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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R ST A T IS T IC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner

Earnings and Hours in Shoe
and A llied Industries
During First Quarter of 1939
+
Boots and Shoes
Cut Stock and Findings
Shoe Patterns
+
Prepared by the
Division of Wage and Hour Statistics, B. L. S.
J. PERLMAN, Chief

Bulletin l^o. 670

U N IT E D ST A TE S
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
W A S H IN G T O N : 1939

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, Washington, D . C.




Price 15 cents




CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal__________________________________________________________
Preface_________________________________________________________________________
Introduction and summary___________________________________________________

v
vn
1

Part I.— Manufacture o f Boots and Shoes
Scope and method___________
Definition of industry____________________________________________________
Analysis of sample________________________________________________________
Average hourly earnings_______________________________________________________
Methods of wage payment_______________________________________________
Earnings of all workers___________________________________________________
Variations by sex and skill_______________________________________________
Variations by plant averages, _________________________________________
Geographical differences__________________________________________________
Influence of size of community__________________________________________
Comparisons with wage standards provided in Fair Labor Standards
A c t ______________________________________________________________________
Comparisons with wage standards provided in N R A code_____________
Earnings of union and nonunion workers_______________________________
Variations by retail price of shoes_______________________________________
Individual influence of size of community, unionization, and retail
price of shoes___________________________________________________________
Variations by type of shoe construction________________________________
Variations by kind of shoes______________________________________________
Differences by size of company__________________________________________
Occupational differences__________________________________________________
Earnings in manufacture of slippers_____________________________________
Earnings in units manufacturing cut stock and findings in integrated
companies_______________________________________________________________
Extent of earnings from extra rates for overtime work________________
Comparisons with previous surveys_____________________________________
Weekly hours__________________________________________________________________
Full-time weekly hours___ ______________________________
Actual weekly hours________________
Weekly earnings_________________

7
7
7
10
10
10
12
14
16
19
23
25
26
28
31
33
38
40
41
46
47
49
49
51
51
51
53

Part II.— Manufacture o f Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and
Findings
Scope and method_____________________________________________________________
Definition of industry____________________________________________________
Analysis of sample________________________________________________________




in

57
57
57

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Average hourly earnings_______________________________________________________
Methods of wage payment_______________________________________________
Earnings of all workers___________________________________________________
Variations by sex and skill_______________________________________________
Variations by plant averages____________________________________________
Geographical differences__________________________________________________
Influence of size of community__________________________________________
Comparisons with wage standards provided in Fair Labor Standards
A ct______________________________________________________________________
Comparisons with wage standards provided in N R A codes____________
Earnings of union and nonunion workers_______________________________
Variations by kind of product____________________________________________
Occupational differences__________________________________________________
Earnings covering identical occupations in boot and shoe and cut stock
and findings industries_________________________________________________
Extent of earnings from extra rates for overtime work_________________
Weekly hours___________________________________________________________________
Full-time weekly hours___________________________________________________
Actual weekly hours______________________________________________________
Weekly earnings________________________________________________________________

59
59
59
61
62
65
67
68
69
70
71
73
76
77
78
78
78
80

P a r t I I I .— M a n u f a c t u r e o f S h o e P a t t e r n s
Scope and method_____________________________________________________________
Average hourly earnings_______________________________________________________
Weekly hours and earnings____________________________________________________




83
84
86

Letter of Transmittal

U

n it e d

States D
B

epartm ent

ureau

of

L

of

L

abor

abor

,

S t a t is t ic s ,

W ashington , D . C., August 10, 1939.

The S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r :
Transmitted herewith is a report on Earnings and Hours in Shoe
and Allied Industries covering a pay-roll period during the first quarter
of 1939.
I

Hon.

F

rances




P

e r k in s ,

Secretary of Labor.

sador

L

u b in

,

Commissioner.




PR EFAC E

This is the eighteenth of a series of surveys made by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics in the boot and shoe industry, the first having been
conducted in 1903 and having covered the period back to 1890. The
present survey was made at the request of the Economic Section of the
Wage and Hour Division, Carroll Daugherty, Chief, for use by In­
dustry Committee No. 6 in recommending minimum wage rates for
the shoe manufacturing and allied industries under the Fair Labor
Standards Act.
The Bureau wishes to express its grateful appreciation to the various
firms that voluntarily cooperated in furnishing the information that
made this report possible. The debt which the Bureau also owes to
various trade associations and unions for their valuable contributions
is freely acknowledged.
In the preparation of the information contained in this bulletin for
the Wage and Hour Division, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has
strictly adhered to its long-established policy of keeping confidential
all information submitted to it by individual establishments.
The survey was made by the Division of Wage and Hour Statistics
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, J. Perlman, Chief. P. L. Jones and
O. R. Witmer were in charge of the field and office work. This
bulletin was written by J. Perlman, assisted by Messrs. Jones,
Witmer, and H. O. Rogers. Acknowledgment for valuable sugges­
tions in the preparation of the bulletin is also extended to W. P.
Fallon of the Economic Section and A. B. Long of the Industry Com­
mittee Section of the Wage and Hour Division.
I sad ok

L u b in ,

Commissioner oj Labor Statistics.
A

u gu st

1939.







Bulletin 7S[o. 670 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Earnings and H ours in Shoe and A llied Industries
Introduction and Summary
A study of earnings and hours was made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in the boot and shoe industry, the boot and shoe cut stock
and findings industry, and the shoe pattern industry, at the request
of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. The
study, the results of which are given in this bulletin, covered a pay­
roll period during the first quarter of 1939. It indicated that prac­
tically the same level of hourly earnings prevailed in the manufac­
ture of footwear as in the manufacture of cut stock and findings.
Although the average hourly earnings of the workers in the cut
stock and findings industry were somewhat above those of the
same skills in the boot and shoe industry, because of the larger pro­
portion of unskilled workers, the average for the industry was 0.2
cent less per hour than in the boot and shoe industry. Thus,
although skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers in the cut stock
and findings industry earned on an average 68.5, 45.5, and 39.5
cents per hour, as compared with corresponding figures for the boot
and shoe industry of 61.5, 45.4, and 36.3 cents, the industry average
was 48.7 cents as compared with 48.9 cents in the boot and shoe
industry. The shoe pattern industry showed hourly earnings very
much higher than either of the other two industries; skilled workers
averaged 97.1 cents, while semiskilled and unskilled workers combined
averaged 50.2 cents. The average for the industry was 81.5 cents.
Weekly hours averaged 39.4 in the boot and shoe industry, 38.5
in the cut stock and findings industry, and 40.0 in the shoe pattern
industry.
Weekly earnings averaged $19.33 in the boot and shoe industry,
$18.79 in the cut stock and findings industry, and $32.93 in the
shoe pattern industry.
The study revealed wide fluctuations in earnings, not only on the
basis of sex and skill, but from plant to plant and State to State.
(There were no significant variations between broad geographical
regions.) Other factors having considerable influence on the level
of earnings were the size of the community in which the plant was
170209°— 39------ 2




1

2

E A R N IN G S

AND

H OURS,

SHOE

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R IE S

located, the price of shoe produced, and the unionization of the
workers.
The information in the study was collected by the Bureau’s field
staff, who visited the various establishments, obtained data from
pay-roll and other records, and interviewed plant officials.
Information was collected on wages and hours, occupational de­
scriptions, and general plant policies. The wages-and-hours data
cover all occupations, including working supervisors and factory clerks,
but exclude higher plant supervisors and office employees. For each
person, the Bureau obtained the occupation, sex, color,1 method
of wage payment, and number of actual hours worked and total
earnings for one pay-roll period.2 Descriptions of occupations were
secured from a number of establishments, especially in cases where
there was some doubt as to the duties. On the basis of this informa­
tion, as well as that obtained from previous surveys of the industry,
the Bureau developed the detailed occupational groupings used in
this report.
In addition to detailed occupational groupings, there is also included
in this report a classification according to skill. The latter is based on
skill designations for each occupation, which were secured from a person
in charge of operations in each plant, the classification by the Bureau
taking into account the consensus of opinion in the industry. Any
classification of occupations according to skill is apt to be somewhat
arbitrary in nature. Nevertheless, it is felt that the skill designations
used here are essentially accurate.
Production in the shoe manufacturing and allied industries is
seasonal in nature, one season reaching its peak usually in February or
March and another in August. Thus, as a plant swings into seasonal
production, the cutting department is affected first, followed succes­
sively by the other departments, through the finishing process. The
field representatives of the Bureau were instructed to select a period
during which there was a more or less even flow of production through
all departments. They were likewise directed to avoid a period at or
near the peak of seasonal production, which may include a large
amount of overtime worked by individual employees. In nearly all
establishments, the pay-roll period covered was during the months of
January, February, or March 1939.3
Under the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, em­
ployees working in excess of 44 hours per week are entitled to a rate at
time and one-half for overtime. In obtaining the data on wages

1 The number of colored workers in the establishments covered was not sufficient to justify separate
tabulation.
2 In case the pay-roll period exceeded 1 week, there was also obtained the number of hours worked during
1 continuous week within the pay-roll period. This enabled the Bureau to present weekly hours, as well
as weekly earnings, covering all employees.
3 In plants where time worked was not of record for piece workers or other employees, arrangements were
made to have a daily record kept of the hours worked by each such wage earner for 1 pay-roll period.




INTROD UCTIO N

3

and hours in this survey, separate figures were secured for regular and
overtime work. The hourly earnings used in this report, unless
otherwise specified, are based on regular rates, thus excluding the earn­
ings from the extra rates paid for overtime. This is contrary to the
practice followed by the Bureau in previous surveys, but was necessi­
tated by the fact that the figures were to be used in connection with a
recommendation of minimum wages. However, hourly earnings,
including the extra earnings for overtime, were also computed for some
of the break-downs and are presented in separate sections of this
report.
The general plant information obtained covers such items as
corporate affiliation, product, full-time hours, overtime, methods of
wage payment, and employer-employee relations.







Part I.— Manufacture of Boots and Shoes




5




Scope and Method
Definition o f Industry

The definition of the boot and shoe industry adopted in this survey
conforms very closely to that used by the Census of Manufactures for
the industry designated as “ Boots and Shoes, Other Than Kubber.”
The latter includes establishments “ engaged primarily in the manu­
facture of boots, shoes, slippers, sandals, moccasins and other types of
footwear, leggings, overgaiters, etc., made chiefly of leather, but to
some extent of canvas and other textile fabrics.”
More specifically, the survey covered plants whose principal prod­
ucts are men's (dress and work), youths', boys', women's, misses',
girls', children’s, and infants' footwear (boots and shoes), which are
made by any of the standard methods of shoe construction. The
survey also included establishments engaged primarily in making
athletic or sport shoes, riding boots, and hard- or soft-soled slippers and
moccasins, when made entirely or partly of leather. Plants whose
principal product was footwear with rubber soles were covered only
when the soles were attached by one of the standard methods of con­
struction.
Excluded from the survey were establishments engaged primarily
in manufacturing molded rubber footwear, such as sneakers, “ gym”
shoes, rubber overshoes, rubber boots, etc. There were also excluded
those whose principal products were spats, leggings, etc., made en­
tirely of canvas, felt, or other textile fabrics.
Whenever cut stock and findings were produced by boot and shoe
companies principally for their own use, either in the same plant
making shoes or in separate establishments, these products were
covered in the survey of the boot and shoe industry. On the other
hand, plants engaged entirely in the production of cut stock and
findings for sale were excluded, being treated as in a separate industry
and covered in part II of this report.
The survey differed from the Census of Manufactures in that it in­
cluded only establishments with 50 or more wage earners, as those
having less than that number are for the most part plants making
custom-order and turned shoes.
Analysis o f Sample

According to the Census of Manufactures, the boot and shoe in­
dustry had 1,080 establishments and 215,437 wage earners in 1937.
Of these, 724 plants had 50 or more workers, employing a total of
208,155 wage earners.
7




8

E A R N IN G S

AND

H OURS,

SHOE

AND

A L L IE D

I N D U S T R IE S

The survey was made on the basis of a sample, which included 284
plants and 61,560 workers. Roughly, the aim was to select a sample
that constituted about one-fourth of the total industry as defined in
the survey.
The sample covered approximately 40 percent of the total estab­
lishments having more than 50 wage earners, but it should be noted
that it included most of the large plants. However, in order to give
these establishments the same weight in the coverage as they consti­
tuted in the total industry, it was necessary to include only part of
the wage earners in many of the large plants.1 The procedure of
sampling the workers in the large establishments rather than obtaining
a sample of these plants, therefore, has increased the total number of
establishments in the sample. In terms of wage earners, the sample
covers 29.6 percent of the total.2
The sample was selected in such a way as to make it entirely repre­
sentative of the industry. Among the principal factors considered
in determining the sample were geographical distribution, size of
community, corporate affiliation, size of plant, product, unionization,
kind of shoe (men’s, women’s, etc.), type of construction, price range,
and kind of outlet.
Table 1 indicates the extent to which the geographical distribution
of the sample corresponds to that of the total industry as shown by
the Census of Manufactures. Figures are presented only for those
States having a sufficient coverage to avoid disclosing the identity of
individual establishments in both the sample and census data.3 In
comparing the sample with census data, it should be kept in mind
that the former included only plants with 50 or more wage earners,
whereas the census figures, as presented here, are for all establish­
ments in the industry producing $5,000 worth or more of shoes.
Some discrepancy is inevitable, because it was necessary to balance
the sample with respect to a variety of factors in addition to the
geographical one. This sometimes resulted in a smaller or larger
representation in a given State, but this was usually compensated
for in the neighboring States. In spite of these factors, examination
of the figures indicates a close correspondence in the proportion of
workers in each State to the total between the sample and Census of
Manufactures.

When selecting a proportion of workers in such an establishment, care was taken to obtain a cross section
of the labor force with respect to occupation, sex, earning, and hours.
The number of wage earners shown by the Census of Manufactures with which comparisons are made is
an average for the year 1937, while the survey coverage relates to the first quarter of 1939 (normally the most
active part of the year). The lower general level of business activity in 1939 than in 1937 makes this com­
parison possible, for the regular monthly reports on employment and pay rolls to the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics indicate that total employment in this industry during the first quarter of 1939 was almost identical
with the average for 1937.
Figures are shown for every State with three or more establishments, provided none of these is suffi­
ciently large to dominate the data.
1

2

3




M ANUFACTURE

T able

OF

BO O T S

AND

9

SH O ES

1 . — Coverage o f survey o f boot and shoe ind ustry, by States, first quarter o f 1989

Census of Manufactures, 19371
State

N umber
of plants
1,080
13
4
63
7
55
294
9
7
57
73
24
219
36

United States_________________________
California___________ _______________
Connecticut ___ __________ ___________
Georgia. _ __
_ ______ ______
Illinois__ ___________________________ _
Indiana_______________________________
Maine_______________________________
Maryland_____ ____________________
Massachusetts.__ ___ _ _________
Michigan------------------ ------------------------Minnesota.. _ ----------„-----------------------Missouri__ _________________________
New Hampshire----------------------------------New Jersey________________________ ..
New York.. __ __ . . . ____
Ohio____ ______________________ ___
Pennsylvania-------- ---------------------------Tennessee-------------------------------------------Wisconsin_____ _
- - - - - - - - ---Other States__________________________

6

12

88
12

54

347

Workers
Number Percent
215,437
871
892
1, 508
16, 662
1,933
13, 605
2, 637
46, 720
962
642
26,110
17,713
2, 336
33, 673
14, 810
12, 942
4, 464
10,065
6,892

Bureau survey
Number
of plants

1 2 .1

284
3
4
3
19
4
17
5
67
3
3
25

8 .2
1 .1

20
6

1 0 0 .0

.4
.4
.7
7.7
.9
6.3
21.7
.4
.3
1 .2

15.6
6.9

44
13
17
16
<9

6 .0
2 .1

6

4.7
3.3

2

W orkers
Number Percent
61,560
390
392
522
4,845
711
4,080
973
13, 561
334
298
8,158
4,150
846
, 632
3,897
3,299
1,208
3, 543
1,721
8

1 0 0 .0
.6
.6
.8

7.9
1 .2
6 .6
1 .6
2 2 .0

.5
.5
13.3
6.7
1.4
14.0
6.3
5.4
5.8
2 .0

2 .8

Includes all establishments producing $5,000 worth or more of shoes.
Includes only establishments with 50 or more workers.
s Includes 1 in Alabama, 1 in Arizona, 1 in Florida, 4 in Iowa, 3 in Kansas, 4 in Kentucky, 3 in Nebraska,
in North Carolina, 4 in Oregon, in Rhode Island, 5 in Texas, 4 in Vermont, in Virginia, in Washington,
and in West Virginia.
* Includes 1 in Iowa, 2 in Kentucky, and in Virginia.
1
2

1

2

6

2

6

170209°— 39------ 3




6

Average H ourly Earnings
Methods o f Wage Payment

The great majority of workers in the boot and shoe industry are paid
on a straight piece-rate basis. In fact, this method of wage payment
was used for four-fifths (80.7 percent) of the employees scheduled.
Only one-sixth (17.2 percent) were paid straight-time rates, and rela­
tively few (2.1 percent) worked under production-bonus and other
wage-payment plans.
The wide prevalence of straight piece work in this industry is further
evidenced by the fact that it was found in all but 4 of the plants cov­
ered in the survey. Furthermore, the piece workers constituted a
majority in nearly all of the principal occupations outside of the serv­
ice, power, and maintenance departments. Practically all of this
piece work was on an individual basis, group piece work being confined
to only a few occupations in 34 establishments.
Although the total number of straight-time employees was relatively
small, some of these workers were found in nearly all plants included
in the sample. Practically all wage earners in the service, power, and
maintenance departments were paid on a straight-time basis.
Straight-time employees also constituted a majority in certain of the
principal occupations outside of these departments, such as factory
clerks, working foremen, inspectors, cobblers, floor workers, cripple
chasers, packers of shoes, cleaners of shoes, and sorters for quality.
Other important occupations in which straight-time workers were found
in substantial numbers were finishing repairers, cutters of out-soles, and
learners. Employees paid on a straight-time basis were also distributed
in smaller numbers among many other occupations, because frequently
persons ordinarily on piece work were put on straight-time rates prior
to the determination of the piece rate on new or modified operations.
The small number of employees under production-bonus and other
wage-payment plans were confined to 10 establishments, and in each
case they were distributed over a large number of occupations.
Earnings o f A ll Workers

For the 61,560 wage earners employed by the 284 boot and shoe
plants covered in the survey, hourly earnings averaged 48.9 cents
during the first quarter of 1939. Earnings among establishments,
however, varied considerably, the plant averages ranging from 26.6
to 90.0 cents an hour. Nevertheless, as is evident from table 2, the
averages of nearly two-thirds (185) of the establishments fell within
the limits of 37.5 and 55.0 cents. One-tenth of the plants (29) aver­
aged under 37.5 cents, but 15 of these averaged 35.0 cents or more.
One-fourth of the establishments (70) had an average in excess of
55.0 cents, but only 20 had an average of more than 65.0 cents.
10




M ANUFACTURE

OF

BO O T S

AND

II

SH O ES

The extent of dispersion in the earnings of individual workers is
shown in table 3, which presents the distribution of workers according
to average hourly earnings for the entire country. Leaving out the
extreme classes the spread is from 25.0 cents to $1.10, within which
are found 98.6 percent of the employees. In terms of 5-cent intervals,
a perceptible but not very pronounced concentration occurs in the
group from 32.5 to 37.5 cents, accounting for only 12.7 percent of
the total.
It is significant to note that a majority of the workers were con­
centrated in the lower wage classes. Thus, the number earning less
than 47.5 cents an hour, which is below the average for the industry
as a whole, amounted to 55.1 percent. Only 0.5 percent of the em­
ployees in the plants surveyed received under 25.0 cents, so that
considerably over one-half of the employees were paid between
25.0 and 47.5 cents. It should also be pointed out that there was
some concentration at exactly 25.0 cents, accounting for 5.8 percent
of the workers.
In the upper half of the distribution, on the other hand, there was
a fairly substantial scattering of employees in the various classes.
Thus, although 44.9 percent earned 47.5 cents an hour and over,
there were still 16.5 percent paid 67.5 cents and over. As many as
4.8 percent received 87.5 cents and over, but only 1.9 percent earned
$1 and over.

T a b l e 2 .—

D istrib u tio n o f boot and shoe plants by average h ourly ea rn in gs , region ,
and S ta te , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Region and State

Total

284
United States
New England States _ . ____ 108
4
Connecticut
17
Maine
___
67
Massachusetts__
New Hampshire__
. _
Middle Atlantic States . _ __ 72
5
M aryland_____ _ _
New Jersey
44
New Y ork______
Pennsylvania
17
Middle Western States, includ­
ing California_______
_ _ 87
3
California
19
Illinois _ ___
4
Indiana ____
Michigan __ _____
3
4
Minnesota _____
Missouri ___ _
25
Ohio
13
Wisconsin _ _ _ __ _
16
Southern States
17
Cp.nrgia
3
Tennessee
V irginia
See footnotes at end of table.
20

Plants with specified average hourly earnings
25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5
and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under
27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5 50.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
4
7 15 29 35
25
23
7
9 13
7
4
3
3
4
7
3
1
3
7
3
3
3
1

2

21

1

12

2
1

6
1

1

2
1

2

1

2

6

2

8
1
1
1

1

1

2

1

1

5

1

2

2

8

3

1




8
6

1
4
15
5

8
1

8
1

1

1
1

1
1

1

3

8

7

2
1
1

2

2

9
2

2

1

1

1

3

1

2
1

4

3

2

2

1

2
1

2

2
2

2

1

1
1

1
1

.

1

2

1
1

12

2

1

1

2

1
1
1

1

3

2

2
1

1
1

1

i

4
3
1

1

12

E A R N IN G S

T a b l e 2 .—

AND

HOURS,

SHO E

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R I E S

D istribution o f boot and shoe plants by average hourly earnings, region,
and State, first quarter o f 1989— Continued

Plants with specified average hourly earnings
Region and State
United States ________ ___
New England States ______ __
Connecticut ___ . . . _____
Maine ___ _____________
Massachusetts - _ ________
New Hampshire. _ . _ ___
Middle Atlantic States. ______
Maryland__________ _____
New Jersey ______________
New York______________
Pennsylvania ... _ _______
Middle Western States, includ­
ing California_____ _.
California. _____________ .
Illinois__________ ____ ...
Indiana _ ________ _
M ichigan..._________ ____
Minnesota ___ ______ _
Missouri _____ __________
Ohio .. ____________ .. _
Wisconsin _______ ____ _
Southern States_________
Georgia____ ________ ____
Tennessee ___ _______
Virginia____ _ _________

50.0 52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5 70.0 72.5
and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under
52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5 70.0 72.5 75.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
3
28 24 14 16
7
3
4
15
4
9
7
7
3
4
4
4
5
3
5
3
3
3

1

2

12

6

2

2

2

2

3

1

3

2

2

2

6

2

8

10

75.0
cents
and
over

1
1

1

6

4

6

5

1

5

5

3

1

8

8

1

3
2
2
1

2
2
1

3

3

2

3

3
3

2

6
1
1

3

2

1

1
2
2

I

1

3
3

1

1
1

1

1

1

1
1

1 Includes 1 plant in Iowa.
2 Includes 2 plants in Kentucky.
Variations by Sex and Skill

To some extent the dispersion of hourly earnings in the boot and
shoe industry may be explained by variations in wage levels among the
different sex-skill groups shown in table 4.
For male workers, the average hourly earnings were 66.4 cents for
skilled, 52.4 cents for semiskilled, and 40.1 cents for unskilled. The
hourly earnings of female employees, by contrast, averaged 44.4
cents for skilled, 39.4 cents for semiskilled, and only 33.7 cents for
unskilled. In other words, the average for skilled females was not
much higher than that for unskilled males. Semiskilled females
averaged just below unskilled males, while unskilled females occupied
the lowest rung in the wage ladder. Taking the 2 extremes, the aver­
age for skilled males was almost double that for unskilled females.
The hourly earnings for all males averaged 57.1 cents, which may be
compared with 39.0 cents for all females.
Naturally, the largest proportion of workers in the lower wage
classes was found among females. There were 64.9 percent of the
skilled, 78.3 percent of the semiskilled, and 91.6 percent of the un­
skilled females earning less than 47.5 cents. For males, the respective
figures were 17.1, 43.0, and 76.7 percent. In each case, there was
some concentration at exactly 25.0 cents, but this was most con-




M ANUFACTURE

OF

BOOTS

AND

13

SHOES

spicuous for unskilled employees, with 10.4 percent of the unskilled
males and 19.8 percent of the unskilled females being found at that
point.
On the other hand, the largest proportion of workers in the upper
wage classes was found among skilled males. Taking 67.5 cents as
the lower limit, the percentage was 44.2 for skilled males, as against
17.9 percent for semiskilled and only 4.3 percent for unskilled males.
Among females, the respective figures were 6.1, 2.1, and 0.6 percent.
The number earning $1 and over amounted to as much as 6.0 percent
for skilled males, but only 1.4 percent of the semiskilled and 0.2
percent of the unskilled males were found in that category. Hardly
any females received $1 and over.
The influence that these differences have on the industry’s wage
structure is readily apparent after an appraisal of the composition
of the labor force. In terms of skill, 31.2 percent of all employees
were skilled, 52.8 percent semiskilled, and 16.0 percent unskilled.
In boot and shoe manufacturing, the total number of jobs were about
equally divided between male and female wage earners. Of the total
number of workers scheduled, 54.8 percent were males and 45.2 percent
females. Significantly enough, however, more than three-fourths
(77.7 percent) of the jobs that were classed as skilled were held by
males. By contrast, the female workers accounted for over one-half
(54.1 percent) of the semiskilled and three-fifths (60.6 percent) of
the unskilled employees.

T able

3 . — Percentage distribution o f boot and shoe workers by sex, skill, and average
hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1939

Skilled
All workers
Average hourly earnings
Fe­
(in cents)
Total Male male Total Male
Under 17.5
___
(0 C
1)
(i)
.3 0)
17.5 and under 20.0 _ _ .
.
20.0 and under 22.5______ .
0)
0) (f)
22.5 and under 25.0____
.3
(0
Exactly 25.0______ ____ 5.8 2.7 9.7
0.5
.4
25.1 and under 27.5______ 3.5 1.4
27.5 and under 30.0______ 4
1.9
1.5 .7
30.0 and under 32.5______ 6.3 3.2
2.3
9. 5 2.7 1.4
32.5 and under 35.0______ 5.8
35.0 and under 37.5____ _ 6.9 4.9 9.3 3.6
37.5 and under 40.0______ 5.9 4.3 7.8 3.3
4.9 7.7 4.1 2.7
40.0 and under 42.5______
9.1 11.4 7.9
42.5 and under 47.5,__ ___
8.3 9.1
47.5 and under 52.5______ 9.3
52.5 and under 57.5____ . 7.7 9.7 5.3 9.3 9.8
57.5 and under 62.5______
8.7 3.2 9.1 10.3
62.5 and under 67.5______ 5.2
8.8 10.4
67.5 and under 72.5__.___ _ 4
.9 7.8 9.4
72.5 and under 77.5______ 3.2 5.4 .6 6.6 7.9
77.5 and under 82.5______ 2.5 4.2 .4 5.4 6.7
4.4 5.4
82.5 and under 87.5______ 1.9 3.3
87.5 and under 92.5____ _
2.9
4.0 5.0
92.5 and under 100.0
1.3 2.3 .
3.0 3.
2.5 3.2
and under
____ 1.0
0)
110.0 and under 125.0____ . 5 1.0 (!) 1.3 1.7
. 7 .9
125.0 and under 150.0
.3 .5 0)
.l .1
150 0 and over
.2
Total__________
0 .1

0 2
1
.2

1

0 .1

0 .1
1 .2

6 .0
6 .8
1 0 .1

.1

1 .1

1 .1

2 .8

2 .0
2 .1

6 .2
1 0 .1

6 .2
8 .2

1 0 .0

6 .2
.1

8 .0
6 .8

1 .8

.2
.1

1 .6

1

1 0 0 .0

8

1 .8

1 1 0 .0

.2

1 0 0 .0

1 L e s s t h a n H o o f 1 p e r c e n t.




1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

Semiskilled
Unskilled
Fe­ Total Male Fe­ Total Male Fe­
male
male
male
(0
.
0.3
0)
.7
~~6T
0)
.
.
.3
0)
.3 .4 .3
.5
7.8 16.1 10.4 19.-8
3.5 5.5
3.4 3.8 1.9 5.4 7.1 3.2 9.6
4.3 4.7
7.3 5.1 8.7
6.5 7.1 3.6
9.5 13.0
3.6 9.5
5.4
7.1
9.2 7.7 5.6 9.5 10.5 13.4 8.7
7.7 6.9 5.2 8.4 7.5 9. 5
7.2
7.0
5.9
14.2 11.9
8.3
10.5 12.5
5.7 8.3 4.0
10.7 5.6 3.6
5.5 5.8 8.7 3.4
2.7
3.4 4.3 7.2
.5
.3
3.0 5.4 .9 .9 1.9
4.0 .5 .5 .9
1.9
.8 1.4
.4
.3
.2 .2 .4 0)
.7 .9
.3
.5 .7 1.4
.
.2 0)
1.3 .1 .
.4 .8 0)
.1
. 1 .2 (0
(l)
.2 . 5 (0
. 1 . 1 0) C
1) 0)
0)
(i) 0)
0 2

0 .1
.1

0 .1
.1
.2

0 .2
1

.2

0 .1
.1
1

1 .0

.2
2 .8

2 .2

6 .8
1 0 .0

6 .8

1 1 .6
8 .8

1 1 .0
6 .2

6 .2
1 1 .6

8 .8

1 2 .0
8 .1

8 .1

8 .6

1 2 .2
8 .8

1 1 .0

6 .6

6 .0

2 .1
1 .2

8 .0

1 .8

1 .8

1 .1

2 .0

2 .0

2 .1

.2
.1

.2

2 .6

1 .8

.1

1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.1
1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

14

E A R N IN G S

T able

AND

H O U RS, SHOE

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R IE S

4 . — Average hourly earnings of boot and shoe workers, by sex, skill, and
region, first quarter o f 1939

United
States

Sex and skill
All workers___________________________
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled____ _ _______________
Unskilled ______ _______________
Males_____________ ______ ____
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled________________ ______
Unskilled -----------------------------------Fem ales_________ ____ _______ ______
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled___________________ _____
Unskilled ________ _______ . . ----1

AND

New
England
States

$0.489
.615
.454
.363
.571
.664
.524
.401
.390
.444
.394
.337

Middle
Atlantic
States

$0.491
.620
.454
.343
.573
.666
.521
.378
.396
.467
.400
.324

Middle
Western
States 1

$0. 525
.639
.486
.385
.598
.682
.559
.410
.404
.450
.407
.362

Southern
States

$0.476
.607
.445
.366
.564
.666
.518
.415
.382
.428
.388
.336

$0.427
.516
.398
.358
.480
.558
.440
.379
.358
.371
.361
.339

Includes 3 establishments in California.
Variations by Plant Averages

In table 2, the boot and shoe establishments were grouped accord­
ing to plant average hourly earnings, with 2.5 cents as a class interval.
Table 5 shows the distribution of all workers in the country as a whole
by hourly earnings separately for each of these groups of establish­
ments.

