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ECONOMIC REPORT
OF THE PRESIDENT

Transmitted to the Congress
January 1963

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ITHE
le^&WCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

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3H-1464 2M 7-70




Economic Report
of the President

Transmitted to the Congress
January 1963
TOGETHER WITH

THE ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1963







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
THE WHITE HOUSE

Washington, D.C., January21,1963
The Honorable the PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE,
The Honorable the, SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

SIRS: I am presenting herewith my Economic Report to the Congress
as required under the Employment Act of 1946.
In preparing this Report, I have had the advice and assistance of the
Council of Economic Advisers, who, in turn, have had the assistance of
members of the Cabinet and heads of independent agencies.
Together with this Report, I am transmitting the Annual Report of the
Council of Economic Advisers, which was prepared in accordance with
Section 4(c) (2) of the Employment Act of 1946.
Respectfully,

~

669333 O—63




b




CONTENTS
ECONOMIC REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT
Page

THE 1961-62 RECORD

x

THE OUTLOOK FOR 1963
TAX REDUCTION AND REFORM IN 1963

xn
xm

The Responsible Citizen and Tax Reduction
Taxes and Consumer Demand
Taxes and Investment
Impact on the Debt
Impact on Prices and the Balance of Payments
Impact on State and Local Governments
Tax Reduction and Future Fiscal Policy

xra
xv
xvi
xvm
xix
xxi
xxi

OTHER ECONOMIC MEASURES

Transportation
Financial Institutions and Financial Markets
Silver
Permanent Unemployment Compensation
Fair Labor Standards Act

xxn

.

POLICIES FOR FASTER GROWTH

Tax Revision
Civilian Technology
Education
Manpower Development
Conclusion

xxn
xxn
xxm
xxm
xxm
xxiv
xxrv
xxv
xxvi
XXVII

xxvm

A N N U A L R E P O R T OF T H E C O U N C I L OF ECONOMIC A D V I S E R S *
CHAPTER 1. THE ECONOMIC RECORD AND ITS CHALLENGE
CHAPTER 2. DOMESTIC ECONOMIC POLICY FOR THE MID-1 960'S. . . .
CHAPTER 3. FISCAL POLICY IN PERSPECTIVE
CHAPTER 4. THE UNITED STATES AND THE INTERNATIONAL
ECONOMY
APPENDIX A. REVIEW OF 1961-62 LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS TO STRENGTHEN THE ECONOMY
APPENDIX B. REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF THE
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS DURING 1962
APPENDIX C. STATISTICAL TABLES RELATING TO INCOME, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTION
* For a detailed table of contents of the Council's Report, see page 5.




9
37
66
91
131
153
165







ECONOMIC REPORT
OF THE PRESIDENT

vn




To the Congress of the United States:
In response to the requirements of the Employment Act of 1946, I report
to you
—that the "economic condition" of the United States in 1962 was one
of continued advances in "employment, production, and purchasing
power;"
—that the "foreseeable trends" in 1963 point to still further advances;
—that more vigorous expansion of our economy is imperative to gain
the heights of "maximum employment, production, and purchasing
power" specified in the Act and to close the gap that has persisted
since 1957 between the "levels . . . obtaining" and the "levels
needed" to carry out the policy of the Act;
—that the core of my 1963 "program for carrying out" the policy of
the Act is major tax reduction and revision, carefully timed and
structured to speed our progress toward full employment and faster
growth, while maintaining our recent record of price stability and
balance of payments improvement.
The state of the economy poses a perplexing challenge to the American
people. Expansion continued throughout 1962, raising total wages, profits,
consumption, and production to new heights. This belied the fears of
those who predicted that we were about to add another link to the ominous
chain of recessions which were more and more frequently interrupting our
economic expansions—in 1953-54 after 45 months of expansion, in 1957-58
after 35 months, in 1960-61 after 25 months. Indeed, 22 months of steady
recovery have already broken this melancholy sequence, and the prospects
are for further expansion in 1963.
Yet if the performance of our economy is high, the aspirations of the
American people are higher still—and rightly so. For all its advances the
Nation is still falling substantially short of its economic potential—a potential we must fullfill both to raise our standards of well-being at home and
to serve the cause of freedom abroad.
A balanced appraisal of our economy, then, necessarily couples pride in
our achievements with a sense of challenge to master the job as yet undone.
No nation, least of all ours, can rest easy
—when, in spite of a sizable drop in the unemployment rate (seasonally
adjusted) from 6.7 percent as 1961 began to 5.6 percent as 1962
ended, the unemployment rate has fallen below 5 percent in but 1
month in the past 5 years, and there are still 4 million people unemployed today;
—when, in spite of a gratifying recovery which raised gross national
product (GNP) from an annual rate of $501 billion as 1961 began




IX

to $562 billion as 1962 ended, $30-40 billion of usable productive
capacity lies idle for lack of sufficient markets and incentives;
—when, in spite of a recovery growth rate of 3.6 percent yearly from
1960 to 1962, our realized growth trend since 1955 has averaged only
2.7 percent annually as against Western European growth rates of 4,
5, and 6 percent and our own earlier postwar growth rate of 4^2
percent;
—when, in spite of achieving record corporate profits before taxes of
$51 billion in 1962, against a previous high of $47 billion in 1959, our
economy could readily generate another $7-8 billion of profits at
more normal rates of capacity use;
—when, in spite of a rise of $28 billion in wages and salaries since the
trough of the recession in 1961—with next-to-no erosion by rising
prices—the levels of labor income could easily be $18-20 billion higher
at reasonably full employment.
We cannot now reclaim the opportunities we lost in the past. But we
can move forward to seize the even greater possibilities of the future. The
decade ahead presents a most favorable gathering of forces for economic
progress. Arrayed before us are a growing and increasingly skilled labor
force, accelerating scientific and technological advances, and a wealth of
new opportunities for innovation at home and for commerce in the world.
What we require is a coherent national determination to lift our economy to
a new plane of productivity and initiative. It is in this context and spirit
that we examine the record of progress in the past 2 years and consider the
means for achieving the goals of the Employment Act of 1946.
THE 196 1-62 RECORD
As I took office 24 months ago, the Nation was in the grip of its third recession in 7 years; the average unemployment rate was nearing 7 percent; $50
billion of potential output was running to waste in idle manpower and
machinery.
In these last 2 years, the Administration and the Congress have taken a
series of important steps to promote recovery and strengthen the economy:
1. Early in 1961 vigorous antirecession measures helped get recovery off
to a fast start and gave needed assistance to those hardest hit by the
recession.
2. In 1961 and 1962 new measures were enacted to redevelop chronically
depressed areas; to retrain the unemployed and adapt manpower to changing technology; to enlarge social security benefits for the aged, the unemployed and their families; to provide special tax incentives to boost business
capital spending; to raise the wages of underpaid workers; to expand housing and urban redevelopment; to help agriculture and small business—these
and related measures improved the structure and functioning of the economy and aided the recovery.




3. Budgetary policy was designed to facilitate the expansion of private
demand—to avoid the jolting shift from stimulus to restriction that did
much to cut short recovery in 1958-60. The resulting fiscal shift in 196061 was much milder. In addition to increases in defense and space programs, measures of domestic improvement, such as the acceleration of
public works, reinforced demand in the economy.
4. Monetary conditions were also adjusted to aid recovery within the
constraints imposed by balance of payments considerations. While longterm interest rates rose, by one-third in 1958-60, they changed little or
actually declined in 1961-62. And the money supply grew much more
rapidly in the present expansion than in the preceding one.
These policies facilitated rapid recovery from recession in 1961 and continuing expansion in 1962—an advance that carried total economic activity onto new high ground. The record rate of output of $562 billion in
the final quarter of 1962 was, with allowance for price changes, 10 percent
above the first quarter of 1961 and 8 percent above the last recovery peak
in the second quarter of 1960. The industrial production index last month
was 16 percent above the low point in January 1961 and 7 percent above
the last monthly peak in January 1960.
These gains in output brought with them a train of improvements in
income, employment, and profits, while the price level held steady and our
balance of payments improved. In the course of the 1961-62 expansion:
1. Personal income rose by $46 billion to $450 billion, 12 percent
above its peak in the previous expansion. Net income per farm rose
by $330 as farm operators' net income from farming increased by
$800 million. Total after-tax income of American consumers increased by 8 percent; this provided a $400 per year increase in living
standards (1962 prices) for a family of four.
2. Civilian nonfarm employment increased by 2 million while the
average factory work week was rising from 39.3 to 40.3 hours.
3. Corporate profits, as noted, reached a record $51 billion for 1962.
4. Wholesale prices remained remarkably stable, while consumer
prices rose by only 1.1 percent a year—a better record of price stability
than that achieved by any other major industrial country in the world,
with the single exception of Canada.
5. This improving competitive situation, combined with closer international financial cooperation and intensive measures to limit the foreign currency costs of defense, development assistance, and other
programs, has helped to bring about material improvements in our
balance of payments deficit—from $3.9 billion in 1960 to $2.5 billion
in 1961 and now to about $2 billion in 1962.
These are notable achievements. But a measure of how far we have come
does not tell us how far we still have to go.




XI

A year ago, there was widespread consensus that economic recovery in
1962, while not matching the swift pace of 1961, would continue at a
high rate. But the pace slackened more than expected as the average
quarterly change in GNP was only $6 billion in 1962 against $13 billion
in 1961. The underlying forces in the private economy—no longer buttressed by the exuberant demand of the postwar decade, yet still thwarted
by income tax rates bred of war and inflation—failed to provide the stimulus
needed for more vigorous expansion. While housing and government
purchases rose about as expected and consumer buying moved up rather
well relative to income, increases in business investment fell short of
expectations.
Yet, buttressed by the policies and programs already listed, the momentum
of the expansion was strong enough to carry the economy safely past the
shoals of a sharp break in the stock market, a drop in the rate of inventory
accumulation, and a wave of pessimism in early summer. As the year
ended, the economy was still moving upward.
THE OUTLOOK FOR 196 3
The outlook for continued moderate expansion in 1963 is now favorable:
1. Business investment, responding in part to the stimulus of last
year's depreciation reform and In vestment tax credit and to the prospect
of early tax reduction and reform, is expected to rise at least modestly
for 1963 as a whole.
2. Home construction should continue at about its 1962 level.
3. Government purchases—Federal, State, and local combined—
are expected to rise at a rate of $2 billion a quarter.
4. Consumer purchases should rise in line with gains in business and
Government activity.
These prospects, taking into account the proposed tax reduction, lead
to the projection of a gross national product for 1963 of $578 billion,
understood as the midpoint of a $10 billion range.
I do not expect a fifth postwar recession to interrupt our progress in 1963.
It is not the fear of recession but the fact of 5 years of excessive unemployment, unused capacity, and slack profits—and the consequent hobbling of
our growth rate—that constitutes the urgent case for tax reduction and
reform. And economic expansion in 1963, at any reasonably predictable
pace, will leave the economy well below the Employment Act's high standards of maximum employment, production, and purchasing power:
We end 1962 with an unemployment rate of 5.6 percent. That is not
"maximum employment/3 It is frustrating indeed to see the unemployment rate stand still even though the output of goods and services rises.
Yet past experience tells us that only sustained major increases in production can reemploy the jobless members of today's labor force, create job




xn

opportunities for the 2 million young men and women entering the labor
market each year, and produce new jobs as fast as technological change
destroys old ones.
We end 1962 with U.S. output of goods and services running some $30-40
billion below the economy's capacity to produce. That is not "maximum
production"
And the prospective pace of expansion for 1963 promises
little if any narrowing of the production gap until tax reduction takes hold.
Our growing labor force and steadily rising productivity raise our capacity
to produce by more than $20 billion a year. We need to run just to keep
pace and run swiftly to gain ground in our race to full utilization.
We end 1962 with personal income, wages and salaries, and corporate
profits also setting new records. But even this favorable record does not
represent "maximum purchasing power/' as the figures I have already cited
clearly demonstrate.
In summary: The recovery that was initiated shortly after I took office 2
years ago now stands poised at a moment of decision. I do not believe the
American people will be—or should be—content merely to set new records.
Private initiative and public policy must join hands to break the barriers
built up by the years of slack since 1957 and bring the Nation into a new
period of sustained full employment and rapid economic growth. This
cannot be done overnight, but it can be done. The main block to full
employment is an unrealistically heavy burden of taxation. The time has
come to remove it.
TAX REDUCTION AND REFORM IN 196 3
We approach the issue of tax revision, not in an atmosphere of haste and
panic brought on by recession or depression, but in a period of comparative
calm. Yet if we are to restore the healthy glow of dynamic prosperity to
the U.S. economy and avoid a lengthening of the 5-year period of unrealized promise, we have no time to lose. Early action on the tax program
outlined in my State of the Union Message—and shortly to be presented in
detail in my tax message—will be our best investment in a prosperous future
and our best insurance against recession.
The Responsible Citizen and Tax Reduction
In this situation, the citizen serves his country's interest by supporting
income tax reductions. For through the normal processes of the market
economy, tax reduction can be the constructive instrument for harmonizing
public and private interests:
—The taxpayer as consumer, pursuing his own best interest and that
of his family, can turn his tax savings into a higher standard of
living, and simultaneously into stronger markets for the producer.
—The taxpayer as producer—businessman or fanner—responding to
the profit opportunities he finds in fuller markets and lower tax rates,




xm

can simultaneously create new jobs for workers and larger markets
for the products of other factories, farms, and mines.
Tax reduction thus sets off a process that can bring gains for everyone,
gains won by marshalling resources that would otherwise stand idle—workers without jobs and farm and factory capacity without markets. Yet many
taxpayers seem prepared to deny the nation the fruits of tax reduction
because they question the financial soundness of reducing taxes when the
Federal budget is already in deficit. Let me make clear why, in today's
economy, fiscal prudence and responsibility call for tax reduction even if it
temporarily enlarges the Federal deficit—why reducing taxes is the best way
open to us to increase revenues.
Our choice is not the oversimplified one sometimes posed, between tax
reduction and a deficit on one hand and a budget easily balanced by
prudent management on the other. If the projected 1964 Federal cash
deficit of $10.3 billion did not allow for a $2.7 billion loss in receipts owing
to the new tax program, the projected deficit would be $7.6 billion. We
have been sliding into one deficit after another through repeated recessions
and persistent slack in our economy. A planned cash surplus of $0.6 billion
for the fiscal year 1959 became a record cash deficit of $13.1 billion, largely
as the result of economic recession. A planned cash surplus of $1.8 billion
for the current fiscal year is turning into a cash deficit of $8.3 billion, largely
as tlje result of economic slack. If we were to slide into recession through
failure to act on taxes, the cash deficit for next year would be larger without
the tax reduction than the estimated deficit with tax reduction. Indeed, a
new recession could break all peace-time deficit records. And if we were to
try to force budget balance by drastic cuts in expenditures—necessarily at
the expense of defense and other vital programs—we would not only endanger the security of the country, we would so depress demand, production,
and employment that tax revenues would fall and leave the government
budget still in deficit. The attempt would thus be self-defeating.
So until we restore full prosperity and the budget-balancing revenues it
generates, our practical choice is not between deficit and surplus but between two kinds of deficits: between deficits born of waste and weakness
and deficits incurred as we build our future strength. If an individual
spends frivolously beyond his means today and borrows beyond his prospects for earning tomorrow, this is a sign of weakness. But if he borrows
prudently to invest in a machine that boosts his business profits, or to pay
for education and training that boost his earning power, this can be a source
of strength, a deficit through which he builds a better future for himself and
his family, a deficit justified by his increased potential.
As long as we have large numbers of workers without jobs, and producers without markets, we will as a Nation fall into repeated deficits of
inertia and weakness. But, by comparison, if we enlarge the deficit temporarily as the by-product of our positive tax policy to expand our economy
this will serve as a source of strength, not a sign of weakness. It will yield




rich private dividends in higher output, faster growth, more jobs, higher
profits and incomes; and, by the same token, a large public gain in expanded
budget revenues. As the economy returns to full employment, the budget
will return to constructive balance.
This would not be true, of course, if we were currently straining the limits
of our productive capacity, when the dollars released by tax reduction would
push against unyielding bottlenecks in industrial plant and skilled manpower. Then, tax reduction would be an open invitation to inflation, to a
renewed price-wage spiral, and would threaten our hard-won balance of
payments improvement. Today, however, we not only have unused manpower and idle plant capacity; new additions to the labor force and to plant
capacity are constantly enlarging our productive potential. We have an
economy fully able and ready to respond to the stimulus of tax reduction.
Our need today, then, is
—to provide markets to bring back into production underutilized plant
and equipment;
—to provide incentives to invest, in the form both of wider markets and
larger profits—investment that will expand and modernize, innovate,
cut costs;
—most important, by means of stronger markets and enlarged investment, to provide jobs for the unemployed and for the new workers
streaming into the labor force during the sixties—and, closing the
circle, the new jobholders will generate still larger markets and
further investment.
It was in direct response to these needs that I pledged last summer to
submit proposals for a top-to-bottom reduction in personal and corporate
income taxes in 1963—for reducing the tax burden on private income and
the tax deterrents to private initiative that have for too long held economic
activity in check. Only when we have removed the heavy drag our fiscal
system now exerts on personal and business purchasing power and on the
financial incentives for greater risk-taking and personal effort can we expect
to restore the high levels of employment and high rate of growth that we
took for granted in the first decade after the war.
Taxes and Consumer Demand
In order to enlarge markets for consumer goods and services and translate
these into new jobs, fuller work schedules, higher profits, and rising farm
incomes, I am proposing a major reduction in individual income tax rates.
Rates should be cut in three stages, from their present range of 20 to 91 percent to the more reasonable range of 14 to 65 percent. In the first stage,
beginning July 1, these rate reductions will cut individual liabilities at an
annual rate of $6 billion. Most of this would translate immediately into
greater take-home pay through a reduction in the basic withholding rate.
Further rate reductions would apply to 1964 and 1965 incomes, with re-




xv

suiting revenue losses to be partially offset by tax reforms, thus applying a
substantial additional boost to consumer markets.
These revisions would directly increase the annual rate of disposable
after-tax incomes of American households by about $6 billion in the second
half of 1963, and some $8 billion when the program is in full effect, with
account taken of both tax reductions and tax reform. Taxpayers in all
brackets would benefit, with those in the lower brackets getting the largest
proportional reductions.
American households as a whole regularly spend between 92 and 94 percent of the total after-tax (disposable) incomes they receive. And they
generally hold to this range even whe"n income rises and falls; so it follows
that they generally spend about the same percentage of dollars of income
added or subtracted. If we cut about $8 billion from the consumer tax
load, we can reasonably expect a direct addition to consumer goods markets of well over $7 billion.
A reduction of corporate taxes would provide a further increment to the
flow of household incomes as dividends are enlarged; and this, too, would
directly swell the consumer spending stream.
The direct effects, large as they are, would be only the beginning. Rising
output and employment to meet the new demands for consumer goods will
generate new income—wages, salaries, and profits. Spending from this
extra income flow would create more jobs, more production, and more
incomes. The ultimate increases in the continuing flow of incomes, production, and consumption will greatly exceed the initial amount of tax
reduction.
Even if the tax program had no influence on investment spending—either
directly or indirectly—the $8-9 billion added directly to the flow of consumer income would call forth a flow of at least $16 billion of added consumer goods and services.
But the program will also generate direct and indirect increases in investment spending. The production of new machines, and the building of
new factories, stores, offices, and apartments add to incomes in the same
way as does production of consumer goods. This too sets off a derived
chain reaction of consumer spending, adding at least another $1 billion of
output of consumer goods for every $1 billion of added investment.
Taxes and Investment
To raise the Nation's capacity to produce—to expand the quantity, quality, and variety of our output—we must not merely replace but continually
expand, improve, modernize, and rebuild our productive capital. That
is, we must invest, and we must grow.
The past half decade of unemployment and excess capacity has led to
inadequate business investment. In 1962, the rate of investment was almost unchanged from 1957 though gross national product had risen by
almost 16 percent, after allowance for price changes. Clearly it is essential




XVI

to our employment and growth objectives as well as to our international
competitive stance that we stimulate more rapid expansion and modernization of America's productive facilities.
As a first step, we have already provided important new tax incentives
for productive investment. Last year the Congress enacted a 7-percent
tax credit for business expenditures on major kinds of equipment. And the
Treasury, at my direction, revised its depreciation rules to reflect today's
conditions. Together, these measures are saving business over $2 billion
a year in taxes and significantly increasing the net rate of return on capital
investments.
The second step in my program to lift investment incentives is to reduce
the corporate tax rate from 52 percent to 47 percent, thus restoring the preKorean rate. Particularly to aid small businesses, I am recommending
that effective January 1, 1963, the rate on the first $25,000 of corporate
income be dropped from 30 to 22 percent while the 52 percent rate on
corporate income over $25,000 is retained. In later stages, the 52 percent
rate would drop to 47 percent. These changes will cut corporate liabilities
by over $2.5 billion before structural changes.
The resulting increase in profitability will encourage risk-taking and enlarge the flow of internal funds which typically finance a major share of
corporate investment. In recent periods, business as a whole has not been
starved for financial accommodation. But global totals mask the fact that
thousands of small or rapidly growing businesses are handicapped by shortage of investible funds. As the total impact of the tax program takes
hold and generates pressures on existing capacity, more and more companies will find the lower taxes a welcome source of finance for plant
expansion.
The third step toward higher levels of capital spending is a combination
of structural changes to remove barriers to the full flow of investment funds,
to sharpen the incentives for creative investment, and to remove tax-induced
distortions in resource flow. Reduction of the top j individual income tax
rate from 91 to 65 percent is a central part of this balanced program.
Fourth, apart from direct measures to encourage investment, the tax
program will go to the heart of the main deterrent to investment today,
namely, inadequate markets. Once the sovereign incentive of high and
rising sales is restored, and the businessman is convinced that today's new
plant and equipment will find profitable use tomorrow, the effects of the
directly stimulative measures will be doubled and redoubled. Thus—and it
is no contradiction—the most important single thing we can do to stimulate
investment in today's economy is to raise consumption by major reduction
of individual income tax rates.
Fifth, side-by-side with tax measures, I am confident that the Federal
Reserve and the Treasury will continue to maintain, consistent with their
responsibilities for the external defense of the dollar, monetary and credit




xvn

conditions favorable to the flow of savings into long-term investment in the
productive strength of the country.
Given a series of large and timely tax reductions and reforms, as I have
proposed, we can surely achieve the balanced expansion of consumption and
investment so urgently needed to overcome a half decade of slack and to
capitalize on the great and growing economic opportunities of the decade
ahead.
The impact of my tax proposals on the budget deficit will be cushioned
by the scheduling of reductions in several stages rather than a single large
cut; the careful pruning of civilian expenditures for fiscal 1964—those other
than for defense, space, and debt service—to levels below fiscal 1963;
the adoption of a more current time schedule for tax payments of large
corporations, which will at the outset add about $1 l/i billion a year to budget
receipts; the net offset of $3l/<x billion of revenue loss by selected structural
changes in the income tax; most powerfully, in time, by the accelerated
growth of taxable income and tax receipts as the economy expands in response to the stimulus of the tax program.
Impact on the Debt
Given the deficit now in prospect, action to raise the existing legal limit
on the public debt will be required.
The ability of the Nation to service the Federal debt rests on the income
of its citizens whose taxes must pay the interest. Total Federal interest
payments as a fraction of the national income have fallen, from 2.8 percent
in 1946 to 2.1 percent last year. The gross debt itself as a proportion of
our GNP has also fallen steadily—from 123 percent in 1946 to 55 percent
last year. Under the budgetary changes scheduled this year and next,
these ratios will continue their decline.
It is also of interest to compare the rise in Federal debt with the rise in
other forms of debt. Since the end of 1946, the Federal debt held by the
public has risen by $12 billion; net State-local debt, by $58 billion; net
corporate debt, by $237 billion; and net total private debt, by $518 billion.
Clearly, we would prefer smaller debts than we have today. But this
does not settle the issue. The central requirement is that debt be incurred
only for constructive purposes and at times and in ways that serve to
strengthen the position of the debtor. In the case of the Federal Government, where the Nation is the debtor, the key test is whether the increase
serves to strengthen or weaken our economy. In terms of jobs and output
generated without threat to price stability—and in terms of the resulting
higher revenue—the debt increases foreseen under my tax program clearly
pass this test.
Monetary and debt management policies can accommodate our debt
increase in 1963—as they did in 1961 and 1962—without inflationary strain
or restriction of private credit availability.




xvm

Impact on Prices and the Balance of Payments
The Administration tax program for 1963 can strengthen our economy
within a continuing framework of price stability and an extension of our
hard-won gains in the U.S. balance of payments position.
Rising prices from the end of the war until 1958 led the American people
to expect an almost irreversible upward trend of prices. But now prices
have been essentially stable for 5 years. This has broken the inflationary
psychology and eased the task of assuring continued stability.
We are determined to maintain this stability and to avoid the risk of
either an inflationary excess of demand in our markets or a renewed pricewage spiral. Given the excess capacities of our economy today, and its
large latent reserves of productive power, my program of fiscal stimulus
need raise no such fears. The new discipline of intensified competition
in domestic and international markets, the abundant world supplies of
primary products, and increased public vigilance all lend confidence that
wage-price problems can be resolved satisfactorily even as we approach
our full-employment target.
Indeed, in many respects the tax program will contribute to continued
price stability. Tax reduction and reform will increase productivity and
tend to cut unit labor costs by stimulating cost-cutting investment and technological advance, and reducing distortions in resource allocation. As long
as wage rate increases stay within the bounds of productivity increases,
as long as the push for higher profit margins through higher prices is
restrained—as long as wage and price changes reflect the "guideposts"
that were set out a year ago and are reaffirmed in the accompanying Report
of the Council of Economic Advisers—the outlook for stable prices is
excellent.
Price stability has extra importance today because of our need to eliminate
the continuing deficit in the international balance of payments. During the
past 2 years we have cut the over-all deficit, from nearly $4 billion in 1960 to
about $2 billion in 1962. But we cannot relax our efforts to reduce the payments deficit still further. One important force working strongly in our
favor is our excellent record of price stability. Since 1959, while U.S.
wholesale prices have been unchanged, those in every major competing
country (except Canada) have risen appreciably. Our ability to compete
in foreign markets—and in our own—has accordingly improved.
We shall continue to reduce the overseas burden of our essential defense
and economic assistance programs, without weakening their effectiveness—
both by reducing the foreign exchange costs of these programs and by urging
other industrial nations to assume a fairer share of the burden of free world
defense and development assistance.
But the area in which our greatest effort must now be concentrated is one
in which Government can provide only leadership and opportunity; private




XIX

business must produce the results. Our commercial trade surplus—the
excess of our exports of goods and services over imports—must rise substantially to assure that we will reach balance of payments equilibrium within
a reasonable period.
Under our new Trade Expansion Act, we are prepared to make the best
bargains for American business that have been possible in many years.
We intend to use the authority of that act to maximum advantage to the
end that our agricultural and industrial products have more liberal access
to other markets—particularly those of the European Economic Community.
With improved Export-Import Bank facilities and the new Foreign
Credit Insurance Association, our exporters now have export financing
comparable to that of our major competitors. As an important part of
our program to increase exports, I have proposed a sharp step-up in the
export expansion program of the Department of Commerce. Funds have
been recommended both to strengthen our overseas marketing programs
and to increase the Department's efforts in the promotion of an expanded
interest in export opportunities among American firms.
In the meantime, we have made and will continue to make important
progress in increasing the resistance of the international monetary system
to speculative attack. The strength and the stability of the payments
system have been consolidated during the past year through international
cooperation. That cooperation successfully met rigorous tests in 1962—
when a major decline occurred in the stock markets of the world; when
the Canadian dollar withstood a run in June; and when the establishment
of Soviet bases in Cuba threatened the world. Through direct cooperation
with other countries the United States engaged in substantial operations
in the forward markets for other currencies and held varying amounts of
other currencies in its own reserves; the Federal Reserve engaged in a wide
circle of swap arrangements for obtaining other currencies; and the Treasury initiated a program of borrowings denominated in foreign currencies.
And with the approval by Congress of the necessary enabling legislation,
the United States joined other major countries in strengthening the International Monetary Fund as an effective bulwark to the payments system.
With responsible and energetic public and private policies, and continued
alertness to any new dangers, we can move now to revitalize our domestic
economy without fear of inflation or unmanageable international financial
problems—indeed, in the long run, a healthy balance of payments position
depends on a healthy economy. As the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has emphatically stated in recent months, a
prosperous American economy and a sound balance of payments position
are not alternatives between which we must choose; rather, expansionary
action to bolster our domestic growth—with due vigilance against inflation—will solidify confidence in the dollar.




xx

Impact on State and Local Governments
The Federal budget is hard pressed by urgent responsibilities for free
world defense and by vital tasks at home. But the fiscal requirements laid
upon our States, cities, school districts, and other units of local government
are even more pressing. It is here that the first impacts fall—of rapidly
expanding populations, especially at both ends of the age distribution; of
mushrooming cities; of continuing shift to new modes of transportation; of
demands for more and better education; of problems of crime and delinquency; of new opportunities to combat ancient problems of physical and
mental health; of the recreational and cultural needs of an urban society.
To meet these responsibilities, the total of State and local government
expenditures has expanded 243 percent since 1948—in contrast to 166 percent for the Federal Government; their debts by 334 percent—in contrast
to 18 percent for the Federal Government.
The Federal budget has helped to ease the burdens on our States and
local governments by an expanding program of grants for a multitude of
purposes, and inevitably it must continue to do so. The Federal tax
reductions I propose will also ease these fiscal burdens, chiefly because
greater prosperity and faster growth will automatically increase State and
local tax revenues at existing rates.
Tax Reduction and Future Fiscal Policy
While the basic purpose of my tax program is to meet our longer run
economic challenges, we should not forget its role in strengthening our
defenses against recession. Enactment on schedule of this program which
involves a total of over $10 billion of net income tax reduction annually
would be a major counterforce to any recessionary tendencies that might
appear.
Nevertheless, when our calendar of fiscal legislation is lighter than it is in
1963, it will be important to erect further defenses against recession. Last
year, I proposed that the Congress provide the President with limited
standby authority (1) to initiate, subject to Congressional veto, temporary
reductions in individual income tax rates and (2) to accelerate and initiate
properly timed public capital improvements in times of serious and rising
unemployment.
Work on the development of an acceptable plan for quick tax action to
counter future recessions should continue; with the close cooperation of the
Congress, it should be possible to combine provision for swift action with full
recognition of the Constitutional role of the Congress in taxation.
The House and the Senate were unable to agree in 1962 on standby provisions for temporary speed-ups in public works to help fight recession.
Nevertheless, recognizing current needs for stepped-up public capital
expenditures, the Congress passed the very important Public Works Accel-




XXI

eration Act (summarized in Appendix A of the Report of the Council of
Economic Advisers). I urge that the Congress appropriate the balance
of funds authorized for programs under the Public Works Acceleration Act.
Initial experience under this program offers promise that rapid temporary
acceleration of public projects at all levels of government, under a stand-by
program, can be an effective instrument of flexible antirecession policy.
Further evaluation of experience should aid in the development of an
effective stand-by program which would allow the maximum room for swift
executive action consistent with effective Congressional control.
OTHER ECONOMIC MEASURES
Apart from the tax program, and the elements of the growth program
discussed in the final section of this Report, there are several other economic
measures on which I wish to report or request action. They are:
Transportation
Our national transportation systems provide the means by which materials, labor, and capital are geographically combined in production and the
resulting products distributed. Continuous innovations in productive techniques, rapid urbanization of our population, and shifts in international trade
have increased the economic significance of transportation in our economy.
Our present approach to regulation is largely a legacy from an earlier
period, when there was a demonstrated need to protect the public interest
by a comprehensive and detailed supervision of rates and services. The need
for regulation remains; but technological and structural changes today permit greater reliance on competition within and between alternative modes
of transportation to make them responsive to the demands for new services
and the opportunities for greater efficiency.
The extension of our Federal highway system, the further development
of a safe and efficient system of airways, the improvement of our waterways and harbors, the modernization and adaptation of mass transport
systems in our great metropolitan centers to meet the expanding and changing patterns of urban life—all these raise new problems requiring urgent
attention.
Among the recommendations in my Transportation Message of April
1962 were measures which would provide or encourage equal competitive opportunity under diminished regulation, consistent policies of taxation and user charges, and support of urban transportation and expanded
transportation research. I urge favorable Congressional action on these
measures.
Financial Institutions and Financial Markets
In my Economic Report a year ago, I referred to certain problems relating
to the structure of our private financial institutions, and to the Federal
Government's participation in and regulation of private financial markets.




xxn

A report on these matters had recently been completed by a distinguished
private group, the Commission on Money and Credit. In view of the importance of their recommendations, I appointed three interagency working
groups in the Executive Branch to review (a) certain problems posed by the
rapid growth of corporate pension funds and other private retirement funds,
(b) the appropriate role of Federal lending and credit guarantee programs,
and (c) Federal legislation and regulations relating to private financial
institutions.
These interagency groups are approaching the end of their work. I have
requested my Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy to consider the tentative recommendations of the first of these three committees.
Work of the second will, I am sure, be extremely useful to the Bureau of the
Budget, the Treasury Department, and the various Federal credit agencies
in reviewing operating guidelines and procedures of Federal credit programs. Work of the third committee, whose task was the most complex, is
still in process.
Silver
I again urge a revision in our silver policy to reflect the status of silver as a
metal for which there is an expanding industrial demand. Except for its
use in coins, silver serves no useful monetary function.
In 1961, at my direction, sales of silver were suspended by the Secretary
of the Treasury. As further steps, I recommend repeal of those Acts that
oblige the Treasury to support the price of silver; and repeal of the special
50-percent tax on transfers of interest in silver and authorization for the Federal Reserve System to issue notes in denominations of $1, so as to make
possible the gradual withdrawal of silver certificates from circulation and
the use of the silver thus released for coinage purposes. I urge the Congress
to take prompt action on these recommended changes.
Permanent Unemployment Compensation
I will propose later this year that Congress enact permanent improvements in our Federal-State system of unemployment insurance to extend
coverage to more workers, and to increase the size and duration of benefits.
These improvements will not only ease the burdens of involuntary unemployment, but will further strengthen our built-in defenses against recession.
Action is overdue to strengthen our system of unemployment insurance on
a permanent basis.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1961 extended the
coverage of minimum wage protection to 3.6 million new workers and
provided for raising the minimum wage in steps to $1.25 per hour. These
were significant steps toward eliminating the degrading competition which
depresses wages of a small fringe of the labor force below a minimum
standard of decent compensation. But a large number of workers still




xxm

remain without this protection.
groups.

I will urge extension of coverage to further

POLICIES FOR FASTER GROWTH

The tax program I have outlined is phased over 3 years. Its invigorating
effects will be felt far longer. For among the costs of prolonged slack is
slow growth. An economy that fails to use its productive potential fully
feels no need to increase it rapidly. The incentive to invest is bent beneath
the weight of excess capacity. Lack of employment opportunities slows the
growth of the labor force. Defensive restrictive practices—from featherbedding to market sharing—flourish when limited markets, jobs, and incentives shrink the scope for effort and ingenuity. But when the economy
breaks out of the lethargy of the past 5 or 6 years, the end to economic slack
will by itself mean faster growth. Full employment will relax the grip of
restrictive practices and open the gates wider to innovation and change.
While programs for full utilization of existing resources are the indispensable first step in a positive policy for faster growth, it is not too soon to move
ahead on other programs to strengthen the underlying sources of the Naion's capacity to grow. No one doubts that the foundations of America's
economic greatness lie in the education, skill, and adaptability of our population and in our advanced and advancing industrial technology. Deepseated foundations cannot be renewed and extended overnight. But
neither is the achievement of national economic purpose just a task for today
or tomorrow, or this year or next. Unless we move now to reinforce the
human and material base for growth, we will pay the price in slower growth
later in this decade and in the next. And so we must begin.
Last summer, convinced of the urgency of the need, I appointed a Cabinet
Committee on Economic Growth to stand .guardian over the needs of growth
in the formulation of government economic policies. At my request, this
Committee—consisting of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of
Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the Bureau of the
Budget as members, and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers
as its Chairman—reported to me in December on policies for growth in the
context of my 1963 legislative program.
Tax Revision
Their report urges the central significance of prompt tax reduction and
reform in a program for economic growth: first, for the sustained lift it
will give to the economy's demand for goods and services, and thus to the
expansion of its productive capacity; second, for the added incentive to
productive investment, risk-taking, and efficient use of resources that will
come from lowering the corporate tax rate and the unrealistic top rates
on personal income, and eliminating unwarranted tax preferences that undermine the tax base and misdirect energy and resources. I have already laid




XXIV

the case for major tax changes before you, and I will submit detailed legislation and further analysis in a special message. I remind you now that
my 1963 tax proposals are central to a program to tilt the trend of American
growth upward and to achieve our share of the 50-percent growth target
which was adopted for the decade of the sixties by the 20 member nations
of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Tax reduction will remove an obstacle to the full development of the forces
of growth in a free economy. To go further, public policy must offer positive support to the primary sources of economic energy. I propose that
the Federal Government lay the groundwork now for positive action in three
key areas, each singled out by the Cabinet Committee as fundamental to the
long-run strength and resilience of our economy: (1) the stimulation of
civilian technology, (2) the support of education, and (3) the development of manpower. In each of these areas I shall make specific proposals
for action. Together with tax revision, they mark the beginning of a more
conscious and active policy for economic growth.
Civilian Technology
The Federal Government is already the main source of financial support
for research and development in the United States. Most funds now spent
en research are channeled to private contractors through the Department
of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the
Atomic Energy Commission. The defense, space, and atomic energy activities of the country absorb about two-thirds of the trained people available
for exploring our scientific and technical frontiers. These activities also
assert a strong influence on the direction and substance of scientific and
engineering education. In many fields, they have transformed our understanding of nature and our ability to control it. But in the course of meeting
specific challenges so brilliantly, we have paid a price by sharply limiting
the scarce scientific and engineering resources available to the civilian
sectors of the American economy.
The Government has for many years recognized its obligation to support
research in fields other than defense. Federal support of medical and agricultural research has been and continues to be particularly important. My
proposal for adding to our current efforts new support of science and technology that directly affect industries serving civilian markets represents a
rounding out of Federal programs across the full spectrum of science.
Since rising productivity is a 'major source of economic growth, and research and development are essential sources of productivity growth, I
believe that the Federal Government must now begin to redress the balance
in the use of scientific skills. To this end I shall propose a number of
measures to encourage civilian research and development and to make
the byproducts of military and space research easily accessible to civilian
industry. These measures will include:
1. Development of a Federal-State Engineering Extension Service;




XXV

2. New means of facilitating the use by civilian industry of the
results of Government-financed research;
3. Selected support of industrial research and development and
technical information services;
4. Support of industry research associations;
5. Adjustment of the income tax laws to give business firms an additional stimulus to invest in research equipment;
6. Stimulus of university training of industrial research personnel.
Together, these measures would encourage a growing number of scientists
and engineers to work more intensively to improve the technology of civilian
industry, and a growing number of firms and industries to take greater
advantage of modern technology. For Americans as a whole, the returns
will be better products and services at lower prices. A national research
and development effort focused to meet our urgent needs can do much to
improve the quality of our lives.
Education
History will value the American commitment to universal education as
one of our greatest contributions to civilization. Impressive evidence is
also accumulating that education is one of the deepest roots of economic
growth. Through its direct effects on the quality and adaptability of the
working population and through its indirect effects on the advance of
science and knowledge, education is the ultimate source of much of our
increased productivity.
Our educational frontier can and must still be widened: through improvements in the quality of education now available, through opening
new opportunities so that all can acquire education proportionate to their
abilities, and through expanding the capacity of an educational system that
increasingly feels the pinch of demands it is not equipped to meet.
In our society, the major responsibility for meeting educational needs
must rest with the State and local governments, private institutions, and
individual families. But today, when education is essential to the discharge of Federal responsibilities for national security and economic growth,
additional Federal support and assistance are required. The dollar contribution the Federal Government would make is small in relation to the
$30 billion our Nation now spends on education; but it is vital if we are
to grasp the opportunities that lie before us.
By helping to insure a more adequate flow of resources into education,
by helping to insure greater opportunities for our students—tomorrow's
scientists, engineers, doctors, scholars, artists, teachers, and leaders—by
helping to advance the quality of education at all levels, we can add measurably to the sweep of economic growth. I shall make a number of specific
proposals in a forthcoming message on education. All of them are designed
to strengthen our educational system. They will strengthen quality, increase




XXVI

opportunity, expand capacity. They merit support if we are to live up
to our traditions. They demand support if we are to live up to our future.
Manpower Development
Education must not stop in the classroom. In a growing economy, the
skills of our labor force must change in response to changing technology.
The individual and the firm have shouldered the primary responsibility
for the retraining required to keep pace with technical advance—and their
capacity to do this increases when markets strengthen and profits grow.
But Government must support and supplement these private efforts if the
requirements are to be fully met.
The Area Redevelopment Act reflects the importance of adapting labor
skills to the needs of a changing technology, as do the retraining and relocation provisions of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. And in adopting
the Manpower Development and Training Act, the Congress last year gave
further evidence of its understanding of the national needs and the Federal
responsibility in this area. I will shortly present to the Congress an Annual
Manpower Report as required under this Act. This will be the first comprehensive report ever presented to Congress on the Nation's manpower
requirements and resources, utilization and training. The programs under
this Act are already demonstrating the important contribution which an
improvement of labor skills can produce, not only for the individual, but
for the community as well. I have therefore recommended an increase in
the funds for these programs in the coming fiscal year. Not only are the
programs needed in today's economy with its relatively high unemployment;
they will play an even more significant role as we near the boundaries of
full employment. For they will permit fuller utilization of our labor force
and consequently produce faster growth.
A second important requirement for an effective manpower policy in a
dynamic economy is a more efficient system of matching workers' skills to
the jobs available today and to the new jobs available tomorrow. This
calls for an expanded informational effort, and I have included in my 1963
program a proposal to achieve this. I attach special importance to the
work being done in the Department of Labor to develop an "early warning system" to identify impending job dislocations caused by rapid technical
changes in skill requirements in the years ahead. Such information is important as a guide to effective manpower retraining and mobility efforts.
It will also be useful in shaping important school programs to meet the manpower needs, not of yesterday, but of tomorrow.
The persistently high rates of unemployment suffered by young workers
demand that we act to reduce this waste of human resources. I will therefore recommend the passage of a Youth Employment Opportunities Act to
foster methods for developing the potential of untrained and inexperienced
youth and to provide useful work experience.




xxvn

To facilitate growth, we must also steadily reduce the barriers that deny
us the full power of our working force. Improved information will help—
but more than that is called for. Institutions which tie workers in their
jobs, or encourage premature retirement, must be critically reexamined.
An end to racial and religious discrimination—which not only affronts our
basic ideals but burdens our economy with its waste—offers an imperative
contribution to growth. Just as we strive to improve incentives to invest in
physical capital, so must we strive to improve incentives to develop our
human resources and promote their effective use.
Conclusion
Stepping up the U.S. growth rate will not be easy. We no longer have
a large agricultural population to transfer to industry. We do not have
the opportunity to capitalize on a generation's worth of advanced technology developed elsewhere. The only easy growth available to us is the
growth that will flow from success in ending the period of sluggishness
dating back to 1957. That we must have if only because it is inexcusable
to have the American economy operating in low gear in a time of crisis.
Beyond full employment, however, we must rely on the basic sources of
all long-run growth: people, machines and knowledge. We must identify
and use a variety of ways—some imaginative, some routine—to enable our
people to realize the full promise of our technology and our economy. In a
setting of full employment, these measures can help to move our growth
rate to 4 percent and above, the American people toward greater abundance,
and the free world toward greater security.




xxvm

THE ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

669333 0—63







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS,

Washington, D.C., January 14,1963.
THE

PRESIDENT:

SIR: The Council of Economic Advisers herewith submits its Annual
Report, January 1963, in accordance with Section 4(c) (2) of the Employment Act of 1946.
Respectfully,




WALTER W. HELLER,

Chairman.

GARDNER ACKLEY




CONTENTS
Page

CHAPTER 1. THE ECONOMIC RECORD AND ITS CHALLENGE

9

The Expansion of 1961 and 1962
Comparison of 1962 with 1961
The Record of the Expansion
Fiscal Policy
Monetary and Debt Management Policies
The Five-Year Record
Record of Unemployment
Production: Actual and Potential
The Level and Pattern of Demand
The Economic Outlook
Government Purchases of Goods and Services
Residential Construction
Business Fixed Investment
Change in Business Inventories
Personal Consumption Expenditures
Summary

10
10
11
18
19
22
23
26
28
33
33
33
34
34
35
35

CHAPTER 2. DOMESTIC ECONOMIC POLICY FOR THE MID-1 960'S. . . .

Fiscal Policy for Full Employment and Growth
Goals of High Employment and Faster Growth
A Tax Program for the Mid-1960's
Tax Revision: Impact on Output and Employment
Tax Revision: Impact on the Budget
Financing Economic Expansion in 1963
Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, and Debt Management
Policy
Financing Budget Deficits
Monetary Policy and Domestic Expansion
Monetary Policy and the Balance of Payments
Economic Growth
Determinants of Growth
Cabinet Committee on Economic Growth
Private Investment
Civilian Technology




37

38
38
43
45
51
52
52
53
55
57
60
60
61
61
63

Page

CHAPTER 3. FISCAL POLICY IN PERSPECTIVE

The Federal Budget in a Changing Economy
Passive Fiscal Policy and Automatic Stabilization
Tax Cuts To Aid Recovery
Fiscal Policy in the 1930's
Some Conclusions from Past Experience
Deficits and Surpluses—Private and Public
Prospects for the Future
Tax Reduction and the National Debt
Federal Debt and National Wealth
The Burden of the Public Debt
Prices, Wages, and the Balance of Payments
Prices and Wages
Balance of Payments

66

61
61
69
70
72
74
77
78
81
82
83
84
88

CHAPTER 4. T H E UNITED STATES AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY

91

U.S. International Transactions
The United States as World Trader, Investor, and Banker. .
External Impact of U.S. Economic Expansion
Competitiveness of U.S. Products
The United States and the Emergence of a Unified Europe
Postwar European Prosperity and Growth
Progress Toward European Unity
Europe and World Trade
Europe and the Flow of World Capital
The United States and the Less Developed Countries
Economic Assistance for International Development
Trade as an "Engine of Growth"
New Problems for the United States and the World Economy..
Correcting Imbalances in International Payments
International Economic Cooperation
Coordinating Economic Policies
Strengthening the International Monetary System
Appendixes
A. Review of 1961-62 Legislative and Administrative Actions
to Strengthen the Economy
Part 1. Major Policy Actions in 1961 and 1962
Part 2. Additional Legislative and Administrative Actions Taken in 1962
B. Report to the President on the Activities of the Council of
Economic Advisers During 1962
C. Statistical Tables Relating to Income, Employment, and
Production

92
92
98
104
106
106
107
110
115
116
116
118
121
122
124
126
127




131
135
144
153
165

List of Tables and Charts
Tables

1. Changes in Output, Income, and Employment in 1961 and
1962
2. Changes in Final Sales of Goods and Inventory Accumulation
in Three Expansions
3. Net Funds Raised by Nonfinancial Borrowers, 1957-62
4. Changes in Output, Income, and Employment in Two Postwar
Periods
5. Unemployment Rates for Experienced Wage and Salary Workers, by Industry, 1957, 1961, and 1962
6. Unemployment Rates by Occupation, 1957, 1961, and 1962. .
7. Growth of Gross Stocks of Fixed Business Capital in Two Postwar Periods
8. Personal Consumption Expenditures as Percent of Disposable
Personal Income During Two Postwar Periods of Tax Reduction
9. Selected Liquid Assets Held by the Public, 1946, 1957, and
1960-62
10. Federal Government Surplus or Deficit: Comparison of Estimate
and Actual, Fiscal Years 1958-63
11. Federal Debt and Interest Payments on the Debt, Selected
Calendar Years, 1939-62
12. Civilian National Wealth,. Selected Years, 1900-58
13. Changes in Hourly Earnings in Manufacturing Industries,
1947-62
14. United States Balance of International Payments, 1951-62. . . .
15. Commodity Composition and Destination of United States
Exports, First 3 Quarters of 1962
16. Origin and Destination of Free World Exports, 1961
17. International Comparison of Changes in Prices and Wages,
1953-62
18. Comparison of United States and European Economic Community (EEC), Selected Data, 1961
19. European Economic Community (EEC) Imports by Selected
Commodity Category and Source of Supply, 1953 and
1958-61
20. Agency for International Development: Regional Allocations
of Economic Assistance, Fiscal Years 1958, 1960, and 1962. .
21. Price Indexes of Selected Commodity Groups Entering International Trade, 1956-62




Page

14
15
21
22
24
24
29

46
56
72
79
82
88
96
99
100
105
108

Ill
116
119

Charts

1. Real Gross National Product in Four Postwar Expansions
2. Unemployment, Production, and Income in Three Business
Cycles
.
3. Change in Total Business Investment in Four Postwar Expansions
4. Interest Rates in Three Postwar Expansions
5. Gross National Product, Actual and Potential, and Unemployment Rate
6. Gross Saving and Capital Expenditures of Corporate Nonfinancial Business
7. Business Fixed Investment in Relation to Total Output
8. Quarterly Changes in Gross National Product and Disposable
Personal Income
9. Federal Budget and Business Capital Account: Surpluses or
Deficits
10. Federal Debt Held by the Public and Its Relation to
Gross National Product
11. Price Developments in the Postwar Period
12. Balance of Trade and Payments
13. Growth in Real Gross National Product, Selected Countries. . .




Page

11
12
16
20
27
31
62
68
76
80
87
97
107

Chapter 1

The Economic Record and Its Challenge

T

HE UNITED STATES is currently in the midst of its fourth postwar
recovery—a recovery which began in February 1961 and has now run
for almost 2 years. This recovery is notable in that for the first time since
the war we have made important progress toward all of our major economic goals: we have made significant advances toward the goals of fuller
employment and faster growth at the same time that we have avoided
inflation and achieved substantial improvement in our balance of payments
position. And these gains have been accompanied by the continued
strengthening of free competitive markets and continued progress toward
greater equality of economic opportunity.
But in the present expansion, the economy has faced the problem of recovering from not one but two recessions—for the recession of 1960 followed
an incomplete recovery from the 1957-58 recession. Despite the gains of
the past 2 years, the economy has not yet regained full use of its labor and
capital resources. Moreover, the progress made during the current recovery
was most rapid in 1961; although advances continued throughout 1962, the
rate of expansion was markedly slower. The forces responsible for slowing the expansion in 1962 threaten to prolong the period of economic slack.
As 1963 begins, too many workers remain without jobs; too many machines
continue idle; too much output goes unrealized as our economy runs below
its potential.
The challenge and the opportunity for the American economy are to
move from this situation of continuing slack to one which calls forth the
full participation of a rapidly growing labor force and the introduction of
fruitful technological developments. It is in this setting of promising change
that we must consider our commitment to the goals of the Employment
Act.
In this chapter we first review the record of 1962 and of the 1961-62
expansion. Then, to draw from the experience of a longer period, we look
at the record of the past 5 years, and finally we appraise the outlook for
1963.




THE EXPANSION OF 1 9 6 1 AND 19 6 2
COMPARISON

OF

1962

WITH

1961

Significant gains were registered in all major categories of economic
activity between 1961 and 1962. For the year 1962 as a whole, gross national product (GNP) rose 7 percent over its 1961 level—from $519 billion
to $554 billion. Industrial production showed an 8 percent rise. Demands
for automobiles and housing were particularly strong: sales of domestic
automobiles increased by more than 20 percent—from 5.6 million units in
1961 to 6.8 million units in 1962—making 1962 the second biggest automobile year in history; private nonfarm housing starts rose by 11 percent, with
an exceptionally strong advance in apartment construction. Business
spending on plant and equipment rose by 9 percent, and the rate of business
inventory accumulation increased from $2.1 billion to $3.1 billion.
Disposable personal income increased by $19 billion, or 5 percent.
Consumer spending kept pace and, apart from autos, most major components of consumption rose by 4 or 5 percent. Corporate profits (adjusted for inventory valuation, and before taxes) for the year rose by an
estimated $5l/i billion, to $51 billion.
The gains in output and incomes achieved in 1962 were accompanied by
relative stability in prices. The average price of output increased by less
than 11/2 percent as measured by the comprehensive GNP deflator. Wholesale prices remained virtually stable at 100.6 percent of their 1957-59
average. And consumer prices rose by only 1.2 percent.
The unemployment rate, which averaged 6.7 percent in 1961, fell to an
average of 5.6 percent in 1962—the result of an increase of 1.2 million in
employment accompanied by an increase of 400,000 in the civilian labor
force. The number of involuntary part-time workers declined from 2.8
million to 2.3 million. The fraction of labor-force time lost through
unemployment and part-time work dropped from 8.0 to 6.7 percent. The
higher levels of employment resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of depressed areas. During 1961, an average of 81 of the 150 major
labor market areas in the United States were classified as areas of substantial unemployment. The monthly average for 1962 was 52 areas. Some
areas benefited dramatically from the expansion in economic activity: for
instance, in Detroit, Michigan, the unemployment rate fell from 10.9 percent in 1961 to 6.8 percent in 1962. Even an area like Wheeling, West
Virginia, which still had an intolerable unemployment rate in 1962 (12.2
percent), showed improvement from its 15.2 percent rate of the year before.
Progress was also made by the Nation's agricultural population. Farm
income per capita from all sources rose from $1,373 in 1961 to $1,430 in
1962. This is nearly 60 percent of the nonfarm per capita income of
$2,445. By comparison, per capita income of the farm population aver-




IO

aged approximately 50 percent of per capita income in the nonfarm sector
during the mid-1950's and less than 40 percent just prior to World War II.
Recovery in domestic output, incomes, and employment was accompanied by improvement in the balance of payments. The over-all balance
of payments deficit, which fell from $3.9 billion in 1960 to $2.5 billion in
1961, declined further, to about $2 billion, in 1962. Although exports did
not increase as rapidly as the rise in merchandise imports induced by
domestic expansion, improvement in the over-all balance was registered
because of increased earnings on U.S. investment abroad, and substantial
declines in short-term private capital outflows and net government expenditures overseas.
THE RECORD OF THE EXPANSION

The pattern of activity since the 1960 recession is not adequately revealed by the annual figures just cited. The last quarter of 1962 was the
seventh quarter of the present expansion and December the 22nd month
of sustained recovery from the low point of February 1961. GNP rose to
an annual rate of $562 billion in the last quarter of 1962, $61 billion, or
CHART 1

Real Gross National Product
in Four Postwar Expansions
GNP TROUGH =100-1/

25

20

/

—

"

1949-51

v

115

1958-60

M
O
1954-56

105

-

1

100
3

4

5

6

1

7

QUARTERS AFTER GNP TROUGH-^
1 / BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED DATA.
2/ TROUGH QUARTERS FOR GNP WERE 1949 E, 1954 n , 1958 I , AND 1961 I.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




II

t
8 9

1
1
0

CHART 2

Unemployment, Production, and Income
in Three Business Cycles
PERCENT OF CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

-12 -10

- 8 - 6 - 4 - 2 0 2 4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

PREVIOUS CYCLICAL PEAK = 100
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

I I I I I I I I I I I 'V I I I I I I I I I I I I I T I I I I I I I I
-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22
PREVIOUS CYCLICAL PEAK = 100

lib

PERSONAL INCOME

110 -

105
'^0>^^^^%%
100

ft

^V-

" - ^ - 1

—

"

^

1957-60

^_-^J

1953-56

95
90 85

1

-12

1

1

-10

1

1

-8

1

1

-6

1

1

-4

1

1

-2

1 1

0

1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22

MONTHS FROM CYCLICAL TROUGH
NOTE: RATE AND INDEXES BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED DATA. EACH SERIES STARTS AT ITS
PREVIOUS CYCLICAL PEAK AND ENDS 22 MONTHS AFTER THE CYCLICAL TROUGH, WHICH
CORRESPONDS WITH THE MOST RECENT MONTH OF THE PRESENT EXPANSION.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM, AND
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.




12

12 percent, above its recession low. In constant prices, this rate was 10
percent above the recession low and 8 percent above the previous peak in
the second quarter of 1960.
Despite these gains, the present expansion, along with its immediate
predecessor, has not matched the increases in GNP attained at the comparable periods of the two earlier postwar recoveries in 1949-51 and 195456, as shown in Chart 1. Chart 2 compares the last three postwar recessions and recoveries in terms of other measures of activity. The comparisons in this chart start with activity at the previous cyclical peaks, not
troughs, and thus reflect the record of each cycle over a variable period
spanning recession and the first 22 months of expansion. So viewed, the
gains in income and production from May 1960 to date approximately
match the average of the previous two cycles. But, as already noted, the
May 1960 peak itself represented an incomplete recovery.
Slowdown in expansion
As Chart 1 shows, throughout 1961 the current recovery was relatively
brisk. However, during 1962, quarterly GNP increases fell to about half
their 1961 pace, from an average annual rate of $12j/2 billion to $6 billion.
The slower pace of the expansion is evident in the performance of other
major indicators of economic activity during the last 3 quarters of 1961 as
opposed to the 4 quarters of 1962 (Table 1). Reflecting the slowdown, the
unemployment rate in December 1962 was only 0.4 percentage points below
its level a year earlier.
In retrospect, it is clear that the slowdown which was to mark the entire
year began in the first quarter. Despite large inventory building, especially
of steel, GNP in that quarter rose by only $6.4 billion, after a rise of $16.3
billion in the fourth quarter of 1961.
The second quarter found total activity still expanding moderately. It
was marked by the stock market decline that culminated in the historic
price break of May 28. The fall in the market contributed uncertainty
to the investment outlook later in the year. But the timing indicates
strongly that the market break was not a major causal influence on the
economic shape of the year as a whole.
By midyear, the uncertainties posed by mixed signs in current economic
developments, accompanied by the break in stock prices, led to widespread
concern about the possibility of an imminent recession. However, the
economy weathered the developments of the spring without a downturn in
activity. Stock prices recovered half of their losses by the end of 1962.
And business spending on plant and equipment was stronger in the second
half than the surveys in February and May had anticipated.
In the third quarter, GNP rose by only $3.3 billion, to $555.3 billion, as
net exports declined by $1.2 billion and the rate of inventory accumulation,




TABLE 1.—Changes in output, income, and employment in 1961 and 1962
[Seasonally adjusted!
Average quarterly
change

Item

1961 I

1961 IV

1962 IV i
1961 I
to
1961 IV

1961 IV
to
1962 IV i

Billions of dollars, annual rates
Output {current prices):

Gross national product
Personal consumption expenditures
Gross private domestic investment
Fixed investment
Residential nonfarm construction .
Other construction
Producers' durable equipment
Change in business inventories
Net exports of goods and services
Government purchases of goods and servic
Federal
State and local---

500.8

538.6

562.0

12.6

5.8

330. 5
60.1

346.1
76.6

363.5
75.0

5.2
5.5

4.4
-.4

63.7
19.0
20.3
24.4

70.6
22.8
20.4
27.4

74.5
23.7
21.3
29.6

2.3
1.3
(2)
1.0

1.0
.2
.2

-3.6

6.0

.5

3.2

-1.4

5.3
104.8

3.8
112.1

2.5
121.0

-.5
2.4

-.3
2.2

55.4
49.4

59.5
52.6

63.7
57.3

1.4
1.1

1.0
1.2

354.3
20.3

372.6
26.3

389.3
3 26.1

6.1
2.0

4.2

0.1
.3

0.3
.3
.2

Income:
Disposable personal income
Corporate profits after taxes

Millions of persons
Employment:

Total civilian employment
Employment in nonagricultural establishments.
Private

53.5
44.9

67.0
54.5
45.5

68.1
55.6
46.2

.2

1

Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
2 Less than $50 million.
3 Data for 1962 III and change from 1961 IV to 1962 III.
NOTE.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
See Tables C-l, C-15, C-19, C-25, and C-64.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Department of Labor (except as noted).

under pressure from steel liquidation, declined by $3.0 billion from the second
quarter level. But by the fourth quarter, exceptionally large early sales of
1963 automobile models helped bring GNP to $562.0 billion.
Role of investment
A year ago the Economic Report and the Budget Message projected a
GNP of $570 billion for 1962. After allowance for intervening revisions in
the national accounts, this called for a 9 percent rise compared with the
7 percent rise that was achieved. While this was toward the upper end of
the range of forecasts then being made, the Administration believed it to
be realistic. Now, in restrospect, it can be seen that the predictions of
government purchases of goods and services, private nonfarm residential
construction, consumer purchases of durables, and net exports were essentially correct.




Consumer purchases of nondurables and services in 1962 fell short of
the year-ago forecast by about $6 billion. Changes in such expenditures
are largely responsive to changes in disposable personal income which in
turn are related to changes in total spending. The percentage of disposable incomes spent by consumers actually rose in 1962. It was therefore the failure of expenditures other than consumption to rise as far as
had been expected that held down the rise in incomes and in turn consumers' expenditures.
The error, then, was in the area of business investment, which fell about
$8 billion short of the level that had been expected for the year 1962. Indeed from the fourth quarter of 1961 to the fourth quarter of 1962, total
business investment actually declined. Expenditures for new plant and
equipment rose by $3.1 billion, but this advance was more than offset by
a drop of $5.5 billion in the rate of inventory investment. As Chart 3 shows,
this decline of investment, which was unuusal for the current stage of expansion, followed 3 quarters of brisk increases in investment spending
during 1961.
Half of the shortfall from the prediction of business investment occurred
in inventory accumulation. During the current expansion, the ratio of inventory accumulation to the increase in final sales of goods (Table 2) has
been only 0.25, compared with ratios of 0.46 and 0.50 in the two preceding
expansions. However, the growth of manufacturers' new orders has been
slow enough so that unfilled order backlogs have declined and the ratio of
inventories to order backlogs has edged upward.
T A B L E 2.—Changes in final sales of goods and inventory accumulation in three expansi
ansions
[Billions of dollars, 1954 prices, seasonally adjusted]

Period »

Change in
final sales
of goods 2

Inventory
accumulation 3

1954 III to 1956 II

19.1

8.8

1958 II to 1960 I

17.4

8.7

1961 I to 1962 IV *

22.1

5.5

1
Specific trough for final sales to 7 quarters after trough.
2 Total change in annual rate of sales.
3
Total accumulation during period.
4
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).

With easy supply conditions and their own markets growing less than
buoyantly, many businesses evidently chose in 1962 to pursue cautious
stocking policies and to speed their introduction of new inventory-conserving
managerial techniques. Despite the unfavorable effect upon 1962 output
and income, inventories, as a result, are less an area of potential weakness
in 1963 than might otherwise have been the case.




CHART 3

Change in Total Business Investment
in Four Postwar Expansions
PERCENT

40
FIRST 3 QUARTERS OF EXPANSION^

20

0I
PERCENT

40
NEXT 4 QUARTERS OF EXP A N S I O N ^

-

-

Y.Y/.Y.Y.V."

20

I

-

0

-

-10

1949-51

1954-56

1956-59

1961-62

j / BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED DATA IN CONSTANT PRICES. INVESTMENT CONSISTS OF
NONRESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION, PRODUCERS' DURABLE EQUIPMENT, AND CHANGE IN
INVENTORIES. RECOVERY MEASURED FROM TROUGH QUARTERS FOR GNP: 1949 U , 195401,
1958 I , AND 1961 I .
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




16

The other half of the shortfall in 1962 business investment below yearago expectations was in fixed investment. Although this did rise by 9
percent, 1962 over 1961, it did not exhibit the stronger surge that had
been anticipated. A number of conditions that had been expected to
facilitate a rapid expansion in plant and equipment spending did in fact
materialize. External finance was comparatively cheap and plentiful. Internal finance was relatively abundant; indeed, by the end of the year gross
corporate saving exceeded gross investment expenditures by $3 billion. And
by summer, as noted in the section that follows, businesses received the
combined impetus of liberalized depreciation schedules and an investment
tax credit.
To all appearances, the stimulus to invest in new products and in costreducing changes of equipment and process remained strong during the
year. And the stimulus arising from the current degree of capacity utilization could reasonably have been expected to be stronger than during the
preceding expansion. For the index of capacity utilization compiled at the
Federal Reserve Board, which rose from 78 percent in the first quarter of
1961 to 85 percent in the fourth quarter of that year, had consistently remained 3 to 5 percentage points above corresponding quarters in the 1958-59
recovery. A similar difference in utilization rates between the end of 1961
and the end of 1958 has also beeen reported in a survey by a private organization,
Rather than in any of these factors, the restraint upon fixed investment in
1962 lay in another circumstance that became increasingly apparent as the
year progressed. This was the cumulative effect upon business expectations
of 5 years of persisting slack in the economy. By 1962, this prolonged period
of underproduction and underemployment had dampened business5 willingness to invest. It left businessmen with a long record of consistently, not
merely temporarily, redundant capacity. Excess capacity meant lower
average profit margins. Further, it meant that new investment was more
likely to be risky and less likely to be profitable.
With respect to both fixed investment and inventory investment, in short,
the disappointing 1962 performance was a reflection of inadequate demand—not only of a current inadequacy but of one that had been accumulating for half a decade. By the end of 1962, it was plain that businessmen had become conditioned to appraise future expansion cautiously
and were slow to extend their commitments beyond near-term needs. Business investment had taken on a character that was likely—in the absence of
strong expansionary forces elsewhere in the economy—to cause the economy to stabilize at less-than-full employment levels more or less indefinitely.
Plainly, a decisive upward adjustment in the economy's underlying expan-

669333 0—63




sionary forces was needed, and it is this the President's 1963 tax program
is designed to supply.
FISCAL POLICY

As remarked already, the President's budget for the fiscal year 1963
expected continuation of the strong tide of recovery that had marked the
last 3 quarters of 1961. Fiscal policy was designed to support but not to
spur the economy's expansion. The Administration was resolved to avoid
repeating the premature and abrupt swing of 1959 toward restrictive budgetary policy. At that time, the budget on a national accounts basis moved
from a deficit of $11 billion (annual rate) in the third quarter of 1958 to a
surplus of $8 billion 6 quarters later. Federal outlays rose only $1 billion
while revenues rose $20 billion, reflecting improved corporate profits, the
continuing growth of personal incomes, and higher tax rates for social insurance. Between the calendar years 1959 and 1960, the estimated budget
surplus that would occur at 4 percent unemployment rose from $6 billion to
over $13 billion. During 1961, the first year of this Administration, this
implicit surplus was reduced to about $8 billion. The budget presented last
January envisioned little further change in this surplus.
Actual revenues were expected to increase rapidly as profits and employment improved in 1962, and Federal receipts and expenditures
in the administrative budget were expected to be almost exactly balanced
in fiscal 1963. The fiscal 1963 Budget Message noted explicitly that a
deficit would appropriately occur if the expansion fell below expectations.
When this happened, the automatic shortfall in revenues helped to cushion
the burden of taxes on private demand.
Two important changes in taxation were initiated in 1962 to help to stimulate the investment needed for sustained expansion and longer-run growth.
On July 11, the Treasury Department issued revised guidelines for determining depreciation schedules for tax purposes. Their effect was to
increase, in some cases substantially, the rate at which business firms can
write off plant and equipment, thus reducing corporate profits tax liabilities.
In addition, the new procedures permit management greater flexibility in
determining depreciation charges and allow more fully for prospective
obsolescence. As a further encouragement to investment, Congress in
October enacted an investment tax credit as part of the Administrationsupported Revenue Act of 1962. This credit permits corporations to deduct from their tax liabilities a part of the cost of newly acquired equipment. Taken together, these two changes increase the flow of internal
funds by over $2 billion a year and strengthen incentives to invest by an
estimated 20 percent increase in the profitability of eligible new investment
in plant and equipment. These two measures are described in more detail
in Appendix A.




l8

The Public Works Acceleration Act of 1962, passed by the Congress in
September, authorized the President to inaugurate public works programs
in areas of persistent and substantial unemployment and underemployment.
The Administration moved rapidly to carry out this program, which permits acceleration of work on Federal projects, as well as grants for State and
local projects. (See Appendix A.)
During the late spring and summer as the slowdown generated concern
about impending recession, the Administration considered carefully the need
for stronger fiscal measures. By the middle of August, the evidence pointed
to continued expansion through 1962. In his August 13 address, the
President reviewed the economic situation and discussed his decision to ask
the Congress to enact comprehensive tax reduction and reform legislation in
1963 to meet our basic longer-term needs but not to ask for tax reduction in
1962 on an emergency basis.
MONETARY AND DEBT MANAGEMENT POLICIES

Monetary policy has remained favorable to economic expansion. During 1962, most interest rates on long-term financing fell below their levels
at the trough of the recession in February 1961 (Chart 4). While this was
partly a passive result of economic slack and stability in the price level, it
also reflected deliberate effort on the part of the monetary authorities to
maintain adequate liquidity and favorable credit conditions.
Monetary and debt management authorities faced a continuous challenge
in maintaining such credit conditions without encouraging short-term capital
movements that would hinder improvement in the U.S. balance of payments.
Since mid-1960, monetary and debt management authorities have worked
together to keep short-term interest rates from falling out of line with rates
abroad.
Federal Reserve open market operations were geared to two objectives.
First, they provided the basis for deposit expansion as well as restoring to
the banking system reserves absorbed by the decline in the gold stock and
the rise in currency in circulation. Since the Federal Reserve also reduced
cash reserve requirements against savings and time deposits from 5 to 4
percent, the result was an effective net increase in reserves of more than
$1 billion during the year.
Second, purchases and sales of U.S. Government securities were designed
to minimize the downward pressures on short-term interest rates resulting
from monetary expansion, while encouraging the flow of long-term funds
and keeping downward pressures on long-term rates needed for domestic
recovery and growth. The Federal Reserve System continued the policy,
begun in February 1961, of purchasing longer-term securities, although on
a more moderate scale in 1962 than in 1961. Most purchases, on balance,
were concentrated in the 1-5 year range. There were negligible net purchases of securities with maturities of under 1 year.




CHART 4

Interest Rates in Three Postwar Expansions
PERCENT
_ CORPORATE Aaa BOND YIELDS (MOODY'S)

1961-62

**mmim^*

1958-60 '

iiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniHini**"*11"111

1954-56

2 L^/d
0

I

I

I

2

I
4

1 I
6
6

I

8

I

I

1
0

I

I

1
2

I

I

1
4

1
6

1
8

20

22

PERCENT
7
FHA NEW HOME MORTGAGE YIELDS •

1961-62

1958-60
1954-56
jiimijiiiiiimiuiiimiiii

I

O

I

2

iiiiiiiiiin

I

I

4

I

6

8

10

12

14

16

I

I

18

I

I

I

2 0 22

PERCENT

3-MONTH TREASURY BILL RATE (NEW ISSUES)

1958-60

y^^y0^
1961-62

/

I

0

I

2

I

I

4

I

I

6

I

I

8

I

I

1
0

I

I

1
2

I

I

1
4

I

1
6

1
8

20

22

MONTHS AFTER CYCLICAL TROUGH
SOURCES: MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE, FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA), AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS
OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM.




20

TABLE 3.—Net funds raised by nonfinancial borrowers, 1957-62
[Billions of dollars]
Borrower

1957

Total .

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962 1

32.5

36.2

46.3

58.3

8.7
.8

-2.2

1.4

2.0

7.4
2.7

31.9

43.1

36.3

36.2

7.4
1.5
49.4

6.8
2.6
2.3
19
.

31
.
.1
1.8
11
.

14.1

11.0

61
.
5.6
2.4

4.4
2.9
3.7

5.8
1.4
2.3
2.2

14.6
5.5
4.8
4.3

25.6

28.8

29.1

25.3

30.4

4.6
8.8
86
.
3.5

Securities and mortgages
State and local obligationsCorporate securities
l-to-4 family mortgages
Other mortgages

52.7

86
.
2.3

32.4

Loans
Consumer credit..
Bank loans 3
Other loans

42.8

-1.3

Federal Government 2
Foreign borrowers
__
Private domestic nonfinancial sectors-

5.5
8.0

4.7
5.4

3.7
5.4

5.1
7.0

10.1

13.2

10.4

12.1

5.2

5.8

5.8

61
.

34.8
5.4
5.2
15.2
9.0

1

Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Includes CCC-guaranteed loans.
Bank loans not elsewhere classified.
NOTE.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (except as noted).

2
3

Meanwhile, the Treasury expanded its cash offerings of securities of under
1-year maturity. As a result of this and other factors, $1 billion was added
to the public's holdings of short-term securities. At the same time, as
explained in Chapter 2, the Treasury lengthened the average maturity of
the publicly held debt by 5 months, largely through advance refunding
operations.
Growth in private demand deposits and currency was $2.3 billion, or only
IJ/2 percent. But the increase in maximum rates payable on commercial
bank savings and time deposits under Regulation Q led to a $15 billion
rise in these deposits. The money supply—currency and demand deposits—
plus savings and time deposits rose by about 7 ^ percent, somewhat faster
than in 1961.
The pattern of commercial bank credit expansion was different from that
of 1961 because of three related factors which affected credit: private loan
demand grew moderately as economic activity expanded; expectations for
stable long-term interest rates formed; and the inflow of savings and time
deposits accelerated.
As a result, business lending was the highest in 3 years, and banks were
a major factor in the capital markets. Banks added record amounts—over
$9 billion—to their holdings both of State and local government securities
and of mortgages, but they did not add to their holdings of U.S. Government securities, as they had in 1961. The postwar cyclical pattern of interest rates had led the financial community to expect rising long-term interest
rates once recovery began in February 1961. This expectation helped to prevent long-term interest rates from moving downward in the early months of
expansion. But as monetary ease persisted, and inflationary psychology




21

waned, this pattern of expectations broke down, and lenders entered longerterm capital markets more aggressively. The abundant flow of funds
through institutions that lend in the long-term capital markets, and the
substantial operations of commercial banks, helped support a new record
volume of mortgage financing, while State and local governmental securities flotations increased somewhat (Table 3).
New issues of corporate securities fell off substantially in the face of
modest capital expenditures relative to the large internal cash flow.
THE FIVE-YEAR RECORD
The slowdown of 1962 was rooted in the prolonged sag of demand below
capacity that has continued since 1957. The forces that have kept us
below full employment in the past several years persist. Our challenge
now is to overcome them.
The 1957-62 period matches neither our own record of performance
between 1947 and 1957, nor the gains achieved by other free nations (see
Chapter 4). The annual growth rates of output, income, and productivity
have all run about 1 percentage point lower in the most recent period than
in the previous decade, as Table 4 shows.
TABLE 4.—Changes in output, income, and employment in two postwar periods
[Percentage change per year]
Item

1957-62 1

Gross national product (GNP), constant pricesPrivate GNP, constant prices *
Industrial production

3.0
3.0
3.3

Disposable personal income, constant prices

3.1

Labor force»
Employment •
GNP per capita, constant prices
Private GNP per man-hour, constant prices
Disposable personal income per capita, constant prices..

1.1
.9
1.2
2.7
1.3

1

Based on preliminary estimates for 1962 by Council of Economic Advisers.
Total gross national product less compensation of general government employees.
»Includes armed forces; data for 1962 adjusted by Council of Economic Advisers for comparability with
data for preceding years.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and Department of Labor (except as noted).
2

In the past 5 years, the economy has been consistently out of balance—
with too little demand to match our supply capabilities. In the first postwar decade, when demands were considerably stronger, the balance was
frequently tipped in the other direction. There are several reasons
why total private demand—and especially investment demand—was particularly strong in the 1947-57 period and less buoyant in the recent period.
We began the postwar era with an abundance of liquid assets and a dearth
of physical assets—plant and equipment, inventories, housing, and con-




22

sumer durables. As a result, firms and households were eager spenders for
goods in the late 1940's. Then the expansionary fiscal actions required by
the Korean conflict helped to underwrite full utilization in the early 1950Js.
Aided by a tax reduction in 1954, the Nation subsequently adjusted readily
to a peacetime, high-defense environment. Demand for capital goods and
automobiles sparked a brisk advance toward full employment during 1955.
Prices rose considerably in 1956-57, and monetary and fiscal policies were
tightened.
When prices stabilized and output began to fall short of full utilization,
fiscal and monetary policy continued to treat excess demand as the principal threat to our economic performance. Tax reduction was widely discussed in 1958 but was rejected as unnecessary for reversing recession—a
correct judgment in view of the April upturn—and as overly expansionary
for the longer run—a judgment that now appears incorrect. In 1959-60
fiscal and monetary policies were tightened sharply in response to what was
considered a lingering inflationary threat, contributing to the brief duration and weakness of the 1958-60 expansion. In the immediate postwar
years, it took time for policy to be adjusted to the strength of the expansionary forces; later, it again took time to recognize that these forces had
largely expended themselves. In the current expansion, no backlogs of
private demand, no sums of excess liquidity, no unusual body of deferred
technical changes have been present to push the economy toward full
employment. And once unemployment of manpower and machines had
persisted for nearly 5 years, expectations in 1962 were colored by the
suspicion that underutilization was to be the normal state of the American
economy. As a result, inadequate demand remains the clear and present
danger to an improved economic performance. The manifestations and
costs of this imbalance are evident in a review of unemployment and production in the 1957-62 period.
RECORD OF UNEMPLOYMENT

Unemployment has been consistently and significantly higher since 1957
than it was in earlier postwar years. The unemployment rate averaged
4.3 percent of the civilian labor force during the decade which ended in
1957, and exceeded 4 percent significantly only during recessions and early
phases of recovery. Since then, unemployment has averaged 6.0 percent
and has been below 5 percent for only 1 month in the past 5 years. Both the
average number of persons unemployed and the average length of each
spell of unemployment have risen. From 1948 to 1957, the average
duration of unemployment was 10.3 weeks; since then it has been 14.3 weeks.
The comparability of the unemployment data for the years of the postwar
era has recently been reaffirmed by the President's Committee to Appraise
Employment and Unemployment Statistics.




TABLE 5.—Unemployment rates for experienced wage and salary workers, by industry,
1957, 7967, and 7962
[Percent i]

Industry

1957

Total experienced wage and salary workers.

1961

1962

4.5

6.8

5.5

4.5

Nonagricultural industries

6.7

5.5

Mining, forestry, fisheries
Construction
Manufacturing
Durable goods
Nondurable goods

11.6
14.1
7.7

8.6
12.0
5.8

4.9
5.3

8.4
6.7

5.7
5.9

Transportation and public utilities.
Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Service industries
Public administration
1

6.3
9.8
5.0

3.1
4.5
1.8
3.4
2.0

5.1
7.2
3.3
4.9
2.7

3.9
6.3
3.1
4.3
2.2

Percent of civilian labor force in each group who were unemployed.

Source: Department of Labor.

As shown in Table 5, unemployment has risen since 1957 among workers
attached to services, finance, and trade—industries where employment is
at or near record levels—as well as among workers attached to manufacturing, mining, construction, and transportation and public utilities—industries where employment remains below earlier highs. Similarly, as
shown in table 6, no major occupational group has been spared higher
TABLE 6.—Unemployment rates by occupation, 7957, 7967, and 7962
[Percent i]
Occupation

1962

Total unemployed

_

4.3

Farmers and farm managers
Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm
Clerical and kindred workers
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers

..

Carpenters
Construction craftsmen, except carpenters
Mechanics and repairmen
Metal craftsmen, except mechanics
Other craftsmen and kindred workers
Foremen, not elsewhere classified
Operatives and kindred workers
Private household workers
Service workers, except private household
Farm laborers and foremen
Laborers, except farm and mine
1
2

^

Percent of civilian labor force in each category who were unemployed.
Average of January, April, July, and October estimates.

Source: Department of Labor.




4.9
1.7

1.4
1.3
2.5

1.4
1.3
2.0

.4
1.8
4.6

.3
1.5
3.9

3.7

3.4

2.6
3.8

4.7
6.3

4.1
5.1

8.1
6.4
2.8
2.6
2.4
1.7

_.

5.6

5.9
2.0

2.3

Medical and other health workers
Teachers, except college
Other professional, technical, and kindred workers

6.7

.3
1.0
2.8

___

3.9
1.2
1.4
.7
1.3

Experienced workers
Professional, technical, and kindred workers

12.3
10.7
4.7
6.2
3.4
2.6

9.4
8.8
3.6
3.4
3.4
2.6

6.3
3.7
5.1
3.7
9.4

9.6
5.9
7.4
5.7
14.5

7.5
4.9
6.4
4.3
12.4

unemployment rates since 1957. The rise has affected professional and
technical workers, craftsmen, clerks and sales workers, as well as unskilled
and semiskilled workers. Higher unemployment exists even among skill
categories in which labor is still assumed to be in short supply. For instance,
unemployment rates have risen among mechanics and repairmen, stenographers, clerks and typists, and teachers.
The statistics given above indicate that today jobs are more scarce than
skills. But the skills of the labor force must continually adjust to changes
in demand and technology, and these adjustments are neither easy nor
automatic.
The incidence of high unemployment has fallen most sharply on young
persons newly entering the labor market. The inadequate rate of growth
in job opportunities has resulted in new entrants encountering special difficulty in finding jobs despite their better educational qualifications.
Though lacking in experience and specific skills, young entrants to the labor
force are better educated than the average worker and significantly better
educated than older workers retiring from the labor market. This has resulted in an increasing proportion of younger persons entering the white
collar and more highly skilled occupations, but has not prevented a dramatic
rise in the unemployment rate for the group as a whole.
Even during highly prosperous years, there is an imperfect matching
of unfilled jobs with unemployed labor. Technological changes, shifting
patterns of demand, and the relocation of industry are continuously displacing workers. New skill requirements arise, and old ones become redundant. As a result, there are always unmanned jobs and jobless men.
But it is reasonably certain that the number of unfilled job vacancies has
not risen along with unemployment these past 5 years. The United States
unfortunately does not have a comprehensive statistical series on job vacancies—although work leading to the eventual institution of such a series
is being recommended in this year's budget. However, the index of helpwanted advertisements compiled by the National Industrial Conference
Board—a partial measure of job vacancies—indicates a substantially smaller
volume of such advertisements in 1962 than in 1957 after adjustment is
made for growth of the labor force. Higher unemployment is explained
by the shortage of new job opportunities; the matching of unfilled jobs and
unemployed workers has not become any less efficient in recent years, though
current efforts to make it more efficient were long overdue.
The problems of structural unemployment—of imperfect adaptation of
jobs and workers—are persistent and serious, and they are thrown into bold
relief by the prolonged lack of sufficient job opportunities over the past 5
years. But these problems of adaptation have not constituted a greater
cause of unemployment in recent years than in earlier periods. The source
of the high unemployment rates in recent years, even in periods of cyclical
expansion, lies not in labor market imbalance, but in the markets for goods
and services.




2

5

PRODUCTION: ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL

While aggregate output rose by 3 percent a year from 1957 to 1962, the
productive capacity of the economy rose even faster. A gap between potential and actual output began to emerge in the late stages of the 1954-57
expansion and has persisted ever since. From 1958 through 1962, actual
fell short of potential by more than 6 percent on the average.
The difference between unemployment rates of 5.6 percent and 4 percent
understates the loss of output that occurred in 1962. Higher employment
in a slack economy brings with it higher man-hour productivity through
more efficient use of manpower and machinery. In addition, as production
moves at a faster pace the total number of hours worked increases faster
than employment itself; fully-employed workers find themselves on overtime, and the substantial number of involuntary part-time workers—more
than 2 million in 1962—is reduced. Finally, the availability of jobs encourages entry into the labor force of many who had not actively sought work
in the knowledge that there was none to be had. The 1962 Report of the
Council discussed these aspects of the unemployment-output relationship in
more detail.
No precise and unvarying connection exists between higher output and
reduced unemployment. The relationship depends on the industry and
region producing the added output, the capital available for expanded
production, the existing amount of on-the-job underemployment, and the
skills of available workers. But our postwar experience indicates that a
reduction of 1 percentage point in the global unemployment rate at any
moment of time is associated, on the average, with an increase in real GNP
of slightly more than 3 percent. Put the other way around, if GNP were
3 percent higher than it is now, the unemployment rate would be approximately 1 percentage point lower.
With the passage of time, the unemployment rate will remain constant
only if output rises. Because the labor force grows over time, constancy
in the unemployment rate means a rise in the number of employed workers
and thus requires an increase in total output. And because output per
worker also tends to rise—with advances in technology, improvements in
skills, and additions of new capital equipment—production must increase
faster than employment.
In the post-Korean period, the aggregate output associated with a constant unemployment rate has grown at about 3j/s> percent a year. For
example, in 1954, 1960, and again in 1962, unemployment averaged 5.6
percent of the labor force. From 1954 to 1960, the annual growth rate of
output was 3.2 percent; from 1960 to 1962, it was 3.6 percent.
Chart 5 shows the Council's estimate of potential output for the years
1953-62. The path of potential is represented by a 3/2 percent trend line
through actual output in mid-1955, which is taken as a period of approximately full use of resources. This smooth curve is a consistent approxima-




26

CHART 5

Gross National Product, Actual and Potential,
and Unemployment Rate
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS* (Ratio scale)
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT
IN 1962 PRICES

600

-

550
POTENTIAL

-^

fff

500

ACTUAL

450

-

400

_

l

i

i i

1953

i

i

1954

i

i

i

1955

11

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

i

1956

1957

1958

1959

I960

1961

J

I i

PERCENT

[ ]

I

I t

1962
PERCENT

GNP GAP AS PERCENT OF POTENTIAL (Left scale).

•—• UNEMPLOYMENT RATE -2^(Right scale)

10

-5

I
1953

I
1954

1955

1956

I

I
1957

1958

I
1959

I960

1961

1962

• SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
1 / 3 ) 4 % TREND LINE THROUGH MIDDLE OF 1955.
1] UNEMPLOYMENT AS PERCENT OF CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE; SEASONALLY ADJUSTED.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




tion to the more irregular path traced out by the alternative calculation
using unemployment rates. (This is suggested by the lower panel of the
chart, which compares changes in the gap between actual and potential
GNP with fluctuations in the unemployment rate.)
The chart also shows actual GNP and the discrepancy between actual
and potential output. The cumulative excess of potential over actual output in the period 1958 to 1962 totals $170 billion (1962 prices) or nearly
$1,000 a person. The gap was dramatically reduced during early stages
of the two expansions of 1958-59 and 1961. But the subsequent stages of
each expansion failed to bring actual GNP up to potential.
The estimate of the gap shown in the chart is consistent also with the
evidence on the utilization of industrial capacity. There are statistical
difficulties in any attempt to measure capacity and utilization rates, and the
available material is relatively narrow in coverage. Nevertheless, it provides a partial check on calculations based primarily on unemployment
rates. Since 1957, the average of a quarterly index of manufacturing capacity utilization compiled at the Federal Reserve Board has been 5 percent
below the average for 1947-57. In the past 5 years, the index has not
exceeded its 1947—57 average. As in all recent years, the 1962 operating
rate left room for considerable expansion of output and employment without strain on existing manufacturing capacity.
The thrust of recovery during the past 2 years has narrowed the gap
of unrealized potential and excess industrial capacity. The problem remaining is to create an economic environment in which the expansionary
powers of the private economy can reinforce each other in a movement
toward full utilization. Once we have brought our actual performance
up to our potential, we can look toward a more rapid growth of our potential as well. From 1947 to 1955, GNP in constant prices, matching the
growth of potential GNP, rose at an average annual rate of 4.3 percent.
The lower 3J4 percent growth rate of potential in recent years is attributable
to our failure to use existing capacity fully, thereby blunting the incentives
for investment and innovations.
THE LEVEL AND PATTERN OF DEMAND

Higher rates of unemployment, slower advances in output, excess industrial capacity, reduced growth of incomes—these features of our economy
in the past several years are not separate phenomena. They are all part of
the syndrome of persistently sluggish demand. Total expenditures for
goods and services have been insufficient to take full advantage of our
capacity to produce, to keep our manpower and machines fully employed,
and to support the rapid growth of incomes of which the economy is
capable.
The relative strength or weakness of the major categories of demand has
varied during the period. Thus Federal purchases of goods and services
in constant (1962) prices declined by $4.6 billion between the end of 1958




28

and the end of 1960. As a fraction of disposable income, consumption
ranged from a low of 92 percent in 1958 to a high of 94 percent in 1960.
Expenditures on new housing showed strength in 1958-59 and 1961-62.
Business investment in fixed assets and inventories fluctuated cyclically
around a relatively low average. However, the variations from component
to component and from year to year are less significant than the consistent
insufficiency of total expenditures. The weakness of total demand held
down capacity utilization and retarded the incentives for investment. Weak
investment in turn slowed the growth of incomes and demand.
Investment
Throughout the 1957-62 period, weakness in the demand for investment
goods was both cause and effect of the weakness of total demand. Unlike
other major components of GNP, gross private domestic investment in 1962
prices has shown no upward trend since the mid-1950's. After a brisk rise of
about 50 percent from 1947, it reached a peak of $75 billion in 1955, then
fell, and did not return to the 1955 level until 1962, when real GNP was
16 percent larger.
Business fixed investment was high in the early postwar years, averaging
about 12 percent of total output (1962 prices) in 1947-48. Demand for
plant and equipment was especially strong after nearly 2 decades of low
growth in capacity associated with the depression of the 1930's and the war.
From 1949 through 1957, business fixed investment remained within a range
of 10 to 11 percent of real GNP. In sharp contrast, during the past 5 years
the proportion of output devoted to business fixed investment has averaged
only 9 percent. This trend is shown in Chart 7 in Chapter 2.
The relative weakness in plant and equipment outlays in recent years is
reflected in the apparently slow growth of business fixed capital. The
amount of business fixed capital in useful existence can only be inferred.
But using average service lives based on actual business practice, the Department of Commerce estimates that the existing stock of business structures
and equipment has increased by only 2 percent per year over the past 5
years, compared with 4 percent a year in the period 1947-57 (Table 7).
TABLE 7.—Growth of gross stocks of fixed business capital in two postwar periods 1
[Percentage change per year]
Type of stock

1947-57

Total nonfarm

1957-62 2

39

1.7

Structures
Equipment

1.7
6.9

2.7
.6

Manufacturing

4.3

1.2

Structures
Equipment

1.7
6.5

.4
1.6

1
Based on stocks, in 1954 prices, at end of year; lives 20 percent shorter than in Internal Revenue Service
Bulletin F (1942 edition).
2
Based on preliminary estimates for 1962 by Council of Economic Advisers.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




29

Changing incentives to invest are reflected in the relationship between
corporate saving and investment. Profitable and expanding markets lead
businessmen to invest more than their gross retained earnings. Through
their participation in debt and equity markets, business firms then channel
personal savings into new capital goods and inventories. Chart 6 shows that,
from 1947 to 1957, nonfinancial corporations generally invested more than
their own gross saving. The only exceptions in that period occurred in the
recession years of 1949 and 1954. But, since 1957, the relationship has
been reversed: investment by corporations in plant, equipment and additions to inventories has not kept pace with gross retained earnings. Corporate investment fell considerably short of corporate saving in 1958 and
1961, and exceeded saving by a bare margin in 1959 and 1960. The past
year, 1962, was the first in the postwar era when corporate investment fell
short of corporate saving in a year untinged by recession. While the slow
pace of advance in the economy since 1957 has held down the supply of
internal funds to nonfinancial corporations, their incentives to invest have
not even kept pace with the over-all availability of internal funds.
Residential construction expenditures are so volatile from year to year
that a clear trend is hard to discern. The record does suggest that the rise
in construction activity slowed after the first postwar decade. Housing
activity in 1961-62 surpassed the 1955-57 average by less than 15 percent,
while construction in 1955-57 represented a 55 percent gain over 1947-49.
Expenditures on residential construction remained the same percentage of
personal disposable income (in 1962 prices), 6.0 percent, during 1958-62
as in the previous decade. In view of the large backlog of housing demand
in the earlier period, housing activity has held up well.
Consumption
In 1947-49, consumer outlays clearly exerted an important expansionary
force on the economy, averaging more than 95 percent of disposable income
over the 3-year interval. Since 1950, however, the fraction of disposable
personal income spent on consumers goods and services has remained
between 92 and 94 percent each year. The fraction has varied in this range
from year to year, but it has shown no clear trend. Consumers expenditures
have not been constrained in recent years by any unwillingness of consumers
to spend out of their disposable incomes.
But the growth of consumption has slowed, constrained both by a
smaller rise in personal income and by the high and increasing bite of personal taxes. As a result of a rising ratio of personal tax collections—both
Federal and State and local—to personal income, disposable personal
income as a fraction of personal income has declined from 87.9 percent
in 1957 to 86.9 percent in 1962.
Since 1951, the proportion of disposable income (1962 prices) spent
on durable goods has shown no trend, although it ranged from a high of
13.6 percent in 1955 to a low of 11.3 percent in 1958. It averaged 12.1




30

CHART 6

Gross Saving and Capital Expenditures
of Corporate Nonfinancial Business
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

40

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES

30

20

l

1947

I

I

I

1949

I

1951

I

I

I

1953

I

1955

1957

1959

1961

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS
EXCESS OF CAPITAL EXPENDITURES

10

-5
EXCESS OF GROSS SAVING
I

-10

1947

I

I

1949

I

I

1951

I

I

1953

I

I

1955

I

I

1957

I

I

1959

1/ CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND CHANGE IN INVENTORIES.
2/ PROFITS AFTER TAX ACCRUALS AND DIVIDENDS PLUS CAPITAL CONSUMPTION ALLOWANCES.
SOURCES: BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AND COUNCIL OF
ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




I

I

1961

percent from 1958 to 1962. This stable proportion gives strong evidence
of the continuing demand for durables. Automobile sales have been supported by increasing replacement demand and the growing tendency of
families to own more than one car. Expenditures on other durables have
grown proportionally with incomes. Since 1957,, an increased—but still
small—fraction of households have acquired such items as air conditioners,
dishwashers, dryers, and freezers.
The most notable change in the composition of consumption in the
postwar period has been the shift away from nondurable goods and toward
services. From 1951 to 1962, the proportion of disposable income (1962
prices) spent on nondurables fell from 45.8 to 42.3 percent, while the
fraction spent on services rose from 34.9 to 38.5 percent.
Conclusion
Total demand depends on the strength of expenditures in the several
sectors of the economy. But it is not a simple sum of the parts. Exceptional strength in any component of expenditure will raise employment and
capacity utilization, household incomes and business profits, consumption
and investment, spreading its expansionary influence throughout the
economy. These forces can sometimes be too strong, and they then need
to be restrained by fiscal and monetary policies.
At other times, there may be no exceptional upward drive in the economy.
In this type of situation, weakness in any sector is diffused throughout the
economy unless it is offset by a sufficiently expansionary fiscal or monetary
policy. In the past 5 years, total demands have not been adequate to
promote rapid growth of incomes. Consumption has not generated the
profitable markets needed to stimulate investment; and investment spending has not generated the incomes needed to promote strong gains in consumption. Even though the capital stock has grown slowly, so has total
demand; thus the economy has not been able to grow into its unused
capacity. And as sluggishness has persisted, unfavorable experiences have
generated unfavorable expectations and cautious planning, reinforcing the
inadequacy of demand.
Taking the past 2 years by themselves, gains in employment, incomes,
and output have been substantial. Fiscal and monetary policies have supported recovery from the recession. However, despite this encouraging
progress it is now apparent that demands originating in the private economy
are insufficient by themselves to carry us to full employment. Nowhere
are there visible spontaneous forces of sufficient strength to put an end to
the period of slow growth. But there is a way: through tax reductions
and reforms, the Federal Government can relax its restraints on the expansionary power of the private economy.




THE ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
The Employment Act of 1946 requires estimates of "current and foreseeable trends in the levels of employment, production, and purchasing power."
This is a wise and constructive mandate. The plans and policies of both
Government and business are forward-looking: they influence the future;
they must rest—however uneasily—on expectations about the future.
For some purposes, the forecasts upon which'public policies are based need
not be numerically precise. As a justification for an expansionary tax reduction in 1963, for example, it is enough to know that, lacking such a cut, the
prospect for 1963 and beyond is for substantial shortfalls of demand below
capacity. On the other hand, the need, for budgetary purposes, to make
fairly exact projections of Federal revenues requires the relatively precise
kind of forecast—namely, that GNP will amount to $578 billion, plus or
minus $5 billion—contained in this year's Budget Message. This estimate
implies moderate gains in employment, production, and purchasing power
throughout 1963, with expansion beginning to accelerate later in the year
in response to the President's tax program. The average quarterly gain in
GNP during the course of the year would be about the same as in 1962—
nearly $6 billion.
The projection for 1963 emerges from a survey of prospects for the major
categories of public and private spending.

GOVERNMENT PURCHASES OF GOODS AND SERVICES

The budget estimates for the fiscal years 1963 and 1964 indicate that
Federal purchases, reflecting increases in defense and space activities, should
continue to rise, reaching in the calendar year 1963 an average $4 billion
higher than in calendar 1962. State and local purchases are expected to
continue rising at the same pace as in recent years, adding another $4
billion increase in total spending.
RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

Although down a bit from the preceding quarter, activity in housing
remained strong at the year-end; November starts and permits were above
the 1962 average. Basic demand, supply, and financial conditions should
be as favorable in 1963 as they were in 1962. In the past, housing has
usually declined considerably before a downturn in over-all activity, at least
partly in response to monetary tightness. Ease in mortgage markets is
expected to continue in 1963, reinforcing the prospects for sustained strength
in residential construction. The best estimate is that nonfarm housing
starts and residential construction expenditures will hold at about their
1962 levels.

33
669333 O—63




3

BUSINESS FIXED INVESTMENT

Business investment in plant and equipment during 1963 is expected to
show modest gains above 1962 levels. Its progress is estimated in the light
of the following factors:
1. Over-all rates of capacity utilization improved markedly in 1961,
but they leveled off well short of full utilization during 1962.
There is little prospect of an improvement in operating rates in
the near future.
2. The ready availability of funds will continue to favor investment
in 1963. In both 1961 and 1962, gross corporate saving exceeded corporate investment. Recent tax adjustments are adding
further to business liquidity. And the improved state of equity
markets and the continued ease of bond markets will facilitate
external financing.
3. New orders for machinery and equipment improved moderately
in the second half of 1962. As the year ended, new orders continued to point upward.
4. The November Commerce-SEC survey of investment plans for
the first quarter of 1963 gave puzzling results. Estimated expenditures for the last half of 1962 were revised upward by businessmen; yet their plans pointed to a decline in outlays in the first
quarter of 1963. Typically, upward revisions of plans are accompanied by continued gains in succeeding quarters, not the reverse.
Privately conducted surveys for the year 1963 as a whole report
investment plans exceeding 1962 levels by a small margin.
5. Evidence is accumulating that the new depreciation guidelines
and the investment tax credit will have a significant influence on
investment decisions. According to industry sources, the planned
investment of the steel industry has been substantially increased
under the stimulus of these measures, and now shows a marked
rise over 1962.
Taken together, these considerations support the estimate of a small yearto-year increase in capital outlays.
CHANGE IN BUSINESS INVENTORIES

Businessmen are likely to add to their stocks in 1963, largely in response
to moderate increases in final sales of goods. But the expected growth of
sales is unlikely to push rates of inventory accumulation above the $3 billion
average for 1962. Inventory-sales ratios have, on the whole, remained at
conservative levels. The stability of these ratios suggests that businessmen
view their current stock-sales relationships as appropriate and are not likely




34

to alter them significantly in either direction in the months ahead. But
any sharp departure from expected patterns of final sales would be magnified in this highly volatile component of GNP.
PERSONAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES

Consumer outlays are expected to continue to absorb about 93 percent of
disposable personal income in 1963. Services are likely to claim a slightly
increased fraction of incomes, with the share devoted to goods declining a
bit. Early sales of 1963-model automobiles point to another good year for
car sales, but increases in the sales rate achieved in the last quarter of 1962
are unlikely.
Disposable income is expected to grow at a slightly faster rate than GNP
in 1963. While the increase in payroll taxes effective January 1, 1963, will
retard the rise in disposable income, the prospects for consumer purchasing
power are much improved by the President's recommendation for a midyear
drop in the withholding rate for individual income taxes.
SUMMARY

In pointing to the likelihood of continued expansion, this review of the
major sectors of demand is gratifying; in pointing to continued underutilization, it is challenging.
Continued expansion in 1963 would reverse the apparent postwar trend
toward shorter expansions and more frequent recessions. By March 1963,
the current expansion will have matched the 1958-60 upswing in duration.
If it continues throughout 1963, the present recovery will have lasted 34
months, nearly equaling the 35-month duration of the 1954-57 expansion.
The likelihood of such sustained expansion will be increased by prompt
enactment of the President's recommendation for tax reduction in 1963.
The estimated GNP for 1963 is 4 / 2 percent above the level of 1962 in
current prices. With an increase of this magnitude, real GNP would not
change significantly relative to the economy's potential. Neither the average unemployment rate nor excess industrial capacity in 1963 could be
expected to decline appreciably. Apart from the effects of reduced taxes,
real disposable income per capita and corporate profits could grow slowly
at best. The prospects for 1963 reflect the same insufficiency of demand
that has slowed our growth in the past several years. New investment will
still be inhibited by underutilization of existing capital. Consumer spending
will still be held down—until the tax reductions take effect—by a burdensome tax system. With that drain of purchasing power, the achievement of
full employment would require a level of private investment that experience
suggests will not be forthcoming.
Thus, the prospects for the future join with the facts of the present and
the record of the past 5 years in posing a challenge for economic policy.
But the same record—past, present, and prospective—furnishes valuable




35

guidance on how to respond to the challenge. It suggests that investment will be brisk when consumer spending provides the stimulus of profitable markets; that consumers' living standards can advance rapidly when
business firms have strong incentives to expand employment; that capacity
will grow rapidly when existing capacity is put to full and productive use;
that a business firm can gear its plans to sustained prosperity when it enjoys
buoyant markets; that there is latent strength of private demand which
can be activated when tax reduction relaxes the restraints of fiscal policy.
The President's proposals for tax legislation in 1963 are fashioned to respond
to the realities of the economic record. They are designed to write a far
brighter record in the years ahead. As the proposed tax changes take effect
and release the force of stronger private demands, we can expect our gains
to accelerate markedly. The moderate advance projected for 1963 should
be the forerunner of sharply faster advances thereafter. Under the stimulus
of tax reduction and reform, the years ahead promise to write a new chapter
of full prosperity and rapid growth in our economic history.




