employer. Town gives aid. Collections have been taken up
several times to pay for funeral, pay rent, and help get food.
C ase 64.—Interval 7f months. Widow and three children, oldest 13. Insurance,
$50; nothing from employer. Owned home and had $150 savings; all gone now.
Picks up coal. Ts applying to city for help and wants to put oldest child to work.
C ase 86.—Interval 8 months. Widow, two children under 8, and widow’s mother.
Insurance, $450; employer paid $500. City gives $5 a month poor relief. Widow
looking for work.
C ase 25.—Interval 9£ months. Widow and four children, oldest 12. Insurance,
$200; nothing from employer. Poor relief, $6.50 a month; neighbors help from tim e
to tim e and a married daughter occasionally helps. Insurance almost gone.
C ase 60.—Interval 7J months. Widow and four children, oldest 5. No insurance,
nothing from company. For 6f months after accident widow worked in restaurant
from 3.30 a. m. to 3.30 p. m., earning $8 a week. Had to leave children alone. Gave
up this work one week before birth of posthumous child, about a week old at tim e of
visit.
C ase 37.—Interval 10 months. Widow and five children, oldest 11. Insurance,
$1,200 ($500 of this in trust for children), employer paid $500 and gives house rent.
C ase 41.—Interval 8|- months. Widow and five children, oldest 9. Insurance,
$50; company gives coal, use of house, and $15 a month. R elatives have helped a
little.
C ase 45.—Interval 6 months. Widow and five children, oldest 6. Insurance,
$1,027, nothing from company. Own house. Living on insurance.
C ase 13.—Interval 9f months. Widow and six children, oldest 9. Insurance,
$450; nothing from company. Cost of funeral ($115) was paid out of above insurance
and fam ily have managed to live on rest. Pay no rent. “ Widow washes a few shirts
now and then for the men, but earns only a few cents doing this. Says she steals coal
to keep the rooms warm for the children.”

I t is evident th at a number of these families are suffering acutely,
and th a t this suffering is not greatly relieved by voluntary action
on the part of the decedent’s employer. In eight cases the employing
company had done something for the family. In two cases it had
given coal; one company had given $90 and another $100; a fifth had
allowed the family to continue in the house they were occupying
although they could no longer pay re n t; two companies had given $500,
and one of these had also allowed the use of a house; and one company
was giving coal, house, and $15 a month. This last was the only case




90

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

in which there was any chance th at the settlement might approach
in value the compensation allowed in the other States visited. This
particular family had been paying $4.30 a month house rent before the
accident. This and the coal, added to the $15 a month, might amount
to a little over $5 a week, the minimum weekly allowance under either
of the compensation laws studied. There were five children in this
family, the oldest nine, and the employer had told the widow th at he
would continue this arrangement “ until the children were grown up."
This is rather indefinite, b u t it may mean th at the payments will be
continued for more than the six years through which compensation pay­
ments last. The widow, however, has no assurance th at this will be
done, and can not plan for the future as she could if she knew definitely
w hat the arrangement amounts to. The inadequacy of the settle­
ments in general is evident from a mere statem ent of what they were,
and is further shown by the fact th at four of the eight families who
received something from the employers were within less than a year
after the accident receiving charitable assistance.
Of the group of 18 families, seven were living on their insurance,
with the addition in one case of a settlement, one was supported
entirely by relatives, six were receiving poor relief or other aid, one
was living mainly on credit, one on the employer's payments, one
widow had supported her children by excessive overwork, and in one
case the family, having used up its savings and its insurance, is trying
to get aid. One family (No. 68) was living very comfortably, and
two (No. 85 and No. 69) were not suffering. In the others, in every
case there was hardship, which was sometimes acute.
I t is to be noticed th a t in 14 of the families having children there
are no children old enough to go to work, and th a t the interval before
the children can legally become wage earners is from 1 to 11 years.
These families have to be supported somehow during th at period.
Family No. 68 will probably continue to get on comfortably; in No. 64
if the widow can not succeed in putting her boy of 13 to work the
family will probably get poor relief and struggle on somehow until in
another year the boy may lawfully become a wage earner; b u t among
the 12 other families there is only one case in which the interval before a
child can go to work is as brief as two years, and except in the case of
the widow who was training for office work, just how these families are
to live through this interval hardly appears. The public relief given
usually consists of from $5 to $6.50 a month in groceries, which as
one widow mournfully pointed out, would not last more than two
weeks, even though she “ made the children eat very thin." In the
smaller communities it was almost impossible for the widows them­
selves to get any work; there is nothing for them to do. In larger
places they might find employment—witness case No. 60—b u t to let a
mother of four children wear herself out in such work is hardly a satis­




91

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

factory method of meeting the loss involved in an industrial fatality,
even though, as in this case, a “ daughter, aged five, stays at home
with children while mother works.”
The other income groups do not, of course, show such general and
extreme poverty, b u t 14 of the 31 families with incomes of less than
$5 a week, and 4 of the 18 with less than $10 a week, were receiving
charitable assistance. In these families there is usually some one at
work, and even if the work is irregular and poorly paid, it makes any
insurance or settlement payments last ju st so much longer. When
there is neither insurance nor paym ent, the family suffers.
I t is not possible to make out a third p art of this table, correspond­
ing to the third part of the tables, prepared for Connecticut and Ohio,
showing the income with the addition of the amount received in set­
tlement. In 56 of these 97 cases no settlement had been made and
in the others the settlement was usually a lump sum. In three cases
monthly payments were being made. In case No. 73, a widow with
two children, aged 16 and 10, the employer was giving $10 and a ton
of coal monthly; in case No. 41, a widow with five children under 10,
the employer was giving house rent, coal, and $15 a month; and in case
No. 48, a widow with five children, the oldest 8, the employer gave
rent and $20 a month in groceries. In the first of these cases the
employer had not said how long he would continue the arrangem ent;
in the two others, the widows understood th a t it was to last until the
children were old enough to work.
In addition to these three cases there were 38 others in which the
family had received a cash payment from the employer other than the
payment of funeral expenses. Table 25 shows the grouping of these
families by membership and by amount received:
T a b l e 2 5 . — N U M B E R OF FAM ILIES R ECEIV IN G EACH C L A SSIFIED AM OUNT OF DAMAGES

FROM E M PL O Y ER S, B Y SIZE OF FAM ILY.
Number of families receiving damages of—
Persons in family af­
ter the accident.

Under
$ 100 .

O n e ...............................
Two
.........................
Three ...........................
Four..............................
Five .............................
Six..................................
S e v e n ...........................
E igh t.............................
N in e...............................

2
1

Total...................

5

1
1

$100 and

under
$200.

1
1
1
1
1

Number
of
families
$200 and $500 and $1,000 and $2,000 and
under
under
under
under $3,000 and receiving
over.
damages.
$ 1 ,000.
$2 , 000.
$500.
$8, 000.

2
1
1
6

2
2
1

2

3

8
6
2

3

1

4
3

8

1

14

2

1

1

3

1
5

1

6

4

1
2

1

2

38

I t is evident that the problem of support for the decedents’ families,
as a whole, is by no means solved by the settlements made. Of the
97 families included in Table 24 only a trifle over two-fifths (42.3 per




92

CO M PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN A N D CH ILD LABOR,

cent) received any cash settlem ent; of the 41 with whom settlements
were made, 30 received less than $1,000, 24 less than $500, and 10
less than $200. As a whole the settlements made no pretense of
adequacy; they were something, and the families took them on the
principle of half a loaf, but they bore no relation either to the needs
of the survivors nor to the wage-earning power of the decedent. As
a contrast to the settlements noted above it may be remembered
th a t of the 41 families shown in the corresponding table for Con­
necticut only two were awarded less than $1,500, while in Ohio only
one of the 165 families thus tabulated was awarded as little as $1,560,
and in only eight cases was the award under $2,000.
M ETHODS OF M AKING IIP D E F IC IT ITT FA M ILY INCOME.

The families studied in Pennsylvania faced, for the most part, a
far more difficult problem after the fatality than confronted those
studied in the other States. For them it was not so much a question
of making up a deficit in income as of making up the income in toto.
To increase the difficulty of their situation, in many of the communi­
ties there was little opportunity for employment except in mining,
which is not open to women. Consequently some of the ways of
making up an income adopted in Connecticut and Ohio were not
practicable here.
Taking childrenfrom school to work.—In the interval between the
fatality and the agent’s visit, 17 families had taken 18 children out of
school. One of the children was 12, four were 13, nine 14, three 15,
and one was 17; just half were girls. Eleven of these children, five girls
and six boys, were at work, three boys were looking for work, and four
girls were helping at home. In the cases of four of the girls at work,
including the one aged 12, their earnings were really necessary, the
necessity arising directly from the father’s death; this was true also
of the six boys at work. In the case of the fifth girl her wages were
not really essential, but were desirable; she probably would not have
gone to work had her father lived. In the cases of the remaining
seven it can not be said th a t their withdrawal from school was due to
the father’s death, although th a t m ay have been a contributing
cause.
A part from these 18 cases there was one instance of special training
having been given up as a consequence of the chief wage earner’s death.
A young woman of 24 had been taking a course in nursing a t a hos­
pital. Her father’s death left her mother and two children, 13 and 17
years old, with no income except $3.50 a week, which the older child
earned in a factory, and w hat the mother could make from one
boarder. Nothing was received from the decedent’s employer, and
the insurance was only $100. The young woman felt th a t her help
was needed, so she gave up her training and went into a factory, where
she earned $5 a week.




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

93

Moving into cheaper quarters.—This method of economizing was
not extensively practiced, possibly because of the difficulty of finding
cheaper houses in the small communities in which many of the
decedents had lived. Seven families living in rented houses moved
after the fatality into cheaper ones, and two living in their own homes
moved, one into the attic and one into the cellar, so th at they might
rent out the rest of the house. In three other cases families gave up
the houses they had been living in and moved into one or two rooms
in the house of a friend or neighbor, one family paying $2 a month
and the other two giving the widow's help about the house as a
kind of return.
Gainful employment of widows.—In Pennsylvania, as in the other
States, the widows often sought some paying work themselves to
make up in part for the lack of the husbands' earnings. Table 26
shows in how many of the 137 families widows had been working for
money before the fatality or took up some gainful occupations
afterward:
T a b l e 26. — W OM EN A T W O R K B E F O R E A N D A F T E R A C CIDENT.
Children in family under
14 years of age.

Seven...................................
S ix ........................................
Five......................................
Four.....................................
Three....................................
Tw o......................................
O ne......................................
N o n e....................................
T otal.........................

Women
working
before
accident
only.

Women
working
.before
and after
accident.

Women
working
after
accident
only.

2

1
2
2
2

2

3
3
4
3
3

11
10
8

2

18

43

7

I t appears th a t 14.6 per cent of the wives were working before their
husbands' deaths and th a t 31.4 per cent took up work after the acci­
dent. From the interviews held with the widows it seemed th a t the
number working after the accident would have been noticeably larger
if opportunities for employment had been more numerous. Mention
has already been made several times of the fact th a t in some of the
places to which the investigation extended it was difficult for women
to find any way of earning money outside their homes. This was
by no means universally true. In the larger places visited there were
the usual demands for women's work and in some of the smaller places
there were silk mills, which apparently offered abundance of work at
very low wages. B ut in the ordinary small mining community there
was little for women to do outside their homes. Inside their homes
the main possibility was taking boarders or lodgers. A peculiar form
of this occupation, not m et with elsewhere, was found in the mining
communities, especially where the Slavic miners predominated. Here




94

COMPENSATION LAW S: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

there were numbers of men who were either unmarried or had left
their wives at home, who wanted a woman’s services and did not
w ant to pay much for them. They m ight board in the customary
fashion, b u t they were more likely to arrange th a t they shqyild have
a place to sleep and th a t the housewife should do their was] mg and
cooking, they furnishing the food to be cooked. This saved their
money, b u t did not give their hostess much opportunity for profit.
I t had another disadvantage; since the lodgers were single men it
was not considered seemly for a widow to keep them unless she were
elderly or had well-grown children. Consequently, even this limited
means of money-making was not open to all who needed it.
The two women working before their husbands’ deaths b u t not
after had boarders of this type and both let them go from motives of
propriety. Of the 18 who worked both before and after the accident
11 kept boarders or lodgers and did nothing else to make money, six
had boarders or lodgers and did something in addition, and one took
in sewing. One of those who had boarders both before and after the
fatality considered it necessary to m arry again in order to prevent
unpleasant talk. In another case the proprieties were observed at ^
heavier cost. A widow w ith five children under 8, the youngest
born two months after its father’s death, had had four boarders before
the accident, b u t after it three left and a t the time of the visit the
fourth was considering going too because he didn’t like to be the only
man boarder w ith a widow. The woman had received nothing in
the way of damages. There had been $200 insurance, of which the
undertaker and the priest had taken $160. The poor authorities gave
$5 a month in groceries and the family had no other income, so th a t
the paym ent from the one boarder, $8.50 a month, loomed large in
their eyes, and the widow spoke of his probable departure w ith dread.
Of the 43 who took up gainful pursuits as a consequence of the hus­
bands’ deaths, 13 took boarders or lodgers only, three took boarders
and lodgers and did other work which did not take them away from
home, four had no lodgers b u t did some kind of work a t home, and
23 worked away from their homes. Of the la tter nine did some form
of housework, eight were in factories, one helped in a little store, one
cleaned cars, one was maid in a departm ent store, one worked in a
restaurant kitchen, one was fitting herself for an office position prom­
ised her, and one had gone with her children to the country and picked
huckleberries, earning about a dollar a day.
For those who were doing housework the returns varied so widely
th a t no general statem ent as to earnings can be made. Two were
acting as housekeepers where they were allowed to have their children
w ith them, and a third helped about the hon?M Areturn for lodging
.*v
for herself and children. One held a positron as housekeeper in a
rather pretentious establishment and earned $12 a week. This was




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

95

quite the highest wage found among the women. Those working in
factories earned from $3.50 to $7 a week, only two reaching this last
figure, and the average for the seven who reported wages being $5.50.
The restaurant worker earned $8, the car cleaner $9, and the depart­
m ent st( a maid $6 a week.
N ot all of those who had taken up work after their husbands’ deaths
had worked continuously up to the visit. Three had had to interm it
their work each for the b irth of a posthumous child. Two had remar­
ried and were no longer working outside their homes. For those who
were doing washing, scrubbing, or cleaning the amount they could get
to do was so variable th a t no statem ent as to the p art of the time
they were employed is possible.
In some rases in which the mother’s work took her away from
home the children were old enough to get on by themselves satisfac­
torily, or one was old enough to look after the others. When this
was not the case relatives were pressed into service whenever possible.
In seven cases a grandmother, and in four other relatives, took cam
of the children. In one case a baby was placed in a day nursery and
two older children looked out for themselves. In two cases girls of
13 were kept out of school to care for younger children and in one
case three children, the oldest 5, had been left alone all day.
Breaking up families and combining families.—Of the actual
breaking up of families very few cases were found. One instance
has been referred to in which a widow died six months after the
fatality, leaving two children, who were taken by an uncle. N atur­
ally c o m p e n s a t i o n would not have prevented this break up, b u t it
would have rendered m atters easier for the uncle, who had nothing
but his wages as a bartender on which to support his own family and
these two children. In a second case a widow left with two daugh­
ters, 15 and 9, found temporary positions as housekeeper and maid
for herself^ and the older girl, and boarded the younger girl with
friends. This was purely a temporary arrangement and was not
attributable to the lack of a compensation law, since in this case the
employer had voluntarily paid $1,750, which the widow had invested
to advantage. N ot a single case was found in which children had been
sent to asylums or otherwise given up. There were several cases in
which it was difficult to see how the family could possibly exist on
what they had, but somehow they had kept together up to the time
of the visit.
In a larger proportion of cases than in the other States the widow
went back to her parents or lived w ith friends, or in some similar
way gave up a separate family existence. This did n ot mean break­
ing up a family; it was simply a m atter of uniting two families. In
20 cases the widow ".was living with parents, relatives, or friends.
Sometimes the relati* ^ i, taken the husband’s place and were
2 1 4 1 ° — 18— B u ll. 2 1 7 -------7




96

COMPENSATION LAW S: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

supporting tlie whole group; sometimes the widow made a small
paym ent from insurance or damages she had received. Thus, one
widow w ith two children was paying her parents $5 a month for
board for the three, while another with one child was living with a
sister-in-law and paying $20 a month. Sometimes the parents gave
house room and looked after the children while the widow was at
work, and the latter provided food and clothes for her family. In
fact, the different arrangements were almost as numerous as the
families, but in a number of cases it seemed th a t the decedent’s
families were receiving more from the relatives than they paid for,
the amount of aid received ranging up to complete support. In ten
of these cases payments had been made by the decedent’s employer,
the amount paid varying from $50 to $2,500. Among those to whom
no payments had been made by the employer, six had received
insurance tanging from $148 to $1,000.
Charitable relief.—At the time of the agent’s visit, among the 123
families in which the widow had not remarried, 24 were receiving
aid regularly from town or city authorities, two were receiving
widows’ pensions, and one was being aided by a charitable society
which paid the rent and supplied groceries. In other words, 22 per
cent of these families were regularly receiving aid from organized
outside sources. Two other families had received occasional help
from the town authorities, b ut were not being aided at th a t time,
and one family of four, having managed in some rather inscrutable
fashion to get along for seven months on $50 insurance and w hat
they could make by selling the milk of their one cow, were just
applying for poor relief. Among the 14 families in which the .widow
had remarried, the situation, up to the time of remarriage, had been
nearly the same. Three families, 21.4 per cent, had received poor
relief continuously, and one had been helped once. On the widow’s
remarriage relief given to the family had, of course, been discon­
tinued.
The relief given by the authorities was usually in the form of a
supply of groceries sent once a month, ranging in value from $4 to
$6.50. One instance was found where $8 worth had been sent, but
this was the only case in which the poor relief amounted to more
than $6.50 a month. One of the widows’ pensions was for $5 a month
and one for $10.
N aturally something besides the amount received as relief was
needed, and this was obtained in various ways. In 12 families the
widow was earning something; in three, children had been taken out
of school to work; in three cases, collections had been taken for the
family’s benefit; and in nine, relatives or neighbors were giving help.
Y et with it all, many of these families were in the most extreme
poverty, ill-fed, insufficiently clothed, suffering in the present and




THE INVESTIGATION IN ‘ ENNSYLVANIA.
P

97

with no prospect of any improvement of conditions in the future.
Unfortunately, this state of affairs was not confined, to those who
were receiving public aid. Among the others there were some in
quite as acute poverty, some in which such straits were escaped only
because relatives, b u t little better off than themselves, had j oined f orces
with the distressed group, and others in which all th a t stood between
the family and u tter financial disaster was the health of a woman,
working herself out in the effort to be at once wage earner and home
maker for a group of children so young th a t not for years could she
expect any lightening of the burden.
E FF E C T OF T H E D E A T H OF T H E WAGE E A R N E R ON O W N E R SH IP O F P R O P E R T Y .

Very little effect of any kind seems to have been produced on
property ownership. Before the accidents, 47 families owned their
homes, 24 clear and 23 mortgaged. After the accidents, four of the
latter paid off the mortgages with their insurance money; none of
these four families received any settlem ent from the decedent’s em­
ployer. Three families purchased homes after the accidents; all of
these received settlements of more than $1,500 from the employer.
Eight families had owned property other than homes, five holding
it clear and three with mortgages. No change at all was made in
regard to this property after the accident.
FAMILIES OF BE MARRIED WIDOWS.

In regard to the remarriage of widows the situation in Pennsyl­
vania was markedly different from th a t in the two other States.
In Connecticut one out of 53 widows visited and in Ohio four out
of 206 had remarried^ the proportion in the two States being just
the same, 1.9 per cent. In Pennsylvania 14 of 137, or 10.2 per cent,
had remarried. In this latter State the tendency to a speedy re­
marriage was looked upon as a racial trait and was used by some as
an argument against making any set^em ent after a fatality. ‘‘W hat’s
the need of paying them anything? They’ll m arry again in a few
m onths,” the agents were told more than once. I t seems at least
equally probable th a t the marriage was a m atter of economic necessity.
Of the remarried women, two were childless, two had one child
under 14, seven had two children, two had four, and one had six.
Only one had a child over 14. Three had been left with absolutely
nothing—neither savings nor insurance nor settlements. The others
had received insurance or payments from the decedents’ employers
ranging in combined value from $141 up to $1,800 in one case, th a t
of a widow with four children under 14. The average amount
received by the 11 families receiving payments from one or both
sources was $890.
These payments were evidently not sufficient to support families
ranging from one to seven members for any great length of time, and




98

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

to make the situation worse, it was practically impossible for these
widows to become wage earners themselves. One and only one of
the number was an English-speaking woman living in a city where
work might have been obtained. She was in poor health and had
two children, the oldest 3, but she secured work in a cigar factory
at $7 a week and held the position a month. Then a relative who
had been looking after the children during her absence declined to do
so any longer and she had to give up her work. Soon after this she
received $600 from her late husband’s employers and lived on this un­
til she married again, about seven months after her first husband’s
death. She gave necessity as the reason for her m arriage: u I couldn’t
get along and care for my children all alone.”
In the 13 other cases the widows were all non-English-speaking
women whose husbands had either been miners or employed about
the mines in some capacity. In the little mining settlements in
which they lived there were few opportunities for women to make
anything except by taking single miners to board, and this method
has decided disadvantages for young widows. One widow of 27
with two children got on quite comfortably with five boarders, but
remarried less than four months after her husband’s death because
u people had so much to say about her having men boarders th at she
thought it best to m arry and then they could have no occasion to
talk.” B ut this was the only one of the group who had found it
possible to make a living. The three who had had neither insurance
nor settlements had been supported, one by relatives and charitable
relief and two by the contributions of neighbors. The others had
been living on what payments they had received, helped out in the
case of the one widow by the earnings of a son over 14 years of age.
The women, both for themselves and for their neighbors, seemed to
consider remarriage as the natural course when a woman was left
with small children and nothing to support them. When there
were no small children the marriage might still be based frankly on
economic grounds, but was not regarded as so inevitable. The
attitude of the men is perhaps less explicable than th a t of the women.
In one case the second husband was the godfather of the first hus­
band’s children, and felt th at as such it was incumbent upon him to
see th a t they did not lack a father’s care. In the other cases they
seemed to look upon the affair in as matter-of-fact a way as the women
did; they wanted to m arry and here were eligible women; th a t was
all there was to it. The presence or absence of children was appar­
ently regarded as purely incidental, not affecting the main question
either way.
FAMILIES OF WIDOWERS.

Seven of the decedents were either widowers or separated from their
wives. In three of these cases the accident really made very little




THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.

99

difference in the financial comfort of the family; since in two the
children were all of working age, and in the third, although there were
two children aged 11 and 13, there were four older ones unmarried
who were able and willing to take care of them. In one of thege cases
the employing company had offered $500 in full settlement of all
claims; and in the other two, seven and eight months, respectively,
after the accident the employers had made no offer of assistance and
the survivors had no expectation th a t they would do so.
In three cases the decedents left only children under 14, who were
taken by relatives. In two of these cases no hardship was involved.
In the third a married sister took two boys, 11 and 13 years old, and as
the family income was only $8 a week and she had a child of her own,
the addition of these two boys to the household meant a very serious
strain on her resources. In this case, the employing company paid
$100, and the insurance amounted to only $69 above the funeral
expenses. Under the Ohio law the compensation in this case would
probably have been considerably more, as it would consist of weekly
payments until the younger son was 16. The law provides for a mini­
mum of $5 per week or actual wages of decedent if such wages were
less than $5.
In the seventh case the decedent had been supporting two children,
one, a boy of 16, away at school, and the other, a girl of 13, at home
with him. After his death his older children, who were married,
refused to take charge of these two. The employer paid $750, which
was being used for the girl's support, while the boy had left school
and was working for board and lodging.
In one of these seven cases, since the children were all grown, no
claim for compensation would have been tenable in either Connecticut
or Ohio; and in another, since there was a child of 17, a claim of
partial dependency would have been adm itted in Connecticut but
not in Ohio. The five other families had each a child or children to
whom, under both the Connecticut and Ohio laws, compensation would
have been due. In these five families were 11 children under 16, of
whom 8 were under 12. For the benefit of these children the com­
panies in whose employ their fathers had been killed had made
payments amounting to $2,250, which gives an average of $205 per
child, or of $450 for each family group in which there were children
under 16.
FAMILIES OF SINGLE MEN.

Twenty-three families were visited from which an unmarried man
had been lost in an industrial fatality. In one instance, however,
the man and his father were killed in the same accident, and as the
father was the responsible head of the family the case was included in
the discussion of families of married men, and is omitted here. In 15
of these cases the deceased was living at home with both parents, in 3




100

COMPENSATION LAWS: EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

he was with a widowed mother^ in 2 with other relatives, in 1 he and his
father, a widower, were companions but neither depended on the
other, and in 1 he and adult brothers lived a t’home with their sister,
all being self-supporting.
The 15 who had both parents living were for the most part mem­
bers of large families. In six cases the loss of their earnings con­
stituted a real hardship for the families concerned. In three of these
six families the father was unable to work and the decedent had been
the chief wage earner; in the others the father was at work but the
families were large and the loss of the decedent’s earnings was acutely
felt. In two of these families a daughter, in one case 14 and in the
other 15, had been taken out of school and put to work as a means of
partially making up the deficit. In three of these cases the employer
paid $150, in one case $300, in one he offered $150, which was refused,
and in one, up to the time of the visit, five months after the accident,
he had paid nothing. The family had put the m atter into a lawyer’s
hands and hoped to get something. In two cases the deceased car­
ried no insurance; in the four others, the amount of insurance ranged
from $75 to $1,000.
In the nine other cases the decedent’s earnings were missed, b u t the
family was not brought to actual suffering through lack of them. Six of
the decedents had carried insurance, ranging from $50 to $1,000. In
six cases payments were made by the decedent’s employer ranging
from $150 to $565; in one case $525 had been offered, and has prob­
ably been accepted; and in two cases nothing had been paid, though
in one of these the employer offered $150.
Of the seven cases in which the decedent was not living with both
parents, none of the families showed hardship due to the fatality. The
only ones which might have done so were three in which the decedent
lived with his widowed mother. In one of these the mother was left with
five other children, only one of whom was not a wage earner. The family
needed the decedent’s contribution, b u t could get on without it. In a
second case the decedent was supporting his mother, but she had other
grown children, and after the accident went to live with one of them.
In the third case, the decedent’s employer voluntarily arranged to
pay $30 a month for the rest of her life to the mother who was 81.
She owned her house, had some savings, and with this amount was
very comfortable. This was the only one of these three cases in which
the employer made any settlement.
Taking the single men as a group it appeared th at they, like the
married men, had tried rather generally to make some provision
against the future. In 15 of the 22 cases, some form of insurance or
death benefit was received, the amount ranging from $50 to $1,000.
In 13 cases a settlem ent of some sort was made with the decedent’s
employer. In one case the payment received was $50, in four cases $150,




THE INVESTIGATION IK PENNSYLVANIA.

101

in six $200 but under $500, in one case $565, and in one $370 for funeral
expenses and $30 monthly during the beneficiary’s lifetime. In two
cases the employers had made offers, one of $150 and one of #525,
but at the time of the visit these amounts had not been paid over.; in
three other cases the family had put m atters into a lawyer’s hands and
expected to get something, but were vague as to what they might
hope for.
CASES IN WHICH TH ESE WAS NO FAMILY GROUP.

The four men included here had been living apart from relatives,
but had been contributing more or less regularly to their support.
Very little could be learned about the circumstances of the relatives*
but from th at little it did not seem probable th at the loss of the dece­
dent’s contributions would cause serious hardship. In one case, the
employer paid the funeral expenses and in another gave $100 for th a t
purpose. In the other two cases the employers did nothing.
UNVISITED CASES.

In cases of nonresident dependents it was difficult to learn any­
thing about the situation. In Connecticut and Ohio what had been
done in such cases was a m atter of official record, but in Pennsylvania
it could be learned only by visits to the employer or to connections of
the dead man. Such visits were made in connection with 66 of the
decedents, 40 married and 26 single; 29 of the married men were
reported to have children. In seven cases the employers paid part or
all of the funeral expenses of these married decedents, and in six
cases made cash payments ranging from $35 to $1,750. In a seventh
case the employer was ready and willing to pay $3,000 to the widow,
but the m atter was held up by the delay in getting the necessary legal
papers from her. In two other cases a voluntary settlement was under
way. In the remaining 31 cases nothing had been offered by the em­
ployers, and there was no prospect th a t anything would be obtained
unless the dependents sued; in three cases they were doing this. In
the cases of the 26 single men the employers had paid the funeral
expenses in six instances, and had made three cash settlements, rang­
ing from $50 to $2,137.
Little can be said concerning the disposition of the cases in which
there were resident dependents who could not be located or were not
visited. In four cases the decedents were employed by companies
who make a practice of paying damages whenever a man is killed in
the course of his employment. One of these decedents had no depen­
dents; in the other three cases, according to neighbors or employers,
the families received, respectively, $1,800, $2,137, and $2^940. In a
fifth case the employer had paid funeral expenses and had given the
widow a ticket back to her own country. In the remaining cases it




102

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

was not possible to learn much, about what had been done, but the
indications were th at the payment of damages by the employer was
no more common in this group than in the cases of those decedents
who left nonresident dependents.
DETAILS CONCERNING TH E WORKING OF TH E LIABILITY LAW.
AMOUNTS RECEIVED BY FAMILIES OF VICTIMS.

Considering only the visited cases in which the decedents left
widows, or widows and children, it appears th at in 58 cases some cash
paym ent was made by the employer to the victim’s family. In
three cases this took the form of a monthly cash payment, $10 in one
case, $15 in a second, and $20 in the third, which was paid to the
widow without any definite statem ent as to how long it would be con­
tinued. A t the time of the agent’s visits these payments had been
running for seven, two, and seven months, respectively. In these
cases it is impossible to say what the families will eventually receive,
b u t to the 55 other families the employers made payments as follows:
Families.

Under $100.......................................................................................................
$100 and under $200......................................................................................
$200 and under $500......................................................................................
$500 and under $1,000...................................................................................
$1,000 and under $2,000................................................................................
$2,000 and under $3,000................................................................................
$3,000 and oyer...............................................................................................

17
12
15
9
7
3
2

The amounts thus given do not include anything paid by the em­
ployers toward funeral expenses. In 29 cases the employer contrib­
uted toward the funeral expenses, but, as under a compensation law,
allowances for such expenses are made in all cases, these contribu­
tions may fairly be omitted from this comparative view. Neither
do the above amounts include house rent, which was given in four of
these cases; nor coal, given in six. They are cash payments com­
parable to those received under the compensation laws of the other
States.
I t is evident that payments are less generally received than in the
compensation States, and that while the amounts vary more widely
the average is lower. Not far from three-fifths of the families under
consideration (57.7 per cent) had received no settlement; very nearly
four-fifths of those receiving a definite amount in settlement (78.2 per
cent) were paid under $1,000. The average payment to the 55 fam­
ilies receiving definite sums was $636, against an average in Connecti­
cut of $2,269, and in Ohio of $3,098.
i In one of these cases the employer paid $7.50 a week for eight weeks, and in a second $10 a month for
eight months, each employer discontinuing paym ents when the widow brought suit.




103

THE INVESTIGATION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
DELAY, EXPENSE, AND UNCERTAINTY.

