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The Earnings and Employment
of Seamen on I). S. Flag Ships

0

D a ily e a rn in g s, M a y 1957

0

Em p lo ym e n t p a tte rn s, Ju ly 1956 — June 1957

0

A n n u a l e a rn in g s, Ju ly 1956 — June 1957

0

Frin g e b e n e fits

in cooperation with
FEDERAL MARITIME BOARD
Clarence G. Morse, Chairman
MARITIME ADMINISTRATION
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Sinclair Weeks, Secretary




Bulletin No. 1238
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




The Earnings and Employment
off Seamen on U. S. Flag Ships

f

Daily earnings, M a y 1957

9

Employment patterns, July 1956 — June 1957

^

Annual earnings, July 1956— June 1957

a

Fringe benefits

in cooperation with
FEDERAL MARITIME BOARD
Clarence G. Morse, Chairman
MARITIME ADMINISTRATION
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Sinclair Weeks, Secretary

Bulletin No. 1238
UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
November 1958

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D C. - Price 60 cents







The Library o f Congress has c a ta lo g e d the series
in which this publication appears as follow s:

U. S. Bureau o f Labor Statistics.
Bulletin, no. 1Nov. 1895Washington.
no. in

v.

illus. 16-28 cm.

Bim onthly, Nov. 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912N o. 1-111 issued by the B ureau o f Labor.

1.

Labor and laboring classes— U . S.— Period.

HD805LA62

331.06173

library of Congress

15-23307 rev*t

ir58t2j

The Library of Congress has c a ta lo ge d this
publication as follows:

U. S.

Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The earnings and employment of seamen on U . S. flag
ships. In cooperation with Federal Maritime Board [and]
Maritime Administration, U. S. Dept, of Commerce. W ash­
ington, 1958.
vi, 90 p. illus. 26 cm. (Its Bulletin no. 1238)

1.
(Merchant) seamen— U. S. 2. Merchant seamen— U. S.— Salaries,
pensions, etc. [2. Wages— U. S.— Seamen,
i. Title.
(Series)

HD8051.A62

no. 1238

T S. Dept, of Labor,
J.
for Library of Congress

331.2856

Library

t

L 58-71




Preface

T h i s r e p o r t o n th e e a r n i n g s a n d e m p l o y m e n t o f
s e a m e n in th e U n it e d S t a t e s M a r i t i m e I n d u s t r y w a s p r e ­
p a r e d b y th e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r fs B u r e a u o f L a b o r
S t a t i s t i c s a t th e r e q u e s t o f a n d in c o o p e r a t i o n w it h th e
F e d e r a l M a r i t i m e B o a r d a n d th e M a r i t i m e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
U . S. D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m e r c e .

T h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a ta on d a ily e a r n in g s , a n n u a l
e m p lo y m e n t, and an n u al e a r n in g s w a s m a d e b y fie ld r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e s o f th e B u r e a u 's D i v i s i o n o f W a g e s a n d I n d u s t r i a l
R e la tio n s .
J a m e s F . W a l k e r o f th e D i v i s i o n 's s t a f f d i ­
r e c t e d th e s u r v e y a n d p r e p a r e d th e s e c t i o n s o f th e r e p o r t
d e a l i n g w it h e a r n i n g s a n d e m p l o y m e n t .

T h e t e x t f o r th e s e c t i o n s o n th e A m e r i c a n M e r ­
ch a n t M a r in e , la b o r f o r c e , c o lle c t i v e b a r g a in in g , and in ­
c o m e s e c u r it y and v a c a tio n b e n e fit s , a s w e ll a s te c h n ic a l
a d v i c e f o r th e p la n n in g a n d c o n d u c t o f th e s t u d y , w e r e
f u r n i s h e d b y s t a f f m e m b e r s o f th e S t a t i s t i c s a n d S p e c i a l
S t u d ie s O f f i c e , M a r i t i m e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .




Contents
Page
P r e fa c e _______________________________________________________________________________________________
In trod u ction ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
S u m m a ry _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

iii
1
3

The A m e r ic a n M erch a n t M arin e ___________________________________________________________________________
Size and c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f U nited States F lag F le e t _________________________________________________
E m p loy m en t o f U nited States F la g Ships _______________________________________________________________
S u b sid ized op e ra tio n s o f the U nited States F la g S h ip s _________________________________________________

5
5
5
5

T he la b o r fo r c e _____________________________________ __________________________________________ ______________
O p era tion o f se a fa rin g e m p loy m en t c e n te r s __________________________________________________________
L ic e n s e d ship*s o f f i c e r s _____________________________________________________________________________
U n lice n se d se a fa rin g p e rs o n n e l ______________________________________________________________________

7
10
10
12

C o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g _______________________________________________________________________________________
N egotiated ra te s and p re m iu m pay p r a c t ic e s __________________________________________________________

12
15

S eam en 1s d a ily ea rn in g s ____________________________________________________________________________________
E a rn in g s o f lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s ___________________________________________________________________________
E a rn in g s o f u n lice n se d sea m en ______
E a rn in g s by c o a s t —_______________________
S u b sid ized tr ip s _________________________________________________________________________________________
E a rn in g s by type o f ship _________________________________________________________________________________
P o r t p r o v is io n s __________________________________________________________________________________________
T ra d e rou te c o m p a r is o n _________________________________________________________________________________

18
18
19
22
23
25
25
25

Annual em p loy m en t and ea rn in g s __________________________________________________________________________
Annual em p loy m en t ___________________________________________________________.*
___________________________
E m p lo y m e n t o f lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s _______
E m p lo y m e nt o f u n lice n se d sea m en _____________________________________________________________________
E m p loy m en t by num ber o f t r ip s , sh ip s, and co m p a n ie s _____________________________________________
A nnual e a rn in g s _____________________________________________________________

26
26
27
30
30
32

In co m e s e c u r ity and v a ca tio n b e n e fits _____________________________________________________________________
W e lfa r e plans _____________________________________________________________________________________________
E m p lo y m e n t s e c u r ity ____________________________________________________________________________________
P e n s io n s ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
V a ca tio n s _________________________________________________________________________________________________

34
35
35
35
35

Illu stra tio n :

11

C re w co m p le m e n t o f a ty p ica l c a r g o ship

C h a rts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

M a ritim e p o s itio n s and a v a ila b le sea m en ________________________________________________________
D ep a rtm en ta l e m p lo y m e nt by type o f ship --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A v e r a g e d a ily e a rn in g s by ratin g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v ertim e c o m p a r e d w ith penalty h ou rs ------------ «-----------------------------------------------------------------------------E a rn in gs by su bsid y status o f s h i p s ------------------------------------------------------------------Annual days o f em p loy m en t _________________________________________________________________________
P r o p o r tio n s in d u stry co n n e cte d and em p loy ed in a ll q u a rte rs -------------------------------------------------------Seam en w ork in g fo r on ly one e m p lo y e r during the y e a r -----------------------------------------------------------------Annual ea rn in gs ______________________________________________________________________________________




v

8
9
20
21
24
28
29
31
33

Contents - Continued
T a b le s :
1.
2.
3.
4.

P age
A v e r a g e ea rn in g s $,nd em p loy m en t _____________________________________________________________
U nited States fla g sea g oin g m erch a n t fle e t ____________________________________________________
M in im u m r a te s — M ay 1957 and M ay 1958 ______________________________________________________
P r in c ip a l p re m iu m pay p r o v is io n s ______________________________________________________________

4
6
16
17

______________________________________________________________________

37

A -l.

A v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in g s

D istrib u tio n by a v e ra g e d a ily e a rn in g s A - 2 . A ll p o r t s , lic e n s e d sea m en ______________________________ ___________________________________
A -3 .
A ll p o r ts , u n lice n se d sea m en ___________________________ ,___________________________________
A -4 .
A tla n tic and G ulf C o a st p o r ts , lic e n s e d seam en ____________________ *_____________________
A - 5. A tla n tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts , u n licen sed sea m en _________________________________________
A - 6. W est C oa st p o r t s , lic e n s e d seam en _________________________________________________________
A - 7 . W est C o a st p o r t s , u n lice n sed sea m en ______________________________________________________

38
39
40
41
42
43

D istrib u tio n by d a ily p re m iu m e a rn in g s A - 8. A ll p o r ts _____ 1_________________________________________________________________________________
A - 9. A tla n tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts _____ ____________________________ _______________________________
A - 10. W est C o a st p o r ts _______________________________________________________________ ;_____________

44
45
46

S u pplem en tary e a rn in g s A - 11. A ll p o r ts ________________________ 1_____________________________________________________________
A - 12. A tla n tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts _______________________________________________________________
A - 13. W est C o a st p o r ts _____________________________________________________________________________

47
48
49

A v e r a g e d a ily ea rn in g s A - 14. On p o r t p a y r o lls ______________________________________________________________________________
A - 15. B y su b s id iz e d status, a ll p o r ts _____________________________________________________________
A - 16. By su b s id iz e d status, A tla n tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts _____________________________________
A - 17. B y su b s id iz e d status, W est C oa st p o r ts ___________________________________________________
A - 18. B y su b s id iz e d status— C -2 and C -3 _________________________________________________________
A - 19. By type o f ship _______________________________________________________________________________
A -2 0 .
D r y - c a r g o sh ip s, by c o a s t __________________________________________________________________
A - 2 1. By type o f d r y - c a r g o ship, a ll p o r ts _______________________________________________________
A - 2 2 . B y type o f d r y - c a r g o ship, A tlan tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts _____________________ __________
A -2 3 .
By type o f d r y - c a r g o ship, W est C o a st p o r ts _____________________________________________
A - 24. D r y - c a r g o sh ips, by num ber o f p o rt stop s ________________________________________________
A -2 5 .
D r y - c a r g o sh ip s, by tra d e a r e a s ___________________________________________________________

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

Annual em p lo y m e n t B -l.
Annual em p loy m en t ___________________________________________________________________________
B -2 .
In du stry co n n e cte d sea m en , a ll p o r t s _______________________________________________________
B -3 .
In du stry co n n e cte d sea m en , A tla n tic and G ulf C o a st p o rts _______________________________
B -4 .
In du stry co n n e cte d sea m en , W est C o a st p o rts _____________________________________________
B -5 .
A ll sea m en , a ll p o r ts ______________________________ _______________________________ _________
B -6 .
A ll se a m e n , A tla n tic and G ulf C o a st p o r ts ________________________________________________
B -7 .
A ll sea m en , W est C o a st p o r ts ______________________________________________________________
B -8 .
M ean and m edianT average days em p loy ed _________________________________________________
B -9 .
A ll se a m en by num ber o f q u a rte rs em p loy ed _____________________________________________
B - 10. A ll sea m en by q u a r te r s e m p lo y e d , A tla n tic and G ulf C oa st p o r ts _____ _______ ..________
B-ll.
A ll sea m en b y q u a r te r s e m p lo y e d , W est C o a st p o rts ____________________________________
B - 12. N um ber o f t r ip s p e r y e a r __________________________________________________________________ _
B -1 3 .
N um ber o f sh ips p e r y e a r ___________________________________________________________________
B - 14. N um ber o f e m p lo y e r s p e r y e a r _________________ _______________________________ ____________

62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

Annual e a rn in g s B - 15. In du stry co n n e cte d sea m en _________________________________________________________________
B -1 6 .
A ll sea m en ____________________________________________________________________________________
B - 17. B y q u a r te r s e m p lo y e d _______________________________________________________________________

76
77
78

C-l.

In co m e s e c u r ity and v a ca tion b e n e fits

_____________________________________________________

A p p en d ixes:
A.
S cop e and m eth od o f su rv e y ____________________________________ ___________________________________
B . D e s c r ip tio n s o f s e le c te d ra tin gs ___________________________________________________________________
C . E m p loy m en t p r o c e d u r e s ___________________________________________________________________________




vi

79
81
85
88

The Earning and Employment of Seamen on U.S. Flag Ships,
July 1, 1956—June 30, 1957
Introduction
In 1956, the C o n g r e s s io n a l C o m m ittee on M e r ­
chant M arin e and F is h e r ie s is s u e d a r e p o r t on the
su b je ct o f the la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t p r o b le m s o f the
A m e r ic a n m e rch a n t m a r in e .
A m on g the r e c o m ­
m en dation s in the r e p o r t w as a su g g estion to the
M a ritim e A d m in istra tio n to—
1 . • . institute at o n ce a jo b evalu ation study
1
d esig n ed to a p p ra ise the ex istin g le v e l o f w ages
f o r o ffic e r s and c r e w s a b oa rd A m e r ic a n -fla g
v e s s e ls .
The study should in clu de a ll types
o f ocea n g oin g v e s s e ls . It should take into a c ­
count: The h ou rs p e r w eek w ork ed at sea , the
annual ta k e -h o m e pay o f the a v e ra g e o ffic e r o r
c r e w m e m b e r , the fr in g e b en efits r e c e iv e d or
to w h ich the individual m a y b e c o m e en titled ,
the s k ill re q u ire d fo r ea ch c la s s ific a tio n , the
la b o r io u s n e s s o f the w o rk , the fa c t that m u ch
o f the tim e is spent at se a , and oth er p e r t i­
nent f a c t o r s . "
The M a ritim e A d m in istra tio n , a fte r d is c u s s io n s
with the B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , re q u ested funds
f o r a b a s ic study o f ea rn in gs in the in du stry d e ­
sign ed to p r o v id e p a rt o f the d e s ir e d in form a tion .
B e fo r e any co m p a r is o n s w ith oth er in d u stries cou ld
be m ade o r f o r jo b evalu a tion p u r p o s e s , it was
n e c e s s a r y to d ev elop the b a s ic data sought in this
study. It w as h oped that this study w ould p ro v id e
a b a s is f o r the e x p lo ra tio n o f oth er a s p e cts o f
t h e q u estion o f s e a m e n ’ s w a g e s outlined b y the
C o m m itte e .
Funds fo r a study w e r e p ro v id e d in the M a r i­
tim e A d m in istra tio n budget f o r f i s c a l 1958. A c o n ­
tr a c t w as en te re d into w ith the B ureau o f L a b o r
S ta tistics to con du ct a study of c u rre n t w age le v e ls ,
annual em p loy m en t, and annual ea rn in gs f o r l i ­
cen se d o f f ic e r s and u n lice n se d se a m e n . The study
w as to p r o v id e in fo rm a tio n on g r o s s earn in gs and
su p p lem en ta ry paym en ts re su ltin g fr o m s p e c ific
p r o v is io n s in the la b o r co n tra cts under w hich m o s t
o f the sea m en a r e e m p lo y e d .
R e p re s e n ta tiv e s o f the M a ritim e A d m in istra tion
and the B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics ca lle d on m any
p eo p le in the in du stry to obtain a d v ice and help in
co m p ilin g the m o s t u se fu l type o f data that cou ld be
s e c u r e d w ith the funds a v a ila b le .
A m on g th ose v is ite d w e r e r e g io n a l r e p r e s e n ta ­
tiv e s o f the M a ritim e A d m in istra tio n , o ffic e r s in
a ll o f the m a jo r m a r itim e u n ion s, r e p re se n ta tiv e s
o f individual com p a n ies and o f the m a jo r shipping
a s s o c ia tio n s r e p re se n tin g the e m p lo y e r s , and a d ­
m in is tr a to r s o f the s e v e r a l v a ca tio n and w e lfa re
funds w h ich a r e m ain tain ed jo in tly b y tr u ste e s r e p ­
rese n tin g m an agem en t and la b o r in the in du stry.



The co o p e ra tio n o f th ese groups was e x ce lle n t.
A fte r rev iew in g th eir su g g estion s and a r e c o r d o f
the types o f data a v a ila b le , it w as d ecid ed to base
the study o f cu rre n t earn in gs on a sa m p le o f actu al
ship p a y r o l ls . Ship p a y r o lls ty p ica lly c o v e r v a ry in g
p e r io d s o f tim e depending on the length o f the trip ;
th e r e fo r e , in o r d e r to avoid p a y r o lls w hich co n ­
tained g e n e ra l w age ch a n g es, it w as d ecid ed to
study the la te st trip p a y r o ll ending p r io r to June 1,
1957, f o r each o f the ships s e le c te d in the sa m p le .
F o r each seam an in each rating on the ship
p a y r o lls stu d ied , B ureau r e p re se n ta tiv e s obtained
in fo rm a tio n on the n u m ber o f days paid f o r , g r o s s
earn in gs fo r the trip , pen alty and o v e rtim e h ou rs
and ea rn in g s, and the am ounts of any su p p lem en ­
ta ry types o f paym ent.
When sep a ra te p o rt p a y ­
r o lls co v e rin g tim e in hom e p o r t o r a d ja cen t co a sta l
trip s w e re m aintained, data w e re c o lle c te d fo r both
the sea and p o r t p a y r o lls and th ese w e r e la te r c o m ­
bined to r e fle c t a v e ra g e e a rn in g s.
In the study o f annual em p loy m en t and annual
e a rn in g s, the b e s t s o u r c e s o f b a s ic data r e a d ily
a v a ila b le w e re the v a ca tion fund r e c o r d s .
T h ese
r e c o r d s g e n e r a lly show ed the dates and num ber o f
days of em p loy m en t fo r ea ch individual seam an ,
his ratin g on the s p e c ific v oy a g e, the nam e o f the
ship, and the com p an y of em p loy m en t.
Since the
em p loy m en t r e p o r ts to the funds w e re often dela y ed
b e ca u se o f the length o f the v oyage o r fo r other
r e a s o n s , it w as n e c e s s a r y to s e le c t a p e rio d f o r
w h ich it w as hoped that the data w ould be co m p le te .
It was a ls o d e s ir a b le to s e le c t a y ea r containing a
m in im u m of w age ch an g es. The y e a r s e le c te d was
the p e r io d fr o m July 1, 1956, through June 30,
1957.
T rip s extending b e fo r e o r beyond the y e a r
o f study w e re p r o r a te d to r e fle c t only the e m p lo y ­
m ent and earnings w ithin the y e a r .
R e c o r d s of the C oa st Guard w e re ch eck ed fo r
those sea m en w h ose r e c o r d s in the v a ca tion funds
w e r e not co m p le te .
Sam ples o f oth er s e a m e n ’ s
r e c o r d s w e re a ls o ch eck ed at the C oa st Guard to
d eterm in e the a c c u r a c y o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d .1
1 An a n a ly sis of the re s u lts of the added data
obtained fr o m C oa st Guard r e c o r d s in dicated that
the u n d erstatem en t of em p loy m en t w hich was due
to o m is s io n s in the s o u r c e r e c o r d s am ounted to
le s s than 1 p e r c e n t of the total em p loy m en t fo r the
y e a r . C om pa nies a re not re q u ire d to r e p o r t s e a ­
m e n ’ s em p loy m en t to the C oa st Guard e x ce p t when
the seam en a r e under a r t ic le s (p ro v is io n s of m a r i ­
tim e em p loy m en t). The C oa st G uard r e c o r d s , th e r e ­
fo r e , do not alw ays include s h o r t-te r m em p loy m en t
on p o rt p a y ro lls o r r e l ie f w ork .