Chapter 2

Domestic Economic Policy for the Mid-1960's

T

HE PROGRESS of the American economy in 1961 and 1962, and the
further advance expected in 1963, have been discussed in Chapter 1.
The record is one of steady gains in output, progress toward balance
in our international accounts, maintenance of reasonable price stability,
and a steady rise in incomes which—although moderate in money terms—
translates almost entirely into higher living standards. These are achievements which we all welcome.
But this record is not good enough. Since 1957, progress in creating
new jobs, absorbing idle capacity, and achieving a satisfactory rate of
growth has not measured up to our earlier postwar performance; neither
has our competitive position in the world improved sufficiently to solve
our balance of payments problem. Our economy has not met the standards rightly expected of it by the American people. Given effective public
and private action to make full use of our human and physical resources,
our economy could readily be producing at a rate $30-40 billion higher
than it is. Given effective policies, as discussed in Chapter 4, our balance
of payments problem can be solved.
Our review shows that progress is not likely to be interrupted in the
near future by a recession of the type experienced in 1949, 1953, 1957, and
1960. Thus we do not now face a cyclical emergency compelling immediate action. But the record does disclose that, for more than 5
years, the U.S. economy has lacked the buoyancy and vigor which spell full
employment and rapid growth. The unemployment rate since mid-1957
has averaged 6 percent. Excess manufacturing capacity has averaged 5
percentage points higher than in the preceding decade. The result has
been smaller advances in total payrolls and profits, and lower levels of
investment and consumption, than we are willing to, or need to, accept.
Unemployment and excess capacity also take their toll by slowing down
our long-run growth. They weaken the vital incentive to expand capacity
and to innovate. They hold many of our resources—especially our human
resources—in inferior uses. And they often generate resistance to mechanization and superior technology.
The need for early action lies, then, not in imminent recession but in
continued waste of manpower and machines, and in thwarted opportunities
for more rapid growth. Any program adequate to the task will take time




37

to enact and to become fully effective. Two recessions and two incomplete
recoveries in the past five years bear witness that there is ample cause for
action and no cause for delay.
FISCAL POLICY FOR FULL EMPLOYMENT AND GROWTH
The pace of expansion foreseen in business, consumer, and government
expectations promises no easy resolution of our problem. Indeed, the prospective pace of expansion in 1963 promises little if any reduction of unemployment, little if any narrowing of the gap between actual and potential
output. Positive action to invigorate the economy is required to reverse
the record of the past 5 years and bring output, employment, and income
up to their potential.
Accordingly, the President is recommending a major program of tax
reduction and tax reform to expand private purchasing power and to
strengthen private incentives—a program which will thus attack the problem of idle men and machines at its source and provide new vigor to the
forces for expansion of the U.S. economy. It is the key instrument of policy
for meeting our responsibilities for high employment and faster economic
growth in the mid-1960's.
By reducing taxes, stimulating cost-cutting investment, strengthening incentives, and promoting a more efficient allocation of productive resources, a
balanced tax program serves to lower unit costs. It thereby lays a firmer
foundation for continued price stability and an improved U.S. competitive
situation in world markets.
This chapter will examine the employment and growth objectives which
confront tax and other economic policy this year, summarize the major
elements of the proposals for tax reduction, examine the process by which
tax revision generates higher levels of economic activity, consider monetary
and debt management policies appropriate for complementing the tax
changes while aiming at international equilibrium, and review briefly other
policies for economic expansion.
GOALS OF HIGH EMPLOYMENT AND FASTER GROWTH

Need for more jobs
Today's unemployment, excessive as it is, provides only a partial measure
of the employment problem confronting us—the problem that gives us the
most dramatic single index of the need for tax action. The measure of the
problem can be illustrated by the number of new jobs that would be needed
to reduce unemployment to 4 percent by the end of 1963. This number
can be divided into four parts:
1. The jobs needed to reduce unemployment among the present
labor force from 5.6 percent even to 4.0 percent: 1.1 million.




2. The jobs needed to employ the added workers who would be
drawn into—or drawn back into—the labor market by strong
employment opportunities: perhaps 800,000 within a year (a
larger number as unemployment remained at 4 percent.)
3. The jobs needed to employ the normal annual increase in the
labor force: in 1963, an estimated 1.2 million.
4. The jobs needed to absorb the workers released from their present
employment by mechanization, by technological advance, by improved organization and management, in a word, by rising productivity—jobs required merely to "hold our own" rather than to
absorb today's unemployed or tomorrow's new entrants into the
labor force.
The fourth category represents the replacement jobs needed, the other
three, totaling 3.1 million, the extra jobs needed, to achieve the 4 percent
unemployment level by the end of 1963. Raising the total number of jobs
by 3.1 million would represent an increase in employment of 4.7 percent
from December 1962 to December 1963, exceeding the rate of increase for
any postwar year except the boom year 1955. And to supply, net, 3.1 million
additional jobs, would require creating an even larger number of new jobs
in 1963.
Costs of unemployment
Unemployment is an important index of economic slack and lost output,
but it is much more than that. For the unemployed person, it is often a
damaging affront to human dignity and sometimes a catastrophic blow
to family life. Nor is this cost distributed in proportion to ability to bear
it. It falls most heavily on the young, the semiskilled and unskilled, the
Negro, the older worker, and the underemployed person in a low income
rural area who is denied the option of securing more rewarding urban
employment. Especially serious is the discouragement, disillusion, and
bitterness generated among young people, entering the labor market for
the first time, when the economy leaves them without opportunities of
finding employment.
The concentrated incidence of unemployment among specific groups in
the population means far greater costs to society than can be measured
simply in hours of involuntary idleness or dollars of income lost. The extra
costs include disruption of the careers of young people, increased juvenile
delinquency, and perpetuation of conditions which breed racial discrimination in employment and otherwise deny equality of opportunity.
There is another and more subtle cost. The social and economic
strains of prolonged underutilization create strong pressures for costincreasing solutions. The longer the economic slack continues, the more
difficult it is to resist the efforts of its victims to claim, often quite plausibly,
prosperity incomes out of undercapacity output. On the side of labor,
prolonged high unemployment leads to "share-the-work" pressures for




39

shorter hours, intensifies resistance to technological change and toi rationalization of work rules, and, in general, increases incentives for restrictive
and inefficient measures to protect existing jobs. On the side of business,
the weakness of markets leads to attempts to raise prices to cover high
average overhead costs and to pressures for protection against foreign and
domestic competition. On the side of agriculture, higher prices are necessary to achieve income objectives when urban and industrial demand for
foods and fibers is depressed and lack of opportunities for jobs and higher
incomes in industry keep people on the farm. In all these cases, the problems are real and the claims understandable. But the solutions suggested
raise costs and promote inefficiency. By no means the least of the advantages
of full utilization will be a diminution of these pressures. They will be
weaker, and they can be more firmly resisted in good conscience, when markets are generally strong and job opportunities are plentiful.
Demand and employment
The demand for labor is derived from the demand for the goods and
services which labor participates in producing. Thus, unemployment will
be reduced to 4 percent of the labor force only when the demand for the
myriad of goods and services—automobiles, clothing, food, haircuts, electric
generators, highways, and so on—is sufficiently great in total to require
the productive efforts of 96 percent of the civilian labor force.
Although many goods are initially produced as materials or components
to meet demands related to the further production of other goods, all goods
(and services) are ultimately destined to satisfy demands that can, for
convenience, be classified into four categories: consumer demand, business
demand for new plants and machinery and for additions to inventories, net
export demand of foreign buyers, and demand of government units, Federal, State, and local. Thus gross national product (GNP), our total
output, is the sum of four major components of expenditure; personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports, and
government purchases of goods and services.
The primary line of attack on the problem of unemployment must be
through measures which will expand one or more of these components of
demand. As will be explained more fully below, the tax reduction program being proposed for enactment in 1963 will reduce unemployment
by increasing the consumption and investment components of demand, thus
raising production and creating new jobs.
Full employment, however defined, is a moving target. The GNP
needed to achieve full employment is also a moving target; indeed, it moves
faster than the employment target. The GNP target rises from year to
year not only because the labor force increases but also because output per
worker grows each year, as new technology is introduced, as workers are
better educated and trained, and because capital investment provides each
worker with more as well as better tools and machinery with which to work.




40

As an illustration of these relationships, based on average experience in
the past, GNP in 1962 prices must grow by about 3/2 percent a year, or
nearly $20 billion in 1963, merely to keep the average unemployment rate
at the 1962 level. To have the unemployment rate fall by 1 percentage
point in the course of a year, GNP in constant prices would have to grow
by an additional 3 percent, or a total of about 6^2 percent. For the
unemployment rate to be reduced from 5.6 percent to 4 percent within
one year would require an 8 to 9 percent increase in GNP at constant
prices.
Once a satisfactory level of employment has been achieved in a growing
economy, economic stability requires the maintenance of a continuing
balance between growing productive capacity and growing demand.
Action to expand demand is called for not only when demand actually
declines and a recession appears but even when the rate of growth of
demand falls short of the rate of growth of capacity.
Structural aspects of unemployment
Although increased demand must be the major line of attack on unemployment, other measures are needed as well. Some workers are unemployed because they are not properly trained. Some are unemployed because they are geographically separated from the places where jobs are
opening up and they are unaware of the existence of such opportunities.
As a result of insufficient geographic and occupational mobility, bottlenecks and shortages of particular types of labor may occur as job opportunities expand at a time when there are still many unemployed workers.
A high percentage of the currently unemployed are unskilled and
teenagers. But past periods of expansion have demonstrated industry's
capacity for employing and training large numbers of persons who were
considered unemployable in times of slack. If the total demand for labor
expands, hiring specifications may be made less rigid, jobs redesigned, and
on-the-job training programs expanded. But past experience also makes
it clear that to facilitate the reduction of unemployment to minimum
levels without undue upward pressure on wages and prices calls for vigorous government measures to improve the mobility and skill structure of the
labor force.
Such measures as the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962
and the "adjustment" provisions of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (both
of which are outlined in Appendix A) will help to bring employee skills into
better balance with employers' job requirements and to improve the geographic balance of labor supply and demand. These measures are an
integral part of a program to reduce unemployment to a minimum. The
policy circle will be closed only when markets for goods and services are
strong enough to create new jobs for the retrained and relocated workers.
The problems of structural unemployment and the key role of labor mar-




ket policy will be further developed in the first annual Manpower Report
of the President, to be issued early this year.
It would be wrong to think of the problem of structural adaptation of
our manpower supply only in terms of re-adapting present members of the
labor force to new jobs. Much of the matching of supplies of skills with
demand for them must take the form of appropriate education and training of new entrants into the labor force. The importance of this factor
becomes readily apparent when we consider that nearly one-third of all
workers in our labor force in 1970 will have entered it during the 1960's.
By correctly anticipating the economy's needs for upgraded knowledge and
skills, and aiming our education and training efforts to meet them, we
can steadily improve the fit of available manpower to available jobs.
Success in a combined policy of strengthening demand and adapting manpower supplies to evolving needs would enable us to achieve an interim
objective of 4 percent unemployment and permit us to push beyond it in a
setting of reasonable price stability. Bottlenecks in skilled labor, middlelevel manpower, and professional personnel tend to become acute as
unemployment approaches 4 percent. The result is to retard growth and
generate wage-price pressures at particular points in the economy. As we
widen or break these bottlenecks by intensified and flexible educational,
training, and retraining efforts, our employment sights will steadily rise.
But reaching an interim goal, a way-station, of 4 percent would be no
small achievement in itself. The benefits would be felt by all, but particularly by those who bear the brunt of today's unemployment—the one
in eight teenagers, the one in eight unskilled workers, the one in nine
Negroes. However, an unemployment rate of 4 percent is an unacceptable
target. Therefore, we must expand the various programs that would assist
us in pushing below it.
The growth objective
Economic policies for 1963 couple pursuit of employment objectives with
stimulation of more rapid economic growth. U.S. growth has been lagging.
From 1955 to 1962, the economy's potential grew at an estimated annual
rate of 3^2 percent, nearly a percentage point lower than its growth rate
from 1947 to 1955. Actual output grew even more slowly, averaging 2.7
percent a year in the 1955-62 period. This performance falls short of our
aspirations, both as stated by the President and as translated into our share
of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development commitment to a 50-percent growth target for the 1960's (for the 20 member nations as a group). These aspirations can be realized only by stepping up
our growth rate to 4 percent and beyond as we move through the decade.
Our commitment for the pursuit of policies for faster growth is not
only to our allies in the Atlantic community; it is first of all to ourselves.
More rapid economic growth raises living standards, enhances job oppor-




tunities, and permits satisfaction of many needs now beyond our reach—in
short, it improves the quality of our lives. But it does more. It builds a
broader base for free world leadership, not only in easing the burdens of
defense and foreign aid but, more important, in demonstrating the continued
capacity of a free market economy to expand production, improve distribution, and increase well-being.
Fuller utilization of existing resources provides the primary spur to
growth; indeed, it is a virtual prerequisite to speedier growth. A tax program aimed at high employment simultaneously stimulates growth by (1)
pushing production increasingly toward higher use of plant capacity and
thereby stimulating new investment to expand that capacity, (2) drawing
more workers into the labor force and upgrading others from inferior to
superior uses, (3) decreasing the resistance of labor and management to the
risks of technological change, and correspondingly relaxing the grip of
restrictive practices, (4) providing a business climate which tests ingenuity
and invigorates a spirit of boldness and innovation, and (5) increasing the
profitability of business investment, and generating an enlarged flow of funds
to finance such investment.
More directly, as discussed below, the 1963 tax program will provide
business with greater incentives and financial ability to invest in new capacity and new products. Incentives to risk-taking and to human effort will
be strengthened by rising markets for goods and services, which increase
the flow of profits, and by lower tax rates, which increase business profitability and personal disposable income. A lowering and restructuring of income
tax rates will be the major stimulus to growth. But the 1963 tax program
will also contribute significantly to the growth objective by removing or
reducing tax distortions which interfere with the optimal use of resources.
Tax reforms to promote a more even-handed treatment of income from
different sources will contribute to a more efficient allocation of investment
and manpower, i.e., to greater output per unit of input.
While the proposed 1963 tax actions are central to a program for faster
growth, a rounded policy embraces many other measures. A later section
of this chapter deals with selected additional aspects of the growth program.
A TAX PROGRAM FOR THE MID-19 60's

The Administration's 1963 tax program will be presented in a forthcoming Presidential message. Its major outlines are sketched here to serve as
the basis for a review of its impact on total demand and thus on production,
income, and employment.
In the first stage, beginning on July 1, 1963, the rate reductions will cut
individual liabilities by a total of $6 billion at annual rate. For wageearners, most of this cut will be translated immediately into greater takehome pay, through a reduction in the withholding rate; other taxpayers
will realize the benefit of this reduction in rates by adjusting their quarterly
tax payments; some will receive refunds during the first half of 1964 for




43

overpayment of 1963 tax liabilities. Further reductions will occur in the
rates applicable to 1964 ^nd 1965 incomes, and these will be offset only
partially by enlargements of the tax base.
The proposed gross annual reduction in individual and corporate income
tax liabilities, ocurring in three stages, is estimated at $13/2 billion, based
on current levels of income. Most of this gross reduction—$11 billion—is
in individual income tax liabilities. The proposed final rate structure will
range from 14 to 65 percent, contrasted with the present range of 20 to 91
percent. The largest part of the total reduction will be received by the
lower and middle income groups of taxpayers.
The corporate profits tax rate will be reduced in stages from the current 52 percent to 47 percent. This represents a reduction in corporate
tax liabilities of about $2j/2 billion annually at current levels of profits. Payment of corporate income taxes will, however, be placed on a more nearly
current basis, adding about $1/4 billion annually to administrative budget
revenues for the next several years.
In addition to the tax rate reductions described above, the program incorporates structural changes—offsetting about $3/> billion of the rate reduction—designed to improve the equity of the tax system and to encourage
greater efficiency in the use of resources. The present income tax system
contains numerous provisions that allow special treatment for income derived from particular sources, for expenses incurred in certain ways, for
capital gains that are sometimes thinly disguised transformations of current income. Such exceptions have a number of consequences: (1) they
provide a strong element of "horizontal" inequity, taxing differently persons
in essentially similar income positions; (2) they complicate enormously the
task—for the taxpayer and the Government—of ascertaining any individual's liability, and they divert energies from productive activities to tax
avoidance and enforcement; (3) because some forms of production receive
preferential tax treatment, resources are allocated to the production of
certain goods at the expense of others whose value to the economy is greater;
and (4) because they reduce the tax base, the exceptions compel higher
rates on incomes that remain subject to tax, compounding the inequity
and resulting in rates that may interfere with incentives to work, to assume
risks, and to invest.
To eliminate in a single step all forms of unjustifiable special treatment
is not feasible. But the President's program will make decisive progress
in this direction.
Much, though not by any means all, of the income that currently
escapes full taxation is received by persons who are, or would be, in the
higher income tax brackets, paying rates on marginal income ranging up to
91 percent. The very height of these rates is, of course, partly the reason




44

for the exceptions: taxpayers looking for ways to escape rates which seem
oppressive have sought special treatment, and have often obtained sympathetic response. Those high rates, where paid, undoubtedly have a
dampening effect on incentives to invest and take risks;- and they impair
the ability to accumulate investment funds. Since a higher rate of invest-,
ment of risk capital is essential to a higher rate of growth, it is appropriate
to reduce significantly the highest income tax rates at the same time that a
more comprehensive tax base is provided. For these reasons, the President is recommending a top marginal rate of 65 percent on taxable income,
together with measures to deal with tax preferences that pull resources
away from their most efficient uses.
TAX REVISION : IMPACT ON OUTPUT AND EMPLOYMENT

Tax reduction will directly increase the disposable income and purchasing
power of consumers and business, strengthen incentives and expectations,
and raise the net returns on new capital investment. This will lead to
initial increases in private consumption and investment expenditures.
These increases in spending will set off a cumulative expansion, generating
further increases in consumption and investment spending and a general
rise in production, income, and employment. This process is discussed
in some detail in this section. Tax reduction may also have financial effects associated with the increased budget deficit that it will initially produce. Since these effects—in the first instance, at least—depend on the
methods used to finance the deficit, they are left for discussion in a later
section dealing with monetary and debt management policy.
Initial effects: consumption
Effects on disposable income. The proposed reduction in personal income tax rates will directly add to the disposable income of households.
In addition, the reduction in corporate tax rates will increase the after-tax
profits of corporations as a result of which corporations may be expected
to increase their dividend payments. The initial direct effect on the disposable income of households resulting from the entire program of tax
reductions should be approximately $8J/2 billion, at current levels of income.
Consumer response to increase in disposable income. The ratio of total
consumption expenditures to total personal disposable income has in each
recent calendar year fallen within the range of 92 to 94 percent. Although
there are lags and irregularities from quarter to quarter or even year to
year, the change in personal consumption expenditures has in the past,
after a few quarters, averaged roughly 93 percent of any change in personal disposable income. On this basis, the initial addition to consumer
expenditures associated with tax reductions would be on the order of
$8 billion, although all would not be spent at once.
Additions to after-tax incomes resulting from tax reduction are likely
to be spent in the same way as other additions to income. The largest




45

part of the proposed tax reduction will be reflected in reduced withholding of taxes from wages and salaries, and therefore in larger wage
and salary checks; thus, it will be indistinguishable from additional
income arising from wage or salary increases, greater employment, or
longer hours of work. Similarly, part of the reduced corporate taxes
will be passed along to stockholders in increased dividend checks. Stockholders will not be able to identify the source of their additional dividends.
Tax reduction dollars carry no identifying label, and there is no reason
to expect recipients to treat them differently from other dollars.
Recent experience with tax reduction demonstrates clearly that additions
to disposable income from this source are spent as completely as any other
additions. Taxes were reduced by about $4.7 billion on May 1, 1948,
retroactive to January 1, with resulting large refunds in mid-1949. Again
taxes were cut, net, by about $6 billion, effective January 1, 1954, with
further cuts later that year. Table 8 shows that the percentage of disposable income spent by consumers remained within the normal range of
quarterly fluctuation during the periods following the enactment of each of
these tax reductions.
TABLE 8.—Personal consumption expenditures as percent of disposable personal income during
two postwar periods of tax reduction
1963-55

1948-49
Quarter

Quarter

Percent

1948: I.
II
III
IV
1949: I
II
III

97.3
94.0
92.6
93.2
93.9
95.2
95.7

1953: IV
1954: I

II
Ill
IV.
1955: I
II

Percent
91.5
91.8
92.8
93.0
93.2
94.5
93.5

Note.—Based on seasonally adjusted data.
Source: Department of Commerce.

It is sometimes suggested that tax reductions which add only a few
dollars to the weekly pay check of the typical worker would do little good
even if the money was spent, since the amounts involved would not be
large enough to permit major expenditures—say on washing machines or
automobiles. Instead, the money would be "frittered away" on minor expenditures and would do little good for the economy. But all purchases
lead to production which generates income and provides employment.
Therefore, the purpose of tax reduction is achieved when the proceeds
are spent on any kind of goods or services.
Actually, of course, tax reduction which expands take-home pay even
by a relatively small amount each week or month may induce recipients
to purchase durable goods or houses of higher quality, since the increased
income would permit them to handle larger monthly installment payments.
It may even induce a rearrangement of expenditure patterns and thus bring
about purchases of durable goods that would not otherwise be made.




46

Initial effects: investment
Investment is a more volatile element than consumption in national expenditure. The timing and magnitude of its response to tax
changes is less predictable. But a cut in tax rates on business income will
stimulate spending on new plants and new machinery in two ways. First,
it will strengthen investment incentives by increasing the after-tax profits
that businessmen can expect to earn on new productive facilities. Second,
it will add to the supply of internal funds, a large part of which is normally reinvested in the business (though part of this effect may initially
be offset by the proposed acceleration of corporate tax payments).
Since the largest part of business investment is made by corporations,
the proposed cuts in the corporate income tax are especially significant.
But investments of unincorporated businesses will also be encouraged by
cuts in personal income tax rates, especially in the upper brackets.
Two important reforms affecting the taxation of business income designed
to stimulate investment in plant and equipment were put into effect during
1962: the new depreciation guidelines and the investment tax credit. (For
details of these changes, see Appendix A.)
Evidence to date clearly indicates that these measures are already stimulating some capital spending that would not otherwise have taken place.
The impact of the 1962 actions and the 1963 proposals to reduce taxes on
business will, of course, differ from company to company and industry to
industry, depending in part on the adequacy of their internal funds and
their levels of capacity utilization. Though the speed of response may vary,
industry after industry will begin to feel pressure on its capital facilities
and funds as markets for its products are expanded by the 1963 tax program.
Furthermore, there are many individual companies for which the supply
of internal funds is a constraint on investment, and many others that do
not have excess capacity. Moreover, it is estimated that some 70 percent
of the investment in plant and equipment is for modernization and replacement rather than expansion, that is, it is designed to produce new or better
products, or to reduce production costs rather than primarily to expand
productive capacity. For this large segment of capital spending, the stronger
inducement to invest provided by the business tax changes already adopted
and those now proposed will translate much more readily into actual purchases of plant and equipment.
As production expands and existing capacity is more fully utilized, the
depreciation guidelines and the investment tax credit and the new business
tax reductions will provide an even stronger stimulus to investment.
Cumulative expansion: the consumption multiplier
Tax reduction will start a process of cumulative expansion throughout
the economy. If the economy is already undergoing slow expansion, this
cumulative process will be superimposed upon it. The initial increases in
spending will stimulate production and employment, generating additional




47

incomes. The details and timing of this process will vary from industry to
industry. The first impact may be to draw down inventories rather than to
expand production. But as inventories are depleted, retailers will quickly
expand orders. As manufacturers' sales rise in response and their own inventories of finished goods decline, they will activate idle production lines,
hire additional workers, place orders for materials and components. Thus
the expansion will spread to other industries, leading to further expansion of
production, employment, and orders.
Expanded sales mean increased profits. Increased employment means
greater wage and salary income. Each additional dollar's worth of gross
production necessarily generates a dollar of additional gross income.
But expansion does not proceed without limit. A considerable fraction
of the value of gross production is shared with governments or becomes part
of corporate retained earnings and does not become part of consumers'
after-tax income. Some of the increase goes to pay additional excise and
other indirect business taxes. Typically, when GNP is rising toward potential, corporate profits increase by about one-fourth of the rise in GNP. But
a substantial part of this increase in profits is absorbed by Federal and State
corporate income taxes, and another part is ordinarily retained by the corporations. Only the remainder is passed on to the households in dividend
payments. Part of the additional wage and salary incomes associated with
added production is absorbed by higher social security contributions. At
the same time, increased employment means a drop in payments for unemployment insurance benefits.
When all of these "leakages" are taken into account, a little less than
two-thirds of an additional dollar of GNP finds its way into the before-tax
incomes of consumers in the form of wages, dividends, and other incomes.
Part is absorbed by personal taxes, Federal, State, and local. The increase
in personal disposable income is 50 to 55 percent. Of this amount a small
fraction—about 7 percent—is set aside in personal saving, and the remainder—about 93 percent—is spent on consumption, as indicated earlier.
Thus, out of each additional dollar of GNP, initially generated by the tax
cut, roughly half ends up as added consumption expenditure. But the
process does not stop here.
The additional expenditure on consumption that is brought about by the
rise in GNP generates, in its turn, further production, which generates additional incomes and consumption, and so on, in a continuous sequence of
expansion which economists call the "multiplier process." The "multiplier" applicable to the initial increase in spending resulting from tax reduction, with account taken of the various leakages discussed above, works out
to roughly 2. If we apply this multiplier only to the initial increase in consumption (about $8 billion), the total ultimate effect will re an increase in
annual consumption—and in production (and GNP)—of roughly $16 billion. Lags in the process of expansion will spread this increase in GNP over
time, but studies of the relationships between changes in disposable income,




consumption, and production of consumer goods suggest that at least half
of the total stimulus of an initial increase in disposable income is realized
within 6 months of that increase.
Cumulative expansion: the investment response
Tax reduction will also have important cumulative indirect effects on
investment in inventories and in fixed productive facilities. These effects
are much more difficult to predict than the induced effects on consumption.
Inventory investment. The stocks of goods that businessmen wish to hold
depend upon current and expected rates of sales and production and the
volume of new and unfilled orders, as well as on price expectations and
other factors. An expansion of aggregate demand can be expected to raise
business inventory targets. Production for inventory will generate further
increases in demand and income over and above the multiplier effects
discussed above, and will in turn induce further increases in consumption
spending.
Inventory investment is volatile, and induced inventory accumulation
can add significantly to the expansionary effects of tax reduction within a
few months. At the same time, it should be recognized that inventory
investment is exceedingly difficult to forecast. As the increase in production and sales tapers off, stocks and the rate of inventory investment will be
correspondingly adjusted.
Business investment in plant and equipment. A tax reduction large
enough to move the economy toward full employment will also stimulate
business investment in plant and equipment. General economic expansion
will reinforce the initial stimulus to investment of cuts in business
taxes. In the first place, narrowing the gap between actual and potential
output—now estimated at $30-40 billion—will increase the utilization
of existing plant and equipment. As excess capacity declines, more and
more businesses will feel increasing pressure to expand capacity. At the
same time, increases in the volume of sales and in productivity will raise
corporate profits—in absolute terms, relative to GNP, and as a rate of
return on investment. Internal funds available for investment will rise,
while at the same time higher rates of return on existing capital will cause
businessmen to raise their estimates of returns on new investment. When
investment incentives are strengthened by rising demand, internal funds
are more consistently translated into increased investment than when
markets are slack.
Residential construction. The demand for housing depends on growth
in the number of families, on the existing stock of houses, and on the cost
and availability of mortgage credit. But housing demand also responds,
to some extent, to changes in disposable income. Thus, tax reduction will
have some direct effect on residential construction. And as production, employment, and income generally expand, the demand for new homes can
be expected to increase further. This increase will, in turn, reinforce the
other expansionary effects of tax reduction.

49
669333 0—63



4

State and local government expenditures
State and local government units have found it difficult to finance the
needed expansion of their activities. Given the present importance of
income and sales taxes in State and local tax systems, government revenues
at the State and local level expand automatically as GNP rises. The additional State-local revenues generated by economic expansion will assist
these governments to meet their pressing needs. Moreover, since Federal
tax liabilities are deductible under many State income tax laws, reduction
in Federal tax rates will automatically generate some further addition to
State-local tax revenues. Finally, a reduction in Federal taxes will enlarge
the tax base available to State and local government units and may make
it easier for them to raise rates or impose new taxes.
Undoubtedly, some of the added State-local tax revenues will be used
either to retire existing debt or to reduce current borrowing rather than to increase expenditures. Whether the net result will be expansionary will depend upon whether the proportion of additional tax revenues spent on
goods and services by State and local government units is greater or smaller
than the proportion which would have been spent by the taxpayers from
whom they collect the additional taxes. But whether or not the response of
State and local government units is such as to strengthen the aggregate
impact of Federal tax reduction on income and employment, the Federal
tax program will ease, to some extent, the problems of these units in obtaining revenues needed to finance urgent public activities, such as education,
transportation facilities, and urban development.
Summary of effects on GNP
Tax reductions for consumers will have initial direct effects on the demand
for goods and services, as consumers raise their spending level to reflect their
higher after-tax incomes. Corporate tax reductions and the lower tax
rates applicable to the highest personal income brackets will stimulate
investment directly, through raising the rate of return on new investments
and providing additional funds for their financing. Some of the tax reforms
will also have a directly stimulating effect on productive investment.
These direct or initial effects on spending would occur even if total output, employment, and incomes remained unchanged. But the increased
spending cannot fail to increase total output, employment, and incomes.
And as activity responds to the initially increased level of spending, cumulative impacts begin to develop in which the several elements interact to
carry the expansion far beyond its initial point.
The higher incomes which consumers receive from the added production
of both consumer and capital goods will lead to a further step-up in the
rate of spending, creating further increases in incomes and spending.
The same expansion process raises rates of capacity utilization, thereby interacting with the initial impact of tax reduction on business incomes to
make investment both for modernization and expansion more profitable.




50

This in turn generates higher consumer incomes and more spending, helping
to provide the added demand which justifies the higher investment.
If there were no investment stimulus—either initially, or as a result of
the cumulative process of expansion—we could expect that GNP would
ultimately expand by about $16 billion. If the result were no more than
this, the tax reduction would still be abundantly rewarding in terms of
greater production, employment, purchasing power, and profits. What will
really be given up to produce added output will be only unwanted idleness
of workers (whose families have reduced neither their needs nor aspirations)
and incomplete utilization of plant and machinery (which have continued
to depreciate).
But the pay-off is much more than this purely consumption impact.
There is also an investment impact, and each extra dollar of investment
that is stimulated should bring roughly another dollar of added consumption and encourage still further investment.
A strong expansion can alter profoundly the whole climate within which
investment decisions are made. If not at once, then somewhat later, subtle
but significant changes in business attitudes occur in response to the trend
in the economic outcome. We have referred earlier to the cautious investment attitudes that more than 5 years of slack markets have generated.
This caution did not arise at once in mid-1957, when output first began
to fall away from the track of potential expansion. It developed gradually,
fed on itself, and in part helped to justify itself. The reverse can and will
happen.
No one can pretend to estimate with precision the ultimate impact
of a program so far-reaching as that which the President will propose:
it would come into operation in stages extending from July 1, 1963 to
January 1, 1965, and its effects would cumulate and spread into 1966 and
beyond.
Our study of the program, and our tentative projections based upon it
do, however, convince us that the program measures up to the challenge
that the 1960's present to our economy: that it will surely set us on a path
toward our interim employment target; and that it will lay the foundation
for more rapid long-run growth.
TAX REVISION: IMPACT ON THE BUDGET

When the Congress legislates changes in income taxes, it defines or redefines the income subject to taxation—by setting the exclusions, exemptions,
and deductions allowable for various reasons—and sets the new tax rates that
are applicable to various fractions of that income. Given the levels and
structure of current incomes, these new definitions and rates can be translated into fairly precise estimates of the new tax yield in billions of dollars.
This can be compared with the actual yield at the old rates and definitions. The difference is the gross cost of (or gain from) tax revision, and
it also measures the initial change in deficit or surplus.




This would be the whole story if the tax revision had no effect on incomes. But a prime purpose of tax revision is precisely to affect production, employment, and incomes. The President's tax program for 1963
is designed to end 5 years of undercapacity production, excessive unemployment, and unnecessarily depressed incomes.
Tax revenues do not depend on tax, rates alone, but on the tax base as
well. The tax base is determined by the level of income. Because tax
revision will raise incomes, it will also raise tax revenues, through a "feedback" out of the expanding tax base. Greater prosperity will also reduce
some important types of Federal expenditures, such as unemployment insurance, area redevelopment assistance, and public works acceleration.
For these reasons, the net cost of tax revision will be less—substantially
less—than the gross cost.
FINANCING ECONOMIC EXPANSION IN 1963
In 1963, the financial policies of the Government, like the fiscal policies,
will place high priority on expansion of the demand for goods and services
to reduce excess capacity and unemployment while maintaining general
price stability. Monetary and debt management policies will continue to
play a significant role in facilitating balanced economic expansion and in
fostering longer-run economic growth. At the same time, these policies
continue to bear special responsibilities to sustain our progress toward
balance of payments equilibrium. And since they are the most flexible
instruments of general economic policy available to the Government, they
can and should be used flexibly. If, contrary to present expectations, aggregate demand should expand too fast and too far, seriously jeopardizing
stability of prices and the balance of payments, monetary and debt management policies are the first line of defense.
In what follows, these policies will first be discussed in terms of domestic
objectives; then in terms of balance of payments objectives. This order indicates nothing as to relative importance. Monetary policy must reconcile,
as best it can, both objectives.
FISCAL POLICY, MONETARY POLICY, AND DEBT MANAGEMENT POLICY

As explained earlier in this chapter, the President's program of tax revision will, by increasing the disposable incomes of consumers and business
and by strengthening incentives to invest, cause an expansion in private
spending, which will, in due course, increase production and employment
by a multiple of the original tax cut. Initially, however, the tax cut will
increase the budget deficit, and the increased deficit will have to be financed—that is, the money to cover the excess of expenditures over taxes
will have to be raised by the Treasury. The financing of the deficit will have
effects on private spending in addition to those produced by the tax cut itself. Depending on the methods employed, the financing may either add




52

to the expansionary effects of the tax cut or cancel out a portion of these
effects.
Fiscal policy—mainly past fiscal policy—determines the size of the Federal debt. From the financing of past Federal deficits less surpluses the
public has accumulated a certain total net claim upon the Government.
Only time and future fiscal policy—deficits and surpluses—can change this
total. But monetary control and debt management can change its composition, and changes in composition can affect aggregate demand through affecting the level and maturity-structure of interest rates and the availability
of credit at various maturities.
The Treasury influences the composition of the interest-bearing Federal
debt by deciding what types and maturities of securities to issue to finance
current deficits or to replace maturing issues. Part of the interest-bearing Federal debt is owned by the Federal Reserve Banks. When the
Federal Reserve purchases Treasury securities in the market, whether
from banks or from other private holders, the reserve balances of commercial banks on deposit at the Federal Reserve increase. In this way, Federal
Reserve open market purchases reduce the interest-bearing government
debt held by the public, and increase bank reserves by an equal amount.
An increase in bank reserves permits in turn a multiple expansion of bank
deposits and bank credit. Similarly, Federal Reserve open market sales
replace bank reserves with additional public holdings of interest-bearing
government securities, requiring a multiple contraction of bank deposits
and credit.
Thus, in effect the Treasury and the Federal Reserve together determine
the composition of the Federal debt held by the public—the Treasury
deciding the composition of its interest-bearing debt, and the Federal
Reserve the division of public claims on the Government as between interestbearing securities and bank reserves and currency. By its choices of which
kind of government securities to buy or sell, the Federal Reserve also
affects, in some degree, the composition of the interest-bearing debt in the
hands of the public. The net result of the transactions of these agencies
with the public, therefore, determines how the Government borrows from
the public to finance a new deficit.
But their powers are not confined to transactions in new debt. These
agencies can also—in refunding maturing debt, or in transactions with the
public in existing securities—change the composition of old debt. In all
these transactions, the government agencies must act within the framework
of investors5 preferences; they can sell securities of different types and
maturities only on terms consistent with these preferences.
FINANCING BUDGET DEFICITS

How can the Federal Government raise the money to finance a budget
deficit?




53

At one logical extreme—which of course no one seriously contemplates—
the Federal Reserve could buy Treasury securities and increase the quantity of bank reserves in an amount equal to the deficit. In this way, the
reserve base of the banking system would be increased by virtually the
entire amount of the deficit, paving the way for a multiple expansion of
bank deposits and bank credit. This is the most liquid and most expansionary way of increasing the debt of the Federal Government.
At the other extreme, the Government might finance a deficit while the
Federal Reserve permitted no increase in bank reserves. This means that
the Treasury would not be able to sell any of its securities, directly or indirectly, to the Federal Reserve Banks. The Treasury would have to sell
them either to the public or to the commercial banks; and the banks would
be able to buy them only to the extent that they in turn sold other securities
to the public or denied loan accommodation to private borrowers. The
effects of this policy would depend to some degree on the type and maturity of the new Treasury obligations. Short-term securities, such as
Treasury bills, are highly liquid; they satisfy the needs of banks for secondline reserves and are fairly close substitutes for cash in the working balances
of other financial institutions and business firms. Long-term bonds are
less liquid. Selling only long-term bonds to the public would be the most
illiquid and most restrictive way to finance a deficit.
Sometimes the sale of government bonds to commercial banks is considered per se expansionary, while the sale of bonds directly to the public
is considered neutral. But this distinction is not a reliable guide. When
commercial banks increase their government bond holdings, it is one thing
if bank reserves and deposits rise correspondingly and quite another if the
banks have to unload other securities on the public to make room for the
new securities. The important things are how much and what kind of new
indebtedness the Government (together with the Federal Reserve) incurs
to the banks and other public creditors rather than to whom the indebtedness is incurred.
Ordinarily, neither of the extreme methods of financing deficits mentioned above is appropriate monetary and debt management policy. There
are, of course, many gradations between them. The considerations which
determine how new debt should be financed are the same as those which
guide the monetary authorities and debt managers in their daily decisions
on the composition of old debt. These considerations are well known.
A more expansionary method of financing is needed when unemployment is substantial and considerable excess capacity is available than
under conditions when the economy is closer to its potential. Thus, the
"proper" way of financing a deficit is that which contributes to the goals
of increased output, growth, price stability and payments balance. It cannot
be determined by preconceived rules.




54

MONETARY POLICY AND DOMESTIC EXPANSION

In 1961 and 1962, budget deficits which increased the Federal debt by
$13.3 billion were successfully financed during a period of economic
expansion without causing inflation or aggravating balance of payments difficulties. In current circumstances, monetary policy and debt management
have to reconcile carefully the needs of domestic economic expansion and
those of the U.S. international payments position. But prospective budget
deficits do not, in themselves, warrant any shift in the way this reconciliation
should be sought. More forceful use of tax policy in support of economic
expansion, however, gives greater freedom to monetary policy to maintain
conditions in our money and capital markets which are favorable to our
balance of payments position.
Monetary policy as well as debt policy must be coordinated with fiscal
policy to secure the objectives of higher employment and growth without
inflation. We are now, and for some time still will be, in a situation of substantial slack in labor force and capital resources, a situation in which expansionary policies are required. Even after the proposed tax revision
begins to release consumer demand and spur investment, other phases of
public policy, including monetary and debt policy, can serve to support the
absorption of unused resources. When the economy approaches higher
levels of capacity utilization and employment, labor as well as capital markets will tend to tighten, and the policy mix will need to be adjusted to
changing circumstances. Public policy thus involves a continuous process of
adjustment, and no validity attaches to general rules of "tight" or of "easy"
money meant to be valid under all conditions. What matters most at this
time is that financial policy should be designed to facilitate rather than
retard the expansionary process which the tax program is designed to launch.
The ease or tightness of monetary and credit conditions depends only in
part on the supplies of bank reserves and liquid government obligations.
It also depends on the balance between these supplies and the economy's
demands for money, liquid assets, and credit accommodation. Economic
expansion increases these demands. As private income and wealth increase,
so do the public's needs for money and liquid assets. Normally, the public
will wish to place part of its new saving every year in additional holdings
of checking accounts, thrift deposits, and other liquid assets. Likewise,
business requirements for loans to finance inventories and trade credit
expand. When unused productive resources are available, it is not inflationary to permit a parallel expansion in the supplies of money and liquid
assets and in the availability of bank credit.
On the other hand, it would clearly be a restrictive monetary policy to hold
bank reserves constant while the monetary and credit needs of the economy
increase. Interest rates would tend to rise, and private borrowers would find
it both more expensive and more difficult to obtain bank loans or to float
securities in the capital markets.




55

Immediately following World War II, the economy was oversupplied
with liquid assets accumulated during the war; liquidity requirements were
low relative to demands for producers' and consumers' durable goods and
were further reduced by the spread of inflationary expectations. But in
the 1950's the economy grew up to its supply of liquidity; demands for
durable goods became less urgent; and price stability in recent years has
dissipated inflationary psychology. Therefore, resumption of growth in
liquidity parallel to the growth of the economy's potential has been
appropriate*
Over the past year, one measure of liquid assets—including the money
supply, savings and time deposits and shares, U.S. Government savings
bonds, and short-term marketable U.S. Government securities—grew by
about 8 percent, in contrast to an average annual growth of slightly over 4
percent in the period since the war. The growth in liquid assets in 1962
was desirable for the domestic economy. In fact, since economic activity
also rose, the ratio of liquid assets to GNP is still only moderately above its
postwar low. The stock of liquid assets in the United States does not
pose inflationary dangers at this time. These data are summarized in
Table 9.
TABLE 9.—Selected liquid assets held by the public, 1946, 1957, and 1960-62
Liquid assets

I960

1957

1946

19621

1961

Billions of dollars 2
Total selected liquid assets 3 . . . . _ - Money supply *5
. . _Money supply and time deposits at commercial
banks*.

-

356.0
133.5

399.2
138.4

424.6
142.6

458.7
144.8

142.4

_~

239.1
108.5

191.0

211.5

225.1

242.2

Percent of ONP
T o t a l s e l e c t e d l i q u i d a s s e t s 3_ -

__..__-.

-

Money supply *8
Money supply and time deposits at commercial
banks *

113
51

80
30

79
27

82
27

83
26

68

43

42

43

44

1
2
3

Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Seasonally adjusted, end of year.
Money supply, time deposits at commercial banks and mutual savings banks, Postal Savings System,
savings and loan shares, U.S. Government savings bonds, and U.S. Government and Federal agency
securities maturing within one year.
4
Demand deposits and currency; data are for last Wednesday.
» Agrees in concept with data in Table C-45 except for deductions to avoid duplication of items in liquid
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (except as noted).

Sometimes concern about monetary aspects of government deficits focuses
on the risks of inflationary consequences in the long run. The stimulus
to private spending associated with increased liquid claims against the Government may be appropriate and welcome at the time the claims are
created. But at some future time, when the economy is tight and prices
are under upward pressure, this stimulus may be an embarrassment. More-




over, at such a time the public's desire for liquid assets may sharply decline;
as they try to unload liquid claims, they add fuel to inflationary flames.
This possibility is not a reason for avoiding deficits, or for avoiding expansionary monetary policy, when the economy needs stimulus; the dangers of high blood pressure are no reason to permit a patient to suffer chronically from low blood pressure. It is, however, a reason for not flooding the
economy with liquidity even at times like the present when the economic
malady is quite the opposite of inflation. It is, above all, a reason for flexibility in monetary policy and, indeed, in fiscal policy as well. Government
authorities need not stand by helplessly in times of inflationary peril; the
same mechanisms which supply the economy with liquidity can be reversed—
and very quickly—to restrict liquidity and credit.
The tremendous growth of the public debt resulting from wartime Federal
budget deficits did, to be sure, interfere with the effectiveness of the Federal
Reserve in opposing inflation after the war. In order to facilitate the sale
of government securities at low interest rates during the war, the Federal
Reserve committed itself to "peg" the prices of these securities. To prevent
a fall in these prices—a rise in interest rates—after the war, this "pegging"
policy was continued with the result that the Federal Reserve had to buy
from the public and the banks all the securities they wished to sell. This
meant that it was virtually powerless to prevent large quantities of government debt inherited from the war from being converted into member bank
reserves with consequent multiple expansion of the money and credit supply.
This policy was ended in 1951 by the Treasury-Federal Reserve accord,
which restored effective monetary powers to the Federal Reserve. At present, the authorities are not hamstrung by any "pegging" commitment. They
are free to manage the debt flexibly in the light of current domestic and
international needs of the economy.
In a situation where there existed a perfect mix between fiscal and monetary policy—a situation where both together gave the precisely right degree
of stimulus to the economy—adoption of a more expansionary fiscal policy
would have to be matched by a more restrictive monetary policy to avoid
inflation. But this is not our present situation. A substantial degree of net
expansion is clearly required. Since the budget and tax program is a gradual and conservative one, it is not likely to overshoot the mark; and the objective of orderly growth would seem to be best served by a monetary policy
which supports economic expansion. As the program succeeds and a widespread tightening of markets develops, changes in the policy will be needed.
MONETARY POLICY AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

The needs of the domestic economy are clearly for expansionary monetary policy. But monetary and debt management policies are formulated in
the context of an open economy, and must continue to aim at external balance as well as domestic expansion. The monetary authorities, in facilitat-




57

ing domestic expansion, must also consider the U.S. international payments position.
First of all, of course, the authorities can continue to adapt their techniques of monetary control and debt management so as to reconcile to
the maximum degree possible their domestic and external aims. One
method open to the Federal Reserve and the Treasury is to adjust outstanding supplies of government securities of various maturities so as to
keep upward pressure on short-term rates, most important in international
competition for funds, and downward pressure on long-term rates, important for domestic expansion. In the past 2 years, the Federal Reserve and the Treasury have consistently sought to supply bank reserves
and provide for needed increases in currency in ways which would not reduce short-term interest rates and drive mobile funds to foreign financial
centers. The Federal Reserve discount rate, the central pivot of the interest
rate structure, has remained constant at 3 percent since August 1960. The
differential between rates on 3-month Treasury bills and on long-term government obligations narrowed from 1.6 percent in January 1961 to
1 percent in December 1962. In 1962, the Federal Reserve, in purchasing,
net, $1.9 billion of U.S. Government securities bought, net, $1.8 billion of
securities of over 1-year maturity, mainly in the 1- to 5-year range, and
only, net, $100 million of securities of under 1-year maturity. In 1961,
the Federal Reserve, in purchasing, net, $1.5 billion of U.S. Government
securities, had acquired $2.6 billion of securities of maturity of over 1 year,
offsetting this by sales of $ 1.1 billion of under 1 -year securities.
Treasury debt management operations in 1962 were even more important
than Federal Reserve operations in affecting the maturity structure of publicly held U.S. Government securities. The Treasury expanded its cash
offering of securities of maturity of under 1 year. Advance refunding
operations moved some securities out of the "under 1-year maturity"
category, but the net increase in such securities held publicly (i.e., outside of
the Federal Reserve and U.S. Government investment accounts) amounted
to about $1 billion in 1962. The increase in outstanding regular Treasury
bills, meanwhile, was considerably larger, about $7 billion. Such increases
offset downward pressures on short-term rates resulting from monetary expansion, and they are consistent with present needs for increased liquidity in
the economy. In addition, the Treasury, in administering the portfolios of
government investment and trust accounts, continued to buy longer-term
rather than short-term securities. At the same time, through advance refunding operations, the Treasury offered existing holders of some government securities an opportunity to exchange them for other securities of
longer term. This lengthened the debt structure with a minimum impact
on other investment flows. The average maturity of the publicly held marketable debt thus actually rose by 5 months.




Other monetary techniques can also help to meet the needs of both
payments balance and domestic expansion. At the beginning of 1962,
ceiling rates on time and savings deposits in commercial banks, under
Regulation Q, were increased. This was an important and successful
measure. On the one hand, it enabled U.S. banks to compete more effectively for funds that otherwise would be deposited abroad. (Subsequently,
the possibility of attracting into time deposits the balances held as monetary
reserves by foreign governments and central banks was further enlarged
by enactment of legislation exempting such deposits from all interest rate
ceilings.) On the other hand, it increased the flow of funds through the
savings departments of commercial banks into mortgages and other longerterm assets, and actually helped to reduce rates charged domestic borrowers.
In late 1962, the Federal Reserve released reserves to the banking system
by lowering the reserve requirement on time and savings accounts from 5 to
4 percent. This action made it unnecessary for the Federal Reserve to
supply these reserves by purchasing short-term government securities in the
open market.
While a balance must be continuously struck between credit and interest
rate policies in support of domestic economic expansion and policies to
protect or improve the balance of payments, any conflict is more a shortrun than a long-run one. In the long run, the U.S. balance of payments
probably has much to gain from a fully operating, rapidly gaining domestic
economy. Only this will create profit opportunities that would keep more
American corporate and equity funds at home and attract more long-term
foreign capital. Only this will induce the productivity-increasing investments and innovations necessary to improve America's competitive position
and increase the export surplus. Only this can create the basic confidence
in the U.S. economic future on which confidence in the dollar depends.
Without the dynamic of an expanding economy operating at full steam,
monetary measures could scarcely be of more than transient help to the balance of payments. No country can permanently balance its international
accounts by interest rates so high that its productive potential is kept underutilized and its labor force underemployed. Nevertheless, defense of the
currency may require vigorous use of monetary instruments, and there can
be no doubt that the U.S. authorities are prepared to take whatever steps
are necessary to defend the dollar. An expansionary fiscal policy will give
them greater freedom to do what has to be done.
International capital flows are, of course, not a U.S. problem alone. They
concern all the major monetary countries, those with payments surpluses
as well as those with payments deficits. When interest rates and credit conditions are out of line among major countries, it cannot always be taken for
granted that the lower rates should rise. If international borrowing is centered too much on the United States, one clear implication is.that other
countries should improve their capital markets and relax or dismantle the




59

remaining restrictions on borrowing in their markets. Finally, shifting
attitudes toward currency exchange parities may well be at least as important
as interest differentials in inducing movements of liquid funds between
countries. International arrangements to offset speculative flows are both
more effective and more desirable than unilateral action to compensate fears
and expectations of currency devaluation with high interest rates. In recent
years, remarkable progress has been made in international consultation and
coordination, both with respect to national policies affecting the payments
balances of the major countries and with respect to concerted measures to
defend the international monetary system against speculative attacks. These
are discussed in Chapter 4.
ECONOMIC GROWTH
In the Council's Annual Report in 1962, a chapter was devoted to the
analysis of economic growth and to a full discussion of its significance. It
is unnecessary to repeat that detailed discussion again at this time. We
have found no reason to revise that statement of the importance of this
goal and the feasibility of achieving it.
DETERMINANTS OF GROWTH

Starting from our present position of underutilization, it has been estimated that we can achieve an increase of about six-tenths of a percentage
point in our average annual growth rate for the 1960's by reducing our
unemployment rate to 4 percent with the concomitant increase in utilization
of capital facilities. This rise in the growth rate comes as a bonus to successful employment policy. Once underutilization of productive capacity
has been eliminated, our rate of growth will depend upon the pace at which
productive capacity itself expands. Growth of productive capacity in turn
is the sum of (a) the percentage rate of growth of the labor force adjusted
for changes in the average workweek, and (b) the percentage rate of increase in productivity per man-hour. Public policy can accelerate growth
of productivity mainly by stepping up the pace of our efforts to:
—improve the education, health, occupational skills, motivations, and
attitudes of the labor force;
—build up the stock of private producers' plant and equipment, and
improve its composition by age, type, and location;
—increase the stock of public physical capital, including roads, water
systems, school buildings, and hospitals;
—improve the terms on which the economy has access to natural resources, whether through domestic production or imports;
—advance the level of technology, covering the range from managerial
and organizational competence to scientific and engineering understanding;




6o

—raise the efficiency with which capital, resources, technology, and
labor are used;
—improve communications systems so as to accelerate the dissemination
of information on technological, commercial, and employment
opportunities.
CABINET COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH

In order to emphasize the high priority of economic growth in the formulation of Federal policies and programs, the President, in August 1962,
established a Cabinet Committee on Economic Growth. (For a description
of the Committee, see Appendix B.) The first task of this Committee was
to identify key measures for the achievement of more rapid growth. The
President has directed the Committee to continue to serve as a focal point
for concentrating the Government's interests and activities on the growth
objective. The Committee has emphasized the importance of achieving
and maintaining full employment as a prerequisite to an effective growth
policy. In addition, it has made a number of initial recommendations for
longer-range programs to stimulate more rapid growth.
The Committee in its work thus far has focused on a number of Federal
programs which make or could make important contributions to economic
growth. These include public investment in natural resources and agricultural development, in transportation, in urban and rural development;
they emphasize investment in human resources—education and health—
and in advancing knowledge. Where existing programs are involved, the
recommendations of the Cabinet Committee have pointed up the growthstimulating features of the programs and, in some cases, have urged increased budget support. These recommendations are reflected in the President's budget for fiscal 1964 and do not require repetition here. Education is one of these program areas. The contributions that education has
made and must continue to make to economic growth and other national
objectives are so important that the proposed new program will be presented in a special Presidential message.
The Administration is proposing programs which are especially relevant
to two of the key determinants of economic growth—private investment and
civilian technology.
PRIVATE INVESTMENT

The Cabinet Committee has emphasized the importance of private investment as a source of economic growth. The analysis in this chapter has
shown how the proposed tax program, together with the tax revisions of last
year—the investment tax credit and depreciation reform—will stimulate
a higher level of private investment.
Investment in private plant and equipment is a principal source of longrun gains in productivity. Both in this country and in others, periods of




61

rapid growth have been associated with high rates of investment. In the
United States since 1947, the stock of privately owned plant and equipment
per worker has increased by nearly 50 percent. During this period the rate
of growth of output per worker has been nearly twice its rate during the
1929-47 period when capital growth only barely kept pace with the growth
of employment.
The rate of growth of the capital stock is determined, in part, by the share
of GNP allocated to investment in new plant and equipment. Chart 7
shows the fluctuation in the share of output devoted to private investment
CHART 7

Business Fixed Investment
in Relation to Total Output
PERCENT

INVESTMENT AS PERCENT OF
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT

V
12

1

8

4

0

-

I

I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1

1930

1935

1940

1945

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1950

1955

I960

NOTE: PERCENT IS BASED ON DATA IN 1W2 PRICES. INVESTMENT CONSISTS OF
PRODUCERS' DURABLE EQUIPMENT AND NONRESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

since 1929. Many factors determine the amount of investment that is needed
to achieve a given rate of growth of potential GNP. However, given the expected rate of growth of the labor force during the 1960's—an annual rate of
1.6 percent—and assuming technological progress at roughly the rate experienced during the 1950's, the Council's calculations suggest that to achieve
a growth of potential output of 4.0 percent a year will require private
investment to be between 10 percent and 11 percent of GNP. As the chart
indicates, this is above the proportion achieved during the past 5 years;
but we did even better during the early postwar years. We do not need
to settle for less in the years ahead; indeed, our aim is to regain and exceed
the earlier pace of growth.
A high rate of investment is needed to equip our growing labor force with
better and more modern equipment. Without new equipment, the new




62

inventions and designs which flow from research and development lie fallow; with it, they can contribute fully to economic growth. Some estimates
suggest that during the past few years almost 70 percent of investment has
been for modernization and replacement, rather than to increase capacity.
The stimulation of capacity increases will provide further impetus to modernization, since the two go hand in hand. When the capacity of an industry is expanded rapidly by new investment, the proportion of new
equipment tends to increase, the average age of capital tends to decline, and
the average quality of capital in place improves substantially.
The investment needed to gain our growth objectives will be achieved
only if we eliminate economic slack—only if we strengthen demand and
broaden incentives to take risks. The tax program is designed to help us
reach this objective.
CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Growth as well as the White House
Panel on Civilian Technology and officials of the Department of Commerce
have identified an urgent need to stimulate more rapid development and
fuller use of technology in those sectors of the civilian economy which, despite high potential returns to the Nation, have not been able, or have not
been motivated, to seize the opportunity without assistance.
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in total expenditures
on research and development and in the number of scientists and engineers
engaged in these activities. However, defense and space efforts have accounted for nearly three-fourths of the increase. The research laboratories
of industry and the universities have been important sources of new products
and processes for the civilian economy, but most private research and development is still concentrated in a relatively few industries and is carried
on by a few large firms. With the exception of a few hundred manufacturing firms, most enterprises neither undertake much research and development nor have sufficient trained technical manpower to take advantage of
the research and development done by others. Our economy would be
strengthened significantly over the long run if our civilian research and
development resources were expanded to meet better the wide range of
private and public needs.
The private business firm, stimulated to meet the needs of the economy
by the opportunity for profit and the spur of competition, is generally the
most effective organization to conduct and support research and development for the advance of civilian technology. But private business firms are
not always in a position to undertake research, especially where one company takes the risks and covers the costs but many companies share widely
in the benefits. Research on process improvements not subject to patenting—a major source of productivity growth—and analysis of materials
and methods are important cases in point. Experimental work which




63

explores advanced concepts and designs is also likely to provide interesting
and useful information without leading directly to a patentable product
that can be marketed by the firm sponsoring the research. Unless cooperative arrangements are made, these types of research will not receive enough
support.
There are also some serious problems with respect to the dissemination
of technical information. Many business firms are not fully aware of the
technological possibilities open to them; without a strong technical staff
they are often unable to follow and understand the new developments published in the technical literature and communicated informally among technicians.
Government has a responsibility for maintaining a suitable environment for private research activity and for supporting programs
which are in the public interest but which are not adequately stimulated
by private market opportunities alone. Agriculture provides an outstanding
example of the successful role Government can play by supporting and
sponsoring research in cooperation with State institutions and private
organizations. The fruits of this cooperative research effort, initiated in
the last century, are seen in the spectacular increases in American agricultural output and productivity through the improvement in techniques
and products.
The details of the programs for Federal support of civilian technology
are included in the Administration's 1964 budget proposals. The efforts
in the first year will necessarily be modest in budgetary terms and exploratory in nature, but over the long run the program promises great returns.
It is proposed that the Department of Commerce sponsor a pilot
program for an industry-university engineering extension service. This
program will include identification of technical problems, technical advice,
in-plant demonstrations of new technologies, and short courses and conferences. The objective is to strengthen the scientific and technical competence of management and supervisory personnel, to develop the facilities
of universities to meet local and regional technological needs, and to reduce
the gap between the technologies of leading and lagging industries and
firms.
A selective program of research and development support is recommended, designed to take advantage of promising technical possibilities now
being ignored. Industries would be selected where there is promise of
significant returns from research and development applied to their technology, but where there is little prospect that the firms in the industry, acting
alone, will do the job that is needed. The development and improvement
of technical information services would also be supported. Grants would
be made to industry research associations or industrially oriented development institutions, to encourage technical work which is not called forth in
adeciuate quantity by the prospect of private profit because the results must
be shared with firms not supporting the research, and to provide research




64

facilities for small firms which do not have a broad enough spectrum of
products to support a research and development effort.
Of particular promise is an experimental program designed to develop
new means of translating results of government-financed research and development into a form usable by private industry oriented to civilian markets. The possibilities of adapting to civilian industry the techniques developed in advanced space and defense activities would receive special
attention.
To increase the supply of scientists and engineers with appropriate training and interest in industrial research and development, it is planned that
support be provided for university research on problems of civilian technologies.

65
669333 O—63-

5




Chapter 3

Fiscal Policy In Perspective

T

AX REVISION is the principal instrument of U.S. economic policy to
achieve prosperity and more rapid economic growth in the mid-1960's.
The nature of that revision and the means by which it will accomplish its
objectives have been described in the preceding chapter.
The aim and expectation of this program is to restore full prosperity,
which, in the last analysis, is the only sure path to budgetary balance.
Since this will, at least temporarily, involve large budgetary deficits, it is
important also to examine what deficits mean in modern economic society.
Government deficits are not a new fiscal experience for Americans. The
first part of this chapter reviews several relevant aspects of that experience,
and in particular distinguishes two kinds of deficits and their economic
effects—deficits that grow passively out of economic recession or inadequate
growth, and deficits that grow out of positive fiscal action, such as tax reduction, to invigorate the economy. The perspective is further widened by
placing the Federal deficit or surplus in the context of balancing and offsetting deficits and surpluses in the other major sectors of the national
economy.
Since deficits increase the national debt, it is important also to appraise
that debt in relation to the Nation's wealth and the Nation's income. The
national balance sheet allows us to view the Federal debt as one of a set
of interrelated assets and liabilities.
Expansionary tax policy must be considered also in terms of the possible effects it may have on the stability of our price level. Not only is
inflation unjust and disruptive, but it would interfere with our progress
toward achieving balance in our international financial accounts.
These are some of the problems discussed in this chapter. They are
problems which have been considered at length in the technical literature
of finance and economics. But they become problems for all Americans
to consider as the Nation prepares to take bold steps to invigorate its economy—steps involving large interim Federal deficits. Both experience and
analysis confirm that this positive use of fiscal policy in 1963 will make
a significant contribution to the achievement of our employment and growth
goals and incur minimum risks of interfering with continued price stability
and progress toward balance of payments equilibrium.




66

THE FEDERAL BUDGET IN A CHANGING ECONOMY
PASSIVE FISCAL POLICY AND AUTOMATIC STABILIZATION

Any weakening in private spending will reduce incomes, causing tax
revenues to fall and transfer payments to rise. Thus disposable incomes
will decline less than pre-tax incomes, and will be partly cushioned against
the decline in private demand. In effect, the impact of the decline in
private income is shared with the Federal Government, which does not
shrink its purchases when its income falls. The greater the extent to
which a fall in government revenues cushions the decline in private incomes,
the less the flow of spending for output will be curtailed.
Automatic stabilization operates in reverse when private demand increases. Additional income is generated, but part of it is siphoned out of
the spending stream in higher tax payments and lower transfers. Disposable incomes therefore rise less than incomes before taxes, and the spending and re-spending is limited and damped.
Thus the tax-and-transfer response narrows fluctuations in income caused
by irregularities in the strength of demand. The sharper the response of
tax collections to changes in GNP, the stronger the stabilization effect. Although the tax-and-transfer response cannot prevent or reverse a movement in GNP, it can and does limit the extent of cumulative expansions
and contractions. At least with respect to contractions, this is clearly an
important service to the economy.
Automatic fiscal stabilizers have made a major contribution in limiting
the length and severity of postwar recessions. Each of the four postwar
recessions—1948-49, 1953-54, 1957-58, and 1960-61—has been both short
and mild. The decline in real GNP from its peak to its trough has ranged
from a high of 4.4 percent in 1957-58 to a low of 2.1 percent in 1960-61,
and the duration of the recessions has varied from 9 to 13 months. Chart 8
demonstrates that changes in disposable personal income from quarter to
quarter have been much smaller than changes in GNP. Although GNP
changes were frequently negative (in each of the postwar recessions),
disposable income fell in only one quarter in the entire postwar period.
This relative stability of personal disposable income has been mainly due
to the automatic fiscal stabilizers, together with the tendency of corporations to maintain their dividends at the expense of retained earnings during
recessions. The maintenance of disposable incomes has prevented sharp
declines in consumer expenditures. The resulting stability in markets for
consumer goods, which constitute by far the largest component of final
demand, has prevented any drastic collapse in business investment in
fixed capital.
Automatic fiscal stabilizers increase the stability of the economy. Stability is a desirable thing for an economy that is balanced where it wants to
be. Thus, an economy operating, on the average, at high levels of output




67

CHART 8

Quarterly Changes in Gross National Product
and Disposable Personal Income
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 1 /

15

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT

10

-5

-v

-10
,

1

1953

I

M

1

M

I

l

u

l

I , , ,I

l

1955

1957

1959

1961

\j SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
2/ PERSONAL INCOME LESS PERSONAL TAXES.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

and employment benefits from a tax-and-transfer system highly responsive
to changes in output and income, as a cushion against sharp movements
of aggregate demand either toward inflation or toward recession.
However, in the present situation—with the American economy laboring
for over five years well below its potential rate of output—automatic stabilization becomes an ambiguous blessing. The protection it gives against
cumulative downward movements of output and employment is all the
more welcome. But its symmetrical "protection" against upward movements becomes an obstacle on the path to full employment, throttling expansion well before full employment is reached.
Under such conditions, high employment can be restored—as is being
proposed under the 1963 tax program—by a reduction in taxes. When this
is done the need is not primarily to lessen the responsiveness of tax receipts
to changes in GNP. Rather the whole schedule of taxes should be lowered—so that, at any given GNP, taxes siphon off less private purchasing
power—while leaving the response of tax receipts to changes in GNP about
as great as before. To be sure, it is almost impossible to lower taxes without lessening to some degree their sensitivity to changes in GNP. But the




68

purpose of such a change should be to lower the level of taxes—and hence
their persistent drag on purchasing power—rather than to reduce their
automatic countercyclical response.
TAX CUTS TO AID RECOVERY

Just as we have had postwar experience with automatic stabilization, we
have had experience with active tax cuts which served positively to increase
demand. These experiences are of interest in the present context.
In two of the postwar recessions—1948-49 and 1953-54—tax cuts
helped to check the decline and to spur the ensuing recovery. Neither of
the tax cuts is an example of deliberate countercyclical fiscal action, but
both had important expansionary effects which came when they were
needed.
Under the Revenue Act of 1948, which was passed by the Congress in
April, taxes were reduced by $4.7 billion. While at the time, the tax
cut appeared inappropriately timed—few observers were predicting recession—when the recession of 1949 in fact occurred, it turned out to be
fortunate that the tax cut had been legislated. The cut was retroactive to
January 1, 1948, and as a result refunds were exceptionally large in mid1949. The upturn began in October 1949. In addition to the tax
cut, there was a significant increase in Federal expenditures in late 1948
associated with the introduction of the Marshall Plan. This also helped
to mitigate the recession. The economy was further stimulated in the
expansion phase by the heavy increases in placement of military orders
associated with the Korean War, which began in June 1950. As a result of
the tax cut and the increased expenditures, together with the effects of
the automatic stabilizers, the recession was short and mild, and the ensuing
expansion was strong. By the first quarter of 1951, unemployment had
been reduced to 3.5 percent of the labor force.
As a result of the rapid expansion, by the second quarter of 1950, Federal tax liabilities as shown in the national income accounts had risen substantially above the levels that prevailed at the time taxes were cut in the
second quarter of 1948.
Taxes also were cut during the recession of 1953-54. Effective January
1, 1954, the excess profits tax was repealed, and personal income tax rates
were reduced. Excise taxes were reduced on April 1, and further tax reductions for both individuals and corporations were embodied in the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. These measures are estimated to have
reduced Federal revenues by about $6.1 billion (seasonally adjusted annual
rate) in the first half of 1954. Further cuts which went into effect later
brought the revenue loss on a full-year basis to about $7.4 billion. These
cuts in personal and corporate income and excise taxes were partially offset,
however, by an increase of about $1.4 billion (annual rate) in OASI contributions, which became effective on January 1, 1954. For the most part,




69

the tax reductions in 1954 were part of a program of tax reform and were
not viewed primarily as fiscal policy measures aimed at countering the recession. Yet as a result of the tax cuts that became effective at the beginning
of 1954, disposable personal income and personal consumption expenditures
turned up in the first quarter, while personal income and GNP were still
declining. It is generally agreed that the recession ended in August. Tax
reduction, together with an easy monetary policy which made a plentiful
supply of funds available to finance a strong expansion of housing and automobile demand, helped to shorten the recession and to invigorate the ensuing
expansion which brought unemployment down to 4.2 percent of the labor
force by the third quarter of 1955.
As a result of the expansion, by the first quarter of 1955 total Federal tax
liabilities, as shown in the national income accounts, had risen significantly
above the level that prevailed in the fourth quarter of 1953 before the tax
cuts were put into effect.
While the tax cuts of 1954 helped considerably in rescuing the economy
from the recession, it should be recognized that had they gone into effect
earlier, the recession of 1953-54 might have been completely avoided.
Government expenditures (principally defense spending) were cut by
nearly $11 billion between mid-1953 and mid-1954. The tax cuts took
effect 6 months after expenditures began to fall. As it was, fiscal policy,
taken as a whole, was contractionary in this period and was a major cause
of the recession. The Federal deficit as shown in the national income and
product accounts was $7.0 billion (seasonally adjusted annual rate) in the
second quarter of 1953 when the recession began. By the fourth quarter
the operation of the automatic stabilizers associated with the decline in
economic activity had increased the deficit to $11.8 billion despite significant cuts in expenditures. The deficit dropped to $10.6 billion in the
first quarter of 1954, and as a result of sharp cuts in expenditures, to $5.4
billion in the second quarter despite the tax reductions that went into
effect in the first half of 1954.
Private scholars who have studied the period have estimated that if the
economy had continued to operate at the same rate of unemployment that
prevailed in the second quarter of 1953, the budget deficit would have
dropped from $7.0 billion in that quarter to $3.8 billion in the fourth
quarter of 1953 and would have shifted to a surplus of $3.0 billion by the
second quarter of 1954. This represents a shift of $10 billion between
the peak of the previous recovery and the trough of the recession. It
is an approximate measure of the net contractive effect of active fiscal
policy during this period.
FISCAL POLICY IN THE 1 9 3 o's

During the 1930's, America had its longest uninterrupted experience with
budget deficits. Their persistence, their relatively large size in comparison
with GNP, and their association with an unprecedented unemployment




70

rate (averaging 18.2 percent from 1930-39) have sometimes been interpreted as demonstrating the futility of expansionary fiscal policy.
The 1930's were a tragic period in the Nation's history. The "Great
Depression," the causes of which are still not fully diagnosed, produced a tremendous "gap" between actual and potential output—not the 6 percent
average of recent years but about 40 percent during much of the period.
In such an abnormal situation, it is perhaps too much to expect that fiscal
policy alone could have fully offset a prolonged failure of the private economy to generate strong expansionary forces.
But in fact, active fiscal policy was not employed vigorously, consistently,
or with proper timing. And whatever constructive impact fiscal policy may
have had was largely offset by restrictive monetary policies and by institutional failures—failures that could never again occur because of fundamental
changes made during and since the 1930}s.
Briefly summarized, the facts are these:
(1) Fiscal policy was moderately expansionary for the decade as a
whole. Federal expenditures increased substantially, adding to
total demand. But most of the effect of this expenditure growth
was offset by a series of very heavy tax rate increases, especially in
the Revenue Acts of 1932 and 1936. Federal revenues increased
by 77 percent over the decade even with a terribly depressed tax
base. If the unemployment rate had stayed at the 1929 level,
revenues would have more than doubled. The Federal budget
changed from a surplus of slightly over $1 billion in 1929 to deficits
that would have averaged less than $1 billion over the decade had
unemployment been at the same level as in 1929. Of course,
because of the collapse of the revenue base, actual deficits were
much larger; but these were partly the passive product of depression and partly the reflection of an actively expansionary policy.
(2) At two crucial periods, fiscal policy shifted sharply in a contractionary direction: in 1932-33, and again in 1937-38. In the
first period the contractionary policy coincided with and intensified
the monetary collapse, and in the second choked off the 1937
recovery.
(3) State and local government budgets were then much larger than
the Federal budget, and they were changed in a highly restrictive
manner, shifting from a deficit in 1929 to surpluses after 1934.
(4) Unemployment melted away very rapidly when military needs
began in 1941 to lead to large budget deficits. Of course, as these
expenditures and deficits grew during the war, they not only restored full employment but became a serious inflationary danger.
But this wartime overdose of expansionary fiscal medicine should
not obscure the fact that more moderate dosages in the early
stages quickly solved an unemployment problem which had seemed




insoluble for 10 years. This was not because the expenditures
happened to be military in nature—any expenditures, private or
public, on the same scale would have expanded demand and put
men back to work.
SOME CONCLUSIONS FROM PAST EXPERIENCE

Several conclusions emerge from the preceding review.
The automatic stabilization which our present fiscal system provides is a
powerful weapon to damp cyclical movements of output and employment.
It is one of the factors that has kept the U.S. economy free from major
depressions in the postwar period.
The postwar record shows that deliberate tax cuts can have a countercyclical impact, encouraging recovery by stimulating private demand.
The experience reviewed above shows how in two cases tax reduction
contributed in this manner to recovery from recession. The fact that
these tax changes came at times when they helped to check recession
and encourage recovery was, however, largely accidental.
The 1948 tax reduction was intended as a permanent one, reflecting the
postwar decline of military expenditures. The 1954 tax cuts were also intended as a permanent adjustment to the sharp reductions in government
expenditures at the end of the Korean emergency. But a recession will not
always coincide with the need for permanent tax reduction. The temporary fluctuations in private demand that are commonly responsible for
cyclical movements in business activity thus may call for temporary adjustments in fiscal policy that can be reversed as the need for them recedes.
Last year the President proposed two measures for greater fiscal flexibility
to meet recessions. These were (a) a proposal that the Congress grant to
the President limited authority to initiate temporary reductions in personal
income tax rates, subject to Congressional approval; and (b) a proposal
that the Congress give the President stand-by authority to accelerate and
TABLE 10.—Federal Government surplus or deficit: Comparison of estimate and actual,
fiscal years 1958-63
[Millions of dollars]

Date of
estimate l

Fiscal year

Administrative budget
surplus or deficit (—)
Estimate i

1958-63 average__

1,411

1958
1959 .
1960
1961
1962
1963

1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962

1 Estimate in Budget document issued in January of year indicated.
2 Actual, except for 1963.
3 Estimate, January 1963.
Source: Bureau of the Budget.




Actual 2

72

-5,511

1,813
466
70
4,184
1,468
463

-2,819
-12,427
1,224
-3,856
-6,378

3-8,811

initiate appropriately timed public capital improvements in times of serious
unemployment. In his Economic Report the President has reaffirmed his
support of the principle underlying these two proposals.
A weak private economy can generate very large deficits without receiving
a positively stimulating effect from those deficits. The large passive deficits
of the 1930's provide examples. More recent examples appear in the experience of the past 5 years. Although the administrative budgets presented
for the fiscal years 1958-63 foresaw a surplus in every year, averaging $1.4
billion, the actual outcome has been a deficit in all but one of these years,
averaging $5.5 billion. This record is summarized in Table 10. The discrepancy between the Administration's proposed budget and the actual fiscal
outcome is, of course, accounted for by two factors: variance between actual
and anticipated GNP, and Congressional action modifying both expenditures and taxes. But the major factor explaining these discrepancies was
the failure of the economy to attain the GNP that had been anticipated.
Passive deficits are largest when the economy experiences recession. A
recession which would reduce the expected GNP gains in fiscal year 1964 by
even $15 billion below what they would otherwise be would add almost $5
billion to the deficit.
The experience of the last few years should make it clear that merely to incur deficits is not an appropriate objective of policy. For it is not the deficits as such that provide stimulus. Only reductions in tax rates or increases
in expenditures have an actively stimulating role. The passive deficits
which are the product of recession or slack, however, have a valuable cushioning function. Nevertheless, it is an appropriate objective of policy to
eliminate the deficits that are the product of a recession or a sluggish economy—because of the human and economic waste that is involved in
recessions and slack. The proper objectives of policy are full employment
and growth, and recessions and slack are the opposites of these.
It is clear that the deficit which a slack economy or recession produces
cannot realistically be eliminated by raising tax rates or by reducing government expenditures. Its source is not excessive spending or tax rates that are
,too low. The attempt to eliminate a deficit by these means would be largely
self-defeating. Such a policy would be disastrous for employment, incomes,
profits; the deficit would remain; and the role of the dollar as an international currency would be undermined.
Expenditures that are wasteful or represent improper fields for government action (something which only the public, acting through elected representatives, can determine) should surely be eliminated. But unless taxes
were simultaneously reduced by more than expenditures decline, the effect
would be contractionary on the economy. The beneficial effect on incentives through lower tax rates might be more than offset by a net loss in
demand. A cut in expenditures reduces market demand directly by the full
amount of the cut, while an equal reduction in taxes expands market de-




73

mand by a smaller amount, because a part of the reduction will be added to
personal and business saving.
Deficits that result from recession or slack can be eliminated only by
restoring and maintaining a vigorous, rapidly growing economy. If the
tax system imposes an excessive drag on the economy—through its effects
on purchasing power and on incentives—tax rates may be too high relative
to expenditures, even though the budget is in deficit. Thus, tax revision,
involving both reduction and reform, can not only provide stimulus for
growth and prosperity, but can even, as a result, balance the budget or
produce surpluses. Recession and slack generate deficits; prosperity and
growth balance budgets.
The reciprocal relationships among surpluses and deficits in the Federal
budget and the strength of the private economy can be clarified by examining the counterparts of the Federal budget for the other sectors of the
economy.
DEFICITS AND SURPLUSES—PRIVATE AND PUBLIC

For the economy as a whole, expenditures on final output in any past
period must necessarily add up to the value of total gross product or income.
Therefore, if any one sector in the economy has incurred a deficit by spending more than it has received in income, some other sector must have incurred a surplus by spending less than it has received. Putting it differently,
the sum of all sectoral deficits must be identical with the sum of all surpluses.
The problem is to maintain a relationship between the deficits and surpluses
of the various sectors that will permit this balance to be reached at a satisfactory level of economic activity—and without a prolonged succession of
government deficits. The interrelationship between the levels of surplus
and deficit of various sectors in the economy has been tabulated in the
President's Economic Report each year since 1947. It gives an interesting
insight into the cyclical behavior of the economy and places fluctuations in
the Federal deficit or surplus in better perspective.
A Federal deficit on national income account means that the Government's injections into the stream of income and expenditures through purchases of goods and services and transfer payments exceed its withdrawals
through taxes and social insurance contributions. Conversely, a surplus
means that its withdrawals exceed its injections. (The way in which the
Government uses its surplus or finances its deficit may have an important
bearing on the level of business or even consumer expenditure. These
transactions on asset account are not explicitly treated in the present analysis, but these vital considerations of financial policy are dealt with elsewhere
in this Report.)
For consumers, receipts of disposable income are withdrawals, and outlays for consumption represent injections. Expenditures on residential
construction, though usually treated in the national income accounts as




74

business investment, are here assigned to the consumer sector, and depreciation charges on residential property are treated accordingly as gross consumer saving.
State and local governments, as the Federal Government, withdraw
purchasing power from the income stream through taxes, and inject it by
purchases of goods and services and by transfer payments. The concept
of surplus and deficit is the same as for the Federal Government. In the
case of the foreign sector, imports of goods and services drain purchasing
power away to other countries, while exports of goods and services for
which payments must be made to the United States constitute injections.
For business firms, retained earnings and depreciation allowances (gross
saving) are withdrawals from the gross income stream, while expenditures
for fixed and inventory investment are injections. A "deficit," in these
terms, exists if investment exceeds gross saving. Thus defined, a "deficit"
on capital account does not mean that business is unprofitable—quite the
contrary. Borrowing to finance investment in productive plant and equipment that yields a return over time lies at the heart of the growth process
of the economy. In years of prosperity, when unemployment is low and
capacity is fully utilized, business profits are high and the saving from retained earnings and depreciation allowances is relatively large. But in
these years, the inducement to invest in new productive facilities is so strong
that it substantially outruns even the large supply of internal saving.
The "budget" of the consumer sector characteristically shows a surplus—
an excess of disposable income plus depreciation of houses, over the combined total of personal consumption expenditures and residential construction. Indeed, during the period 1947-62, the consumer sector was in surplus in every year except 1947. The average surplus in that period was
about $6.5 billion.
State and local governments have had deficits in 8 out of the last 9 years
and in 11 of the entire 16 years under review. Their deficits have been
relatively small, averaging a little less than a billion dollars in the last few
years. The foreign sector has had an excess of current purchases from the
United States over sales to the United States in 9 of the 16 years, and for
the whole period the excess of purchases averaged a little less than a
billion dollars a year. This excess of purchases is a deficit for purposes of
the U.S. national income accounts.
Characteristically, the business and Federal Government sectors combined
show a deficit, which offsets a consolidated surplus in the remaining sectors.
However, the only two sectors whose deficits and surpluses exhibit fluctuations clearly related to changes in the general level of business activity are
the business sector and the Federal Government. Chart 9 shows the deficit
or surplus in the Federal national income accounts budget and the deficit
or surplus of the business sector on capital account for each year from 1947
to 1962. The chart shows clearly that movements in the deficits and sur-




75

CHART 9

Federal Budget and Business Capital Account:
Surpluses or Deficits
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS
SURPLUS
—

2 — •

\
\

~

—

\
¥
*

V
I
\
I
1
1
1

8

4

^0- FEDERAL GOVERNMEh T —'

.

\

0

_

\
_

!

I
l

\

«

%
1
1

1
1
1

t

I
\

1

A

i
\
\
\

1 t\

1
•

#

xV
\

/

\
-8

i

-

1

1947

v

/

V /

DEFICIT

16

V

\

|

i

1949

i

i

1951

i

i

i

i

1953

1955

A/>
!
-

l\ \
r

k
#
i
i
i i
)
1
/ 1

i

/ ^ ^ BUSINESS-2/

12

K

f

1

I

-4

:

\

i

i

1957

i

1959

i

i

1961

1 / SURPLUS OR DEFICIT (-) ON NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS BASIS.
2] EXCESS OF GROSS RETAINED EARNINGS (EXCLUDING DEPRECIATION ON NONFARM RESIDENTIAL
PROPERTY) OVER GROSS PRIVATE DOMESTIC INVESTMENT (EXCLUDING RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION),
OR EXCESS OF GROSS PRIVATE DOMESTIC INVESTMENT OVER GROSS RETAINED EARNINGS ( - ) .
SEE TABLE C - 7 FOR DATA AND DEFINITIONS OF EARNINGS AND INVESTMENT.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

pluses of these two sectors bear a marked inverse relationship. The yearto-year movements of the deficits or surpluses were in opposite direction for
these two sectors in 12 of the 15 cases shown.
The budget of the business sector exhibits surpluses or small deficits in
years of recession and slack, moves toward deficit as the economy expands,
and commonly achieves a substantial deficit in years of prosperity and low
unemployment. Consequently, it is in prosperous years, such as 1947, 1948,
1950, 1951, 1952, 1955, 1956, and 1957, that the business sector has had
large deficits on capital account. It is in those years that business raises
large amounts of funds on the capital market and uses the surpluses of other
sectors. On the other hand, when there is substantial unemployment and
unutilized capacity, as in the recession years 1949 and 1954 and the years
1958-62, the inducement to invest tends to be so weak that investment




76

spending falls, even relative to the reduced levels of gross retained earnings,
and the business sector budget shows only a small deficit or even a surplus.
The Federal budget shows a reverse pattern. It consistently moves
toward a surplus as the economy expands and toward a deficit as it contracts. These movements are mainly a passive result of the operation of
the automatic fiscal stabilizers, though they reflect also active measures of
fiscal policy aimed at minimizing economic fluctuations. As a general rule,
the Federal Government has had budget surpluses in years when the unemployment rate has averaged less than 5V2 percent of the labor force and
budget deficits in years when the rate has exceeded that figure. The only
exceptions to this rule between 1947 and 1962 were the years 1952 and
1953 when the requirements of the Korean war forced very high military
expenditures in a time of prosperity and low unemployment, and the year
1960 when a deliberate contraction of Federal expenditures cut short recovery from the 1957—58 recession while unemployment was still high. On
the other hand, in years when unemployment has exceeded 5 ^ percent, the
business sector has had an average deficit of less than $2 billion, whereas in
years in which unemployment has been less than 5]A percent the business
sector deficit has averaged $9 billion.
It is evident that the deficit or surplus in the business sector is related to
the surplus or deficit in the Federal Government sector. More important,
it is a major determinant of the total level of expenditures and hence of
economic activity. When capital spending is sluggish, the over-all level of
expenditure, and hence income, is likely to be unsatisfactory. A passive
deficit in the Federal sector will occur. But this, in itself, cannot provide
the new inducement to investment that will restore full employment and
in the process permit the Federal Government a surplus in its own accounts.
The business sector cannot, of course, be expected to run large deficits
merely in order to maintain high levels of economic activity. General
economic stabilization is a responsibility of the Federal Government, not
of private business organizations. Unavoidable fluctuations in private
demand make it almost certain that the Federal budget will show deficits
in some years. But the way to avoid chronic Federal deficits and achieve
surpluses with reasonable frequency is to pursue active Federal policies—
including budget and tax policies—designed to keep the economy operating
continuously at high levels of employment and capacity utilization.
PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE

There are many reasons for confidence that, once full employment is
restored by fiscal action, the private sectors will once again find it to their
advantage to increase investment and incur deficits sufficient to generate a
balance in the Federal account—that the private economy will find new
buoyancy which will make surpluses possible and appropriate.




77

The weakness of fixed business investment in recent years has reflected—
and in turn reinforced—the slow and uncertain growth of aggregate demand. Greater utilization of existing capacity may not immediately yield
a burst of investment activity. Businesses which expanded capacity in
1955-57 in the expectation of expanding markets and reaped only a harvest of higher overhead costs may be hesitant to bet again on sustained
prosperity. But as strong markets are restored and maintained, business
confidence can and will revive. Private investment will then be once
again the primary force for economic growth. Structural factors will favor
this development. For example, beginning in the second half of the 1960's
demographic conditions will be ripe for one of the strongest and most prolonged booms in residential construction this country has ever known.
The vast research and development effort of American industry will yield
new techniques and new products which will be profitable to install in
steadily expanding markets.
The historical record of the American economy—like that of every industrialized country—exhibits an irregular sequence of periods of strong
and buoyant demand, alternating with intervals of weakness and slack. The
reasons for this irregularity are many: massive innovations like the automobile or electrification, the opening or closing of new territories, bursts
of population growth, the temporary drying-up of profitable investment opportunities. History teaches that all such periods end. The natural tendency to extrapolate the recent past ought not to blind us to the
likelihood that the weakness of the past few years will sooner or later be
transformed into strength. But if we fail to do what is needed now, the
transformation may be long delayed.
TAX REDUCTION AND THE NATIONAL DEBT
Tax reduction in 1963 will, as indicated previously, lead to a transitional
increase in the budget deficit; As a result, the total Federal debt will rise
by an estimated $5.4 billion in the fiscal year 1963, from $298.6 billion in
June 1962 to $304 billion in June 1963.
The significance of the public debt—and its increase in 1963—can be
best understood by putting the debt in the context of the over-all economy
and taking into account the development over time of both the debt and the
economy.
World War II led to a $211.9 billion increase in total Federal debt outstanding—from $47.6 billion in December 1939 to $259.5 billion in December 1946, as shown in Table 11. By December 1962, the debt had risen
by a further $44.5 billion. Since the war, its size relative to the total economy has declined by more than one-half: the ratio of the debt to GNP was
123 percent at the close of 1946, and at the close of 1962 it was 55 percent.
The decline has been fairly steady and has continued in each of the last 2
years. While the absolute size of the debt will again increase during the




7s

T A B L E 11.—Federal debt and interest payments on the debt, selected calendar years, 1939—62

Item

1939

1946

1950

1955

1960

19621

Billions of dollars

Federal debt:2
Totals
. .
Held by the public 4...
Interest payments on debt:
Total debt
Debt held by the public

47.6
38.6

256.7
196.7

280.8
204.3

290.4
207.9

304.0
217.6

1.0
.8

_

259.5
205.3
5.0
4.2

5.6
4.3

6.5
4.8

9.3
6.7

9.6
6.9

Percent
Debt as percent of gross national product:
Total debt
Debt held by the public.._
Interest payments on debt as percent of national
income:
Total debt
._
Debt held by the public

52.3
42.4

123.2
97.4

90.2
69.1

70.6
51.4

57.7
41.3

54.9
39.3

1.4
1.1

2.8
2.3

2.3
1.8

2.0
1.5

2.2
1.6

2.1
1.5

1
2 Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
3 Amount outstanding, end of calendar year.
4 Gross public debt and guaranteed issues held outside the

Treasury.
Total less amounts held by U.S. Government investment accounts and by Federal Reserve Banks.
Sources: Treasury Department, Department of Commerce, and Council of Economic Advisers.

fiscal year 1963, it will continue to decline relative to GNP: the growth of
1.8 percent in the debt will be less than the expected rise of 4.3 percent in
GNP.
The absolute amount of interest payments shown in the administrative
budget has risen from $5 billion in the calendar year 1946 to over $9
billion in the calendar year 1962, primarily because of the necessity of
refinancing at higher current interest rates debt incurred during World
War II. Such payments, however, have declined as a percentage of
national income and as a percentage of total Federal expenditures during
the postwar period.
Even in the perspective of the GNP, figures for total outstanding Federal
debt and gross interest payments overstate the debt "problem." The total
outstanding debt includes Federal securities held by the U.S. Government
investment accounts—such as the social security trust funds—and by the
Federal Reserve System. Interest payments on these components of the
debt are, in effect, internal transfers of funds within the Federal Government itself and do not involve payments to the public. Moreover, debt
held by the government investment accounts and the Federal Reserve
does not pose a significant problem of debt management. The economically
significant concepts are, accordingly, the publicly held debt, which excludes
these components, and Federal interest payments to the public, which excludes interest transfers within the Government.
The publicly held Federal debt was $217.6 billion in December 1962,
compared with total outstanding Federal debt of $304.0 billion. In the calendar year 1962, net Federal interest payments to the public were $6.9
billion, compared with the $9.6 billion of interest shown in the administra-




79

CHART 10

Federal Debt Held by the Public
and its Relation to Gross National Product
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

300
DEBT HELD BY THE PUBLIC 1/
250

200

150

100

50

0

I

i

i

i

i

l

i

i

I

I

i

»

i

i

i

»

»

i

I

I

I

»

I

i i

j/TOTAL GROSS PUBLIC DEBT AND GUARANTEED ISSUES LESS AMOUNTS HELD BY U.S. GOVERNMENT
INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS AND BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS; END OF CALENDAR YEAR.
SOURCES: TREASURY DEPARTMENT, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




8o

tive budget. From 1946 to 1962, the net increase in the publicly held debt
was $12.3 billion, compared with the increase of $44.5 billion in the
total outstanding Federal debt. (See Table 11 and Chart 10.) Net
publicly held debt per capita fell from $1,450 in 1946 to $1,170 in 1962.
Since 1946, State and local governments in the United States have increased their net indebtedness fivefold—from $13.6 billion to $72 billion,
or from $96 to $390 per capita. During this same period, total net private
debt increased from $154 billion to an estimated $672 billion. Net corporate
debt, accounting for one-half of this total, tripled its 1946 level,
while individuals and noncorporate business increased their net indebtedness by over fivefold during this period. (See Appendix C, Table 51.)
Whether the increases in indebtedness in these sectors were wise or foolish depends not on the mere fact of an increase in their debt, but on the
purposes achieved and on the future prospects of the individuals or organizations assuming the debt obligations. For the Federal Government, these
same guides underlie our judgment as we decide whether an increase in the
debt is appropriate. Federal expenditure programs must be rigorously
judged on their merits. The decision as to the appropriate method of
financing them, however, should be based on the Nation's economic condition, not on the object of the expenditure. In this respect the public debt
is unique.
FEDERAL DEBT AND NATIONAL WEALTH

Our national wealth consists of real objects which yield direct services
to us (such as the family automobile) or enable us to produce more or better
goods and services (the machines in a factory). It also includes the
amount by which Americans' claims on foreigners exceed foreigners' claims
against Americans.
The measured national wealth, together with the skills and efforts of
our labor force, constitutes the productive capacity of the American economy, the source of each year's output. In turn, the portion of annual
output devoted to net investment equals the yearly addition to our national
wealth—in the form of productive equipment, plants, houses, schools, post
offices, and so on. The national wealth grows rapidly in prosperous years
when investment is high and slowly in years of recession and slack. Thus,
Table 12 shows that during the depressed 1930's national wealth actually
declined; during both the prosperous 1920's and 1950's it increased
substantially.
If our public debt were owned by foreigners, it would be a deduction
from our national wealth and would place a direct burden on our economy
by requiring us to export part of our total output to cover interest and
amortization. But our public debt is nearly 95 percent internally held.
Public debt held by Americans neither directly increases nor directly reduces
national wealth. Also, it is not directly related to the asset holdings of
8i
669333 0—63



6

TABLE 12.—Civilian national wealth, selected years, 1900-58
[BiUions of dollars, 1947-49 prices]
National wealth i
End of year
Total
1900
1912
1922
1929
1933
1939
1945 2
1945 2
1946
1950
1954
1958

_. _

Publicly
owned

Net foreign
assets

314.6
464.7
588.2
778.0
742.2
748.4
763.7

292.0
423.5
532.5
700.2
644.7
623.2
628.5

22.6
41.2
55.7
77.8
97.5
125.2
135.2

-6.9
-4.8
12.0
18.2
15.8
3.1
1.2

788.4
812.9
949.1
1,086.3
3 1,244.5

647.1
671.7
790.6
907.8
1,041.7

141.3
141.2
158.5
178.5
202.8

-2.7
3.0
12.0
12.8
18.9

_

_
_
_

Privately
owned

_

1 Includes net tangible wealth and net foreign assets; excludes military assets.
2 Two estimates for 1945: the first comparable with data for earlier years and the second comparable with
data for later years.
3 Total in 1958 prices is $1,702.8 billion.
Source: Raymond W. Goldsmith, The National Wealth of the United States in the Postwar Period.

the Government—although it may be noted that a recent report of the House
Government Operations Committee estimates that the total wealth, including military assets, owned by the U.S. Government, exceeds its debt.
The tax program that is being proposed for enactment this year will bring
about an increase in investment, both by raising demand and reducing
excess capacity a!nd by increasing incentives and the availability of funds.
Thus, it will increase the accumulation of real capital and add to our
national wealth.
Under other circumstances, of course, a fiscal policy which involved an
increase in the public debt might operate to reduce real investment and
retard the growth of national wealth. For example, when employment
is high and demand is pressing against capacity, deficit financing of public
noninvestment expenditures may contribute to inflation or raise interest
rates and thereby depress private capital formation. Changes in national
debt, therefore, bear no simple relation to changes in national wealth. An
increase in national debt may indirectly spur the growth of wealth under
some conditions and stifle it under other conditions.
THE BURDEN OF THE PUBLIC DEBT

An understanding of the relation between national debt and national
wealth helps to place the problem of debt burden in further perspective.
In what respects can it be said that public debt imposes a burden on either
present or future generations?
1. As indicated above, the kind of fiscal policies we follow can either
increase or decrease the living standards of future generations by
affecting the stock of wealth we bequeath to them. But, clearly,
the tax program being proposed for enactment in 1963, which




82

encourages both high employment and high capital formation
for economic growth, will benefit future generations as well as
our own. It will do so even though it results in some increase
in the public debt.
2. At full employment, an increase in interest payments on the
publicly held Federal debt will ordinarily require higher personal
income and corporate profits taxes than would otherwise be
necessary in order to prevent inflation. The resulting transfer
from taxpayers to interest recipients does not constitute a direct
draft on the real resources available to the American people as
a whole, but it may impose a burden of a more subtle kind.
By dampening incentives, the higher tax rates may reduce total
output. How serious such a burden will be depends on the level
of tax rates that is needed. In recent years, interest payments
to the public by the Federal Government have amounted to less
than 2 percent of the national income, as shown on Table 13.
Moreover, the ratio of interest payments to national income has
declined, and it is this ratio that matters in setting the required
level of tax rates. Given the magnitudes of debt change involved
in a fiscal policy for high employment, and relating them to the
expected growth of our economy, it is likely that the debt burden
will continue to decline.
3. A further potential disadvantage of debt service may result from
its effects on income distribution. If all the debt were held by
one group of investors while taxes were paid by a quite different
group, undesirable distributional consequences might result.
This, however, is not the case in the United States where debtholding is fairly widely dispersed and our tax structure partially
offsets the distributional effects of interest transfers.
Today's economic problem is slack, not inflation. Thus, under the
present circumstances there is no reason to fear such increases in the public
debt as tax reduction may entail. The ratio of interest payments on the
debt to national income is small and is likely to fall, not rise. Nor is there
any danger that the increase in the Federal debt will be a burden on future
generations. Tax reduction will increase investment, and hence the wealth
we will bequeath, not decrease it. The danger is the opposite one. By
failing to take expansionary fiscal action, we will keep both consumption
and investment depressed, thus hurting not only ourselves, |>ut future
generations as well.
PRICES, WAGES, AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
The primary purpose of the President's tax program is to strengthen
greatly the forces of economic expansion, within an environment of contin-




83

ued price stability and improvement in our balance-of-payments position. The prospects are good that this can be accomplished by a proper
combination of fiscal and monetary policies, continued adherence to sound
wage and price policies, and even more intensive application of the measures
already taken to improve our balance of payments position—particularly
export expansion.
PRICES AND WAGES

Prices rise when demand exceeds supply. The most widely experienced
form of inflation occurs when the demand for most or all commodities
exceeds or is expected soon to exceed productive capacity. Inflationary
pressures cannot directly result from passive deficits associated with economic slack and sluggish growth. The deficits of the past 5 years have
occurred in a period of almost unprecedented stability of wholesale prices.
Much larger deficits, as a proportion of GNP, were experienced during
the 1930's, in a period of falling prices.
Active deficits, on the other hand, arise from policies designed to expand
demand. An expansion of demand sufficient to achieve high employment
tends to put pressure on prices and wages. But expansions which originate
from tax reductions and which are associated with government deficits impose neither more nor less inflationary pressure than expansions originating
in any other source. It is not the source of the increased demand, but the
extent to which increased demand can be met without increases in costs,
and the extent to which competition keeps prices in line with costs, that
determine the effect of the expansion on prices and wages.
Effects of expansion on prices and wages
At present, considerable latitude exists in the American economy to
increase output by bringing unemployed labor and unused capital back to
work; this is a principal reason why a tax reduction is needed. While the
record of the postwar years indicates that wages tend to rise more rapidly in
years when unemployment is low, given the present high unemployment rate
demand for labor can expand substantially without resulting in much additional pressure on labor markets.
In addition, competition is keen. Employers, labor, and the public all are
aware of the dangers of cost inflation. The potential mobility of labor is
high, and there are reasons to believe it will increase. In the years ahead a
larger proportion of the total labor force will be new entrants, and their
average educational level will be higher than ever before. New Federal
programs of retraining, and other measures to increase the adaptability of
the labor force have been introduced. These measures will be further
strengthened in 1963 and the years ahead. These improvements in the
adaptability of the labor force to changing demand conditions should permit relatively low levels of unemployment to be achieved before bottlenecks
become serious.