In the 58 cases in which settlement, beyond paym ent of funeral or
hospital expenses had been made, the employer’s action had been
so far voluntary th at it was not the result of a suit. In the 12
cases in which the amount paid reached or exceeded $1,000 the
payments were in every sense voluntary and were made in from 7
days to 12 weeks after the fatality.1 In two of the cases receiving
less than $1,000 a lawyer had been engaged before a settlem ent was
reached, and in the remaining cases the payment was sometimes
voluntary in the fullest sense of the word, sometimes a concession
to prevent a suit, and sometimes a yielding to importunity. One
company w ith m any employees appeared to adjust such m atters
much on the principle of the unjust judge. When by much coming
the widow had sufficiently wearied the claim agent or the super­
intendent or some other official a settlem ent was authorized, but no
notice was given her of the fact. If then the widow’s persistency
held out and she came once more, she got her payment, but if she
did not come the m atter was apparently left to drift indefinitely. I t
was impossible to get from the claim agent of this company any
statem ent of what course the company expected to follow in case of
an industrial fatality, but the above seemed to be the actual procedure
as gathered from the experience of the widows and from the agent’s
account of w hat had been done in the cases submitted. I t is evident
th a t in such cases there might be a considerable disagreement be­
tween the widow and the company as to the delay in making a settle­
ment, one giving the date on which a payment was authorized and the
other th a t on which it was made. The date given by the family has
been taken here, as th at shows their actual time of waiting. In
the 46 cases in which payments under $1,000 or of uncertain amounts
were made the intervals of waiting were as follows:
Cases.

Under 2 weeks...................................................................................................
2 weeks and under 1 m onth...........................................................................
1 month and under 2 months........................................................................
2 months and under 3 months.............................. ........................................
3 months and under 6 months.......................................................................
Time not reported.............................................................................................

10
5
7
31
7
6

Total.........................................................................................................

46

I t is hardly possible to make any comparisons between the figures
of this table and those of the corresponding tables for the other
States because these cover so few of the cases studied. Those cases
in which suit had been brought, and for which the waiting period
would naturally be longest, are necessarily omitted. All th a t can be
said is that in the cases settled without a suit, the waiting period
1 In one of these cases the actual paym ent was delayed for 5 months until the widow was 2 1 years of age.




104

COM PENSATION LAWS : EFFEC T ON W OM AN AND CHILD LABOR.

was not generally long. One-third were settled within a m onth of
the fatality and nearly three-fourths within three months.
In two of these eases a lawyer had been employed, in one the fee
being $10 and in the other $100, which was half of the amount
secured.
In 18 of the 79 cases in which nothing had been received the
claimants had engaged lawyers to bring suit or take what steps they
thought best. Usually the claimants knew very little about what
the lawyers were doing. The amounts for which suit had been entered,
as reported by the families, ranged from $15,000 to $50,000, and the
lawyers’ fee, when the amounts could be learned, varied from one-third
to one-half of the amounts which might be won. Court costs would,
of cours^ eat up a considerable part of what the lawyers did not take.
In these 18 cases, therefore, it was wholly uncertain when a settlement
would be obtained, w hat it would be, and what portion of it would
come to the claimants.
Among the 61 remaining families a lev/ were in doubt whether or
not to invoke the law, b ut the m ajority did not intend to make any
such attem pt. The employers were too powerful, they felt; it was
useless to try to get anything. The witnesses of the accident were
very apt to be in the employ cf the man, or company, who had em­
ployed the decedent and fear of losing their work would keep them
from testifying against their employer. Other members of the de­
cedent’s family might lose their jobs if suit were brought. All in all,
they thought it better to submit and not to make a bad m atter worse
by creating for themselves a powerful enemy.1
Of course for those who took this attitude, there was no delay, no
expense, and no uncertainty about the question oi settlem ent; their
chief wage earner was gone; all th at remained for them to do was to
adjust themselves as best they could to the altered circumstances.
B ut for those who decided to fight, it would take another investiga­
tion, carried on some years hence, to say how long it took to carry
their suits through, what verdicts were given, and w hat the claimants
themselves got out of it.
^

INCIDENCE OF LOSS DUE TO INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES.

The foregoing pages show plainly enough where the loss involved
in an industrial fatality fell under the employers’ liability law in
Pennsylvania. Certainly the industry in which the men were killed
bore b u t a small p art of it. The payments made to families of mar­
ried men, omitting the three cases in which monthly payments were
being made for an unspecified period, averaged $261 per family; to
1 Submission did not necessarily mean acquiescence.and again and again bitter complaints were voiced
against the employers: “ They think more of their mules than they do of their m en,” exclaimed one w idow .
“ If a driver injures a mule he’s fined and the mule is taken care of till it’s well, but if one of our men is
hurt or killed, that’s all there is to i&and th ey don’t do a thing. ”




TH E INVESTIG ATIO N IN

PEN N SY L V A N IA ,

105

the families of the widowed and single men, omitting one ease of a
pension for life, $143.
The average weekly earnings of the 135 married men the amount of
whose earnings were learned were $16; the 28 widowed and single men
for whom these facts were reported paid into the family funds an aver­
age of $11.63 weekly. So the payments to the families of married men
represented about 16 weeks’ wages, and to the families of widowed or
single men what they would have received from the decedents in 12
weeks. To this extent the industry in which they were killed bore
the loss.
To an appreciable, extent, the rest was borne by charity. Over
one-fifth of the families of married men visited were receiving chari­
table aid from some organized or official source, or had been receiving
such aid until the widow remarried. Others were receiving help from
relatives or from neighbors, which could hardly be tabulated. And it
was very evident th a t charity would have to bear a larger part of
the burden of their support as time went on. The insurance which
had been the main dependence of some of these families was being
used up. One widow was on the point of applying for poor relief
at the time of the agent’s visit; others would certainly be obliged to
do so in the near future.
But by far the heaviest part of the loss fell directly upon the fami­
lies concerned and through them will eventually be borne indirectly
by the community at large. For the charitable help given was woe­
fully insufficient for their needs and not all of the families had even
th at help. Many of the families visited were in extreme poverty,
poorly clothed, insufficiently fed, and had no prospect of anything
better until the children should become wage earners. B ut the chil­
dren on whom their hopes depended were growing up under privations
th at would almost inevitably result in poor physiques and lowered
vitality, and that would quite inevitably deprive them of any oppor­
tunity for becoming skilled, efficient workers. The community may
have to pay in p art for the father’s death in contributions to the
children’s support; it will pay a heavier price in the injury done to
the development of these children, from whom the workers of a few
years hence must come.

SUMMARY OF CONDITION OF FAMILIES UNDER COMPEN­
SATION AND UNDER LIABILITY LAWS.
In the preceding pages the condition of the families studied in the
three States has been given in much detail. I t is rather difficult to
summarize the difference between conditions in Connecticut and Ohio
as opposed to Pennsylvania, b u t some comparative statem ents may
be made.




106

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

Certain tests of hardship, it will be remembered, were applied in
each State. Some of these were entirely inconclusive. Taking
children out of school to p u t them to work, and moving into cheaper
quarters were so seldom resorted to as means of meeting the loss of
income th a t their comparative frequency has little or no significance.
A more frequently used method was for the widow to become a wage
earner. The proportion of the widows who took up gainful pursuits
as a result of their husband’s death was for the three States as follows:
Connecticut.

Number of families considered.............................
Percentage of widows taking up gainful pur­
suits.........................................................................

Ohio. Pennsylvania.

53

206

137

18.9

28.2

31.4

At first sight this looks as if the families in Ohio had been but little
benefited by the compensation law, since the proportion of widows
going to work was so nearly the same as in Pennsylvania. There
are several considerations, however, which tell against th a t view.
One is that a considerably larger proportion of the Ohio widows had
no young children; practically two-fifths of those who took up work
after the fatality had no children under 14, while in Pennsylvania
less than one-fifth (18.6 per cent) were thus free to become wage
earners without danger of neglecting young children. Another is
found in the kind of work which the women took u p ; to a much larger
extent than in Pennsylvania, the widows in Ohio confined themselves
to taking roomers or boarders as their means of money making. In
many of these cases the widow had secured a partial commutation
of her award, had used the money to buy a house or to alter for
rooming purposes one th a t she already possessed, and was thriftily
building up a business by which to support herself when the com­
pensation payments should cease. Nothing of this kind was met
with in Pennsylvania where the widow’s work seemed always a
means of meeting an immediate necessity, not an investment for the
future.
Another test of significance is the extent to which charitable aid
to the families of the decedents had been found necessary. For the
three States the figures are as follows:
Connecticut.

Number of families considered.............................
Percentage receiving charitable aid ...................

53
1. 9

Ohio. Pennsylvania.

206
1. 5

137
23.4

In this no account is taken of help given by relatives or neighbors;
only aid given by the public authorities or by some organized society
is considered. In Ohio in one case the aid consisted of a widow’s
pension given in one of the contested cases, in which compensation
had been awarded b u t not paid. H ad *the compensation been
received the pension would have been unnecessary, b u t since the fact
th a t compensation was not received points to a defect in the law, it




107

SUM M ARY.

seems reasonable to include the case. In Pennsylvania in five cases
the aid had been discontinued at the time of the visit, in three because
the widow had remarried and in two for other reasons. If these five
cases are omitted the percentage would be 19.7 per cent instead of
23.4. Under either arrangement, the difference between the con­
ditions in the two compensation States and in Pennsylvania is suffi­
ciently striking.
B ut after all the best measure of what the compensation law effects
is what the families really receive under its terms as compared with
what they receive under a liability law. Widows may go to work
from other motives than necessity, or fail to goto work through inability
to find employment; children may leave school because their pros­
pective earnings are vitally necessary or because they feel th a t they
have had enough schooling; people may be receiving charitable aid
because they know how to p u t up a good case or may be going with­
out because they would rather suffer any extremity than take such
relief. B ut there is no such ambiguity about actual awards. One
family may make better use of its award than another, b u t all have
the same theoretic possibility of getting a dollar’s worth for a dollar,
so th a t a comparison of the awards actually made is perhaps the most
satisfactory test of the degree to which families of workers killed in
industrial accidents are better off under a compensation than under
a liability law. Table 27 shows, for the families of married decedents
covered by this investigation, the situation in this respect in the three
S tates:
T a b l e 2 7 .—TOTAL AM OUNT PA ID TO FAM ILIES OF M A R R IE D D E C E D E N T S AS COM­

P E N SA T IO N OR SE T TL E M EN T A N D A V ER A G E AM OUNT P E R FA M ILY , B Y SIZE OF
FA M ILY , IN CONNECTICUT, OHIO, A N D P E N N SY L V A N IA .
Compensation paid in
Connecticut.

Compensation paid in
Ohio.

Pennsylvania.

N um ­
Children in family Fam i­
Fam i­
ber of N um ­
under 14 years lies re­
lies re­
Aver­ ceiving Total Aver* fami­ ber re­ Total
of age.
ceiving Total
age lies of ceiving amount
com­ amount. age
com­ amount.
amount. speci­ pay­ paid
pensa­
pensa­
fied
tion.
tion.
size. m ents.

$2,334

$2,334

6,960
5,154
9, 821
19,379
19, 852
45,431

2,320
1,718
2,453
2,153
2, 482
2,271

$6,864
7,488
26,164
42, 802
58,243
84,193
135,924
257,889

48 108,931

Seven.
S ix ___
F i v e ..
F o u r..
Three.
T w o ...
O n e .. .
N o n e..

2,269

200 619,567

20

Total.

$3,432
3,744
2,616
3,057
3,426
3,007
3,161
3,070

5
2

Aver- A ™ '
age p e r , **?,,
receiv­ lies of
ing
pay­ speci­
fied
m ents2, size .2

$762
200
266
140
597
624

16

$3,810
400
1,595
280
8,355
6,235
14,314

$381
80
73
20
270
223
551

2 55

34,989

636

261

36

2
14

*

137

10

AN ot including hospital and funeral expenses.
2 N ot including 3 families receiving a monthly allowance for an unstated period.
3 N ot including 2 families receiving a m onthly allowance for an unstated period.
4 N ot including X family receiving a m onthly allowance for an unstated period.




108

COMPENSATION LAWS : EFFECT ON WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

The difference is apparent both in the proportion receiving com­
pensation and in the amounts received, The cases in the compen­
sation States in which the award was contested and the claimants
had not received any part of it are on much the same footing as the
cases under the liability law in which no damages had been paid. In
both cases the claimants may receive something, but what amount
is uncertain. In Connecticut 9.4 per cent, in Ohio 2.9 per cent, and
in Pennsylvania 57.7 per cent of the families of married men studied
came under this heading. In other words, in the compensation
States from 90 to 97 per cent had, at the time of the investigation,
received compensation; in the liability State 42 per cent had received
payments of some kind.
The amounts received show an even greater difference. Omitting
the three families who were receiving pensions for an indefinite time,
the average amount paid to the families who received anything at
all in Pennsylvania was less than one-third of the average compen­
sation received in Connecticut and less than one-fourth of th at
received in Ohio. Turning from the general average to the distri­
bution the contrast is even greater. The one widow with seven
children under 14 received nothing at all in Pennsylvania, while in
Connecticut one with the same number in the family received $2,344,
and in Ohio two widows each with seven children received $3,432
apiece. In Pennsylvania half of the widows with six children under
14 received nothing at all and the other half an average of $762
apiece. In Connecticut there were no widows in this group, but in
Ohio two received $3,744 apiece.
More might be said upon this point, but it seems scarcely worth
while. The situation may be summed up by saying th a t in the
compensation States the families of victims of industrial fatalities
knew with reasonable certainty what they might expect, received it
with reasonable promptness, and found it, in general, sufficient to
keep them from extreme hardship. In the liability State visited the
families of decedents were entirely uncertain as to what they would
have or when they would get it. That statem ent is not quite cor­
rect; a large proportion were quite certain th at they were not going
to get anything and th a t it was no use to try to do so. W hether a
victim’s family received anything depended much more upon his
employer than upon the family’s need or upon his earning capacity,
or upon the nature of the accident. In general the payments re­
ceived were quite inadequate to the needs of the families Not far
from one-fourth of those visited had, already, within less than a
year from the fatality, been obliged tq seek charitable aid, and there
was every prospect th a t many more would have to do so before long.
And many were living in a degree of poverty and destitution which




SUMMARY.

109

can hardly be exaggerated. Of course, not all the families visited
in Pennsylvania were suffering and not all in the other two States
were comfortable. B ut looking upon the situation in each State as
a whole, th at in Pennsylvania presented a nightmare of suffering and
destitution as compared with th a t in the other States. Neither of
the compensation systems studied is beyond criticism, but their
results are so superior to those of the liability system th at the claims
of their advocates may be regarded as wholly justified.




110

APPENDIX.
CONNECTICUT.
[Abbreviations: M.=married, S.=single, W .=widowed, D .=divorced, Sep.=separated.]

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS.

50
35
66

14
4
16
20

19

9
7
18

11

28
3
26
24
27
4
24
10
11.
22

19
13
9
10

12

4
12
1
2
6

.

5
3
5

6

14
24
28
9
18
14

4
13
9
28

1
2
10

3
5
9

...

2

21
22

6

28

8
21
20
22

8
8

9

25
5
19

6

2

LABOR*

408

27

1
8 *’ * 23

19
13
15
29

Fell from roof. . ? f....................................................................

Fingers lacerated; blood poisoning resulted.......................
Fell from ladder; skull fractured...........................................
Crashed by car............................................................................
Caught in shafting; internal and other injuries.................

8
10
11
8
2

20

CHILD

Fell while carrying pails of acid; burned and legs broken.
Contact with live wire; electrocuted.....................................
Fell from staging; skull fractured..........................................
Blow on head from hook; brain injured...............................
Thrown from mower; skull fractured....................................
Crushed by fall of rock..............................................................
Cut by ax while chopping wood; blood poisoning.............
Nose frozen by exposure; erysipelas resulted.....................
Fell from roof...............................................................................
Struck by auto............................................................................
Crushed by fall of rock..............................................................
Crushed by fall of steel plates..................................................
Burned by gasoline explosion.................................................
Fell from staging........................................................................
Fell from scaffold; internal injuries.......................................
Fell from crowded car...............................................................
Hand scratched; blood poisoning resulted...........................
Fell from ladder; internal and other injuries......................
Killed by explosion...................................................................
Hit in chest by iron roller; crushed.....................................
Cut on head; blood poisoning resulted................................
Blood poisoning from splinter.................................................
Splinter under thumb nail; septic pneumonia...................

AND

Worker in starch room. . .
Repair m an............. ..........
Carpenter............................
Laborer...............................
....... do...................................
Quarryman........................
Laborer...............................
Agent...................................
Bricklayer..........................
Laborer...............................
........do...................................
....... do...................................
....... do...................................
Bricklayer..........................
Painter................................
Conductor...........................
Laborer...............................
Machinist............................
Fulminate mixer...............
Machine operator..............
Plumber.............................
Janitor, city school— ;..
Not reported......................
Tinner.................................
Iron molder........................
Repairman........................
Not reported......................
Millwright and carpenter.

WOMAN




$9.41 Carpet manufacturing...........
14.95 Electric railway......................
14.44 Building...................................
12.00 M eatpacking...........................
15.00 Agriculture..............................
11.54 Quarrying................................
9.50 Agriculture..............................
20.00 Insurance.................................
23.06 Building...................................
9.07 Quarrying................................
11.49 ....... do....................................... .
10.00 Boiler manufacturing............
15.00 Road construction.................
16.50 Building...................................
16.50
11.21 Street railway.........................
10.00 Gardening................................
12.67 Smelting, brass.......................
26.50 Ammunition manufacturing.
8.02 Tool manufacturing............. .
24.00 Building...................................
13.78 Public service..........................
14.45 Arms manufacturing.............
18.83 B uilding...................................
14.37 Foundry...................................
18.13 Brass manufacturing.............
19.17 Railroad, steam ......................
16.00 Silver manufacturing.............

Nature of accident.

O
N

44
46
37
55
53
31
30
47
39
43
61
42
29
34
47
48
27
43
71
59
45
58
35
26
72

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Occupation.

EFFECT

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
tween death and death and
award.
agent’s visit.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days, Mos. Days.

LAW S:

Mari­ Week­
rial
tal
'io. Age. condi­ ly
tion. wage.

COMPENSATION

T able 1 .—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, W AGES, A N D OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE E A R N E R S, A N D DETA ILS AS TO ACCIDENTS A N D A W A R D S-

2141°— 18— Bull. 217-

37
60
57
65
33
53
38
54

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

37
38
39
40

33
62
38
23

M.
M.
M.
M.

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

40
32
25
51
55
30
46
50
69
62
24
29
28
48
17

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
S.
S.
S.

61
62
63
64
651
66

22
20

18
28
34
22
22

15
27
19
32

s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

11.29 Iron and steel..........................
15.00 Quarrying................................
8.98 ........do.........................................
12.00 Hat manufacturing................
13.50 B uilding...................................
10.00 Public service..........................
13.34 Electric power.........................
18.00 Lighting-fixture manufac­
turing.
20.40 Foundry and machine shop.
14.84 Electric railway......................
19.20 Arms manufacturing.............
12.72 Graphophone-record manu­
facturing.
9.60 Building...................................
Motor-car manufacturing_
_
0)
8.31 N ot reported............................
2 1 .2 1 Electric ligh t...........................
18.98 Arms manufacturing.............
18.00 Telephone................................
14.82 Railroad, steam......................
24.00 B uilding...................................
15.00 ........do.........................................
13.50 ........do.........................................
16.50 Electric light and power....
20.00 N ot reported............................
16.74 Hardware manufacturing...
18.51 Railroad construction...........
10.50 Ladder manufacturing..........
7.44 Building...................................
11.15 Ammunition manufacturing.
9.00 Building...................................
14.69 Hardware manufacturing...
12.00 Condensed milk manufac­
turing.
15.00 Electric power.........................
12.72 Navigation...............................
3.50 Department store...................
14.00 Telephone................................
12.70 B uilding...................................
16.67 Telephone................................




Craneman.......................
Foreman.........................
Laborer...........................
Watchman....................
Laborer...........................
Foreman, cow bam ___
Electrician......................
Shipping clerk...............

Fell from crane; skull fractured...........................
Struck by flying stone from blast...................... .
Crushed by fall of stone........................................ .
Killed by explosion of alcohol in drying room.
Crushed by fall of bricks........................................
Trampled by T'ill....................................................
Fell down elevator s h a ft......................................
Hernia from heavy lifting.................................... .

Machinist.......................
Carpenter.......................
Millwright......................
Grinder...........................

.do..
_
Killed by fall after contact with live wire_
Knocked down b y machine; skull fractured.
Skull fractured...................................................... .

Shingler..........................
Salesman........................
Not reported..................
Superintendent.............
Not reported..................
Driver.............................
Machine operator, shop.
Carpenter.......................
Painter............................
Carpenter.......................
Lineman.........................
Chauffeur.......................
Machinist.......................
Foreman.........................
Laborer...........................
Apprentice.....................
Window washer............
Roofer (apprentice)___
Machinist........................
Laborer...........................

Fell from house....................................................................
Drowned...................... .........................................................
Thumb injured; lockjaw resulted...................................
Electrocuted.........................................................................
Pneumonia from exposure................................................
Back broken.........................................................................
Leg crushed by m achine...................................................
Fell from staging; ribs broken and shoulder injured.
Fell down stairs; spinal meningitis resulted...............
Fell when scaffolding gave w a y ......................................
Electrocuted.........................................................................
Struck by auto.....................................................................
Caught in machinery..........................................................
Struck by train....................................................................
Killed by machinery..........................................................
Fell when scaffolding gave way; skull fractured........
Fell from w indow ................................................................
Electrocuted.........................................................................
Killed by machinery..........................................................
Leg broken by fall of ice; blood poisoning resulted...

Lineman.........................
Fireman..........................
General laborer.............
Lineman.........................
Painter............................
Lineman.........................

Electrocuted.........................................................................
Drowned................................................................................
Fell down stairw ay.............................................................
Fell from pole.......................................................................
Fell from roof.......................................................................
Electrocuted........................................... .•............................
)t reported.

19
8

1
12

27
3

14
13

6
6

10

1

2
6

5
27
8

3
9

3

9

20

17

6
8
1
2

20
12
8

10

o.l7
• 14

32

26
25
9
19
5
10
12
10

13
18
11
22

28
28
1
11
21

12

4
9
4
5
4
3
3
5
5
1
10
11

14
15
5

11

13

23

11
8

18

12

8

17
5

28
25
8
8

12
2
12

27
29
28
10
22

23
11

9
2

24
15
28
16
6

18
27
17
9
27
11

3
15
29
4
3
7

A PPE N D IX ,

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

l.—
AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENTS AND AWARDS—
CONNECTICUT—Continued.

112

T able

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

Industry.

Occupation.

Nature of accident.

Interval be­
tween acci­
dent and
award.

Interval be­
tween acci­
dent and
agent’s visit.

Months. Days. Months. Days,

68

69

40
49
62

M.
M.
M.

$13.48
18.20
10.00

Ammunition manufacturing Cartridge loader...................... Blinded by explosion....................................................................
Railroad, steam ....................... Bridgem an.............................. Partial paralysis from fall from trestle.....................................
Jewelry store............................ Laborer..................................... Losing mind from blow on lie ad.................................................

9

22

8

19
28

5

14
14
8

21
20

5

DECEDENTS WITH NO FAMILY GROUP.

Trucking...................................
Telephone................................
Navigation...............................
Domestic service.....................

Driver.......................................
Lineman...................................
Deck hand...............................
Domestic., ...............................

Nature of accident.

«
70
71
72
73

38
19
30
23

Sep. $13.50
S.
14.00
S.
10.43
5.50

s.

Drowned............................
...............................................
Clothing1 nanprht. fira whilfi ironing_____________________

6

5
2

1

6
9

28
24
8
22

11
12

17
13

20

7
15
4

CHILD
LABOE,




Fell from truck; skull fractured...............................................

Eloctrnr*nt,fid

AND

Occupation.

WOMAN

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
tween death and death and
agent’s visit.
award.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days. Mos. Days.

O
N

Mari­
Serial Age. tal Week­
No.
condi­ ly
tion. wage.

LAWS: EFFECT

67

COMPENSATION

Mari­ Week­
Serial
tal
ly
No. Age. condi­ wage.
tion.

DECEDENTS WITH NONRESIDENT DEPENDENTS.

Mari­
Serial Age. tal W eekly
condi­
No.
tion.

74
75
76
77
78
79
80

46
46
56
50
28
30

81
82
83

C
1
)
C
1
)
C
1
)
33

84
85

C
1
)
39

8
6
87
8
8

89
90
91
92
93
94
95

28
24
40

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

$10.45
19.85
40.00
(2>
5.92
(2)

M.
M.
M.

15.93
9.25
14.82

M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
S.

9.46
27.50

C s.
1
)
49
s.
s.
8 s.
20
18
C
1
)




C
1
)

(l)

17.35
12.40
9.00
18.12

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
11.14

Industry.

Strawboard manufacturing..
Not reported............................
Clothing....................................
Tool manufacturing...............
Quarrying................................
Lumber yard...........................
Engineering and construc­
tion.
B uilding...................................
....... d o ........................................
Electric house-bracket manu­
facturing.
Not reported............................
Building...................................
Department store...................
Electric light............................
Quarrying.................................
Not reported...........................
Electric railway......................
Building...................................
___ d o .........................................
Coal and building supplies..
Sewer construction.................
Gas ligh t...................................

Occupation.

Nature of accident.

Laborer......... .
Not reported..
Tailor............. .
Laborer......... .
....... d o ..............
----- d o ..............
Not reported..

Skull fractured; cause not reported.
Fell from roof; skull fractured............
Thrown from au to ................................
Not reported...........................................
....... d o ........................................................
....... d o ........................................................
Suffocated; cause not reported..........

___ d o .........
Laborer___
Electrician.

Not reported........................................................
Scratch on wrist; blood poisoning resulted.
Crushed by machinery.....................................

Not reported.
___ d o ............
Driver............
Lineman........
Laborer.........
___ d o ............
Motorman. . .
Laborer.........
Tinner...........
Helper...........
Laborer.........
Not reported.

Interval between
Days be­ death and award.
tween
accident
and death. Months.
Days.

Not reported........................................................
Fell 35 feet after electric shock........................
Finger fractured; blood poisoning resulted.
Electrocuted........................................................
Fell from trestle..................................................
Crushed by machinery.....................................
Not reported........................................................
___ do.....................................................................
. . . . d o ....................................................................
----- d o .....................................................................
___ d o .....................................................................
Skull fractured; cause not reported...............
2 Amount not reported; less than $10.

C
1
)

24
27

8
1
2
2
0
1
2
15

1

19
24
19

6
1
1
2
2
29
28
25
18

8

MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS
CONNECTICUT—Concluded.

TO

ACCIDENTS AND AWARDS—

114

T a b l e 1 . — AGE,

CASES PENDING.

Industry.

Occupation.

Nature of accident.

Days be­
tween
accident

Interval between
death and Sept. 1,
1915.

and death.
Months.

103
104
105

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
Sep.
Sep.
S.

$21.00
12.00
10.00

12.05
0)
7.50
0)

21.00

Carpenter . .
..
___
........do........................................
General laborer.......................
Laborer.....................................
........do........................................
........do........................................
W atchm an.............................
Bricklayer................................
Driver.......................................
Conductor................................

Electrocuted by wire on house.................................................
Sunstroke; fell 100 feet................................................................
•Crushed by elevator.....................................................................
Crushed by fall of bricks............................................................
Fell with clay bank which caved in .......................................
Fell from building while cleaning away snow and ice
Struck by train.............................................................................
Crushed by cave-in of clay bank...............................................
Found dead in road beside team .............................................
Electrocuted..................................................................................

2
1
1
1

21

16

25

3
17

14

2

29
25

1

8
1
2

1Not reported.
O
N
WOMAN
AND
CHILD
LABOR,




C
1)
i1)

Building
........................
Shipbuilding..........................
Junk shop.................................
Quarrying .............................
Brick manufacturing.............
General labor...........................
Railroad, steam.......................
Building.............
Hauling.....................................
Street r a ilw a y ........................

EFFECT

100
101
102

25
38
29
C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
58
0)
0)

Days.

LAW S:

96
97
98
99

COMPENSATION

Mari­
Serial Age. tal Weekly
No.
condi­ wage.
tion.

CASES DISMISSED, WITHDRAWN, OR DISALLOWED.

Mari­
tal Week
Serial Age. con­
N o.
di­ wage.
tion.

Days
b e­

ly

C
1
)

113
114
115

Bottles...................... .
Building...................
Brewing....................
Electric railway___
Coal, grain, etc........
Arms manufactur­
ing.
Railroad, steam ___
Agriculture..............
Telephone................
Brass manufactur­
ing.
Not reported............
Coal and w ood........
Arms manufactur­
ing.
Cotton goods...........
Ammunition...........
Railroad, steam___

56
28

M.
M. $30.00
17.00
M.
M.
13.87
W.
9.19
S.

37
55
26
50

M.
W.
S.
M.

(l)
12.00

43

M
.

C
1
)
12.00

106
107
108
109

10
1
11
1
12
1

Industry.

116
117
118

0)
0)

119

11.88
17.00
10.50

15

10 2
2 2
1 1 39
2

M.
M.

25.00

0)
0)

19.00




Occupation.

Nature of accident.

Disposition of case.

tween
acci­
dent
and
death.

Salesman.........................
Stationary engineer___
Driver..............................
Messenger, express car..
Driver..............................
Scrap sorter....................

Asphyxiated by illuminating gas in hotel—
Death due to disease...........................................
Pneumonia from exposure.................................
Hemorrhage; found dead in car.......................
Not reported..........................................................
Injured in scuffle; blood poisoning resulted.

Dismissed; several reasons therefor----Dismissed; death due to typhoid fever.
Dismissed......................................................
....... do.............................................................
Dismissed; dependency not proved----....... do.............................................................

Boiler maker .
Laborer...........
Lineman____
Laborer.........

Fell from trestle while going to work..............
Struck by lathe; cut became infected............
Slipped in descending pole; chest injured__
Death due to disease. . . » ...................................

Withdrawn; lawyer said useless to push case.
Withdrawn; daughter settled with employer
Withdrawn; death due to pneumonia...........
Settled by agreement..........................................

34
4

. .. .d o ................................... Leg injured; cold settled in i t ................
Not reported........................ Suffocation and other injury..................
Foreman, barrel browning. Death due to complication of diseases.

Settled by agreement; bone tubercular..........
Agreement; widow only partially dependent.
Disallowed; disease not caused by industry.

81
3
54

Bobbin boy..............
Cartridge inspector.
Car inspector.............

Disallowed; dependency not proved..............
Disallowed; tumor caused death.....................
Interstate case; no claim made.........................

32

Not reported..........................
Fall; internal hemorrhage.
Struck by car........................
1 Not reported.

16
7

1

34

1
0

116

COM PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OM AN AN D CH ILD LABOR.

To show in as condensed a form as possible the effect of the acci­
dent upon the dependents of the worker, who was killed or totally
disabled, Table 2 was prepared giving the total family membership,
the number of dependents and of wage earners, and the total family
income and its sources both before and after the accident. In addi­
tion, expenses incurred on account of the accident are shown, any
insurance or union benefits received, and the amount of the com­
pensation awarded. “ Family condition before accident” means
the condition at the time the accident occurred, as reported by the
member of the family interviewed. “ Family condition after acci­
d en t” is the condition at the time of the agent’s visit. The com­
ments are intended to cover any significant features not appearing
in the tabular presentation, or conditions which had arisen at some
time after the death and as a consequence of it, b u t had ceased to
exist before the agent’s visit.
The table is confined to cases within the scope of the compensation
law, in which an award had been rendered, in which the victim was
a member of a family group, and in which it was possible to inter­
view this group or some member of it. Thus limited the table includes
69 cases.
In drawing up this table certain difficulties of definition were encoun­
tered. When is a person a member of a family and whenis he a depend­
ent ? Should a son of 30 or over who pays board and assumes no re­
sponsibility whatever for the family welfare be considered a member or
only a boarder ? How should a brother-in-law or a cousin be classed
under similar circumstances? Can a daughter of 20 or over who is
in no wise disqualified from earning her own living b u t who is stay­
ing a t home and doing nothing toward her own support be legiti­
mately considered a dependent ? W hat is the status, as to depend­
ency, of a wife who keeps boarders or takes in washing, or of a grown
son who, having lost his job, is living at home, paying no board,
until he can find another %
In order to secure uniformity of treatm ent these and similar
questions were settled somewhat arbitrarily All sons and daugh­
ters living at home were considered members of the family, no
m atter what attitude they m ight be taking toward family responsi­
bilities. If they were working they were p u t down as wage earners,
b u t the family income was credited only with the amount they actually
paid in. The term “ children” was extended to include grandchil­
d ren adopted children, or any others who practically stood in the
relation of children to the head of the family. In the case of other
relatives living in a family, whether or not they were members was
decided in each instance by the actual circumstances, the presump­
tion being th a t they were boarders unless it was clearly shown th at
they were members.