2
In co n tra st w ith the data on d aily earn in gs
and annual e m p lo y m e n t, the annual earn in gs data
w e r e obtained fo r on ly 6 key ra tin gs s e le c te d to
r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s w age le v e ls and d e g re e s o f
re s p o n s ib ility .
Such data w e re obtained fr o m the
s o c ia l s e c u r it y r e c o r d s o f the v a rio u s com p an ies
that e m p lo y e d the sea m en s e le c te d in the sa m p le.
T h ese 6 ratin gs r e p r e s e n te d o v e r 40 p e r c e n t o f
the total la b o r f o r c e a v a ila b le .
The su rv e y w as intended to e sta b lish the a v e r ­
age d a ily g r o s s ea rn in gs o f sea m en when e m p lo y e d ,
the n u m ber o f days they w e r e e m p lo y e d , and the
am ount o f m o n e y the a v e ra g e sea m a n , em p loy ed
in a g iv en ra tin g, ea rn ed during the y e a r .
The
am ount o f v a ca tio n tim e ea rn ed o r paid fo r was
ex clu d ed fr o m both the annual e m p loy m en t and an­
nual ea rn in gs e s t im a t e s .2 D iffe r e n c e s in the e s t i ­
m a tes fo r s e a m e n ^ ea rn in gs d ev elop ed f o r v a riou s
seg m en ts o f the in d u stry a r e not n e c e s s a r ily in d ica ­
tive o f re la tiv e la b o r c o s ts sin ce m an y oth er fa c to r s
a ffe c t su ch c o s t s .

2 The v a ca tio n tim e ea rn ed o r paid f o r could not
be im m e d ia te ly d e te rm in e d , sin ce fu tu re e m p lo y ­
m en t cou ld a ffe c t the am ount o f v a ca tion b e n e fits .
See table C - l fo r v a ca tio n p r o v is io n s .




The y e a r o f study w as one o f the peak p e a c e ­
tim e y e a rs fo r the in du stry.
Both im p o rts and
e x p o rts during that p e r io d w e re high, am ong the
b e s t sin ce 1950.
C oal and o r e shipm ents w e re
h e a v ie r than n o r m a l. Since 1950, in fa c t, the p e rio d
s e le c te d f o r study, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957,
w as e x ce e d e d in a ctiv ity on ly b y the K orea n W ar
y e a r s o f 1951 and 1952, as shown in the fo llo w in g
tabulation of c a r g o tonnage c a r r ie d b y A m e r ic a n
fla g v e s s e ls :
D ate

T o ta l

Im ports

E x p orts

(I n m i l l i o n s o f l o n g t o n s )

1950 ____________________________
1 9 5 1 .............. ....................................
1952 ____________________________
1953 ------------------------------------------1954 ----------------------------------------1955 ...................................................
1956 ------------------------------------------J u ly 1, 1956—June 30, 1957 . . .

2 8 .0
5 0 .1
3 9 .8
2 9 .7
2 8 .7
3 5 .3
4 0 .3
3 9 .0

1 3 .2
1 5 .9
1 6 .5
1 5 .4
1 4 .7
1 7 .7
1 8 .8
1 6 .4

1 4 .8
3 4 .2
2 3 .3
1 4 .3
1 4 .0
1 7 .6
2 1 .5
2 2 .6

The annual em p loy m en t and earn in gs o f in d i­
vidual sea m en a re a ffe cte d b y the nu m ber of ships
a c tiv e ly em p loy ed in any given y e a r .

3
Summary

Seam en (exclu d in g m a s t e r s a n d ca d e ts ) on
United States fla g v e s s e ls in M ay 1957 had a v e ra g e
d a ily earn in gs o f $ 2 0 . 19. A v e r a g e d a ily b a se pay
am ounted to $ 1 3 . 75, with n e a r ly a ll of the r e ­
m a in d e r a cco u n te d f o r b y p re m iu m (o v e rtim e and
pen a lty) pay p r a c t ic e s in the in du stry.
L ic e n s e d o ffic e r s as a grou p a v e ra g e d $ 2 9 . 80
a day, in clu din g $ 8 .2 1 p re m iu m pay fo r 2 .8 h ou rs
and 21 cents in oth er su p p lem en ta ry pay.
Seam en in u n lice n se d r a tin g s , a ccou n tin g fo r
n e a r ly fo u r -fift h s o f the 45, 000 e m p lo y e e s w ithin
s co p e of the su rv e y , a v e ra g e d $ 1 7 .5 6 a day. This
in clu d ed $ 5 .6 6 prem iu m pay fo r 2 .8 h ou rs and
24 cen ts in oth er su p p lem en ta ry pay.
A v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in gs ran ged fr o m $ 1 2 . 77 fo r
w ip e r s to $ 3 9 .1 4 fb r c h ie f e n g in e e rs and $ 3 5 .9 4
fo r c h ie f m a te s .
F re q u e n tly , the h igh est in d iv id ­
ual d a ily earn in gs e x c e e d e d the lo w e st earn in gs in
the sa m e rating b y 100 p e r c e n t— la r g e ly b e ca u se
o f d iffe r e n c e s in the am ount o f p re m iu m pay.
U n licen sed sea m en on the W est C oa st a v e ra g e d
about 10 p e rce n t m o r e than th ose w ork in g out o f
e a ste r n p o r ts .
F o r lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s , in te r co a s t
d iffe r e n c e s in pay w e re m in o r .
The study a ls o d e v e lo p e d e stim a te s o f earn in gs
in v a rio u s ratin gs b y type o f ship, b y num ber o f
p o rt sto p s, b y trade a r e a s , and b y su b sid y sta tu s.
S eam en em p loy ed on tankers g e n e r a lly had a h igh er
a v e r a g e n u m ber o f p rem iu m h ou rs and th e r e fo r e
had h ig h e r a v e ra g e earn in gs than th ose on other
types o f v e s s e ls . Seam en r a tin g -b y -r a tin g on p a s ­
se n g e r ships g e n e r a lly a v e ra g e d slig h tly h ig h er
earn in gs t h a n th eir cou n terp a rts on d r y -c a r g o
v e s s e ls .
D iffe r e n c e s in a v e ra g e earn in gs betw een the
v a rio u s types o f d r y - c a r g o ships w e re s m a ll, e x ­
cept that earn in gs on lib e r ty ships w e re g e n e ra lly
5 p e r c e n t h igh er than on oth er type v e s s e ls .
B e ca u se o f lo w e r a v e ra g e p re m iu m h o u rs , the
d a ily earn in gs o f sea m en on su b sid iz e d d r y -c a r g o
v e s s e ls a v e ra g e d slig h tly lo w e r than th ose on n on su b sid iz e d d r y -c a r g o v e s s e ls .




The v a rio u s pen alty and o v e rtim e p r o v is io n s
w h ich b e c o m e e ffe c tiv e when ships a re in p o r t a p ­
p e a r to have little e ffe c t on a v e ra g e earn in gs fo r
the sea m en when they a r e in p o rt.
No sig n ifica n t d iffe r e n c e s in s e a m e n 's earnings
w e re noted in c o m p a r is o n s o f s e v e r a l trade r o u te s ,
e x ce p t that sea m en on in te rco a s ta l ships g e n e ra lly
had the h igh est a v e ra g e earn in gs am ong d r y -c a r g o
v e s s e ls .

Seam en who w e r e em p loy ed both p r io r to and
a fte r the y e a r o f study (July 1, 1956— June 30,
1957) a v e ra g e d 243 days o f em p loy m en t during the
y e a r.
O ffic e r s (lic e n s e d sea m en ) a v e ra g e d about
8
p e r c e n t m o r e em p loy m en t than u n licen sed s e a ­
m en , 258 and 239 d a y s, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
Seam en in both the h ig h e r-p a id lic e n s e d and
u n licen sed ratin gs g e n e ra lly had h igh er a v era g e
days o f em p loy m en t than th ose in the lo w e r ra tin g s.

U n licen sed sea m en on the A tlan tic and Gulf
C oa sts a v era g ed s lig h tly m o r e em p loy m en t than
those on the W est C o a st.
On the oth er hand, l i ­
cen sed o ffic e r s as a group a v e ra g e d slig h tly g r e a te r
em p loy m en t on the W est C o a st.
About 78 p e r c e n t o f the o ffic e r s and 75 p e r c e n t
o f u n licen sed sea m en could be co n s id e re d in du stry
con n ected fo r the w h ole y e a r in that they had w ork ed
both p r io r to and a fte r the y ea r o f study.
When
a il sea m en who had w ork ed at any tim e during the
y e a r w e re in clu d ed , the a v e ra g e em p loym en t of
lic e n s e d o ffic e r s d rop ped to 233 days and o f un­
lic e n s e d sea m en to 207 d ays.

The com bin ed e ffe c t o f h igh er a v era g e daily
earn in gs and h igh er a v e ra g e annual em p loy m en t of
lic e n s e d o ffic e r s w as r e fle c te d in the re su lts of the
study of annual earn in gs fo r 6 s e le c te d ra tin g s.
A m on g sea m en who w e re in du stry con n ected during
the y e a r , se co n d m a tes a v e ra g e d a lm o s t 2 1 tim es
/*
as m u ch annually as m e s s m e n , $ 8 ,1 1 0 com p a re d
with $ 3 ,2 8 5 . C o o k s , h o w e v e r, had co m p a ra tiv e ly
high em p loy m en t and a v era g ed $ 5 ,3 4 5 during the
year.
A b le -b o d ie d sea m en , who re p r e s e n t about
o n e -s ix th o f the w o rk f o r c e , a v e ra g e d $ 4 , 607. A
su m m a ry of re su lts is p re s e n te d in table 1.

TABLE 1. AVERAGE EARNINGS AND EMPLOYMENT

(Average daily earnings, May 1957, annual employment and earnings, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957,
for selected ratings in the United States Maritime Industry)

Rating

Average
daily ,
earnings 1 /

Average daily
premium g/
Hours

Earnings

Average
annual
employment 2 /

Licensed deck department1
Chief mates...........................
Second nates...... .............. .
Third nates................ ..........
Fourth nates •••.•••••••...... ...........
Radio officers ...... ...... ............
Chief pursers, passenger .................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker........ ......
Assistant pursers, passenger ..............

#3 5 .%
29.43
27.64
26.13
27.61
30.39
23.04
26.03

3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.1
2.7
1.5
3.5

♦1 0 . 5 9
9.48
9.19
9.17
9.08
8.61
4.54
11.17

276
264
254
235
261

Licensed engine departments
Chief engineers..... .......... .......
First assistant engineers ••••..............
Second assistant engineers................
Third assistant engineers ••••..... .
Junior third assistant engineers ............
Licensed junior engineers ................

39.14
35.09
29.17
26.87
25.06
23.10

.
5
3.1
3.1
2.9
2.8
2.2

1.87
9.64
8.90
8.16
7.71
5.90

276
257
253
253
235
246

Unlicensed deck departments
Bosuns... ••••••••.... ......••••••.... .
Carpenters ••••..... ••••••••......... ....
Deck maintenance •••••...................
Able-bodied seamen ••••••«..••••........... .
Ordinary seamen •••••••••••••••..... ........

22.44
21.48
18.96
19.50
14.83

3.1
2.9
2.6
3.3
3.1

6.97
6.85
5.88
7.30
5.41

250
228
233
240
226

Unlicensed engine departments
Unlicensed junior engineers ...............
Electricians ..........................
Second electricians... ..................
Engine maintenance ••••••••................
Oilers ...............................
Firemen, water tenders........... ...... .
Vipers ...............................

16.94
24.23
22.97
16.38
17.38
17.56
12.77

1.2
2.6
2.6
1.5
2.9
3.0
1.2

2.51
6.15
6.36
3.18
5. 3
9
6.13
2.02

(V)
257
229

Stewards departments
Chief stewards, passenger .................
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker ........
Second stewards, passenger ................
Chef8 passenger.......................
,
Cooks, passenger .......................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker..... ..........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ....... .
Assistant cooks, passenger ................
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Stewards, passenger....................
Valters, passenger ........ ...............
Messmen, all ships ........ ............ .
Bellboys, passenger .....................

32.04
22.94
26.19
31.54
24.39
20.59
19.86
21.79
18.49
14.78
15.51
14.10
14.04

4.0
3.2
4.7
4.6
3.8
2.8
2.7
3.8
2.7
2.9
3.3
2.6
3.1

6.99
10.18
10.38
8.39
6.01
5.94
8.10
5.85
4.77
5.50
4.31
5.06

Average
annual
earnings 4 /

8 .6 4

♦8,uo

(^A
Vjj}
v )
V

244
237
230
\

J

7,032

4,607

4,315

273
<i/)

269
264 \
235 J
247
264
219
243
224
229
238

c. 01 c

5,345

3,285

1_/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as nonwatch allowances, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities. Data relate to May 1957.
2/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
Data on annual employment relate to seamen employed sometime in the period 6 months before and also after the year of study.
4/ Data on annual earnings were collected for only 6 ratings and relate to seamen employed sometime in the period 6 months before and
also after the year of study.
J>/ These ratings were not studied in this phase of the study.




5
The American Merchant Marine

A la r g e n u m ber o f ships o f m an y types c o m ­
p r is e the oce a n g o in g m e rch a n t fle e t o f the United
S tates. The m a jo r it y o f th ese ships a re owned b y
t h e G overn m en t a n d , fo r the m o s t p art, a re
in a ctiv e . M ost o f the ships in a c tiv e s e r v ic e a re
p r iv a te ly ow ned. They m a y be op era ted as com m on
c a r r ie r s on sch ed u led s e r v ic e o v e r
esta b lish ed
trade rou tes o r as co n tra ct c a r r ie r s in ir r e g u la r
o r tram p tra d e s . O thers m a y be e m p loy ed as in­
d u s tria l c a r r ie r s o f raw m a te r ia ls f o r m a n u fa c­
tu re r s o f s te e l, alum inum , bu ild in g m a te r ia ls , and
p e tro le u m p ro d u cts o r fo r p r o d u c e r s of lu m b e r,
fru it, o r oth er p rod u cts fo r paren t o rg a n iz a tio n s.
A r e la tiv e ly sm a ll n u m ber o f G overn m en t owned
ships a re on c h a rte r to shipping co m p a n ies fo r
p riv a te o p e ra tio n o r a re op era ted f o r G overn m en t
a cco u n t b y p riv a te o p e r a to r s under v a riou s types
o f a g r e e m e n ts .
S ize and C h a r a c te r is tic s o f United States F la g F le e t
T h ere w e re 2 ,9 8 4 m e rch a n t type sh ip s, 1 ,0 0 0
g r o s s tons and o v e r , of 3 2 ,3 9 8 ,0 0 0 deadw eight ton s,
under A m e r ic a n r e g is t r y on June 30, 1957 (table 2).
A bout o n e -th ird o f t h e s e sh ip s, a ccou n tin g f o r
1 3 ,0 3 2 ,0 0 0 deadw eight ton s, w e re p r iv a te ly owned;
with r e la tiv e ly few e x c e p tio n s, th ese v e s s e ls w ere
a c tiv e ly e m p lo y e d . G overn m en t owned v e s s e ls a c ­
counted fo r 1 ,9 6 8 ships totaling 1 9 ,3 6 6 ,0 0 0 d ea d ­
w eigh t ton s, a il but 161 o f these ships w e re in activ e
and la id up at r e s e r v e fle e t s ite s .
Of the 1, 151 a c tiv e ly em p loy ed sh ip s, 798 w e re
fr e ig h t e r s , 312 w e re ta n k ers, and 41 w e re c o m ­
bin a tion p a s s e n g e r and ca r g o v e s s e ls .
F r e ig h te r s a re o f v a rio u s ty p e s, such as g en ­
e r a l c a r g o v e s s e ls , bulk c a r r ie r s , r e fr ig e r a t o r
sh ip s , r o l l - o n - r o l l - o f f , con ta in e r, t r a ile r , and oth er
s p e c ia l-p u r p o s e type sh ip s.
They range in s iz e
fro m 1 ,5 0 0 deadw eight tons fo r sm a ll g e n era l ca rg o
ships op era tin g in the n e a rb y fo r e ig n tra d es to a l ­
m o st 3 0 ,0 0 0 deadw eight tons fo r a bulk c a r r ie r .
The a v e r a g e s iz e o f a il types o f fr e ig h te r s (d ry ca rg o sh ip s), h o w e v e r, was about 1 0 ,9 0 0 d ea d ­
weight ton s.
T an k ers a re u sed , p r im a r ily , to c a r r y liquid
ca rg o e s in bulk.
T h ey a r e g e n e r a lly of g re a te r
deadweight tonnage than fr e ig h t e r s , and, with few
jx c e p tio n s , a re e m p loy ed to c a r r y p e tro leu m p r o d lcts fr o m one p o r t o f lading to one p o rt o f d is :h a rg e , retu rn in g in b a lla s t to the p o r t o f lading.
Vverage s iz e o f the 312 tankers w as about 17 ,3 6 5
Jeadweight ton s, although the range was fr o m 1 ,5 0 0
o 3 7, 800 deadw eight ton s.
The 41 com b in a tion p a s s e n g e r and c a r g o v e s ­
sels (p a sse n g e r sh ip s) had a cco m m o d a tio n s fo r as
ew as 52 p a s s e n g e r s , on the SS. SA N TA B A R B A R A