84

Although wage pressures undoubtedly would be somewhat stronger at
lower rates of unemployment, unit labor costs need not be higher because a
considerable improvement in productivity would be the direct consequence
of return to higher rates of capacity utilization. An underutilized economy
incurs high costs relative to its output—the overhead costs of usable but
unused plant and equipment, the cost of maintaining underutilized clerical
and administrative staff, etc. All these costs are incurred whether production is low or high. Raising demand for goods and services will permit
more efficient use of existing capacity and reduce underemployment of workers still on the payroll—in short, will increase the productivity both of labor
and of capital. While higher demand will certainly pull some prices up
and lengthen some delivery periods, reduced costs resulting from higher
utilization of capacity in many industries will be a force on the side of
stability. And in the longer run, the return to full employment, by stimulating investment in new plant and equipment, and the technical improvements it makes possible, will help to speed up the long-run advance in productivity and thus help stabilize or reduce unit costs.
Moreover, the world supply situation for primary products suggests
stability in the prices of internationally traded raw materials. Thus substantial expansion of production in the United States can take place without
upward pressure on costs from that source.
The extra gain in productivity associated with higher utilization will
permit increased profit margins without price increases, provided wage rate
increases do not outrun gains in productivity. Total profits will increase
even more as sales rise. It is important that the push from the side of profits,
like the push from the side of wages, be restrained within limits consistent
with over-all stability. Stiff competition from abroad has already disciplined the price policies of a number of American industries and will continue to do so. In addition, a resolute policy of maintaining competition
and encouraging the mobility of capital and enterprise as well as labor can
make an important contribution in containing inflationary pressures.
A return to low unemployment after the recent period of price stability
is unlikely to be encumbered by the same degree of inflationary psychology
as earlier postwar periods of low unemployment.
Wage and price

"guideposts33

To aid public understanding, the 1962 Economic Report concluded (pp.
185-90) with a set of "guideposts for noninflationary wage and price behavior." These guideposts were designed to provide standards for evaluating those price and wage decisions where the public has an interest in their
content and consequences. They cannot, and should not, replace the
normal processes of free private decisions and negotiations.
As the margin of unemployed labor and idle capital narrows, and as
markets for goods and services become tighter, the guideposts will gain




85

in importance. They are restated here in the belief that an enlightened
public understanding of the nature and causes of inflation would be an additional force minimizing any inflationary threats in the years ahead.
The guideposts themselves involve general guides for noninflationary
wage and price behavior, subject, in each case, to a number of important
and specific qualifications required by the objectives of equity and efficiency.
The general guide for wages is that "the rate of increase in wage rates
(including fringe benefits) in each industry be equal to the trend rate of
over-all productivity increase." Under these conditions the gain from increases in productivity throughout the economy would be shared between
wage and nonwage incomes by allowing each to grow at the same percentage rate. Each sector of economic life would share in the gains of advancing productivity. The qualifications call for faster increases in wage
rates in an industry that (a) would otherwise be unable to attract sufficient
labor to meet demands for its products, or (b) currently pays wage rates
exceptionally low compared with those earned elsewhere by labor of similar
ability. Symmetrically, increases in wage rates would fall short of the general guide rate in an industry that (a) could not provide employment for its
entire labor force even in generally prosperous times; or (b) currently pays
wage rates exceptionally high compared with those earned elsewhere by labor
of similar ability.
The general guide for prices is that prices should fall in an industry
whose rate of productivity increase exceeds the over-all rate, rise in the
opposite case, and remain stable if the two rates of productivity increase
are equal. The qualifications call for a faster price increase or slower price
decrease in an industry in which (a) the level of profits is insufficient to
attract the capital required to meet expansion of demand, or (b) costs
other than labor costs have risen. On the other hand, increases in price
would be slower or decreases faster than indicated by the general guide in
an industry in which (a) productive capacity exceeding full-employment
demand shows an outflow of capital to be desirable, or (b) costs other than
labor costs have fallen, or (c) excessive market power has resulted in rates
of profit substantially higher than those earned elsewhere on investments
of comparable risk.
The recent record
Inflationary pressures in the American economy have receded since 1957.
Between the first quarter of 1947 and the first quarter of 1958, wholesale prices increased at an annual rate of 2.2 percent, and consumer prices
at 2.6 percent. Between the first quarter of 1958 and the last quarter
of 1962, however, these annual rates of increase had fallen to 0.1 percent
and 1.2 percent, respectively (Chart 11).
Between 1958 and 1959 a decline in wholesale prices of farm products
and processed foods offset a slight increase in the average of all other
wholesale prices. Since 1959, wholesale prices of all groups have been




86

CHART 11

Price Developments in the Postwar Period
INDEX, 1957-59»100 (RATIO SCALE)

no
WHOLESALE PRICES
ALL COMMODITIES

100

-

90
, J
3

\
%

l l
« /

^CONSUMER PRICES
ALL ITEMS
ILLUSTRATIVE RATES
OF INCREASE

y
/

5%

80

-

70

. . . 1 . .. 1 , .. 1, .. 1 , .. 1 . . . 1 , . . .1 . .,. ,1 . ,.1. . . 1 . , . 1 . ..1 . . . 1 . , .
1
. .
1947

1949

1951

1953

1955

1957

1959

1961

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

essentially unchanged. Within the total of consumer prices, service prices
continued to rise more rapidly than the average, but there has also been
some slowing in the rate of increase of service prices. When it is recognized
that improvements in the quality of goods and services are only imperfectly
allowed for, the 5-year record of the consumer price index, and its several
components, is cause for satisfaction.
The principal threat to the continuation of price stability in 1962 occurred
in April when a general increase in steel prices was announced by a number
of the major producers. This increase followed the agreement in March
on a wage contract generally regarded as noninflationary. Had this increase stood, it would have caused and invited other price increases
throughout the economy; it would have led organized labor to adopt a new
militancy in its wage demands; and it would have seriously weakened the
forces working toward the restoration of our international competitive position. Fortunately, the price increase was rescinded after the President
expressed the country's concern over the serious threat to price stability and
our balance of payments.




TABLE 13.—Changes in hourly earnings in manufacturing industries, 7947—62
Percentage
change l
per
year

Period

1947 I to 1962 IV 2

4.7

1947 I to 1958 I
1947 I to 1949 III
1949 III to 1954 III
1954 III to 1958 I

5.5
8.0
4.9
4.3

1958 I to 1962 IV 2
1958 I to 1961 I
1961 I to 1962 IV 2

2.9
3.4
2.2

1
Change in average hourly earnings of production workers, adjusted to exclude overtime and inte
industry shifts. Quarterly data not available prior to 1959; first month in quarter used.
2
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Source: Department of Labor (except as noted).

The rate of annual increases in average hourly earnings in all manufacturing, adjusted to exclude overtime and interindustry shifts, has declined steadily throughout the postwar period, and the rate of increase has
been considerably reduced in the past 5 years.
As is shown in Table 13, average hourly earnings rose 5.5 percent a year
between 1947 and 1958, and only 2.9 percent a year between 1958 and
1962. This pattern needs, of course, to be interpreted in the context of
the concurrent slowdown in the rate of increase of consumer prices.
Labor costs per unit of output in all manufacturing have been stable or
declining since 1958, whereas in the earlier period they had advanced.
The fact that these developments have occurred under the cloud of a
5-year underutilization of resources warns against overconfidence in their
continuation. But sober confidence that expansionary policies can proceed without fear of premature revival of inflationary pressure is justified
by the fact that price stability has been maintained through the second
year of cyclical expansion.
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Chapter 4 discusses the impact of economic expansion on the balance of
payments. The main point to be made here is that the immediate effects
on the balance of payments of an expansion of domestic economic activity
brought about by fiscal measures are no different from those produced by
an expansion finding its origin in a spontaneous increase of private demand. However, the 1963 tax program, in addition to expanding total
demand, will strengthen incentives, thereby increasing investment, decreasing unit costs, and helping our international competitive position.
Stability of prices is particularly important for the balance of payments.
It should be emphasized, however, that what is significant for America's
competitive position in international grade is not the absolute change in the
level of U.S. prices, but rather the change relative to prices abroad. In the




88

past several years, prices in the principal industrial nations of the world
have risen relative to ours and indications are that this tendency will
continue.
Perhaps the most important impact of economic expansion on the balance of payments will be through increased confidence around the world
in the strength of the U.S. economy and thus in the strength of the dollar.
Such confidence cannot be bred by the perpetuation of a sluggishly growing U.S. economy, subject to frequent recessions and incomplete recoveries.
Until recently there was widespread belief that foreign businessmen and
private and central bankers would be frightened by expansionary fiscal
policies and budget deficits in the United States. Fears of inflation and
intensified balance of payments difficulties, it was said, would drive shortterm capital funds from the United States and lead central banks to convert
more and more of their increasing dollar holdings into gold. But in
part through the joint studies and activities of the United States and
its partners in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) a better understanding now exists abroad of American
prospects and policies. While there is an alert concern that inflation
might again develop, important segments of European opinion now realize
the urgency of expansionary U.S. fiscal policy—not only to strengthen the
U.S. economy but to support the world economy and the international
payments system based on the dollar.
In recent months, the OECD has recommended vigorous fiscal action
to revive a strong and growing U.S. economy. For example, the annual
OECD Economic Survey of the United States (issued December 13, 1962)
concluded its review as follows:
At the risk of over-simplification, the conclusions of this survey may be summarized as follows:
i) The United States needs to raise its growth rate substantially above that
experienced since the middle of the 1950's * * *
ii) Tne major problem underlying the unsatisfactory experience of recent
years has been the persistent weakness of demand * * *
iii) It seems unlikely that demand from the private sector will, by itself, prove
sufficiently buoyant to put the economy back on to a more appropriate long-term
growth trend * * *
iv) Under these circumstances, a greater stimulus from the Federal budget
would seem necessary to offset the weakness of private demand, a stimulus that
could be provided by tax reductions, by higher Federal expenditure, or by a
combination of the two. This may well entail some temporary resort to deficit
budget financing; but the quicker the economy regains the full-employment level
the shorter will be the period during which deficits are incurred. It is greatly
to be hoped that the fiscal changes to be proposed to Congress in 1963 * * *
will be adequate in scope and timing to permit the early absorption of the present
slack in the economy.
v) In the short run stronger expansion involving increased imports will tend
somewhat to decrease the balance of payments surplus on current account. But
the government's efforts to promote exports and increase invisible earnings
should counteract this tendency, given the cooperation of other Member countries. Rising activity at home should somewhat reduce the outflow on capital
account, increasing the attractiveness of investment at home relative to investment
abroad. Confidence in the dollar depends in good part on a strong domestic
economy; it is unlikely to be fostered for any length of time by policies which
keep the level of activity low.




As is clear from the final paragraph, our European and Canadian partners in the OECD recognize that stronger expansion might tend to intensify balance of payments problems in the short-run, and they are concerned
that U.S. monetary and debt management policies should take appropriate
account of these problems—as indeed they have in the past and will in the
future. But our foreign friends also recognize—as most segments of domestic opinion now agree—that the problems prosperity will bring are far
less serious than the problems it will solve.
The United States can stand prosperity.




90

Chapter 4

TheUnited States and the International Economy

T

HE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY has undergone a remarkable
transformation in the past decade. For many years after World War
II, import quotas, discriminatory trade practices, and exchange restrictions
on all forms of international payments characterized the bulk of international transactions. Though further progress needs to be made, much of
this restrictive legacy has now been swept away. This transformation culminated in the formal acceptance by the major European countries in early
1961 of the currency convertibility requirements of the International Monetary Fund. It is a notable achievement and has far-reaching implications
for the U.S. economy and U.S. economic policy.
Among the factors facilitating this development has been a massive
redistribution of the world's gold and foreign exchange reserves. At the
end of 1948, the United States held 71 percent of the free world's monetary
gold stock; by June 1962, the U.S. share had fallen to 40 percent. During
the same period, Western Europe's share grew from 15 percent to 44
percent. In addition, foreign official holdings of liquid dollar assets rose
by nearly $9 billion. This redistribution ended the excessive concentration of reserves which had been brought about by the political upheavals
in Europe in the 1930's, World War II, and the requirements of postwar
reconstruction. In achieving balance of payments surpluses which rebuilt
reserves, continental European countries gained greater freedom of action
to promote economic expansion and to reduce restrictions on international
transactions.
The redistribution of reserves was brought about partly through deficits
in the international payments of the United States, which led to large
transfers of gold and liquid dollar assets to Europe. These U.S. payments
deficits have persisted beyond the point where they improve the distribution of the world's monetary reserves. Indeed, continuing large payments
deficits by the United States could create doubts about the stability of the
dollar and threaten the efficient operation of the international payments
system. As a result, the U.S. Government has had to pay close and constant attention to the net financial outcome of its transactions, and those
of its citizens, with the rest of the world. Important measures have been
taken to improve the payments position of the United States, and domestic
economic policy has been framed with attention to the balance of payments




91

and the position of the dollar. International transactions of the United
States are discussed in the first section of this chapter.
The relaxation of many restrictions on trade and payments and the redistribution of world reserves have not been the only factors transforming the
world economy. The progress of the European Economic Community
(EEC) toward a rapidly growing, unified, tariff-free market encompassing six European countries—and possibly more in the future—has already profoundly altered world economic relationships. The EEC offers
a domestic market broadly comparable to the United States and an import
market even larger. Liberal access to this market will be vital to
future foreign trade; exclusion by restrictive import tariffs or other barriers
could seriously affect the trade and economic development of many countries of the free world. The emerging EEC and the relationship of the
United States to it are discussed in the second section of this chapter.
It is now generally acknowledged that the responsibility of the industrial
nations for providing capital and technical knowledge to other countries
for economic development requires more than the occasional and sporadic
efforts made before the mid-1950's. Systematic economic development
of the low-income parts of the free world—within a span of time that is
very short by historical standards—has become a major objective of western
foreign policy. Carrying out this gigantic task will require considerable
transfers of capital and technical skill. It will result in large shifts in
the structure of world production and trade, and will require substantial
adjustments in both advanced and developing countries. Some of these
problems are discussed in the third section of this chapter.
These developments have one common characteristic: they bring countries economically closer together. They tend to integrate the free world
economy. Markets will become more unified, competition will be keener,
and differences among nations in techniques of production will diminish.
Substantial progress toward our foreign economic objectives will be made,
but new challenges for economic policy, national and international,
will arise. Some of these problems and recent efforts to find solutions are
discussed in the final section of this chapter.
U.S. INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS
THE UNITED STATES AS WORLD TRADER, INVESTOR, AND BANKER

The United States is by far the largest producing nation in the world,
accounting for more than 40 percent of total industrial production of the
free world. Its 188 million inhabitants place it fourth among nations in
population, and its unequalled level of per capita income makes it the
world's largest domestic market and largest source of savings.
As trader
The basic purpose of our foreign trade is to exchange goods produced
efficiently in the United States for goods which we ca.n produce relatively




92

less efficiently or not at all. International trade lowers costs and raises
standards of living both at home and abroad. Foreign trade accounts for a
much larger part of transactions of the U.S. economy than is generally
appreciated. Even though our merchandise exports are only about 4 percent of total gross national product "(GNP), they amount to nearly 9 percent of our total production of movable goods. For some products,
overseas demand is exceptionally important; it provides over half the
market for such diverse U.S. products as rice, DDT, and tracklaying
tractors. Imports by the United States provide materials essential for
production and also permit Americans variety and diversity in their consumption. Crucial products like nickel and cobalt come almost entirely
from foreign sources.
U.S. exports and imports are a major part of world trade. In the first
three quarters of 1962, U.S. merchandise imports were nearly 14 percent of
total world imports. For some countries and some commodities, of course,
the U.S. market is far more important than this average share implies. For
example, U.S. coffee imports are usually over half of total world imports
of coffee.
U.S. citizens pay large sums for services provided by foreigners—transportation of goods and persons, food and lodging for American tourists and
businessmen traveling abroad, interest, dividends, and profits on the funds
of foreigners invested in American enterprise or securities. In addition,
the United States spends overseas nearly $3 billion (gross) a year for its
own military defense and, indeed, for the defense of the entire free world.
This expenditure is made in part directly by the U.S. Government and in
part by more than one million U.S. servicemen and their dependents
stationed abroad.
The United States is also a major supplier of goods and services, accounting in 1961 for nearly 18 percent of total world exports of merchandise,
for nearly one-fourth of world exports of manufactures, and for nearly
one-third of world exports of capital goods. It is a principal exporter
of many agricultural goods, especially cotton, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, and
poultry, and it exports large amounts of military equipment to its allies—
some on a grant basis, some for cash payment.
The very size of the United States in the world economy lends to its
economic activity and its economic policies special importance and interest
abroad. Its rate of unemployment, economic growth, and commercial and
financial policies are closely charted and carefully watched throughout the
world.
As saver and investor
A nation as large and wealthy as the United States is naturally an
important source of savings for the entire world, and national savings move
abroad both as private investment and as official foreign aid. Its advanced
technology invites emulation abroad, and the profitability of duplicating




93

American technology draws American savers and investors beyond domestic
borders. Its need for foreign resources to supply American production
attracts private U.S. development capital. In addition, the United States
has accepted heavy responsibility for the economic development of emerging
nations, which require public as well as private capital.
Private long-term investment abroad by U.S. residents has risen markedly
in the past decade, from an annual average of $0.9 billion in 1952-55 to
$2.5 billion in 1958-61. Much of this increase has gone to Europe.
The U.S. Government provided $3.2 billion to foreign countries and international lending institutions in the first three quarters of 1962—in the form
of development loans, Export-Import Bank export credits, sales for local
currencies, commodity and cash grants, technical assistance, and contributions to international institutions. This was 12 percent more than in the
corresponding period in 1961. U.S. foreign aid to the developing nations
has risen markedly since 1954, and under new programs, notably the Alliance
for Progress in Latin America, U.S. economic assistance is expected to continue to be high. Total aid expenditures are, however, still below those
reached in the late 1940's under the Marshall Plan to assist European
recovery.
Both private investment outflows and government aid are appropriate
for a high-output, high-saving country such as the United States, and
both are expected to yield considerable economic and political returns in
the long run. Government and private lending and equity investment
add substantial amounts each year to the net foreign assets of the United
States, which have risen steadily in the past decade. Their contribution to
the growth of U.S. national wealth is shown in Table 12, Chapter 3. But
in the short run, both also aggravate the U.S. balance of payments deficit.
To reduce the impact of the foreign aid program on the balance of payments, a large part of foreign aid expenditure has been tied to the purchase
of goods and services in the United States. In the first three quarters of
1962, 76 percent of government grants and capital outflows resulted in
no direct dollar outflow, compared with 64 percent two years earlier.
Recent changes in the tax treatment of earnings on foreign investments
(described in Appendix A) were designed to achieve more equitable tax
treatment between U.S. investment at home and abroad. They should
reduce the outflow of investment funds to the extent that these funds were
attracted by various tax privileges available in several other countries,
and should also increase the repatriation of foreign earnings. Thus these
changes should improve the U.S. payments position, at least in the short
run when improvement is crucially needed.
Though foreign aid and investment absorb only a small part of U.S.
savings, the United States is providing a substantial part of the total flow
of savings across national boundaries, especially of the flow to the developing
nations. The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the 20-nation




94

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEGD) estimates that the United States in 1961 supplied 57 percent of official foreign
aid and 44 percent of private long-term investment flow from DAG members
to the less developed countries.
As banker
Since the end of World War I, and especially in the past 15 years,
the U.S. dollar has emerged as the principal supplement to gold as an
international store of value and medium of exchange. The important
position of the United States as a market for goods and as a source of
goods and savings, its well-developed, extensive, and efficient financial
markets, and its long-standing policy of buying gold from, and selling it
to, foreign monetary authorities at a fixed price have all made the U.S.
dollar an attractive form in which to hold international reserves. Foreign
monetary authorities hold more than $12 billion—over one-quarter of their
total gold and foreign exchange reserves—in liquid dollar assets, mostly in the
form of U.S. Treasury bills and deposits in American banks. In addition,
foreign private parties hold $8 billion in dollar assets, and international
institutions nearly $6 billion.
These large outstanding claims on the United States indicate the importance attached by the rest of the world to the dollar as an international currency, and the significance of the United States as an international banking center. For a number of years, the deficit in the U.S.
balance of payments was financed to a large extent by increases in foreign
dollar holdings which enabled foreign governments and nationals to acquire
earning assets and at the same time add to their liquid resources. In recent
years, about one-fourth to one-half of our over-all deficit has been settled in
gold, but the growth in dollar holdings abroad has continued on a significant
scale. The rise in dollar holdings has been an important element in the
growth of international liquidity.
But these large balances also make the dollar peculiarly vulnerable. A
decline of confidence in the dollar, resulting in widespread conversion of
dollars into gold, would create a serious problem for the international payments system and for the economic progress of the free world. Therefore,
satisfactory progress in reducing the U.S. payments deficit is essential at this
time.
The United States still holds large gold and foreign exchange reserves.
Last summer the President reaffirmed U.S. determination to defend the
existing parity of the dollar and indicated the country's willingness to use its
entire gold stock, if necessary, to do so. In addition to the $16 billion in gold
and convertible currencies held by the United States, stand-by arrangements
have been entered into with a number of individual countries, and the
United States has extensive drawing rights on the International Monetary
Fund. The Fund itself was strengthened in October when a special bor-




95

rowing arrangement, supplementing the Fund's resources by as much as $6
billion, came into force. The final section of this chapter will describe how
international cooperation in the past few years has developed new and more
effective techniques to protect the dollar and the international payments
system against speculative attack.
The balance of payments in 1962
A record of the international transactions of the United States is presented
in the balance of payments accounts, compiled by the Department of Commerce (Table 14). For the year 1962 as a whole, the over-all payments
TABLE 14.—United States balance of international payments, 1951-62
[Billions of dollars]
Type of transaction

1951-55 1956-60
average average

Current account and unilateral transfers
Merchandise trade balanceExports.
.Imports
Military expenditures
Income on foreign investments, n e t 2
Other services, n e t 3
Government nonmilitary grants
Pensions and remittances

U.S. private short-term assets and nonliquid
liabilities
._
Errors and omissions
Over-all balance [deficit ( - ) ] . .
Sales (—) of gold and convertible currencies
._
Increase ( - ) in liquid liabilities to foreigners

1959

1960

1961

1962 1

-0.6

0.8

-0.1

-2.3

1.3

2.4

2.1

2.4
13.4
-11.0

3.9
17.8
-13.8

3.3
16.3
-13.0

1.0
16.3
-15.3

4.7
19.5
-14.7

5.4
19.9
-14.5

4.7
20.8
-16.1

-2.3
1.6
.3
-2.1

-3.2
2.2
.2
-1.7

-3.4
2.2
.2
-1.6
-.7

-3.1
2.2
.1
-1.6

-3.0
2.3
-.1
-1.7

-2.9
2.8
-.1
-1.9

-3.0
3.1
.1
-1.9

-3.5

-1.9

-3.2

-2.9

-2.7

-1.2
-1.4
-1.0
.1

-1.4
-.9
-.4
.7

-1.7
-.8
-1.1
.4

-1.5
-1.0
-.9
.5

-1.2
-1.1
-1.1
7.7

-3.7

-4.2

-1.9

-.5

-.6

-.6

-.7

Long-term capital account.
TJ.S. direct investment 4
Other private U.S. investment..
Government loans (less repayments)*
Foreign long-term capital *
Balance on entries above ("basic" accounts)...

1958

-3.0
-.7
-.2
-.2
.3

-1.5

-1.7
.4
-2.3

-.2

-.5

-.4

.1

-1.4

-1.3

.4

.4

.5

.4

-.6

-.6

-.7

-1.2

-2.3

-3.5

-3.7

-3.9

-2.5

-1.9

-.2

-.7

-2.3

-.7

-1.7

-.7

s-.7

-1.0

-1.6

-1.3

-3.0

-2.2

-1.7

-1.3

1
2

First 3 quarters, seasonally adjusted annual rate (except as noted).
Excludes subsidiary earnings not repatriated.
3 Includes foreign military purchases in the United States.
* Excludes reinvested subsidiary earnings, amounting to $1.0 billion in 1961.
«Includes changes in holdings of nonconvertible foreign currencies.
« Excludes reinvested subsidiary earnings, amounting to $0.2 billion in 1961.
7
Includes certain increases in nonliquid U.S. Government liabilities to foreigners.
8 Unadjusted annual rate.
NOTE.—Minus signs indicate payments to foreigners.
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.

deficit of the United States was around $2 billion—a decline from $2.5
billion in 1961 and $3.9 billion in 1960 (Chart 12). Although U.S. imports
have risen substantially above their 1961 recession low, rising commercial exports have offset a part of the increase. Earnings from American investments abroad continued their upward trend of the past few years. Net mili-




CHART 12

Balance of Trade and Payments
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

10
TRADE BALANCE

"BASIC" BALANCE
-5
OVER-ALL BALANCE
-10
1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

I960

1961

1962

• SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
NOTE: FOR DEFINITIONS OF DIFFERENT BALANCES SEE TABLE 14.
SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.

tary expenditures abroad were offset substantially by accelerated payments
by Germany against current and future delivery of materials for national
defense. The German Government has agreed to offset fully U.S. defense
expenditures in Germany by military purchases in the United States, thus
both bolstering the German defense contribution and reducing the net impact of our military spending abroad. More recently the Italian Government has also agreed to substantial military purchases in the United States.
U.S. foreign aid expenditures rose further in the first three quarters of
1962, but since they were increasingly tied to purchases of U.S. goods and
services, the direct outflow of dollars actually fell slightly below that in the
corresponding period of 1961. Private long-term investment abroad continued at a rate of about $2.5 billion a year. In the first three quarters
of 1962 the deficit on goods and services, Government assistance, and longterm capital—the so-called basic accounts—was slightly larger (at an annual
rate) than in 1961. The net recorded outflow of short-term capital declined
sharply, reflecting in part a reduction in the flow of bank credit to Japan
as its payments position improved.
U.S. balance of payments developments during the course of 1962 reflected
the Canadian exchange crisis of May and June. Payments to Canada

97
669333 O—63




dropped sharply during the first half of the year, but rose again in early
summer when an extensive stabilization program brought to a halt speculation against the Canadian dollar, for which a new par value equal to 921/2
U.S. cents had been established in May.
A substantial contribution to U.S. receipts was made by advance repayments totaling over $660 million by France, Italy, and Sweden of postwar
debt to the U.S. Government. In addition, late in 1962 the U.S. Treasury
sold 15- and 16-month, nonmarketable securities denominated in foreign
currency to Italy and Switzerland, totaling the equivalent of $250 million.
Debt prepayments of over $660 million had also been received in 1961.
Without these special receipts, the U.S. payments deficit in 1962 would
have been $900 million higher. This underlines the importance of policies
to correct the balance of payments. The U.S. Government is continuing to
carry out and develop programs affecting a wide variety of transactions,
ranging from exports to the outflow of funds attracted by higher interest
yields abroad. New measures adopted in 1962 are described in Appendix A.
Particular attention is being given to the share and terms of development assistance extended by other industrial nations and to their share of the common costs of defending the free world. Greater effort on their part would
not only increase free world security; at the present time it would also
contribute to better balance in international payments. Countries in which
U.S. military forces make large expenditures are being urged to offset these
expenditures, for example by purchasing military equipment in the United
States.
EXTERNAL IMPACT OF U.S. ECONOMIC EXPANSION

Structure of the world economy
Virtually no economic event can occur anywhere without affecting trade
flows and capital movements throughout the world economy. These repercussions can rarely be traced completely or precisely, but they are nonetheless real and important and cannot be ignored in the formulation of
economic policies. The prominence of the U.S. payments deficit since 1958
has focused attention on those economic factors, at home and abroad, which
most influence the international transactions of the United States. Because
of their size and variability, U.S. exports warrant special attention.
About two-thirds of U.S. exports go to countries outside Europe.
Typically, the ability of these countries to import depends directly on their
foreign exchange receipts from their own exports, from capital inflow, and
from foreign aid. Without such receipts, most non-European countries are
unable to allow their citizens to import. As their receipts fluctuate, so do
their purchases from the United States. The share of their markets captured by American goods depends upon a variety of factors—historical
business relationships, the availability and terms of financing, and the
competitiveness of American products.




Most countries in Europe are in a quite different position. Their large
and growing gold and foreign exchange reserves indicate that they need not
gear their imports and other foreign expenditures so closely to their receipts.
On the contrary, their reserves provide an ample cushion for considerable
deviation between foreign exchange receipts and expenditures. European
imports are therefore, at least in the short run, more closely related to their
domestic economic activity and to competitive conditions than to actual or
prospective foreign exchange earnings.
The United States is an important supplier both of foodstuffs and of
industrial materials to Europe (Table 15). These exports are closely
TABLE 15.—Commodity composition and destination of United States exports,first3 quarters of 1962
[Millions of dollars]
Destination

Commodity group

Total exports
Food and beverages..
Industrial supplies and materials
Agricultural
Capital equipment
Machinery
Transportation equipment..
Consumer goods, nonfood.
All other

Total
exports European Other
Economic Western
Commu- Europe
nity

Canada

Japan

Rest of
world

14,571

2,712

2,054

1,059

5,878

2,747

566

572

305

204

1,100

5,250
887

1,170
226

739
180

951
55

538
131

1,852
295

4,862
3,693
1,168

751
621
131

561
460
100

1,154
846
308

267
242
26

2,129
1,524

1,026

117

126

279

19

687

108

56

178

31

603
485
314

NOTE.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Department of Commerce.

related to the level of European economic activity and of consumption.
The United States is also an important exporter of capital goods to Europe,
and U.S. sales of such goods have been growing rapidly in recent years. Because the demand for capital goods reflects the prospects for growing markets, not simply large markets, continuing economic growth in Europe is of
great importance for an early solution to the U.S. balance of payments
problem.
The close dependence of other countries of the free world, and particularly of the less developed countries, on large and steady foreign exchange
earnings to finance needed imports gives them, as well as the United States,
a special interest in economic developments in Europe. The heavy dependence of many countries on exports of primary products for exchange earnings with which to purchase needed imports makes their development programs especially vulnerable to fluctuations in import demand either in
Europe or in the United States. A recession or slowdown in economic
activity in either of these major industrial regions reduces the export earn-




99

ings of the other countries of the free world both by lowering the sales of
their goods and by weakening the prices they receive. The network of
world trade by major trading areas in 1961 is shown in Table 16.
TABLE 16.—Origin and destination of free world exports, 1961
[Billions of dollars]
--—^.
Exports from

Exports to->
.^^^

Total exports i_.
United States a
Canada
Japan
European Economic Community..
Other Western Europe
Rest of world 2

Other
Total United
European
exCanada Japan Economic Western
ports i States
Community Europe
110.4
18.7
5.6
4.0
30.9
21.2
29.9

14.3
3.2
1.1
2.2
1.7
6.1

Rest
of
world 2

5.3

4.6

29.1

25.4

31.6

3.6

1.7
.2

3.5
.5
.2
11.9
5.8
7.2

2.7
1.1
.3
8.9
6.3
6.1

7.2
•9
2.3
7.3
6.5
7.7

.l
.3
.7
.6

.3
.2
2.2

1 Excludes some trade which could not be allocated by destination.
2 Excludes Soviet bloc.
3 Excludes "special category" exports of $1.8 billion.
NOTE.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: United Nations.

These complex world-wide relationships must be taken into account in
assessing the ultimate impact of changes in U.S. domestic economic activity
on the U.S. balance of payments. Economic expansion in the United
States, reducing and eventually closing the gap between actual and potential
output, would have important repercussions throughout the world economy and significant "feedback" effects on the U.S. balance of payments.
Because of the sheer size of the United States in the world economy,
changes in its trade and investment outflows affect significantly its own
international transactions receipts. The complexity of the feedbacks
makes it impossible to trace with great precision the impact of higher economic activity on the U.S. payments position. But there is good reason
to believe that the adverse impact, even in the short run, would be far less
than is frequently assumed. Furthermore, vigorous prosecution of programs aimed specifically at improving the balance of payments and maintaining price stability should enable the United States not only to avoid an
adverse over-all effect but to strengthen its payments position.
Effects of domestic expansion on foreign trade
The most obvious effect of a more rapid rise in GNP would be a more
rapid rise in imports. Over the years, total U.S. imports have maintained a
reasonably stable relationship to total domestic demand. Some imports
complement U.S. production, providing both raw materials for expanding
industrial production and foreign products to satisfy diversified consumer
demand. Other imports compete with domestic products; and as U.S.
demand increases, imports can sometimes respond more quickly than domestic output.




IOO

However, the net balance of payments impact depends also on the feedback effects. Higher U.S. imports provide additional dollars to foreigners.
As already noted, many countries are so hungry for foreign goods that additional foreign exchange earnings are promptly re-channeled into additional
expenditures abroad. Additional imports by the United States will increase
substantially the foreign exchange earnings of these countries, and the
United States will in turn receive a large part of their additional export
orders. For example, over one-fifth of U.S. imports come from Latin
American countries, and these countries together buy nearly half their
imports from the United States. Over two-thirds of Canadian imports
normally come from the United States. Whether the United States maintains these shares of Latin American and Canadian markets depends, of
course, on the competitiveness of U.S. products and the salesmanship of
U.S. firms.
An expanding U.S. economy may also be expected to strengthen some
of the primary product markets which have deteriorated in recent years.
This too would add to the export earnings of countries relying heavily on
sales of primary products, and would maintain their demand for industrial
imports while lessening their dependence on U.S. economic assistance.
However, even in the best of cases, some primary product markets may
remain weak.
Rising domestic demand, by reducing unemployment and excess capacity,
may after a time create upward pressure on domestic prices too. Price
increases in export industries, or in industries competing with imports,
would tend to weaken the U.S. trade position. But for reasons discussed
in Chapter 3, raising demand for goods and services will permit more efficient use of existing plant capacity and of underemployed workers still
on payrolls—in short, will increase the productivity both of capital and
of labor. These factors work counter to the tendency of rising demand to
pull costs and prices up. Higher demand will also reduce pressures—by
labor, by business, by agriculture—for cost-increasing or protectionist solutions to social and economic strains created by prolonged underutilization
of domestic resources.
Effects of domestic expansion on U.S. investment abroad
The outflow of private investment funds is influenced by many economic
factors, especially the profitability of investment abroad. But it is also
influenced by economic activity in the United States. When U.S. capacity
is fully utilized, and when capital for domestic investment is in large demand, high profitability will tend to keep capital at home provided that
bank credit expansion is not excessive. When capacity is underutilized,
unemployment widespread, and the domestic investment outlook discouraging, capital will seek higher profits and interest yields abroad.
Full utilization of capacity will also increase savings in the United States,
both corporate and individual. In its impact on the balance of payments,




101

this increase in total savings works counter to the improvement in profitability of domestic investment, since some of the new savings may be sent
abroad. But in present circumstances, investment abroad is probably not
limited by the supply of savings. Corporations now have a larger cash flow
than they are investing both at home and abroad, and both corporations and
individuals have had ample opportunity to invest abroad from existing
wealth, i.e., from past savings. For these reasons, we can expect the improvement in profitability which full utilization will bring—reinforced by
recent and proposed tax measures to improve incentives for domestic investment—to be a major influence in reducing the outflows of U.S. investment
funds.
In recent years, Americans have made very large direct and portfolio
investments in Europe, especially in the EEC. These investments have
reflected in part the weakness of markets and profit prospects in the United
States; this can be remedied only by higher utilization of domestic capacity.
They have also responded to important attractions to investment in
Europe, but the resulting outflows can be expected to diminish in size.
1. The vigorous growth of European economies has been accompanied
by high profit rates, and the steps to create a large internal common market
have reinforced expectations of substantial profits. There are now signs,
however, that profitability is declining in Europe; some of the most obvious
investment opportunities have already been exploited, and increasing manpower shortages are leading to increases in labor costs which squeeze profit
margins. Furthermore, sharp declines in European stock prices—generally
much larger than the U.S. decline earlier in 1962—have demonstrated to
some American investors the thinness of European stock markets.
2. Many American businessmen have built facilities in Europe for fear
of being excluded from the EEC by preferential commercial policies. The
resulting surge of capital flows to Europe can be expected to taper off.
Moreover, successful tariff negotiations under the Trade Expansion Act
of 1962 would reduce the tariff discrimination against outside producers
inherent in the Common Market.
3. Europe has achieved political, economic, and monetary stability in
the past decade, and full currency convertibility only in the last five years.
Moreover, in an age of missiles, Europe is no more vulnerable than North
America to military attack. These developments have removed certain
extra-economic factors which concentrated capital, both American and
foreign, in the United States in the 1930's and 1940's. Accordingly,
American individuals, business firms, and investing institutions have recently
had special reasons to reconsider investment opportunities in Europe, and
to diversify their investments to include European assets. This, again, is
mainly a once-for-all development, which will spend its force in time.
4. European and U.S. tax laws have, in many instances, favored investment in Europe over comparable opportunities in the United States.




102

Recent legislation should increase the relative attractiveness of investment
in the United States. The investment tax credit and changes in tax regulations governing depreciation should increase the profitability of U.S.
domestic investment, while changes in the tax treatment of earnings on
foreign investments should reduce the attraction of so-called foreign
tax-havens. These measures are described more fully in Appendix A. The
tax bill to be recommended to the Congress this year should also encourage
investment at home.
Summary of the impact of expansion on the balance of payments
Fuller use of domestic resources can, therefore, improve the balance of
payments in a number of ways. Against these improvements must be
counted several negative effects: the prompt and regular response of
imports of goods and services to increases in domestic activity and income;
any tendency of economic expansion to pull prices up or to encourage
faster increases in wage rates and profit margins; the increase in total
saving. Moreover, the favorable effects will not occur all at once; they
may be slower than the unfavorable effects of expansion. Considerable
time will be needed, for example, for cost-reducing investments to yield
higher export orders. Capital flows should adjust more quickly to domestic
profitability, but many months may be required before higher utilization
is visibly reflected in higher yields, higher profits, and higher profit
expectations.
No one can be certain whether the positive or negative effects of
domestic economic expansion on the balance of payments will predominate
in the long run. It may be that sustained underutilization and deflation
could restrict imports and, in time, encourage exports sufficiently to correct
a balance of payments deficit. But neither our domestic aspirations nor
our world responsibilities permit us to follow such a course. And recent
experience here and abroad suggests strongly that, ultimately, the key to
a sustained balance in international payments is a dynamic, growing,
fully operating economy. That kind of economy has produced payments
surpluses in Europe, while 5 years of economic slack have not eliminated
the U.S. payments deficit.
Any doubts on this score should be resolved by a consideration which far
transcends mechanical estimates of balance of payments effects. Long-run
confidence in the dollar as an international currency, and therefore in the
international payments system in which the dollar plays a central role,
depends on underlying confidence in the American economy—on its ability
to produce efficiently, to use its vast resources fully, and to grow without
inflation.
The American economy is still the ultimate example—the showcase—of
free enterprise in action. A sluggish American economy will raise doubts
everywhere, and especially in the newly developing nations, about the




103

ability of a free enterprise economy to perform efficiently and to grow continuously. Full utilization and economic growth in the United States
are of critical importance to the less developed countries in one further
respect. These countries cannot develop without an increasing demand
from abroad for their products. They cannot diversify their economies
without export markets for their new products—especially light manufactures. Full utilization and full employment in the United States will not
only raise U.S. demand for these imports, but will also—by permitting
labor, capital, and enterprise to adjust more readily to changing patterns of
supply and demand—make it easier to accept imports of light manufactures
even when they compete with domestic production.
COMPETITIVENESS OF U.S. PRODUCTS

If full employment and rapid growth are to improve the balance of payments, there is one crucial requirement. The competitiveness of U.S. products must continue to improve. Export competitiveness has many dimensions, including price, credit availability, product design, timing of delivery,
sales and distribution outlets, and servicing facilities. Strengthening the
U.S. export position therefore requires a broadly gauged program.
In the past two years, the Department of Commerce has launched an
export drive to inform potential U.S. exporters about sources of foreign demand and to acquaint U.S. manufacturers with foreign requirements.
Details of the National Export Expansion program are given in Appendix
A. In July 1962, a National Export Expansion Coordinator was appointed by the President to oversee and coordinate the many aspects of
the export promotion program. The Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with private trade groups, has under way an extensive export
promotion program directed at expanding foreign dollar markets for U.S.
food and agricultural products. More than 40 agriculture and trade groups
cooperate with the Foreign Agricultural Service in carrying out this program. In addition, as described in Appendix A, the Export-Import Bank
has greatly improved its export credit programs and has instituted a new
credit insurance program to bring the credit facilities available to U.S.
exporters closer into line with those available to European exporters. While
these export credits defer receipts from foreign importers to a later date,
the enlarged exports serve to interest foreigners in American products and
Americans in foreign markets.
A key element in competitiveness is price. If we want to sell more
abroad, we cannot allow our prices—and particularly the prices of our
exports—to rise relative to those of our major foreign competitors.
Reversing the trend of the mid-1950's, prices on the whole have tended
to move in favor of the United States in the last three years. Wholesale
U.S. prices during the past 23 months of economic recovery have been
stable. Meanwhile, high demand and growing supply shortages, especially




104

of labor, have tended to raise costs and prices in many other industrial
countries (Table 17).
T A B L E 17.—International comparison of changes in prices and wages,

1953-62

[Percentage change]

Country

Wholesale price
index

Consumer price
index

Hourly earnings in
manufacturing

1953-59
United StatesBelgium
Canada
France
_
Germany (Federal Republic).
Italy
Japan..
Netherlands
Sweden
United Kingdom

1959-62 i

1953-59

1959-62 i

1953-59

9

4

8

0

26

9

1
4

2

33
26

14

10
10
2-8
10
13
10
18
20
20

3
2 -7
12
2 13
9
16
U2
11
9

2-10

2
-2
-1
6
7
12

2-7

7

29

2 3 13

4
6

46
31
*36

7
6

3 33

23

3 46

40

1959-62 i

2-2
3 23
2 38

23
*28

2 3 29

24

314

1

Based on incomplete data for 1962.
Adjusted for changes in exchange rates.
Hourly wage rates.
* Monthly earnings.
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, United Nations, and Council of
Economic Advisers.
2
3

Industries which figure importantly in U.S. exports, such as metals,
machinery, and transport equipment, played a leading role in the U.S. price
inflation of 1955-58; and prices in these industries rose considerably more
than prices of similar foreign products. The relative increase in U.S.
prices probably contributed to the decline in the American share of world
exports of manufactures. Lately, these prices have not risen significantly,
and some have even fallen. Avoiding increases in these prices is particularly
important for success in expanding U.S. exports.
Prices reflect costs and profit margins. Wage increases in the United
States, particularly in recent years, have been modest compared with increases in most other major industrial countries. Even where productivity
has been growing rapidly, as in France and Germany, wages have been
rising even faster, raising unit labor costs. In the United States, by contrast, unit labor costs have actually declined since 1959. The period of
modest wage and price increases in the United States has also been one of
high unemployment. We cannot tell how large these increases would have
been in the last 5 years if unemployment and excess capacity had been substantially lower. If expansionary economic policy is not to be severely constrained by an adverse external balance, wages must not rise faster than
productivity for the economy as a whole, even when higher employment tips
the bargaining scales more in labor's favor. Other income claimants must
respect similar limits. Noninflationary wage and price behavior and its
relation to productivity are described in Chapter 3. Both labor and management stand to gain by obtaining higher incomes from higher output rather
than by seeking full capacity incomes from undercapacity operations.




105

THE UNITED STATES AND THE EMERGENCE OF
A UNIFIED EUROPE

In the early postwar years, the United States necessarily played the leading role in an international economy disorganized by the depression of
the 1930's and World War II. As a market for other nations' goods, as
a source of needed materials and capital funds, and as a center of finance,
the United States had no peer. But reconstruction, prosperity, and growth
have restored Europe's historic position in the world economy. And now the
movement toward European unity is leading to a major restructuring of
international economic relations.
European prosperity and growth and increasing European economic
unity have not developed independently of each other. The progress toward
greater economic unity might have come much more slowly in an atmosphere
of economic slack and uncertainty. The reduction of national economic
barriers in Europe in turn has fostered economic growth by stimulating investment and by improving efficiency.
POSTWAR EUROPEAN PROSPERITY AND GROWTH

The postwar economic growth rates of various industrial nations are
compared in Chart 13. Members of the EEC have experienced rapid
growth in total output and in output per man-year of employment. Canada,
the United Kingdom, and the United States have advanced more slowly.
While European growth was fastest in the early 1950's, it has continued at
a rapid pace even in recent years. Clearly, Europe's progress no longer can
be attributed to the impetus of recovery and reconstruction. The contrast
with U.S. growth over the past 5 years is particularly striking.
European growth has been steady and stable. Whereas the United
States has had four recessions since the war, there have been only two
periods of economic slack in Europe—in 1952 and 1958—and these were
marked more by temporary slowdowns in the rate of expansion than by
actual downturns in activity. While in the United States and Canada
unemployment has fluctuated around a rising trend, in Western Europe it
held at compartively low rates throughout the 1950's or else contracted
sharply as in Germany and Italy.
The pace of European growth recently has been somewhat more moderate than in earlier postwar years, but the reason has not been a general
deficiency of demand; rather it has been pressure on supply. Such convenient sources of growth as technological "catching-up," the elimination
of traditional inefficiencies, and the availability of large inflows of immigrants are beginning to dry up. Unemployment is low and new entrants
to the labor force are relatively few. But continued technological progress
and the increased efficiency provided by the reduction of internal trade barriers within Europe are still expanding Europe's economic potential. And




106

CHART 13

Growth in Real Gross National Product,
Selected Countries
INDEX, 1953=100 (RATIO SCALE)

ILLUSTRATIVE
GROWTH RATES

220

-

20 0
JAPAN

y

180

/

1 60

-

/

EEC-

/

140 _

_

/

CANADA-.
••
• • * _ _ — ••

1 20 -

^

/

'

^^
UNITED

"

-

KINRDDM

UNITED STATES

1 00
1

1953

1954

1955

1

1956

1

1957

i

1

1958

1959

1

I960

1961

1962

SOURCES: ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, JAPANESE ECONOMIC
PLANNING AGENCY, AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

European economic performance gives every indication of continuing to
match this potential.
PROGRESS TOWARD EUROPEAN UNITY

Substantial progress has been made since World War II toward the
attainment of the centuries-old ideal of European unity. The most farreaching step taken in this direction since the war is the formation of the
European Economic Community, with its goal of full economic union and
increased political unity among its member states.
The Community was established by the Treaty of Rome, which was signed
on March 25, 1957 by representatives of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Article 2 of this Treaty states:
It shall be the aim of the Community, by establishing a Common Market and
progressively approximating the economic policies of Member States, to promote
throughout the Community a harmonious development of economic activities, a continuous and balanced expansion, increased stability, an accelerated raising of the
standard of living and closer relations between its Member States.




107

The Rome Treaty is an ambitious document; it is also proving to be a workable and flexible charter. The decision of the United Kingdom and three
other European nations (Denmark, Norway, and Ireland) to seek admission to the Community testifies to the success and promise of the EEC.
The establishment of the EEC has created a powerful new trading unit
in the international economy. The magnitude of the EEC, both as it is and
as it will become if the present applicants are admitted, is indicated by
Table 18. Even as presently constituted, it is a vast and productive economic unit. Its population is only slightly less than that of the United
States. Its total output is more than one-third that of the United States;
and after adjustment for differences in price structure, EEC output has been
estimated at approximately half U.S. output.
TABLE 18.—Comparison of United States and European Economic Community {EEC),
selected data, 1961

Item

Unit

United
States

EECi

EEC plus
current
applicants
for membership a

Population.
Civilian labor force 3 .
Gross output: *
Total
Per capita

Millions of persons..
do

183.7
70.6

170.7
72.8

234.7
101.7

Billions of dollars..
Dollars

475.4
2,588

»173.7
1,018

«251. 7
1,073

Exports fl.
Imports 8-

Billions of dollars. .....do

20.6
16.1

20.5
20.6

26.2
29.4

Exports share of gross national product..

Percent.

4.3

11.8

10.4

1 Includes Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Italy.
Current applicants for membership are Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and United Kingdom.
3 Data for 1960.
* At factor cost; adjusted to comparable definitions.
« Valued at official exchange rates. No allowance has been made for differences in price structure.
6
Excludes intra-trade; imports valued c.i.f., exports valued f.o.b.
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Monetary Fund, and
Council of Economic Advisers.
2

The EEC has extensive trade and financial ties with the rest of the world.
Its imports and exports together (not including intra-Community trade)
account for 18 percent of total free world trade, compared with 17 percent
for the United States. The EEC as a unit comprises the world's largest importer of agricultural products and raw materials—accounting for more
than 25 percent of world imports of those commodities in 1960—and, as an
agricultural exporter, it is second only to the United States. Exports account for 12 percent of its total output, compared with only 4 percent for
the United States. EEC countries hold a large and growing share of the
world's gold and foreign exchange—27 percent in September 1962.
Membership by the present four applicants not only would increase the
size of the Community; it also would have an important qualitative impact.
The United Kingdom imports more temperate-zone agricultural products
than any other nation. Moreover, it is a major importer of manufactures




108

from nonindustrial countries. These products comprise a significantly
larger part of U.K. imports than of EEC imports.
The best known aspect of the EEC is the customs union for which the
Treaty provisions are most explicit and toward which progress has been
rapid. To achieve a customs union, barriers among its member states must
be eliminated and a common external tariff established. The common external tariff contemplated in the Treaty is the unweighted average of the
national tariffs in force as of January 1, 1957, with the exception of certain
German and Italian tariff reductions made prior to that date which were
not included in the base used for calculation. Certain commodities
were specifically exempted from this formula and tariffs on them were to be
negotiated separately. The Treaty also provided detailed timetables for
removal of barriers to intra-EEC trade and for alignment of national tariffs
to the common external tariffs. These adjustments were to be completed
by 1970, but the timetables have since been accelerated.
All quantitative restrictions on industrial goods in intra-Community trade
were eliminated on December 31, 1961. Tariffs on internal trade in industrial products have been reduced by 50 percent. On December 30, 1960—
1 year ahead of schedule—an initial 30 percent adjustment of national tariffs
to the new common external tariff took place and a second such step is
planned for July 1963. In its suggested action program, the EEC Commission has proposed the elimination of all internal duties and the full attainment of the common external tariff no later than the end of 1966. During the negotiations in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) that ended in March 1962, the EEC agreed, in exchange for
U.S. tariff concessions, to reduce its common tariff by 20 percent on many
industrial items for which the United States is the Community's principal
supplier. Comparable progress has not been made toward liberalizing trade
in agricultural products—either intra-Community or with third countries—
but agreement was reached early in 1962 on the broad outlines of a Common Agricultural Policy.
The EEC, by moving toward the elimination of internal trade barriers
and a common external tariff, is giving its member states increasingly
preferential access to a vast and growing market. This discrimination
against the outside world is inherent in the formation of any customs union.
Such discrimination diverts trade from nonmembers toward the member
states. However, the reduction of internal barriers to trade broadens the
scope for efficient allocation of resources within a union; it is also likely
to provide an important stimulus to investment and growth. Whether the
net result is beneficial to the rest of the world depends upon the particular
conditions of the case in point. One thing is clear: the lower the external
tariff of a customs union, the smaller is the burden of discrimination on
other nations.




109

A full EEC customs union will be a creation of far-ranging significance. But the Rome Treaty itself, the history of the EEC, and the views of
its leaders indicate that the EEC is more than that. The drafters of the
Treaty sought to lay the basis for a fully integrated economic union within
which goods, capital, and people will move freely across national boundaries—a union with common or harmonized policies in such diverse matters as taxes, social insurance, money and credit, and market organization. Even beyond this, the drafters looked upon the EEC as establishing
"the foundation of an ever closer union among the European peoples."
The success of the EEC in promoting economic integration seems assured.
Its role in the world is more uncertain; here the plans and goals of the
Community are much less clear and definite. Where differences of opinion
and interest among the members threaten to block progress toward the
Community's European goals, there are of course strong temptations to
resolve them by seeking to throw the burdens of adjustment onto the rest
of the world. How well these temptations are resisted in the difficult
decisions that confront the Community over the next few years will determine whether the EEC is to be inward looking or outward looking.
EUROPE AND WORLD TRADE

European prosperity and emerging European unity have had a direct
influence on European trade. From 1953 to 1961, for example, the share
of EEC exports in total free world exports (excluding intra-EEC trade) increased from 15 percent to 20 percent. But parallel with this development
was an even sharper increase in intra-EEC trade. Exports from the EEC to
the rest of the world increased by 97 percent over the 1953-61 period, while
intra-EEC exports increased by 197 percent. In 1953, 26 percent of total
EEC imports came from within the Community; by 1961, the percentage
was 36 (Table 19). This development stems in part from rapid European
growth, but it also reflects the reduction, actual and anticipated, of internal
European barriers to trade.
There has been little change in the share of imports of manufactures
from the United States in total imports of manufactures of the EEC nations. However, total U.S. exports of manufactures to the EEC in the 4
years following 1957, the year before the Rome Treaty went into effect,
increased by 70 percent—from $1.1 billion to $1.8 billion—whereas U.S.
exports of manufactures to the rest of the world declined by 6 percent.
Nevertheless, this experience does not indicate that growth in European
demand induced by the EEC will automatically offset increased trade discrimination by the EEC. The EEC is only one of the factors that have
fostered recent European growth, which was proceeding rapidly even before
the Treaty of Rome. Also, the virtual elimination of quotas on manufactures since 1957 was a special factor favoring U.S. exports. Whatever




110

T A B L E 19.—European Economic Community {EEC) imports by selected commodity category and
source of supply, 1953 and 1958-61

29.6

32.2

100

10.1
3.8

11.5
3.9

26
10

13.6

15.2

100

_

8.9

10.3

4.5
1.1

5.4
1.3

6.9
2.0

8.1
2.0

47
13

3.8

Agricultural products 3

4.8
2.3
.6

__

8.1
2.7

5.3

5.5

6.0

6.1

100

.6
.4

.9
.5

1.2
.6

1.4
.6

1.5
.7

16
11

o

24.3

6.8
2.8

1960

100

100

100

too

22.9

1959

33
11

34
13

36
12

S

1953

100

100

100

coo

1961

4.0
1.6

Intra-EEC
From United States

Intra-EEC
From United States

1960

52
12

51
15

o

2

1959

15.1

Intra-EEC
From United States

1958

100

100

cooo

1953

Total imports

Manufactures

Percent distribution *

Billions of dollars

Commodity category and source
of supply

21
11

23
11

1958

1961

53
13
100
24
12

1
7
3

Percents based on imports in millions of dollars.
Standard International Trade Classification sections 5, 6, 7, and 8.
Standard International Trade Classification sections 0,1, and 4.
Sources: United Nations and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

happens to European growth in the future, the commercial policy of the
EEC is a matter of great concern to the whole world.
The emergence of liberal trade policies in the EEC is of major importance
for our industrial exports; it is even more important for the continuation
of high agricultural exports. U.S. agriculture is more dependent than U.S.
industry on Europe as an export market; nearly 50 percent of U.S. dollar
sales of agricultural exports goes to EEC members or prospective member
countries. While these agricultural exports have been increasing in
recent years, decisions now being taken by the EEC concerning its Common Agricultural Policy will have a profound effect on the future course of
world trade in agricultural products.
EEC agricultural policy
The EEC members reached agreement in January 1962 on the major
features of a Common Agricultural Policy to replace the different national
systems of agricultural support in the member states. This agreement calls
for a uniform agricultural policy, based largely on a system of target prices
and variable levies, to be established by 1970. The agreement also provides
for a transitional adjustment period permitting price differences among the
members of the EEC until 1970. Many details of the Common Agricultural Policy have not yet been settled. It could provide the basis for a more
rational use of world agricultural resources; or it could severely restrict world
trade in agricultural products.
On July 30, 1962, national restrictions on imports of grain (excluding
rice) were replaced by variable levies calculated to offset the differences in
market prices (after adjustment for transportation costs) between the EEC
importing country and foreign suppliers. The levies on imports from other
EEC countries are to be eliminated by 1970, when a single price system will




III

come into effect throughout the Community. During the transition period, national support prices will be fixed within the limits set by the high
and low national prices prevailing currently in the Community.
New import regulations related to differences in feed grain prices inside
and outside the Community were also instituted for poultry, eggs, and pork.
Minimum prices have been established for these products within the Community, and imports at lower prices are barred. Agreement was also
reached in principle on the establishment of similar arrangements for certain
other agricultural products, including rice and dairy products. Protective
and support arrangements not involving variable levies have been established
for other commodities, such as fruit. The action program of the EEC
Commission proposes as a goal that 90 percent of EEC agricultural production be covered by common policy regulations of some kind.
The January 1962 agreement also provides for subsidies on exports to
other member countries; these are designed to enable any member country
with an agricultural surplus to meet the import needs of other member
countries where the price of the commodity is lower. These subsidies are
scheduled to disappear by 1970, along with price differences among members. However, the agreement also envisages export subsidies for sales
outside the Community if the Community as a whole should develop an
exportable surplus.
Under the system of variable levies, the full amount of national production forthcoming at domestic support prices is marketed in each country.
Only after these supplies are exhausted are foreign suppliers likely to be
able to enter the market. In the transition period, EEC suppliers are afforded priority access to markets of other member countries since outside
suppliers must pay an additional fee beyond the variable levy.
In the short run, high market prices may not stimulate a substantial expansion of EEC supplies. Over several years, however, high market prices
without production controls for domestic producers can be expected to increase production within the Community significantly. Moreover, once
the transitional period ends and a single EEC price system is established,
production anywhere within the EEC will have unlimited access to the
entire EEC market at the prevailing market price.
In the next several months, the EEC will face difficult decisions concerning the development and application of its Common Agricultural Policy. While agreement was reached on establishing a single Community
target price for grains by 1970, both the target price and the mechanism
for reaching it were left undecided. A decision is scheduled to be made
this spring, possibly on a provisional basis, on the common grain prices to
come into effect in 1970. It is possible that this decision will be delayed.
High grain prices would encourage expansion of production within the
Community and seriously curtail its imports, while relatively low grain




112

prices would encourage international specialization and trade. The establishment of these prices will be an important factor in determining whether
EEC agricultural policies develop along trade-restrictive lines or along lines
that will permit efficient agricultural exporters, such as the United States,
to continue to sell in the EEC market.
How the Community implements its Common Agricultural Policy will
determine, more than anything else, how the nations of the free world develop their agricultural policies—whether these policies are internationally
or nationally oriented, whether they promote efficient production and competitive trade or lead to protected national and regional markets in which
resources are used inefficiently. The Community's agricultural policy will
also affect the entire course of free world commercial policy. Industrial
and agricultural trade are closely interrelated and it would be difficult and
shortsighted to try to maintain highly protective barriers in one and free
competition in the other.
The Trade Expansion Act
The whole free world can benefit from removal of age-old national
barriers to the full utilization of Europe's productive strength. But the
nations of the free world, both within and outside the EEC, must assure
that the EEC uses its new power, not as a lever to secure gains for its
members at the expense of nonmembers or for some of its producers at the
expense of others, but as an engine to promote economic progress and
cooperation throughout the world.
The Trade Expansion Act of 1962, signed by President Kennedy in
October, is designed to meet this challenge by enabling the United States
to bargain more effectively and comprehensively. The tariff reducing
authority provided by the Act (outlined in Appendix A) greatly increases
U.S. flexibility in tariff negotiations, particularly in negotiations with the
EEC. If the United Kingdom becomes a member of the Community, the
special authority to negotiate tariff reductions greater than 50 percent with
the expanded EEC on goods for which the United States and the EEC
together furnish 80 percent or more of world exports would apply to a wide
variety of products, including coal, organic chemicals, transportation equipment, most kinds of machinery, photographic supplies, paints, cosmetics,
and miscellaneous chemical products. In 1960, free world exports of those
goods to which the special authority would apply amounted to some $22.5
billion; of this total, exports from the United States were $8.8 billion.
Those from EEC countries plus present applicants were $10.4 billion. The
United States and the EEC as presently constituted accounted in 1960 for
80 percent of world exports in only two commodity groups: aircraft, and
margarine and shortenings.
It will not be easy for the United States and the EEC to reach a tariff
agreement of the comprehensive scope that is essential. But both sides
realize the importance of providing a liberal framework for world trade.
113
669333 0—63




8

Since any tariff reductions negotiated by the United States, the EEC, and
other participants will be extended to other free world nations on a mostfavored-nation basis, these trade negotiations will contribute to a general
expansion of free world trade. This extension of tariff reductions to other
countries gives them a direct interest in the success of trade negotiations
under the Trade Expansion Act. General tariff reductions should benefit
all nations, including those exporting products in competition with the
exports of former African colonies which now have preferred access to the
EEC market. Negotiations under the special authority will also benefit
major industrial nations such as Canada and Japan—the two largest trading
partners of the United States. To achieve maximum success in tariff
reduction, full participation of all major trading nations in the forthcoming
negotiations will be essential.
Since trade in many important agricultural products is restricted not
only by tariffs but also by quotas and other barriers, negotiations concerning
agricultural trade are likely to prove especially complicated and difficult. Both the EEC and the United States may have to make concessions that will be painful to some producers in each area. With the
help of the bargaining authority given by the Trade Expansion Act of
1962, the United States hopes to obtain substantial liberalization of trade
in agricultural products and to avoid, in the long run, any unfavorable
net impact of EEC agricultural policies on U.S. agricultural exports.
Some short-run U.S.-EEC understandings along these lines have already
been reached. In particular, the EEC has agreed that, if the common policy
for grains should result in a reduction in trade in higher quality wheat,
corrective action will be taken to restore historical relationships. Also,
during the last GATT round of tariff reductions, the United States received
important concessions on several agricultural commodities, including cotton
and soybeans. The EEC has agreed to negotiate further on trade access for
ordinary wheat, corn, grain sorghum, rice, and poultry, and to reconsider
during the next general round of negotiations the high external tariffs for
tobacco and vegetable oils.
These understandings, stemming from the tariff negotiations concluded
in early 1962, are limited and do not themselves assure access for U.S.
exports that compete with domestic EEC production. However, they point
toward rather than away from liberalization. In contrast, the early actions
implementing the Common Agricultural Policy indicate a trend toward
increased protection. It would be unfortunate if this trend were not
reversed. The reversal will be painful to some EEC producers who have
envisaged the Community as an assured market for their products, but
will be in the general interest of EEC consumers.
In return for assurances that the EEC will set prices at levels which will
allow efficient exporters continued access to their markets, the United States
may have to limit its own export subsidy program and subject its own




114

domestic price policies to international review. U.S. agricultural policies
and programs, like those of other agricultural exporting countries, will be
subject to close examination and our waiver in the GATT, permitting us to
restrict agricultural imports under certain specific conditions, is likely to
come under increasing criticism.
Quantitative restrictions, prohibitive import duties, and subsidies are
out of place in the world which both the United States and other industrial
nations are trying to build. They do not meet the long-run needs of producers and consumers in these developed countries; they restrict mutally
advantageous trade; and they are unfair handicaps to the developing
countries in other continents.
EUROPE AND THE FLOW OF WORLD CAPITAL

Although the countries of continental Europe, and particularly the EEC
member countries, have grown in financial and economic strength since the
war, they have not assumed international investment and banking responsibilities commensurate with their importance in world trade. Capital
markets in several major European countries remain relatively undeveloped
by American standards. They are not effective in channeling savings into
long-term debt instruments or equity capital. These markets do not meet
adequately the growing domestic requirements for long-term capital, let
alone foreign demands. Moreover, most European countries maintain
official controls which deter foreign issues in their markets. Many of the
European issues which are floated in New York appear to be attracted not
so much by differences in lenders' interest rates as by other advantages in
cost and service.
Progress toward more efficient capital and money markets can be expected under the EEC. The Treaty of Rome envisages reductions of barriers to the free flow of capital within the Community. Some progress in
this direction is already being made. Several individual countries are also
trying to improve the adequacy of their domestic capital markets through
institutional and governmental reforms. They feel a pressing need to do
so because businesses are now less able than in the early postwar years to
finance investment out of retained earnings and must inevitably tap the
rising volume of personal savings. Finally, the emergence and rapid
development in the past 3 years of the Euro-dollar market, in which
European banks accept and re-lend short-term deposits denominated in
U.S. dollars, represent progress toward an efficient and competitive shortterm capital market for Europe, and indeed for the whole world.
The inadequacies of European capital markets, in addition to causing
European borrowers to turn to the U.S. market for funds, have limited net
outflows of private capital from Europe to developing nations in the post*
war period. In recent years, the total outflow of private long-term capital
from the European members of the Development Assistance Committee




(DAC) to the developing nations has amounted to only a little more than
$ 1 ^ billion a year. Outflows of government funds have partially made up
the deficiencies of private capital markets in this respect. DAG data
show that official capital flows, including all export credits of more than
1 year, from its European members rose from $1.1 billion in 1956 to $2.2
billion in 1961 and that there has been some tendency toward easier terms.
THE UNITED STATES AND THE LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

A basic objective of U.S. foreign economic policy is an economic environment in which the people of all nations can steadily raise their standards of
living. Economic growth in the industrial countries should support, and
be supported by, progress and development in the less developed countries.
The transfer of capital and skills from the industrial nations to the developing countries is increasingly important, and is now widely recognized as
essential for speeding their development. But foreign assistance will not
be sufficient; the developing countries must also find markets for their rising
output. International commerce must distribute equitably and efficiently
the fruits of productive specialization and economic growth.
ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

FOR INTERNATIONAL

DEVELOPMENT

Through the foreign economic programs of the Agency for International
Development, the United States committed $2.5 billion to the less developed countries and international lending institutions in the fiscal year
1962, a sharp rise over previous years (Table 20). There has also been a
TABLE 20.—Agency for International Development: Regional allocations of economic assistance,
fiscal years 1958, 1960, and 1962

Region

Millions of dollars
1958

Total new commitments *
Far East .
Near East and South Asia
Latin America
Africa
Europe

1960

Percent of total

1962

1958

1960

1962

1,502

1,714

2,300

100

100

100

675
547
88
82
109

595
749
105
170
95

367
1,124
478
315
16

45
36
6
5
7

35
44
6
10
6

16
49
21
14
1

1

Excludes contributions to international organizations and nonregional funds.
NOTE.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Agen cy for International Development.

marked shift in emphasis during the past 5 years, especially toward Latin
America. In March 1961, the President proposed a ten-year program
for the social and economic development of the Americas. The Alliance
for Progress, stemming from the proposals in his address and from the
Act of Bogota of September 1960, has been gathering strength and taking
concrete form in national development programs during the past year.




n6

Multilateral development financing must supplement U.S. foreign assistance. U.S. participation in multilateral financing institutions—the
World Bank and its affiliates, and the Inter-American Development Bank—
is an important aspect of promoting economic development. The World
Bank made loan commitments of almost $900 million in its latest fiscal
year, with subscribed funds and funds raised in U.S. and other capital
markets. The International Development Association (IDA), an affiliate
of the World Bank set up in 1960 to make credits available on liberal
terms, will commit about $400 million of such credits in the present fiscal
year. The demand for IDA financing has necessitated an early replenishment of its resources, and negotiations are now being carried on among
IDA's members for substantial new contributions. Authority for the
United States to contribute will be sought at this session of Congress. A
second affiliate of the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation,
was esablished to assist private enterprise in developing countries.
The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is playing an increasingly
important role in the Alliance for Progress. It lends its subscribed resources and borrowed funds, and administers the Social Progress Trust
Fund, which is financed by the U.S. Government. Increases in the available resources of the IDB and the Social Progress Trust Fund will also be
sought from the Congress this year.
U.S. economic assistance, even when joined with that of other nations
and international agencies, can provide only a small part of the total capital
and technical resources needed. In the 14 countries receiving over twothirds of U.S. development aid, 1962 per capita income averaged about
$130 and domestic per capita saving available for development averaged
$18. U.S. assistance furnished over $2 per capita to these countries. The
small extra amounts provided by this assistance permit an inflow of machinery and equipment, spare parts, essential commodities, and technical skills to
the aided economies that makes it possible for them to marshal internal resources far more effectively. The United States tries to design the amounts,
timing, content, and conditions of its assistance in order to encourage recipient countries to strengthen their own development efforts. The willingness of countries to adopt self-help measures increasingly influences the
allocation of U.S. aid. The type of assistance extended to any foreign
country is influenced by the nature of our objectives, the nature of our relations with the government, the country's political situation, and the
capacity and potential of the local economy.
In many developing countries, foreign assistance is indispensable for the
economic development required to preserve stable, nonauthoritarian political institutions. But this economic development should become self-generating. It must not only expand the flows of skilled manpower, savings,
and other domestic inputs required for self-sustaining growth; it must also
generate the foreign exchange earnings which will enable the developing




117

nations eventually to become independent of foreign assistance. The imports needed to promote economic growth and to meet rising consumption
standards can be obtained only by substantial expansion of exports. In
the years ahead, the pace at which economic development will proceed and
the rate at which the developing nations reduce their dependence on foreign
assistance will depend very heavily upon the pace at which they can increase their export markets.
TRADE AS AN "ENGINE OF GROWTH"

Foreign trade has historically been of major importance in stimulating
and facilitating economic development. But the relationship between trade
and development has varied with national circumstances.
The United States, richly endowed with natural resources, was able to
develop and export resource-using products needed in Europe. During
the 19th century, when the United States was in transition from a predominantly agricultural and raw material producing economy to a major
industrial power, exports of agricultural products and raw materials furnished a major share of U.S. earnings of foreign exchange. In 1870,
primary products accounted for 81 percent of the total value of U.S.
exports. Even as late as 1900, their share was approximately 65 percent.
Japanese growth followed a different pattern. Lacking abundant natural
resources, Japan concentrated on the development of its human resources
and on the export of labor-using agricultural and manufactured products.
Foreign exchange earnings from these exports financed imports of raw
materials and capital equipment necessary for industrialization.
No single trade and development strategy is appropriate for all economies.
The appropriate policy for a country depends on its particular resource endowment, its people, its location, and many other factors; a careful
assessment of these factors is a first step in the design of development
programs.
Trade problems
Developing economies, whatever strategies for development and trade
they choose, today face certain disadvantages that impinged less heavily on
the developing economies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Simultaneous efforts by many countries to increase foreign exchange earnings
to finance development place downward pressure on the prices of the
goods they export. And competition from new substitute products in the
industrial countries—the widespread replacement of silk by nylon is a
classic example—constantly threatens the markets of countries with less
abundant capital and less advanced technology. Against this sharp competition for markets must be placed the advantage of deliberate development
assistance from the more developed nations and unparalled possibilities
for the rapid transfer of advanced technology.




n8

Despite dramatic fluctuations in the prices of foodstuffs, agricultural
raw materials, and minerals since the 1920's, the prices of these products
in the mid-1950's bore essentially the same relationship to prices of products
produced in the industrial countries as they did 30 years earlier. Since the
mid-1950's5 however, the prices of primary products have declined sharply
relative to the prices of finished products (Table 21). This decline has not
TABLE 21.—Price indexes of selected commodity groups entering international trade, 1956-62
[1956=100]

Primary products

Manufactures

Period
Agricultural
nonfood

Food
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
.
1961
1962: I

- -

II

Ill

100
102
99
92
90
89
89
90
89

100
99
88
92
94
90
88
87
85

Minerals
100
104
101
95
94
93
93
93
93

100
103
103
102
104
106
106
106
106

Source: United Nations.

affected all commodities uniformly. Some foodstuffs have declined more
than fibers and metals. And prices of a few commodities, such as silver,
tin, and, more recently, sugar, have risen.
Many less.developed countries have turned to labor-intensive light manufacturing in an attempt to compensate for the decline in prices of primary
products by developing new export products and replacing needed imports
with domestic production. India, Pakistan, Spain, and Yugoslavia, among
others, are attempting to supplement earnings from the export of industrial
materials by exporting textiles and other light manufactures. This trend
can be expected to weaken markets for such products both in the advanced
countries and in developing countries. Japan, which pioneered the development route of light industry, is beginning to feel competitive pressure
from other areas and is shifting more and more to heavy industry. India
expects to be a substantial exporter of steel to other Asian nations in the
near future. Such shifts in the composition of the exports of the less
developed countries are necessary if these countries are to become self-supporting and achieve the higher levels of income they seek.
Adjustments will be required by the less developed countries if they are
to take effective advantage of the freer trade opportunities offered by the
industrial nations. Their commodity policies must avoid the mistake of
stimulating surplus production. Countries producing commodities in longrun oversupply, such as coffee, must be encouraged to shift into other products. Efficient specialization in raw material production among countries
must be encouraged, but countries which are overly dependent on the




output of primary products must endeavor to diversify and industrialize
their economies.
Cooperation for widening markets
The ability of the less developed countries to increase earnings depends
both upon growing world demand and upon the commercial policies
followed by the industrial countries.
Economic growth in the advanced economies will greatly facilitate worldwide economic development. Rapid economic expansion leads to increased
world demand for the industrial materials and light manufactures produced
in the less developed countries. Sluggish economic performance in the advanced economies, on the other hand, places increasing pressure on the
prices of exports of developing countries, and also hardens resistance within
the advanced countries to the domestic adjustments called for by increased
imports from developing areas.
The industrial nations can make an essential contribution to worldwide
economic development by accepting, and indeed encouraging, the expansion
of imports from the newly developing countries. Free access to the markets
of the industrial nations is of major importance in providing developing nations with the foreign exchange needed to purchase the imports essential
for their own economic development. In terms of the total output of the
advanced economies, increasing imports from developing areas can be easily
absorbed; but there are generally some domestic producers who will be
affected by increased competition from imports. The advanced countries
must find ways to ease their problems of adjustment which do not interfere
with trade. The Trade Expansion Act contains important new adjustment
provisions, described in Appendix A, to ease the hardships of transition and
help firms and workers affected by foreign competition shift to new lines
of work.
The benefits of increased exports from the developing nations accrue
not to these nations alone, but to the industrial nations as well. Given
the assurance of open markets for their exports, the developing nations
are capable of providing cheaply and efficiently to the advanced economies
large and growing supplies of industrial materials, foodstuffs, and light
manufactures. The United States and other industrial economies will
directly benefit from these increased exports in lower production costs and
cheaper consumer goods. And any single country will find its ability to
compete in export markets seriously impaired if, through its own restrictive
policies, it denies itself these gains.
Certain domestic economic programs in developed economies can have
side-effects detrimental to the interests of the less developed nations. In
the case of the United States, for example, oil import controls have restricted purchases of petroleum from overseas areas. Subsidized agricultural
exports from the United States compete in world markets with the agricultural exports from other nations. More recently, for balance of payments




120

reasons, the United States has limited overseas defense and AID procurement with the result that the dollar earnings of several developing countries
have been reduced.
Cooperation among industrial nations in establishing a framework of
world trade responsive to the interests of developing economies is essential.
The United States has taken an active role in promoting this cooperation.
It is attempting to prevent further deterioration of the prices of key primary
products by negotiating effective commodity agreements where practicable
and by exploring international credit mechanisms for damping short-run
fluctuations in the export earnings of the primary producing countries. The
U.S. objective is a worldwide solution, which might include selective international commodity agreements, compensatory financing arrangements, and
economic programs designed to encourage diversification in the primary
producing economies. The International Coffee Agreement negotiated
in 1962 is an example of efforts along these lines.
The United States was instrumental in securing the negotiation of a longterm Cotton Textile Agreement at the February 1962 meeting of the GATT
Cotton Textile Committee. This Agreement regulates the conditions under
which importing countries may impose measures to prevent the disruption
of their domestic markets, and provides for the relaxation of quotas in the
restricted EEC markets on cotton textile imports from the less developed
countries. Ultimately, of course, the general objective of U.S. foreign
economic policy is a trading world free of quantitative restrictions.
The Trade Expansion Act of 1962 provides a major tool for the development of open and nondiscriminatory trading throughout the free world.
The new authority granted to the President under the Act will be used to
the full to obtain freer access to protected markets, not only for the United
States and the other industrial nations, but for the developing nations as
well.
The industrial nations of the free world are agreed on the urgency of
achieving greater cooperation in supporting the development efforts of the
less developed nations. This consensus was clearly expressed in the final
communique of the 1962 Ministerial Meeting of the OECD, which recognizes that trade and development policies are closely linked and calls
special attention to the need for integrating aid programs more closely with
other efforts to stabilize and expand the foreign exchange earnings of
developing countries.
NEW PROBLEMS FOR THE UNITED STATES AND
THE WORLD ECONOMY
Greater integration of the world economy promotes efficient division of
labor among countries and promises high rewards in economic welfare for
all nations: a freer flow of goods among nations unburdened by discriminatory barriers to trade; movement of capital across national boundaries rela-




121

tively uninhibited by currency restrictions; an increasing volume of economic assistance to raise living standards in the developing nations. All
these represent progress toward our economic objectives.
But these developments are also posing new problems for policy and
subject all countries to new constraints on independent domestic actions.
Freer trade unifies world markets, and competition in unified markets will
not permit any nation's prices to get far out of line without reducing sales
drastically. Freer capital movements and currency convertibility tend to
create world capital and money markets in which domestic interest rates
cannot deviate too much from those abroad without encouraging large
flows of capital. Foreign aid and direct investment, moreover, may limit
the national advantages of new products and techniques, as the innovations
are quickly transmitted to foreign economies.
The greater integration of the world economy is occurring only gradually;
but the limits such a development may place on independent national action
should be anticipated and faced squarely.
CORRECTING IMBALANCES IN INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS

International transactions may be expected in the future to reflect more
rapidly and more fully than in the past divergences among nations and continents in economic developments—in prices, costs, economic growth, interest
rates, profitability, demand, availability of natural resources, or technical
progress. These divergences will be speedily reflected in imbalances in international payments. Yet the process of adjustment to fundamental imbalances in international payments has not yet been correspondingly improved.
Indeed some mechanisms of adjustment which have been important in earlier
periods are less available today, because their use conflicts with other national
or international goals.
The ad hoc imposition and relaxation of trade and exchange controls on
private transactions, so frequently used for correcting imbalances a decade
ago, are increasingly, and properly, eschewed by the major trading nations.
External imbalances can frequently be eliminated by changes in domestic
economic activity. Lower aggregate internal demand will generally lower
imports, while higher domestic demand will spill over into imports. Sometimes these consequences help to stabilize the domestic economy: inflation
is checked by an emergence of an external deficit, or recession is cushioned
by a balance of payments surplus. In these cases, internal policy measures to
restore domestic equilibrium also tend to restore external balance. But in
other cases, this mechanism for adjusting the balance of payments conflicts
sharply with universally accepted domestic economic objectives—full employment and stable prices. For in these cases it requires domestic incomes
to fall when they are already too low and unemployment to rise when it is
already high. Or it requires money incomes and prices to rise further even
when they may be already rising too rapidly. In the United States, such




122

policy would often be inconsistent with the mandate of the Employment Act
of 1946, and many other countries have similar commitments to maintain
both a high level of domestic activity and reasonable price stability. Moreover, for reasons already discussed, it is doubtful whether depressing the
level of domestic activity could eliminate for more than a brief period a
deficit in international payments of a country as large and central to the
world economy as is the United States.
Exchange rate adjustments are sanctioned by the Articles of Agreement
of the International Monetary Fund for the purpose of correcting "fundamental" imbalances. But in practice, the exchange depreciation required to
restore balance in the short run generally exceeds what is required over a
longer period of time, when labor and capital can adjust to the new structure
of relative prices and exchange rates. Such adjustments thus create new
imbalances in the future. Moreover, anticipation of changes in exchange
rates between freely convertible currencies stimulates enormous flows of
speculative capital and disrupts normal transactions. For this reason, in
the world as a whole exchange rate adjustment is a remedy that cannot be
used very often without creating more imbalances than it solves. The
dollar, in particular, is so widely held abroad as a store of value by
official and private institutions that an adjustment in its gold content would
gravely disturb the international payments system. U.S. policy, repeatedly
reaffirmed, is to maintain the present gold parity of the dollar.
Several methods for eliminating imbalances remain open, but they
operate only slowly.
Modest and gradual price adjustments offer some prospect for correcting imbalances without courting either rapid inflation or high unemployment.
Countries in payments surplus might allow factor costs to rise more rapidly
than productivity, while countries in deficit keep increases in money incomes
within the bounds of productivity, permitting some prices to fall. Rising
export prices in surplus countries and stable or falling prices in deficit countries could, in time, eliminate payments deficits and surpluses. In fact,
equilibrating price adjustments are quite consistent with over-all price stability if appropriate price changes in export and import-competing sectors
are offset by changes in other domestic and import prices.
The competitive response of private business to inroads of foreign products in traditional markets, both at home and abroad, can be a powerful
equilibrating factor. Selective price adjustment is only one possible response. Changes in product design, improvements in service, and better
credit terms can all play an important role. An example is the response
of U.S. automobile design to sharp increases in imports of foreign cars
several years ago. Government efforts to spur exports can also be used to
reduce imbalances. But once various countries are on a par in this respect, overly competitive use of special government incentives would be
inefficient for the world as a whole and ineffective for individual nations.




123

Transactions of central governments are an increasingly important element
in international payments, and governments can gear their own international transactions to the requirements of external balance. The size of
these government expenditures can be altered, but generally only at the
sacrifice of national objectives. Governments of countries with payments
deficits can attempt to minimize the impact of their transactions on the
external deficit, while countries in surplus free their government expenditures from artificial restraints. For example, deficit countries can tie government transfers to foreign countries to their own goods and services, and
domestic suppliers can be given preference in government projects. Since
1959, the United States has tied an increasing share of its foreign aid expenditures to procurement of goods and services in the United States; and
in the past year, the preference accorded domestic suppliers over foreign
suppliers was increased for much government procurement. Preferences
and restrictions of this kind are inappropriate for surplus countries.
While such policies can be used to restore external balance, in practice they
are difficult to impose and to remove with the speed and flexibility desirable for that purpose. Moreover, as government programs increase in size,
the problem of allocational inefficiencies arising from differential treatment
of public and private transactions becomes more acute. Although a policy
of tied aid may be unavoidable under conditions of external deficits, it has
the twofold disadvantage of reducing the efficiency of a given level of aid
and of shielding some export industries from foreign competition. As its
balance of payments position improves, the United States has indicated its
willingness to discuss with other countries various possibilities for general
untying of government expenditures.
The available means of eliminating imbalances in international payments
take time, some of them much time, to achieve substantial results. Meanwhile, large and persistent imbalances in payments could compel deficit
countries to adopt policies not only at variance with their own economic objectives but also harmful to the rest of the world.
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION

In order to protect basic objectives in both domestic and foreign economic policy, it is therefore of the utmost importance that nations cooperate (1) to remove causes of imbalance, (2) to provide adequate finance
to permit nations to weather temporary though sometimes prolonged periods of imbalance, and (3) to strengthen the international monetary system, particularly against speculative attacks on major currencies. Notable
innovations and adjustments have been made in the past few years in all
these dimensions of international cooperation, but important work remains
to be done.
All three modes of international cooperation are important and all are
difficult, but the instruments and institutions of cooperation of the first




124

kind are quite different from those of the other two. To remove sources
of imbalance, nations must consult with each other concerning domestic
policies which affect their international payments; and they must stand
ready to modify their internal and external policies in order to maintain or
restore balance. To finance imbalances, including those resulting from exchange speculation, requires mutual agreement among nations to lend to
each other, or to assure adequate supplies of international reserve assets
which each country will accept in settlement of international accounts.
To a certain extent, one of these methods of cooperation takes the place
of the other. The better the coordination of national policies, the greater
are the chances of avoiding payments imbalances or of correcting quickly
those that arise, and the smaller is the need for facilities to finance large
and long imbalances. Conversely, the better the facilities for financing
payments deficits, the less urgent it is to coordinate policies in order to
eliminate them quickly.
Whichever method is emphasized, international economic cooperation requires consensus on objectives and machinery for coordination.
Over a decade ago the major trading countries agreed, in the GATT,
on the broad outlines of a world trade environment beneficial to all. The
GATT expresses the joint recognition that mutual benefit will be achieved
by eliminating barriers to trade. Yet it is based on the premise that trade
liberalization can take place without jeopardizing external balance only if
all participants lower barriers together—or if countries in surplus lower barriers more rapidly than those in deficit. The Trade Expansion Act of
1962 is designed to continue and strengthen this principle of reciprocity.
Recently, new steps have been taken toward closer harmony of objectives and policies. The EEC is showing how greater economic integration
and greater cooperation in economic and financial policy go hand-in-hand.
Similar steps—less formal, less comprehensive, more tentative—are under
way for other and wider groups of nations.
In November 1961, the Ministerial Council of the OECD announced that
the 20 member nations had pledged themselves to aim at a growth of output, for the group as a whole, of 50 percent over the decade of the 1960's.
The Ministers pointed out that this growth would not only increase the
economic welfare and strength of North America and Western Europe but
would lead to an increased flow of resources to the developing countries
throughout the free world. This growth objective has given new meaning
and unity to the important and detailed work of the Organization and its
committees. In the words of the Secretary-General, the OECD can help:
— to develop common understanding of the problems of each country, and the
way it is tackling them, so that each country knows what others are doing;
— to provide a means for improving policy by comparison and joint examination of the alternative approaches to common problems which may be found
in different countries;
— to explore the inter-relations and inter-actions of plans or expectations in
the different countries;




125

— to arrange concerted action when this is appropriate to deal with the problems which arise.

The committees of the OEGD discuss many aspects of economic policy,
e.g., manpower, agriculture, industry, trade, and payments. Through its
Economic Policy Committee, consisting of senior officials from member
countries with responsibilities in the fields of economic and financial policy,
information is exchanged on future economic prospects and policies in the
member countries. The annual country examinations by the OECD and
by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) also provide forums for exchanging information and advice on economic prospects and policies. Balance of payments developments and related national policies are continuously discussed in the IMF, at monthly meetings of central bankers at the
Bank for International Settlements in Basle, and in Working Party 3 of the
OECD Economic Policy Committee. In addition, the United States has
held annual Cabinet-level economic talks with Canada and Japan during
the past two years. All these international discussions represent important
advances in the exchange of information across borders and in the consideration of the interactions between the economic policies of different
countries.
COORDINATING ECONOMIC POLICIES

Many sources of payments imbalance can be eliminated with little sacrifice of basic objectives, national or collective. Mutual consultation can lead
to better timing of monetary and fiscal measures taken for purposes of
internal stabilization. Differences among nations in taxation that promote undesirable capital movements can be eliminated. National policies
can be better harmonized in a variety of fields, e.g., agricultural prices and
subsidies, export credit and export promotion, remission of internal taxes on
exports, social insurance, wage-price policies, antimonopoly regulations, and
amounts and terms of development assistance. The first purpose of international coordination of policies is to take these steps.
However, beyond some point, efforts to eliminate imbalance by coordinating national policies are bound to conflict with basic objectives of one or
more of the nations or of the group as a whole. Troublesome capital movements can often be avoided or reduced by bringing interest rates in major
countries into closer alignment; but this may mean untimely monetary
restriction within some countries and unwelcome monetary expansion in
others. Correction of imbalance by adjustments in trade balances may
require prices to rise in some countries or to fall in others; both may be
unacceptable to the governments concerned.
Some of these conflicts may be avoided by suitable variation among countries in the mixture of policies. For example, a surplus country battling
domestic inflation by tight monetary policy and high interest rates will
attract more foreign funds and increase still further its external surplus; if




126

tight fiscal policy is used instead, its interest rates need not aggravate the payments imbalance. Similarly, a country, like the United States today, facing
simultaneously a payments deficit abroad and a slack economy at home, can
emphasize fiscal rather than monetary measures for domestic expansion.
The need to coordinate policies is not a wholly new burden on nations.
After all, circumstances by themselves sooner or later compel a certain rough
coordination of policies. In the end, deficit countries must take actions to
correct external imbalance. Deliberate consultation and coordination can
result in more timely and more symmetrical adjustments, with surplus
countries sharing the burden of adjustment. But international cooperation
must also include ways to accommodate desirable divergence in national
policies, resulting from differences in national objectives and national
circumstances.
STRENGTHENING THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM

Even with close coordination of economic policies, imbalances in international payments can and will develop. Changes in consumer tastes,
improvements in technology, and other factors will require continuing
adjustment to changing international payments. Because generally acceptable processes of adjustment are necessarily slow, such imbalances may persist for some time. Their emergence and persistence can, in some cases,
create doubts about the ability of governments to maintain existing exchange rate parities, and may lead to large and erratic speculative flows of
capital. Indeed, speculative considerations can come to play a part in
every international transaction, frequently overriding in importance normal
motivations for foreign trade and investment. Unless disruptive speculation
can be discouraged or offset by official actions, it could undermine the international payments system.
Speculative attacks on the principal currencies of the world can be contained, and even prevented, if the major governments together make clear
their intention to maintain currency parities, both by individual and by
multilateral action. A principal line of defense of a nation's currency is its
gold and foreign exchange reserve; these reserves should be used when
necessary. In his balance of payments message in early 1961, the President
pledged the full strength of the U.S. gold reserve to the defense of the
dollar.
National reserves can be significantly supplemented with drawing
rights on the International Monetary Fund, established for the express
purpose of assisting countries in temporary balance of payments difficulties.
The $1.5 billion drawing.of the United Kingdom in August 1961 and its
full repayment by July 1962 demonstrate the size and flexibility of support
which the IMF can give to the payments system. The participation of the
IMF on very short notice in more than $1 billion of support given to Canada
in late June indicates the speed with which it can act. The IMF was sub-




127

stantially strengthened in October when an agreement to supplement its
resources came into force. Ten leading industrial countries have agreed to
lend up to $6 billion to the IMF if such extra funds should be needed "to
forestall or cope with an impairment of the international monetary system."
This is especially important to the United States, for it makes available
to the Fund resources adequate to assure the world that the United States
could make full use of its Fund quota, should that ever be necessary.
The benefits of an efficient payments system accrue to all the principal
trading nations, which have joint responsibility not only for making adjustments to correct international payments imbalances, but also for defending
the payments system while orderly adjustments are taking place. This
elementary fact is being increasingly recognized and accepted, as is shown
by the new IMF borrowing arrangement and by other recent bilateral and
multilateral actions. The United States and the United Kingdom joined
the IMF in providing massive support for Canada during its exchange
crisis in mid-1962. Advance debt repayment and U.S. borrowing in foreign
currencies, already discussed, have been important cooperative methods of
reducing the accumulation of short-term dollar assets by foreign authorities.
In 1961, for the first time since the 1930's, the U.S. Treasury resumed
operations in foreign exchange markets for the purposes of preventing or
correcting unsettling movements in spot and forward exchange rates. These
operations have proved helpful in coping with reversible flows of funds and
in cushioning the impact on exchange markets of potentially disturbing international political developments, such as the Berlin Crisis.
In February 1962 the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal
Reserve System decided to operate in foreign exchange markets on the System's own account. The resources of the Federal Reserve reinforce those
of the Treasury and greatly increase the flexibility of U.S. foreign exchange
operations. During the year, the Federal Reserve entered into "swap"
arrangements (whereby equivalent currency claims on, and liabilities to,
another central bank can be created by mutual agreement) totaling $900
million with nine central banks in Europe and Canada and with the Bank
for International Settlements. At the end of the year, most of these arrangements were on a stand-by basis, the technical problems of their creation
and use having been successfully tested.
Foreign exchange operations, whether by the Treasury or the Federal
Reserve, are undertaken only in close cooperation with the foreign central
banks directly concerned. The monthly meetings of central bankers at
Basle, which are attended by senior officials from the Federal Reserve System, keep foreign exchange developments under careful review and consider methods for handling disturbances. This review encompasses developments in the London gold market, where international disturbances are
sometimes reflected in a sharp rise in private purchases of gold.




128

During the past few years, therefore, progress has been made in developing new methods for dealing with some of the international monetary
problems of the new world economy. But some incompletely resolved
problems still face us, and new developments are continually calling for new
solutions. Constant attention and continuing study are necessary and are
being given to ensure that the international monetary system responds to the
challenges of a highly complex and rapidly changing world economy.

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9




Appendix A

REVIEW OF 1961-62 LEGISLATIVE AND
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS TO
STRENGTHEN THE ECONOMY







CONTENTS
Part 1. Major Policy Actions in 1961 and 1962
Page

Trade Expansion Act of 1962
New Depreciation Guidelines
Revenue Act of 1962
Area Redevelopment Act of 1961
Public Works Acceleration Act of 1962
Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962
Housing Act of 1961 and Senior Citizens Housing Act of 1962 . . . .
Social Security Amendments of 1961 and Public Welfare Amendments of 1962
Food and Agriculture Act of 1962
Foreign Assistance Act of 1962 and Foreign Aid and Related Agencies Appropriation Act of 1962

135
136
137
139
140
140
141
142
143
144

Part 2. Additional Legislative and Administrative Actions
Taken in 1962
Fiscal and Monetary Actions
Employment Measures
Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments
Housing
:
Aids to Business and Consumers
Transportation
Health, Education, and Welfare
Veterans' Benefits
Natural Resources and Agriculture




133

144
145
146
148
148
149
149
150
150




Review of 1961-62 Legislative and Administrative Actions to Strengthen the Economy
The present Administration and the 87th Congress adopted a variety of
measures to speed recovery and promote continued economic expansion and
growth during the past 2 years. The major economic actions taken in 1962,
with the exception of defense, and several 1961 measures which affect the
economy significantly, are described in Part 1 of this Appendix. Other
measures taken during 1961 to foster economic recovery and growth are
listed in last year's Economic Report (pp. 97-107). Part 2 of this Appendix
lists additional legislative and administrative actions of importance to the
U.S. economy which were taken during 1962.

Part 1. Major Policy Actions in 1961 and 1962
TRADE EXPANSION ACT OF

1962

The Trade Expansion Act of 1962, signed by the President on October 11, 1962, is the most important development in U.S. tariff legislation
since the Trade Agreements Act of 1934. The major features of the Act
provide new authority to reduce tariffs and new programs of adjustment
assistance to firms and workers.
The new Presidential authority for tariff reduction includes:
1. General authority to decrease by 50 percent any rate of duty
existing on July 1, 1962 and to modify other types of import
restrictions;
2. Special authority to negotiate with the European Economic
Community (EEC) for reductions up to 100 percent in duties on
(a) goods for which the EEC and the United States together
furnish more than 80 percent of the free world's exports, and
(b) agricultural goods, if the President determines such reduction will help to maintain or expand U.S. exports;
3. Special authority to reduce by more than 50 percent, or to eliminate, duties on tropical agriculture or forestry products not produced in significant quantities in the United States, provided that
the EEC makes a comparable nondiscriminatory commitment;
4. Special authority to reduce or to eliminate duties of less than 5
percent ad valorem.




135

To administer tariff negotiations authorized by the Act, provision is
made for the appointment of a Special Representative for Trade Negotiations. The Act also provides for the establishment of a Cabinet-level interagency trade committee to advise and assist the President in carrying out
the mandate of the Act.
If increased imports arising primarily from tariff concessions granted
under this or any prior Act are causing serious injury to an industry, two
types of adjustment assistance are provided. One is the traditional authority to readjust tariffs or impose quotas; the other provides for direct assistance to firms and workers in injured industries. Upon proper certification and for a limited time period, technical, financial, and tax assistance
will be provided for such firms, and trade readjustment allowances up to 52
weeks may be given affected workers. In addition, similar assistance is
provided firms and workers injured as a result of imports, without a finding
of injury to the industry.
In addition to the above provisions, the Act contains a number of other
important features: requirements for public notification and for public
hearings when articles are being considered for trade concessions; reservation of certain articles from negotiations, notably those on which an
escape clause action is in effect; provisions for withdrawing trade agreement
concessions in the event of unreasonable import restrictions being imposed
by foreign countries; requirements for carrying out the negotiated tariff
reduction in stages.
N E W DEPRECIATION GUIDELINES

The new guidelines and procedures for determining depreciation of
equipment, announced by the Treasury in 1962, constitute a fundamental
reform that will provide a major stimulus to our continued economic
growth. They represent a new and simplified method of computing
depreciation, as well as a general shortening of the useful lives of depreciable assets, primarily machinery and equipment. No change has been
made in the useful lives for buildings. The new depreciation guidelines
will increase the cash flow position of corporations as well as the rate of
capital recovery, and will provide more realistic allowance for obsolescence.
The new depreciation rates, however, must be validated by a firm's replacement practices.
The suggested new asset lives automatically permit a more rapid writeoff for approximately 70 to 80 percent of the machinery and equipment
presently in use. For machinery and equipment used in manufacturing,
allowable asset lives are 32 percent shorter, on the average, than were
allowed under the old guidelines.
The amount of depreciation which can be taken in 1962 under the new
guidelines is estimated at $32.0 billion. This represents $4.7 billion, or
17 percent, more than the amount which corporate and noncorporate tax-




payers would have claimed on their 1962 tax returns under the previous
procedure. Not all of this amount will actually be claimed. The revenue
loss, without account being taken of any offsetting revenue gains resulting
from the stimulation to economic growth, is estimated at over $1.0 billion
for 1962.
REVENUE ACT OF

1962

The Revenue Act of 1962, in conjunction with the depreciation reform
outlined above, will give to U.S. industry a tax treatment on new investment in machinery and equipment which is more comparable to the tax
policies applying to its chief foreign competitors. An additional stimulus to
domestic investment is created by the removal of unwarranted tax inducements to investment abroad. The Act also contains many provisions to
make the tax law more equitable.
Investment Credit
A tax credit is granted for investment in depreciable machinery and
equipment used in the United States. The credit generally allowable is
7 percent of qualified investment (3 percent for certain public utilities).
The amount of the credit may offset, in full, tax liability up to $25,000 and
one-fourth of the tax liability above this figure. A 3-year carryback and a
5-year carryforward are provided for unused credits. The credit computation applies to the full cost of property with an estimated useful life of 8
years or more, two-thirds of the cost of property with an estimated life of
6 to 8 years, and one-third of the cost of property with an estimated life of
4 to 6 years. All investment in eligible new property, and up to $50,000 a
year of investment in eligible used property, may qualify for the credit. The
depreciation basis of the property is reduced by the investment credit
allowed.
Reporting Requirements on Dividends and Interest Payments
The Act requires payers of dividends and interest to file with the
Internal Revenue Service information returns on payments of $10 or
more to any person in a calendar year. Payers must furnish similar
information to the recipients of such payments.
Entertainment Expenses
Entertainment expenses in general are not to be allowed unless they are
incurred under circumstances conducive to the actual transaction of business
or directly precede or follow legitimate and substantial business discussions.
The cost of maintaining entertainment facilities (yachts, hunting lodges,
country club dues, etc.) is allowed only if the particular facility is used
more than 50 percent of the time in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade
or business. Only the part of the cost directly related to the active conduct
of the taxpayer's trade or business is deductible. No deduction is allowed
for the cost of business gifts in excess of $25 a year to any one individual.




137

Deduction is denied for the vacation portion of combined business and
vacation travel where the total travel exceeds a week's time and where the
vacation portion exceeds 25 percent of total travel time. The new Act
requires strict substantiation, not only of the amount of entertainment
expenses but also of the business nature.