APPENDIX.

117

As to dependency, tlie Connecticut law classes all children under
18 as dependents. This classification was accepted, b u t as there is a
considerable difference in the degree of dependency of a child who has
reached legal working years and of one who has not, these children were
divided into two groups, those under 14 and those who were 14 b u t not
yet 18. The legal theory of a wife's dependence was accepted in all
cases; if the wife happened to be a wage earner she was p u t down as
such, b u t she wasr still grouped with the dependents over 18. After
the husband's death the wife was regarded as head of the family,
and consequently was no longer classed with dependents. “ De­
pendents over 18" included, in addition to the wife, all members of
the family over th a t age who were physically or mentally disqualified
for self-support. Parents or parents-in-law no longer able to support
themselves were regarded as having a valid claim upon the younger
generation and were classed both as members of the family and as
dependents. Children over 18 whom the parents were trying to p u t
through high school or college or some course of special training were
also considered dependents, on the ground th a t this was a perfectly
legitimate extension of the period of preparation and training during
which a child m ust inevitably depend on some one else.
Another point which presented some difficulty was w hat should be
reckoned as income. If a family had a garden or raised chickens
or kept a cow they might add a little to their cash income or they
might merely reduce expenses. If they owned a house they were
freed from paym ent of rent, b u t had to meet taxes. If they owned a
little farm they might make an appreciable portion of their living
from it. In all these cases there was a virtual addition to the family's
means, b u t it was difficult and often impossible to estimate the value
of this addition. The ground finally taken was th a t this was not a
cost of living study and th a t elaborate detail was impracticable.
All definite and regular income from whatever source is included in
the tabulation. Ownership of property and uncertain and indefi­
nite possibilities of additions to the income through gardens, chick­
ens, or the like are mentioned in the comments, b u t no effort is made
to say how far they affected the family's position.
In the case of boys and single men the question of dependency pre­
sented some aspects differing from those in the case of married men.
When parents are old or infirm or in any way incapacitated they may
be entirely dependent upon a son, b u t when they are in full strength
and vigor, or when their savings are sufficient to support them, there
seems no reason for classing them as dependents. Consequently, in
the case of single men, the membership of the family is given without
any implication th a t the children under 18, the parents, and the
dependents over 18 are dependent upon the decedent. The extent
to which they really were dependent is discussed in the text.




118

COM PENSATION L A W S: EFFECT ON W OMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

Widowers and men who were divorced or separated from their
wives fell into two groups. If they had children whom they were
supporting their responsibilities were nearly the same as those of
married men and they were included in the same tabulation. If they
had no children they were in the same position as single men and
were grouped with these.
The Connecticut law allows $100 for funeral expenses and whatever
the commissioner deems a reasonable and necessary amount for
medical and hospital expenses. I t frequently happened th a t the
funeral expenses and sometimes the medical expenses exceeded the
amount allowed. When this occurred, the extra amount which had
to be met by the family has been tabulated as “ Expenses due to
accident.” Medical and funeral expenses, usually heavy and coming
at a time when the family income has been suddenly and sharply
diminished, have always constituted a serious addition to the family’s
misfortunes. The purpose of this column is to show how far this bur­
den is lessened by the action of a compensation law. In the five cases
in which the commissioner’s award had been contested, the full
amount of the medical and funeral expenses is entered. If the
awards are finally paid a considerable portion of these sums will be
refunded to the families, b u t meanwhile they are responsible for the
full amounts.
W ith these definitions and lim itations in mind Table 2 was drawn
up, showing in certain respects the effect upon the families studied
of the death or permanent incapacitation of one of their members
by an industrial accident:




T able

2 .—CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 69 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—CONNECTICUT.

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed.
Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.
Fam ily membership.
Serial
No.
Num­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
sons.
14.

Weekly income of family.

Wife Num­
Chil­
ber of D ece­ Paid
and
dren
wage dent’s in by
14 and depend­ earners. earn­ other
ents 18
mem­
under
ings.
and
bers.
18.
over.
$9.41
14.95
14.44

1 ...
2 ...

3 . ..
4 . ..
5 . ..

1'.0
20

N um ­
ber of
D e­ wage
Num­ Chil­ Chil­
dren dren pend­
Total
Other. income. ber of under 14 and ents earn­
per
ers.
14. under 18 and
sons.
18.
over.

$44.50
$2.77
’30.’00

7 . ..
8...
9 . ..

15.00
11. o4
9.50
33.69
23.06
9.07
14.49
14.50
15.00
18.00
16.50

20.00 10.00
23.06
9.07
11.49

10 . . .

11...

10.00

12 . . .

1 3 ...

15.00
16.50
16.50

11 ...

1 5 ...
1 6 ...
1 7 ...
1 8 ...
1 9 ...

11 1
.2
10.00

12.67
26.50

3.00
4.50
1.50

24.00
13. 78
14.45
18.83
14.37
18.13
19.17
16.00

21. . .

22 . . .

2 3 ...
24 - . .
2 5 ...
2 6 ...
2 7 ...

1 .2
11
1 .0
00

11.00

8.02

20 . . .

.69

6.00
(3)
13.00
3.00
(3)

28.75
26.50
8.71
30.00
(3)

27.45
21.83
6.35

"'.77

i Not including some medicines paid for by wife of deceased.




$53.91
17.72
44.44

12 0
.0

15.00
11.54
9.50

6...

Family membership.

(3
)

18.13
19.17
16.77

Weekly income of family.

Paid
in by
Total
mem­ Other. income.
bers of
family.

3 Paid in lump sum.

27.00
4.00

22.40

E x­
penses Insur­
due to ance or
acci­ benefit.
dent.

$44.50 i $99.90
7.00
27.00
(3)
4.00
( 3)

$44.50

7
6
7
6
6
6
5
5
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Award under
compensation
law.

(3
)-

$3.69
5.00

3.00

6.00

4189.00
26.09 4275.00
5.00
24.00
4150.00
3.00

6.00

1. 50

1.50

4. 67

4. 67
16.08

11.00
6.00
(3)

(3)

10 .0
20

(3)

(*
)

2.00 .77
8Not reported.

7.00

2. 77

255
(3)
75

(2)

7. 50
5.77

4 5.00

4 5. 00

5.75
5.00
7.50
8.25
4 8.25
5.61
5.00
6.34

10.00
110
5. 00
*0 1 . 0
20 0 0
120
150
100

(3)
105.00
70.00

(2)

$7.48
7.22

1,000 410.00
10.00
350

100

(3)

7.00

25
750

(3)

(3)

(3)

2,200

106.00

6.00
17.63
4.85

100

650

(3)

17. 63
4. 85

$150

Per
week
Total
for 312 amount.
weeks.

470
540

6. 89
7.23
9. 42
7.19
9.07
9.59

8.00

« Case oontested.

$1,391
2,334
2,253
1,500
2.340
1,800
4 1,560
4 3,120

3.120

4 1,560
1,794
1.560
2.340
2,574
4 2 ,574
1,750
1.560
1,978
3.120
1.560
3.120
2,150
2,256
2,939
2,243
2,830
2,992
2,496

2 .-C 0 N D IT I0 N , BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 69 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED DY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—CONNECTICUT—Continued.

120

T able

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed-—Concluded.

Family membership.
Serial
No.
Num­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
14.
sons.

Weekly income of family.

Num­
Wife
ber of
Chil­
and
dren depend­
14 and ents 18
under
and
18.
over.

*11.29
15.00
8.98

*12.00
12.00
$8.0

12.00
13.50
10.00

6.92

6.00
2.00

4.61
1.63

(2
)

(2
)
8.31
21.21

2.50

(2
)

21.00
10.00
5.00

*15.00

1
2.00

12.00
$8.08

3.00

6,92

17.08

(2
)

6.00 (2)
(2)
19.08 >384.00
(2 200.00
) 84.00
3.00
(2)

2.08

6.00
2.50

(2
>

2.08

ft.
2.50
12.00 12.00
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
9,61

5.00

5.00

26.74
23.51

16.00
7.00

16.00
7.00

3 Case contested.

4Lump-sum payment (under $300) for hospital expenses of widow.

$662
"'*240
2,465

$28.00

6.00
2.00

21.97
13.50
21.50

20.00

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
4.00

'2 ,‘666'
2,000

987
150
250
75

(2
)

150
2,050
40.00
575
(2
)
300
(2
)
100.00 ” ’556'
105
(2 1,000
)
10
0
55.00

(»)
$7.50
5.00
6.00
6.75
5.00
6.67
39 .00
10.00
7.42
9.60
6.36
5.00
10.00
5.00
10.00
9.49
9.00
7.41
10.00
6 7.50
6.75
8.25
10.00
8.37
9.26

&
For 112 weeks; commuted to lump sum of $800.

$1,570
2,340
1,560
1,872
2,106
1,560
4 2,081
3 2,808
3,120
2,315
2,995
1,984
1,560
3,120
1,560
3,120
2,960
2,808
2,312
3,120
840
2,106
2,574
3,120
2,611
2,889

LABOR.




6,97

23. 71
26.98
18.00
14.82

*15.00

CHILD

15.00
13.50
16.50

1 Paid in Lump sum.
2 N ot reported.

0
0

$23.29
27.00
8.98
20.08
13.50
16.92
19.34
37.08
20.40
14.84
19.20
17.33
11.23

AND

18.98
18.00
14.82

16.74
18.51

17.08

Insur­
E x­ ance or
Num­
penses benefit.
De­ ber of Paid
due to
Per
pend­ wage in by
acci­
week
Total
ents earn­ mem­ Other. Total dent.
for 312 amount.
income,
18 and ers. bers of
weeks.
over.
family.

WOMAN

13.34
18.00
20.40
14.84
19.20
12.72
9.60

20.00

Chil­
Num­ Chil­
Total ber of dren dren
Other. income. per under 14 and
under
sons.
14.
18.

Weekly income of family.

O
N

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

Dece­
dent’s
earn­
ings.

Paid
in by
other
mem­
bers.

Family membership.

Award under
compensation
law.

COMPENSATION" LAWS: EFFECT

Family condition after accident.

Family condition before accident.

DECEDENTS: Single.
Family condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.

Fam ily membership.
Serial
No.
14
Num­
Par­
ber of Under and
14. u$der ents.
per­
18.
sons.

Weekly income of family.

1
?

$26.00

2
1.00
30.65
0)
44.69

6.00

(J
)

19.00

1 .0
10

2.00

2 Lump-sum payment.

$7.50

$7.50

12.00
0)
30.00
12.00

12.00
23.00
0)
30.00
12.00
9.00

23.00

9.00
2.50

2,50

4.15
12.50
$1.62
3 Including father who conducts a road house.

4.15
12.50
1.62

(x $500 $5.00
)
(2
)
$0
20
(2
)
0) 1 0 5.00
0 ' (a
)
0)
5.00
5.00

(4
)
(<
)
25
51

8
0

4 5.00

4 5.00
5.00
224
530

6.00
8.34

$1,560
875
lj552
1.560
1.560
1.560
1.560
4 1.560
4 1.560
1.560
1,872
2,602

4 Case contested.

121




$1.62

16.58
3.50
9.15
17.20
18.29

Weekly income of
In­
family.
E x­
sur­
penses ance
Num­
ber
due to or
acci­
of
De­
Paid
dent. bene­ Per
pend­ wage- in by
fit.
Total
earn- mem­
week
Total
ents
ers.
for 312 amount.
18
bers Other, in­
come.
weeks.
and
of
family.
over.

APPENDIX.

$10.50 $16.00
15.00
11.15 19.50
5.00
14.69 30.00
5.00 14.00
9.00
5.00 11.58
3.50
5.00
4.15
12. 70 4.50
16.67
1 Not reported.

Fam ily membership.

Num­
ber
Paid in by—
of
De­
pend­ wage14
Total Num­ Under and
earnents
Par­
in­ ber of
ers.
14. under ents.
Other Other. come. per­
Dece­ mem­
and
18.
sons.
dent. bers.
over.

A w ard under
compensation
law.

".-CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 69 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS-CONNECTICUT-Concluded.

122

T able

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

Fam ily membership.
Serial
No.

3

1

68

3

69

2

i Lump-sum payment.

1
2
1

Paid
in by
other
mem­
bers.

$13.48
18.20

$5.00

10.00

$3.46

$13.48
26.66
10.00

2 Not reported.

3
2
2

1

1
1
1

• For 329 weeks.

$15.46

$15.46

$5.60
0
’$2*82* 3 $9.10
(2)
<5.00
(2)

< During incapacity.

$5,200
2,994

O
N
WOMAN
AND
CHILD
LABOR.




1
1
1

Wages
of in­
jured
mem­
ber.

In­
E x­
sur­
penses ance
Num­
due to
or
Wife ber of
acci­ bene­
Chil­ and wage- Paid
dent.
Num­ Chil­ dren
fit. Amount
earn- in by
de­
Total
dren
Total
Total
mem­ Other. income.
Other. income. ber of under 14 and pend­ ers.
per
per­
bers of
week. amount.
under ents
14.
sons.
family.
18.
18 and
over.

EFFECT

67

Chil­
dren
under
14.

Num­
ber of
Wife
Chil­ and de­ wage
dren
earn­
14 and pend­
ers.
ents
under 18 and
18.
over.

Family membership.

LA W S:

Num­
ber of
per­
sons.

W eekly income of family.

Award under
compensation
law .

Weekly income of
family.

COMPENSATION

Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.

[The remarks opposite each serial number apply to the family represented by the corresponding serial number in appendix tables 1 and 2.]

Remarks.

J.

1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

2
0
2
1
2
2




123

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

APPENDIX.

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Own home, mortgaged. Compensation paid in lump sum to apply on mortgage.
Partial commutation. Had paid $700 on home before accident. After accident gave up home at loss of $500. One child died since accident. Posthumous child born.
Award commuted. Own place wo rth $5,200. Daughter, 23, who helped w ith housekeeping, became wage earner after accident. One son and one daughter left home.
Award paid in lump sum. Son, 14, has left school and gone to-work at $3 a week. Widow goes out washing.
Own 20-acre farm from which they get small and uncertain income. Live on farm owned by mother of deceased, a member of the family.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Town pays rent. Neighbors gave $25.
Case appealed. Own 100-acre farm, mortgaged, on which they live. A son has come home to run farm. Elder children get a little work in summer.
Case appealed. Own home worth $5,500, mortgaged. Since accident three youngest children have left school to work. Widow worked for 6 weeks after accident; left when
children started.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow took boarders after accident.
Case appealed. Are living on savings (something over $400) and $70 given by outsiders.
Partial commutation. Employer allows use of house, rent free. Wife did washings before and after accident.
Partial commutation. Widow does 4 days’ washing a week instead of 3, as before accident.
Two oldest children being educated by relatives. Widow and 2 children living w ith father-in-law.
Only wage earner since accident, a boy of 17. His earnings (piecework) small and irregular.
Own home, 41-acre farm, worth $2,900, mortgaged for $900. Widow runs the farm.
Mother of deceased has taken 1 child. Widow and other 2 children living w ith her mother, where widow works in boarding house in return for board.
Widow’s sister lives w ith family and cares for children while widow goes out to work.
Own home and 2-family house, both mortgaged, latter rented.
Widow worked 8 weeks but gave it up because children needed her care.
Moved to cheaper quarters. One lodger before and after accident.
One boarder before and after accident.
Own home. Widow keeps house w ith tw o sons.
Daughter, 19, at work, attends business college evenings.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Wife’s father, who boarded with them before accident, now turns in all his income (railroad pension).
Daughter and her husband live w ith widow, as before accident. Shared expenses before; now son-in-law pays most. Jointly own a $5,500 tenement, mortgaged and rented.
Award commuted. Amount held in trust and paid in weekly installments. Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow goes out to work, paying for care ox children at a nursery.
Moved to cheaper quarters. H elped by relatives. Collection of $156 given by fellow employees.
Own home. Deceased had savings.
Award paid in lump sum. Rent reduced. Wife worked irregularly before accident; has steady work now.
Own home, mortgaged.
Fam ily miserably poor. Posthumous child died at age of 6 months.
Own home and another house, the latter mortgaged and rented. Daughter, 43, totally blind, owns rented house. Son, 27, insane, has died since accident.
Fam ily miserably poor. Have lived w ith relatives since accident. Fellow countrymen collected $80 for widow.
Given use of house, rent free, as before accident. Boy 14 years old earned $24 during summer.
Small lump-sum payment. Widow works in factory, as before accident. She and children have gone to live w ith her mother.
Case appealed. Own home and three-apartment tenement. Tenement and lower floor of house rented.
Award commuted. Have tw o boarders since accident. Have drawn out about one-half of $400 savings.
Own home, mortgaged. Fellow employees collected $150 for widow. Grandson, serving apprenticeship before accident, now wage earner.
Live w ith friend of widow, as before accident, sharing expenses. This woman gives clothing and helps in other ways.
Widow kept roomers before accident. Afterwards moved to cheaper quarters, letting roomers go. Fellow employees of deceased collected $81.
Partial commutation. Have three lodgers, instead of two, as before accident. Their payments cover the rent.
*
Family in very comfortable circumstances.

Remarks.

LAW S:
EFFECT
O
N
WOMAN
AND
CHILD
LABOR.




COMPENSATION

Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow started working two weeks before agent’s visit.
Own 3 acres land. Get house and light free, as before accident, for three years. Wage earner’s work irregular. Widow is trying chicken farming.
Own home, mortgaged. After accident one member left home and became self-supporting. Widow has four lodgers instead of three, as before accident.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Posthumous child born three months after father’s death.
Award commuted. Widow stored furniture and lives w ith a friend.
Has rooming house, as before accident.
Award commuted. Owns two houses, both rented. Gone to live with married daughter for companionship. Comfortably off. Had roomers before accident.
Owns home, worth $2,600, mortgaged.
Widow continues to work, as before accident.
Insurance paid to mother of deceased. Widow has gone to live with parents. Deceased had some savings.
Award commuted. Widow remarried. Had taught music before accident. Afterward increased her work, earning $13 a week up to remarriage, June, 1915. Then dropped
outside work.
Son and tw o daughters continue to live together. Younger daughter has gone to work instead of to normal school as intended.
Buying home. Father has died since accident. Brother, 18, has left home, but expects to continue contributions.
Award commuted; was for 175 weeks only.
Mother goes out to work since accident, tw o days every other week.
Own home and road house. Latter (conducted by father) has not made more than living expenses in three years.
Award commuted. Sister kept house for deceased, tw o other brothers, and niece and nephew. The five continue to live together.
Brother of 21 pays board only. Sisters working only part time when schedule was taken.
Deceased had been living elsewhere and sending mother money. Mother is saving compensation for use of children; has drawn on it for school clothing.
Case appealed. Father has died since accident. Brother, 16, has left school and is away seeking work. Mother goes out as domestic.
Case appealed. Father idle since October, 1914, on account of disability. Have borrowed money. Relatives have practically supported family for past year.
Case appealed, but payments are being made. Fam ily own farm on which they live, sell a little hay. Father has pension of $18 a month.
Brother of 22, formerly idle through disability, has taken place vacated by death of deceased.
Owns house in country, mortgaged and rented. Mother boards, instead of keeping house (w ith servant) as before.
Man blinded. Award commuted to $4,473.06, from which hospital expenses were paid. Used savings ($300) and were helped by relatives before award was received.
Man’s spine injured. Own home, mortgaged.; rent lower floor. Have some savings. Two boarders since accident. Son, formerly contributing, now away from home.
Man’s mind affected. Have drawn slightly on their small savings. B oth elderly and wife hardly able to work.

124

Serial
No.

T able 3 . —AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF IN JU R E D WAGE E A R N E R S, A N D D E TA ILS AS TO ACCIDENT A ND A W A R D S-

OHIO.
Abbreviations: M.=married, S.=single, W .=widow ed, D .—divorced, Sep.= separated.]

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS.

Mari­
tal
rial Age. con­ Week­
ly
<T.
3o
di­ wage.
tion.

1
2

3
4
5
6

7

8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

$21.00
26.00
15.00
18.00
16.00
13.00
18.00
16.00
10.00
20.00

14.00
14.00
12.00

24.00
10.00
20.00
10.00

16.00
9.00
9.00
13.00
13.00
9.00
18.00
12.00
12.00

14.00
14.00
18.00
25.00
21.00




Coal mining......................
Rubber manufacturing..
Forge works.................... .
W oodworking............... .
Building.......................... .
Coal mining......................
Building.......................... .
Blast furnace....................
Steel works..................... .
Foundry, steel.................
Public service...................
Coal m ining..
Electric light and power___
Coal mining.................
Brick manufacturing.
Machine shop.............
Furniture store...........
Rolling m ill.................
Railroad, steam.........
Coal mining.................
----- do............................
Blast furnace..............
Machine shop.............
Steel and wire.............
Foundry, iron.............
Sewer construction...
Iron and steel.............
Steel works.................
Foundry, steel.........................
Telegraph and telephone___
Oil producing..........................

Nature of accident.

Occupation.

Miner.....................................
Rubber worker...................
Laborer.................................
Bricklayer............................
Steam fitter..........................
Miner.....................................
Plasterer...............................
Craneman’s helper.............
Laborer.................................
Engineer...............................
Painter..................................
Miner.....................................
Underground m an.............
Miner.....................................
Laborer.................................
Polisher.................................
Janitor...................................
Carpenter..............................
Section hand........................
Miner.....................................
....... do.....................................
Pig machine m an...............
Laborer.................................
Pump tender.......................
Polisher.................................
Laborer.................................
Craneman.............................
Cleaner ingot-buggy track.
Grinder.................................
Lineman...............................
Carpenter.............................

Crushed by slide of earth........................................................
Burned by explosion of chemicals.......................................
Caught between moving ears; crushed...............................
Skull fractured by fall from ladder............ .........................
Gasoline tank exploded; leg torn off and hand crushed.
Crushed by fall of stone..........................................................
Fell from scaffold; back broken...........................................
Crushed b y fall of electric m agnet.......................................
Burned by explosion of cinder tap.......................................
Struck by flywheel; skull fractured; meningitis...............
Thrown from falling ladder; skull fractured.....................
Skull fractured by fall of coal................................................
Fell from pole; neck broken..................................................
Fell, striking hip; blood poisoning resulted......................
Fell, dodging falling rock; internal and other injuries...
Skull fractured by breaking of machine.............................
Crushed between shaft and car of elevator..........................
Legs broken by crane; sepsis amputation; shock............
Collision of car and train; skull fractured..........................
Crushed by fall of rock............................................................
Chest crushed b y fall of coal..................................................
Fell into hot-water tank; scalded.........................................
Foot crushed by locomotive; amputation; shock...........
Struck by locomotive..............................................................
Skull fractured by breaking of machine; m eningitis.........
Cave-in of sewer; smothered.................................................. .
Fell from crane; skull and ribs fractured............................
R un down by ingot buggy; crushed and burned............ .
Apron ignited by spark; burned; inhaled flam es.............
Finger scratched by wire; blood poisoning resulted.........
Injured by falling mudsill; pulmonary embolism.............

i Not reported.

7

2
0
29

1
5
5

53

6

6
1
2

17
7
25

2
2
0)

25
16
14

0)2
2
2
18
5
18
15

6

17
19

3
9
26
17

tel

O
H
H
H

5

15
17
16
19
23
13
23

2
0
15
4
16

2

18

8
8

125

37
38
37
38
42
59
47
38
45
55
47
39
48
34
42
33
38
40
41
28
47
38
50
45
51
35
48
40
36
36
53

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
death and death and
tween
award.
agent’s visit.
acci­
dent
and
i. Days. Mos. Days.
death.

126

Table 3.—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENT AND AWARDS—
OHIO—Continued.

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS—Continued.

11.00
15.00
12.00
15.00
21.00
13.00
12.00
23.00
20.00
16.00
13.00
34.00
19.00
23.00
14.00
17.00
15.00
15.00
17.00
23.00

20.00




....... do.........................................
Iron works................................
Tin and terne plate................
Steel works..............................
Smelting...................................
Machine shop..........................
Grocery store...........................
Sewer construction.................
Stevedoring..............................
Building...................................
Public service..........................
Sewer construction.................
Blast furnace...........................
Iron and steel..........................
Blast furnace...........................
Fertilizer manufacturing___
Structural-iron construction.
Foundry, iron..........................
Steel and wire........................ .
do.
Brass goods manufacturing..
Electric railway......................
Excavation, sand..................
Ice..............................................
Building...................................
Pipe line, oil.......................... .

1
1
8
1
1
4
1
1
13
16

1
0

4
14
16
9
17
19

6
1
1
5
13

1
2
8
1
1
8
15
1
2
7
6
1
2
6
5
5
5
5
9
14

1
2

23
25
18
25

1
2

29
4

*2
2
1
2
19
25
29
*23

6
1
0
6
24
1

*i9
5

6

17
7

18

LABOR.

M.
M.
M.
M.

17.00
14.00
18.00
24.00

...... do...................................

Head crushed by falling machinery........................................
Fell from platform; concussion of brain.................................
Neck broken by fall from scaffold............................................
B oat swamped; drowned... ....................................................
Crushed by fall of slate...............................................................
Caught by machinery; arm severed; hemorrhage...............
Stepped on nail; tetanus resulted............................................
Run over by car...........................................................................
Injured b y fall of slate.................................................................
Injured b y fall of slate; peritonitis resulted..........................
Run over by locomotive.............................................................
Spine injured by fall; acute m yelitis resulted......................
Apoplexy from overexertion......................................................
Weight on shoulder; aorta ruptured and later burst..........
Struck b y falling partition; concussion of brain..................
Finger lacerated by machinery; tetanus resulted...............
Struck b y flying stone; skull fractured..................................
Fell while boarding steamer; drow ned..................................
Fell from roof; skull fractured..................................................
Back broken by falling tree......................................................
Cave-in of sewer; smothered......................................................
Crushed in collision of cars and engine...................................
Fell from trestle; skull crushed................................................
Finger lacerated b y machine; blood poisoning resulted...
Fell from ladder; skull crushed................................................
Fell from platform; skull fractured.........................................
Run down by automobile..........................................................
Struck b y locomotive; arm crushed; multiple fractures...
Severely burned; nature of accident not reported................
Hand cut by brass object; blood poisoning resulted..........
Contact w ith live wire; electrocuted.......................................
Crane tipped over; scalded; infection.....................................
Hand injured by falling ice; tetanus followed......................
Struck b y falling iron; neck broken........................................
Struck b y automobile; skull fractured....................................

CHILD

M
.

12.00
12.00

Laborer.............
Machinist.........
Carpenter.........
Fisherman........
Miner.................
Foreman...........
Pattern maker.
Miner.................
.do................
.do..
Pickier, tube m ill..........
Night watchmen...........
Watchmen......................
Carpenter........................
Laborer............................
Teamster.........................
Laborer............................
....... do...............................
Carpenter........................
Laborer............................
....... do...............................
Conductor, yard............
Carpenter........................
Machine operator...........
Laborer............................
Structural-iron worker.
Night foreman...............
Engineer, power house.
Laborer............................
Buffer..............................
Lineman..........................
Craneman.......................
Iceman’s laborer............
Carpenter........................
Foreman, pipe line........

AND

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

25.00
15.00

Steam shovel manufacturing
Drayage and hauling.............
Building....................................
Fishing......................................
Coal mining..............................
Brick manufacturing.............
Machine shop.........................
Coal mining..............................

WOMAN

M.

$12.00
16.00
18 0
*.0
18.00
11.00
20.00

Nature of accident.

EFFECT. O
N

6
6

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Occupation.

LAW S:

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
tween death and death and
award.
agent’s visit.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days Mos. Days.

COMPENSATION

Mari­
tal
Serial Age. con­ Week­
ly
No.
di­ wage.
tion.

to

td
£
lO




11.0 0
22.00

18.00

22.00
20.00

17.00
13.00
20.00

24.00
16.00
18.00
14.00
18.00
12.00

17.00
17.00
21.00

19.00
11.0 0

25.00
24.00
15.00
18.00
9.38
14.00
15.00
18.00
16.00
14.00
10.00
11.0 0

9.00
58.00
7.00
18.00
13.00
13.00
17.00
21.00
11.0 0
20.00

19.00
12.00
11.00

27.00
15.00
12.00
21.00
12.00
22.00

Building, l)ridge................... .
Electric railway......................
Planing and molding m ill...
Fire department................... .
Coal mining............................ .
Electric light and power___
Concrete construction...........
Building...................................
Ice manufacturing................ .
Grain, elevator........................
Blast furnace......................... .
Iron and steel........................
Coal mining............................ .
Sheet m etal............................ .
Coal mining............................ .
Steel works..............................
Street railway........................ .
Coal mining............................ .
Wholesale s to r e....................
Building..................................
....... do.......................................
Furniture store.....................
___do.......................................
Truck and transfer................
Sewer construction............... .
Teaming and grading.......... .
Gas w ell.................................. .
Coal mining............................ .
....... d o .......................................
Agricultural implements_
_
Quarrying................................
Coal mining............................ .
Brewing.................................. .
Coal mining.............................
Telegraph and telephone_
_
Electric light and power---B ox manufacturing...............
Electric railway......................
Rolling m ill............................ .
Street cleaning........................
Coal mining.............................
Bolt and nut manufacturing.
Machine shop..........................
Street cleaning........................
Coal mining............................ .
Brewing.................................. .
Porcelain goods......................
Rubber manufacturing....... .
Drug store.*..............................
Rolling m ill.............................

Laborer....................................
Motorman................................
Iron worker.............................
Fireman...................................
Miner........................................
Lineman...................................
Teamster..................................
Painter.....................................
Carpenter.................................
Laborer....................................
....... do........................................
Painter.....................................
Miner........................................
Janitor arid laborer................
Miner........................................
Helper......................................
Division superintendent___
Motorman.............................. .
Laborer....................................
Slater........................................
Rigger.......................................
Laborer....................................
Salesman.................................
Teamster..................................
Laborer....................................
Teamster..................................
Drill driver..............................
Miner........................................
....... do........................................
Night watchman....................
Laborer....................................
Miner........................................
Vice president and manager.
Miner........................................
Lineman...................................
Driver.......................................
....... do........................................
Laborer....................................
Molder......................................
Teamster..................................
Miner........................................
Machinist.................................
Bolt cutter...............................
Teamster..................................
Foreman...................................
Laborer....................................
Potter.......................................
Chauffeur.................................
Janitor......................................
Foreman...................................

Rupture from overexertion; peritonitis resulted..............
Crushed by collision of cars....................................................
Thrown from load of lumber; skull fractured...................
Thrown from engine in collision; skull fractured.............
Crushed b y fall of coal.............................................................
Fell from pole; skull fractured..............................................
Struck by falling electric-light pole; skull fractured.........
Fell from second-story window; skull fractured...............
Using extension electric light; electrocuted.......................
Fell astride iron guard; internal and other injuries.........
Crushed between crane and boiler........................................
Struck b y falling truss section; chest crushed..................
Skull fractured b y fall of coal................................................
Thrown from falling ladder; paralysis resulted.................
Neck broken by fall of slate...................................................
Struck by ftying piece of metal; chest crushed.................
Fell while boarding moving car; legs severed...................
Killed in collision between locomotive and cars...............
Explosion of gas in furnace; concussion of brain..............
Fell from scaffold; skull fractured.......................................
Fell from suspended concrete form; skull fractured........
Struck by car; multiple injuries; sepsis.............................
Crushed against wall by automobile....................................
R un over by bus; internal hemorrhage..............................
Crushed b y iron beam in collapse of building...................
Thrown from wagon; crushed against telegraph pole___
Skull fractured b y explosion of boiler.................................
Crushed by fall of slate and tim ber.....................................
Run over by loaded cars; legs broken; hemorrhage........
Fell from third story of building; multiple injuries........
Drill struck pocket of explosive; skuil fractured..............
Chest crushed by fall of coal..................................................
Leg struck by ice skid; blood poisoning resulted..............
Head struck by falling slate; pulmonary embolism.........
Contact with wire; electrocuted........................................... .
Struck on head b y pike pole; brain injured.......................
Thrown from wagon; skull fractured...................................
Fell from top of car; skull fractured.....................................
Burned by explosion of contents of crucible..................... .
Repeated falls from slide scraper; heart ruptured........... .
Thigh injured b y pick; blood poisoning..............................
Contact of electric drill with wire; electrocuted............... .
Finger lacerated by machinery; gangrene......................... .
Leg injured by shovel; blood poisoning...............................
Burned by explosion from ignition of o il............................
Hand cut by broken bottle; infection resulted..................
Caught in machinery; crushed...............................................
Automobile overturned; rib fractured; lung punctured.
Hand injured by nail; blood poisoning resulted...............
Grasped electric switch and starter; electrocuted.............