T able

5 .— Percentage distribution of boot and shoe workers, by average hourly
earnings in plants with classified hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1989

Plants having average hourly earnings of—
Average hourly earnings

30.0 32.5 35.0
Under and and and
30.0 under under under
cents 32.5 35.0 37.5
cents cents cents

37.5
and
under
40.0
cents

Under 17.5 c en ts________ ______ 2.4 '
7.8
.
17.5 and under 20.0 cents _ ____ _
.3 1.3
20.0 and under 22.5 cents)
0.4
.9
.4
22.5 and under 25.0 cents_________ _ .5
Exactly 25.0 cents_________________ 54.6 • 29.1 23.6 16.9
8.7 7.3 7.2
25.1 and under 27.5 cents._ ________ 6.9
9.4
27.5 and under 30.0 cents. ____ ___
6.7
7.5
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___________
11.4
9.0 8.5
32.5 and under 35.0 cents___________ 3.9 7.4
35.0 and under 37.5 cents___________ 3.8 5.0 7.8 9.9 9.7
4.1 5.9 5.5 7.1
37.5 and under 40.0 cents___________
5.2 5.6 5.1 7.0
40.0 and under 42.5 cents___________
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___________ 3.0 5.9
9.4
5.0 4.3 5.6 6.7
47.5 and under 52.5 cents___________
2.5 2.3 3.6 5.1
52.5 and under 57.5 cents____ _____
.5 1.4 1.7 3.5
57.5 and under 62.5 cents___________
.3
.4
.5
62.5 and under 67.5 cents___________
.3
.7
67.5 and under 72.5 cents.__________
.5
72.5 and under 77.5 cents
.3
.7
.4
77.5 and under 82.5 cents___________
.5
82.5 and under 87.5 cents
.3
87.5 and under 92.5 cents _ __
.
92.5 and under 100.0 cents. _____
.3
and under
cents_________
110.0 and under 125.0 c e n ts._____ _
)
125.0 and under 150.0 cents_________
150.0 cents and over______ ______
Total________ _____________
Number of workers________________ 660 1,183 1, 320 2,761 4, 536
0 .1

0 .1
1
.2

.6

0 .8
1 .2

0

1 0 .8

1 1 .6
6 .0

1 0 .8
6 .1

1 1 .1
1 0 .2

1 1 .6
1 1 .6

1 .2
1 .8

6 .0

8 .0

1 .1
.2
.2

1 .6

.2

.2
.2

2 .2
2 .0

40.0
and
under
42.5
cents

42.5
and
under
45.0
cents

45.0
and
under
47.5
cents

)

(i)
.3
3.6
3.9
6.3
9.3
8.3
8.7
7.6
7.6
8.9
7.1
5.8
4.0
2.9
.7
.4
.3
).
)

(i)
(i)
0.3
4.4
4.1
5.3
7.3
6.4
6.3
7.0
10.5
9.2
7.8
5.6
5.4
4.0
2. 4
2..
.9
.5
'.4
.i
!i

0

0 .1

0 .2

9.2
5.4
6 .0
1 0 .1

7.2
9.6
7.0
7.0
10.7
9.1
6.7
4.2
3.2
1 .6

.6

.2
.2

1 0 0 .0

1 .1

.1

.1

2

.2

.1

.2

1 1 0 .0

.2
.1
.1

.2

1 0 0 .0

1

Less than Via of 1 percent




.2
1
.1

0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.7
.
.3
.2

(i)
.

1 1 .8

1
1 .1

2

.2

0

1

0

1

8 .6

2
1 2

47.5
and
under
50.0
cents
PI
0 .1
2 .1

3.1
3.1
5.2
7.8
6.7
11.5
9.4
7.5
6.5
4.8
3. 2
l!
.9
.5
.
)
6 .6

6 .8

1 0 .8

8

1 .1

.*2
2
1

6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

7, 364 5,098 5, 955 5, 270

M ANUFACTURE

OF

BOOTS

AND

15

SH O ES

5 . — Percentage distribution o f boot and shoe workers, by average hourly
earnings in plants with classified hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1939— Con.

T able

Plants having average hourly earnings of—
Average hourly earnings

Under 17.5 cents. ______
17.5 and under 20.0 cents-- __ ___ _20.0 and under 22.5 cents ___ . __ __
22.5 and under 25.0 cents-. _ _____
Exactly 25.0 cents ___ _ _____ _
25.1 and under 27.5 cents _ ______ _
27.5 and under 30.0 cents___________
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents__________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents___________
37.5 and under 40.0 cents___________
40.0 and under 42.5 cents___________
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents___________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents__________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents.__________
62.5 and under 67.5 cents___________
67.5 and under 72.5 cents__________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents___________
77.5 and under 82.5 cents__________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents___________
87.5 and under 92.5 cents___________
92.5 and under 100.0 cents__________
100.0 and under 110.0 cents_________
110.0 and under 125.0 cents_________
125.0 and under 150.0 cents_________
150.0 cents and over_______________
Total.. _ __________________
Number of workers_______________

50.0
and
under
52.5
cents

52.5
and
under
55.0
cents

55.0
and
under
57.5
cents

57.5
and
under
60.0
cents

60.0
and
under
62.5
cents

62.5
and
under
65.0
cents

65.0
and
under
67.5
cents

67.5
and
under
70.0
cents

0.1
(i)
0)
0. 2 Q)
0.1 0.2
0)
.1 0.6
3.1 1.5 0.9 0.3
1.3
.4 1.0
1.7 1.8 1.2
.8
.3
.9
2.2 1.5 1.6
.5 1.6
.4 1.2
.7
5.5 3.1 3.1 1.9 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.6
5.2 4.7 4.3 3.1 2.7 1.8 2.1 1.0
6.5 5.3 4.6 3.9 2.1 3.9 3.2 1.5
5.9 6.4 6.1 4.5 3.6 3.8 2.8 2.0
6.0 7.2 5.7 6.0 4.2 5.0 2.7 3.3
11.4 11.0 10.6 10.9 10.7 8.7 7.4 6.7
11.3 11.7 10.4 11.0 10.6 9.5 9.7 9.1
9.1 10.0 9.1 10.6 8.6 10.0 8.9 8.0
8.1 7. 1 9.3 9.4 10.7 7.7 9.5 7.7
6.6 6.4 7.2 7.7 9.4 6.7 9.3 7.2
4.7 6.3 6.8 6.5 8.1 6.6 6.1 6.8
3.9 4.8 5.1 5.8 6.1 6.8 7.7 7.1
2.8 3.5 3.3 5.3 5.0 5.4 8.0 7.2
1.8 2.9 3.4 4.5 3.7 4.8 4.5 7.0
1.6 1.6 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.8 5.5 5.0
1.1 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.8 4.0 4.4 4.6
.9 1.0 1.3 1.4 2.1 4.1 3.1 5.1
.2
.6 1.6 2.5 1.7 3.1
.6
.3
.2
.2
.5
.8
.6 2.0
.3
.1
.2
.1
.4
.4
.1
0)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
7,153 5,174 4,124 3,732 1,120 2, 479 924 972

70.0
cents
and
over

0)

6:2
.7
.5
.8
2.1
2.2
2.4
4.5
6.2
5.6
6.4
7.0
6.2
6.7
4.7
6.1
10.3
8.5
8.1
6.2
3.6
1.0
100.0
1,735

1 Less than Ho of 1 percent.
Although practically all groups of plants showed some employees
receiving under 25 cents an hour, the largest proportions were found
in the lowest 3 groups. The latter covered 14 establishments, in
which 3,163 workers were scheduled. The number of employees paid
less than 25 cents amounted to 3.8 percent in plants averaging less
than 30 cents, as much as 10.1 percent in those with averages between
30.0 and 32.5 cents, and 2.0 percent in establishments averaging be­
tween 32.5 and 35.0 cents. In none of the other groups did the
number earning below 25 cents exceed 1 percent.
The concentration of wage earners at exactly 25 cents an hour was
quite conspicuous in the groups of plants averaging under 42.5 cents.
The proportion receiving exactly 25 cents amounted to as much as
54.6 percent in establishments averaging less than 30 cents, 29.1
percent in those with averages between 30.0 and 32.5 cents, 23.6
percent in plants averaging between 32.5 and 35.0 cents, and 16.9
percent in those with averages between 35.0 and 37.5 cents. In the
group of establishments averaging between 37.5 and 42.5 cents, ap­
proximately one-tenth of the labor force earned exactly 25 cents.
These groups of plants comprise a substantial portion of the coverage,




16

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

including almost one-third of the establishments and three-tenths of
the workers. In the remaining groups of plants, there was either a
slight concentration or none at all at exactly 25 cents.
Geographical Differences
Unlike the situation in some other industries, there is no evidence
that hourly earnings in the manufacture of boots and shoes vary
significantly as between broad geographical regions.
Convincing evidence that geographical location is of minor impor­
tance was furnished by table 2, which presented the classification of
plant averages by region and State. Thus, the 29 lowest-paid estab­
lishments, all of which averaged less than 37.5 cents, were scattered
over 13 different States, located in the New England, Middle Atlantic,
Middle Western, and Southern areas. Likewise, the 70 highest-paid
plants, or those averaging 55.0 cents and over, were distributed over
12 different States, also found in each of these regions.
Even within a single State hourly earnings vary considerably. In
most of the leading States in the industry, the plant averages covered
a fairly wide range, with very little indication of a concentration
toward a focal point. In fact, the heterogeneous nature of the data
in these States is so pronounced that any broad generalization con­
cerning their average hourly earnings should be made with caution.
For example, the spread in plant averages in Massachusetts, which
is still the most important State in this industry, was from 35.2 to
63.6 cents. In New York, the second leading State, the range was
even wider, namely from 35.1 to 90.0 cents. It was also fairly wide
in Missouri, the third important State, where the plant averages
covered a spread from 26.6 to 65.0 cents. The same is true in most
of the other leading States, the plant averages ranging from 34.0 to
73.3 cents in New Hampshire, from 33.1 to 64.5 cents in Illinois,
from 31.3 to 62.9 cents in Pennsylvania, from 34.2 to 60.7 cents in
Wisconsin, and from 38.9 to 61.7 cents in Ohio. In only one of the
leading States, namely Maine, was the dispersion in plant averages
relatively small, the figures ranging from 39.3 to 55.5 cents.
Table 6 presents. average hourly earnings by States. In some
States, it should be remembered, the coverage is relatively small,
which limits the significance of their averages. Moreover, it has been
pointed out already that, in view of the wide spread in plant averages,
the average hourly earnings of the States should be used with cau­
tion. For example, the average hourly earnings of plants surveyed
in Missouri are higher than those in the three Southern States,
two Middle Western States, two Middle Atlantic States, and one
New England State. Despite this fact, the three lowest-wage plants
found in the survey were in Missouri.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

T a b l e 6 .— Average

17

hourly earnings o f hoot and shoe workers, hy region and State,
first quarter o f 19S9

Region and State
United States __ __________ _ _ _
New England States. ., ___ ____ ,
Connecticut, . ___ . ___ ___
Maine___ ,
Massachusetts___ __________
New Hampshire____ .
Middle Atlantic States__ _____ ___
Maryland,
New Jersey, ____ _______ .
New York ,
Pennsylvania- ___ - _ _,

Average
hourly
earnings

Region and State

$0. 489 Middle Western States, including Cali­
fornia
. 491
California, _
.408
Illinois _ _ _ ,
. 470
Indiana
.495
Michigan____
_ _ ___
Minnesota 1_________ ____________
.506
____
Missouri_______________
.525
Ohio_________ _____________
,
.379
Wisconsin
.552
. 580 Southern States
Georgia, ,
.427
Tennessee 2___
_____ . .
Virginia,.______ ______ _____ ....

Average
hourly
earnings
$0. 476
! 604
.454
. 424
.478
.478
.461
.494
. 516
.427
.418
.429
.427

1 Includes 1 plant in Iowa.
Includes 2 plants in Kentucky.
2

Examination of this table indicates that the level of hourly earnings
in California (60.4 cents), the State with the highest average, was
almost 60 percent above that prevailing in Maryland (37.9 cents),
the State with the lowest average. This large difference may not be
surprising, as the two States are far apart geographically. On the
other hand, there is also considerable difference between the average
hourly earnings of adjacent States, as well as among the averages of
those customarily grouped into the same region.
The average hourly earnings in the Middle Atlantic States combined
amounted to 52.5 cents, but this figure is based on widely different
State averages. Even with Maryland excluded, these averages cover
a spread from 42.7 cents for Pennsylvania to 58.0 cents for New York.
It is quite obvious, therefore, that this region does not represent a
homogeneous wage area.
In the New England States, where the oldest part of the industry is
located, the hourly earnings averaged 49.1 cents. The highest State
averages in this area were in New Hampshire and Massachusetts,
amounting respectively to 50.6 and 49.5 cents. In Maine, the aver­
age hourly earnings were 47.0 cents. There were only a few estab­
lishments covered in Connecticut, the State average being 40.8 cents,
which is in contrast to the 58-cent average shown for the adjacent
State of New York.
Few of the workers in the New England States received under 25
cents an hour, with only 6.3 percent earning exactly 25 cents. There
were 15.5 percent paid below 30 cents, 26.5 percent less than 35 cents,
and 38.3 percent under 40 cents. Over one-half (54.4 percent) aver­
aged less than 47.5 cents, which is somewhat below the average for
the country as a whole. On the other hand, 16.8 percent received
67.5 cents and over, but only 1.9 percent earned $1 and over. (See
table 7.)
170209°— 39------4




18

T able

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
7 . — Percentage distribution o f boot and shoe workers, by average hourly
earnings and region, first quarter o f 1939

Average hourly earnings
Under 17.5 cents _______ _______ _________ __
17.5 and under 20.0 cents, _ ______ __ ___________
20.0 and under 22.5 cents_________________________
22.5 and under 25.0 cents, _____________________
Exactly 25.0 cents, ------------------------------------------25.1 and under 27.5 cents. ----------------------------------27.5 and under 30.0 cents, _______________________
30.0 and under 32.5 cents. ______ _______________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents___________ _____________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents_________________________
375. and under 40.0 cents. _______________ ______
40.0 and under 42.5 cents. ... _______ ____ ______
42.5 and under 47.5 cents_________________________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents. ______________________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents. ______________________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents. _______________________
62.5 and under 67.5 cents_________________________
67.5 and under 72.5 cents. . _____ _________________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents___ _______ _____________
77.5 and under 82.5 cents______ _________________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents.. ______________________
87.5 and under 92.5 cents. ______________________
92.5 and under 100.0 cents. _____________________
100.0 and under 110.0 cents. -------------------------------110.0 and under 125.0 cents. _. ________________
125.0 and under 150.0 cents___ ___ ___________ ____
150.0 cents and over ________________ _________
Total______________________ .
--------- ..
Number of workers._____________________________

New Middle Middle
United England Atlantic Western South­
ern
States States States States States
(!)
0.2
.1
.2
5.8
3.5
4.1
6.3
5.8
6.9
5.9
6.2
10.1
9.3
7.7
6.2
5.2
4.1
3.2
2.5
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.0
.5
.3
.1
100.0
61, 560

(i)
0)
0) 0.2
6.3
4.2
4.8
5.7
5.3
6.5
5.3
5.8
10.3
9.2
8.2
6.4
5.0
4.4
3.4
2.5
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.1
.5
.2
.1
100.0
22,183

0)
0.1
.2
5.3
2.9
3.1
5.7
4.8
*6.0
5.2
5.8
8.9
9.6
7.8
6.4
5.9
4.5
4.0
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.2
.7
.2
100.0
13, 750

0.1
.4
.1
.2
5.3
2.8
3.8
6.9
6.7
7.6
6.7
6.7
10.5
9.2
7.5
6.1
5.2
3.9
2.8
2.5
1.7
1.3
1.0
.6
.3
.1

0.1
.4
7.9
5.8
5.4
9.2
7.3
8.8
7.4
7.0
10.3
9.0
5.6
5.1
3.5
2.6
1.5
1.4
.7
.4
.4
.2

100.0
22, 244

100.0
3, 383

0)

i Less than Ho of 1 percent.
The hourly earnings in the Middle Western States, combined with
California, averaged 47.6 cents. Among these States, the lowest
average, namely 42.4 cents, was shown for Indiana. For the remain­
ing States, the average hourly earnings ranged from 45.4 cents for
Illinois to 51.6 cents for Wisconsin. The most important State in
this region is Missouri, which averaged 46.1 cents. In view of the
wide differences in State averages, it is doubtful whether this area may
also be looked upon as a homogeneous wage district.
The average earnings in the Southern States amounted to 42.7
cents an hour. In this region, the State averages are quite uniform,
the figures ranging only from 41.8 cents for Georgia to 42.9 cents for
Tennessee (including Kentucky). It should be pointed out that these
averages were higher than that for Maryland and on a par with those
for Indiana and Pennsylvania in the Northern States.
Of the wage earners in the Southern States, only 0.5 percent received
less than 25 cents an hour. There were 7.9 percent earning exactly
25 cents. One-fifth (19.6 percent) of the total were paid under 30
cents, over one-third (36.1 percent) below 35 cents, and over one-half
(52.3 percent) less than 40 cents. The number earning under 47.5
cents amounted to seven-tenths (69.6 percent) of the entire labor force.
By contrast, only 7.2 percent received 67.5 cents and over, with hardly
any paid $1 and over.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

19

Although hourly earnings in the Southern States are generally lower
than those in the remainder of the country, it should be remembered
that a very small part of the industry is located in the southern region.
Of the total coverage, only 17 plants with 3,383 wage earners (5.5
percent) were in the Southern States. On the other hand, the survey
included 108 establishments in New England and 87 in the Middle
Western States, each territory covering approximately 22,000 em­
ployees, or 36 percent of the total. The remaining 72 plants, with
13,750 workers (22.3 percent), were located in the Middle Atlantic
States.
If an attempt is made to establish wage districts on the basis of
limited areas, comprising a portion of one State or contiguous portions
of two or more States, there is also found a considerable degree of
heterogeneity in the hourly earnings. This leads to the conclusion
that, on the whole, other factors or combinations of factors than mere
geographical location accounted for differences in wages within the
industry.
Influence o f Sise of Com m unity

In selecting the sample for this survey, it will be remembered, the
Bureau took into consideration the distribution of the boot and shoe
industry by size of community.4 Analysis of the coverage for the
country as a whole indicated that approximately one-half of the
manufacture of boots and shoes is located in the larger metropolitan
areas. Thus, 84 plants with 15,242 workers (24.7 percent of the total
labor force) were found in communities with a population of 1,000,000
and over, and 63 plants with 15,553 workers (25.3 percent) were in
centers having between 100,000 and 1,000,000. Of the remainder,
56 plants with 12,417 workers (20.2 percent) were in places with be­
tween 20,000 and 100,000 population, and 81 plants with 18,348
employees (29.8 percent) were in communities of less than 20,000
population. It should be pointed out, however, that only a relatively
small part of the sample— 7 plants with 1,171 workers (1.9 percent)—
was in rural territory (i. e., places with less than 2,500 population).
It is also significant to describe the distribution of the industry by
size of community in different parts of the country.
In the New England States, considerably more than one-half (54.9
percent) of all workers were concentrated in metropolitan districts
with a population of 100,000 and over. These cover such important
shoe centers as Haverhill, Brockton, Worcester, Boston, and Lowell.
i B y size of community is meant here the size of metropolitan area within which the plant is located. For
places with a population of 100,000 or more, the Bureau utilized the metropolitan districts as defined by the
U . S. Bureau of the Census. On the other hand, for communities with less than 100,000, similar metro­
politan centers were set up including not only the population within a particular political subdivision but
also that of the nearby areas. Roughly speaking, the metropolitan districts correspond to labor-market
areas, within which there is competition among workers for jobs as well as among employers for workers.




20

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

The remainder of the industry is scattered throughout the rest of
Massachusetts and other New England States, with important con­
centrations in southern New Hampshire and southern Maine. While
28.6 percent of the sample were found in communities with a popula­
tion between 20,000 and 100,000, only one-sixth (16.5 percent) were
located in places of under 20,000.
The proportion of the total coverage in the Middle Atlantic States
situated in metropolitan areas of 100,000 population and over was
even greater, namely seven-tenths (69.8 percent) of all employees.
These communities include such important shoe centers as the Bing­
hamton and New York City metropolitan districts, as well as the lesser
ones of Philadelphia and Rochester. A considerable part (21.0 per­
cent) of the sample, however, was found in places of less than 20,000
population. This is particularly true of southeastern Pennsylvania
and western Maryland.
In the Middle Western States, there was also a concentration of the
industry in the larger metropolitan areas, considerably more than onethird (37.0 percent) of the coverage being found in communities with a
population of 100,000 and over. These places include the important
shoe centers of St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and
Columbus. A much larger proportion (46.2 percent), however, was
situated in communities under 20,000 in these States, as compared
with other Northern States. This was especially true of places
between 5,000 and 10,000 population, many of which are located in
southern Illinois and throughout Missouri and Wisconsin.
There are no metropolitan areas with a population of 500,000 and
over in the Southern States. However, nearly one-fourth (23.1 per­
cent) of the total workers in the southern sample were located in com­
munities between 100,000 and 500,000. Less than one-third (31.7
percent) of the coverage was concentrated in centers between 20,000
and 50,000, but nearly one-half (45.2 percent) was scattered over
places of less than 20,000 population.
As may be seen from table 8, the average hourly earnings of all
workers in this industry varied directly with size of community. In
rural territory, the average amounted to 37.3 cents, which may be com­
pared with 56.5 cents in metropolitan areas with a population of
1,000,000 and over. This is a difference of as much as 19.2 cents.
There was very little difference in hourly earnings between places of
2,500 and under 5,000 and those of 5,000 and less than 10,000, both
averaging about 41 cents. On the other hand, each succeeding class
of size of community shows an increase in the average over the class
below it.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES
T a b l e 8 .—

21

Average hourly earnings of hoot and shoe w orkers, by size o f com m unity,
sex, and skill, first quarter o f 1989
All workers

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Size of community
Total M ale

Fe­
Total Male Fe­ Total Male
male
male

Fe­
Total M ale
male

Fe­
male

Average hourly earnings
Under 2,500_______________ $0.373 $0.422 $0.328 $0.451 $0. 478 $0. 379 $0.356 $0.394 $0,329 $0. 313 $0.345 $0,296
.479
.439
.414
.341
2.500 and under 5,000_____
.380
.558
.385
.344
.516
.331
.366
.308
.440
.484
.340
.413
.562
5.000 and under 10,000____
.385
.344
.329
.515
.378
.376
.302
.432
.492
.529
.571
.401
10.000 and under 20,000___
.403
.456
.358
.360
.357
.337
.315
.440
.549
20.000 and under 50,000___
.474
.382
.599
.431
.504
.385
.362
.395
.646
.335
.395 .366
.487 .574
.392
.622
.678
50.000 and under 100,000...
.523
.411
.339
.457 .452
.591
.408
.619
100.000 and under 500,000. _ .505
.454
.471
.545
.412
.352
.677
.374
.413
.*612 .448
500.000 and under 1,000,000. .539
.686 .718 .557 .500 .555 .450 .412 .469 .374
1.000.
000 and over____________ .655. . .430 .716 .757 .511 .523 .606 .438 .386 .424 .359
.
.565
Total_______________

.489

.571

.390

.615

.664

.444

.454

.524

.394

.363

360
1,024

236
600

.401

.337

Number of workers
320
563
608
Under 2,500_______________ 1,171
2.500 and under 5,000_____ 3,426 1,800 1,626
983
5.000 and under 10,000 . . . 8, 289 4,226 4,063 2,450
10.000 and under 20,000___ 5,462 2,985 2,477 1,747
20.000 and under 50,000___ 8,068 4,411 3,657 2,378
50.000 and under 100,000... 4,349 2,272 2,077 1,300
100,C O and under 500,000.. 12,266 6,451 5,815 3,946
fo
926
500.000 and under 1,000,000. 3, 287 1,811 1,476
1.000.
000 and over____________ _____________5,186
15,242 9,233 6,009

230
90
615
748
235 1,843
614 4,430
1,836
451 2,849
1,296
1,847
531 4, 378
972
328 2,285
2,931 1,015 6, 532
741
185 1,861
4,354
832 7,681

255
819
1,893
1,296
1,993
1,024
2,875
874
3,890

2, 537 1,409
1, 553
866
2, 385 1,312
764
1,261
3,657 1,788
500
987
3,791 2, 375

78
158
233
367
497
912
393
473
741
571
488
276
645 1,143
304
196
989 1,386

Total_______________ 61, 560 33, 752 27, 808 19,236 14,955 4, 281 32,474 14,919 17, 555 9,850 3, 878 5,972

The variations in average hourly earnings according to size of com­
munity are just as striking when one compares the data separately
for each sex-skill group.5 The averages vary directly with size of
community for each group, although in some cases there are one or
more exceptions. The important exceptions apply to metropolitan
areas with 1,000,000 population and over, which averaged substantially
less than those between 500,000 and 1,000,000, in the case of unskilled
males and all groups of females. This is mostly due to the relatively
higher wage minima prevailing in Milwaukee, whose metropolitan
area has a population between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Most of the
other exceptions are not very significant.
A comparison of average hourly earnings by size of community
separately for each sex-skill group also shows that the variations were
greatest for skilled, less so for semiskilled, and smallest for unskilled
workers. For males, the spread between the averages for rural terri­
tory and metropolitan areas with a population of 1,000,000 and over
5
It should be noted that there are important differences in the composition of the labor force by sex and
skill among the various sizes of communities. These differences are especially pronounced between rural
territory and metropolitan areas with a population of 1, 000,000 and over, the proportion of males in the total
amounting to 48.1 percent in the former and 60.6 percent in the latter. For males, furthermore, the skill
break-down in rural territory was 19.6 percent skilled, 21.8 percent semiskilled, and 6.7 percent unskilled of
all workers, as against respectively 28.6, 25.5, and 6.5 percent in metropolitan areas of 1,000,000 and over.
Among females, the skill composition in rural territory was 7.7 percent skilled, 30.7 percent semiskilled, and
13.5 percent unskilled, which may be compared respectively with 5.5, 24.8, and 9.1 percent in metropolitan
areas of 1, 000,000 and over.




22

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

was 27.9 cents for skilled, 21.2 cents for semiskilled, and 7.9 cents for
unskilled 6 employees. Among females, the range between the aver­
ages for rural territory and communities between 500,000 and 1,000,000, which showed the highest figures, amoimted to 17.8 cents for
skilled, 12.1 cents for semiskilled, and 7.8 cents for unskilled workers.
Further evidence of the relationship between hourly earnings and
size of community is furnished by table 9, which shows the distribu­
tion of all workers in each class of community.
T able

9 .— Percentage distribution o f boot and shoe workers by average hourly
earnings, and by size o f com m unity, first quarter of 1939
Communities having a population of—

Average hourly earnings

Total

Under 17.5 cents_____ __
U)
0.2
17.5 and under 20.0 cents.
.1
20.0 and under 22.5 cents.
.2
22.5 and under 25.0 cents.
5.8
Exactly 25.0 cents________
3. 5
25.1 and under 27.5 cents.
4. 1
27.5 and under 30.0 cents..
30.0 and under 32.5 cents.
6.3
5.8
32.5 and under 35.0 cents.
35.0 and under 37.5 cents. - 6.9
37.5 and under 40.0 cents.
5.9
6.2
40.0 and under 42.5 cents.
10.1
42.5 and under 47.5 cents.
9.3
47.5 and under 52.5 cents.
52.5 and under 57.5 cents.
7.7
6. 2
57.5 and under 62.5 cents.
5. 2
62.5 and under 67.5 cents.
4.1
67.5 and under 72.5 cents .
3. 2
72.5 and under 77.5 cents.
2. 5
77.5 and under 82.5 cents.
82.5 and under 87.5 cents.
1.9
87.5 and under 92.5 cents.
1.6
92.5 and under 100.0
1. 3
cents.
..
__ __
100.0 and under 110.0
1.0
cen ts,._ . _ . . . ______
110.0 and under 125.0
.5
cents____________________
125.0 and under 150.0
.3
cents.
.1
150.0 cents and over

0.7
.3

.2
.3
14.2

0.4
.1

0)
1.2
.2

.7
11.9
5.7
7.3
7.7

.3
7.9
5.2
5.7
9.9
7.6
9.2
7. 1

.2

0.1

0.1
.2

10.7
4.5
4.7

5.0
3.6
4.8

8.2

8.0
6.0

0)
0.1
.2

(

!

0)
0.1

)

(i)

0.1

0.1

7.6

11.8
9.9

10.2
7.1
5.1
9.1
5.8
4.2
3.2

2.0
1.1
.6
.3
.1

.1

____

10.6

1.0
.1
2

10.4
8; 5
6.5
4.8
3.7
2.3
1. 4
.7
.3
.2

.5

1.0

1.8

1.8

,1

6.1

5.3
3.0
4.9
5.0
7.9
7.7
6.4
6. 4
10.3
8. 5
6.9
5.6
5.4
4.7
3. 1
2.3
1. 5
1.7

.1

.3

.7

1. 1

1. 2

1.0

.3

.1

.4

.6

1. 1

.9

.5

2.4

.1

.1

.1

.3

.6

.3

.2

1.5

.1
0)

t2
’1
.