Mutual Thrift Institutions
For mutual thrift institutions, deductions for bad debt reserves are limited
to 60 percent of retained income or to an amount necessary to build up
those reserves to 3 percent of their qualified real property loans.
Taxation of Cooperatives
The Act provides for current taxation of the income of cooperatives either
at the cooperative level or the patron level. The patron is subject to current taxation on patronage dividends when at least 20 percent of the dividend has been paid in cash and the remainder is a qualified allocation.
Qualified allocations either must be redeemable in cash at face value within
90 days at the option of the patron or must be paid to a patron who has
consented to pay the current tax.
Sale of Depreciable Property
Gains from the sale of depreciable personal property and certain machinery and equipment sold after December 31, 1962 are taxable as ordinary income to the extent of depreciation taken after December 31, 1961.
The Act permits salvage value of up to 10 percent of the cost of the original
asset to be disregarded in determining allowable depreciation deductions.
Mutual Fire and Casualty Insurance Companies
Mutual Fire and Casualty Insurance Companies are to be taxed on their
underwriting income as well as on their investment income. However, the
tax is deferred for a period of 5 years upon a portion of each year's underwriting income, and for an additional indefinite period upon one-eighth
of each year's underwriting income.
Appearances with Respect to Legislation
Deductions are granted for all ordinary and necessary business expenses
associated with legislative activities of direct interest to the taxpayer that
require appearances before legislative bodies and before legislators at all
government levels. Costs (including dues) incurred because of communication with organizations that have the same legislative interests as the
taxpayer are also deductible. Expenditures in support of specific candidates for public office are not deductible, nor are expenditures to influence
the general public on legislative matters, elections, or referendums.
Provisions on Foreign Income
1. Income earned abroad by foreign corporations in which U.S. shareholders own 50 percent or more of the outstanding stock ("controlled
foreign corporations") and which derive "tax haven" income will, for




138

U.S. shareholders, be taxable in the current tax year even though actual
distribution of the "tax haven" earnings is deferred until the future.
2. Profits derived abroad by foreign subsidiaries of U.S. corporations in
industrial countries and distributed as dividends will be taxable at the
full domestic corporation income tax rate less a tax credit for income
tax payments made abroad.
3. Tax advantages granted to investment companies created abroad are
removed.
4. The exemption from U.S. tax that had been accorded the earned
income of U.S. citizens establishing their residence abroad is now restricted.
5. A tax at ordinary rates is imposed on profits from future sales of U.S.
patents by U.S. corporations to their foreign subsidiaries.
6. U.S. beneficiaries are taxed on all distributions of income received by
them from foreign trusts created by U.S. grantors.
AREA REDEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1961

The Area Redevelopment Act, signed on May 1, 1961, provides a wide
range of Federal assistance to areas with substantial and persistent unemployment and underemployment:
1. Long-term, low interest loans for commercial and industrial
enterprises;
2. Loans and grants for community facilities;
3. Liberalization of urban renewal assistance;
4. Technical assistance to help hard-hit areas to plan economic
expansion;
5. Job retraining programs.
By December 31, 1962, locally organized citizens groups in 730 redevelopment areas and 37 Indian reservations in 48 States, American Samoa,
Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands had prepared and submitted
over-all plans for their long-range economic development.
The Area Redevelopment Administration (ARA) in the Department
of Commerce, which is in charge of the program, assisted these groups in
various ways: providing a staff of field specialists who worked with State
and local leaders to outline needed actions and to organize local development organizations; identifying new directions for local economic growth
and new job opportunities; informing national and foreign industry leaders
of the market and industrial opportunities in these areas.
Under the coordinating features of the Area Redevelopment Act, the
varied resources of many Federal agencies have been utilized systematically
in these programs. By the end of 1962, a total of 559 projects in 46 States
and territories—involving a Federal investment of $71 million—had been
approved by ARA, to help to create more than 26,500 direct jobs in new or
expanding industries and some 19,000 indirect jobs in supporting industries,
trades, and services; and to help to train nearly 15,000 jobless workers in




117 different occupations. In addition, 400 loan and grant applications,
valued at more than $200 million, are being reviewed currently.
Under the Rural Area Development program organized in more than
1,700 rural communities, 640 projects have been developed which have
created more than 20,000 new jobs.
PUBLIC WORKS ACCELERATION ACT OF 1962

On September 14, 1962, the President signed the Public Works Acceleration Act, authorizing $900 million of public works projects, to create employment in areas of persistent and substantial unemployment. The program makes possible the initiation and speed-up of capital improvement
projects in areas eligible for assistance under the Area Redevelopment Act
and in other areas which failed to share in the over-all recovery from the
1960-61 recession and which have experienced substantial unemployment—more than 6 percent in 9 out of the last 12 months.
Congress appropriated $400 million to initiate this program on October 24, 1962 and the Federal agencies involved moved quickly to approve
projects that could be launched speedily, completed in a reasonable period,
and provide employment in hard-hit areas. Responsibility for coordination
was given to the Area Redevelopment Administration.
Within 2 months after the President's approval on October 24 of the
first allocation of $165 million, the Federal agencies had approved specific
projects totaling $115 million for local and State projects and $44. million
for direct Federal projects. This was in keeping with the intent to give first
priority to local and State projects, which call for matching funds. The
initial projects under the first allocation were designed to generate moire
than 200,000 man-months of on-site labor, plus additional jobs in a wide
variety of supporting industries.
The aim was to have the widest possible distribution, with the result that,
under the first allocation, 1,392 projects were approved in more than
half of the areas eligible for assistance under the program. Funds were
divided among the States, with emphasis on areas with the largest amount
of unemployment. On December 17, the President approved a second
program allocation of $198 million.
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING ACT OF 1962

The Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 requires the
Federal Government, through the Secretary of Labor—
1. To maintain a regular appraisal of the manpower resources and
requirements of the Nation;
2. To develop and apply the information and methods needed to
deal with the problems of unemployment resulting from automation and technological changes and of other types of persistent
unemployment;




140

3. To develop information on the supply of and demand for the
Nation's human resources;
4. To establish a system of detecting in advance the impact of
technological developments and shifts on supply or demand;
5. To develop Federal programs deemed necessary;
6. To report regularly on the Nation's manpower needs, resources,
utilization, and training.
A program of testing, counseling, and training provides direct remedial
action for unemployed and underemployed workers who lack the skills
to secure appropriate full-time employment. Through the joint efforts of
the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the State employment services, and the State vocational education agencies, the Department of Labor has, in the short time that the Act has been in operation,
approved 430 training projects for more than 16,000 workers.
HOUSING ACT OF 1961 AND SENIOR CITIZENS HOUSING ACT OF

1962

Housing Act of 1961
This Act includes:
1. A $2 billion increase in capital grant authorizations for urban
renewal;
2. Insurance and purchase of long-term, low-interest mortgages on
rental and cooperative housing for moderate income families;
3. Approximately 100,000 additional units of low-rent public
housing;
4. Increased authorization for direct, low-interest loans for housing
for the elderly;
5. Authority for the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure long-term home improvement and rehabilitation loans;
6. Additional funds for the Federal National Mortgage Association
(FNMA) special assistance programs of mortgage purchases;
7. An extension of the FHA insurance program for middle-income
families to permit an increase in the maximum mortgage period
to 40 years in certain cases and to make other changes to ease
housing credit;
8. New programs of assistance to localities for the acquisition of
permanent open space land and for mass transit;
9. Additional aid for urban planning, community facilities, and housing research.
Senior Citizens Housing Act of 1962
This Act provides:
1. Authorization to increase from $125 million to $225 million
loans to nonprofit corporations, cooperatives, or public agencies;
2. Authorization for an additional $50 million to make direct loans
to the rural elderly for new or used housing;




3. Authorization of a $50 million revolving fund for direct loans to
sponsors of nonprofit rental housing for the rural elderly;
4. Insured loans for rental housing for the elderly in rural areas.
SOCIAL SECURITY AMENDMENTS OF 1961

AND

PUBLIC WELFARE AMENDMENTS OF

1962

Important extensions in social insurance were made by the passage on
June 30, 1961, of the Social Security amendments. Under this legislation,
an additional $815 million became available to social insurance beneficiaries in the first 12 months of the program. The following changes wer**
made:
1. Lowering of retirement age for men from 65 to 62, on a voluntary basis, with a reduction of benefits;
2. Increasing the minimum insurance benefit paid to retired workers from $33 to $40 a month;
3. Broadening the program to include approximately 160,000 retired persons who would not otherwise have qualified for benefits;
4. Increasing by 10 percent benefits to the aged widow;
5. Increasing the amount a worker may earn without losing benefit
payments.
The Public Welfare Amendments of 1962 provide the most extensive
improvement and redirection of Federal-State public assistance and child
welfare programs since 1935. This legislation stresses the rehabilitation
of families on public welfare by establishing programs intended to assist
families in becoming self-supporting. By emphasizing the training of professional workers, the amendments are intended to stimulate an increase in
the supply of qualified public welfare workers needed to attain the objective
of the law.
The amendments also include:
1. An increase from 50 to 75 percent in the Federal share of the
cost of rehabilitation services and a monthly increase of about $4
a person in the Federal share of the assistance payment to the aged,
blind, and disabled;
2. The extension for 5 years of Federal aid to dependent children
where either parent is unemployed (the Act also includes authority to make payments under community work and training
programs);
3. An option for States to submit a single plan for assistance to the
aged, blind, and disabled, and medical assistance for the aged.
To encourage new approaches to public welfare problems, the Secretary
may approve special State pilot or demonstration projects.




142

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ACT OF

1962

On September 27, the President signed into law the Food and Agriculture Act of 1962. The principal provisions are noted below:
Land-Use Adjustment
Provision is made for continued Federal administration of the agricultural conservation program. The Act also includes authority for the
Secretary of Agriculture to carry out long-range conservation plans with
individual farmers and ranchers through agreements for up to 10 years,
and to provide assistance in amounts not to exceed $10 million for any
calendar year, except that for the calendar year 1963 he may provide
assistance in an amount not to exceed an additional $15 million, for lands
previously covered by conservation reserve contracts.
The Act provides for loans or loan insurance by the Farmers Home Administration for the development of recreational facilities. Also, the Watershed Act is amended to add recreational development to those purposes
eligible for cost sharing.
Assistance to local organizations in developing municipal and industrial
water supply for future use also is authorized.
Agricultural Trade Development
Agreements for long-term dollar credit sales under Title IV of Public
Law 480 were liberalized to permit private as well as government trade.
Commodity Programs
1963 feed grain program. For the 1963 crop of corn, grain sorghum,
and barley, producers can participate voluntarily by reducing their 1959-60
base acreage by at least 20 percent and up to 50 percent.
1963 wheat program. The Act continues the national allotment of 55
million acres and a voluntary diversion program. Producers who do not
exceed their allotment will be eligible for price support at $1.82 a bushel,
and they can also participate in the diversion program. If they divert
at least 20 percent of their wheat allotment to conservation uses, they
will be eligible for diversion payments not to exceed 50 percent of the value
of the normal production on the diverted acreage, and for payment-in-kind
at a rate of 18 cents a bushel on the normal production of the acreage devoted to wheat.
1964 feed grain program. Without subsequent legislation, corn price
supports will be between 50 and 90 percent of parity and at a level that
the Secretary determines will not add to Commodity Credit Corporation
stocks of corn for 1964 and succeeding crop years. Price supports for other
feed grains will be related to corn. No provision is made for acreage
diversion after 1963.
Long-range wheat program. The permanent wheat provisions of the
Act eliminate the 55-million acre national allotment, and authorize the




143

Secretary to estimate the requirements for wheat in any year and to
announce an acreage allotment large enough to meet those requirements.
Through a marketing certificate program, price supports are provided
at between 65 and 90 percent of parity on wheat used for food in the
United States, and on a share of exports to be determined by the Secretary.
Additional wheat produced will be supported at a level related to its feed
value and the world wheat price. If more than one-third of the producers
voting in a referendum oppose the program, the price support will be at
50 percent of parity to cooperators.
FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1962 AND FOREIGN AID AND
RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATION ACT OF

1962

The 1962 legislation is resulting in a change in the composition of U.S.
foreign economic assistance programs in that appropriations for long-term
development lending will comprise, for the first time, more than half of the
total funds available. Emphasis is also placed on the encouragement of
private investment in the less developed countries through an expanded
use of investment guarantees.
The active interest of this Administration in the accelerated social and
economic development of Latin America is reflected in an appropriation,
under the Alliance for Progress program, of $525 million for long-term
development loans and grants to Latin American countries. The Alliance
for Progress program was also put on a long-term basis through the authorization of development loans extending through 1966.

Part 2. Additional Legislative and Administrative
Actions Taken in 1962
FISCAL AND MONETARY ACTIONS

Tax on Transportation of Persons
Effective November 16, 1962, the transportation tax on tickets of railroads and bus lines was removed, and the tax on air travel was reduced
from 10 percent to 5 percent.
Self-Employed Individual Tax Retirement Act
This Act encourages the establishment of qualified voluntary pension
plans and/or bond purchase plans by self-employed individuals for themselves and their employees. The provisions are effective as of January 1,
1963.
Margin Requirements on Stock Purchases
On July 10, 1962, the Federal Reserve Board reduced the margin
requirements on stock purchases from 70 percent to 50 percent of the
purchase price.




i44

Reserve Requirements Against Time Deposits
In October and November, 1962, the Federal Reserve Board reduced
reserve requirements against time deposits from 5 percent to 4 percent for
member banks of the Federal Reserve System.
Federal Debt Structure
Largely through advance refunding, the Treasury undertook significant
actions to improve the structure of the debt. As a result, the total supply
of under-1-year debt instruments increased $1.4 billion; 1-5 year debt,
decreased $3 billion; and over-5-year debt increased almost $9 billion.
EMPLOYMENT MEASURES

Equal Employment Opportunities
During 1962, 117 national and international unions pledged themselves
to cooperate in furthering the goals set forth in Executive Order 10925
requiring Federal agencies and firms performing government contracts to
provide equal opportunities regardless of race, creed, color, or national
origin. On July 23, 1962, the President directed all Federal agencies to
provide equal opportunities to women in job placements and promotions.
Temporary Extended Unemployment Compensation Program
The Temporary Extended Unemployment Compensation Program,
which came to a close on June 30, 1962, provided benefits to nearly 2.8
million unemployed workers who had exhausted their State benefits
between April 8, 1961 and June 30, 1962.
Employment Service
The United States Employment Service undertook a reorganization program to deal more effectively with major labor market problems. In the
42 large metropolitan areas where reorganizations were well under way,
there were 22 percent more job placements in fiscal 1962 than in the preceding year; in the nonreorganized areas, the gain was only 14 percent.
Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act
The 1962 Amendments to this Act strengthened the protection afforded
the beneficiaries of welfare and pensions plans by authorizing the Secretary of Labor to make investigations, to compel compliance with the reporting and disclosure requirements of the original Act, and to issue binding
interpretations of the law.
Work Hours Act of 1962
This Act specifies a uniform 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek,
with overtime compensation of one and one-half times the basic rate of pay,
for work performed by laborers and mechanics under certain Federal and
Federally assisted contracts.

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10

Protection of Domestic Farm Workers
The Administration took action during 1962 to protect domestic farm
workers from the competition of large numbers of Mexican workers.
Guarantees of a minimum hourly wage rate for domestic and foreign farm
workers hired by employers of foreign workers were established in 24 States.
Employment of domestic farm workers has risen as a result, the number of
foreign workers has decreased, and there has been a general rise in wage
rates.
FOREIGN TRADE AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Export-Import Bank Programs
During fiscal 1962, the Export-Import Bank inaugurated two new programs to facilitate the financing of U.S. exports. One is a program for
export credit insurance issued by the Foreign Credit Insurance Association
(FCIA), a cooperative venture with over 70 major insurance companies,
which covers 85 percent of losses due to credit risk and 85 to 95 percent
of losses due to political risk. More than 1,000 insurance policies, covering nearly $500 million in liability on export credits, have been issued since
the FCIA began operations last February. The other is a program of
guarantees to commercial banks and other financial institutions, covering
credit risks on the longer maturities and the political risks on all maturities
of export paper financed without recourse to the exporter.
Export Expansion
The President established the position of National Export Expansion
Coordinator within the Department of Commerce to coordinate all the
activities of the Government directed toward expanding our exports.
U.S. producers' interest in foreign markets will be stimulated by 34 Regional Export Expansion Councils collaborating with the regional offices of
the Department of Commerce. Permanent U.S. trade centers abroad are
to be established—those in London, Bangkok, and Frankfurt have already
been opened—and U.S. participation in foreign trade fairs is to be
increased.
U.S. Travel Service
Pursuant to legislation enacted in 1961, the U.S. Travel Service was established in the Department of Commerce to encourage travel to the United
States. This Service has established travel centers in nine foreign countries.
In 1962, the number of travelers from overseas was 20 percent greater than
in 1961.
Government Expenditures Abroad
Government expenditures abroad are subjected to continuing close scrutiny. The need for expenditure overseas rather than in the United States
must be justified. Efforts are being made to return to the United States
much defense procurement, and the Agency for International Development




146

is attemping to have 80 percent of the expenditures resulting from all new
commitments made in the United States.
Increased Purchases by Our Allies of American Military Equipment
The net impact of government expenditures on the balance of payments
was further reduced by offset agreements negotiated with some of our allies;
Germany and Italy have undertaken to offset all or part of our estimated
military expenditures in their countries by increased purchases in the United
States of defense materiel.
Encouragement of Foreign Investment in the United States
The Department of Commerce established an Office of International
Investment in the United States. An investment program is being carried
out in close coordination with the activities of the Area Redevelopment
Administration, since it is hoped that foreign investment can be increasingly
directed toward areas requiring redevelopment.
Advance Repayment of Debt
Advance repayments of debts owed to the U.S. Government were negotiated with three European countries. In 1962, these countries made
advance repayments in excess of $600 million.
Additional Resources for the International Monetary Fund
Legislation enacted in October permits the United States, together with
nine other countries, to participate in an arrangement whereby the currency
resources of the International Monetary Fund may be increased by borrowing amounts of up to $6 billion in order to strengthen the international
monetary system.
Exchange Stabilization
Early in 1962, the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve System decided to supplement Treasury operations in the foreign
exchange markets by means of activities for the System's own account.
Foreign exchange for these operations was acquired primarily through
"swap" arrangements (whereby equivalent currency claims on and liabilities
to another central bank can be created by mutual agreement); such arrangements totaled nearly $1 billion in 1962.
Foreign Currency Securities
The Treasury expanded its foreign exchange operations and for the
first time issued medium-term, nonmarketable, foreign-currency-denominated securities, which serve to tap sources of foreign capital and to provide
foreign exchange for Treasury operations.
Official Foreign Time Deposits
Legislation was enacted in October 1962 to exempt official foreign time
deposits from interest ceilings. This step permits U.S. commercial banks
to compete with banks in other countries for such deposits and is a limited
step toward reducing pressures on U.S. reserves.




147

HOUSING

Prevention of Discrimination
On November 20, 1962, the President signed an Executive Order directing all agencies in the Executive Branch of the Government to prevent discrimination based on race, color, creed, or national origin in housing and
related facilities built or purchased with Federal aid.
Additional Housing Actions
In 1962, the following additional housing actions were taken:
1. FHA improved the attractiveness to lenders of FHA-insured longterm home improvement and rehabilitation loans;
2. FNMA improved its ability to provide a degree of liquidity for
mortgage investors by relaxing the restrictions on the periods of
time within which mortgages have to be offered for purchase
after their initiation;
3. A program of special assistance mortgage purchases was established for housing constructed on restricted Indian lands;
4. At various times during 1962, additional funds were allocated by
the President for special assistance mortgage purchases for urban
renewal and related housing, for cooperative housing, for lowinterest rate moderate-income family housing, and for housing for
the elderly.
AIDS TO BUSINESS AN-D CONSUMERS

Small Business
In 1962, the limitation on the revolving fund of the Small Business
Administration was increased from $1,200 million to $1,666 million. In
September 1962, the Small Business Administration and the American
Bankers Association jointly announced a new bank participation program
for secured term loans. For the fiscal year 1962, the President established,
and the Defense Department achieved, a 10-percent increase in the share of
military procurement contracts awarded small business concerns.
Communications Satellite Act of 1962
This Act provides for the establishment, ownership, and operation of a
commercial satellite system with public participation and Federal regulation
to ensure continued U.S. leadership in international communication.
Consumer Advisory Council
This Council was established to advise the Government on issues of broad
economic policy, on government programs protecting consumer needs,
and on the flow of consumer research material to the public. Special
representatives in 22 Departments and Agencies concerned with consumer
activities have been appointed to serve as liaison with the Council.




148

Drug Amendments of 1962
This Act gives the Food and Drug Administration additional authority
to protect the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and reliability of drugs, by standardizing drug names, and by clarifying and strengthening existing inspection of drug manufacturing establishments and
laboratories.
Cotton Textile Arrangement
A long-term cotton textile arrangement was negotiated with other major
cotton textile manufacturing nations.
TRAN SPORT ATION

Federal Aid to Highways
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962, approved on October 23,
authorizes increased grants of $950 million for 1964 and $975 million for
1965 for Federal aid to primary, secondary, and urban highway programs.
Aircraft Loan Guarantees
Authority for making aircraft loan guarantees was extended for 5 years,
and the maximum limit for any one borrower was increased from $5 million
tc $10 million.
Policies on Mergers
At Presidential request, an interagency committee, including the Attorney
General, the Secretaries of Commerce and Labor, and the Chairman of the
Council of Economic Advisers, undertook the formulation of Administration criteria and policies on mergers in the transportation industries.
Transportation in Densely Populated Areas
The President appointed an interagency committee to study transportation problems and to develop government policy on transportation facilities in the densely populated area between Washington, D.C., and Boston,
Massachusetts.
HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

Health Clinics for Domestic Migratory Farm Workers
Federal project grants are authorized to help States and localities to
develop health clinics and services for domestic migratory farm workers.
Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962
This Act authorizes the President or his designee to assist refugees from
Western Hemisphere countries for purposes including the following: health
and educational services; training for employment; transportation and resettlement; and establishment and maintenance of projects for employment
or refresher professional training.




149

Educational Television
A grant program was established, authorizing the appropriation of $32
million over a 5-year period beginning in the fiscal year 1963, to assist in the
construction of educational television facilities.
VETERANS' BENEFITS

Insurance Dividends
Special and accelerated veterans' insurance dividends totaling $328 million were announced by the President on November 22, 1962. Payment is
to be made in January 1963.
Disability Compensation and Rehabilitation Benefits
Effective July 1, 1962, veteran disability compensation rates were
increased, to adjust for changes in the cost of living. In the first year,
expenditures on this account will total $98 million. Rehabilitation benefits
for severely disabled ex-servicemen were extended to cover those who serve
in peacetime.
NATURAL RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURE

Inventory of Research Activities
At the President's request, an inventory was made of Federal research
activities in 1962 in each of the major fields of natural resources, and the
activities were evaluated. Continuing effort is being made within the
executive branch to maintain and enhance our knowledge and technology
in the resource fields.
Water Resources
New policies, standards, and procedures were recommended for the
formulation and evaluation of plans for water resources development by
the Departments of the Interior, Agriculture, the Army, and Health,
Education, and Welfare. These recommendations were approved by the
President in May 1962.
Outdoor Recreation
As a result of the recommendation of the Outdoor Recreation Resources
Review Commission, the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation was established in
the Department of the Interior to provide a focal point for outdoor recreation programs. The Bureau is charged with collecting and interpreting
current data on recreation, assisting States on outdoor recreation matters,
and developing a national plan for outdoor recreation. A Recreation Advisory Council, consisting of the heads of Federal agencies concerned with
recreation, was established to facilitate coordination among the agencies.
Air Pollution
The Air Pollution Act was extended to June 30, 1966, and the Surgeon
General of the Public Health Service was given explicit authority to conduct
special studies of the problem of automobile-exhaust fumes.




150

Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy
During 1962, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), in conjunction
with the Corps of Engineers, conducted a nuclear explosion to investigate
possible earth excavation uses of atomic energy. In addition, five new
civilian atomic power plants were activated in the United States, two of
which were built wholly with private funds. Congress also authorized
the AEC to participate in an arrangement whereby a non-Federal group
will use the steam from the AEC's new production reactor at Hanford,
Washington to generate electric power.
Electric Power
During 1962, the Federal Power Commission initiated a national
power survey which includes long-run plans for meeting national demands
for electric power during the 1970's. In addition, planning studies are
being conducted on regional inter-connections of Federal and other power
systems by the Department of the Interior.
Oil Import Quota
By Presidential Proclamation of November 30, 1962, quotas for imports
of liquid hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains, except for residual
fuel oil to be used as fuel, were shifted from a demand basis to a basis related
to domestic production. Imports, including those under quota and
exempted overland imports, are limited to 12.2 percent of the previous
year's domestic production. Formerly, quota imports were 9 percent of
estimated demand for the quota period.
International Wheat Agreement
This Agreement was extended for 3 years, until 1965, and the maximum
price for wheat was increased by 12.5 cents a bushel, to $2,025.
Food Stamp Program
The pilot food stamp distribution program begun in 1961 was extended
from 8 to 18 areas in 1962.
Sugar Act
Important amendments were made to the Sugar Act of 1948, to take
account of the loss of Cuba as a major supplier of sugar for the U.S. market.
Part of Cuba's former quota was allocated to domestic producers, and part
was allocated to foreign suppliers. Also, part was held open for Cuba if,
in the future, the importation of sugar from that country is resumed; until
that time, the quota is available without premium to other exporting
countries on a global basis.







Appendix B

REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON THE
ACTIVITIES OF THE COUNCIL
OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS




DURING 1962




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
DECEMBER 31,
The

1962.

PRESIDENT.

SIR: The Council of Economic Advisers submits this report on its
activities during the calendar year 1962 in accordance with the requirements
of Congress, as set forth in Section 4(d) of the Employment Act of 1946.
Respectfully,




WALTER W. HELLER, Chairman
GARDNER AGKLEY

155




Report to the President on the Activities of the
Council of Economic Advisers During 1962
COUNCIL

MEMBERSHIP

Walter W. Heller continued during 1962 as Chairman of the Council;
James Tobin resigned in the summer, when his leave-of-absence from
Yale University expired, to resume his duties there as Sterling Professor
of Economics; and Kermit Gordon resigned at the end of the year to
become Director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget.
Mr. Tobin was succeeded on August 3 by Gardner Ackley, on leave
from his position as Professor of Economics at the University of Michigan.
Mr. Ackley served in Government from 1940 to 1946, with the Office
of Price Administration and the Office of Strategic Services, and in 1951
and 1952 as Assistant Director of the Office of Price Stabilization.
The President has announced his intention to appoint John P. Lewis,
Professor and Chairman of the Department of Business Economics and
Public Policy, Graduate School of Business, Indiana University, to fill the
vacancy left by Mr. Gordon's appointment as Budget Director. Mr.
Lewis will assume his Council duties early in the spring of 1963. He
served on the staff of the Council and as Assistant to the Chairman from
1950 to 1953.
Following is a list of all past Council members and their dates of
service:
Name
Edwin O. Nourse
Leon H. Keyserling..
John D. Clark.
Roy Blough
Robert C. Turner
Arthur F. Burns
Neil IT. Jacoby
Walter W. Stewart...
Joseph S. Davis
Raymond J. Saulnier.
Paul W. McCrarken..
Karl Brandt
Henry C. Wallich
James Tobin
Kermit Gordon




Position
Chairman
Vice Chairman
Acting Chairman
Chairman
Member
Vice Chairman
Member
Member
Chairman
Member
Member
Member...
Member. _
Chairman.
Member
Member
Member
__.
Member
Member

Oath of Office Date
August 9,1946
August 9, 1946
November 2, 1949
May 10, 1950
August 9, 1946
May 10, 1950..
June 29,1950
September8,1952
March 19, 1953
September 15,1953
_ December 2, 1953
May 2, 1955
April 4, 1955
December 3,1956
December 3, 1956
November 1,1958
May 7, 1959
January 27, 1961
January 27, 1961

Separation Date
November 1,1949.
November 1, 1949.
May 9, 1950.
January 20, 1953.
May 9, 1950.
February 11, 1953.
August 20, 1952.
January 20,1953.
December 1,1956.
February 9, 1955.
April 29, 1955.
October 31, 1958.
December 2, 1956.
January 20, 1961.
January 31, 1959.
January 20,1961.
January 20, 1961.
July 31, 1962.
December 27, 1962.

COUNCIL STAFF

At the end of 1962, the members of the professional staff of the Council
of Economic Advisers were Michael F. Brewer, William M. Capron, Charles
A. Cooper, Richard N. Cooper, Rashi Fein, Catherine H. Furlong, Frances
M. James, Edward D. Kalachek, Marshall A. Kaplan, Robert J. Lampman,
David W. Lusher, Richard R. Nelson, George L. Perry, Fredric Q. Raines,
Vernon W. Rut tan, Paul S. Sarbanes, Norman J. Simler, Warren L. Smith,
Nancy H. Teeters, and Betty J. Willis.
A number of staff members join the Council on a leave-of-absence basis
from posts in private life or government. During 1962 the following persons returned to those posts: Kenneth J. Arrow, Arthur M. Okun, Lee E.
Preston, Robert M. Solow, and Lloyd Ulman. The following resigned to
accept other positions: Richard E. Attiyeh, Barbara R. Berman, Walter F.
Stettner, Leroy S. Wehrle, and Sidney G. Winter, Jr.
As in past years, the Council had frequent occasion to call upon the
services of outside consultants. Those working in this capacity with the
Council during 1962 were Kenneth J. Arrow, Martin Bronfenbrenner, E.
Cary Brown, Robert Dorfman, James Duesenberry, Otto Eckstein, Dale E.
Hathaway, Burton H. Klein, Edwin Kuh, John Lintner, John R. Meyer,
Richard A. Musgrave, Arthur M. Okun, Joseph A. Pechman, Lee E. Preston, William A. Salant, Paul A. Samuelson, Charles L. Schultze, Robert
Solomon, Robert M. Solow, Charles A. Taff, James Tobin, Robert Triffin,
and Robert W. Tufts.
The Council continued in 1962 the summer student intern program
begun in 1961. Those participating in the program this past summer
were Donald W. Katzner, Edward H. Moscovitch, Michael J. Piore, T. Paul
Schultz, and Karl L. Shell.
COUNCIL ACTIVITIES

The Council, responding to Presidential requests in a changing economic
environment, had materially expanded its activities in 1961. This broadening of responsibilities continued in 1962. In particular, work in the fields
of economic growth, international economics, and consumer economics was
considerably expanded. At the same time, the Council continued to devote
its major attention to fiscal, monetary, and other policies to promote
"maximum employment, production, and purchasing power" in accordance
with the Employment Act of 1946.
Participation in Interagency Activities
The Council's advisory duties involve not only informal consultations with
other government agencies, the Congress, and the public but also formal
participation in numerous interagency activities:
1. The Chairman regularly attends meetings of the Cabinet.
2. He serves as Chairman of the Cabinet Committee on Economic
Growth and as a member of the Cabinet Committee on Balance of
Payments.




3. The Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Bureau of the
Budget, and the Chairman of the Council continue to serve the President
as a coordinating committee on economic, budgetary, and revenue developments and forecasts.
4. These three officials and their associates, together with the Chairman
of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, form an advisory
group on domestic and international monetary matters which meets periodically with the President.
5. The Chairman of the Council (or one of the other two members as
his alternate) served on the three interagency committees named in 1962
by the President to examine the issues raised by the Report of the Commission on Money and Credit:
a. The Committee on Financial Institutions, chaired by the Chairman of the Council, to consider changes in government policy
toward private financial institutions that would contribute to
economic stability, growth, and efficiency;
b. The Committee on Federal Credit Programs, chaired by the
Secretary of the Treasury, to review policies and programs for
Federal direct lending as well as Federal guarantees and insurance
for private loans;
c. The Committee on Corporate Pension Funds and Other Private
Retirement and Welfare Programs, chaired by the Secretary of
Labor, to review the implications of such funds and programs for
the financial structure of the economy, for the Nation's economic
security system, and for the utilization and mobility of manpower.
6. Council members or staff participated in the work of numerous other
committees whose concern was primarily with domestic economic matters:
a. Cabinet Committee on Foreign-flag Shipping and Cargo Preference;
b. Panel on Civilian Technology which was established under the
joint sponsorship of the Council, the Department of Commerce,
and the Office of Science and Technology;
c. Natural Resources Committees of both the Federal Council for
Science and Technology and the National Academy of Science;
d. Interagency Committee on Transportation Mergers;
e. International Air Transport Policy Study Committee;
f. Committee on Federal Mental Health Programs;
g. Interdepartmental Advisory Committee on the U.S. National
Health Survey;
h. Interagency Group on Housing Credit Policy.
7. The Council continued its work with the President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy, including participation by Council
members and staff in the Advisory Committee's spring White House Conference on National Economic Issues and its autumn Conference on Fiscal
and Monetary Policy.




159

8. The Council participated with the Bureau of the Budget and members of the White House staff in the review of measures proposed for
inclusion in the President's legislative program.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Growth
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Growth was established by the
President on August 21, 1962, to coordinate Federal activities and policies
in this field and to advise the President on steps to accelerate the growth of
the U.S. economy. The members of the Committee are the Secretary of
the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Commerce, the
Director of the Bureau of the Budget, and the Chairman of the Council
of Economic Advisers, who serves as Chairman. The President's charge
to the Committee directed it to consider itself a steering group which would
consult closely with the other government agencies having a contribution
to make to economic growth policies and to report to the President from
time to time on:
a. Ways to utilize the interest, energy, initiative, and experience of
private industry, agriculture, and labor for national economic
growth;
b. The impact of existing government programs and private economic trends on current and foreseeable rates of growth;
c. Additional administrative measures and legislative proposals that
might be desirable, together with their budgetary implications; and
d. Ways to organize the Federal Government more effectively to
promote economic growth.
In its first report in November, the Committee—joined by the Secretary
of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Director of the Office of Science
and Technology—recommended or endorsed a number of measures which
are included in the President's program for 1963.
The work of the Cabinet Committee is supplemented by that of the Interagency Growth Study Committee. This group, which comprises representatives of the Council, the Bureau of the Budget, the Department of
Labor, and the Department of Commerce, was chaired first by Mr. Tobin
and since his departure at the end of July by Mr. Ackley. It is responsible
for developing and supervising an integrated program of studies of U.S.
economic growth.
International Economic Activities
The growing importance of the international dimension of U.S. economic
policies and problems was again reflected in the Council's activities. The
importance of the balance of payments in today's economy was indicated
not only by the Council's participation in the Cabinet Committee on
Balance of Payments, but also by its undertaking to finance, in conjunction with the Treasury and the Bureau of the Budget, an extensive study
under a contract with the Brookings Institution on the five-year outlook




160

for the U.S. basic balance of payments. A preliminary confidential report
was submitted in October, and the final report was in preparation at the
end of the year.
The Council continued to participate actively in international meetings
and in consultations of international organizations.
1. The Chairman of the Council was a member of the U.S. delegation to:
a. The second annual meeting of the Cabinet-level United StatesJapan Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs, which
met in Washington for three days in early December;
b. The September meetings in Washington of the International
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development;
c. The International Conference on Middle-Level Manpower in
Puerto Rico in October.
2. The Council was heavily involved in the work of the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) :
a. Mr. Heller continued to serve as Chairman of the U.S. delegation
to the meetings of the Economic Policy Committee of the OECD;
b. Mr. Tobin and Mr. Gordon were members of the U.S. delegation
to the Committee's Working Party on Balance of Payments Equilibrium;
c. Mr. Gordon was Chairman of the U.S. delegation to the Committee's Working Party on Costs of Production and Prices;
d. Mr. Solow, and subsequently Mr. Ackley, served as Chairman
of the U.S. delegation to the Committee's Working Party on Policies for the Promotion of Economic Growth;
e. Mr. Ackley headed the U.S. delegation for the annual review
of the U.S. economy undertaken by the Economic Development
and Review Committee of the OECD, and was a member of the
U.S. delegation to the second Ministerial Meeting of the OECD.
3. Other Council activity in the international area included sending
representatives to the meeting of Senior Economic Advisers held by
the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva in
November, and participation by Council staff in the work of such groups as
the Committee on Balance of Payments Information, the Interagency Committee on Foreign Trade Statistics, and the National Advisory Council on
International Monetary and Financial Problems.
CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY

Apart from its appearances before Appropriations Committees of the
Congress in support of its own budget request, the Council testified
before Congressional Committees as follows during 1962:
1. On January 25, the Council led off the Joint Economic Committee's
Hearings on the 1962 Economic Report of the President.




2. On March 26, Mr. Heller and Mr. Gordon appeared before the
Committee on Public Works of the House of Representatives in support
of the Standby Capital Improvement Bill of 1962 and a proposed amendment authorizing an immediate capital improvements program for redevelopment areas and areas of substantial unemployment.
3. On April 12, Mr. Heller testified on the capital improvement measures before the Committee on Public Works of the Senate.
4. On August 8, the Council appeared before the Joint Economic Committee during its Hearings on the State of the Economy and Policies for
Achieving Maximum Employment, Production, and Purchasing Power.
5. On August 9, Mr. Heller appeared before the House Committee on
Ways and Means during its Executive Hearings on the Status of the
Economy.
NONGOVERNMENTAL MEETINGS AND ACTIVITIES

The President's call, in his address in June at the Yale University Commencement Exercises, for a serious dialogue on the pressing economic issues
of the time underlines the importance of active public discussion of these
vital matters. The Council members and staff sought to contribute to
this discussion by means of speaking engagements before various private
organizations, articles in popular and professional publications, and
occasional appearances on radio and television.
The present Council has also undertaken—in response to the provisions
of the Employment Act—a vigorous program of consultation with a variety
of interested private groups and individuals. In addition to frequent
meetings of the Council members and staff with academic, labor, business,
agricultural, and financial economists and executives, the Council holds
periodic meetings with several advisory groups:
1. The Liaison Committee of the Business Council including—in addition to Roger Blough, past Chairman, and Frederick Kappel, present
Chairman, of the Business Council—the following: Chairman of the
Liaison Committee, Donald K. David, Vice-Chairman, Ford Foundation;
Paul C. Cabot, Chairman, State Street Investment Corporation; John
Cowles, President, Minneapolis Star and Tribune; Joseph B. Hall, Chairman, Kroger Company; and Charles K. Mortimer, Chairman, General
Foods Corporation.
2. The Economic Policy Committee of the AFL-CIO including—in addition to George Meany, President, and William F. Schnitzler, SecretaryTreasurer, of the AFL-CIO—the following members: Walter P. Reuther,
Chairman; James B. Carey; David Dubinsky; George Harrison; A. J.
Hayes; Joseph Keenan; O. A. Knight; David J. McDonald; Paul L. Phillips; Emil Rieve; Joseph Rourke; Peter T. Schoemann; and James
Suffridge.
3. The Conference of Business Economists, a group of 50 business
economists, chaired in 1962 by Walter Hoadley of Armstrong Cork
Company.




162

CONSUMER ADVISORY COUNCIL

A significant new advisory group was established in 1962 in the field of
consumer interests. The Presidential Message on Consumers' Protection
and Interest Programs directed the Council of Economic Advisers to create
a Consumer Advisory Council to examine and provide advice to the
Government on issues of broad economic policy, on governmental programs
protecting consumer needs, and on needed improvements in the flow of
consumer research material to the public. Carrying out this Presidential
directive, the Chairman of the Council announced the appointment, effective July 1, 1962, of the following persons to the Consumer Advisory Council : Dean Helen G. Canoyer, New York State College of Home Economics,
Cornell University, Chairman; David W. Angevine, Information Director,
Cooperative League of the U.S.A.; Persia Campbell, Professor and Chairman, Economics Department, Queen's College, New York; Stephen M.
Du Brul, Jr., Partner, Lehman Brothers; Mrs. John G. Lee, Past President,
League of Women Voters; Edward S. Lewis, Executive Director, Urban
League of Greater New York; Walter F. Mondale, Attorney General, State
of Minnesota; Richard L. D. Morse, Professor and Head, Department of
Family Economics, Kansas State University; Helen E. Nelson, California
Consumer Counsel; Sylvia F. Porter, Syndicated Columnist, New York Post
(later resigned); Caroline Ware, Consultant; Colston E. Warne, President,
Consumers Union of U.S., Inc. and Professor of Economics, Amherst
College.
The Consumer Advisory Council held meetings in July, September, and
November. It formulated a plan of work which includes several small
committees that will pursue some of the leading issues in the consumer
field. The general subjects selected for current study are as follows:
1. Consumer standards of identity, quality, quantity, safety, and product
performance, including an assessment of systems of grades, labels, and
quality designation;
2. A survey of present and possible governmental and nongovernmental
materials and programs dealing with the two-way flow of information between government and the consumer;
3. Institutions and procedures for achieving greater and more effective
representation and participation of the consumer in government;
4. An examination of consumer credit and of procedures which will provide continuing economic indicators of consumer welfare; and
5. The interrelationship among Federal agencies and between Federal
and State agencies in the areas of consumer protection.
By the end of the year, committee work on these topics was well under
way. Furthermore, in response to a Presidential directive, 22 departments




163

and agencies whose activities bear significantly on consumer welfare have
designated an official as special liaison to the Consumer Advisory Council.
The opinion of the Consumer Advisory Council has been sought by the
Administration on a number of current proposals for increasing the protection accorded consumer interests. The Consumer Advisory Council
constitutes an important part of the Administration's effort to assure full
and fair consideration of the consumers' needs and point of view.
PUBLICATIONS

In 1962, the present Council prepared its first Annual Report which was
transmitted to the Congress in January together with the Economic Report
of the President. The usual distribution of copies of the Report was made
to members of the Congress, the press, government officials, and depository
libraries. In addition, the Superintendent of Documents sold 22,125
copies to the public, the largest public sale to date of an Economic Report.
Since 1948, under the direction of Miss Frances M. James, the Council
has prepared the monthly Economic Indicators, which is published by the
Joint Economic Committee of the Congress. After reviewing with the
Joint Economic Committee its needs and those of other users of the publication, the Council introduced a number of changes in the November
1962 issue. Sales of Economic Indicators to the public by the Superintendent of Documents in 1962 totaled more than 10,000 a month; in addition,
under the authority of a Joint Resolution of the Congress, copies were furnished to members of the Congress and to depository libraries throughout
the country.
APPROPRIATION S

For the fiscal year 1963, the Council requested—and was granted by the
Congress—an appropriation of $584,000, an amount identical with its appropriation for the fiscal year 1962. For the fiscal year 1964, the Council's
budget request, which contemplates no increase in staff size, is again unchanged, except for an adjustment to take partial account of staff salary
increases resulting from the pay increase legislaiton in 1962.




164

Appendix C
STATISTICAL TABLES RELATING TO INCOME,
EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTION




165




CONTENTS
income or expenditure:
Page
Gross national product or expenditure, 1929-62
171
Gross national product or expenditure, in 1962 prices, 1929-62
172
Gross national product or expenditure, in 1954 prices, 1929-62
174
Gross national product by major type of product, 1947-62
176
Gross national product by major type of product, in 1954 prices,
1947-62
177
C-6. Implicit price deflators for gross national product, 1929-62
178
G-7. Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures by major economic
groups, 1929-62
180
G-8. Gross private and government product, in current and 1962 prices,
1929-62
182
C-9. Personal consumption expenditures, 1929-62
183
G-10. Gross private domestic investment, 1929-62
184
C-ll. National income by type of income, 1929-62
185
C-l2. Relation of gross national product and national income, 1929-62. . . .
186
C-l 3. Relation of national income and personal income, 1929-62
187
C-l 4. Sources of personal income, 1929-62
188
C-15. Disposition of personal income, 1929-62
190
C—16. Total and per capita disposable personal income and personal consumption expenditures, in current and 1962 prices, 1929-62
191
C-l 7. Financial saving by individuals, 1939-62
192
C-18. Sources and uses of gross saving, 1929-62
193
Employment, wages, and productivity:
C-l 9. Noninstitutional population and the labor force, 1929-62
194
C-20. Employment and unemployment, by sex and age, 1947-62
196
C—21. Employed persons not at work, by reason for not working, and special
groups of unemployed persons, 1946—62
197
C-22. Selected measures of unemployment and part-time employment,
1948-62
198
C-23. Unemployed persons, by duration of unemployment, 1947-62
199
C-24. Unemployment insurance programs, selected data, 1940-62
200
C-25. Number of wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments,
1929-62
201
C-26. Average weekly hours of work in selected industries, 1929-62
203
C-27. Average gross hourly earnings in selected industries, 1929-62
204
C-28. Average gross weekly earnings in selected industries, 1929-62
205
C-29. Average weekly hours and hourly earnings, gross and excluding overtime, in manufacturing industries, 1939-62
206
C-30. Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, in manufacturing
industries, in current and 1962 prices, 1939-62
207
C-31. Labor turnover rates in manufacturing industries, 1930-62
208
C-32. Indexes of output per man-hour and related data, 1947-62
209
Production and business activity:
C-33. Industrial production indexes, market groupings, 1947-62
210
C-34. Industrial production indexes, industry groupings, 1947-62
211
C-35. Business expenditures for new plant and equipment, 1939 and 1945-63. 213
C-36. New construction activity, 1929-62
214

National
C-l.
C-2.
G-3.
C-4.
C-5.




167

Production and business activity—Continued
Page
G-37. New public construction activity, 1929-62
215
C-38. New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929-62
. 216
G-39. Sales and inventories in manufacturing and trade, 1939-62
218
C-40. Manufacturers' sales, inventories, and orders, 1939-62
219
Prices:
G-41. Wholesale price indexes, 1929-62
220
G-42. Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing, 1947-62
222
C-43. Consumer price indexes, by major groups, 1929-62
224
G-44. Consumer price indexes, by special groups, 1935-62
225
Money supply, credit, and finance:
C-45. Money supply, 1947-62
226
C-46. Bank loans and investments, 1948-62
227
C-47. Federal Reserve Bank credit and member bank reserves, 1929-62....
228
C-48. Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-62
229
C-49. Short- and intermediate-term consumer credit outstanding, 1929-62..
231
C-50. Instalment credit extended and repaid, 1946-62
232
C-51. Mortgage debt outstanding, by type of property and of financing,
1939-62
233
C-52. Net public and private debt, 1929-62
234
Government finance:
C-53. U.S. Government debt, by kind of obligation, 1929-62
235
C-54. Estimated ownership of U.S. Government obligations, 1939-62
236
C-55. Average length and maturity distribution of marketable interest-bearing public debt, 1946-62
237
G-56. Federal budget receipts and expenditures and the public debt, 1929-64.
238
C—57. Federal budget receipts by source and expenditures by function, fiscal
years 1946-64
239
C-58. Government cash receipts from and payments to the public, 1946-64.
240
C-59. Government receipts and expenditures in the national income accounts, 1929-62
241
G-60. Federal Government receipts and expenditures in the national income
accounts, 1946-64
242
C-61. Reconciliation of Federal Government receipts and expenditures in
the conventional budget and the consolidated cash statement with
receipts and expenditures in the national income accounts, fiscal
years 1960-64
243
G-62. Estimated effects of new depreciation guidelines and investment tax
credit, 1962-63
244
C-63. State and local government revenues and expenditures, selected fiscal
years, 1927-61
245
Gorporate profits and finance:
C-64. Profits before and after taxes, all private corporations, 1929-62
246
C-65. Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders' equity and to sales,
private manufacturing corporations, by industry group, 1958-62. . . 247
C-66. Relation of profits before and after taxes to stockholders' equity and
to sales, private manufacturing corporations, by asset size class,
1958-62
249
C—67. Sources and uses of corporate funds, 1951—62
250
C-68. Current assets and liabilities of United States corporations, 1939-62. . 251
C-69. State and municipal and corporate securities offered, 1934H32
252
C-70. Common stock prices, earnings, and yields and stock market credit,
1939-62
253
C-71. Business population and business failures, 1929-62
254




168

Agriculture:
C-72. Income from agriculture, 1929-62
C—73. Indexes of prices received and prices paid by farmers, and parity ratio,
1929-62
C-74. Farm production indexes, 1929-62
C—75. Selected measures of farm resources and inputs, 1929-62
C-76. Farm population, employment, and productivity, 1929-62
0—11. Comparative balance sheet of agriculture, 1929—63
International statistics:
C-78. United States balance of payments, 1947-62
G-79. Major U.S. Government foreign assistance, by type and by area,
total postwar period and fiscal years 1959-62
C-80. United States merchandise exports and imports, by economic category,
1949 and 1957-62
C-81. United States merchandise exports and imports, by area, 1949 and
1957-62
G-82. Gold reserves and dollar holdings of foreign countries and international organizations, 1949, 1953, and 1957-62
C-83. Price changes in international trade, 1954-62

Note.—Detail in these tables will not necessarily add to totals because of
rounding.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii are not included unless specifically noted.
Unless otherwise noted, all dollar figures are in current prices.




169

Page
255
256
258
259
260
261
262
264
265
266
267
268




NATIONAL INCOME OR EXPENDITURE
TABLE G—1.—Gross national product or expenditure, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Gross private domestic investment 2

Year or
quarter

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962 6

Total
gross
national
product

104.4
91.1
76.3
58.5
56.0
65.0
72.5
82.7
90.8
85.2
91.1
100.6
125.8
159.1
192.5
211.4
213.6
210.7
234.3
259.4
258.1
284.6
329.0
347.0
365.4
363.1
397.
419.2
442.8
444.5
482.7
503.4
518.7
553.6

Personal
consumption
expendi- Total
tures'

79.0

71.0
61.3
49.3
46.4
51.9
56.3
62.6
67.3
64.6
67.6

71.9
81.9
89.7
100.5
109.8
121.7
147.1
165.4
178.3
181.2
195.0
209.8
219.8
232.6
238.0
256.9
269.

285.2
293.2
313.
328.5
338.1
356.7

16.2
10.3
5.5
.9

1.4
2.9
6.3
8.4
11.7
6.7
9.3
13.2
18.1
9.9
5.6
7.1
10.4
28.1
31.5
43.1
33.0
50.0
56.3
49.9
50.3
48.9
63.8
67.4
66.1
56.6
72.7
72.4
69.3

76.

Net
exports
of
goods
and Total
services'

New construction

8.7
6.2
4.0
1.9
1.4
1.7
2.3
3.3
4.4
4.0
4.8
5.5
6.6
3.7
2.3
2.7
3.8
11.0
15.3
19.5
18.8
24.
24.8
25.5
27.6
29.
34.9
35.
36.1
35.5
40.
40.
41.6
44.3

3.6
2.1
1.6
.5
.6
1.0
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.7
3.0
3.5
1.7
.9

.8
1.1
4.8
7.5
10.1
9.6
14.1
12.5
12.8
13.8
15.4
18.7
17.7
17.0
18.0
22.3
21.1
21.0
23.1

Government purchases of goods
and services

5.1
4.1
2.4
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.7
2.5
2.0
2.1
2.5
3.1
2.0
1.4
1.9
2.7
6.3
7.7
9.3
9.2
10.1
12.3
12.7
13.8
14.3
16.2
17.8
19.0
17.4
17.9
19.7
20.
21.2

5.8
4.5
2.8
1.6
1.6
2.3
3.1
4.2
5.1
3.6
4.2
5.5
6.9
4.3
4.0
5.4
7.7
10.7
16.7
18.9
17.2
18.9
21.3
21.3
22.3
20.8
23.1
27.2
28.5
23.1
25.9
27.6
25.5
28.8

1.7
0.8
8.5
-.4
9.2
.7
-1.3
9.2
.2
-2.6
.2
8.1
-1.6
.2
8.0
.4
-1.1
.9
10.0
1.0
11.8
2.2
11.7
-.9
1.1 12.8
.4
.9 13.3
2.2
1.5 14.1
4.5
1.1 24.8
1.8 - . 2 59.7
- . 8 - 2 . 2 88.6
- 1 . 0 - 2 . 1 96.5
- 1 . 1 - 1 . 4 82.9
6.4
4.9 30.5
-.5
9.0 28.4
4.7
3.5 34.5
40.2
-3.1
6.8
39.0
10.2
2.4 60.5
1.3 76.0
3.1
.4 - . 4 82.8
1.0 75.3
-1.6
5.8
1.1 75.6
4.7
2.9 79.0
1.6
4.9 86.5
-2.0
1.2 93.5
6.6 - . 8 97.
4.1
2.9 99.7
2.1
4.0 107.4
3.1 117.6
3.1

Federal
State
and
local

Total

1.3
1.3
1.4
14
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.6
5.3
5.3
5.2 1.3 3.9
6.2 2.2
16.9 13.8
52.0 49.6
81.2 80.4
88.6
74.8 75.9
20.6 18.8
15.6 11.4
19.3 11.6
22.2 13.6
19.3 14.3
38.8 33.9
52.9 46.4
58.0 49.3
47.5 41.2
45.3 39.1
45.7 40.4
49.7 44.4
52.6 44.8
53.6 46.2
53.2 45.7
57.0 49.0
62.6 53.7

7.2
7.8
7.7
6.6
6.0
6.8
7.1
7.0
7.2
7.5
8.2
7.9
7.8
7.7
7.4
7.5
8.1
9.9
12.7
15.2
17.9
19.7
21.7
23.2
24.9
27.7
30.3
33.2
36.8
40.8
43.6
46.5
50.4
55.0

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
501.7
504.8
503.7
IV.._. 503.3
500.8
1961: I
I I — . 513.1
522.3
538.6
545.0
1962: I
II—. 552.0
555.3
562.0
1960: I

323.9
329.9
329.8
330.5
330.5
335.5
340.1
346.1
350. 2
354.9
358.2
363.5

79.1
73.5
70.3
66.5
60.1
67.6
72.4
76.6
75.9
77.4
76.3
75.0

40.9
40.7
40.5
40.7
39.3
41.0
42.6
43.2
41.6
44.5
46.1
44.9

21.5
21.2
21.0
20.5
19.0
20.1
21.9
22.8
21.2
23.3
24.3
23.7

19.3
19.5
19.5
20.2
20.3
20.8
20.7
20.4
20.5
21.2
21.8
21.3

27.4 10.8
4.4
28.4
2.1
27.7
26.8 —1.1
24.4 - 3 . 6
2.1
24.6
4.0
25.8
6.0
27.4
6.7
27.6
4.0
28.9
1.0
29.2
.5
29.6

1.4
2.4
2.8
4.9
5.3
4.0
2.8
3.8
3.7
3.7
2.5
2.5

97.2
99.0
100.8
101.4
104.8
106.0
106.9
112.1
115.2
116.0
118.2
121.0

52.5
53.1
53.6
53.6
55.4
56.6
56.5
59.5
61.9
62.1
62.7
63.7

45.4 7.5
45.8 8.0
45.7 8.4
45.8 8.4
47.7 8.2
49.0 8.5
48.4 8.7
50.8 9.2
53.0 9.6
53.2 9.5
54.0 9.6
54.6 10.0

0.4
.7
.5
.6
.5
.8
.6
.6
.6
.6
.8
.8

44.7
45.9
47.2
47.8
49.4
49.4
50.4
52.6
53.3
54.0
55.5
57.3

1 See Table C-9 for major components.
See Table C-10 for further detail and explanation of components.
For 1929-45, net exports of goods and services and net foreign investment have been equated, since foreign
net transfers by Government were negligible during that period. See Table C-7 for exports and imports
separately.
4
This category corresponds closely to the national defense classification in the Budget of the United States
Government for the Fiscal Year ending June SO, 1964. See also Table C-57.
« Less than $50 million.
• Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
2
3

NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




171

TABLE G-2.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1962 prices, 7929-62 1
[Billions of dollars, 1962 prices]

Personal consumption
expenditures

Gross private domestic investment

Total
New construction
gross
Year or quarter national
Dura- Nonproduct Total ble durable Services Total
Resigoods goods
Total dential Other
nonfarm

Producers'
durable
equipment

Change
in business
inventories

212.0

143.6

15.7

71.2

56.7

42.6

25.6

10.2

15.4

13.5

192.5
178.2
151.9
148.2
162.3

135.0
130.9
119.1
116.3
122.3

12.5
10.8

54.8
52.7
48.9
48.2
49.0

29.2
18.1

19.1
13.4

10.7
72

5.2
5.8
9.9

7.4
5.7
6.3

6.0
5.0
2.5
1.9
2.2

13.1

8.2
7.9
9.1

67.7
67.4
62.0
60.2
64.2

177.8
202.7
213.2
203.9
220.7

129.8
142.9
147.9
145.4
153.5

11.3
13.9
14.5
11.8
14.0

67.8
75.5
78.1
79.4
83.6

50.8
53.5
55.3
54.2
55.9

18.8
25.9
31.8
18.9
26.3

8.3

3.6
5.4
5.8
6.0
8.0

4.6
6.2
8.0
6.4
6.8

239.3
278.6
318.5
358.7
384.8

161.7
172.3
168.9
173.4
179.6

16.1
18.6
11.5

58.0
60.4
62.2
65.3
68.1

34.7
43.8
22.5
13.5
15.1

16.6
18.6

8.6
9.3
4.2
2.0
1.7

8.0
9.3
5.3
3.4
4.3

13.3
15.6

9.9
9.1

87.5
93.4
95.2
98.2
102.5

11.1

4.9
9 6
3 9
-.2
—2 0

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

377.5
328.4
327.9
340.7
341.7

192.1
215.0
218.6
222.8
228.5

10.3
20.4
24.6
25.9
27.7

110.6
117.4
114.8
114.6
115.9

71.2
77.2
79.2
82.3
84.8

20.9
50.9
50.9
59.5
47.5

8.2

21.2
24.3
27.6
27.2

2.2
8.6

6.1

11.3
13.4
13.2

12.7
13.0
14.2
14.0

15.5
19.6
26.4
27.6
24.1

—2 8
10.1
.2
4.2
—3 8

1950
1951. .
1952

370.0
400.4
415.8
434.8
426.3

242.2
244.5
250.9
262.8
266.3

33.8
30.7
30.0
34.9
34.2

119.1
121.3
125.4
129.0
130.1

89.3
92.4
95.5
99.0
102.0

67.0
69.6
61.1
61.8
59.3

33.3
31.8
31.7
33.7
36.2

18.3
15.1
15.1
16.0
18.1

15.0
16.7
16.6
17.6
18.1

25.9
26.7
26.5
27.4
25.3

7.9
11.1
2.9
.8
-2.2

1959

459.6
469.4
478.5
471.1
502.6

286.1
295.7
303.6
306.3
323.6

41.7
40.1
40.6
37.5
43.2

136.8
142.1
144.6
145. 3
151.3

107.6
113.5
118.4
123.5
129.1

75.3
74.7
70.2
59.4
74.4

41.2
39.5
38.8
37.8
41.8

21.4
19.1
18.0
19.1
23.0

19.9
20.4
20.8
18.7
18.8

27.4
30.3
29.9
23.6
26.0

6.7
5.0
1.5
-2.0
6.6

I960 .
1961
1962 6

515. 8
525 5
553.6

334.3
341.3
356.7

44.5
43.9
47.6

154.2
156.3
162.0

135.6
141.2
147.2

73.3
70.1
76.2

41.7
42.4
44.3

21.4
21.4
23.1

20.4
21.0
21.2

27.5
25.6
28.8

4.0
2.1
3.1

20.2
20.2
20.1
20.9
20.8
21.3
21.2
20.7
20.7
21.3
21.7
21.1

27.4
28.3
27.6
26.9
24.4
24.6
25.8
27.6
27.6
28.9
29.1
29.7

11.0
4.4
2.0
-1.2

1929

_

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

_

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

-

-

1953...

1954
1955
1956
1957

- .-

1958...

11.5
13.8
12.3
14.8

9.6
5.4
6.0

8.4
5.0
3.8
4.1

4.3
4.5

6 1
8.2

11 2
12.7
8.8

10.3

9.0
8.4

3 4
—
2
—6
—4
—2

6
4
5
4
5

2
3
5
-2
1

4
2
3
3
2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
I960* I

II

III
IV
1961: I

II
III
IV

._..

1962: I
II

III..
IV o...

516.6
518.3
515.3
512.6
509.0
520.5
528.5
543.7
548.4
552.6
554.2
559.1

331.2
335.8
335.2
335.0
334.6
339.3
343.2
348.3
352.0
355 3
357.8
361.6

44.7
45.3
44.0
44.1
41.1
43.6
43.9
46.8
46.5
47.0
47.0
49.8

153.3
155.2
154.8
153. 4
154.3
155.2
157.4
158.0
160.4
161 6
163.0
163.0

133.2
135.4
136.4
137.5
139.1
140.4
141.8
143.5
145.2
146 8
147.8
148.9

See footnotes at end of table.




172

80.5
74.4
70.9
67.5
61.0
68.4
73.2
77.4
76.4
77.5
75.9
74.8

42.1
41.7
41.4
41.8
40.2
41.8
43.3
43.9
42.1
44.6
45.8
44.6

21.9
21.5
21.3
20.9
19.4
20.5
22.2
23.2
21.4
23.4
24.1
23.5

-3.6
2.1
4.1
6.0
6.7
4.0
1.0
.5

l

TABLE G—2.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1962 prices, 1929-62

—Continued

[Billions of dollars, 1962 prices]
Government purchases of goods and services
Net
exports
of goods
and
services a

Year or quarter

Federal
Total

National
Total 3 defense 3 4

Other
(5)

State and
local

3.8

(5)

27.1
28.5
27.1
26.2
30.0

4.3
4.7
5.0
6.8

(5)

()

8.9

(5)
(5)
(5)

w

(•)

30.3
35.2
34.1
37.8
39.6

8.6
13.2
12.3
14.7
14.1

C5)
6

(5)

40.8
61.9
129.2
177.6
195.9

16.9
39.4
108.7
158.9
177.6

32.0
103.1
156.0
174.5

5.4
9.9
3.4
4.1

168.9
57.1
48.5
54.9
61.6

150.2
36.2
24.8
29.3
32.4

148.2
28.3
16.2
16.8
19.5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

1.8
4.0
3.0
.8
2.8

59.0
82.4
100.9
109.3
97.9

27.7
50.4
68.3
75.4
61.0

20.3
43.6
59.6
63.7
52.4

8.6

31.3
32.0
32.6
33.9
36.9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

2.9
4.8
6.3
2.1
.2

95.3
94.2
98.4
103.3
104.5

55.8
53.5
55.5
57.0
56.3

47.7
46.8
49.1
48.1
50.1

8.1
6.7
6.4
9.0
6.2

39. 5
40.7
42.9
46.3
48.2

4.1
4.4
3.1

104.1
109.6
117.6

54.3
57.1
62.6

46.1
48.4
53.0

8.2
8.7
9.7

49.8
52.5
55.0

7.7
8.3

1.4

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

1.2
.6
.4
-.1

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

—1.1
-1.3

.1

-.6
_

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

2.1
.5

-

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

1.8
1.3

-__

-2.0
-5.7
-5.8
-4.4

_

_

_ _

- -

I960
1961
1962 8

_

_

24.5

20.7
22.7
23.8
22.1
19.5
21.1

5

(5)

()

3.4

10.7

6.0

10.8
7.4
5.6
2.9

3.1
2.1
7.9
8.6

12.5
12.9
7.5
6.8
8.7

11.7

21.7
22.1
21.8
23.1
25.5
23.9
22.5
20.5
18.7
18.3
18.7
20.9
23.7
25.6
29.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
II

III
IV

______

1961- I

II

Ill

IV

4.0
5.9

102.3
104.4
105.1
104.3

53.9
55.0
54.7
53.6

46.2
46.7
46.1
45.2

8.6
8.4

48.4
49.4
50.4
50.7

6.1
4.2
3.3
4.1

107.3
108.7
108.8
113.8

55.1
56.9
56.6
59.9

46.9
48.4
47.8
50.6

8.1
8.5
8.7
9.3

52.2
51.7
52.2
53.9

4.0
3.4
2.4
2.5

116.0
116.3
118.0
120.2

62.0
62.3
62.8
63.3

52.4
52.8
53.2
53.4

9.6
9.5
9.6
9.8

54.0
54.0
55.2
56.9

2.7
3.6

I960: I

_

1962: I
II

III ,
IV •

__

1
These estimates represent an approximate conversion of the Department of Commerce series in 1954
prices. (See Tables C-3 and O-6.) This was done by major components, using the implicit price indexes
converted to a 1962 base. Although it would have been preferable to redeflate the series by minor components, this would not substantially change the results except possibly for the period of World War II, and
for the series on change in business inventories.
For explanation of conversion of estimates in current prices to those in 1954 prices, see U. S. Income and
Output, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, 1958.
2
For 1929-45, net exports of goods and services and net foreign investment have been equated, since foreign
net transfers by Government were negligible during that period.
3 Net of Government sales, which are not shown separately in this table. See Table C-l for Government
sales in current prices.
* See footnote 4, Table C-l.
8
6
Not available separately.
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




173

TABLE C-3.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1954 prices, 7929-62

1

[Billions of dollars, 1954 prices]

dross private domestic investment

Personal consumption
expenditures

Total

New construction

gross
Year or quarter national
product

Total

Dur- Non- Servable durable
goods goods ices

Total

Pro- Change
ducers' in busiResidurable ness
Total dential Other equip- invennonment
tories
farm

1929

181.8

128.1

14.9

65.3

48.0

35.0

20.9

8.7

12.2

11.1

3.0

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

164.5
153.0
130.1
126.6
138.5

120.3
116.6
106.0
103.5
108.9

11.8
10.3

46.4
44.6
41.4
40.8
41.5

23.6
15.0

15.4
10.9

10.4

6.0

6.6
3.9

8.8
5.9
3.5

—.7

3.9

5.1
4.2
2.1

7.5
8.6

62.1
61.8
66.9
55.2
68.8

4.0
7.4

4.6
5.1

1.6
1.9

3.0
3.2

3.7
5.0

—1.8
—5.6
-4.2
-2.8

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

152.9
173.3
183.5
175.1
189.3

115.8
127.7
132.1
129.9
137.3

10.7
13.1
13.8
11.2
13.3

62.1
69.2
71.6
72.8
76.7

42.9
45.3
46.8
45.9
47.2

16.1
21.0
27.0
15.5
21.6

6.7

3.1

3.6

6.7

9.4

2.6

11.3
10.1
12.2

4.6
5.0
5.1

4.9
6.3
5.0

10.5

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

205.8
238.1
266.9
296.7
317.9

144.6
154.3
150.8
154.6
160.2

15.3
17.6
10.9
9.4
8.6

80.2
85.6
87.3
90.0
94.0

49.1
51.1
52.6
55.2
67.6

29.0
36.7
18.8
10.7
12.3

13.6
15.3

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

314.0
282.5
282.3
293.1
292.7

171.4
192.3
195.6
199.3
204.3

9.8
19.4
23.3
24.6
26.3

101.4
107.6
105.3
105.1
106.3

60.2
65.3
67.0
69.6
71.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

318.1
341.8
353.5
369.0
363.1

216.8
218.5
224.2
235.1
238.0

32.1
29.2
28.5
33.1
32.4

109.2
111.2
115.0
118.3
119.3

392.7
400.9
408.6
401 3
428.6

256.0
264.3
271.2
273.2
288.9

440.2
447.9
471.5

298.3
304.3
318.1

__

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

_.

_

I960...

1961
1962«

_.-

7.8

7.3

2.4

52
—1.8
1.0

5.4

8.5

7.3

6.3

7.9
3.6

7.4
4.2

10.9
12.9

4.4
4.8

1.7
1.4

2.7
3.4

6.9
9.2

-1.7

17.0
42.4
41.5
49.8
38.5

6.6
17.3
19.9
22.7
22.3

1.8
7.3
9.6
11.4
11.2

4.8
10.0
10.3
11.2
11.1

12.7
16.1
21.7
22.8
19.8

-2.4
9.0
-. 1
4.4
-3.6

75.5
78.2
80.8
83.7
86.3

55.9
57.7
50.4
50.6
48.9

27.4
26.0
26.0
27.6
29.7

15.5
12.9
12.8
13.6
15.4

11.9
13.2
13.2
14.0
14.3

21.3
22.0
21.8
22.5
20.8

2.6
.5
-1,6

39.6
38.0
38.5
35.6
41.0

125.4 91.0
130.3 96.0
132.6 100.1
133.3 104.4
138.7 109.2

62.5
61.7
58.1
49.0
61.7

33.9
32.3
31.8
31.1
34.4

18.2
16.2
15.3
16.2
19.5

15.7
16.1
16.5
14.8
14.9

22.5
25.0
24.6
19.4
21.4

6.1
4.5
1.6
— 1.5

42.2
41.6
45.1

141.4 114.7
143.3 119.4
148.5 124.5

60.7
57.8
62.9

34.3
34.8
36.4

18.2
18.2
19.6

16.1
16.6
16.8

22.7
21.1
23.7

3.7
2.0
2.8

7.8

6.8

9.2

7.4

45
8.6
3.6
—.6

7.2
9.7

5.9

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
440 9
442.3
439.7
437.7

I960' I

II

III
IV

1961- I
II
III

_

IV

1962* I
II

III
IV «

295.6
299.7
299.1
298.8

42.4
43.0
41.8
41.8

140.6
142.3
141.9
140.7

112.6
114.5
115.4
116.3

66.7
61.5
58.6
55.8

34.6
34.2
34.0
34.3

18.6
18.2
18.1
17.8

16.0
16.0
15.9
16.5

22.6
23.3
22.7
22.2

9.6
4.0
1.9
-.7

433.9
443.9
450.4
463.4

298.2
302.5
306.0
310.6

39.0
41.3
41.7
44.4

141.5
142.3
144.4
144.9

117.7
118.8
120.0
121.4

50.0
56.5
60.4
64.1

33.0
34.3
35.6
36.1

16.5
17.4
18.8
19.7

16.5
16.9
16.7
16.4

20.1
20.2
21.3
22.7

-3.0

467.4
470.8
471.6
476.1

313.9
316.9
319.0
322.6

44.1
44.6
44.6
47.2

147.0
148.1
149.5
149.5

122.8
124.1
125.0
125.9

63.3
64.1
62.4
61.7

34.6
36.7
37.7
36.6

18.2
19.9
20.5
20.0

16.4
16.8
17.2
16.7

22.8
23.8
24.0
24.4

5.9
3.7
.8
.6

See footnotes at end of table.




174

2.0
3.5
5.4

1929-62l—Continued

TABLE C-3.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1954 prices,
[Billions of dollars, 1954 prices]

Net exports of goods and
services 2

Year or quarter

Government purchases of
goods and services

Gross
private
product *

Net
exports

Exports

Imports

1929..

0.2

11.1

10.9

18.5

2.9

15.6

171.5

1930.
19311932.
1933.
1934.

.2
-.3
-.3
-.8
-.6

9.9
8.4
6.8
6.8
6.9

9.7
8.7
7.1
7.7
7.5

20.5
21.6
20.5
19.9
22.8

3.4
3.7
3.9
5.3
6.9

17.1
17.9
16.6
14.6
15.8

153.7
142.0
119.4
115.0
125.1

1935..
1936.
1937.

-1.9
-2.2
-1.6

9.2
9.8

23.0
26.9
26.0
28.8
30.1

6.7

10.9

11.4
11.0

16.3
16.6
16.4
17.4
19.1

138.7
156.6
167.8
158.0
172.1

1939.

.8
.3

7.3
7.7
9.3
9.3
9.5

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

1.1
-.6

-2.9
-6.6
-6.7

10.5
10.6
7.6
6.7
7.4

8.5
9.2

Total

State
Federal 3 and local

10.3
9.6

11.3
10.5
13.2
14.1

31.1
47.7
100.1
137.9
152.2

13.1
30.7
84.7
123.9
138.4

18.0
16,9
15.4
14.0
13.8

188.1
216.0
234.8
246.4
259.8

9.4

-5.6

9.8

3.8
8.0
2.0
2.6

15.8
19.2
14.7
15.1

15.3
12.0
11.1
12.8
12 A

131.2
43.9
37.2
42.1
47.2

117.1
28.2
19.4
22.9
25.3

14.0
15.8
17.8
19.2
21.9

257.0
252.7
259.6
270.3
268.7

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954-

.2
2.2
1.2
-.9
1.0

14.5
17.3
16.9
16.4
17.5

14.2
15.1
15.7
17.3
16.5

45.1
63.3
77.7
84.3
75.3

21.6
39.3
53.3
58.8
47.5

23.5
24.1
24.5
25.5
27.7

293.3
311.1
320.4
336.2
330.8

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

.9
2.5
3.8
-.2

-2.1

19.2
22.4
24.4
21.4
21.9

18.3
19.8
20.6
21.6
24.1

73.2
72.3
75.5
79.3
80.1

43.5
41.7
43.2
44.5
43.9

29.7
30.6
32.2
34.8
36.2

360.4
368.2
375.4
367.5
394.8

1.5
1.8
.4

24.9
25.3
26.3

23.4
23.5
26.0

79.8
84.0
90.2

42.3
44.5
48.8

37.4
39.4
41.4

405.5
412.3
434.2

1945..
1946..
1947-.
19481949..

I960...
1961...
1962«_.

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I — .
II—

0.2
1.0
1.5
3.3

24.0
25.1
25.0
25.6

23.8
24.0
23.5
22.3

78.4
80.0
80.5
79.9

42.0
42.9
42.7
41.8

36.4
37.1
37.8
38.1

405.7
407. 5
404.9
402.8

1961: I—II—
III..
IV1962: I
II.—
Ill—

3.5
1.7
.7
1.4

25.7
24.4
25.1
26.2

22.2
22.7
24.4
24.8

82.2
83.3
83.3
87.2

42.9
44.4
44.1
46.7

39.2
38.9
39.2
40.5

408.6
414.6
427.0

1.3
.7
-.3
-.2

26.1
26.6
26.2
26.4

24.8
25.9
26.5
26.6

88.9
89.2
90.5
92.1

48.3
48.6
49.0
49.3

40.6
40.6
41.5
42.8

430.4
433.6
434.3
438.6

III..
IV-

I V «..

1 For explanation of conversion of estimates in current prices to those in 1954 prices, see U.S. Income and
Output, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, 1958. See Table C-6 for implicit price deflators.
2 For 1929-45, net exports of goods and services and net foreign investment have been equated^ since foreign
net transfers by Government were negligible during that period.
* Net of Government sales.
* Gross national product less compensation of general government employees; i.e., gross product accruing
from domestic business, households, and institutions, and from the rest of the world.
1
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




TABLE C-4.—Gross national product by major type of product, 1947—62
[Billions of dollars]
Goods output

Year or quarter

Total
na- Final Inventorytional sales change
product

Durable
goods

Total

Nondurable
goods

1947
1948
1949

234.3 234.8
259.4 254.7
258.1 261.1

- 0 . 5 143. 8 144.3 -0.5 47.4 46.0 1.4 96.4 98.2 -1.8 71.8 18.7
9
48.9
.9 107.2 103.4 3.8 78.1 24.3
4.7 157.0 152.3 4.7 49.
- 3 . 1 149.3 152.4 -3.1 47.9 49.9 -2.1 101. 5 102. 4 -1.0 83.5 25.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

284.6
329.0
347.0
365.4
363.1

277.8
318.7
343.9
364.9
364.8

6. 8 163.
10. 2 191.8
3.1 198.2
4 206.
6.9
- 1 . 6 197.4

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

397.5
419.2
442.8
444. 5
482.7

391.7
414.5
441.2
446.5
476.1

5.8 217.2 211.4 5.
i
4.7 227. 6 223.0 4.7
1. 6 238.2! 236. 6 1.6
--2. 0 229. 4 231. 4 - 2 . 0
2.
0.
6. 6 250. 6 244.0 6.6

1960
1961
1962

503.4 499. 4
518.7 516.6
553.6 550.5

156.8
60.7
181.6 10.2 74.4
195.2 3.1 75.
.4 79.8
206. 4
199.0 - 1 .
71.

4. 1 258. 2 254.1
2.1 259. 4 257. 2
3.1 276. 7 273.6

84.3
89.6
94.5
80.4
95.0

56.7 4.0 102. 9 100.1 2.8
67.5 6. 9 117. 4 114.1 3.3 102.9
!.
74.5 1. 2 122. 6 120. 7 1. 9 112. 3
.
78.9
9 127. 0 127. 5 - . 5 119. 5
74.1 -2. 5 125. 9 125.0
. 9 124.1

31.2
34.2
36.4
39.0
41.6

81.3 3.0
86.7 2.8
93.4 1.0
83.3 -2. 8
91.5 3.5

46.9
48.2
50.1
50.9
56.3

132.9 130.2
138.1 136.2
143.7 143. 2
149.0 148.1
155. 6 152. 5

4.1 97.2 95.0 2.3 160. 9 159. 2
2.1 4.0 94.0
0
.0 165.4 163.3
3.1 104. 6 103. 0 1. 6 172.1 170.7

2. 7 133.4
1.8 143.3
5 154. 5
9 164.2
3.1 175.8

1.8 188. 6 56.7
58.6
2.
1.4 214.
62.1

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960:
I
II
III
IV

501.7
504.8
503.7
503.3

490.8
500.4
501.5
504.4

10. 8 262.1 251.3 10. 8 102. 6
i.2 4.4
1.7
4. 4 260.
2.1 257.1 254.9 2.1 95.
- 1 . 1 253.0 254.1 — 1.1 90.9

1961:
I
II
III
IV

500.8
513.1
522.3
538.6

504.4
511.0
518.3
532.6

- 3 . 6 248. 0 251. 6 - 3 . 6
2.1 256. 6 254. 4 2.1
4.0 261. 8 257. 8 4.0
6.0 271.0 265.0 6.0

1962:
I
II
III
IV i

545.0
552.0 547.9
555.3 554.2
562.0 561.5

274. 9 268. 2
!.
4.0 276. 7 272. 6
,
1.0 275. 7 274.7
. 5 279. 6 279.0

84.
91.3
97.7
102. 3




159. 5 157.3
.
160. 9 159. 3
161. 2 160.1
162.2 160.0

2. 2 183. 55.8
56.4
1. 6 187
1.1 189.9 56.8
2. 2 193.1

90.2 - 5 .. 5 163. 3 161. 4 1.
5.
92.6 - 1 . 3 165. 3 161. 8 3.4 199.0 57.5
94.3 3.4 164. 2 163. 5
6 201.3 59.2
98.8 3. 5 168. 8 166.3 2. 5 206. 6 61.0

6. 7 103. 4
3.5
4.0 104. 5 102. 6 1.
1.0 104.
.0 1.9
. 5 105. 8 106. 5 - . 7

i Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).

I76

94.0 8. 6
96.9 2.8
94.8 1.0
94.2 - 3 . 3

171. 5 168. 4
1 211.1
172. 2 170.0
.
2 213. 5
170. 8 171. 7
.9
173. 8 172. 5 1. 3 218. 6
;.

59.0
61.8
63.6
63.9

TABLE G-5.—Gross national product by major type of product, in 1954 prices, 1947-62 1
[Billions of dollars, 1954 prices]
Goods output
Total
gross
Durable goods
Nondurable goods Serv- ConTotal
na- Final Invenstructory
tional
ices tion
change
prodInvenInvenInvenuct
Total Final
Final
Final tory
tory
tory
goods sales change Total sales change Total sales change

Year or
quarter

1947
1948
1049

282.3 282.4
293.1 288.7
292.7 296.3

- 0 . 1 163.3 163.4
4.4 167.7 163.4
- 3 . 6 162.3 165.9

-0.1
4.4
-3.6

55.8
55.4
51.9

54.3
54.6
54.3

1.5 107.5 109.2
.8 112.3 108.8
-2.4 110.5 111.6

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

318.1
341.8
353.5
369.0

310.9
332.1
350.9
368.5
364.8

7.2
9.7
2.6
.5
-1.6

177.6
191.7
196.8
207.7
197.4

170.4
182.0
194.2
207.2
199.0

7.2
9.7
2.6
.5
-1.6

65.3
74.6
75.1
80.8
71.6

61.0
67.4
73.9
79.8
74.1

4.3
7.1
1.2
1.0
-2.5

112.3
117.1
121.8
126.9
125.9

109.4
114.5
120.3
127.4
125.0

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

392.7
400.9
408.6
401.3
428.6

396.4
406.9
402.
422.7

6.1
4.5
1.6
-1.5
5.9

216.9
221.4
223.4
211.5
228.8

210.8
217.0
221.7
213.1
222.9

6.1
4.5
1.6
-t.5
5.9

83.1
84.9
85.5
71.7
82.9

80.1
82.3
84.5
74.1
80.0

3.0
2.7
1.0
-2.4
3.0

133.8
136.5
137.9
139.8
145.9

130.7
134.7
137.2
139.0
143.0

1960
1961
1962'

440.2 436.5
447.9 446.0
471.5 468.7

3.7 234.0 230.3
2.0 233.5 231.5
2.8 247.1 244.4

3.7
2.0
2.8

85.0
82.1
90.7

82.9
82.0
89.4

2.1 149.1 147.5
.1 151.4 149.5
1.4 156.4 155.0

- 1 . 6 94.7
3.5 97.2
- 1 . 2 100.7

24.3
28.2
29.7

2.9
2.6
1.5
-.5

105.0
114.2
119.8
122.5
124.1

35.4
36.0
36.9
38.8
41.6

3.1
1.8
.7
.8
2.9

130.2
135.5
141.2
145.2
151.4

45.6
43.9
44.0
44.5
48.3

1.6 158.3
1.8 165.2
1.4 173.2

47.8
49.3
51.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I
II...
Ill—

440.9
442.3
439.7
437.7

1961: I
433.9 436.9
I I . . . . 443.9 441.9
I l l — 450.4 446.9
463.4 458.1
1962: I
II—.
III...
IV 2.

467.4
470.8
471.6
476.1

238.0 228.4
4.0 236.3 232.3
1.9 233.1 231.1
- . 7 228.8 229.5

9.6
4.0
1.9
-.7

89.3
87.0
83.6
80.0

81.8
84.4
82.6
82.7

7. 5
2.5
9
-2^6

148.7
149.3
149.5
148.7

146.7
147.9
148.5
146.8

2.1
1.4
1.0
2.0

155. 5
158.3
158.8
160.7

47.4
47.7
47.8
48.2

-3.0
2.0
3.
5.4

223.5
231.2
235.3
243.7

226.5
229.2
231.8
238.4

-3.0
2.0
3.5
5.4

74.3
79.7
85.0
89.4

78.8
80.7
82.0
86.3

-4. 6
-1. 0
3. 0
3 1

149.3
151.5
150.3
154.4

147.7
148.5
149.8
152.1

1.6
3.1
.5
2.2

162.5
164.2
165.4
168.7

47.9
48.5
49.7
51.0

5.9
3.7
.8
.6

246.4
247.1
245.8
249.3

240.
243.4
245.0
248.6

5.9
3.7
.8
.6

89.9
90.3
90.8
91.9

87.0
88.7
89.1
92.5

2 9 156.5 153.5
1 6 156.8 154. 7
1 6 155.0 155.9
6 157.3 156.1

3.0
2.1
n
L2

171.8
172.7
173.7
174.5

49.2
51.0
52.1
52.3

431.3
438.3
437.7
438.4

461.5
467.
470.8
475.5

1 For explanation of conversion of estimates in current prices to those in 1954 prices, see U.S. Income and
Output, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, 1958.
2
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).

669333 0—63




177

TABLE C—6.—Implicit price deflators for gross national product, 1929-62
[Index numbers, 1954=100]
Gross private domestic
investment i

Personal consumption
expenditures
Year or quarter

Gross
national
product i
Total

New construction
Producers'
Dur- NonResidurable
able durable Services
goods goods
Total dential Other equipnonment
farm

1029

57.4

61.6

62.0

57.7

66.8

41.7

41.8

41.6

52.5

1930

1931
1932
1933
1934

55.4
49.9
44.9
44.2
46.9

59.0
52.6
46.5
44.8
47.6

60.5
53.5
47.0
46.1
48.8

54.8
46.9
40.0
40.3
45.3

64.2
60.3
55.3
50.7
50.7

40.0
36.5
31.1
31.2
33.3

40.8
37.1
30.1
29.8
33.1

39.7
36.2
31.7
31.9
33.4

50.5
47.9
45.5
43.1
45.9

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

47.4
47.7
49.5
48.7
48.1

48.6
49.1
50.9
49.8
49.2

47.9
47.9
50.3
50.8
50.2

47.2
47.4
49.1
46.7
45.8

50.9
51.9
53.8
54.5
54.5

34.1
34.8
39.0
39.1
39.0

32.6
34.3
37.8
39.2
39.5

35.4
35.2
39.9
39.1
38.4

45.6
45.4
48.7
50.2
49.4

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

48.9
52.9
59.6
64.9
66.5

49.7
53.1
59.5
65.0
68.6

50.7
54.8
64.2
70.3
78.7

46.4
50.5
58.8
65.8
69.5

54.8
56.8
59.8
62.8
65.5

40.1
43.4
47.6
53.0
56.3

40.9
44.6
47.7
51.4
56.2

39.1
42.2
47.6
54.0
56.3

50.6
54.0
58.5
58.4
59.3

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

68.0
74.6
83.0
88.5
88.2

71.0
76.5
84.6
89.5
88.7

82.8
82.0
88.4
92.4
93.5

72.2
78.8
88.7
94.0
90.9

67.1
71.1
76.8
81.7
83.6

57.8
63.7
76.6
85.9
84.3

60.0
65.3
78.4
88.6
85.9

56.9
62.6
74.8
83.1
82.6

60.0
66.7
76.8
83.1
87.0

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

89.5
96.2
98.1
99.0
100.0

89.9
96.0
98.0
99.0
100.0

94.6
101.1
102.2
99.4
100.0

91.4
99.0
100.1
99.7
100.0

85.9
89.8
93.6
97.7
100.0

88.3
95.3
98.4
100.1
100.0

90.9
97.5
100.3
101.3
100.0

85.1
93.1
96.5
98.9
100.0

89.0
96.8
97.5
99.0
100.0

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959..

101.2
104.6
108.4
110.8
112.6

100.4
102.1
105.1
107.3
108.5

100.1
101.3
104.7
104.9
106.3

99.5
100.9
103.9
106.3
106.0

101.7
104.1
107.0
109.4
112.5

103.1
109.8
113.5
114.2
116.8

103.0
109.0
111.2
111.2
114.3

103.2
110.7
115.7
117.6
120.1

102.6
109.0
115.7
118.9
121.4

1960
1961
1962 2

114.4
115.8
117.4

110.1
111.1
112.1

106.1
105.2
105.4

107.4
108.3
109.1

115.0
116.5
118.2

118.8
119.6
121.7

115.9
115.8
117.7

122.0
123.7
126.4

121.6
121.3
121.5

1960: I — .
II_III_.
IV..

113.8
114.1
114.6
115.0

109.6
110.1
110.3
110.6

106.4
106.6
106.5
105.1

106.7
107.2
107.4
108.3

114.4
114.9
115.1
115.5

118.2
118.9
119.1
118.9

115.8
116.3
116.1
115.5

121.1
121.9
122.4
122.6

121.5
121.9
122.0
121.1

1961: I — .
II...
III..
IV..

115.4
115.6
116.0
116.2

110.8
110.9
111.1
111.4

104.6
105.3
105.5
105.1

108.5
108.1
108.2
108.5

115.7
116.2
116.6
117.3

119.2
119.5
119.9
119.8

115.0
115.7
116.3
116.1

123.4
123.4
123.7
124.3

121.6
121.5
121.4
120.7

1962: I — .
II...
III_.
IV 2.

116.6
117.2
117.7
118.1

111.6
112.0
112.3
112.7

104.9
106.0
105.6
105.3

108.7
108.9
109.1
109.5

117.4
117.9
118.5
119.2

120.4
121.3
122.4
122.7

116.2
117.3
118.5
118.6

125.0
126.0
126.9
127.5

121.2
121.8
121.8
121.1

See footnotes at end of table.




178

TABLE C-6.—Implicit price deflators for gross national product,

1929-62—Continued

[Index numbers, 1954= 100]

Exports and imports1of Government purchases of goods
goods and services
and services
Year or quarter
Exports

1929

.

Imports

Total

Federal

State and
local

63.1

57.3

45.8

44.5

46.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

55.0
43.2
36.2
35.2
43.0

48.9
39.7
32.3
29.3
33.8

44.9
42.7
39.4
40,3
42.9

41.8
41.7
38.2
38.3
43.2

45.5
43.0
39.7
41.1
42.8

1935 _.
1936
1937
1938
1939

44.7
46.0
48.9
46.5
46.9

36.0
36.9
41.1
38.0
38.6

43.4
44.0
45.1
44.5
44.2

43.7
46.9
47.3
46.1
46.8

43.3
42.2
43.8
43.4
42.7

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

51.2
56.1
64.9
68.1
73.3

40.9
43.0
48.9
51.3
53.3

45.2
51.9
59.6
64.3
63.4

47.0
55.1
61.4
65.6
64.3

43.9
46.2
49.8
52.7
54.6

75.3
80.8
93.4
98.6
92.7

57.4
65.5
79.7
86.3
82.0

63 2
69.4
76.4
82 0
85.1

63.9
73.0
80.8
84.4
88.0

57.4
63.0
71.5
79.3
81.7

90.3
103.3
103.0
101.0
100.0

87.8
102.8
102.8
98.2
100.0

86.5
95.5
97.8
98.3
100.0

89.6
98.7
99.2
98.6
100.0

83.7
90.2
94.8
97.5
100.0

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959 . .

100.7
103.4
107.4
105.9
104.3

99.9
101.8
103.2
99.2
98.2

103.3
109.2
114.6
117.9
121.4

104.1
109.7
114.9
118.3
122.2

102.2
108.6
114.2
117.3
120.3

1960 .
1961
1962 2

105 8
107.6
108.2

100 3
99.1
97.7

125 0
127.9
130.4

125.6
128.0
128.3

124.2
127.9
133.0

1960: III
III.
IV

105.4
105.8
106.1
106.0

100 4
100.5
100.6
99.8

124 0
123.7
125.2
127.0

125.0
123.7
125.5
128.3

122.8
123.6
124.8
125.5

106.8
108.4
107.3
108.1

99.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

127.6
127.3
128.3
128.4

129.1
127.6
128.1
127.3

125.9
127.0
128.6
129.7

108.1
109.1
108.2
107.2

98.8
97.8
97.4
96.8

129.5
130.1
130.7
131.4

128.2
127.8
128.1
129.1

131.1
132.9
133.7
134.1

. . .

1945..
1946
1947
1948
1949
I960
1951.
1952 .
1953
1964

.

1961: I . . .
II.
Ill
IV.

. . .

.

1962: I_.._

II...

III
IV 2 __

.

.

_

_
_

1
Separate deflators are not available for total gross private domestic investment, change in business
inventories, and net exports of goods and services.
For explanation of conversion of estimates in current prices to those in 1954 prices, see U.S. Income and
Output, A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business, 1958.
2
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




179

TABLE C-7.—Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures by major economic groups,
1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Business

Persons

Disposable
personal
income

Personal
consumption
expenditures

1929

83.1

79.0

4.2

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

74.4
63.8
48.7
45.7
52.0

71.0
61.3
49.3
46.4
51.9

3.4
2.5

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

58.3
66.2
71.0
65.7
70.4

56.3
62.6
67.3
64.6
67.6

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

76.1
93.0
117.5
133.5
146.8

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

Excess
of receipts
or investment

For- Net exports of goods
eign
and services 2
net
transfers by
govNet
ExImern- exports ports ports
ment 2

Gross
retained
earnings i

Gross
private
domestic
investment

11.5

16.2

-4.7

0.8

7.0

6.3

.1

5.2
2.7
2.6
4.9

10.3
5.5
.9
1.4
2.9

-1.5
-.3
1.8
1.2
2.0

.7
.2
.2
.2
.4

5.4
3.6
2.5
2.4
3.0

4.8
3.4
2.3
2.3
2.5

2.0
3.6
3.7
1.1
2.9

6.3
6.5
7.8
7.8
8.3

6.3
8.4
11.7
6.7
9.3

.1
-1.9
-4.0
1.2
-1.0

-.1
-.1
.1
1.1
.9

3.3
3.5
4.6
4.3
4.4

3.3
3.6
4.5
3.2
3.-S

71.9
81.9
89.7
100.5
109.8

4.2
11.1
27.8
33.0
36.9

10.4
11.5
14.1
16.3
17.2

13.2
18.1
9.9
5.6
7.1

-2.8
-6.6
4.3
10.7
10.1

1.5
1.1
-.2
-2.2
-2.1

5.4
6.0
4.9
4.5
5.4

4.8
5.1
6.8
7.5

150.4
160.6
170.1
189.3
189.7

121.7
147.1
165.4
178.3
181.2

28.7
13.5
4.7
11.0
8.5

15.6
13.1
18.9
26.6
27.6

10.4
5.2
28.1 -15.1
31.5 -12.6
43.1 -16.5
33.0 - 5 . 4

0.3
.1
1.6
3.2

-1.4
4.9
9.0
3.5
3.8

7.4
12.8
17.9
14.5
14.0

8.8
7.9
8.9
11.0
10.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

207.7
227.5
238.7
252.5
256.9

195.0
2,09.8
219.8
232.6
238.0

12.6
17.7
18.9
19.8
18.9

27.7
31.5
33.2
34.3
35.5

50.0
56.3
49.9
50.3
48.9

-22.3
-24.8
-16.6
-16.0
-13.4

2.8
2.1
1.5
1.6
1.4

.6
2.4
1.3
-.4
1.0

13.1
17.9
17.4
16.6
17.5

12.5
15.5
16.1
17.0
16.5

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

274.4
292.9
308.8
317.9
337.1

256.9
269.9
285.2
293.2
313.5

17.5
23.0
23.6
24.7
23.6

42.1
43.0
45.6
44.8
51.3

63.8
67.4
66.1
56.6
72.7

-21.8
-24.3
-20.5
-11.9
-21.4

.5
.5
.5
.3
.5

1.1
2.9
4.9
1.2

19.4
23.1
26.2
22.7
22.9

18.3
20.2
21.3
21.5
23.6

I960
1961
1962

349.4
363.6
'382.7

328.5
338.1
356.7

20.9
25.6
26.0

52.1
53.6
« 57.9

72.4
69.3
76.2

-20.3
-15.6
1-18.3

2.9
4.0
3.1

26.4
27.3
28.4

23.5
23.3
25.4

Year or quarter

Personal
saving
or dissaving

International

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

II...
III.
IV..

344.0
349.6
351.7
352.7

323.9
329.9
329.8
330.5

20.1
19.7
22.0
22.2

52.6
52.4
52.0
51.2

79.1
73.5
70.3
66.5

-26.5
-21.1
-18.2
-15.3

1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6

1.4
2.4
2.8
4.9

25.3
26.5
26.5
27.2

23.9
24.2
23.6
22.3

1961: I
I
III.
IV..

354.3
361.0
366.3
372.6

330.5
335.5
340.1
346.1

23.8
25.5
26.3
26.5

50.0
53.2
54.1
57.0

60.1
67.6
72.4
76.6

-10.1
-14.4
-18.3
-19.6

1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6

5.3
4.0
2.8
3.8

27.4
26.4
26.9
28.3

22.2
22.4
24.1
24.5

1962: I
II....
III...
IV«_

375.6
381.8
384.1
389.3

350.2
354.9
358.2
363.5

25.4
26.9
26.0
25.8

57.2
57.6
57.7
7

75.9 -18.7
77.4 -19.9
76.3 -18.6
75.0
(7)

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.5

3.7
3.7
2.5
2.5

28.2
29.0
28.3
28.3

24.5
25.3
25.8
25.8

1960: I —

()

See footnotes at end of table.