and its 8 s is t e r sh ip s, to as m any as 1 ,982 p a s s e n ­
g e r a cco m m o d a tio n s on the s u p e rlin e r SS. UNITED
STATES.
In s iz e , they ranged fr o m 7 ,9 0 0 g r o s s
tons to 5 3 ,3 0 0 g r o s s ton s, with m o s t o f the v e s s e ls
fa llin g within the 7 ,9 0 0 to 1 0 ,0 0 0 g r o s s -t o n grou p.
F o u r G overn m en t owned p a s s e n g e r ships w e re in
a ctiv e s e r v ic e . Tw o, w hich w e re on b a re b o a t (w ith­
out c r e w ) ch a rte r to a p riv a te o p e r a to r , had a total
g r o s s tonnage o f 41,400 and 1,030 p a s s e n g e r b e r th s .
E ach o f the oth er tw o, w hich w e re owned and o p e r ­
ated by the Panam a C anal C o. , had a g r o s s o f
1 0 ,0 0 0
tons and a cco m m o d a tio n s fo r 216 p a s s e n g e r s .
E m p loy m en t o f United States F lag Ships
L a b o r c o s ts fo r seam en , as w e ll as other
op eratin g c o s t s , a r e a ffe cte d b y the con dition s o f
the trade rou te and the s e r v ic e in w hich a ship is
em p loy ed .
C osts v a r y with the type, s iz e , and
sp eed of the ship; length o f the v oy a g e; num ber of
p o rts s e rv e d ; the type and v olu m e o f c a r g o
and
p a s s e n g e rs to be handled at each p o rt; the c o n ­
dition of a given p o rt; and the a v a ila b ility o f m o d e rn
equipm ent and adequate lo n g s h o re p e r s o n n e la t p o rts
to fa c ilita te c a r g o handling o p e ra tio n s.
A m e r ic a n fla g ships a re em p loy ed on about
fo r e ig n trade ro u te s , of w hich 35 trade rou tes
and 3 s e r v ic e s that a re not con fin ed to individual
trade rou tes have b een d e cla re d e s s e n tia l b y the
F e d e r a l M a ritim e B o a rd . 3 T hey a re a ls o op era ted
in the c o a s tw is e , in te r co a s ta l,^ a lc i noncontiguous
d o m e s tic o ce a n tr a d e s .
Table 2 sh ow s, in su m ­
m a r y fo r m , the fo r e ig n and d o m e s tic trades in
w hich United States fla g com b in a tion p a s s e n g e r c a r g o v e s s e l s , fr e ig h t e r s , and tankers w e re e m ­
p loy ed on June 30, 1957.
6 6

S u b sid ized O p era tion s o f the United. States
F la g Ships
On June 30, 1957, th ere w e re 300 v e s s e ls e l i ­
g ib le f o r F e d e r a l G overn m en t su bsid y, o f w hich
295 w e re p r iv a te ly owned and 5 w e re ch a rte re d
fr o m the G ov ern m en t.
Included am ong the la tter
nu m ber w e re 2 com b in a tion p a s s e n g e r -c a r g o v e s ­
s e ls and 3 fr e ig h t e r s .
It should be n o t e d that, as o f J u n e 1957,
fe w e r than o n e - t h i r d o f the p r iv a te ly o w n e d
v e s s e ls w e re e lig ib le fo r su b sid y fr o m the M a r i­
tim e A d m in istra tion .

3
.E ssen tia l United States F o r e ig n T rade R ou tes—
U. S. D epartm en t o f C o m m e r c e , M a ritim e A d m in is ­
tra tion , M ay 1957; U. S. G overn m en t P rin tin g
O ffice , W ashington 25, D. C .

0

TABLE 2. UNITED STATES FLAG SEAGOING M
ERCHANT FLEET
(Vessels of 1,000 gross tons and over by status and area of employment, June 30, 1957)

-(Tonnage in thousands)
Vessel type
Total

Combination
passenger and cargo

Status and
area of employment

Total 1/..................................

Gross
tons

Dead­
weight
tons

Number

23,038

Number

32,398

221

2f
Cf8 |

Gross
tons

freighters

Tankers

Dead­
weight
tons

Number

Gross
tons

Dead­
weight
tons

1.520

2.426

17.396

25.194

Gross
tons

Dead­
weight
tons

337

3f
9A

5,£84

Number

Active vessels ..............................

1,151

9,895

14,371

41

538

393

798

5,934

8,561

312

3,423

5,418

Foreign trade ...........................
Nearby foreign ........................
Overseas foreign .......................

709
95
614

5,878
909
4,969

8,209
1,288
6,921

38
1C
28

483
90
393

363
83
281

611
570

4,643
286
4,357

6,649
361
6,289

60
44
16

753
534
219

1,196
845
352

-

-

12

124

197

235
221
4
10

2,462
2,329
39
94

3,891
3,684
60
147

a

Foreign to foreign .......................

12

124

197

-

-

-

-

Domestic trade ........................ .
Coastwise .............................
Intercoestal ..........................
Noncontiguous .........................

399
262
59
78

3,642
2,585
451
607

5,595
4,082
674
839

3

56
-

30

161
41
55
65

-

3

-

-

56

30

1,125
257
412
457

1,675
398
615
662

Other rnitod States agency operations .........

31

251

371

-

-

-

26

166

237

5

85

134

Inactive vessels ............................

1,833

13,143

18,027

180

1,510

1,127

1,628

11,462

16,634

25

171

266

Temporarily inactive ......................
Merchant type .........................
Converted to military types ..............

37
37
-

293
293
-

433
433

“

-

*
*

26
26
-

177
177
-

246
246
-

11
11
“

116
116
-

187
187
-

Laid-uo (privately owned) ..... ............

1

2

4

-

-

-

1

2

4

-

-

-

1,795
1,528
267

12,848
10,826
2,022

17,590
15,836
1,754

180
1
179

1,510
20
1,490

1,127
16
1,111

1,601
1,523
78

11,283
10,774
509

16,384
15,770
614

14
4
10

55
32
23

79
50
29

Maritime Administration Reserve Fleet .........
Merchant type .........................
Converted to military tyoes ..............

-

-

1/ Excludes vessels on the inland waterways, Great Lakes, Army and Navy v essels, and special types such as cable ships, tugs, etc,
foreign flag under lend-lease.




Also excludes Government owned tonnage transferred to

\

nAn A m e r ic a n o p e r a t o r r e c e iv in g op era tin g
su b sid y aid m u st a g re e to—
1*

The re c a p tu r e o f p r o fits in e x c e s s o f 10
p e r c e n t o f ca p ita l n e c e s s a r ily em p lo y e d to
the exten t o f su b sid y paid to h im ;

2.

The e sta b lish m e n t o f r e s e r v e funds to p r o ­
vide f o r (a) re p la c e m e n t and a cq u isitio n o f
s h ip s , (b) p ro m p t paym en t o f h is ob lig a tion s
to the U nited S ta te s, (c ) con tin ued m a in ­
ten an ce and o p e r a tio n o f su b s id iz e d v e s s e ls ;
and

3.

The use o f a r t i c le s , m a t e r ia ls , and su p ­
p lie s p ro d u ce d in the U nited S ta tes, and
the r e p a ir o f su b s id iz e d v e s s e ls w ithin the
con tin en ta l lim its o f the U nited S ta tes.

''O p e r a tin g -d iffe r e n tia l co n tr a c ts stipulate the
m in im u m and m a xim u m n u m ber o f v oy a g es to
b e m ade by the su b s id iz e d o p e r a to r s in each
o f the d esign a ted s e r v ic e s c o v e r e d b y the
con tra ct* A ll sa ilin g s a re m ade on the b a s is
o f sa ilin g sch ed u les (in clu din g v e s s e l s , d a tes,

p o rts o f c a l l 9 and oth er p a r tic u la r s as req u ired )
a p p rov ed by the M a ritim e A d m in istration . S a il­
ings in e x c e s s o f the m axim u m n um ber s p e c i ­
fie d ca n be m ade on ly with the p r io r a p p rov a l
o f the M a ritim e A d m in istra tio n and no su b sid y
is paid f o r su ch v o y a g e s . F a ilu re o f an o p e r ­
ator to m ake a v oya g e is not d eem ed a b re a ch
o f the o p e r a t o r 's o b lig a tion under thev c o n tra ct
if the ca u se o f such fa ilu r e is an A c t of G od,
fo r c e m a je u r e , a ccid e n t, s trik e s o r oth er la b o r
d is tu rb a n ce s , w a r, in s u r r e c tio n s , w eather c o n ­
d itio n s , lo s s o r dam age o f v e s s e l s , o r any
oth er ca u se not within c o n tr o l o f the o p e r a to r
with the understanding that the ca u se o f any
in terru p tion in s o fa r as it m ay be under the
op era tor* s c o n tr o l sh a ll be r e m e d ie d by the
o p e r a to r with a ll rea so n a b le d isp atch and p e r ­
fo r m a n c e re su m e d at the e a r lie s t p r a c tic a b le
t im e . " 4
4
M a ritim e S ubsidy P o lic y , pp. 94 and 95; p r e ­
p a red by the U . S. D epartm en t o f C o m m e r c e , O ffice
o f the U nder S e c r e ta r y o f C o m m e r c e f o r T r a n s ­
p orta tion and M a ritim e A d m in istra tion , A p r il 1954.

The Labor Force

It has b e e n e stim a te d that th ere a re about
q u a lifie d m en a va ila b le fo r w ork in the
o ce a n g o in g m a ritim e in d u stry o f the U nited S ta tes.
In e a r ly 1957, the in d u stry p ro v id e d a p p rox im a tely
6 0 .0 0 0 jo b s .
1 0 0 .0 0 0

T h is d oes n ot m ean that 4 0 ,0 0 0 m en w e re lo o k ­
ing f o r w ork at any one tim e . O cea n v oy a g es a re
g e n e r a lly long and co n fin in g , and, fo llo w in g a w e lle sta b lish e d c u s to m , m any sea m en lea ve th eir ships
at the te rm in a tio n o f a v oya g e; so m e take v a ca tio n s ;
o th e rs take te m p o r a r y sh o r e s id e jo b s ; s o m e re q u ire
h o sp ita liza tio n ; o th e rs have s h o r e s id e jo b s and a re
a v a ila b le on ly f o r an o c c a s io n a l v o y a g e . S om e o f
th ese p r a c t ic e s are e n d o r s e d b y the u n ion s, w hich
e n co u ra g e a s h a r e -t h e -w o r k p r o g r a m , e s p e c ia lly
when jo b s a re s c a r c e and union h a lls are fille d with
m e m b e r s seek in g em p loy m en t.
A sh ip at se a r e s e m b le s a co m m u n ity . N u m er­
ou s sk ills a re r e q u ir e d f o r its o p e r a tio n . M ost o f
the 4 0 -o d d sea m en a b oa rd a ty p ica l d r y -c a r g o , v e s ­
s e l m u st r e g u la r ly p e r fo r m m o r e than one duty and
m u st a ls o be able to do oth e r task s in c a s e o f e m e r ­
g e n c y , g e n e ra lly w ithin th eir r e s p e c t iv e dep artm en ts
(s e e page 85). N e a rly a ll o f the m ain tenance s k ills
c a lle d fo r in a com m u n ity a re r e q u ir e d in addition
to the s p e c ia l s k ills p e c u lia r to sh ip b oa rd e m p lo y ­
m en t. The b o a r d and lod gin g re q u ire m e n ts o f a ship
a re equ ivalen t to th ose o f a sm a ll h o te l.
T h ere a r e no s p e c ific p r o fe s s io n a l r e q u ir e ­
m en ts fo r m o s t o f the e n try ratin gs in the d e ck ,
en g in e, and ste w a rd s
d ep a rtm e n ts, but when an



app lican t wants em p loy m en t in one o f th ese ra tin g s ,
he m u st obtain s e c u r ity c le a r a n c e fr o m the U nited
States C oa st G uard and a m erch a n t .m a r in e r 's d o c u ­
m ent f o r p u rp o se s o f id e n tifica tio n .
An app lican t
fo r such a docu m en t is re q u ire d to p ro d u ce s a t i s ­
fa c to r y p r o o f that he has a com m itm en t o f e m p lo y ­
m ent fr o m a stea m sh ip com p an y o r union o ffic ia l
in the ca p a city f o r w hich docum entation is sought,
as w e ll as a cce p ta b le ev id en ce o f U nited States c i t i ­
zen sh ip (o r e v id en ce o f le g a l en try fo r p erm an en t
r e s id e n c e ), and a p a s s p o r t type p h otog rap h .
As
sea m en gain e x p e r ie n c e , they m ay take w ritten
exam ination s fr o m the U nited States C o a st G uard
and r e c e iv e c e r t ific a t io n o f q u a lifica tion f o r h igh er
ratin gs o r lic e n s e s fo r o ffi c e r ra tin g s.
A bout o n e -fifth o f the a v a ila b le la b o r f o r c e
a re lic e n s e d as o f f i c e r s . The oth e rs a re u n licen sed
sea m en , m o s t o f w hom have been is s u e d U nited
States m erch a n t m a r i n e r 's d o cu m en ts.
A fte r an
app lican t has r e c e iv e d this d ocu m en t, he m ay s a il
in any o f the en try ratin gs (o rd in a ry sea m a n , w ip e r ,
m e s s m a n ). When he q u a lifies f o r a h igh er ra tin g ,
it is noted on his d ocu m en t, and he m ay then be
em p lo y e d in a "q u a lifie d " rating (a b le -b o d ie d s e a ­
m an; f i r e m a n ;
o ile r ; w ater ten d er; a ss is ta n t
cook; e t c .) .
S om e o f the ratin gs above that o f an a b le -b o d ie d
seam an do not re q u ire s p e c ia l q u a lifica tio n s . F o r
e x a m p le , an a b le -b o d ie d seam an m ay be h ir e d as a
ca rp e n te r without c e r tific a tio n as su ch . A se a m a n 's
d ocu m en t, h o w e v e r, show s the ratin gs at w hich he

Chart 1. MARITIM E POSITIONS AND AVAILABLE SEAM EN
Number of Selected M a ritim e P o sitio n s]/ os of May 1957 ond Number of Seamen Classified
in Tho se Positions During the Year July 1 ,1956— June 3 0 , 1957

0___________ 2,000__________ 4,000__________6,000__________8,000

12,000

10,000

14,000

— I--------------------------1

I

Licensed deck officers
(mates)

Radio officers

Number of active
positions
Y,'/ / / ,I

Number of seamen
classified in position

Licensed engineers

Bosuns

3

Able-bodied seamen

T T T T T T T 7T T

) ) )

> r> m

]

Ordinary seamen
3

Oilers and firemen,
water tender

Cooks and assistants

Messmen

united states d ep a r t m e n t of l a b o r
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1 See scope ond method of survey p. 81 fo r types of ships included in estimate of
positions and source of estimates of seamen available during the year.
*

Chart 2. DB>ARTMENTAL EMPLOYMENT
By Type of Ship
Percent Each Department Is of the To ta l Sh ip 's Complement on the Average Ship,|May 1957

LICENSED SEAMEN
Deck department1
Engine department
UNLICENSED SEAMEN
Deck department
Engine department
Stewards department
LICENSED SEAMEN
Deck department1
Engine department
UNLICENSED SEAMEN
Deck department
Engine department
Stewards department
LICENSED SEAMEN

TA N KERS

Deck department1
Engine department
UNLICENSED SEAMEN
Deck department
Engine department
Stewards department

united states d e p a r t m e n t of l a b o r
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




t t t 7T??y r? ???/?/?'/ s?
/

\

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / \

1

Excluding M a ste rs.

10
has been employed and is, therefore, indicative of
his qualifications. Most seamen are qualified for
ratings above those at which they most frequently
sail. For example, a man classified as a chief
mate in this study may be qualified to hold a mas­
ter's position, 5 and an able-bodied seaman may be
fully qualified as a maintenance man or bosun.

new seamen to apply for union membership within
30 days after date of employment. Some of the un­
ions provide for the issuance of temporary working
permits. All union contracts provide that the ship­
ping company may reject, for certain specified rea­
sons, a seaman who has been sent from a hiring
hall.

Although authority on vessels largely rests
with the licensed officers, they are not merely su­
pervisors. They perform many tasks in addition to
their supervisory and navigational duties. Engineer­
ing officers, for example, frequently are required
to make parts in the machine shop. Moreover,
much work on board ship is done without direct su­
pervision. Many of the duties relate to normal op­
erating practices or are in direct compliance with
standing orders and stipulated procedures.

Licensed Ship's O fficers.— Of the 10 navigating
and engineering officers carried by the average
cargo ship, the master, chief officer, chief engi­
neer, and first assistant engineer may be selected
and engaged by the employer, although membership
in an organization representing deck and engineer­
ing officers is usually required under a collective
bargaining agreement. Employers m a y usually
make promotions from within the company's roster
of officer employees, as the nature of the duties
and responsibilities of ship officers requires in­
doctrination into company policies and procedures
that affect both ship and cargo operations. When
such promotions are neither feasible nor desirable,
the employer must refer personnel requirements
to the labor organization representing the deck or
engine officers, as the case may be. Many steam­
ship operators maintain a group of junior officers
on a standby basis for placement in temporary va­
cancies. As this standby group can be maintained
only when frequent vacancies occur, the size of a
company's fleet is usually the determining factor
in an arrangement of this type.