.1

6.8
8.7
6.3
6.7
9.8
7.9
5.7
4. 7
3.0

2.6
1.9

6.6

.1
0)

6.4
8.4

6.1
7.4

7.6
5.7
6.4
10. 1

9.1
7. 2
4. 4
4.4
2.7
1. 6
1. 4

10.0

.8

1. 3

0)

7.9
6.7
5 2
i.i

2.9

2. 1

4.6
3.5
3. 5
5.3
5.1

6.2
5.7
5.8
10. 5
10. 2
8.5
7. 1
6. 1
4.8
3.9
2.7
2. 1

1.5
1.4

3.4

2.0
2.6

1.0

4.3
4.2
4.9
4.8
5.7
9.2
8.9

1.7
5. 1
4.8
7. 5

6.1
11.0
11.6
10.8

8.1

8.5
6. 5

7.0
5.9
5.3
4.5
4.1
3.5
3.4

6.2
5.2
3.6
3.9

S

3.1

.9
.2

o

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

___ 61, 560

1,171

3,426

8,289

5, 462

8,068

4, 349 12, 266

3, 287

15, 242

T otal______ ________
Number of workers

5.000 10,000 20,000 50.000 100,000 500,000
2,500
1,000,000
Under
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
2,500 under under under under under under
under
over
5,000 10.000 20,000 50,000 100.000 500,000 1, 000,000

1 Less than Y\o of 1 percent.

The significant feature of this table is generally a decreased repre­
sentation of employees in the lower wage classes as size of community
increases. For example, in plants located in rural territory, 1.5 per­
cent received less than 25 cents, 14.2 percent exactly 25 cents, 29.4
6
The spread in averages for this group between rural territory and communities between 500,000 and
1,000,000, which showed the highest figure, was 12.4 cents.
The generalization with reference to the greater spread for skilled than unskilled employees remains valid
even if the c omparison is made of the averages between all communities of less than 20,000 and metropolitan
centers. It is true that there is an especially large spread in the hourly earnings of skilled workers in rural
areas and smal 1 towns, and that the sample in rural areas is perhaps too small to serve as a significant base
for comparisons.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

23

percent below 30 cents, 51.1 percent under 35 cents, and 68.4 percent
less than 40 cents. By contrast, in metropolitan areas with a popu­
lation of 1,000,000 and over, hardly any were paid below 25 cents, 3.4
percent exactly 25 cents, 8.1 percent under 30 cents, 16.6 percent less
than 35 cents, and 26.3 percent below 40 cents.
Conversely, there is on the whole an increased proportion of workers
in the higher wage classes as size of community increases. In rural
territory, the number earning 67.5 cents and over amounted to only
2.2 percent, with very few employees receiving $1 and over. The
respective figures for metropolitan areas with a population of 1,000,000
and over were 28.9 and 5.0 percent.
Comparisons w ith Wage Standards Provided in Fair Labor
Standards A ct

In accordance with the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards
Act,7 a minimum of 25 cents per hour became effective on October
24, 1938. Hence, it is important to note how the wage structure of
the industry has adjusted itself to this minimum. The 25-cent
minimum will advance to 30 cents on October 24, 1939. In the
meantime, it may be raised under conditions specified in the act to
any point not to exceed 40 cents upon the recommendation of the
Industry Committee and the approval of the Administrator of the
Wage and Hour Division.8
As pointed out previously, relatively few (0.5 percent) workers in
the boot and shoe industry were found earning under 25 cents an hour.
Moreover, the effect of the law has been to cause some concentration
of wage earners at exactly 25.0 cents, especially for unskilled females.
On October 24, 1939, when the 30-cent minimum goes into effect,
it will affect directly 13.9 percent of all workers in the industry, who
were earning less than 30 cents an hour at the time of the survey.
The number of males paid under 30 cents amounted to only 6.1 per­
cent, which may be compared with 23.3 percent of all females. For
males, only 1.6 percent of the skilled and 7.2 percent of the semi­
skilled were found below that limit, as against 19.3 percent of the
unskilled employees. The respective figures for females were 11.4,
20.6, and 40.2 percent.
There were 26.0 percent of the workers in the industry receiving
under 35 cents an hour, the figures amounting to only 12.1 percent for
all males but as much as 42.9 percent for all females. The propor­
tion was still relatively small for skilled males, namely 4.1 percent.
It was not very substantial for semiskilled males, only 14.4 percent
7
It should be remembered that this law applies only to plants engaged in interstate commerce,
s It should be remembered that any adjustment of the wage structure to the 25-cent minimum, as well
as to higher minima in the future, may affect not only the workers earning under these minima but also
those in the higher wage classes. This is due to the fact that plants frequently find it necessary to maintain
existing occupational and other differentials in hourly earnings.




24

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

of whom were paid less than 35 cents. However, the proportions
were considerable for unskilled males (34.2 percent) and for skilled
(25.0 percent), semiskilled (40.1 percent), and unskilled (64.2 percent)
females.
Almost two-fifths (38.8 percent) of employees in the industry were
paid less than 40 cents an hour. The proportion of males found under
that limit was about one-fifth (21.3 percent), while for females it
amounted to exactly three-fifths. Only 8.2 percent of skilled males
earned below 40 cents, but the proportions were relatively large for
the remaining sex-skill groups, varying from one-fourth (25.2 percent)
for semiskilled males to four-fifths (79.1 percent) for unskilled
females.
It is important to note to what extent the wage structure of the
various groups of establishments will have to be adjusted to conform
to the 30-cent minimum on October 24, 1939. The lowest-paid plants,
namely those with averages of less than 30 cents an hour, showed 76.9
percent of their employees paid under 30 cents. The proportion
amounted to 56.1 percent in establishments averaging between 30.0
and 32.5 cents and 43.7 percent in those with averages between 32.5
and 35.0 cents. It varied from over one-third to one-fifth in the
groups of plants averaging between 35.0 and 42.5 cents. Hence, the
largest adjustment will also take place in establishments with averages
below 42.5 cents. The proportion of workers earning less than 30
cents was only 14 percent in plants averaging between 42.5 and 47.5
cents and about 7 to 8 percent in those with averages between 47.5 and
52.5 cents. In the remaining groups of establishments, the number
receiving under 30 cents varied from 1 to 5 percent. (See table 5.)
If 35 cents is taken as the limit, the largest proportions of workers
below that figure are found in the groups of plants averaging under 50
cents, the percentages ranging from 86.8 in establishments with aver­
ages below 30 cents to 20.2 in those averaging between 47.5 and 50.0
cents. These groups include 162 plants with 34,147 employees, which
is well over one-half of the industry’s coverage. In the remaining
groups of establishments, the number receiving less than 35 cents
ranged from 17.9 percent in plants with averages between 50.0 and
52.5 cents to 2.2 percent in those averaging 70 cents and over.
With 40 cents as the limit, the largest proportions of wage earners
below that figure were found in the groups of establishments with
averages under 57.5 cents, the spread being from 91.8 percent in
plants averaging below 30 cents to 21.8 percent in those with averages
between 55.0 and 57.5 cents. In the remaining groups of establish­
ments, the number earning less than 40 cents ranged from 14.6 percent
in plants averaging between 57.5 and 60.0 cents to 6.5 percent in
those with averages of 70 cents and over.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

25

Comparisons w ith Wage Standards Provided in N R A Code

The minimum wages set by the code of fair competition under the
NR A varied by sex, region, and size of city. Hence, it is interesting
at this point to note to what extent the boot and shoe industry has
deviated from the former wage minima of the NR A.
The Southern States covered here are part of a separate region
defined in the NR A code, which provided for it a minimum hourly
rate of 35 cents for males and 30 cents for females. This applied to
all cities and towns. These rates also applied to northern cities of less
than 20,000 population.
An analysis of the distributions by sex indicates that the plants in
the Southern States and small northern cities have departed con­
siderably from the former NRA wage standards. Thus, as many as
three-tenths of the females in the southern sample earned under 30
cents an hour at the time of the survey. For males, the number
receiving less than 35 cents amounted to over one-fifth (22.1 percent)
of the total. In places with a population of under 20,000 in the
North, the number of males earning less than 35 cents was over onesixth (18.1 percent) of the total, while the number of females receiving
below 30 cents was one-third of all women.
In the remaining cities of the Northern States, the NRA minimum
hourly rates were 37.5 cents for males and 32.5 cents for females in
cities with a population of over 250,000; 36.25 cents for males and
31.25 cents for females in those between 20,000 and 250,000, inclusive;
and, as has been noted, 35 cents for males and 30 cents for females
in cities and towns of less than 20,000 population.
The establishments in the larger cities in the North have deviated
from the former NRA wage minima only slightly less than plants in
the smaller cities. In cities 9 with a population of 250,000 and over,
the number of males paid below 37.5 cents amounted to over onetenth (11.2 percent) of the total at the time of the survey, while nearly
one-fourth (23.8 percent) of the females earned under 32.5 cents.
Likewise, one-eighth (12.4 percent) of the males received less than
36.25 cents and one-fourth (25.4 percent) of the females below 31.25
cents in communities between 20,000 and 250,000.1
0
In connection with this analysis, however, it should be pointed
out that the code permitted paying apprentices during a 6-week
period a rate not less than 80 percent of the minimum, limiting their
number to not more than 5 percent of all workers in any establish9
It should be remembered that the figures here cover metropolitan areas, as defined in footnote 4 on p. 19,
while the N R A analysis was on the basis of size of city. However, this distinction is not sufficiently impor­
tant to invalidate the above comparisons.
1 These two percentages are estimates based on interpolation respectively within the class intervals of 35.0
9
to 37.5 and 30.0 to 32.5 cents, on the assumption that the number of workers in each class are evenly dis­
tributed throughout the interval. This is a fair assumption to make in the boot and shoe industry, in which
most employees are piece workers, so that their average hourly earnings are apt to fall at any point.
1 7 0 2 0 9 °— 39—




5

26

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

ment. Moreover, the code specified that “ employers and employees
may make mutually satisfactory wage agreements covering the
employment of the infirm, partially disabled, or physically handi­
capped, if such employees do not constitute more than 5 percent of
the total number of employees.” It is fairly certain that these groups
of workers would not account for the total number earning under the
former code minima.
Earnings o f U nion and N onunion Workers 1
1

Of the 284 boot and shoe establishments included in the sample,
100 showed workers covered by an agreement entered into between
the employer and a union organization.1 The number of wage
2
earners affected by such agreements was 20,670, which was approxi­
mately one-third of the total employees included in the survey.
Union organization in this industry, judged in terms of the number
of workers covered by agreements, is largely concentrated in metro­
politan areas with a population of 100,000 and over. In fact, one-half
(49.2 percent) of the workers included under agreements were found
in centers of 1,000,000 and over.1 More than one-fourth (26.8
3
percent) were located in places between 100,000 and 1,000,000, which
makes a total of 76.0 percent in communities of 100,000 and over.
There were 11.0 percent in places with a population between 20,000
and 50,000. The remaining employees, amounting to 13.0 percent,
were confined to communities under 20,000, with relatively few being
found in places below 5,000.
T able

10.— Average hourly earnings o f boot and shoe w orkers, by u nionization , sex,
and skill, first quarter o f 1939
Average hourly earnings

Number of workers

Sex and skill
Total

All workers___ _____ _____ ______ ___________
Skilled_________________________________
Semiskilled________________________ ___
Unskilled______________ __________ ___

Union

N on­
union

Total

Union

N on­
union

$0.489
.615
.454
.363

$0,540
.503
.386

$0.464
.581
.429
.352

61, 560
19,236
32,474
9, 850

20,670
6,388
11,084
3,198

40,890
12,848
21,390
6, 652

. — _____________________
M ales______
Skilled_________________________________
Semiskilled____________ _____ __________
Unskilled_______________ _____________

.571
.664
.524
.401

.636
.737
.584
.440

.538
.628
.493
.385

33, 752
14,955
14, 919
3,878

11, 514
5,154
5,215
1,145

22,238
9,801
9,704
2, 733

Females___________________________ _______
Skilled_________________________________
Semiskilled. ________ _
_________ .
Unskilled____________________ ________

.390
.444
.394
.337

.421
.485
.431
.356

.375
.428
.376
.327

27,808
4,281
17, 555
5,972

9,156
1,234
5,869
2,053

.688

18, 652
3,047

11, 686
3,919

1 In preparing the tabulations on unionization, the Bureau considered not the worker’s membership
1
in an organization but whether or not his occupation was covered by an agreement between the union
and employer. In other words, all workers in occupations within the jurisdiction specified by the agree­
ments in a given plant are considered union workers, while those not covered by agreements are regarded
as nonunion employees.
1 Workers in establishments with employee-representation groups were included with the nonunion
2
employees. There were relatively few plants with employee-representation plans covered in this survey.
1 Approximately two-thirds of the total workers covered by the survey in metropolitan areas of 1,000,000
3
and over were affected by union agreements.




27

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

That average hourly earnings were considerably higher for union
as compared with nonunion workers is evident from table 10. For
all wage earners, the difference was 7.6 cents, the respective averages
being 54.0 and 46.4 cents. The differences were 10.9 cents for skilled,
9.1 cents for semiskilled, and 5.5 cents for unskilled males. They were
5.7 cents for skilled, 5.5 cents for semiskilled, and 2.9 cents for unskilled
females. In other words, the differences decreased with the skill of
employees, being also respectively less for females than males.
According to the distributions in table 11, there were relatively
fewer union than nonunion workers in the lower wage classes. The
respective percentages were 2.9 and 7.3 at exactly 25 cents, 8.3 and
16.6 under 30 cents, 18.6 and 29.8 less than 35 cents, and 30.1 and
43.3 below 40 cents. Conversely, there was a higher proportion of
union than nonunion employees in the higher-paid classes, the number
earning 67.5 cents and over amounting to 24.4 percent for the former
and only 12.5 perceut for the latter. There were 3.6 percent of the
union employees paid $1 and over, which may be compared with only
1.0 percent of the nonunion workers.
T able

11.— Percentage distribution o f boot and shoe workers by average hourly
earnings, and by unionization and sex, first quarter o f 1989
Total

Average hourly earnings

Under 17.5 cents
_ _ _ __ _ _
17.5 and under 20.0 cents. _ __________
___
20.0 and under 22.5 cents _
22.5 and under 25.0 cents. _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Exactly 25.0 cents_______________ _____
25.1 and under 27.5 cents ________
27.5 and under 30.0 cents_____________
30.0 and under 32.5 cents________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents_____________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents_____ _______
37.5 and under 40.0 cents_________ ___
40.0 and under 42.5 cents___ _____ ___
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___ ______ __
47.5 and under 52.5 cents.--------- ___ _
52.5 and under 57.5 cents ___ ---------57.5 and under 62.5 cents_____
__ _
62.5 and under 67.5 cents._ ---------- _
67.5 and under 72.5 cents___ __ __ __
72.5 and under 77.5 cents_____________
77.5 and under 82.5 cents_____________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents___ ---------- _
87.5 and under 92.5 cents___ ________
92.5 and under 100.0 cents._ . . . . .__
100.0 and under 110.0 cents___ _______
110.0 and under 125.0 cents__________
125.0 and under 150.0 cen ts... ______
150.0 cents and over
__
___.
Total ___________ . . .

------------

• All
work­
ers

Males

0)
0.2
.1
.2

0)
0)
0)
0.1

5.8
3.5
4.1
6.3
5.8
6.9
5.9

2.7
1.4
1.9
3.2

6.2
10.1
9.3
7.7

6.2
5.2
4.1
3.2
2.5
1.9

1.6
1.3

1.0
.5
.3
.1

100.0

2.8
4.9
4.3
4.9
9.1

10.0
9.7
8.7

Union

Fe­
males

0.1
.3

.1
.3
9.7

6.0
6.8
10.1
9.5
9.3
7.8
7.7
11.4
8.3
5.3
3.2

8.0
6.8

1.8

5.4
4.2
3.3
2.9
2.3

.6

1.8
1.0
.5
.1

100.0

.9
.4

.2
.1
.1
(0
0)
0)
100.0

All
work­ Males
ers
(i)
0.4

.1
.1
2.9

2.2
2.6
4.9
5.4
5.9
5.6
5.6
9.9
9.0

0.1
.1
.1
1.0
.7

1.2
2.2
2.0

7.1
5.9
5.0
4.1
3.6
3.0
2.7
2.4
1.9

3.3
3.9
4.0
7.2
8.3
8.5
8.5
8.4
7.7
6.4
5.9
5.1
4.7
4.3
3.3

1.1

2.0

.5

.9

8.0

.1

.2

100.0

100.0

Number of workers----------------------------- 61, 560 33, 752 27,808 20, 670 11,514
i Less than Ho of 1 percent.




Nonunion

Fe­
males

(!)
0.9

.2
.2
5.2
4.1
4.4

8.2
9.5
9.1
7.7
7.6
13.2

All
work­ Males
ers
(i)
0)

0.1
.2
7.3
4.1
4.9
7.1

6.1

(!)
0)
0)

0.1

Fe­
males

0.1
.1
.1
.3

3.5
1.7

12.0

2.2

8.0
11.1

3.7
3.2
5.8
4.6
5.4

6.9

10.3

9.4
9.4
7.8
7.8
10.4
7.5
4.3

8.8

2.2
1.3

.7

7.8
6.3
4.9
3.3
2.3
1.9
1.3

.6

1.0

.3

.5

.1
0)

.2
.1

100.0

1Q0.0

100.0

9,156 40,890 22,238

18, 652

10.0
7.3
5.3
2.9
1.5

1.2
.6
.4
.3

.1
.1
C)
1
0)
100.0

7.4

6.1
6.5

10.1
9.4
7.6
5.8
4.8
3.7

2.8
1.9
1.3

1.1

10.1
11.0

.6
.3

.2
.1
.1
0)
0
0)
(l)

28

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

Variations by Retail Price o f Shoes

Another factor that should be considered in connection with hourly
earnings in this industry is the retail price of shoes manufactured in
various plants. In analyzing the data on basis of retail price, however,
it is necessary to exclude all establishments making slippers, as well
as those engaged in manufacturing cut stock and findings for exclu­
sive use by boot and shoe factories belonging to the same company.
This reduces the total coverage to 241 plants with 56,249 wage earners,
thus including only that part of the industry engaged in the produc­
tion of boots and shoes.
Most establishments specialize in shoes falling within a narrow retail
price range. Furthermore, it is possible to classify all plants into 4
price classes, which are “ under $2.51,” “ $2.51-$4.50,” “ $4.51-$7.50,”
and “ over $7.50.” The first class covers cheap shoes, the second
popular-priced, the third medium-priced, and the last fine shoes. In
nearly all cases, an establishment was classified in a given price range
provided most of its production consisted of shoes within that class.
That the largest portion of the industry is in the popular-priced
field is indicated by the fact that, of 241 establishments, 90 with 23,090
workers (41.0 percent of the total) were engaged primarily in making
this kind of shoes. Next in importance are the cheap shoes, which
were manufactured largely by 89 plants covered in the survey, with
16,144 workers (28.7 percent). Of the remainder, 40 establishments
with 10,739 employees (19.1 percent of the total) made primarily
medium-priced shoes, while only 22 plants with 6,276 workers (11.2
percent) were engaged largely on fine shoes.
In the sample covered by the study, the proportions of employees
manufacturing shoes with various retail price ranges differed consid­
erably from one region to another. Of all workers covered in New
England, 33.6 percent made cheap shoes, 51.2 percent popular-priced,
13.1 percent medium-priced, and only 2.1 percent fine shoes. In
the Middle Atlantic States, the distribution was 46.9 percent for cheap,
22.6 percent for popular-priced, only 9.8 percent for medium-priced,
and 20.7 percent for fine shoes. Popular-priced and medium-priced
shoes predominated in the Middle Western States, the former absorb­
ing 37.2 and the latter 31.6 percent of the total labor force, which may
be compared with 14.6 percent for cheap and 16.6 percent for fine
shoes. As many as 65.5 percent of all employees in the Southern States
were engaged in manufacturing popular-priced shoes, as against 27.0
percent for cheap, 7.5 for medium-priced, and none for fine shoes.
As size of community increased, the proportion of total workers
making either cheap or popular-priced shoes generally decreased,
while exactly the opposite was true of either medium-priced or fine
shoes. Of the total labor force covered in manufacturing cheap shoes,




29

MANUFACTURE OF ROOTS AND SHOES

31.7 percent were found in communities with a population under
20,000, 22.9 percent in those between 20,000 and 100,000, 28.7 percent
in metropolitan centers between 100,000 and 1,000,000, and 16.7 per­
cent in those with 1,000,000 and over. For popular-priced shoes, the
respective figures amounted to 44.2, 21.5, 21.7, and 12.6 percent. By
contrast, of all employees making medium-priced shoes, only 17.3
percent were located in communities under 20,000 (none in places
under 5,000), 21.6 percent in those between 20,000 and 100,000, 29.9
percent in metropolitan areas between 100,000 and 1,000,000, and
31.2 percent in those of 1,000,000 and over. The respective percent­
ages were 7.3, 17.4, 19.0, and 56.3 for workers manufacturing fine
shoes.
The degree of unionization also varied in accordance with the retail
price range of shoes, the proportion of the total wage earners covered
by agreements in each class amounting to 15.8 percent for cheap,
30.1 percent for popular-priced, 48.1 percent for medium-priced, and
65.9 percent for fine shoes.1
4
Table 12 shows that average hourly earnings increased with the
retail price of shoes. For all workers, the averages were 44.1 cents
for cheap, 47.5 cents for popular-priced, 52.6 cents for medium-priced,
and 58.7 cents for fine shoes. The spread in averages between cheap
and fine shoes, therefore, amounted to 14.6 cents.
T a b l e 1 2 .—

Average hourly earnings in plants making boots and shoes only, by
retail price of shoes, sex, and skill, first quarter o f 1939
Skilled

All workers
Retail price
of shoes
Total

Male

Fe­
male

Total

Male

Semiskilled
Fe­
male

Total

Male

Unskilled

Fe­
male

Total

Male

Fe­
male

Average hourly earnings
Under $2.51— $0.441 $0. 512 $0.358 $0. 550 $0. 595 $0.410 $0. 404 $0. 461 $0. 358 $0. 328 $0. 354 $0. 312
.442
.353
.382
.599
.435
.505
.393
.554
.646
.388
.327
.475
$2.51-$4.50_____
.424
.672
.491
.432
.387
.434
.725
.487
.565
.361
.526
.619
$4.51-$7.50_____
.442
.763
.801
. 519
.550
.638
.450
.414
.448
.385
.587
.679
Over $7.50_____
Total.

.488

.569

.389

.614

.663

.442

. 522

.395

.361

.398

. 336

8, 254
12,496
5, 817
236 3, 409

3, 702
5, 709
2, 570
1,832

4, 552
6,787
3,247
1,577

2,473
3, 620
1,790
1,024

916
1,406
627
457

1,557
2, 214
1,163
567

3,797 29,976

13,813

16,163

8,907

3,406

5, 501

.453

Number of workers
Under $2.51___ 16,144 8, 727 7, 417
$2.51-$4.50_____ 23,090 12, 524 10, 566
5,098
$4.51-$7.50_____ 10, 739 5,641
2, 380
Over $7.50_____ 6, 276 3,896

5, 417

6,974
3,132
1,843

4,109
5, 409
2, 444
1,607

T otal___ 56,249 30, 788 25, 461 17, 366 13, 569

1,308
1,565

688

There were important variations in the composition of the labor
force as to sex and skill among plants falling in the different retail
price classes, but the proportions did not follow any line of consistency.
n This tabulation is on the basis of plants, all workers regardless of occupation in a union establishment
being classified as covered by the union agreement.




30

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

The varying composition of the labor force, however, did not alter the
fact that hourly earnings varied directly with the retail price of shoes,
as one may see by an examination of the data separately for each sexskill group. In analyzing these figures, it will be observed that the
spread in average hourly earnings between adjacent retail price ranges
generally decreased with the degree of skill, being also smaller for
females than males.
Table 13 presents the distribution of total employees according to
average hourly earnings by retail price of shoes.
The proportion of workers in the lower wage classes showed a
gradual decline with an increase in the retail price of shoes. Com­
paring the distributions for all employees of the 2 extreme classes,
namely cheap and fine shoes, the respective percentages were 10.5
and 2.1 at exactly 25 cents, 21.8 and 5.3 under 30 cents, 36.5 and
13.2 less than 35 cents, and 49.7 and 22.8 below 40 cents.
On the other hand, the proportion of wage earners in the higherpaid classes increased with the retail price of shoes. Comparing the
distributions of all workers for cheap and fine shoes, the number
earning 67.5 cents and over amounted respectively to 10.4 and 32.9
percent. The percentage of employees receiving $1 and over was
0.7 for cheap but 6.6 for fine shoes.
13. — Percentage distribution o f workers in plants m aking boots and shoes
o n ly, by retail price o f shoes, sex, and average hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1939

T able

Plants manufacturing shoes with a retail price of—
Under $2.51

Average hourlye*rnings
(in cents)

All
work­ Male
ers
Under 17.5___
- _ ______
0.1
.1
17.5 and under 20.0_____ .
20.0 and under 22.5____ . _
.1
22.5 and under 25.0_______
.3
Exactly 25.0_____ _________ 10.5
25.1 and under 27.5____ __
5.0
27.5 and under 30.0_______
5.7
30.0 and under 32.5_______
8.0
32.5 and under 35.0_______
6.7
7.2
35.0 and under 37.5_______
37.5 and under 40.0_______
6.0
40.0 and under 42.5_______
5.7
42.5 and under 47.5_______
9.5
47.5 and under 52.5_______
8.5
52.5 and under 57.5_______
6.9
5.2
57.5 and under 62.5_______
4.1
62.5 and under 67.5_______
67.5 and under 72.5_______
3.1
2.3
72.5 and under 77.5_______
77.5 and under 82.5_______
1.6
82.5 and under 87.5_______
1.2
87.5 and under 92.5________
.9
92.5 and under 100.0______
.6
100.0 and under 110.0___ .
.4
.2
110.0 and under 125.0 __ _
.1
125.0 and under 150.0.
150.0 and over_____________
(>)
Total_______________ 100.0

1 Less than Mo of 1 percent.




0)
0)

0.2

5.4
2.5
3.1
4.9
4.5
5.9
4.8
5.2
9.9
10.3
9.8

8.0
6.8
5.3
4.1
2.9

2.1
1.6
1.2
.8
.4

.2
.1

$2.51-$4.50

All
Fe­ work­
Male
male
ers

0.2
.1
.1
.4
16.6
7.9

8.8
11. 7
9.3
8.7
7.3

6.2
9.0
6.3
3.6
1.9

1.0
.4

.2
.1

.1
.1

(V
)
0)

0)
0.4

.1
.2
5.3
3.9
4.3
6.7
5.8
7.5
5.9

6.8
10.8
9.5
7.7
6.3
5.2
4.1
3.0

2.1
1.3

1.2
.8
.7
.3
.1
(!)

0.1
.1
.1
2.2
1.4

1.8
3.1
3.0
5.5
4.1
5.6
10.3

$4.51-$7.50

All
All
Fe­
work­ Male Fe­ work­ Male
male
male
ers
ers

Fe­
male

0)

0.8
.2
.4
8.9
7.0
7.2

11.0
9.2
9.9

0)

0.1
.1
2.6
1.8
2.3
4.2
5.7
.5.9

8.0
8.1

6.6
6.6
10.9
10.5

9.5
8.4
7.0
5.1
3.5

11.3
7.4
4.7
2.5
1.5
.7
.5
.4

2.2
2.1

.2
.1

2.6
2.0

11.0
10.2

$7.51 and over

1.5
1.3

0)

.6
.2
.1

0)

8.8
7.2

6.0
5.1
3.8
3.2
1.9
1.3
.5
.3
0)

0)
0)
0)

1.2
.7

.8
1.5
1.3
3.5
5.1
4.3
7.5
9.4

10.1
8.8
9.0
8.5
6.5
5.8
4.8
3.7
3.6
2.4
.9
.5

.1

0.1
.2
4.3
3.1
4.0
7.3
10. 5

8.6
8.2
9.1
14.5

11.8
7.3
5.4

2.6
1.3

.8
.4
.3

.1
.1

0.1
.1

(})

0)

2.1
1.6
1.6
3.6
4.3
5.2
4.4
5.5

0.9

.2
.7

2.2
.9

4.0
3.9
3.1

6.1

8.6

6.2

9. 7
9. 5
7.0
8. 5
12. 3

8.9
7.8
7.2
6.3
5.3
4.9
4.3
4.2
4.3
3.3
3. 0
2. 2
1*2
.2

7.4
7.4

11.1
8.6

2.6
2.8
3.7

8.1
7.9
7.1

5.8
3. 6
2.4

6.8

1.8

6.3
6.5

6.8
5.2
4. 7
3.4
1. 8
.4

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

.9
.4
.4
.3
.3
i
0)'

100.0

M ANUFACTURE

OF BOOTS

AND

31

SH OES

Individual Influence o f Sizie o f Com m unity, Unionisation, and
Retail Price o f Shoes

In three previous sections of this report, it has been shown that
(1) average hourly earnings varied directly with size of community,
(2) they were higher for union than nonunion workers, and (3) they
increased with the retail price of shoes. In each case, however, the
analysis was confined to the relation between one factor and hourly
earnings, with the other two factors still influencing the latter.
In analyzing the coverage, it has also been pointed out that the three
factors are closely interrelated. Thus, as size of community increased,
the proportion of all employees manufacturing either cheap or popularpriced shoes generally decreased, whereas the opposite tendency was
found in connection with medium-priced and fine shoes. Further­
more, of the total workers engaged in making each class of retail price
of shoes the proportion of wage earners covered by agreements
increased with the price of shoes. Lastly, union organization was
largely concentrated in metropolitan areas with a population of
1,000,000 and over, the proportion of all workers covered by agree­
ments decreasing on the whole as size of community became smaller.
Under the above circumstances, it is difficult to determine the extent
to which each of the three factors independently affected average
hourly earnings, unless the data are shown simultaneously by size of
community, unionization, and retail price of shoes. Such an analysis
is presented in table 14.1
5
T a b l e 1 4 .— A v era g e h ou rly earnings o f specified skill g ro u p s, in plants m ak ing boots

and shoes o n ly , by size o f c o m m u n ity , u n io n iza tio n , and retail price o f shoes, first
quarter o f 1 9 8 9
ALL W ORKERS

Population of community and unionization 1

Total

Under
$2.50

$2.51$4.50

$4.51$7.50

Over
$7.50

Total_________________________ ________________________
Union p lan ts--_
_ _
_ _ _ _ _ _
Nonunion plan ts.. _
___ _______ ___

$0.488
.538
.462

$0.441
.497
.431

$0.475
.493
.468

$0. 526
.547
.505

Under 20,000___________________________________________
Union plants-_____ _ _ _________
Nonunion plants_____._ _______ ___________ _____

.416
.410
.417

.375
(2)
.374

.427
.400
.433

.471
(2)
.464

.478
.484
.476

.446
.446

.505
(2
)
.512

.473
.493
.460

.472
(2)
(2
)

.516
.542
.500

.470
.489
.466

.518
.544
.497

.544
.539
.550

.608
(2
)
(2
)

.571
.587
.528

.517
.523
.510

.526
.543
(2)

.575
.579
(2
)

2 ,0 0and under 100,000______________________________
00
Union plants ______
Nonunion plants. _

_ ____________ __________
___________________________

1 0 0 and under 1,000,000________ _____ ______________
0 ,0 0

Union plants. ________ _______ __ ____________ _
Nonunion plants____________ __
_______________

1
,000,000 and over_____________ _____ _____ __

______
Union p l a n t s . _
_ ______ _________ __________
Nonunion plan ts._ _ __ ___
______ . . . _ ___

$0. 587
.622
.510
(2
)
(2
)

.642
.650
(2
)

See footnotes at end o f table.
1 Analysis by unionization is on the basis of plants, all workers regardless of occupation in a union estab­
5
lishment being classified as covered by the union agreement.
In view of the fact that the unions in this industry are organized on an industrial basis, the total number
of employees in the union plants is not very much different from the number confined only to occupations
within the jurisdiction of the agreements in these establishments. Likewise, there is very little difference
in average hourly earnings between the two coverages.