180

Excess
of
transfers or
net exports
()

TABLE G-7.—Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures 1 major economic groups,
,

7929-62—Continued
[Billions of dollars]

Government
Receipts

Net
receipts

Tax Trans- Purand
fers, chases Total
non- interof
extax re- est, goods pendiceipts and and tures
or ac- sub- servcruals sidies a ices

9.5
8.9
6.4
6.4
6.7
7.4
8.0
8.9
12.3
11.2
11.2
13.3
21.0
28.3
44.4
44.6
43.1
34.6
41.6
42.8
37.0
47.2
66.6
72.2
75.7
68.5
78.4
84.2
87.5
82.0
95.7
103.8
103.0
8114.8

11.3
10.8
9.5
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.4
12.9
15.4
15.0
15.4
17.7
25.0
32.6
49.2
51.2
53.2
51.1
57.1
59.2
56.4
69.3
85.5
90.6
94.9
90.0
101.4
109.5
116.3
115.1
130.2
141.0
144.8
5 6158.2

Year or quarter

1929...
1930...
1931...
1932...
1933...
1934...
1935..
1936...
1937...
1938...
1939...
1940...
1941...
1942...
1943..
1944..
1945...
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..
1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..
1960-.
1961-.
1962<_

Surplus or
deficit
Trans- (-)on
fers, income
inter- and
est, prodand
uct
subacsidies 3 count

Expenditures

1.7
1.8
3.1
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.4
4.1
3.1
3.8
4.2
4.4
4.0
4.3
4.8
6.5
10.1
16.5
15.4
16.5
19.4
22.1
18.9
18.4
19.2
21.5
23.0
25.3
28.7
33.1
34.4
37.1
41.9
43.4

8.5
9.2
9.2
8.1
8.0
9.8
10.0
11.8
11.7
12.8
13.3
14.1
24.8
59.7
88.6
96.5
82.9
30.5
28.4
34.5
40.2
39.0
60.5
76.0
82.8
75.3
75.6
79.0
86.5
93.5
97.2
99.7
107.4
117.6

10.2
11.0
12.3
10.6
10.7
12.8
13.3
15.9
14.8
16.6
17.5
18.5
28.8
64.0
93.4
103.1
92.9
47.0
43.8
51.0
59.5
61.1
79.4
94.4
102.0
96.7
98.6
104.3
115.3
126.6
131.6
136.8
149.3
161.0

1.7
1.8
3.1
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.4
4.1
3.1
3.8
4.2
4.4
4.0
4.3
4.8
6.5
10.1
16.5
15.4
16.5
19.4
22.1
18.9
18.4
19.2
21.5
23.0
25.3
28.7
33.1
34.4
37.1
41.9
43.4

1.0
-.3
-2.8
-1.7
-1.4
-2.4
-2.0
-3.0
.6
-1.6
-2.1
-.7
-3.8
-31.4
-44.2
-51.9
-39.7
4.1
13.3
8.2
-3.1
8.2
6.1
-3.9
-7.1
-6.7
2.9
5.2
1.0
-11.4
-1.5
4.2
-4.4
-2.8

Total Statisincome tical
or re- disceipts crepancy

104.2
92.1
75.4
57.7
55.0
64.2
72.7
81.6
91.0
84.8
89.9

0.3
-1.0

.7

-.2
1.1
-.2
.5
1.2

125.4
160.0
194.2
208.6
209.1
208.6
230.7
260.3
257.5
285.3
327.7
345.6
364.1
362.3
396.5
421.6
443.4
446.0
485.7
506.8
521.8
6 557.1

-.7
1.2
1.4
1.3
.9
1.0
-2.4
-.6
-1.5
-3.0
-3.4
-3.1
e-3.5

504.0
509.2
507.8
506.4
503.9
517.5
525.3
540.5
546.4
556.0
559.8
7

-2.3
-4.5
-4.2
-3.0
-3.1
-4.4
-3.1
-1.9
-1.4
-4.0
- 47. 3

-1.7
2.8
4.5
2.1
3.5

Gross
national
product
or expenditure

104.4
91.1
76.3
58.5
56.0
65.0
72.5
82.7
90.8
85.2
91.1
100.6
125.8
159.1
192.5
211.4
213.6
210.7
234.3
259.4
258.1
284.6
329.0
347.0
365.4
363.1
397.5

419.2
442.8
444.5
482.7
503.4
518.7
553.6

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I

II...
Ill
IV
1961: I
II—
III.
IV.
1962: I
II—
III.
IV 4

105.9
105.7
102.6
100.8
97.9
101.7
103.4
109.2
111.9
114.9
115.9
(7)

141.9
142.4
139.9
139.7
138.1
143.9
145.7
151.6
154.6
157.8
159.2
(7)

36.0
36.7
37.4
38.9
40.2
42.1
42.4
42.4
42.7
42.9
43.3
44.6

97.2
99.0
100.8
101.4
104.8
106.0
106.9
112.1
115.2
116.0
118.2
121.0

1

133.2
135.6
138.2
140.3
145.0
148.1
149.3
154.4
157.9
158.9
161.6
165.6

36.0
36.7
37.4
38.9
40.2
42.1
42.4
42.4
42.7
42.9
43.3
44.6

8.7
6.7
1.8
-.7

-6.9
-4.3
-3.6
-2.9
-3.3
-1.1
- 27. 4
()

()

()

501.7
504.8
503.7
503.3
500.8
513.1
522.3
538.6
545.0
552.0
555.3
562.0

Undistributed corporate profits, corporate inventory valuation adjustment, capital consumption allowances, and excess of wage accruals over disbursements.
2
For 1929-45, foreign net transfers by Government were negligible; therefore, for that period, net exports
of 3goods and services and net foreign investment have been equated.
Government transfer payments to persons, foreign net transfers by Government, net interest paid by
government, and subsidies less current surplus of government enterprises.
4
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
«See Table C-62.
8
Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
7 Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




ISI

TABLE C-8.—Gross private and government product, in current and 1962 prices, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
1962 prices 4

Current prices
Year or quarter

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962 »

Total
national
product
104.4
91.1
76.3
58.5
56.0
65.0
72.5
82.7
90.8
85.2
91.1
100.6
125.8
159.1
192.5
211.4
213.6
210.7
234.3
259.4
258.1
284.6
329.0
347.0
365.4
363.1
397.5
419.2
442.8
444.5
482.7
503.4
518.7
553.6

Gross private product1
Total Farm 2
100.1
86.6
71.6
54.0
51.3
59.4
66.6
75.5
83.9
77.6
83.5
92.8
116.4
144.0
167.0
179.2
178.4
189.9
217.6
242.0
238.7
263.8
301.7
316.0
333.6
330.8
363.5
382.8
403.8
402.6
438.6
456.2
467.9
498.5

7.7
6.2
4.4
4.6
4.3
6.9
6.3
8.1
6.7
6.5
6.8
9.4
13.4
15.3
15.7
16.2
19.3
20.7
23.8
19.3
20.5
23.6
22.8
20.9
20.3
19.6
19.3
19.4
21.3
20.0
20.9
21.4
21.3

Nonfarm
90.3
78.8
65.4
49.6
46.7
55.1
59.6
69.2
75.8
70.9
77.0
86.0
107.0
130.6
151.7
163.5
162.2
170.7
196.9
218.2
219.4
243.2
278.2
293.2
312.7
310.5
343.9
363.5
384.5
381.2
418.6
435.3
446.6
477.2

Gross
government
product 3

Total
gross
national
product

4.3

212.0
192.5
178.2
151.9
148.2
162.3
177.8
202.7
213.2
203.9
220.7
239.3
278.6
318.5
358.7
384.8
377.5
328.4
327.9
340.7
341.7
370.0
400.4
415.8
434.8
426.3
459.6
469.4
478.5
471.1
502.6
515.8
525.5
553.6

4.5
4.7
4.4
4.7
5.6
5.9
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.6
7.8
9.4
15.1
25.6
32.2
35.2
20.7
16.7
17.4
19.4
20.8
27.3
31.0
31.8
32.3
34.0
36.4
38.9
42.0
44.1
47.3
50.8
55.1

Gross private product'
NonTotal Farm 2 farm
196.7
176.5
161.9
135.9
131.1
142.5
156.7
178.0
190.0
178.7
195.2
213.1
246.0
271.1
284.4
298.8
293.2
284.2
294.2
306.9
306.3
333.4
354.9
366.7
386.2
378.5
411.9
421.1
429.3
421.6
452.6
464.5
472.7
498.5

15.8
14.4
16.9
15.8
15.6
13.0
15.8
13.5
16.9
17.0
17.0
16.7
18.0
19.6
17.9
18.4
17.3
17.6
16.2
18.4
17.5
18.5
17.3
18.0
18.6
19.5
20.5
20.0
19.7
20.0
19.9
20.9
21.1
21.3

Gross
government
products

180.9
162.1
145.1
120.1
115.5
129.6
140.9
164.5
173.1
161.7
178.2
196.4
228.0
251.5
266.4
280.4
275.8
266.7
278.1
288.5
288.8
314.9
337.6
348.7
367.6
359.0
391.4
401.0
409.6
401.7
432.8
443.6
451.6
477.2

15.3
16.0
16.3
15.9
17.1
19.7
21.1
24.7
23.3
25.2
25.5
26.2
32.6
47.5
74.4
86.0

(8)
(8)
(8)

(•)
(6)
(fl)

(8)
(fl)
(6)
(6)

(8)
(fl)
(6)
(8)

(8)
(fl)
(6)
(fl)

(8)
(fl)
(8)
(8)

(8)

(6)

50.6
51.5
51.5
51.7
52.0
52.3
52.9
53.9
54.8
55.1
55.1
55.5

84.3
44.2
33.7
33.7
35.4

36.6
45.5
49.1
48.6
47.8
47.7
48.4
49.2
49.5
50.0
51.3
52.8
55.1

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I . - .

II. _
III.
IV..
1961: I . . .
II..
III_
IV-.
1962: I . . .
II.IIIIV 5

501.7
504.8
503.7
503.3
500.8
513.1
522.3
538.6
545.0
552.0
555.3
526.0

455.8
458.0
455.8
454.8
451.4
463.0
471.2
486.0
491.0
497.1
499.9
505.8

$
(8)
(8)

1

(8)

(fl)
(fl)
(8)

(8)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(8)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)

(8)

(a)

45.9
46.8
47.9
48.6
49.3
50.1
51.1
52.6
54.0
54.8
55.4
56.3

516.6
518.3
515.3
512.6
509.0
520.5
528.5
543.7
548.4
552.6
554.2
559.1

466.0
466.8
463.9
461.0
457.0
468.2
475.6
489.8
493.6
497.5
499.1
503.6

1

Gross national product less compensation of general government employees, i. e., gross product accruing
from domestic business, households, and institutions, and from the rest of the world.
2
See Survey of Current Business, October 1958, for description of series and estimates in current and constant prices and implicit deflators for 1910-57.
3
Includes compensation of general government employees and excludes compensation of employees in
government enterprises. Government enterprises are those agencies of government whose operating costs
are at least to a substantial extent covered by the sale of goods and services, in contrast to the general activities of government which are financed mainly by tax revenues and debt creation. Government enterprises, in other words, conduct operations essentially commercial in character, even though they perform
them under governmental auspices. The Post Office and public power systems are typical examples of
government enterprises. On the other hand, State universities and public parks, where the fees and admissions cover only a nominal part of operating costs, are part of general government activities.
4
See footnote 1, Table C-2.
8
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
8
Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




182

TABLE C-9.—Personal consumption expenditures, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Durable goods

Year or quarter

Nondurable goods

Services

Total
personal
consumption Toextal
penditures

1929..

79.0

9.2

37. 7 19. 5

32.1 11.4

2. 6 14.0

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..

71.0
61.3
49.3
46.4
51.9

7.2
5.
3.6
3.5
4.2

34.0 18.0
28.9 14. 7
22. 8 11. 4
22.3 10. 9
26. 7 12. 2

29. 8
26.9
22.9
20.7
21.0

11.0
10.3
9.0
7.9
7.6

12.7
11.2
9.3
8.5
8.8

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939...

56.3
62.6
67.
64.6
67.6

5.1
6.3
6.9
5.7
6.7

.7
.8
1.0
.9
1.0

29. 3 13.6
32. 8 15. 2
35. 2 16.
i.4
34. 0 15.
i.6
35.1 15.7 7.1 2. 2 10.1

21.9
23.5
25.1
25.0
25.8

7.6
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.0

1.9 10. 3
2.0 11.1
1. 9 10. 7
2.0 11.0

1940...
1941...
1942...
1943..
1944...

71.9
81.9
89.7
100.
109.8

7.8
9.7
7.0
6.6

1.1
1.4
1.6
1.9
2.2

37.2 16.7 7.4
43.2 19.4
51. 3 23. 11.0
1.7
59. 3 27. 8 13.
i.4
65. 4 30. 6 14. 6

2. 3 10. 8
2. 6 12. 3
2.1 14.5
1. 3 16. 7
1.4 18.7

26.9 9.3
29.0 10.0
31. 5 10.
34. 7 11.
37. 7 11. 9

2.1 11.4
2. 4 12. 3
2. 7 13.1
3. 4 14. 7
3. 7 16. 3

1945..
1946...
1947...
1948...
1949...

121.7
147.1
165.4
178.3
181.2

8.1
15.9
20.6
22.7
24.6

2.5 73. 2 34.1 16.5
1.0
3.9 8.7 3.3 84. 8 40. 7 18.2
3.4 93. 4 45. 818.8
6. 3 11.0
3.4 98. 7 48. 220.1
7.4
9. 8 11. 5 3.3 96. 6 46. 4 19. 3

1. 8 20. 8
3.0 22.
25.2
4. 4 26.0
5.0 25.

40. 4 12. 4
46. 4 13. 8
51. 4 15.
56. 9 17.
60. 0 19. 3

4.0 17. 5
5.1 20.8
5. 5 23.0
6.0 25. 4
6.1 26.2

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...

195.0
209.8
219.8
232.
238.0

30. 4 13.0 14.0
29. 5 11. 6 14.
29.1 11.
32. 9 14. 14. 7
14.0
32.4 13. 4 14.8

3.4
8 47. 4 19. 6 5.4 27.4
3. 7 110.1 53.4 21.1 6.0 29. 5
3. 9 115.1 55. 21.9
i.8
30.7
4.1 118. 0 56.6 21.9
21.
31.8
31.7
4. 3 119. 3 57. 721.9

64. 9 21. 2
0.
70. 2 23.2 10.1
75. 6 25. 4 10.8
81. 8 27. 5 11.7
86. 3 29.1 12.1

6. 3 28.1
6. 9 29. 9
7. 4 32. 0
8.0 34. 6
7.9 37.1

1955..
1956 .
1957..
1958..
1959..

256.9
269.9
285.2
293.2
313.5

39. 6 18. 3 16. 6
38. 5 15. 8 17. 4
40.4 17.1
37.3 13.917.4
43. 6 18.1 18.9

4. 8 124. 8 59. 223.4 8.8| 33.4 92. 5 30. 7 13.5
5. 3 131. 4
24.5 9. 6 35. 2 100. 0 32. 14.8 8. 6 43. 8
l.
5. 8 137.7 65.2 25. 4 10. 4 6.7 107.1 35.2 15.8 9. 0 47. 0
37.7
6.0 141. 6 67. 4 25. 7 10. 5 38.0 114.3 37. 16.9 9.2 50. 6
10.0 55.1
6. 6 147.1 68.1 27. 5 11.1 40. 5 122. 8 39. 6 18.1

I960—
1961...
1962*.

328.5 44. 8 18. 8 19.1 7. 0 151. 8 69.7 28.1 11. 7 42. 4 131 9 41.8 19. 6 10. 7 59. 7
338.1 43. 7 17.2 19.3 7.3 155.2 70. 9 28. 6 11. 9 43. 8 139. 1 43.9 20. 6 11.1 63. 5
356.7 47. 6 20. 0 19. 9 7. 6 162. 0 74.1 30.1 12. 4 45. 4 147. 2 46. 0 21.8 11. 6 67. 8

9.4

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I . . . .
II...
III.
IV..

323.9
329.9
329.8
330.5

45.1 19. 0 19.3
45.8 19. 5 19.2
44.5 18. 3 19.1
44. 0 18. 3 18. 7

5 41. 5 128. 9 40.9 19. 2 10.6 58.2
6.8 150. 0 68.9 28.1
7. 2 152.6 69. 9 28.3 11.6 42. 7 131.5 41. 7 6 10.6 59. 7
10. 6 60.2
7.1 152. 5 69. 5 28. 4
7. 0 152.3 70. 4 27.8 11.9 42.3 134. 2 42. 6 20. 0 10. 7 61. 0

1961: I_...
II...
III..
IV..

330.5
335.5
340.1
346.1

40. 8 15.4 18.4
43. 5 16. 9 19.2
44. 0 16. 9 19.7
46. 6 19. 4 19.8

7.1
7.4
7.4
7.4

1962: I . . . .
II...
III..
IV f

350.2
354.9
358.2
363.5

46.3 19.1 19.7
47.2 20.3 19.3
47.1
49. 7 21. 5 20. 5

7. 5 159. 9 73.4 29.8 12.1 44.6 144.1 45.2
7. 6 161, 3 73. 6 29.8 12. 3 45. 5146.3 45. 7
7. 6 163. 0 74. 6 30.3 12. 5 45. 5
148.1 46. 2
7.7 163. 7 74. 6 30.5 12. 7 45.9 150.146. 8

153. 5 70.1 28.1 11.9 43. 5 136. 2 43.1 20. 210.9 62. 0
153. 9 70. 4 28. 0 11. 7 43.9 138. 0 43. 6 20.6 10.9 62.9
156.2 71.6 29.0 11.9 43.8 139.9 44.1 20. 7 11.1 64. 0
157. 2 71. 7 29. 2 12.1 44. 2 142.3 44.8 21. 0 11. 4 65.1

1
2

Quarterly data are estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Includes standard clothing issued to military personnel.
3 Includes imputed rental value of owner-occupied dwellings.
* Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




183

21.3 11.5 66. 0
21.8 11. 5 67.3
21.9 11.6 68. 4
22. 2 11. 8 69. 3

T A B L E C-10.—Gross private domestic investment, 7929—62
[Billions of dollars]
Change in business
inventories

Fixed investment

Total
gross
private
domestic invest- Total
ment

Year or
quarter

New construction J

Other 2
ResiTotal Non- Farm
dential
farm
Non- Farm
Total nonfarm Total Non- Farm Total farm
farm
5.8

5.2

1.8

-0.2

4.0
2.6
1.4
1.5
2.1

0.6
.5
.3
.1
.1
.3

1.7

4.5
2.8
1.6
1.6
2.3

-.4
-1.3
-2.6
-1.6
-1.1

-.1
-1.6
-2.6
-1.4
.2

-.3
.3
(3)
-.3
-1.3

1.2
1.6
2.3
1.8
1.9

3.1
4.2
5.1
3.6
4.2

2.7
3.6
4.5
3.1
3.7

.4
.5
.6
.5
.5

1.0
2.2
-.9
.4

.4
2.1
1.7
-1.0
.3

.5
-1.1
.5
.1
.1

2. ,5
3.1
2.0
1.4
1.9

2.2
2.8
1.7
1.2
1.6

5.5
6.9
4.3
4.0
5.4

4.9
6.1
3.7
3.5
4.7

.7
.6
.7

2.2
4.5
1.8
-.8
-1.0

1.1
4.8
7.5
10.1
9.6

2.7
6.3
7.7
9.3
9.2

1.4
1.5
1.5

7.7
10.7
16.7
18.9
17.2

6.9
9.8
14.9
16.4
14.4

.7
.9
1.8
2.6
2.9

-1.1
6.4
-.5
4.7
-3.1

6.4
1.3
3.0
-2.2

24.2
24.8
25.5
27.6
29.7

14.1
12. 5
12.8
13.8
15.4

10.1
12.3
12.7
13.8
14.3

1.6
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.6

18.9
21.3
21.3
22.3
20.8

16.2
18.4
18.6
19.5
18.5

2.7
2.9
2.7
2.8
2.3

10.2
3.1
.4
-1.6

6.0
9.1
2.1
1.1
-2.1

58.1
62.7
64.6
58.6
66.2

34.9

35.5
36.1
35.5
40.2

18.7
17.7
17.0
18.0
22.3

16.2
17.8
19.0
17.4
17.9

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.7

23.1
27.2
28.5
23.1
25.9

20.6
25.0
26.2
20.3
23.1

2.5
2.2
2.3
2.8
2.9

5.8
4.7
1.6
-2.0

5.5
5.1
.8
-2.9
6.5

.1

68.3
67.1
73.1

40.7
41.6
44.3

21.1
21.0
23.1

19.7
20.5
21.2

2.5
5.4
6.3
7.8
7.7
8.5
10.4
10.8
12.1
12.7
14.6
16.3
17.5
15.9
16.2
18.0
18.6
19.4

1.6
1.9
1.7

27.6
25.5
28.8

25.1
23.0
25.9

2.5
2.5
2.9

4.1
2.1
3.1

3.7
1.9
3.0

.3
.2
.1

10.8

10.6

4.4
2.1

4.1
1.7

0.2
.3
.4
.4

1929

16.2

14.6

8.7

3.6

5.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

10.3
5.5
1.4
2.9

10.6
6.8
3.5
3.0
4.0

6.2
4.0
1.9
1.4
1.7

2.1
1.6
.6
.5

4.1
2.4
1.2
1.0
1.1

4.8
3.9
2.3
1.2
.9
1.0

8.4
11.7
6.7
9.3

5.4
7.4
9.5
7.6
8.9

2.3
3.3
4.4
4.0
4.8

1.0
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.7

1.3
1.7
2.5
2.0
2.1

1940
1941_
1942
1943
1944

13.2
18.1
9.9
5.6
7.1

11.0
13.6
8.1
6.4
8.2

5.5
6.6
3.7
2.3
2.7

3.0
3.5
1.7
.9
.8

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

10.4
28.1
31.5
43.1
33.0

11.5
21.8
31.9
38.4
36.0

3.8
11.0
15.3
19.5
18.8

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

50.0
56.3
49.9
50.3
48.9

43.2
46.1
46.8
49.9
50.5

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

63.8
67.4
66.1
56.6
72.7

1960
1961
1962 4

72.4
69.3
76.2

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

_

Producers' durable
equipment

0.3

1.9
4.0
.7

.5
1.2
o
-A
-.5
(3)
-1.8
1.7

1.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I
II....
III...
IV....

79.1
73.5
70.3
66.5

68.3
69.1
68.2
67.5

40.9
40.7
40.5
40.7

21.5
21.2
21.0
20.5

19.3
19.5
19.5
20.2

17.7
17.9
17.8
18.6

1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6

27.4
28.4
27.7
26.8

24.9
26.0
25.4
24.3

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.6

-1.1

-1.5

1961: I
II....
III...
IV....

60.1
67.6
72.4
76.6

63.7
65.6
68.4
70.6

39.3
41.0
42.6
43.2

19.0
20.1
21.9
22.8

20.3
20.8
20.7
20.4

18.9
18.5
18.5
18.6

1.5
2.3
2.3
1.8

24.4
24.6
25.8
27.4

21.6
22.1
23.5
24.9

2.8
2.5
2.3
2.5

-3.6

-3.9

2.1
4.0
6.0

1.8
3.8
5.9

1962: I
II
III...
IV*.. I

75.9
77.4
76.3
75.0

69.2
73.4
75.3
74.5

41.6
44.5
46.1
44.9

21.2
23.3
24.3
23.7

20.5
21.2
21.8
21.3

18.9
19.4
19.9
19.5

1.6
1.8
1.9
1.8

27.6
28.9
29.2
29.6

24.9
26.0
26.1
26.6

2.7
2.9
3.1
3.0

6.7
4.0
1.0
.5

6.6
3.9
1.0
.5

.3
.3
.2
.1
.1
.1
.0
.1

1
Revisions in series on new construction shown in Table C-36 have not yet been incorporated into these
series.
2
Includes petroleum and natural gas well drilling, which are excluded from estimates in Table C-36.
3
4 Less than $50 million.
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




184

TABLE C—11.—National income by type of income, 1929—62
[Billions of dollars]

Year or quarter

ComTotal penna- sation
tional of eminploycome 1 ees 2

Business and proCorporate profits
fessional income
and inventory
and inventory
valuation
valuation
In- Rentadjustment
adjustment
come al inof
InIn- farm come
In- Net
inof
come ven- proCor- ven- terest
tory prie- perof
tory
porate valu3 sons
unin- valuTotal corpo- ation tors
Total profits ation
before adrated adtaxes* justenter- justprises ment
ment

1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947-.
1948..
1949..
1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..
I960..
1961..
19626.

87.8
75.7
59.7
42.5
40.2
49.0
57.1
64.9
73.6
67.6
72.8
81.6
104.7
137.7
170.3
182.6
181.2
180.9
198.2
223.5
217.7
241.9
279.3
292.2
305.6
301.8
330.2
350.8
366.9
367.4
400.5
415.5
427.8
8 457.5

51.1
46.8
39.7
31.1
29.5
34.3
37.3
42.9
47.9
45.0
48.1
52.1
64.8
85.3
109.6
121.3
123.2
117.7
128.8
141.0
140.8
154.2
180.3
195.0
208.8
207.6
223.9
242.5
255.5
257.1
278.5
293.7
302.2
321.6

8.8
8.6
0.1
7.4
6.
.8
5.6
.6
5.0
3.4
.3
3.1
c
3.2
3.7
4.6
4.6 - . 1
5.4
5.4 _()
6.5
6.6
7.1
7.1
6.8
6.6
.2
7.3
7.5 - . 2
8.4
8.5
10.9 11.5
13.9 14.3 -.4
16.8 17.0 -.2
18.0 18.1 -.1
19.0 19.1 -.1
21.3 23.0 -1.7
19.9 21.4 -1.5
22.4 22.8 -.4
22.7 22.2
.5
23.5 24.6 -1.1
26.0 26.3 -.3
26.9 26.7
.2
27.4 27.6 -.2
27.8 27.8
30.4 30.6
-.2
32.1 32.6
-.5
32.7 33.0
-.3
32.5 32.6
-.1
35.1 35.2
-.1
34.2 34.2
34.8 34.7
36.8 36.8

1960: I
II....
III...
IV...
1961: I
II....
III...
IV...
1962: I
II....
Ill—
IV 8.

413.9
417.2
416.6
414.4
411.8
424.3
431.3
444.0
448.9
456.7
459.8
(

290.6
294.6
295.8
293.9
294.1
300.2
304.5
309.9
315.2
321. 7
323.8
325.8

34.5
34.5
34.1
33.8
33.7
34.5
35.1
36.0

1929.

6.0
4.1
3.
1.9
2.4
2.4
5.0
4.0
5.6
4.3
4.3
4.6
6.5
10.0
11.4
11.5
11.8
15.3
15.5
17.8
12,9
14.0
16.3
15.3
13.3
12.7
11.8
11.6
11.8
13.5
11.4
12.0
13.1
13.0

9.6
5.4 10.1
3.3
6.6
4.8
1.6
-.8
3.8
2.7 - 2 . 0 - 3 . 0
.2
2.0 - 2 . 0
1.7
1.1
1.7
2.9
3.1
1.7
5.7
5.0
1.8
6.2
6.2
2.1
4.3
3.3
2.6
6.4
5.7
2.7
9.3
9.1
2.9
3.5 14.5
17.0
4.5 19.7
20.9
5.1 23.8
24.6
5.4 23.0
23.3
19.0
5.6 18.4
6.2 17.3
22.6
6.5 23.6
29.5
7.3 30.8
33.0
8.3 28.2
26.4
40.6
9.0 35.7
9.4 41.0
42.2
10.2 37.7
36.7
10.5 37.3
38.3
10.9 33.7
34.1
44.9
10.7 43.1
10.9 42.0
44.7
11.9 41.7
43.2
12.2 37.2
37.4
11.9 47.2
47.7
45.4
11.9 45.6
12.3 45.5
45.6
12.8 '8 51.0 78 50.9

8.2

6.4
6.0
5.8
6.4
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.3
3.7
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.8
4.2
4.8
5.5
6.3
7.1
8.2
9.1
10.4
11.7
13.4
14.8
16.4
18.0
20.0
22.2

49.2 - 0 . 6
46.4 - . 2
43.3
1.2
42.8
.5
.3
39.8
.2
44.8
46.3 - . 3
51.4 - . 3
.3
50.1
50.9 - . 2
51.1 - . 1
C9)

17.6
17.7
18.2
18.8
19.1
19.8
20.3
21.0
21.5
22.0
22.5
23.0

0.5
3.3
2.4
1.0
-2.1
-.6
-.2
- .87
()
1.0
-.7
-.2
-2.5
-1.2
-.8
-5.3
-5.9
-2.2
1.9
-5.0
-1.2
1.0
-1.0
-.3
-1.7
-2.7
-1.5
-.3
-.5
()

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

36.2
36.8
37.0
37.3

1

34.8 - 0 . 3
.0
34.5
33.8
.3
33.9 - . 1
33.7
34.3
35.2 - . 1
36.0
36.3 - . 1
36.8
37.1
37.1

10.7
12.4
12.2
12.7
12.8
12.7
13.1
13.6
12.9
12.8
12.8
13.6

11.9
11.9
11.9
12.0
12.0
12.2
12.3
12.5
12.6
12.8
12.9
12.9

48.6
46.2
44.4
43.3
40.1
45.0
46.0
51.1
50.4
50.7
51.0
(9)

National income is the total net income earned in production. It differs from gross national product
mainly in that it excludes depreciation charges and other allowances for business and institutional consumption of durable capital goods, and indirect business taxes. See Table C-12.
2
Wages and salaries and supplements to wages and salaries (employer contributions for social insurance;
employer contributions to private pension, health, and welfare funds; compensation for injuries; directors'
fees; pay of the military reserve; and a few other minor items).
3 Excludes income resulting from net reductions of farm inventories and gives credit in computing
income to net additions to farm inventories during the period. Data for 1929-45 differ from those shown in
Table 0-72 because of revisions by the Department of Agriculture not yet incorporated into the national
income accounts.
* See Table 0-64 for corporate tax liability (Federal and State income and excess profits taxes) and
corporate profits after taxes.
« Less than $50 million.
8
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
i See Table C-62.
s Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
o Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




185

TABLE C-12.—Relation of gross national product and national income, 7929—62
[Billions of dollars]
Plus:
Less:
Subsidies
Equals less
Gross
Net current Indirect business BusinanaYear or quarter tional
taxes
ness
tional surplus
Depregovprodtransprod- ofernuct Total ciation Other uct
fer
charges
ment
Payenter- Total Fed- State ments
and
eral local
Less: Capital consumption allowances

1929..

104.4

7.7

95.8

-0.1

7.0

1.2

5.8

0.6

0.3

82.6
68.1
50.9
48.8
57.9

-.1

7.2
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.8

1.0
.9
.9
1.6
2.2

6.1
6.0
5.8
5.4
5.6

.5
.6
.7
.7
.6

-1.0

.7

65.3
75.2
83.0
77.4
83.3

8.2
8.7
9.2
9.2
9.4

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.2
2.3

6.0
6.4
6.8
6.9
7.0

.6
.6
.6
.4
.5

-.2
1.1
-.2
.5
1.2

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2

92.5
116.8
149.0
181.6
199.4

10.0
11.3
11.8
12.7
14.1

2.6
3.6
4.0
4.9
6.2

7.4
7.7
7.7
7.8
8.0

.4
.5
.5
.5
.5

.8
.4
-.8

11.2
9.0
11.1
13.1
15.1

1.3
1.7
2.0
2.4
2.2

201.0
200.0
221.3
244.0
240.8

15.5
17.3
18.6
20.4
21.6

7.1
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.2

8.4
9.4

10.8
12.3
13.5

.5
.6
.7
.7
.8

4.5
2.1
3.5
-.8
.5

19.1
22.0
24.0
26.5
28.8

16.5
18.8
20.9
23.1
25.2

2.6
3.2
3.1
3.5
3.6

265.5
307.0
323.0
338.9
334.3

23.7
25.6
28.1
30.2
30.2

9.0
9.5

10.5
11.2
10.1

14.7
16.1
17.6
19.0
20.1

.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.3

-.7
1.2
1.4
1.3
.9

32.0
34.4
37.4
38.6
41.0

27.9
30.5
33.4
35.2
37.3

4.0
3.9
4.0
3.4
3.7

365.5
384.8
405.3
405.9
441.7

1.0
1.1
.4

32.9
35.7
38.2
39.3
42.6

11.0
11.6
12.2
11.9
13.0

21.8
24.1
26.0
27.4
29.6

1.5
1.6
1.8
1.8
2.1

-1.5
-3.0

503.4 43.2
518.7 45.3
553.6 47.6

39.4

41.5
<43.5

3.8
3.8
4.0

460.2
473.4
* 506.0

.5
1.7
1.8

46.5
48.2
51.6

14.1
13.9
15.0

32.5
34.2
36.6

2.1
2.1
2.1

-3.4
-3.1
«-3.5

8.5
8.2
7.6
7.2
7.1

7.7
7.6
7.0
6.7
6.6

7.2
7.5
7.7
7.8
7.8

6.7
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.1

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

100.6 8.1
125.8 9.0
159.1 10.2
192.5 10.9
211.4 12.0

7.3
8.1
9.2
9.9
10.8

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

213.6
210.
234.3
259.4
258.1

12.5
10.7
13.0
15.5
17.3

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

284.6
329.0
347.0
365.4
363.1

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959.

397.5
419.2
442.8
444.5
482.7

I960..
1961..
1962«_

1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..
1935
1936
1937
1939..

Equals:
Sta- Natisti- tional
cal income
discrepancy

91.1
76.
56.0
65.0
72.5
82.7
90.8
85.

91.1

0.9
.6

.8
.8
.9
.7

-1.7

2.8

1.0

-2.4
-.6

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I . . . .
II. _.
III..
IV..

501.7
504.8
503.7
503.3

42.7
43.4
43.3
43.6

(«)
(6)
(6)
(6)

1961: I . . . .
II...
III..
IV..

500.8 44.1
513.1 45.0
522.3 45.7
46.6

C)

1962: I . . . .
II...
III..
IV 3.

545.0
552.0
555.3
562.0

47.0
47.5
47.5
48.3

«)
0)
6)

(6)
(8)
(«)
(fl)

89
((«6))
()
((««))
(•)
(6)

8

459.0
461.4
460.3
459.7

0.5
.4
.5
.6

45.9
47.0
46.4
46.9

14.4
14.5
13.6

13.7

31.6
32.4
32.8
33.2

2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

-2.3
-4.5
-4.2
-3.0

456.6
468.1
476.6
492.0

.7
2.0
2.1
2.0

46.6
48.0
48.3
49.7

13.1
14.1
13.9
14.7

33.5
33.9
34.4
35.1

2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

-3.1
-4.4
-3.1
-1.9

498.0
504.5
507.8
513.8

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

50.2
51.4
61.8
53.0

14.6
16.2
15.0
15.3

35.6
36.2
36.9
37.6

2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

-1.4
-4.0
-4.3

1

(«)

Accidental damage tofixedcapital and capital outlays charged to current account.
2 Less than $50 million.
» Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
«See Table C-62.
* Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
•Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




186

T A B L E C-13.—Relation of national income and personal income, 1929—62
[Billions of dollars]
Less:

Year or quarter

Plus:

CorpoExcess
rate
of
profits ContriNational and in- butions wage
income
acvenfor
tory
social cruals
over
valu- insurdisation
ance
burseadjustments
ment

Government
trans-

Equals:

Net
interest
paid
by
government

Dividends

Business
transfer
payments

0.9

1.0

5.8

0.6

85.8

1.0
2.1
1.4
1.5
1.6

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.2

5.5
4.1
2.6
2.1
2.6

.5

76.9
65.7
50.1
47.2
53.6

fer

payments
to
persons

0.2

Personal
income

1929.

87.8

10.1

1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.

75.7
59.7
42.5
40.2
49.0

6.6
1.6
-2.0
-2.0
1.1

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

57.1
64.9
73.6
67.6
72.8

2.9
5.0
6.2
4.3
5.7

.3
.6
1.8
2.0
2.1

1.8
2.9
1.9
2.4
2.5

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2

2.9
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8

60.2
68.5
73.9
68.6
72.9

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

81.6
104.7
137.7
170.3
182.6

9.1
14.5
19.7
23.8
23.0

2.3
2.8
3.5
4.5
5.2

2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
3.1

1.3
1.3
1.5
2.1
2.8

4.0
4.5
4.3
4.5
4.7

78.7
96.3
123.5
151.4
165.7

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948..
1949.

181.2
180.9
198.2
223.5
217.7

18.4
17.3
23.6
30.8
28.2

6.1
6.0
5.7
5.2
5.7

5.6
10.9
11.1
10.5
11.6

3.7
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.7

4.7
5.8
6.5
7.2
7.5

171.2
179.3
191.6
210.4
208.3

1950.
1951.
1952..
1953..
1954..

241.9
279.3
292.2
305.6
301.8

35.7
41.0
37.7
37.3
33.7

6.9
8.2
8.6
8.7
9.7

14.3
11.6
12.0
12.9
15.0

4.8
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.4

9.2
9.0
9.0
9.2

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

330.2
350.8
367.4
400.5

43.1
42.0
41.7
37.2
47.2

11.0
12.6
14.5
14.8
17.6

16.0
17.2
20.1
24.5
25.4

5.4
5.7
6.2
6.2
7.1

I9601961..
19621

415.5
427.8
»457. 5

45.6
45.5
2 51.0

20.6
21.6
23.9

27.3
31.3
32.4

7.8
7.3
7.4

.3

0.2
-.2

-.1

1.0
1.2
1.4
1.3

228.5
256.7
273.1
288.3
289.8

11.2
12.1
12.6
12.4
13.7

1.5
1.6
1.8
1.8
2.1

310.2
332.9
351.4
360.3
383.9

14.4
15.0
15.9

2.1
2.1
2.1

400.8
416.4
3 440. 5

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
413.9
417.2
416.6
414.4

48.6
46.2
44.4
43.3

20.3
20.6
20.8
20.7

26.3
26.8
27.5
28.8

7.7

7.8
7.8
7.8

14.3
14.2
14.4
14.5

2.1

II.
III
IV

2.1
2.1
2.1

395.4
401.4
403.1
403.7

1961: I . .
II.
III
IV

411.8
424.3
431.3
444.0

40.1
45.0
46.0
51.1

21.1
21.5
21.8
22.1

30.4
31.2
31.6
31.6

7.6
7.4
7.2
7.2

14.7
14.8
14.9
15.5

2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

405.4
413.5
419.4
427.3

1962: I . .
II.
III
IV

448.9
456.7
459.8

50.4
50.7
51.0

23.6
23.9
24.0
24.2

31.9
32.0
32.3
33.5

7.3
7.4
7.5

15.8
15.8
15.8
16.4

2.1
2.1
2.1

432.0
439.5
442.6
448.0

1960: I —

7.6

2.1

1 Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
2
Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
3 See Table C-62.
< Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




187

TABLE G—14.—Sources of personal income, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Wage and salary disbursements 1

Year or quarter

Total
personal
income Total

Proprietors'
income2

Commodityproducing
Other
Distrib- Service Gov- labor 1 Busiindustries
utive indus- ern- income ness
indus- tries ment
and Farm3
Manu- tries
professional
Total facturing

1929.

85.8

50.4

21.5

16.1

15.6

8.4

4.9

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

76.9
65.7
50.1
47.2
53.6

46.2
39.1
30.5
29.0
33.7

18.5
14.3

13.8
10.8
7.7
7.8

14.5
12.5
9.8
8.8

12.1

8.0
7.1
5.8
5.2
5.7

5.2
5.3
5.0
5.1
6.1

7.4
5.6
3.4
3.2
4.6

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

60.2
68.5
73.9
68.6
72.9

36.7
41.9
46.1
43.0
45.9

13.5
15.8
18.4
15.3
17.4

10.8
12.4
14.6
11.8
13.6

10.7
11.8
13.2
12.6
13.3

5.9
6.5
7.1
6.8
7.1

6.5
7.9
7.5
8.2
8.2

5.4
6.5
7.1
6.8
7.3

1940
1941
1942.
1943
1944

78.7
96.3
123.5
151.4
165.7

49.8
62.1
82.1
105.6
117.0

19.7
27.5
39.2
49.0
50.4

15.6
21.7
30.9
40.9
42.9

14.2
16.3
18.0
20.1
22.7

7.5
8.1
9.0
9.9
10.9

8.4
10.2
16.0
26.6
33.0

.7
.7
.9
1.1
1.5

8.4
10.9
13.9
16.8
18.0

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

171.2
179.3
191; 6
210.4
208.3

117.6
111.9
122.8
135.2
134.4

45.9
46.0
54.3
60.3
56.9

38.2
36.5
42.5
46.5

24.8
30.9
35.2
38.8
39.0

12.0
14.3
16.0
17.3
17.9

34.9
20.6
17.3
18.8
20.5

1.8
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.0

19.0
21.3
19.9
22.4
22.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

228.5
256.7
273.1
288.3

146.4
170.7
184.9
198.1
196.3

63.5
74.9
80.5
88.1
84.1

49.4
58.3
63.0
69.9
66.1

41.3
46.0
48.7
51.8
52.3

19.3
21.1
22.6
24.3
25.5

22.3
28.8
32.9
33.9
34.4

3.8
4.8
5.3
6.0
6.2

23.5
26.0
26.9
27.4
27.8

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

310.2
332.9
351.4
360.3
383. 9

210.9
227.6
238.5
239.8
258.5

91.4
98.7
102.2
97.9
107.2

72.3
77.7
80.6
76.7
84.7

55.8
60.3
63.4
63.8
68.2

27.8
30.5
32.8
34.8
37.7

36.0
38.0
40.2
43.2
45.3

7.1
8.1
9.1
9.4
10.4

30.4
32.1
32.7
32.5
35.1

1960
1961
1962

400.8
416.4
7 440. 5

271.3
278.8
295.8

110.4
110. 8
117.2

87.4
87.5
93.6

71.8
72.9
76.2

40.7
43.4
46.3

48.4
51.8
56.2

11.0
11.4
12.3

34.2
34.8
36.8

0.6

8.8

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I..
II.
Ill
IV.

395.4
401.4
403.1
403.7

268.5
272.2
273.3
271.3

111.2
111.6
110.6
108.4

88.5
88.4
87.4
85.4

70.8
72.4
72.4
71.8

39.6
40.5
41.3
41.5

46.9
47.8
49.0
49.7

10.8
11.0
11.0
11.2

34.5
34.5
34.1
33.8

1961: I-.
II.
Ill
IV.

405.4
413.5
419.4
427.3

271.2
276.9
281.0
286.1

106.8
110.3
111.7
114.3

84.0
87.1
88.2
90.7

71.7
72.4
73.4
73.9

42.3
43.1
43.8
44.3

50.4
51.2
52.2
53.6

11.2
11.3
11.4
11.6

33.7
34.5
35.1
36.0

1962: I..
II.
Ill
IV

432.0
439.5
442.6
448.0

289.9
295.9
297.8
299.7

115.0
118.1
118.0
117.8

91.9
94.4
94.1
94.0

74.9
76.1
76.5
77.1

45.1
45.9
46.9
47.3

54.9
55.8
56.4
57.5

12.0
12.3
12.4
12.5

36.2
36.8
37.0
37.3

See footnotes at end of table.




188

TABLE C-14.—Sources of personal income,

1929-62—Continued

[Billions of dollars]

Transfer payments
Rental
income U1V1- Personal
interest
of persons dends income

Year or
quarter

Total

Old-age
State
and sur- unemvivors
ployinsurment inance
surance
benefits benefits

veterans'
benefits

Less:
Personal
contributions
Other for social
insurance

Nonagricultural
personal
income4

1929

5.4

5.8

7.4

1.5

0.6

0.9

0.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

4.8
3.8
2.7
2.0
1.7

5.5
4.1
2.6
2.1
2.6

6.9
6.9
6.6
6.2
6.1

1.5
2.7
2.2
2.1
2.2

.6
1.6
.8
.5
.4

.9
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.8

.1
.2
.2
.2
.2

70.8
60.9
46.9
43.6
49.8

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1.7
1.8
2.1
2.6
2.7

2.9
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8

5.9
5.8
5.9
5.8
5.8

2.4
3.5
2.4
2.8
3.0

0.4
.4

.5
1.9
.6
.5
.5

1.9
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.0

.2
.2
.6
.6
.6

53.9
63.2
67.0
62.8
67.1

1940
1941
1943
1944

2.9
3.5
4.5
5.1
5.4

4.0
4.5
4.3
4.5
4.7

5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
6.2

3.1
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.6

0.1
.1
.2
.2

.5
.3
.3
.1
.1

.5
.5
.5
.5
.9

2.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4

.7
.8
1.2
1.8
2.2

72.6
88.0
111.5
137.6
151.6

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

5.6
6.2
6.5
7.3
8.3

4.7
5.8
6.5
7.2
7.5

6.9
7.6
8.2
8.7
9.4

11.4
11.8
11.3
12.4

.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.4
1.1
.8
.8
1.7

2.8
6.8
6.7
5.8
5.1

2.7
3.2
3.8
4.2
4.9

2.3
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2

156.8
161.2
172.8
189.2
192.1

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

9.0
9.4
10.2
10.5
10.9

9.2
9.0
9.0
9.2
9.8

10.3
11.2
12.1
13.4
14.6

15.1
12.6
13.2
14.3
16.2

1.0
1.9
2.2
3.0
3.6

1.4
.8
1.0
1.0
2.0

4.9
3.9
3.9
3.7
3.8

7.9
6.0
6.2
6.6
6.7

2.9
3.4
3.8
3.9
4.6

211.3
237.0
254.3
271.5
273.8

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

10.7
10.9
11.9
12.2
11.9

11.2
12.1
12.6
12.4
13.7

15.8
17.5
19.6
21.0
23.5

17.5
18.8
21.9
26.3
27.5

4.9
5.7
7.3
8.5

4.2
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.5

7.0
7.5
8.4
9.4

10.3

5.2
5.8
6.7
6.9
7.9

295.0
317.9
336.1
343.0

10.2

1.4
1.4
1.8
3.9
2.5

1960
1961
1962 8

11.9
12.3
12.8

14.4
15.0
15.9

25.8
27.4
29.7

29.4
33.4
34.6

11.1
12.6
14.3

2.8
4.0
3.0

4.5
4.8
4.8

10.9
12.0
12.5

9.2
9.7

10.5

384.7
399.1
423.2

1942

-

6.2

5

(«)
(«)
(5)
i})

()

77.7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

III...
IV...

11.9
11.9
11.9
12.0

14.3
14.2
14.4
14.5

25.2
25.5
26.0
26.5

28.5
28.9
29.6
30.9

10.7
11.2
11.3
11.4

2.4
2.4
2.9
3.8

4.6
4.5
4.5
4.6

10.8
10.8
10.9
11.1

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3

380.8
384.9
386.8
386.8

1961: I
II....
III...
IV...

12.0
12.2
12.3
12.5

14.7
14.8
14.9
15.5

26.6
27.2
27.5
28.1

32.5
33.4
33.7
33.8

11.8
12.5
12.8
13.4

3.8
4.4
3.9
3.7

4.7
4.9
4.7
4.8

12.2
11.5
12.3
11.9

9.5
9.6
9.7
9.9

388.4
396.6
402.0
409.4

1962: I
II—_
III...
IV 6._

12.6
12.8
12.9
12.9

15.8
15.8
15.8
16.4

28.8
29.4
30.0
30.6

34.1
34.2
34.4
35.7

13.7
14.4
14.5
14.8

3.3
2.7
2.7
3.2

4.8
4.8
4.7
4.9

12.3
12.3
12.5
12.7

10.3
10.5
10.5
10.6

414.8
422.3
425.5

1960: I
II—.

1
The total of wage and salary disbursements and other labor income differs from compensation of employees in Table C-ll in that it excludes employer contributions for social insurance and excludes the excess
of 2wage accruals over wage disbursements.
Excludes income resulting from net reductions of inventories and gives credit in computing income to
net additions to inventories during the period.
3 Data for 1929-45 differ from those in Table C-72 because of revisions by the Department of Agriculture
not yet incorporated into the national income accounts.
4
Nonagricultural income is personal income exclusive of net income of unincorporated farm enterprises,
farm wages, agricultural net interest, and net dividends paid, by agricultural corporations.
* Less than $50 million.
6
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
7 See Table O62.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.

Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




TABLE C-15.—Disposition of personal income, 1929-62

Personal
income

Year or quarter

Less:
Personal
taxes *

Percent of disposLess:
able personal income
Equals: Personal
DisposconEquals:
able
sumption Personal Personal
personal expendi- saving consump- Personal
income
tures
tion exsaving
penditures

Billions of dollars

Percent

1929

85.8

2.6

83.1

79.0

4.2

95.1

5.1

1930
1931.
1932
1933
1934

76.9
65.7
60.1
47.2
53.6

2.5
1.9

74.4
63.8
48.7
45.7
52.0

71.0
61.3
49.3
46.4
51.9

3.4
2.5

95.4
96 1
101.2
101.5
99.8

4.6
39
—1 2
—1.3
.2

1936
1936
1937.
1938
1939

60.2
68.5
73.9
68.6
72.9

1.9
2.3
2.9

58.3
66.2
71.0
65.7
70.4

56.3
62.6
67.3
64.6
67.6

2.0
3.6
3.7

3.4
5.4
52

2.9

96.6
94.6
94.8
98.3
96.0

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

78.7
96.3
123.5
151.4
165.7

2.6
3.3
17.8
18.9

76.1
93.0
117.5
133.5
146.8

71.9
81.9
89.7
100.5
109.8

4.2
11.1
27.8
33.0
36.9

94.5
88.1
76.3
75.3
74.8

5.5
11 9
23.7
24.7
25.1

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

171.2
179.3
191.6
210.4
208.3

20.9
18.7
21.5
21.1
18.7

150.4
160.6
170.1
189.3
189.7

121.7
147.1
165.4
178.3
181.2

28.7
13.5
4.7
11.0

19.1
8.4
28

8.5

80.9
91.6
97.2
94.2
95.5

228.5
256.7
273.1
288.3
289.8

20.8
29.2
34.4
35.8
32.9

207.7
227.5
238.7
252.5
256.9

195.0
209.8
219.8
232.6
238.0

12.6
17.7
18.9
19.8
18.9

93.9
92.2
92.1
92.1
92.6

6.1
7.8
7.9

310.2
332.9
351.4
360.3
383.9

35.7
40.0
42.6
42.3
46.8

274.4
292.9
308.8
317.9
337.1

256.9
269.9
285.2
293.2
313.5

17.5
23.0
23.6
24.7
23.6

93.6
92.1
92.4
92.2
93.0

6.4
7.9
7.6
7.8
7.0

400.8
416.4
3 440. 5

51.4
52.8
3 57.8

349.4
363.6
3 382.7

328.5
338.1
356.7

20.9
25.6
26.0

94.0
93.0
93.2

6.0
7.0
6.8

-

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

-

-

.

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

-

1960
1961
1962 2

_

1.5
1.5

1.6

2.9

2.4

6.0

-.6
-.6

.1

1.1

1.7

4.1

5.8
4.5

7.8
7.4

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
395.4
401.4
403.1
403.7

51.4
51.9
51.4
60.9

344.0
349.6
351.7
352.7

323.9
329.9
329.8
330.5

20.1
19.7
22.0
22.2

94.2
94.4
93.8
93.7

5.6
6.3

1961: I
II
Ill
IV

405.4
413.5
419.4
427.3

61.0
52.5
53.0
64.6

354.3
361.0
366.3
372.6

330.5
335.5
340.1
346.1

23.8
25.5
26.3
26.5

93.3
92.9
92.8
92.9

6.7
7.1
7.2
7.1

1962: I
II
HI
IV 2

432.0
439.5
442.6
448.0

56.4
57.7
58.5
58.8

375.6
381.8
384.1
389.3

350.2
354.9
358.2
363.5

25.4
26.9
26.0
25.8

93.2
93.0
93.3
93.4

6.8
7.0
6.8
6.6

I960: I

II
III
IV

—

1

Includes also such items as fines and penalties.
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
3 See Table C-62.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).

2




I9O

5.8
6.3

TABLE C-16.— Total and per capita disposable personal income and personal consumption
expenditures, in current and 1962 prices, 1929-62
Total disposable
personal income
Year or quarter

(billions of
dollars)
1962
Current
prices prices 1

Per capita disposable personal
income (dollars)

Total personal
consumption
expenditures
(billions of
dollars)

1962
1962
Current
Current
prices prices ! prices prices '

Per capita personal consumption expenditures (dollars)

Population
(thousands) •

1962
Current
prices prices'

1929.

83.1

151.1

1,240

79.0

143.6

1,178

121,875

1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.

74.4
63.8
48.7
45.7
52.0

141.5
136.3
117.6
114.7
122.5

604
514
390
364
411

1,149
1,098
941
913

71.0
61.3
49.3
46.4
51.9

135.0
130.9
119.1
116.3
122.3

576
494
395
369
410

1,096
1,054
954
926
967

123,188
124,149
124.949
125,690
126,485

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

58.3
66.2
71.0
65.7
70.4

134.5
151.1
156.1
147.8
160.1

458
516
551
506
537

1,056
1,179
1,211
1,137
1,222

56.3
62.6
67.3
64.6
67.6

129.8
142.9
147.9
145. 4
153.5

442
488
522
497
516

1,019
1,115
1,147
1,119
1,172

127,362
128,181
128,961
129,969
131,028

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

76.1
93.0
117.5
133.5
146.8

171.1
195.7
221.1
230.3
240.0

576
697
871
976
1,061

1,295
1,467
1,640
1,684
1,734

71.9
81.9
89.7
100.5
109.8

161.7
172.3
168.9
173.4
179.6

544
614
665
735

,224
,292
,252
,268

132,122
133,402
134,860
136,739
138,397

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.

150.4
160.6
170.1
189.3
189.7

237.3
234.7
224.8
236.5
239.2

1,075
1,136
1,180
1,291
1,272

1, 696
1,660
1,560
1,613
1,603

121.7
147.1
165.4
178.3
181.2

192.1
215.0
218.6
222.8
228.5

,373
,521
,517
,520
1,531

139,928
141,389
144,126
146, 631
149,188

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

207.7
227.5
238.7
252.5
256.9

258.0
265.1
272.5
285.2
287.4

1,369
1,475
1,521
1,582
1,582

1,701
1,718
1,736
1,788
1,770

195.0
209.8
219.8
232.6
238.0

242.2
244.5
250.9
262.8
266.3

870
1,040
:, 148
,216
,215
,286
,360
,400
1,458
1,466

1,597
1,584
1,598
1,647
1,640

151, 689
154, 283
156,947
159, 559
162, 388

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

274.4
292.9
308.8
317.9
337.1

305.7
320.9
328.7
332.1
348.0

1,660
1,741
1,803
1,825
1,904

1,849
1,908
1,919
1,907
1,965

256.9
269.9
285.2
293.2
313.5

286.1
295.7
303. 6
306.3
323.6

1,554
1,604
1,665
1,684
1,770

1,731
1,758
1,772
1,759
1,827

165, 276
168, 225
171, 278
174,154
177,080

1960.
1961.
1962

349.4
363.6
• 382. 7

355.5
367.2
6 382.7

1,934
1,979
6 2,051

1,968
1,998
2,051

328.5
338.1
356.7

334.3
341.3
356.7

1,818
1,840
1,912

1,850
1,858
1,912

180,676
183,742
186, 591

6

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I..
II.
III
IV

344.0
349.6
351.7
352.7

351.7
355.9
357.6
357.5

1,914
1,939
1,942
1,939

1,957
1,973
1,974
1,965

323.9
329.9
329.8
330.5

331.2
335.8
335.2
335.0

1,803
1,829
1,821
1,817

1,843
1,862
1,851
1,841

179, 692
180,334
181,102
181,939

1961: I..
II.
III
IV

354.3
361.0
366.3
372.6

358.7
365.0
369.7
375.0

1,940
1,969
1,989
2,015

1,964
1,991
2,008
2,027

330.5
335.5
340.1
346.1

334.6
339.3
343.2
348.3

1,809
1,830
1, 847
1,871

1,832
1,850
1,864
1,883

182, 666
183,375
184,150
184,952

1962: I..
II.
III
IV

375.6
381.8
384.1
389.3

377.5
382.3
383.7
387.3

2,024
2,050
2,054
2,073

2,034
2,053
2,052
2,063

350.2
354.9
358.2
363.5

352.0
355.3
357.8
361.6

1,887
1,905
1,916
1,936

1,897
1,908
1,913
1,926

185, 607
186, 258
186, 980
187, 741

1
Estimates in current prices divided by the implicit price deflator for personal consumption expenditures on a 1962 base.
2 See Table C-2 for explanation.
3
Total expenditures in 1962 prices divided by population.
4
Population of the United States including armed forces abroad. Annual data are for July 1; quarterly
data are for middle of period.
8
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
• See Table C-62.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.

Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




191

TABLE C-17.—Financial saving by individuals, 7939-62 J
[Billions of dollars]

Year or quarter

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962 1"
I960- I

Securities
Currency Savand
ings
Total bank shares
U.S. Other
govdeTotal savposits
ings ern- 3
bonds ment
4.2

_-

3.0

4 2
10.5
29.3
38.7
41.4
37.3
14.1

2 9

6.5
2.8
2.2
.8

11 1
13.1
10.9
9.5
_

II
III

IV
1961- I
II
III
IV

1962: I .
II
III i°
IV

71
14.1
15.5
16.9
13.3
9.3

16.2
21.2

4.8

10.9
16.2
17.5
19.0
10.6
2.0

-1.8
-1.4
3.5

0.1
3
.4
.3
.6
.9
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.6
1.7

5 9

23

7.0
4.7
5.4
3.3
4.7
4.9

3.3
4.0
4.8
5.2
5.4
5.2
6.3
7.2
8.3
9.3

10.2
4.4
3.8
9.7

19.6
—1.9

10.3

3.0

1.6
2.5
1.4

1.1
4.7

2.7
1.3

2.8
2.0

3.2
5.9
2.4
6.6

2.1
3.3
3.0
4.2

2.7
1.5
3.2
2.1

2.8
1.6
3.8

4.5
7.6
2.4

3.3
6.0
6.0

2.8
1.7
3.7

Private Nonininsur- sured
Cor- ance penreporate serves sion
and
funds
other

0.7 - 0 . 9
.9
-.8
2.8
.4
8.0
2.3
11.1
3.2
11.8
4.6
6.8
4.2
1.0 - 2 . 4
2.0
-.3
.4
1.6
1.5
.2
-.1
.2
-.4
-.5
1.3
3.5
.1
3.4
.2
2.0
.4
.6
— 9
6.4
.3
3.9
-.1
5.2
3.3
4.6 - 1 . 9
3.7
c
1.3
-.8
9.9 - 1 . 8 10.8
-.2
-.9
1.1
.8 -1.3
.7 - 1 . 7
-.9
2.0
-.2
1.9
-.1
-.6
-.6
.1
-1.8
.1 - 2 . 3
-.9
.3 - 1 . 4
.1 - 2 . 3
—. 7
.2
1.5
1.3
.2
1.2
1.1
-.1
.2
-.2
-.6
.1 - . 8

-0.8
-.4
2.6
10.3
14.1
15.7
9.9
-1.4
2.4
3.1
2.4
.9

c

.2 - 1 . 2c

-0.6
— .4
-.5
-.3
-.7
-1.2
.7
1.1
.7
.7
1.4
2.2
1.2
.7
2.2
2.0
2.8
2.6
.9
1.1
1.6
.1
.2
.5
.4
.2
1.5
-.1

-.1
.1
(*)

1.7
1.8
2.1
2.5
2.8
3.2
3.5
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.5
5.5
5.1
5.4
5.5
5.4
5.9
6.2
1.2
1.3
.4
L.6
.5

.3
1 .4
.8
.5
L.4
.7
L. 7

0.1
.1
.1
.1
.2
.6
.9
.3
.3
.4
.6
.9
1.4
1.5
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.4
2.9
3.1
3.4
3.7
4..0
4.2
1.0
.9
.8
.9
1.1
.9
.9
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0

Gov- Less
ernment
insurance
and
pen- Mortgage
sion debt«
reserves8
1.3

13
1.9
2.6
3.9
5.0
5.1
3.5
3.5
3.6
2.3
1.1

0.5
9

.2
3.6
4.6
4.7
4.1
7.3

4 2

66
6.5
7.3
9.0

3.6

Con- Secusumer rities8
debt' loans
0.8

10
.8
.7
.1 -3.0
- . 4 -1.0
.1
-. 1

4.4
3.2
2.6
3.1
3.2
.6
2.3
3.4
1.3
2.7
.3
2.1
1.0

Increase in
debt

11.8
10.3
7.9
9.3

13.2
10.9
13.0
15.3
2.9
2.5
2.7

.5
2.3
2.8
2.4
2.6
3.6

10

-0.2
— 2
-. 1
.3
.6
1.4
1.5

-2.3
-.8
.4
.3
.2

_ 3

4.4
.6
3.6
.4
.9
1.0
6.1
.6
3.1
-.8
i
2.5
.4
.2
6.1
.2
4.2
.3
1.2
1.1
4.9
.8
—.4 - 1 . 3
.1
2.0
.8
.9

-.1
-.2

.6
1.7
2.8
2.9 - 1 . 7 - 1 . 0

1.4
.7
-.6
-.2

2.9
3.0
4.1
3.6

2.2
1.0

-.3

.7
.2
2.1

3.8
3.4

-1.1
2.2
1.0

4.4

2.8

.9
.2
1.1
-.5

-.4
.1
1.6

1 Individuals' saving, in addition to personal holdings, covers saving of unincorporated business, trust
funds, and nonprofit institutions in the forms specified.
2
Includes shares in savings and loan associations and shares and deposits in credit unions.
3
"Other government" includes U.S. Government issues (except savings bonds), State and local government securities, and beginning 1951, nonguaranteed Federal agency issues, which are included in "corporate
and other" for years prior to 1951.
4
Includes insured pension reserves.
* Includes Social Security funds, State and local retirement systems, etc.
8
Mortgage debt to institutions on one- to four-family nonfarm dwellings.
7
Consumer debt owed to corporations, largely attributable to purchases of automobiles and other durable consumer goods, although including some debt arising from purchases of consumption goods. Policy
loans on Government and private life insurance have been deducted from those items of saving.
8
Change in bank loans to brokers and dealers and others for the purpose of purchasing cr carrying securities.
» Less than $50 million.
i° Preliminary.
NOTE.—Figures beginning 1959 have teen revised since the Economic Report of the President, January
1962.
In addition to the concept of saving shown above, there are other concepts of individuals' saving, with
varying degrees of coverage, currently in use. The personal saving estimates of the Department of Commerce are derived as the difference between disposable personal income and expenditures. Conceptually,
Commerce saving includes the following items not included in Securities and Exchange Commission
saving: housing, farm and unincorporated business investment in inventories and plant and equipment,
net of depreciation, and increase in debt. Government insurance is excluded from the Commerce saving
series. For a reconciliation of the two series, see Securities and Exchange Commission Statistical Bulletin,
July 1962, and Survey of Current Business, July 1962.
The flow-of-funds system of accounts of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System includes
capital investments as well as financial components of saving and covers saving of Federal, State, and local
governments, businesses, financial institutions, and consumers. While the Federal Reserve's estimates of
consumer saving in financial form are similar to the Securities and Exchange Commission estimates of
individuals' saving, there are some statistical and conceptual differences in the two sets of data.
Revisions for 1955-62 in the consumer credit statistics of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System have not yet been incorporated into these estimates.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included for all periods.
Source: Securities and Exchange Commission.




192

TABLE C-18.—Sources and uses of gross saving, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Gross private saving and government surplus or
deficit on income and product transactions
Government surplus
or deficit (—)

Private saving

Year or quarter
Total

PerTotal sonal
saving

1929

16.7

15.7

4.2

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

11.9
4.9

3.4
2.5
-.6

2.6

12.2
7.7
2.0
1.9
5.0

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

6.4
7.2
12.1
7.3
9.0

8.4
10.1
11.5
8.9
11.2

2.0
3.6
3.7
1.1
2.9

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

13.9
18.8
10.5
5.1
2.3

14.6
22.5
41.9
49.3
54.2

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948
1949.

4.5
30.6
36.8
45.9
33.0

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959-

Gross
business Total
saving

Gross investment

Gross
private Net fordomesTotal tic in- eign investvest- ment 1
ment

State
and
local

1.0

1.2

-0.1

17.0

16.2

0.8

0.3

Q

11.5

Federal

-.5
-.7
-2 2
.
()
.5

11.0
5.7
1.1
1.5
3.3

10.3
5.5
.9
1.4
2.9

.7
.2
.2
.2
.4

-1.0

6.2
8.3
11.8
7.8
10.2

6.3
8.4
11.7
6.7
9.3

-.1
-.1
.1
1.1

14.7
19.2

13.2
18.1
9.9
5.6
7.1

1.5
1.1
-.2
-2.2
-2.1

.4
-.8
-1.7
2.8

32.7
40.4
45.0
33.5

10.4
28.1
31.5
43.1
33.0

-1.4
4.6
8.9
1.9
.5

4.5
2.1
3.5
-.8
.5
-.7
1.2
1.4
1.3

5.2
2.7
2.6
4.9

-2*. 8
-1.7
-1.4
-2.4

.3
-2.1
-1.5
-1.3
-2.9

6.3
6.5
7.8
7.8
8.3

-2.0
-3.0
.6
-1.6
-2.1

-2.6
-3.5
-.2
-2.0
-2.2

.5
.7
.4
.1

4.2
11.1
27.8
33.0
36.9

10.4
- . 7 -1.4
11.5 - 3 . 8 - 5 . 1
14.1 - 3 1 . 4
33.2
16.3 - 4 4 . 2 - 4 6 . 7
17.2 - 5 1 . 9 - 5 4 . 6

.7
1.3
1.8
2.5
2.7

44.3
26.5
23.6
37.6
36.1

28.7
13.5
4.7
11.0
8.5

15.6 - 3 9 . 7 - 4 2 . 3
4.1
13.1
2.2
18.9
13.3
12.2
26.6
8.2
8.0
27.6 - 3 . 1 - 2 . 5

2.6
1.9
1.1
.3
-.6

48.5
55.3
48.3
47.0
47.6

40.3
49.2
52.2
54.1
54.4

12.6
17.7
18.9
19.8
18.9

27.7
31.5
33.2
34.3
35.5

8.2
6.1
-3.9
-7.1
-6.7

-1.0
-.3
.1
.3

47.8
56.6
49.7
48.3
48.5

50.0
56.3
49.9
50.3
48.9

-2.2

62.4
71.3
70.2
58.1
73.4

59.6
66.1
69.2
69.5
74.9

17.5
23.0
23.6
24.7
23.6

42.1
2.9
43.0
5.2
45.6
1.0
44.8 -11.4
51.3 - 1 . 5

-1.0
-.5
-1.0
-2.1
-.3

63.4
68.8
69.6
56.6
70.4

63.8
67.4
66.1
56.6
72.7

-.4
1.5
3.5
-.1
-2.3

77.1
74.8
8
81.1

1960
1961
1962 3 4_.

Statistical
discrepancy

72.9
79.2
8 83.9

20.9
25.6
26.0

52.1
4.2
53.6 -4.4
5
57. 9 «-2.8

.4
-.6
-1.1

73.7
71.7
77.6

72.4
69.3
76.2

1.3
2.4
1.4

9.2
6.4
-3.9
-7.4

-5.8
3.8
5.7
2.0
-9.4

-1.1
-3.8

9.7
3.4
5.0
9.0

.2
-.2
-2.0

.9
.7
-.2
1.1
-.2
.5
1.2

-.4

1.0
-2.4
-.6
-1.5
-3.0
-3.4
-3.1

5 -3. 5

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
81.4
78,8
75.8
72.8

72.7
72.0
74.0
73.4

20.1
19.7
22.0
22.2

52.6
52.4
52.0
51.2

8.7
6.7
1.8
-.7

8.1
5.5
1.5
-.4

0.6
1.2
.2
-.2

79.0
74.3
71.6
69.7

79.1
73.5
70.3
66.5

-0.1
.8
1.3
3.2

-2.3
-4.5
-4.2
-3.0

1961: I—.
II. _
III.
IV..

66.9
74.5
76.8
80.7

73.9
78.7
80.4
83.5

23.8
25.5
26.3
26.5

50.0
53.2
54.1
57.0

-6.9
-4.3
-3.6
-2.9

-6.3
-4.2
-3.3
-1.3

-.7
-.1
-.3

63.8
70.1
73.8
78.8

60.1
67.6
72.4
76.6

3.7
2.4
1.3
2.2

-3.1
-4.4
-3.1
-1.9

1962: I
II....
III...
IV 3..

79.2
83.4
81.3

82.5
84.5
83.7

25.4
26.9
26.0
25.8

57.2
57.6
57.7

-3.3
-1.1
-2.4

-2.4

77.8
79.4
77.0
76.0

75.9
77.4
76.3
75.0

2.0
2.0
.7
1.0

-1.4
-4.0
-4.3

1960: I . . . .

II...
III.
IV..

(6)

(6)

(6)

(6)

1

j
-.9
(6)

-1.6
-.8
-.4

-1.4
(6)

Net exports of goods and services less foreign net transfers by Government. For 1929-45, net foreign
investment and net exports of goods and services have been equated, since foreign net transfers by Government were negligible during that period.
2
Less than $50 million.
3
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
* See Table C-62.
6
Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
6
Not available.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).
669333 O—63




13

193

EMPLOYMENT, WAGES, AND PRODUCTIVITY
TABLE C-19.—Noninstitutional population and the labor force, 7929-62
Civilian labor force
Total
Nonin- labor
stitu- force Armed
tional (includ- forces l
popuing
Total
lation 1 armed
forces) 1

Year or month

Employment2

Total

Agricultural

Nonagricultural

Total
labor
force as
percent
of nonUnem- instituploy-2 tional
ment
population

Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over
Old definitions: 2
1929

Percent

1,550

3.2

4,340
8,020
12,060
12,830
11, 340

8.7
15.9
23.6
24.9
21.7

49, 440

260 49,180 47,630 10, 450 37,180

1930 _
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.

50,080
50,680
51,250
51, 840
52, 490

260 49, 820
50,420
250 51,000
250 51, 590
52, 230

45,480
42,400
38,940
38, 760
40, 890

10, 340
10,290
10,170
10,090
9,900

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

53,140
53, 740
54, 320
54,950
55,600
100,380 56,180
101, 520 57, 530
102,610 60, 380
103,660 64, 560
104,630 66,040

270
300
320
340
370

52,870
53, 440
54,000
54,610
55, 230

42,260
44, 410
46, 300
44,220
45, 750

10,110 32,150 10,610

540
1,620
3,970
9,020
11,410

55,640
55, 910
56, 410
55, 540
54, 630

47, 520
50,350
53, 750
54,470
53,960

()
*

35,140
32,110
28, 770
28,670
30, 990

Unemployment
as percent of
civilian
labor
force

20.1
16.9
14.3
19.0
17.2

9,540 37,980
9,100 41, 250
9,250 44, 500
45, 390
8,950 45,010

8,120
5,560
2,660
1,070
670

56.0
56.7
58.8
62.3
63.1

14.6
9.9
4.7
1.9
1.2

61.9
57.2
57.4

1.9
3.9
3.6

107, 608 61, 758 1,590 60,168 57, 812 8,256 49, 557 2,356
108,632 62, 898 1,456 61, 442 59,117 7,960 51,156 2,325
109, 773 63, 721 1,616 62,105 58, 423 8,017 50,406 3,682

1945
1946
1947
New definitions: 2
19471948 _
1949.

9,030
7,700
10,390
9,480

105, 530 65,300 11, 430 53, 860 52, 820
44,240 1,040
106, 520 60,970 3,450 57, 520 55,250 8,320 46,930 2,270
107, 608 61, 758 1,590 60,168 58, 027 8,266 49, 761 2,142

1940.
1941.
19421943.
1944-

34,410
36, 480
34, 530
36,140

57.4
57.9
58.0

3.9
3.8
5.9

()

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

110,929
112, 075
113, 270
115, 094
116,219

59, 748
60,784
61, 035
61, 945
60,890

7,497
7,048
6,792
6,555
6,495

52, 251 3,351
53,736 2,099
54,243 1,932
55, 390 1,870
54, 395 3,578

58.4
58.9
58.8
58.5
58.4

5.3
3.3
3.1
2.9
5.6

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959 _

62, 944
64,708
65, 011
63, 966
65, 581
124, 878 72, 820 2,514 70, 306 66, 392

6,718
6,572
6,222
5,844
5,836

56, 225
58,135
58, 789
58,122
59, 745

2,904
2,822
2,936
4,681
3,813

58.7
59.3
58.7
58.5
58.3

4.4
4.2
4.3
6.8
5.5

5,696 60, 697 3,913

58.3

5.6

3,931
4,806
4,012
4,007

58.3
58.0
57.5
57.4

5.6
6.7
5.6
5.6

5,385
5, 705
5,495
4,962
4,768
5,580

57.1
57.4
57.9
57.5
58.1
60.1

7.7
8.1
7.7
7.0
6.7
7.5

5,140
4,542
4,085
3,934
3,990
4,091

59.5
59.0
57.4
57.
57.5
56.9

7.0
6.2
5.7
5 5
5.6
5.8

63, 099
62,884
62, 966
63, 815
64,468
3,048 65, 848
117, 388 68, 896
118, 734 70, 387 2,85" 67, 530
120, 445 70, 744 2,798 67, 946
121, 950 71, 284 2,63" 68, 64"
123,366 71,946 2,55: 69,394

1960

Including
Hawaii
1960
1961
1962*
1962

64, 749
65, 983
66, 560
67, 362
67, 818

1,650
3,099
3,594
3,547
3,350

10, 000
9,820
9,690
9,610

Alaska

and
125,368
127,85f
130,117
130,081

73,126
74,175
74,839
74,681

2,514
2,572
2,828
2,827

FebruaryMarch
April
May
June

126,725
126,918
127,115
127,33:
127, 558
127, 768

72,361
72,894
73,540
73,216
74,059
76,790

2,524
2, 534
2,529
2, 520
2,513
2,504

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

127,986
128,183
128, 372
128, 570
128,756
128,941

76,153 2,514 73.639 68,499
75, 610 2,529 73,081 68,539
73,670 2,54" 71,123 67,038
74,345 2,586 71, 759 67,824
74,096 2, 757 71,339 67,349
73,372 2,813 70, 559 66, 467

-

1961: January..

5,723 60, 958
5,463 61, 333
5,255 62, 744
5,190
62,657
69,837 64.452 4,634 59, 818
70.360 64,655 4,708 59,947
71,011 65, 516 4,977 60. 539
70,696 6/5, 734 5,000 60,734
71, 546 66,778 5,544 61,234
74, 286 68, 706 6,671 62,035

70, 612
71, 603
72,011
71,854

See footnotes at end of table.




194

66, 681
66, 796
67,999
67,846

6,453
6,325
5,666
5.964
5,199
4,418

62,046
62,215
61,372
61,860
62,149
62,049

TABLE G-19.—Noninstitutional population and the labor force,

1929-62—Continued

Civilian labor force

Year or month

Total
Nonin- labor
stitu- force Armed
tional (includ- forces i
popuing
Total
lation ! armed
forces) 1

Total
labor
force as
Employment
percent
of nonUnem- instituployAgri- Non- ment 2 tional
agripopuTotal culcullation
tural tural
2

Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over

Unemployment
as percent of
civilian
labor
force

Percent

1962: January...
February..
March
April
ApriP
May
June

129,118
129,290
129,471
129. 641
129, 587
129, 752
129,930

72, 564
73,218
73, 582
73, 864
73,654
74, 797
76, 857

2,843
2,886
2,885
2.885
2,885
2,875
2,856

69, 721
70,332
70,697
70.979
70, 769
71,922
74,001

65,058
65, 789
66,316
67, 027
66, 824
68,203
69,539

4,417
4,578
4,782
5,048
4,961
5,428
6,290

60, 641
61,211
61, 533
61,979
61, 863
62,775
63,249

4,663
4,543
4,382
3,952
3,946
3,719
4,463

56.2
56.6
56.8
57.0
56.8
57.6

6.7
6.5
6.2
5.6
5.6
5.2
6.0

July
August
September.
October....
November.
December.

130,183
130,359
130,546
130, 730
130, 910
131,096

76,437
76, 554
74,914
74, 923
74, 532
74,142

2,855
2,859
2,735
2,736
2,750
2,764

73, 582
73,695
72,179
72,187
71, 782
71,378

69, 564
69, 762
68,668
68,893
67,981
67,561

6,064
5,770
5,564
5,475
4,883
4,066

63,500
63, 993
63,103
63,418
63,098
63,495

4,018
3,512
3,294
3,801
3,817

58.7
58.7
57.4
57.3;
56.9
56.6

5.5
5.3
4.9
4.6
5.3
5.3

Seasonally adjusted 6
1961: January..
February.
March .._
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..
1962: January
February...
March
April

April«
May..
June_.
July
August
September..
October
November..
December _.

71,554
71,869
72,092
71,410
71,475
71,983
71,633
71,789
70,981
71,473
71,482
71, 272
71,435
71,841
71,774
71,696
71,484
71,850
71,706
71,578
72,392
72,035
71,899
71,926
72,099

66,651
66,723
67,127
66,398
66,512
66,900

66,243
66,822
67,148
66,936
67,278
67,894
67,947
67, 704
67,499
67,931
67,711
67,735
68,194
67,854
67,875
67, 778
68,037

5,721
5,763
5,787
5,297
5,326
6,504
5.473
5,662
5,156
5,472
5,311
5,204
5,453
5,603
5,560
5,347
5,255
5,214
5,190
5,143
5,166
5,063
5,023
4,988
4,789

60,852 4,761
60,922 4,968
61, 274 4,874
61,101 4,950
61, 234 5,019
61,543 4,936
61,371 4,923
61,417 4,887
61,188 4,867
61,369 4,762
61,840 4,370
61,618 4,274
61,690 4,159
62,206 4,008
62,280 3,914
62,353 3,971
62, 236 3,963
62,775 3,903
62,747 3,917
62,809 3,828
63,172 4,218
62.914 4,167
62.915 3,977
62, 784 4,164
63,054 4,002

6.7
6.9
6.8
6.9
7.0
6.9
6.9
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.3
5.8
5.8
5.5
5.8
5.6

i Data for 1940-52 revised to include about 150,000 members of the armed forces who were outside the
United States in 1940 and who were, therefore, not enumerated in the 1940 Census and were excluded from
the 1940-52 estimates.
»See Note.
« Not available.
< Averages have been adjusted by the Council of Economic Advisers for comparison with previous
data. See Note.
» Beginning April 1962, not comparable with prior data. See Nate.
fl Seasonally adjusted totals may differ from the sum of components because totals and components have
been seasonally adjusted separately.
NOTE.—Civilian labor force data beginning with January 1960 are based on a 333-area sample. For May
1956-December 1959 they are based on a 330-area sample; for January 1954-April 1956 on a 230-area sample;
for 1946-53 on a 68-area sample; for 1940-45 on a smaller sample; and for 1929-39 on sources other than direct
enumeration.
Effective January 1957, persons on layoff with definite instructions to return to work within 30 days
of layoff and persons waiting to start new wage and salary jobs within the following 30 days are classified
as unemployed. Such persons had previously been classified as employed (with a job b u t not at work).
The combined total of the groups changing classification has averaged about 200,000 to 300,000 a month in
recent years. The small number of persons in school during the survey week and waiting to start new
jobs are classified as not in the labor force instead of employed, as formerly. Persons waiting to open new
businesses or start new farms within 30 days continued to be classified as employed.
Beginning July 1955, monthly data are for the calendar week ending nearest the 15th of the month; previously, for week containing the 8th. Annual data are averages of monthly figures.
Beginning April 1962, estimating procedures trade use of 1960 Census data; January 1953-March 1962,
1950 Census data and 1940-52,1940 Census data were used. For the effects of this change on the historical
comparability of the data, see Employment and Earnings, May 1962, p . l i v .
Source: Department of Labor (except as noted).




195

TABLE C-20.—Employment and unemployment, by sex and age, 7947-62
[Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over]
Employed
Males

Unemployed
Females

Males

Females

Year or month
Total

Old definitions: i
1947.
._
1948..
1949
1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..

20
20
Total 14-19 years Total 14-19 years
years and
years and

20
20
Total 14-19 years Total 14-19 years
years and
years and

58,027 41,677 2,795 38,883 16,349 1,921 14,429 2,142 1,595
59,378 . . . .
. . 42,428 2,911 39, 518 16,950 1, " '
,
,
,93015,020 2,064 1,430

58,710 41,660 2,687 38,974 17,048 1,826 15,2253,395
59,957 42,287 2,787 39,499 17,670 ,777 15,893 3,142
1
61,005 42,490 2, 753 39, 738 18,515,863 16,652 1,879
1
61,293 ,
,
42,391 2,674 39, 717 18, 902 1 17,047 1,673
,
,
,
,857
62 213 43125 22, 686 40, 440 19,088 1,829 17, 259
62, 213 43,125 686 40 440 19088 1
1,602
,
,
,
,
61,2 4 2, 7 ,
3
3 9 2 188611736 17125 3,230
61. 238 42,377 2, 550 39,827 18,8611,736 17,125
63,193 43,290 2,64240,646 19,904 1,803 18,101 2,654
64,979 44,148 2,802 41,345 20,8311,962 18, 2,551

279 1,316
262 1,171
2,415 367 2,048

547
633
981

146
153
228

402
480
753

2,155
1,123
1,062
1,069
2,161

339 1,816
206 917 756
222 840 611
195 875 533
318 1,842 1,069

204
150
140
117
197

784
609
471
416
873

1,752

292 1,460
296 1,314

179
214

724
730

903

New definitions: i
1957..
1958..
1959..

65,011 43,990 2,750 41,239 21,0211,970 19,050 2,936
351 1,541 ,043
63,966 43,042 2,631 40,410 20,924 1,88119,0434,681 3,155 473 2,680 ,526
65,581 44,089 2,821 41,268 21,492 1, 968 19, 523
3,813 2,473 451 2,022 ,340

222 820
284 1,242
276 1,064

1960 2..
1961—
1962 3.

66,681 44,485 2,941 41, 543 22,196 2,091 20,104 3,931 2,541
2,058 ,390
66,796 44,318 2,976 41,342 22,478 2,181 20,2954,806 3,060 542 2,518 ,747
67,846 44,892 3,077 41,815 22,954 2,262 20,6934,007 2,488 472 2,016 1,519

310 1,078
379 1,366
344 1,176

Seasonally adjusted <
1961:

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..
1962:
January..
February.
March
April 3....
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

66,651 44,238 2,908 41,359 22,461 2,075 20,396
4,761
66,723 44,088 2,878 41,288 22,636 2,137 20,4914,968
,
67127,44,2992,925 41,246 22,847 2,215 20,642 4,874
67,127 44299 ,
,
,
,1 0 5 2 2 1, 185 2 0 5 8 4,980
,
,
4,026 2792 ,
,
, 6 2,185 20t2585,019
66,398 44,026 2,792 41,205 22,416 ,
t
66,512 44,150 2,969 ,
41,177
66512 44150 2969 41177, 22,361 2,078 20,289
,
,
22361 2078 20289 4,936
,
,
900 4 5 0 4 3100 41,3682 2 6 3 2128 20327
44,504 3,100 1 3 6 22,463 2,128 20,327
4,923
66,698 44,412 3,099 41,272 22,288 2,147 20,112
4,887
66,998 44, 586 3,166 41,325 22,436 2, 216 20,184
66,243 44,270 2,904 41,398 21,995 2,112 19,9034,867
66,822 44,352 2,909 41,479 22,445 2,193 20,2434,762
4,370
67,148 44,507 2,920 41, 599 22,658 2,390 20,286
4,274
66,936 44,360 2,936 41,466 22, 615 2,282 20,340

3,097
3,175
3,096
3,202
3,267
3,117

545
576
554
564
552
545

2,552
2,599
2,542
2,638
2,715
2,572

1,664
1,793
1,778
1,748
1,752
1,819

375
384
383
326
344
375

1,289
1,409
1,395
1,422
1,408
1,444

3,111
3,146
3,024
2,952
2,733
2,742

507
534
542
551
517
518

2,604
2,612
2,482
2,401
2,216
2,224

1,812
1,741
1,843
1,810
1,637
1,532

419
424
429
399
376
288

1,393
1,317
1,414
1,411
1,261
1,244

67,278 44,496 2,989 41, 546 22,831 2,217 20,6364,159
67,894 44,825 3,040 41,881 23,069 2,226 20,8414,008
67,947 44,910 3,085 41,714 23,057 2,286 20,787
3,914
67,499 44, 674 3,007 41, 655 22,870 2,204 20,689
3,963
67,931 45,044 3,170 41,875 22,886 2,318 20, 5973,903
67, 711 44,961 3,137 41,788 22,817 2,346 20,4423,917

2,536
2,488
2,417
2,489
2,472
2,517

476
519
458
477
527
478

2,060
1,969
1,959
2,012
1,945
2,039

1,520
1,497
1,474
1,431
1,400

360
376
360
381
354
301

1,263
1,144
1,137
1,093
1,077
1,099

67,735 44,932 3,159 41,724 22,808 2,307 20,4443,828
68,194 45,105 3,174 41,843 23,121 2,360 20,705 4,218
67,854 44,965 3,029 41,970 22,909 2,175 20,7564,167
67,875 44,982 3,022 42,001 22,865 2,166 20,6913,977
67,778 44,833 2, 860 41,974 22,962 2,245 20,726
4,164
68,037 44,948 3,125 41, 886 23,126 2,234 20, 899
4,002

2,403
2,600
2,515
2,407
2,554
2,491

433
435
476
445
539
419

1,970
2,165
2,039
1,962
2,015
2,072

1,425
1,618
1,652
1,670
1,610
1,511

333
339
316
352
378
360

1,092
1,279
1,336
1,218
1,232
1,151

i See Note, Table C-19,forexplanation of differences between the old and new definitions.
1
Beginning January 1960, data for Alaskalind Hawaii are included.
1
Beginning April 1962, not comparable with prior data; see Note, Table C-19.
4
Seasonally adjusted totals may differ from the sum of components because totals and components have
been seasonally adjusted separately.
Note.—See Note, Table C-19, for information on area sample used and reporting periods.
Source: Department of Labor.




196

T A B L E C-21.—Employed persons not at work, by reason for not working, and special groups oj
unemployed persons, 7946-62
[Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over]
Employed persons not at work,
by reason for not working
Year or month
Total

Bad
weather

Industrial
dispute

Vacation

Special groups of unemployed persons l

Illness

All
other
reasons

Tempo- New wage
rary
and salary
layoff 2
job 3

New definitions: *
1946
1947
1948
1949

2,103
2,259
2,489
2,244

211
197
110

95
97
79

662
834
,044
,044

819
847
844
719

273
308
291

97
123
141
185

58
92
121
101

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

2,440
2,460
2,555
2.530
2,688

151
111
68
96
73

85
57
164
73
53

,137
,073
,130
,171
,361

718
782
775
827
776

349
436
418
362
425

92
117
142
167
221

116
103
117
101
127

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

2,682
2,889
3,017
3,076
3.161

103
109
139
182
115

61
76
45
59
160

,346
,447
,479
,494

835
901
962
882
907

416
456
425
474
484

133
124
150
166
128

117
147
110
120
134

3,231
3,146
3,281

168
143
160

40
56
33

,576
,492
,533

942
898
940

505
556
615

147
149
121

119
129
125

1961: January.—
February..
March
April
May
June

2,045
2,173
2,044
2,020
2,026

194
260
213
189
56
75

20
12
10
33
28
18

337
430
407
394
641
2,178

979
997
942
945
902
807

515
474
471
460
399
761

206
260
210
120
137
127

54
71
101
135
96
311

July.
August
SeptemberOctober
NovemberDecember.

7,357
6,604
2,928
2,354
2,189
2,170

172
372

53
40
229
166
43
26

5,568
4,805
1,336
815
585
409

831
849
927
910
858

814
928
427
441
480
505

102
186
113
101
99
130

157
177
160
102
99
83

1962: January
February..
March
April*
May
June
July
August
September .
October
November .
December.

2,681
2,570
2,130
1,994
2,032
3,870

275
201
104
10
40

39
37
27
40
34
61

322
396
374
428
663
2,129

1,036
1,224
1,040
949
870
832

587
639
487
474
455

186
95
115
93
107
96

100
82
80
107
111
211

7,477
6,839
2,780
2,263
2,174
2,559

29
3
17
29
32
476

48
12
32
19
22
30

5,637
5,132
1,448
818
618

843
811

900
849
472
499
586
621

128
183
107
114
116
117

152
248
154
95
94
63

1960«
1961
1962*

—.

916
1,002

()

1
Under the old definitions of employment and unemployment, these groups were included in the
"employed but not at work" category.
2
Persons on layoff with definite instructions to return to work within 30 days of the layoff.
3
Persons scheduled to start new wage and salary jobs within 39 days. Under the old definitions, the
"new job or business" group included these persons as well as persons waiting to open new businesses or
start new farms within 30 days (see "all other" category in this table) and persons in school during the
survey week and waiting to start new jobs (these are now classified as "not in the labor force").
4
See Note, Table C-19 for explanation.
5
Not available.
• Beginning January 1960, data for Alaska and Hawaii are included.
NOTE.—See Note, Table C-19 for information on area sample used and reporting periods.
Source: Department of Labor.




TABLE C—22.-—Selected measures of unemployment and part-time employment, 1948-62
Unemployment rate
(percent of civilian labor foice
in group)

Year or month

All
workers

Experienced
wage and
salary
workers

Married
men '

Labor force
time lost
through
unemployment and
part-time
work 2

Persons employed parttime in nonagricultural industries for
economic reasons

Usually
full-time 3

Usually
part-time 4

Thousands of persons
14 years of age and over

Percent
New definitions:
1948
1949

3.8
5.9

4.2
6.7

3.4

1,530

786

1950 .
1951
1952
1953...
1954

53
3.3

6.0
3.7

4.6
1.5

3.1
2.9
5.6

3.3
3.2
6.0

1.4
1.7
4.0

1,032
917
958

965
694
642

1,548

866

4.4
4.2
4.3
6.8
5.5

4.8
4.4
4 5
7.2
5.6

2.6
2.3
2.8
5.1
3.6

5.1
5.3
8.1
6.6

934
1,067
1,183
1,638
1,032

876
900
986
1,315
1,304

5.6
6.7
5.6

5.7
6.8
5.5

3.7
4.6
3.6

6.7
8.0
6.7

1,243
1,297
1,049

1,317
1,516
1,287

1,536
1,519
1,537
1,523
1,619
1,596

_ .

1955 . . .
1956
1957 .
1958
1959

.

1960s..
1961
1962 7

_.

. _

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January

6.7
6.9
6.8
6.9
7.0

6.9
7.1
6.9
7.1
7.1

4.7
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.9

7.9
8.2
8.0
8.2
8.4

6.9

6.9

4.8

8.2

1,499
1,605
1,398
1.342
1,291
1,159

6.9
6.8
6.8
6.7
6.1
6.0

6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.1
6.0

4.7
4.8
4.6
4.2
4.2
3.9

8.2
8.2
8.0
7.9
7.3
7.1

1,298
1,282
1,178
1,229
1,133
1,081

1,470
1,553
1,591
1,413
1,482
1,319

June-

5.8
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.5

5.8
5.5
5.3
5.4
5 4
5.3

3.8
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.4
3.6

6.9
6.6
6.6
6.5
6.5
6.6

875
880
1,028
962
1,098
1,002

1,243
1,316
1,299
1,179
1,256
1,298

July .
August .
September
October
November
December..

5.3
5.8
5.8
5.5
5.8
5.6

5.3
5.8
5.8
5.5
5.6
5.5

3.5
3.7
3.4
3.4
3.7
3.5

6.6
7.0
6.9
6.8
7.0
6.6

1,116
1,169
1.206
1,130
1,207
1,027

1,330
1,246
1,305
1,345
1,358
1,282

February
March
AprilMay.. _
June
July
August
September _.
October
November
December . .
1962: January
February
March
April i
May

1 Married men living with their wives. Data for 1949 and 1951-54 are for April; 1950 for March. These
data, including 1955 and 1956, have not been adjusted to reflect the change in the definition of employment
and unemployment adopted in January 1957. See Note, Table C-19.
2
Assumes unemployed persons lost 37.5 hours a week; those on part-time for economic reasons lost difference between 37.5 hours and actual number of hours worked.
3
Includes persons who worked part-time because of slack work, material shortages or repairs, new job
started, or job terminated. Data for 1949-55 are for the month of May.
4
Primarily includes persons who could find only part-time work. Data for 1949-55 are for the month of
May.
5
Not available.
• Beginning with January I960, data for Alaska and Hawaii are included.
?
Not comparable with prior data. See Note, Table C-19.
Source: Department of Labor.




TABLE C-23.—Unemployed persons, by duration of unemployment, 1947-62
Duration of unemployment
Total unemployed

Year or quarter

4 weeks
and under

5-14

weeks

15-26
weeks

Average

Over
26 weeks

duration
of unemployment
(weeks)

Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over
New definitions:
2,356
2,325
3,682

1,255
1,349
1,804

704
669
1,195

234
193
427

164
116
256

9.8
8.6
10.0

1953
1954

3,351
2,099
1,932
1,870
3,578

1,515
1,223
1,183
1,178
1,651

1,055
574
517
482
1,115

425
166
148
132
495

357
137
84
79
317

12.1
9.7
8.3
8.1
11.7

1955.
1956
1957
1958
1959

2,904
2,822
2, 936
4,681
3,813

1,387
1,485
1,485
1.833
1,658

815
805
890
1,397
1,113

367
301
321
785
469

336
232
239
667
571

13.2
11.3
10.4
13.8
14.5

3,931
4,806
4,007

1,798
1,897
1,754

1,176
1,375
1,134

502
728
534

454
804
585

12.8
15.5
14.7

4,095
3,847
3,731
4,050

1,634
1,957
1,741
1,861

1,432
910
1,171
1,190

563
545
403
499

467
435
416
499

13.3
12.3
12.3
13.0

5,528
5,103
4,589
4,005

1,997
2,043
1,831
1.724

1,922
1,188
1,314
1,079

903
953
544
512

705
919
900
691

14.0
16.1
16.4
16.0

4,529
4,042
3,820
3,637

1,690
1,862
1,729
1,734

1,450
917
1,171
1,000

686
607
371
471

703
656
549
432

15.7
15. 4
14.0
13.5

1947
1948
1949

. . . .

1950
1951
1952...

_

1960 i
1961
1962 2

_.

1960: I i

II
III
IV

1961: I .

II
III
IV
1962: I
112
III

IV

1
Beginning January 1960, data for Alaska and Hawaii are included.
2 Beginning April 1962, not comparable with prior data; see Note, Table C-19.
NOTE.—See Note, Table C-19 for information on area sample used and reporting periods.
Source: Department of Labor.




199

TABLE C-24.—Unemployment insurance programs, selected data, 1940-62
All programs

Year or month

State programs

Insured Total
Cov- unem- benefits
ered
ploypaid [nsured Initial
unememment
(milploy- claims
ploy-1 (weekly lions
ment 3
ment
aver-3 of dol2
age)
lars) 2 *

Exhaustions 8

Weekly average,
thousands

Thousands

Insured unemjloyment as percent of covered
employment

Benefits paid

Total
(millions of
SeasonUnad- ally ad- dollars)
justed justed)

Aver-

Percent

1)40..
10411942..
19431944-

24,291
28,136
30,819
32,419
31,714

1,331
842
661
149
111

534.7
358.8
350.4
80.5
67.2

1,282
814
649
147
105

214
164
122
36
29

5.6
3.0
2.2
.5
.4

518.7
344.3
344.1

19451946194719481949..

30, 087
31,856
33,876
34,646
33,098

720
2,804
1,805
1,468
2,479

574.9
2,878.5
1,785.0
1,328. 7
2,269. 8

589
1,295
1,009
1,002
1,979

116
189
187
210
322

2.1
4.3
3.1
3.0
6.2

445.9
1,094.9
775.1
789.9
1, 736.0

18.77
18.50
17.83
19.03
20.48

19501951195219531954-

34,308
36,334
37,006
38,072
36,617

1,605 , 467.6
1,000
862.9
1,069 1,043.5
1,065 1,050. 6
2,048 2, 291. 8

1,503
969
1,024
995
1,865

236
208
215
218
303

16
18
15
34

4.6
2.8
2.9
2.8
5.2

1,373.1
840.4
998.2
962.2
2,026.9

20.76
21.09
22.79
23.58
24.93

1955..
1956195719581959-

40,014
42, 758
43,436
44,412
45, 728

1,395
1,318
1,567
3,269
2,099

1, 560. 2
1, 540. 6
1,913.0
4, 209. 2
2,803.0

1,254
1,212
1,450
2,509
1,682

226
226
268
370
281

25
20
23
50
33

3.5
3.2
3.6
6.4
4.4

1,350.3
1,380.7
1, 733. 9
3, 512. 7
2,279.0

25.04
27.02
28.17
30.58
30.41

1960...
1961__.
1962 '..

46,334
46,264
47,150

2,067 3,022. 7
2,994 4,358.2
2,080 3,160.0

1,906
2,290
1,800

331
350
303

31
46
32

4.8
5.6
4.5

2,726.7
3, 422. 7
2,690.0

32.87
33.80
34.65

1961: January..
February
March
April
May..
June

44, 756
44,467
44,873
45,384
45,899
46, 654

3,515
3,638
3,403
3,626
3,290
2,877

436.4
435.5
500.9
419.4
457.2
403.9

3,266
3,394
3,168
2,779
2,328
1,991

541
480
372
367
297
279

44
49
53
58
54
53

8.1
8.4
7.8
6.8
5.7
4.9

6.1
6.3
6.3
5.9
5.6
5.3

397.6
399.3
461.5
362.5
320.1
264.4

34.34
34.45
34.37
34.18
33.46
32.92

46,762
47,154
47, 224
47,129
47,237
47,637

2,678
2,357
2,122
2,018
2,172
2,533

321.9
333.5
263.4
255.3
261.4
286.0

1,958
1,744
1,558
1,502
1,662
2,017

357
271
257
277
320
394

50
44
38
35
34
35

4.8
4.3
3.8
3.7
4.1
5.0

5.3
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8

224.0
237.2
185.0
180.9
190.9
218.5

32.91
33.36
33.12
33.30
33.67
34.10

46,022
46,146
46,542
(8)

3,015
2,914
2,702
2,216
1,840
1,667

395.2
353.4
381.0
297.9
254.3
215.4

2,486
2,415
2,218
1,831
1,570
1,469

429
320
273
267
250
258

39
39
39
39
33
30

6.2
6.0
5.5
4.5
3.9
3.6

17
16
4-4
3.9
3.8
4.0

314.9
287.2
310.2
239.6
215.0
188.9

34.44
34.73
34.98
34.52
34.04
34.20

1,699
1,628
1,497
1,539
1,780
2,220

205.2
218.9
181.1
198.9
215.5
255.0

1,543
1,469
1,331
1,385
1,625
2,050

319
261
235
275
314
422

28
26
25
25
26
28

3.6
3.3
3.4
4.0
5.0

4-3
4-4
4.4
4.6
4.8
4.8

187.0
197.4
160.6
176.6
193.6
230.0

34.01
34.29
34.42
34.69
34.95
35.30

July
August
September—
October
November
December
1962: January.
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September—
October
November....
December 7__.

79.6
62.4

10.56
11.06
12.66
13.84
15.90

1 Includes persons under the State, UCFE (Federal employee, effective January 1955), and R R B (Railroad Retirement Board) programs. Beginning October 1958, also includes the UCX program (unemployment compensation for ex-servicemen).
2
Includes State, UCFE, RR, UCX, UCV (unemployment compensation for veterans, October 1952January 1960), and SRA (Servicemen's Readjustment Act, September 1944-September 1951) programs.
Also includes Federal and State programs for temporary extension of benefits from June 1958 through
June 1962, expiration date of program.
3 Covered workers who have completed at least 1 week of unemployment.
* Includes benefits paid under extended duration provisions of State laws, beginning June 1968. Annual
data are gross amounts and monthly data are net amounts.
8 Individuals receiving final payments in benefit year.
6
For total unemployment only.
7
Preliminary.
• March 1962 is latest month for which data are available for all programs combined; workers covered by
State programs account for about 87 percent of the total.
NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included for all periods and for Puerto Rico since January 1961.
Source: Department of Labor.




200

TABLE C-25.—Number of wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments; 1929-62 1
[Thousands of employees]

Year or month

Total
wage
and
salary
workers

Manufacturing

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Trans-

ties

Mining

Fi-

estate

Con- porta- Whole- nance, Service
tract tion
insur- and
sale
conand
ance, misceland
struc- public retail and
tion utili- trade real laneous

Government
(Federal,
State,
and
local)

1929..

31,339 10.702

1,087

1,497

3,916

6,123

1,509

3,440

3,065

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..

29,424
26,649
23,628
23, 711
25,953

9,562
8,170
6,931
7,397
8,501

1,009
873
731
744

1,372
1,214
970
809
862

3,685
3,254
2,816
2,672
2,750

5,797
5,284
4,683
4,755
5,281

1,475
1,407
1,341
1,295
1,319

3,376
3,183
2,931
2,873
3,058

3,148
3,264
3,225
3,166
3,299

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

27,053
29,082
31,026
29,209
30,618

9,069
9,827
10,794
9,440
10,278

()
4,715

897
946
1,015
891
854

912
1,145
1,112
1,055
1,150

2,786
2,973
3,134
2,863
2,936

5,431
5,809
6,265
6,179
6,426

1,335
1,388
1,432
1,425
1,462

3,142
3,326
3,518
3,473
3,517

3,481
3,668
3,756
3,883
3,995

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

32,376
36, 554
40,125
42,452
41,883

10,985
13,192
15,280
17,602
17,328

5,363
6,968
8,823
11,084
10,856

925
957
992
925
892

1,294
1,790
2,170

3,038
3,274
3,460
'., 5673,647
,094 3,829

6,750
7,210
7,118
6,982
7,058

1,502
1,549
1,538
1,502
1,476

3,681
3,921
4,084
4,148
4,163

4,202
4,660
5,483
6,080
6,043

1945-.
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

40,394
41.674
43,881
44,891
43,778

,132
,661
,982
2,169
2,165

3,906
4,061
4,166
4,189
4,001

7,314
8,376
8,955
9,272
9,264

1,497
1,697
1,754
1,829
1,857

4,241
4,719
5,050
5,206
5,264

5,944
5,595
5,474
5,650
5,856

4,034
4,226
4,248
4,290
4,084

9,386
9,742
10,004
10,247
10,235

1,919
1,991
2,069
2,146
2,234

5,382
5,576
5,730
5,867
6,002

6,026
6,389
6,609
6,645
6,751

()
5,564
5,622
6,225
6,458
6,518
6,472

1950..
1951.
1952.
19531954.

9,074 6,450
15,524
7,742 6,962
14.703
15, 545 8,385 7,159
8,326 7,256
15,582
7,489 6,953
14,441
7,147
45, 222 15,241
9,089 7,304
47,849 16,393
48,825 16, 632 9,349 7,284
50,232 17, 549 10,110 7,438
49, 022 16,314 9,129 7,185

791

2,333
2,603
2,634
2,623
2,612

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959-

50.675
52,408
52,904
51,423
53,380

16,882
17,243
17,174
15,945
16, 667

9,541
9,834
9,856

7,340
7,409
7,319
7,116
7,298

792
822
828
751
731

2,802
2,999
2,923
2,778
2,955

4,141
4,244
4,241
3,976
4,010

10, 535
10, 858
10,886
10,750
11,125

2,335
2,429
2,477
2,519
2,597

6,274
6,536
6,749
6,8li
7,105

6,914
7,277
7,626
7,893
8,190

1960.
1961.
1962 3

54,347
54,077
55,325

16, 762
16, 267
16,750

9,441
9,042
9,443

7,321
7,225
7,308

709
666
647

2,760
2,696

4,017
3,923
3,925

11,412
11,368
11,571

2,684
2,748
2,793

7,361
7,516
7,757

8, 520
8,828
9,185

862
955
994
930
901

Seasonally adjusted

1960: January
February. _
March
April
May
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober.—
November.
December.