1 Disability award began 21 days after accident; after death was changed to death award.

18
6

16
12

15
10
22

161

C
1
)

24
26
0)
18
28
27

11
11

12
20

7

14
9
17
16
13
7

12
12

18
9
15
3

10

6
10
6
12

3
28
10
10

4
19
21

14
1

14

24

11
11

20
1

14

2

18
16
28

8
10
10

7

(2
)

6

27
(2)
18
17
18
27
2

17
16
7
23
3
300

2 Not reported.

6

4

21

22
8
22

28
23
11

23
19
18
29
4
18
24
26
15

25
23
9

3
10

8
1

11

28
14

7
15
7
7
15
14

7
12

.

8

20
8

15
15
4

22
11

10
11

9

27
5
14

7
3
14
13
14

12
11
20
1

10

26

16
4
11

9

12

18

12

26
8
2

14
3
25

127

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M\
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

APPEN D IX .

67 ■ 55
42
68
69
52
50
70
33
71
72
42
63
73
74
45
33
75
31
76
26
77
30
78
56
79
55
80
50
81
38
82
37
83
39
84
37
85
29
86
26
87
28
88
45
89
43
90
91
52
40
92
47
93
23
94
37
95
68
96
36
97
45
98
99
50
60
100
31
101
63
102
60
103
34
104
47
105
59
106
107
70
108
39
69
109
62
110
58
111
58
112
61
113
23
114
50
115
37
116

MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENT AND AWARDS—
OHIO—Continued.

128

T a b l e 3 . — AGE,

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS—Continued.

10
2
11
2
12
2

2
12

17
13
18
20

27
13
8

16
26
14
13
25
10

15
2
16

25
9
14
12

22

22

29

11
10

26
23
27
5
15

......

5
8 .

13
9
13
3
13
5
14
9
5
14
9
9
14

21
6

21

5
24
25
12
11
11
26
22
21
20
10
21

27
25
15

13
17
14

8
20
6

8
11
10

10

13
8
12

9
7
12

16
4
5
7
9
12
8

LABOE.

27
4
5
24

9
13

CHILD

3
19
17

12
11

AND

Fingers crushed by machinery; tetanus resulted..............
Struck by motorcycle; skull fractured; meningitis...........
Injured by fall; meningitis resulted..................................
Run over while uncoupling cars................ .......................
Contact with live wire: electrocuted.................................
Clothing ignited While asleep; burned; blood poisoning...
Struck by train; head severed...........................................
Spine fractured by fall.......................................................
Shot while making arrest; internal hemorrhage................
Thrown from falling ladder; paralysis resulted.................
Struck by train; concussion of brain.................................
Contact With knife switch; electrocuted............................
Fell into wheel of engine; skull crushed............................
Scalded by bursting of steam pipe.....................................
Burned by explosion of gas in cistern................................
Contact with wires; electrocuted.......................................
Thrown from boat; drowned
Drill struck explosive; *
Crushed in trolley colli
Leg crushed by collapse of scaffold; hemorrhage.
Foot lacerated by machinery; blood poisoning resulted...
Stabbed by*fellow workman; paralysis resulted...............
Struck by train; skull fractured........................................
Fell with lumber from load; internal hemorrhage............
Fell from trestle; skull fractured.......................................
Kicked by horse; bladder ruptured..................................
Caught in machinery; skull fractured...............................
Arm caught in machinery; amputation; hemorrhage.......
Struck by falling cross arm; skull fractured......................
Injured bv attempting to get off moving cage...................
Skull fractured by fall of slate............................................
Thrown from car and run over.........................................*
Run over by train..............................................................
Spine fractured by fall; paralysis resulted........................
Fell from ladder; fractures and lacerations; pneumonia...

WOMAN




Paper maker....................
Foreman...........................
Foreman, barn.................
Switchman.......................
Lineman...........................
Night watchman..............
Carpenter.........................
Laborer.............................
Detective..........................
Pipefitter.........................
Laborer.............................
Millwright........................
Laborer.............................
Fireman, stationary..........
Laborer.............................
Lineman...........................
Engineer...........................
Laborer............................
Motorman.........................
Laborer.............................
...... do................................
Paper maker and finisher.
Carpenter.........................
Carpenter and teamster...
Decorator.........................
Laborer.............................
Machinist.........................
Machine wiper..................
Lineman...........................
Coke puller.......................
Miner................................
__ do................................
Teamster...........................
Bricklayer........................
Painter.............................

Nature of accident.

O
N

123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
139
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151

M. $15.00 Paper box manufacturing..
M 25.00 Waterworks........................
.
16.00 ...... do..................................
16.00 Iron and steel.....................
18.00 Electric railway..................
12.00 Laundry and cleaning........
M 11.00 Concrete construction.........
.
M 27.00 Building.............................
.
M. 14.00 Hotel service.......................
M. 19.00 Automobile manufacturing.
M. 18.00 Lumber yard......................
M. 11.00 Machine shop.....................
M. 14.00 Corrugated-iron building...
M. 15.00 Office building....................
M. 14.00 Milk condensing.................
M 21.00 Electric light and power...
.
M. 30.00 Steamboat..........................
M. 11.00
M. 14.61
____railway...................
M 11.00 Bottle manufacturing.........
.
M. 12.00 Sawmill..............................
M. 16.00 Paper manufacturing.........
M. 16.00 Building, bridge.................
M 11.00 Planing and molding mill..
.
M. 30.00 Painting and decorating__
M. 16.00 Milling................................
M. 12.00 Paper manufacturing.........
M. 14.00 — do............ ; ...................
M. 17.00 Telegraph and telephone...
M. 16.00 Blast furnace......................
M. 13.00 Coalmining........................
M. 10.00 ....d o .................................
M. 25.00 Brewing...............................
M. 19.00 Building............................. .
M. 22.00 ....d o ................................. .
M.
M.
M.
M.

Occupation.

LAWS: EFFECT

117
118
119

Industry.

Interval
Days Interval
between
between
be­
death and death and
tween
award. agent’s visit.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days. Mos. Days.

COMPENSATION

Mari­
tal
Serial Age. con­ Week­
ly
No.
di­ wage.
tion.

152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166

1?
6

168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
ISO

12.00
80
*0
20.00
14.00
U. 22.00
M 14.00
.
M. 26.00
3 M 15.00
8 .
63
48
54
38
24
42
45

M.

49
38
70
30
62
24

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

M
.

2
0
41
6
8
3
5

50
51
47
38
67
23
55
65
60

15.00
19.00
19.00
24.00
26.00
15.00
18.00
18.00
16.00
13.00
28.00
18.00
25.00
18.00
16.00 ........d o ...* ................................

M
.
M
.
M
.
M
.
M
.
M.
U.
M.
M
.
M.
M 20.00
.
M.
12.00
M 13.00
*
M.

18.00

6 M. 30.00
6
70 M.
12.00
11 8 M 11.00
8 9 .
182
50 M. 21.00
183
45 M.
9.00
184
3 M. 18.00
0
185
28 M.
15.00
186
2 M. 10.00
0
187
32 M,
12.00
188
61 M.
16.00
189
20.00
50 M.

190
191
392
193
194
195
196
197
198
199

2
1

49
46
55
60

M.
M.

M
.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
At.
M.
, M.




25.00
14.00
13.00
14.00
18.00

12.00
15.00
11.00

14.00
14.00
16.00
16.00

Coat mining..........................
Retail store.........................
Building supplies.................
Building..............................
Tug boat...... .......................
Wood turning......................
Building............. ................
S te am b o a t................. .
Machine shop......................
Electric light and power.....
Building, bridge..................
Coalmining............ ..........
Building........ .....................
Excavating cellar................
Brewing...............................
Automobile manufacturing..
Police force...........................
Aeroplane manufacturing...
Concrete construction..........
Stove manufacturing...........
Sewer construction..............
Electric railway...................
Paper manufacturing...........
Clubhouse service...............
Street cleaning.....................
Tanning...............................
Office....................................

Laborer...........................
Miner................... .
Laborer..........................
...... do..............................
Electrician......................
Driver.............................
Steel pourer.....................
Laborer...........................
...... do.............................
.....d o ...... .......................
Mill worker.....................
Carpenter........................
Inspector.........................
Teamster.......................
Fireman..........................
Carpenter........................
Watchman......................
Window washer..............
Carpenter, foreman.........
Carpenter.............................
Assistant superintendent__
Carpenter......................
Stonemason...................
Driver............................
Porter........ ...................
Laborer...........................
Carpenter.......................
Captain...........................
Sawyer...........................
Laborer...........................
Mate................................
Laborer.........................
Electrician...................
Bridge worker.................
Miner........................
Laborer...........................
Foreman.........................
Stable boss......................
Painter...........................
Patrolman......................
Machine hand.................
Laborer...........................
Stove mounter................
Laborer...........................
Motorman.......................
Paper maker...................
Elevator man...................
Driver.............................
Tanner............................
Laborer...................

Fell from staging over river; drowned...............................
Caught under fall of roof when timbers collapsed.............
Chest injured by fell from runway....................................
Struck by locomotive; internal in juries.............................
Struck by falling pole; fractures and other injuries..........
Stepped on by horse (thrown froin wagon in collision)__
Burned by explosion of molten metal...............................
Crushed by collapse of concrete structure..........................
Struck by train* chest crushed..........................................
Skull fractured fey break of chain........ .............................
Struck*by bar of iron; internal Injuries........................... .
Head crushed by descending elevator..............................
Head injured by fall; cerebral hemorrhage........................
Crushed by elevator..........................................................
Blown from deck of tug; drowned.....................................
Crushed by fall of part of apparatus................ ................
Skull fractured, apparently by fell down stairs................
Fell from fourth'-story window; skull fractured................
Knocked from ladder by brick falling on head..................
Run over by crane; crushed.
Burned by explosion of gas from main.,
Fell from scaffold; skullfractured____ ______________
Struck by ladder; concussion of brain...............................
Fell from car and was run over; neck broken...................
Crushed by descending elevator........................................
Struck by fall of door; peritonitis resulted........................
Fell from scaffold; spine fractured........ ............................
Crushed by derrick; hemorrhage......................................
Caught in saw; severely cut; hemorrhage.........................
Contact with electric switch; electrocuted........................
Steamer struck breakwater; drowned..............................
Drawn into machinery; skull crushed..............................
Struck by elevator and fell three stories............................
Fell into river; drowned....................................................
Crushed between motor and roof.......................................
Burned by premature explosion of blast__ *....................
Caught under fall of stone wall; skull fractured................
Trampled by horse; pleurisy and pneumonia resulted....
Crushed by truck which slipped during lowering.............
Contact with live chain; electrocuted................................
Struck by paper reel; internal injuries..............................
Struck by elevator; spine fractured...................................
Strain from overexertion; tumor resulted.........................
Thrown from tower when blocks slipped; internal injuries Skull crushed in collision of cars........................................
Caught in machinery; multiple injuries............................
Fell down elevator shaft; skull fractured..........................
Knocked down in altercation and Was run over by cart...
Hand scratched on nail; gangrene; arm amputated.........
Skull fractured by fall of elevator......................................

1Not reported.

!
2 1

20
1
20
17
3
17
20
22
27
19
5
9
6
16
23
15
3
28
2

267

5
28
13
10
27
23
28
13
5
29
27
23
9
19
19
12
1
22
27
14
25
28
6
3
3
9

15

3
12
13
12
15
21
12
15
13
18
15
10
3
15
13
10
10
9
10
15
6
4
32
7
14
10
12
11
15
5
11
13
5
12
6
6
9
4
11
15
11
7
9
3
12
12
17
12
8

4
23
18
28
3
25
26
9
19
7
14
4
7
25
5
25
20
10
20
26
6
21
6
10
26
12
29
2
25
29
23

h
d
h
o
m
H

16
2
21
7
28
22
13
12
8
12
28
24
8
IS
4
15
11

129

20
0
21
0

59
32
67
38
60
28
40

Concrete steel construction..
Coal mining...................
Building........... ..................
Blast furnace.......................
Electrical equipment...........
Packing house . . . . . ........... .
Steel works.........................
Iron works...........................
raving.. .....................
Bolling mill..........................
Forge works.................
Building..............................
Sewer construction..............
Produce dealer.....................
Steamboat..........................
Building, bridge..................
Elevator manufacturing......
Window cleaning.................
Building..............................
Mill and mine supplies. .. .. .
Pipe line, oil........................
Building........ .....................

3 .-A G E , MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENT AND AWARDS —
OHIO—Continued.

130

Table

D E C E D E N T S W IT H R E S ID E N T D E P E N D E N T S — Concluded.

W.
S.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

14.00
15.00

11.00
12.00

7.00
15.00
14.00
13.00

10.00
20.00
25.00

5.00
13.00

11.00
16.00
9.00
19.00

1
2.00

15.00
18.50

10.75

31

1
1

15

5
14
16

191
185
35
5

2
2

5
5
14
15
4
7
9

9
23

17
3

1
1
0 2
6 27
13
6 "*8
8
15

6
1
6
7
1
1
2
0
6
7
15

6
1
2
14
6

4
17

1
0

18
9

1
2

13

"i4

1
2
5

1
2

4
19

1
1

16
14
24
9

2
0
2
2
0

18
19
9
23
3
3

LABOE.

12.00
10.00
9.00
11.00

Hand lacerated while sweeping; infection....................
Fell from second-story window; skull fractured.........
Crushed by fall of slate......................................................
Struck on head by crane chain; meningitis resulted.
Crushed by fall of slate......................................................
Skull fractured by breaking of machine.........................
Skull fractured by fall of stone and timber..................
Hand injured by splinter of wood; blood poisoning .
Automobile overturned; crushed....................................
Struck by fall of draw slate; spine fractured...............
Spine dislocated b y fall of coal and slate; paralysis...
Toe bruised b y fall of package; infection resulted___
Fell from machinery; spine fractured............................
Skull fractured b y bursting v alve..................................
Attempted to board moving elevator; crushed............
Grasped wire to prevent fall: electrocuted...................
Fell down elevator shaft; skull fractured......................
Burned b y hot cinder from ladle....................................
Neck broken b y fall of log from wagon..........................
Crushed by fall of machine from car..............................
Caught b y misfire of dynamite; skull crushed.............
Collision, truck and car; legs broken; other injuries..
Electrocuted while removing bulb from socket...........
Fell into pit of hot sand; burns and exhaustion..........
Killed in collision of truck and car.................................
Back broken by fall of slate.............................................
Burned b y ignition of gasoline; uremia resulted.........
Injured b y misfire of dynamite........................................
Caught between elevator and door; fell two stories.. .
Run over by stone wagon.................................................
Crushed between elevator and floor................................
Shot by fellow employee...................................................
Killed in collision of car and train..................................
Crushed by fall of hoisting bucket..................................
Crushed in collision of buggies.........................................

CHILD




12.00
10.00

Janitor..................
Wiftdow cleaner.
Miner....................
Inspector..............
Miner....................
Grinder................
Miner....................
Laborer................
..do..
Miner.
....... do..............................
Laborer and janitor. . .
Laborer..........................
Pipe fitter......................
Picture frame worker..
Wireman........................
Carpenter......................
Laborer..........................
.do..
Machinist................., .........
Clay digger..........................
Helper on auto runs.........
Steam fitter........................
Laborer...............................
Chauffeur............................
Miner...................................
Chauffeur............................
Laborer...............................
Apprentice compositor. . .
Fireman, traction engine.
Machine operator...............
Stenographer......................
Motorman...........................
Laborer...............................
Door boy.............................

AND

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236

13.00
18.00
17.00
23.00
16.00

Furniture manufacturing..
Hardware manufacturing.
Coal mining..........................
Sheet and tube.....................
Coal mining..........................
Iron and steel.......................
Coal mining..........................
Ice manufacturing...............
Brewing................................
Coal mining...........................
do..
Tobacco manufacturing.
Steam shovels...................
Steel m ill...........................
Picture frames.................
Electric railw ay..............
Sash, doors, and blinds..
Blast furnace.....................
Sawmill..............................
Bottle manufacturing. . .
Clay and shale m ining...
Department store............
Building............................
Tube works.......................
Department store............
Coal mining.......................
Brewing.............................
Building............................
Printing.............................
Public service.
Electrical equipment..
Business office..............
Electric railw ay..
Blastfurnace..
Steel.................

WOMAN

20
2
21
2
22
2

s$

11.00
20.00

O
N

213
214
215
216
217
218
219

M
.
M
.

W.
W.
W.
D.

,$8.25

Nature of accident.

EFFECT

20
1
21
1
22
1

M.
M.
M.

Occupation.

LAW S:

22
0

203
204
205
206
207
208
209

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
tween death and death and
award.
igent’s visit.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days. Mos. Days.

COMPENSATION

Mari­
tal Week­
Serial Age. con­
ly
No.
di­ wage.
tion.

237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246

19
31
19
33
15
25
43
45
40
43

S.
S.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

C
1)
12.60
17.00
40.00
8.00
15.00
20.00
18.00
12.00
17.00

Electric power..............
Electric railway............
Steamboat.....................
Iron and steel...............
Plaster m ill...................
Lime................................
Building.........................
Iron and steel...............
Acetylene gas machines
Brewing..........................

Lineman..
Motorman
Sailor........
Roller.......
Laborer...
Stevedore.
Carpenter.
Pipe fitter.
Laborer...
Brewer_
_

Contact w ith wire; electrocuted................................................
Leg crushed in collision of cars; amputation; shock............
Steamer struck breakwater; drowned.....................................
Cramps and exhaustion due to heat; spasm of heart...........
Skull fractured in collision of wagon and train.....................
Fell from bucket of crane; skull fractured..............................
Leg injured by collapse of scaffold; amputation; shock___
Hand drawn into saw; choked under anesthetic.................
Caught by fall of earth; internal hemorrhage........................
Burned b y caustic soda; hemorrhage; paralysis of heart..

6

14

1

1

17
26
27
28
17

” 39

'iio

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.

Mari­
Serial Age. tal Week­
ly
No.
condi­ wage.
tion.

Occupation.

Industry.

Nature of accident.

Interval
between
accident and
award.

Interval
between
accident
and agent’s
visit.

Months. Days. Months, Days
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258




$19.00
16.00
28.00

Rolling m ill..
Paving...........
Clay mining..

Yardman..
Foreman..
Overseer..

13.23 Coal mining...................
9.00 ___ do..............................
15.00 Blast furnace.................
Rubber..........................
30.00 Concrete construction.
9. 00 Brick manufacturing..
18.00 Blast furnace.................
17.00 Stone...............................
18.00 Coal mining...................

10.00

Miner..............
Trip rider___
Laborer.........
....... do.............
Not reported.
Laborer.........
Not reported.
....... do.............
Miner.............

1 Not reported.

Caught while coupling; fractured pelvis caused rupture___
Skull fractured in assault; epilepsy; partial paralysis..........
Dynamite exploded in hand; sight destroyed; hand blown
off.
Struck in eye b y coal; sight injured; had one blind eye........
Fell between mine cars; legs crushed off..................................
Burned b y explosion of metal; sight destroyed......................
Hands caught in rolls of mixing mill; loss of arms.............
Fell from bridge; total paralysis of legs resulted....................
Drill struck explosive; loss of arms resulted............................
Run over by car; loss of legs resulted.........................................
Dropped stick of dynamite; sight destroyed..........................
Drawn into mining machine.......................................................
2 N ot visited.

30
18
17

24
24
24

19
7

2
1

1
2
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

25

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENT AND AWARDSOHIO—Continued.

132

T a b l e 3 . —AGE,

DECEDENTS WITH NO FAMILY GROUP.

Serial
No.

W.
W.

D
.

D.
S6p.
Sep.
S.
S.
S.

$7.00

12.00

14.00
24.00

11.00

14.00
18.00

20.00
17.00
20.00

Occupation.

Laborer...
....... do........
___ do........
Lineman..
Laborer...
___ do........
....... do........
Linem an..
Laborer...
Chauffeur.

Steel works..........................
Cereal m illing.....................
City waterworks................
Electric light and pow er..
Carbon manufacturing_
_
Ice manufacturing.............
Roofing......... ......................
Telegraph and telephone.
Public service.....................
Draying and hauling.........

Nature of accident.

Crushed between tumbling barrel and w all......................
Skull fractured b y fall of wooden roller; hemorrhage........
Struck by street car; ribs fractured; lung punctured........
Contact w ith wire; electrocuted..............................................
Run over by truck.....................................................................
Thrown from wagon b y wheel breaking off; back broken.
Collapse oi scaffold; internal injuries.....................................
Body found at foot of pole; electrocuted or killed by fa ll..
Skull fractured b y fall from wagon; hemorrhage...............
Crushed between truck and sand hopper............................

14
13
26
7
5
5
29

2
0
6




$16.00
30.00
13.00
20.00
13.00
20.00
10.00
17.00
10.00
22.00
20.00
16.00
11.0 0

Pile driving..............................
Excavating, sand...................
Electric light and power.......
Foundry, iron..........................
Machine shop..........................
Electric light and power.......
Sash, doors, and blinds.........
Advertising signs....................
Automobile salesroom...........
B uilding........
..........
Coal m erchants.......................
Electrical equipment.............
Lime burning..........................

Laborer....................................
Engineer...................................
Lineman...................................
Holder......................................
Weighmaster...........................
Electrician...............................
Laborer.....................................
Metal worker.............'.............
Porter.......................................
Painter..............
.............
Foreman...................................
Electrician...............................

Interval between
Days be­ death and award.
tween
accident
and death. Months.
Days.

12
Drowned in recovering implement from w ater..................... ...................i
1
Steamer sank; drowned.
..
...................................
1
2 |
Electrocuted while changing insulators___•..........................
.................!
Fell while carrying molten metal; burned
.................
1]
5
Finger crushed; amputation; pneumonia fo llo w e d ...........
1 I
Contact w ith wire; eloctrocuted........................................ .
1
15
Finger crushed between truck and door; infection.............
1
Skull crushed by fall due to breaking of ropes............. .
3 S
1
Fell through skylight; skull fractured. ................. ............
1 i
2
Fell while removingrigging; m ultiple injuries; peritonitis.
5;
Electrocuted while opening a sw itc h .....................................
1 i
.................

6
19
9
25
16
10
9
12
6
7
13

8
27

LABOR,

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Nature of accident.

CHILD

36
53
35
85
36
21
61
29
28
29
31
27
38

Occupation.

AND

269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281

Industry.

WOMAN

Mari­
Serial Age. tal W eekly
No.
condi­ wage.
tion.

O
N

DECEDENTS WITH NONRESIDENT DEPENDENTS.

LAWS : EPrECT

259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267

Industry.

Interval
Interval
Days
between
between
be­
death and death and
tween
agent’s visit.
award.
acci­
dent
and
death. Mos. Days, Mos. Days.

COMPENSATION

Mari­
tal Week­
con­
ly
di­
tion.

282

42
40

284
285

C
)
45

287

40
50

291
292
293
294
295
296
297

C
)
38

30
32
38
48
46
42
46
24
34

22

2
2

26
26
50
35
33
31
42
34

M.
M.
M.

M
.
M.
M.
M.

M.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
S.
S.
S.

w.
w.
w.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.




15.00
15.00

12.00

24.00
13.00
16.00
14.00
18.00

11.00

13.00
15.00

12.00

13.00
19.00

22.00
10.00
11.00
22.00
11.00
19.08
11.00
14.00
11.00
18.00
10.00
18.00
11.00
13.00
13.00
17.00
13.00
15.00
17.00
14.00
14.00

12.00
16.00
15.00

12.00

18.00
17.00
15.00
9.48
25.00
9.00
19.00
15.00

Pipe line, oil............................
Building, concrete..................
Pipe line, oil............................
Blast furnace...........................
....... do.........................................
Pipe line, oil............................
Electric light and power.......
Quarrying, cem ent.................
Blastfurnace...........................
Quarrying, lim e......................
Blastfurnace...........................
Electric railway......................
Coal merchants.......................
Excavating, sand.*.................
Printing....................................
Plaster m ill..............................
W ell drillers, artesian...........
Building, concrete..................
Supervising architects...........
Canal lock construction........
Structural-iron construction
Brick manufacturing.............
Metal tubes manufacturing..
Structural iron construction.
B olts and n u ts........................
Sewer pipe m anufacturing..
Department store...................
Coke burning...........................
Quarrying, stone....................
Sewer construction.................
N ot reported............................
Coke burning...........................
Sheet and tube mfg...............
Coal merchants.......................
Brass goods manufacturing..
B uilding...................................
Concrete construction...........
Iron and steel..........................
Electric lig h t...........................
Concrete construction...........
Sewer construction.................
Pipe line, oil............................
Structural-iron work.............
Telegraph and telephone___
Department store...................
Quarrying, lim e......................
Stone, monuments.................
Rolling m ill..............................
Electric light and power.......
Pile driving............................

Pipeman.................
Laborer..................
Ditcher...................
Laborer..................
Not reported.........
D itcher...................
Electrician.............
Pulverizer tender.
Not reported.........
Blaster's h e lp e r ...
Carpenter...............
Laborer..................
Teamster................
Not reported.........
Watchman.............
Laborer..................
....... do......................
Fireman.................
N ot reported.........
Laborer..................
Iron worker...........
Laborer..................
Tap grinder...........
Laborer..................
Bricklayer.............
Laborer..................
Painter...................
Laborer..................
Track foreman___
Laborer..................
Not reported.........
Slate picker...........
Tapper....................
Driver.....................
Pij>e fitter..............
Building cleaner..
Electrician.............
Iron worker...........
Groundman...........
Fireman.................
Laborer..................
Ditcher...................
Laborer..................
Lineman.................
Helper on van.......
Laborer..................
... .d o ......................
do......................
do......................

.do..

Burned by explosion of gas.......................................................
Overcome by heat while working round k iln .......................
Burned by explosion of gas.......................................................
Crushed between cars.................................................................
Thrown under fender of scale car.............................................
Burned by explosion of gas.......................................................
Electrocuted while working w ith wires.................................
Caught in machinery; spine dislocated..................................
Overcome by gas from furnace.................................................
Killed by explosion of dynam ite.............................................
Thrown from scaffold; Skull fractured...................................
Struck by car; skull fractured..................................................
Crushed between high wagon seat and top of door.............
Steamer sank; drowned.............................................................
Skull fractured by fall.................................................................
Caught in machinery; crushed.................................................
Cave-in of sewer; smothered.....................................................
Crushed b y fall of crane..............................................................
Probably fell from truck; no w itness.....................................
Traveling crane ran over hand; blood poisoning.................
B ack broken in collapse of building........................................
Skull crushed by fall of clay from p ile ....................................
Knocked into acid tank b y falling object; burned..............
Back broken by fall of boom from derrick............................
Crushed against p it cover; internal hemorrhage..................
Caught between elevator and floor; head crushed...............
Thrown by collapse of scaffold; cerebral hemorrhage..........
R un over b y runaway cars........................................................
Head severed by explosion of dynam ite................................
Cave-in of rock; crushed.............................................................
Electrocuted while operating controller.................................
Caught in machinery; crushed.................................................
Knocked down by breaking machinery; head crushed___
Skull fractured by fall from wagon; pneumonia resulted ..
Neck broken b y fall in intake w ell..........................................
Killed by fall from scaffold........................................................
Boat upset; drowned..................................................................
Thrown by breaking maohinery; multiple injuries............
Contact w ith wire; eloctrocutea...............................................
Crushed by fall of crane..............................................................
Skull fractured by fall of part of machine..............................
Burned by explosion of gas.......................................................
Crushed in collapse of concrete building................................
Injured by fall from repairing apparatus; wire broke.........
Struck by train; multiple injuries...........................................
Crushed by elevator buckets when apparatus broke..........
Skull crushed by fall of tackle block.......................................
Skull fractured by fall of iron sheet.........................................
Fell with falling poles from load; pelvis fractured..............
Skull fractured by fall of block.................................................

1 Not reported.

14

1
2
1
1

28

1
16
18

6

29
'29

63
18

2
2
1
0
6
2
11
5
28
15
14

7

11
1

S

26

1
0
1
5
2
2
2
2
*ii

2
1
2

9
3
14
15
27
5
19
16
15
13

2
2

26
7

2
1
2
1
2

14

C
1
)

0)

C
)

133

310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331

44
24
44
31
38
40
36
27

M
.

14.00

12.00
12.00

A PPEN D IX .

301
302
303
304
305
306
307

M
.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

134

Table 3.—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND DETAILS AS TO ACCIDENT AND AWARDS—
OHIO—Concluded.

DECEDENTS WITH NONRESIDENT DEPENDENTS—Concluded.

$24.00
13.00

10.00
25.00
0)
11.00

Building, bridge.....................
Sewer construction.................
Quarrying.................................
Structural-iron construction
Sewer pipe manufacturing..
Quarrying, lim e......................

Nature of accident.

Occupation.

Carpenter........................
Laborer...........................
....... do......... ; ...................
Structural-iron worker.
Not reported..................
Laborer...........................

Interval between
Days be­ death and award.
tween
accident
and death. Months.
Days.
3

Fell from bridge; concussion of brain...............
Killed by explosion of blast................................
Fell while unloading lumber; skull fractured.
Back broken by falling onto iron beam............
Not reported...........................................................
Crushed between box car and dum p................

1
6

10

15
2

3

25

11
1

12

27

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
D.
S.
S.

$12.00
17.00
13.00
11.0 0
12.00
12.00
0)
11.0 0

Machine shop...............
Meat packing................
Concrete construction.
Coal mining...................
Pottery and glass........
Coal mining...................
Stone..............................
Pile driving...................

Laborer.
....... d o ...
....... d o ...
Miner__
Laborer..
_
Miner_
M ason...
Laborer..

15

Thrown from ladder; skull fractured............
broken.
Struck by bale falling from crane; back and
Legs crushed in collision of dump cars........................
Collision of cars; crushed between car and face........
Struck by clay dumped from car; multiple injuries.
Crushed by fall of roof....................................................
Thigh fractured by fall; pneumonia resulted............
Contact w ith electric switch; electrocuted............... .

6
22
2
22
0
31

2 16

22

DECEDENTS WITH NO DEPENDENTS.

62

22

81

s!
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
C
1)




$8.00
17.00
12.00

16.00
15.00
19.00
18.00
11.0 0
12.00
12.00

15.00
13.00

Retail store.......................
Not reported.....................
Power plant, c ity ............
State (Adj. Gen. D ept.).
Fishing..............................
Baking................................
Blast furnace....................
Boiler manufacturing...
Oil refining.......................
Public service...................
........d o .................................
Street cleaning.................

Janitress....................
Machinist..................
Stationery engineer.
Laborer......................
Fisherman.................
Baker..........................
Assistant machinist.
Laborer......................
....... do.........................
Teamster...................
Lineman....................
Laborer......................

Stepped on nail; gangrene resulted; leg amputated...........
Struck head against rail; erysipelas resulted.......................
Injured by fall; apoplexy resulted.........................................
Spleen ruptured by fall against edge of platform...............
Boat swamped; drowned.........................................................
Caught in machinery; multiple injuries...............................
Fell between car and wall; crushed by cars........................
Struck by block falling from crane; head crushed.............
Neck broken by fall into gasoline tan k................................
Thrown from cart; leg lacerated; necrosis and thrombus.
Contact with wire; electrocuted.............................................
Struck by street car; ribs fractured; pleurisy.....................

45

1

12

99

1
21

2

C
1
)

0)
50

22
21
22
21

26
15
24
2 26

)
0) 220
8
1
0
26

1

LABOB.