32

E A R N IN G S

AND

H O U R S, SH OE

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R IE S

14.— A v era g e h ou rly earnings o f specified skill gro u p s, in pla nts m a k in g hoots
and shoes o n ly , b y size o f c o m m u n ity, u n io n iza tio n , and retail p rice o f shoes, first
quarter o f 1 9 3 9 — C o n t in u e d

T able

S K IL L E D M A L E S

Population of community and unionization 1

Total

Under
$2.60

$2.51$4.50

$4.51$7.50

T otal_________________
Union plants____
Nonunion plants.

$0.663
.738
.625

$0.595
. 664
.580

$0.646
.684
.632

Under 20,000_________
Union plants____
Nonunion plants.

.561
.573
.559

.498
(2
)
.492

.578
.549
.584

2 ,0 0and under 100,000.
00

. 657
.677
. 654

.612
__________
. 612

.695
.748
.667

.627
.633
.625

.712
.801
.658

.666
.686
.644

.700
.712
(2
)

.801
.805
(2
)

$0.801
.843
.702

.736
.731
.743

.757
.779
.700

Over
$7.50

Union plants_______
Nonunion p la n ts.. .

1 0 0 and under 1,000,000
0 ,0 0
Union plants__________
Nonunion plants______

1
,000,000 and over___

Union plants____
Nonunion plants.

.I

(2
)

$0. 725
.759
.693
. 639
(2)

. 631

(2
)

----(2)

.656
.699
.630
.825

.841
.854
(2
)

S E M I S K IL L E D M A L E S
Total___ - ----------------- ----------------- ----------- --- ----------Union plan ts.- ___________
_______ __________
Nonunion plan ts..
_ ________ _______________

$0. 522
.582
.490

$0. 461
.500
.453

$0. 505
.535
,492

$0. 565
.583
.548

Under 20,000___________________________________________
Union plan ts._____ ___________ _________ _______
Nonunion plants_____________ __________ ________

.441
.435
.442

.392
(2
)
.391

.452
.427
.458

.516
(2
)
.515

.510
.547
.501

.475
.475

.524
(2
)
. 526

.511
. 553
.486

.547
.585
.526

.491
.492
.491

.557
.621
.516

.565
.553
.578

.612
.626
.570

.523
.521
.526

.564
.573
(2
)

.626
.621
(2
)

.551
(2
)
(2
)
.637
(2
)
(2
)
.685
.695
(2
)

$0.450
.480
.399

2 ,0 0and under 100,000_____ . . .
00
Union plants
_
_
Nonunion plants____

_______ ______ . .
_____ _____ ___________
_ _. . . __________ . . .

1 0 0 and under 1,000,000______________
0 ,0 0

____________
Union plan ts._ . . . _ _______ __________________
Nonunion p la n ts._______ . . . _. __________________

1
,000,000 and over_________

. ... .. . ..
-----Union p l a n t s . . _________ . . . . . . ________________
Nonunion plants_____ ________ . . .
__________

$0. 638
.681
.540
(2
)
(2)

S E M IS K IL L E D F E M A L E S
Total____ __ _ _________ ______ _ _____ _________ __
Union p la n ts.. __ . -------------------------------------------___
Nonunion p la n ts ... _____________ __ ___

$0. 395
.430
.377

$0. 358
.383
.354

$0. 388
.402
.381

$0. 432
.452
.413

Under 20,000_____________ __ _
__ __________ ______
Union plants_______ _____________ _
____________
Nonunion plants___________ __
__________ __

.346
.338
.347

.317
(2
)
.318

.354
.335
.359

.380
(2
)
.379

.338
.396
.386

.365
.365

.405
(2
)
.409

.395
.403
.389

.425
.449
.408

.382
.404
.377

.423
.441
.405

.463
.464
.462

.446
.458
.416

.400
.390
.411

.414
.427
(2
)

.461
.471
(2
)

2 ,0 0and under 100,000_________________________ _____
00
Union p lan ts.. _ ________ ____ ____ ____ _________
_
Nonunion plants____________ ____________ _______

1 0 0 and under 1,000,000_________________
0 ,0 0

_________
Union plants_____________ __ ... _ . ____________
Nonunion plants__________________________________

1
,000,000 and over---------------------------------------------------------Union plants
___
__ _________ _________
Nonunion plants___ ______________ . ___________

1

(2
)
(2
)
.378
(2
)
(2
)
.476
(2
)
(2
)
.495
..502
(2
)

The analysis by unionization is on the basis of plants, all workers regardless of occupation in a union
establishment being classified as covered by the union agreement.
In view of the fact that the unions in this industry are organized on an industrial basis, the total number
of employees in the union plants is not very much different from the number confined only to occupations
within the jurisdiction of the agreements in these establishments. Likewise, there is very little difference
in average hourly earnings between the 2 coverages.
Figure omitted, owing to coverage including either less than 3 companies or 1 firm sufficiently large
to dominate the data when there are 3 or more companies.

2




M ANUFACTURE

OF

ROOTS

AND

SH OES

33

With but few exceptions, the average hourly earnings of either
union or nonunion plants in each size of community varied directly
with retail price of shoes. Likewise, in most instances, the averages
for either union or nonunion establishments in each retail-price class
increased with size of community. Moreover, with some exceptions,
the average for each comparable retail-price range and size of com­
munity was higher in union as compared with nonunion plants. The
lowest extreme was 37.4 cents in nonunion establishments making
cheap shoes in communities under 20,000, while the highest extreme
was 65.0 cents in union plants manufacturing fine shoes in metropolitan
areas with a population of 1,000,000 and over.
Of the various sex-skill groups in the total labor force, the most
important numerically are skilled males and semiskilled males and
females. Analysis of the data for each of these groups indicates that
the relationship between average hourly earnings and size of com­
munity, unionization, and retail price of shoes considered independ­
ently is generally the same as for all workers. In each case, the low­
est figure is also found in connection with nonunion establishments
making cheap shoes in the smallest communities, with the highest
figure occurring in union plants manufacturing fine shoes in the largest
metropolitan areas. The range in averages between these extremes
was 36.2 cents for skilled males, 30.4 cents for semiskilled males, and
18.4 cents for semiskilled females, thus being less for semiskilled as
compared with skilled males and less for females than males among
semiskilled workers.
In other words, it is fairly clear that each of the three factors,
namely, size of community, unionization, and retail price of shoes,
contributes to some extent to the variations in average hourly earnings.
Variations by T ype o f Shoe Construction

Type of shoe construction refers to the method by which the soles
are attached to the upper of shoes. In this survey, an establishment
in nearly all cases was classified under a given type of construction
provided two-thirds of its production consisted of shoes within that
category. Separate figures are shown for Goodyear welt, cement,
McKay, stitchdown, American welt, Littleway, and nailed shoes.
Moreover, a miscellaneous group includes numerous other types of
shoe construction, such as prewelt, Silhouwelt, turn, and Uco, as well
as plants making shoes of more than one type with none predominat­
ing in the total production.
Shoes made by the Goodyear welt and cement processes represent
the most important types of shoe construction. In the sample cov­
ered, 81 establishments with 19,363 wage earners (34.4 percent) were
primarily engaged in producing Goodyear welt shoes. Cement shoes
were made largely in 62 plants, which included 17,020 employees or
170209°— 39------ 6




34

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

30.3 percent of the total. The coverage was 29 establishments with
6.003 employees (10.7 percent) for M cK ay and 23 plants with 4,568
workers (8.1 percent) for stitchdown shoes. Only a few plants with
a relatively small proportion of all employees were engaged in manu­
facturing primarily American welt, Littleway, and nailed shoes;1
6
these accounted respectively for only 6, 7, and 6 plants with 1,733
(3.1 percent), 1,591 (2.8 percent), and 1,000 (1.8 percent) workers.
The miscellaneous class included 27 plants and 4,969 workers, or 8.8
percent of the total.
An analysis of the sample also shows the regional distribution of the
various types of shoe construction. Although the largest percentage
(42.3) of all employees making Goodyear welt shoes was located in
the Middle Western States, the remainder was fairly well distributed
throughout the other geographic divisions. The regional distribution
of wage earners producing nailed shoes was very similar to that of Good­
year welt shoes. Employees manufacturing cement shoes were found
largely in the New England and Middle Western States, the former ac­
counting for 53.1 and the latter for 32.1 percent of the total engaged
on this method of construction, while the remaining workers were dis­
tributed among the Middle Atlantic and Southern States. A similar
situation was encountered in connection with M cK ay shoes, with 48.8
percent of all employees in New England and 41.6 percent in the
Middle Western States, thus leaving only 9.6 percent in the remaining
States. No wage earners making primarily stitchdown shoes were
found in the southern region and relatively few in New England, most
of the workers engaged on that type of construction being located in
the Middle Atlantic (61.3 percent) and Middle Western (30.8 percent)
States. Over one-half (54.3 percent) of the employees producing
mainly American welt shoes were in the Middle Atlantic and over onethird (37.0 percent) in the New England States, the remainder being
found in the southern region with none in the Middle Western States.
Of all workers engaged primarily in making Littleway shoes, over twothirds (68.7 percent) were in New England and less than one-third
(31.3 percent) in the Middle Western States, with none located in any
of the other regions.
The highest average hourly earnings for all wage earners (table 15),
namely 52.8 cents, were found in plants making Littleway shoes.
Generally speaking, these establishments also had the highest averages
for the various sex-skill groups. Judged on the basis of the sample,
one reason for these relatively high wages is the wide extent of union­
ization, with four-fifths (80.7 percent) of the workers being covered by
agreements. Another reason was the heavy concentration of the
plants in metropolitan areas with a population between 100,000 and

16 In view of the small coverage, any generalizations pertaining to these types of shoes must be regarded
with caution.




35

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

1,000,000, which accounted for three-fourths (75.4 percent) of all
employees in this category, the remaining workers being scattered in
communities under 100,000. The effect of these two factors on hourly
earnings is counteracted to some extent by the predominance of
Littleway shoes in the popular-priced field, as indicated by the fact
that 83.7 percent of the total wage earners were found producing shoes
in that retail price range. There were some employees working on
cheap and medium-priced Littleway shoes, but none was found en­
gaged primarily in making fine shoes.
Employees producing Goodyear welt, American welt, cement, and
nailed shoes occupied an intermediate position with respect to the allaround average hourly earnings, which amounted respectively to
50.5, 49.9, 49.7, and 48.1 cents. On the whole, these types of shoes
also occupied a middle position in connection with the hourly earnings
for the various sex-skill groups, although the rank of averages in each
case did not always follow the above order.

T able

1 5 . — A vera g e h o u rly earnings in plants m ak in g hoots and shoes o n ly , by typ e
o f shoe con stru ction , sex, and skill, first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

All workers
Type of shoe construction

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
Average hourly earnings

Goodyear welt. _ _. _ ___
Cement__ ____ ... .
McKay___ _______
Stitchdown_____________
American welt_______ _
Littleway______________
N ailed ._____ ________
Miscellaneous__ ______
Total_____________

$0. 505 $0. 574 $0.406 $0.632 $0.672 $0. 467 $0. 466 $0. 521 $0.411 $0. 383 $0.420 $0. 364
.497 .609 .386 .651 .714 .441 .465 .562 .394 .350 .392 .331
.436 .505 .358 .545 .589 .417 .404 .458 .360 .332 .369 .309
.449 .514 .357 . 561 .604 .401 .404 .461 .356 .338 .358 .315
.499 .580 .398 .593 .644 .426 .465 .533 .403 .378 .420 .360
.528 .649 .423 . 649 .734 .460 .503 .606 .436 .374 .442 . 350
.481 .523 .384 .576 .596 .441 .443 .485 .379 .360 .367 . 351
.467 .536 .387 .571 .619 .429 .443 .499 .394 .363 .402 .338
.488 .569 .389 .614 .663 .442 .453 .522 .395 .361 .398 .336
Number of workers

Goodyear welt__________ 19, 363 11, 355 8,008 6,114 4, 914 1,200 10, 346 5,161 5,185 2,903 1,280 1, 623
Cement _ ___________ 17, 020 8,500 8,520 4,795 3,714 1,081 9, 359 3, 919 5, 440 2,866 867 1,999
McKay_______ ______ 6, 003 3,179 2, 824 1,880 1, 415 465 3,127 1, 400 1, 727 996 364 632
Stitchdown... _________ 4, 568 2, 671 1.897 1,643 1, 302 341 2,192 990 1,202 733 379 354
American welt__________ 1,733 962 771 629 481 148 873 411 462 231 70 161
Littleway______________ 1, 591 755 836 480 335 145 887 363 524 224 57 167
Nailed_________ ________ 1,002 691 311 361 309 52 527 316 211 114 66 48
Miscellaneous. _______ 4, 969 2, 675 2,294 1,464 1,099 365 2, 665 1,253 1,412 840 323 517
Total_____________ 56, 249 30, 788 25,461 17, 366 13, 569 3,797 29, 976 13, 813 16,163 8,907 3,406 5. 501
In spite of the fact that Goodyear welt, American welt, cement, and
nailed shoes did not vary much as to average hourly earnings, they
differed considerably as regards unionization, size of community, and
retail price of shoes.
Although the majority of workers in plants making Goodyear welt
shoes were not covered by agreements with union organizations,
there was a substantial proportion in that category, namely one-third




36

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

of all employees. The distribution of wage earners by size of com­
munity was 31.7 percent in communities under 20,000, 27.6 percent
between 20,000 and 100,000, 26.4 percent between 100,000 and
1.000. 000, and only 14.3 percent in metropolitan areas of 1,000,000
and over, which means that a majority of employees were found in
the smaller communities. Although over one-half (51.2 percent) of
all workers were engaged in producing popular-priced shoes, there
was a considerable proportion in higher-priced shoes, namely 26.6
percent in medium-priced and 14.3 percent in fine shoes. Only 7.9
percent were found making cheap shoes. In other words, each of the
factors was found to exert a moderate influence on hourly earnings.
A more or less similar situation prevails in connection with cement
shoes. Of the total wage earners engaged in manufacturing such
shoes, two-fifths (40.6 percent) were covered by union agreements.
Although as many as two-fifths (40.6 percent) of all workers were
located in metropolitan areas with a population of 1,000,000 and
over (unlike Goodyear welt shoes), there were substantial pro­
portions distributed among the other community sizes, the figures
being 23.8 percent in places under 20,000, 21.0 percent in those be­
tween 20,000 and 100,000, and 14.6 percent in communities between
100,000* and 1,000,000. The distribution of employees by retail
price ranges was 23.2 percent for cheap, 43.5 percent for popularpriced, 18.4 percent for medium-priced, and 14.9 percent for fine shoes.
According to the sample, only a small proportion (8.7 percent) of
the total wage earners making American welt shoes were covered by
agreements with union organizations. Moreover all employees
worked on cheap shoes. Both factors, therefore, would tend to reduce
hourly earnings. The influence of these factors, however, is counter­
acted by the fact that all wage earners producing American welt shoes
were located in metropolitan areas with a population of 100,000 and
over, especially in those between 100,000 and 1,000,000.
As in American welt shoes, the sample indicates that only a small
proportion (10.1 percent) of the total workers engaged in the produc­
tion of nailed shoes was included under union agreements. Like­
wise, all employees were found making lower-priced shoes, the
distribution being 42.0 percent for cheap and 58.0 percent for popularpriced shoes. On the other hand, the wage earners on this type of
shoe construction were fairly scattered by size of community, the
percentages being 33.7 under 20,000, 9.3 between 20,000 and 100,000,
35.0 between 100,000 and 1,000,000, and 22.0 in metropolitan areas of
1.000. 000 and over.
The lowest average hourly earnings for all workers were found in
plants making stitchdown and McKay shoes, the respective figures
amounting to 44.9 and 43.6 cents. In general, these establishments
also had the lowest averages for the various sex-skill groups.




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

37

As many as 38.0 percent of all wage earners making stitchdown shoes
were under the jurisdiction of union agreements. The influence
of this factor, however, was counteracted by the predominance of
employees in smaller communities and lower-priced shoes. Thus, of
the total workers, 40.4 percent were found in communities with a
population under 20,000 and 16.2 percent in those between 20,000
and 100,000, which may be compared with 20.3 percent in metro­
politan areas between 100,000 and 1,000,000 and 23.1 percent in those
with 1,000,000 and over. As regards retail price of shoes, the dis­
tribution was 74.1 percent for cheap, 22.7 percent for popular-priced,
and only 3.2 percent for medium-priced shoes.
In making M cKay shoes, all 3 factors operated in the same direction.
Of the total wage earners, only 8.2 percent were covered by agreements
with unions. As regards the distribution by size of community,
53.0 percent were found in places with a population under 20,000
and 23.6 percent in those between 20,000 and 100,000, as against 13.9
percent in metropolitan areas between 100,000 and 1,000,000 and 9.5
percent in those with 1,000,000 and over. Exactly 90 percent of all
workers were engaged in producing lower-priced shoes (62.1 percent
for cheap and 27.9 percent for popular-priced), with the remainder
distributed between medium-priced and fine shoes.
Table 16 gives a distribution of workers according to average hourly
earnings, by type of shoe construction.
T

1 6 . — P ercentage d istribution o f w orkers in plants m ak ing boots and shoes
o n ly , by typ e o f shoe construction and average h ou rly ea rn in gs , first quarter
of 1989

a b l e

Good­ Ce­
Total year ment
welt
(!)
0)
(i)
Under 17.5 cents.
_.
0.2 0.5 0)
17.5 and under 20.0 cents. __ ____
.1
. 1 0.1
20.0 and under 22.5 cents. . . . .
.2
.2
.3
22.5 and under 25.0 cents. ____
Exactly 25.0 cents___ _ ___ . . . 5.9 3.2 7.4
3.5 2.5 4.6
25.1 and under 27.5 cents_______ ...
27.5 and under 30.0 cents___________ 4.0 2.9 5.1
30.0 and under 32.5 cents. _ _______ 6.3 5.1 6.4
32.5 and under 35.0 cents. _ ________ 5.9 5.2 6.2
35.0 and under 37.5 cents_____ _____ 6.9 6.4 6.1
37.5 and under 40.0 cents______ .. . 5.9 6.2 5.0
40.0 and under 42.5 cents----------------- 6.3 6.6 5.4
42.5 and under 47.5 cents _________ 10.0 10.6 8.9
47.5 and under 52.5 cents----------------- 9.2 10.5 8.2
52.5 and under 57.5 cents_____ ___ 7.7 8.6 7.1
57.5 and under 62.5 c e n ts..___ __ _ 6.3 7.4 5.6
62.5 and under 67.5 cents----------------- 5.2 6.3 4.3
4.1 5.0 4.0
67.5 and under 72.5 cents______ ...
72.5 and under 77.5 cents___________ 3.2 3.9 2.9
77.5 and under 82.5 cents. _________ 2.4 2.7 2.7
82.5 and under 87.5 cents___________ 1.8 2.2 2.1
1.6 1.5 2.2
87.5 and under 92.5 cents____ . . .
92.5 and under 100.0 cents__________ 1.3 1.1 1.9
1.0
.8 1.7
100.0 and under 110.0 cents
.4 1.1
.5
110 0 and under 125.0 cents
.1
.3
.6
125 0 and under 150.0 cents
. 1 (0
.1
150.0 cents and over.._ ______ ...
Total............... ............................. 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of workers.............. ............... 56,249 19,363 17,020
1 Less than Mo of 1 percent.
Average hourly earnings




Mis­
Mc­ Stitch­ Amer­ Little­
ican
cella­
Kay down welt way Nailed neous
0.3
.1
0.1
0.2
.1
0)
0.1
.1
.2
.2 0.1
0.1
8.3 9.3 3.2 2.2 2.9
8.2
4.2 4.7 2.9 2.2 1.7
3.5
5.3 4.9 3.8 2.1 2.0
3.4
9.5 7.9 5.4 3.1 3.8
7.1
7.4 6.3 5.1 5.9 6.4
5.2
8.7 7.7 5.7 8.0 9.2
7.8
7.2 5.5 6.9 5.5 7.1
6.0
6.8 6.7 6.3 7.0 6.4
6.9
9.6 10.4 10.8 13.5 13.5 10.5
8.6 8.4 9.9 7.8 10.5 10.0
7.6 6.3 9.0 7.3 10.8
6.9
5.0 4.6 8.0 6.6 10.1
5.8
5.1
3.3 4.6 7.4 5.9 6.3
2.3 3.3 4.6 5.2 3.8
3.5
2.0 2.8 2.8 4.3 2.5
2.9
1.5 1.6 3.1 3.0 1.1
2.1
.8 1.3 2.0 2.6
.6
1.2
.5 1.2 1.5 3.2
.9
1.3
.5
.9 1.0 2.2
.3
1.0
.3
6
.5 1.6
.6
.2
.4
.6
.3
o
.1
.1
.1
0)
0)
0)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
6,003 4, 568 1, 733 1,591 1,002 4,969

38

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

Variations by Kind o f Shoes
As in other factors, in the main the classification by kind of shoes
was prepared by placing a plant in a given category provided twothirds of its production consisted of shoes within that class. Separate
figures are shown for men’s, women’s, and girls’ shoes. In view of
the large amount of overlapping, the coverage was not sufficiently
large to present separate data for misses’ , children’s, and infants’
shoes, which were lumped together in one class. Lastly, the miscel­
laneous group covers establishments making shoes of more than one
kind with none predominating in the total production.

There were 105 plants with 28,098 workers (49.9 percent) that were
primarily engaged in producing women’s shoes. Men’s shoes were
next in importance, including 76 establishments and 16,459 employees
(29.3 percent). Misses’, children’s, and infants’ shoes were made
largely in 39 plants with 6,662 workers (11.8 percent), while girls’
shoes were manufactured primarily in 13 establishments with 2,567
workers (4.6 percent). Only 8 plants with 2,463 employees, or 4.4
percent of all the labor force, were included in the miscellaneous class.
The regional distribution was very similar between men’s and
women’s shoes, most of the workers in each being found in the New
England and Middle Western States. In men’s shoes, the percentages
were 37.6 for the New England and 39.7 for the Middle Western
States, as against 12.8 for the Middle Atlantic and 9.9 for the Southern
States. The respective figures in women’s shoes were 42.8, 37.4,
15.1, and 4.7 percent. In girls’ shoes, the largest proportion of wage
earners (47.1 percent) was found in the New England States, as
against 27.0 percent in the Middle Atlantic, 20.1 in the Middle Western,
and 5.8 percent in the Southern States. Employees making misses’ ,
children’s, and infants’ shoes were largely concentrated in the Middle
Atlantic and Middle Western States, the former accounting for 45.1
and the latter for 35.7 percent of the total, as against 15.0 percent in
New England and 4.2 percent in the Southern States.

The highest average hourly earnings for all workers were found in
establishments making men’s and women’s shoes, the figures being
respectively 51.6 and 49.3 cents. For skilled and semiskilled males,
women’s averaged higher than men’s shoes, while the opposite was
true for unskilled males and all female groups. (See table 17.)
Employees working on men’s and women’s shoes did not differ
materially as to unionization, size of community, and retail price of
shoes. Of the total wage earners in each case, the number covered
by union agreements amounted to 28.3 percent for men’s and 40.5
percent for women’s shoes. For men’s shoes, the distribution by
size of community was 34.7 percent under 20,000, 22.1 percent
between 20,000 and 100,000, 23.9 percent between 100,000 and
1,000,000, and 19,3 percent in metropolitan areas of 1,000,000 and




39

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

over. By contrast, workers engaged in the production of women’s
shoes were more or less equally distributed among these four classes.
As regards retail prices, the percentages of the total employees making
men’s shoes were 14.7 for cheap, 56.0 for popular-priced, 21.0 for
medium-priced, and 8.3 for fine shoes. The respective figures for
women’s shoes amounted to 22.0, 38.0, 22.5, and 17.5 percent.
With an average of 44.7 cents for all workers, the hourly earnings
in misses’, children’s, and infants’ shoes were considerably less than
those reported in men’s and women’s shoes. The same was true of
the averages for each sex-skill group. This was in spite of the fact
that the number of wage earners affected by agreements with union
organizations was fairly substantial in plants making misses’, children’s,
and infants’ shoes, the figure amounting to one-third (32.6 percent)
of the total. On the other hand, a considerable proportion, namely,
45.4 percent, of all employees engaged in producing these shoes was
located in communities under 20,000. There were 11.4 percent in
places between 20,000 and 100,000, 24.1 percent in those between
100,000 and 1,000,000, and 19.1 percent in metropolitan areas of
1,000,000 and over. Moreover, a majority (63.5 percent) of the
workers made cheap shoes, as compared with 27.8 percent for popularpriced and 8.7 percent for medium-priced shoes.
The lowest average hourly earnings for all wage earners were 41.6
cents in establishments manufacturing girls’ shoes. These plants
also had the lowest average for each sex-skill group.

T able

1 7 . — A verage h ou rly earnings in plants m ak ing hoots and shoes o n ly , hy
k in d o f sh oes , s e x , and sk ill, first quarter o f 1 9 8 9

All workers
Kind of shoes

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
Average hourly earnings

Men’s 1________________ $0. 516 $0. 577 $0. 416 $0. 638 $0. 672 $0. 480 $0. 470 $0. 520 $0.415 $0.389 $0.416 $0.361
Women’s.-- _ ___ - .493 .594 .389 .633 .694 .437 .463 .550 .398 .360 .407 .337
Girls’__________________ .416 .480 .351 .516 .552 .413 .393 .444 .355 .316 .344 .303
Misses’, children’s, and
infants’___________ ___ .447 .508 .368 .558 .600 .420 .407 .455 .366 .338 .354 .325
Miscellaneous____ . __ .426 .502 .343 .523 .573 .379 .398 .460 .350 .331 .381 .302
Total_____________ .488 .569 .389 .614 .663 .442 .453 .522 .395 .361 .398 .336
Number of workers
Men’s 1______ _______ 16,459 10,201 6, 258 5, 623 4,607 1,016 8, 645 4, 524 4,121
Women’s____ ___ __ 28,098 14,294 13,804 7,866 6,028 1,838 15, 541 6, 729 8,812
Girls’- ___ _________ ___ 2, 567 1, 276 1,291 776 576 200 1,303 552 751
Misses’, children’s, and
infants’_______ _____ 6, 662 3, 721 2,941 2, 277 1,745 532 3,298 1,486 1,812
Miscellaneous__________ 2,463 1, 296 1,167 824 613 211 1,189 522 667
Total_____________ 56, 249 30, 788 25,461 17, 366 13, 569 3, 797 29,976 13, 813 16,163
Including boys’ shoes.




2,191 1,070 1,121
4,691 1, 537 3,154
488 148 340
1,087 490 597
450 161 289
8,907 3,406 5,501

40

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

The distribution of all employees according to average hourly earn­
ings by kind of shoes is shown in table 18.
Of all workers making men’s shoes, as many as four-fifths (79.9
percent) produced Goodyear welt shoes. Women’s shoes, on the
other hand, are manufactured primarily by the cement method of
construction, which is indicated by the fact that 57.8 percent of the
total employees on women’s shoes used that type of construction.
Girls’ shoes are primarily of the M cKay and cement types, the former
accounting for 42.0 and the latter for 27.5 percent of all wage earners
on girls’ shoes. Misses’ , children’s, and infants’ shoes are primarily
stitchdown and secondarily Goodyear welt, the proportion of em­
ployees in each case amounting to 54.1 and 21.3 percent of the total.