The crew complement and order of authority
of a typical cargo ship is shown on page 11. 6
Operation of Seafaring Employment Centers
The hiring of seafaring personnel has become
a well-regulated procedure during the past two dec­
ades. Until the mid-1930f s, the average seaman
was hired in a manner similar to that used for re ­
cruiting casual labor. The average applicant had
to seek his own job opportunities— which sometimes
entailed some form of gratuity for the chance to
join a ship's crew.
The unionization of seafaring personnel resulted
in the development of concepts of seniority for sea­
men to safeguard the employment rights of those
having the longest membership and, usually, the
most experience. Continuous refinements have been
made in the "shipping *rulesn of maritime unions
during recent years to provide added security in an
everchanging employment situation.
Current employment practices in the industry
can only be reviewed in general terms since dif­
ferences in employment conditions at the several
ports result in considerable flexibility in hiring
procedures. 7
Seamen are typically employed through hiring
halls operated by the unions in the industry. Each
of the hiring halls has employment procedures which
give preference to experienced seamen and require
5 A recent study by the Maritime Administra­
tion—Survey of Licensed Officers of the American
Merchant Marine— indicated that over 80 percent of
chief mates were qualified to sail as masters and
over 70 percent of first assistant engineers were
qualified to sail as chief engineers.
6 For descriptions of the duties of ratings, see
endix B.
For the more specific employment rules in
individual unions, see Employment Procedures,
appendix C.



The organization representing the licensed deck
and engineering officers maintains branch offices
at almost every port along the Atlantic, Gulf, and
Pacific Coasts and in some Great Lakes ports. As
need arises, whether for a full voyage or for the
relief of regular officers while the ship is in port,
the employer arranges with the organization's local
office to hire personnel. Many deck and engineer­
ing officers specialize in relief assignments while
awaiting a paitifeular ship or a preferred voyage
itinerary. Once employed in a permanent status,
an officer signs on and off shipping articles for
subsequent voyage^ for as long as the employeeemployer relationship remains satisfactory.
Deck and engineering officers advise their de­
partment heads when planning to take leave or
change ships, and, after leaving the vessel, may
elect to utilize their accrued vacation credits before
registering at the company1s or union1s employ­
ment center for reassignment. The date of such
application becomes the controlling factor affecting
priority for reassignment. Such priority may be
advanced rapidly when prior applicants turn down
assignments. The more selective an officer may
be regarding his preference for higher ratings or
specific ships or trade routes, the longer his wait
for employment.
Radio officers are employed in a manner quite
similar to that of deck or engineering officers. The
average cargo ship requires but 1 radio officer, and
a standby status with an employer for substitution
of radio officers on leave is not general practice.

11

ILLUSTRATION:

CREW COMPLEMENT O F A TYPICAL CARGO SHIP

maintenance.

DECK DEPARTMENT TOTAL, 19
(INCLUDING MASTER. RADIO
OFFICER, AND PURSER)

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T I S T I C S




ENGINE DEPARTMENT TOTAL. 18
TOTAL SHIP’S COMPLEMENT. 47

STEWARD S DEPARTMENT
TOTAL, 10

The registration date governs«the rotation which de­
termines the extent of the waiting period. The de­
sire to change ships entails the same procedure
of registering at the employment office in the home
port to await assignment.
Pursers (or purser/pharmacists) are not re ­
quired on every ship. Less than half of the United
States flag cargo ships carry this rating owing to
company operating policy. The duties of this rating
are such that an employer may select his own per­
sonnel, although the employer is bound to give con­
sideration to those registered at the employment
centers of the 2 purser organizations. Selection is
most frequently based on an individual’ s experience,
personality, appearance, and character rather than
on the time he registered for employment. Em­
ployers with sizable fleets utilizing purser per­
sonnel frequently maintain additional, rotating per­
sonnel in their employment to cover vacations or
leaves of absence.
Unlicensed Seafaring Personnel.— The employ­
ment of unlicensed ship personnel is generally reg­
ulated by the principal seamen's unions. The place­
ment of personnel tends to be governed by seniority
in the maritime industry and by length of member­
ship in the union concerned. Registration for em­
ployment does not automatically confer eligibility
upon an applicant * Heavy influxes of short service
seafaring applicants are often discouraged by pro­
longed waiting periods, whereas those with seniority
rotate through the hiring center with little or no
delay. The seniority requirements for groups or
classes as shown in Employment Procedures, ap­
pendix C are generally flexible enough to allow for
such modifications as circumstances may dictate.
One seamen's organization recently initiated a
fixed sailing rule which prescribes a 210-day limit
for continuous employment after which a seaman

must leave his ship the next time he is in home
port, apply for his accrued, vacation credits and,
upon termination of his vacation, register if he
wishes reemployment. A shipboard assignment is
made not only according to the applicant's seniority,
his period of registration and certified rating are
also factors. A similar procedure, which has func­
tioned for a considerable period of time, is prac­
ticed by another organization which prescribes a
limit of 180 days of continuous employment.
Under the rotary hiring system, no man can
keep his spot on the registration list. A fixed
period is usually defined, after which the applicant
must go to the bottom of the list. When a sea­
man becomes too selective and turns down several
job opportunities, he also must go to the bottom
of the list. When job opportunities become scarce,
regulations are adjusted as necessary to cope with
the lack of job openings.
Employers submit manpower requirements to
the hiring center, identifying the ratings required
for a particular ship. At appointed hours, all men
qualified for specific ratings submit their registra­
tion cards to a dispatcher, who determines the one
eligible for each opening. The name of the suc­
cessful applicant and his date of registration are
then announced over the public address system and
an opportunity is given the remaining applicants to
challenge the decision. Once dispatched to a ship,
a seaman is not permitted to reconsider the job
opening and withdraw.
The employer is generally permitted to make
promotions aboard ship, and an applicant, when
firm ly established, can usually plan on furthering
his career by preparing himself for more respon­
sible and better paying positions.

Collective Bargaining

The history of employee organization in
maritime industry goes back to the middle of
19th century when seamen first attempted to
ganize. Their efforts were local in nature,
failed.*

the
the
o r­
and

The oldest seafaring union was organized by
the marine engineers in 1875 on a national basis.
West Coast sailors started their first union in 1885.
The first organization on the Great Lakes was

* For a complete history of collective bargaining
in the industry, see Joseph P. Goldberg, The Mari­
time Story, Harvard University P re ss, 1958.



formed in 1878. The pilots and deck officers o r ­
ganized in 1887 and claimed jurisdiction over the
whole United States and the Panama Canal Zone.
They were followed by the Pacific Coast firemen.
On the Atlantic Coast, a concerted effort in the
organization of seamen began in 1888.
The unlicensed seamen's u n i o n s functioned
largely as independent locals until 1892, when a na­
tional convention was called in Chicago and the Na­
tional Seamen1s Union was formed. In 1893, this
organization affiliated with the American Federation
of Labor, and in 1895, the unionfs name was changed
to International Seamen1s Union of America. The
major unions in existence today are an outgrowth of
these early efforts of organization.

13
After a long struggle for employer recognition,
collective bargaining became the means for deter­
mining wages and working conditions for labor in
the maritime industry. The first agreement be­
tween the Sailors Union of the Pacific and coastwise
operations was negotiated in 1902. In August 1917,
a collective bargaining agreement, the "Atlantic
Agreement,1 was signed by the shipowners, the
4
United States Shipping Board, and the International
Seamen1s Union.
In March 1918, another agreement empowered
the United States Shipping Board to determine wage
rates and working conditions on an industrywide
basis.
In May 1920, the International Seamen1s Union
(unlicensed seamen) signed an agreement with the
American Shipowners1 Association, which was ap­
proved by the Shipping Board. However, with the
return to peacetime shipping operations, wages
were reduced, working conditions deteriorated, and
a number of strikes occurred. In 1921, the ship
operators severed relations with the unions. From
then until 1934, the United States Shipping Board
issued operational orders stipulating wages and
working conditions for Government owned ships.
Private operators did not necessarily follow the
conditions established by the Government.
From 1920 until late in the 1930*s, there was
nothing approaching industrywide collective bar gain*
ing in the shipping industry. In the m id-1930's,
many long strikes occurred. After the 101-day
strike on the West Coast in 1936-37, the employers
agreed to call the unions when in need of unlicensed
personnel. Following this, on the East Coast, un­
ions negotiated agreements with s h i p operators
which provided that unlicensed personnel would be
obtained from the unions. By the end of 1938, o r­
ganized labor in the shipping industry had become
a strong and important force for seamen on the
West Coast and for the majority of seamen on the
East Coast.
By 1941, the union hiring hall was well estab­
lished and had become an important feature in hir­
ing procedures under collective bargaining contracts
affecting unlicensed seamen. Those agreements
also established wages and working conditions on
both the East and West Coasts and covered a sub­
stantial m a j o r i t y of unlicensed seamen in the
industry.
The major organizations in the maritime indus­
try are:9
1. International Organization of M a s t e r s ,
Mates and Pilots ( M M P This organization represents ships' masters and deck officers. Collective

bargaining agreements between the MMP and ship
operators are maintained on an industrywide basis
for the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts, covering
about 5,000 jobs on ships operated by some 200
steamship companies.
2. National Marine Engineers* Beneficial A s­
sociation (MEBA).- —The Association represents
ships1 engineering officers. Collective bargaining
agreements between MEBA and ship operators are
also maintained on an industrywide basis for the
Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts, covering about
5,500 jobs on ships operated by some 190 steam­
ship companies •
3. Brotherhood of Marine Officers (BMP). —
The BMO represents both deck and engineering of­
ficers and has agreements with 2 large companies
covering more than 600 positions on the Atlantic
Coast.
4. American Radio Association (ARA). — The
ARA represents ships4 radio officer^. Collective
bargaining agreements cover more than 600 jobs
aboard ships operated by steamship companies on
the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts.
5. Radio Officers Union of the Commercial
Telegraphers Union (JEtOU). — The ROU also repre­
sents ships1 radio officers. Collective bargaining
agreements cover about 400 jobs aboard ships op­
erated by steamship companies on the Atlantic,
Gulf, and Pacific Coasts.
6. American Merchant Marine Staff Officers
Association (AMMSOA). — The Association represents personnel of the purser4s department. Col­
lective bargaining agreements cover about 150 jobs
on ships operated by some 8 steamship companies,
primarily along the Pacific Coast.
7. Staff O fficers4 Association of America
(SQA). —This Association also represents personnel
of the pu rser's department. Collective bargaining
agreements cover about 220 jobs on ships operated
by 7 steamship companies out of Atlantic and Gulf
Coast ports.
8. N a t i o n a l Maritime U n i o n of America
(NMU).—-The NMU represents unlicensed personnel
of the deck, engine, and stewards departments.
Collective bargaining agreements cover approxi­
mately 195 steamship companies in the Atlantic
and Gulf Coast District who operate merchant ships
having an employment potential in excess of 24,000
unlicensed jobs.

9. Seafarer's International Union of North
AmericaTSIU)«— The SIU Atlantic and Gulf District
represents unlicensed personnel of the deck, engine,
9
Estimates of number of positions represent and stewards departments. Collective bargaining
agreements are maintained with some 60 steamship
vessels engaged in the various deep sea trades only.




14
com p a n ie s o p e ra tin g f r o m , the A tlan tic and G ulf
C o a sts with m o r e than 8 ,5 0 0 jo b s on a p p rox im a tely
225 s h ip s . The a ffilia te s o f the SIU on the P a c ific
C oa st a r e d e s c r ib e d b e lo w . In terch an ge o f p erson *
n e l f r o m the m e m b e r s h ip o f the v a r io u s SIU a ffili­
ates p r o v id e s an e m p loy m en t poten tia l a b oa rd ships
oth er than th ose d ir e c t ly under c o n tr a c t to the SIU.
F ie ld o f f ic e s and e m p lo y m e n t c e n te r s a r e a d m in is­
te r e d jo in tly by the SIU a ffilia te s on the A tla n tic,
G u lf, and P a c if ic C o a s ts .

w ithdraw fr o m the A M M I; until the end o f W orld
W ar II, th ese com p a n ies then b a rg a in ed in dividu ally
with the SIU.

In 1945, 10 o f the co m p a n ie s having c o n tra cts
with the SIU o rg a n iz e d the A tlan tic and G u lf Ship
O p e ra to rs A s s o c ia tio n to b a rg a in with the SIU. The
A s s o c ia tio n w as d is s o lv e d in 1948. E ven though the
fo r m a l barg ain in g g r o u p went ou t o f e x is te n c e ,
grou p bargain in g with the SIU has con tin ued on an
in fo rm a l b a s is . When a union c o n tr a c t is re o p e n e d ,
the SIU in vites a ll com p a n ies, to jo in in the n e g o ­
10.
S a ilo r s Union o f the P a c ific (S U P -S IU ). —
tia tio n s, and m o s t co m p a n ie s sen d re p re s e n ta tiv e s
The SUP r e p r e s e n ts u n lic e n se d p e rs o n n e l o i the
f o r co n s id e r a tio n o f union dem ands and s e le c tio n o f
d e ck dep a rtm en t on d r y - c a r g o and p a s se n g e r ships
a su b co m m itte e to c a r r y on n e g o tia tio n s.
A fte r
and a ll 3 dep a rtm en ts on s o m e ta n k e rs, w hile its
the negotiatin g c o m m itte e has m e t with the u nion,
a ffilia te d la b o r o r g a n iz a tio n s , the P a c ific C oa st
the fu ll co m m itte e r e co n v e n e s to d ev elop b arg ain in g
M arin e F ir e m e n , O i le r s , W a terten d ers and W ip ers
s tra te g y .
The negotiatin g su b co m m itte e then r e ­
A s s o c ia t io n (M FOW -SIU) r e p r e s e n ts u n lice n se d p e x su m es b argain in g with the union. T h is co m m itte e
son n el o f the. engine d ep a rtm en t and the M arine
has no p ow er to bind any com p a n y to settlem en t.
C ook s and S tew a rds Union (M C S-SIU ) re p re s e n ts
A fte r the grou p a g re e m e n t, the union con clu d e s
the stew a rd s dep a rtm en t p e r s o n n e l. E ach o f these
n eg otia tion s with each com p a n y s e p a r a te ly .
a ffilia te d se a fa rin g unions reta in s its iden tity and
autonom y w hile m aintaining c o lle c t iv e b argain in g
a g re e m e n ts with a p p ro x im a te ly 35 P a c ific C oa st
stea m sh ip co m p a n ie s w hich o p e ra te about 200 ships
G en erally , c u r r e n t c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g a g r e e ­
m en ts in the in du stry stipulate that, upon re q u e st,
with an em p loy m en t potential c lo s e to 1 0 ,0 0 0 jo b s
unions disp atch q u a lified and com p eten t m en fr o m
in the 3 d e p a rtm e n ts.
the top o f the r o ta ry h irin g lis t ; that th ese e m ­
p lo y e e s m ust be s a tis fa c to r y to the o p e r a t o r s , who
m a y turn down o r d is ch a rg e th em , p ro v id e d bona
T h e se unions r e p r e s e n t th e ir m e m b e rs in d e a l­
fid e re a s o n s a re given fo r the a ction taken; and
ing with v a rio u s e m p lo y e r g r o u p s .
M o st o f the
that n eith er the o p e r a to r s n o r the unions m ay d i s ­
em p loy in g c o m p a n ie s a re r e p r e s e n te d by 2 la r g e
crim in a te against anyone f o r union o r nonunion
e m p lo y e r a s s o c ia t io n s .
a ffilia tio n .
1.
T h e A m e r ic a n M erch a n t M arin e In stitu te,
In c . (A M M l). — The AM M I r e p r e s e n ts the m a jo r ity
o f the S h ippin g co m p a n ie s on the A tla n tic and G ulf
C o a sts in th eir n egotia tion s with m a r itim e la b or
u n ion s. S e v e r a l co m m itte e s have b een e sta b lish ed
within the AM M I to r e p r e s e n t v a rio u s e m p lo y e r
g rou p s arou n d the b a rg a in in g ta b le; they a re n ot,
h o w e v e r , e m p o w e re d to bin d a com p a n y r e p re s e n te d
to a c o n tr a c t. E ach com p a n y m u st c o n cu r and sign
a fin al a g re e m e n t in d iv id u a lly . Any com p an y m ay
re fu s e to r a tify a fin al settlem en t and is n ot le g a lly
bound to a c c e p t a c o n tr a c t a g r e e d to by groups
with the A M M I.
2 • T he P a c ific M a ritim e A s s o c ia t io n (P M A ). —
The P M A r e p r e s e n ts A m e r ic a n fla g co m p a n ies on
the W est C o a st in c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g with v a riou s
se a fa rin g u n ion s. Unlike the A M M I, the a g reem en ts
n eg otia ted by P M A a r e binding on a ll com p a n ies
a u th orized b y P M A to b a rg a in in th e ir b e h a lf and
co n tr a c ts a re e x e cu te d b y P M A o ffic ia ls ra th er than
by ea ch a u th orizin g co m p a n y .
A th ird g ro u p , an in fo rm a l A tlan tic and G ulf
A s s o c ia t io n , a ls o e x is ts to n eg otia te with the S e a ­
fa r e r s * In tern ation al U nion, A tlan tic and G ulf D is ­
t r ic t . O r ig in a lly , the co m p a n ie s in this grou p w ere
m e m b e r s o f the A M M I, but ba rga in in g d ifficu ltie s
ca u se d the co m p a n ie s tinder c o n tr a c t with SIU to