22
20

M.
D.
Sep.
S.

CHILD

55
43
63
0)
23
29
28

AND

347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357

WOMAN

38
47
40
39
49
45
43
25

O
N

338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345

EFFECT

CASES PENDING.

LAW S:

332
333
334
335
336
337

Industry.

COMPENSATION

Mari­
Serial Age. tal Weekly
No.
condi­ wage.
tion.

CASES NOT VISITED.
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
334
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399

35
27
26
53
48
45
31
31
59
55
57
53
0)
21

65
49
35
40
39
34
44
39
29
25
50
59
36
39
23
33
21

19
14
19
28
16
18
21

28
27
(*)
29

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
W.
Sep.
S.
S.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

$19.00
14.00
17.00
0)
9.00
0)
21.00

14.00
9.00
11.0 0
10.00

9.00
16.00
10.00

18.00
25.00
27.00
11.0 0
12.00

37.00
14.00
16.00
15.00
15.00
13.00
12.00
12.00

19.00
12.00
20.00

14.00
10.00

3.00
11.0 0
11.0 0
10.00

7.00
15.00
12.00

16.00
0)
0)

Chemical manufacturing---Pipeline, oil........................
Blast furnace......................
Quarrying, sand and gravel..
Agriculture.........................
Quarrying, stone...............
Electric light and power___
Baking.................................
Wrecking............................
Telegraph and telephone.
Paving..................................
Coal mining.........................
....... d o ...................................
Quarrying...........................
Automobile manufacturing .
Coal mining..............................
Structural iron construction.
Electric railway.................
Wooden crate manufacturing.
Oil refining..............................
Coal mining..............................
Sand and gravel digging.......
Masonry....................................
Rolling m ill..............................
Coal mining..............................
Lead manufacturing..............
Ice manufacturing.................
Concrete construction...........
Pipeline, oil..............................
Building, bridge.....................
Electric railway......................
Fruit dealers............................
Agriculture..............................
Coal mining..............................
Quarrying, sandstone............
Coal mining..............................
H otel.........................................
Lime quarrying and burning
Coal mining..............................
Electric light and power___
Electric railroad......................
State employee........................

i Not reported.




Machinist............................
Pipeman.............................
Foreman..............................
Not reported......................
Laborer...............................
Miner...................................
Electrician..........................
Laborer...............................
....... do..................................
....... do..................................
....... d o..................................
Miner...................................
....... do..................................
Laborer...............................
Night watchman...............
Teamster............................
Structural-iron worker.. .
Motorman...........................
Teamster............................
Assistant superintendent___
Miner...................................
Laborer...............................
....... do..................................
Electrician..........................
Loader.................................
Laborer...............................
Iceman................................
Electrician..........................
Laborer...............................
Carpenter............................
Substation operator..........
Laborer...............................
Chore boy...........................
Motorman...........................
Laborer...............................
Miner...................................
Not reported......................
Miner...................................
Laborer...............................
Lineman.............................
Not reported......................
Prison guard......................

2 Award for funeral and medical bill.

Fell from height when thrown by machinery; paralysis...
Burned by explosion of gas........................................................
Crushed between moving car and ladle; unhooking car...
Crushed between car and truck frame of crane.....................
Killed by farm animals..............................................................
Skull fractured by fall of stones................................................
Electrocuted..................................................................................
Skull fractured by fall down elevator shaft...........................
Ribs and thigh fractured by fall of brick w all..............
Foot injured by fall of iron bar; tetanus resulted................
Elbow struck by pick; blood poisoning resulted.................
Caught by fall of slate.................................................................
Crushed by fall of slate...............................................................
Skull fractured by fall of steam drill.......................................
Burned by explosion of lantern................................................
Fell from wagon and was run over; skull fractured...........
Killed by fall from scaffold........................................................
Car left rails at curve; chest crushed.......................................
Skull fractured by log hook; meningitis resulted................
Asphyxiated by gas from s till..................................................
Skull crushed by fall of stone....................................................
Caught in machinery; multiple injuries.................................
Skull fractured by fall from scaffold.......................................
Received electric shock and fell; skull fractured.................
Squeezed between car and timbers; peritonitis resulted...
Thrown from falling ladder; thigh fractured; shock...........
Hand scratched by ice; blood poisoning resulted................
Electrocuted while connecting up wire..................................
Burned by explosion of gas..
Skull fractured by fall from scaffold......................................
Killed by fall into hatchway...................................................
Pinned under overturned automobile in ditch; drowned.
Thrown from vehicle by runaway team; skull fractured.
Lost control of car; jumped; skull crushed.........................
Struck near heart by hook of derrick....................................
Crushed by fall of slate..............................................................
Killed by fall into elevator shaft............................................
Crashed by fall of limestone....................................................
Killed by misfire of explosive.................................................
Contact with wire; electrocuted.............................................
Crushed and burned in collision of cars................................
Stabbed by prisoner..................................................................

2
2
23
8
2
1
28
1
1
15
24
19

6

24
9

1
1
1

15
26

15

2
3
2
0

29
18
23
25

1
0
2
1

>
hj

►
d
o

28
5
26
25
17
5

1
0

'l2
17

**5
19

2
0

26
29

3 Award made but claim held pending investigation.

CO

C
n

1.36

COM PENSATION LAWS.* EFFECT ON W OMAN AND CHILD LABOR.

In tabulating the material for Ohio the same definitions were used
and the same methods followed as in dealing with the Connecticut
data. The normal duration of an award in the case of a fatality is
312 weeks (six years), and whenever any other period was fixed the
fact has been noted. Under the Ohio law the allowance for funeral
expenses may reach $150, and the allowance for hospital and medical
services $200. In general, the amounts in the column “ Expenses
due to accident” represent only the excess of such expenses over the
compensation allowance; in contested cases, however, the whole
amount of these expenses is given, because if the case goes against
the claimants they must meet all charges for medical attendance and
funeral. I t is worth remarking th a t in some instances employers,
disregarding the terms of the law4 told the widow to have the kind of
,
funeral she wanted, and cheerfully paid costs running far above the
legal allowance.
Table 4 presents details concerning the family membership and
condition before and after the accident, number of wage earners, ex­
penses due to accident, insurance benefits received, and amounts
and methods of payment of compensation, for 252 cases in which
visits were made to the homes of families of killed or permanently
disabled wage earners.




T a b le

4 .—
-CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT,OF FAMILIES OF 252 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—OHIO.

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed.
Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.
Fam ily membership.
Serial

N
o.

Num­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
sons.
14.

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9

10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
• 24
25
26
27
28
29

10

7

9
9
9

6

0

4

9
9

8
8
8
8
8

7
7
7
7
7
7

7
7
7
7

7

7
6

2

3
4
5
4
5
5
4
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
2

5
1

W eeklyincomeof family,
Expen­
ses due Insur­
Num­
to acci­ ance or
ber of Paid
dent. benefit.
Per
Num­ Chil­ Chil­ D e­ wage in by
dren
week
Total
Total ber of dren 14 and pend­ earn­ mem­ Other. Total
ents
Other.
for 312 amount.
income
income. per­ under under 18 and ers. bers of
weeks.
14.
sons.
family.
18.
over.

Weekly income of family.

Wife N um ­
Chil­
ber of
Paid
and
dren depend­ wage Deced­ in by
ent’s
14 and ents 18 earners, earn­ other
mem­
under
ings.
and
bers.
18.
over.
$21.

26,
15.
18.
16,
13.
18.
16.
10.
20.
14.
14.
12.
24.

$0.81
$3.00
8.50
9.50
16.00
4.50
7.50

(2)

24,00
10.00
20.00
10.00

10 .
20.

10.
16.
1.03
2.08

*6.92
3
7
5.00
3
7
” .'97'
4
C
3.50
4
6
*3*46'
h
4 1
6
4 i
Including 1 just beginning work, wages not yet determined.




$21.00
26.00
15.81
18.00
19.00
<
s)
27.50
32.00
14.50
27.50
14.00
14.00
12.00

11.00
*70*
1*0

Award under
compensation
law.

16.00
14.03
9.00
24.00
15.08
26.00
24.92
17.00
12.97
17.50
17.46
18.00

Fam ily membership.

9

7

8
8
8
8

6

7
9
7
7
7
7
4
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

7
6

4
2
2

4
5
4
5
3
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
5

4

2

'
6 !
6

1

5
5
5
5

5 1

5

$1 0
,0 0
24.25
17.00
18.00
5.77
12.50
7.00
2.00
3*50

2 N ot reported.

SI. 80

5.00

29.75
24.25
17.00 3321.75
18.00 150.00
7.62
12.50 135.00
7.00
2.00
3.50

6.00

1.03
3.50
3.50
10.50
17.00
’ *6*92
3.00
1.50

5.77
3.46
2.07

* Contested case.

5.03
3.50
3.50
10.50
17.00
6.92
5.77
3.00
* 4.96
2.07

12.00
10.00
12.00

639
300
10.42
100
8.38
300 312.00
1,300
10.92
(4)
12.00

90
250
150

9.17
9.25
8.00
12.00

$3,744
3,744
3,120
3,744
3,251
2,615
3 3,744
3,407
1,935
3,744
2,861

30.00
90.00
64.00
16.50
79.10
23.00
285.00

1,000
300
110
400
1,000

880
900
500
500
512

%
H
O
ta
a

£
3

2,886

2,496
3,744

6.80
65.00

4
3
3
4
4
4
4

$8.00 121.00

$8.00

$12.00

2 ,12 2

12.00

3,744
2,081
3,232

6.67
10.76
5.34
5.81
8.61
8.95
6.29
11.80
8.00

(4)
9.13
9.52
12.00

4Lump sum awarded.

1,668

1,813
2,686

2,794
1,962
3,682
2,496
2,537
2,849
2,970
3,744

M

Table ^.—CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 252 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—OHIO—Continued.

co
00

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed—Continued.
Family condition before accident.
Family membership.
Serial
No.
Num­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
14.
sons.

6
6
6
6
6
0
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5

4

2
1

2
2

2

1

4

1
1
2

1
1

4
2
2

3

1
1
1

2

3
3
1
1

3

5

1

5
5
5

3




2

3
1

1
2
2

i

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2

3

1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Paid
in by
other
mem­
bers.

1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1

$25.00

$25.00

21.00
12.00

21.00
12.00

4

25.00
15.00

16.00
18.00
18.00
11.0 0
20.00

2
1
2
1
1
2
2

17.00
14.00
18.00
24.00

3

11.0 0

1
2
2
1
1

12.00
12.00

15.00
12.00

15.00

12.00

11.00
20.00

18.00

43.00
16.00

1.00

12.00

2.00

$1.61

3.69

15.00
3.00

21.00

3

12.00

23.00

3

20.00

4

16.00
13.00
34.00
19.00
23. 00
14.00

14.00
18.61
14.00
23.00
27.00
26.56
15.00
27.00
18.00
21.00

13.00

2
1
2
2
1
1

16.00
24.00
30.00

$ 6.00

5.00
3.00
11.87

21.00

15.00
15.00

Award under
compensation
law.

Family membership.

Weekly ncome of ffiamily. E x­
penses Insur­
due to
Num­
acci­ ance or
Chil­
De­ ber of Paid
dent. benefit. Per
Num­ Chil­ dren pend­ wage in by
Total
week
Other. Total ber of dren 14 and ents earn­ mem­ Other. Total
for 312 amount.
income.
income. per under under 18 and ers. bers of
weeks.
family.
18.
sons.
over.
14.

Weekly income of family.

Num­
Chil­
ber of
Wife
wage
Dece­
dren
and
14 and depend­ earners. dent's
earn­
under ents 18
18.
ings.
and
over.

3
4
2

Family condition after accident.

2.00

2.77
6.00

1.25

1.75

iioo

13.00
33.00
38.00
37.00
18.77
19.00
35.25
20.75
23.00
28.00

4
5
5
6

4
5
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
6

5
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

$ ,0 0 $12.00
10

1

$1.50

$1.50

m oo

2

2

1

4.50

$7.50

12.00

*i2.50

2
1

1
2

2
2

10.50
13.00

1.85

12.35
13.00

2

1

1
1
2

5.08

5.08
9.00
10.85

208.00
116.00

6.00

2.42

2.42
3.50

3.46
3.69
2.31

10.96
18.44
2.31
15.00
3.00

58.00
80.00
250.00
80.00

” *375*
100

6.68

18.00
96.00

1,000
500
400

3.00
4.15
6.87
12.38

3.00
25.15
27.87
27.88

6.00

10.00
8.17
9.95

22.00
230.00
105.00

400
385
50

3
4
5
3
1
1
2

3

1
1
1

2
2
2

1
1
2
1
1

1
1
1

1

2

3
3
1
1

2
2
2
2
1
1

1

2
1
2

2

3
1

3

1

7.50
14.75

3

10.00

15.00
3.00
21.00
21.00

15.50

7.87
10.69

12.00
3,000
100
100
75
*340

247

1.15
1.25

2

i

4.85

3.50
10.00

U

1

3
1

9.00

12.00

28.00

17.00
(4
)

1.15
1.25
17.00
(4)
28.00

70.00
25.00
(4
)
(4
)

300
100

1,100
(4)

800

11.61
7.31

12.00

12.00
9.65
7.91
7.72
11.36
8.73
11.43
12.00

12.00
8.43
8.08

0)

12.00
10.92
3 8.26
12.00

(4
>
12.00
9.00

$3,744
3.744
2,455
3,335
3.744
3,641
2,281
3.744
3.744
3,011
2,468
2,409
3,544
2,724
3,567
3.744
2,084
3,120
2,549
3,104
3.744
2,630
2,521
3,450
3.744
3,407
2,577
3.744
3.744
3.744

2,808

Q
o
g
hj
H
>
a

o
%
>
m

W
W
Q
H
O
3
o
g

%
>
*
d

0
H
M
r
d

1
o
w

63
64
65

66

20.00
11.00
22.00

11.00

67
68

22.00

4
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

18.00

18.00

22.00

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

22.00
20.00

20.00
17.00
13.00
20.00
24.00
16.00
18.00
14.00
18.00
12.00
17.00
17.00

17.00

7.00

20.00
20.00

3.75

12.00

21.00

6.62

19.00

11.00

11.00

9.00
58.00
7.00
18.00
13.00
13.00

100
101
102

103

17.00
17.00
27.62
19.00
16.00
25.00
24.00
21.00

6.00
12.00

* 2 . is*

2.50
3.00
3.00
(8)
©o
o o

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

5.00

0 C
0 r
c

25.00
24.00
15.00
18.00
9.38
14.00
15.00
18.00
16.00
14.00
10.00

88

24.00
19.75
18.00
14.00
18.00

30.00
11.53
14.00
15.00
18.00
16.00
16.50
13.00
14.00
9.00
(4)
7.00
18.00
18.00
21.00

1 Lump sum award.
2 Just began work; wages not yet determined.
3 Reduced to $2.13 a week 2 months after award when lump sum was paid.
^ Not reported.
5 Reduced to $3.41 a week 2 months after award; duration of award extended.

1

3.75

3.75

6.95
30

10.00

2

1

.46

10.00

(4)

4.50

(4)
.46

1,750
300

2

500
2
1

2

9.61

2

4.50
7.00
17.00

4.50
7.00
17.00

1

1
1

9.61

1

.80

3

83.00
75.00
16.00

200

10.00

200

10. 67
5.42

136
350

50.00

200

io. 67
6.22

100.00

73
90

1

3.00

1

6.75

1
1

6.62
8.31
2.50
24.00

6.00
12.00

1

5.50
2

7.00
3.00
4.50

1
1

1
2
1
1

26.00

1
1
1

1

6.30

6.00

(8)

50.00
6.62 350.00
11.31
2.50 ’ *84.*00*
32.00
24.00
6. 75

1

1
1

6.00
6.00

1,000

300
600
2,150
100

6.00 125.00
12.00 6143.00

225
165

5.50
26.00 6176.00
125.00
7.00
3.00
4.50

400
1,300
65
no
34

200.00

1,000

<
4)
6.30

*69.00*
1

172
125

15.00

1

1

5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

1

6.00
6.00

125
315
1,700
600

11.04
10.00
9.79
11.60

12.00
12.00
0)
12.00
12.00
12.00

5 7.27

11.54
8.67

12.00
12.00
9.00
0)
9.09
12.00
8.00
11.26
11.25

0)

12.00
7.33

12.00
12.00
10.00
12.00
e12.00
7 9.00
10.00
(6)
10.45
3.83
6.91
7.00
5.45
12.00

5.00
12.00
9 8.67

8.33

3,443
3.120
3,054
3,619
3.744
3.744
2.184
3.744
3.744
3.744
3.744
3,600
2,705
3.744
3.744
2,808
3,522
2.836
3.744
2,496
3,513
3,510
3,500
3.744
2,287
3.744
3.744
3.120
3.744
6 1,950
2,808
3.120
6 3,744

3,260
2.836
2,156
2.184
1,700
3.744
1,560
3.744
2,568
2,599

6 Contested case.

7 Afterward reduced to $7.50 a week.

8 Small income (amount not reported) from stock in company of which deceased

was general manager.
9 For 277 weeks.

139




2

APPENDIX.

17.00
15.00
15.00
17.00
26.00

17.00
15.00
15.00
17.00
26.00
20.00

0
2

140

Table 4.—CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 252 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—OHIO—Continued.

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed—Continued.

Family membership.
Serial
Np.

Weekly income of family.

Num­
Wife
Chil­
ber of
Paid
and
dren depend­ wage Deced­ in by
en t’s
other
14 and ents earners. earn­
under 18 and
mem­
ings.
18.
bers.
over.

104
105
106
107
108
109

111

27.00
15.00
12.00

10
1
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121

122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134




11.00

3.00
10.00
5.00

$17.00
21.00
16.00

$5.00

20.00
19.00
12.00

21.00

0)
4.50

20.00
22.00
22.00

$4.50

7.00

3.00

7.50
4.00

27.00
14.00
19.00
18.00

*3*00

14.00
15.00
14.00

1.00
*9'66”

11.00

21.00

30.00

11.00

0)
19.50

21.00
12.00
22.00

12.00

11.00

20.50

19.00

22.00

15.00
25.00
16.00
16.00
18.00
12.00

Family membership.

Weekly income of family,
E x­
penses Insur­
Num­
due to ance or
acci­ benefit.
De­ ber of Paid
Num­ Chil­ Chil­ pend­ wage in by
Perdent.
Total
dren dren
Total.
week
Total
Other. income. ber of under H and ents earn­ mem­ Other. income.
per­
for 312 amount.
ers. bers of
under 18 and
sons.
14.
weeks.
over.
18.
family.

$17.00
21.00

11.00

Award under
compensation
law.

6.50

18.00
25.00
16.00
16.00
18.00
19.50
15.00
27.00
23.50
19.00
18.00

11.00

15.00
15.00
23.00

21.00
30.00
11.00

$5.00

$10.00 $10.00
5.00
0)

18.00

18.00

0)

20.00
0)
4.00
8.10

10.00

3.69

5.00
2.31
4.00
1.50
30.00
4.00
3.50

6.00

1.00

2.50

7.00
18.46
9.23
9.17
3.35
2.00

20.00
20.00
5.00

4.00

$43.75
230.00
50.00

‘50*66’
11.28
30.00

1,000

$11.54
12.00
7.00
12.00
12.00
8.00
7.15
12.00
10.00
8.00
8.06
28.00
12.00
10.00
12.00
10.50
10.64
10.41
8.00
7.00
12.00
9.23
12.00
12.00
9.50
9.23

"*606'

(*)
14.00

$318
150

*i‘650'
100

1.000
500

11.79

10.00
5.00
3.46
2.31
4.00
1.50
30.00
4.00
10.50
18.46
9.23
15.17

1.00

5.85
2.00

2186. G
O
74.00
46.94
156.00
107.00
150.00
30.00

12.00

90.00

88.00
12.40
55.00
50.00

300
270
175
1,000

750
300
490

1,000

<0 0
1 .0

612.00
7.00

$3,600
3.744
2.184
3.744
3.744
2,496
2,231
3.744
3,129
2,491
3.744
22,496
3.744
3.120
3.744
3,276
3,320
3,267
3 2,496
2.184
3.744
2,880
3.744
3.744
2,964
2,880
3.120
2,923
3,752
3.744
2.184

LAWS :

N u m ­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
14.
sons.

Family condition after accident.

COMPENSATION

Fam ily condition before accident.

•1
*
te
i
tel
O
H
O

3
o
g
%
>
w
Q
a
M

r*
d

r*
w

o

#

1 Not reported.
2 Contested case.
8 Only $1,900 and funeral expenses paid.
* Reduced to $9.20 after lump-sum payment.




14.61

11.00

8.00
1.92

3.92
5.00
5.00

7.00
3.31
3.23
4.15

2.08
5.77
12.50

3.00
4.15
1.62
17.77
1.85
2.77

12.00
16.00
24.00
12.92
30.00
16.00
12.00
14.00
17.00
16.00
13.00
10.00
25.00
19.00
25.92
24.00
11.31
28.23
18.15
22.00
14.00
26.00
17.08
15.00
19.00
24.77
24.00
38.50
15.00
18.00
18.00
16.00
16.00
32.15
19.62
25.00
18.00
33.77
20.00
12.00
14.85
18.00
32.77
12.00

1
1

7.33

2

1

1
1

1

8.00
1.92
4.00

3.46

1
1

1

1

4.88

1
1

1
1

3.92
3.50

1

5.00

1

4.88

3.23
4.50
2.31
3. 46
7.38

7.15
8.00
2.31
8.46
7.38

3.50

2
5.77
1.50
4.62

1

1

3.00

1

4.80

1

6.00

1

5.00

77
2.77
14.50
8.50
19.84
1.62

1

"**4 "is"
2.77
12.50
10.00
2.31

1

1 .0
10

s Lump-sum award.
6 Reduced to $10.94 after lump-sum payment.
7 Award paid in lump sum.
8 Reduced to $4.45 after lump-sum payment.

1.85
3.46
2.77
3.46

7.00
105.65

16.00
8.00
1.92
4.00 2 140.00
35.00
3.46
20.00
4.00

4.00

2
1

7.33

3.50
5.77
1.50
4.62
3.00
2.77
7.57
14.50
8.50

175.00
200.00
56.25
57.00

500
1,150
525
1,100

125
1,000
144"
665
450
575
100

14.00

1,600
150

56.00
15.00
55.00

100
100

9.74
7.37
8.00
8.81
8.08
7.00

212.00
10.40
10 . as
9.59
11.54
10.56
8.51
6.46

12.00
12.00
&
5. 43

12.00
(7
)
12.00
9.39

104.50
100.00
56.00

860
483
1,000

(7)
10.00
9.72
12.00
(7
)
12.00
812.00
10.00
*12.00
(0
10.00

35.00
650
25.00
2 50.00
19.84 450.00
1,800
56.00
1.62
90
8. 25
6.00
46. 00
4.15
40.00 • 100
2.77
17.50
9 11.70
10.00 103.80
70.00
10.85
150
2.31
100 10 12.00
8.00
9.33
1.85
200
3.46
700
2.77 150.00
1,800
3.46
8.00
175 11 7.50

12.00
12.00
(0

12.00
12.00

9 Reduced to $4.50 after lump-sum payment.
10 Reduced to $2.75 after lump-sum payment.
11 Reduced to $6.22 after lump-sum payment.

3,039
2,299
2.496
2.749
2,833
2,184
2 3,744
3,245
3,145

2,992

3,600
3,295
2,655
2,016
3.744
3.744
3.744
2.496
1,694
3.744
2,983
3.744
2,930
3.750
3.120
3,033
3.744
3.744
3.744
3.744
3.120
* 3 ,7-.4
3.744
3.120
2,574
3.744
3.744
4.650
3.650
3,385
3.744
2.496
2,911
3.744
3.744
2.496
2,340

APPENDIX,

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181

Table 4.—CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 252 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—OHIO—Continued.

DECEDENTS: Married or Widowed—Concluded.

Family membership.
Serial
No.
Num­ Chil­
ber of dren
per­ under
14.
sons.

W eekly income of family.

Num­
Wife
Chil­
Paid
ber of
and
dren depend­ wage Deced­ in by
en t’s
14 and
ether
ents earners. earn­ mem­
under
18 and
ings.
18.
bers.
over.

a
o

Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.

Family membership.

to

Award under
compensation
law.

Weekly income of family.

E x­
penses Insur­
Num­
due to ance or
acci­ benefit.
Pai
Chil­
De­ ber of
PerNum­ Chil­ dren pend­ wage in by
dent.
week
Total
Total ber of dren 14 and ents earn­ mem­ Other. Total
Other. income, per­ under
for 312 amount.
income.
ers. bers of
weeks.
14. under 18 and
sons.
over.
18.
family.

K
*

te
l
>

a
o
£

U
1
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210




$21.00

$21.00

$7.00

12.00

14.00
14.00
16.00
16.00
8.25

25.00
14.00
13.00
21.00
28.00
12.00
15.00

15.00
5.00

.92

22.00
5.77

$5.00

$8.00

8.00

11.00

2.50

11.00

20.00
13.00
18.00
17.00
23.00
16. 00
12.00

$5.00

16.50
14.00
16.00
16.00
8.25

$1 .0
00

15.00

11.00

50.00
22.00

10.00
12.00
16.00
20.00

10.00
12.00
16.00
20.00
25.00
14.00
13.00
14.00
18.00

$45.00

9.00
18.00
15.00

9.00
18.00
15.00

11.00

20.92
13.00
18.00
17.00
45.00
21.77
12.00

1.85
9.14

*.’6 "
5o

8.00

15.00
5.00
1.85
9.14
5.00

11.69

0)
98.00
65.00
169.00
50.00
14.00
350.00
58.00

4.04
3.46
10.50
15.00
13.50
17.04
30.00

4.04
3. 46

30.00

54.00
72.00

500
34
1,000
90
100
350
1,370
1,000
1,050
75
460
340
800

35.00

2 .77

10.50
15.92
13.50
19.81

$400
500
1,000
1,000

2.88

600
70
450
200
100

$ 12.00

6.00

10.67
10.13
6.86
18.00
10.67
12.00
12.00
9.23
8.67
2 9.39
12.00
9.21
10.09
7.45
9.05
3 9.00

0)

10.67
5.50
7.00
12.00
8.60
11.67
11.33
12.00
5.00
8.00

$3,744
1,872
3.328
3,161
2,140
12,496
3.329
3.744
3.744
2,880
2,705
2,930
3.744
2,814
3,147
2,324
2,827
2,808
3,223
3.329
1,716
2,184
3.744
'2,683
3,641
3,535
3.744
1,560
2,496

H
taj
K
Q
H
I
O
3
o
K
>

►
g

o
W
w
d
O

8

-IT 'Iin a—8T—oWTS
S

2 11
212

3

213

2

1 Contested case.
2 Reduced to SI.61 after lump-sum payment.
3 Reduced to $6.96 after lump-sum payment.

18.50
6.25

28. .50
12.50
15.00
* Award paid in lump sum.
6 Case contested.

11.50

(6
)

11.50

(6
)

(•')
$67.00
43.00

125 65.00
165 7 12.00
50
6.87

5 1,560
2,496
2,142

6 N ot reported.
7 For 183 weeks after death.

APPENDIX,




10.00
6.25
15.00

Hi
CO

4 .-C 0 N D IT I0 N , BEFORE AND AFTER THE ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 252 WAGE EARNERS KILLED OR PERMANENTLY DISABLED BY
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—OHIO-Concluded.

144

Table

DECEDENTS: Single.

Fam ily membership.

Serial
No.

$6.92

(5
)

19.50

20.00
24.00
21.15
11.33

15.00
16.15
9.00
4.00

9.00

2.77
15.00

12.60
17.00
42.77
23.00

1
1
1
1
1

3
4
1

3

$8.00
7.50
28.00
40.85
5.00
12.50
6.00

5.00
(5)
(5)
34.30
12.00
20.00

3

18.00
18.50
5.00
33.00
9.72
10.80

2
1
2
1
1

$8.00
$0.69

3
1

3
1

15.00

6.00

111.00

18.00
18.50
5.00
33.00
9.72 ^5.00
13.11
*5o!66'
15.00 62.00
11.15 10 0 .0 0
9.00
5.00

(2
)
11.00

2.77
1

(2
)

20
0
2,000 12.00
(4
)
(5
)
(°) 1 0
0
12.00
20.00
6.00

*6*92

15.00
11.15
9.00
5.00

2

1-S5.00
$300 2 5.00
7.50
127 3 5.00
28.00 $62.00
40.85 64.00
( 4)
5.69
(4)
72
7.81
12.50
114.00
3.99
11.92 200.00
1,250
(5)
275
5.00
(5)
34.30 104.00
5.00
7.50

30.00
2.77 150.00
15.00

300
500
50
150

1,100

6 5.81

6.79

28.00
10.00
8.00
(4
)
5.00
5.00
5.00
1.69
5.00

78.20
11.15
w 11.00
(4
)

2,301

$1,560
2 1,560
1.560
1.560
1.560
2,437
1,247
3,744
624
1.560
1.560
2,341
1,872
934

2,120

2 2,496
3,120
2,496
2,484
1.560
1.560
1.560
520
1.560
1,706
3,479
3.434
1,402

LABOB,

8.00

(5
)
(5
)

23.00
23.00
41.00
18.50
35.50
18.00
24.50
14.00
18.00

6.00
10.00 10.00

9.00
5.00
2.33
5.00
12.60
17.00
40.00

3
3

12.00

CHILD




5.00
14.00
12.00

3

34.00
47.00
18.00
21.50
19.00
23.92

AND

225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241

(5
)
10.00
11.00 12.00
16.00 25.00
6.00 12.50
11.00 24.50
6.00
12.00

$15.00

WOMAN

20
2
21
2
22
2
223
21
2

$4.50 $10.50
12.00
7.00 27.00
15.00 32.00
4.00
14.00
7.00 14.50
9.00
10.00
12.00
5.00
20.00
(5)
5.00
13.00

Par­
ents.

Weekly income of
In­
family.
E x­ sur­
Num­
penses ance
ber
due to or
of
acci­ bene­
Paid
De­
Per
dent. fit.
pend­ wage- in by
Total
earn- mem­
week
Total
ents
in­
ers.
for 312 amount.
bers Other
18
come.
of
and
family.
over.

O
N

214
215
216
217
218
219

Par­
ents.

Family membership.

LAWS: EFFECT

Num­
14
ber of Lender and
per­
14. under
sons.
18.

Weekly income of family.

Num­
ber
Paid in by—
of
De­
pend­ wage14
Total Num­ Under and
earnents
ber of
ers.
18
Other Other.
per­
14. under
Dece­ mem­
18.
and
sons.
dent. bers.
over.

Award under
compensation
law.

COMPENSATION

Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.

242
243
244
215
246

3
3

5.50
5.77
18.00

2
2
2

8.00

17.00

23.00
15.00

28.50
20.77
"3.'46* 21.46
4.50
2.77 15.27
17.00

2 _____
1
1
1
1

2
2
1
1
1

1
1

23.00
15.00
3.46
2 .77

(5
)

75
23.00
15.00 108.00
200
3.46 50.00 .........
2.77

(*)
'

(4
)
12.00
8.00

9 8.00
7.00

620
1,924
2,496
1,248
2,184

PERMANENTLY DISABLED.
Family condition before accident.
Family membership.
Serial
No.

247
248
249
250
i 2 251
12 252

Chil­
dren
under
14.

5
4
4
3

2
2

13 5

1

1

Weekly income of family.

Num­
Wife ber of Wages
Chil­
wage
and
dren
of in­
14 and depend­ earn­ jured
ents
ers.
under 18 and
mem­
18.
ber.
over.
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
2
2
1

$19.00
16.00
28.00
13.23
9.00
15.00

Paid
Num­
in by
other Other. Total ber of
income. per­
mem -4
sons.
bers.*

$5.00
18.00

1 Discontinued after one year when award was commuted.
2 Case contested.
3 Reduced to $4.65 after lump-sum payment.
4 Award paid in lump sum.
6 N ot reported.

$19.00
16.00
28,00
18.23
27.00
15.00

4
4
4
2
1 5
3
1

Chil­
dren
under
14.