T able

1 8 . — Percentage d istribution o f workers in plants m a k in g boots and shoes
o n ly , b y kin d o f shoes and average h ou rly earnings, first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Average hourly earnings
Under 17.5 cents _____ __ _ _____
17.5 and under 20.0 cents_______________
20.0 and under 22.5 cents____ _________ _
22.5 and under 25.0 cents_______________
Exactly 25.0 cents______ _____ _________
25.1 and under 27.5 cents-------------- -----27.5 and under 30.0 cents_______________
30.0 and under 32.5 cents-----------------------32.5 and under 35.0 cents. ______________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents_______________
37.5 and under 40.0 cents . __ _____
40.0 and under 42.5 cents________ _______
42.5 and under 47.5 cents_____ _________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents_____ _________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents_______________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents _ ____ _____
62.5 and under 67.5 cents-----------------------67.5 and under 72.5 cents__________ ____
72.5 and under 77.5 cents.
_ _______
77.5 and under 82.5 cents. . ___________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents__________ .__ _
87.5 and under 92.5 cents____ . . _____
92.5 and under 100.0 cents______________
100.0 and under 110.0 cents________ _____
110.0 and under 125.0 cents. . _ ________
125.0 and under 150.0 cen ts._____ ______
150.0 cents and over__________________
Total. . ________ ______________
Number of workers. __________ _______

Total
(2)
0.2
.1
.2
5.9
3.6
4.0
6.3
5.9
6.9
5.9
6.3
10.0
9.2
7.7
6.3
5.2
4.1
3.2
2.4
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.0
.5
.3
.1
100.0
56,249

Misses’,
Miscel­
Men’s 1 Women’s Girls’ children’s laneous
and in­
fants’
(2)0.2
3.2
2.1
2.7
4.8
4.8
6.2
5.9
6.5
10.9
10.8
8.9
7.8
6.6
5.2
4.2
2.8
2.2
1.6
1.2
.9
.4
.1
(2)
100.0
16,459

(2)
(2)0.1
.2
6.3
4.1
4.3
6.4
5.9
6.9
5.6
6.0
9.7
8.8
7.4
5.9
4.8
4.1
3.0
2.5
1.9
1.9
1.6
1.3
.8
.4
.1
100.0
28,098

(2)0.1
9.7
4.6
7.6
8.2
8.2
8.5
6.7
6.7
10.9
9.0
6.3
4.8
2.8
1.9
1.5
1.0
.4
.5
.4
.2
100.0
2, 567

0.1
.l
.1
.1
9.6
4.4
4.5
7.5
6.4
7.7
6.1
6.6
10.3
7.9
7.2
5.4
4.5
3.5
2.4
1.7
1.5
1.1
.6
.4
.2
.1
(2)
100. 0
6,662

(2)

3.7
.9
.6
5.4
3.9
5.0
8.7
8.4
6.9
6.9
7.0
9.8
9.5
5.8
4.7
4.4
1.9
1.9
1.4
.9
.8
.6
.4
.2
.2
.1
100.0
2,463

1 Including boys’ shoes.
2 Less than Ho of 1 percent.
Differences by Sizie o f Company

Although the manufacture of boots and shoes is not dominated by
large companies, the latter play an important part in the industry.
Of the total coverage in the survey, 39 plants with 19.8 percent of the
wage earners belonged to the 3 largest companies, each of which em­
ployed considerably over 5,000 workers. Moreover, 41 establishments
with 18.9 percent of the wage earners belonged to companies each with
a total employment between 2,000 and 5,000. There were 37 plants




41

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

with 14.6 percent of the workers belonging to companies each employ­
ing between 1,000 and 2,000 workers.
Nevertheless, 167 establishments with 46.7 percent of all wage
earners in the sample belonged to companies having less than 1,000
employees. The distribution for this group was 28 plants with 11.3
percent of the workers in companies between 500 and 1,000, 53 estab­
lishments with 20.2 percent of the wage earners in companies between
200 and 500, and 86 plants with 15.2 percent of the employees in
companies between 50 1 and 200 employees.
7
The majority of the smaller firms are single-plant companies. In
fact, every one of the companies employing between 50 and 200 work­
ers operated only 1 establishment. Moreover, of the 53 plants belong­
ing to companies with 200 to 500 employees, 42 were owned by those
with only 1 establishment. There were 16 plants among the 28
belonging to companies with 500 to 1,000 employees that were single­
plant companies. Practically all of the remaining establishments
belonged to multiunit companies.
Size of company did not seem to affect to any extent average hourly
earnings in this industry. This may be seen from an examination of
the distributions of plant averages by size of company in table 19,
which indicates that establishments belonging to each size of company
covered a fairly wide range of averages.

T able

1 9 . — Classification o f boot and shoe plants by n u m ber o f w orkers and average
h ou rly ea rn in g s , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Plants belonging to companies with—
Average hourly earnings

Under 30.0 cents __________________ __
30.0 and under 35.0 cents_____ _______ ___
35.0 and under 40.0 cents__________________
40.0 and under 45.0 cen ts__ __ _________
45.0 and under 50.0 cents__________________
50.0 and under 55.0 cents____________ __
55.0 and under 60.0 cents._ ___ ____
60.0 and under 65.0 cents ________ _______
65.0 and under 70.0 cents ____ ___________
70 0 and under 75.0 cents
_ ___ _
75 0 cents and over
__ ___ __
Total -- _______________________

Total Under 200 and 500 and 1,000 2,000 5,000
and and
200 under under under under workers
500 1,000
and
workers workers workers 2,000 5,000 over
workers workers
3
11
44
56
48
52
30
20
12
5
3
284

3
17
14
11
19
9
6
3
2
2
86

3
7
13
9
10
4
4
1
1
1
53

2
5
5
2
6
4
3
1

2
2
6
8
9
5
3
1
1

28

37

1
4
6
8
6
5
4
5
2
41

1
5
10
9
6
5
2
1
39

Occupational Differences

Because of the high degree of mechanization and specialization in
the manufacture of boots and shoes, there is a considerable number of
occupations in this industry. The average hourly earnings of these
occupations are presented in table 20.

17 It should be remembered that the survey covered only establishments with 50 or more wage earners.




42
T

a b l e

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
2 0 . — A verag e h ou rly ea rn in g s, w eek ly hoursf and w eek ly ea rnings o f hoot
and shoe w ork ers , hy occu p ation , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Skill, sex, and occupation

Number of Average
hourly
workers earnings

Average
weekly
earnings 1

Males

Skilled workers:
Bed machine operators__________ ____________
1,202
Channelers, indole or outsole____________________
193
Cobblers, bottom______________________________
185
Cutters, box toe, counter, etc___________________
90
Cutters, insole or soft sole, machine ___________
165
Cutters, lining, hand___________________________
241
Cutters, outsole, machine_______________________
291
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand____________
938
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, machine_________
1,894
Edge setters_____________________ ___________
716
Edge trimmers, machine_______________________
949
Finishers, wood-heel__ __ ___ __________________
213
Foremen, working___ _______________ ________
623
Goodyear s t it c h e r s .. .. _______________ ______
671
Goodyear welters____ ____ _____________________
268
Heel-seat fitters, wood, hand. __________________
129
Heel-seat fitters, wood, machine________________
104
Heel trimmers, leather, machine________________
227
Heelers, leather, machine...______ ______________
345
Heelers, wood, hand.____ _____ _________________
131
Heelers, wood, machine________________________
109
Lasters and pullers-over, hand__________________
280
Lasters, soft soles 2_____________________________
172
Lasting-machine operators, hand method___ _ __
96
Machinists or machine setters____ __
310
McKay stitchers3_____ ________________________
183
Naumkeag operators______ _____ . . . ____ _
137
Pattern workers, miscellaneous ______ ___ ..
30
Pullers-over, machine_______
_______________
690
Rough rounders. ... --------------------------------------261
Rounders, insole or outsole------------------------- ...
245
Side lasters, hand____________________________ _
94
Side lasters, machine__________________ _____
904
Sole attachers, cement____ ____ _ _ ......................
233
Sorters, sole or parts for quality_________________
284
Stock fitters, miscellaneous.
...
78
Stitchers, miscellaneous, fitting room.. _______ .
136
Stitchers, padding or soft sole._____ ________ ...
96
Thread lasters, stitchdown.. _. _____________ ...
130
Top stitchers_________________ ____________ ..
185
Turn lasters, first4 . . . ________ _ _________ ..
87
Vampers____________________________ _______
321
Miscellaneous skilled, direct__ _______________
140
Miscellaneous skilled, indirect___________________
179
Semiskilled workers:
Assemblers for pullers-over_________ _____ ___
676
Bottom decorators, not elsewhere classified____ .
100
182
Bottom fillers. ---------- ------ --------- ---------------------Bottom finishers_______________________________
420
179
Brushers, machine---------- ---------------- ---------- ..
Buffers, bottom_________________________ ____
295
Buffers, breast___________ . ------------------------102
Buffers, not elsewhere classified . . . -------------------130
Casers and assemblers, bottom parts_____ __ _
333
Casers and assemblers, upper parts______________
153
Cementers and pasters, hand_____ _____________
112
Cementers, outsole, machine__________ ______
144
Cementers, machine, not elsewhere classified _ . ..
214
Channel openers or closers _____________________
185
Clerical workers_______________________________
470
Counter molders______________ _______________
93
Cutters, lining, machine___________________ _ _
549
Cutters, mallet and die, hand.. _ ... . _________
305
Cutters, trimmings, hand.. ___________ _____
185
344
Cutters, trimmings, machine... ________________
Cutters-out, lining, hand-----------------------------------128
Embossers or stampers, trade marks
_____ .
101
113
Eyeleters______________________ _______ ____
173
Fancy stitchers. _____________________________
198
Feather edgers, machine 2. . . ___________________
118
Firemen, powerhouse3--------- --------------------------95
Folders, hand and machine ___________________
138
Heel-building occupations, miscellaneous-------------213
Heel burnishers._ ------------------------------------------1 Excluding earnings due to extra rates paid for overtime work.
2 Includes second lasters of turn shoes.
3 Includes some Littleway stitchers.
4 Includes some doing both first and second lasting.




Average
weekly
hours

$0,644
.634
.510
.702
.593
.561
.636
.731
.661
.664
.703
.714
.805
.651
.686
.640
.597
.596
.605
.643
.570
.667
.625
.668
.671
.641
.683
.813
.686
.616
.627
.622
.647
.625
.690
.682
.781
.711
.565
.679
.784
.612
.629
.633
.564
.517
.472
.569
.503
.594
.535
.540
.508
.470
.473
.446
.485
.486
.517
.642
.550
.484
.581
.499
.594
.465
.513
.659
.566
.468
.743
.535
.520

39.4
37.7
41.2
39.0
39.3
38.9
39.5
38.9
38.6
38.6
39.3
38.7
42.3
38.7
38.7
41.7
41.6
37.5
37.2
38.2
39.6
36.4
37.3
37.1
43.3
37.3
39.6
42.5
38.4
37.7
40.0
37.9
39.5
41.0
40.4
40.8
39.7
37.9
36.2
39.9
24.1
38.1
31.5
44.1
38.6
37.9
39.5
39.1
39.2
39.5
37.8
40.3
40.6
41.0
40.5
39.4
39.4
37.9
42.4
37.8
39.0
39.8
38.7
39.1
39.6
40.5
39.0
41.1
40.1
49.4
37.2
39.2
37.9 1

$25.36
23.91
21.00
27. 35
23. 32
21. 85
25.10
28.42
25. 54
25. 65
27. 61
27. 67
34.03
25.19
26. 57
26.69
24.84
22.35
22. 52
24. 57
22.60
24.30
23. 32
24.80
29.09
23.92
27.02
34. 57
26.38
23. 22
25.06
23. 55
25.53
25.62
27.88
27.79
31.02
26. 96
20.48
25. 05
18.90
23.29
19. 82
27.90
21. 76
19.59
18. 63
22.27
19.74
23.47
20.24
21. 75
20. 61
19. 23
19. 15
17.58
19.10
18.42
21. 92
24. 27
21. 44
19. 25
22. 51
19. 48
23. 52
18.84
20.01
27. 09
22. 73
23.11
27.60
20.99
19.70

43

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES
T

a b l e

20.—

A verage h ou rly ea rn in g s, w eekly hours, and w eekly earnings o f hoot and
shoe w orkers, hy occup ation , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9 — Continued

Skill, sex, and occupation

Number of Average
hourly
workers earnings

Average
weekly
hours

Average
weekly
earnings

Males—C ontinued
Semiskilled workers—Continued:
Heel nailers, wood, machine_____________________
Heel scourers__________________________________
Heel-seat lasters, machine_______________________
Heel-seat nailers, machine______________________
Insole tackers, machine_________________________
Inspectors________________________________ ____
Ironers and pressers, hand______________ ________
Last pickers________________________ __
Last pullers__________________________ .. ____
Levelers, sole, machine_________________________
Maintenance workers__________________________
Nailers and tackers, outsole, machine____________
Perforators and cut-out machine operators________
Pounders, bottom, machine_____________________
Repairers_____________________________________
Roughers for cement________________ ________
Second lasters, except turn?_____________________
Shank piece tackers____________________________
Skivers, sole______________________________
Skivers, upper and lining__________________ ___
Sluggers, top lift, machine______________________
Sole layers, hand____________________ _________
Sole layers, machine_______________ ___________
Sole molders___________________________________
Stampers or markers, size___________ __________
Stitch separators or wheelers____________________
Stitchers, miscellaneous, fitting room____________
Tack pullers, machine__________________________
Treers________________________________________
Trimmers, inseam, upper and lining, machine____
Trimmers, miscellaneous, hand__________________
Welt beaters__________________________________
Miscellaneous hand workers, direct______________
Miscellaneous machine operators, cut stock. _. . .
Miscellaneous machine operators, other than cut
stock_______________________________
Miscellaneous, indirect_________________________
Unskilled workers:
Bottom stainers, hand__________________________
Cementers, hand_______________________________
Cripple chasers________________________________
Elevator operators_____________________________
Floor boys____________________________________
Inkers, sole edge or heel, hand___________________
Janitors_______________________________________
Laborers, indirect___________ •__________________
Learners______________________________________
Shoe cleaners__________________________________
Staplers, miscellaneous_________________________
Tack pullers, hand_____________________________
Watchmen____________________________________
Wetters and dippers___________________________
Miscellaneous, direct___________________________
Miscellaneous, indirect_________________________

103
345
274
128
306
411
198
256
386
312
159
130
185
207
87
250
91
198
145
115
92
141
193
126
97
90
170
316
1,047
215
194
96
349
171
820
68
142
353
197
109
733
179
268
248
142
132
125
86
228
130
680
126

$0. 541
.549
. 505
.516
.493
.531
.457
.490
.465
. 535
.444
.502
.538
.509
.612
. 578
.497
.453
.524
.591
.512
.502
.512
.575
.496
. 512
.573
.443
.549
.539
.559
.500
.470
. ,543
. 505
.504
. 515
.435
.372
.394
.369
.418
.368
.380
.316
.478
.422
.410
.347
.481
.418
.459

40.5
38.1
39.6
39.1
39.6
40. 7
39.2
40.0
38.9
38.8
42.6
39.7
39.4
39.8
41.2
41.0
37.1
38.9
39.5
39.2
37.6
38.2
39.4
39.9
40.0
39.0
36.8
38.4
40.3
39.2
39.5
38.3
39.7
39.9
39.2
41.5
40.0
39.0
42.4
43.0
40.8
36.9
43.3
42.4
38.9
39.8
36.9
38.1
50.1
40.4
39.0
41.3

$21. 95
20. 93
20.01
20.20
19. 56
21.62
17.94
19. 62
18.08
20.80
18.91
19. 92
21.22
20. 25
25. 21
23. 69
18. 45
17.60
20. 69
23.17
19. 26
19.15
20.18
22. 97
19. 82
19. 97
21.07
17. 01
22. 09
21. 15
22. 09
19.14
18. 65
21.68
19. 79
20. 91
20. 62
16.99
15.80
16.94
15. 04
15. 40
15. 92
16.14
12.30
19.04
15. 57
15.64
17. 41
19. 45
16. 29
18.96

Skilled workers:
Binding stitchers______________________________
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, machine_________
Foreladies, working____________________________
Stitchers, all-round_____________________________
Stitchers, padding or soft sole___________________
Top stitchers__________________________________
Vampers______________________________________
Miscellaneous, direct and indirect_______________
Semiskilled workers:
Back stay stitchers_____________________________
Barrers_______________________________________
Buckle sewers, machine________________________
Buffers, brushers, and polishers, miscellaneous____
Casers and assemblers, bottom parts_____________
Casers and assemblers, upper parts______________
Cementers, bottom and sole, machine____________
Cementers, uppers, machine____________________
Clerical workers_______________________________
Closers, heel seam______________________________
Dressers______________________________________

440
90
192
285
129
1,836
1,168
141
262
121
109
165
109
334
243
302
169
495
463

.448
.471
.536
.450
.495
.431
.440
.445
.397
.364
.392
.390
.401
.383
.384
.367
.376
.398
.377

38.2
36.4
42.4
41.2
34.7
39.5
39.2
39.8
39.1
38.8
39.5
38.4
39.3
40.2
39.5
39.7
41.4
38.0
39.7

17.12
17.15
22.74
18. 55
17.17
17.01
17. 23
17. 75
15. 51
14.14
15. 46
14.99
15. 76
15. 41
15.17
14. 56
15. 60
15.10
14.96




Females

44
T

a b l e

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

20.—

A vera g e h ou rly ea rn in g s, w eek ly hours, and w eek ly ea rnings o f boot and
shoe w orkers, by o ccu p ation , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9 — Continued

Skill, sex, and occupation

Number of Average
hourly
workers earnings

Average
weekly
hours

Average
weekly
earnings

Females
Semiskilled workers—Continued:
Embossers or stampers, trade m arks____________
Eyeleters---------------------------------------------------------Fancy stitchers ______________________________
Folders, hand__________________________________
Folders, machine___ ________________________
Heel-building occupations, miscellaneous_________
Insole binders. _ _____________________________
Inspectors------------ ------------------------------------ —
Ironers and pressers, hand ... --------------------------Lacers before lasting, machine___ _ _ _______
Lining stitchers. _____________________________
Markers for fitting, h a n d .._____ _ ----------Markers for fitting, machine___ _______________
Packers, shoes_____________________ _________
Perforators and cut-out machine operators________
Repairers_____________________________________
Seam rubbers, machine________ __ _______ ._
Skivers, upper and lining___ _ _ _____________
Sock liners or heel padders___ _________ _____
Sprayers.__ __ _____ ______________________ .
Stampers and markers, size, h a n d _______________
Stampers and markers, size, machine____________
Stitchers, miscellaneous, fitting room____________
Tapers, machine_________ _______________ —
Tip stitchers__________________________________
Tongue stitchers_________________________ ___
Treers__________________
________________
Upper trimmers, machine.. _________ _ _ _._
Wood-heel coverers---- ------------ ----------------Miscellaneous hand workers, direct___ __ . ...
Miscellaneous machine operators, cut stock. _
Miscellaneous machine operators, other than cut
stock____ ______ ____ ____________ ... __
Miscellaneous, indirect________ _______________
Unskilled workers:
Bottom stainers, hand_________________________
Cementers, bottom parts__________________ _ __
Cementers, uppers, hand____ __________________
Cripple chasers_____ _______________________
Floor girls_____________________________________
Inkers, edge of upper ._ _ _ ________ ________
Inkers, sole edge or heel, hand ________________
Interlaces___ _______... _ _______ ________
Lacers before packing.. _______ _ ________ __
Learners________________________ ___ _____
Pasters and backers, insole and other bottom parts.
Pasters, backers, or fitters, uppers, hand_________
Shoe cleaners___ ______ . . . ______ _______
Singers____ __ _____ ________ ___ _______
Sizers and pairers, upper_______________________
Staplers, miscellaneous_____________________
Table workers________ ______ _______________
Upper trimmers, hand_________________________
Miscellaneous, direct. _ ____________ _____ _____
Miscellaneous, indirect___ _____________________

121
189
3,641
242
916
87
114
562
132
215
1,071
206
355
649
544
722
125
755
555
105
77
360
364
214
250
380
381
211
124
528
94
431
63
208
185
336
197
431
104
128
372
282
268
132
1,064
327
111
116
86
955
270
243
157

$0.424
.422
.393
.405
.428
.444
.403
.374
.380
.372
.384
.375
.381
.358
.415
.383
.385
.445
.373
.405
.387
.419
.418
.392
.410
.379
.385
.406
.386
.387
.443
.394
.399
.369
.357
.313
.338
.352
.321
.353
.281
.358
.261
.414
.355
.328
.352
.386
.358
.312
.344
.358
.359

38.8
39.3
40.0
38.7
39.1
36.6
40.5
40.6
40.2
37.8
38.2
40.1
39.4
39.9
39.5
41.3
39.0
39.3
39.5
40.4
38.5
38.8
38.1
38.9
38.9
38.1
39.6
41.8
36.6
39.9
38.5
39.1
39.0
38.1
39.5
39.6
42.4
41.9
40.3
38.9
38.5
39.1
37.2
38.2
39.3
40.2
40.2
40.8
36.7
37.2
39.4
38.4
37.9

$16.48
16.60
15. 74
15. 67
16.76
16. 26
16. 32
15.19
15. 26
14.06
14. 67
15.05
15.00
14.30
16.39
15.84
15.01
17.49
14. 72
16.36
14.93
16.26
15.94
15. 24
15. 97
14. 42
15. 24
16.99
14.15
15. 45
17.05
15.42
15. 54
14.07
14.10
12.40
14.30
14. 73
12.93
13.74
10.82
14.00
9. 70
15. 82
13.94
13.17
14.13
15.73
13.13
11.61
13.53
13.77
13. 59

Although the occupational averages for skilled males ranged from
81.3 to 51.0 cents, the spread was from 73.0 to 56.1 cents an hour for
all but 5 occupations. The highest-paid occupations were miscella­
neous pattern workers (81.3 cents), working foremen (80.5 cents),
miscellaneous stitchers in the fitting room (78.1 cents), and first turn
lasters (78.4 cents). The lowest average (51.0 cents) was for bottom
cobblers. The most important occupations numerically were those
of vamp and whole-shoe machine cutters and bed-machine operators,
which averaged respectively 66.1 and 64.4 cents. The averages of
other important occupations were 70.3 cents for machine edge trim-




MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

45

mers, 73.1 cents for vamp and whole-shoe hand cutters, 64.7 cents
for machine side lasters, 66.4 cents for edge setters, 68.6 cents for
machine pullers-over, 65.1 cents for Goodyear stitchers, and 80.5 for
working foremen.
Among semiskilled males, the highest-paid occupation was that of
hand and machine folders, which averaged 74.3 cents an hour.1 The
8
next lower-paid occupations were those of fancy stitchers and counter
molders, the averages for which were, respectively, 65.9 and 64.2
cents. For the remaining occupations, the range was from 61.2 cents
for repairers to 44.3 cents for machine tack pullers. The most impor­
tant occupations numerically were those of treers (54.9 cents), miscel­
laneous machine operators, other than cut stock (50.5 cents), assem­
blers for pullers-over (56.4 cents), and machine lining cutters (55.0
cents).
The highest- and lowest-paid occupations for unskilled males were
those of hand bottom stainers and learners, in which the averages
were, respectively, 51.5 and 31.6 cents an hour. If these two extremes
are excluded, the averages ranged from 48.1 cents for wetters and
dippers to 34.7 cents for watchmen. An important occupation
numerically among unskilled males is that of floor boys, who averaged
36.9 cents.
Foreladies were the highest paid of the skilled females, averaging
53.6 cents an hour. The averages of the remaining occupations
covered a narrow range, namely from 49.5 cents for padding or softsole stitchers to 43.1 cents for top stitchers, the latter being the most
important occupation numerically. Another important occupation
from the numerical standpoint was that of vampers, who averaged
44.0 cents.
As regards the semiskilled females, the average hourly earnings
ranged from 44.5 cents for upper and lining skivers to 35.8 cents for
shoe packers. The most important occupation numerically in this
group was that of fancy stitchers, who averaged 39.3 cents. Other
important occupations from the numerical standpoint were lining
stitchers (38.4 cents), machine folders (42.8 cents), upper and lining
skivers (44.5 cents), repairers (38.3 cents), shoe packers (35.8 cents),
inspectors (37.4 cents), sock liners or heel padders (37.3 cents), and
perforators and cut-out machine operators (41.5 cents).
The highest-paid occupation among unskilled females was that of
insole and other bottom parts pasters or backers, who averaged 41.4
cents an hour. The lowest-paid occupations were those of interlacers
and learners, whose averages were, respectively, 28.1 and 26.1 cents.
For the remaining occupations, the averages ranged from 38.6 cents
for upper sizers and pairers to 31.2 cents for table workers. The most

is This high average is largely due to the fact that more than one-half of the male folders are located in
New York City.




46

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

important occupations numerically are those of upper pasters, backers,
or fitters (35.5 cents) and table workers (31.2 cents).
It will be noted that the average hourly earnings of females are
considerably less than those of males in corresponding occupations.
Earnings in Manufacture o f Slippers

The manufacture of slippers is a relatively small but nevertheless
important part of the boot and shoe industry. The survey included
32 plants making slippers, from which data were obtained for 4,106
wage earners. The coverage for slippers, therefore, embraces 6.7
percent of the total employees in the sample.
Over one-half (51.9 percent) of all workers engaged in the produc­
tion of slippers were found in the Middle Atlantic States. A sub­
stantial proportion, 38.2 percent, were located in the New England
States, but only 9.9 percent were in the Middle Western States.
Judging from the number of employees, there is a tendency for this
branch of the industry to concentrate in the larger communities,
the distribution being 16.9 percent in places with a population under
20,000, 31.5 percent in those between 50,000 and 1,000,000, and 51.6
percent in metropolitan areas with 1,000,000 and over. As many as
35.9 percent of all workers were covered by agreements with union
organizations.
The average hourly earnings of all wage earners in establishments
making slippers amounted to 46.9 cents, according to table 21. This
figure was somewhat lower than the average of 48.8 cents for plants
producing boots and shoes only. However, it was higher than the
average for cheap shoes,1 which was 44.1 cents.
9
An examination of the data on a sex-skill basis indicates that the
average hourly earnings of workers in establishments manufacturing
slippers were lower in all but one case than the respective figures for
plants making boots and shoes only. In all instances, the averages
for slippers exceeded the corresponding averages for cheap shoes.
T

a b l e

2 1 . — A verag e h o u rly earnings o f workers in plants m a n u fa ctu rin g slip p e rs, by
sex and skill o f w orkers, first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Average hourly earnings
Skill class
All classes___________ ______________ _
Skilled workers______ _____ __________
Semiskilled workers____________________
Unskilled workers____________ _________

All
workers
$0.469
.588
.418
.354

Males
$0. 556
.644
.501
.390

Females
$0. 383
.465
.370
.325

These shoes are in the same price range, namely, under $2.50, as slippers.




Number of workers
Total
4,106
1,523
1,834
749

Males
2,050
1,047
678
325

Females
2,056
476
1,156
424

47

MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES

Table 22 presents the distribution according to average hourly
earnings in establishments producing slippers. Of the total employees,
6.2 percent earned exactly 25 cents, 15.8 percent under 30 cents,
30.9 percent less than 35 cents, and 46.6 percent below 40 cents.
For plants making boots and shoes only, by contrast, the respective
percentages were 5.9, 14.0, 26.2, and 39.0, while the corresponding
figures for cheap shoes amounted to 10.5, 21.8, 36.5, and 49.7 percent.
Of the total coverage in slippers, 13 establishments with 1,641
workers made soft-sole slippers, 14 plants with 1,794 wage earners
hard-sole slippers, and 5 establishments with 671 employees both
soft- and hard-sole slippers. The average hourly earnings amounted
to 49.8 cents for soft- and hard-sole, 48.4 for soft-sole, and 44.5 for
hard-sole slippers.
T able 22.—

P ercentage d istribution o f w orkers in 'plants m ak ing s lip p e rs , by sex and
average h ou rly ea rn in g s , first quarter o f 1 9 8 9

Average hourly earnings
22.5 and under 25.0 cents___
Exactly 25.0 cents_________
25.1 and under 27.5 cents___
27.5 and under 30.0 cents___
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___
32.5 and under 35.0 cents___
35.0 and under 37.5 cents___
37.5 and under 40.0 cents___
40.0 and under 42.5 cents___
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___
47.5 and under 52.5 cents___
52.5 and under 57.5 cents___
57.5 and under 62.5 cents___
62.5 and under 67.5 cents___

All
Fe­
work­ Males males
ers
0.1
6.2
3.2
6.3
8.6
6.5
8.7
7.0
6.0
9.4
8.3
6.5
4.6
4.5

0.1
2.5
1.6
2.7
4.0
3.7
7.7
4.9
5.0
9.9
10.2
9.1
6.4
7.6

Average hourly earnings

All
Fe­
work­ Males males
ers

0.1 67.5 and under 72.5 cents___ 3.0 5.0
9.8 72.5 and under 77.5 cents___ 2.8 4.6
4.8 77.5 and under 82.5 cents___ 1.7 3.0
9.9 82.5 and under 87.5 cents___ 1.8 3.2
13.1 87.5 and under 92.5 cents___ 1.4 2.4
9.3 92.5 and under 100.0 cents... 1.0 1.9
10.0 100.0 and under 110.0 cents.. 1.4 2.7
9.0 110.0 and under 125.0 cents. _ .6 1.1
.6
7.0 125.0 and under 150.0 cents.. .3
.1
.1
9.1 150.0 cents and over _ . _.
6.5
Total______________ 100.0 100.0
3.8
2.8
1.5 Number of workers_______ 4,106 2,050

1.1
.9
.5
.3
.3
.1
.1
100.0
2,056

Earnings in Units Manufacturing Cut Stock and Findings in
Integrated Companies

Information was obtained for 1,205 wage earners in 11 segregated
units (either plants or departments) manufacturing cut stock and
findings for exclusive use by boot and shoe factories belonging to the
same companies. It should be remembered, however, that these
figures do not include the departments making cut stock and findings
that could not be segregated from the scheduled boot and shoe plants.
The 11 units belonged to the larger companies in the industry. Of
the total employees covered in these plants, 53.3 percent were located
in the Middle Western States, with the remainder scattered throughout
the Middle Atlantic and New England States. The distribution by
size of community was 14.9 percent in places between 20,000 and
100,000, 32.1 percent in those between 100,000 and 1,000,000, and
53.0 percent in metropolitan areas with 1,000,000 and over, so that




48

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

by far the great majority of workers was found in the larger communi­
ties. There were 39.4 percent of the wage earners under the jurisdic­
tion of agreements with union organizations.
The average hourly earnings of all employees in the integrated cutstock and findings units amounted to 61.7 cents, as against 48.8 cents
for establishments making boots and shoes only. (See table 23.) The
averages in the former were higher than those in the latter for every
sex-skill group.2
0
T

able

2 3 .— A verage hourly earnings o f w orkers in cut stock u n its o f integrated
c o m p a n ies , hy sex and sk ill} first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Average hourly earnings
Skill class

All
workers

All classes____________________________
Skilled workers____________ __________
Semiskilled workers-----------------------------Unskilled workers__________________

$0.617
.770
.572
.493

Males
$0.657
.775
.619
.501

Females

Number of workers
Total

$0.484
0)
.485
.469

1,205
347
664
194

Males

Females

914
339
428
147

291
8
236
47

1Number of workers not sufficient to permit the presentation of an average.
As table 24 indicates, relatively few workers were found in the
lower-wage classes in the integrated units producing cut stock and
findings. There were only 1.3 percent earning under 30 cents, 4.4
percent less than 35 cents, and 10.3 percent below 40 cents, which
may be compared respectively with 14.0, 26.2, and 39.0 percent in
establishments making boots and shoes only. On the other hand,
the integrated units making cut stock and findings showed as many
as 35.6 percent receiving 67.5 cents and over, as against only 16.3
percent in boot and shoe factories.
T able

2 4 . — D istrib u tio n o f workers in cut stock u n its o f integrated co m p a n ies, by
sex and average h ourly ea rn in g s , first quarter o f 1 9 3 9

Average hourly earnings

All
Fe­
work­ Males males
ers

Exactly 25.0 cents_________ 0.7
25.1 and under 27.5 cents___
.2
27.5 and under 30.0 cents___
.4
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___
.9
32.5 and under 35.0 cents___ 2.2
35.0 and under 37.5 cents___ 2.1
37.5 and under 40.0 cents___ 3.8
40.0 and under 42.5 cents___ 3.2
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___ 9.1
47.5 and under 52.5 cents___ 11.7
52.5 and under 57.5 cants___ 11.3
57.5 and under 62.5 cents___ 10.2
62.5 and under 67.5 oents___ 8.6

0.3
.1
.2
.7
.8
.3
3.9
1.9
6.1
9.6
10.1
10.6
9.4

1.7
.3
1.0
1.7
6.5
7.6
3.4
7.6
18.7
17.9
15.1
8.6
6.2

Average hourly earnings

All
Fe­
work­ Males males
ers

67.5 and under 72.5 cents___ 8.0 10.2
72.5 and under 77.5 cents___ 7.9 10.1
77.5 and under 82.5 cents___ 7.4 9.5
82.5 and under 87.5 cents___ 4.1 5.3
87.5 and under 92.5 cents___ 3.3 4.3
92.5 and under 100.0 cents___ 3.4 4.5
100.0 and under 110.0 cents..
.7 1.0
110.0 and under 125.0 cents..
.5
.7
125.0 and under 150.0 cents..
.3
.4
Total_______________ 100.0 100.0
Number of workers_______ 1,205 914

1.4
1.0
.7
.3
.3
100.0
291

20 An outstanding fact about the 11 integrated plants producing cut stock and findings is the unusually
large proportion of males, namely, 75.8 percent, which may be compared with 54.7 percent in establishments
manufacturing boots and shoes only.