The c o lle c t iv e b argain in g a g r e e m e n ts , e n tered
into by the d iffe re n t u n ion s, fo r a ll p r a c tic a l p u r­
p o s e s , a re c lo s e ly r e la te d , stipulating a p p ro x i­
m a te ly the sa m e w age s c a l e s , h ou rs o f la b o r , and
oth er w ork in g con d ition s f o r the r e s p e c t iv e lic e n s e d
and u n lice n se d sea m en c o v e r e d by the c o n tr a c ts .
The b a s ic d iffe r e n c e am ong the v a rio u s ag reem en ts
re la te s to types o f sh ip s; i. e ., c a r g o , p a s s e n g e r , o r
ta n k er. B en efits gained by any one union a re often
in c o rp o r a te d in the oth er union a g r e e m e n ts .
One im p ortan t ex ce p tio n to the stan d ard iza tion
o f te rm s is found in the c u r r e n t S a ilo r s Union o f
the P a c ific (SUP) c o n tr a c t a ffectin g h ou rs o f w ork
and c e r ta in p re m iu m pay p r a c t ic e s .
In the 1955
n e g o tia tio n s, the SUP e sta b lish e d a w age pattern
unique in m a ritim e h isto ry , w hich in c o rp o r a te d c e r ­
tain p rem iu m pay in the b a s ic m onthly w a g e s. The
p r e v io u s ly e sta b lish e d w ork in g h ou rs at s e a and in
p o r t w e re m ain tain ed, b a s e d on 56 h ou rs at s e a and
40 h ou rs in p o rt fo r w atch stan d ers and 40 h ou rs a
w eek both at s e a and in p o r t fo r d a y w o r k e r s , h ours
w hich a re s im ila r in all union c o n t r a c t s . Until this
tim e , w atch stan d ers w e re paid a penalty rate fo r all
h o u rs w ork ed on Saturday and Sunday.
The new
c o n tr a c t elim in a ted the penalty pay fo r Saturday and
Sunday as such and in c o rp o r a te d the a v era g e am ount
ea rn e d by w atch stan d ers and d a y w ork ers in a m onth

into the b a s ic m on th ly wage« s c a le . The r e s u lt was
the e lim in a tio n o f the pen alty pay ra te fr o m the
a g r e e m e n t, and this pay w as r e fle c t e d in the new
w age r a t e s . T h is new w age p attern did n ot a ctu a lly
a ffe c t the w o rk w e e k , s in c e a ll w a tch sta n d ers w ork
56 h ou rs at s e a . What it did do w as e lim in a te the
e x t r a -p a y p r o v is io n f o r Saturdays a n d Sundays
w h ile reta in in g the e x tr a pay.
T h is a g re e m e n t,
h ow ever, s t ill con ta in s p r o v is io n s f o r a s p e c ia l ra te
fo r c e r t a in s p e c ifie d it e m s . O th er a g re e m e n ts in
the se a fa r in g in d u stry s t ill p ro v id e p re m iu m pay
f o r a ll h ou rs o v e r 40 p e r w eek , and a ll unions
stipu late that w a tch sta n d ers at s e a w o rk 56 h ou rs
p e r w eek .

th ese paym ents a re f o r s p e c ific h ou rs o f e m p lo y ­
m en t, but in a few c a s e s the c o n tr a c ts p ro v id e fo r
the paym ent o f 1 o r 2 h ou rs o f penalty o r o v e r tim e
pay fo r the p e r fo r m a n c e o f a s p e c ifie d jo b and is
not dependent upon the actual tim e taken to p e r ­
fo r m the jo b .
The co n tr a c ts a ls o have n u m erou s p r o v is io n s
f o r su p p lem en ta ry paym ents fo r s p e c ific task s o r
fo r s p e c ific situ a tion s.
S om e ex a m p les o f th ese
p r o v is io n s fo llo w :
W a r -r is k bon u ses o f s p e c ifie d am ounts p er day
a re p ro v id e d f o r when a sh ip is in a d esign ated
w a r -r is k a r e a .

N egotia ted R a tes and P r e m iu m P a y P r a c t ic e s
The m in im u m c o n tr a c t ra te s in e ffe c t at the
tim e o f the study (M ay 1957) and in M ay 1958, a re
p re s e n te d in ta b le 3 . In m any c o n t r a c ts , the b a s e
ra te v a r ie s a c c o r d in g to the s iz e o r type o f sh ip .
On p a s s e n g e r sh ips w h ere s e v e r a l se a m en a re r e ­
q u ire d in a ra tin g , the r e s p o n s ib ilitie s m ay be
c l e a r ly d iv id ed and the c o n tr a c ts fre q u e n tly p ro v id e
f o r d iffe r e n t ra tes f o r e a ch in dividu al p o s itio n . F o r
e x a m p le , m o s t p a s s e n g e r sh ips c a r r y s e v e r a l ra d io
o f f i c e r s and the c o n tr a c t m a y s p e c ify a d iffe re n t
ra te fo r ea ch su ch p o s itio n on a g iv en sh ip .

In addition to the b a se r a t e s , a ll c o n tr a c ts p r o ­
v id e f o r addition al paym en ts fo r c e r ta in con d ition s
o r a c t iv it ie s . A d d ition a l paym ents a re la r g e ly the
r e s u lt o f p r o v is io n s found in m a ritim e la b o r a g r e e ­
m en ts f o r o v e r tim e o r pen alty p a y m en ts.
T h e se
p r o v is io n s p r e s c r ib e e x tr a co m p e n sa tio n f o r a w ide
v a r ie ty o f a c tiv itie s and s p e c ify the s p e c ia l pay
ra te s a p p lica b le t o v a r io u s types o f o v e r tim e w ork
b y p e r s o n n e l in d iffe r e n t pay c a t e g o r ie s , o r under
d iffe r e n t tim e situ a tio n s. A stipu lated h ou rly o v e r ­
tim e ra te o f 40 ce n ts f o r u n lice n se d p e r s o n n e l f i r s t
a p p e a re d in the A tla n tic A g re e m e n t o f A ugust 1917,
and in 1918, this ra te w as in c r e a s e d to 60 c e n t s .
U ntil 1935, ev en though o v e r tim e paym ents w e re
stip u la ted , they w e r e op tion a l and, t h e r e fo r e , m e a ­
g e r b e c a u s e ship o p e r a to r s co u ld e ith e r pay ca sh
o r gran t c o m p e n s a to r y tim e o f f . In 1937, the a g r e e ­
m en t sig n e d b y the W est C o a st o p e r a to r s at the
c o n c lu s io n o f a m a jo r s trik e e x clu d e d the option al
p r o v is io n . O v e rtim e ra te s o f 70 ce n ts an hour fo r
u n lice n se d se a m e n and $1 f o r lic e n s e d o f f ic e r s
w e r e in c o r p o r a te d in the la b o r a g r e e m e n ts .

S in ce 1937, the p re m iu m pay p r o v is io n s have
b e c o m e an im porta n t part o f a ll se a fa rin g c o lle c t iv e
b a rg a in in g a g r e e m e n ts . An in c r e a s e in b a s ic w ages
a p p lie s g e n e r a lly to e x is tin g o v e r t im e , penalty p a y ,
and s p e c ia l ra te s as w e ll. A su m m a ry o f the v a r ­
iou s p re m iu m earn in g p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g o v e rtim e
and penalty paym ents is p re s e n te d in table 4 . Such
paym en ts a re on a stipu lated h o u rly b a s is . U su ally



D iv isio n o f w ork paym ents a re p ro v id e d fo r
w hen, in s p e c ific situ a tio n s, a ship d oes not have
a fu ll co m p le m e n t.
Such paym ents a re m ade to
sea m en who m u st p e r fo r m som e o f the task s o f the
m is s in g c r e w m e m b e r s .
P a s s e n g e r pay is p ro v id e d when c a r g o ships
a re c a r r y in g p a s s e n g e r s and a re not sta ffed fo r
p a s s e n g e r s e r v i c e . T h ose sea m en en gaged in s e r v ­
ing p a s s e n g e r s a re then given su p p lem en tary pay
fo r th eir e x tra d u ties.
E x tra m e a l paym ents a r e m ade to m e m b e r s o f
the stew a rd s dep artm en t who s e r v e e x tra m e a ls to
g u ests o r m aintenance w o rk e rs who a re te m p o r a r ily
a b oa rd when the ship is in p o r t.
Such paym ents
a re g e n e ra lly a fla t am ount p e r m e a l fo r each p e r ­
son s e r v e d .
P en alty c a r g o paym ents a re p ro v id e d when a
ship is c a r r y in g dan gerou s o r d is a g re e a b le c a r g o .
The nature o f th ese paym ents v a r ie s by c o n tr a c t.
No c le a n lin en paym ents m a y be m ade when
sea m en a re n ot p ro v id e d with c le a n lin en at s p e c i ­
fie d in te r v a ls .
In add ition to the above ex a m p les o f su p p le­
m en ta ry p ay, c o n tra cts p ro v id e f o r b o a r d and lo d g ­
ing a llow a n ces when sea m en a re f o r c e d to go a sh o re
f o r s p e c ifie d r e a s o n s . T ra n sp o rta tio n pay is p r o ­
v id ed a ls o under c e r ta in co n d itio n s . T h ese la tter
2 types o f paym ent a re c o n s id e r e d ex p en se a llo w ­
a n ces and a re not in clu d ed in the study o f e a rn in g s .
O ther types o f p a y , su ch as to o l allow a n ce fo r
c a r p e n te r s and u n ifo rm a llow a n ces f o r c e r ta in p a s ­
se n g e r ra tin g s , a re p ro v id e d f o r in s o m e c o n tr a c ts .
T h e se w e re c o n s id e r e d as part o f the b a se pay.
P a y in lie u o f o v e r tim e is p ro v id e d f o r som e n on ­
w atchstanding o f f i c e r ra tin g s , and it was c o n s id e r e d
as p a rt o f the b a se pay f o r p u rp o se s o f this study.

<

TABLE 3. MINIMUM RATES — MAY 1957 AND MAY 1958

(Minimum daily base rates,

U

and hourly overtime and penalty rates for seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry by rating and by coast)

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts
Rating

B s rate
at

West Coast

Overtime rate

Penalty rate

May 1957

May 1958

May 1957

May 1958

May 1957

May 1958

Chief mates ..... ............. ..........
Second mates ...........................
Third mates.... ...................... .
Fourth mates ...........................
Radio officers ..........................

$24*55
18.25
16.57
15.10
17.89

$26.02
19.34
17.56
16,01
18,97

$3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49

*3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70

$2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32

Chief engineers ..........................
First assistant engineers ..................
Second assistant engineers .................
Third assistant engineers ..................
Junior third assistant engineers............
Licensed junior engineers 2 / ........ .......

33.75
24.57
18.27
16.58
15.12
15.53

35.78
26.04
19.37
17.58
16.03
16.47

3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49

3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70

Bosuns .......... ............. .........
Carpenters ........................... .
Deck maintenance ........................
Able-bodied seamen .......................
Ordinary seaneq.........................

14.30
13.39
12.28
lb.11
8.63

(a/)
0/
a/)
11.78
9.15

2.10
2.10
2.06
2.06
1.60

Unlicensed junior engineers ................
Electricians ............................
Second electricians..... ...... ........ .
Engine maintenance........ ...... ........
Oilers ................................
Firemen, water tenders ....................
Vipers ................................

12.76
17.64
16.43
11.94
11.11
11.11
10,40

13.53
18.70
17.42
(2/)
11.78
11.78
11.02

Chief stewards ..........................
Cooks ............... ................ .
Cooke and bakers.... ................. .
Assistant cooks ..........................
Messmen .............. .................

14.50
13.07
12.76
11.49
8.56

15.37
(2/)
13.53
12.18
9.08

Base rate
May 1957

May 1958

$2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46

$24.57
18.27
16.58
15.12
17.89

2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32

2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46

(/
2)
(/
2)
(/
2)
2.18
1.70

-

-

2.10
2.10
2.10
2.06
2.06
2.06
1.60

2.23
2.23
2.23
(2/)
2.18
2.18
1.70

_

_

-

-

2.10
2.10
2.10
2.06
1.60

2.23
( /)
2
2.23
2.18
1.70

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

Overtime rate

Renalty rate

May 1957

May 1958

May 1957

May 1958

$26.04
19.37
17.57
16.03
18.97

■34
$.9
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49

$3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70

$2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32

$2,46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46

33.75
24.57
18.27
16.58
15.12
15.53

35.77
26.04
19.37
17.57
16.03
16.46

3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49
3.49

3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70

2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32
2.32

2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46
2.46

16.23
15.17
14.27
U 15.10
y H.97

17.13
16.00
15.05
y 15.93
Z/ 12.63

2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81
2.12

2.98
2.98
2.98
2.98
2.25

.
-

_
-

14.48
17.70
16.57
13.73
11.68
11.68
11.20

15.28
18.67
17.48
14.48
12.33
12.33
11.82

2.81
2.31
2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81
2.12

2.98
2.98
2.98
2.98
2.98
2.98
2.25

1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.45

1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.54

18.95

2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81
2.12

2.98
2.98
2.98
2.98
2.25

_

_

-

-

y 17.97
y 16.87
y 15.80
y 14.03
y 11.97

y

y 17.80
y 16.67
14.80
y 12.63

y

-

1/ Rates shown are minimum daily base rates on dry-cargo vessels. They include pay in lieu of overtime or nonwatch standing allowance where applicable. Rates for passenger and
tanker- vessels were frequently higher. On the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, when the rates were different in the 2 unions representing unlicensed seamen the lowest rates are shown. The dif­
ferences were generally very small.
2/ Licensed junior engineers were not carried on the sm aller types of vessels.
T/ In negotiation at time of preparation, rate is same as May 1957.
? / Rate is for a 56-hour week at sea and a 40*hour week in port.




TABLE 4. PRINCIPAL PREMIUM PAY PROVISIONS

(Contract provisions specifying payment of overtime (OT), penalty time (PT), or a special rate (SR) in contracts in effect in May 1957)
Licensed personnel
Selected premium pay provision

Deok
department

Engine
department

MfP

"nilt i etd personnel
rm

Radio officers

MBBA

ARA

Deck
department

ROC

RMU

Engine
department

Stewards
department

SOP

All

MTOV

MBS

SIU

r
At sea In port At sea In port At eea In pert At eea In port At sea In port At aaa In port At aaa In pa i At sea In port At aaa In port
UATCHSTAHEBRS (56-hour workweek)
All hours in excels of S per day..............
Vatehes on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays..... .
Bed and hath linen not changed y .............
Supervising tank cleaning........... ........
Supervising tank cleaning (in overtine hours).....
Duties outside regular work..................
Work between 9 p. m. and 9 a, n ................
Bntering and cleaning tanks ...... ............
Tending livestock.........................
Paint spraying and shellacking................
Handling nail or baggage.......... *..... .
Breaking out soaring lines...................
Rigging or securing gear after $ p. l...........
Cleaning radio roon........................
ReMtrioted shore leave ......................
Handling cargo ............................
Cleaning holds (penalty cargo) ................
Sailing delayed in axeeee of 1 hour ............

OT
PT
PT
-

OT
OT
PT
-

OT
PT
PT
-

OT
OT
PT
-

OT
OT
OT
-

OT
OT
OT
-

OT
OT
SR
-

OT
OT
SR
•

OT
SR
-

OT
•
SR
-

OT
PT
SR
-

OT
OT
SR
-

OT
•
SR
-

OT
SR
-

OT
OT
OT
•

or
or
OT

OT
OT
OT
•

OT
OT
2/ OT
OT
OT
- g/ OT
OT
•
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
- .
OT
“

2/ or
OT
OT
2/ OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT

2/OT
OT
OT
SR
OT
OT
OT
OT

y or
OT
or
SR
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT

SR
SR
SR
SR
OT
OT
SR
SR
-

SR
SR
SR
SR
OT
OT
SR
SR
OT

2/ or
SR
-

•
2/ OT
SR
OT

_
-

.
OT
OT

OT
or
PT

OT
OT
OT

OT

OT
OT
OT

OT
OT
OT

OT
OT
SR

O
T

OT

OT
SR

of
PT
OT

OT
OT
OT

OT
OT
.

OT
OT
-

SR

SR

2/ OT

2/ or

y OT

y OT

SR

SR

2/ OT

2/ OT

PT
OT
PT
or
or
or
PT
-

PT
or
PT
-

PT
OT
PT
OT
or
or
PT
-

OT
OT
SR
. OT
2/ OT
OT
2/ OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
-

OT
OT
SR
OT
2/OT
OT
2/ or
OT

OT
OT
OT
OT
or
SR
SR

•
SR
SR
-

-

SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
-

SR
y or

SR
•
y or
•

OT
.
.
_
_
•
SR

OT
•
•

SR
OT
OT
SR
OT
OT

SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
-

SR
SR
SI
SR
SR
SR
OT

OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT

OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
SR
SR
SR
OT
OT
SR
OT
-

OT
-

SR
_
OT
OT

or

OT

or

O
T

OT

OT

OT

OT

OT

01

OT

-

-

OT
PT
PT
PT
SR
•
•
-

or
OT
PT
PT
SR
OT
PT
OT

OT
PT
PT
PT
SR
-

or
OT
PT
PT
SR
OT
PT
or

OT
PT
PT

OT
OT
PT

OT
PT
PT

SR

SR

PT
OT
PT
OT

O
T
OT

O
T

DAYWORKERS (AO-hour workweek)
All hours in excess of 8 per day..............
Work on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays ........
Bntering and cleaning tanks..................
Entering and
tanks (in overtime
hours).............. ..................
All work between 6 p. n . and 6 a. n.
(stewards department) .... ..... ............
Cleaning bilges.................... ......
Cleaning bilges (in overtime hours) ........ .
Handling eargo ...... ........ .............
Handling eargo (in overtime hours) .............
Handling mall or baggage....................
Handling mail or baggage (in overtime hours)......
Sailing dslaysd in excess of 1 hour.... .......
Restricted shore leave .....................
Bed end bath linen not changed j / .............
Tending livestock .........................
Preparing holds for cargo.................. .
Cleaning holds (penalty eargo) ................
Spraying end shellacking ....................
Gangway watch (stewards department) ...........
All work between 5 p . n . and 8 a. n .
on week days, Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays . .
..