Num­
Wife ber of Paid
Chil­
and
wage in by
dren
Total
14 and depend­ earn­ mem­ Other. income.
ers.
ents
under 18 and
bers of
family.
18.
over.
1
1
1

2
2
1

W eekly income of family.

1

6 Until balance of award is paid.
7 For 208 weeks only.
8 For 160 weeks only.

• For 166 weeks only.

(5)
1
1

$2.88
*4.00
12.00

Award
under
E x­
penses Insur­ compen­
due to ance or sation
acci­ benefit. law—per
week for
dent.
life.

$150.00

(5)
$2.88 $200.00
4.00
12.00

200.00

30.00

10 $12.00

10.67
H 12.00
8.83
7.65
10 9.99

10 Commuted.
11 Contested case.
12 Single man.

1 Including both parents.
3

145




Family membership.

APPENDIX.

Num­
ber of
per­
sons.

Family condition after accident.

1
2

6
8
1
0
1
1
1
2

WOMAN
AND
CHILD
LABOE.




O
N

2
0
2
1
2
2

LAWS : EFFECT

Partial commutation. Own home. W ith small lump-sum award bought 2 acres of land on which children raised vegetables, furnishing family.
Had paid $250 on home worth $2,400. Widow continues payments (reduced in amount) from compensation.
Collection of $30 taken up by fellow workmen.
4 Deceased worked very irregularly. Fam ily suffered; girl, 15, left school for lack of clothing, etc. Under compensation family getting on better; girl back in school.
5. Widow does a little outside work since accident, but can not leave the children long. Other wage earners in their teens and wages low.
Partial commutation ($1,000), with which family finished payments on home they were buying. Had a small grocery before accident; sold it afterwards.
7 Contested case; not yet settled. Buying a house, $2,500 to pay at time of accident.
Own house worth $2 , 200.
9 W ith compensation paid debts and partly bought house, $1,300 still owing. Widow ill, unable to work. Only wage earner, daughter aged 20 . City gives help.
Partial commutation ($400) to pay off debts.
Partial commutation ($1,100) 10 months after award, with which widow bought home. Since accident widow works at home weaving rugs.
Award divided, f to 3 children of deceased'by first wife (now with his relatives), -f to widow and her 3 children. Widow works since accident.
13 Only wage earner a son, 17, partially crippled.
14 Partial commutation ($700) 2 months after award, with which widow bought home in country. Owns small house in town, rented for 9 months, but vacant now.
15 Own home worth about $800 and 3 acres land, from which they get part of their living.
16 W idow has hard work to get along on compensation; no other income or resources.
17 Live in house owned b y widow's father; rent free as before.
18 Award commuted; weekly payments for 2 months, then lump sum of $2,800. Widow bought small farm. Son, 16, works farm and gets occasional jobs in neighborhood.
19 Own small farm, rented now.' Widow takes in washing, as before, but does more now.
Partial commutation ($900), with which widow bought house. Widow has boarder since accident.
Own home with small mortgage. Since accident son, 19, has left home, and daughter, 17, has married.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Have recently bought home for $2,000, paying $1,000 from insurance and giving mortgage for rest. Had 3 roomers before accident; now have
2 boarders.
23 W ith insurance and savings bought home for $3,000; owea $1,700 on it.
24 Award divided, f going to deceased's 2 children by first wife, now with his relatives. Deceased left 3 houses worth $5,000, with mortgage of $1,000. Posthumous child.
25 Partial commutation ($600) to pay off mortgage on home and make repairs. Son, 15, has.lef t school and is seeking work. Widow is in poor health.
26 Award commuted to $2,400 lum p sum. Widow bought house, giving mortgage for $350. R en ts first floor. Takes 4 roomers instead of 2 , as before accident.
27 W idow worked before accident; still works, but does less now. Husband a hard drinker. Fam ily better off since his death.
28 Partial commutation ($ 1 ,000) to pay off mortgage and debts. Fam ily owns 2 smallplaces ,onerented. Widow does washing since accident; keeps roomers, as before.
29 W idow takes lodgers since accident.
30 Own home, mortgaged. Insurance h eld in trust for children. Widow does washing since accident. Her mother, formerly member of family, has left.
31 Paym ent of compensation delayed 3 m onths because widow tried to get it in lump sum. During interval deceased's brother helped widow.
32 Partial commutation ($1,000) to buy house. Widow takes boarders since accident. Daughter, 16, has gone to work in a silk m ill.
33 Posthumous child. Widow has moved into country and is raising chickens, vegetables, etc., to help out. Fellow workmen of deceased collected $30 for widow.
34 Partial commutation ($2,000) to buy home. R ent part of it. Widow does washing since accident. Daughter, 14, has gone to work in candy factory.
35 Daughter, 16, has left school and gone into domestic service since accident. Family have garden and keep chickens.
36 Own home. W idow received whole weekly payment for 6 m onths. Then \ was awarded to deceased’s son by; first wife, now w ith father's relatives.
37 Partial commutation ($1,800) to pay off mortgage on home. Daughter, 20, now at work, but wages so far required to pay off expenses of former illness.
38 Own home. A t tim e of visit 2 wage earners, ordinarily paying in $10 a week, on strike and paying in nothing.
39 Partial commutation ($1,000) to pay off mortgage. Family now own 2 houses, one rented.
40 Entirely dependent on compensation. Widow is trying to pay debts, which amounted to $250, to keep daughter in college, and support paralyzed father.
41 Partial commutation ($1,200), with which widow bought and stocked farm on which they now live. Daughter, 18, at work before accident, now ill.
42 Partial commutation ($300) to pay off debts. W idow has 3 roomers instead of 2 , as before. Posthumous child died at birth. One child feeble-minded.
3

COMPENSATION

Remarks.

146

(The remarks opposite each serial number apply to the family represented by the corresponding serial number in appendix tables 3 and 4.]

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

6
6
67
6
8

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

8
6
8
8
87

89




APPENDIX,

59
60
61
62
63
64
65

Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow does washing since accident. Daughter, 20, has given up course in business college and gone out as domestic.
Own home. Widow bedridden. One son, 28, an invalid. Another son, 24, has come home since accident and helps support family.
Partial commutation ($1,750) to pay off mortgage. Widow keeps lodgers since accident. One wage earner’s work very irregular. Two youngest children, in school, sell
papers to help out.
Partial commutation ($1,700) to pay off mortgage on home.
Partial commutation ($675) to improve house. Own home; paid off mortgage with insurance. R ent part. Widow did washing for year after accident, but not strong
enough to continue.
Son-in-law of deceased now only wage earner in family.
Partial commutation ($1,185) to pay debts and buy small store, not yet bought. Posthumous child; died. Widow worked 2 months, but not able to continue.
Insurance includes $320 in trust for children. Son, 10 , has run wild since father’s death; under arrest at tim e of visit. Mother unable to work.
Widow has taken a boarder since accident. Is keeping up payments on house deceased was buying in Italy.
Partial commutation ($2,200) with which, together with insurance, widow bought house; $700 still due. She rents part. Posthumous child.
Award used to purchase nouse. Deceased owned a house, mortgaged, which widow now rents. Widow has roomer since accident. Is putting daughter, 20, through busi­
ness college.
Award commuted after 2 months. Total amount used to buy house. Widow has 3 boarders; had 1 before accident.
Partial commutation ($1,630) to pay off mortgage and debts. Part of house usually rented; vacant at tim e of visit.
Partial commutation ($1,700) to buy home. Rents part. Widow worked before and after accident. Out of work at time of visit. Son, 17, left high school to begin work.
Partial commutation (amount not reported) to pay off mortgage on property. Widow d-oes washing, as before accident.
Award commuted to enable widow to purchase rooming house, which she is now managing. Had 1 roomer before accident. Owned home. Sold it and invested in busi­
ness.
Own home, mortgaged. Widow has 1 boarder since accident.
Own home.
Daughter, 17, has gone to work in factory since father’s death.
Partial commutation ($1,000) to pay off mortgage on home. Widow’s mother, dependent, is member of family.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow had 5 weeks’ work at $5 a week since husband’s death.
Widow keeps rooming house since accident. Has had heavy expenses due to illness; insurance nearly gone.
Partial commutation ($744) to start small grocery, which is as yet only paying expenses. Since accident aged father has died, and one daughter, 15, gone to relatives
Left $2,500 savings w ith which sum and a small legacy widow bought house. Her mother lives w ith her since accident but meets her own expenses.
Partial commutation ($50) to pay debts. Fam ily ignorant, shiftless, and thriftless. Pick and sell berries in summer; no regular work.
Award commuted to enable widow to buy home.
Owned home. Daughter, 16. has left school and is looking for work.
Deceased left half interest in home and $500 savings. Widow working since accident. Son, 17, has left school and gone to work.
Partial commutation ($1,700) to buy home. Widow sold stock, etc., of deceased for $500.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow has put child 4 years old in kindergarten and goes out washing, cleaning, etc.
Partial commutation ($1,200) to pay off mortgage on home. Widow and two daughters do washing, etc., as before. Have garden and chickens.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow took hospital course and now has position as nurse. Son, 14, left school and is now at work.
Rent reduced since accident. Posthumous child expected soon.
Award commuted into lump sum ($2,386) four months after decedent’s death. Widow bought house and rents part. Has 1 boarder, as before.
Award commuted to enable widow to buy house. Rents part. Works out by the day. Posthumous child.
Oldest child only 2. Widow seems to get on comfortably on compensation.
Deceased owned cheap house and had $1,000 interest in better house. Widow an invalid.
Moved to cheaper quarters Widow took boarder for 3 months, but had to give it up to care for mother (member of family), who is ill.
Own home.
Partial commutation ($800) to enable widow to finish paying for home. Niece has come to live with widow.
Award commuted to clea*r off mortgage. Widow rents home she owns, living in a rented house. Has 1 boarder, as before.
Partial commutation ($2,600) to buy house. Widow working in factory since accident.
Partial commutation ($350). One-third of award to stepson, not with widow. Her weekly payments reduced, after commutation, to $3.54. Has roomers as before.
Award commuted after 4£ months. Widow bought house and takes boarders.
Partial commutation ($581). Widow left children temporarily with mother, paying board, came to city and got work. Expects to get family together again soon.
Deceased worked irregularly and did not support family. Widow worn out by hard work and privation. In hospital at time of visit. Children boarded out.
Son, 20, chauffeur before accident, now apprentice to electrician. Widow in poor health.

10
0
11
0
12
0
103
104
105
103
107
108
109




LABOB,

128
129
130
131

CHILD

123
124
125
126
127

AND

10
2
11
2
12
2

WOMAN

113
114
115
116
117
118
119

Widow now jiving w ith sister. Posthumous child expected soon.
Partial commutation ($1,000) to pay debts. Daughter, 30, an invalid. Deceased lived 9 months after accident, drawing compensation. This time deducted from 312
weeks in final award.
Partial commutation ($1,200) to pay off mortgage. Daughter, 16, now in business college.
Widow has 2 boarders since accident.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Daughter, 19, has gone to work.
Own house, mortgaged. Son, 21, works irregularly. Contributes $5 a week when working. Son, 15, in school, works Saturdays in glass factory; earnings not reported.
Since accident granddaughter, 22 , has married ana left home.
Award divided, half to decedent’s daughter, now w ith his relatives, and half to widow, who now lives w ith her 2 children by a former marriage.
Left $1,000 savings. After accident widow, son, and grandson moved into home with married son and live as one family.
Since accident daughter, 22, has gone to live w ith other relatives. Daughter, 19, is out of work. Widow had boarder before; none now.
Award commuted to lum p sum after three months. Mortgage on home then paid off. Widow keeps boarders since accident.
Partial commutation ($2,400) w ith which widow bought home. Fellow employees contributed $25 at time of accident.
Own small farm, but live in city, getting about $40 a year in produce from farm. Son, 32, works irregularly; daughter, 26, steadily employed.
Partial commutation ($1,423) to pay off mortgage on home. Widow now rents this and boards w ith mother. Widow works in rubber factory.
Employer (self-insured) contested award; case still unsettled at time of visit. Widow works since accident. Owns home, mortgaged.
Partial commutation ($1,900) to finish paying for house.
Partial commutation ($1,500) to purchase home. Since accident daughter, 19, has married and she and her husband board with the widow.
Left home worth $4,000, and $822 savings. Also an auto, which widow sold for $600. Widow rents part of house since accident.
Own home. Used insurance for repairs and alterations. Now rent part.
Since accident widow lives with.her parents. Her mother cares for the child (aged 5) and widow works in a millinery shop. Deceased left $214 savings.
Partial commutation ($2,300) to b uy home. Since accident widow’s mother, invalid, lives with her. Widow goes out to work by the day.
Employer (self-insured) threatened to contest case and widow accepted $1,900 as full settlement. Widow rents rooms since accident.
Son, 30, now boarding with widow, is about to marry, after which she w ill have no income except the compensation.
After accident widow took in sewing for a time. Is now studying shorthand and preparing for position as stenographer. Deceased left $100 savings.
Partial commutation ($2,500), with which widow bought house. Kept roomers before accident; has boarder now.
Award commuted within 6 months. Widow bought rooming house, which she is now carrying on. Daughter, 19, crippled w ith rheumatism.
Company, whose train killed decedent, gave widow $1,800. With this she made first payment on three-family tenement house, part of which she rents. Has a posthumous
child.
Partial commutation ($500). Own home, mortgaged; rent part. Since accident married daughter and husband live with widow, who also has a boarder.
Partial commutation ($200) to pay off mortgage on home, widow does a little fancy work at home, as before accident.
Partial commutation ($300) to pay off bills. Widow and child now live with her parents.
Award commuted. Widow paid debts incurred while waiting for award (about 3 months) and bought house, which she rents. Worked before and after accident. Gets
house room from father.

O
N

10
1
11
1
12
1

Contested case. Owns home, mortgaged. Takes boarders. Has widow’s pension of $10 a month. Employer collected $56 for family.
Partial commutation ($400) to pay off mortgage. Oldest son, 27, a cripple, unable to work.
Partial commutation ($1,800), used to buy house. Widow has a boarder since accident.
Contested case; no payments made yet. Widow has taken up canvassing smce accident. Son, 2 1 , has left college and become a car repairer.
Partial commutation ($200) to enable widow to buy home.
One-half award to decedent’s daughter by first wife, now with his relatives; $225 in lump sum and balance in weekly payments to widow. Her daughter w ith other relatives.
Widow worked before accident and one year after. Now too ill to work. Married daughter with baby lives with her.
Commutation ($1,500) six months after award to buy home. Widow sewed before accident. Has since given that up and gone into factory. Has kept roomers; none now.
Widow crippled, unable to work. Deceased a heavy drinker. Family as well off financially as in his lifetime,
deceased owned home and had $2,000 savings. Son, 21, has left college and gone into office work.
Employer (self-insured) paid compensation one year, then became bankrupt and ceased payments. Widow’s only income is from son, 14, who left school and went into

COMPENSATION1 LAWS: EFFECT

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

Remarks.

148

rial
o.

149




APPENDIX.

132 Own house, SI,500 yet to pay. Since accident parents of deceased, both dependent, have lived with widow. She has a lodger now.
133 Partial commutation ($300) to meet bills. Widow in poor health; unable to work.
134 Own small farm on which they live. Savings about $500. Widow’s nephew, 15, now living with her.
135 Owned home clear (about $800). Live on compensation.
136 Partial commutation ($1,900) to purchase home and pay bills. Widow also bought a small cottage, which she rents. Has a boarder. Last compensation payment, July, 1915.
137 Own a farm on which they live, and from which they get most of living.
138 Partial commutation ($1,275) 8 months after award to purchase home. Savings, $140. Posthumous child.
139 Daughter, 34, working before and after accident.
140 Own home. Daughter, 40, in poor health. Has small income, $100 a year, on which sum and the compensation she and her mother live.
141 Employer refuses to pay award and case is in the courts. Widow works as domestic and boards child, 7, with his uncle.
142 Own home, mortgaged. Widow rents it and lives in cheaper quarters herself.
143 Own home. Daughter, 23, an invalid, unable to work. No income but compensation.
144 Partial commutation ($1 , 100 ) to buy house. Widow and daughter, 30, both in poor health and unable to work.
145 W ith child, 7, has gone to keep house for her father, now a widower.
146 Insuranceincludes $175 in trust for child. Widow working as domestic since accident. Child in Austria with grandmother. Deceased left $800 savings.
147 Since accident baby has died. Widow has given up housekeeping and boards with her parents.
148 Partial commutation ($750) to clear off mortgage. Widow lets this house and is buying a second. Has a boarder. There is a posthumous child.
149 Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow got work m glass factory, which had temporarily shut down at time of visit. Widow’s mother w ith her since accident.
150 Son, 19, is bricklayer’s apprentice. Work is irregular and he earns only about enough to clothe himself.
151 Award commuted. Widow bought house ($3,500) and rents part. Is caretaker of church, as before accident.
152 Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow works out by the day and takes boarders, as before accident.
153 Own farm and house in town. Before accident lived on farm and rented town house ($6 a month). Now living in town. Son, 26, works farm.
154 Own house; rent part.
155 Award commuted; $1,000 of it in trust for man’s daughter in Hungary. Widow paid off mortgage ($1,800) on house. Rents part and takes boarders.
156 Deceased left $300 savings. Widow now lives with her parents on small farm. Posthumous twins.
157 Widow has broken up home and gone out as housekeeper.
158 Award paid i n 1ump sum. Widow tried to keep a grocery, but failed. Then rented a lodging house from which she now clears about $25 a month.
159 Widow moved to cheaper quarters. Keeps roomers as before.
160 W ith insurance widow made firs t paym ent on a house which she ren ts. Is living with married daughter.
161 Deceased left $1,000 savings. Widow has given up housekeeping and is working as domestic.
162 Award paid in 1 ump s um for investm ent. Widow has pens ion, $12 a month. Owns house, mortgaged.
163 Award commuted after eight months. With amount ($2,906) widow bought home. R ents part. Goes out washing and ironing.
164 Partial commutation ($2,100) five m onths after award to pay off mortgage on home. Widow has boarders, as before accident.
165 Widow has boarders and roomers since accident; $100 collected for her by friends and relatives at tim e of accident.
166 Employer refused to pay award, case now in court. Fellow workmen collected $26 for widow. Posthumous child died. Widow works as domestic, but out of work at
present.
167 Award commuted. Widow bought bungalow in which she lives and house which she rents. Deceased had $300 savings.
168 Partial commutation ($2,100) three months after award to alter house and pay off mortgage. Widow rents part for $7 a month and her own board.
169 Had paid $200 on $1,000 place at time of accident. Widow is working to pay off remainder without using compensation.
170 Deceased owned hom e,rented. W idow continues to rent it andli ves w ith mother-in-law, who needs continuous care.
171 Partial commutation ($1 , 200) to finish paying for little store and two sm all houses deceased was buying. Widow rents store and one house; lives in the other.
172 Award commuted andi nvestedin realestate. Widow takesin sewing and keeps roomers.
173 Partial commutation ($1,950) to buy house. Widow takes boarders,
174 Deceasedl eft four houses,renting for $77 a month, and $1,500 savings. Estate not yet settled (4 | months after accident), so widow gets nothing from it.
175 Partial commutations amounting to $2,425 to pay off debts and buy farm. Widow lets the farm and lives w ith her parents. Posthumous child.
176 Widow owns home. Lives on compensation.
177 Widow owns home, mortgaged. Rents part.
178 Deceased was buying house. Widow has kept up payments (used insurance). R ents part and lives on rent and compensation.
179 Deceased left house and $500 savings. Widow has pension, $12 a month. Sister-in-law makes home w ith her since accident.
180 Partial commutation ($400) to pay off mortgage on home widow owned. She rents part and lives on rent and compensation.
181 Partial commutation ($400). Widow has moved to cheaper quarters.

Remarks.

10
.

203
204

20
2
21
2
22
2
223




LABOR.

216
217
218
219

CHILD

215

AND

213
214

WOMAN

20
1
21
1
22
1

O
N

205
206
207
208
209

LAWS: EFFECT

20
0
21
0
22
0

Widow in poor health; lives on compensation.
W idow in hospital a t tim e of visit. N oincom e but compensation.
Widow lias moved to cheaper quarters.
Deceased left $150 savings. Widow expects to go to work soon.
Widow lives w ith her parents; pays about $2 a week.
Employer (self-insured) refused to pay award. Case now in court. Widow lived w ith husband’s family after accident. Fam ily very poor.
Widow has moved to cheaper quarters.
Widow has taken boarders since accident.
Deceased left home and $700 savings. Widow does nursing from choice, not necessity.
Widow moved to cheaper quarters and w ent to work. In addition to compensation got $700 damages from company immediately responsible for decedent’s death.
Deceased left house, mortgaged and in poor repair.
Partial commutation ($2,180)to buy house and furniture. Widow works, as before accident.
Deceased left $400 savings. W idow keeps boarders, as before accident.
Since accident widow lives w ith parents, paying board.
Deceased left $150 savings. Widow now living w ith her parents.
Widow boarding w ith friends.
Partial commutation ($1,500) to alter house. Widow now rents part of it. Worked interm ittently before accident, steadily since.
Partial commutation ($351) to pay bills. Widow moved to cheaper quarters.
Award commuted. Widow bought house and rents part, getting $17.50 a month and board.
Partial commutation ($2,900) to build house on lot deceased had bought. Widow rents part.
Widow has moved to cheaper quarters. N ot able to work.
Widow remarried 2 months after accident. Children too young for her to go out to work and no income but compensation.
Partial commutation ($260) to pay off mortgage. Widow remarried 14 months after accident. Condition not improved. Decedent left property, value not known to
widow.
Widow remarried a few months after accident. Compensation delayed; relatives supported her in interval.
Partial commutation ($1,175) to buy house, not rented. Posthumous child. Widow remarried 10 months after accident.
Deceased a widower; boarded w ith relatives, and children are still there, board being paid by guardian from compensation. Child 2 years old has died since accident.
Deceased a widower; daughter and sons live together, as before accident; son, 21, now contributes more than before; daughter, a semi-invalid.
Deceased a widower; daughter boards w ith married sister, as she and deceased did before; own farm,rented.
Deceased divorced from wife; son lived w ith wife, and daughter with deceased. $624 of compensation was to be paid to son, but he has since died.
Award made to parents, but claimed by wife from whom deceased had separated. Payments withheld pending decision of claim. $12 a week paid during disability
before death.
Award includes $300 paid during 6 months’ disability before death. Deceased a widower.
Deceased a widower; sister-in-law who kept house for him has $250 of his savings and receives compensation.
Award commuted after 1 year ($1,203.84) to make first payment on a home. Deceased lived w ith widowed sister, who received the compensation. One niece married
since accident.
Award refused as insufficient; matter still unsettled. Family owns farm, mortgaged, worked by father, a semi-invalid. Son, 18, dwarfed and sickly, has become wage
earner since accident.
Partial commutation ($100) immediately after award. Family owns home.
Award commuted to diminish indebtedness on home worth $3,600 which the family is buying.
Award commuted to enable family to buy house; deceased was main support of family. Father, 60, unable to work.
Family owns home, worth $600; since accident, brother of deceased, 20, has left home.
Deceased was most important contributor to family. Father’s work increasingly irregular.
Own home worth $3,000. Father, 73, has pension, $12; one brother, 27, out of work for two years.
Award commuted to help pay off mortgage on milk farm worth $3,000. Deceased only one of family who did not work on this farm from which they get living.
Fam ily in comfortable circumstances.

COMPENSATION

182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
19.1
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199

150

rial

224
225
228
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252

Since accident mother of deceased has died. Father, then out of work, has secured employment, and brother, 17, has left school and begun work.
Since accident daughter, 17, has married and left home.
Since accident father of deceased, then unemployed, has found work, but brother, 17, is unemployed.
Partial commutation ($525) to enable family to buy home. Remainder at rate of $5.81 a week.
Own home; the two sisters and one of the brothers work irregularly, as before; one brother now out of work.
Employer (not insured) refuses to pay award; case in courts; family very poor; parents both in poor health.
Deceased was apprentice; father works irregularly.
Own home; father an invalid; brother, 18, has just got work.
Award commuted ($2,275) to buy place worth $4,000; mortgage for balance; rent part. Sister of deceased, crippled, has learned fine sewing and is now a wage earner.
Deceased, a woman; own home, mortgaged; father idle; brothers (35 and 26) formerly paid board, now do not contribute; get dinners out.
Own home; father, only remaining wage earner, out of work 5 months since accident, owing to ill health.
Mother, an invalid; brother, 27, an unsteady worker, has left home.
Compensation for benefit of brother, 8, and sister, 15. Since accident latter has become self-supporting; father intemperate; compensation paid to children’s guardian.
Mother does washing and ironing, as before accident, but earns more; sister, 17, is in ill health and not able to work.
H ave bought home worth $2,200 w ith insurance; sister, 26, formerly ill, has left home; brother, 17. in college; works irregularly during summer.
Mother disabled; sister, 16, deformed and mind affected; were wholly dependent on deceased; friends have helped since accident.
Own home and have savings; mother has pension (soldier’s widow); sister partially blind; insurance was several thousand dollars.
Award commuted to pay off mortgage on home.
H ave bought home w ith compensation.
B uying home; mother, a semi-invalid; son away from home; paid expenses of accident not met b y compensation.
Mother of deceased boards w ith a daughter; a surviving son allows her $15 a month and paid the additional funeral expenses.
Mother not able to do washing, as before accident; two married brothers help a little occasionally. She has pension (soldier’s widow).
Mother, a helpless invalid; owns home; rents it since accident and lives w ith tenants.
Internal injuries; man crippled. W ith award bought and stocked 50-acre milk farm which sons carry on; are making comfortable living; daughter, 21, has married and
left home since accident.
Injuries to head, causing complete disability; family moved to cheaper quarters; wife in feeble health; no income but compensation.
Man blinded and hand blown off; employer refuses payment; case now m courts; only income, State pension for blind; family have used savings ($150); in great need.
Man’s sight almost destroyed; wife has died since accident; man and his son, 26, have moved to cheaper quarters, and live together, sharing expenses.
Both legs cut off below the knee. Soon after accident father lost job and was obliged to take work at lower pay.
Man blinded; no relatives in this country; before accident was sending money to parents in Austria-Hungary; unable now to do so.




152

T able 5 .—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, W AGES, A ND OCCUPATION OF INJU R ED WAGE EA RN ER S; A ND N A TU R E OF ACCIDENTS—PE N N SY L V A N IA ,

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS.

Mari­
Serial
tal W eekly
No. Age. condi­ wage.
tion.

6
8

9
10
11
12

20.00

11.40
1 1 .1 0

11.34
12.60
15.24
20.00

15.00
11.40
18.63
18.00

20.00

15.00
15.00
17.50
13.00
16.14
11.76
14.28

17.50
18.00
1 1 .1 0

13

3
43

26

8
6
10

9
3

9
9

1
10

8

7
5
7
3
4
9

7
3
8

11

4

1

5
7

7

11
6

19
5
9
29
14
26
28
14
5
3
13
9
18
18
24
18
16

8

17

4

22
8

6
6
6
6
6
10

9
4
3
9
4
10

7
11
8
6

4

3

2
22
20
2

LABOR,

12.00

5
2

CHILD




9.00
13.50
25.00

Miner........................................ Crushed b y fall of roof.................................................................
Body found between car and rib; no witness.......................
Caught in shaft; head fractured...............................................
Struck and dragged by mine cars while crossing tracks
Blown to pieces by blast............................................................
Shot about face and chest by b last..........................................
Crushed by fall of rock..............................................................
Crushed by fall of roof rock........................................................
Killed by fall of roof....................................................................
Burned by flames from forge....................................................
Fell from crane cage; skull fractured......................................
Crushed b y fall of machinery....................................................
Stick of dynamite exploded in hand.......................................
Crushed in elevator.....................................................................
Crushed under runaway mine cars..........................................
Mine cars passed over abdomen...............................................
Caught b y fall of coal; thigh and ribs fractured...................
Killed b y fall of roof....................................................................
Caught by fall of roof; back broken........................................
Caught between elevator gate and floor; skull crushed
Boarding moving elevator; caught between floor and car
Valve oi water tube blew off; skull fractured.....................
Caught under fall of coal............................................................
Killed by fall of top rock............................................................
Burned b y explosion of gas........................................................
Injured b y premature explosion of sh ot.................................
Crushed by mine car...................................................................
Thrown from wagon; lockjaw resulted..................................
Crushed under fall of coal..........................................................
Chest crushed and legs fractured in jig line shaft.................
Crushed by fall of top coal.........................................................
Caught by fall of coal and slate; skull crushed.....................
Killed by fall of top coal............................................................
Cylinder head blew out of engine; cut; hemorrhage...........
Crushed under runaway mine cars..........................................

Dyeing......................
Engineer...................................
Coal mining.............
x x Miner........................................
........d o ......................................... ........d o........................................
........d o ...........................
........d o........................................
........d o ......................................... ........d o . . ....................................
........d o ....................................... ........d o........................................
........d o ....................................... ........d o ........................................
Railroad, steam ....................... Blacksmith’s helper...............
Machine shops......................... Craneman.................................
Railroad, steam..................... Foreman, car shop.................
Loader...................... ...............
Coal mining..........................
Canning...............
Laborer....................................
Laborer, track.........................
Railroad, steam.
Coal mining..........................
Coal-pocket tender.................
........d o .................................
Hand miner.............................
Miner........................................
........do’ ................
.
........d o ......................................... Contract miner........................
Soap manufacturing............... Salesman..................................
Steel......................................... Oiler....................................
Coal m in in g .......................... . Fan engineer............................
........d o ......................................... Pick miner...............................
........d o ......................................... Contract miner........................
........d o ......................................... ........d o........................................
........d o ......................................... Miner..................................
........d o ......................................... Runner.....................................
Coal yard.................................. Driver.......................................
Coal m in in g .........................
Miner........................................
........d o .................
Jig runner.................................
........d o ......................................... Miner............................... .
........d o ...................
............ Contract miner........................
........d o ..................
.... Miner........................................
Steel........................................... Engineer...................................
Railroad, steam....................... Laborer, track.........................

AND

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
'35

20.00

Cnal mining

Days.

WOMAN

20
21
22

$12.72
C
1)
18.00
15.00
12 . 00
23.10
15.24
15.00

Months.

O
N

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

M.
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Nature of accident.

EFFECT

7

46
44
36
47
38
42
49
40
42
42
51
42
32
57
48
40
36
50
45
58
72
47
40
39
43
51
28
26
44
26
48
52
48
23
50

Occupation.

Interval between
death and agent’s
visit.

LA W S:

1
2

3
4
5

Industry.

Days be­
tween
accident
and death.

COMPENSATION

[Abbreviations: M.=married; S.=single; W .=widowed; D.=divorced; Sep.= separated.]

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

67
68

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

50
41
41
37
40
34
52
33
31
37
42
39
33
30
34
38
50
43
37
38
31
51
38
37
33
63
30
43
40
56
25
55
44
44
‘ 25
45
38
53
30
43
67
25
25
47
72
51
34
39
32
30

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

15.00
17.10
18.46
15.00
15.00
13.80
18.00
9.50
22.50
17.50
18.84
8.25
16.00
21.00

16.00
12.90
17.00
18.75
14.00
14.00
23.54
20.00
10.00

13.50
15.00
19.80
19.92
15.00
20.00

13.08
14.40
34.62
20.40
23.00
12.90
15.00
10.00

13.00
19.62
25.38
17.00
13.20
10.50
18.00
14.25
11.0 0
21.00

9.00
24.00

Coal mining............................
....... d o .......................................
....... d o ................................. .
....... d o .......................................
___ d o .......................................
....... d o .......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o .......................................
___ d o.......................................
. . . d o ......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o.......................................
----- d o.......................................
___ d o .......................................
----- d o ......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o.......................................
----- d o ......................................
----- d o .......................................
----- d o ......................................
___ d o .......................................
Office building...................... .
Sugar refining..........................
Coal mining.............................
Coal mining.............................
___ do........................................
. ...d o ........................................
___ do.........................................
___ do.........................................
Steel..........................................
Coal mining..............................
Bridge construction...............
Steel..........................................
....d o ........................................
Coal mining..............................
___ do.........................................
----- do.........................................
___ do.........................................
. ...d o ........................................
___ do........................................
Bridge construction...............
Carpet yarn manufacturing.
Iron foundry............................
Coal mining.............................