M ANUFACTURE

OF

BOOTS

AND

SHO ES

49

Extent o f Earnings from Extra Rates for Overtim e W ork

The data on hourly earnings presented thus far are based only on
work at regular rates, thus excluding the earnings due to the extra
rates (usually time and one-half after 44 hours 2 ) paid for overtime.
1
It is the object of this section to determine the extent to which the
inclusion of the earnings due to the extra rates for overtime work
would affect the hourly earnings.
Relatively few employees, namely 6.1 percent, worked overtime
during the pay-roll period covered by the survey. Moreover, the
extent of overtime worked by them was not very large, as is usually
the tendency whenever the employer has to pay over the regular rate
for this kind of work.
If the additional earnings due to the extra rates paid for overtime
are considered in computing the average hourly earnings, the figure
would be augmented by 0.15 cents for all workers, 0.19 cents for
males, and 0.10 cents for females. The new average hourly earnings
would then be 49.1 cents for all employees, 57.3 cents for males, and
39.1 cents for females, which may be compared respectively with
48.9, 57.1, and 39.0 cents, as computed from the regular rates only.
Similarly, the inclusion of the additional earnings due to the extra
overtime rates would affect very little the various occupational aver­
ages, the largest amount that would be added to by far the great
majority being about one-half of 1 cent.
Comparisons w ith Previous Surveys

Surveys of the boot and shoe industry have been made by the
Bureau since 1903, with data for all occupations available every
2 years between 1914 and 1932, inclusive.
The definition of the industry used in the previous surveys con­
forms closely to that followed in the present one. One point of
difference is that previous surveys generally included under the
boot and shoe industry a few plants making some of the principal
cut stock and findings for sale to boot and shoe factories, which are
treated separately in the present survey. Moreover, most of the
previous surveys did not cover any establishments whose product
was chiefly nailed, pegged, or stitch-down shoes or slippers. Excluded
also were such employees as powerhouse workers and watchmen. In
spite of these differences, the figures for the previous years are fairly
comparable with those of the present one.
According to table 25, the average hourly earnings of all workers
in the boot and shoe industry were 24.3 cents in 1914. During the
World War period, there was a rapid increase, the average amounting

31 As mentioned before, this rate is required under the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. How­
ever, a number of plants voluntarily paid time and one-half after 40 hours.




50

E A R N IN G S

AND

HOURS,

SHO E

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R I E S

to 55.9 cents in 1920, which is the highest figure ever attained in the
industry. Dropping to 50.1 cents in 1922, the average showed a
slow but steady rise to 53,0 cents in 1928. During the depression of
the early thirties, the average hourly earnings dropped to 41.2 cents
in 1932, which may be compared with 49.1 cents in 1939.
The average hourly earnings were 49.3 cents for males and 30.8
cents for females in 1932, as against respectively 57.3 and 39.1 cents
in 1939.
T able 25.— Average hourly earnings o f workers in hoot and shoe industry in the
United States, by years, 1914 to 1989
Coverage
Year of survey
Number of
plants

1914____________________________________ __________
1916_______________________________________________
1918_______________________________________________
1920_______________________________________________
1922_______________________________________________
1924_______________________________________________
1926_______________________________________________
1928_______________________________________________
1930_______________________________________________
1932_______________________________________________
1939______________________________ ________________
1 Including earnings due to extra rates paid for overtime work.




91
136
143
117
104
106
154
157
161
164
284

Number of
workers

49,376
60,692
58,321
51, 247
47,361
45, 460
52, 697
48, 658
55,158
49, 666
61,560

Average hourly
earnings 1

$0,243
.259
.336
.559
.501
.516
.528
.530
.510
.412
.491

W eekly Hours
Full-Tim e W eekly Hours

Of the 284 plants covered in the survey of the boot and shoe in­
dustry, 147 had full-time hours of 40 per week, while 134 were on a
44-hour basis. The 3 remaining establishments operated respectively
43.75, 42.50, and 25 hours per week.
In the group of 147 plants with full-time hours of 40 per week, 76
had employees covered by agreements with union organizations. On
the other hand, of the 134 establishments with full-time hours of 44
per week, only 24 had workers included under union agreements.
None of the remaining 3 plants had an agreement with a union
organization.
Actual W eekly Hours

The actual weekly hours of all workers in this industry averaged
39.4 during the first quarter of 1939, this being also the average for
males and females. There was very little variation in the averages
among the different sex-skill groups, the figures ranging from 39.0
for skilled males to 40.8 for unskilled males.

T able

36 . — Average weekly hours and earnings o f boot and shoe workers, by sex and
skill, first quarter o f 1939

Average weekly hours
Skill class
All workers
Skilled workers

Semiskilled workers .. ___________ _ Unskilled workers ___ _ _____

All work­ Males
ers
39.4
39.1
39.5
39.7

39.4
39.0
39.6
40.8

Average weekly earnings1

work­ Males
Females All ers
39.4
39.3
39.5
39.1

$19.33
24.07
18.00
14.49

Females

$22.59
25.95
20.81
16.51

$15.37
17.50
15.60
13.18

1 Including earnings, at extra rates, for overtime.
According to the distribution in table 27, over six-tenths (61.6
percent) of all employees worked between 40 and 44 hours inclusively
during the week scheduled. There were 17.7 percent working exactly
40 hours, 17.0 percent over 40 and under 44, and 26.9 percent exactly
44 hours. Nearly one-third (32.3 percent) worked under 40 hours,
most of these employees having worked part-time during the pay-roll
period scheduled due to labor turn-over and normal causes of absen­
teeism. On the other hand, there were relatively few employees,
namely 6.1 percent, who worked over 44 hours. Many of these
employees were watchmen, who averaged 50.1 hours per week, as well
as workers in other indirect occupations.
There is very little difference in the distributions of workers accord­
ing to average actual weekly hours between males and females, except




51

52

E A R N IN G S

AND

H OURS,

SHOE

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R IE S

that a relatively smaller proportion among the latter worked exactly
40 hours and a higher proportion exactly 44 hours.
Employees covered by union agreements worked somewhat shorter
hours than other employees, the weekly averages being 38.7 for the
former and 39.8 for the latter.
The average actual weekly hours decreased somewhat with an
increase in size of community. The figures were 40.2 for communities
with a population under 20,000, 40.0 for those between 20,000 and
100,000, 38.9 for metropolitan centers between 100,000 and 1,000,000,
and 38.6 for those with 1,000,000 and over.

T able

27.— Percentage distribution of boot and shoe workers by sex, skill, and actual
weekly hours, first quarter of 1939

All workers
Weekly hours

Skilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male

Under 24 hours _ _______ 4.5 4.3 4.9 4.6 4.5
24 and under 32 hours___ 6.5 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.0
32 and under 36 hours___ 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.9 8.1
36 and under 40 hours___ 13.9 14.5 13.2 14.8 15.6
Exactly 40 hours-_ _____ 17.7 20.2 14.7 19.4 21.0
Over 40 and under 44 hours 17.0 16.2 17.8 16.4 15.6
Exactly 44 hours.- _____ 26.9 24.8 29.3 25.2 23.8
Over 44 and under 48 hours - 2.7 2.4 3.1 2.1 2.0
48 and under 52 hours____ 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.9 1.9
.5 .6 .4 .3 .3
52 and under 56 hours___
.2 .2
56 hours and over____ _ .4 .7 (*)
Total_____________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of workers_____ 61, 560 33, 752 27,808 19, 236 14, 955
i Less than Ho of 1 percent.




Semiskilled

4.6
7.9
7.2
12.0
14.3
19.1
30.7
2.2
1.9
.1

4.3 3.9 4.7
6.4 6.2 6.5
7.4 7.4 7.3
13.9 14.6 13.4
17.1 19.7 14.9
17.7 17.3 18.1
26.7 24.5 28.7
3.1 2.6 3.4
2.6 2.7 2.6
.5 .6 .4
.3 .5 0 )
0)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4,281 32,474 14,919 17, 555

5.3
6.0
6.5
12.2
16.1
15.6
29.8
2.9
3.4
1.0
1.2
100.0
9,850

4.4
4.4
5.6
10.3
19.1
14.5
29.4
3.1
4.6
1.5
3.1
100.0
3,878

5.8
7.0
7.1
13.3
14.1
16.3
30.4
2.8
2.6
.6
100.0
5,972

W eekly Earnings 2
2
The average weekly earnings of all wage earners in the boot and shoe
industry amounted to $19.33 during the first quarter of 1939. As
indicated in table 28, over one-half (51.7 percent) of the total received
between $10 and $20 a week. Another three-tenths (29.3 percent)
were paid between $20 and $30. There were 8.1 percent earning below
$10, many of these having worked part-time during the week sched­
uled. Over one-tenth (10.9 percent) received $30 and over, but less
than 1 percent were paid $45 and over.
On the sex-skill basis, the average earnings per week were $25.95
for skilled, $20.81 for semiskilled, and $16.51 for unskilled males,
which may be compared respectively with $17.50, $15.60, and $13.18
for females. Since there was very little variation in average weekly
hours worked, these differences reflect largely those in average hourly
earnings.
The average weekly earnings 2 increased with size of community,
3
the figures amounting to $16.72 in places with a population under
20.000, $19.13 in those between 20,000 and 100,000, $19.92 in metro­
politan areas between 100,000 and 1,000,000, and $21.81 in those with
1.000. 000 and over.
Workers covered by union agreements averaged $20.96 per week,2
3
which may be compared with $18.38 for other employees.
The average weekly earnings 2 also increased with the retail price of
3
shoes, the figures being $17.16 for cheap (under $2.51), $18.93 for
popular-priced ($2.51-$4.50), $20.97 for medium-priced ($4.51-$7.50),
and $23.30 for fine (over $7.50) shoes. Employees working on slippers
averaged $17.60, while those found in the segregated units making cut
stock and findings of the integrated companies had an average of
$23.77.
2 Unless otherwise specified, these figures include earnings due to extra rates paid for overtime work.
2
2 Excluding earnings due to extra rates paid for overtime work.
2




53

54

E A R N IN G S

AND

T a b l e 28.- — Percentage

H OURS,

AND

Skilled

IN D U S T R IE S

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male

Under $5_______ ____ ___ 1.6 1.1 2.1 0.9 0.8
$5 and under $10________ 6.5 3.6 10.1 3.3 2.3
$10 and under $15_______ 25.3 14.0 38.9 11.6 7.2
$15 and under $20_______ 26.4 22.8 30.8 19.1 15.1
$20 and under $25______ 18.2 22.4 13.2 21.1 21.2
$25 and under $30_______ 11.1 17.2 3.7 19.5 22.9
$30 and under $35_______ 5.9 10.0 .9 12.8 15.6
$35 and under $40_______ 2.9 5.1 .2 6.6 8.4
$40 and under $45_______ 1.2 2.2 .1 2.9 3.6
.5 .9 (2)
1.2 1.6
$45 and under $50_____
.4
.7 (2)
1.0 1.3
$50 and over____________
Total_____________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of workers.,- _ - 61, 560 33, 752 27,808 19, 236 14, 955
1 Includes earnings, at extra rates, for overtime work,
a Less than Ho of 1 percent.




A L L IE D

distribution o f boot and shoe workers by sex, skill, and average
weekly earnings, first quarter o f 1989

All workers
Weekly earnings 1

SHOE

1.4 1.6 1.2 1.9
6.9 6.8 4.2 9.0
27.2 27.9 16.6 37.6
33.3 30.1 26.7 33.1
20.5 19.1 25.4 13.8
7.5 8.7 14.6 3.6
2.5 3.4 6.5 .8
.5 1.5 2.9 .2
.2 .6 1.3 (2)
.2 .4 (2)
(2
)
.1 .2 (2)
(2
)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4,281 32,474 14,919 17, 555

2.9 2.3 3.3
12.0 6.5 15.5
43.4 30.8 51.6
28.4 37.5 22.4
9.6 15.4 5.9
2.6 4.9 1.0
.7 1.4 .3
.4 .9
.1
(2
)
.1 (2)
(2
)
.1
(2
)
100.0 100.0 100.0
9,850 3, 878 5,972

Part II.— M anufacture of Boot and Shoe




Cut Stock and Findings

55




Scope and Method
Definition o f Industry

As indicated previously, the survey covered as a separate industry
establishments engaged primarily in making boot and shoe cut stock
and findings for sale. The production of cut stock and findings by
boot and shoe manufacturers for their own consumption was classified
as part of the boot and shoe industry. The same procedure is followed
by the Census of Manufactures.
Among the boot and shoe cut stock and findings included in this
survey are outsoles, midsoles, insoles, taps, lifts, rands, top lifts, heels
and bases, finished wood heels, shanks, box toes, counters (both fiber
and leather), stays, sock linings, heel pads, welting, and pasted shoe
stock. Bows, ornaments, and other trimmings of shoe-upper material
intended for use on shoes were also covered.1
The survey excluded the making of cut stock and findings from
rubber or rubber composition, which is molded to shape. It also
excluded the manufacture of shoe lasts, including forms and trees,
wood sole patterns, wood-heel blocks, nails and tacks, wire, cements
and pastes, eyelets, hooks, buttons, laces, metal ornaments, lining
labels, stains, blackings, finishes, polishes, dressings, cartons and
carton labels, shipping cases, etc.
Only establishments with 20 or more wage earners were covered.
Analysis o f Sample

As reported by the Census of Manufactures, the boot and shoe cut
stock and findings industry had 470 establishments and 18,755 wage
earners in 1937. Reduced to plants with 20 or more workers, the
totals for the industry are 214 establishments and 16,591 wage
earners.
The sample for which data were obtained included 113 plants and
6,210 workers. On the basis of the definition of the industry used
here, this represents more than one-half of the establishments and
37.4 percent of the wage earners. The census figure for workers is
an average for the year 1937, while the Bureau coverage is for the
first quarter of 1939, or the active part of the year.
The sample was selected to make it thoroughly representative of
the industry. Among the principal factors considered in constituting
the sample were geographical distribution, size of community, cor­
porate affiliation, size of plant, product, and unionization.
Table 29 shows the distribution of the sample, by States.

i None of the plants covered was found to cut upper parts, including linings, vamps, quarters, etc.




57

58

T able

E A R N IN G S

AND

HOURS,

SHO E

AND

A L L IE D

I N D U S T R IE S

29. — Coverage o f survey o f boot and shoe cut stock and findings industry, by
States, first quarter of 1939

State

Number of
plants

United States . ___________ _____ _ ________ ...
Illinois______ _ _____ _________ __ __ _____ _____
Maine___________ ___________ _ _______________ _
Massachusetts ___________ _____ . _____
Missouri__ _____________________ . _ ___ _____
New Hampshire _. -. ___ ______ - ____ _______ _
New Y ork________ ___ _ _ ______ ___________
Ohio___________________:______________________
Pennsylvania_________________ ___ ____ ___________
Wisconsin_________________
_______ __________
Other States_______________________________________
1 Includes 1 in Connecticut, 2 in Kentucky, and 2 in Michigan.




113
4
4
60
6
6
14
4
7
3
i5

Workers
Number
6,210
509
218
2, 736
501
339
559
308
672
231
137

Percent
100.0
8.2
3.5
44.1
8.1
5.5
9.0
5.0
10.8
3.7
2.1

Average H ourly Earnings
Methods o f Wage Payment
The majority of workers (56.9 percent) in plants making boot and
shoe cut stock and findings covered here were paid on a straight-time
rate basis. These employees, who were found in nearly all estab­
lishments, constituted a majority in most occupations.
Straight piece workers constituted two-fifths (40.1 percent) of the
total number scheduled in the survey. They were found in 73 of the
113 plants. Practically all piece work was on an individual basis,
group piece work being confined to a few occupations in 2 establish­
ments. The principal occupations in which piece workers consti­
tuted a majority were buffers of heels, counter molders, edge setters of
top lifts, heel builders, wood-heel coverers, sprayers of heels, sluggers
of top lifts, wood-heel sanders, and trimmers of heel lifts.
Only 3.0 percent of the total employees covered were paid under
production bonus plans. These workers were found in 8 establish­
ments.
Earnings o f A ll Workers
In the manufacture of boot and shoe cut stock and findings, the
hourly earnings of the 6,210 wage earners scheduled averaged 48.7
cents during the first quarter of 1939. This figure is only slightly
less than that reported for all workers in the boot and shoe industry.
T able 30.— Average hourly earnings of cut stock and findings workers, by sex, skill,
and region, first quarter o f 1939

Sex and skill
All workers__________ ____________________________
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled_____________________ _ ____________
Unskilled __ __ _ _____ _ _________ ____
Males_____ ______________________________________
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled-.. _ . ____________________ _____
Unskilled. __ _ ___________ _ _______ ____
Females.
_______ ___ ____
_____ _____
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled____________________________________
Unskilled___________________ __________________

England
United States NewStates
$0. 487
.685
.455
.395
.550
.693
.523
.417
.365
.473
.365
.357

Other States

$0. 506
.713
.472
.399
.567
.725
.535
.410
.381
(9
.377
.381

(9

$0. 466
.649
.438
.390
.531
.654
.509
.425
.351
.354
.329

1 Number of workers not sufficient to permit presentation of an average.
The 113 establishments engaged in making boot and shoe cut stock
and findings that were covered in this survey showed a wide spread in
hourly earnings, the plant averages ranging from 28.7 to 75.2 cents.
Only 6 establishments, however, averaged below 35.0 cents, as indi­
cated in table 31. Of the remaining 107 plants, over one-half (59) had
averages within a relatively narrow spread from 35.0 to 50.0 cents,
while less than one-half (48) averaged over 50 cents.




59

60

T able

EARNINGS AND HOURS, SHOE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES
31.— D istribution o f cut stock and findings plants, by average hourly earnings,
region, and State, first quarter o f 1939

Plants with specified average hourly earnings
Region and State

27.5
and
Total under
30.0
cents

United States-------------------------------New England States- _ __ . _____
Maine __- __ __________ __
Massachusetts 1 _ ______ _
New Hampshire _______ .................... ...
Other States Illinois __ _ _______ ________ Missouri.. _______ ____
New York - _ ___________ _
Ohio2 _____________________
Pennsylvania - ____ _ _ _
Wisconsin and Michigan__ -

32.5
and
under
35.0
cents

35.0
and
under
37.5
cents

37.5
and
under
40.0
cents

40.0
and
under
42.5
cents

42.5
and
under
45.0
cents

45.0
and
under
47.5
cents

2
1

3
1

10
7
1
6

9
7

1

1

1

2

5
2
2

10
8
1
6
1
2

1

1

12
4
1
2
1
8
1
2
1
3
1

7
5

1

113
71
4
61
6
42
4
6
14
6
7
6

30.0
and
under
32.5
cents

2

1

1

2

4
1
2

3

1
1

1
1
1

1

Plants with specified average hourly earnings
Region and State

United States----------------------------------New England States________________
Maine ___- ___ _________ ___
Massachusetts1______ _ _ ___
New Hampshire...........................
Other States----------------------- --_
Illinois ____________________ ___
Missouri _________ - _________ New York,. _ _ ______ - _
Ohio 2_ - - - _ _____ _____ ___ PennsylvaniaWisconsin and Michigan. - ...

47.5 50.0 52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5
and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under
50.0 52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5 70.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
11
7

9
6

3
2

6
1
4
1
2
1

6

70.0
cents
and
over

7
4

5
3

4
3

6
5

5
4

3
2

2

6
2
1
1

4

3

3

5

4

2

3

1

4

3

2

1

1
2

1

2
1
1

1

1
1

1

i

1
1

1
1

1

1

1

1 Includes 1 plant in Connecticut.
2 Includes 2 plants in Kentucky.
Table 32 shows the distribution of employees according to average
hourly earnings in this industry for the entire country. The effective
range of hourly earnings for the entire labor force, which includes all
but the extreme classes, covers a spread from 25.0 to 92.5 cents,
within which limits are found 98.2 percent of the total number of
workers. In terms of 5-cent intervals, several concentrations are
noted, the principal one (accounting for 14.9 percent of the workers)
being between 37.5 and 42.5 cents, but this is not very pronounced
as compared with adjacent classes. In fact, 14.2 percent were paid
between 32.5 and 37.5 cents, and 12.1 percent received between 42.5
and 47.5 cents. The other concentrations are fairly slight, being
found between 62.5 and 67.5 cents and 77.5 and 82.5 cents.




BO O T

AND

SHOE

CUT

STO CK

AND

61

F IN D I N G S

A relatively large proportion of the cut stock and findings em­
ployees were found in the lower wage classes. Considerably over
one-half of the workers (57.2 percent) earned under 47.5 cents an
hour, or somewhat below the average for the industry. As hardly
any received less than 25.0 cents, this proportion of employees covers
a range of 22.5 cents. There is a small concentration at exactly 25
cents, covering 5.1 percent of the total.
There were 42.8 percent of all workers with average hourly earnings
of 47.5 cents and over. More than one-fourth (26.1 percent) averaged
57.5 cents and over, and more than one-tenth (11.3 percent) received
72.5 cents and over. However, relatively few employees were found
in the higher wage classes, as only 1.6 percent earned as much as
92.5 cents and over.

T a b l e 3 2 . — Percentage

distribution o f cut stock and findings w orkers, by sex, skill,
and average hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1989

All workers
Average hourly earnings

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male1 Total Male male Total Male male

17.5 and under 20.0 cents__ (2)
20.0 and under 22.5 cents.. (2)
22.5 and under 25.0 cents__ 0. 2
5.1
Exactly 25.0 cents
25.1 and under 27.5 cents.. 2.4
27.5 and under 30.0 cents.. 2.6
30.0 and under 32.5 cents.. 5.7
32.5 and under 35.0 cents.. 6.5
35.0 and under 37.5 cents.. 7.7
37.5 and under 40.0 cents.. 6.7
40.0 and under 42.5 cents.. 8.2
42.5 and under 47.5 cents.. 12.1
47.5 and under 52.5 cents.. 9.2
52.5 and under 57.5 cents.. 7.5
57.5 and under 62.5 cents.. 4.9
62.5 and under 67.5 cents.. 5.1
67.5 and under 72.5 cents.. 4.8
72.5 and under 77.5 cents.. 2.9
77.5 and under 82.5 cents.. 3.0
82.5 and under 87.5 cents.. 2.4
87.5 and under 92.5 cents.. 1.4
92.5 and under 100.0 cents. . 7
100.0 and under 110.0 cents. . 5
110.0 and under 125.0 cents. . 2
125.0 and under 150.0 cents. . 2
150.0 cents and over
(2)
Total_____________ 100.0
Number of workers______ 6, 210

0.1
2.4
1.1
1.0
2.8
2.5
4.7
3.4
7.4
12.7
11.6
10.8
7.2
7.5
7.3
4.6
4.6
3. 7
2.2
1.0
.7
.3
.3
.1
100.0
3,960

0.1
(2)3
9.8
4.8
5.5
10.8
13.6
13.1
12.5
9.5
10.9
5.1
1.6
.9
.9
.3
.1
.2

0.1
.1
.4
.8
.9
.4
2.3
4.3
7.2
10.5
6.2
12.0
13.7
8.2
11.3
10.8
6.0
1. 6
(») 1.6
.7
.6
.3
100.0 100.0
2,250 1,146

(2)
0.1 (2)
5.3 1.9
2.8 1.0
3.2 .9
6.5 2.8
7.8 2.7
8.8 5.8
7.8 3.8
8.6 8.2
13.8 15.7
9.3 12.6
7.3 12.2
5.2 8.8
4.2 7.0
3.5 6.2
2.1 3.9
1.5 2.6
.6 1.1
.5 .9
. 6 1.1
.3 .5
.1 .1
. 1 .2

0.1
.2
9.5
5.0
6.1
11.0
13.9
12.3
12.5
9.2
11.4
4.9
1.5
.8
.9
.3
.1
.2

0.1
.1
.4 0.3
9.2 7.4
3.5 3.0
3.1 2.8
8.0 6.2
7.8 4.6
11.0 7.8
9.2 7.1
12.1 13.3
14.0 16.8
10.9 15.7
5.1 7.1
3.0 4.3
1.5 2.0
.4 .7
.6 .9

0.2
.2
.6
1L9
4.3
3.7
10.9
12.8
16.0
12.6
10.3
9.5
3.5
1.9
.8
.8

0.1
.1
.4
.6
.5
.2
1.8
4.1
6.4
10.7
6.2
12.4
14.2
8.4
11.7
11. 2
6.2
.1
1. 6
1.6
.7
.6
.3
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1,106 40 3,819 2,095 1, 724 1, 245 759 486
1
1 Number of workers not sufficient to permit presentation of a distribution.
2 Less than Ho of 1 percent.
Variations by Sex and Skill

As in the boot and shoe industry, the wage structure prevailing in
factories manufacturing cut stock and findings is influenced strongly
by the composition of the labor force. In this industry, males out­
numbered the females considerably, the respective numbers consti­
tuting 63.8 and 36.2 percent of the total. As regards skill, 18.5 percent
were skilled, 61,5 percent semiskilled, and 20 percent unskilled




62

E A R N IN G S

AND

HOURS,

SHO E

AND

A L L IE D

IN D U S T R I E S

workers. There were relatively few skilled females— only 3.5 percent
of the total skilled employees. On the other hand, females comprised
45.1 percent of all semiskilled and 39.0 percent of all unskilled workers.
These different groups of employees had sharply contrasting wage
levels, which may be seen by a comparison of their averages and dis­
tributions of hourly earnings.
For males, the average hourly earnings amounted to 69.3 cents for
skilled, 52.3 cents for semiskilled, and 41.7 cents for unskilled workers.
The average of the relatively small number of skilled females, namely
47.3 cents, fell approximately midway between those of semiskilled
and unskilled males. The difference in hourly earnings between semi­
skilled and unskilled females was not significant, the former averaging
36.5 and the latter 35.7 cents. It is essential to note, however, that
both semiskilled and unskilled females averaged considerably below
unskilled males. Moreover, the average of semiskilled and unskilled
females was only about one-half of that of skilled males.
As many as 91.2 percent of the semiskilled and 93.0 percent of the
unskilled females earned under 47.5 cents an hour. Among males, the
figures were 42.8 percent for semiskilled and 69.3 percent for unskilled,
which may be compared with only 7.8 percent for skilled males.
Important concentrations at exactly 25.0 cents were found for unskilled
males and both semiskilled and unskilled females, the respective per­
centages being 7.4, 9.5, and 11.9.
By contrast, as many as three-fourths (75.1 percent) of the skilled
males received 57.5 cents an hour and over. The number found in
that category was almost one-third (32.4 percent) for semiskilled but
only 7.9 percent for unskilled males. The respective figures for
females were 2.4 and 1.6 percent. There were 4.8 percent skilled
males paid 92.5 cents and over. For semiskilled males the percentage
was 1.9, but hardly any unskilled males and females were in that
classification.
The average hourly earnings of all males were 55.0 cents, as against
36.5 cents for all females. For all females, as many as nine-tenths
(90.9 percent) earned below 47.5 cents an hour, which may be com­
pared with 38.1 percent for all males. On the other hand, the num­
ber receiving 57.5 and over amounted to two-fifths (39.5 percent) for
all males, as against only 2.4 percent for all females.
Variations by Plant Averages

Table 33 presents the distribution of the workers in the manufacture
of boot and shoe cut stock and findings for the country as a whole, by
hourly earnings in the various groups of establishments, which were
classified on the basis of average hourly earnings intervals of 2.5 cents.
The concentration of employees at exactly 25 cents an hour was most
conspicuous in the groups of plants averaging under 35 cents. How-




BOOT

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63

ever, these groups account for only 6 establishments and 273 workers
in the total coverage. The concentration was fairly striking in the
group of plants with averages between 35.0 and 37.5 cents, which
included 12 establishments with less than one-sixth of all employees
scheduled. In the remaining groups of plants, there was either a
slight concentration or none at all at exactly 25 cents.
When the 30-cent minimum goes into effect on October 24, 1939,
the groups of establishments averaging below 40 cents will be most
affected. In the 6 plants with the lowest averages, the number earn­
ing less than 30 cents was well over one-half of the total workers. By
contrast, in the groups of establishments averaging between 35.0 and
40.0 cents, over one-fifth of the employees were found receiving under
30 cents. The proportion amounted to only 13 percent in the groups
of plants with averages between 40.0 and 45.0 cents, while in the re­
maining groups the number varied from none to 5 percent.
On the basis of a 35-cent minimum, the groups of establishments
that would be most affected are those averaging below 47.5 cents an
hour. The proportion of workers earning under 35 cents amounted
to over seven-tenths in the groups of plants with averages of less than
35.0 cents, over one-half in those averaging between 35.0 and 40.0
cents, one-third in establishments with averages between 40.0 and
45.0 cents, and over one-sixth in those averaging between 45.0 and
47.5 cents. Altogether, these groups account for 54 plants and 2,997
wage earners, which include less than one-half of the total coverage.
In the remaining groups of establishments, the number receiving under
35 cents varied from none to about 7 percent.
The largest proportions of employees paid below 40 cents were found
in the groups of plants with averages under 55 cents, the range being
from 94.2 percent in the group of establishments averaging less than
32.5 cents to about one-fifth in those with averages between 50.0 and
55.0 cents. These groups of plants comprise about two-thirds of the
industry’s coverage, including 77 establishments and 4,226 workers.
In the remaining groups of plants, the number earning less than 40
cents varied from 2.2 to 15.0 percent.
By contrast, none of the groups of establishments averaging less
than 47.5 cents showed any considerable number of employees with
earnings of 57.5 cents and over, the figures ranging from 16.7 percent
in plants with averages between 45.0 and 47.5 cents to less than 1
percent in those averaging below 32.5 cents. The proportions varied
from over one-fifth (21.9 percent) in establishments with averages be­
tween 47.5 and 50.0 cents to almost one-half (48.8 percent) in those
averaging between 57.5 and 60.0 cents. In the remaining groups of
plants, the proportions ranged from 55.0 percent in establishments
with averages between 60.0 and 62.5 cents to 72.7 percent in those
averaging 70 cents and over. The only plants that had any appre-




64

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ciable number of workers paid 92.5 cents and over were those that
averaged 67.5 cents and over.