54,211
54,445
54,427
54, 702
54, 584
54, 538

16, 988
17,063
17,054
17,037
16, 985
16, 901

9,659 7,329
9,719 7,344
9,683 7,371
9,652 7,385
9,608 7,377
9,526 7,375

716
723
722
729
725
717

2,922 4,022
2,974 4,034
2,759 4,039
2,901 4,054
2,921 4,040
2,912 4,039

11,315
11,355
11,356
11,439
11,442
11,436

2,641
2,655
2,661
2,666
2,670
2,679

7,256
7,287
7,287
7,307
7,326
7,357

8,351
8,354
8,549
8,569
8,475
8,497

54, 514
54,403
54,301
54,190
53, 995
53,707

16,813
16,701
16,619
16,489
16,351
16,174

9,451
9,377
9,322
9,208
9,111
8,988

7,362
7,324
7,297
7,281
7,240
7,186

698
706
700
698
693
679

2,928
2,902
2,879
2,877
2,832
2,757

4,031
4,022
4,008
3,991
3,976
3,950

11,465
11,455
11,422
11,423
11. 371
11,334

2,685
2,696
2,704
2,707
2,719
2,723

7,398
7,402
7,400
7,415
7,431
7,447

8,496
8,519
8,569
8,590
8,622
8,643

See footnotes at end of table.




201

T A B L E C-25.—Number of wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments, 1929-621
Continued
[Thousands of employees]

Year or month

Total
wage
and
salary
workers

Manufacturing

Total

TransCon- porta- Wholetract tion
sale
Non- Min- con- and
and
Dura- dura- ing struc- public retail
ble
tion utili- trade
ble
goods goods
ties

Finance,
insurance,
and
real,
estate

Service
and
miscellaneous

Government
(Federal,
State,
and
local)

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January
February. __
March
April
May
June
.

53,581
53,485
53, 561
53,663
53,894
54,182

16,021
15, 962
16,023
16,119
16,275
16,373

8,863
8,797
8,820
8,904
9,058
9,114

7,158
7,165
7,203
7,215
7,217
7,259

672
667
668
666
670
669

2,773
2,765
2,792
2,766
2,742
2,795

3,931
3,922
3,919
3,901
3,903
3,914

11,347
11,296
11,252
11,320
11, 355
11, 392

2,727
2,731
2,732
2,732
2,739
2,747

7,439
7,460
7,463
7,425
7,436
7,471

8,671
8,682
8.712
8,734
8,774
8,821

July
August
September..
October
November-.
December. _

54,335
54,333
54,304
54, 385
54,525
54,492

16,392
16,381
16, 323
16.361
16,466
16,513

9,138
9,131
9,105
9,112
9,213
9,244

7,254
7,250
7,218
7,249
7,253
7,269

672
665
666
661
665
654

2,776
2,770
2,754
2,758
2,719
2,699

3,942
3,939
3,939
3,929
3,927
3,911

11,437
11,410
11,363
11, 365
11,374
11,366

2,748
2,7'57
2,756
2,764
2,771
2,770

7,533
7,546
7,567
7,580
7,611
7,642

8,835
8,865
8,936
8,967
8,992
8,937

1962: January
February.._
March
_
April
May
June..
July
August
September..
October
November».
December 3_

54,434
54,773
54,901
55,260
55,403
55,535

16,456
16,572
16,682
16,848
16,891
16,923

9,217
9,312
9,385
9,490
9,544
9.555

7,239
7,260
7,297
7,358
7,347
7,368

653
653
654
656
659
652

2,594
2,694
2,648
2,734
2,716
2,671

3,906
3,914
3,927
3,935
3,936
3,934

11,384
11,447
11.460
11, 546
11,596
11,621

2,772
2,774
2,776
2,778
2,786
2,788

7,640
7,675
7,681
7,675
7,692
7,749

55,617
55,536
55,583
55,647
55,577
55,594

16,908
16,795
16,805
16,781
16,676
16,684

9,552 7,356
9,461 7,334
9,486 7,319
9,470 7,311
9,407 7,269
9,439 7,245

648
646
641
638
638
626

2,738
2,731
2,715
2,716
2,698
2,659

3,913
3,932
3,928
3,935
3,920
3,920

11, 652
11,627
11,612
11,594
11,592
11,577

2,792
2,796
2,799
2,813
2,820
2,817

7,783
7,805
7,809
7,831
7,847
7,880

9,029
9,044
9,073
9,088
9,127
9,197
9,183
9,204
9,274
9,339
9,386
9,431

1 Includes all full- and part-time wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments who worked
during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period ending nearest the 15th of the month. Excludes
proprietors, self-employed persons, domestic servants, and unpaid family workers. Not comparable with
estimates of nonagricultural employment of the civilian labor force (Table C-19) which include proprietors,
self-employed persons, domestic servants, and unpaid family workers; which count persons as employed
when they are not at work because of industrial disputes, bad weather, etc.; and which are based on a
sample survey of households, whereas the estimates in this table are based on reports from employing
establishments.
2
3 Not available.
Preliminary.
NOTE.—Data are based on the 1957 Standard Industrial Classification and March 1959 benchmark data.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
8ourc?: Department of Labor.




202

TABLE C-26.—Average weekly hours of work in selected industries, 1929-62
Retail

Manufacturing

Year or month

trade
Con- (except
tract eating Whole- Bitumi- Class I
nous
consale
rail- l
coal
and
Durable Non- strucTotal goods durable tion drink- trade mining roads
goods
ing

Telephone
communication 2

places)

1929—

44.2

1930—
1931—
1932—
1933—
1934—
1935—
1936—
1937—1938—
1939—
1940—
1941—
1942—
1943—
1944—
1945—
1946—
1947—
1948—
1949—
1950—
1951—
1952—
1953—
1954—
1955—
1956—
1957—
1958—
1959—
1960—

42.1
40.5
38.3
38.1
34.6
36.6
39.2
38.6
35.6
37.7
38.1
40.6
43.1
45.0
45.2
43.5
40.3
40.4
40.0
39.1
40.5
40.6
40.7
40.5
39.6
40.7
40.4
39.8
39.2
40.3
39.7
39.8
40.4

1961...
1962«..

()

32.5
34.7
33.8
37.2
40.9
39.9
34.9
37.9
39.2
42.0
45.0
46.5
46.5
44.0
40.4
40.5
40.4
39.4
41.1
41.5
41.5
41.2
40.1
41.3
41.0
40.3
39.5
40.7
40.1
40.2
40.9

()

41.9
40.0
35.1
36.1
37.7
37.4
36.1
37.4
37.0
38.9
40.3
42.5
43.1
42.3
40.5
40.2
39.6
38.9
39.7
39.5
39.7
39.6
39.0
39.9
39.6
39.2
38.8
39.7
39.2
39.3
39.7

()

38.2
38.1
37.7
37.4
38.1
38.9
37.9
37.2
37.1
37.5
37.0
36.8
37.0
36.7
36.9
36.8

39.7
39.6
39.1
38.7
38.7
38.7
38.5
38.1
37.9

41.6
42.9
43.1
42.3
41.8
41.3
41.1
41.4
42.3
43.0
42.8
41.6
41.1
41.0
40.8
40.7
40.8
40.7
40.6
40.5
40.7
40.5
40.3
40.2
40.6
40. 5
40.5
40.6

Seasonally adjusted

1961: January...
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September .
October
November December-1962: January
February. _
March
April
May
June
July
AugustSeptember..
October 5
November 5_
December _

39.0
39.3
39.3
39.7
39.8
39.9
40.0
40.0
39. C
40.2 I
40.6
40.4
39.8
40.3
40.5
40.8
40.6
40.5
40.5
40.2
40.5
40.1
40.4
40.3

39.3
39.6
39.7
40.0
40.2
40.4
40.5
40.5
39.8
40.6
41.2
41.2
40.3
40.9
41.0
41.3
41.1
41.0
41.0
40.9
41.0
40.7
41.0
41.0

38.7
38.8
39.1
39.3
39.3
39.5
39.5
39.3
39.2
39.6
39.7
',9.7
39.2
39.5
39.9
40.2
40.1
40.0
39.8
39.4
39.7
39.3
39.4
39.7

37.5
38.1
36.9
35.7
36.3
36.8
36.9
37.1
36.7
37.2
37.5
35.5
34.4
37.0
37.3
36.6
37.5
36.7
37.4
37.3
37.7
37.2
37.3
(3)

38.1
33.3
28.1
27.0
29.3
26.8
26.2
28.5
27.7
23.3
26.8
27.8
30.7
32.4
36.3
43.0
42.0
41.3
40.3
37.7
32.3
34.7
34.9
33.8
34.1
32.3
37.3
37.5
36.3
33.3
35.8
35.8
35.9
36.9

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

43.7
44.3
45.8
47.0
48.7
48.9
48.5
46.0
46.4
46.2
43.7
40.8
41.0
40.6
40.6
40.8
41.9
41.7
41.7
41.6
41.9
41.7
42.1
3
()

()

38.8
38.9
39.1
39.5
40.1
40.5
41.9
42.3
4 41. 7
39.4
37.4
39.2
38.5
38.9
39.1
38.5
38.7
38.9
39.6
39.5
39.0
38.4
39.2
39.6
39.4
40.0

Unadjusted
38.3
38.4
38.2
38.2
38.3
38.1
38.2
37.9
38.0
38.0
37.9
38.1
37.9
38.0
38.0
37.8
38.0
37.9
37.9
37.9
38.0
37.8
37.9

40.4
40.3
40.5
40.6
40.6
40.7

35.3
34.7
31.4
32.9
34.7
37.0
38.0
36.8
36.8
37.9
37.7
37.8
37.6
37.9
37.7
37.3
35.2
37.4

41.1
42.6
42.2
40.4
43.0
43.0
41.6
43.2
41.9
42.1
42.8
41.8
42.9
42.9
42.5
41.8
43.1
42.4

40.8
40.7
40.7
40.6
40.6

36.5
36.2
36.9
36.2

(')
(3)

40.3
40.1
40.2
40.3
40.3
40.6
40.7
40.6
40-5
40.6
40.6
40.8

(3)

39.0
39.1
38.8
38.7
38.9
39.2
39.6
39.5
40.3
40.1
39.7
39.5
39.3
39.4
39.3
39.2
39.4
39.7
40.3
40.2
40.6
40.5
41.2

1
Based upon data summarized in the M-300 report by the Interstate Commerce Commission. Hours
and earnings data relate to all employees who received pay during the month, except executives, officials
and staff assistants.
2
Prior to April 1945, data relate to all employees except executives. See footnote 2, Table C-27.
3
Not available.
4
Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
« Preliminary.
NOTE.—See Note, Table C-25.
Data are for production workers in manufacturing and mining, construction workers in contract
construction, and for nonsupervisory employees in other industries (except as noted). Data are for pay
period ending nearest the 15th of the month.
The annual figures for 1962 are simple arithmetic averages of the monthly figures shown and are not
strictly comparable with the averages for earlier years, which have been weighted by data on employment.
See Table C-29 for unadjusted average weekly hours in manufacturing.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
Source: Department of Labor.




203

TABLE C-27.—Average gross hourly earnings in selected industries, 1929-62
Manufacturing
Year or month
Total
1929
1930.
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948.
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954.
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

-

-

-

—

_

-

—
—

I960
1961
1962«

1961: January
FebruaryMarch
April
May
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December._.
1962: January
February....
March
April
May
June
July
August
September.
October
November«_
December 6 .

Durable
goods

$0. 560
.546
.509
()
.441 $0.492
.437
.467
.526
.550
.544
.571
.580
.550
.667
.617
.679
.620
.691
.627
.716
.655
.799
.726
.851
.937
.957
1.048
1.011
1.105
1.099
1.016
1.144
1.075
1.278
1.217
1.395
1.328
1.453
1.378
1.440
1.519
1.56
1.65
1.65
1.75
1.74
1.86
1.90
1.78
1.99
1.86
2.08
1.95
2.19
2.05
2.26
2.11
2.36
2.19
2.43
2.26
2.49
2.32
2.57
2.39
2.29
2.45
2.29
2.45
2.29
2.46
2.31
2.47
2.32
2.48
2.32
2.49
2.49
2.33
2.48
2.31
2.50
2.33
2.51
2.34
2.54
2.36
2.55
2.38
2.56
2.39
2.55
2.38
2.56
2.38
2.56
2.39
2.56
2.39
2.56
2.39
2.56
2.39
2.54
2.37
2.40
2.57
2 40
2.57
2.41
2.59
2.42
2.60

Nondurable
goods

Retail
Contrade
TeleBitutract (except Whole- minous Class I phone Agriconcomeating
sale
culrailcoal
struc- and
trade mining roads i munica- tures
tion 2
tion drinking
places)

()
(O

(4>

&0. 412
.419
.505
.520
.519
.566
.572
.571
.590
.627
.709
.787
.844
.886
.995
1.145
1.250
1.295
1.347
1.44
1.51
1.58
1.62
1.67
1.77
1.85
1.91
1.98
2.05
2.11
2.17
2.09
2.09
2.09
2.10
2.11
2.11
2.12
2.10
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.15
2.16
2.16
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.16
2.17
2,17
2.19
2.19

$0.610
.628
.658
.674
()
$0. 484
.688
.494
.711
.518
.763
.559
.828
.606
.898
.653
.948
.699.
.990
.797
1.107
()
.901
1.220
$1. 541
.972
1.308
1.713
1.015
1.360
1.792
1.050
1.863
1.427
2.02
1.52
1.13
2.13
1.18
1.61
2.28
1.25
1.70
1.29
2.39
1.76
1.83
2.45
1.34
1.94
2.57
1.40
2.02
2.71
1.47
2.09
2.82
1.52
2.19
2.93
1.57
1.62
3.07
2.25
3.19
1.68
2.31
3.28
2.37
1.75
1.66
3.17
2.28
1.65
3.16
2.28
1.65
3.14
2.28
1.67
3.15
2.30
1.68
3.16
2.30
1.69
3.16
2.32
2.32
3.16
1.69
2.31
3.17
1.69
2.34
1.70
3.22
2.33
1.71
3.22
2.34
1.71
3.24
2.34
1.69
3.29
1.72
3.33
2.33
1.73
3.23
2.34
1.73
3.27
2.35
1.74
3.27
2.36
3.24
2.37
1.75
3.23
2.38
1.75
2.38
1.75
3.27
2.38
1.75
3.28
2.41
1.76
3.33
2.39
1 77
3 32
2.40
1.77
3.33

1
2

$0. 659
.662
.626
.503
.485
.651
.720
.768
.828
.849
(
.858 $0.730
.854
.733
.960
.743
1.030
.837
1.101
.852
1.147
.948
1.199
.955
1.087
1.357
1.186
1.582
1.301
1.835
1.427
1.877
1.572
1.944
1.73
2.14
2.22
1.83
2.40
1.88
2.40
1.93
2.47
1.96
2.72
2.12
2.92
2.26
2.9?
2.44
3.U
2.54
2.61
3.15
3.14
2.67
3.13
(4)
3.14
2.65
3.12
2.70
3.10
2.64
3.12
2.68
3.12
2.65
3.17
2.66
2.68
3.17
2.65
3.14
2.69
3.15
2.67
3.13
2.68
3.14
2.69
3.14
3.15
2.67
2.73
3.13
2.67
3.15
2.68
3.15
2.66
3.11
2.72
3.13
(4)
3.13
3.16
3.12
3.10

$0.241
.226
.172
.129
.115
.129

()
$0. 774
.816
.822
.827
.820
.843
.870
.911

.142
.152
.172
.166
.166
.169
.206
.268
.353
.423

s.962
1.124
1.197
1. 248
1.345

.472
.515
.547
.580
.559

1.398
1.49
1.59
1.68
1.76

.561
.625
.661
.672
.661

1.82
1.86
1.95
2.05
2.18

.675
.705
.728
.757
.798

2.26
2.37
2.47

.818
.834
.856

2.32
2.32
2.32
2.33
2.34
2.35

.909

2.36
2.37
2.42
2.41
2.43
2.44

.825

2.44
2.44
2.44
2.44
2.44
2.46

.932

2.47
2.47
2.52
2.52
2.50

.848

.757

.843

"779

For coverage of series, see footnote 1, Table C-26.
Prior to April 1945, data relate to all employees except executives; for April 1945-May 1949, mainly to
employees subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act; and beginning June 1949, to nonsupervisory employees
only.
* Weighted average of all farm wage rates on a per hour basis.
• Not available.
« Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
•Preliminary.
NOTE.— See Note, Table C-25.
Data are for production workers in manufacturing and mining, construction workers in contract construction, and for all nonsupervisory employees in other industries (except as noted). Data are for pay
period ending nearest the 15th of the month.
The annual figures for 1962 are simple arithmetic averages of the monthly figures shown and are not
strictly comparable with the averages for earlier years, which have been weighted by data on man-hours.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
Sources: Department of Labor and Department of Agriculturt.




204

TABLE C-28.—Average gross weekly earnings in selected industries, 1929-62
Manufacturing

Year or month
Total

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961___
1962 5
1961: January
F e b r u a r y . _.
March
April
._.
May
June
July
_._.
August
September..
October
November..
December. _.
1962: January
February-..
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November ».
December «
_

$24. 76
23.00
20.64
16.89
16.65
18.20
19.91
21.56
23.82
22.07
23.64
24.96
29.48
36.68
43.07
45.70
44.20
43.32
49.17
53.12
53.88
58.32
63.34
67.16
70.47
70.49
75.70
78.78
81.59
82.71
88.26
89.72
92.34
96.56
89.31
89.54
90.78
92.10
93.03
93.20
92.86
92.73
94.54
95.82
96.63
94.88
95.20
95.91
96.56
96.80
97.27
96.80
95.75
97.68
96.72
97.36
98.01

Durable
goods

$26.84
24.42
20.98
15.99
16.20
18.59
21.24
23.72
26.61
23.70
26.19
28.07
33.56
42.17
48.73
51.38
48.36
46.22
51.76
56.36
57.25
62.43
68.48
72.63
76.63
76.19
82.19
85.28
89.27
96.05
97.44
100.10
105.11
96.29
96.29
97.17
98.31
99.70
101.09
100.35
100. 44
100.00
102.66
104. 39
105. 32
103.17
103. 53
104. 45
105. 22
105. 22
105.47
104. 45
103.89
105.88
105.37
105.93
106.86

Contract
conNonstrucdurable tion
goods

$22.47
21.40
20.09
17.26
16.76
17.73
18.77
19.57
21.17
20.65
21.36
21.83
24.39
28.57
33.45
37.48
40.30
46.03
49.50
50.38
53.48
56.88
59.95
62.57
63.18
66.63
70.09
72.52
74.11
78.61
80.36
82.92
86.15
80.47
80.47
80.88
81.27
82.29
83.56
84.16
83.58
83.74
84.77
85.39
85.57
84.24
84.28
85.32
85.54
86.37
87.02
86.80
86.18
86.80
85.72
86.72
87.16

()
$58.87
65.27
67.56
69.68
76.96
82.86
86.41
88.91
90.90
96.38
100.27
103. 78
108.41
112.67
117. 71
120.70
115.39
114.08
112. 41
112.77
116. 29
119.13
119.76
122.05
120.43
123. 00
118.26
114. 82
111. 22
113. 37
118.05
120.01
123. 44
121. 45
125. 57
127. 26
128. 21
126. 82
120. 88

Retail
trade
(excent Whole- Bituminous Class I
eating:
sale
railcoal
and
trade mining roads *
drinking
places)

()
$21. 01
21.34
22.17
23.37
24.79
26.77
28.59
32.92
36.94
39.75
41. 62
43.16
46.22
47.79
49.75
51.21
53.06
54.74
56.89
58.82
60.76
62.37
64.01
66.33
63.25
62.87
62.70
63.46
63.84
64.90
65.57
65.23
64.60
64.64
64.13
64.73
64.84
65.22
65.39
65.42
65.98
66.85
67.38
67.55
66.88
66.55
66.38

C3)
(3)
$26. 75
25.19
25.44
25.38
26.96
28.36
28.51
28.76
29.36
31.36
34.28
37.99
40.76
42.37
46.05
50.14
53.63
55.49
58.08
62.02
65.53
69.02
71.28
74.48
78.57
81.41
84.02
88.91
91.13
93.56
96.22
91.88
91.43
91.66
92.69
92.69
94.19
94.42
93.79
94.77
94.60
95.00
95.47
94.13
94.30
95.18
95.82
96.22
96.87
97.10
96.87
98.09
97.03
97.44

$25.11
22.04
17.59
13.58
14.21
17.45
18.86
21.89
22.94
19.78
22.99
23.74
29.47
33.37
39.97
49.32
50.36
56.04
63.75
69.18
60.63
67.46
74.69
75.04
81.84
77.52
92.13
102. 00
106.00
97.57
111. 70
112.77
112.73
114.60
110.84
108. 26
97.34
102. 65
108. 26
117.29
120.46
115. 55
115. 92
118. 63
118.38
118.69
118.44
118. 63
118.76
117. 50
109. 47
117.06
103.60
114. 25
114.39
115.13
112.22

Telephone
communication2

()
$30.03
31.74
32.14
32.67
32.88
34.14
36.45
38.54
* 40.12
44.29
44.77
48.92
51.78
54.38
58.26
61.22
65.02
68.46
72.07
73.47
76.05
78.72
85.46
89.50
93.38
98.80
90.48
90.71
90.02
90.17
91.03
92.12
93.46
93.62
97.53
96.64
96.47
96.38
95.89
96.14
95.89
95.65
96.14
97.66
99.54
99.29
102.31
102.06
103.00
)

1
2

For coverage of series, see footnote 1, Table C-26.
Prior to April 1945, data relate to all employees except executives; for April 1945-May 1949, mainly to
employees subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act; and beginning June 1949, tononsupervisory employees
only.
3
Not available.
4
Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
f
Preliminary.
NOTE.—See Note, Table C-25.
Data are for production workers in manufacturing and mining, construction workers in contract construction, and for nonsupervisory employees in other industries (except as noted). Data are for pay period
ending nearest the 15th of the month.
The annual figures for 1962 are simple arithmetic averages of the monthly figures shown and are not
strictly comparable with the averages for earlier years, which have been weighted by data on man-hours.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
Source: Department of Labor.




205

TABLE C-29.—Average weekly hours and hourly earnings, gross and excluding overtime, in
manufacturing industries, 1939-62
All manufacturing industries
Average
weekly
hours

Average
weekly
hours

Average hourly
earnings

Year or month

Exclud-

Exclud-

overtime

overtime

Gross ing Gross ing

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
•
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962*
1961: January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December...
1962: January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November *.
December *.

Durable goods manufac- Nondurable goods manuturing industries
facturing industries

37.7
$0.627 0)
.655 0)
38.1
.726$0.
40.6
3.691
.851 .793
43.1
.957 .881
45.0
45.2
1.011 .933
1.016 3.949
43.5
1.075 1.035
40.3
1.217 1.18
40.4
40.0
1.328 1.29
39.1
1.378 1.34
1.440 1.39
40.5
40.6
1.56 1.51
40.7
1.65 1.59
40.5
1.74 1.68
39.6
1.78 1.73
40.7
1.86 1.79
40.4
1.95 1.89
39.8
2.05 1.99
39.2
2.11 2.05
40.3
2.19 2.12
39.7 37.3 2.26 2.20
39.8 37.4 2.32 2.25
2.31
40.4 37.6
38.9 37.0 2.29 2.24
39.0 37.1 2.29 2.23
39.1 37.1 2.29 2.24
39.3 37.2 2.31 2.25
39.7 37.5 2.32 2.25
40.1 37.7 2.32 2.25
40.0 37.5 2.33 2.26
40.2 37.6 2.31 2.24
39.8 37.0 2.33 2.25
40.4 37.6 2.34 2.26
40.6 37.7 2.36 2.28
40.6 37.7 2.38 2.30
39.7 87.1 2.39 2.31
40.0 37.5 2.38 2.31
40.3 37.7 2.38 2.31
40.4 37.7 2.39 2.31
40.5 37.7 2.39 2.31
40.7 37.8 2.39 2.31
40.5 37.7 2.39 2.31
40.4 37.6 2.37 2.29
40.7 37.7 2.40 2.31
40.3 37.5 2.40 2.32
40.4 '37.5 2.41 2.33
40.5 37.5 2.42 2.34

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings

Excluding
overExExExExtime
cludcludcludcludand Gross ing Gross ing Gross ing Gross ing
interoveroveroveroverindustime
time
time
time
try shift
(195759=100)
32.2

0)
2 33.4
2 37.5
2 40.8
2 43.7
2 45.5
2 50.4
57.8
63.2
66.1
68.2
73.6
77.4
81.6
84.3
86.9
91.5
96.2
100.2
103.6
107.0
110.0
1J2.5
109.0
109.0
109.2
109.6
109.8
109.9
110.1
109.8
110.1
110.7
111.2
111.7
111.7
111.7
112.2
112.2
112.2
112.2
112.7
112.7
112.7
113.2
113.7

37.9
39.2
42.0
45.0
46.5
46.5
44.0
40.4
40.5
40.4
39.4
41.1
41.5
41.5
41.2
40.1
41.3
41.0
40.3
39.5
40.7
40.1
40.2
40.9
39.3
39.3
39.5
39.8
40.2
40.6
40.3
40.5
40.0
40.9
41.1
41.3
40.3
40.6
40.8
41.1
41.1
41.2
40.8
40.
41.2
41.0
40.9
41.1

37.7
37.9
38.1
37.5
37.5
37.7
37.8
38.1
38.3
38.0
38.0
37.3

37.7
38.1
38.1
38.4
38.3
38.2
38.0
38.0
38.1
38.1
37.9
37.9

$0.691
.716
799 $0.762
.937 .872
1.048 .966
1.105 1.019
1.099 31.031
1.144 1.111
1.278 1.24
1.395 1.35
1.453 1.42
1.519 1.46
1.65 1.59
1.75 1.68
1.86 1.79
1.90 1.84
1.99 1.91
2.08 2.01
2.19 2.12
2.26 2.21
2.36 2.28
2.43 2.36
2.49 2.42
2.57 2.48
2.45 2.39
2.45 2.39
2.46 2.40
2.47 2.41
2.48 2.42
2.49 2.42
2.49 2.42
2.48 2.41
2.50 2.41
2.51 2.43
2.54 2.45
2.55 2.46
2.56 2.48
2.55 2.47
2.56 2.48
2.56 2.48
2.56 2.47
2.56 2.47
2.56 2.47
2.54 2.46
2.57 2.48
2.57 2.48
2.59 2.50
2.60 2.50

37.4

37.0
38.9
40.3
42.5
43.1
42.3
40.5
40.2
39.6
38.9
39.7
39.5
39.7
39.6
39.0
39.9
39.6
39.2
38.8
39.7
39.2
39.3
39.7
38.5
38.5
38.7
38.7
39.0
39.6
39.
39.8
39.5
39.8
39.9
39.8
39.0
39.2
39.
39.6
39.8
40.1
40.0
39.9
40.0
39.5
39.6
39.8

()

37.2
37.0
36.6
37.0
36.7
36.8
37.0
36.4
36.4
36.5
36.5
36.7
37.0
37.1
37.0
36.6
36.9
37.1
37.1
36.5
36.7
36.9
37.0
37.0
37.2
37.2
37.2
37.1
36.8
36.8
37.1

$0.571 0)
.590 0)
627 $0,613
.709 .684
.787 .748
.844 .798
.886 ».841
.995 .962
.145 1.11
.250 1.21
.295 1.26
.347 .31
.44
.40
.46
.51
.53
.58
.58
.62
.67
.62
.77
.72
.85
.91
91
2.05 1.99
2.11 2.05
2.17 2.10
2.09 2.04
2.09 2.03
2.09 2.04
2.10 2.05
2.11 2.05
2.11 2.04
2.12 2.05
2.10 2.03
2.12 2.05
2.13 2.06
2.14 2.06
2.15 2.08
2.16 2.09
2.15 2.08
2.16 2.09
2.16 2.09
2.17 2.09
2.17 2.10
2.17 2.10
2.16 2.09
2.17 2.10
2.17 2.10
2.19 2.11
2.19 2.12

0)
» Not available.
April used. Annual average not available.
Eleven-month average; August 1945 excluded because of VJ Day holiday period.
* Preliminary.
NOTE.—Series revised; see Note, Table C-25.
Data relate to production workers and are for pay period ending nearest the 15th of the month.
The annualfiguresfor 1962 are simple arithmetic averages of the monthly figures shown and are not
strictly comparable with the averages for earlier years, which have been weighted by data on employment
(In the case of hours) and man-hours (in the case of earnings).
See Table C-26 for seasonally adjusted average gross weekly hours.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
2
3

Source: Department of Labor.




206

T A B L E C-30.—Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, in manufacturing industries,
in current and 1962 prices, 1939-62
Average gross weekly
earnings
Year or month
Current
prices

1962
prices i

Average spendable weekly earnings 2
Worker with no
dependents
Current
prices

1962
prices 1

Worker with three
dependents
Current
prices

1962
prices 1

$23.64

$51.50

$23.37

$50.92

$23.40

$50.98

24.96
29.48
36.68
43.07
45.70

53.91
60.53
68.05
75. 30
78.52

24.46
27.96
31.80
35.95
37.99

52.83
57.41
59.00
62.85
65.27

24.71
29.19
36.31
41.33
43.76

53.37
59.94
67.37
72.26
75.19

44.20
43.32
49.17
53.12
53.88

74.29
67.16
66.63
66.82
68.46

36.82
37.31
42.10
46.57
47.21

61.88
57.84
57.05
58.58
59.99

42.59
42.79
47.58
52.31
52.95

71.58
66.34
64.47
65.80
67.28

58.32
63.34
67.16
70.47
70.49

73.36
73.74
76.49
79.72
79. 38.

50.26
52.97
55.04
57.59
58.45

63.22
61.66
62.69
65.15
65.82

56.36
60.18
62.98
65.60
65.65

70.89
70.06
71.73
74.21
73.93

75.70
78.78
81.59
82.71
88.26

85.54
87.73
87.73
86.61
91.65

62.51
64.92
66.93
67.82
71.89

70.63
72.29
71.97
71.02
74.65

69.79
72.25
74.31
75.23
79.40

78.86
80.46
79.90
78.77
82.45

89.72
92.34
96. 56

91.74
93.37
96.56

72.57
74.60
77.87

74.20
75.43
77.87

80.11
82.18
85.55

81.91
83.09
85.55

February
March..
April
May_
June

89.08
89.31
89.54
90.78
92.10
93.03

90.44
90.58
90.81
92.07
93.50
94.26

72.08
72.26
72.43
73.39
74.41
75.15

73.18
73.29
73.46
74.43
75.54
76.14

79.60
79.78
79.97
80.95
81.99
82. 74

80.81
80.91
81.11
82.10
83.24
83.83

July .
August
September
October
November. _
December

93.20
92.86
92.73
94.54
95.82
96.63

94.05
93.80
93.48
95.30
96.59
97.51

75.29
75.01
74.91
76.36
77.39
78.04

75.97
75.77
75.51
76.98
78.01
78.75

82.88
82.61
82.50
83.98
85.03
85.70

83.63
83.44
83.17
84.66
85.72
86.48

94.88
95.20
95.91
96.56
96.80
97.27

95.74
95.77
96.30
96.75
96.99
97.37

76.51
76.77
77.34
77.86
78.05
78.43

77.20
77.23
77.65
78.02
78-21
78.51

84.15
84.41
85.00
85.53
85.73
86.11

84.91
84.92
85.34
85.70
85.90
86.20

96.80
95.75
97.68
96.72
97.36
98.01

96.70
95.65
97.00
96.14
96.78

78.05
77.21
78.76
77.99
78.50
79.02

77.97
77.13
78.21
77.52
78.03

85.73
84.87
86.45
85.66
86.19
86.72

85.64
84.79
85.85
85.15
85.68

1939

.

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

__

.

_ _ _

_
-

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

I960
1961
1962 3

_

-

.

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

__
_--

_
_

.

.- _

_

.-

_.

1961' J a n u a r y

__ ._

1962: January.
February
March
April

__.

May

June.

_ _- _

July
August
September
October 3
November 3
December

-

-

1
2
3
4

Estimates in current prices divided by the consumer price index on a 1962 base (using 11-month average).
Average gross weekly earnings less social security and income taxes.
Preliminary.
Not available.
NOTE.—Series revised; see Note, Table C-25.
Data relate to production workers and are for pay period ending nearest the 15th of the month.
The annual figures for 1962 are simple arithmetic averages of the monthly figures shown and are not
strictly comparable with the averages for earlier years, which have been weighted by data on man-hours.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
Source: Department of Labor.




207

TABLE G-31.—Labor turnover rates in manufacturing industries, 1930-62
[Rates per 100 employees]
Year or month

Separation rates

Accession rates
Total i

New hires

()

Quits

Layoffs

5.9
4.8
5.2
4.5
4.9

1.9
1.1
.9
1.1
1.1

3.6
3.5
4.2
3.2
3.7

Total 2

1930-.
1931-.
1932..
1933..
1934..

3.8
3.7
4.1
6.5
5.7

1935..
1936-.
1937-.
1938..
1939-.

5.1
5.3
4.3
4.7
5.0

4.3
4.0
5.2
4.8
3.7

1.1
1.3
1.5
.8
1.0

3.0
2.4
3.5
3.9
2.6

1940-.
1941..
1942-.
1943-.
1944.,

5.4
6.5
9.3
9.1
7.4

4.0
4.7
7.8
8.6
8.1

1.1
2.4
4.6
6.3
6.2

2.6
1.6
1.3
.7
77

1945.
1946-.
1947,
1948.,
1949.,

7.7
8.1
6.2
5.4
4.3

9.6
7.2
5.7
5.4
5.0

6.1
5.2
4.1
3.4
1.9

2.6
1.4
1.1
1.6
2.9

1950-.
1951..
1952-,
1953..
1954..

5.3
5.3
5.4
4.8

4.1
4.1
3.6
1.9

4.1
5.3
4.9
5.1
4.1

2.3
2.9
2.8
2.8
1.4

1.3
1.4
1.4
1.6
2.3

1955..
1956_.
1957..
1958..
1959..

4.5
4.2
3.6
3.6
4.2

3.0
2.8
2.2
1.7
2.6

3.9
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1

1.9
1.9
1.6
1.1
1.5

1.5
1.7
2.1
2.6
2.0

I960..
19611962 f

3.8
4.1
4.2

2.2
2.2
2.6

4.3
4.0
4.1

1.3
1.2
1.5

2.4
2.2
1.9

8

8

I

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January
February...
March
April
May
June.--

4.0
3.8
4.6
4.4
4.2
3.9

1.8
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.1

4.7
4.5
4.2
3.5
3.8
4.0

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.2
1.2

2.9
2.9
2.3
1.9
2.0
2.2

July
—
August
SeptemberOctober
NovemberDecember.-

4.0
4.1
3.7
4.4
4.0
3.8

2.2
2.3
2.2
2.5
2.4
2.5

4.3
3.8
4.1
3.6
3.9
4.1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4

2.5
1.9
2.2
1.7
1.8
2.1

1962: January
February. __
March
April
May_
June
__.

4.4
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.3
3.9

2.6
2.4
2.7
2.7
2.9
2.5

3.9
3.9
3.8
3.7
4.1
4.3

1.4
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.6
1.5

1.9
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0

July
August
September..
October
November 5,

4.1
4.0
3.8
4.0
3.5

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2

4.6
4.8
4.1
3.8
3.8

1.3
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3

2.4
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.8

1 Includes rehires and other accessions, not published separately.
2 Includes discharges and miscellaneous separations, not published separately. (Prior to 1940 quits
include miscellaneous separations.)
3 Not available.
* January-November average.
8 Preliminary.
NOTE—See Note, Table 0-25.
Beginning January 1943, data relate to all employees; previously to production workers only.
Beginning January 1959, transfers between establishments of the same firm are included in total accessions
and total separations, therefore rates for these items are not strictly comparable with prior data.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January 1959.
Source: Department of Labor.




208

TABLE C-32.—Indexes of output per man-hour and related data, 1947-62
[1957-59=100]

Output per man-hour

Year

Output»
Nonagricultural
industries

Nonagricultural
industries
Total Agripri- culvate ture

ManufacTotal turing

Man-hours

Total AgriNon- pri- culManman-' vate ture
ufacufacTotal turturing
ing

Nonagricultural
industries

Total AgriNon- pri- culManman- vate ture
ufacufacTotal turturing
ing

Nonmanufacturing

Establishment basis 2
1947...
1948...
1949...

70.9
73.4
75.5

50.2
59.6
56.8

76.3
77.9
80.8

74.8
76.8
78.5

76.8
78 2
82.0

68.4
71.2
70.8

81.2
92.8
88.0

67.7
70.0
69.8

71.1
72.6
67.6

65.9
68.7
71.0

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...

80.9
82.9
84.7
88.2
89.7

64.7
64.0
69.9
77.8
83.4

85.1
86.5
87.6
90.0
91.4

83.7
85.2
86.4
90.6
89.8

85.6
86.8
87.8
89.0
92.0

77.3
82.0
84.4
88.6
87.2

92.8
87.0
90.4
93.7
97.6

76.4
81.7
84.1
88.3
86.6

78.3
85.7
88.4
97.3
88.1

75.5 95.6 143.4
79.6 98.9 136.0
81.9 99.6 129.4
83.7 100.5 120. 5
85.8 97.2 117.0

96.5 161.8
97.0 155.8
93.8 154.8

1955...
1956.._
1957...
1958...
1959.__

93.8 86.4 95.3 96.0 94.6 95.0
93.9 88.3 94.9 97.1 93.4 97.0
97.2 94.2 97.5 97.2 97.6 98.9
99.6 103.0 99.4 98.9 99.7 97.0
103.3 102.8 103.1 103.7 102.7 104.1

I960...
1961.__
1962 3..

105.3 109.3 104. 8 106.1 104.2 106.9 104.8 107.0 107.1 107.0 101.5
108.9 117.9 107.9 110.7 106.8 108.6 106.2 108.8 108.6 108.9 99.7
113.4 121.8 112.1 114.9 110.6 114.4 107.2 114.9 117.3 113.6 100.9

102.9 94.5 99.5 92.0
100.5 96.8 102.1 94.1
99.0 98.9 100.7 98.0
100.5 96.8 94.2 98.1
100.0 104.3 105.0 103.9

95.1
94.5
86.1

85.8
87.9
86.6

89.8 93.5
94.4 100.6
96.0 102.3
98.1 107.4
94.8 98.1

88.2
91.7
93.3
94.0

88.7
89.9
86.4

101.3 119.1 99.2 103.6 97.3
103.3 113.8 102.0 105.2 100.7
101.8 105.1 101.4 103.6 100.4
97.4 97.6 97.4 95.2 98.4
100.8 97.3 101.2 101.3 101.2
95.9 102.1 100.9 102.7
90.1 100.8 98.1 102.0
88.0 102.5 102.1 102.7

Labor force basis4
1947...
1948...
1949...

68.5
70.6
72.0

50.2
59.6
56.4

73.8
74.5
76.9

(8)

(8)

00

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...

77.5
81.1
83.7
87.5
89.7

64.5
63.6
69.4
77.3
83.0

81.4
84.7
86.7
89.5
91.5

(5)

8

( )
(5)
(8)
(6)

(8)

1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959...

94.1 85.9 95.8
94.4 87.8 95.7
97.5 94.2 98.0
99.1 103.1 98.8
103.4 102.7 103.2

(8)
(5)

(5)
(5)
(6)

1960...
1961. _.
1962 3..

104.9 109.3 104.2
107.4 118.4 106.0
111.2 122.1 109.5

(8)
(8)
(8)

8

(8)
(5)
(5)

(5)

i
(8)
(5)
(5)
(8)
(8)

68.4
71.2
70.8

81.2
92.8
88.0

67.7
70.0
69.8

(8)
(8)
(8)

(8)
(5)

77.3
82.0
84.4
88.6
87.2

92.8
87.0
90.4
93.7
97.6

76.4
81.7
84.1
88.3
86.6

(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)

(5)

102.9 94.5
100.5 96.8
99.0 98.9
100.5 96.8
100.0 104.3

(5)

(5)

(8)
(5)
(5)

(8)
(8)
(5)

(5)

(5)

101.0 119.8 98.6
102.7 114.5 101.2
101.4 105.1 100.9
97.9 97.5 98.0
100.7 97.4 101.1

106.9 104.8 107.0
108.6 106.2 108.8
114.4 107.2 114.9

(8)
(5)
(8)

(8)
(8)
(8)

101.9
101.1
102.9

95.0
97.0
98.9
97.0
104.1

(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)

99.8 161.8
100.9 155.6
98.3 156.1

91.7
93.9
90.8

143.9
136.8
130.2
121.2
117.6

93.9
96.5
97.0
98.7
94.6

99.7
101.1
100.8
101.3
97.2

95.9 102.7
89.7 102.6
87.8 104.9

1 Output refers to gross national product in 1954 prices.
2 Man-hour estimates based primarily on establishment data.
3
Preliminary.
4
Man-hour estimates based primarily on labor force data.
8
Not available.
NOTE.—For information on sources and methodology, see Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of

Labor) Bulletin No. 1249, Trends in Output per Man-hour in the Private Economy, 1909-58.

Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Source: Department of Labor.

669333 0—63



14

209

PRODUCTION AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY
TABLE G—33.—Industrial production indexes, market groupings, 1947-62
[1957-59=100]
Final products

Year or month

Total
industrial
produc-1 Total
tion

Consumer goods 2

Automotive Home
Total prod- goods
ucts

Materials
Equipment,
including
defense
Total
Total

Business

DurNonable durable
goods goods

1947.
1948.
1949.

65.7
68.4
64.7

64.2
66.6
64.5

67.1
69.2

69.4
72.6
72.0

71.7
66.3

55.4
58.3
52.0

102.0
105.9
92.7

67.0
70.2
64.8

68.2
71.0
64.2

64.9
68.2
64.2

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

74.9
81.3
84.3
91.3
85.8

72.8
78.6
84.3
89.9
85.7

78.6
77.8
79.5
85.0
84.3

90.6
80.1
72.1
91.3
85.0

91.4
78.7
78.8
90.2
86.0

56.4
78.4
94.1
100.5

99.2
121.2
137.3
96.6
85.1

76.9
83.8
84.3
92.6
85.9

79.5
87.8
88.9
100.7
88.4

73.3
78.8
79.0
84.1
83.3

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

96.6
99.9
100.7
93.7
105.6

98.1
99.4
94.8
105.7

93.3
95.5
97.0
96.4
106.6

118.3
97.8
105.2
86.7
108.1

97.3
100.9
96.6
92.8
110.7

95.0
103.7
104.6
91.3
104.1

91.9
104.7
105.3
89.8
104.9

99.0
101.6
101.9
92.7
105.4

104.7
105.3
104.8
90.0
105.1

93.0
97.7
98.9
95.4
105.7

1960.
1961.
1962

108.7
109.8
118.2

109.9
111.3
119.7

111.0
112.7
119.8

123.2
111.8
131.2

110.8
112.2
122.2

107.6
108.3
119.7

110.2
110.1
122.0

107.6
108.4
116.9

106.6
104.8
114.1

108.7
112.1
119.7

Seasonally adjusted
1961: J a n u a r y . . .
February..
March
April
May
June

103.3
103.4
103.8
106.6
108.8
110.9

106.0
106.4
106.6
108.6
110.1
111.8

106.7
107.4
108.0
110.3
111.9
113.9

99.8
95.3
94.5
107.8
113.0
118.1

101.8
103.5
105.5
109.3
112.5
114.5

104.3
104.2
103.5
105.2
106.1
107.3

106.1
106.0
105.1
107.0
107.9
109.4

100.7
•100.5
101.7
105.3
107.7
110.0

95.0
94.3
95.9
101.0
104. 5
107.9

106.6
106.9
107.8
109.8
111.0
112.2

July
August
September.
October...
November.
December .
1962: J a n u a r y . . .
February. _
March
April
May
June

112.0
113.4
112.0
113.5
114.8
115.6

112.7
113.4
112.6
114.8
116.4
116.9

114.9
115.3
113.4
115.9
117.5
117.9

120.9
121.8
102.8
116.4
127.3
130.8

115.7
114.2
115.9
116.0
117.9
120.3

108.1
109.4
110.8
112.4
114.1
114.9

110.1
111.4
112.7
114.1
115.8
116.4

110.5
111.9
110.9
112.9
113.9
114.8

108.2
109.8
107.6
110.2
110.9
111.8

112.9
114.1
114.3
115.7
116.9
118.0

114.3
116.0
117.0
117.7
118.4
118.6

115.7
116.8
118.2
118.5
120.2
120.6

116.5
117.3
118.8
119.1
121.1
120.9

127.8
123.7
122.6
129.4
132.8
126.8

118.8
120.4
122.6
124.4
126.0
126.2

112.7
115.0
116.1
117.0
118.5
120.1

113.4
116.3
118.0
119.3
121.2
123.1

113.7
115.5
116.9
117.1
117.0
117.1

110.8
113.1
115.1
116.2
114.6
113.7

116.6
117.8
118.6
117.9
119.3
120.5

July
August
September.
October
November.
December 3

119.3
119.7
119.8
119.3
119.5
119.6

121.7
121.6
122.0
121.5
121.7
122.3

121.7
120.9
121.8
120.7
121.2
122.0

135.2
134.1
135.3
135.4
136.2
138.0

122.7
121.2
122.2
120.8
122.8

121.8
123.2
123.2
123.7
123.0
123.0

124.4
125.6
126.2
126.6
125.7
125.0

117.0
117.7
118.1
117.1
117.9
117.7

113.8
114.8
114.9
113.9
114.2
114.0

120.3
120.7
121.5
120.5
121.6
122.0

(4)

i Annual indexes for 1929-46 are, respectively: 38.4, 32.0, 26.5, 20.7, 24.4, 26.6, 30.7, 36.3, 39.7, 31.4, 38.3, 43.9,
56.4, 69.3, 82.9, 81.7, 70.5, and 59.5.
2
Also includes apparel and consumer staples, not shown separately.
8
Preliminary.
< Not available.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




210

T A B L E C—34.—Industrial production indexes, industry groupings, 1947—62
[1957-59=100]

Manufacturing

Year or month

Durable manufactures

Total
industrial
production Total
Total

FabriTransPri- cated Ma- portamary- metal chinery tion
metals prodequipucts
ment

Instruments Clay, Furniture
and reand
lated
and
prod- lumber miscellaneous
ucts

1947.
1948.
1949.

65.7
68.4
64.7

66.4
68.9
65.1

64.3
67.0
60.9

90.7
94.3
79.4

75.9
77.2

65.3
66.5
59.0

42.9
46.9
47.1

53.7
55.2
49.2

75.8
79.7
72.3

73.5
77.4
71.6

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

74.9
81.3
84.3
91.3
85.8

75.8
81.9
85.2
92.7
86.3

74.1
83.5
88.5
99.9
88.4

99.9
108.7
99.3
112.5
91.3

85.4
91.2
89.0
100.3
90.2

72.7
83.0
92.1
100.5
87.7

56.4
62.9
73.1
91.7
83.8

57.3
65.7
78.1
85.3
82.9

87.7
92.0
89.3
92.7

83.7
80.2
82.4
89.7

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959-

96.6
99.9
100.7
93.7
105.6

97.3
100.2
100.8
93.2
106.0

101.9
104.0
104.0
90.3
105.6

118.4
116.4
112.2
87.5
100.4

101.5
92.9
105.5

96.5
107.1
104.2
88.8
107.1

102.0
97.4
106.4
89.5
104.0

88.7
95.4
98.0
92.1
109.9

100.7
102.0
97.5
94.1
108.5

97.9
101.0
97.6
93.3
109.0

I960..
1961..
19621

108. 7
109. 8
118.2

108. 9
109. 7
118.6

108.5
107.0
117.9

101.3
98.9
104.9

107.6
106.5
117.2

110.8
110.4
123.4

108.2
103.6
118.3

116.5
115.8
123.0

105.7
104.5
109.2

113.3
114.1
124.5

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January
February..
March
April
May__
June

103.3
103.4
103.8
106.6
108.8
110.9

102.5
102.6
103.2
106.3
108.7
111.0

98.6
98.3
98.8
103.1
106.5
109.2

79.9
81.4
82.4
92.1
100.8
103.5

98.4
96.8.
97.7
101.1
105.2
108.9

104.8
104.7
104.5
107.5
108.8
111.2

95.2
94.0
94.2
99.9
104.2
107.2

113.6
111.9
111.6
112.8
114.3
116.2

99.498.6
101.2
103.2
104.8
106.9

106.4
106.6
107.1
110.3
112.0
114.7

July
August
September.
October
November.
December.

112.0
113.4
112.0
113.5
114.8
115.6

112.3
113.7
112.1
113.5
115.0
115.9

110.8
112.1
109.7
111.2
113.0
114.5

107.6
109.6
110.0
106.7
106.2
111.0

109.8
112.7
108.5
111.3
113.5
113.3

112.9
113.5
112.8
113.9
114.7
116.8

108.0
109.4
100.5
107.0
112.2
113.7

116.4
117.9
118.0
118.0
119.4
119.8

107.2
107.8
107.3
105.3
105.6
104.7

115.4
116.2
117.7
119.0
121.3
120.8

1962: January
February..
March
April
May
June.

114.3
116.0
117.0
117.7
118.4
118.6

114.4
116.3
117.4
118.1
118.8
118.9

113.2
115.4
116.5
118.5
118.2
117.7

111.9
117.5
116.6
112.4
101.3
96.8

111.0
111.9
113.6
116.3
117.4
118.5

115.6
117.5
120.2
122.9
124.5
125.9

112.5
113.4
113.4
116.8
119.4
116.8

118.9
118.5
119.0
122.3
122.6
124.7

101.5
106.6
105.9
108.9
110.1
110.7

117.6
118.2
121.5
126.1
127.3
127.4

119.3
119.7
119.8
119.3
119.5
119.6

119.7
120.3
120.4
119.6
119.9
120.3

118.7
119.8
119.5
118.6
119.0
119.4

96.6
99.1
99.6
98.8
101.5
104

118.8
119.9
119.3
117.8
118.5
118

125.4
126.5
126.4
125.4
125.3
125

122.1
122.0
121.5
121.8
121.3
122

124.9
125.8
124.3
124.2
125.0
126

109.9
112.1
112.5
108.9
109.4
110

127.3
125.8
J26.8
125.3
125.1
125

July
August
September
October
NovemberDecember

See footnote at end of table.




211

TABLE C-34.—Industrial production indexes, industry groupings, 7947-62—Continued
[1957-59=100]

Manufacturing
Nondurable manufactures

Textile,
Paper
apparel,
and
and
leather printing
products

Chemical,
petroleum,
and
rubber
products

Foods,
beverages,
and
tobacco

Year or month
Total

Mining

Utilities

1947.19481949-

67.2
69.5
68.3

81.0
84.5
80.6

66.7
69.4
69.3

47.5
50.8
49.4

80.7
80.0
80.8

79.9
84.0
74.5

36.5
40.8
43.4

195019511952..
1953..
1954-

76.0
78.5
80.0
83.6
83.6

89.1
87.4
89.5
90.7
86.9

76.7
79.4
77.7
82.6
85.0

60.7
67.4
69.9
75.2
74.7

83.6
85.4
87.3
88.2

83.2
91.3
90.5
92.9
90.2

49.5
56.4
61.2
66.8
71.8

1955..
1956195719581959-

91.6
95.4
96.7
96.8
106.5

95.5
98.0
96.9
95.0
108.1

92.5
97.1
97.8
97.0
105.2

86.8
91.4
95.6
95.5
108.9

93.1
96.6
96.7
99.4
103.9

99.2
104.8
104.6
95.6
99.7

80.2
87.9
93.9
98.1
108.0

1960..
1961..
1962 1

109.5
112.9
119.5

107.5
108.4
115.3

109.0
112.4
116.8

113.9
118.8
130.5

106.6
110.4
113.0

101.6
102.6
104.8

115.6
122.8
132.2

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January-_.
February..
March
April
May
June
July—
August
September..
October
NovemberDecember..
1962: January...
February..
March
April
May
June
July.
August
September.
October
November.
December *_

107.4
108.1
108.7
110.2
111.4
113.3

99.1
102.2
103.5
105.2
105.8
107.8

108.8
108.5
109.6
110.8
111.1
112.9

110.9
111.0
110.7
114.5
118.0
120.2

108. 3
108.9
109.4
108.8
108.4
110.1

102.2
101.6
101.4
101.7
101.5
101.9

117.6
118.2
117.7
120.2
122.5
123.0

114.1
115.7
115.2
116.5
117.5
117.7

110.5
112.5
111.3
113.1
114.9
115.8

112.0
114.8
114.4
114.2
115.2
115.7

121.5
122.8
121.8
124.5
125.2
125.9

110.6
111.4
111.5
112.0
112.9
112.0

102.2
102.7
102.4
104.4
105.2
104.7

123.5
•125. 0
125.7
126.5
126.7
127.3

115.9
117.3
118.6
117.5
119.6
120.3

112.4
113.6
114.8
114.8
115.2
115.8

115.1
116.2
116.9
115.7
117.0
116.7

124.1
125.8
126.7
126.6
130.8
132.6

111.2
111.7
113.5
112.1
112.8
112.5

104.0
104.3
104.8
105.5
104.8
104.6

128.8
129.0
128.8
128.1
129.8
132.4

121.0
120.8
121.5
120.9
121.0
121.3

115.5
115.2
116.7
115.7
116.4
118

118.0
118.1
118.2
117.2
117.2
117

133.2
133.2
133.7
134.0
133.6
134

114.2
113.8
114.7
113.5
113.9
114

106.1
105.5
105.9
105.5
105.3
102.-3

133.5
132.3
133.0
133.5
134.5
135

i Preliminary.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




212

TABLE G—34.—Business expenditures for new plant and equipment^ 1939 and 1945-63
[Billions of doUars]
Transportation

M anufacturing
Year or quarter

Total i
Total

Dura- Non- Mining
ble durable
goods goods

"PnVVHr*
x UD11C

Railroad

Other

utilities

Commercial
and
other 2

1939..

5.51

1.94

0.76

1.19

0.33

0.28

0.36

0.52

2.08

194519461947..
19481949..

8.69
14.85
20.61
22.06
19.28

3.98
6.79
8.70
9.13
7.15

1.59
3.11
3.41
3.48
2.59

2.39
3.68
5.30
5.65
4.56

.38
.43
.69
.88
.79

.55
.58
.89
1.32
1.35

.57
.92
1.30
1.28
.89

.50
.79
1.54
2.54
3.12

2.70
5.33
7.49
6.90
5.98

19501951..
1952..
19531954-

20.60
25.64
26.49
28.32
26.83

7.49
10.85
11.63
11.91
11.04

3.14
5.17
5.61
5.65
5.09

4.36
5.68
6.02
6.26
5.95

.71
.93
.98
.99
.98

1.11
1.47
1.40
1.31
.85

1.21
1.49
1.50
1.56
1.51

3.31
3.66
3.89
4.55
4.22

6.78
7.24
7.09
8.00
8.23

1955195619571958..
1959-

28.70
35.08
36.96
30.53
32.54

11.44
14.95
15.96
11.43
12.07

5.44
7.62
8.02
5.47
5.77

6.00
7.33
7.94
5.96
6.29

.96
1.24
1.24
.94
.99

.92
1.23
1.40
.75
.92

1.60
1.71
1.77
1.50
2.02

4.31
4.90
6.20
6.09
5.67

9.47
11.05
10.40
9.81
10.88

196019611962 3

35.68
34.37
37.41

14.48
13.68
14.80

7.18
6.27
7.15

7.30
7.40
7.65

.99
.98
1.11

1.03
.67
.86

1.94
1.85
2.04

5.68
5.52
5.47

11.57
11.68
13.13

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I — .
II...
III..
IV..

35.15
36.30
35.90
35.50

14.10
14.70
14.65
14.40

7.15
7.40
7.35
6.85

6.95
7.30
7.30
7.55

1.00
1.05
1.00
.90

1.00
1.10
1.00
1.00

2.00
2.15
1.90
1.80

5.75
5.70
5.60
5.70

11.35
11.60
11.75
11.65

1961: I —
II. _
III-.
IV..

33.85
33.50
34.70
35.40

13.75
13.50
13.65
14.00

6.50
6.20
6.10
6.40

7.25
7.30
7.55
7.60

.95
1.00
1.00
1.00

.70
.70
.65
.60

1.75
1.80
1.90
1.95

5.35
5.50
5.65
5.55

11.30
11.05
11.85
12.35

1962: I_._.
II...
III.
IV 3

35.70
36.95
38.35
38.35

14.20
14.45
15.05
15.50

6.55
6.95
7.25
7.75

7.60
7.50
7.80
7.75

1.15
1.05
1.10
1.15

.70
.95
1.00
.80

2.05
2.25
2.00
1.80

5.15
5.40
5.75
5.40

12.45
12.85
13.40
13.70

1963: 13._

37.70

14.95

7.10

7.85

1.15

.70

1.80

5.30

13.80

1 Excludes agriculture.
2
Commercial and other includes trade, service, finance, communications, and construction.
3 Estimates for fourth quarter 1962 and first quarter 1963 based on anticipated capital expenditures reported by business in November 1962. The quarterly anticipations include adjustments, when necessary,
for systematic tendencies in anticipatory data.
NOTE.—Annual total is the sum of unadjusted expenditures; it does not necessarily coincide with th
average of seasonally adjusted figures.
These figures do not agree precisely with the plant and equipment expenditures included in the gross
national product estimates of the Department of Commerce. The main difference lies in the inclusion
in the gross national product of investment by farmers, professionals, institutions, real estate firms
insurance companies, and of certain outlays charged to current account.
This series is not available for years prior to 1939 and for 1940 to 1944.
Sources: Securities and Exchange Commission and Department of Commerce.




213

TABLE C-36.—JVew construction activity, 1929-62
[Value put in place, millions of dollars]
Private construction
Residential building

Nonresidential building and other

(nonfarm)

Total

construction

new

Year or month

1929
1930
1931
1932.
_.
1933_
._
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942.
._
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
..
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
_
1959
New series:
1959
1960.
1961
1962 6
1961:
J a n u a r y . _____
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
__.
November
December
1962:
January
February
March
April
__
May
June
July
__
August
September
October
November 6
December 6_

construction

Total i

Addi-

New

Total 2

housing
units

tions
Com- Inand
Total mer- duscial 3 trial
alterations

Public

util- Other*
ity

10,793
8,741
6,427
3,538
2,879
3,720
4,232
6,497
6,999
6,980
8,198
8,682
11,957
14,075
8,301
5,259
5,809
12,627
17,901
23,243
24,183
29,947
32,700
34,670
37,019
39, 234
44,164
45,815
47,845
48,950
54,109

8,307
5,883
3,768
1,676
1,231
1,509
1,999
2,981
3,903
3,560
4,389
5,054
6,206
3,415
1,979
2,186
3,411
10,396
14,582
18,539
17,914
23,081
23,447
23,889
25,783
27, 556
32,440
33,067
33,766
33,493
38,002

3,625
2,075
1,565
630
470
625
1,010
1,565
1,875
1,990
2,680
2,985
3,510
1,715
885
815
1,276
4,752
7,535
10,122
9,642
14,100
12,529
12,842
13,777
15,379
18,705
17,677
17,019
18,047
22,331

3,040
1,570
1,320
485
290
380
710
1,210
1,475
1,620
2,270
2,560
3,040
1,440
710
570
720
3,300
5,450
7,500
7,257
11,525
9,849
9,870
10,555
12,070
14,990
13,535
12,615
13,552
17,116

340
305
175
105
145
200
250
295
320
295
320
335
375
225
160
220
516
1,307
1,960
2,467
2,200
2,400
2,490
2,787
2,955
3,013
3,376
3,695
3,903
3,862
4,450

4,682
3,808
2,203
1,046
761
884
989
1,416
2,028
1,570
1,709
2,069
2,696
1,700
1,094
1,371
2,135
5,644
7,047
8,417
8,272
8,981
10,918
11,047
12,006
12,177
13,735
15,390
16,747
15,446
15,671

1,135
893
454
223
130
173
211
290
387
285
292
348
409
155
33
56
203
1,153
957
1,397
1,182
1,415
1,498
1,137
1,791
2,212
3,218
3,631
3,564
3,589
3,914

949
532
221
74
176
191
158
266
492
232
254
442
801
346
156
208
642
1,689
1,702
1,397
972
1,062
2,117
2,320
2,229
2,030
2,399
3,084
3,557
2,382
2,098

1,578
1,527
946
467
261
326
363
518
705
605
683
771
872
786
570
725
827
1,374
2,338
3,043
3,323
3,330
3,729
4,043
4,475
4,161
4,363
4,893
5,414
5,087
4,990

1,020
856
582
282
194
194
257
342
444
448
480
508
614
413
335
382
463
1,428
2,050
2,580
2,795
3,174
3,574
3,547
3,511
3,774
3,755
3,782
4,212
4,388
4,669

56, 555
55, 556
57,399
61,130

40,344
39,603
40, 365
43,351

24, 962
22, 546
22, 499
24,814

19,233
16,422
16,188
18,208

4,961
5,199
5,139
5,344

15,382
17,057
17,866
18,537

3,930
4,180
4,663
4,964

2,106
2,851
2,759
2,814

5,008
5,323
5,389
5,496

4,338
4,703
5,055
5,263

56,249
55, 598
55,663
55,455
55, 531
57,061
57,125
58,054
58,896
59,037
60,744
59,006

38, 575
37,962
38, 511
38, 986
39,232
40,328
41,176
41, 281
41, 709
41,767
42,044
41,881

20,649
20,016
20,508
21,042
21, 257
22, 271
23,118
23,306
23, 782
24,026
24, 504
24, 440

14, 594
13, 963
14,417
15,071
15,343
15,978
16,600
16,879
17,116
17,438
17, 723
17, 692

4,957
4,900
4,920
4,770
4,704
5,124
5,352
5,240
5,460
5,377
5,618
5,642

17,926
17,946
18,003
17,944
17.975
18,057
18,058
17, 975
17,927
17, 741
17, 540
17, 441

4,848
4,821
4,743
4,636
4,515
4,510
4,578
4,646
4,718
4,681
4,608
4,641

3,053
2,992
2,957
2,921
2,849
2,750
2,672
2,588
2,610
2,608
2,554
2,537

5,308
5,384
5,398
5,323
5,383
5,382
5,457
5,470
5,422
5,404
5,380
5,337

4,717
4,749
4,905
5,064
5,228
5,415
5,351
5,271
5,177
5,048
4,998
4,926

59,166
56,714
57, 748
58, 279
60,764
62,678
62,084
62,829
62,358
63,517
62,637
62,417

41,077
39,909
40, 553
41, 747
43, 472
44,842
44,908
45,244
44,976
43,843
43,898
44,045

23,187
22, 245
22, 507
23,484
25,018
26,118
25, 987
25, 957
25,813
25,013
25,326
25,611

16,771
16,028
16,276
17,285
18, 497
19, 268
19,153
19,186
18,974
18,463
18,486
18,703

5,240
4,997
5,008
4,958
5,257
5,558
5,514
5,446
5,539
5,248
5,580
5,708

17,890
17,664
18,046
18, 263
18,454
18, 724
18, 921
19,287
19,163
18,830
18,572
18,434

4,928
4,756
4,795
4,793
4,752
4,865
5,110
5,273
5,214
5,018
4,967
4,979

2,590
2,592
2,653
2,792
2,886
2,950
2,962
2,936
2,930
2,885
2,820
2,788

5,357
5,274
5,449
5,388
5,481
5,539
5,444
5,626
5,548
5,575
5,570
5,576

5,015
5,042
5,149
5,290
5,335
5,370
5,405
5,452
5,471
5,352
5,215
5,091

Seasonally adjusted annual rates (New series 6)

1
Data in this table do not agree with the new construction expenditures included in the gross national
product. The latter data include expenditures for crude petroleum and natural gas well drilling, and do
not reflect revisions in the "new series" presented above. (See Table C-l.)
2
Total includes nonhousekeeping units, not shown separately.
' Office buildings, warehouses, stores, restaurants, and garages.
* Farm, institutional, and all other.
5 New series beginning January 1959 not entirely comparable with prior data. In addition to major
differences between old and new series, data for Alaska and Hawaii are included beginning January 1959.
For details, see Construction Activity, C30-25 (Supplement), July 1961, Bureau of the Census.
6
Preliminary.
Source: Department of Commerce.




214

TABLE C-37.—New public construction activity•, 1929-62
[Value put in place, millions of dollars]
Total new public construction *

Major types of new public construction

Federal
Year

All
public
sources

State
and
Federal local
Direct
aid

HosHigh- Educa- pital
and
way tional institutional

Sewer
and
water
and
miscellaneous
public
service

Conservation
and
development

MiliAll
tary other
facili- publics
ties

1929.

2,486

155

80

2,251

1,266

389

101

404

115

19

192

1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.

2,858
2,659
1,862
1,648
2,211

209
271
333
516
626

104
235
111
286
721

2,545
2,153
1,418
846
864

1, 516
1,355
958
847
1,000

364
285
130
52
148

118
110
83
49
51

500
479
291
160
228

137
156
150
359

29
40
34
36
47

104
234
216
145
219

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939.-.-

2,233
3,516
3,096
3,420
3,809

814
797
776
717
759

567
1,566
1,117
1,320
1,377

852
1,153
1,203
1,383
1,673

845
1,362
1,226
1,421
1,381

153
366
253
311
468

38
74
73
97
127

246
509
445
492
507

700
658
605
551
570

37
29
37
62
125

214
518
457
486
631

1940..
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

3,628
5,751
10,660
6,322
3,073

1,182
3,751
9,313
5,609
2,505

946
697
475
268
126

1,500
1,303
872
445
442

1,302
1,066
734
446
362

156
158
128
63
41

54
42
35
44
58

393
254
156
125

528
500
357
285
163

385
1,620
5,016
2,550
837

734
1,972
4,136
2,778
1,487

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.

2,398
2,231
3,319
4,704

1,737
865
840
1,177
1,488

99
244
409
417
461

562
1,122
2,070
3,110
4,320

398
764
1,344
1,661
2,015

59
101
287
618
934

85
85
77
213
458

152
278
492

130
260
424
670
852

188
204
158
137

884
555
491
685
1,070

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

9,253
10,781
11,236
11,678

1,625
2,981
4,185
4,134
3,418

462
481
626
687
728

4,779
5,791
5,970
6,415
7,532

2,134
2,353
2,679
3,015
3,680

1,133
1,513
1,619
1,714
2,134

499
527
495

819
959
958
1,050
1,171

942
912
900
892
773

177
887
1,387
1,290
1,003

1,162
2,102
2,743
2,906
2,584

1955
1956....
1957-.-.
1958
1959 3

11, 724
12,748
14,079
15,457
16,211

2,777
2,742
2,993
3,388
3,755

790
896
1,314
2,130
2,790

8,157
9,110
9,772
9,939
9,666

3,861
4,431
4,954
5,545
5,870

2,442
2,556
2,825
2,875
2,656

300
300
354
390
428

1,318
1,659
1,737
1,838
2,018

701
826
971
1,019
1,130

1,287
1,360
1,287
1,402
1,488

1,815
1,616
1,951
2,388
2,621

I960....
1961
1962 4

15,953
17,034
17,779

3,665
3,795
3,883

2,453
2,495
2,642

9,835
10,744
11,254

5,464
5,818
6,268

2,818
3,051
2,983

400
370
397

2,136
2,166
2,233

1,221
1,350
1,545

1,386
1,368
1,282

2,528
2,911
3,071

1
For expenditures classified by ownership, combine "Federal aid" and "State and local"' columns to
obtain State and local ownership. "Direct"' column stands as it ii for Federal ownership.
is
2
Includes nonresidential buildings (other than educational and hospital and institutional), residential
buildings, and miscellaneous public construction such as parks and playgrounds, memorials, etc.
3 Beginning with 1959, data include estimates for Alaska and Hawaii. Comparability with earlier data
is not seriously affected since these two States accounted for less than two-thirds of one percent of total new
public construction in 1959.
4
Preliminary.
Source: Department of Commerce.




215

TABLE C—38.—New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929—62
[Thousands of units]
Housing starts

Total
>rivate Total
and private
public (in(in- cludcluding
ing 1 farm)
farm)

Year or
month

Prop osed
home
struc tion2

Private nonfarm

Private nonfarm

PriTotal
l
vate
private
and
(inTwo
public
cludor
non- Total i One- more
ing Total
family fami- farm)
farm
lies

New
private
housing
Government
units
programs
authorized

FHA VA

Replica- quests
tions for
for
FHA VA
com- apmit- praisments als

1929

509.0

509.0

316.0 193.0

509.0

1930....
1931
1932
1933
1934

330.0
254.0
134.0
93.0
126.0

330.0
254.0
134.0
93.0
126.0

227.0 103.0
187.0 67.0
118.0 16.0
76.0 17.0
109.0 17.0

330.0
254.0
134.0
93.0
126.0

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

221.0
319.0
336.0
406.0
515.0

215.7
304.2
332.4
399.3
458.4

182.2
238.5
265.8
316.4
373.0

33.5
65.7
66.6
82.9
85.4

215.7 14.0
304.2 49.4
332.4 60.0
399.3 118.7
458.4 158.1

3 20.6
47.8
49.8
131.1
179.8

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

602.6
706.1
356.0
191.0
141.8

529.6
619.5
301.2
183.7
138.7

447.6
533.2
252.3
136.3
114.6

82.0
86.3
48.9
47.4
24.1

529.6
619.5
301.2
183.7
138.7

180.1
220.4
165.7
146.2
93.3

231.2
288.5
238.5
144.4
62.9

209 3 208.1
670 5 662 5
849.0 845.6
931.6 913.5
1,025.1 988.8

184 6
590 0
740.2
763.2
792.4

23 5
72 5
105.4
150.3
196.4

208.1
662 5
845.6
913.5
988.8

41.2
69 0
229.0
294.1
363.8

91 8
160.3
71.1
90.8

56 6
121 7
286.4
293.2
327.0

1,352.2
1,020.1
1,068.5
1,068.3
1, 201. 7

486.7
263 5
279.9
252.0
276.3

191.2
148.6
141.3
156 5
307.0 1,056. 5

397 7
192 8
267.9
253.7
338.6

164 4
226.3
251.4
535.4

1,309. 5
1,093. 9
992.8
1,141. 5
- - - - - - 1, 342. 8
(*)
1, 516.8 1,494.6
1, 252.1 1, 230.1
1,313.0 1, 284.8
1,454. 7 1,430.9

276.7
189.3
168.4
295. 4
332.5

392.9 1,152. 6
270.7 921.9
128.3 820.3
102.1 950.8
109.3 1,081.1
(*)

306.2
197.7
198.8
341.7
369.7

620.8
401.5
159.4
234.2
234.0

332.5 109.3 1,208.3
260.9 74.6 997.6
244.3 83.3 1,064. 2
260.9 77.8 1,170.0

369.7
242.4
243.8
221.1

234.0
142.9
177.8
171.2

..

1945
1946
1947..
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

.

1955
1956
1957....
1958
1959
1959
1960
1961
19626-.

1,396.0 1,352. 21,150. 7
1 091 31 020.1 892 2
1,127.0 1,068. 5 939.1
1,103.8 1,068.3 932.8
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1, 220.4 1, 201. 7 1,077. 3
1,328. 9 1, 309. 5 1,190.0
1,118.1 1,093. 9 980.7
1,041. 9 992.8 840.2
1,209.4 1,141. 5 932.5
1,378. 51,342.8 1,078. 5
.......
""(*)"" (*)
(*)
(*)
1, 553. 51, 516.8 1, 531.3 1,494. 61, 211. 7
1, 296. 0 1, 252.1 1, 274.0 1,230.1 972.3
_. 1,365.0 1,313.0 1,336.8 1, 284.8 946.4
1,483.3 1,454. 7 1,459. 51,430.9 973.5

201.5
127 9
129.4
135.5 : : : : : : :
124.4
119.5
113.2
152.6
209.0
264.3
(*)
282.9
257.4
338.6
451.5

See footnotes at end of table.




216

/5\
(5)
(5)
(5)
(S)

TABLE G—38.—New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929-62—Continued
[Thousands of units]
Housing starts
Private nonfarm
Year or
month

Total
private Total
and private
public (in(in- cludcluding
ing farm)
farm) 1

Private nonfarm

Total
Priprivate
vate
Two
(inand
or
cludpublic
ing
Total
non- Total i One- more
family fami- farm)
farm
lies

New
private
housGoverning
ment pro- units
grams
authorized

FHA

VA

Proposed
home construction 2
Applications
for
FHA
commitments

rteQuests
ior
fnr
VA

apprais-

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1961:
January. __
February..
March
April
May
June

73.1
79.3
109.3
117.1
131.6
140.6

70.4
74.1
104.2
112.8
127.6
134.8

71.6
76.0
106.9
114.8
129.2
137.6

68.9
70.8
101.8
110.5
125.2
131.8

49.1
51.5
75.3
83.1
95.2
98.7

19.8
19.4
26.5
27.4
30.0
oo o

1,137
1,141
1,292
1,185
1,301
1,407

1,108
1,087
1,258
1,162
1,278
1,376

194
186
201
194
192
192

85
94
88
78
87
77

973
974
1,005
1,007
1,013
1,063

221
218
223
223
230
225

151
165
189
189
139
168

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November.
December.

129.9
130.3
131.2
129.9
106.1
86.6

126.6
127.1
125.4
124.8
103.0
82.2

127.4
127.5
129.5
127.4
104.4
84.5

124.1
124.3
123.7
122.3
101.3
80.1

94.7
91.7
90.9
90.1
72.7
53.4

29.4
32.6
32.8
32.2
28.5
26.8

1,358
1,328
1,415
1,443
1,368
1,295

1,333
1,303
1,397
1,413
1,345
1,255

188
196
201
222
202
219

78
76
77
92
85
90

1,072
1,102
1,061
1,123
1,118
1,215

233
238
222
272
265
299

166
166
196
213
216
205

1962:
January
February..
March
April
May
June

83.0
77.8
117.9
151.6
156.4
139.5

80.6
76.4
115.4
147.0
154.2
136.2

81.7
76.7
116.3
149.5
154.9
137.0

79.3
75.3
113.8
144.9
152.7
133.7

53.1
52.6
78.0
98.9
105.7
93.4

26.2
22.7
35.8
46.0
47.0
40.2

1,273
1,152
1,431
1,542
1,579
1,425

1,247
1,134
1,407
1,521
1,566
1,399

214
228
216
230
202
186

66
96
88
96
89
76

1,135
1,236
1,151
1,229
1,128
1,137

227
239
246
240
233
212

198
165
212
168
168
147

July
August
September.
October «._
November 8
December 8

139.3
147.8
115.3
136.3
122.3
96.1

135.8
146.1
113.6
133.5
120.7
95.2

137.4
144.7
112.7
132.5
121.1
95.0

133.9
143.0
111.0
129.5
119.5
94.1

93.3
97.9
73.4
88.4

40.6
45.0
37.6
41.1

1,466
1,529
1,289
1,550
1,591
1,499

1,447
1,500
1,261
1,504
1,576
1,479

203
190
178
178
181
177

75
72
70
70
71
74

1,160
1,123
1,174
1,175
1,197

219
197
189
212
206
202

179
148
160
178
170
175

1
Military housing starts, including those financed with mortgages insured by FHA under Section 803
of the National Housing Act, are included in publicly financed starts but excluded from total private
starts and from FHA starts.
2
Units in mortgage applications for new home construction.
3
FHA program approved in June 1934; all 1934 activity included in 1935.
* Monthly estimates for September 1945-May 1950 were prepared by Housing and Home Finance Agency.
«Not available.
8
Preliminary; annual data for 1962 partly estimated b y Council of Economic Advisers.
*New series; see Housing Starts, C20-11 (Supplement), Bureau of the Census, May 1960, for description.
NOTE.—Census series beginning with the new series in 1959 and the data for VA programs include Alaska
and Hawaii. FHA data include Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and Veterans Administration (VA), except as noted.




217

TABLE G—39.—Sales and inventories in manufacturing and trade, 7939—62
[Amounts in billions of dollars]
Total manufacturing and trade 1

Manufacturing

Wholesale trade i

Retail trade i

Year or month
Sales a Inven- Ratio * Sales2 Inven- Ratio *
tories3
tories3

Inven- Ratio
tories3

Sales 2 Inven- Ratio 4
tories3

1939

10.80

20.05

1.77

5.11

11.46

2.11

2.19

3.05

1.34

3.50

5.53

1.53

1940
1941..
1942
1943
1944..

12.13
15.81
18.62
21.92
23.79

22.18
28.78
31.09
31.34
31.06

1.72
1.58
1.66
1.40
1.33

5.86
8.17
10.43
12.82
13.78

12.82
16.96
19.29
20.10
19.51

2.06
1.78
1.77
1.51
1.45

2.41
3.03
3.43
3.83
4.15

3.24
4.04
3.78
3.68
3.91

1.30
1.20
1.19
.97
.94

3.86
4.61
4.77
5.27
5.85

6.12
7.78
8.02
7.56
7.64

1.49
1.48
1.76
1.43
1.31

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949

23.85
27.01
33.03
36.31
34.78

30.89
42.72
50.24
55.57
51.92

1.30
1.33
1.43
1.47
1.55

12.87
12.62
15.92
17.63
16.42

18.39
24.46
28.87
31.69
28.86

1.48
1.66
1.71
1.72
1.86

4.48
15.66
6.91
7.55
7.21

4.66
16.20
7.12
7.87
7.59

.91
.90
1.00
1.01
1.07

7.95
6.50
18.73 112.06
10.20 14.24
11.14 16.Q1
11.15 15.47

1.21
.1.13
1.26
1.39
1.41

1950
1951
1952..
1953
1954..

39.97
44.72
45.94
48.41
47.36

62.90
73.57
74.84
77.39
74.30

1.38
1.58
1.60
1.59
1.59

19.28
22.31
22.85
24.52
23.53

34.31
42.82
43.80
45.43
42.98

1.57
1.77
1.90
1.84
1.86

8.42
9.37
9.56
9.81
9.73

9.12
9.71
10.01
10.47
10.39

1.05
1.01
1.06
1.07

12.27
13.05
13.53
14.09
14.10

19.46
21.05
21.03
21.49
20.93

1.38
1.63
1.52
1.53
1.51

1955..
1956..
1957
1958..
1959

52.28
54.80
56.32
54.02
59.98

80.58
88.68
90.80
85.46
90.61

1.47
1.55
1.60
1.61
1.48

26.34
27.71
28.38
26.23
29.74

46.36
52.30
53.52
49.18
52.43

1.68
1.79
1.89
1.93
l."72

10.62
11.27
11.27
11.09
12.29

11.44
12.95
12.71
11.99
12.65

1.02
1.08
1.14
1.10
1.00

15.32
15.81
16.67
16.70
17.95

22.77
23.43
24.57
24.29
25.54

.43
.47
.44
.43
.39

1960 »
1961 8
1962 1

61.04
61.52
65.90

94.13
95.54
98.44

1.54
1.52
1.48

30.41
30.73
33.49

53.74
55.20
57.13

1.79
1.75
1.69

12.33
12.56
13.13

13.21
13.48
13.84

1.05
1.07
1.05

18.29
18.23
19.28

27.18
26.86
27.46

.45
45
.40

17.77
17.79
18.12
17.85
17.98
18.19

26.83
26.57
26.07
26.18
26.23
26.22

1.51
1.49
1.44
1.47
1.46
1.44

Seasonally adjusted
1961:
January
F e b r u a r y . _.
March
April
May
June

58.67
59.24
60.21
60.08
61.52
61.82

93.65
93.38
92.66
93.00
93.06
93.09

1.60
1.58
1.54
1.55
1.51
1.51

28.67
29.03
29.55
30.09
30.73
30.85

53.67
53.60
53.31
53.38
53.37
53.36

12.23
12.43
12.54
12.13
12.80
12.78

13.15
13.21
13.28
13.45
13.46
13.50

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December-.

61.63
62.36
61.57
63.20
64.40
63.94

93.46
93.62
94.26
94.62
95.12
95.54

1.52
1.50
1.53
1.50
1.48
•1.49

31.11
31.38
31.36
31.75
32.18
32.40

53.55
54.03
54.44
54.78
55.03
55.20

12.50
12.80
12.08
12.87
13.12
12.72

13.58
13.60
13.48
13.44
13.34
13.48

18.02
18.17
18.13
18.58
19.10
18.83

26.34
25.98
26.34
26.40
26.75
26.86

1.46
1.43
1.45
1.42
1.40
1.43

1962:
January
February...
March
April
May
June...

63.96
64.54
65.25
66.14
66.32
65.18

96.17
96.70
97.05
97.26
97.52
97.88

1.50
1.50
1.49
1.47
1.47
1.50

32.04
32.85
33.22
33.48
33.50
32.96

55.73
56.18
56.57
56.69
56.81
56.91

.74
.71
.70
.69
.70
.73

13.08
12.73
12.76
13.06
13.38
13.13

13.58
13.62
13.70
13.70
13.78
13.89

18.84
18.96
19.27
19.60
19.43
19.09

26.86
26.90
26.78
26.87
26.94
27.08

1.43
1.42
.39
.37
.39
.42

66.43
66.01
66.78
66.50
67.65

98.15
97.90
98.38
98.70
98.44

1.48
1.48
1.47
1.48
1.46

33.40
33.29
33.68
33.48
34.00

57.00
56.97
5V. 19
57.27
57.13

.71
.71
.70
1.71
1.68

13.35
13.16
13.48
13.27
13.46

13.97
13.88
13.95
14.03
13.84

19.68
19.57
19.62
19.74
20.19
20.24

27.18
27.05
27.24
27.40
27.46

.38
.39
1.39
1.36

July
August
September..
October
November 8
December 8 .

06

1 The series beginning in 1946 for wholesale trade and for retail trade are not comparable with previous
years because of changes in definitions.
2 Monthly average shown for year and total for month.
3
Seasonally adjusted, end of period.
4
Inventory/sales ratio. For annual periods, ratio of weighted average inventories to average monthly
sales; for monthly data, ratio of inventories at end of month to sales for month.
6
Beginning January 1960, retail sales and inventories include data for Alaska and Hawaii.
6
Beginning January 1961, wholesale sales and inventories include data for Alaska and Hawaii.
i Where December data not available, data for year calculated on basis of no change from November.
s Preliminary.
NOTE.—The inventory figures in this table do not agree with the estimates of change in business
inventories included in the gross national product since these figures cover only manufacturing and trade
rather than all business, and show inventories in terms of current book value without adjustment for
revaluation.
Source: Department of Commerce.




218

TABLE C-40.—Manufacturers'1

sales, inventories, and orders, 1939-62

[Billions of dollars]

Year or
month

New orders l

Inventories 2

Sales i

Unfilled
Nondurable goods
Durable goods
Dura- NonDura- Non- orders
industries
industries
ble durable
ble durable (unadgoods goods
Total goods goods justindus- indus- Purindus- indus- ed) 3
Pur- Goods FinFintries
tries chased Goods ished chased in
tries
tries
ished
in
mate- process goods mate- process goods
rials
rials

1939—

1.95

3.16

1.76

1.48

2.09

2.44

1940....
1941 —
1942....
1943—.
1944-..

2.47
3.80
5.16
6.86
7.34

3.39
4.37
5.27
5.96
6.45

2.06
3.11
3.68
3.86
3.34

1.98
3.16
4.58
5.23
5.03

2.26
2.33
2.19
2.08
2.06

2.65
4.00
4.31
4.53
4.64

1945—
1946—.
1947—.
1948....
1949—

6.27
4.99
6.70
7.59
7.07

6.60
7.63
9.22
10.04
9.35

3.16
4.50
5.13
5.60
4.59

3.51
4.64
5.20
5.39
4.70

2.10
2.85
3.97
4.74
4.68

1950....
1951—.
1952-..
1953—
1954—.

8.80
10.38
10.94
12.38
11.24

10.48
11.93
11.92
12.14
12.29

6.09
7.38
7.28
7.41
6.49

6.00
8.63
10.17
10.73
9.84

1955—
1956.-.
1957—
1958—.
1959—

13.08
13.80
14.16
12.38
14.51

13.26
13.91
14.22
13.85
15.23

7.42
8.66
8.31
7.52
8.30

I960....
1961—.
1962 4 5

14.68
14.54
16.25

15.73
16.18
17.11

8.05
8.09
8.12

5.35

2.17

3.19

7.02

1.15
1.27
1.33
1.38

2.98 6.81
3.20 9.80
3.27 13.34
3.06 12.70
3.05 11.91

3.37
5.32
8.05
6.77
5.47

3.43
4.48
5.30
5.93
6.43

18.37
37.95
72.93
71.53
49.03

4.92
6.44
7.15
7.27
6.50

1.49
1.79
2.19
2.25
2.09

3.21
4.23
5.24
6.44
6.29

10.53
13.69
15.62
17.35
15.90

3.94
5.94
6.36
7.48
6.59

6.59
7.75
9.26
9.87
9.31

20.93
33.84
30.30
26.95
20.78

4.68
6.79
6.95
8.10
7.75

8.43
9.08
8.57
8.14
7.89

2.53
2.72
2.71
2.65
2.60

6.58
8.21
8.10
8.40
8.41

20.98
24.51
23.58
23.11
22.48

10.32
12.68
11.69
11.03
10.16

10.66
11.84
11.90
12.08
12.32

41.13
67.55
76.34
59.50
46.90

11.09
12.78
12.73
11.31
12.08

8.16
9.22
10.11
8.99
9.71

8.12
8.53
8.79
8.55
8.95

2.76
2.96
3.06
3.00
3.03

8.82
10.15
10.52
9.81
10.36

27.17
28.32
27.26
25.90
30.13

13.85
14.44
13.08
12.04
14.85

13.32
13.88
14.17
13.86
15.28

56.86
64.21
50.70
46.80
51.49

12.06
12.64
13.30

10.76
10.74
11.18

8.75
9.06
9.46

3.08 11.05 29.90
3.37 11.29 30.96
3.53 11.53 33.22

14.24
14.74
16.12

15.66
16.23
17.09

45.37
48.20
46.13

.81

2.88

Seasonally adjusted
1961:
January
February...
March
April
May
June

13.17
13.32
13.69
14.14
14.57
14.67

15.50
15.71
15.86
15.96
16.16
16.18

8.03
8.01
7.91
7.81
7.78
7.60

12.07
12.05
11.90
11.87
11.91
12.03

10.65
10.59
10.49
10.47
10.47
10.57

8.74
8.68
8.78
8.88
8.97
8.97

3.07
3.04
3.05
3.12
3.20
3.25

11.10
11.23
11.18
11.22
11.05
10.94

28.50
i.ll
29.85
30.41
31.04
31.05

12.88
13.36
13.82
14.38
14.79
14.90

15.62
15.76
16.03
16.03
16.25
16.15

45.27
45.52
45.59
45. 83
45.80
45.95

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

14.78
15.04
14.95
15.27
15.62
15.66

16.33
16.34
16.40
16.48
16.56
16.74

7.70
7.74
7.96
8.07
8.08
8.09

12.07
12.31
12.40
12.59
12.70
12.64

10.60
10.75
10.74
10.74
10.76
10.74

8.94
8.97
8.90
8.96
9.06

3.31
3.31
3.29
3.34
3.37
3.37

10.91
10.97
11.07
11.14
11.17
11.29

31.28
32.10
32.20
32.63
32.70
32.85

15.02
15.63
15.74
16.07
16.10
16.24

16.27
16.46
16.47
16.56
16.60
16.61

46.82
47.24
47.40
47.54
47.80
48.20

1962:
January
February._
March
April
May
June

15.50
15.95
16.33
16.40
16.40
15.89

16.54
16.89
16.89
17.08
17.10
17.08

8.32
8.40
8.55
8.59
8.62
8.55

12.64
12.89
12.97
12.94
13.00
13.02

10.93
10.90
10.89
10.95
10.96
11.01

9.26
9.35
9.45
9.49
9.47
9.46

3.38
3.40
3.43
3.43
3.44
3.47

11.20
11.24
11.28
11.30
11.32
11.41

32.94
33.08
32.95
32.73
33.07
32.43

16.43
16.19
16.00
15.73
15.97
15.44

16.51
16.89
16.95
17.00
17.10
16.99

48.97
49.46
49.20
48.48
47.81
47.45

July
August
September.
October 5
November5
December .

16.33
16.35
16.34
16.34
16.54
16.45

17.08
16.93
17.34
17.14
17.46

8.49
8.45
8.41
8.26
8.12

13.10
13.15
13.26
13.34
13.30

11.04
11.09
11.06
11.16
11.18

9.39
9.29
9.33
9.41
9.46

3.51
3.50
3.52
3.54
3.53

11.46
11.48
11.59
11.57
11.53

33.26
32.83
33.23
33.82
34.04

16.27
15.91
15.89
16.57
16.57
16.00

16.98
16.92
17.34
17.25
17.47

48.09
47.43
46.82
46.50
46.13

1 Monthly average for year and total for month.
2 Book value, seasonally adjusted, end of period.
3 End of period.
* Based on data through November.
«Preliminary.
NOTE.—See Table C-39 for total sales and inventories of manufacturers.
Source: Department of Commerce.




219

PRICES
TABLE C-41.—Wholesale price indexes, 1929-62
[1957-59=100] i

All commodities other than farm products
and foods (industrials)
Year or month

All
commodities

Farm
products

Processed
foods
Total

Textile Chemi- Rubber Lumber
cals
prodand
and
and
ucts
allied rubber wood
and
prodprodprodapparel ucts
ucts
ucts

1929_.

52.1

63.9

54.3

51.7

67.8

1930_.
1931_.
1932.
1933 _
1934 _

47.3
39.9
35.6
36.1
41.0

54.0
39.6
29.4
31.3
39.9

49.5
41.6
33.9
33.7

48.1
42.4
39.7
40.2
44.2

60.3
49.8
41.2
48.6
54.7

()
46.6
48.8

50.4
42.8
37.1
39.0
45.5

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

43.8
44.2
47.2
43.0
42.2

48.0
49.4
52.7
41.9
39.9

48.3
46.4
48.6
42.3
40.2

44.0
44.9
48.1
46.1
46.0

53.3
53.7
57.3
50.1
52.3

50.9
51.2
53.6
51.0
50.7

45.8
49.4
58.1
57.1
59.3

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

43.0
47.8
54.0
56.5
56.9

41.3
50.1
64.6
74.8
75.3

40.4
46.7
54.8
57.2
56.0

46.8
50.3
53.9
54.7
55.6

55.4
63.7
72.8
73.1
73.9

51.6
56.1
62.3
63.1
63.8

55.3
59.6
69.4
71.3
70.4

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.

57.9
66.1
81.2
87.9
83.5

78.3
90.6
109.1
117.1
101.3

56.4
71.7
91.1
98.4

56.3
61.7
75.3
81.7
80.0

75.1
87.3
105.7
110.3
100.9

64.2
69.4
92.2
94.4
86.2

68.3
68.6
68.3
70.5
68.3

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

86.8
96.7
94.0
92.7
92.9

106.4
123.8
116. 8
105.9
104.4

92.6
103.3
100.9
97.0
97.6

82.9
91.5
89.4
90.1
90.4

104.8
116.9
105.5
102.8
100.6

87.5
100.1
95.0
96.1
97.3

83.2
102.1
92.5
86.3
87.6

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

93.2
96.2
99.0
100.4
100.6

97.9
96.6
99.2
103.6
97.2

94.3
94.3
97.9
102.9
99.2

92.4
96.5
99.2
99.5
101.3

100.7
100.7
100.8
98.9
100.4

96.9
97.5
99.6
100.4
100.0

99.2
100.6
100.2
100.1
99.7

I960-.
1961...
1962 6.

100.7
100.3
100.6

96.9
96.0
97.7

100.0
100.7
101.2

101.3
100.8
100.8

101.5
99.7
100.6

100.2
99.1
97.5

96.1
93.3

1961: January __
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

101.0
101.0
101.0
100.5
100.0
99.5

97.9
98.3
98.1
96.6
94.8
92.9

102.0
102.6
101.7
100.9
99.8
99.0

101.2
101.2
101.2
101.1
100.8
100.6

100.2
100.1
99.7
99.4
99.3
99.0

99.7
100.0
100.1
100.2
99.9
99.4

96.4
96.3
96.5
96.7
96.8

99.9
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.4

95.1
96.7
95.2
95.1
95.6
95.9

99.9
100.4
100.3
100.5
100.2
101.0

100.6
100.6
100.7
100.5
100; 7
100.9

99.2
99.5
99.7
100.1
100.2
100.3

99.0
98.6
98.3
98.2
98.1
98.1

95.9
96.2
96.3
96.2
95.5
94.5

1962: January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

100.8
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.2
100.0

97.9
98.2
98.4
96.9
96.2
95.3

102.0
101.8
101.6
100.2
99.6
99.8

101.0
100.8
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.7

100.3
100.4
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.8

98.4
98.1
98.0
97.9
97.7
97.6

94.1
93.5
93.6
92.9
93.2
93.0

100.4
100.5
101.2
100.6
100.7
100.4

96.5
97.6
100.6
98.7
99.3
97.3

100.8
101.5
103.3
101.5
101.3
100.9

100.8
100.6
100.8
100.7
100.7
100.7

100.9
100.8
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.6

97.2
97.0
96.9
97.1
97.0
96.8

92.7
92.7
92.8
93.1
93.7
94.4

July
August
September—
October
November. December 6_
See footnotes at end of table.




220

57.6

TABLE C-41.—Wholesale price indexes,

1929-62—Continued

[1957-59=100] i

All commodities other than farm products and foods (industrials)—continued
Hides,
skins,
leather,
and
leather
products

Fuel
and
related
products,
and
power 2

1929

56.6

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

52.0
44.7
38.0
42.0
44.9
46.5
49.5
54.3
48.2
49.6
52.3
56.1
61.1
61.0
60.5

61.5
58.2
50.0
52.1
49.3
54.3
54.5
56.5
57.5
66.6
54.2

Year or month

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

-

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

61.3
70.7
96.5
97.5
92.5
99.9
114.8
92.8
94.1
89.9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

89.5
94.8
94.9
96.0
109.1

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

,

- .

1960
1961
1962 8
1961: January
February._
March
April
May
June

July
August
September.
October
November..
December..
1962: January
February. _
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December o_.

105.2
106.2
107.4
103.4
103.1
104.5
104.9
105.7
105.1
106.1
108.0
108.4
108.9
108.6
108.2
108.2
107.7
107.4
106.9
107.2
108.0
107.5
107.0
107.5
107.4
107.3
106.8

53.2
56.6
58.2
59.9
61.6
62.3
66.7
79.7
93.8
89.3

Pulp,
paper,
and
allied
products

FurniTobacco
Nonme- products MiscelMetals Machin- ture
and
tallic
and
ery and other
and
metal motive house- mineral bottled laneous
prodprodprodprod3
ucts
beverhold
ucts
ucts
ucts
durables
44.1
39.7
35.7
32.8
33.6
37.1
37.0
37.8
43.2
41.6
41.2
41.4
42.2
42.8
42.7
42.7

(*)

()

()
43.7

44.2
45.8
47.7
47.4
47.4

43.4
48.5
60.2
68.5
69.0

47.8
53.6
61.8
67.5
71.2

90.2
93.5
93.3
95.9
94.6

72.7
80.9
81.0
83.6
84.3

72.6
79.5
81.2
82.2
83.2

94.5
97.4
102.7
98.7
98.7

90.0
97.8
99.7
99.1
101.2
101.3
100.7
100.0

85.8
92.1
97.7
100.1
102.2
102.4
102.3
102.3

100.3
100.4
100.4
100.6
100.8
100.9
100.9
101.2
101.3
100.9
100.4
100.6

102.6
102.5
102.5
102.3
102.3
102.4
102.2
102.0
102.0
102.1
102.2
102.2

100.7
100.6
100,4
100.3
100.2
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.4
99.3
99.4

102.3
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.4

100.7
100.2
102.6
103.1
102.9
100.9
99.5
100.1
100.4
100.2
99.6
99.0
99.8
100.6
101.0
100.4
98.9
100.2
99.7
99.6
100.0
99.5
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.9

102.3
102.3
102.3
102.2
102.2
102.1

67.4

56.4
55.5
51.1
45.0
45.1
49.0

53.4
53.2
49.7
46.5
49.2
52.6

67.8
67.2
63.3
56.6
59.2

48.6
49.3
54.7
53.4
53.2

52.6
52.7
53.9
52.2
51.2

59.1
59.0
59.5
59.4
59.4

54.4
57.8
62.5
62.1
63.8
63.9
67.8
77.8
82.5
83.8

51.2
52.4
54.5
54.7
55.8
58.1
61.8
69.1
74.7
76.7

60.1
60.8
61.5
64.6
64.9

85.6
92.8
91.1
92.9
93.9
94.3
96.9
99.4
100.2
100.4

78.6
83.5
83.5
86.9
88.8
91.3
95.2
98.9
99.9
101.2
101.4
101.8
101.8

100.1
99.5
98.8
99.5
99.4
99.4

99.5
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.5
99.3
99.3
99.1
99.0
98.9
99.0
98.8
98.7
98.6
98.5
98.6
98.5

66.7
69.8
75.6
78.2
79.6

()
108.7
111.2
103.5

80.5
85.1
87.0
89.8
93.8

104.1
113.1
116.7
105.4
110.5

94.6
95.1
98.0
99.7
102.2

99.1
98.1
96.6
101.5
101.9

102.5
103.2
104.1

101.8
101.7
101.9
101.9
101.8
101.6
101.7
101.8
101.8
102.1
101.9
101.6

102.8
102.8
102.8
102.7
102.8
102.8
103.1
103.3
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8

99.3
103.9
107.3
103.0
102.6
104.3
105.3
107.2
103.4
103.0
103.0
103.0
100.7
105.1
106.3

101.9
102.1
102.2
102.4
102.1
101.9

103.8
103.8
104.0
104.0
104.1
104.1

106.7
105.6
105.6
106.0
106.0
105.4

101.6
101.6
101.5
101.6
101.6
101.5

104.0
1Q4. 2
104.2
104.5
104.5
104.3

107.6
107.2
109.1
108.7
109.8
110.2

1 This does not replace the former index (1926=100) as the official index prior to January 1952. Data
beginning January 1947 represent the revised sample and weighting pattern. Prior to January 1947 they
are based on the month-to-month movement of the former index.
2 Formerly titled "Fuel, power, and lighting materials."
3 Formerly titled "Nonmetallic minerals—structural."
* Formerly titled "Tobacco manufactures and bottled beverages."
fi Not available.
« Preliminary.
Source: Department of Labor.




221

TABLE C-42.—Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing, 1947-62
[1957-59=100]

Intermediate materials, supplies, and components *
Crude materials
Year or
month

All
commodities

Foodstuffs
Total and
feedstuffs

Materials and components for
manufacturing

Nonfood
maFuel
terials,
exce
fue

Total

Materials
for
Total food
manufacturing

Materials
for
nondurable
manufacturing

Materials Compofor
du- nents
rable for
manu- manufactur- facturing
ing

Materials
and
components
for
construction

1947
19481949

81.2
87.9
83.5

100.8
110.5
95.6

113.0
122.2
101.5

86. 5
96. 2
87. 5

73.6
87.0
86.5

76.5
82.7
79.4

75.5
81.5
78.0

102.6
105.8
91.0

94.0
99.5
90.7

58.8
66.4
68.2

63.0
68.0
69.3

77.0
77.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

96.7
94.0
92.7
92.9

104.2
119.6
109.9
101.5
100.6

108.9
126.0
118.6
106.2
106.2

100. 0
115. 3

86.1
87.7
88.3
91.4
87.3

83.0
93.0
90.3
90.8
91.3

81.8
92.7
88.8
90.2
90.4

94.7
105.5
101.4
101.6
100.7

95.2
110.3
99.3
98.5
96.9

72.1
80.1
80.3
83.9
85.7

71.9
81.6
81.8
83.3
83.7

81.2
88.8
88.2
89.7
90.1

93.2
96.2
__.. 99.0
100.4
_. 100.6

96.7
97.2
99.4
101.6
99.0

96.2
94.2
98.4
104.2
97.4

102.8
101. 4

87.1
93.3
101.6

92.6
96.9
99.3
99.7
101.0

97.5
97.9
99.7
102.0

101. 0

93.0
97.1
99.4
99.6
101.0

97.3
98.8
100.1
99.1
100.8

90.0
95.7
98.8
99.5
101.8

87.4
95.4
99.1
99.9
101.1

93.7
98.5
99.1
99.1
101.8

. . . . . 100.7
100.3
100.6

96.6
96.1
97.1

96.2
94.9
96.8

96. 8
97. 9
97. 4

102.5
102.3
101.8

101.0
100.3
100.2

101.0
99.8
99.2

99.5
102.6
100. 5

100.8
98.6
98.0

101.9
100.5
100.4

100.6
99.6
98.8

101.1
99.7
99.4

100.2
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.5

100.2
100.2
100.2
99.7

0.7

1955
1956
1957.
1958....
1959
1960
1961
1962*

99. 9

95.6
93. 8

99. 1
97. 6

1961:
January
February...
March
April.. •____.
May
June

101.0
101.0
101.0
100.5
100.0
99.5

96.9
97.3
97.4
96.8
95.3
93.7

98.0
98.2
97.5
96.2
93.8
91.5

94. 0
94. 9
96. 5
97. 8
97. 9
97. 7

104.5
104.9
104.4
101.5
100.7
99.8

100.7
100.7
100.9
100.9
100.4
100.0

100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.8

102.7
103.8
104.1
103.9
103.2
102.3

99.4
99.3

July
August
September..
October
November..
December-.