O
T

O
T

y

y

O
T
O
T

O
T

-

SR
SR
-

O
T
O
T

1/ On weekly basis.
II
Overtime rate and one-half during overtime hours.
7/ Double overtime during overtime hours.
7/ Overtime to wipers for painting during overtime hours; penalty is paid to wipers for spraying during straight-time hours and a special rate is paid during overtime hours.




O
T
O
T

18

Seam en's D aily Earnings

In the e a r ly h is to r y o f the U nited States M e r ­
chant M a rin e , the m eth od and am ount o f paym ent
to sea m en m anning U nited States m erch a n t ships
v a r ie d g re a tly am on g v e s s e l s . F re q u e n tly , o ffi c e r s
w e r e given a sh are o f the p r o fit o f a voyage w ith­
out any guaranty o f m in im u m pay.
L ivin g and
w ork in g co n d itio n s on ^>oard ship w e r e freq u en tly
b a d , and the sea m en w e r e m o r e o r le s s at the
m e r c y o f the sh ip’ s capta in . 10 T o d a y , m in im u m
stan d ards a re m ain tain ed and pay s c a le s a r e s p e c ­
ifie d in union a g re e m e n ts w h ich c o v e r p r a c tic a lly
a ll sh ip b oa rd e m p lo y e e s .
Union c o n tr a c ts in the m a r itim e in d u stry p r o ­
vid e m on th ly pay s c a le s a c c o r d in g to c r e w ra tin g s.
T h e se s c a le s a r e tra n sla te d into d a ily r a te s by
d ivid in g the m on th ly ra te b y 3 0. 11 In m any c a s e s ,
sea m en a r e paid a fu ll da y’ s b a se pay r e g a r d le s s
o f tim e a ctu a lly w o rk e d .
F o r th is r e a s o n , an
h ou rly rate fo r b a s e pay is se ld o m u sed .
P re­
m iu m pay, both o v e r tim e and pen alty, is paid on a
stipu lated h o u rly b a s is . U nder c e r ta in c o n d itio n s ,
sea m en ca n e a r n o v e r tim e o r pen alty pay during
h is r e g u la r w o rk p e r io d s . In m o s t c a s e s , the p r e ­
m iu m pay is fo r h o u rs o f w o r k not c o v e r e d by his
b a s e pay.
Since a ctu a l h o u rs e m p lo y e d w e re not
r e a d ily a v a ila b le , it w a s im p r a c t ic a l to d eterm in e
a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in g s f o r sea m en .
It is a ls o
so m e tim e s a rg u e d that a sea m a n , sin ce he is not
fr e e to le a v e the ship, is on duty at a ll t im e s .
Su pplem en tary pay, a s stu died, is not p ro v id e d
on the b a s is o f tim e w o r k e d . W a r -r is k bonus p a y ­
m en ts a re m ade fo r e a ch day the ship is in a d e s ­
ignated r is k a r e a . P a ym en t fo r se rv in g e x tra m e a ls
is on the b a s is o f num ber o f m e a ls s e r v e d , and
"p a s s e n g e r p a y " is p ro v id e d f o r sea m en w ho have
e x tra du ties w hen p a s s e n g e r s a r e c a r r ie d o n a c a r g o
ship that has not b e e n s p e c ific a lly m anned to a c c o m ­
m odate th em . O ther su p plem en ta ry pay p r o v is io n s
such a s "p e n a lty c a r g o " o r "n o c le a n lin e n " a ls o
cannot be a s s o c ia t e d w ith h o u rs o f w o rk .
B e c a u s e o f the a b ove pay co n d itio n s, seam en ’ s
e a rn in g s in th is study a r e p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f

d a ily ra th er than h ou rly ea rn in g s , and h en ce d iffe r s
fr o m m o s t w age stu d ies m ade b y the B u reau o f
L a b o r S ta tis tic s .
Data a r e p re s e n te d f o r g r o s s
d a ily e a rn in g s and fo r the p re m iu m pay com pon en t
o f g r o s s e a rn in g s .
Data on su p p lem en tary pay,
w h ich is a ls o in clu d ed in the g r o s s pay, a r e p r e ­
sented in a sep a ra te tabu lation .
F r o m the o p e r a to r s v iew p oin t, m o s t o f the p r e ­
m iu m pay re suiting fr o m p r o v is io n s in the c o lle c t iv e
b a rg a in in g co n tr a c ts is m ade n e c e s s a r y by c o n d i­
tio n s w h ich a r e u n av oid able, i . e . , w ork on w e e k ­
ends f o r c e r ta in m e m b e r s o f the c r e w w hile at sea
is n e c e s s a r y f o r a 2 4 -h ou r d ay, 7 -d a y w eek o p e r a ­
tio n .
The v a ria b le in a v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in g s o f
sea m en am on g v e s s e ls and v o y a g e s is th e r e fo r e
attribu table to the p re m iu m pay p r o v is io n s w h ich
m ight be a v o id a b le , su ch a s m aintenance w o rk that
can be d ela y ed until the ship is in p o rt, o r the
a v oid a n ce o f m any m in o r p e n a ltie s, such a s th ose
re su ltin g fr o m the se rv in g o f e x tra m e a ls . H ow ­
e v e r , m any ty p es o f p re m iu m pay p r o v is io n s w hich
a r e th e o r e tic a lly c o n tro lla b le a r e n e c e s s a r y to the
o r d e r ly d a y -t o -d a y o p e ra tio n o f a sh ip. 1
2
The b a se w age ra te fo r seam en a ccou n ted in
M ay 1957 fo r about tw o -th ir d s o f th e ir a v e ra g e
d a ily e a rn in g s .
N ea rly a ll o f the re m a in d e r w as
the r e s u lt o f the p re m iu m pay p r a c t ic e s f o r o v e r ­
tim e o r fo r w o rk c o n s id e r e d h a z a rd ou s o r d is a g r e e ­
a b le .
O nly about 1 p e rce n t o f sea m en ’ s a v e ra g e
ea rn in gs in e a r ly 1957 w a s attrib u ta b le to su p p le­
m en ta ry paym en ts such a s w a r - r i s k bon u s p a y ­
m e n ts, se rv in g e x tra m e a ls , o r f o r d iv is io n o f
w o rk w hen the ship had le s s than a fu ll co m p le m e n t.
T h e a v e ra g e d a ily pay fo r m en (ex cep t m a s t e r s
and ca d e ts ) w ho w ent to sea in U nited States flag
v e s s e ls i n M a y 1957 w as $ 2 0 . 19 a day.
(See
ta b le A - l . )
O f th is, $ 6 .2 1 w a s paym ent f o r an
a v e ra g e o f 2 .8 h ou rs o f w o rk c a llin g fo r p re m iu m
pay, and 23 cen ts w as fo r su p p lem en tary pay p r o ­
v is io n s .
T h e b a la n ce , $ 1 3 .7 5 , w a s the a v e ra g e
d a ily b a s e pay, fo r a ll sea m en .
E a rn in g s o f L ic e n s e d O ffic e r s

1 F o r an a cco u n t o f co n d itio n s fo r sea m en in
0
the in du stry fr o m the tu rn o f the cen tu ry to m o d ­
e r n tim e s , se e J osep h P . G o ld b e rg , "T h e M a r i­
tim e S t o r y ," op . c it .
11 If the voyage la s t s o v e r 1 m onth, h o w e v e r,
the seam a n is paid on the b a s is o f h is m onthly
rate plu s the d a ily ra te f o r a ll d a y s o v e r the c o m ­
p lete m on th s. T h e r e fo r e , the pay p e r a ctu al num­
b e r o f days fo r a voya g e m a y v a ry depending on
w heth er the tim e in v o lv e d is a 2 8 -, 3 0 -, o r 3 1 -d a y
m onth.
Data a r e p re s e n te d in th is r e p o r t on the
b a s is o f days paid fo r ra th e r than d a y s w ork ed .
U sing d a y s w o r k e d , h o w e v e r , w ou ld have had v e r y
little e ffe c t on the data p r e s e n te d .




In a d d itio n to th e ir b a s e ra te , o f f i c e r s g e n e ra lly
r e c e iv e d tw o ty p e s o f p re m iu m pay, $ 3 .4 9 p e r hour
fo r tim e c la s s e d a s o v e r tim e and $ 2 .3 2 f o r tim e
c la s s e d a s penalty tim e .
T h e se ra te s w e r e the
sam e fo r a ll o f f i c e r ra tin gs r e g a r d le s s o f th eir b a se
ra te . N on w atch stan ders w e r e p aid a m on th ly rate
1
2
F o r the c la s s ific a t io n o f c o n tr o lla b le and au to­
m a tic (n o n co n tro lla b le ) o v e r tim e , and the re la tiv e
p r o p o r tio n s , see S eafa rin g O v e rtim e on P r iv a te ly
O p erated U nited States F la g M erch an t Ships, U . S.
D epartm en t o f C o m m e r c e , M a ritim e A d m in is tr a ­
tion , O cto b e r 1954.

19
nin lie u o f o v e r t im e 1 and th e se p aym en ts fo r p u r ­
1
p o s e s o f th is study w e r e c o n s id e r e d p a rt o f b a s e
p ay.
O ffic e r s w e r e a ls o e lig ib le fo r som e ty p es
o f su p p lem en ta ry pay, such a s w a r - r i s k b on u ses
o r e x tr a pa ym en ts when the ship w a s c a r r y in g e x ­
p lo s iv e s o r oth er (fo r m s o f pen alty c a r g o .
M ost
o f f i c e r s ra tin g s a r e r e p r e s e n te d b y unions w hich
have c o n tr a c ts on a ll c o a s ts and the c o n tr a c ts w ith
in dividu al co m p a n ie s o r a s s o c ia t io n s a r e b a s ic a lly
the sa m e . D iffe r e n c e in d a ily e a rn in g s in the sam e
ra tin g , th e r e fo r e , a r e a lm o s t e n tir e ly due to the
am ount o f p re m iu m o r su p plem en ta ry pay e a rn e d .
L ic e n s e d o f f i c e r s (ex clu d in g m a s t e r s ) a s a
g rou p a v e ra g e d $ 2 9 * 8 0 a d a y .
T h is i n c l u d e d
2 . 8 h o u rs o f p re m iu m pay am ounting to $ 8 . 2 1
(table A - l ) and 21 ce n ts in su p p lem en tary pay.
O ffic e r s w e r e a lm o s t ev e n ly d iv id ed b etw een the
d e c k and en gin e d ep a rtm e n ts, w ith ea ch grou p r e p ­
re se n tin g about one - ninth o f the to ta l w ork in g c r e w s .
O ff ic e r s in the engine dep artm en t had slig h tly h igh er
a v e r a g e e a rn in g s , ev en though they a v e ra g e d l e s s
p re m iu m pay p e r d a y. A v e r a g e s o f $ 2 9 * 0 4 g r o s s ,
in clu d in g 3 .2 h o u rs and $ 9 * 2 2 o f p re m iu m pay,
w e r e r e c o r d e d fo r d e ck o f f i c e r s (ex clu d in g m a s t e r s )
and $ 3 0 .5 6 g r o s s , in clu din g 2 .5 h o u rs and $ 7 . 1 9
o f p r e m iu m pay, fo r en g in e e rin g o f f i c e r s .
C h ie f e n g in e e rs a v e ra g e d $ 3 9 * 1 4 a day, in ­
clu din g an a v e ra g e o f $ 1. 87 a day o f ex tra va ca tion
a llo w a n ce w h ich w as c o n s id e r e d a s p re m iu m pay
f o r p u rp o se s o f th is study. 1
3 The b a s e pay fo r
c h ie f e n g in e e rs v a r ie d by s iz e and type o f v e s s e l
and a v e ra g e d (in clu din g pay in lie u o f o v e r tim e )
about $ 37.
In g e n e ra l, the a v e ra g e d a ily e a rn in g s o f the
c h ie f m a te s w e r e c o m p a ra b le to th ose o f the f ir s t
a ss is ta n t en g in e e r ($ 3 6 ); se co n d m a te s to secon d
a ss is ta n t e n g in e e rs ($ 2 9 ); th ird m a te s to th ird a s ­
sistan t e n g in e e rs ($ 2 7 ); and fou rth m a tes to ju n ior
th ird (o r fo u rth ) a ss is ta n t e n g in e e r s ( $ 2 5 - $ 2 6 ). A s
noted e a r l ie r , o f f i c e r s in the d e ck d ep a rtm en t g e n ­
e r a lly a v e ra g e d slig h tly h igh er p re m iu m e a rn in g s .
R a dio o f f i c e r s a v e ra g e d $ 2 7 .6 1 a day, including
$ 9 . 0 8 fo r 3 . 1 h o u rs o f p re m iu m pay.
P u rsers,
w ho w e r e c a r r ie d on on ly p a rt o f the v e s s e l s , a v ­
e r a g e d about $23 a day. P a s s e n g e r p u r s e r s g en ­
e r a lly e a rn ed m o r e than p u r s e r s on oth er ty p es o f
v e s s e l s , la r g e ly ow ing to m o r e p re m iu m tim e .
The a v e ra g e fo r o f f i c e r s w a s 1.6 h ou rs o f o v e r ­
tim e pay and 1.2 h ou rs o f penalty pay p e r day, with
the h igh er ra tin gs having h igh er p r o p o r tio n of o v e r ­
tim e and the lo w e r ra tin gs g e n e r a lly having a h igher

p r o p o r tio n o f penalty tim e , a s shown in the fo llo w ­
ing tabulation:

O vertim e

P en a lty

R acin g

H ours

C h ie f m ates ______ ______ . . . ____ _
S e co n d m a c e s _____ . . . . . . . . . _____
T h ird m a t e s _______- ______________
F ourth m a t e s ____________ ____ ____
R a d io o f fic e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___

2 .7
1 .8
1 .7
1 .3
1 .8

1 9 .2 0
5 .9 1
5 .4 8
4 .5 3
5 .9 6

0 .6
1 .5
1 .6
2 .0
1 .3

1 1 .3 9
3 .5 7
3 .7 1
4 .6 4
3 .1 2

C h ie f e n g in e e rs __________________
F ir s t a s s is t a n t e n g i n e e r s -----------S e c o n d a s s is t a n t e n g i n e e r s -------T h ird a s s is t a n t e n g in e e r s ---------Junior third a s s is t a n t
_____
.
..
e n g in e e rs ____
L ic e n s e d ju n ior e n g in e e rs ____ _

.5
2 .4
1 .6
1 .4

1 .8 5
7 .9 1
5 .4 2
4 .6 1

C 1)
.7
1 .5
1 .5

C 1)
1 .7 3
3 .4 8
3 .5 5

1 .0
.8

3 .5 1
2 .6 5

1 .8
1 .4

4 .2 0
3 .2 5

E arnings

H ours

E arn ings

L e s s than 10 c e n ts p er d a y .

C o n sid e ra b le v a ria tio n s in d aily ea rn in g s am ong
in dividu al o f f i c e r s in the sam e rating w e r e n oted,
(table A - 2 ) . T he h igh est d a ily ea rn in g s f o r a p a r ti­
cu la r rating w e re freq u en tly double the lo w e st e a r n ­
in gs fo r the sam e ra tin g . The m a jo r ity o f o f f i c e r s
w ithin a ratin g, h o w e v e r, had d a ily e a rn in g s w hich
fe ll w ithin a ran g e o f $ 5 o r l e s s .
F o r e x a m p le,
tw o -th ir d s o f the th ird m ates ea rn ed betw een $ 25
and $ 3 0 a day and o v e r th r e e -fo u r th s o f the ra d io
o p e r a to r s had d a ily earn in gs w ithin that ra n g e . The
w id e st v a ria tio n in d a ily ea rn in g s w ithin ea ch rating
w as noted am ong c h ie f m a tes and p u r s e r s .
M o st lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s r e c e iv e d an a v e ra g e o f
fr o m $6 to $ 11 p re m iu m pay p er day.
In a few
c a s e s , p re m iu m pay r e p re s e n te d h alf o f the in d i­
vidual tota l ea rn in g s (ta b les A - l and A - 8).
Supplem entary pay fo r o f f i c e r s at the tim e o f
the study a v e ra g e d 21 ce n ts a day, o f w hich 19 cen ts
w as attribu table to w a r -r is k b o n u se s .
The oth er
2 cen ts w as p r a c tic a lly a ll due to penalty c a r g o
paym ents (table A - 11).
E a rn in g s o f U n licen sed Seam en
N ea rly fo u r -fift h s o f the seam en su rv e y e d w e re
c la s s ifie d a s u n lice n se d . In add ition to th eir b a se
pay, they r e c e iv e d p re m iu m pay f o r o v e rtim e and
fo r ce rta in ty p es o f w o rk . U nlike the lic e n s e d o f ­
f i c e r s , th e ir o v e rtim e rate d iffe r e d by ra tin g, ra n g ­
ing fr o m $ 1 . 6 0 an hour fo r o rd in a ry sea m en and
m e s s m e n on the A tla n tic and G ulf C o a sts to $ 2 * 8 1
an hour fo r the h igh er u n lice n se d ratin gs o n the
W est C o a s t. U nder ce rta in co n d itio n s, th ese ra tes
w e r e in c r e a s e d by 50 p e rce n t o r doubled* 14

1
3
C h ie f e n g in e e rs a re not paid a re g u la r o v e r ­
tim e ra te on the r e g u la r p a y r o ll but a r e g iven cr e d it
14
The u n licen sed sea m en in the engine d e p a rt­
in so m e c a s e s fo r ce r ta in ty p es o f o v e rtim e when
m ent on the W est C o a st a ls o have a "pen alty". rate
they r e p o r t it, and a r e la te r r e im b u r s e d at th eir
in addition to the o v e rtim e ra te .
See table 4 fo r
r e g u la r h ou rly ra te , g e n e ra lly at the tim e o f th eir
s p e c ific p re m iu m pay p ra ctice s*
v a ca tio n .