T able

33.— Percentage distribution o f cut stock and findings workers, by average
hourly earnings in plants with classified hourly earnings, first quarter o f 1939

Average hourly earnings

Under
32.5
cents

17.5 and under 20.0 cents___________ 0.7
20.0 and under 22.5 cents__________
22.5 and under 25.0 cents____ _____
1.5
Exactly 25.0 cents_________________ 43.1
25.1 and under 27.5 cents___________ 5.1
27.5 and under 30.0 cents___________ 9.5
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___________ 10.2
32.5 and under 35.0 cents____ _____ 7.3
35.0 and under 37.5 cents___________ 8.8
37.5 and under 40.0 cents__________
8.0
40.0 and under 42.5 cents_______ ___ 2.9
2.2
42.5 and under 47.5 cen ts_____ ____
47.5 and under 52.5 cents____ _ _
52.5 and under 57.5 cents______ _ _
57.5 and under 62.5 cents___________
62.5 and under 67.5 cents__ _____ _
67.5 and under 72.5 cents ...
72.5 and under 77.5 cents_____ ___
.7
77.5 and under 82.5 cents_________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents
87.5 and under 92.5 cents. _
__
92.5 and under 100.0 cen ts__ _ __ _
100.0 and under 110.0 cents___ . _
110.0 and under 125.0 cents__ ______
125.0 and under 150.0 cents _______
150.0 cents and over___ __________
Total______________ _______ 100.0
137
Number of workers. _ . _ _ ____
Average hourly earnings
17.5 and under 20.0 cents_________ _
20.0 and under 22.5 cents.. _________
22.5 and under 25.0 cents __
_ __
Exactly 25.0 cents _____ ____ _
25.1 and under 27.5 cents _____ _.
27.5 and under 30.0 cents
__
30.0 and under 32.5 cents___________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents.. _ _ _ . _
35.0 and under 37.5 cents. ______
37.5 and under 40.0 cents___________
40.0 and under 42.5 cents. _______
42.5 and under 47.5 cents___________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents___ ______
52.5 and under 57.5 cents.. ___ __ _
57.5 and under 62.5 cents _________
62.5 and under 67.5 cents_______ ...
67.5 and under 72.5 cents___________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents______ ____
77.5 and under 82.5 cents. ... _ .
82.5 and under 87.5 cents ... ... ...
87.5 and under 92.5 cen ts__________
92.5 and under 100.0 cents. _ __ ...
100.0 and under 110.0 cents
110.0 and under 125.0 cents
125.0 and under 150.0 cents
150.0 cents and over
Total_______________________
Number of workers . _______




50.0
and
under
52.5
cents
0.8
.3
i.I
.8
9.4
7.0
11.8
15.3
11.5
13.9
8.8
6.7
5.1
3.5
1.3
1.1
.8
.5
.3

Plants having average hourly earnings of—
32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5
and
and
and and and and
and
under under under under under under under
35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5
50.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
0.1
0. 3
.2
0. 7
0.3
0. 2
.6
0. 2
39.0 12.9
8.1
2.6
3.8
1.6
.3
4.4
5.8
6.3
3.5
4.7
2. 2
1.4
5.9
9.6
6.6
6.5
3. 5
.8
.8
11.0 16.5 13.5
7.1
6.7
4.5
1. 7
7.4 12.4 18.1 12.6 14.3
8.3
2.3
5.1 10.2 13.5 12.1
5.8 12.8
13.8
7.2 10.4
1.5
6.9
6.4
8.3
7.4
6.9
5.2 10.8
1.5
9.9 12.8
10.7
2.2
8.3
6.9 12. 7 12.5 13.6
19.9
9. 6
5.8
5.8
7.1 11.4
9.1
8. 5
4.4
4.0
2.0
5.0
7. 6
9.1
11. 1
2.2
1.5
3.9
2.9
1.7
3. 8
8. 0
1.3
1.2
.7
2.8
2.3
5. 5
5. 0
.7
.6
1. 3
2. 3
3. 4
3. 7
.1
1.2
.6
1. 7
1. 6
1. 5
.4
.7
.3
.9
.4
1. 5
1. 4
.2
.3
.3
.6
.1
.3
.2
.9
.8
1.1
.1
.4
.3
.6
.3
.3
.8
.2
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
136 1,003
347
537
494
343
Plants having average hourly earnings of—
52.5 55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5
and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under
55.0 57.5 60.0 62.5 65.0 67.5 70.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

6.5
4.3
2.4
14.2
13.8
11.4
10.5
9.5
7.1
8.1
9.5
2.4
2.4
.5
1.0
.5
1.4
.5

1.3
.5
i. i
3.4
2.9
7.1
6.8
22.2
14.7
10.3
10.5
8.2
3.9
2.6
.5
2.4
1.1
.5

0.1
.7
1.2
7.0
8.5
11.3
10.5
11.9
6.3
10.0
11.8
6.3
5.8
6.0
1.0
.9
.3
.4

0.6
0.5
2.5
5.5
6.5
6.0
10.5
8.0
5.5
4.5
9.0
10.5
9.5
7.0
7.0
4.5
.5
2.0
.5

2.5
1.3
1.9
2.5
15.7
8.9
3.8
5.7
11.4
14.6
13.9
8.9
1.9
3.2
1.3
1.3

100.0
646
70.0
cents
and
over

.
2.2
.3
25.6
8.9
2.9
4.5
4.5
3.2
5.8
11.2
21.7
5.4
1.6
1.3
.6
.3

.6
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
373 210 380 668 200 158 313

0. 7
1. 5
.7
7.3
5.1
13.2
2.9
8.0
8.0
12.5
7.3
8.0
3.6
10.3
6. 6
2.2
.7
.7
.7
100.0
137

2. 3
.8
3. 9
4.7
8.6
4.7
2.3
7.0
6.3
9.4
4.7
23.4
3.1
3.9
4. 7
3.9
1. 6
3.9
.8
100.0
128

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65

Geographical Differences
As in the boot and shoe industry, the effect of geographical location
on hourly earnings in establishments making boot and shoe cut stock
and findings seems to be of minor importance.

As already shown (table 31), both the lowest- and highest-paid
establishments were fairly well scattered geographically. For exam­
ple, the 6 plants with the lowest averages, namely under 35 cents,
were evenly distributed among Massachusetts, New York, and
Missouri. Moreover, of the 19 establishments averaging between
35 and 40 cents, 9 were scattered among the New England States
and 10 among most of the other States covered. Likewise, of the 23
highest-paid plants, which averaged 60 cents and over, 17 were in
Massachusetts, with the remaining 6 distributed over most of the
other States.
There was also considerable variation in plant averages within each
of the different States. In Massachusetts, which is the most impor­
tant State in the industry, the average hourly earnings of the 61
establishments covered ranged from 31.4 to 71.4 cents, a spread of
exactly 40 cents. In the second leading State, namely New York,
the range was from 33.4 to 75.2 cents, a spread of 41.8 cents. The
same situation prevailed more or less in most of the other States.
Moreover, the plant averages did not show any tendency to concen­
trate toward a focal point in any of these States.

Looking at table 34, which presents average hourly earnings by
States, it is seen that the difference between the lowest (40.6 cents in
Missouri) and highest (55.6 cents in Wisconsin and Michigan) covers
only a spread of 15 cents. The State averages frequently indicate
more similarity between States far apart than between those adjacent
to each other.
In the New England States, the hourly earnings averaged 50.6
cents. However, the average was 52.1 cents for Massachusetts, as
compared with about 43 cents for Maine and New Hampshire, a
difference of about 9 cents.

T able

34.— Average hourly earnings o f cut stock and findings workers, by region and
State, first quarter o f 1939

Region and State
United S ta tes,__ ____
______
New England States. _______________
Maine . __ ___ ___________
Massachusetts 1 __________ ___
New Hampshire________ ______
1 Includes 1 plant in Connecticut.
2 Includes 2 plants in Kentucky.




Average
hourly
earnings
$0. 487
. 506
. 433
. 521
.435

Region and State
Other S tates_______ ________________
Illinois
Missouri. ____________ _______
New York________ .. _______ _
Ohio 2___________________________
Pennsylvania____________________
Wisconsin and Michigan. ________

Average
hourly
earnings
$0. 466
. 429
. 406
. 463
. 410
.532
.556

66

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Not only were there hardly any workers in the New England States
earning less than 25 cents an hour, but those receiving exactly 25
cents were also relatively few in number. Moreover, only 5.7 percent
were paid under 30 cents. If 35 cents is taken as the upper limit,
the number amounts to 17.3 percent. One-third (34.0 percent) of
the entire labor force earned below 40 cents, and considerably more
than one-half (56.8 percent) received less than 47.5 cents, which is
just under the industry’s average. On the other hand, the number paid
57.5 cents and over constituted 28.1 percent of the total, but only 2.0
percent earned as much as 92.5 cents and over. (See table 35.)

The average hourly earnings of all other States combined were 46.6
cents. This figure, however, approximated the average of only one
of the States, namely New York (46.3 cents). In Missouri, Illinois,
and Ohio (including Kentucky), the average hourly earnings were less
than 43 cents, while in such far-apart States as Pennsylvania and
Wisconsin and Michigan the averages exceeded 53 cents.
There were also hardly any employees earning under 25 cents in the
States other than New England, but quite a concentration was found at
exactly 25 cents, including 9.3 percent of the total. As many as 15.6
percent earned less than 30 cents, 28.4 percent below 35 cents, and
40.4 percent under 40 cents. The number paid less than 47.5 cents
amounted to 57.8 percent. By contrast, there were 23.8 percent
receiving 57.5 cents and over, but only 1.1 percent earned 92.5 cents
and over.

T able

35 .— Percentage distribution of cut stock and findings workers, by average
hourly earnings and region, first quarter of 1939

Average hourly earnings
17.5 and under 20.0 cents. _________ ____________ ______ __ __
20.0 and under 22.5 cents _ _ _ _ . ________ _ ... _ __
22.5 and under 25.0 cents_______________________________________
Exactly 25.0 cents_____________________________________________
25.1 and under 27.5 cents_______________________________________
27.5 and under 30.0 cents. _ ____________________________________
30.0 and under 32.5 cents_______________________________________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents_______________________________________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents_______________________________________
37.5 and under 40.0 cents_________ ____________________________
40.0 and under 42.5 cents_______________________________________
42.5 and under 47.5 cents______________________________________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents_______________________________________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents_______________________________________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents,_ ________
_____ _____ ____ _______
62.5 and under 67.5 cents__________________________ ___________
67.5 and under 72.5 cents_______________________________________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents_______________________________________
77.5 and under 82.5 cents_________________________ ____________
82.5 and under 87.5 cents_______________________________________
87.5 and under 92.5 cents_________________ _________ _______ _
92.5 and under 100.0 cents______________________________________
100.0 and under 110.0 cents--------------------------------------------------------110.0 and under 125.0 cents __ ----------- ---------------------------------- ___
125.0 and under 150.0 cents_______________ _ __ --------------------- _
150.0 cents and over______________ ______ _____________________
Total
_ ___________ _______________ ___________
Number of workers________________________ _______ ____ ______
1 Less than Ho of 1 percent.




New
Other
England
States
States
0)
0)
0)
(i)
(!)
0.2
0.1
6.2
5.1
1.4
9.3
2.4
1.8
3.1
2.6
2.4
3.0
5. 7
4. 2 ‘
7.4
6.5
7.4
5.4
7.7
9.6
5. 7
6.7
7.1
6.3
8.2
8.6
7.7
12. 1
14.2
9.7
9,2
8.4
10.1
7.5
6. 7
8.3
4.9
4.8
5.1
5.1
5.4
4.8
5.2
4.8
4.3
2.9
2.5
3.4
3.0
3.2
2.8
2.4
3.1
1.5
1.4
1.9
.8
.7
.8
.5
.5
.7
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
0)
100.0
100.0
100.0
6, 210
3,305
2,905

United
States

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67

F IN D IN G S

Influence o f Sizje o f Com m unity

An analysis of the coverage for the boot and shoe cut stock and
findings industry in the country as a whole by size of community is
presented in table 36.
By far the greater part of the industry is located in the larger
metropolitan areas. Of the total, 54 plants with 2,693 workers (43.4
percent of the total) were in communities with a population of
1,000,000 and over. There were 24 plants with 1,695 workers (27.3
percent) in places between 100,000 and 1,000,000. Of the remainder,
13 plants with 760 workers (12.2 percent) were in communities
between 20,000 and 100,000 population, and 12 plants with 1,062
workers (17.1 percent) in those between 5,000 and 20,000.
A considerably higher proportion of the entire labor force was
located in metropolitan areas with a population of 100,000 and over
in New England than in the other States, these larger communities
accounting for 81.7 percent in the former and 58.0 percent in the latter.
There is a strong tendency for establishments making boot and shoe
cut stock and findings to concentrate in boot and shoe manufacturing
centers rather than at the sources of raw materials.

T able

36.-— Average hourly earnings o f cut stock and findings workers, hy size of
com m unity, sex, and skill, first quarter of 1989

All workers
Size of community

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
Average hourly earnings

5.000 and under 20,000___ $0.423 $0. 484 $0.334 $0. 559 $0,563
20.000 and under 100,000... .502 . 561 .374 .646 .656
100.000 and under 1,000,000. .484 .551 .377 .658 .662
.511
1.000.
000 and over__________.571 .371 .742 .753
Total_____________ .487 . 550 . 365 .685 .693

(0 $0. 403 $0.475 $0:332 $0,383 $0.414 $0.331
0) .463 .527 .374 .451 .489 .374
0) .475 .558 .378 .379 .383 .372
0) .463 .517 .372 .393 .417 .356
0) .455 .523 .365 .395 .417 .357

Number of workers
5.000 and under '20,000__
20.000 and under 100,000...
100.000 and under 1,000,000.
1.000.
000 and over-Total_____________

1,062 624 438 161 155
760 517 243 171 166
1, 695 992 703 225 219
2, 693 1,827 866 589 566
6,210 3,960 2,250 1,146 1,106

6 682 332 350 219
5 438 251 187 151
6 1,185 598 587 285
23 1,514 914 600 590
40 3,819 2, 095 1,724 1,245

137
100
175
347
759

82
51
110
243
486

i Number of workers not sufficient to permit presentation of an average.
The average hourly earnings in metropolitan areas with a popula­
tion of 1,000,000 and over were considerably higher than those in
communities between 5,000 and 20,000, the respective figures being
51.1 and 42.3 cents (table 36). On the other hand, places between
100,000 and 1,000,000 averaged 48.4 cents, which is less than the
50.2-cent figure for communities between 20,000 and 100,000. This




68

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was due to the inclusion in the latter of a plant belonging to a rela­
tively large concern engaged primarily in some other industry, which
had a fairly high wage level. The removal of this establishment
brings the average down to 45.7 cents.
This analysis of hourly earnings by size of community may be sup­
plemented by that for each sex-skill group. For skilled males, the
averages vary directly with size of community, but the picture is
confused for semiskilled and unskilled males. As regards females, it
is obvious that the average hourly earnings of places between 5,000
and 20,000 population are lower compared with those of the remaining
classes of communities, all of which have a fairly uniform average.
Comparisons w ith Wage Standards Provided in Fair Labor
Standards A ct

In the preceding analysis, it has been indicated that at the time of
the survey there was a well-defined tendency in the industry to hold to
25 cents an hour as the minimum wage, with only an insignificant
fraction (0.2 percent) of the entire labor force earning less than this
amount. On the other hand, hourly earnings of exactly 25 cents were
shown for a small segment (5.1 percent) of all employees, although the
concentration at this point was accounted for almost entirely by
unskilled males and semiskilled and unskilled females.
The hourly earnings of 10.3 percent of the total labor force will have
to be revised upward to meet the 30-cent minimum that will become
effective on October 24, 1939. However, even with this minimum
in force, relatively few skilled and semiskilled males will be directly
affected. Among unskilled males and females however, the situation
is considerably different, their proportions receiving below 30 cents
at the time of the survey being respectively 13.5 and 20.9 percent.
Of all workers as many as 22.5 percent were paid under 35 cents an
hour at the time of the survey. There were still relatively few skilled
males in that category, namely 1.2 percent. On the other hand, the
proportions were substantial for semiskilled and unskilled workers,
amounting to 9.3 percent for semiskilled males, 24.3 percent for
unskilled males, and approximately 45 percent for females.
If 40 cents an hour (which will become the statutory minimum
on Oct. 24, 1945) is considered, more than one-third (36.9 percent)
of the entire labor force is involved. At the time of the survey,
hourly earnings of under this amount were reported for the great
majority of female employees, namely 70.5 percent, nearly two-fifths
(39.2 percent) of unskilled males, and less than one-fifth (18.9 percent)
of semiskilled males. However, relatively few (1.9 percent) skilled
males were paid below 40 cents.




BOOT

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69

Comparisons w ith Wage Standards Provided in N R A Codes
Under the N R A , most of the products in the cut stock and findings
industry were covered by several codes. It may be appropriate at
this point, therefore, to note the extent to which this industry has
deviated from the former wage minima of the N R A .

Many of the products in the cut stock and findings industry were
included under the code for the leather industry. These products are
outsoles (cut soles), welting, insoles, counters, box toes, and leather
heels (including lifts). This code provided a minimum of 40 cents
for males and 35 cents for females in the Northern States.2
Originally, the shoe shank manufacturing industry was included as
part of the fabricated metal products manufacturing and metal finish­
ing and metal coating industry, the code for which provided a mini­
mum of 40 cents for males and 35 cents for females in the Northern
States.3 Although a separate code was later drafted for the shoe
shank manufacturing industry, its minimum wages were left as before.
Combining shoe shanks with the various products listed under the
code for the leather industry, all of which have the same minima, it
is found that over one-tenth of the males earned less than 40 cents
at the time of the survey. The number of females paid under 35
cents constituted more than one-fourth of the total. In other words,
establishments making these products have deviated considerably
from the wage standards of the former NRA code.
The manufacture of finished wood heels was covered by the code
for the wood-heel industry. This code provided a minimum of 37.5
cents for males in any city with a population over 250,000 and of 35
cents in any city or place of 250,000 or less. The minimum for female
employees was 32.5 cents in all cities. An examination of the present
data indicates that well over one-fifth of the males were paid under
37.5 cents in the larger cities at the time of the survey, with about the
same proportion receiving less than 35 cents in the smaller cities. As
regards females, there were about two-fifths of the total paid less than
32.5 cents.
The above codes contained the usual exemptions pertaining to
learners as well as aged and handicapped workers, but it is fairly
certain that these groups of employees would not account for the total
number earning under the former code minima.

2 The code for the leather industry also provided a minimum of 32.5 cents for the Southern States. This
survey covered only two plants in Kentucky, which were excluded from the tabulations in this section,
s This survey did not include any plants making shoe shanks in the Southern States.




70

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Earnings of U nion and Nonunion Workers 4

Union organization is not very extensive among establishments
making boot and shoe cut stock and findings. In this survey, only
13 out of 113 plants included in the sample were found to have
agreements with labor unions.6 The number of workers covered by
such agreements amounted to 775, which is 12.5 percent of the total
coverage.
Moreover, the 13 establishments having agreements with unions
were highly concentrated geographically, as well as to size of com­
munity. Of the total, 7 were in Massachusetts, 3 in New York City,
and the other 3 Were in other States. All but one of these plants were
located in communities with a population of 100,000 and over.
The average hourly earnings were considerably higher for union
than for nonunion employees. For all workers, the averages amounted
respectively to 56.3 and 47.6 cents, which is a difference of 8.7 cents.
The differences were 4.2 cents for skilled males, 14.3 cents for semi­
skilled males, 1.8 cents for unskilled males, 7.1 cents for semiskilled
females, and 4.5 cents for unskilled females.

T able

§1. -

Average hourly earnings o f cut stock and findings w orkers, by u nioniza­
tion, sex, and skill, first quarter o f 1939

Sex and skill

Average hourly earnings
Total

All workers_______ _____ _______
__
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled________ ____ __________
Unskilled_______ ____ _____________
Males ___ __________ _____ _____
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled_______ ________________
Unskilled. _________ ______ _______
Females_______ ____________ _________
Skilled____________________________
Semiskilled___________ ___________
Unskilled________________________

$0. 487
.685
.455
.395
.550
.693
.523
.417
.365
.473
.365
.357

Union
$0. 563
.730
.559
.419
632
.730
.646
.433
.421
.427
.397

Non­
union
$0. 476
.679
.439
.392
.539
.688
.503
.415
.358
.473
.356
.352

Number of workers
Total
6,210
1,146
3, 819
1,245
3, 960
1,106
2,095
759
2,250
40
1, 724
486

Union
775
131
512
132
521
131
306
84
254
206
48

Non­
union
5, 435
1,015
3,307
1,113
3, 439
975
1,789
675
1,996
40
1, 518
438

For all union employees, there were only 1.6 percent earning under
30 cents, 6.5 percent less than 35 cents, and 21.4 below 40 cents. The
respective figures for nonunion workers were 11.6, 24.8, and 39.2
percent. The number earning 57.5 cents and over amounted to 42.7
percent for union, as against 23.7 percent for nonunion employees.

<In preparing the tabulations on unionization, the Bureau considered not the workers’ membership in
an organization but whether or not his occupation was covered by an agreement between the union and
employer. In other words, all workers in occupations within the jurisdiction specified by the agreements
in a given plant are considered union workers, while those not covered by agreements are regarded as non­
union employees.
s Workers in establishments with employee-representation groups were included with the nonunion
employees.




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71

Variations by Kind o f Product

As already noted, the boot and shoe cut stock and findings indus­
try covers a variety of products. A number of establishments spe­
cialize exclusively in one product, this being true of plants making
finished wood heels, leather heels (and lifts), shanks, and welting; and
they were classified accordingly. In other establishments, the manu­
facture of one or a group of closely related products predominated.
Such establishments were classified on the basis of the major product
or groups of closely related products. Still other plants, in which the
output was not dominated by any one classified product, as well as
those making distinct products, the coverage for which was not
sufficiently large to present separate figures,6 were classified in the
“ miscellaneous” group.
Of the various products, the most important is finished wood heels,
which accounts for 24 establishments with 2,011 workers (32.4 percent
of all in the sample). The manufacture of outsoles is next in im­
portance, with 18 plants and 810 employees (13.0 percent) being pri­
marily engaged in making that product. Among the remaining prod­
ucts, the coverage was 14 plants with 661 workers (10.6 percent)
making counters, 12 establishments with 612 workers (9.9 percent)
making leather heels, 13 plants with 437 workers (7.0 percent) making
insoles, 10 establishments with 406 workers (6.5 percent) making
ornaments, stays, and other trimmings, 6 plants with 246 workers
(4.0 percent) making welting, 4 establishments with 233 workers
(3.8 percent) making shanks, 4 plants with 93 workers (1.5 percent)
making top lifts,7 and 8 plants with 701 employees (11.3 percent)
making miscellaneous products.
The establishments included here under various products^ differed
somewhat according to geographical location, size of community, and
unionization. Plants making finished wood heels, welting, and mis­
cellaneous products are found primarily in the States other than
New England, while those manufacturing the remaining products are
located largely in the New England States. Establishments engaged
mainly in the production of insoles, leather heels, ornaments, stay's
and other trimmings, outsoles, and shanks are situated primarily in
metropolitan areas with a population of 1,000,000 and over. More­
over, each product is largely concentrated in communities with 100,000 and over. In the sample, plants with union agreements are found
in the manufacture of counters, finished wood heels, and insoles.
As indicated in table 38, the highest average hourly earnings for
all workers were found in outsoles, the figure amounting to 61.7 cents.
Establishments making welting, miscellaneous products, and counters,

6 Among other products, this group includes the making of sock linings, heel pads, box toes, etc.
7 In view of the relatively small coverage for these products, any generalizations concerning them should
be considered with caution.




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averaged approximately 54 to 56 cents. Those manufacturing top
lifts, shanks, and insoles showed averages from 48 to 50 cents. The
lowest figures were found in those producing ornaments, stays, and
other trimmings, finished wood heels, and leather heels, which aver­
aged about 41 to 42 cents.

T able

38.— Average hourly earnings o f cut stock and findings workers, by product,
sex, and skill, first quarter o f 1939

All workers
Product

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male

Counters_______________ $0. 556 $0. 595 $0.391 $0,638 $0,643
$0.571 $0. 612 $0.395 $0.413 $0,431 $0.386
Finished wood heels____ .416 .494 .354 .571 .600 0 )) .424 .522 .355 .346 .353 .340
0
Insoles_________________ .497 .542 .380 .622 .630 (9 .456 .488 .393 .366 .396 .340
Leather heels___________ .422 .465 .360 .657 .665 (9 .393 .428 . 367 .389 .400 (9
Ornaments, stays, and
other trimmings______ .410 .486 .353 .659 .691 (9 .408 .466 .360 .342 .360 .336
Outsoles 2_____________ - .617 .621 0 ) .760 .764 0 ) .515 .521 (9 .457 .456 (9
Shanks_______________ .480 .520 .402 .687 .691 0 ) .457 .486 .376 .419 .427 .414
.445 .467
Top lifts___
.480 .510 .354 .622 .622
.370
Welting _____ _ ___ .535 .549 .468 .748 .748
.540 .551 (9 . 429 (9 (9
.493
. 443 (9
Miscellaneous. _ _______ .549 .588 .395 .677 .677
.497 .550 .393 .448 .463 .401
Total_____________ .487 .550 .365 .685 .693 $0. 473 .455 .523 .365 .395 .417 .357
1 Number of workers not sufficient to permit presentation of an average.
2 This product includes also some midsoles and taps.
Although size of community, unionization, or some other factor
may be responsible to a certain extent for the variations in average
hourly earnings of all employees among the several products, the chief
element is undoubtedly the differences in the composition of the labor
force by sex and skill. For example, in establishments making outsoles, which showed the highest average, 98.3 percent of the total
were males, as against only 39.5 percent in ornaments, stays, and other
trimmings, which had the lowest average. The skill distribution in
outsoles was 46.8 percent skilled, 27.9 percent semiskilled, and 25.3
percent unskilled, the respective figures in ornaments, stays, and other
trimmings being 7.9, 59.3, and 32.8 percent. (See table 39.)
An examination of hourly earnings separately for each sex-skill
group indicates that the order of averages among various products
differs from that found for all workers. For instance, the average
hourly earnings for outsoles was highest for the total labor force, as
against first rank for skilled, fifth rank for semiskilled, and second
rank for unskilled males. Plants manufacturing counters showed the
second highest figure for all employees, but the average occupied
seventh rank for skilled males, first rank for semiskilled males, fourth
rank for unskilled males, second rank for semiskilled females, and
third rank for unskilled females.8 Lastly, ornaments, stays, and

s Generally speaking, establishments making outsoles, counters, miscellaneous products, and welting,
which had respectively the first, second, third, and fourth highest averages for all employees, were found
among the four highest averages in each skilled group.