100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.4

94.8
97.0
96.0
95.9
95.4
96.4

92.9
95.5
93.6
93.3
93.7
95.0

98. 3
99 6
100 2
100 4
98 4
98 7

100.4
101.0
101.5
102.7
102.9
102.7

99.9
99.7
100.0
100.3

99.5
99.5
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.5

101.9
101.7
101.6
102.0
101.7
102.0

98.1
98.2
98.0
98.1
98.1
98.1

100.7
100.8
100.8
100.5
100.4
100.5

99.2
99.1
99.2
99.2
99.3

99.9
99.6
99.6
99.3
99.3
99.3

1962:
January
February...
March
April
May
June

100.8
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.2
100.0

97.8
97.5
97.6
96.5
95.8
95.2

96.7
96.3
96.9
95.5
94.7
94.0

99 5

102.7
104.0
103.1
99.7
99.6
98.7

100.3
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.4
100.2

99.5
99.4
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.3

102.2
101.9
101.5
100.4
99.6
99.5

98.4
98.2
98.3
98.5
98.4

100.3
100.4
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.6

99.1
99.0
99.1
98.9
98.8

99.2
99.4
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.5

July..
August
September..
October
November.
December 4

100.4
100.5
101.2
100.6
100.7
100.4

96.5
97.2
99.2
97.4
97.6
96.8

96.0
97.4
100.6
97.9
98.2
97.1

101.0
100.6
102.0
103.2
103.4
103.9

100.3
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1

99.2
99.1
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.7

99.4
99.8
100.4
100.8
100.2

98.1
97.8
97.7
97.6
97.4
97.3

100.6
100.5
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.0

98.7
98.7
98.7
98.6
98.6
98.5

99.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.0

99.3
98.7
98.3

97 9
97 3
97 0

96.6

96 3
96 0

95.9
95.8

See footnotes at end of table.




222

99.3
99.0

100.1
100.0
100.0

T A B L E C-42.—Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing,

1947-4)2—Continued

[1957-59= 100]

Special groups of industrial
products

Finished goods
Consumer finished goods

Year or month
Total
Total

Producer
Other
Du- finished
nongoods
Foods durable rable
goods goods

InterConmediate
sumer
Crude materials, finished
mate- supplies,
rials 2 and com- goods excluding
ponents 3
foods

1947
1948
1949

80.1
86.4
84.0

86.1
92.6
88.3

90.7
99.0
91.0

86.5
92.0
88.2

75.9
81.1
83.2

61.8
67.4
70.7

79.2
92.5
84.0

73.4
79.8
77.8

83.1
88.4
86.5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

85.5
93.6
93.0
92.1
92.3

89.8
98.2
97.0
95.4
95.3

92.8
104.2
103. 3
97.9
97.1

89.6
96.5
94.1
95.0
95.3

84.1
89.7
90.4
91.1
91.8

72.4
79.5
80.8
82.1
83.1

93.6
102.9
93.1
92.4
88.0

81.4
91.2
88.3
89.4

87.8
94.2
92.9
93.7
94.1

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

92.5
95.1
98.6
100.8
100.6

94.7
96.1
98.9
101.0
100.1

94.7
94.5
97.8
103.5
98.7

95.8
97.7
99.9
99.3
100.8

92.8
95.9
98.7
100.1
101.3

85.6
92.0
97.7
100.2
102.1

102.3
100.9
96.9
102.3

92.5
97.0
99.6
99.4
101.0

94.8
97.1
99.5
99.6
100.9

I960.—
1961
19624

101.4
101.4
101.7

101.1
100.9
101.2

100.8
100.4
101. 3

101.5
101.5
101.6

100.9
100.5
100.0

102.3
102.5
102.9

98.3
97.2
95.6

101.4
100.1

101.3
101.2
101.0

1961: January
February...
March
April
May
June

102.2
102.3
102.0
101.2
100.7
100.7

101.9
102.2
101.7
100.8
100.1
100.0

102.1
102.5
101.6
100.0
98.9
98.3

102.1
102.4
102.2
101.5
100.9
101.2

100.7
100.6
100.5
100. 5.
100.5
100.6

102.6
102.5
102.5
102.4
102.4
102.5

94.8
95.5
96.5
96.5
96.5

100.7
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.0

101.7
101.7
101.6
101.1
100.7
100.9

July
August
September.
October
November.
December..

101.2
101.3
101.2
101.2
101.3
101.5

100.7
100.8
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.9

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.2

101.2
101.3
101.2
101.2
101.4
101.8

100.6
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.3

102.5
102.5
102.5
102.6
102.7
102.7

97.5
98.7
99.2
99.7
97.2
97.2

99.7
99.9
99.8

101.0
101.0
101.0
100.9
101.1
101.2

1962: January
FebruaryMarch.
April
May
June

102.1
102.1
101.8
101.4
101.2
101.1

101.7
101.7
101.3
100.7
100.5
100.4

101.9
102.3
101.9
100.1
99.5
99.3

102.0
101.8
101.3
101.6
101.5
101.4

100.2
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0

102.8
102.8
102.8
102.9
102.9
102.8

98.5
98.2
97.1
95.8
95.3
94.4

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.1

101.3
101.1
100.8
101.0
101.0
101.0

July
August
September.
October
November.
December 4 .

101.5
101.7
102.6
101.9
102.0
101.6

100.8
101.1
102.3
101.5
101.5
101.0

100.3
101.3
103.9
101.9
102.1
100.7

101.5
101.4
101.7
101.8
101.7
101.8

100.2
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0

103.0
103.0
102.9
102.8
102.9
102.8

94.4
94.8
95.1
94.8
94.6
94.7

100.0

101.0
100.9
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1

1

Includes, in addition to subgroups shown, processed fuels and lubricants, containers, and supplies.
Excludes crude foodstuffs and feedstuffs, plant and animal fibers, oilseeds, and leaf tobacco.
Excludes intermediate materials for food manufacturing and manufactured animal feeds.
* Preliminary.
NOTE.—For a listing of the commodities included in each sector, see Table 7B, Wholesale Prices and
Price Indexes, 1958 (BLS Bulletin 1257).
Source: Department of Labor.
2
3




223

TABLE G—43.—Consumer price indexes, by major groups, 1929—62
For city wage-earner and clerical-worker families
[1957-59=100]

Year or month

All
items

Housing
Food
Total

Rent

Per- ReadAp- Trans- Medi- sonal ing and
porta- cal
parel tion
care recreacare
tion

1929

59.7

55.6

0)

85.4

56.2

0)

(0

0)

0)

1930
1931
1932__
1933
1934

58.2
53.0
47.6
45.1
46.6

52.9
43.6
36.3
35.3
39.3

0)
1
C)
0)
0)
(9

83.1
78.7
70.6
60.8
57.0

54.9
50.0
44.3
42.8
46.8

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)
1
C)
0)
(0
0)

1935
1936._
1937_
1938
1939_

47.8
48.3
50.0
49.1
48.4

42.1
42.5
44.2
41.0
39.9

56.3
57.1
59.1
60.1
59.7

56.9
58.3
60.9
62.9
63.0

47.2
47.6
50.1
49.8
49.0

49.4
49.8
50.6
51.0
49.8

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
49.4
49.6
50.0
50.2
50.2

42.6
43.2
45.7
46.7
46.5

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
50.2
51.0
52.5
54.3
54.4

48.8
51.3
56.8
60.3
61.3

40.5
44.2
51.9
57.9
57.1

59.9
61.4
64.2
64.9
66.4

63.2
64.3
65.7
65.7
65.9

49.6
51.9
60.5
63.2
67.7

49.5
51.2
55.7
55.5
55.5

50.3
50.6
52.0
54.5
56.2

46.4
47.6
52.2
57.6
61.7

55.4
57.3
60.0
65.0
72.0

62.7
68.0
77.8
83.8
83.0

58.4
66.9
81.3
88.2
84.7

67.5
69.3
74.5
79.8
81.0

66.1
66.5
68.7
73.2
76.4

71.2
78.1
90.6
96.5
92.7

55.4
58.3
64.3
71.6
77.0

57.5
60.7
65.7
69.8
72.0

63.6
68.2
76.2
79.1
78.9

75.0
77.5
82.5
86.7
89.9

83.8
90.5
92.5
93.2
93.6

85.8
95.4
97.1
95.6
95.4

83.2
88.2
89.9
92.3
93.4

79.1
82.3
85.7
90.3
93.5

91.5
99.7
98.7
97.8
97.3

79.0
84.0
89.6
92.1
90.8

73.4
76.9
81.1
83.9
86.6

78.9
86.3
87.3
88.1
88.5

89.3
92.0
92.4
93:3
92.4

93.3
94.7
98.0
100.7
101.5

94.0
94.7
97.8
101.9
100.3

94.1
95.5
98.5
100.2
101.3

94.8
96.5
98.3
100.1
101.6

96.7
98.4
99.7
99.8
100.7

89.7
91.3
96.5
99.7
103.8

88.6
91.8
95.5
100.1
104.4

90.0
93.7
97.1
100.4
102.4

92.1
93.4
96.9
100. 8
102.4

1960
1961
1962 2

103.1
104.2
105.4

101.4
102.6
103.6

103.1
103.9
104.8

103.1
104.4
105.6

102.1
102.8
103.1

103.8
105.0
107.1

108.1
111.3
114.1

104.1
104.6
106.4

104.9
107.2
109.5

1961: J a n u a r y . . .
FebruaryMarch
April
May
June.
_

103.8
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.8
104.0

102.8
102.9
102.7
102.7
102.3
102.5

103.8
103.8
103.9
103.8
103.7
103.8

103.9
104.1
104.1
104.2
104.3
104.4

102.1
102.2
102.4
102.1
102.2
102.2

103.8
103.8
103.4
103.5
104.0
104.8

109.7
110.3
110.4
110.7
111.0
111.3

104.4
104.4
104.3
104.4
104.4
104.5

105.5
106.0
106.6
107.2
107.0
106.6

July. ______
August
September.
October...
November.
December.

104.4
104.3
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.5

103.4
102.7
102.6
102.5
101.9
102.0

103.8
103.8
104.0
104.1
104.2
104.4

104.4
104.4
104.7
104.8
104.9
105.0

102.5
102.5
103.6
103.9
103.7
103.5

105.3
106.0
106.0
106.7
106.8
106.0

111.6
111.7
111.9
112.3
112.4
112.5

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.6
104.8
105.2

107.2
107.4
107.9
108.3
108.1
108.2

1962: January.__
February..
March
April
May
June

104.5
104.8
105.0
105.2
105.2
105. a

102.5
103.1
103.2
103.4
103.2
103.5

104.4
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.7
104.8

105.1
105.2
105.3
105.4
105.5
105.6

101.8
102.0
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.8

106.0
106.0
105.9
107.2
107.3
107.3

112.6
113.0
113.6
113.9
114.1
114.4

105.6
105.8
105.9
106.3
106.4
106.1

108.5
109.1
109.2
109.4
109.5
109.2

July
August
September.
October. __
November.

105.5
105.5
106.1
106.0
106.0

103.8
103.8
104.8
104.3
104.1

104.8
104.8
104.9
105.0
105.1

105.7
105.8
105.9
106.1
106.2

102.9
102.5
104.6
104.9
104.3

106.8
107.4
107.8
108.1
108.3

114.6
114.6
114.7
114.9
115.0

106.8
106.8
106.8
106.9
107.1

110.0
110.3
110.0
109.5
110.1

1940
1941____
1942_
1943
1944
1945_
1946
1947
1948
1949

_

_..

1950_
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

_

1 Not available.
* January-November average.
Source: Department of Labor.




224

TABLE G-44.—Consumer price indexes, by special groups, 1935-62
For city wage-earner and clerical-worker families
[1957-59=100]

Year or month

Commodities
Services
All
All items
All
Commodities less food
All items
All
servAll
items
shel- comices
food
ter modi- Food
Non- serv- Rent less
Dura- dura- ices
ties
All
rent
bles bles

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

47.8
48.3
50.0
49.1
48.4

52.5
53.0
54.9
55.5
55.1

46.1
46.7
48.2
46.8
46.0

45.0
45.6
47.4
45.6
44.7

42.1
42.5
44.2
41.0
39.9

50.4
51.0
53.2
53.2
52.3

48.1
48.8
51.9
52.8
51.7

48.8
49.2
51.2
50.9
50.1

53.2
53.8
55.4
56.5
56.6

56.9
58.3
60.9
62.9
63.0

50.7
50.4
50.9
51.3
51.3

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

48.8
51.3
56.8
60.3
61.3

55.3
56.9
60.9
62.6
65.0

46.3
49.1
55.3
59.5
60.5

45.1
48.2
55.2
60.1
60.8

40.5
44.2
51.9
57.9
57.1

52.6
55.2
61.4
64.0
67.5

51.3
54.8
62.2
64.3
70.2

50.6
52.8
58.4
60.9
64.0

56.8
57.5
59.3
60.4
61.9

63.2
64.3
65.7
65.7
65.9

51.4
52.0
54.3
56.7
59.5

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

62.7
68.0
77.8
83.8
83.0

66.5
69.4
75.8
81.3
82.1

62.1
68.4
79.4
85.6
84.1

62.6
69.4
83.4
89.4
87.1

58.4
66.9
81.3
88.2
84.7

70.2
74.6
84.2
90.6
89.3

75.5
79.0
85.6
91.9
93.2

66.3
71.1
81.7
88.0

62.7
63.9
66.5
70.7
74.0

66.1
66.5
68.7
73.2
76.4

60.7
62.9
66.1
69.9
73.4

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

90.5
92.5
93.2
93.6

83.1
88.4
90.5
92.3
92.8

84.7
91.8
93.6
93.9
93.9

87.6
95.5
96.7
96.4
95.4

85.8
95.4
97.1
95.6
95.4

89.2
95.9
96.7
96.8
95.6

94.2
101.4
102.7
101.6
97.7

86.2
92.7
93.2
94.0
94.4

76.4
80.4
84.0
87.5

79.1
82.3
85.7
90.3
93.5

75.4
80.0
83.8
87.0
89.1

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959.

93.3
94.7
98.0
100.7
101.5

93.1
94.7
97.9
100.1
102.0

93.4
94.7
97.8
100.7
101.5

94.4
95.3
98.4
100.7
101.0

94.0
94.7
97.8
101.9
100.3

94.6
95.9
98.9
99.8
101.3

94.9
94.9
98.2
99.7
102.0

94.4
96.5
99.1
99.8
101.0

91.4
93.4
97.0
100.3
102.7

94.8
96.5
98.3
100.1
101.6

90.8
92.8
96.7
100.3
102.9

1960.
1961.
1962 1

103.1
104.2
105.4

103.7
104.8
106.1

103.0
104.2
105.4

101.7
102.4
103.2

101.4
102.6
103.6

101.8
102.1
102.7

100.7
100.5
101.5

102.6
103.2
103.7

105.6
107.6
109.5

103.1
104.4
105.6

106.1
108.3
110.1

1961: January...
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
_
October
November
December...
1962: January...
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November..

103.8
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.8
104.0

104.1
104.3
104.4
104.3
104.5
104.6

103.7
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.7
104.0

102.2
102.3
102.2
102.1
101. 9
102.2

102.8
102.9
102.7
102.7
102.3
102.5

101.6
101.7
101.6
101.4
101.5
101.8

99.5
99.5
99.2
99.9
100.0
100.4

102.9
103.0
103.1
102.5
102.5
102.7

106.8
107.0
107.2
107.3
107.4
107.5

103.9
104.1
104.1
104.2
104.3
104.4

107.5
107.6
107.9
108.0
108.1
108.2

104.4
104.3
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.5

104.8
104.9
105.3
105.5
105.6
105.5

104.4
104.3
104.5
104.7
104.5
104.4

102.8
102.5
102.8
102.9
102.6
102.4

103.4
102.7
102.6
102.5
101.9
102.0

102.1
102.2
102.6
103.0
102.9
102.6

100.6
101.0
101.0
101.7
101.6
101.1

103.0
103.1
103.8
103.8
103.8
103.6

107.6
107.7
107.9
108.0
108.2
108.5

104.4
104.4
104.7
104.8
104.9
105.0

108.3
108.4
108.6
108.7
108.9
109.1

104.5
104.8
105.0
105.2
105.2
105.3

105.3
105. 5
105.7
106.0
106.0
106.1

104.4
104.8
105.0
105.2
105.2
105.3

102.3
102.7
102.8
103.1
103.0
103.1

102.5
103.1
103.2
103.4
103.2
103.5

102.0
102.2
102.4
102.8
102.6
102.6

100.8
100.8
100.9
101.4
101.5
101.6

102.9
103.3
103.5
103.8
103.5
103.4

108.7
108.9
109.0
109.2
109.4
109.5

105.1
105.2
105.3
105.4
105.5
105.6

109.3
109.5
109.6
109.8
110.1
110.2

105.5
105.5
106.1
106.0
106.0

106.1
106.2
106.6
106.7
106.7

105.4
105.5
106.1
106.1
106.0

103.1
103.2
104.1
104.0
103.9

103.8
103.8
104.8
104.3
104.1

102.5
102.6
103.4
103.6
103.5

101.5
101.7
101.6
102.0
102.2

103.3
103.2
104.6
104.6
104.4

109.8
109.9
109.8
109.8
110.0

105.7
105.8
105.9
106.1
106.2

110.5
110.6
110.5
110.5
110.6

* January-November average.
Source: Department of Labor.

669333 0—63



15

225

MONEY SUPPLY, CREDIT, AND FINANCE
TABLE C-45.—Money supply, 1947-62
[Averages of daily figures, billions of dollars]

Year and month

Total
money
supply
and
time
deposits
adjusted

Money supply l

Total

Currency
component

Money supply J
Total
money
Time supply
deand
De- posits time
CurDemand adrency mand
deposdeposit justTotal com- deposit
its
compon- comadponent
nent ponent
justed 2

Seasonally adjusted
1947: December. _.
1948: December. __
1949: December...

148.5
147.5
147.5

113.1
111.5
111.2

26.4
25.8
25.1

December. _.
December.._
December.._
December...
December. _.

152.9
160.9
168.6
173.4
180.7

116.2
122.7
127.4
128.8
132.3

25.0
26.1
27.3
27.7
27.4

1955:
1956:
1957:
1958:
1959:

December...
December. . .
December. . .
December..December. .-

185.4
189.0
193.4
206.7
209.4

135.2
136.9
135.9
141.2
142.0

1960: December . . .
1961: December...
1962: December 4 ..

213.9
228.2
245.3

1961: January
February
March
April.
-.
May
-.
June
July
August
September...
October
November...
December...
1962: January
February
March
April
May.
June.
July
August
September..
October
November._
December 4 .

U.S.
GovTime ernde- m e n t
posits dead- mand
justdeed 2
posits 3

Unadjusted

86.7
85.8
86.0

1950:
1951:
1952:
1953:
1954:

I

35.4
36.0
36.4

151.1
150.0
150.0

115.9
114.3
113.9

26.8
26.2
25.5

89.1
88.1
88.4

35.1
35.7
36.1

1.0
1.8
2.8

91.2
96.5
100.1
101. 1
104.9

36.7
38.2
41.2
44.6
48.4

155.6
163.8
171.7
176.4
183.6

119.2
125.8
130.8
132.1
135.6

25.4
26.6
27.8
28.2
27.9

93.8
99.2
103.0
103.9
107.7

36.4
38.0
40.9
44.2
48.0

2.4
2.7
4.9
3.8
5.0

27.8
28.2
28.3
28.6
28.9

107.4
108.7
107.5
112.6
113.2

50.2
52.1
57.5
65.5
67.4

188.2
191.7
196.0
209.3
212.2

138.6
140.3
139.3
144.7
145.6

28.4
28.8
28.9
29.2
29.5

110.2
111.5
110.4
115.5
116. 1

49.6
51.4
56.7
64.6
66.6

3.4
3.4
3.5
3.9
4.9

141.2
145.7
147.9

28.9
29.6
30.6

112.2
116.1
117.3

72.7
82.5
97.5

216.8
231.2
248.2

144.7
149.4
151.6

29.6
30.2
31.2

115.2
119.2
120.4

72.1
81.8
96. 0

4.7
4.9
5.6

215.1
216.7
217.8
218.7
220.2
221.0

141.4
141.8
142.2
142.5
142.8
142.8

29.0
28.9
28.9
28.9
28.9
29.0

112.5
112.9
113.3
113.5
113.9
113.9

73.7
74.9
75.6
76.3
77.4
78.2

217.6
216.3
216.3
218.9
218.5
219.8

144.5
141.6
140.8
142.5
140.8
141.3

28.8
28.6
28.6
28.7
28.7
28.9

115.6
113.0
112.2
113.8
112.1
112.4

73.2
74.6
75.5
76.5
77.7
78.6

4.1
4.8
4.7
2.8
4.7
4.5

222.1
222.7
224.0
225.5
227.0
228.2

142.9
142.9
143.5
144.2
144.9
145.7

29.0
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.6

113.9
113.9
114.3
114.9
115.5
116.1

79.1
79.8
80.5
81.3
82.0
82.5

221.2
221.8
224.0
226.1
227.8
231.2

141.6
141.6
143.1
144.5
146.3
149.4

29.2
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.7
30.2

112.4
112.4
113.8
115.1
116.6
119.2

79.5
80.2
80.9
81.5
81.5
81.8

4.3
5.5
5.2
6.4
5.8
4.9

230.0
231.3
233.1
234.7
235.2
236.2

145.9
145.5
145.7
146.1
145.7
145.6

29.7
29.7
29.9
30.0
30.0
30.1

116.3
115.8
115.8
116.0
115.7
115.4

84.1
85.8
87.5
88.7
89.6
90.7

232.5
230.7
231.6
235.1
233.5
235.1

149.0
145.3
144.2
146.2
143.6
144.0

29.5
29.3
29.6
29.8
29.8
30.0

119.5
115.9
114.6
116.4
113.8
113.9

83.5
85.4
87.4
88.9
89.9
91.1

3.8
4.6
5.1
3.8
7.0
7.2

237.4
237.6
238.7
240.8
242.9
245.3

145.7
145.1
145.3
146.1
146.9
147.9

30.2
30.2
30.2
30.3
30.5
30.6

115.5
114.9
115.1
115.8
116.4
117.3

91.8
92.5
93.4
94.6
96.0
97.5

236.6
236.7
238.8
241.4
243.6
248.2

144.3
143.8
145.0
146.5
148.2
151.6

30.3
30.3
30.3
30.4
30.8
31.2

114.0
113.5
114.6
116.1
117.5
120.4

92.2
93.0
93.8
94.9
95.4
96.6

7.1
6.8
7.2
7.3
6.0
5.6

1
Money supply consists of (1) currency outside the Treasury, the Federal Reserve, and vaults of all
commercial banks; (2) demand deposits at all commercial banks, other than those due to domestic commercial banks and the U.S. Government, less cash items in process of collection and Federal Reserve float;
and (3) foreign demand balances at Federal Reserve Banks.
2 Time deposits adjusted are time deposits at all commercial banks other than those due to domestic
commercial banks and the U.S. Government.
3 Deposits at all commercial banks.
4
Preliminary.
NOTE.—Between January and August 1959, the series were expanded to include data for all banks in
Alaska and Hawaii.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




226

TABLE G-46.—Bank loans and investments, 1948-62
[Billions of dollars]
Weekly
reporting
member
banks '

All commercial banks
Year or month 1

Total
loans
and
investments

Investments
Loans,
excluding
interbank

U.S. Government
securities

Other
securities

Business
loans»

Seasonally adjusted
113.0
118.7

41.5
42.0

62.3
66.4

9.2
10.2

15.6
13.9

124.7
130.2
139.1
143.1
153.1

51.1
56.5
62.8
66.1
69.0

61.2
60.4
62.2
62.3
67.7

12.4
13.4
14.2
14.7
16.4

17.9
21.6
23.4
23.4
22.4

157.6
161.6
166.4
181.0
185.7

80.5
88.0
91.4
95.6
107.8

60.4
57.3
57.0
64.9
57.6

16.7
16.3
17.9
20.5
20.4

»26.7
30.8
31.8
3 31.7
3 30.7

__.

194.5
209.6
227.6

114.2
121.1
134.8

59.6
64.7
63.8

20.7
23.8
29.0

32.2
32.9
35.2

1961: January
February. _.
March
April
May
June

195.4
198.6
198.2
197.4
200.2
201.9

113.9
115.8
115.3
115.2
115.9
115.9

60.5
61.4
61.2
60.6
62.4
63.8

21.0
21.4
21.6
21.7
21.9
22.1

31.4
31.5
32.2
31.7
31.5
31.8

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November. _
December _ .

203.3
204.0
206.7
207.1
208.3
209.6

116.3
116.3
117.4
118.6
119.4
121.1

64.7
65.1
66.1
65.3
65.3
64.7

22.3
22.6
23.2
23.2
23.6
23.8

31.3
31.5
31.8
31.9
32.1
32.9

1962: January
February...
March
April
May
June

210.7
213.3
215.2
215.0
216.4
220.3

120.8
122.6
123.8
124.5
124.8
126.6

65.7
66.1
66.1
64.6
65.5
66.6

24.2
24.6
25.3
25.9
26.1
27.1

32.0
32.2
33.0
32.8
32.9
33.4

July
August
September—
October*...
November 4 .
December *.

217.8
220.3
222.0
224.4
225.8
227.6

126.1
127.3
129.7
131.7
132.3
134.8

64.1
65.0
64.3
64.1
64.4
63.8

27.6
28.0
28.0
28.6
29.1
29.0

33.0
33.4
34.1
34.3
34.7
35.2

1948
1949
1950..
1951
1952
1953
1954

_
-

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960..
1961
1962 4

1 Data are for last Wednesday of month (except June 30 and December 31 call dates) for all commercial
banks and for last Wednesday for weekly reporting member banks.
2 Member banks are all national banks and those State banks which have taken membership in the
Federal Reserve System. Weekly reporting member banks comprise about 350 large banks in over 100
leading cities.
3 Commercial and industrial Joans and prior to 1956 agricultural loans. Beginning July 1959, loans to
financial institutions excluded. Series revised beginning October 1955, July 1958, and July 1959.
* Preliminary. Data for December are estimates for December 31, 1962.
NOTE.—Series for all commercial banks have been revised to show seasonally adjusted data.
Between January and August 1959, series for all commercial banks expanded to include data for all banks
in Alaska and Hawaii. Data for all member banks include Alaska and Hawaii beginning 1954 and 1959,
respectively.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




227

T A B L E C-47.—Federal Reserve Bank credit and member bank reserves, 192&-62
[Averages of daily figures, millions of dollars]
Reserve Bank credit outstanding
Year and month
Total

U.S.
Government securities

Member
bank
borrowings

Member bank reserves

All
other,
mainly
float

Total

Required

Excess

Member
bank free
reserves
(excess
reserves
less borrowings)

1929: December..

1,643

446

801

396

2,395

2,347

48

-753

1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:

December..
December..
December..
December..
December..

1,273
1,950
2,192
2,669
2,472

644
777
1,854
2,432
2,430

337
763
281
95
10

292
410
57
142
32

2,415
2,069
2,435
2,588
4,037

2,342
2,010
1,909
i 1,822
2,290

73
60
526
1766
1,748

-264
-703
245
671
1,738

1935:
1936:
1937:
1938:
1939:

December..
December. _
December..
December..
December..

2,494
2,498
2,628
2,618
2,612

2,430
2,434
2,565
2,564
2,510

6
7
16
7
3

58
57
47
47
99

5,716
6,665
6,879
8,745
11,473

2,733
4,619
5,808
5,520
6,462

2,983
2,046
1,071
3,226
5,011

2,977
2,039
1,055
3,219
5,008

1940:
1941:
1942:
1943:
1944:

December. .
December..
December. _
December. .
December..

2,305
2,404
6,035
11,914
19,612

2,188
2,219
5,549
11,166
18,693

3
5
4
90
265

114
180
483
659
654

14,049
12,812
13,152
12,749
14,168

7,403
9,422
10,776
11,701
12,884

6,646
3,390
2,376
1,048
1,284

6,643
3,385
2,372
958
1,019

1945:
1946:
1947:
1948:
1949:

December. _
December. .
December..
December. .
December..

24,744
24,746
22,858
23,978
19,012

23,708
23, 767
21,905
23,002
18,287

334
157
224
134
118

702
821
729
842
607

16,027
16,517
17,261
19,990
16,291

14,536
15,617
16,275
19,193
15,488

1,491
900
986
797
803

1,157
743
762
663
685

1950:
1951:
1952:
1953:
1954:

December..
December..
December. _
December. _
December..

21,606
25,446
27,299
27,107
26,317

20,345
23,409
24,400
25, 639
24,917

142
657
1,593
441
246

1,119
1,380
1,306
L,027
1,154

17,391
20,310
21,180
19,920
19,279

16,364
19,484
20,457
19,227
18, 576

1,027
826
723
693
703

885
169
-870
252
457

1955:
1956:
1957:
1958:
1959:

December. .
December..
December. _
December..
December. .

26,853
27,156
26,186
28,412
29,435

24, 602
24, 765
23,982
26, 312
27,036

839
688
710
557
906

1,412
L 703
,
L,494
1,543
1,493

19,240
19, 535
19,420
18,899
a 18,932

18,646
18, 883
18,843
18,383
18,450

594
652
577
516
482

-245
-36
-133
-41
-424

1960: December._
1961: December. _
1962: December...

29,060
31,217
33,218

27.248
29,098
30, 546

87
149
304

1,725
1,970
2,368

19,283
20,118
3 20,036

18,527
19,550
319,468

756
568
3 568

419
3 264

1961: January
February. __
March
April.
May..
June.

28,484
28,145
28,030
27,925
28,007
28,304

26,942
26,829
26,831
26,676
26.747
26,935

49
137
70
56
96
63

1,493
1,179
1,129
1,193
1,164
L,306

19, 315
18, 964
18,809
18,884
18,856
19,042

18, 570
18,310
18,253
18,277
18,307
18,430

745
654
556
607
549
612

696
517
486
551
453
549

Tilly
August
September—
October
November-December. _

28,498
28, 661
29,080
29,504
30,142
31,217

27, 024
27,415
27, 563
28.044
28,616
29,098

51
67
37
65
105
149

1,423
,179
1,480
1,396
1,420
1,970

19,063
19,223
19,367
19,660
19,840
20,118

18,482
18,619
18,783
19,153
19,218
19,550

581
604
584
507
622
568

530
537
547
442
517
419

1962: January
February. _March
April
May
June

30,468
29,839
30,063
30,634
30, 991
31,265

28, 519
28,384
28, 570
29,143
29,503
29, 568

70
68
91
69
63
100

1,879
1,387
1,402
1,422
1,425
1,597

20,089
19, 571
19, 547
19, 723
19,817
19,924

19,473
19,069
19,077
19,213
19,320
19,453

616
502
470
510
497
471

546
434
379
441
434
371

July
August
September—
October
November..
December..

31,475
31,600
31,807
32,057
32,053
33,218

29, 581
30,088
29,921
30,241
30,195
30,546

89
127
80
65
119
304

1,805
1,385
1,806
1,751
1,739
2,368

20,046
19,921
20,034
20,205
19,601
3
20,036

19, 514
19,358
19, 576
19,721
19,012
319,468

532
563
458
484
589
3
568

443
436
378
419
470
3 264

1

Data from March 1933 through April 1934 are for licensed banks only.
* Beginning December 1959, total reserves held include vault cash allowed.
3
Preliminary.
NOTE.—Data for member banks in Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1954 and 1959, respectively.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




228

TABLE G-48.—Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-62
[Percent per annum]
Corporate
bonds
(Moody's)

U.S. Government
securities
Year or month

Highgrade
municipal
bonds
(Standard &
Poor's)

Average
rate on Prime
short- comterm
merbank
cial
loans
to busi- paper,
nessselected months
cities

Federal
Reserve
Bank
discount
rate

3-month 9-12
3-5
Treas- month
year Taxable Aaa
4
ury
issues 2 issues 3 bonds
bills i

Baa

4.73

5.90

4.27

5.85

5.16

2.66
2.12

4.55
4.58
5.01
4.49
4.00

5.90
7.62
9.30
7.76
6.32

4.07
4.01
4.65
4.71
4.03

3.59
2.64
2.73
1.73
1.02

3.04
2.11
2.82
2.56
1.54

1.29
1.11
1.40
.83
.59

3.60
3.24
3.26
3.19
3.01

5.75
4.77
5.03
5.80
4.96

3.40
3.07
3.10
2.91
2.76

()
2.1

.75
.75
.94
.81
.59

1.50
1.50
1.33
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
8 1.00
8
1.00
8 1.00

1929..
1930..
1931..
1932_.
1933..
1934..
1935_.
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

()
1.402
.879
.515
.256
.137
.143
.447
.053
.023

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

.014
.103
.326
.373
.375

.50
.73
1.46
1.34
1.33

2.46
2.47
2.48

2.84
2.77
2.83
2.73
2.72

4.75
4.33
4.28
3.91
3.61

2.50
2.10
2.36
2.06
1.86

2.1
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.4

.56
.53

()
0.75
.79

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

.375
.375
.594
1.040
1.102

.81
.82
.88
1.14
1.14

1.18
1.16
1.32
1.62
1.43

2.37
2.19
2.25
2.44
2.31

2.62
2.53
2.61
2.82
2.66

3.29
3.05
3.24
3.47
3.42

1.67
1.64
2.01
2.40
2.21

2.2
2.1
2.1
2.5
2.7

.75
.81
1.03
1.44
1.49

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

1.218
1.552
1.766
1. 931
.953

1.26
1.73
1.81
2.07
.92

1.50
1.93
2.13
2.56
1.82

2.32
2.57
2.68
2.94
2.55

2.62
2.86
2.96
3.20
2.90

3.24
3.41
3.52
3.74
3.51

1.98
2.00
2.19
2.72
2.37

2.7
3.1
3.5
3.7
3.6

1.45
2.16
2.33
2.52
1.58

1.75
1.75

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

1.753
2.658
3.267
1.839
3.405

1.89
2.83
3.53
2.09
4.11

2.50
3.12
3.62
2.90
4.33

2.84
3.08
3.47
3.43
4.08

3.06
3.36
3.89
3.79
4.38

3.53
3.88
4.71
4.73
5.05

2.53
2.93
3.60
3.56
3.95

3.7
4.2
4.6
4.3
"5.0

2.18
3.31
3.81
2.46
3.97

1.89
2.77
3.12
2.16
3 36

I960..
1961..
1962.

2.928
2.378
2.778

3.55
2.91
3.02

3.99
3.60
3.57

4.02
3.90
3.95

4.41
4.35
4.33

5.19
5.08
5.02

3.73
3.46
3.18

5.2
5.0
5.0

3.85
2.97
3.26

3.53
3.00
3.00

1960: J a n u a r y . . .
February..
March
April
May
June

4.436
3.954
3.439
3.244
3.392
2.641

4.93
4.58
3.93
3.99
4.19
3.35

4.87
4.66
4.24
4.23
4.42
4.06

4.37
4.22
4.08
4.18
4.16
3.98

4.61
4.56
4.49
4.45
4.46
4.45

5.34
5.34
5.25
5.20
5.28
5.26

4.13
3.97
3.87
3.84
3.85
3.78

5.34

4.91
4.66
4.49
4.16
4.25
3.81

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.65

2.396
2.286
2.489
2.426
2.384
2.272

3.13
2.89
2.«9
3.01
2.99
2.79

3.71
3.50
3.50
3.61
3.68
3.51

3.86
3.79
3.84
3.91
3.93
3.88

4.41
4.28
4.25
4.30
4.31
4.35

5.22
5.08
5.01
5.11
5.08
5.10

3.72
3.53
3.53
3.59
3.46
3.45

4.97

3.39
3.34
3.39
3.30
3.28

3.50
3.18
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

July
August
September.
October
NovemberDecember..

See footnotes at end of table.




229

5.35

~4~99

.73

8 1.00
8 1.00
LOO

1.34
.50

TABLE C-48.—Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-62—Continued
[Percent per annum]
Corporate
bonds
(Moody's)

U.S. Government
securities
Year or month

3-month 9-12
3-5
Treas- month year Taxable
4
Aaa
ury
issues 2 issues 3 bonds
bills i
1961: January
February
March
April...
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
1962: January
February
March
April
May__
June
July
August
September
October..
November
December

Highgrade
municipal
bonds
(StandBaa ard &
Poor's)

Average
rate on Prime
shortcomterm
merbank
cial
loans paper,
to busi- 4-6
n e s s - months
selected
cities

2.302
2.408
2.420
2.327
2.288
2.359

2.70
2.84
2.86
2.83
2.82
3.02

3.53
3.54
3.43
3.39
3.28
3.70

3.89
3.81
3.78
3.80
3.73
3.88

4.32
4.27
4.22
4.25
4.27
4.33

5.10
5.07
5.02
5.01
5.01
5.03

3.44
3.33
3.38
3.44
3.38
3.53

.__

2.268
2.402
2.304
2.350
2.458
2.617

2.87
3.03
3.03
2.97
2.95
3.03

3.69
3.80
3.77
3.64
3.68
3.82

3.90
4.00
4.02
3.98
3.98
4.06

4.41
4.45
4.45
4.42
4.39
4.42

5.09
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.11
5.10

3.53
3.55
3.54
3.46
3.44
3.49

-—

2.746
2.752
2.719
2.735
2.694
2.719

3.08
3.11
2.99
2.94
2.98
3.02

3.84
3.77
3.55
3.48
3.53
3.51

4.08
4.09
4.01
3.89
3.88
3.90

4.42
4.42
4.39
4.33
4.28
4.28

5.08
5.07
5.04
5.02
5.00
5.02

3.32
3.28
3.19
3.08
3.09
3.24

4.98

2.945
2.837
2.792
2.751
2.803
2.856

3.23
3.13
3.00
2.90
2.92
2.95

3.71
3.57
3.56
3.46
3.46
3.44

4.02
3.98
3.94
3.89
3.87
3.87

4.34
4.35
4.32
4.28
4.25
4.24

5.05
5.06
5.03
4.99
4.96
4.92

3.30
3.31
3.18
3.03
3.03
3.12

4.99

___

Federal
Reserve
Bank
discount
rate

4.97

2.98
3.03
3.03
2.91
2.76
2.91

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

4.96

2.72
2.92
3.05
3.00
2.98
3.19

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

3.26
3.22
3.25
3.20
3.16
3.25

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

3.36
3.30
3.34
3.27
3.23
3.29

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

4.97

5.01

5.02

1 Rate on new issues within period. Issues were tax exempt prior to March 1, 1941, and fully taxable
thereafter. For the period 1934-37, series includes issues with maturities of more than 3 months.
2
Includes certificates of indebtedness and selected note and bond issues (fully taxable).
3
Selected note and bond issues. Issues were partially tax exempt prior to 1941, and fully taxable thereafter.
* First issued in 1941. Series includes bonds which are neither due nor callable before a given number of
years as follows: April 1953 to date, 10 years; April 1952-March 1953, 12 years; October 1941-March 1952,
15 years.
* Treasury bills were first issued in December 1929 and were issued irregularly in 1930.
« Not available before August 1942.
7
Not available on same basis as for 1939 and subsequent years.
« From October 30, 1942, to April 24, 1946, a preferential rate of 0.50 percent was in effect for advances
secured by Government securities maturing or callable in 1 year or less.
9
Series revised to exclude loans to nonbank financial institutions.
NOTE.—Yields and rates computed for New York City, except for short-term bank loans.
Sources: Treasury Department, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Moody's Investors
Service, and Standard & Poor's Corporation.




230

T A B L E C-49.—Short- and intermediate-term consumer credit outstanding, 1929—62
[Millions of dollars]
Instalment credit
End of year or month

Total
Total

Noninstalment credit

Other Repair
Autoconand
mobile sumer modernp a p e r i goods ization
paper l loans 2

Personal
loans

Total

Charge
accounts

Other 3

1929

7,116

3,524

1,384

1,544

27

569

3,592

1,996

1,596

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

6,351
5,315
4,026
3,885
4,218

3,022
2,463
1,672
1,723
1,999

986
684
356
493
614

1,432
1,214
834
799
889

25
22
18
15
37

579
543
464
416
459

3,329
2,852
2,354
2,162
2,219

1,833
1,635
1,374
1,286
1,306

1,496
1,217
980
876
913

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

5,190
6,375
6,948
6,370
7,222

2,817
3,747
4,118
3,686
4,503

992
1,372
1,494
1,099
1,497

]L,000
]L,290

L, 505
L,442
L,620

253
364
219
218
298

572
721
900
927
1,088

2,373
2,628
2,830
2,684
2,719

1,354
1,428
1,504
1,403
1,414

1,019
1,200
1,326
1,281
1,305

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

8,338
9,172
5,983
4,901
5,111

5,514
6,085
3,166
2,136
2,176

2,071
2,458
742
355
397

1,827
L,929
1,195
819
791

371
376
255
130
119

1,245
1,322
974
832
869

2,824
3,087
2,817
2,765
2,935

1,471
1,645
1,444
1,440
1,517

1,353
1,442
1,373
1,325
1,418

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

5,665
8,384
11,598
14,447
17,364

2,462
4,172
6,695
8,996
11,590

455
981
1,924
3,018
4,555

816
1,290
3,706

182
405
718
853
898

1,009
1,496
1,910
2,224
2,431

3,203
4,212
4,903
5,451
5,774

1,612
2,076
2,381
2,722
2,854

1,591
2,136
2,522
2,729
2,920

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

21, 471
22, 712
27, 520
31, 393
32,464

14, 703
15,294
19,403
23, 005
23, 568

6,074
5,972
7,733
9,835
9,809

1,799
1,880
3,174
3,779
3,751

1,016
1,085
1,385
1,610
1,616

2,814
3,357
4,111
4,781
5,392

6,768
7,418
8,117
8,388
8,896

3,367
3,700
4,130
4,274
4,485

3,401
3,718
3,987
4,114
4,411

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

38, 830
42,334
44, 970
45,129
51, 542

28, 906
31, 720
33, 867
33,642
39,245

13, 460
14, 420
15,340
14,152
16,420

7,641
3,606
3,844
},028
10, 630

1,693
1,905
2,101
2,346
2,809

6,112
6,789
7,582
8,116
9,386

9,924
10, 614
11,103
11,487
12,297

4,795
4,995
5,146
5,060
5,104

5,129
5,619
5,957
6,427
7,193

1960
1961
1962 4
1961: J a n u a r y . . . .
February.March
April
May
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober
November _
December—
1962: January
February. _
March
April
May
June

56,028
57. 678
63,250

42,832
43,527
48,075

17, 688
17, 223
19.350

11, 525
11, 857
12,725

3,139
3,191
3,300

10, 480
11, 256
12, 700

13,196
14,151
15,175

5,329
5,324
5,600

7,867
8,827
9,575

55,013
54,144
53,929
54,026
54, 434
54,815
54, 750
55, 078
55,149
55,340
55,915
57, 678
56, 711
56,093
56, 275
57, 314
58, 318
59,108
59, 364
60,003
60,126
60,626
61,473
63,250

42,346
41,875
41, 671
41,627
41, 787
42, 089
42,141
42,358
42,334
42, 494
42,737
43,527
43,265
43, 074
43,211
43,837
44,495
45,208
45, 650
46,204
46, 310
46, 722
47,274
48,075

17, 456
17, 241
17,139
17, 087
17,143
17,272
17, 285
17, 292
17,133
17,153
17, 211
17, 223
17,155
17,191
17, 348
17,671
18,032
18, 410
18,680
18,933
18,881
19,083
19,307
19,350

11,353
11,123
10,990
10,900
10,912
10,944
10,931
10,989
11, 056
11,142
11,264
11,857
11, 720
11,496
11,407
11, 498
11, 598
11,726

3,100
3,076
3,067
3,075
3,102
3,125
3,134
3,170
3,188
3,193
3,204
3,191
3,151
3,123
3,113
3,128
3,169
3,200
3,226
3,260
3,277
3,289
3,302
3,300

10, 437
10, 435
10, 475
10,565
10, 630
10, 748
10,791
10,907
10, 957
11, 006
11, 058
11, 256
11, 239
11, 264
11, 343
11, 540
11, 696
11,872

12,667
12,269
12,258
12,399
12,647
12,726
12, 609
12. 720
12.815
12,846
13,178
14,151
13,446
13, 019
13,064
13,477
13,823
13,900
13, 714
13, 799
13, 816
13,904
14,199
15,175

4,754
4,187
4,141
4,229
4,375
4,440
4,327
4,360
4,366
4,448
4,601
5,324
4,784
4,192
4,074
4,319
4,544
4,596
4,457
4,491
4,495
4,663
4,825
5,600

7,913
8,082
8,117
8,170
8,272
8,286
8, 282
8,360
8,449
8,398
8,577
8,827
8,662
8,827
8,990
9,158
9,279
9,304
9,257
9,308
9,321
9,241
9,374
9,575

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December 4

\2,143
*
2,901

11, 754
11,824
11, 861
11,986
12,186
12, 725

11, 990
12,187
12,291
12, 364
12,479
12, 700

1
Includes all consumer credit extended for the purpose of purchasing automobiles and other consumer
goods.
2
Includes only such loans held by financial institutions; those held by retail outlets are included in "other
consumer goods paper."
3
Single-payment loans and service credit.
4
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advtsers.
NOTE.—Series revised for 1929-1939 and 1955 to date. For details, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, December 1962.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January and August 1959, respectively.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (except as noted).




231

TABLE C-50.—Instalment credit extended and repaid, 7946-62
[Millions of dollars]
Other consumer Repair and
modernization
goods paper
loans

Automobile
paper

Total
Year or month

Extended

Extended

Repaid

1946
1947
1948
1949

8,495
12,713
15,585
18,108

6,785
10,190
13,284
15, 514

1,969
3,692
5,217
6,967

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

21,558
23,576
29,514
31,558
31,051

18,,445
22,985
25,405
27,956
30,488

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

38,972
39, 868
42,016
40,119
48,052

33,634
37,054
39,868
40,344
42,603

1960
1961
1962

Repaid

Personal
loans

Extended

Repaid

1,443
2,749
4,123
5,430

3,077
4,498
5,383
5,865

2,603
3,645
4,625
5,060

423
704
714
734

200
391
579

3,026
3,819
4,271
4,542

2,539
3,405
3,957
4,335

8,530
8,956
11,764
12,981
11,807

7,011
9,058
10,003
10,879
11,833

7,150
7,485
9,186
9,227
9,117

6,057
7,404
7,892
8,622
9,145

841
1,217
1,344
1,261

717
772
917
1,119
1,255

5,043
6,294
7,347
8,006

4,660
5,751
6,593
7,336
8,255

16,734
15,515
16,465
14, 226
17,779

13,082
14,555
15,545
15,415
15,579

10,642
11,721
11, 807
11,747
13, 982

9,752
10,756
11,569
11,563
12,402

1,393
1,582
1,674
1,871
2,222

1,316
1,370
1,477
1,626
1,765

10,203
11,051
12.069
12, 275
14.070

9,484
10,373
11,276
11,741
12,857

49, 560 45. 972 17, 654 16. 384 14, 470 13, 574
48, 396 47, 700 16, 007 16, 472 14, 578 14, 246
55, 275 50, 725 19, 475 17, 350 16,025 15,150

2,213
2,068
2,100

1,883
2,015
2,000

15,223
15, 744
17,675

14,130
14, 967
16,225

Extended

Repaid

Extended

Repaid

Seasonally adjusted
1961: January
February
March.
April
May
June
July
Au-rust
September...-/
October
November.^..
December
1962: January.
February
March
April
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December *—_

3,879
3,829
3,879
3,836
3,905
4,024

3,904
3,915
3,925
3,957
3,914
3,980

1,285
1,229
1,277
1,255
1,297
1,344

1,373
1,370
1,366
1,378
1,354
1,372

1,184
1,155
1,147
1,162
1,263
1,178

1,162
1,140
1,174
1,203
1,168
1,188

169
163
171
170
171
179

167
163
163
167
169
171

1,241
1,282
1,284
1,249
1,274
1,323

1,202
1,242
1,222
1,209
1,223
1,249

3,961
4,071
4,018
4,235
4,332
4,409

3,957
4,016
3,969
4,073
4,063
4,061

1,318
1,312
1,297
1,419
1,510
1,469

1,379
1,377
1,360
1, 396
1,384
1,375

1,191
1,229
1,232
1,267
1,265
1,402

1,176
1,197
1,188
1,217
1,206
1,233

169
185
174
174
172
167

165
169
169
175
166
169

1,283
1, 345
1,315
1,375
1,385
1,371

1,237
1,273
1,252
1,285
1,307
1.284

4,327
4,356
4,499
4,659
4,650
4,623

4,048
4,084
4,121
4,166
4,211
4,202

1,504
1,546
1,582
1,675
1,655
1,621

1,401
1,390
1,415
1,435
1,447
1,433

1,280
1,276
1,328
1,345
1,338
1,344

1,190
1,236
1,231
1,247
1,260
1,260

171
166
174
182
183
187

165
167
168
168
173
170

1,372
1,368
1,415
1,457
1,474
1,471

1,292
1,291
1,307
1,316
1,331
1,339

4,669
4,619
4,491
4,682
4,981
4,765

4,283
4,261
4,289
4,298
4,380
4,390

1,631
1,602
1,505
1,685
1,797
1,650

1,456
1, 446
1,440
1,491
1,490
1,500

1,368
1,325
1,308
1,335
1,425
1,400

1,296
1,281
1,298
1, 261
1,302
1,300

189
179
170
169
168
165

170
172
169
165
163
165

1,481
1,513
1,508
1,493
1,571
1,550

1,361
1,362
1,382
1,381
1,425
1,425

1

Preliminary; December by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Series revised beginning 1955. For details, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, December 1962.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning January and August 1959, respectively. Therefore, the
difference between extensions and repayments for January and August 1959 and for the year 1959 does not
equal the net change in credit outstanding.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (except as noted).




232

TABLE C-51.—Mortgage debt outstanding, by type of property and offinancing,7939—62
[Billions of dollars]
Nonfarm properties
1- to 4-family houses
All
properties

End of year or quarter

Government underwritten

Total
Total

Total

FHA
insured

VA
guaranteed

Multifamily
and
comCon- mercial
venproptional i erties 2

Farm
properties

1939

35.5

28.9

16.3

1.8

1.8

14.5

12.5

66

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

36.5
37.6
36.7
35.3
34.7

30.0
31.2
30.8
29.9
29.7

17.4
18.4
18.2
17.8
17.9

2.3
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.2

2.3
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.2

15.1
15.4
14.5
13.7
13.7

12 6
12.9
12.5
12 1
11.8

6 5
6 4
6.0
54
49

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

35.5
41.8
48.9
56.2
62.7

30.8
36.5
43.9
50.9
57.1

18.6
23.0
28.2
33.3
37.6

4.3
6.1

4.1
3.7
3.8
5.3
6.9

0.2
2.4

9.3
12.5
15.0

5.5
7.2
8.1

14.3
16.9
18.9
20.8
22.6

12 2
13.8
15.7
17 6
19.5

4 8
4.9
5.1
5 3
5.6

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

72.8
82.3
91.4
101.3
113.7

66.7
75.6
84.2
93.6
105.4

45.2
51.7
58.5
66.1
75.7

18.9
22.9
25.4
28.1
32.1

8.6
9.7
10.8
12.0
12.8

10.3
13.2
14.6
16.1
19.3

26.3
28.8
33.1
38.0
43.6

21.6
23.9
25 7
27.5
29.7

6.1
6.7
7 3
7.8
8.3

1955
1956 .
1957
1958
1959

129.9
144.5
156.6
171.9
190.9

120.9
134.6
146.1
160.7
178.7

88.2
99.0
107.6
117.7
130.9

38.9
43.9
47.2
50.1
53.8

14.3
15.5
16.5
19.7
23.8

24.6
28.4
30.7
30. 4
30.0

49.3
55.1
60.4
67.6
77.0

32.6
35.6
38.5
43.0
47.9

9.1
9.9
10 5
11.3
12.2

1960
19613
1962 3

207.1
225.5
249.9

194.0
211.3
234.3

141.3
153.0
168.7

56.4
59.1

26.7
29.5

29.7
29.6

84.8
93.9

52.7
58.3
65.6

13.1
14.2
15.5

194.6
198.9
203.2
207.1

182.1
186.0
190.3
194.0

133.1
135.8
138.8
141.3

54.5
55.0
55.7
56.4

24.6
25.2
26.0
26.7

29.9
29.8
29.7
29.7

78.6
80.9
83.2
84.8

49.0
50.2
51.5
52.7

12.5
12.8
13.0
13.1

1961: I

210.3
215.2
220.1
225.5

197.0
201.5
206.1
211.3

143.2
146.3
149.6
153.0

57.1
57.8
58.7
59.1

27.4
28.0
28.8
29.5

29.7
29.8
29.9
29.6

86.1
88.6
90.9
93.9

53.7
55.1
56.5
58.3

13.3
13.7
14.0
14.2

1962: I» . . .

230.2
236.8
243.2
249.9

215.7
221.9
227.9
234.3

155.9
160.1
164.3
168.7

59.9
60.4
61.0

30.3
30.9
31.5

29.6
29.5
29.5

95.9
99.7
103.3

59.9
61.8
63.6
65.6

14.5
14.9
15.3
15.5

_

.

__

___

.-

I960* I
II

III

i

IV

II
III
IV 3

113

Til 3
IV»
1
2

Derived figures.
Includes negligible amount of farm loans held by savings and loan associations.
• Preliminary.
* Not available.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, estimated and compiled from data supplied
by various Government and private organizations.




233

T A B L E C - 5 2 . — N e t public and private debt, 1929-62 1
[Billions of dollars]
Private

E n d of
year 2

Total

Corporate
Individual and noncorporate
Fed- State
and
eral
Nonfarm
Gov- local
governernment ment 2 Total
ComTotal Long- Short- Total Farm 3
merterm term
ConTotal Mort- cial
gage
and sumer
financial*

1929_...

190.9

16.5

13.2 161.2

88.9

47.3

41.6

72.3

12.2

60.1

31.2

22.4

6.4

1930—
1931—
1932
1933__._
1934.__.

191.0
181.9
174.6
168.5
171.4

16.5
18.5
21.3
24.3
30.4

14.1
15.5
16.6
16.7
15.9

ISO. 4
147.9
136.7
127.5
125.1

89.3
83.5
80.0
76.9
75.5

51.1
50.3
49.2
47.9
44.6

38.2
33.2
30.8
29.1
30.9

71.1
64.4
56.7
50.6
49.6

11.8
11.1
10.1
9.1
8.9

59.3
53.3
46.6
41.5
40.6

32.0
30.9
29.0
26.3
25.5

21.6
17.6
14.0
11.7
11.2

5.8
4.8
3.6
3.5
3.9

1935__._
1936—
1937—
1933—
1939_.__

174.7
180.3
182.0
179.6
183.2

34.4
37.7
39.2
40.5
42.6

16.0
16.2
16.1
16.0
16.3

124.2
126.4
126.7
123.1
124.3

74.8
76.1
75.8
73.3
73.5

43.6
42.5
43.5
44.8
44.4

31.2
33.5
32.3
28.4
29.2

49.4
50.3
50.9
49.8
50.8

9.1
8.6
8.6
9.0
8.8

40.5
41.7
42.3
40.9
42.0

24.8
24.4
24.3
24.5
25.0

10.8
11.2
11.3
10.1
9.8

4.9
6.1
6.7
6.3
7.2

1940—
1941_.__
1942..__
1943—
1944—

189.9
211.6
259.0
313.6
370. 8

44.8
56.3
101.7
154.4
211.9

16.5
16.3
15.8
14.9
14.1

128.6
139.0
141.5
144.3
144.8

75.6
83.4
91.6
95.5
94.1

43.7
43.6
42.7
41.0
39.8

31.9
39.8
49.0
54.5
54.3

53.0
55.6
49.9
48.8
50.7

9.1
9.3
9.0
8.2
7.7

43.9
46.3
40.9
40.5
42.9

26.1
27.1
26.8
26.1
26.0

9.5
10.0
8.1
9.5
11.8

8.3
9.2
6.0
4.9
5.1

1945—
1946—
1947—
1948—
1949....

406.3
397.4
417.4
433.6
448.4

252.7
229.7
223.3
216.5
218.6

13.7
13.6
14.4
16.2
18.1

139.9 85.3
154.1 93.5
179.7 108.9
200.9 117.8
211.7 118.0

38.3
41.3
46.1
52.5
56.5

47.0
52.2
62.8
65.3
61.5

54.6
60.6
70.8
83.1
93.7

7.3
7.6
8.6

10.8
12.0

47.4
53.0
62.3
72.4
81.8

27.0
32.5
38.8
45.1
50.6

14.7
12.1
11.9
12.9
13.9

11.6
14.4
17.3

1950—
1951—.
1952
1953—
1954—

490.3
524.0
555.2
586.5
612.0

218.7
218.5
222.9
228.1
230.2

20.7
23.3
25.8
28.6
33.4

250.9
282.2
306.5
329.8
348.4

142.1
162.5
171.0
179.5
182.8

60.1
66.6

73.3
78.3
82.9

81.9
95.9
97.7
101.2
100.0

108.8
119.7
135.5
150.3
165.6

12.3
13.6
15.2
16.9
17.6

96.6
106.2
120.4
133.6
147.9

59.4
67.4
75.2
83.8
94.6

15.8
16.2
17.8
18.4
20.8

21.4
22.6
27.4
31.4
32.5

1955—
1956—
1957—
1958
1959....

672.3
707.5
738.9
782.5
847.3

231.5
225.4
224.4
232.7
243.2

38.4
42.7
46.7
50.9
55.6

402.5
439.4
467.8
498.9
548.5

212.1
231.7
246.7
259.5
281.5

90.0
100.1
112.1
121.2
129.3

122.2
131.7
134.6
138.4
152.2

190.4
207.7
221.1
239.4
267.0

18.8
19.5
20.3
23.3
24.0

171.6
188.2
200.8
216.1
243.0

108.7
121.3
131.6
144.6
160.8

24.0
24.4
24.3
26.5
30.8

38.9
42.5
44.8
45.0
51.3

I 9 6 0 — 884.1
1 9 6 1 — 936.9
1962 «_„ 1,000.7

241.0
248.1
256.8

60.0 583.1 294.8
65.0 623.8 311.5
72.0 671.9 330.8

137.9
146.3
156.2

156.9
165.1
174.6

288.3
312.3
341.1

25.3
28.7
29.3

263.0
283.6
311.8

174.5
189.9
210.7

32.7
36.6
38.0

55.8
57.1
63.1

5.7
8.4

i Net public and private debt outstanding is a comprehensive aggregate of the indebtedness of borrowers
after elimination of certain types of duplicating governmental and corporate debt. For a further explanation of the concept, see Survey of Current Business, October 1950.
i Data for State and local government debt are for June 30.
» Farm mortgages and farm production loans. Farmers' financial and consumer debt is included in the
nonfarm categories.
* Financial debt is debt owed to banks for purchasing or carrying securities, customers' debt to brokers,
and debt owed to life insurance companies by policyholders.
8
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
NOTE.—Revisions for 1929-39 and 1955-62 in the consumer credit data of the Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System have not yet been fully incorporated into this series.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Treasury Department, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System, and Federal Home Loan Bank Board (except as noted).




234

GOVERNMENT FINANCE
TABLE G-53.—U.S. Government debt, by kind of obligation, 1929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Interest-bearing public debt
public
debt and
guaranteed
issues i

End of year or month

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954.

-- _

- -

-

.

..

-.

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962

1961' January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October.. .
November
December
1962* January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December-

.

16.3
16.0
17.8
20.8
24.0
31.5
35.1
39.1
41.9
44.4
47.6
50.9
64.3
112.5
170.1
232.1
278.7
259.5
257.0
252.9
257.2
256.7
259.5
267.4
275.2
278.8
280.8
276.7
275.0
283.0
290.9
290.4
296.5
304.0
290.2
290.7
287.7
288.2
290.4
289.2
292.6
294.0
294.0
296.0
297.3
296.5
296.9
297.4
296.5
297.4
299.6
298.6
298.3
302.3
300.0
302.6
305. 9
304.0

Marketable public
issues

Nonmarketable public issues

Shortterm
issues2

United
States
savings
bonds

Treasury
bonds

3.3
2.9
2.8
5.9
7.5
11.1
14.2
12.5
12.5
9.8
7.7
7.5

Treasury
tax and
savings
notes

6.1

2.5

27.0
47.1
69.9
78.2
57.1
47.7
45.9
50.2
58.3
65.6
68.7
77.3
76.0
81.3
79.5
82.1
92.2
103.5
109.2
120.5
124.6
109.5
110.1
105.8
107.2
108.0
106.3
110.5
111.5
112.6
116.0
120.4
120.5
121.0
121.0
120.0
120.3
122.7
121.0

11.3
11.3
13.5
13.4
14.7
15.4
14.3
19.5
20.5
24.0
26.9
28.0
33.4
49.3
67.9
91.6
120.4
119.3
117.9
111.4
104.8
94.0
76.9
79.8
77.2
81.8
81.9
80.8
82.1
83.4
84.8
79.8
75.5
78.4
79.8
79.8
80.6
80.9
80.8
80.8
80.8
79.7
79.3
79.3
75.2
75.5
76.6
76.6
76.6
77.8
75.5
75.0

15.0
27.4
40.4
48.2
49.8
52.1
55.1
56.7
58.0
57.6
57.9
57.7
57.7
57.9
56.3
52.5
51.2
48.2
47.2
47.5
47.5
47.2
47.3
47.4
47.4
47.5
47.5
47.6
47.6
47.7
47.7
47.8
47.5
47.5
47.5
47.6
47.6
47.6
47.6

6.4
8.6

121.9
122.1
118.2
121.6
124.2
124.6

75.0
77.2
79.8
79.7
80.0
78.4

47.7
47.7
47.7
47.7
47.7
47.5

Investment
bonds3

8.0

0.2
.5
1.0
1.4
2.2
3.2

9.8
8.2
5.7
5.4

4.6
7.6
8.6
7.5
5.8
6.0

4.5

S3

88
((((88888))))
(((88)))
((88))
((8))
((••8))
(0)

(8)
(8)
(8)
(•)
(8)
(')

1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0

13.0
13.4
12.9
12.7
12.3
11.6
10.3
9.0
7.6
6.2

5.1
4.4
6.1

6.1
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.8

5.8
5.7
5.6
5.2
5.1

5.1
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.6

4.6
4.5
4.5
4.4

Special
issues 4

0.6
.8
.4
4
.4
6
.7
6
2.2
3.2
4.2
5 4
7 0
9.0
12 7
16.3
20.0
24 6
29.0
31.7
33 9
33.7
35.9
39 2
41.2
42.6
43 9
45.6
45 8
44.8
43 5
44.3
43.5
43.4
43 8
43.7
44.0
43.0
44.5
45.0
44.2
45.6
45.0
43.9
44.2
43.5
42.3
42.8
42.8
42.1
44.3
44.9
43.8
45.4
44.6
43.9
44.2
43.4

1 Total includes non-interest-bearing debt. fu% guaranteed securities (except those held by the Treasury), Postal Savings bonds, prewar bonds, adjusted service bonds, depositary bonds, armed forces leave
bonds, Rural Electrification Administration series bonds, foreign series certificates, and foreign currency
certificates and bonds, not shown separately. Not all of total shown is subject to statutory debt limitation.
2
Bills, certificates of indebtedness, and notes.
3
Series A bonds and, beginning April 1951, series B convertible bonds.
* Issued to U.S. Government investment accounts. These accounts also held $12.2 billion of public
marketable and nonmarketable issues on December 31,1962.
« Less than $50 million,
e The last series of Treasury savings notes matured in April 1956.
Source: Treasury Department.




2

35

TABLE G-54.—Estimated ownership of U.S. Government obligations, 1939-62
[Par values,' billions of dollars]
Gross public debt and guaranteed issues 2

Held by others
Held
by U.S.
GovMutual
ernsavings
State
ment
Misceland
Federal Com- banks Other
Total investand inlocal Individ- aneous
3
4
ment Total Reserve mercial surance corpora- govern- uals 6 investions
banks banks
tors 7
accomments 8
counts
panies

End of year or
month

April
May
Time

47.6
50.9
64 3
112.5
170.1
232.1
278 7
259. 5
257.0
252.9
257.2
256.7
259 5
267.4
275.2
278.8
280 8
276.7
275.0
283.0
290.9
290 4
296.5
304.0
290.2
290.7
287.7
288.2
290.4
289.2

6.5
7.6
9 5
12.2
16.9
21.7
27 0
30.9
34.4
37 3
39.4
39.2
42 3
45.9
48.3
49 6
51 7
54.0
55.2
54 4
53.7
55 1
54.5
55.6
54.6
54.5
54.9
54.0
55.5
56.1

41.1
43.3
54.7
100.2
153.2
210.5
251.6
228.6
222.6
215.5
217.8
217.5
217.2
221.6
226.9
229.2
229.1
222.7
219. 8
228.6
237.3
235 3
242.0
248.4
235.6
236.3
232.8
234.2
234.9
233.1

2.5
2.2
2.3
6.2
11.5
18.8
24.3
23.3
22.6
23.3
18.9
20.8
23.8
24.7
25.9
24.9
24.8
24.9
24.2
26.3
26.6
27.4
28.9
30.8
26.6
26.7
26.7
26.8
26.9
27.3

15.9
17.3
21.4
41.1
59.9
77.7
90.8
74.5
68.7
62.5
66.8
61.8
61.6
63.4
63.7
69.2
62.0
59.5
59.5
67.5
60.3
62.1
67.2
66.2
62.7
61.9
59.7
61.7
62.1
62.5

9.4
10.1
11.9
15.8
21.2
28.0
34.7
36.7
35.9
32.7
31.5
29.6
26.3
25.5
25.1
24.1
23.1
21.3
20.2
19.9
19.5
18.1
17.5
17.5
18.3
18.2
18.3
17.9
17.9
17.7

2.2
2.0
4.0
10.1
16.4
21.4
22.2
15.3
14.1
14.8
16.8
19.7
20.7
19.9
21.5
19.2
23.5
19.1
18.6
18.8
22.8
19.9
19.4
21.0
20.3
21.4
19.7
20.8
21.4
19.7

July
August
September
October
November
December

292.6
294 0
294.0
296.0
297.3
296.5

55.2
56.5
55.9
55.0
55.4
54.5

237.4
237.5
238.1
241.0
241.9
242.0

27.4
27.7
27.8
28.3
29.2
28.9

65.5
65.1
66.6
67.3
66.9
67.2

17.8
17.8
17.8
17.8
17.7
17.5

296.9
297.4
296.5
297.4
299.6
298.6

53.8
54.2
54.5
53.7
55.9
56.5

243.1
243.2
242.0
243.6
243.7
242.1

28.5
28.4
29.1
29.2
29.6
29.7

67.8
66.6
64.0
65.3
65.2
65.0

298.3
302.3
300.0
302.6
305.9
304.0

55.5
57.1
56.4
56.1
57.9
55.6

242.8
245.3
243.6
246.5
248.0
248.4

29.8
30.4
29.8
30.2
30.5
30.8

64.5
64.5
64.6
65.9
65.4
66.2

1939
1940
1941
1942 1943
1944
1945
1946 . .
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961 —
1962 8

_

._

_

_ -

1961: J a n u a r y

February
March

1962* January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November 8
December —

0.4
.5
.7
1.0
2.1
4.3
6.5
6.3
7.3

11.1
12.7
14.4
15.3
16.3
16.6
16.5
18.0
18.7
18.7
19.5
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.1
19.1
19.3

10.1
10.6
13.6
23.7
37.6
53.3
64.1
64.2
65.7
65.5
66.3
66.3
64.6
65.2
64.8
63.4
64.7
65.5
64.0
63.0
68.0
64.9
65.2
65.5
64.9
65.0
65.1
64.1
63.8
63.4

0.7
.7
9
2.3
4.4
7.0
9 1
8.1
8.4
8 9
9.4
10.5
10 6
11.7
13.2
13.9
15.6
16.1
16.6
16.6
22.1
24.2
25.0
27.9
24.0
23.9
24.1
23.9
23.5
23.2

19.8
20.0
18.6
19.5
20.3
19.4

19.4
19.2
19.1
18.9
18.6
18.7

63.9
64.4
64.5
64.8
65.1
65.2

23.7
23.2
23.7
24.5
24.1
25.0

17.8
17.8
18.0
17.8
17.8
17.6

20.4
21.4
20.2
20.4
20.8
19.3

19.0
19.1
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.7

65.4
65.4
65.7
65.5
65.2
65.2

24.1
24.5
25.6
25.9
25.4
25.7

17.8
17.8
17.7
17.6
17.6
17.5

20.0
21.1
19.1
20.0
22.0
21.0

19.9
19.9
19.8
19.6
19.3
19.5

65.4
65.5
65.6
65.5
65.6
65.5

25.4
26.1
27.0
27.7
27.6
27.9

7.9

8.1
8.8
9.6

1 United States savings bonds, series A-F and J, are included at current redemption value.
2 Excludes guaranteed securities held by the Treasury. Not all of total shown is subject to statutory
debt limitation.
3
Includes commercial banks, trust companies, and stock savings banks in the United States and Territories and island possessions;figuresexclude securities held in trust departments. Since the estimates in this
table are on the basis of par values and include holdings of banks in United States Territories and possessions,
they do not agree with the estimates in Table C-46, which are based on book values and relate only to banks
within the United States.
4
Exclusive of banks and insurance companies.
s Includes trust, sinking, and investment funds of State and local governments and their agencies, and
of6Territories and possessions.
Includes partnerships and personal trust accounts.
7 Includes savings and loan associations, nonprofit institutions, corporate pension trust funds, dealers
and brokers, and investments of foreign balances and international accounts in this country. Beginning
with December 1946, the international accounts include investments by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, the International Development Association, and the Inter-American Development Bank, in special non-interest-bearing notes issued by the U.S.
Government. Beginning with June 30, 1947, includes holdings of Federal land banks.
8
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Source: Treasury Department (except as noted).




236

TABLE C-55.—Average length and maturity distribution of marketable interest-bearing
public debt, 1946-62
Maturity class
End of year or month

Amount
outstanding Within
lyear

1 to 5
years

years
6 to 10 10 to 20 20and
years
years
over

Millions of dollars
Fiscal year:
1946
1947
1948
1949

Average length

Years Months

189,606
168,702
160,346
166,147

61,974
51,211
48,742
48,130

24,763
21,851
21,630
32,562

41,807
35,562
32,264
16,746

17,461
18,597
16,229
22,821

43,599
41,481
41,481
34,888

155,310
137,917
140,407
147,335
150,354

42,338
43,908
46,367
65,270
62,734

51,292
46,526
47,814
36,161
29,866

7,792
8,707
13,933
15,651
27,515

28,035
29,979
25,700
28,662
28,634

25,853
8,797
6,594
1,592
1,606

155,206
154,953
155,705
166,675
178,027

49,703 39,107
58,714 34,401
71,952 40,669
67,782 42,557
72,958 58,304

34,253
28,908
12,328
21,476
17,052

28,613
28,578
26,407
27,652
21,625

3,530
4,351
4,349
7,208

-

183,845
187,148
196,072

70,467
81,120
88,442

72,844
58,400
57,041

20,246 12,630
26, 435 10,233
26,049
9,319

7,658
10,960
15,221

1961: January...
February..
March
April
May
June
_

189,320
189,919
186, 520
188,147
188, 893
187,148

75, 613
80,054
76, 622
78,731
78,896
81,120

70,836
67,007
61,007
60, 541
62, 349
58,400

18,684
18.683
27, 658
27, 654
26,438
26, 435

13,211

13, 203
10, 262
10, 254
10, 245
10, 233

10,976
10,973
10, 970
10, 968
10, 965
10,960

July
August—.
September.
October.._
November.
December.

191, 275
191,138
191,925
195, 234
195,643
195,965

85, 224
80, 675
81,334
82, 578
83,641
85,913

58,437
63, 607
63,747
65, 828
67,105
64,874

26, 433
25, 693
21,934
21, 930
19,487
19, 782

10, 225
10, 212
11, 479
11,469
11,982
11,976

10,956
10,952
13,431
13, 428
13,428
13,419

1962: January —
February.
March
April
May
June

197,628
197,609
196,524
198,138
198,193
196,072

86,416
88,417
87,209
88,055
90,577
88,442

64,921
62,910
59,679
59,206
55,549
57,041

20,918
20,916
23,720
24,976
26,178
26,049

11,959
11,954
10,677
10,670
10,664
9,319

13,414
13,411
15,239
15,232
15,225
15,221

7
11
10
11
11

July
August
September
October. __
November.
December.

196,870
199,295
197,951
201,311
204,222
203, 011

89,244
93,728
84,467
88,284
88,580
87, 284

57,055
52,806
58,158
57,728
61,614
61, 640

26,045
27,885
32,411
32,403
31,140
33,983

9,313
9,309
7,353
7,348
7,342
4,565

15,213
15,567
15,562
15,548
15,545
15, 539

10
10
0
11
11
11

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

_

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962...

10
4
9
3
7

NOTE.—All issues classified to final maturity except partially tax-exempt bonds, which are classified to
earliest call date.
Source: Treasury Department.




237

TABLE C-56.—Federal budget receipts and expenditures and the public debt, 7929-64
[Millions of dollars]
Net
budget
receipts 1

Fiscal or calendar year
Fiscal year:
1929

Budget
expenditures

Surplus
or
deficit (-)

Public debt
at end of
year 2

3,861

3,127

734

16,931

1930-.
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..

4,058
3,116
1,924
1,997
3,015

3,320
3,577
4,659
4,598
6,645

738
-462
-2,735
-2,602
-3,630

16,185
16,801
19,487
22,539
27,053

1935..
1936.
1937..
1938..
1939..

3,706
3,997
4,956
5,588
4,979

6,497
8,422
7,733
6,765
8,841

-2,791
-4,425
-2,777
-1,177
-3,862

28,701
33,779
36,425
37,165
40,440

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944.

5,137
7,096
12,547
21,947
43,563

9,055
13,255
34,037
79,368
94,986

-3,918
-6,159
-21,490
-57,420
-51,423

42,968
48,961
72,422
136,696
201,003

1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.

44,362
39,650
39,677
41,375
37,663

98,303
60,326
38,923
32,955
39,474

-53,941
-20,676
754
8,419
-1,811

258,682
269,422
258,286
252,292
252,770

19501951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

36,422
47,480
61,287
64,671
64,420

39,544
43,970
65,303
74,120
67,537

-3,122
3,510
-4,017
-9,449
-3,117

257,357
255,222
259,105
266,071
271,260

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959-

60,209
67,850
70, 562
68,550
67,915

64,389
66,224
68,966
71,369
80,342

-4,180
1,626
1,596
-2,819
-12,427

274,374
272,751
270,527
276,343
284,706

1960...
1961...
1962...
1963 *..
1964 4.

77,763
77,659
3 81,409
3 85,500
3 86,900

76,539
81,515
87,787
94,311
98,802

1,224
-3,856
-6,378
-8,811
-11,902

286,331
288, 971
298,201
303,494
315,604

C a l e n d a r year:
1948
1949

40,800
37,464

35,559
41,056

5,241
-3,592

252,800
257,130

1950.
1951.
1952.
19531954.

37,235
52,877
64,705
63,654

37,657
56,236
70,547
72,811
64, 622

-422
-3,358
-5,842
-9,157

256, 708
259, 419
267,391
275.168
278, 750

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

63,119
70,616
71,749
68,262
72,738

65,891
66,838
71,157
75,349
79,778

- 2 , 771
3,779
592
-7,088
-7,040

280,769
276, 628
274,898
282, 922
290, 798

79,518
78,157
3 84,709

77,565
84,463
91,907

1,953
-6,306
-7,199

290, 217
296.169
303,470

1960...
1961 . .
1962 »_.

* Gross receipts less refunds of receipts and transfers of tax receipts to the old-age and survivors insurance
trust fund, the disability insurance trust fund, the railroad retirement account, the unemployment trust
fund, and the highway trust fund.
2
Excludes guaranteed issues; therefore, differs from total shown in Tables C-53 and C-54. The change
in the public debt from year to year reflects not only the budget surplus or deficit but also changes in the
Government's cash on hand, and the use of corporate debt and investment transactions by certain Government enterprises.
3
Receipts reflect new depreciation guidelines and investment tax credit. For details, see Table C-62.
* Estimate.
«Preliminary.
NOTE.—Certain interfund transactions are excluded from budget receipts and expenditures beginning
fiscal year 1932. For years prior to 1932, the amounts of such transactions are not significant.
Sources: Treasury Department and Bureau of the Budget.




238

T A B L E C-57.—Federal budget receipts by source and expenditures by function, fiscal years

1946-64

[Millions of dollars]
Budget receipts by source

Fiscal
year

Total

Budget expenditures, by functiorL

All
Corporation Excise other
income income taxes
retaxes
taxes
ceipts 1
Individual

Tntnl
1 Olal

National
defense

Veterans'
services
and
benefits

Agriculture
All
and
Inter- other
agriest expendculturitures 2
al resources

1946._ 39,650
1947.- 39,677
1948.. 41,375
1949._ 37,663

16,157
17,835
19,305
15,548

11,833
8,569
9,678
11,195

6,999
7,207
7,356
7,502

4,661
6,066
5,037
3,418

60,326
38,923
32,955
39,474

43,176
14,368
11,771
12,908

4,415
7,381
6,653
6,725

1950-_
1951__
1952__
1953._
1954-_

36,422
47,480
61,287
64,671
64,420

15,745
21,643
27,913
30,108
29, 542

10,448
14,106
21,225
21,238
21,101

7,549
8,648
8,851
9,868
9,945

2,679
3,083
3,298
3,456
3,833

39,544
43,970
65,303
74,120
67,537

13,009
22,444
43,976
50,442
46,986

6,646
5,342
4,863
4,368
4,341

2,783

1955-_
1956-.
1957._
1958-_
1959..

60,209
67,850
70, 562
68, 550
67,915

28,747
32,188
35,620
34, 724
36,719

17,861
20,880
21,167
20,074
17,309

9,131
9,929
9,055
8,612
8,504

4,469
4,854
4,721
5,141
5,384

64,389
66,224
68,966
71,369
80,342

40,695
40,723
43,360
44,234
46,491

1960__
1961-.
1962 3.
1963 3 4
1964 3 4

77,763
77,659
81,409
85,500
86,900

40,715
41,338
45,571
47,300
45,800

21,494 9,137
20,954 9,063
20,523 9,585
21,200 9,900
23,800 10,430

6,418
6,304
5,731
7,100
6,870

76,539
81,515
87,787
94,311
98,802

45,691
47,494
51,103
53,004
55,433

Budget
surplus
or defi.ji

/

\

cit (—)

4,816
5,012
5,248
5,445

7,173
10,917
8,708
11,884

-20,676
754
8,419
-1,811

1,045
2,955
2,573

5,817
5,714
5,934
6,578
6,470

11,288
9,819
9,486
9,777
7,167

-3,122
3,510
-4,017
-9,449
-3,117

4,522
4.810
4,870
5,184
5,287

4,388
4,868
4,546
4,419
6,590

6,438
6,846
7,307
7,689
7,671

8,346
8,977
8,883
9,843
14,303

-4,180
1,626
1,596
-2,819
-12,427

5,266
5,414
5,403
5,545
5,484

4,882 9,266
5,173 9,050
5,895 9,198
6,731 9,782
5,696 10,103

11,434
14,384
16,186
19,250
22,087

1,224
-3,856
-6,378
-8,811
-11,902

747

1,243

575

2,512
650

* Includes employment taxes, estate and gift taxes, customs revenues, and miscellaneous receipts. See
also Note below.
2 Includes expenditures for international affairs and finance; space research and technology; natural
resources; commerce and transportation; housing and community development; health, labor, and welfare;
education; and general government. Annual expenditures (millions of dollars) for space research and
technology, 1954-1964 are, respectively: 90, 74, 71, 76, 89, 145, 401, 744, 1,257, 2,400, and 4,200. Also include s
adjustment to daily Treasury statement (for actuals) and allowance for contingencies (for estimates). See
also Note below.
8 Receipts reflect new depreciation guidelines and investment tax credit. For details, .see Table C-62.
* Estimate.
NOTE.—Total budget receipts and total budget expenditures and the "all other" categories exclude certain interfund transactions.
8ources: Treasury Department and Bureau of the Budget.




239

TABLE C-58.—Government cash receipts from and payments to the public, 7946-64
[Billions of dollars]
Total

Federal

Cash
receipts

Cash
payments

Excess
of receipts
or of
payments

Cash
receipts

Cash
payments

1946
1947.
1948
1949

54.2
55.6
59.6
57.6

70.2
47.5
50.2
56.3

-16.0
8.1
9.4
1.3

43.5
43.5
45.4
41.6

61.7
36.9
36.5
40.6

1950
1951
1952
1953 . .
1954

58.2
72.5
88.7
93.9
95.6

61.5
65.2
88.9
99.1
96.1

-3.3
7.3
-.2
-5.2
-.4

40.9
53.4
68.0
71.5
71.6

43.1
45.8
68.0
76.8
71.9

93.5
105.8
113.5
115.0
117.0

97.5
101.6
111.8
118.2
132.3

-4.0
4.2
1.7
-3.2
-15.3

67.8
77.1
82.1
81.9
81.7

134.5
139.2
146.7

132.9
141.7
153.3

1.6
-2.5
-6.6

95.1
97.2

Fiscal or calendar year

State and local *
Excess
of receipts
or of
payments

Excess
of receipts
or of
payments

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
4

Calendar year:
1946
1947
1948 .
1949

Cash
receipts

Cash
payments

10.7
12.1
14.2
16.0

8.5
10.6
13 7
15.7

2 2
1.5
5
3

7.6
00
-5.3
-.2

17 3
19.1
20.7
22.4
24.0

18 4
19 4
20.9
22.3
24.2

—1 1
— 3
-.2
.1
-.2

70.5
72.6
80.0
83.4
94.8

-2.7
4.5
2.1
-1.5
-13.1

25.7
28.7
31.4
33.1
35.3

27.0
29 0
31.8
34.8
37.5

-1.3
— 3
-.4
-1.7
-2.2

94.3
99.5
107.7
116.8
122.5

.8
-2.3
-5.8
-8.3
-10.3

39.4
42.0
44.8

38.6
42.2
45.7

.8
-.2
-.9

112.2

Fiscal year:

I960
1961
1962
1963 8
1964» . .

i

4
101.9
4
108.4
4

-18.2
6.6
8.9
1.0
-2.2

52.9
57.4
60.0
57.9

50.9
50.7
51.8
59.8

2.0
6.7
8.2
— 1.8

41.4
44.3
44.9
41.3

41.4
38.6
36.9
42.6

5.7
8.0
—1.3

11.4
13.1
15.1
16.6

95
12.1
14.9
17.1

19
10
.2
— 5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

60.4
79.1
93.0
93.5
93.3

61.1
78.3
93.6
100.4
95.3

-.6
.9
—.6
-6.9
-2.0

42.4
59.3
71.3
70.2
68.6

42.0
58.0
72.0
77.4
69.7

.5
1.2
—.6
-7.2
—1.1

18.0
19.9
21.7
23.2
24.7

19.1
20 2
21.6
23.0
25.6

-1.1
— 4
1
.3
—.9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

98.4
110.2
116.8
115.9
124.6

100.2
105.2
116.6
125.2
133.1

-1.8
5.0
.2
-9.3
-8.5

71.4
80.3
84.5
81.7
87.6

72.2
74.8
83.3
89,0
95.6

-.7
5.5
1.2
-7.3
-8.0

26.9
29.9
32.3
34.1
37.1

28.0
30.4
33.3
36.2
37.5

-1.1
-.5
-1.0
-2.1
-.5

139.4
141.3
152. 7

135.4
148.7
159.6

4.0
-7.4
-7.0

98.3
97.9
106. 2

94.7
104.7
111.9

3.6
-6.8
-5.7

41.1
43.4
46.4

40.7
44.0
47.7

.4
-.6
-1.3

1960
1961--.
1962 6 .

4

4

1 For derivation of Federal cash receipts and payments, see Budget of the United States Government for the
Fiscal Year ending June 80,1964, and Table C-61.
2 Estimated by Council of Economic Advisers from receipts and expenditures in the national income
accounts. Cash receipts consist of personal tax and nontax receipts, indirect business tax and nontax
accruals, and corporate tax accruals adjusted to a collection basis. Cash payments are total expenditures
less Federal grants-in-aid and less contributions for social insurance. (Federal grants-in-aid are therefore
excluded from State and local receipts and payments and included only in Federal payments.) See
also Table C-59.
3 Less than $50 million.
4
Receipts reflect new depreciation guidelines and investment tax credit. For details, see Table C-62.
«Estimate.
6
Preliminary.
Sources: Treasury Department, Bureau of the Budget, Department of Commerce, and Council of Economic Advisers.




24O

T A B L E C-59.—Government receipts and expenditures in the national income accounts, 1929—62
[Billions of dollars]

Calendar year or quarter
Receipts

1929

State and local
government

Federal Government *

Total government
Surplus or
deficit
(-)on
Expendi- income
and
tures
product account

Receipts

Surplus or
deficit
Ex(-)on
pendi- income
tures
and
product account

Receipts

Surplus or
deficit
(-)on
Expendi- income
and
tures
product account

11.3

10.2

1.0

3.8

2.6

1.2

7.6

7.7

-0.1

10.8
9.5
8.9
93
10.5

11.0
12.3
10.6
10.7
12.8

-.3
-2.8
-1.7
-1.4
-2.4

3.0
2.0
1.7
2.7
3.5

2.8
4.2
3.2
4.0
6.4

.3
-2.1
-1.5
-1.3
-2.9

7.8
7.7
7.3
7.2
8.6

8.4
8.4
7.6
7.2
8.1

-.5
-.7
-.2

11.4
12.9
15.4
15.0
15.4

13.3
15.9
14.8
16.6
17.5

-2.0
-3.0
.6
-1.6
-2.1

4.0
5.0
7.0
6.5
6.7

6.5
8.5
7.2
8.5
9.0

-2.6
-3.5
-.2
-2.0
-2.2

9.1
8.6
9.1
9.3
9.6

8.5
8.1
84
8.9
9.6

6
.5
.7
.4
.1

1940
1941
1942.
1943
1944

17.7
25.0
32.6
49.2
51.2

18.5
28.8
64.0
93.4
103.1

-.7
-3.8
-31.4
-44.2
-51.9

8.6
15.4
22.9
39.3
41.0

10.1
20.5
56.1
86.0
95.6

-1.4
-5.1
-33.2
-46.7
-54.6

10.0
10.4
10.6
10.9
11.1

9.2
9.0
8.8
8.4
8.4

.7
1.3
1.8
2.5
2.7

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

53.2
51.1
57.1
59.2
56.4

92.9
47.0
43.8
51.0
59.5

-39.7
4.1
13.3
8.2
-3.1

42.5
39.2
43.3
43.4
39.1

84.8
37.0
31.1
35.4
41.6

-42.3
2.2
12.2
8.0
-2.5

11.6
13.0
15.5
17.8
19.6

9.0
11.1
14.4
17.6
20.2

2.6
1.9
1.1
.3
-.6

69.3
85.5
90.6
94.9
90.0

61.1
79.4
94.4
102.0
96.7

8.2
6.1
-3.9
-7.1
-6.7

50.2
64.5
67.7
70.3
63.8

41.0
58.0
71.6
77.7
69.6

9.2
6.4
-3.9
-7.4
-5.8

21.4
23.5
25.5
27.4
29.1

22.4
23.8
25.4
27.1
30.1

-1.0
-.3
.1
.3
-.9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

101.4
109.5
116.3
115.1
130.2

98.6
104.3
115.3
126.6
131.6

2.9
5.2
1.0
-11.4
-1.5

72.8
77.5
81.7
78.5
90.3

68.9
71.8
79.7
87.9
91.4

3.8
5.7
2.0
-9.4
-1.1

31.7
35.2
38.6
42.0
46.6

32.7
35.7
39.6
44.1
47.0

-1.0
-.5
-1.0
-2.1
-.3

1960
1961
1962 3

141.0
144.8
* 158.2

136.8
149.3
161.0

93.1
102.1
109.9

3.8
-3.8
-1.7

50.4
53.6
57.7

50.0
54.2
58.8

.4
-.6
-1.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

.

.

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

_

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

— -

-

4.2
96.9
—4.4
98.3
- 2 . 8 « 108.2

.5

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

1961: I
II
III
IV
1962: I ._
II
III 3
IV
.

.

. .

141.9
142.4
139.9
139.7

133.2
135.6
138.2
140.3

8.7
6.7
1.8
-.7

98.9
98.4
95.5
94.7

90.8
92.9
94.0
95.2

8.1
5.5
1.5
-.4

48.9
50.6
50.9
51.1

48.3
49.4
50.7
51.3

0.6
1.2
.2
-.2

.

I960: I
II
III.
IV

138.1
143.9
145.7
151.6

145.0
148.1
149.3
154.4

-6.9
-4.3
-3.6
-2.9

92.7
97.7
98.9
103.8

99.0
101.9
102.2
105.1

-6.3
-4.2
-3.3
-1.3

52.4
53.1
53.8
54.8

53.1
53.2
54.1
56.4

-.7
-.1
-.3
-1.6

154.6
157.8
159.2

157.9
158.9
161.6
165.6

-3.3
-1.1
-2.4

105.9
108.4
108.9

108.3
109.0
109.8
112.5

-2.4
-.7
-.9

56.3
57.4
57.8

57.1
57.8
59.3
61.2

-.4
-1.4

_._

1 See Note, Table C-60.
Less than $50 million.
3 Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
* See Table C-62.
5
Not available.
NOTE.—Federal grants-in-aid to State and local governments are reflected in Federal expenditures and
State and local receipts and expenditures. Total government receipts and expenditures have been adjusted
to eliminate this duplication.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
2

Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).
669333 O—63




16

TABLE C-60.—Federal Government receipts and expenditures in the national income accounts.
1946-64
[Billions of dollars]
Receipts

Expenditures

Surplus
Subsi- or
dies defiless
cit
Grantscur- (-)
in-aid Net rent
on
surto State ininter- plus come
and
of
est
For- local
and
eign ;overn- paid gov- prod(net) ments
ern- uct
ment acnter- count
prises*

Transfer
payments

Personal
tax
Year or quarter
and
Total nontax
receipts

Fiscal year:

37.3
42.9
43.7
40.1
42.0
61.7
65.5
69.9
65.9
67.0
76.3
80.9
77.8
85.9
95.5
95.5
2104.0
2108.8

1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963 3
1964 3

16.9
18.8
20.0
16.3
16.5
23.5
29.0
31.5
30.4
29.9
33.5
36.7
36.3
38.7
43.1
44.0
47.6
50.1
48.8

7.2
10.7
11.2
10.9
11.7
21.8
19.3
19.8
17.1
18.4
21.0
20.4
17.3
21.1
21.8
19.8
21.9
21.7
23.3

7.4
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.3
9.6
9.9
11.0
10.7
10.4
11.2
12.1
12.0
12.3
13.9
13.6
14.6
15.3
15.8

5.8
5.5
4.6
4.8
5.5
6.6
7.3
7.6
7.7
8.3
10.5
11.7
12.3
13.8
16.7
18.0
19.8
21.8
23.4

56.6
31.7
32.3
40.0
42.2
45.3
66.6
76.2
74.5
68.1
69.5
76.5
82.8
90.3
92.2
97.7
105.7
113.2
119.0

41.4
16.9
16.6
21.8
20.0
26.5
47.7
56.8
53.9
45.0
45.2
48.3
50.5
53.9
53.1
54.8
59.8
64.4
68.2

0)
0)
8.3
0.2
8.7
.6
8.1
2.9
11.3
3.1
8.2
2.3
8.7
1.8
9.4
1.7
10.6
1.3
12.2
1.6
12.9
1.3
14.6
1.5
18.1
1.3
20.3
1.4
21.3
1.6
24.3
1.6
26.2
1.6
29.7
30.9

0.9
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.6
4.5
6.0

39.2
43.3
43.4
39.1
50.2
64.5
67.7
70.3
63.8
72.8
77.5
81.7
78.5
90.3

17.2
19.6
19.0
16.2
18.2
26.3
31.2
32.4
29.2

8.6
10.7
11.8
9.8
17.1
21.6
18.6
19.4
16.5

7.9
7.9
8.1
8.2
9.0
9.5
10.5
11.2
10.1

5.5
5.1
4.5
4.9
5.9
7.1
7.4
7.4
8.1

37.0
31.1
35.4
41.6
41.0
58.0
71.6
77.7
69.6

20.6
15.6
19.3
22.2
19.3
38.8
52.9
58.0
47.5

31.5
35:2
37.3
36.6
40.4
44.0
45.0
49.3

20.9
20.2
19.9
17.7
22.0
21.2
21.0
23.4

11.0
11.6
12.2
11.9
13.0

9.3
10.6
12.2
12.4
14.9

68.9
71.8
79.7
87.9
91.4

45.3
45.7
49.7
52.6
53.6

9.2
8.9
7.7
8.8
10.9
8.7
8.9
9.7
11.6
12.5
13.5
16.0
20.0
20.6

14.1
13.9
15.0

17.6
18.4
20.5

93.1
102.1
109.9

53.2
57.0
62.6

22.2
25.8

44.1
44.6
44.0
43.4
43.3
44.7
45.1
46.7
48.0
49.2
49.9
50.1

22.9
21.6
20.2
19.9
18.3
20.6
21.3
23.7
23.0
23.4
23.5

14.4
14.5
13.6
13.7
13.1
14.1
13.9
14.7
14.6
15.2
15.0
15.3

17.5
17.6
17.8
17.6
18.0
18.3
18.6
18.8
20.3
20.5
20.5
20.7

Calendar year:
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962*

Indirect
PurCor- busi- Contribuchases
porate
tions
of
profits and
for Total goods
tax
To
and
social
acserv- perinsur•ruals acices
cruals

_.

96.9
98.3

-. 5108.2

3.9
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.9
5.0
5.5
5.6
5.8
6.9
6.9
6.6
7.3
7.5

2.3
.7
.4
.8
1.0
1.3
1.1
.9
1.0
1.4
1.9
3.1
2.7
2.7
2.7
3.4
4.2
4.0
3.6

-19.3
11.2
11.4
.2
-.2
16.3
-1.1
-6.3
-8.6
-1.1
6.8
4.4
—4.9
-4.4
3.3
-2.2
-1.7
-4.3
-7.6

1.1
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.8
2.9

4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.7
4.8
5.0

3.0
3.3
4.1
5.4
6.7

4.9
5.2
5.7
5.6
6.4

1.6
.6
.6
.7
1.2
1.3
1.0
.8
1.2
1.6
2.7
2.8
3.0
2.5

6.3
7.0
7.8

7.1
6.6
6.7

2.8
4.1
4.3

2.2
12.2
8.0
-2.5
9.2
6.4
-3.9
-7.4
-5.8
3.8
5.7
2.0
-9.4
-1.1
3.8
-3.8
-1.7

1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6

5.9
6.6
6.5
6.2

7.0
7.1
7.1
7.1

2.7
2.6
2.8
2.9

8.1
5.5
1.5
-.4

1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6

7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0

6.9
6.7
6.5
6.4

3.0
4.3
4.5
4.4

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.5

7.5
7.9
7.5
8.1

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.4

-6.3
-4.2
-3.3
-1.3
-2.4
-.7
-.9
0)

7.3
7.8

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
Calendar quarter:
1960: I
II
III
IV...
1961: I
II....
Ill
IV....
1962: I
II
III
IV*

98.9
98.4
95.5
94.7
92.7
97.7
98.9
103.8
105.9
108.4
108.9
0)

(')

90.8
92.9
94.0
95.2
99.0
101.9
102.2
105.1
108.3
109.0
109.8
112.5

52.5
53.1
53.6
53.6
55.4
56.6
56.5
59.5
61.9
62.1
62.7
63.7

21.2
21.9
22.5
23.8
25.0
25.8
26.2
26.1
26.3
26.3
26.7
27.8

* Not available.
2 see footnote 4, Table C-58.
* Estimate.
* Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
5 See Table C-62.
NOTE.—These accounts, like the cash budget, include the transactions of the trust accounts. Unlike
both the conventional budget and the cash statement, they exclude certain capital and lending transactions.
In general, they do not use the cash basis for transactions with business. Instead, corporate profits taxes
are included in receipts on an accrual instead of a cash basis; expenditures are timed with the delivery instead of the payment for goods and services; and CCC guaranteed price-support crop loans financed by
banks are counted as expenditures when the loans are made, not when CCC redeems them.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1960.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Bureau of the Budget (except as noted).




242

TABLE C—61.—Reconciliation of Federal Government receipts and expenditures in the conventional
budget and the consolidated cash statement with receipts and expenditures in the national income
accounts,fiscalyears 1960-64
[Billions of dollars]
Fiscal years

Receipts or expenditures
1960

Budget receipts.
Less:
Plus:

1961

1962 1

1963 1

81.4

85.5

1964

RECEIPTS
77.8

Intragovernmental transactions
Receipts from exercise of monetary authority
Trust fund receipts

Equals: Federal receipts from the public (consolidated cash
receipts)
Adjustments for agency coverage:
Less:
District of Columbia revenues
Adjustments for netting and consolidation:
Less:
Interest, dividends, and other earnings
Plus:
Contributions to Federal employees' retirement
funds, etc
Adjustments for timing:
Plus:
Excess of corporate tax accruals over collections;
personal taxes, social insurance contributions,
etc
Adjustments for capital transactions: 3
Less:
Realization upon loans and investments, sale of
Government property, etc

77.7

3.0
.1
20.3

3.9
.1
23.6

95.1

97.2

86.9

.1
24.3

3.9

4.2

26.9

29.5

101.9

108.4

112.2

.2

.2

.3

.4

.4

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.9

1.4

-.7

2.5

1.4

.8

.9

1.5

95.5

95.5

76.5

Equals: Receipts—National income accounts

81.5

87.8

3.0

3.9

3.8

3.9

4.2

.4

.8
23.0

1.5
24.1

.9
27.1

.5
28.0

« 104. 0

1.4

1.0

108.8

111.4

EXPENDITURES
Budget expenditures
Less:
Plus:

Intragovernmental transactions
__.
Accrued interest and other non-cash expenditures
(net)
Trust fund expenditures
Government-sponsored enterprise expenditures
(net)__
_

Equals: Federal Dayments to the public (consolidated cash
expenditures)
Adjustments for agency coverage:
Less:
District of Columbia expenditures
Adjustments for netting and consolidation:
Less:
Interest received and proceeds of Government sales
Plus:
Contributions to Federal employees' retirement
funds, etc
Adjustments for timing:
Plus:
Excess of interest accruals over payments on
savings bonds and Treasury bills
Excess of deliveries over expenditures and miscellaneous items 5
Less:
Commodity Credit Corporation foreign currency
exchanges
Adjustments for capital transactions 3
Less:
Loans—Federal National Mortgage Association
secondary market mortgage purchases, redemption of International Monetary Fund notes,
etc,
Trust and deposit fund items
Purchase of land and existing assets
Others
Equals: Expendit

National income accounts..