Miner......................................
Miner’s laborer........... .
Timberman............................
Driver boss............................
Miner.......................................
....... d o ......................................
Contract laborer....................
Miner......................................
....... do......................................
Contract miner......................
Timberman............................
Miner......................................
Driver, outside......................
Miner......................................
___ d o ......................................
___ d o ......................................
Miner’s laborer......................
Miner......................................
. .. .. d o .....................................
Miner’s laborer......................
Miner......................................
Section foreman....................
Miner......................................
Night watchman...................
Laborer....................................
Contract miner.......................
Miner...................................... .
___ do........................................
___do........................................
___ do...................................... .
Slope engineer........................
Laborer....................................
Superintendent......................
Punching machine operator.
Craneman................................
Hooker-on...............................
Miner........................................
. . . d o .......................................
....d o ................................ .
Assistant foreman..................
Outside foreman....................
Miner........................................
Painter and bridgeman.........
Picker-house hand.................
Pattern maker........................
Shot firer and rib boss...........
Miner’s laborer........................
— do........................................ Miner........................................
_
— do........................................ _ do........................................
— do........................................ Charge man.............................

Explosion of misfire; cut on head............................................
Crushed while drawing pillars..................................................
Caught by fall of slate; neck broken.......................................
Caught between rib and runaway cars; head crushed........
Crushed by fall of top rock........................................................
Fell from ladder; internal and other injuries........................
Struck b y piece of falling slate; spine broken.......................
Premature explosion of blast; skull fractured......................
Killed b y explosion of blast......................................................
Bailed b y fall of rock.................................................................
Prop rolled off car and struck him; severely bruised........
Killed b y fall of slate and roof coal..........................................
Kicked b y horse; leg broken.....................................................
Premature explosion of blast; skull fractured......................
Caught under fall of rock............................................................
Crushed b y fall of rock...............................................................
Leg caught between gob and derailed car; ankle fractured.
Killed b y accidental explosion of blast..................................
Caught b y fall of rock; abdomen and hips crushed...........
Killed b y premature explosion of b last..................................
Crushed b y fall of roof rock........................................................
Caught b y fall of top rock; skull fractured............................
Killed b y premature explosion of blast..................................
Fell down elevator shaft, 10 stories.........................................
Struck by draft of sugar which fell while being hoisted___
Killed by fall of rock and coal..................................................
Head crushed b y fall of roof rock.............................................
Skull crushed b y fall of roof coal and slate............................
Killed by fall o f rock............................ ......................................
Killed b y explosion of blast......................................................
Blow on head, concussion of brain..........................................
Crushed between hoisting machinery and building...........
Crushed b y steel girder...............................................................
Head crushed in machinery......................................................
Fell from electric crane...............................................................
Crushed between car and crane................................................
Balled by fall of roof rock...........................................................
Suffocated under rush of culm.................................................
Struck on head b y piece of rock...............................................
Fell between moving mine cars; head cut off.......................
R un over by cars; body mangled............................................
Killed b y explosion of dynam ite.............................................
Fell from platform to ground; skull fractured.......... \ .........
Caught in machinery...................................................................
Caught on shafting while taking off belt: crushed...............
Killed b y fall of post...............................................................
Caught by fall o f rock; internal and other injuries..............
Struck b y piece of falling coal; back and neck broken___
Killed b y fall of clod from rooi.................................................
Fell to bottom of shaft; head crushed....................................

i Not reported.

19

6
10
8

27
2

3
32

27
16

6
8

11
10

4
5
5

6
10

5
8

3

6
6

7
3
7
6

3

10
8
10

7
10

7
11

7
6

7
7
4
4
7
9
7
3
7
6

5

8
8

3
5
6

7
4
5
6

15
17
23
4
4
20

4
20
1
21
12

26
14
13
13
11

27
16
9
19
13

2
22

13
1

§
%
o
X

3
2
11

19
17
21

13
4
24
21
10

27
23
16
20
12

24
21

16

153




21.00

T a b le

5 .—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND NATURE OF ACCIDENTS—PENNSYLVANIA—Continued.

*-4
Cn

DECEDENTS WITH RESIDENT DEPENDENTS—Concluded.

d
Serial
No.

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

10
1
11
1
12
1

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123

Mari­
tal Weekly
condi­ wage.
tion.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.




Industry.

$12.50 Coal mining............................
13.50 ....... do.......................................
....... do.......................................
16.25 ___ do.......................................
12.50 ....... do.......................................
___ do.......................................
15.00 ----- do.......................................
15.24 ___ do.......................................
15.00
----- do.......................................
18.00 Machinery manufacturing..
17.82 Electric light..........................
36.72 Steel........, ...............................
Coal mining............................
15.00 ....... do.......................................
15.00 ....... do.......................................
15.00 Steel.........................................
16.20 Coal mining............................
15.00 ----- do.......................................
13.50
15.00
13.14 Street railway........................
23.00 Coal mining............................
----- do.......................................
18.48 ----- do.......................................
15.48 Iron and steel........................
15.00 Railroad, steam .....................
13.86 ___ do.......................................
22.50 Iron and steel........................
20.00 Coalmining............................
19.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

0)

10.00

13.00 ___ do.......................................
12.49 Bar iron manufacturing___
25.00 Locomotive manufacturing.
15.00 Coal mining............................
___do.......................................
20.77 ....d o .......................................

20.00

O
g
hj
w

Interval between
death and award.

Occupation.

Plane man..................
Loader..........................
Miner............................
Rock m a n ..................
Contract laborer.........
Miner............................
----- d o . .. ., ...................
___ do....................
___ do...........................
___ do............................
Millwright...................
Lineman......................
Heater helper.............
Rock slower................
Laborer........................
Contract miner...........
Laborer........................
Miner’s laborer...........
Miner............................
Laborer........................
Contract miner...........
Oiler......... •..................
Miner............................
Chief clerk...................
Laborer........................
Oiler and millwright.
Electric repair man ..
Machine hand.............
Millwright’s helper...
Carpenter....................
Miner............................
___do............................
___do............................
Water tender..............
Riveter........................
Miner............................
Contract miner...........
Loader..........................

Nature of accident.

Caught under derailed mine car.............................................
Struck on head by falling slate...............................................
Killed by premature explosion of blast................................
Crushed between derailed mine car and rib........................
Crushed by fall of roof...............................................................
....... do.............................................................................................
Caught by fall of roof; internal injuries................................
Crushed b y fall of rock..............................................................
Killed by fall of coal..................................................................
Killed by fall of roof..................................................................
Body found in shop; death due to concussion of b rain...
Electrocuted while working on p ole......................................
Crushed between billet buggy and casting..........................
Run over b y mine cars..............................................................
Skull fractured b y runaway coal cars...................................
Crushed by fall of top rock......................................................
Chest crushed b y fall of steel tire...........................................
Skull fractured by fall of coal..................................................
Fell down chamber while escaping from blast explosion.
Killed by fall of roof rock.........................................................
Killed by fall of top rock..........................................................
Caught between pulley and belt in power bouse...............
Killed b y fall of top rock..........................................................
Fighting breaker fire; killed b y falling tim ber...................
Fighting mine fire; killed b y fall of roof rock.....................
Thrown from elevation; fractures, lacerations,
Caught between coach and engine tender; crusted.
Part of machine fell on him; lung perforated................
Caught between parts of machine; crushed...................
Struck b y object falling down shaft; skull fractured..
Killed b y premature explosion of blast...........................
Killed b y fall of top clod.....................................................
Killed b y fall of top rock....................................................
Fell 10 feet; skull fractured.................................................
Struck by swinging chain; pneumonia developed___
Crushed b y fall of rock........................................................
Crushed under rush of coal.................................................
Caught between moving cars and rib; badly crushed.

Days be­
tween
accident
and death. Months.

8
8
8

5
9
9
10
8

3
10
6

Xl
J

Days.
1

28
4
28
19
1

25
4
16
15
9
15
9

6
10
10
8

21
6
8

10

9
8
10

5
10

4
5

10
8

14

7
3
5
4
4

>
m

w

2

3
5
3
4
9

9
5
9

>
o
%

22

5

15
24
2
22

26
23
10
21

7
3
27
5

O
o
tz
s
*
o
g
>
*
►
O
o
W
M
%

12
6

16
16
1

5

E
o
w

M.

M
.
M
.
M
.
M.
M.

M
.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.

W
.
w.

w.
w.
w.

D
.
S.
s.
s.

s.
s.

(2
)




Coal mining..........................
___ do.....................................
___ do.....................................
___ do.....................................
___ do.....................................
Steel.......................................
Coal mining..........................
9.50 ___ do:...................................
14.40 ----- do.....................................
15.24 ....... do.....................................
14.50
22.50 ----- do.....................................
10.56 ----- do.....................................
15.00
18.00 ........d o ....................................
10.00 ....... do.....................................
13.68 Iron and steel.......................
15.00 Coal mining..........................
18.50 ....... do.....................................
15.00 Lumber.................................
17.50 Coal mining..........................
........d o ....................................
12.50 ....... do.....................................
....... do.....................................
___ do.....................................
12.24 ----- do.....................................
----- do.....................................
7.26 ___ do.....................................
9.06 ....... do.....................................
12.50 ....... do.....................................
5.60 ....... do.....................................
Roofing..................................
19.62 Chemical manufacturing..
Window cleaning................
14.20 Coal mining..........................
12.36 ----- do.....................................
10.38 ....... do.....................................
12.84 ----- do.....................................
----- do.....................................
18.00 Electric light and power. . .
19.62 Natural gas...........................
10.50 Coal mining..........................
13.62 ----- do.....................................
9.00 ----- do.....................................

24.00
16.14
13.00
13.00
16.98
16.20

8.00

11.00
10.00
10.00
10.00

12.00
0)

10.68

i Not reported.

Miner..
___ do..
do..............................
Laborer...........................
Motorman.......................
Open hearth slagm an..
Miner...............................
Contract miner...............
Laborer............................
Miner...............................
Contract miner..............
Loader.............................
Laborer............................
Miner...............................
....... d o ..............................
....... do...............................
Billet foreman................
Pick miner......................
Miner...............................
Lumber handler............
Carpenter........................
Driver..............................
Runner............................
....... do...............................
Driver..............................
Runner............................
Driver.............................
Locomotive brakeman.
Driver..............................
Plane man......................
Laborer............................
Driver..............................
Electrician......................
Window cleaner.............
Runner............................
___ do...............................
----- do...............................
Motorman.......................
Footman.........................
Trouble m an..................
Field superintendent...
Runner...........................
Locomotive helper........
Miner’s laborer...............

Fell under derailed mine car and was run over.................
Struck on head by fall of loose coal.......................................
Crushed b y mine car.................................................................
Killed b y fall of top rock..........................................................
Fell between motor and cars while in motion....................
Skull fractured and body burned by explosion.................
Killed by explosion of blast....................................................
Caught b y fall of rock...............................................................
Crushed by fall of top coal...................... .................................
Killed b y premature explosion of blast................................
Burned b y gas explosion..........................................................
Legs cut off b y machine; died from loss of blood................
Caught b y couplings while passing between railroad cars.
Crushed by fall of roof rock............................"
........................
Killed by fall of roof rock.........................................................
Killed b y premature explosion of blast................................
Struck b y billet; crushed.........................................................
Skull fractured b y fall of slate................................................
Killed by explosion of blast....................................................
Struck b y piece of lumber; chest crushed............................
Fell down shaft; neck broken.................................................
Killed by explosion of gas........................................................
do............................................................................................
.do..
.do..
Squeezed under mine car which turned over.................
Killed by explosion of gas....................................................
F ell between cars and was run over.................................
Head crushed between rib and derailed car....................
Killed b y runaway em pty car.............................................
Bruised and injured internally b y fall of roof...................
Killed b y fall from wagon....................................................
Burned by ignition of oil and gas.......................................
Fell from scaffold; skull fractured.....................................
Killed b y explosion of gas....................................................
Head caught between loaded car and tim ber.................
Head crushed between mine cars while coupling them.
Fell from platform which broke; lung punctured...........
Walked into open shaft; killed instantly..........................
Electrocuted............................................................................
Burned by gas explosion......................................................
— do........................................................................................
Fell under cars; crushed......................................................
Fractured and lacerated b y explosion of blast............... .

19

5

1
0
7
6
7
6
4
4

6
1
2
6
18
1
0
2
1
2
1
15
23

1
2

25
4

2
2
2
15
4
9
28

2
2

18
13
16
16
16
26
19
26
27
7
13

APPENDIX,

124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
-159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166

1
1
1

6

9
4

8
1
0
9
6
8
3

17
16
3
27

2
0
17
2
1
24
1
1

27
4

2 Killed in same accident as father and so counted as member of father’s family (Serial No. £

Or

Ol

VANIA—Continued.

156

T a b le 5 .— AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS, AND NATURE OF ACCIDENTS—PENNSYL­

DECEDENTS WITH NO FAMILY GROUP.

No.

50
57
21

25

Marital
condi­
tion.

Sep.
W.
S.
S.

Weekly
wage.

0)
$21.00
12.00

0)

Industry.

Occupation.

Nature of accident.

Shipbuilding...................................
Coal mining........... ........................
Distilling..........................................
Steel.................................................

Driller.. ...........................................
Miner.................. . . T . . . . . . ...... . . . .
.
Still runner................................... .
Millwright’s helper........... . ..............

Caught between pole and crane................................................
Crushed by piece of falling rock...............................................
Drowned in fermenter.............................. ................................
Struck by broken belt of machinery; skull fractured.........

Days be­
tween
accident
and death.

1

DECEDENTS WITH NONRESIDENT DEPENDENTS.
1
1

1
1
1

AND
CHILD
2

LABOR.




$7.14 Coal m ining.................................... Door t e n d e r . ............. . ........... Crushed between door and mine car.......................................
13.98 ........d o ............................................... Laborer.................. ............................ Killed by fall of roof....................................................................
Killed by fall of rock...................................................................
Burned by gas explosion...........................................................
16.50 ........d o................................................ Contract m iner.................................. Caught b y fall of rock; skull fractured...................................
9.00 ........d o.................. ............................ Contract laborer................................. Killed by fall of rock...................................................................
16.32 ........d o................................................ Miner’s laborer.................................. Caught b y fall of roof rock; skull fractured...........................
........d o................................................ Laborer................ ........................
0)
12.78 ........d o ............................................... ........d o ................................................. Killed b y flying coal from blast...............................................
12.00 Building........................................... ........d o................................................. Head smashed in b y falling tile ...............................................
Coal mining..................................... Contract miner .................................. Burned by explosion of gas.......................................................
0)
10.00 ........d o ............................................... Miner’s laborer ..
.
......
Painting........................................... General painting............................ . Thrown from falling ladder; skull fractured.........................
0)
Steel.................................................. Laborer........... .
................... Overcome by gas while cleaning boiler..................................
0)
River sand and gravel.................. Bargeman......................................... . Struck on head b y falling apparatus; skull fractured........
0)
Coal mining..................................... Loader............................................ ..... Touched trolley wire; electrocuted.........................................
0)
Crushed against steam shovel b y falling w all.......................
Street construction........................ Laborer........... ........... ............. .
0)
17.52 Steel (armor plate)........................ Second drillpressman . . . . . . . . . . . . Struck b y falling implement; hip fractured..........................
16.40 Coal m ining,................................... Loader......... ....................................... Crushed by fall of rock from roof............................................
14.40 Steel and w ire................................ Laborer....... ....................................... Probably struck by train of cars; no w itnesses.,.................
Quarrying........................................ Block maker................................... . Crushed b y falling rock....................................................... . . . .
C
1)
1 1 .1 0 Railroad, steam .............................. Laborer............................................... Crushed under runaway mine cars..........................................
1 1 .1 0 ........d o ................................................ ........d o...................................................
Steel.................................................. ........d o................................................... Caught between plank and load of steel; skull crushed
0)
12.00 Coal mining..................................... Loader........................... •..................... Head crushed b y fall of slate...................................................
15.00 ........d o................................................ ........do................................................... Injured while pulling post.........................................................
12.00 ........d o................................................ Miner.................................................... Post fell on him; intestines ruptured.................................
16.50
Killed by fall of roof....................................................................
........d o................................................ ........d o ..................................................
0)
10.00 ........d o ............................................... Miner’s laborer................................

WOMAN

22

35
32
42
42
34
42
48
48
34
38
31
40
44

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
m:.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M,
M.
M.

O
N

60
42
24
40
45
42
49
35
33
43
42
24
29
32

EFFECT

171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198

LAW S:

167
168
169
* 170

Age.

COMPENSATION

Serial

40
37
26
35
51
45
38
51

199
200
201
202

203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237

32
41
30
29
21
35
35
25
22
18
18
40
32
22
23
18
25
27
20

40
24
25
35
27
30
23
21

25
25
29




12.00
12.00
0)
13.02
11.0 0

20.00
0)
17.50
0)
(x)
21.00
(0
19.00
13.50
18.00
0)
12.24
6,75
15.24
10.02
20.00
18.00
9.18
12.00
6.00
15.00
16.80
0)
10.90
16.80
7.02
0)
10.47
0)
11.83
13.75
12.12
21.00
14.10

........do....................................
........d o....................................
........do....................................
___.d o .....................................
........do....................................
........do....................................
........do....................................
........d o ....................................
........do....................................
........d o....................................
Railroad, steam .................. .
Coalm ining......................... .
. . . . . d o ....................................
........d o....................................
........d o....................................
........d o ....................................
........d o . . . ..............................
........d o....................................
........do....................................
. . . . . d o .....................................
....... d o .................................... .
....... do....................................
....... d o.................................... .
___ d o.................................... .
....... do.................................... .
Safe manufacturing.............
Steel........................................
----- d o . . , ...............................
Tubing manufacturing.......
Bridge construction.............
B ox manufacturing.........
Wire-fence manufacturing..
Salt manufacturing..............
Coal m in in g .........................
Oil refining............................
Coal mining...........................
----- d o......................................
___ d o ......................................
Steel........................................
1 Not reported.

Loader..........................
Miner............................
Laborer........................
Pick miner..................
Miner............................
..d o ...........................
..d o ...........................
..d o ...........................
Miner’s laborer...........
Miner............................
Foreman......................
Rock m a n ...................
Pick miner...................
Laborer........................
Contract miner...........
Unloading rock..........
Laborer........................
..d o .............. 1 ..........
Miner’s laborer...........
Driver...........................
Miner............................
..d o ...........................
Miner’s laborer...........
..d o ...........................
Poor b o y . . . . . ...........
Electrical laborer.......
Lorry car helper.. . . . .
Boilermaker’s helper.
Pipe machine hand. .
Cupola tender........... .
Helper........................ .
L aborer......................
Miner.....................
Boilermaker’s helper.
Scrapper......................
Loader..........................
Drill runner........... .
Laborer........................

Skullfractured by fall of slate.,
Crushed by fall of roof.........
Killed b y fall of top coal............
Killed b y fall of roof and sla te ..
Killed b y fall of slate..........
H it by piece of rock...............
Crushed b y fall of rock...............
Injured b y premature explosioi of blast..
Killed by fall of roof........................, .............................
Killed b y fall of slab from roof....................................
Crushed by runaway m ine cars...................................
Killed by fall of top rock..................................... —
Killed b y fall of slate and coal..................................
Killed b y fall of slab of rock,, . . ..................................
Back broken b y fall of piece of slab............................
Head struck cross timber while riding car up slope
Attempted to board moving mine car; back brokei
Neck broken b y fall of roof coal. , „ , . ........................
Neck broken b y fall of roof rock..................................
Fell between cars........................................................
Caught by fall of roof; internalinjuries.....................
Struck b y piece of coal which fell from car...............
Ankle bruised and laceiated b y fall of coal..............
Killed b y fall of top rock...............................................
Ignition of gas and oiljourned R iin over b y lorry car; crushed.............................................
Skull fractured b y fall of bricks.............................................
Fellow employee set fire to clothes; fatally burned..........
Injured b y explosion of cupola..................... „.......................
Fell down elevator shaft; skull fractured............................
Cut hand on wire fencing; blood poisoning resulted.........
Trestle fell on h im ...................................................................
Caught b y fall of slate; internal and other injuries...........
FelHrom scaffold........ .............................................................
Killed by fall of coal................................................................
Fell from slate cars on w ay home............................ .............
Suffocated by powder fumes within tunnel........................
Drawn into machine; head crushed and other fractures..
2 Not reported; in weaving department.

1
8
"i

2
1
1
1
1

A P P E N D IX .

20
2
21
2
22
2

0)

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
S.
S.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

VANIA—Concluded.

158

T a b le 5.—AGE, MARITAL CONDITION, WAGES, AND OCCUPATION OF INJURED WAGE EARNERS AND NATURE OF ACCIDENTS—PENNSYL­

DECEDENTS WITH NO DEPENDENTS.

Age.

Marital
condi­
tion.

W
.
W.
W.
S.
S.

s.
s.
s.
s.

Industry.

$24.00 B uilding..............................
24.20 ........do...................................
15.00 Coal m ining........................
11.50 ........do...................................
Building..............................
Coal mining........................
7.50 ........do...................................
11.40 Chemical manufacturing.
15.00 Coal mining........................
Department store............:
10.50 Steel.....................................
Coal mining........................
29.40 ........d o...................................
7.50
..d o ..................................
..d o ..................................
10.00

(x
)
12.00

11.00
C
1
)

Occupation.

Rigger...................
Carpenter.............
Loader..................
Laborer................
....... do....................
Miner....................
Miner’s laborer...
Laborer................
....... d o ....................
Window cleaner..
Lever man...........
Laborer.................
Miner....................
Door man.............
Miner....................

Nature of accident.

Days be­
tween
accident
and death.

Fell while erecting derrick..............................................
Fell from scaffold..............................................................
K illed by fall of coal......................................................
Crushed between rib and derailed car.........................
Fell 40 feet when board broke.......................................
Killed by fall of roof slate...............................................
Burned by explosion of gas............................................
Fell through loose boards over well; drowned..........
A ttempted to get off moving cage; instantly k illed .
Fell from third-story window ........................................
Struck on head by lever when machine broke.
K illed by fall of rock...................... .
K illed by explosion of blast..........
Crushed by runaway em pty cars.
K illed by fall of slate......................

LAWS: EFFECT

238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252

Weekly
wage.

COMPENSATION

Serial
No.

O
N

CASES NOT VISITED.




10.00

(x)
0)
0)

1 1 .1 0

12.90
0)

15.00
12.90
12.90
(l)
15.00
0)
12.90
12.00
0)

Concrete construction...................
Coal mining.....................................
. . . l . d o ...............................................
........d o ..........................................
........d o ...............................................
Railroad, steam..............................
Coal mining.....................................
........d o................................................
........d o ...............................................
........d o ..............................................
........do................................................
........d o , . . .
.
.................
........do................................................
........d o................................................
........do................................................
Fire clay mining. .
.................
Chemical manufacturing.............

Laborer..............................................
Miner....................................................
. . . .d o ..................................................
Laborer..............................................
Miner...................................................
Laborer................................................
Miner’s laborer...................................
Contract miner...................................
Miner. . . .
........
...............
Contract laborer...............................
. . . .d o ...................................................
Contract miner.
Miner...................................................
........do...................................................
Miner’s laborer...................................
Head shooter.......................................
Superintendent..................................

Heart failure from overexertion...............................................
Crushed by falling coal...............................................................
Struck by flying coal from blast; bruised and lacerated...
Squeezed against car by slide of coal.....................................
Crushed by rush of coal.............................................................
Crushed under runaway mine cars.........................................
Killed by fall of coal from roof.................................................
Crushed by fall of roof rock........................................................
Killed by piece of failing rib......................................................
Crushed by fall of top coal.........................................................
Crushed b y fall of coal................................................................
Caught under falling rock he was pulling down...................
Killed by fall of slate............... ..................................................
K illed by fall of rock...................................................................
Crushed by fall of slab................................................................
Killed by premature explosion of blast..................................
Ignition of gas and oil; burris and shock................................

14

LABOB.

53
32
37
47
47
28

$13.50

CHILD

22

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

AND

267
268

32
60
26
40
38
39
36
33
34
43

WOMAN

253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264

2141°— 18— Bull. 217-

38
25
45
35
40
28
24
23
55
0)

35
32
38
26
36
34
26
43
37
54
40
24
22

27
19
27
24
22

26
22

30
24
22
20
21

21.54
20.52
10.50
15.00
(*)
18.00
14.25
C
1)
0)
0)
C
1)
21.60
17.76
0)
14.00
18.12
32.46
0)
15.00
(x)
7.26
(0 .
0)
16.14
(l)
0)
0)
13.50
11.70
17.04
13.50
(0

9.12
C
1)
(x)

Railroad shops...............................
Steel.................................................
........do...............................................
Coal mining....................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
Sheet and tin plate........................
Coal mining.....................................
........do...............................................
........do..............
........d o.................................
Building___•..................................
Coal mining....................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................
........do...............................................

........d o ...............................................

Piecework inspector..
Motor inspector..........
Laborer, foundry.......
Miner............................
Runner.........................
Motorman....................
Laborer........................
Loader..........................
Contract laborer.........
Miner...........................
Laborer........................
Pipe fitter....................
Miner............................
Runner and d river...
Contract miner...........
Miner............................
....... do...........................
....... do...........................
Tin roofer.....................
Laborer........................
Picker in breaker.......
Laborer........................
Miner’s laborer............
Miner............................
Laborer...................
Miner............................
Laborer........................
Miner’s laborer...........
Laborer........................
Scrapper.......................
Miner............................
Laborer........................
Driver...........................
Runner.........................
Laborer........................

Crushed between car couplings..........................................
Electrocuted by leaning against wires..............................
Splashed by molten iron; burns, causing intestinal ulcer.
Killed by fall of coal from roof............................................
Crushed by falling under cars when boarding them ___
Run over by em pty cars......................................................
Caught under car which jumped track.............................
Crushed between moving car and rib...............................
Crushed by fall of top coal................................................... .....................
Notreported...................................................................................
C
1)
Burned by explosion of gas.....................................................
Caught between crane and column; internal injuries.......
Crushed by fall of roof...............................................................
Heart failure; found unconscious; died in few m in u tes..
Ribs fractured and lung punctured; cause not reported.
Head crushed by b last.............................................................
Smothered under rush of coal.................................................
Struck by piece of top coal; internal and other injuries___
Contact w ith metal collar; burns and internal injuries___
Skull crushed; cause not reported.....................................
Leg crushed in breaker rolls................................................
Struck by fall of sla te.............................. *
............................
Crushed by rush of coal........................................................
Struck by rock from blast; hemorrhage of brain...........
Not reported............................................................................
Killed by premature explosion of blast............................
Crushed; cause not rep orted................................................
Electrocuted by grasping electric wire to prevent fa ll..
Thrown off track; skull fractured.....................................
Crushed between cars while coupling them ....................
Spine injured by fall of slate.....................................................
40
Skull fractured by fall................................................................
2
Run over by mine car...........................................................
Crushed by mine car.............................................................
Skull fractured by fall of top coal.......................................

1
2
2

1 Not reported.

159




M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
W.
W.
S.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.
s.

A PPEN D IX .

270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304

160

COMPENSATION' L A W S: EFFEC T 0 N W OM AN A N D C H ILD LABOR.

The table showing conditions before and after the accident is made
out for the most part on the same plan and with the same definitions
and restrictions as the tables for the other two States, b u t the differ­
ence in the law relating to accidents necessitated a few changes. In
Connecticut and Ohio an allowance is made for medical, hospital, and
funeral expenses, so the column headed “ Expenses due to accident”
contained, unless otherwise noted, only the amounts by which these
expenses exceeded the allowance. In Pennsylvania, where no such
allowance is made, this column contains all such charges in full,
unless otherwise noted. I t will be observed th a t in a number of
cases hospital expenses are excluded as “ not paid by family.” This
wording was adopted because of uncertainty as to who really paid
them. Some of the companies deducted a certain amount monthly
from each employee’s wages, using these deductions to form a fund
for medical treatment, when needed, or to m aintain beds in a hos­
pital, as well as to pay for a doctor's services. Sometimes the employ­
ing company duplicated the amount thus raised from the employees;
sometimes they added to it whatever was needed to meet the year’s
medical expenses; sometimes they contributed nothing at all.
Whether or not the company paid in anything to this fund it did not
seem fair in such cases to count the hospital and medical expenses as
havingbeen paid by the company, inasmuch as the deceased might have
been contributing to the fund for years and might have paid in more
than the amount of the hospital bill. Sometimes the company had
no such arrangement and the injured man had been sent to a hospital
as a town or a county case. The family seldom knew w hat the arrange­
ment had been; they were sure they had not paid any hospital
charges, but beyond th at they were hazy. Wherever the employer
is known to have paid such chargos, the fact has been entered, but
in the other oases no attem pt has been made to find who bore this
special part of the loss involved.
The lack of any uniform compensation system rendered it neces­
sary to change the headings of the columns showing the amounts
received by the victim’s dependents. In some cases the family was
permitted to live, rent free, in the company house they had been
occupying before the accident, in some coal was given them, and in
some the employer voluntarily made some kind of a money settle­
ment, ranging from a payment of $50, supposed to be used for funeral
expenses, up to liberal damages. Any amount paid by the employer
has been entered in the last column, even though it was paid directly
to the undertaker, since it was sometimes difficult to learn whether
or not the amount was applied to the cost of the funeral. In some
instances the employer was giving aid in the form of a monthly pay­
ment, but had either given no indication of how long this would be




APPENDIX.

161

continued or had placed some rather indefinite limit. Since it was
impossible, under such circumstances, to state the amount he would
pay, these cases have been noted and the situation explained in the
comments.
Table 6 shows for the 166 families visited, the family membership
and condition before and after the fatality, with details as to the
number of wage earners and dependents, expenses due to accident,
insurance or death benefits, and money or other aid received from
employers;




MARRIED MEN.

Fam ily membership.
Serial
No.

2

1
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
2
2

2
3
1
1
2
1
4
2
2
3
5
2
1
5
1
2
1
4
3
2
5
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
4

$12.72 $2.00
C
1)
C
1)
18.00
15.00
12.00
5.70
23.10
$28.91
15.24 *9.75
15.00
7.50
20.00
5.00
9.00
8.00
13.50 21.50
25.00
5.00
20.00
11.40 27.00
11.10
11.34 *’4.'50*
12. 60
.69
15.24 ’36.O8*
20.00 11.17
15.00
6.00
11.40 19.00
18. 63 10.00
18.00
20.00
15.00
3.50
15.00
5.00
17.50
13.00
16.14
9.72
11.76
5.00
14.28 14.50

$14.72
0)
18.00
15.00
17. 70
52.01
24.99
22.50
25.00
17.00
35.00
30.00
20.00
38.40
11.10
15.84
13.29
45.32
31.17
21.00
30.40
28.63
18.00
20.00
18.50
20.00
17.50
13.00
25.86
16. 76
28.78

9

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6

6

4

2
2

7
6
7
6

1
1
1

4

6
6
5
1

1

1
2
3

1
1
1
1

2
1
2
4

4

6
2
6
4
6
2
3
2
2
5
5
4
4
5

5
2
1
2

2
2

2
1

4

1
1

2
3
2

3
2
1

2

4
3

1

$7.40
8.00
4.00
5,00
12.00

$28.91

11.00
11.50
5.00
8.00
21.50
15.74
26.00
1.50
4.50
30.08
12.75
6.00
19.00
16.00
3.00

2.77
.69
1.85

3.69

$7.40
8.00
4.00
5.00
12.00
28.91
11.00
11.50
5.00
8.00
21.50
15.74
26.00
4.27
4.50
.69
31.93
12. 75
6.00
19.00
16.00
3.00
3.69

1

1

8.00

8.00

2

1
.40
2 3 11. 40
1
9.50
3
15.00

.40
22.48
9.50
15.00

2

2

11.08

$105 $1,000
63
2 158
75
125
500
190
200
2 300
250
150
1,260
256
500
300
1,204
2 237
1,000
223*
2144 1,200
2 115
450 Y es.
240
1,000
144
300
2 123
900 Yes.
200
0)
218
600
170 6,300
190
152
200
1,050
100
400 Yes.
100
100
100
90
226
200
500
2 225
290
204
350
1,000
137
1,100

C
)

1,100

‘i ’io "
o

20
0

10
0

Money.