BO O T

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F IN D IN G S

other trimmings, whose average occupied the bottom of the ladder
for the total workers, ranked third for skilled, ninth for semiskilled,
eighth for unskilled males, and sixth for both semiskilled and unskilled
females.
T able

39.— D istribution o f cut stock and findings workers, by product, sex, and
skill, first quarter of 1989

All workers
Product

Skilled

Semiskilled

Unskilled

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
Number of workers

Counters_______________ 661 528 133 118 116
Finished wood heels_____ 2,011 847 1,164 70 56
437 314 123 157 147
Insoles _ - _______
Leather heels _. _______ _ 612 343 269 65 60
Ornaments, stays, and
406 160 246 32 27
other trimmings, . _
Outsoles 1______________ 810 797 13 379 376
Shanks
___ __ ___ 233 136 97 33 32
93 71 22 25 25
Top lifts_ _ _. _ .
Welting _ __ _ _ ___ _ 246 203 43 21 21
Miscellaneous__________ 701 561 140 246 246
Total_______ - ... 6,210 3, 960 2, 250 1,146 1,106

2 420 339 81 123
14 1, 617 626 991 324
10 189 126 63 91
5 488 232 256 59
5 241 101 140 133
3 226 219
7 205
1 107 73 34 93
47 38
9 21
173 137 36 52
311 204 107 144
40 3,819 2,095 1,724 1,245

73
165
41
51
32
202
31
8
45
111
759

50
159
50
8
101
3
62
13
7
33
486

Percentage of workers
Counters._ ___. . .
Finished wood heels.____
_
Insoles____ .
Leather heels___
Ornaments, stays, and
other trimmings __ __
Outsoles 1______________
Shanks___ _____ -- Top lifts
Welting
Miscellaneous._ _
.
Total..
____

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

79.8
42.1
71.9
56.0
39.5
98.3
58.4
76.3
82.6
80.0
63.8

20.2
57.9
28.1
44.0
60.5
1.7
41. 6
22.7
17.4
20.0
36.2

17.8
3.5
36.0
10.6
7.9
46.8
14.1
26.9
8.5
35.1
18.4

17.5 0.3 63.6 51.3 12.3 18.6 11.0 7.6
2.8 .7 80.4 31.1 49.3 16.1 8.2 7.9
33.7 2.3 43.2 28.8 14.4 20.8 9.4 11.4
9.8 .8 79.8 37.9 41.9 9.6 8.3 1.3
6.7 1.2 59.3 24.9 34.4 32.8 7.9 24.9
46.4 .4 27.9 27.0 .9 25.3 24.9 .4
13.7 .4 46.0 31.4 14.6 39.9 13.3 26.6
50.5 40.8 9.7 22.6 8.6 14.0
26.9
70.4 55.8 14.6 21.1 18.3 2.8
8.5
35.1
44.4 29.1 15.3 20.5 15.8 4.7
17. 8 .6 61.6 33.8 27.8 20.0 12.2 7.8
—

1 This product includes also some midsoles and taps.
Occupational Differences

Table 40 presents the average hourly earnings in the boot and shoe
(hit stock and findings industry by occupation.
The highest-paid occupations among skilled males were those of
leather sorters and graders, working foremen, and Knox machine
outsole cutters, each averaging about 73 cents per hour. The lowestpaid occupation was that of general machine cutters, whose average
amounted to 54.8 cents. Outside of these occupations, the averages
ranged from 70.3 cents for beam machine outsole cutters to 61.0
cents for machinists and machine setters. The most important
occupations numerically are leather sorters and graders and working
foremen.




74
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a b l e

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SHOE

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A L L IE D

IN D U S T R I E S

40.— Average hourly earnings, weekly hours, and weekly earnings o f cut stock
and findings workers, by occupation, first quarter o f 1939

Skill, sex, and occupation

Number of Average
hourly
workers earnings

Average
weekly
hours

Average
weekly
earnings1

Males

Skilled workers:
Cutters, counter, machine_________
_ __ _
Cutters, machine, general_____________________
Cutters, insole or soft sole, machine______ . ...
Cutters, outsole, beam machine__________ ..
Cutters, outsole, Knox machine______ __ __
Foremen, working ____________ _____ __
Machinists and machine setters_____ ___ __
Sorters and graders, leather . _ __ _. __
Miscellaneous skilled, direct and indirect- ______
Semiskille d workers:
Buffers, heel________________________ ____ _
Casers or sorters, other than soles _____________
Casers, insole, outsole, and tap______________ ..
Clerical workers__________ ____________________
Compressors, heel and top lift___________________
Countermolders ______________ ... ________ .
Counter rollers____ ________ _____ ____ ._
Cutters, heel and top lift, machine_____. . . .
Cutters, mallet and die, hand______________
Cutters, narrow strip, circular knife, machine_____
Cutters, sole strip, guillotine machine____________
Cutters and trimmers, hand, miscellaneous_______
Cutters and trimmers, machine, miscellaneous___
Edge setters, top lift _______ ________________
Firemen, powerhouse.. ... . ____ ___ ____
Graders, outsole or insole, machine____ _ . _ ___
Graders and skivers, outsole or insole, machine___
Groovers, welt strip, machine. _ ________________
Heel-building occupations, miscellaneous . . . _____
Inspectors___________ _______________________
Press operators, forming metal shanks.________
Repairers, welt______ _
__ ____ . . . . .
Sanders, uncovered wood heel.. ... . _ ________
Scarfers, welt and stripping__________ _____... _
Skivers, counter___________ ____ ____ _ ______
Skivers, general
.
...
_ _
Skivers, heel cover.. _. ____ ... . . ____ ._ __
Skivers, welt and stripping__ . . . __________ _
Sluggers, top lift _____________________________
Sprayers, heel _ _ . _ _ _ ... ______ ______
Stainers and buffers, welt strip__________
___
Strip-combining machine operators____ _______ _
Trimmers, heel or top lift, machine
__ _ _
Winders and hankers, strips, machine___ ______
Miscellaneous semiskilled, hand, direct__ _ ... _.
Miscellaneous semiskilled, machine, direct.. .
Miscellaneous semiskilled, in d irect.._____... _.
Unskilled workers:
Baggers, insole or outsole._______... _______ . _ _
Breast liner-out, wood heel . __ _ __________...
Catchers, outsole. _ . _ _ ______ __________
Cementers and pasters, hand, miscellaneous ... ..
Floor boys__________________ __. . . . _________
Heel enamelers and inkers__ . __ _ ___ ______ _
Helpers, general_______ _
___
Janitors_____ _______________ ... ...
__ __
Laborers, indirect______________________________
Learners_______________ ___________________
Packers.__ __ _ __________ ___________________
Pasters and joiners, strip______ ______ ________
Scrap sorters............................................ ............... ...
Table workers____________ _ __ ______________
Watchmen.__ _ __ _ ________________ ________
Wetters and dippers___________________________
Miscellaneous, direct________________ ____ ______
Miscellaneous, indirect_________________________

Females

Skilled workers:2
Foreladies, working__________ _________________
Sorters and graders, leather_____________________
Semiskilled workers:
Bevelers, box toe _____ _____ _______ _. . _.
Bow makers, hand. ... ________ ________ _____
Casers and sorters, other than soles______________
1 Excluding earnings at extra rates paid for overtime work.
2 Exclusive of 1 instructor.




77
72
131
120
75
213
73
299
46
99
59
89
112
49
261
17
123
50
57
65
24
23
97
26
34
96
17
27
19
35
16
79
17
75
27
17
18
91
64
24
28
83
24
30
83
40
37
26
46
18
224
29
39
33
61
29
48
21
29
27
20
17
33
22

$0.667
.548
.655
.703
.731
.734
.610
.735
.649
.529
.491
.453
.553
.437
.655
.450
.475
.416
.561
.623
.427
. 524
.558
. 527
.417
.437
.595
.454
.495
.435
.484
.595
.517
.543
.415
.443
.645
.565
.431
.501
.511
.573
.501
.396
.458
.488
.481
.404
.395
.353
.383
.405
.395
.386
.460
.392
.429
.462
.500
.464
.427
.416
.460
.505

37.4
41.3
36.5
39.9
40.3
41.8
41.3
38.8
43.8
35.8
41.0
39.5
43.1
40.6
37.6
35.4
40.2
39.9
38.6
39.6
37.4
37.8
40.0
45.4
36.7
39.3
41.0
40.4
40.7
44.8
40.3
40.1
37.3
39.7
42.2
42.3
41.3
39.2
41.7
39.7
40.1
40.8
38.8
41.6
38.1
43.0
39.7
35.5
38.0
40.7
39.5
38.3
43.0
40.2
38.9
38.5
43.9
39.8
36.2
41.3
46.7
37.9
32.2
38.2

$24.95
22.66
23.91
28.07
29. 45
30. 71
25.21
28. 51
28. 43
18. 98
20.14
17. 88
23. 83
17. 74
24. 60
15. 92
19.10
16. 59
21.64
24. 66
15. 96
19.81
22. 34
23. 95
15. 29
17.18
24.40
18. 35
20.12
19. 48
19. 47
23. 85
19. 26
21. 53
17. 48
18. 72
26. 64
22.11
17. 95
19. 87
20. 49
23. 39
19. 42
16. 48
17. 45
20. 99
19.11
14. 36
15.04
14.36
15.12
15. 48
16. TO
15. 54
17. 86
15.06
18. 86
18.41
18.10
19.17
19. 91
15. 77
14. 78
19. 28

25
14
14
24
56

.472
.484
. 284
.331
.354

43.2
40.3
41.5
29.9
38.0

20. 39
19. 49
11.80
. 9.92
13. 43

BO O T

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B I N D IN G S

T a b l e 40.— Average

hourly earnings, weekly hours, and weekly earnings o f cut stock
and findings workers, by occupation, first quarter o f 1939— Continued

Skill, sex, and occupation

Females—Co n tinued
Semiskilled workers—Continued.
Casers, insole, outsole, or top________________ ___
Clerical workers______________ ___________ ___
Counter molders_________ ______
__________
Coverers, wood heel ______ _ ___ ______
Folders, skived edges, hand___ _ __ ___ _________
Graders, insole or outsole, machine ______ _ _ __
Graders and skivers, insole or outsole, machine____
Heel builders, hand____________ ________ __ ___
Heel builders, machine___________ ________ ___
Heel-building occupations, miscellaneous .__ _____
Inspectors______ _ ___________ __ _ ___
Matchers, strip, machine_______________________
Nailers or tackers, hand_______________ _____ _
Sanders, uncovered wood heel___________________
Skivers, heel cover___ .__ ___ _ _______ ___ _
Skivers, heel lift____ _____________ __ _________
Sprayers, heel _________ __ _ _ ________ _____
Stitchers, miscellaneous_______ _ _ ____ _ _ __
Trimmers, scrap_______________________________
Winders or hankers, strip_________________ _____
Miscellaneous hand workers_____ _ ____ __ „
Miscellaneous machine operators________________
Unskilled workers:
Catchers, outsole_________ ____________________
Cementers, hand_________ _______ ____ _______
Counter nesters__________ ____________________
Floor girls___________ _________ _____ _____
Helpers, general__ ___________________________
Learners_____ ____________________ __________
Packers. _____ _ ___________ _ __ ________
Pasters and joiners, strip______ _ _______ __ ___
Pasters, pasted stock, hand___ __________________
Staplers, miscellaneous_________________________
Table workers____ ____ _ ______ _______ __
Miscellaneous workers ____________________ __

Number of Average
hourly
workers earnings
34
16
37
821
16
22
35
29
175
26
90
17
23
16
14
24
17
40
28
15
23
112
17
23
38
48
29
14
97
70
40
42
20
48

$0. 353
.368
.394
.363
.352
.401
.404
.369
.349
.368
.317
.502
.363
.349
.412
.354
.340
.354
. 395
. 376
.403
. 407
. 416
.307
.399
.339
.379
.276
.363
.356
.319
.412
.339
.342

Average
weekly
hours
41.0
42.3
38.1
35.3
42.4
36.3
38.4
32.0
34. 2
42.1
38.4
39.8
29.9
38.4
39.5
40. 2
40.0
33.1
35.6
36.3
40.0
38.1
38.5
39.7
35.1
41.3
37.1
31.5
38.4
33.4
36. 3
29.9
41.3
37.3

Average
weekly
earnings
$14. 46
15. 57
15. 04
12. 80
14. 95
14. 56
15. 49
11. 79
11.92
15. 50
12.15
19. 97
10. 85
13. 38
16. 25
14. 22
13. 62
11. 70
14. 06
13. 64
16.11
15. 51
16. 01
12.18
14. 02
14. 02
14. 05
8. 70
13.93
11. 90
11.57
12. 33
14. 03
12. 75

Among semiskilled occupations of males, the average earnings per
hour varied from 65.5 cents for counter molders (the most important
occupation numerically) to 39.6 cents for direct miscellaneous hand
workers. This is a wide range, namely 25.9 cents. Moreover, the
occupational averages were fairly well scattered throughout this
spread. Of the 37 occupations for which figures are shown, 3 averaged
above 60 cents, 7 between 55 and 60, 8 between 50 and 55, 9 between
45 and 50, and 10 under 45 cents.
The range in occupational averages for unskilled males was from
50.5 cents for indirect miscellaneous workers to 35.3 cents for mis­
cellaneous hand cementers and pasters. Of the 18 occupations
included here, only 2 averaged 50 cents and over, 5 between 45 and 50,
5 between 40 and 45, and 6 under 40 cents. The most important
occupation numerically is that of floor boys, who averaged 38.3 cents.
Figures are shown for only 2 skilled occupations among female
workers, the average hourly earnings being 48.4 cents for sorters and
47.2 cents for foreladies.
For all except one of the semiskilled occupations of females, the
averages ranged from 41.2 cents for heel-cover skivers to 28.4 cents for
box-toe bevelers, The distribution of averages was 6 over 40 cents,




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I N D U S T R IE S

13 between 35 and 40, and 6 under 35 cents. The relatively few
strip matchers averaged as much as 50.2 cents, which is the highest
occupational average found among females. The most important
occupation numerically was that of wood-heel coverers, the average
for which amounted to 36.3 cents.
With the exception of learners, the occupational averages for
unskilled females ranged from 41.6 cents for outsole catchers to 30.7
cents for hand cementers. The relatively few learners averaged 27.6
cents.
Earnings Covering Identical Occupations in Boot and Shoe and Cut
Stock and Findings Industries

It is possible to compare the average hourly earnings of wage
earners in identical occupations9 making cut stock and findings be­
tween plants in the boot and shoe industry and establishments in the
cut stock and findings industry. Employees manufacturing cut stock
and findings in the boot and shoe industry averaged 53.0 cents, which
may be compared with 49.0 cents for those in the cut stock and
findings industry (table 41). An examination of the data on a sex-skill
basis indicates, however, that skilled and unskilled males averaged
more in cut stock and findings plants than in boot and shoe establish­
ments. For semiskilled males and unskilled females, the averages
were about the same in both kinds of plants. On the other hand,
semiskilled females averaged considerably more in boot and shoe
establishments than in plants of the cut stock and findings industry.
It should also be pointed out that the proportion of semiskilled females
in cut stock and findings establishments was considerably higher than
in boot and shoe plants, which accounts for the fact that the former
had a lower all-round average than the latter.

T able

41.— Average hourly earnings in identical occupations in hoot and shoe and
cut stock and findings industries, by sex and skill, first quarter of 1989

Sex and skill
All workers______ . __ _____ _____ ________ _
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled____________________________________
Unskilled_____ __________ _ __ . _
Males-_ _________________________________________
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled_________________________________
U n sk illed .-.____ - __ ____ . ____ ...
Females_____ ________ _ _ __ .
_____
Skilled________________________________________
Semiskilled ________ __ .. _________ __
Unskilled_____________________________________

Boot and shoe industry Cut stock and findings
industry
Number of Average Number of Average
hourly
hourly
workers earnings workers earnings
3,020
834
1,945
241
2,417
817
1, 439
161
603
17
506
80

$0. 530
.653
.492
.401
.560
.656
.520
.415
.408
0)
.410
.373

1 Number of workers not sufficient to permit the presentation of an average.
9 The comparison is limited entirely to direct occupations found in both industries.




4, 353
713
3, 232
408
2, 652
699
1, 753
200
1,701
14
1,479
208

$0.490
.683
.457
.410
.562
.688
. 525
.448
. 369
0)
.368
.370

BOOT

AND

SHO E

CUT

STOCK

AND

F IN D I N G S

77

Extent of Earnings From Extra Rates for Overtime W ork
Only 6.0 percent of the total wage earners covered in this industry
worked overtime during the pay-roll period scheduled. Moreover,
the total overtime worked by them was not very large.

The additional earnings per hour resulting from the extra rates paid
for overtime are insignificant. With these earnings included, the
averages were 48.8 cents for all workers, 55.2 cents for males, and 36.6
cents for females, which may be compared respectively with 48.7,
55.0, and 36.5 cents with overtime earnings excluded.
Likewise, the inclusion of the additional earnings due to extra
overtime rates affects very little most of the occupational averages.




W eekly Hours
Full-Tim e W eekly Hours

Of the 113 plants covered in the boot and shoe cut stock and findings
industry, 56 were working on a 40-hour basis during the pay-roll
period scheduled, while the full-time hours in 54 establishments
amounted to 44. The remaining 3 plants operated respectively
42.5, 43.75, and 47 hours per week.
Among the 56 plants with full-time hours of 40 per week, 11 had
agreements with union organizations, while only 2 of the 54 with
44 hours had such agreements.
Actual W eekly Hours

The average actual weekly hours of all wage earners in this industry
amounted to 38.5, the figures being 39.7 for males and 36.4 for females.
All skill groups for males averaged approximately the same. For
females, the skilled workers showed an average of 42.2 hours, which
may be compared with approximately 36-37 hours for semiskilled
and unskilled females.

T able

42.— Average weekly hours and earnings o f cut stock and findings workers,
by sex and skill, first quarter o f 1989

Sex and skill
All workers.. _ . __ ____ ________ _______ _ _
__
______
Skilled_________________________________________________________
Semiskilled - ______________
_ _ __ _ _ _ _______
Unskilled _ __ __ ___ ___ ... __ _______ ______ ____ _____ _ .
_ _ _____
_
Males _ __ ___ ____ _________ _ __ _ ____
Skilled____________________________ _______ ___________________ _
Semiskilled.. ___ ___________
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ _
Unskilled ______ _____ _ __________ _ __ _ _______ _____ _____
Females _____ _ ______ _____ ___________ ______ ________ ___________
Skilled_______________________________________________________________
Semiskilled____ ______ _____ ___ _ ________________ __ _ ______
Unskilled ___________ _______ ________ _._............___ ___ ___ _______

Average
weekly
hours
38. 5
39.9
38.1
38.3
39. 7
39.8
39.7
39.4
36.4
42.2
36.2
36.6

Average
weekly
earnings 1
$18. 79
27. 35
17. 40
15.20
21.91
27. 62
20. 84
16. 55
13. 31
19. 94
13. 21
13.08

1 Including earnings at extra rates paid for overtime work.

As many as 62.3 percent of all wage earners worked between 40
and 44 hours inclusively during the week scheduled, with 29.9 percent
working exactly 40 and 21.1 percent exactly 44 hours (table 43).
A substantial number, namely 31.5 percent, worked under 40 hours,
many of these employees working only part time during the pay-roll
period scheduled, because of labor turn-over and other causes of
absenteeism. Only 6.2 percent of the total worked over 44 hours,
with many of these wage earners being in various indirect occupations.
78




BO O T

AND

SHOE

CUT

STO CK

AND

F IN D I N G S

79

There are sharp differences in the distributions of workers accord­
ing to actual weekly hours between males and females. For males,
68.3 percent of the total worked between 40 and 44 hours inclusively,
with 37.6 percent working exactly 40 and 21.6 percent exactly 44
hours. The corresponding figures for females were 51.5, 16.3, and
20.0 percent. Taking the number working under 40 hours, the per­
centages were 23.4 for males, as against 46.0 percent for females. As
many as 8.3 percent of all males worked over 44 hours, which may be
compared with only 2.5 percent of the females.
Employees covered by agreements with labor unions averaged
37.9 hours per week, which may be compared with 38.6 hours for other
workers. On a size-of-community basis, the averages were 40.4 hours
in places with a population under 20,000, 37.1 in those between 20,000
and 100,000, 38.3 in metropolitan areas between 100,000 and 1,000,000,
and 38.2 hours in those with 1,000,000 and over.
T

a b l e

43. - Percentage distribution o f cut stock and findings workers, by sex and
actual weekly hours, first quarter of 1939

Weekly hours
Under 24 hours____ _______________ ______________ .
24 and under 32 hours__________________ ________ _
32 and under 36 hours. _ __________ . _________ ___
36 and under 40 hours__________________- ___ _______
Exactly 40 hours __ __ ___________________ _ _____
Over 40 and under 44 hours__________ _______ ______
Exactly 44 hours.__ ________________________ _____
Over 44 and under 48 hours._ ... _______ ... . .
48 and under 52 hours________________________ _____
52 and under 56 hours ..
.
56 hours and over
Total_____
_____
__ ______... ...
Number of workers________________________________




Percentage with classified actual weekly hours
Total
6.3
7.4
7.2
10.6
29.9
11.3
21.1
3.9
1.4
.3
.6
100.0
6,210

Males
3.5
5.8
6.1
8.0
37.6
9.1
21.6
4.9
2.0
.5
.9
100. 0
3,960

Females
11.3
10.4
9. 2
15. L
16.3
15.2
20.0
2. L
.4
100.0
2, 250

W eekly Earnings1
0
The average weekly earnings of all employees in the boot and shoe
cut stock and findings industry amounted to $18.79 during the first
quarter of 1939. On a sex-skill basis, the averages were $27.62 for
skilled males, $20.84 for semiskilled, and $16.55 for unskilled, which
may be compared respectively with $19.94, $13.21, and $13.08 for
females. (See table 42.)
Over one-half (51.5 percent) received between $10 and $20, with
over one-fourth (27.8 percent) being paid between $20 and $30.
One-tenth of the total, namely 10.3 percent, earned under $10 per
week, many of these having worked part-time during the week
scheduled. A like proportion, 10.4 percent, received $30 and over,
but only 1.1 percent earned as much as $40 and over. (See table 44.)

T able

44 . — Sim ple percentage distribution o f workers according to weekly earnings
in boot and shoe cut stock and findings industry in the United States, by sex and
skill, during first quarter o f 1939

All workers
Weekly earnings 1
3
o
Eh

Under $5_______________ 2.4
$5 and under $10 __ - - 7.9
23.4
$10 and under $15
$15 and under $20______ 28.1
$20 and under $25_______ 17.2
$25 and under $30_ _ ------- 10.6
$30 and under $35_______ 6.8
$35 and under $40----------- 2.5
$40 and under $45_______ .6
.3
$45 and under $50
.2
$50 and over
Total--- . - ___ 100.0
Number of workers. _ ___ 6, 210

T3
V

M
tn

3
G
O

cg

0.3
.3
2.7
10.6
23.3
24.7
24.7
9.7
1.9
.7
1.1
100.0
1,146

a
©

2.8
9.4
26.3
30.5
16.6
9.0
3.6
1.1
.4
.2
.1
100.0
3, 819

Males
'd
^©

Females

<
0

•d

'a
o
E
H

^©
3
CG

G
O

1.1
3.0
12.7
26.8
24.0
16.1
10.7
3.8
1.0
.4
.4
100.0 100.0
1,245 3, 960

0.4
.3
2.5
9.0
23.2
25.4
25.4
9.9
2.0
.7

©

'd

3
tn

3
cn

a
P

2.9
10.4
33.4
36.8
13.3
2.5
.5
.1
.1

3

p
P

1

1.2
3.2
13.6
30.5
26.2
15.6
6.4
2.0
.8
.4
.1
100.0 100.0
1,106 2, 095

©

a
©
P

1.8 4.6
6.3 16.6
25.3 42.2
42.8 30.4
19.0 5.3
3.8 .8
.8 .1
.1 (3)
.-1

'd

m

3

—

'd
^©
w
a

^©

4.8
16.9
41.7
30.6
5.0
.9
.1

4.5
16.9
46. 1
27.6
4.5
.4

3

©
G
G

'd

3

p
P

1 .2

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
759 2, 250 40 1,724 486

1 Includes earnings due to extra rates paid for overtime work.
2 Number of workers not sufficient to permit presentation of distribution.
3 Less than Ho of 1 percent.
The average weekly earnings 1 of workers covered by agreements
1
with union organizations amounted to $21.32, as against $18.37
for other employees. The averages were $17.09 for all wage earners
in communities with a population under 20,000, $18.63 in those
between 20,000 and 100,000, $18.55 in metropolitan areas between
100,000 and 1,000,000, and $19.53 in those with 1,000,000 and over.

i° Unless otherwise specified, these figures include earnings at extra rates paid for overtime work,
u Excluding earnings at extra rates paid for overtime work.
8 0




Part III.— Manufacture of Shoe Patterns




81




Scope and Method
Plants making shoe patterns are included by the Census of Manu­
factures along with other establishments under the designation of
“ Models and patterns, not including paper patterns.” No separate
figures as to the total number of plants and wage earners are available
for the shoe-pattern part of this industry.
The establishments engaged in making shoe patterns are small, but
the Bureau did not include any plants with fewer than 5 workers.
The total coverage of the survey, which was selected on the basis of a
representative sample, includes 20 establishments with only 225
employees. There were 8 plants with 98 workers in Massachusetts,1
7 establishments with 49 workers in New York and Pennsylvania,2
and 5 plants with 78 workers in a number of Middle Western States.3

1 Includes one establishment in Maine.
2 There were two plants in Pennsylvania.
3 Of the five establishments, two were in Missouri and one each in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Ohio.




83

Average H ourly Earnings
The average hourly earnings of the 225 wage earners 4 employed by
the 20 shoe pattern plants covered in this survey amounted to 81.5
cents during the first quarter of 1939. The averages ranged from
55.2 cents in one plant to $1,014 in another.
The skilled workers (all males), who constituted two-thirds of the
total, averaged 97.1 cents an hour. None of them received less than
47.5 cents (table 45). Over one-fifth (21.8 percent) were paid between
47.5 and 87.5 cents and another one-fifth (19.7 percent) earned between
87.5 cents and $1.
As many as one-half (49.9 percent) received
between $1 and $1.25, and 8.6 percent were paid $1.25 and over.
The average hourly earnings of the semiskilled and unskilled em­
ployees, all but 7 of whom were males, were 50.2 cents. There were
5.5 percent receiving exactly 25 cents, 8.2 percent under 30 cents,
28.8 percent less than 35 cents, and 35.6 percent below 40 cents.5 As
many as 16.4 percent were paid 72.5 cents and over, with 1.4 percent
earning between $1.00 and $1.10.

T able

45.— Percentage distribution o f shoe pattern workers, by average hourly
earnings and skill, first quarter o f 1989

Semi­
Skilled skilled
Average hourly earnings Total work­ and un­
ers skilled
workers
Exactly 25.0 cents
25.1 and under 27.5 cents,.
27.5 and under 30.0 cents,
30.0 and under 32.5 cents,
32.5 and under 35.0 cents,
35.0 and under 37.5 cents,.
37.5 and under 40.0 cents,
40.0 and under 42.5 cents.
42.5 and under 47.5 cents,
47.5 and under 52.5 cents,
52.5 onrl nriHor A9 ^ cents..
K7 ^ and under 57.5 contG
O,0
i
U
62.5 and under 67.5 cents..
67.5 and under 72.5 cents..
___________

_
_
,

_
_
_
.

d iliU U i i U c l

C C iit o __

1.8
.9
4.9
1.8
.9
1.3
.9
5.8
3. 1
3.1
1.
2. 3
7
4.0

2.0
.7
2.0
3.3

5.5
2.7
15.1
5.5
2.7
4.1
2.7
17.9
5.5
8.2
4.1
A1
5.5

Semi­
Skilled skilled
Average hourly earnings Total work­ and un­
ers skilled
workers
72.5 and under 77.5 cents, _ 3.1 3.3
77.5 and under 82.5 cents__ 5.8 5.9
82.5 and under 87.5 cents, _ 3.1 4. 6
87.5 and under 92.5 cents., 13.3 16.4
92.5 and under 100.0 cents. 2.2 3.3
100.0 and under 110.0 cents, 23.6 34.1
110.0 and under 125.0 cents, 10. 7 15. 8
125.0 and under 150.0 cents. 5.3 7. 9
150.0 cents and over_____ .4
.7
Total, _______ ___ 100.0 100.0
Number of workers,,, . _ 225 152

2.7
5. 5
6.8
' 1.4
100.0
73

The establishments in Massachusetts (including one in Maine)
averaged 86.6 cents an hour, followed by 80.2 cents for those in the
Middle Western States and 74.4 cents in New York and Pennsylvania
combined. It is evident from table 46 that the range covered by the
plant averages was fairly wide in each of these geographical divisions.
For skilled workers, the highest occupational average was $1,178 for
the 15 working foremen. Pattern binders (22) averaged 97.0 cents,
pattern graders (43) 94.0 cents, pattern makers (21) 90.8 cents, and

4 All of these workers were paid on a straight-time basis,
s This was the minimum under the former NRA code.
84




M ANUFACTURE

OF

SH O E

85

PATTERNS

pattern truers-up (24) 86.6 cents. The lowest-paid skilled occupation
was that of iron men, with an average of 78.9 cents.
Among the semiskilled and unskilled employees, the cutters of pat­
tern parts (10) averaged 66.5 cents an hour, which was followed very
closely by the 64.5-cent average for pattern sketchers (7). Pattern
finishers (8) and apprentices (17) each averaged about 42 cents.
Of the 225 wage earners in this industry, only about one-sixth worked
overtime during the period scheduled. If the earnings due to the extra
rates paid for overtime work were included, the average for the industry
would be 82.4 cents, which is about 1 cent higher than the figure with
the extra overtime earnings excluded.

T able

4 6 .— D istribution of shoe pattern plants, by average hourly earnings and
State, first quarter of 1939

Plants having average hourly earnings
State

United States___________
Massachusetts1 _ ___
New York and Pennsyl­
vania
Middle Western States 2_ _

Un­
der
Total 60.0
cents
20
8
7
5

60.0 62.5 72.5 75.0 77.5 80.0 85.0 90.0 95.0
and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under
62.5 72.5 75.0 77.5 80.0 85.0 90.0 95.0 100.0
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

1

2 ____

1

2

2
1

1

1

1

3
1
1
1

1 Includes 1 plant in Maine.
2 Includes 2 plants in Missouri and 1 each in Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin.




3
1
2

1
1

5
2
1
2

1
1

100.0
cents
and
over
1
1

W eekly Hours and Earnings
Of the 20 plants covered in the survey, 9 had full-time hours of
40 per week, while 10 worked 44 hours. In the remaining establish­
ment, the full-time hours amounted to 42.5 per week.
The actual weekly hours of all employees averaged 40.0. Of the
total wage earners, 57.0 percent worked between 40 and 44 hours
inclusively, with 26.8 percent working exactly 40, and 25.8 percent
exactly 44 hours. There were 24.8 percent working under 40 hours,
while 18.2 percent worked over 44 hours.

The average weekly earnings of all wage earners in this industry
amounted to $32.93, the figures being $38.82 for skilled and $20.59
for semiskilled and unskilled combined. Of the total, 36.9 percent
received under $30 a week, 43.6 percent between $30 and $45, 16.0
percent between $45 and $60, and 3.5 percent $60 and over. These
figures include the earnings due to the extra rates received for over­
time work.
The average weekly earnings by occupation were $49.32 for work­
ing foremen, $40.47 for pattern binders, $37.48 for pattern graders,
$34.49 for iron men, $31.33 for pattern makers, $30.94 for pattern
truers-up, $28.00 for pattern sketchers, $27.39 for cutters of pattern
parts, $17.30 for apprentices, and $16.26 for pattern finishers. None
of these figures include the earnings due to extra rates paid for
overtime.

86




o