20.7

1.1

.5

107.7

94.3

94.3

.1

98.8

.4

116.8

.3

.3

.3

.4

.4

.9

.7

.9

1.4

1.3

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.9

.2

.7

.6

.6

.8

1.2

.7

.3

1.0

.9

1.0

1.0

1.1
.1
.1
1.3

2.2
1.2
.1

2.4
1.4
.1

2.4
1.2
.1

105.7

113.2

119.0

1.0
.7
.1
92.

97.

1
Data for 1963 and 1964 are estimates. Receipts reflect new depreciation guidelines and investment tax
credit. For details, see Table C-62.
2
Less than $50 million.
3
Consist of transactions in financial assets and liabilities, land and secondhand assets. Acquisition of
newly produced tangible assets are included in expenditures for goods and services as defined in the national
income and product accounts.
4
Excluding effects of new guidelines and investment tax credit, receipts were $104.8 billion.
5
Includes net change in Commodity Credit Corporation guaranteed non-recourse loans and increase in
clearing account.
fl Commodity Credit Corporation inventory valuation adjustment.
Sources: Bureau of the Budget and Department of Commerce.




243

TABLE C-62.—Estimated effects of new depreciation guidelines and investment tax credit, 1962-63
[Billions of dollars, calendar years]
Item

1962

Total tax loss, Federal Government _

1963
2.3

1.1
1.0

1.3
1.0

1.8

1.9

1.0
.8

1.1
.8

Noncorporate tax loss__.

.3

.4

From depreciation
From investment creditAdditional depreciation-

.1
.2

Corporate tax loss.
From depreciation
From investment credit-

to to

2.1

From depreciation
From investment credit.

2.5

Federal receipts

2.9

2.2
.3

Corporate
NoncorporateChanges in national income accounts: ]

2.4
.5

-2.1

-2.3

-1.8
-.3

-1.9
-.4

Federal deficit

2.1

2.3

Capital consumption allowances-

2.5

2.9

National income

-2.5

-2.9

Corporate profits before taxes and inventory valuation adjustment _
Corporate profits after taxes

-2.2

-2.4
-.5
-.5
-.1

Corporate
Noncorporate _

Personal income
Disposable personal income

-.4
-.3
.0

1
Unless otherwise indicated, national income account statistics used in the text of this Report and included in Appendix C are consistent with national income data currently published by the Department of
Commerce. They do not reflect the new depreciation guidelines issued by the Treasury Department
July 11, 1962, and the investment tax credit provided in the Revenue Act of 1962. Estimates of the effect
of these actions are given in this table.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Treasury Department, Bureau of the Budget, and Council of
Economic Advisers.




244

T A B L E C-63.—State and local government revenues and expenditures, selected fiscal years,

1927-61

[Millions of dollars]
Revenues by source 2

Fiscal year *
Total

Sales
and
IndiProp- gross vidual
erty
income
taxes ceipts taxes
taxes

Expenditures by function 2

Revenue
Corpo- from
All
ration Fed- other
net
eral
reveincome Gov- nue 3
taxes ernment

EduTotal cation

High- Public All
wel- other *
ways
fare

1927.

7,271

4,730

470

70

116

1,793

7,210

2,235

1,809

151

3,015

1932.
1934.
1936.
1938.

7,267
7,678
8,395

4,487
4,076
4,093
4,440

752
1,008
1,484
1,794

74
80
153
218

79
49
113
165

232
1,016
948
800

1,643
1,449
1,604
1,811

7,765
7,181
7,644
8,757

2,311
1,831
2,177
2,491

1,741
1,-509
1,425
1,650

444
827
1,0

3,269
2,952
3,215
3,547

1940.
1942.
1944.
1946.
1948.

10,418
10,908
12,356
17,250

4,430
4,537
4,604
4,986
6,126

1,982
2,351
2,289
2,986
4,442

224
276
342
422
543

156
272
451
447
592

858
954
855

1,872
2,123
9,190
2,269 8,863
2,661 11,028
3,685 17,684

2,638
2,586
2,793
3,356
5,379

1,573
1,490
1,200
1,672
3,036

1,156
1,225
1,133
1,409
2,099

3,862
3,889
3,737
4,591
7,170

1950.
1952.
1953.
1954.

20,911
25,181
27,307
29, 012

7,349
8,652
9,375
9,967

5,154
6,357
6,927
7,276

788
998
,065
,127

593
846
817
778

2,486
2,566
2,870
2,966

22, 787 7,177
26,098 8,318
27,910 9,390
30, 701 10,557

3,803
4,650
4,987
5,527

2,940 8,867
2,788 10,342
2,914 10, 619
3,060 11,557

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959

31, 073
34,667
38,164
41,219
45,306

10,735 7,643
11,749 8,691
12,864 9,467
14, 047 9,829
14, 983 10, 437

,237
,538
,754
,759
1,994

744
890
984
1,018
1,001

3,131 7,584
3,335 8,465
3,843 9,250
4,865 9,699
6,377 10, 516

33, 724
36, 711
40,375
44, 851
48,887

11,907
13,220
14,134
15, 919
17,283

6,452
6,953
7,816
8,567
9,592

3,168
3,139
3,485
3,818
4,136

1960
1961.

50, 505 16, 405 11, 849
54,037 18,002 12,463

2,463
2,613

1,180
1,266

6,974 11, 634 51, 876 18, 719
7,131 12,563 56,201 20,574

9,428
9,844

4,404 19, 324
4,720 21,061

4,541
5,763
6,252
6,897

12,197
13,399
14,940
16,547
17,876

* Fiscal years not the same for all governments.
2
Excludes revenues or expenditures of publicly owned utilities and liquor stores, and of insurance-trust
activities. Intergovernmental receipts and payments between governments in these categories are also
excluded.
3 Includes licenses and other taxes and charges and miscellaneous revenues.
* Includes expenditures for health, hospitals, police, local fire protection, natural resources, sanitation,
housing and community redevelopment, local recreation, general control, interest on general debt, and
other and unallocable expenditures.
NOTE.—Data are not available for intervening years.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included beginning 1959 and 1960, respectively.
See Table C-52 for net debt of State and local governments.
Source: Department of Commerce (Bureau of the Census).




245

CORPORATE PROFITS AND FINANCE
TABLE C-64.—Profits before and after taxes, all private corporations, 7929-62
[Billions of dollars]
Corporate profits (before taxes) and
inventory valuation adjustment
Year or quarter

Manufacturing
All
industries

Durable
Total goods
industries

Nondurable
goods
industries

1929...

10.1

5.1

2.6

6.6
1.6
-2.0
-2.0
1.1

3.9
1.3
-.6
-.5

1.5
(2)
-1.1
-.5
.2

2.4
1.3
.4
(J)
.7

1935._ .
1936-..
1937...
1938..1939.-.

2.9
5.0
6.2
4.3
5.7

2.0
3.1
3.6
2.2
3.2

1.7
1.7
.7
1.6

1.1
1.4
2.0
1.4
1.5

1940...
194K-.
1942...
1943...
1944...

9.1
14.5
19.7
23.8
23.0

5.4
9.3
11.7
13.7
13.0

3.0
6.3
7.1
8.0
7.3

2.3
3.0
4.5
5.6
5.7

1945.-.
1946...
1947.-.
1948...
1949...

18.4
17.3
23.6
30.8
28.2

9.5
8.4
12.8
16.8
15.3

4.5
2.1
5.3
7.4
7.9

1950...
1951.-1952...
1953__.
1954...

35.7
41.0
37.7
37.3
33.7

20.4
24.4
21.1
21.4
18.4

1955.-1956...
1957...
1958.-.
1959—

43.1
42.0
41.7
37.2
47.2

Transportation,
All
commu- other
nication, indusand
public tries
utilities

2.5

1930...
1931.-.
1932...
1933...
1934.-.

I960...
1961—
1962 3 4.

Corporate profits
after taxes
Corporate
profits
before
taxes

Corporate
tax
Divi- Undisliability i Total dend tributed
payments profits

3.0

9.6

1.4

8.3

5.8

2.4

1.5
1.2
.6 - . 2
.2 - 1 . 5
.1 - 1 . 5
.4 - . 2

3.3
-.8
-3.0
.2
1.7

.5
.4
.5
.7

2.5
-1.3
-3.4
-.4
1.0

5.5
4.1
2.6
2.1
2.6

-3.0
-5.4
-6.0
-2.4
-1.6

.5
1.2
1.8
1.5
1.5

3.1
5.7
6.2
3.3
6.4

1.0
1.4
1.5
1.0
1.4

2.2
4.3
4.7
2.3
5.0

2.9
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8

-.7
-.2

1.3
2.0
3.5
4.4

2.4
3.2
4.5
5.7
6.1

9.3
17.0
20.9
24.6
23.3

2.8
7.6
11.4
14.1
12.9

6.5
9.4
9.5
10.5
10.4

4.0
4.5
4.3
4.5
4.7

2.4
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.7

5.0
6.3
7.4
9.4
7.4

2.8
1.8
2.1
2.9
2.9

6.1
7.1
8.7
11.2
10.1

19.0
22.6
29.5
33.0
26.4

10.7
9.1
11.3
12.5
10.4

8.3
13.4
18.2
20.5
16.0

4.7
5.8
6.5
7.2
7.5

3.6
7.7
11.7
13.3
8.5

12.0
13.5
11.8
12.1
10.1

8.4
10.9
9.3

4.0
4.5
4.8
4.9
4.4

11.3
12.0
11.8
11.0
11.0

40.6
42.2
36.7
38.3
34.1

17.9
22.4
19.5
20.2
17.2

22.8
19.7
17.2
18.1
16.8

9.2
9.0
9.0
9.2

13.6
10.7
8.3
8.9
7.0

25.0
23.5
22.9
18.3
25.4

14.2
12.6
13.1
9.0
13.4

10.8
10.9
9.8
9.3
11.9

5.4
5.6
5.5
5.6
6.7

12.8
12.9
13.3
13.3
15.1

44.9
44.7
43.2
37.4
47.7

21.8
21.2
20.9
18.6
23.2

23.0
23.5
22.3
18.8
24.5

11.2
12.1
12.6
12.4
13.7

11.8
11.3
9.7
6.4
10.8

45.6 24.0
45.5 23.5
5 51.0 27.6

12.2
11.7
14.7

11.8
11.7
12.9

7.0
7.4
8.0

14.6
14.7
15.4

22.4 23.0 14.4
45.4
45.6
22.3 23.3 15.0
5 50.9 5 24.8 5 26.0 15.9

8.6
8.3
5 10.1

2.0

.5
.7
1.0

1.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I__II. _.
III._
IV..

48.6
46.2
44.4
43.3

26.6
24.0
23.1
22.3

14.6
12.2
11.4
10.7

12.0
11.8
11.7
11.6

7.0
7.1
7.0
6.9

15.1
15.1
14.3
14.1

49.2
46.4
43.3
42.8

24.3
22.9
21.4
21.1

24.9
23.5
21.9
21.7

14.3
14.2
14.4
14.5

10.6
9.2
7.5
7.1

1961: I . —
II. __
III._
IV-.

40.1
45.0
46.0
51.1

19.4
22.9
24.0
27.5

8.7

11.2
12.1
14.9

10.7
11.7
11.9
12.6

6.7
7.2
7.5
8.0

14.0
14.8
14.5
15.6

39.8
44.8
46.3
51.4

19.4
21.9
22.6
25.1

20.3
22.9
23.7
26.3

14.7
14.8
14.9
15.5

5.6
8.1
8.7
10.8

1962: I____
II___
III._
IV 3

50.4
50.7
51.0
6

27.0
27.1
28.1
6

14.2
14.3
15.3
6

12.8
12.8
12.8
6

8.1
8.0
7.9
(6)

15.4
15.7
14.9
6

50.1
50.9
51.1

24.4
24.9
24.9
6

25.6
26.1
26.1
6

15.8
15.8
15.8
16.4

10.3
10.3

()

()

()

()

()

U6)

()

()

1 Federal and State corporate income and excess profits taxes.
Less than $50 million.
s Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
4
Data for corporate profits are approximations for the year as a whole; data for fourth quarter are not
available. All other data incorporating or derived from these figures are correspondingly approximate.
« See Table C-62.
6 Not available.
2

Source: Department of Commerce (except as noted).




246

TABLE C-65.—Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders' equity and to sales, private manufacturing corporations, by industry group, 7958—62
Durable goods industries
All
private
manufacturing
corporations

Quarter

Lumber
and
wood
products
(except
furniture)

Furniture
and
fixtures

Stone,
clay,
and
glass
products

Primary
iron
and
steel
industries

Primary
nonferrous
metal
industries

Fabricated
metal
products

Machinery
(except
electrical)

Electrical MoInmator Other struchin- vehi- trans- ments
ery, cles porta- and
equip- and tion
rement, equip- equip- lated
and ment ment prodsupucts
plies

Miscellaneous
manufacturing
(including
ordnance)

Ratio of profits after Federal taxes (annual rate) to stockholders' equity—percent
BASED ON 1957 SIC '
1958: I

6.8
7.8
9.0

II
III
IV
1959: I
II
III
IV

0.2
3.1

11.0
8.4

10.7
10.0
___. 12.4
9.6
9.6

6.1

11.3
12.9
7.0

2.0
3.4
8.6

11.0
6.2
9.1

11.7
8.3

3.4

11.0
14.7
11.4

13.4

16.9

10.7
12.7
12.1
14.3

19.1
20.5

18.5
16.1

6.7
6.7

10.9

12.5
10.7

5.3
6.9
7.2
3.0

8.1
9.7
6.9
5.6

10.4
10.0

8.0

13.1
11.9

8.0
4.0
4.6
3.2
7.0
6.4
8.0

6.1
8.0
6.1
8.1

2.5
7.3
7.7
6.2

5.7
9.1
7.8
8.5

7.3
8.2
8.1

13.2

12.0

18.1

7.6
5.8
3.4

8.2
8.8
5.8

6.3
9.8
8.6

8.1

9.2

10.8

10.4

16.8
18.3

9.2

9.5

—1.1

2.9

4.0
7.0
9.6

10.9
11.7

1.4
7.6
6.6

4.6
7.2

3.7

10.8

8.3
5.9
1.5

8.0
8.2
6.8
5.5

-.6
6.2
6.8
3.7

9.2

7.1

8.3
9.1
9.9

6.7

6.8
9.2
8.8

10.3

5.9
9.7

5.6
7.7
7.1
7.0

6.3

1961: I
II
III
IV

9.0

8.2

10.3

5.0
7.3
8.8
7.9

12.1

9.8
9.9
8.7
8.4

10.5

5.7
4.6
5.6
7.9

9.8

1960: I
II
III
IV

1962: I
II
III

10.4

8.0 11.7
17.4 16.7
15.7 - 2 . 7

3.3
6.2
4.6
.3

5.5
5.8
8.2
6.5

5.3
6.5
6.5

7.8

9.7

11.8
11.9

5.6

8.5

9.1
8.6

10.8

6.1

13.2
8.0
6.3

9.3

11.6
10.3
10.3
10.6

12.2
13.6

3.6
5.7
13.7
9.2

7.8
9.6
6.6
6.7

10.8
12.0
14.5
14.8

7.2
7.1
12.4
10.2

6.7
7.8
5.3
3.6

11.6
12.1
11.9
10.8

5.7
7.9
11.5
11.6

6.4
8.3
8.2
8.1

7.1
9.9

11.6
13.5

5.9
7.2
12.6
13.7

7.0
9.6

9.9

9.8

11.7
10.3

12.6
12.0

6.8
7.3
12.3

2.7
2.3
2.4
2.5

3.8
5.0
6.3
6.3

1.5
2.2
4.8
3.3

Profits after taxes per dollar of sales—cents
BASED ON 1957 SIC
1958: I

II
III
IV

3.4
3.8
4.4
4.9

0.1
1.6
5.0
3.8

0.7
1.2
2.8

3.2

7.3

1959: I
II
III
IV

4.7
5.5
4.6
4.5

3.0
4.7
5.4
3.2

2.0
2.8
3.4
2.4

5.7
9.8
9.1
6.4

1960: I
II
III
IV

4.7
4.6
4.3
4.0

1.7
2.7
2.1
.1

1.9
1.9
2.6
2.1

5.0
8.2
7.4
5.4

1961: I
II
III
IV

3.5
4.4
4.3
4.8

-.3
2.9
3.0
1.7

-.4
1.3
2.1
2.9

4.3
4.7
4.4

.7
3.2
2.7

1.5

1962: I
II
Ill

.

2.1
3.2

4.2
4.9
5.0
7.1

4.7
3.8
4.4

2.3
3.2
3.6

3.0
3.9
3.9

3.2
3.5
3.9

5.8

3.2

3.7

4.7

3.7
2.9
1.0
6.8

7.1
8.1
4.8

6.0
7.0
5.1
5.0

2.6
3.8
4.1
2.3

3.8
5.8
5.3
4.3

4.0
4.5
4.4
4.8

7.4
7.8
4.2
5.0

2.0
2.2
1.5
1.5

5.7
6.0
7.3
6.8

2.9
2.6
4.6
3.7

7.0
5.3
3.2
3.9

5.9
6.0
5.2
4.3

2.4
2.9
3.0
1.3

4.1
4.5
3.6
3.0

3.9
3.6
3.5
3.2

6.9
6.6
3.5
5.8

1.6
1.8
1.3
.8

6.0
6.2
6.2
5.3

2.4
3.1
4.1
4.1

2.4
6.8
7.0
6.2

2.7
5.0
4.6
5.7

4.8
5.9
4.8
5.8

1.2
3.0
3.1
2.4

3.2
4.6
4.2
4.4

2.9
3.2
3.3
4.3

4.1
5.8
3.8
7.5

1.5
1.8
1.9
1.8

4.0
5.3
6.0
6.2

2.5
2.8
4.2
4.7

2.8
6.9
6.8

4.9
4.0
2.6

5.8
6.2
4.5

2.7
3.8
3.3

4.3
5.1
4.6

3.5
3.8
3.7

7.1
7.4
4.9

2.2
2.5
2.3

5.1
6.1
6.0

2.7
2.8
4.4

2.7
7.2
8.8

-3.1

See footnotes at end of table.




247

TABLE G—65.—Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders'' equity and to sales, private manufacturing corporations, by industry group, 7958—62—Continued
Nondurable goods industries

Quarter

Food
Toand
kin- bacco
mandred ufacprod- tures
ucts

ProdPrintucts of
ing
petroand
Apleum
Tex- parel Paper pub- Chemicals? Petro- and
tile
and
and allied lishand
leum
coal
ing
mill
prod- related prod- (ex- allied refin- (exprod- ucts
proding
cept
cept
ucts
ucts
petronews- ucts
leum
parefinpers)
ing)

Rubber
and Leather
misand
cella- leather
neous prodplastic ucts
products

Ratio of profits after Federal taxes (annual rate) to stockholders' equity—-percent
BASED ON 1957 SIC
1958: I
II
III
IV

6.8
8.5
9.8
9.7

11.8
13.3
14.5
14.3

0.6
2.5
5.1
5.8

3.3
1.5
9.4
5.5

7.0
7.9
7.9
9.3

7.8
9.5

5.9
8.1
7.6
8.6

8.6
7.5

8.5

9.8

9.4

12.0
14.2
14.4
12.8

1960: I—
II
III
IV

7.6
8.8
9.8
8.7

12.0
13.6
13.7
14.2

6.6
6.1
5.7
5.0

1961: I
II
III
IV

7.2
9.2

12.0
14.1
14.3
14.2

2.6
4.3
6.0
7.1

11.7
12.9
13.7

5.3
6.3
6.0

1959: I
II
III
IV

1962: I
II
III

10.4

10.0
9.1

7.1
8.9

10.1

8.4
9.4

11.5
6.6

9.8

11.0
11.8
12.8

8.9
8.2

-2.4

10.4
12.3

12.4

11.5
10.8

8.3
6.2

10.2

10,1

9.6
0.6

12.0
14.9

13.0
15.6
14.1
11.9

5.2
6.9

8.5
9.3
8.2
8.1

11.3
10.2
11.8

12.5
13.6
12.1
10.6

9.8
8.8

.9
8.3

10.3
11.5

22.1

6.6
8.3
7.3
9.1

7.5
6.8

9.8

10.6

13.2
11.8
12.2

9.6
9.6

-6.6
14.4
20.6
18.3

8.1

11.9
6.8

2.1
2.6

11.2
12.3
6.7
7.4

11.3

7.4
8.7
8.0

8.8

9.0

11.2
8.4

7.7

11.1
11.6

11.5
13.5
12.2

5.3
8.7

4.1
3.2
8.3

10.1

4.0

9.4
9.7

13.6
19.3

10.0
13.1
11.1

6.9
8.9
8.7
9.2

9.8

10.5

10.4
6.2
3.6
fl.O

10.1

11.3

7.2

8.8

10.0
8.8
9.7

.0

11.2
16.7

9.9

8.2
7.9

8.5

3.3
2.6
4.7
6.9
6.3
5.2
6.4

2.2
3.3
4.4
3.9

1.3
1.0
2.4
1.9

6.7

10.6
9.2

10.7
9.1

10.9

Profits after taxes per dollar of sales—cents
BASED O 1957 SIC
N
1958: I
II
III
IV

1.8
2.2
2.5
2.4

5.1
5.2
5.5
5.6

0.3
1.2
2.3
2.4

0.7
.3
1.7
1.0

4.8
4.8
4.6
5.3

2.9
3.4
4.1
2.3

6.4
6.7
7.1
7.6

11.3

3.5
4.2
2.9

1959: I
II
III.—
IV

2.1
2.5
2.7
2.5

5.2
5.5
5.6
5.2

2.5
3.2
3.0
3.3

1.6
1.4
1.8
1.4

5.0
5.5
5.2
5.2

3.6
4.2
5.1
2.9

7.7
8.5
8.1
7.2

9.3
9.4
9.5
9.9

1.9
5.7
7.1
3.3

3.9
4.4
4.1
3.7

1.9
2.4
2.2
2.4

1960: I
II
III
IV

2.1
2.4
2.6
2.2

5.2
5.4
5.5
5.8

2.8
2.5
2.5
2.1

1.0
1.3
2.0
1.1

4.9
5.4
4.8
4.8

4.0
3.6
3.9
2.9

7.6
7.8
7.4
6.9

9.4
8.9

10.2
11.0

.5
3.2
6.4
3.1

3.8
3.9
3.3
3.2

2.7
1.6
.9
1.4

1961: I
II
Ill
IV

1.9
2.4
2.6
2.3

5.3
5.7
5.9
5.9

1.2
1.8
2.5
2.7

.4
.5
1.8
2.1

4.1
4.8
4.3
5.2

2.6
2.3
3.7
2.7

6.5
7.8
7.4
7.6

10.4

-3.0

9.9
9.8

11.1

4.9
6.0
6.1

2.9
4.2
3.8
4.2

.7
1.2
1.6

1962: I
II
III

1.9
2.3
2.7

5.4
5.5
5.8

2.2
2.5
2.4

1.3
1.4
1.9

4.4
4.9
4.5

2.6
3.6
3.9

7.2
7.6
7.3

9.5
8.8
9.5

.0
4.3
5.4

3.7
4.1
3.4

1.6
1.4
1.6

8.2
8.2
9.9

-1.5

i Standard Industrial Classification.
NOTE.—Data on a comparable basis are not available for earlier periods. For explanatory notes concerning compilation of the series, see Quarterly Financial Reports for U. S. Manufacturing Corporations,
Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included for all periods.
Sources: Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.




248

TABLE C-66.—Relation of profits before and after taxes to stockholders' equity and to sales,
private manufacturing corporations, by asset size class, 1958-62
Asset size class (millions of dollars)
Quarter
All asset
sizes

Under 1

l t o 10

10 to 100

100 to 1,000

1,000 and
over

Ratio of profits (annual rate) to stockholders' equity—percent
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes
BASED ON 1957 SIC 1

1959: I

1960; I
II
III

IV
1961: I

II
III

IV
1962: I
II
III

0.4
5.4
93
2.5

9.8
13.3
17 1
14.9

3.5
6.0
83
7.3

13.0
14.4
16.9
18.5

6.3
7.2
8.5
9.7

14.2
15.7
17.8
20.2

7.4
8.3
9.4
11.2

14.3
12.3
12.3
21.4

9.5
8.8
91
14.2

10.0
12.4
9.6
9.6

12.5
20.4
21.1
8.8

5.7
11.7
12.4
3.3

15.1
20.2
19.8
14.6

6.9
10.1
9.9
7.0

17.5
22.4
20.7
19.0

8.7
11.4
10.5
10.0

19.2
23.8
17.6
18.4

10.1
12.5
9.4
10.4

21.7
24.5
12.1
15.9

12.9
14.3
8.6
10.7

9.8
9.9
8.7
8.4

11.7
15.2
16.7
5.0

5.0
8.0
9.0
.5

14.1
16.4
14.6
9.2

6.3
7.6
6.9
3.6

17.1
17.9
16.3
14.5

8.4
9.0
8.2
7.4

18.5
18.3
16.9
16.2

9.8
10.1
9.1
9.2

21.9
19.0
13.3
17 4

13.0
11.5
9.1
11.4

6.8
9.2
8.8
10.5

6.3
13.7
15.8
12.5

.9
6.8
8.4
6.3

8.3
14.7
16.8
16.1

2.6
6.9
8.2
7.7

11.8
16.3
16.3
17.3

5.6
8.3
8.1
8.9

13.9
17.1
17.1
18.3

7.5
9.1
9.2
10.3

14.4
18.0
13.6
21.4

9.5
11.2
9.2
13.5

16.7
18.9
16.6

__

II
III .
IV

5.5
11.4
16 5
7.8

18.7
23.1
17.1
16.8

..

III
IV

6.8
7.8
9.0
10.7

12.6
16.8
15.8
18.5

.

II

12.9
13.9
15.9
18.8

18.4
18.0
15.4
14.8

1958: I _

9.0
10.3
9.2

10.6
19.8
19.8

4.6
11.7
11.7

14.0
18.1
17.8

5.9
8.8
8.6

14.6
17.8
17.1

7.1
9.0
8.6

16.3
18.1
16.4

8.6
9.7
8.7

20.1
20.2
15.6

12.1
11.8
9.9

Profits per dollar of tales—cents
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes taxes
BASED ON 1957 SIC i
6.4

III
IV

1962: I

II

HI

4.9

1.6

.5

5.3

4.7

2.8

1.3

5.4

10.2
8.2
7.9

5.5
4.6
4.5

4.2
4.3
1.8

2.4
2.5
.7

6.6
6.7
4.0

3.3
3.4
2.4

4.7

2.6

4.6
4.3

3.2
3.5

1.1

5.0

1.6
1.9

6,5

3.1

7.5

3.5
4.0

2.6

7.0
8.1
8.fi

4.5

8.0
8.9
9.7

2.0

8.4

4.2

9.6

5.0

0.0
0.5
8.7

5.0
4.8
4.5

10.9
8.8
9.1

5.7
4.7
6.1

2.2

8.1

9.3

2.6
2.4

4.1
3.9

9.0
8.7

4.9

5.6
5.1

8.2
7.7

4.0

3.0

4.2
4.7
6.4

5.0
4.7

10.6
9.7
10.4
14.9

7.0
6.0
7.7
0.0

15.2
16.4
10.2
12.2

9.0
0.6
7.3

14.5
13.2
10.6
12.7

8.6
8.0
7.3

7.7

8.5
8.2
7.6

7.1

II

IV

1.4
2.3
2.9

-

4.0

1.1

.1

3.2

1.3

6.0

3.5

8.3

4.7

6.5

1961: I

III

5.0
6.1

8.4
7.6

I960* I
II

3.8

1.2
2.1

8.7

_ .

0.1

2.5
3.6

8.9

1959: I
II
III
IV

1.3

3.8
4.4

8.6

III
IV

3.4

6.8
7.7

1958: I
II

3.5

1.4

.2

3.0

.9

6.0

2.8

7.4

4.0

8.0
7.7
8.5

4.4
4.3
4.8

2.9
3.4
2.6

1.5
1.8
1.3

4.8
5.5
5.1

2.3
2.7
2.5

7.6
7.7
7.9

3.9
3.8
4.1

8.4
8.5
8.9

4.5
4.6
5.0

11.6
13.6
11.4
15.2

8.0
8.6
7.9

4.3
4.7
4.4

2.3
4.1
4.2

1.0
2.4
2.4

4.7
5.6
5.6

2.0
2.7
2.7

7.0
8.0
7.8

3.4
4.0
3.9

8.0
8.6
8.1

4.3
4.6
4.3

14.2
14.0
12.0

8.2

8.3
8.5
7.7
9.5

i Standard Industrial Classification.
NOTE.—Data on a comparable basis are not available for earlior periods. For explanatory notes concerning compilation of the series, see Quarterly Financial Reports for U.S. Manufacturing Corporations, Federal
Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.
Data for Alaska and Hawaii included for all periods.
Sources: Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.




249

TABLE C-67.—Sources and uses of corporate funds, 1951-62 1
[Billions of dollars]

Source or use of funds

Total u s e s . . .

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 3

Total sources

_

47.1
32.3
2 6
6.3

2.8
.6

.1
.4

5.0 - 4 . 3 - . 3 2.7 2.9 - 3 . 1 2.5
.7
(*)
5.3
.8 2.8 3.0 1.3 1.9 4.1 3.1 4.9
_ 36,9 38,1 30,0 22.4 44 8 4?, 4 40 1 35.7 51 9 41 5 45 7 52.0

Internal sources
Retained profits and depletion allowances
Depreciation and amortization allowances
External sources
Federal income tax liability
Other liabilities
Bank loans and mortgage
loans
Net new issues
_
Discrepancy (uses less sources)

24 0 45 1 39 5 37 9 31 5 46 8 38.5 42.3

21.6 22.4 23.9 22.4 24.2 29.9 32.7 26.4 27.7 30.8 29.6
9.8 1.3 1.8 - 1 . 6 6.7 7.6 2.1 - 2 . 4 6 6 2.6 1 8
2.0 3.1
.7 2.4 6.4 3.3 2.1 2.9 5.6 5.1 3.6

36 8 ?,7 3

-

Plant and equipment outlays
Inventories (book value) 3
Customer net receivables
Cash and U.S. Government securities
Other assets

1.8

19.0 17.8 19.7 19.8 26.6 27.8 28.0 26.0 31.1 30.4 32.0
7.4

7.9

6.3 10.9 10.5

8.9

7.3

35.3

7.3

9.1

9.0 10.4 11.8 13.5 15.7 17.3 19.1 20.3 21.6 23.1 24.8

26.2

10.0

17.9 10.3 10.3

2.6 18.2 14.6 12.1

5.7

9.7 20.8 11.1 13.7

16.7

2.1 - 1 . 5
3.7 1.6

.6
1.7

1.5
3.0

3.0
8.0

1.8
9.6

5.0
7.2

4.3 - 3 . 1
1.9 2.4

.6 - 3 . 1
2.2
.4

3.8 —1.7 - 2 . 2 - 2 . 5
2.1 3.0 2.1 1.7

5.4
6.3

.4 - . 6
7.1 5.9

5.4
6.9

-.1

3.1
7.9

- . 8 -1.8

1.6

5.4 1.7
7.9 10.5

9.5

1.0
9.5

7.1
7.8

.3 - 2 . 9 - 2 . 2 - 4 . 2 - 5 . 0 - 3 . 0 - 3 . 4 - 4 : 9

1 Excludes banks and insurance companies.
2
Preliminary estimates.
3
Receivables are net of payables, which are therefore not shown separately.
* Less than $50 million.
Source: Department of Commerce based on Securities and Exchange Commission and other financial
data.




250

TABLE C-68.—Current assets and liabilities of United States corporations, 7939—62 l
[Billions of dollars]

Current liabilities

Current assets

Net
working
capital

End of year or
quarter

1939

54.5

10.8

2.2

22.1

18.0

1.4

30.0

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

60.3
72.9
83.6
93.8
97.2

13.1
13.9
17.6
21.6
21.6

2.0
4.0
10.1
16.4
20.9

0.1
.6
4.0
5.0
4.7

23.9
27.4
23.3
21.9
21.8

19.8
25.6
27.3
27.6
26.8

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.4

32.8
40.7
47.3
51.6
51.7

1945
1946

97.4
108.1

21.7
22.8

21.1
15.3

2.7
.7

23.2
30.0

26.3
37.6

2.4
1.7

45.8
51.9

1947
1948
1949

123.6
133.0
133.1

25.0
25.3
26.5

14.1
14,8
16.8

44.6
48.9
45.3

1.6
1.6
1.4

61.5
64.4
60.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

161.5
179.1
186.2
190.6
194.6

28.1
30.0
30.8
31.1
33.4

19.7
20.7
19.9
21.5
19.2

1.1
2.7
2.8
2.6
2.4

55.7
58.8
64.6
65.9
71.2

55.1
64.9
65.8
67.2
65.3

1.7
2.1
2.4
2.4
3.1

79.8
92.6
96.1
98.9
99.7

.4
1.3
2.3
2.2
2.4

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

224.0
237.9
244.7
255.3
277.3

34.6
34.8
34.9
37.4
36.3

23.5
19.1
18.6
18.8
22.8

2.3
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.9

86.6
95.1
99.4
106.9
117.7

72.8
80.4
82.2
81.9
88.4

4.2
5.9
6.7
7.5
9.1

121.0
130.5
133.1
136.6
153.1

2.3
2.4
2.3
1.7
1.7

1960
1961

286.0
303.0

36.1
39.0

19.9
19.4

125.1
134.5

91.6
95.2

I960: I . .

II.
III.
IV.

1.1
281.8
284.6
286.0

33.0
33.7
34.2
36.1

22.6
21.0
19.5
19.9

3.1
3.4
2.9
2.9
2.9
3.1

119.0
121.4
124.5
125.1

1961: I._
II.
Ill
IV.

285.4
290.2
294.9
i.O

33.9
35.2
36.0
39.0

19.7
19.7
18.6
19.4

3.2
3.1
3.2
3.4

124.2
127.9
131.5
134.5

1962: I . .
II.
III.

305.7
310.5
317.5

35.6
36.1
36.3

20.2
19.3
18.8

3.4 136.0 97.7
3.3 140.0 98.7
3.4 145.4 100.3

38.3
42.4
43.0

21.9

1.2

6.9

24.5

22.6
25.6
24.0
24.1
25.0

2.5
7.1
12.6
16.6
15.5

7.1
7.2
8.7
8.7
9.4

27.5
32.3
36.3
42.1
45.6

24.8
31.5

10.4
8.5

9.7
11.8

51.6
56.2

10.7
11.5
9.3

13.2
13.5
14.0

62.1
68.6
72.4

47.9
53.6
57.0
57.3
59.3

16.7
21.3
18.1
18.7
15.5

14.9
16.5
18.7
20.7
22.5

81.6
86.5
90.1
91.8
94.9

73.8
81.5
84.3
88.7
99.3

19.3
17.6
15.4
12.9
15.0

25.7
29.0
31.1
33.3
37.0

103.0
107.4
111.6
118.7
124.2

10.2 157.0
11.5 165.6

1.8 103.1
1.8 109.5

13.5
14.1

38.6
40.3

129.0
137.4

92.3
92.4
92.9
91.6

10.2
10.4
10.5
10.2

153.5
154.8
156.3
157.0

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

100.1
101.8
102.4
103.1

13.6
12.6
13.1
13.5

38.0
38.6
39.0
38.6

126.6
127.0
128.4
129.0

93.3
92.6
93.5
95.2

11.1
11.7
12.1
11.5

154.3
155.5
159.0
165.6

1.8
1.7
1.8
1.8

101.4
102.8
104.5
109.5

11.8
11.4
12.4
14.1

39.5
40.3
40.3

131.1
134.7
136.0
137.4

1.8 109.5
1.8 111.6
1.9 115.7

13.6
13.6
14.6

41.8
42.4
43.2

139.0
141.1
142.1

12.7 166.7
13.1 169.4
13.3 175.4

0.6
.8
2.0
2.2
1.8

37.6
39.3
37.5

1 All United States corporations, excluding banks, savings and loan associations, and insurance companies.
Year-end data through 1959 are based on Statistics of Income (Treasury Department), covering virtually all
corporations in the United States. Statistics of Income data may not be strictly comparable from year to
year because of changes in the tax laws, basis for filing returns, and processing of data for compilation purposes. All other figures shown are estimates based on data compiled from many different sources, including
data on corporations registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. As more complete information becomes available, estimates are revised.
2
Receivables from and payables to U.S. Government do not include amounts offset against each other
on the corporation's books or amounts arising from subcontracting which are not directly due from or to
the U.S. Government. Wherever possible, adjustments have been made to include U.S. Government
advances offset against inventories on the corporation's books.
3
Includes marketable securities other than U.S. Government.
Source: Securities and Exchange Commission.




251

TABLE C-69.—State and municipal and corporate securities offered, 7934—62 *
[Millions of dollars]
Corporate securities offered for cash 2
State
and
munici-

Gross proceeds

Proposed uses of net proceeds 4

3

curities
offered
for cash
Com- Pre- Bonds
(prinTotal mon ferred and
cipal
stock stock notes
amounts)

Year or quarter

939

397

19

6

371

1,232
1,121
908
1,108
1,128

2,332
4,572
2,310
2,155
2,164

22
272
285
25
87

86
271
406
86
98

2,224
4,028
1,618
2,044
1,980

__

1,238
956
524
435
661

2,677
2,667
1,062
1,170
3,202

108
110
34
56
163

183
167
112
124
369

-__

795
1,157
2,324
2,690
2,907

6,011
6,900
6,577
7,078
6,052

3,532
3,189
4,401
5, £58
6,969

6,361
7,741
9,534
8,898
9,516

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

5,977
5,446
6,958
7,449
7,681

10,240
10,939
12,884
11,558
9,748

New money
Total
Total

Retire- Other
Work- ment purof se- poses
ing
capi- curities
tal

57

32

26

231

95

2,266
4,431
2,239
2,110
2,115

208
858
991
681
325

111
380
574
504
170

96
478
417
177
155

1,865
3,368
1,100
1,206
1,695

193
204
148
222
95

2,386
2,390
917
990
2,670

2,615
2,623
1,043
1,147
3,142

569
868
474
308
657

424
661
287
141
252

145
207
187
167
405

1,854
1,583
396
739
2,389

192
172
173
100
96

397
758
891 1,127
762
779
614
492
425
736

4,855
4,882
5,036
5,973
4,890

5,902
6,757
6,466
6,959
5,959

1,080
3,279
4,591
5,929
4,606

638
2,115
3,409
4,221
3,724

442
1,164
1,182
1,708
882

4,555
2,868
1,352
307
401

267
610
524
722
952

811
1,212
1,369
1,326
1,213

631
838
564
489
816

4,920
5,691
7,601
7,083
7,488

6,261
7,607
9,380
8,755
9,365

4,006
6,531
8,180
7,960
6,780

2,966
5,110
6,312
5,647
5,110

1,041
1,421
1,868
2,313
1,670

1,271
486
664
260
1,875

984
589
537
535
709

2,185
2,301
2,516
1,334
2,027

635
636
411
571
531

7,420
8,002
9,957
9,653
7,190

10,049 7,957
10,749 9,663
12,661 11,784
11,372 9,907
9,527 8,578

5,333
6,709
9,040
7,792
6,084

2,624
2,954
2,744
2,115
2,494

1,227
364
214
549
135

864
721
663
915
814

1960
1961
1962 ».

7,230 10,154 1,664
8,360 13,147 3,273
8,514 10,820 1,321

409
449
443

8,081 9,924 8,758
9,425 12,874 10,829
9,056 10, 609 8,380

5,662
7,539
5,712

3,097
3,290
2,669

271
895
737

895
1,150
1,491

I960- I
II
III

1,885
2,252
1,764
1,329

2,265
2,537
2,520
2,832

435
582
337
310

100
110
92
106

1,729
1,845
2,091
2,417

2,214
2,465
2,467
2,778

1,972
2,181
2,222
2,384

1,180
1,412
1,480
1,589

791
768
742
795

69
83
39
80

174
201
205
315

2,122
2,370
1,766
2,101

1,992
354
5,352 1,582
2,566
571
765
3,237

96
192
82
80

1,543
3,578
1,913
2,392

1,951
5,261
2,501
3,161

1,648
4,272
2,120
2,790

952
3,373
1,396
1,818

695
899
723
972

142
566
63
123

161
423
318
248

2,610
2,534
1,627
1,743

2,378
3,251
2,184
3,007

490
460
200
171

16
180
107
140

1,871
2,611
1,877
2,697

2,320
3,184
2,146
2,958

2,009
2,607
1,565
2,200

1,426
1,901
1,026
1,358

582
705
539
842

62
179
236
260

250
399
345
498

1934
19*35
1936
1937
1938
1939.-

-

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953.
1954

_

-

-..

IV
1961: I
II—

._ - .

IV.

.- ._

III

1962: I . . .

II
III
IV 6

.

384

Plant
and
equipment

1
These data cover substantially all new issues of State, municipal, and corporate securities offered for
cash sale in the United States in amounts over $100,000 and with terms to maturity of more than 1 year.
2
Excludes notes issued exclusively to commercial banks, intercorporate transactions, sales of investment company issues, and issues to be sold over an extended period, such as offerings under employeepurchase plans.
8
Number of units multiplied by offering price.
* Net proceeds represents the amount received by the issuer after payment of compensation to distributors
and other costs of notation.
8
Preliminary.

NOTE.—Data for Alaska and Hawaii included for all periods.
Sources: Securities and Exchange Commission, The Commercial and Financial Chronicle, and The Bond
Buyer.




252

f
TABLE C-70.—Common stock prices, earnings, and yields and stock market credit, ;939-62

Year or month

Common
stock
prices
index,
1957-59= 100
(SEC) i

Common
stock
Common
price/
stock
earnings
yields,
ratio200
industrials
stocks
(Standard (Moody's)
& Poor's) »

Stock market credit
Customer credit (excluding U.S.
Government securities)

Total

Percent
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

-

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

- ...

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

.

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962

- - ---

1961: January
February. _.
March
April
IVlay
June
July
August
SeptemberOctober
November. .
December. _
1962: January
February. __
March
April
May

June
_
July
August. _
SeptemberOctober
NovemberDecember .

26.8
25.3
23.0
20.1
26.6
29.0
35.2
40.1
35.1
35.6
34.3
41.4
49.6
52.3
51.9
61.7
81.8
92.6
89.8
93.2
116.7
113.9
134 2
127.1
120.9
125.4
129.8
133.0
134.9
132.8
132.7
137.4
136.2
138.0
144.0
145.8
140.4
142.8
142.9
138.0
128.3
114.3
116.0
119.5
117.9
114.3
122.8
128.0

12.17
11.03
9.65
10.14
17.58
16.95
22.99
11.01
9.14
5.86
6.76
7.51
9.62
10.22
9.68
12.17
12.65
13.54
12.91
17.71
19.79
18.92
19.57

23.32
21.18
20.54
19.57
19.99
15.50
15.98

4.15
5.31
6.25
6.67
4.89
4.81
4.19
3.97
5.13
5.78
6.63
6.27
6.12
5.50
5.49
4.78
4.06
4.07
4.33
4.05
3.31
3.60
3.07
3.37
3.28
3.22
3.15
3.15
3.09
8.16
3.05
3.00
3.03
2.95
2.93
2.91
3.03
2.99
3.00
3.20
3.48
3.79
3.55
3.50
3.69
3.60
3.41
3.37

Net debit
balances 3

Bank loans
to brokers
and
Bank loans
dealers 5
to
"others" *

Millions of dollars
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

00
1,374
976
1,032
968
1,249
1,798
1,826
1,980
2,445
3,436

4,030
3,984
3,576
4,537
4,461
4,415
5.602
5,494
4,424
4,532
4,787
5,190
5,386
5,367
5,355
5,349
5,311
5,333
5,460
5,602
5,464
5,426
5,457
5,491
5,408
4,938
4,876
5,073
5,156
5,165
5,285
5,494

(6)
(6)

(8)
(6)

(8)
(6)
((J)

00
(6)
(6)
942
473
517
499
821

1,237
1,253
1,332
1,665
2,388
2,791
2,823
2,482
3,285
3,280
3,222
4,259
4,125
3,253
3,358
3,601
3,936
4,060
4,024
3,991
3,972
3,991
4,029
4,141
4,259
4,111
4,066
4,083
4,079
4,000
3,605
3, 562
3,773
3,887
3,864
3,951
4,125

715
584
535
850
353

432
6 503
515
469
428
561
573
6 648
780
1,048

1,239
1,161
1,094
6 1,252
6 1, 181
1,193
fi 1,343
1,369
1,171
1,174
1,186
1,254
1,326
1,343
1,364
1,377
1,320
1,304
1,319
1,343
1,353
1,360
1,374
1,412
1,408
1,333
1,314
1,300
1,269
1,301
1,334
1,369

1,328
2,137
2,782
61,471
784

1,331
1,608
1,742
1,419
6 2,002
2,248
2,688
2,852
2,214
2,190
6 2,569
6 2,584
2,614
3,398
4,386
1,969
2,001
1,805
2,397
2,439
2,441
2,732
2,136
2,637
2,743
2,583
3,398
2,340
2,985
3,040
3,174
2,610
2,533
2,044
2,224
3,366
3,382
2,738
4,386

1 Based on 300 stocks.
2 Based on 50 stocks for 1939-56 and 425 stocks beginning 1957. Ratio is obtained by dividing the stock
price index as of the end of the period by the seasonally adjusted annual rate of earnings for the quarter
then ending.
3 As reported by member firms of the New York Stock Exchange carrying margin accounts. Includes
net debit balances of all customers (other than general partners in the reporting firm and member firms of
national exchanges) whose combined accounts net to a debit. Balances secured by U.S. Government
obligations are excluded. Data are for end of period.
4 Loans by weekly reporting member banks to others than brokers and dealers for purchasing or carrying
securities except U.S. Government obligations. From 1953 through June 1959, loans for purchasing or
carrying U.S. Government securities were reported separately only by New York and Chicago banks.
Accordingly, for that period any loans for purchasing or carrying such securities at other reporting banks
are included. Series also revised beginning July 1946, March 1953, July 1958, and April 1961. Data are for
last Wednesday of period. For details, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, June 1961.
5 Loans by weekly reporting member banks for purchasing or carrying securities, including U.S. Government obligations. Series revised beginning July 1946, January 1952, July 1958, July 1959, and April 1961.
Data are for last Wednesday of period. For details, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, June 1961.
6
Not available.
Sources: Securities and Exchange Commission, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,
Standard & Poor's Corporation, Moody's Investors Service, and New York Stock Exchange.




2

53

TABLE C-71.—Business population and business failures, 7929-62

Year or month

Operating businesses and business
turnover (thousands offirms)i
DisOper- New conating busi- tinbusi- ness- ued
businessnesses 2
es a

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
__1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
_
1944
1945
1946
__
1947
1948
_
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
—
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1961: January. __
February.
March. __
April
May
June

3,029
2,994
2,916
2,828
2,782
2,884
2,992
3,070
3,136
3,074
3,222
3,319
3,276
3,295
3,030
2,839
2,995
3,242
3,651
3,873
3,984
4,009
4,067
4,118
4,188
4,240
4,287
4,381
4,471
4,533
4,583
4,658
4,713
4,752
4,780

July
August
September.
October
November.
December.
1962: January....
February..
March
April
May
June
July
August
September.
October....
November.
December

4,750

4,740

"4,760
4,770
1780
4,790
~4,~800

275
290
121
146
331
423
617
461
393
331
348
327
346
352
366
408
431
398
397
422
438
437

318
271
386
337
175
176
209
239
282
306
290
276
276
299
319
314
342
335
347
346
384
398

Business failures 3 *
New
business
incorporations
(number) 3

()
132,916
112,638
96,101
85,491
92,925
83,649
92,819
102, 545
117,164
139,651
140,775
136,697
150,280
193,067
182,713
181, 535
16,350
13,281
16,783
14,815
16,371
16,418
14,483
15,079
13,616
15,492
14,045
14,802
18,343
14,365
17,196
15, 653
16,408
15,234
14,957
14,955
12,777
15,318
12,914

Number of failures
Business
failure
rate 8

103.9
121.6
133.4
154.1
100.3
61.1
61.7
47.8
45.9
61.1
^69.6
63.0
54.5
44.6
16.4
6.5
4.2
5.2
14.3
20.4
34.4
34.3
30.7
28.7
33.2
42.0
41.6
48.0
51.7
55.9
51.8
57.0
64.4
60.8
61.1
64.2
eg. 9
60.8
64. S
60.7
62.5
7% 4
67.5
69.5
63. 8
6S.6
62.9
61.1
59.4
65.0
68.7
67.3
68.3
62.5
62.2
66.3
59.4
56.0

Liability size
class

Total

22,909
26,355
28,285
31,822
19,859
12,091
12,244
9,607
9,490
12,836
14,768
13,619
11,848
9,405
3,221
1,222
809
1,129
3,474
5,250
9,246
9,162
8,058
7,611
8,862
11,086
10,969
12,686
13,739
14,964
14,053
15,445
17,075
15,782
1,404
1,449
1,610
1,441
1,545
1,403
1,275
1,604
1,285
1,446
1,335
1,278
1,447
1,353
1,490
1,504
1,378
1,281
1,165
1,319
1,118
1,410
1,216
1,101

Amount of current
liabilities (millions
of dollars)

Liability size
class
$100,000 Total
Under
and
Under $100,000
$100,000 over
and
$100,000 over
22,165
25,408
27,230
30,197
'18,880
11,421
11,691
9,285
9,203
12,553
14,541
13,400
11,685
9,282
3,155
1,176
759
1,002
3,103
4,853
8,708
8,746
7,626
7,081
8,075
10,226
10,113
11,615
12,547
13,499
12,707
13,650
15,006

13, 772
1,241
1,274
1,369
1,271
1,370
1,206
1,133
1,412
1,143
1,301
1,145
1,141
1,249
1,205
1,321
1,346
1,195
1,110
1,042
1,109
970
1,207
1,059

744
947
1,055
1,625
7 979
670
553
322
287
283
7 227
219
163
123
66
46
50
127
371
397
538
416
432
530
787
860
856
1,071
1,192
1,465
1,346
1,795
2,069
2,010
163
175
241
170
175
197
142
192
142
145
190
137
198
148
169
158
183
171
123
210
148
203
157
142

483.3
261.5
668.3
303.5
736.3
354.2
928.3
432,6
457.5 7 215. 5
334.0
138.5
310.6
135.5
203.2
102.8
183.3
101.9
246.5
140.1
182. 5 7 132.9
166.7
119.9
136.1
100.7
100.8
80.3
45.3
30.2
31.7
14.5
30.2
11.4
67.3
15.7
204.6
63.7
234.6
93.9
308.1
161.4
248.3
151.2
259.5
131.6
283.3
131.9
394.2
167.5
462.6
211.4
449.4
206.4
562.7
239.8
615.3
267.1
728.3
297.6
692.8
278.9
938.6
327.2
1,090.1 370.1
1,213.6 346.5
81.5
33.0
88.1
31.7
126.6
33.3
86.1
32.1
80.5
34.8
83.8
28.9
69.2
28.9
102.7
34.1
116.7
27.5
70.3
31.2
119.2
27.3
27.3
65.5
30.1
106.6
30.4
90.5
80.9
32.6
31.0
121.8
29.9
91.5
88.5
27.7
27.2
91.6
27.9
146.8
26.9
96.2
30.3
119.1
27.5
98.8
25.3
81.3

221.8
364.8
382.2
495.7
7 242.0
195.4
175.1
100.4
81.4
106.4
7 49.7
46.8
35.4
20.5
15.1
17.1
18.8
51.6
140.9
140.7
146.7
97.1
128.0
151.4
226.6
251.2
243.0
322.9
348.2
430.7
413.9
611.4
720.0
867.1
48.6
56.4
93.3
54.0
45.7
55.0
40.2
68.6
89.1
39.0
92.0
38.2
76.5
60.1
48.3
90.8
61.6
60.8
64.4
118.9
69.3
88.8
71.3
56.0

1 Excludes firms in the fields of agriculture and professional services. Includes self-employed person
only if he has either an established place of business or at least one paid employee. Series revised beginning
1951.
2
Data through 1939 are averages of end-of-quarter estimates centered at June 30. Beginning 1940, data
are for beginning of period. Quarterly data shown here are seasonally adjusted.
3 Total for period.
* Commercial and industrial failures only. Excludes failures of banks and railroads and, beginning 1933,
of real estate, insurance, holding, and financial companies, steamship lines, travel agencies, etc.
« Failure rate per 10,000 listed enterprises. Monthly data are seasonally adjusted.
6
Not available.
7
Series revised; not strictly comparable with earlier data.
s Includes data for Hawaii beginning 1959 and Alaska beginning 1960. (Data for 1958 comparable to 1959
are 150,781; data for 1960 comparable to 1959 are 182,374.)
Sources: Department of Commerce and Dun & Bradstreet, Inc.




254

AGRICULTURE
TABLE G—72.—Income from agriculture, 7929-62

Year or quarter

Income received by total
farm population from
agricultural
sources
Farm
Total i wages2

Income received from farming
Net to farm
operators

Realized gross
Cash receipts
from
Total 3
marketings

Production expenses

Excluding net
inventory
change

Net income per
farm including
net inventory

Including net
inventory
change 4

Billions of dollars

Current
prices

1962
prices a

Dollars

1929-

7.0

0.9

13.9

11.3

7.6

6.3

6.1

943

1,813

19301931193219331934-

5.1
4.0
2.5
3.0
3.4

.8
.6
.5
.4
.5

11.4

9.1
6.4
4.7
5.3
6.4

6.9
5.5
4.4
4.3
4.7

4.5
2.9
1.9
2.8
3.9

4.3
3.3
2.0
2.6
2.9

650
506
305
382
434

1,325
1,207
847
1,032
1,059

19351936193719381939-

5.9
5.0
6.8
5.1
5.2

.6
.6
.7
.7
.7

10.7
11.3
10.1
10.6

7.1
8.4
8.9
7.7
7.9

5.1
5.6
6.1
5.8
6.2

4.6
5.1
5.2
4.3
4.4

5.3
4.3
6.0
4.4
4.5

778
643
911
675
697

1,852
1,531
2,070
1,646
1,700

19401941194219431944-

5.3
7.5

.7
.9
1.2
1.4
1.5

11.0
13.8
18.8
23.4
24.4

8.4

11.1
13.2
13.4

11.1
15.6
19.6
20.5

6.7
7.7
9.9

4.3
6.2
8.8

11.5
12.2

11.9
12.2

4.6
6.6
9.9
11.8
11.8

720
1,044
1,600
1,942
1,967

1,756
2,373
3,137
3,468
3,278

19451946194719481949-

14.0
17.0
17.5
19.8
14.7

1.6
1.8
1.9
2.0
1.8

25.8
29.7
34.4
34.9
31.8

21.7
24.8
29.6
30.2
27.8

12.9
14.5
17.0
18.9
18.0

12.8
15.2
17.3
16.1
13.8

12.4
15.3
15.5
17.8
12.9

2,080
2,574
2,648
3,065
2,259

3,355
3,730
3,269
3,606
2,722

195019511952..
19531954-

15.7
18.1
17.3
15.1
14.4

1.7
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8

32.5
37.3
37.0
35.3
33.9

28.5
33.0
32.6
31.1
30.0

19.3
22.2
22.6
21.4
21.7

13.2
15.2
14.4
13.9
12.2

14.0
16.3
15.3
13.3
12.7

2,479
3,009
2,951
2,664
2,645

2,951
3,307
3,208
2,927
2,875

1955195619571958..
1959..

13.5
13.4
13.6
15.4
13.2

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8

33.3
34.6
34.4
37.9
37.5

29.6
30.6
29.8
33.4
33.5

21.9
22.6
23.4
25.3
26.2

11.5
12.0
11.0
12.6
11.3

11.8
11.6
11.8
13.5
11.4

2,529
2,574
2,695
3,201
2,775

2,749
2,768
2,807
3,266
2,832

196019611962 7.

13.8
14.9
14.8

1.8
1.8
1.8

37.9
39.9
40.6

34.0
35.2
35.7

26.2
27.1
27.7

11.7
12.8
12.9

12.0
13.0
13.0

3,044
3,422
3,525

3,075
3,457
3,525

8.4
6.4
7.1
8.5
9.7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1961:

III.
IV..
1962: 17_
I I I 7.
I V 7..

39.4
39.4
40.1
40.8

35.5
34.5
35.2
35.8

26.9
27.0
27.2
27.3

12.5
12.4
12.9
13.5

12.8
12.7
13.1
13.6

3,360
3,330
3,440
3,570

3,390
3,360
3,470
3,610

40.3
40.3
40.5
41.4

35.4
35.3
35.5
36.5

27.5
27.6
27.7
27.9

12.8
12.7
12.8
13.5

12.9
12.8
12.8
13.6

3,500
3,470
3,470
3,690

3,500
3,470
3,470
3,690

1 Net income of farm operators from farming (including net inventory change) and farm wages as shown2 Farm wages received by farm resident workers.
8
Cash receipts from marketings, Government payments, and nonmoney income furnished by farms.
* Includes net change in inventory of crops and livestock valued at the average price for the year. Data
prior to 1946 differ from farm proprietors' income shown in Tables C-ll and C-14 because of revisions by
the Department of Agriculture not yet incorporated into the national income accounts of the Department
of Commerce.
« Estimates of number of farms revised from 1951 according to new 1959 Census of Agriculture definition.
«Income in current prices divided by the index of prices paid by farmers for family living items on a
1962 base.
7
Preliminary.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




255

TABLE C-73.—Indexes of prices received and prices paid by farmers, and parity ratio, 1929-62
[1957-59=100]
Prices received b y farmers
Crops
Year or month

All
farm
prodAll Food
ucts 1 crops1 grains

Feed grains
and hay

Total

Feed
grains

Livestock and products

OilCot- To- bearton bacco ing
crops

All
livee a t Dairy Poulstock Mani- prod- try
and
and
prod- mals ucts eggs
ucts l

1929

61

61

55

74

77

57

35

62

62

50

65

102

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

52
36
27
29
37

52
34
26
32
44

44
27
21
31
43

67
46
31
36
60

68
44
28
36
60

40
24
19
26
39

29
20
18
22
32

48
32
19
25
45

52
38
28
27
32

43
30
20
19
22

55
43
33
34
40

81
62
51
47
56

45
47
51
40
39

46
49
53
36
37

46
51
57
35
34

68
65
79
45
46

70
68
84
45
44

38
38
36
27
28

35
33
41
36
31

55
52
56
42
42

44
46
49
43
41

38
38
42
37
36

45
49
51
45
43

74
73
70
69
61

42
51
66
880
8 82
8 86

41
48
65
84
89

40
46
57
70
78

54
58
72
96
108

54
58
73
97
109

32
43
60
64
66

28
32
51
66
72

45
60
80
88
97

42
53
66
77
76

35
46
60
66
62

47
55
63
«77
8 86

62
77
96
121
112

91
102
118
114
100

81
95

106
127

104
131

69
91

161

171

105

118
103

162
112

170
109

104
94

100
114
158
153
106

82
94
111
122
106

107
117
101

8 89
8104
106
117
98

126
127

128

74
78
77
78
82

8 67

114
119
103

1960
1951
1952
1953
1954

107
125
119
105
102

104
119
120
108
108

106
115

122
143

123
147

108
129

116

147

150

119

111
110

130
128

132
130

102
105

83
90
89
89
91

120
148
129
122
133

108
130
119
104
97

110
133
115
94
92

97
112
118
104
96

118
144
130
140
113

1955
1956
1957
1958...
1959

96
95
97
104
99

104
105
101
100
99

107
106
106
98
96

116
115
105
97
98

116
116
105
97
98

104
103
101
97
102

90
93
96
100
104

109
111
106
98
96

90
88
94
106
100

80
76
89
109
102

96
99
101
99
100

121
112
102
108
9G

I960
1961 7
1962 .

98
99
100

99
101
104

96
99
107

95
97

93
94
95

97
100
102

103
109
110

93
112
109

98
97
99

96
97
101

101
101
98

101
92
91

1961: January
February
March
April..
May

100
101
101
99
98
97

98
99
101
102
104
104

98
99
98
95
96
94

92
95
95
91
95
96

89
92
93
89
94
95

90
87
93
99
99
100

105
107
107
107
107
107

101
109
115
125
125
114

102
102
100
97
93
92

99
101
100
98
95
93

105
103
100
97
95
93

106
107
101
92
87
84

July
August .. _
September. .
October
November. _
December...

97
99
100
99
99
99

103
102
103
101
100
100

95
99
101
102
103
103

98
97
98
97
94
95

98
96
98
96
91
93

102
106
106
110
107
103

107
111
112
111
111
112

114
113
106
106
108
109

93
97
98
98
97
99

94
98
98
96
95
97

97
100
104
106
108
106

87
8?
87
8S
8S
92

1962: January
February. _.
March
April
May
June

100
101
101
100
100
99

101
101
105
106
109
106

103
103
105
106
109
109

96
96
96
98
100
99

93
93
94
95
98
98

98
94
95
103
106
105

111
112
112
112
112
112

109
111
110
111
111
111

100
100
99
95
94
94

99
99
100
98
98
99

104
102
99
94
90
90

94
97
92
88
82
81

July
August
September..
October
November..
December.._

99
101
103
101
101
100

104
103
104
101
102
100

108
107
107
107
109
109

98
95
97
96
93
96

98
94
96
94
90
94

105
105
107
105
103
100

112
107
108
107
107
104

110
107
104
104
107
108

96
99
103
101
102
100

101
103
106
102
102
100

93
97
101
103
104
102

84
8£
97
9f
9€
9(

_

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

-_
_

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

_

June

_

_-

See footnotes at end of table.




256

141
153

140

TABLE G—73.—Indexes of prices received and prices paid by farmers, and parity ratio, 1929—62—

Continued
[1957-59= LOO]
Prices paid by farmers

Year or month

1929

All
Commodities and services
items
inProduction items
terest,
Famtaxes,
All
ily
and
All
Motor Farm Ferwage items living producmaitems tion Feed vetirates
hicles chin- lizer
(parity
items 1
ery
index)

88
97

55
51
44
38
38
43
45
45
48
45
44
45
48
55
61
64
66
72
85
92
88
90
100

55
52
44
38
37
41

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939 „
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

.

1950.
1951
1952 ..
1953
.
1954
1955
1956.
1957
1958—
1959
1960
1961
19627.
1961: January ___
February _
March
April

42
42
45
42
42
42
45
52
58
62
65
71
82
89
86

98

100

95
95
94
95
98

96
96
95
96
98

100

101

102
102

101
101

103
104

101
103

103
103
103
103
103
103

102
102
102
102
102
101

103
103
103
103
103
103
104
104
104

101
101
101
101
101
102
102
103
103

105

103

June

105
104

103
103

July
August
September. _
October
November..
December...

104

103

104
105
105
105
105

103
103
103
103
104

May
June
July
August
September. _
October
November. _
December _
_
1962: January
February
March
April

May

54
50
43
37
38
43
43
43
45
43
42
42
45
52
58
61
64
71
83
88
85
86
94
95
94
94
94
96
99
100
101
101
102
103
102
102
101
102
102
101
101
101
102
102
102
102
102
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103

56
52
43
38
38
44
46
46
50
47
46
47
50
57
63
66
67
73
85
95
91
94
104
104
97
97
96
95
98
101
101
101
101
103
102
102
103
102
101
101
101
101
101
101
101
102
102
102
103
103
103
102
102
102
103
103
103
104

68
61
43
32
37
52
53
55
62
47
47
50
54
66
78
87
86
100
118
125
103
105
118
126
114
113
106
103
101
99
100
97
98
100
97
98
99
98
100
99
99
99
99
97
97
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
100
100
100
102

1
2

36
35
35
34
34
36
37
38
39
42
40
40
42
45
47
51
53
55
63
71
78
78
83
87
86
86
87
89
96
100
104
102
101
105
102

43
43
42
40
39
40
41
42
43
44
43
43
43
46
48
49
49
51
58
67
76
78
83
86
87
87
87
91
96
100
104
107
110
111

102

109

101
101

109

101
101

110

104
105

110

106

16
1

106
105

111

105
105
108
108

112

85
83
75
66
61
69
68
64
67
67
66
64
64
71
76
77
79
79
88
96
98
94
100
102
103
102
102
100
100
100
100
100
101
100

100

101

100

100

113 — —

Parity
InWage
ter- Taxes 3 rates *ratio •
est 2

120
116
111
104
92
83
76
70
66
62
60
57
55
53
47
44
42
42
43
44
46
50
55
61
66
71
76
84
92
99
109
120
130
135
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

58
59
58
53
46
39
37
38
38
39
39
40
39
40
39
39
40
45
50
58
62
67
70
73
77
80
83
89
94
100
106
114
123
131
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131
131

32
30
24
18
15
17
18
20
22
22
22
22
26
34
45
54
62
66
72
76
74
73
81
87
88
88
89
92
96
99
105
109
110
114
109
109
109
111
111
111
111
111
111
109
109
109
112
112
112
115
115
115
114
114
114
US
US
US

Includes items not shown separately.
Interest payable per acre on farm real estate debt.
3 Farm real estate taxes payable per acre (levied in preceding year).
* Monthly data are seasonally adjusted.
8
6 Percentage ratio of prices received for all farm products to parity index, on a 1910-14=100 base.
Includes wartime subsidy payments.
7 Preliminary.
Source: Department of Agriculture.
669333 0—63



257

92
83
67
58
64
75
88
92
93
78
77
81
93
105
113
108
109
113
115
110
100
101
107
100
92
89
84
83
82
85
80
80
80
80
80
81
80
79
78
78
78
80
80
80
79
79
80
80
80
79
79
78
79
80
81
80
80
79

TABLE C-74.—Farm production indexes, 7929-62
[1957-59=100]
Crops
Year

Livestock and products

Farm
Oil
outPoulput i Total2 Feed H a y Food Vege- Fruits Cot- To- bear- Totals Meat Dairy try
and
and
ani- prod- and
grains forage trains tables nuts
ton bacco ing
mals ucts eggs
crops

1929...

62

73

62

79

68

73

1930...
1931...
1932...
1933...
1934...

61
66
64
59
51

69
77
73
65
54

56
63
73
56
33

66
72
74
69
64

74
79
63
47
45

74
75
76
73
80

1935...
1936...
1937...
1938...
1939-.-

61
55
69
67
68

70
59
81
76
75

60
38
67
65
65

82
66
75
81
75

55
54
74
77
63

1940...
1941...
1942...
1943..,
1944...

70
73
82
80
83

78
79
89
83
88

66
71
81
74
78

86
86
93
91
90

1945...
1946...
1947...
1948.-1949...

81
84
81
88
87

85
89
85
97
92

75
82
63
91
80

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953..1954...

86
89
92
93
93

89
91
95
94
93

1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959_..

96
97
95
102
103

1960...
1961 <_.
1962«__

106
107
108

75
73

120

88

13

63

62

75

44

92
75
76
71

113
138
105
105
78

95
89
58
80
63

14
14
13
11
13

64
65
66
67
61

63
66
67
70
59

76
78
79
79
78

45
44
44
44
41

81
75
82
81
81

90
70
93
84
96

86
101
154
97
96

76
68
91
80
110

21
16
18
22
29

59
63
62
65
70

53
60
58
63
71

78
79
79
81
82

41
44
44
45
48

69
79
83
72
88

83
84
89
97
92

93
99
98
84
98

102
88
105
93
100

84
73
81
81
113

34
37
56
60
50

71
75
84
91
86

72
76
87
97
88

84
89
92
91
92

49
54
62
71
71

93
87
84
84
83

92
95
111
107
92

94
105
91
97
94

89
106
101
92
98

74
71
97
122
131

114
134
122
115
114

64
52
55
67
61

86
83
82
80
85

84
82
81
79
83

95
94
93
90
93

74
69
68
67
74

81
75
79
77
81

89
92
90
92
92

86
85
109
100
88

96
89
90
95
93

98
100
97
98
99

82
124
124
134
111

117
135
130
119
130

71
65
63
63
71

88
92
92
93
96

89
95
95
94
98

93
92
92
97
98

78
81
82
84
87

96
95
93
104
103

86
85
93
101
106

98
94
101
102
97

83
87
82
121
97

96
102
98
102
100

99
103
94
102
104

120
108
89
93
118

127
126
96
100
104

78
92
91
111
98

99
99
97
99
104

103
100
96
98
106

99
101
101
100
99

86
94
95
101
104

108
107
108

109
99
101

103
101
106

115
106
97

103
111
109

98
110
108

116
116
119

112
119
131

105
122
123

102
107
107

103
107
108

101
103
104

104
112
110

* Farm output measures the annual volume of farm production available for eventual human use through
sales from farms or consumption in farm households. Total excludes production of feed for horses and mules.
2
Includes production of feed for horses and mules and certain items not shown separately.
»Includes certain items not shown separately.
* Preliminary.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




258

TABLE C-75.—Selected measures of farm resources and inputs, 1929-62
Crops
harvested
(millions
of acres)1
Year
Total

Exclusive of
use for
feed for
horses
and
mules

Index numbers of inputs (1957-59=100)
Livestock
breeding
units
(195759=
100)2

Manhours
of
farm
work
(billions)

Total

MeFarm
labor

Feed,

chani- Ferti- seed,
Farm
cal
and
lizer
real
power
live- Misceland
estate3 and
stock laneous
lime
mapurchinery
chases 4

365

298

23.2

98

214

92

38

21

27

76

1930..
1931_.
1932_.
1933..
1934_.

365
371
340
304

304
303
311
281
247

22.9
23.4
22.6
22.6
20.2

97
96
93
91
86

212
217
209
209
187

91
89
86
87
86

40
38
35
32
32

21
16
11
12
14

26
23
24
24
24

76
78
79
76

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

345
323
347
349
331

289
269
295
301
286

90
87
87
93

21.1
20.4
22.1
20.6
20.7

88
89
94
91
94

196
189
205
191
191

88
89
90
91
92

33
35
38
40
40

17
20
24
23
24

23
31
29
30
37

70
72

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

341
344
348
357

298
304
309
320
326

95
94
104
117
114

20.5
20.0
20.6
20.3
20.2

97
97
100
101
101

190
186
191
188
187

92
92
91
89
88

42
44
48
50
51

28
30
34
38
43

45
46
57
63
64

73
74
75
76
76

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948.
1949..

354
352
355
356

322
323
329
332
338

109
107
104
98
99

18.8
18.1
17.2
16.8
16.2

99
99
99
100
101

174
167
159
156
150

88
91
92
95
95

54
58
64
72
80

45
53
56
57
61

72
69
73
72
69

76
77
78
74
82

19501951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

345
344
349
348
346

326
326
334
335
335

102
103
103
100
104

15.1
15.2
14.4
13.9
13.2

z

140
141

97
98

86

103
103
102

134
128
123

99
99
100

68
73
80
83
88

72
80
81
80
82

85

92
96
97
98

1955.
19561957.
1958.
1959.

340
324
324
324
324

315
316
317
318

106
104
101
99
100

12.8
12.1
11.2
10.7
10.5

102
101
99
99
102

119
112
103
99
98

100
99
100
100
100

99
99
100
99
101

90
91
94
97
109

86
91
93
101
106

94
98
95
100
105

1960
1961 »______
1962 6

324
304
295

319
300
291

97
98
100

10.0
9.6
9.3

101
101
101

92
89
86

100
100
100

100
99
96

110
114
116

109
116
121

106
109
111

1929..

1 Acreage harvested (excluding duplication) plus acreages in fruits, tree nuts, and farm gardens.
2
Animal units of breeding livestock, excluding horses and mules.
3 Includes buildings and improvements on land.
* Nonfarm inputs associated with farmers' purchases.
* Preliminary.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




259

91
91

TABLE C-76.—Farm population, employment, and productivity, 7929-62
Farm population

Year

Farm employment
(thousands)3

LiveCrop stock
proproduc- duction
tion
As perPer
per
Per man-hour
Num- cent of
per breedber
Family Hired unit
total Total workers workers of
ing
(thou- popuunit
total
Livesands) lation 2
input Total Crops stock
(April 1) i

Farm output

Index, 1957-59=100
1929..

30,580

25.1

12,763

1930..
1931
1932..
1933..
1934..

30,529
30,845
31,388
32,393
32,305

24.8
24.8
25.1
25.8
25.5

12,497
12,745
12,816
12,739
12,627

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

32,161
31,737
31,266
30,980
30,840

25.3
24.8
24.2
23.8
23.5

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

30,547
30,118
28,914
26,186
24,815

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

3,403

63

29

29

48

69

9,307
9,642
9,922
9,874
9,765

3,190
3,103
2,894
2,865
2,862

63
69
69
65
59

29
30
31
28
27

28
30
31
28
27

47
47
47
46
43

64
72
68
61
51

62

12,733
12,331
11,978
11,622
11,338

9,855
9,350
9,054
8,815
8,611

2,878
2,981
2,924
2,807
2,727

69
62
73
74
72

31
29
34
35
36

32
29
34
36
36

44
46
46
48
50

66
56
76
73
74

70
71
75
75

23.1
22.6
21.4
19.2
17.9

10,979
10,669
10,504
10,446
10,219

8,300
8,017
7,949
8,010
7,988

2,679
2,652
2,555
2,436
2,231

72
75
82
79
82

37
39
43
43
44

38
40
44
43
45

50
51
56
58
56

76
77
86
78
83

75
80
81
78
75

24,420
25,403
25,829
24,383
24,194

17.5
18.0
17.9
16.6
16.2

10,000
10,295
10,382
10,363
9,964

7,881
8,106
8,115
8,026
7,712

2,119
2,189
2,267
2,337
2,252

82
85
82
88
86

47
50
51
56
58

47
51
51
58
59

58
59
61
62
66

82
86
82
92
85

79
78
79
82

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

23,048
21,890
21,748
19,874
19,019

15.2
14.2
13.8
12.4
11.7

9,926
9,546
9,149
8,639

7,597
7,310
7,005
6,775
6,579

2,329
2,236
2,144
2,089
2,060

85
86
89
90
91

61
63
69
73
76

64
63
70
72
75

68
72
74
76
80

84
85
90
89
88

89
89
93
92

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

19,078
18,712
17,656
17,128
16,592

11.5
11.1
10.3
9.8
9.4

8,364
7,820
7,577
7,525
7,384

6,347
5,899
5,682
5,570
5,459

2,017
1,921
1,895
1,955
1,925

94
96
96
103
101

81
87
92
103
105

80
85
91
105
104

85
89
92
100
108

91
92
93
105
102

93
95
96
100
104

I960..
19616.
1962 6.

15,635
14,803
14,313

8.7
8.1
7.7

7,118
6,990
6,751

5,249
5,104
4,934

1,869
1,886
1,817

105
106
107

115
120
123

114
118
118

113
122
126

109
113
117

105
109
107

70
70

1 Farm population as denned by Department of Agriculture and Department of Commerce, i.e., civilian
population living on farms, regardless of occupation. Figures for 1941-59 are revisions of previously
published estimates.
2 Total population of United States as of July 1 includes armed forces abroad and Alaska and Hawaii
after they achieved statehood.
3
Includes persons doing farm work on all farms. These data, published by the Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service, differ from those on agricultural employment by the Department
of Labor (see Table C-19) because of differences in the method of approach, in concepts of employment,
and in time of month for which the data are collected. For further explanation, see monthly report on
Farm Labor, September 10,1958.
* Computed from variable weights for individual crops produced each year.
«Preliminary.
Sources: Department of Agriculture and Department of Commerce.




260

TABLE C-77.—Comparative balance sheet of agriculture, 1929-63
[Billions of dollars]

Assets

Claims

Other physical assets
Beginning
of year

Financial assets

HouseProMahold DeposReal
priechinInvestfurestate Other tors'
estate Live- ery
U.S.
its
ment Total debt debt equinishand
and savings in costock motor Cropsi ings
ties
cur- bonds operaand
vehitives
equip- rency
cles
ment 2

Total Real

9.8

1929..

48.0

6.6

47.9
43.7
37.2
30.8
32.2

6.5
4.9
3.6
3.0
3.2

3.4
3.3
3.0
2.5
2.2

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

34.3
35.2
35.2
34.1

3.5
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.1

2.2
2.4
2.6
3.0
3.2

33.6
34.4
37.5
41.6
48.:

5.1
5.3
7.1
9.6
9.7

3.1
3.3
4.0
4.9
5.3

2.7
3.0
3.8
5.1
6.1

6.3
5.2
5.1
7.0
9.4

6.7
6.3
7.1
9.0
8.6

5.6
6.1
7.7
8.5
9.1
9.7
10.3
9.9
9.9

1940..
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

52.9
55.0
62.9
73.7
84.5

2.5

4.0

8

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949....-

94.0
103.3
116.
127.5
134.

53.9 9.0
61.0 9.7
68.5 11.9
73.7 13.3
76.6 14.4

1950.1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

131.6
150.6
166.4
162.6
158.8

75.
86.8
96.0
96.6
94.7

12.9
17.1
19.5
14.8
11.7

11.3
13.0
15.2
15.6
16.3

7.6
7.9
8.8
9.0
9.2

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

162.6
166.3
173.8
183.1
199.7

98.1
102.4
109.5
116.5
125.4

11.2
10.6
11.0
13.9
17.7

16.2
16.5
17.1
17.0
18.5

8.3
7.6
9.3

1960
1961
1962
1963 *.._._

199.
200.0
207.5
214.1

130.2 15.6
131.8 15.5
138.0 16.3
144.5

18.6
18.2
18.2

7.8
8.0
8.7

8
3
(4.2
)
4.2
4.9
5.0
5.3

10.0
10.5
10.0

8.9
8.5

I

0.6

%

8
(3)

(3)

9.6
9.4
9.1
8.5
7.7

3.2

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..

53.9

7.6
7.4
7.2
7.0
6.8

8

6.6
6.5
6.4
6.0
5.4

42.9
44.6
52.4
63.7
75.6

94.0
103.3
116.2
127.5
134.2

4.9
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.3

85.7
95.3
107.7
118.2
122.8

2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9

131.6
150.6
166.4
162.6
158.8

5.6
6.1
6.7
7.3
7.8

119.1
137.5
151.8
146.5
141.7

5.0
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.2

3.1
3.3
3.4
3.6

162.6 8.3
166.3 9.1
173.8 9.9
183.1 10.5
199.7 11.3

144.8
147.4
154.3
162.9
176.4

4.7
4.6
4.5

4.1
4.3
4.5

199.7
200.0
207.5
214.1

12.3
13.1
14.2
15.4

175.6
174.5
179.8
184.8

3.2
3.5
4.2
5.4
6.6

0.2
.4
.5
1.1
2.2

1.0
1.1

7.9
9.4
10.2

3.4
4.2
4.2
4.4
4.6

1.2
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9

9.1
9.1
9.4
9.4
9.4

4.7
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.7

9.4
9.5
9.4
9.5
10.0
9.1
8.7
8.8

1
Includes all crops held on farms for whatever purpose and crops held off farms as security for Commodity
Credit Corporation loans. The latter on January 1,1962, totaled $964 million.
2
Revised to reflect farm population estimates based on definition of a farm in 1959 Census of Agriculture.
For further details of revision, see Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 270.
3 Not available.
* Preliminary.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




261

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICS
TABLE C-78.—United States balance of payments, 7947-62
[Millions of dollars]
Exports of goods and services

Year or quarter

Imports of goods and services

Income on
investments

Total
Merchandise i

Military
sales

Private

Government

Other
services

Total

MiliMerOther
tary
servchanexpenddise i
itures

Balance
on
goods
and
serv-

1,036
1,238
1,297

66
102

2,620
2,256
2,226

8,208
10,349
9,621

5,979
7,563
6,879

455
799
621

1,774
1,987
2,121

11,529
6,440
6,149

1,484
1,684
1,624
1,658
1,955

109
198
204
252
272

2,097
2,739
2,845
2,564
2,551

12,028
15,073
15,766
16,561
15,931

9,108
11,202
10,838
10,990
10,354

576
1,270
2,054
2,615
2,642

2,344
2,601
2,874
2,956
2,935

1,779
3,671
2,226
386
1,828

200
161
375
300

2,170
2,468
2,612
2,538
2,694

274
194
205
307
349

2,880
3,658
3,849

17,795
19,628
20,752
20,861
23,342

11,527
12,804
13,291
12,952
15,310

2,901
2,949
3,216
3,435
3,107

3,367
3,875
4,245
4,474
4,925

2,009
3,967
5,729
2,206
134

335
406
556

2,873
3,303
3,556

379
479

3,997
4,063
4,363

23,188
22,923
24,831

14,723
14,514
16,109

3,048
2,947
2,971

5,417
5,462
5,751

3,825
5,143
4,885

1947..
1948..
1949..

19,737
16,789
15,770

16,015
13,193
12,149

1950..
1951..
1952.,
1953..
1954..

13,807
18,744
17,992
16,947
17,759

10,117
14,123
13,319
12,281
12,799

()

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

19,804
23,595
26,481
23,067
23,476

14,280
17,379
19,390
16,264
16,282

I960..
1961..
1962»

27,013
28,066
29,716

19,459
19,915
20,763

0)
(7)
192
182

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960: I — .
II...
III..

25,936
27,140
27,132
27,844

18,628
19,504
19,760
19,944

232
488
280
340

2,836
2,848
2,712
3,096

348
348
348
352

3,892
3,952
4,032
4,112

23,676
23,876
23,316
21,884

15,204
15,344
14,656
13,688

3,084
3,032
3,188
2,888

5,388
5,500
5,472
5,308

2,260
3,264
3,816
5,960

1961: I . . . .
II—
ILL.
IV..

28,276
27,312
27,564
29,112

20,244
19,072
19,760
20,584

284
600
352
388

3,388
3,072
3,184
3,568

376
480
280
380

3,984
4,088
3,988
4,192

21,792
22,040
23,708
24,152

13,476
13,668
15,360
15,552

3,080
3,024
2,796
2,888

5,236
5,348
5,552
5,712

6,484
5,272
3,856
4,960

1962: I . .
II.

29,008
30,660
29,480

20,252
21,356
20,680

384
612
672

3,648
3,640
3,380

456
568
412

4,268
4,484
4,336

24,248
24,912
25,332

15,680
16,128
16,520

3,008
2,984
2,920

5,560
5,800
5,892

4,760
5,748
4,148

See footnotes at end of table.




262

TABLE C-78.—United States balance of payments, 7947-62-^Continued
[Millions o.f dollars]
Over-all balance (surplus or
deficit (-))

Government U.S. private capital,
grants and
net
capital
RemitYear or tances Grants
and
quarter pen- and
sions capital
outflow

Foreign
Recapipay- Direct Longments invest- term Short- tal*
on ments port- term
U.S.
folio
loans

Liquid liabilities *
Gold
Unreand
corded
con- To
transactions Total 3 Total vert- mone- To
ible tary other
cur- author- forren- ities eign
cies and in- holdstitutions6

1947—.
1948....
1949....

- 7 1 5 -6,415
-617 -5,361
-5,854

294
443
205

-749
-721
-660

-49
-69
-80

-116
187

-75
-173
83

1,179
775

4,567
1,005
175

1950....
1951....
1952 ...
1953....
1954....

-523
-457
-545
-617
-615

-3,935
-3,496
-2,809
-2,542
-2,061

295
305
429
487
507

-621
-508
-852
-735
-667

-495
-437
-214
185
-320

-149
-103
-94
167
-635

90
243
212
178
240

-21
477
601
339
173

1955....
1956....
1957....
1958....
1959....

-585
-665
-702
-722
-791

-2,627
-2,841
-3,233
-3,131
-3,040

416
479
659
544
1,054

-823
-241
-1,951 -603
-2,442 -859
- 1 , 1 8 1 -1,444
-1,372 -926

-191
-517
-276
-311
-77

1960...
1961...
1962»_.

- 8 4 2 -3,405
-878 -4,051
-904

636 - 1 , 6 9 4 - 8 5 0 -1,338
1,274 - 1 , 4 7 5 -1,006 -1,472
1,305 - 1 , 240 -1,091

2,850
1,530
164

1,717
-525
11

-3,580
-305
-1,046
-2,152
-1,550

-3,580 1,743
53
-305
379
-1,046
-2,152 -1,161
-1,550 - 2 9 8

-1,837
-358
-1,425
-991
-1,252

394
653
487
22
863

503 1,145
543 - 9 3 5
1,157
520
488 -3,529
412 -3,743

-41
-1,145
306
-935
798
520
-3,529 -2,275
-3,743 - 7 3 1

-1,104
-1,241
-278
-1.254
-3,012

335

- 5 9 2 -3,925
- 6 0 2 -2,461
- 6 9 6 -1,916

-3,925 -1,702 -1,8621 - 3 6 1
-2,461 - 7 4 2 - 5 1 7 - 1 , 2 0 2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1960:
I
II-.III...
I V . _.

-816
-820
-844
-888

1961:
I
II....
III...
IV...

-884 -3,848
-884 -3,216
-4,376
-4,764

532
3,404
324
836

1962:
I
II_—
III s.

-4,160
-892 -4,236
-884 -4,472

-3,072
-3,332
-3,304
-3,912

-1,296
588 -1,084
-1,660
-2,736

-392
-812
-2,196
-940 -1,952

-944
-836

844
492
188
-184

4,567
1,005
175

(10)

(10)

(10)

(10)

Quarterly totals, unadjusted
16 -2,720
- 5 6 0 -3,100
- 6 3 6 -4,628
1,188 5,252

-641
-891
1,191
1,202

-637
-921

-1,828 - 4 8 0 - 1 ,
-1,076 - 8 7 2 - 1 , 5 5 6
-1,716 - 7 7 6 - 8 8 8
-1,280 -1,
-1,516

792 - 1 1 6 -1,276
1,096 -1,464
704
772 -3,640
28
508 -I, 1
-5,632

-308

-346

89

330

-909
1,333

-270
-456

572 - 9 2 0 -1,
-1,2
404
880 -1,600 -1,136
2,464 -1,200 - 5 4 8

424 -1,968
1,160
464 - 5 3 6 - 9 0 4
284 -1,976 -2,876

-462
-312
-738

-190

-50
-94

-153
-153
-462
-596
-651

-36
74
329 - 5 7 0

-405
-405

420
207 -529

-550

-438
-335
42
370

-625

-234
-472

10
437

1 Adjusted from customs data for differences in timing and coverage.
2
3 Other than liquid funds,
Equals changes in U.S. gold and convertible currencies and liquid liabilities to foreigners.
* Minus indicates increase in liabilities.
6
8 To International Monetary Fund (IMF) and foreign central banks and governments.
To foreign commercial banks and other international and regional institutions not listed in footnote 5
and to other foreigners.
7 Not reported separately.
8
9 Preliminary.
Average of the first three quarters based on seasonally adjusted annual rates.
i° Not available.
NOTE.—Data exclude military aid and U.S. subscriptions to IMF.
Source: Department of Commerce.




263

TABLE C-79.—Major U.S. Government foreign assistance, by type and by area, total postwar
period andfiscalyears 1959-62
[Fiscal years, billions of dollars]

Fiscal year

Total

Western Near East
Europe (including
(excluding Greece
Other
and
Greece Turkey) Africa
and and South
Turkey)
Asia

International orFar East American ganizaand
Repub- tions and
unspeciPacific
lics
fied areas

Total, net
T o t a l p o s t w a r *__
1960
1961
1962

Investment in five international financial institutions4
Total postwar 1
1959
I9601961
1962

_

Under assistance programs, net
Total postwar *
1959
I960
1961
1962.

Net grants of military supplies
and services
Total postwar i
I960
1961
1962

_._

Other aid, net
Total postwar *
1959I960
1961 1962

Net grants (less conversions)
Total postwar *
1959
1960
1961
1962

_

Net credits (including conversions)
Total postwar *
•
1959
1960
1961
1962

___

Other assistance (through net
accumulation of foreign currency claims) * 1
Total postwar
1959 _
1960
1961
1962..

89.9
6.0
4.2
4.0
5.3

39.8
.7
.4
-.1
.4

14.2
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6

1.1
.1
.2
.2
.4

21.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

4.4

8.7
1.6
.3
.4
.4

.6
.3
.4
1.0

5.1
1.4
.1
.1
.2

5.1
1.4
.1
.1
.2

3.6
.2
.2
.3
.2

4.4
.6
.3
.4
1.0

84.8
4.7
4.1
3.9
5.1

39.8
.7
.4
-.1
.4

14.2
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6

30.4
2. 2
2.0
1.7
1.7

15.0
.7
.8
.6
.4

4.8

54.4
2.4
2.1
2.2
3.4

24.7

9.5
.9
1.1
1.3
1.3

i.i
.i
.2
.2
.3

12.2
.7
.7
.8
.7

3.7
.6
.2
.3
.9

3.3
.2
.2
.3
.2

37.8
1.6
1.6
1 8
1.9

17.2
.1
.2
1
.1

5.5
.5
.4
6
.7

.7
.1
.1
2

10.9
.7
.7
7
.6

1.0
.1
.1
.1
.1

2.5
.1
.1
.2
.2

13.5
7
.1

7.0
— l
-.4
-.7
-.1

2.4
.2
.3
.4
.6

(V3

1.0
.1
.1
.1

2.4
.5
.1
.2
.6

.5

1.5
.2

.3

.3

1.4

3.1
.2
.4
.4
.2

-!6

8"1

.4
.3
.3

.3
.3

1.1
.1
.2
.2
.4

21.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

9.4
.8
.7
.7
.8

i

.3

«.

1

.3

.7
.1
.1
.1
.1

(3)

.4
(3)

8

3

)
3)

.1

1
2 Fiscal years 1946-62.
Inter-American Development Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, and International Monetary
Fund.
3 Less than $50 million.
4
Other assistance (net) represents the transfer of United States farm products in exchange for foreign
currencies, less the U.S. Government's disbursements of the currencies as grants, credits, or for purchases.
Also includes the foreign currency claims acquired by the Government as principal and interest collections;
since enactment of Public Law 87-128, they are available for the same purpose as farm sales proceeds.
Source: Department of Commerce.




264

TABLE C-80.—United States merchandise exports and imports, by economic category, 1949 and
7957-62
[Millions of dollars]

Category

JanuarySeptember
1949

1957

1958

1960

1961
1961

Domestic exports: Total K

1962

11,789

19,316

16,202

16,211

19,401

19,818

14,528

15,443

3,578
8,211

4,506
14,810

3,854
12,348

3,955
12,256

4,831
14,570

5,029
14,789

3,568
10,960

3,730
11,713

Food and bevera^
Agricultural f
Nonagr icultural foodstuffs.

2,302
2,254
48

2,738
2,696

2,549
2,511

2,796
2,751
45

3,103
3,060

3,352
3,313

2,338
2,310

2,747
2,721

Industrial supplies and materials
Cotton, tobacco, and other agricultural
_
__
Nonagricultural industrial materials
_

4,870

6,404

6,110

7,802

7,591

5,652

Agricultural
Nonagr icultural..

1,273
3,597

42
8,583

1,262

1,088

1,654

1,593

1,174

5,142

1,720

5,022

6,148

5,998

4,478

26
5,267
887
4,380

167

303

263

300

331

346

251

3,378
2,296

5,931
4,028

5,328
3,667

5,363
3,706

6,392
4,141

6,724
4,516

4,982
3,357

331
5,656
3,692

918
164

1,626
277

1,423
238

1,792
459

1,616
692

1,151
474

1,173
791

Consumer goods, nonfood

913

1,333

1,271

1,274

1,327

1,346

980

1,025

Government military sales and unclassified

Materials used in farming..
Capital equipment
_
Machinery and related items
Commercial
transportation
equipment
_
Special category equipment 2

159

428

387

325

417

General imports: Total 3

6,638

13,255

13,255

15,627

15,017

14,725

10,725

12,158

Industrial supplies and materials 3
Petroleum and products..
Newsprint and paper base stocks.
Materials associated with nondurable goods output
_.
Selected building materials (excluding metals)
All other industrial supplies and
materials« (associated mainly
with durable goods output)

3,743
485
670

7,473
1,534
1,032

7,007
1,610
988

8,441
1,536
1,089

7,956
1,548
1,098

7,680
1,682
1,093

5,608
1,249
805

6,373
1,355

991

1,301

1,161

1,556

1,489

1,452

1,454

Food and beverages

446

843
1,216

435

603

541

.538

400

3,199

2,813

3,657

3,280

2,915

2,086

2,490

3,354

3,364

3,209

3,258

2,403

2,545

353

394

294

323
1,958

143

469
2,004

3,175

Materials used in farming.

286

380

Consumer goods, nonfood..

410

l r 524

1,710

2,424

2,459

2,200

1,553

Capital equipment (including agricultural machinery)
_

107

412

481

618

602

720

526

291

370

414

438

473

341

All other and unclassified..

367

1 Excludes military aid shipments of supplies and equipment under the Military Assistance Program,
1957-62; in 1949, excludes military shipments under the Greek-Turkey and the China military aid programs.
Also excludes uranium exports prior to 1961 (about $10 million a year).
2
Excludes Government military cash sales.
s Adjusted to include imports of uranium ores and concentrates.
* Total adjusted to exclude $33 million of the value reported by economic category.
Source: Department of Commerce.




265

TABLE G-81.—United States merchandise exports and imports, by area, 1949 and 1957-62*
[Millions of dollars]

Area

1949

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

January-October
1961

Exports (including reexports):
Total 2
Canada
Other Western HemisphereWestern Europe..
Soviet bloc 8
Other Europe.
__
Asia
Australia and Oceania
Africa
General imports: Total
Canada.
_
Other Western Hemisphere.
Western Europe
Soviet bloc 3 _. Other Europe
Asia
Australia and Oceania. _
Africa
Unidentified countries 8_

1962

11,560

19,001

15,925

15,926

18,892

19,105

15,775

16,050

1,928
2,820
3,980
62
3
1,997
175
594

3,939
4,848
5,755
86
5
3,391
282
695

3,439
4,334
4,514
113
5
2,658
245
618

3,748
3,777
4,535
89
7
2,756
323
691

3,709
3,770
6,318
194
13
3,646
475
766

3,643
3,686
6,292
133
15
4,107
401
827

3,037
3,041
5,172
121
13
3,385
338
667

3,210
2,934
5,244
113
14
3,342
391
802

13,255 U3,255

15,627

15,017

14,725

12,088

13,597

3,352
4,029
4,523
81
4
2,603
338
679
20

3,153
3,964
4,185
81
2
2,721
266
627
19

3,272
3,728
4,067
81
2
2,583
320
669
4

2,682
3,083
3,288
68
2
2,111
270
583
1

3,026
3,281
3,745
68
2
2,467
353
632
22

6,638
1,558
2,444
909
67
4
1,184
125
338
8

3,042
4,141
3,077
61
8
1,985
216
692
32

2,965
4,049
3,297
63
5
1,997
209
668
34

i Data for all periods have been adjusted to include imports of uranium ore and exports of uranium and
other nuclear materials. Imports from Canada and the Republic of South Africa have been adjusted for
all periods for such imports. Data on imports of uranium ore from other countries are not available prior
to 1961.
a Excludes special category items.
3
U.S.S.R., Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Albania, Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania.
4
Total adjusted to exclude $33 million of the value reported by area.
• Consists of certain low-valued shipments and uranium and thorium imports, not identifiable by country.
Source: Department of Commerce.




266

T A B L E G—82.—Gold reserves and dollar holdings of foreign countries and international
7949, 1953, and 1957-62

organizations,

[Millions of dollars; end of period]
1962
Area and country

1949

Total...

18,668

Continental Western Europe
Austria
Belgium
France
Germany.
_
Italy
Netherlands
_.

Scandinavian countries
(Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland)
Spain
_
Switzerland
Other
United Kingdom..

Canada
Latin America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Cuba
Mexico
Peru
Uruguay..
Venezuela
Other
Asia
Japan
Other
All other countries
International

_.

1953

26,935

1957

1958

32,555

36,543

1959

1960

1961
September 1

42,231

46,320

49,459 2 51,924

6,098
. 92
818
733
149
570
370

9,920 14,673 17,244 19,248 21,059 23,793
539
561
612
630
249
460
1,279 1,314 1,582
915 1,053 1,391
1,980 2,165 3,114
1,204
944 1,294
1,224
4,113 4,407 4,640 6,450 6,508
2,209 3,119 3,080 3,459
821 1,533
1,800
1,634 1,783
981
957 1,399

24,645
744
1,511
3,646
6,470
3,533
1,859

394
132
2,067
773

710
169
2,174
1,473

980
128
2,813
1,692

1,121
96
2,853
1,862

1,113
157
2,991
1,705

942
328
2,957
1,501

1,193
470
3,518
1,588

1,219
589
3,371

2,027

3,241

3,080

3,917

3,813

4,887

4,961

1,516

2,509

3,180

3,438

3,610

3,770

4,163

3,072
412
510
101
138
463
270
82
236
517
343

3,679
504
425
122
236
570
345
104
338
597
438

4,544
263
457
116
215
525
569
88
236
1,556
519

4,123
210
464
140
241
452
565
96
262
1,215
478

4,014
393
479
228
288
296
587
111
242
932
458

3,648
420
483
180
237
79
541
114
232
800
562

3,779
426
514
153
236
44
611
132
238
820
605

2,008
356
1,652

2,865
953
1,912

2,937
716
2,221

3,251
1,095
2,156

4,008
1,566
2,442

4,446
2,169
2,277

4,303
1,897
2,406

679

1,105

1,222

1,199

1,313

1,273

1,453

3,268

3,616

2,919

3,371

6,225

7,237

7,007

1,703
4,820
4,409
3,643
302
500
147
229
37
564
154
273
781
656
4,816
2 2,347
2,469
1,738
7,853

1 Preliminary.
2 Total dollar holdings include $109 million reported by banks initially included as of June 30, of which
$105 million reported for Japan.
NOTE.—Includes gold reserves and dollar holdings of all foreign countries (with the exception of gold
reserves of U.S.S.R., other Eastern European countries, and Communist China), and of international organizations (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Monetary Fund,
United Nations and others). Holdings of the Bank for International Settlements and the European
Payments Union/European Fund and the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold
are included under "other" Continental Western Europe.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




267

TABLE C-83.—Price changes in international trade, 1954-62
[1958=100]
1962

Area or commodity class

Area:
Developed areas:
Exports..
Terms of trade *
United States:
Exports
Terms of trade *Undeveloped areas:
Exports
Terms of trade 1_-.
Latin America:
Exports.
Terms of trade *
Latin America excluding petroleum:
Exports
Terms of trade *--

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

100
97

103

100
100

99
102

100
103

101
104

101
105

101
96

100
100

101
102

101
101

104
105

104
108

91

105
109

105
108

104
104

104
100

100
100

119
125

111
115

111
111

107
105

100
100

126
132

116
120

115
116

111
109

100
100

111

94
133

97
138

100
111

100
100

Third
quarter

99

a 92
2 95

Commodity class: 3
Manufactured goods
Nonferrous base metals .
Primary commodities: TotalFoodstuffs
Coffee, tea, cocoaCereals
Other agricultural commodities.
Fats, oils, oilseeds
Textiles
_
Wool.....
Minerals
Metal ores..

111

101
114

103
110

103
108

97

95

93

90
72
98

90
70
103

109

104

105

106

100

97

114
145
112

102
109
105

101
106
102

103
103
100

100
100
100

93
83
97

113
111
133
137

115
101
125
125

114
109
123
129

113
105
126
144

100
100
100
100

105
100
98
106

107
94
104
108

103
97
105
107

97
87
99
104

94
94

95
98

99
105

103
107

100
100

94
97

92
100

92

98

* Terms of trade indexes are unit value indexes of exports divided by unit value indexes of imports.
* Data are for second quarter.
* Manufactured goods indexes are for exports. Primary commodities indexes are for exports and imports
combined.
NOTE.—Data shown for area groups and for manufactured goods are unit value indexes. All others
are price indexes.
Data exclude trade of Soviet area and Communist China.
Source: United Nations.




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