20

Chart 3. AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS
By Rating, May 1957
RATING

LICENSED DECK

D O LLA R S
$ 3 5 .9 4

C hief motes
Chief p urse rs, passenger
Second motes
T h ird ntqtes
Radio o ffic e rs
Fo u rth motes
A ssisto n t p u rse rs, passenger
P u rs e rs , dry-cargo ond tanker

LIC ENSED ENG INE
C hie f engineers

] 39 .1 4

F irs t a ssista n t engineers
Second a ssista n t engineers
Th ird a ssista n t engineers
Junior th ird a ssisto n t engineers
Licensed ju n io r engineers

UN LIC EN SED DECK
B o suns
Carpenters
Able-bodied seamen
Deck maintenance
O rdinary seamen

U N LIC EN SED EN G IN E
Ele c tric ia n s

.................—

: ...............

□

Second electricians
Fire m e n , woter tenders

Mllll.ll
i i9yi.ii m n u u .ii.ii.il.

i...........

......

1 7 5 6

O ile rs

17.38

Unlicensed ju n io r engineers

>1 6 9 4

En g in e maintenance
W ip e rs

U N LIC EN SED S TE W A R D S
C hie f stew ards, passenger
C h e fs, passenger
Second stew ards, passenger
Cooks, passenger
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker
A ssista n t cooks, passenger
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker
A ssistant cooks,dry-cargo ond tanker
W a ite rs, passenger
Ste w o rd s, possenger
M e ssm e n ,o ll ship s
B e llb o y s, passenger
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUR EAU OF LA B O R S T A TIS TIC S




1 6 .3 8
.............. -....

12.77

2 4 .2 3

2 2 .9 7

21

Chart 4. O VERTIM E COMPARED W ITH PEN A LTY HO URS
Average Number of Daily Overtime and Penalty Hours
For Selected Licensed Ratings, May 1957
i

Chief mates

Second mates

Third mates

Fo u rth m a tes

Radio officers

Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker

Chief engineers

0.5
......................
;*■;'*

First assistant engineers
•ninL......................... ...

2 .4
i

Second assistant engineers

Third assistant engineers

Junior third assistant engineers

Licensed iunior engineers
Overtime hours
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S




1 5 5 ^ Penalty hours

22
A s a g rou p , u n lice n se d se a m e n a v e ra g e d $17.56
p e r day, in clu d in g $ 5 . 6 6 f o r 2 . 8 h ou rs o f p r e ­
m ium pay (table A - l ) .
In g e n e r a l d is c u s s io n s o f
s e a m e n 's e a rn in g s , r e fe r e n c e is u su a lly m ade to
the ratin g o f a b le -b o d ie d se a m e n . M en c la s s ifie d
in this ratin g r e p r e s e n t about o n e -e ig h th o f the
c r e w and th e ir a v e r a g e p a y o f $ 1 9 .5 0 p e r day was
ju st b e lo w the a v e ra g e f o r a ll se a m e n . A b le -b o d ie d
se a m e n a v e r a g e d $ 7 . 3 0 f o r 3 . 3 h ou rs o f p rem iu m
p a y p e r day*
S u p plem en ta ry paym en ts a ccou n ted
f o r o n ly 16 cen ts o f th e ir d a ily e a rn in g s . The a v ­
e ra g e b a se pay f o r a b le -b o d ie d sea m en was th e r e ­
fo r e about $ 1 2 .
P r o v is io n s re la tin g to b a s e pay
v a r ie d a m on g the 3 m a jo r c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g
units c o v e r in g this ra tin g.

W atchstanding s e a m e n r e p r e se n te d b y t h e
S a ilo r s Union o f the P a c ific (SU P) r e c e iv e b a se
p a y w h ich , s in c e 1955, in clu d es p a rt o f the r e g ­
u la r p re m iu m pay in b a se w a ges and is paid on
the b a s is o f 56 h ou rs a w e e k at se a and 40 h ou rs
w hen in p o r t. The oth er 2 m a jo r a g re e m e n ts c o v ­
e rin g A B 's p r o v id e f o r p a y s c a le s b a s e d o n
a
4 0 -h o u r w e e k and f o r o v e r tim e pa y f o r h ou rs in
e x c e s s o f 40.
M e ss m e n , w ho a ls o a cco u n t f o r o n e -e ig h th o f
the c r e w , a v e ra g e d $ 1 4 . 1 0 a day, o f w hich $ 4 .3 1
w as pay f o r an a v e r a g e o f 2. 6 h ou rs o f p rem iu m
w o r k and 38 cen ts w as a cco u n te d f o r by su p p le­
m en ta ry p a y p r o v is io n s .
O ile r s and fir e m e n , w a te r ten d ers, had a lm o s t
equal ea rn in gs and ea ch r e p r e s e n te d about o n e sixteen th o f the c r e w . They a v e ra g e d about $17. 50
p e r day, o f w h ich $ 6 re p r e s e n te d 3 h ou rs o f p r e ­
m ium pay and 15 cen ts su p p lem en ta ry p ay. B ase
pay f o r th ese ra tin gs w as about equal in the 3 m a jo r
b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts that d e te rm in e w ages fo r
th ese ra tin g s .
None o f th ese a g re e m e n ts has in ­
co r p o r a te d p re m iu m p a y in b a s e w a g e s.
W ip e r s , r e p r e s e n tin g 5 p e r c e n t o f the c r e w ,
w e r e the lo w e s t paid se a m e n stu died, with an a v ­
e ra g e o f $ 1 2 . 7 7 p e r day. A lthough th eir a v e ra g e
b a s e pay e x c e e d e d that f o r m e s s m e n and o rd in a ry
se a m e n , th eir p re m iu m p a y a v e ra g e d on ly $ 2 .0 2
f o r 1.2 h ou rs p e r day, and they ea rn ed on ly 13 cents
in su p p lem en ta ry p a y. O rd in a ry se a m e n a v e ra g e d
o v e r $2 m o r e p e r day than w ip e r s sin ce they w ork ed
an a v e r a g e o f 3 .1 h ou rs at p re m iu m p a y .
C h ief
stew a rd s and ch efs W ere the h igh est paid u n lice n se d
ratin gs on p a s s e n g e r sh ip s; they a v e r a g e d o v e r $ 30
a day e x c lu s iv e o f g ra tu itie s .
E le c t r ic ia n s with
d a i l y e a r n i n g s o f $ 2 4 .2 3 , in clu d in g $6. 15 f o r
2. 6 h ou rs o f p re m iu m p a y and 28 cen ts o f su p p le ­
m en ta ry pay, w e r e the h igh est paid u n licen sed r a t­
ing on ships oth er than p a s s e n g e r .
A s in the c a s e o f lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s , the d iffe r ­
en ce b etw een lo w e st and h igh est ea rn in gs fo r in d i­
vidu al u n lice n se d se a m e n in the sa m e rating w as
freq u e n tly 100 p e r c e n t. N e a r ly a ll o f the d iffe r e n c e
w as due to v a ria tio n s in the am ount o f p rem iu m



p ay.
The m a jo r ity o f sea m en in m o s t o f the un­
lic e n s e d ra tin g s, h o w e v e r, had a v e ra g e d a ily e a r n ­
ings w ithin a $ 2 - to $ 4 -r a n g e .
In g e n e ra l, the
h ig h er the ratin g, the w id e r the range o f ea rn in g s.
The w id e st d is p e r s io n w as n oted am ong bosu n s and
e le c t r ic ia n s . M o re than h a lf o f the fir e m e n , w ip e r s ,
c o o k s , and th eir a s s is ta n ts , p a s s e n g e r ste w a rd s,
and m e s s m e n w e re w ithin a $ 2 -r a n g e in th eir d aily
earn in gs (table A - 3).
S u p plem en tary paym ents f o r u n lice n se d sea m en
a v e ra g e d 24 cen ts a day, a lm o s t h a lf o f w hich was
attrib u ta b le to w a r - r i s k b o n u se s . N e a rly a ll o f the
oth er su p p lem en ta ry p ay m en ts, w h ich a v e ra g e d
13 cen ts fo r u n lice n se d sea m en as a g rou p , was
earn ed b y sea m en in the stew a rd s dep artm en t.
U n licen sed sea m en in the d eck and engine d e ­
p artm en ts a v e ra g e d on ly 3 o r 4 cents in su p p lem en ­
ta ry pay oth er than that f o r w a r - r i s k .
In the
stew a rd s dep artm en t, the s im ila r a v e ra g e was
28 ce n ts. This am ount w as a lm o s t equ a lly divid ed
b etw een paym en ts f o r d iv is io n of w o rk , s e rv in g o f
ex tra m e a ls , and p ay f o r ex tra w o rk rela tin g to the
c a r r y in g o f p a s s e n g e r s w hen the s h ip 's com p lem en t
did not p ro v id e f o r su ch s e r v ic e (table A - 11). Each
o f th ese p r o v is io n s am ount to 8 o r 9 cen ts a day
when a v e ra g e d o v e r a ll the sea m en in the stew ard s
d ep artm en t.
N e a rly a ll o f the ratin gs in the stew a rd s d e ­
p artm en t w e re e lig ib le f o r d iv is io n o f w o rk pay if
they had to do ex tra w o rk b e ca u s e the dep artm en t
did not have a fu ll co m p le m e n t.
N e a rly a ll w ere
a ls o e lig ib le f o r ex tra p a y if they had to p re p a re
o r s e r v e extra m e a ls . The h igh est a v e ra g e su p p le­
m e n ta ry pay w as r e c e iv e d b y co o k s and th eir a s ­
sistan ts b e ca u s e o f the d iv is io n o f w o rk p r o v is io n s .
D esp ite the fa ct that n e a r ly a ll ratings in the
stew a rd s dep artm en t w e re e lig ib le f o r such p a y ­
m e n ts, d iv is io n o f w o rk paym ents w e re a ctu a lly
r e c e iv e d b y on ly 9 p e r c e n t o f the ratin gs in the
d ep artm en t, but the paym en t f o r th ose r e c e iv in g
it w as g e n e r a lly high, a v e ra g in g 95 cents a day.
E xtra m e a l paym ents w e re m o r e g e n e ra l.
A l­
m o s t a third o f th ose em p loy ed in the departm ent
r e c e iv e d so m e ex tra m e a l paym en t, but the am ounts
w e r e u su a lly s m a ll and a v e ra g e d on ly 26 cents a
day. P a s s e n g e r pay on c a r g o v e s s e ls w as r e c e iv e d
on the a v e ra g e b y about on e-ten th o f a il sea m en in
the stew a rd s d ep artm en t, m o s tly co o k s and m e s s ­
m en , and those d e ce iv in g it a v e ra g e d 84 cents a
day.
E arn in gs b y C oa st
E arnings of lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s , on the a v e ra g e
w e r e a p p ro x im a te ly the sa m e on a il c o a s ts .
A v­
e ra g e p rem iu m h ou rs w e r e s o m e tim e s id en tica l fo i
the sam e ratin gs (table A - l ) .
U n licen sed sea m en fr o m W est C o a st p o rts a v ­
era g e d $ 1 . 8 1 m o r e p e r day than th ose sa ilin g frorr
A tla n tic and Gulf C o a s ts .
S eam en on the e a s te ri

co a sts a v e ra g e d 3. 0 h ou rs o f p re m iu m pay p e r day,
co m p a re d with 2 . 4 h ou rs f o r W est C oa st seam en ,
but they had a lo w e r p re m iu m p a y ra te.
T h eir
b a s e ra tes a ls o a v e r a g e d $2 le s s than on the W est
C o a st, w h ere so m e o f the p re m iu m pay sin ce 1955
had b een in c o rp o r a te d in the b a se pay o f m o s t o f
the W est C o a st c o n tr a c ts .
A b le -b o d ie d se a m e n f r o m A tla n tic a n d Gulf
p o r t s averaged $18. 56, i n c l u d i n g
$ 7 . 1 7 and
3 . 4 h ou rs at p re m iu m pay.
F r o m W est C oa st
p o r t s , they a v e ra g e d $ 2 1 . 6 1 including $ 7 . 6 0 f o r
3. 1 h ou rs at p re m iu m pa y.
W est C o a st a v e r a g e s f o r u n lice n sed seam en
w e r e c o n siste n tly h igh er in the d e ck and engine
d ep a rtm en ts. W est C o a st a v e r a g e s f o r u n licen sed
sea m en in the d eck and engine departm ents w e re
about 10 p e r c e n t h igh er than fo r co in p a ra b le ratings
on the A tla n tic and Gulf C oa sts (table A - l ) .
A v­
e ra g e p re m iu m h ou rs in the engine dep artm en t w e re
fre q u e n tly h igh er on the W est C o a st and prem iu m
h ou rs in the d e ck departm en t w e re a lm o s t as high,
even though w a tch sta n d ers on the W est C oa st w e re
paid f o r a 5 6 -h o u r w eek , c o m p a re d w ith a 4 0 -h o u r
w eek on the A tla n tic and Gulf C o a sts .

In the ste w a rd s dep artm en t, a v e ra g e d a ily
earn in gs w e r e about die sa m e on a ll c o a s ts .
A l­
though b a s e ra te s on the W est C oa st w e re g e n e r ­
a lly f o r a 5 6 -h o u r w eek and th e r e fo r e h ig h e r, the
A tla n tic and Gulf C o a sts had a h igh er a v e ra g e num ­
b e r o f prem iu m h o u rs and con seq u en tly h ig h er a v ­
e ra g e prem iu m pay.

Som e in d ica tion o f the d is p e r s io n o f earn in gs
within the sa m e ratin g can be g iv en b y the range
o f ea rn in gs o f the m id d le 50 p e r c e n t o f the seam en
w ithin that ra tin g.
On this b a s is , the d is p e r s io n
o f earn in gs fo r lic e n s e d p e r s o n n e l is about the sam e
on a ll c o a s ts .
The m id d le 50 p e r c e n t g e n e ra lly
fe ll w ithin a $ 5 -r a n g e on both the W est C oa st and
the A tlan tic and G ulf C oa sts (ta b les A - 4 and A -6 ).
F o r u n lice n se d ra tin g s, the d is p e r s io n of e a rn ­
ings on the W est C o a st w as g e n e r a lly g r e a te r .
In
the d eck departm en t ra tin g s, the ra n ges (m iddle
50 p e r c e n t) on the W est C oa st w e re $4 o r $5,
co m p a re d w ith $2 to $4 on die A tla n tic and Gulf
C o a s ts . In the engine dep artm en t, the ran ges w e re
on ly slig h tly la r g e r on. the W est C oa st, and in the
stew a rd s dep artm en t the A tla n tic and Gulf C oasts
ran ges w e re g e n e r a lly as la r g e and s o m e tim e s
la r g e r (ta b les A - 5 and A - 7).
Seam en on the W est C o a st A la sk an run f r e ­
quently handle c a r g o in p la ce o f lo n g s h o re m e n and
con seq u en tly have high p re m iu m earn in gs w hich
m ake earn in gs f o r so m e a b le -b o d ie d se a m en range
beyon d $30 a day.



S upplem entary pay fo r u n licen sed sea m en , e x ­
clu siv e of w a r - r i s k b on u s, was h igh er on the A t­
lan tic and G ulf C o a sts— 15 pents co m p a re d with
9 cents on the We s t C oa st. N ea rly a ll of the su p ­
p le m e n ta ry pay, e x c lu s iv e o f w a r - r i s k b o n u s e s , was
earned in t h e stew ard s departm ent,
a v era g in g
32 cents on the A tlan tic and G ulf C o a s t s
and
19 c e n t s on the We s t C oa st. M ost of the su p p le ­
m en ta ry pay in the stew ard s departm ent on the
We s t C oa st was f o r d iv is io n of w ork , a v era gin g
12 cen ts.
On the A tla n tic and Gulf C oa sts the
m a jo r su p p lem en tary pay item s w e re f o r se rv in g
ex tra m e a ls and f o r p a s s e n g e r pay, a v era g in g 11
and 10 cents a day, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
N ea rly 40 p e r ­
cent o f the sea m en in the stew ard s dep artm en t r e ­
ce iv e d paym ents f o r se rv in g ex tra m e a ls on ships
fr o m th ose p o rts (tables A - 12 and A - 13).
W a r -r is k bonus paym ents f o r a ll sea m en (e x ­
cep t m a s te rs and ca d e ts) a v e ra g e d 11 cents on the
W est C oa st and 13 cents on the A tlan tic and G ulf
C o a s t s .15
S u bsid ized T rip s
Under T itle IV o f the M erch an t M arin e A ct,
1936, as am ended, the F e d e r a l M a ritim e B oa rd ,
upon a p p rov a l o f a p p lica tion fo r su bsid y, m a y en ter
into a co n tra ct with the a p p lica n t, fo r a p e r io d not
to e x c e e d 20 y e a r s , in w hich it w ill a g re e to pay
no m o r e than the e x c e s s o f the fa ir and re a so n a b le
c o s t o f in su ra n ce , m ain ten an ce, re p a ir s not c o v ­
e re d by in su ra n ce, w age a and s u b s is te n ce o f o ffic e r s
and cr e w , and oth er item s o f expen se in w hich the
B oa rd finds the app lican t is at a disadvantage in
co m p e titio n with v e s s e ls o f a fo r e ig n cou n try. The
v oy a g es fo r w hich the su b sid ie s a r e paid m u st b e on
rou tes and s e r v ic e s design ated b y the M a ritim e
A d m in istra tion to be e ss e n tia l to the fo r e ig n c o m ­
m e r c e o f the United States.
W hether a v e s s e l is su b sid iz ed a p p ea rs to have
little e ffe c t on the a v era g e earn in gs o f sea m en
(ch a rt 5).
M en on su b sid iz ed d r y - c a r g o v e s s e ls
a v e ra g e d slig h tly le s s than those on n on su b sid ized
o p e ra tio n s. N e a rly a ll u n lice n se d ratings a v era g ed
m o r e p rem iu m pay p e r day on n on su b sid iz ed tr ip s .
This re la tion sh ip w as a ls o m aintained when the
c o m p a r is o n was lim ite d to s p e c ific types o f sh ip s.
Seam en on C -2 and C -3 d r y -c a r g o ships under
su b sid y a v era g ed $20.21 p e r day, in clu d in g 2. 6 h ou rs
o f p rem iu m p ay.
On the sam e type o f n o n su b s i­
d ized s h i p , t h e a v e ra g e w a s $ 2 0 .4 0 , including
2. 8 h ou rs o f p rem iu m p ay. When co m p a ris o n s b y
su b sid y status w e re m ade fo r each c o a s t the r e ­
lationsh ip w as not co n siste n t.
O ffice r s on W est
C oa st ships had h ig h er a v era g e d a ily earn in gs than
those on n on su b sid ized ships (tables A - 15 through
A - 18).