$2,085
100

135

"i"6 6
6
400
50
400
87

2
0
300
350

20
0
20
0

20
0
20
0
20
0

LABOE.




1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1

Coal.

CHILD

2
5
5
4
4
5
5
2
1
2

1
1
1

1

E x­
penses Insur­
Num­
due to ance or
acci­ benefit. Use of
De­ ber of Paid
wage
dent.
house.
pend­ earn­ in by
mem­ Other. Total
ents
income.
18 and ers. bers of
family.
over.

AND

2

4
7
6
6
6
4
6
6
5
1
4
6
2
6
4
G
2
3
2

N um ­
Wife ber of
Paid
Num­ Chil­ Chil­
and de­ wage Dece­ in by
dren
pend­ earn­ dent's other Other. Total ber of dren 14 and
in­
ents
ers. earn­ mem­
per­
come. sons. under under
ings.
18 and
14.
bers.
18.
over.

Weekly income of family.

WOMAN

6

Family membership.

O
N

10
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

W eekly income of family.

LAWS: EFFECT

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Num­ Chil­ Chil­
ber of dren dren
per­ under 14 and
under
sons.
14.
18.

Employer gave—

Family condition after accident.

COMPENSATION

Fam ily condition before accident.

162

T a b le 6 .—CONDITION, BEFORE AND AFTER ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 166 WAGE EARNERS KILLED BY INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS—PENNSYLVANIA.

12.00
17.50
18.00

7.75
9.00
10.50

11.10

21.00
15.00
17.10
18.46
15.00
15.00
13.80
18.00
9.50
22.50
17.50
18.84
8.25
16.00

13.90
7.31
5.00
2.31
7.84
11.54
7.62

21.00

16.00
12.90
17.00
18,75
14.00
14.00
23.54
20.00
10.00
13.50
15.00
19.80
19.92
15.00
20.00
13.08
14.40
34.62
20.40
23.00
12.90
15.00
10.00
13.00
19.62
25.38
17.00
13.20
10.50

6
6
67
6
8

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79

1.62
3.46
6.92
1.38
12.69

Too'
7.50
.54
3.46
7.50

4.25

1.15

3.50
io.73

8 One wage-earner only; other had not received first pay.




6
6
6
5
5
6
6
4
5
6
4
5
6
6
5
5
6
5
6
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
5
4
4
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3

3
1
3
2
1
5
4
3
4
5
3
4
5
5
3
4
5
4
5
4
4
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
4

2

1
2
1
1
2

4.25
14.00
10.50
14.00
14.30

4.25
14.00
10.50
14.00
14.30

1

1

18.90

7.31
10.50

18.90
7.31
10.50

2.31
1.96

2.31
1.96

16.15
1.85
2.54
3.46

20.75
3.85
2.54
(0

1.62
1.62
6.12
3.46
8.00
6.92
1.96

1.62
1.25
1.62
6.12
3.46
8.00
11.92
1.96
6.00

1.62
.69

i i 69
1.62
1.84

2.62

10.00
.75
16.62

2
2

1

1

1
1
1

1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2

(1)
1.25

1

1

5.00

1

6.00

1

2
3
3
3
1
3
1
1
1
2

4.60
2.00

12.69

1
1
1
1

1
1
2

1.15
10.00
.75
14.00

1
1
1
1
1
1

1

3.69
12.30

1

’ **4.62*
3.30
1.15

2

8.50

4.61
10.73

3.69
12.30
4.62
4.45
13.11
10.73

1
6.00
6.00
7.00
1
7.00
< Paid by employer; amount not reported.

100
350
2 165
120
275
220
(4)
200
150
130
110

275
1,000
1,559
880
1,200

Y e s ...

100
300
60

Yes

90
500

Y e s ... Y e s ...

550

1,000
50

100

160
175
300
143
85
115
100

20
0

2 100

107
350
150
95
175
155
180

C
1
)
20
0
10
2

169
250
265
155

20
1

256
285
244

20
0

108
165
225
139
216
150

20
0
188

200
1,027
1,050
500
Yes

50

1,000
275
360
141
90
400
388
175
133
400
3,000
100
200
50
600
350
180
12,600
1,250
1,350
100
1,125
225

195

200
Y e s ... Y e s ...
Y e s ...

1,540
5 50

A ton .
400

1,825
256
2,000
1,485
Y e s ...

100
100
500
200
159

6 For funeral; for additional amounts see “Remarks” at end of this table.

550
300

i,300

163

1 Not reported.
2 Exclusive of hospital expenses, paid by employer,

19.75
26.50
28.50
11.10
34.90
15.00
17.10
25.77
20.00
15.00
13.80
20.31
17.34
22.50
29.04
18.84
15.87
16.00
21.00
16.00
12.90
18.62
18.75
17.46
14.00
30.46
21.3#
10.00
13.50
27.69
19.80
27.61
15.00
27.50
13.08
14.94
38.08
27.90
23.00
12.90
15.00
15.40
13.00
23.12
36.11
17.00
13.20
10.50

APPENDIX.

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

164

T able 6 .—CONDITION, B E FO R E A N D A FT E R ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 166 W AGE E A R N E R S K ILLED B Y IN D U ST R IA L ACCIDENTS—
PE N N SYLVANIA—Continued.

MARRIED MEN—Concluded.
Family condition after accident.

Employer gave—

Fam ily membership.
Serial
No.

1

1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

4.00
2.31
5.50

*4.’50*
5.00
10.00

10.00

1.50

$4.62 127.62
14.25
.92 11.92
21.00
9.00
24.00
12.50
24.00 41.50
8.31
16.25
18.00
8.00
3.23 18.23
15.24
” 4*62* 24.12
15.00
28.00
17.82
36.72
12.00
15.00
15.00
25.00
16.20
15.00
13.50
3.14 18.14
8.00 22.64
23.00
(3
)
(3
)

3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2
2
2
1

1
1

$5.00
8.38

1

1

3.50

1

5.85

1
1

$7.77
8.38
3.50

5.00
5.50

1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1

$2.77

12.00

17.85
5.00
5.50

8.09

1

2

1
1

4.62
2.08
13.00
9.00

2.72

9.00

4.62
2.08
4.00
9.00

1

8.09

2.72
10.00
9.00

1
1

.

2
2
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

10.00
9.00

1
1
1
1

1.38
1.00
2.50
2.50

2.31
8.00

1.38
3.31
10.50
2.50

i $233
189
190
200
177
200
250
200
220
250
75

20
0

185
300
218

11
2
20
0

300
300
275

20
0
150
275
148
180

(4
)
165

130
195

(3
)

$983
2 60

$324
150
300
877

Yes

500
450
25
224
350
75
1,100
100
1,000
470
335
2,000
100
1,100
100
195
100
100
800
100
(3)

Y e s ...

Y e s ...

50
2200
500
200
800
125
150
50
2 300
3,100
200
300
4,008

Yes

,
Y e s ...

250
100
130

LABOR.

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

$5.00

CHILD

1

2 $18.00
1 14.25
1 11.00
1 21.00
1 9.00
1 24.00
1 12.50
2 13.50
2 6.00
1 16.25
2 12.50
1 8.00
1 15.00
1 15.24
2 15.00
2 10.00
3 18.00
1 17.82
1 36. 72
1 12.00
1 15.00
1 15.00
2 15.00
1 16.20
1 15.00
1 13.50
1 15.00
2 13.14
1 23.00
1
( :)

AND

2
2
2
2
2
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

WOMAN




1
2
2
2
2
2
1

Money.

O
N

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Coal.

LAWS I EFFECT

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

Chil­
Num­ Chil­ dren
ber of dren 14 and
per­ under under
sons.
14.
18.

W eekly income of family.
Family membership.
Weekly income of family. E x­
penses Insur­
Num­
Num­
due to ance or
Wife ber of
ber of Paid
acci­ benefit. U se of
De­ wage
and de­ wage Dece­ Paid
Num­ Chil­ Chil­
dent.
house.
in by
Total ber of dren dren pend­ earn­ in by
pend­ earn­ dent’s
Total
mem­
ents
in ­
other
ents
ers. earn­ mem­ Other. come. per­ under 14 and 18 and ers. bers of Other. income.
under
18 and
ings.
14.
sons.
family.
over.
bers.
18.
over.

COMPENSATION

Fam ily condition before accident.

10
1
11
1
12
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

113
114
115
116
117
118
119

10
2
11
2
12
2
123

18.48
15.48
15. 00
13.86
22.50
20.00
19.00
10.00
13.00
12.49
25.00
15.00
20.00
20.77

.
.

6.46

.
,
,
,
.
.

20.00

18.48
15.48
15.00
20.32
22.50
20.00
19.00
10.00
13.00
12.49
25.00
15.00
20.00
40.77

Y e s ...[

1

2
1
1
1
1
2
1

1.50

6.00

20.00

2
1
1
1
1
1

20.00

135
178
1276
1500
409
185
(3)
114
250
1138
1300
200
140
325

$16.20
18.00
15.00
14.08
15.00
(3)
10.00
13.98
(3
)
8.62
10.04
16.00
14.39
9.00

$300
200
75
150
1200
184
50
200
300
140
200
U20
280
256

$1,000

13.46

$20.23

3.81

21.71
36.80
3.81

$150
177
1300
200
113
200
140

(3)
$245
250
173
1,050
200

.38

1

i

5.00
3.00

i

l

.38
6.46
*’ *3.69*
1.15

l

4.50

i

4.00

i

11.46
3.00
3.69
1.15

4.00

148
1,500
503
1,000
1,656
100
169
1,100
756
260
500
400

MEN WHOSE WIDOWS REMARRIED.
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

1 $24.00
1 16.14
1 13.00
2 13.00 $5.1
1 16.98 .
1 16.20 .
1 8.00
1 9.50
1 14.40
1 15.24
1 14. 50
1 22.50
1 10.56
1 15.00 .

$24.00
16.14
13.00
18.08
16.98
16.20
8.00
13.19
2.50 16.90
15.24
h i 15.54
'O
22.50
10.56
1.38 16.38

8
6
6
5
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
8
2

6
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
5

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

$16.20
18.00
15.00
14.08
15.00
(3)
10.00
13.98
(3)
7.00
9.00
16.00
14.39
9.00

$12.50
1.62
1.04

1,800

10
0

1,275
240

Y es.

850
1,050
1,000
141

WIDOWED AND DIVORCED MEN.
$18.00 $17.54 • $3.46 $39.00
22.50
10.00 12.50
29.18
13.68 15.50
51.80
15.00 36.80
2.08 20.58
18.50
15.00
15.00
17.50
17.50

138
139
140
141
142
143
144

1 Exclusive of hospital expenses, paid by employer.
2 For funeral; for additional amounts see “ Remarks” at end of this table.
8 N ot reported.




$16.77
8.00
21.71
36.80

8.00

4 Paid by employer, amount not reported.
&Deceased was highly paid office man, salary not reported.

166

T able 6 .-C 0 N D I T I 0 N , B EFO R E A N D A FT E R ACCIDENT, OF FAMILIES OF 166 WAGE E A R N E R S KILLED B Y IN D U ST R IA L ACCIDENTS—
PENNSYLVANIA—Concluded.

SINGLE MEN.

Serial
No.

145

2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2

1
2

2

«i
2
2
2
2
2
2

$25.00
146 32.00
30.50
23.85
$1.85
5.00
46.24
22.50
33. 72
34.06
37.59
16.60
3.00
29.50
26.62
7.00
31.50
25.70
18.00
2.25
29.63
31.84
15.18
8.77
8.00
10.50
25.62




6
5
3
7
3
5
1
4
2
3
1
2
1
2

2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2

1

2
1
1
1

1

2
3
5
1
3
2
4
3
5
2
4
4
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

$14.00
24.25
24.00
10.00 "$i.*85
29.00
5.00
11.08
26.46
23.00
29.34
14.50
18.00 *3.66’
7.00
33.50
12.50 ” 4.'6i’
13.00
18.00 "2.’25’
19.00
6.00
4.00 " 2 . 77 *
3.46
13.62

$14.00
24.25
24.00
11.85
34.00
11.08
26.46
23.00
29.34
14.50
21.00
7.00
33.50
17.11
13.00
20.25
19.00
6.00
6. 77
3.46

$150
300
139
158
130
255
500
400
175
150
2 135
2 287
170
250
188
100
239
(3)
200
2 370

13.62

200

10
0

$252
550
135
50
250

$150
150
150
565
150
400

267
1,000
400
300
1,000
175
390
75
250
1,000

10
0

3 Not reported.
4 For funeral; for additional amounts see * Remarks ” at end of this table.

300
350

20
0
300

4 370
50

LABOB.

1 Deceased was nephew of head of family.
2 Exclusive of hospital expenses, paid by employer.

11
9
10
9
9
8
8
8
8
7
6
6
5
5
5
4
3
3
2
1
1
1

CHILD

1
1
1

1

3 $11.00 $14.00
4
12.50
19.50
6
20.50
10.00
2
10.00
12.00
4
12.24
29.00
2
10.00
12.50
5
7.26
26.46
3
25.00
9.06
5
25.09
12.50
2
11.00
5.60
6
7.00
19.50
1
19.62
4
31.50
3 *i4.20* 11.50
2
5.00
13.00
2
10.38
17.00
3
12.84
19.00
2
4.50
10.68
1
6.00
2.77
1
8.00
1
10.50
2
13.62
12.00

Mon­
ey.

AND

1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Paid
in by
Total
mem­ Other.
in­
bers of
come.
family.

In­
sur­
ance
Use
or
bene­
of
Coal.
house.
fit.

WOMAN

6
5
3
6
3
5
1
4
2
3
1
2

14
and
un­
der
18.

E x­
pen­
ses
due
to
acci­
dent.

O
N

147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166

12
11
11
10
10
9
9
9
9
8
7
7
6
6
6
5
4
4
3
2
2
2

14
and
un­
der
18.

Num­
ber
of
Paid in by—
De­
Num­
pend­ wage
Total ber Un­
Par­ ents earn­
der
of
Other. in­
ers.
18
ents.
come. per­ 14.
Dece­ Other
and
sons.
dent. mem­
over.
bers.

Num­
ber
of
De­
pend­ wage
Par­ ents earn­
ers.
ents. 18
and
over.

LAWS: EFFECT

Num­
ber Un­
of
der
per­ 14.
sons.

W eekly income of
family.

Family membership.

W eekly income of family.

COMPENSATION

Family membership.

Employer gave—

Fam ily condition after accident.

Fam ily condition before accident.

[The remarks opposite each serial number apply to the family represented by the corresponding serial number in appendix Tables 5 and 6.]
Remarks.

1
2

3
4
5

6
7

8

9
10

APPENDIX.

Widow’s brother now supports the family, but he is to be married soon.

Employer settled for $200; lawyer’s fee $100. Widow does 1 washing weekly. Rent and groceries provided by charitable societies. Fellow workmen collected $30 for family.
Own home, about to be sold for debt. Son, 14, has just left school and gone to work. Daughter, 16, in ill health. Three boarders since accident.
Live w ith widow’s parents, as before. Widow assists brother in small store; profits not over $5 a week. Father, an invalid. Suit brought against employer.
Own home, worth $1,800. Deceased carried $1,000 additional insurance, payment of which is being contested. Expect to get about $500 of it.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Receive $4 a month poor relief. Boy, 14, working before accident, now temporarily disabled by broken shoulder.
Own home.
Live with widow’s parents. Employer paid $7.50 weekly for 8 weeks, but stopped when widow brought suit. Posthumous child born 3 months after accident.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Son, 21, idle at time of accident, now h,as work* Widow, an invalid. Daughter, 18, at home caring for her. Counsel engaged to sue for damages.
Own home; made final payment ($300) from insurance. Boy, 14, kept at home to help widow, who is lame.
Insurance includes $500 held in trust for children. Posthumous child born 4 months after accident.
Son, 17, in Europe at tim e of accident, now supporting family. Outsiders have given some supplies.
Own home, mortgaged, and another house; latter rented, as before accident. Widow’s father, member of family before, now living elsewhere. One boarder, as before.
Family miserably poor. Relatives help occasionally w ith supplies. Two boarders, instead of 1, as before. Had paid $200 on $1,400 house. Widow in poor health.
Two months after accident employer began paying $15 a month, to continue till children are grown. N o other income. Posthumous child born 2 months after accident.
No income. Town gives groceries, and relatives and others help. Youngest child has died since accident.
Widow owns house, mortgaged, and rents it. No other income. Poor relief $5 a month. Relatives help a little. Posthumous child expected.
In great need. $5 a month from poor relief. One boarder, instead of 3, as before. Posthumous child born 3 months after accident.




167

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Have bought home w ith insurance. Son, 14, has left school and gone to work. Employer paid $60 for funeral; $2,025 invested and paid to widow at rate of $40 per month.
Family very poor. Fraternal organization paid funeral expenses.
Widow did washing and scrubbing for a time; now relative has set her up in a small store. Friends of deceased collected $265. Suit brought against employer.
Employer paid $75 down and $60 in monthly payments. Boy, 15, left school to work after accident. Widow has interest in house, which is mortgaged.
Widow working in silk mills. Lives with her mother, paying no rent. Receives $4 a month poor relief. Posthumous child, born 2 months after accident.
Own home worth $1,600; have cow and sell milk. Have boarders, as before; daughter, 14, kept at home to help w ith work. Savings, $200, all used.
Own home, worth $750; all paid but $50. Insurance includes $30 a month for 1 year from deceased’s union; also $450 in trust for children.
Own home, mortgaged. Son, 13, has left school and gone to work. Savings, $100, all used. Insurance includes $33.37 each month for 1 year from union.
Own home, mortgaged. Insurance includes $34 for 6 months from union.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Receives $6 a month poor relief. Counsel engaged to bring suit against employer. Employer’s offer of between $2,000 and $3,000 refused by
lawyer.
Son, 16, given work by employer of deceased; son, 14, has left school and taken job in glass factory vacated by 16-year-old boy.
Live in 2 rooms, rent free. Widow does a little washing, irregularly.
Own home, worth $1,000; $288 savings all used, but $1,400 received has been put in bank.
Have 3 roomers since accident. Widow does a little washing. Receives $6 a month poor relief.
$600 of,insurance in trust for children; widow can not use it. City gives groceries once a month.
Employer gave $2 weekly for 10 weeks. Widow washes for neighbors in return for groceries. Has roomer, as before.
Insurance was $300; in addition, benefit from union of $5 weekly for unspecified period. Widow has store, as before accident. Has lodgers now.
Own home, worth $1,800. Employer sells them coal at price charged employees.
Insurance was $5,000 in lum p sum and $25 a week for 1 year.
Own home, worth $1,200. Have $1,000 in bank.
W idow, who formerly made $3 a week sewing, now sews only occasionally. Daughters, 17 and 15, have left school and gone to work.
Widow receives $10 m onthly as mother’s pension. Daughter, 13, has left school and does odd jobs of housework.
Employer offered $150 damages, which widow refused. Two roomers since accident. Twice received groceries from county poor fund.
Receives $6.50 a month poor relief. Neighbors also help. Daughter, 17, formerly contributing, has married and left home.
Receives $5 worth of groceries monthly from poor relief. Son, 17, who had irregular work before, now earning more.

66

CHILD
LABOR.




AND

86
87

WOMAN

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

O
N

f>7
68

EFFECT

59
60
61
62
63
64
65

LAWS:

55
56
57
58

Neighbors have helped. Posthumous child bom 1 month after accident.
#
Own home; mortgage paid from insurance. Have 7 boarders instead of 5, as before. Son, 14, has left school and gone to work. Insurance includes $500 in trust for children.
Had paid $850 on $1,600 house at tim e of accident. Rent part of house. Daughter, 12, has left school and gone to work as domestic.
Fam ily very poor. Two boarders Instead of 6, as before. Employer gives rent and $20 a m onth. N ot known how long this w ill continue. Posthumous child.
Own home; rented since accident. Widow lives w ith mother. Has just begun work in mill. $6 a month poor relief. Insurance contested; no payment yet.
Own home; rent part. Since accident have sold horse for $150. Posthumous child bom 4 months after accident.
Were buying double house; rent half. The $360 benefit is paid at rate of $30 a month.
Moved to cheaper quarters; $6 a month poor relief and other help. Widow does washing, keeping daughter, 13, from school to care for younger children in her absence.
Own home, mortgaged; rent lower floor. Have drawn on $40 savings. Employer gave 2 tons of coal. Daughter, 17, is deaf mute.
Own home, worth $1,600; $300 to $400 still due. R ented, and family now lives in cellar. Miserable conditions; $5 a month poor relief. Posthumous child expected; widow*
has saved $50 for th is.
Home worth $1,100 partly bought. Deceased insured for $750, but claim contested and family has got nothing; $5 a month poor relief. Two boarders, as before accident.
Insurance of $388 includes 12 monthly payments of $24. Posthumous child. Two boarders since accident; $5 a month poor relief.
Left home, worth $4,500, w ith $2,300 mortgage, and $200 savings. Employer paid $100 down and $12 a month to continue till boy of 6 is 16. Posthumous child.
Own home, mortgaged. In desperate circumstances; $5amonthpoorrelief. Onelodger. Posthumous child. Employer gave $10 monthly and coal, but stopped when widow
brought suit, 8 months after accident.
Deceased left $50 savings, all used. Widow works as maid in department store, leaving baby in day nursery. Employer offered $150 in settlement; offer refused.
Widow worked, earning $8 a week for 6f months, stopping 1 week before birth of posthumous child. Employer offered $20; offer refused.
Daughter, 28, school teacher, is main support of family since accident.
Six dollars a month poor relief. One lodger, whose payments cover rent. One brother helps occasionally.
Employer paid $100 down and $25 a month for one year. Last payment December, 1915. Posthumous child. One lodger, as before.
Own home. Since accident have used up savings, $150. Have a cow and sell milk. Applying for poor relief.
Own home. Son, 18, supports family.
Live with w idow ’s parents, who practically support family; $5 a month poor relief. Widow does one washing each week.
Bought home worth $1,400 with compensation. Widow and one daughter are working at temporary job.
Own home, worth $3,000. In comfortable circumstances.
Own home, worth $3,500. Son, 16, working before accident, temporarily disabled now. Fam ily living on insurance.
Deceased had $1,300 savings. Widow has built house and rents part.
Daughter has married and her husband now supports the family.
Own home, worth $2,000; paid off $600 mortgage with insurance. One boarder since accident. Posthumous child expected. Daughter, 14, has left school to help mother.
Own home, worth $1,500, mortgaged. Two roomers, as before. For two months employer has paid $10 a month. N ot known if these payments w ill continue.
Widow and children now living w ith friends; $5 worth of groceries each month from poor relief. No other income.
One boarder since accident. Daughter, 24, formerly training to be a nurse, has come home and entered factory work.
Widow owns a house and deceased left another to son. Both rented.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Living on insurance, which now (8 months after accident) is nearly gone.
Fam ily now living with parents ofdeceased; paying only $5 a month. Widow has gone to work in factory.
Employer offered $350; offer refused, and counsel engaged. Widow has gone to work in factory. Relatives have given help.
Own home, worth $3,000. Have $800 savings. Widow has army pension.
Employer pays $25 monthly; w ill continue till $1,400 has been paid. Widow’s son by former marriage member of family since accident.
Own home, worth $110; paid off $50 mortgage with insurance; $5 a month poor relief. No roomers since accident.
Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow has gone to work in factory.
Now living with widow’s parents. Widow can not get work. Mother paid part of funeral bill; rest unpaid. Counsel engaged to bring suit against employer.
Employer offered as compensation funeral expenses, coal, and office position for widow. Offer accepted; widow now training for position. Receives $5 a month mother’s
pension.
Five dollars a month poor relief. W idow’s mother has come to live with her and widow expects to get work in factory.
Three boarders instead of 6, as before accident.

COMPENSATION

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

168

Remarks.

J.

88

120
121

Widow works as domestic part tim e in return for lodging for self and children. R elatives have given help. Son, 12, working before and after accident.
Widow keeps house for man and his children in return for lodging for self and children. Had cow, which she has sold for $40.
Have home, worth$l ,800; $1,250 stillow ing. Rent part o fit. Three boarders since accident. Daughter, 8, has died since accident.
Widow has died since accident; heavy hospital and funeral bills exhausted insurance. Children living w ith aunt and uncle, entirely dependent on them.
Widow’s brother and nephew board w ith her, as before accident. Daughter, 17, formerly employed, is now out of work.
Own home, mortgaged; rent lower floor since accident. Daughter, 20, has left home to secure better paying job.
Widow is lame. Sews at hom e, as before accident, but earns less than formerly. Now has a boarder.
E m ployeris paying $80.41 monthly for one year. Family lives with sister of deceased, as before, but pays less board.
Three roomers since accident; $3,000 from employer invested and is not being drawn upon.
W idow, over 70, in feeble health. Daughter, 40, at home caring for her. Widow’s other children support these tw o. Sister of deceased paid $275 funeral bill.
Employer paid funeral expenses. Widow liying mainly on credit. Daughter away sends a little help. Counsel engaged to sue for damages.
W idow’s mother, who isfeeble, lives w ith her, as before. One boarder since accident. There was a posthumous child, which died.
Own home, worth $1,400.
Living w ith parents of deceased, as before accident. Widow working as car cleaner. Funeral expenses met by savings. Posthumous child.
Employer gave $50 down and $10 m onthly for 1 year. Widow’s parents give home and food. Posthumous child.
Employer gave $100 and funeral expenses. Widow keeps house for family, receiving board and lodging for self, child, and sister, and also small v
Own 2 small houses, mortgaged and rented. Widow does a little sewing. $4.50 a month poor relief. Friends of deceased collected $33 for widow.
W idow does home work, knitting as before, but does more now. Married daughter and family board with her, as belore. Savings, $100, all used.
Moved to cheaper quarters. $5 a month poor relief. Widow works out as domestic.
Employer offered house rent free; offer refused. Widow owns home. Comfortably off; several thousand dollars insurance.
W idow does 1 washing every fortnight. Hopes to get work in mill. $200 savings all used. Fellow workmen took up collection of $30 for widow.
Employer paid hospital expenses. Offered $75 to settle claim; offer refused and counsel engaged to bring suit. Widow now living with parents.
W idow now living with parents.
Employer offered $1,700 m full settlement; offer refused. Widow owns home and 2 other houses, rented. Does dressmaking at home since accident.
Widow now lives with married daughter, but supports self. Does housework 2 days a week. $35 savings all used. Counsel engaged to bring suit.
Insurance includes $156 paid in 12 monthly installments. Widow gives use of furniture to married couple, who pay rent and give her lodging.
Employer is paying $12 a month for 1 year, on condition that widow does not remarry. Widow owns home. Has a border since accident.
Posthumous child. Widow earned $2 a week, washing, for seven months. Twice received groceries from poor relief. Now lives with parents.
W idow, aged 70, living on insurance. Has a married son but lives with strangers.
W idow does dressmaking at home. Has a roomer, paying one-half the rent.
W idow now boarding with married son.
W idow now boarding w ith mother. Has gone to work in a factory.
W idow now living with parents, who support her. Posthumous child.
Employer offered $300 in full settlement; offer refused and counsel engaged to settle. Four boarders, as before, but widow obliged to use savings ($400).
W idow remarried 6 months after accident. Deceased owned house, mortgaged. Widow received $8 a month poor relief until remarriage.
W idow remarried 3 months after accident. Received $5 a month poor relief until remarriage. Had no other income.
Widow remarried 6 months after accident. $1,100 insurance held m trust ior children and not available for living expenses.
W idow remarried 4 months after accident. Son, 24, supported iamily until then. Received one order of groceries from poor relief.
Widow remarried 6 months after accident. $500 insurance held in trust for children. Fam ily lives in one room of company house.
Widow remarried 7 months after accident. Previously moved to cheaper quarters and went to work, but could not arrange for care of children.
Widow remarried 4 months after accident. In interval family lived on what neighbors gave and on irregular earnings as berry pickers. Neighbors paid funeral expenses.
Widow remarried 3 months after accident. Had two lodgers before accident, who left immediately after. Lived on insurance in interim.
W idow remarried 4 months after accident. $500 insurance in trust for children. One border before accident, 5 afterwards.
Widow remarried 7 months after accident. $4 a month poor relief and help from relatives, until remarried. Son, 12, ran wild after father’s death; now in reform school.
Widow remarried 9 months after accident. Posthumous child. $500 of insurance in trust for children. Widow owns little shack; rents part.
W idow remarried 8 months after accident. Supported by neighbors until then. Suit brought against employer.
Widow remarried 8 months after accident. Had been 2 or 3 months in hospital, at expense of $200. Present husband has 6 children.
Widow remarried 7 months after accident. Owned house, $300 still owing; rented part, before and after accident. Insurance includes benefit of $13 a month for 7 months.




169

122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

Deceased and son klled in same accident. Employer paid $200, half held in trust forrent and half paid to boy’s sister, living elsewhere. Widow receives $5 a month poor
relief.

Moved to cheaper quarters. Widow has gone to work in mill.

APPENDIX.

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119

O
N
WOMAN
AND
CHILD
LABOR.




O

EFFECT

157 Deceased did not live regularly at home; could be depended on to contribute if needed. Parents drew on savings for funeral.
158 Father not well; unable to work. H ave a boarder since accident. Employer offered $150 in settlement; offer refused.
159 Own. home. Deceased was always willing to contribute as needed in addition to board.
160 Three boarders, as before accident.
161 Sister keeps house for brothers, as before accident.
162 Father has not worked for years. Brother of 20 now sole support.
163 Deceased boarded with grandmother and uncle who works irregularly. Grandmother has pension.
164 Mother, 81, owns home, worth $1,500; rents upstairs. Employer is paying $30 a month, to continue as long as mother lives.
165 Mother now supported by married son, whose family she entered after accident.
166 Deceased and father worked for same employer, who gave father a better job after accident. Father boards, as he and deceased did before.

LAWS:

145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156

Own home and another house, latter rented. Daughter, 18, keeps house, as before accident. Counsel engaged to settle w ith employer.
Deceased and 2 young sons lived with married daughter’s family, which now supports the boys. In consequence, family must move to cheaper quarters.
Deceased and 2 sons lived w ith married daughter; sons still there. Son, 17, went to work after accident. E mployer offered $500. Offer refused and counsel engaged to settle.
Sons and daughters, all grown, employed as before accident. One son has married: his wife keeps the house. Comfortably off.
Own home and another house, latter rented before accident and both since. Children now living w ith relatives in another city.
Deceased supported daughter, 13, living with him, and contributed to support of son, lfi, living elsewhere. Son now self-supporting; daughter boards w ith strangers.
Deceased and children boarded with his parents, who now care for children. Comfortably off. Counsel engaged to settle; employer to pay $1,500, but not received 7
months after accident.
Father has weak heart; has n ot been able to work for four years. Family very destitute.
Sister, 14, formerly in school, now working. Another sister, formerly contributing to family, had married.
The $150 from employer received 6 months after accident.
Father owns 2 sm all houses, mortgaged; rents 1. Employer offered $150 in settlement; offer refused and counsel engaged.
Fam ily finally accepted employer’s offer because in debt and feared delay and risk of a suit.
Fam ily very poor. Father’s work irregular. A sister, formerly in school, now earns $9 a month at housework.
Father owns home and has small savings. One brother mentally deficient. Counsel engaged to settle w ith employer.
Sister. 17, now goes out as a domestic.
Own nome. Sister, 14, now works in m ill. Counsel engaged to settle. Employer has offered $525.
Girl, 17, has gone to work in wholesale supply house.
Own home worth $4,500, mortgaged; rent one-half of it. Mother has given up work as washerwoman. Two of surviving wage earners are consumptive.
Own home worth $2,200. Wages of deceased were only income except $7 a week from 2 boarders. Father and 1 brother not well; unable to work. Very poor. Counsel

COMPENSATION

138
139
140
141
142
143
144

1 7 0

Remarks.

No.