15
D uring p a rt o f the p e rio d studied,
a re a w as design ated as a w a r - r i s k a re a .

the Suez

Chart 5. EARNINGS BY SUBSIDY STA TUS OF SHIPS
Average Daily Earnings Including Premium Pay of Seamen on Subsidized and Nonsubsidized

Dry-Cargo Vessels,May 1957
AVERAGE
DAILY
PAY

AVERAGE
DAILY PRE- 0
MIUM PAY

$20.38

$5.92

$20.56

$ 7.90

$29.66
$29.09

$9.27

Licensed engine
department

S2 9 68

$

$30.73

15

20

25

i

i

i

30

$35

r

\z y z y z y z / z y z z z z y z z
zy z/ z y z zz •
' * ?
\ z/ zzzy zzzv zy z/ zzz/ zzy zy zy zy zzzzzzy
\z y z / z y z y z / z / z z y y z z y z / z y z y y / / z z / / / / /
_

$8.14

Licensed deck
department

10

i

$6.34

$29.40

5

$7.38

All seamen (except
masters and cadets)

All licensed seamen

z z z;z? y y z y z y z /
z y. z 'yz y y z z y y " / y y y z y / y z y y y

y z y z z y z ' y z y z y z z z / z z z z
f / / S / S / S ? S t tS / 'S f S / S / '/

£

$28.57
~^

v

z / ^z / z y / y z
/ / / / / / / / / y / A / v / / / y/J

ZZ

t y /y r
Z'S Z

/ y z z y z z y z * z y z y y y y y z y z. z y y
zy z yy zy zy z » y z y /y zyyyyz yi
* y y y -.y y y z y y y y y y y y . / y y y . z ....
.

$8.89
7“ ~

I */'• z-:/ / * :z y / ' / y y z z ' f / z z z . z / z z z z z y / y z "y y s y y / y y /"/ZZ Z y y y z y y y z >' 7 / / z
»*.
1* / v
y7 y ^ y z y y y y z / y y * y z y z y z y z z z y z-y z / / y y y / . / y y y z y / y y y y 7 / y y y A
W
z
y
z
y / V/ y z z :z y z y z z / z1'/ / / / / ./ z y zz/ ./ z z' K / y y / j z y y y z y / y / y z y j f

6 63
V

A|l unlicensed seamen

Unlicensed deck
department
Unlicensed engine
department

$I7J7

$ 4.77

$17.36

$8.11

Average Daily Earnings
(including Premium Pay)
Subsidized
Nonsubsidized

Stewards department

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S




25

E arn in gs b y Type o f Ship
Union a g re e m e n ts fre q u e n tly s p e c ify ra tes b y
type o f ship, p a r tic u la r ly d iffe re n tia tin g betw een
p a s s e n g e r , d r y - c a r g o , and ta n k e rs. A v e ra g e d aily
earn in gs f o r a ll sea m en w ithin the s c o p e o f study
b y type o f ship ranged fr o m $ 1 8 .5 3 fo r p a s s e n g e r
ships to $21. 87 fo r ta n k ers. S eam en on d r y -c a r g o
v e s s e ls a v e ra g e d $ 2 0 .4 9 .
T h ese pay re la tio n sh ip s a ppear to r e s u lt in
p a rt fr o m d iffe r e n c e s in the sta ffin g req u ire m e n ts
of p a s s e n g e r and c a r g o sh ip s.
The num ber o f
h ig h e r -p a id ratin gs a re p ro p o r tio n a te ly g r e a te r ,
f o r ex a m p le, on tan kers than on p a s s e n g e r sh ip s.
H en ce, the o v e r a ll pay re la tio n sh ip s a r e not n e c ­
e s s a r ily r e fle c t e d in co m p a r is o n o f earn in gs fo r
individu al ra tin g s.
Seam en on p a s s e n g e r sh ip s,
r a tin g -b y -r a tin g , g e n e r a lly a v e ra g e d slig h tly m o r e
than th ose on d r y - c a r g o sh ips— la r g e ly if not en ­
t ir e ly due to a slig h tly h igh er a v e ra g e n um ber of
h ou rs at p rem iu m pay (table A - 19).
N e a rly a ll ratin gs on tankers a v e ra g ed a h ig h er
n u m b er o f h ou rs at p rem iu m p a y and g r e a te r e a r n ­
ings than did co m p a ra b le ratin gs on d r y -c a r g o o r
p a s s e n g e r sh ip s.
D a ily p rem iu m h ou rs w ork ed
a b o a rd tan kers e x ce e d e d d a ily p rem iu m h ou rs r e ­
p o rte d f o r d ry -ca trgo ships b y 30 p e r c e n t.
The
in c r e a s e in p rem iu m tim e is p r im a r ily cau sed b y
discon tin u a tion o f m ain ten an ce w o rk w h ile a tanker
is loadin g o r d isch a rg in g its c a r g o in p o r t, w hich
n e c e s s it a t e s doing the e s s e n tia l m ain ten an ce w ork
a fte r the tanker retu rn s to se a .
C o m p a riso n s o f a v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in gs am on g
5 types o f d r y - c a r g o ships show that L ib e r ty ships
had the h igh est a v e ra g e p rem iu m h ou rs in m o s t o f
the ratin gs and h igh est a v e ra g e d a ily e a rn in g s, p a r ­
tic u la r ly am on g the u n lice n se d r a tin g s .
L ib e rty
sh ips g e n e r a lly c a r r ie d s m a lle r c r e w s than the
oth er types co m p a re d . M o r e o v e r , they w e r e c o n ­
stru cte d as expen dab le v e s s e ls and have rea ch ed
an a g e w h e re m ain ten an ce is h ig h e r than on m o s t
oth er d r y - c a r g o v e s s e ls (table A - 2 1 ) .
C o m p a riso n s b etw een c o a s t s , w hen lim ite d to
s p e c if ic types o f d r y - c a r g o sh ip s, r e fle c te d a lm o s t
the sa m e earn in gs d iffe r e n c e s a s th ose f o r a ll ships
com b in e d , w ith the W est C o a st p o r ts a v e ra g in g $1
to $3 m o r e p e r day f o r a ll u n lice n se d sea m en in
4 o f the 5 t y p e -o f-s h ip c a t e g o r ie s ,
On bu lk c a r ­
r i e r s , a v e r a g e s w e r e a lm o s t the sa m e (tables A -2 2
and A -2 3 ). Inter c o a s t d iffe r e n c e s in ea rn in gs w e re
g r e a te s t f o r u n lice n se d s e a m e n in the d e c k d e p a rt­
m en t and fo r e le c t r ic ia n s .
P o r t P r o v is io n s
L a b o r a g re e m e n ts con tain m an y p r o v is io n s
d ealin g w ith tim e in p o r t .
Since m any shipping




com p a n ies keep sep a ra te p a y r o ll r e c o r d s fo r hom e
p o r t tim e and sea tim e , it w as p o s s ib le to co m p a re
d a ily earn in gs w h ile in hom e p o rt with a v era g e
earn in gs fo r com bin ed tim e in p o r t and at s e a .
Both lic e n s e d and u n licen sed sea m en a s grou ps
a v e ra g e s lig h tly le s s p e r day on p o r t p a y r o lls ;
h o w e v e r, the fa c t that the ra tio of lic e n s e d to un ­
lic e n s e d ratin gs w as g r e a te r on p o r t than on sea
tim e re su lte d in a slig h tly h ig h er d aily a v e ra g e
f o r sea m en as a w hole on p o r t p a y r o lls .
When
sea w atch es a r e b rok en in p o r t, d eck and engine
dep artm en t w atch o ffic e r s b e c o m e d a y w o rk e rs.
Shipboard r e s p o n s ib ilitie s in th ese departm ents
during night h ou rs a r e then d eleg ated to r e l ie f o f ­
f i c e r s , 2 o f w hom a r e a ss ig n e d to each d e p a rt­
m ent and p e r fo r m duties n o r m a lly c a r r ie d out b y
d eck and en g in eerin g o ffic e r s (table A - 14).
A lm o s t a ll ratin gs had a s m a lle r a v era g e nu m ­
b e r o f h ou rs at p rem iu m p ay on p o r t p a y r o lls than
they a v era g ed g e n e ra lly .
It w ould th e r e fo r e a p ­
p e a r that, even though th ere a r e m any p r o v is io n s
in the co n tra cts fo r p rem iu m pay w h ile in p o r t, in
a ctu a l p r a c t ic e th ose p r o v is io n s do not add su b ­
sta n tia lly to the a v e ra g e d a ily earn in gs o f sea m en .

In o r d e r to exam ine fu rth er the e ffe c t o f s p e ­
cia l p o r t p r o v is io n s in c o n tr a c ts , d r y -c a r g o ships
w e r e grou p ed a c c o r d in g to the n um ber o f pbrt stops
m ade on the trip s stu d ied . V e s s e ls w e r e c la s s e d
in 4 g rou p s:
5 o r le s s , 6 -1 0 , 11 -1 5 , and 16 o r
m o r e p o r t s to p s .
In m any ra tin g s, th ere was no
m o r e than tw o-ten th s o f a n h ou r sp rea d i n
th e
a m o u n t o f p r e m i u m h o u r s p e r d a y when
ships w e r e grou ped b y n u m ber o f p o rt sto p s; a v e r ­
age d a ily ea rn in gs g e n e ra lly w e re within a sp re a d o f
$1 (table A -2 4 ). A dd ition al p o rt stop s ap p a ren tly
did not add to a v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in g s.

T ra d e Route C o m p a riso n s
A v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in gs o f sea m en on d r y -c a r g o
v e s s e ls w e re a ls o tabulated b y trading a r e a s .
Of
the 6 b ro a d a r e a s s e le c te d fo r c o m p a ris o n , 4 had
a lm o s t the sa m e d a ily a v e r a g e s .
T h ese 4 w e re
a r e a s s e r v e d fr o m the A tlan tic and G ulf C o a st.
The P a c ific a r e a se r v e d fr o m the W est C o a st a v ­
era g e d about $1 a day h igh er and the h igh est d a ily
a v e ra g e am on g the 6 a r e a s w as that fo r the in te r co a s ta l grou p (table A -2 5 ). D iffe re n c e s in a v e ra g e
d a ily ea rn in gs f o r lic e n s e d o ffic e r s as a group in
th ese 6 s e le c te d a r e a s fe ll w ithin the n a rro w range
o f $1. The d iffe r e n c e s fo r u n lice n se d ratings am ong
th ese a r e a s w e re la r g e r , with a v e ra g e s ranging
fr o m $16.47 in the A tla n tic E u rope and United K ing­
dom a re a to $ 1 8 .7 8 on in ter co a sta l ru n s.

26

Annual Employment and Earnings

T y p ic a lly a seam a n i s h ire d fo r a s p e c ific
tr ip on a s p e c ific sh ip.
He u su a lly m ay sign on
f o r the tr ip and fre q u e n tly d o e s .
If he w ants to
v is it h is fa m ily f o r m o r e than sh o rt p e r io d s b e ­
tw een t r ip s , he g e n e r a lly m ust " s i g n - o f f " the ship*s
p a y r o ll w h ich i s in e ffe c t quitting h is jo b .
When
he is re a d y to retu rn to w o r k , he then m u st seek a
new jo b . The length o f tim e re q u ir e d to find a new
b e rth v a r ie s g re a tly and sea m en a r e , th e r e fo r e ,
fa c e d w ith an o ccu p a tio n a l type o f u nem ploym ent
w h ich is unique to th is in d u stry .
T he e c o n o m ic p o s itio n o f se a m en can b e s t be
evalu a ted i f k n ow led ge o f d a ily e a rn in g s i s su p p le­
m en ted by in fo rm a tio n on e m p loy m en t and ea rn in gs
o v e r a lo n g e r p e r io d o f t im e .
In th is study, the
em p loy m en t e x p e r ie n c e and e a rn in g s o f seam en in
m a r itim e w o r k w e r e t r a c e d o v e r a 1 -y e a r p e r io d .
T he a n a ly sis is n e c e s s a r ily lim ite d by the s o u rce
m a te r ia ls to sea g oin g tim e (in clu din g p o rt tim e )
and e a r n in g s . The data do not, t h e r e fo r e , r e fle c t
p o s s ib le em p loy m en t and e a rn in g s o f seam en at
in terven in g sh ore side jo b s .
T h e y e a r o f em p loy m en t studied w as fr o m
July 1, 1956, th rou gh June 30, 1957.
T h is w as
a p e r io d o f r e la tiv e ly high a c tiv ity fo r A m e r ic a n
fla g sh ip s. A lthough a ctu a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s
a re not a v a ila b le , the num ber o f sh ips in a ctiv e
s e r v ic e an^ th e ir n o rm a l co m p le m e n t p ro v id e a
rough m e a s u r e o f the jo b poten tial a s o f s p e c ific
p e r io d s . In the fo llo w in g tabu lation M a ritim e A d ­
m in is tr a tio n r e p o r t s in d ica te the fo llo w in g e m p lo y ­
m ent poten tia l f o r June o f e a ch y e a r beginning w ith
1950:

June
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
A v era g e

Number o f
a c tiv e
A m erican
fla g v e s s e l s

T o t a l com plem ent

1 ,1 4 5
1 ,4 1 4
1 ,3 8 6
1 ,3 5 8
1 ,1 2 3
1 ,1 0 1
1 ,0 9 1
1 ,1 5 3
937
1 ,1 9 0

5 7 ,2 5 0
7 0 ,7 0 0
6 9 ,3 0 0
6 7 ,9 0 0
5 6 ,1 5 0
57, 510
5 7 ,1 9 0
6 0 ,7 3 0
5 1 ,4 3 0
6 0 ,9 1 0

C o m p a ris o n o f the a b ov e tabulation w ith the one
on c a r g o ton n ages c a r r ie d by A m e r ic a n fla g ships
in U . S. fo r e ig n tra d e f o r the sam e y e a r s on
page 2 sh ow s that e m p lo y m e n t poten tial d o e s not
n e c e s s a r ily fo llo w to ta l tonnage. S u b sid ized ships
a r e r e q u ir e d to m ake a g r e e d -u p o n t r ip s ev en i f
c a r g o e s a r e not a v a ila b le .
E m p loy m en t a b oa rd
ship, t h e r e fo r e , is not n e c e s s a r ily c lo s e ly c o r r e ­
lated w ith the tonnage c a r r ie d .




W hen em p loy m en t is r is in g and m o re m a n -d a y s
o f w o rk a re r e q u ir e d , the a d d ition al la b o r can be
obtained in tw o w a y s.
A d d ition a l m en can co m e
into the in du stry (o r retu rn to the in d u stry ) o r th ose
in the in d u stry can w o r k a h igh er p r o p o r tio n o f the
tota l days in the y e a r . T h e r e m ay be a ten den cy
fo r a v e ra g e days w o rk e d to flu ctuate le s s c lo s e ly
w ith volu m e o f a ctiv ity than m igh t be e x p e cte d . In­
d u stry sp ok esm en r e p o r t that w hen jo b s a re p le n ­
tifu l sea m en w ill take m o r e freq u en t le a v e w ithout
pay, know ing that jo b op p ortu n ities w ill be a v a ila ­
ble w hen they a r e rea d y to ship out. W hen sh ip ­
ping is s c a r c e , the sea m en a b o a rd ships a r e h e s i­
tant to le a v e th eir jo b s b e ca u s e o f the num ber o f
e lig ib le sea m en on the b e a ch w aiting to ship out.
Since the tim e o f the study, unem ploym ent in the
in d u stry has le d som e o f the unions to r e v is e th eir
shipping t u le s to re q u ire that m en lea v e a ship at
the fir s t opportunity a fte r so m any days o f con tin ­
uous w o rk ; e . g . , 180 o r 210 d a y s, in o r d e r to
sp rea d w o rk am ong a g re a te r num ber o f m e m b e r s .
D uring the c o u r s e o f the p re s e n t study, it w as
o b s e r v e d that m any sea m en w ho had le ft the in du s­
tr y sh ortly a fte r W o rld W ar II w e r e retu rn in g fo r
va ryin g p e r io d s o f tim e .
T h is w as a ls o r e fle c te d
by the substantial d iffe r e n c e b etw een the num ber o f
sea m en who had w ork ed so m e tim e during the y e a r
(85, 541) and the m u ch s m a lle r fig u re (64, 583) r e p ­
resen tin g th ose sea m en c la s s ifie d a s "in d u stry c o n ­
n e cte d " fo r the w h ole y e a r . Seam en w e re c o n s id ­
e r e d in du stry con n ected if they had b e e n em p loy ed
at anytim e during the 6 m onths p r e c e d in g July 1,
1956, and during the m onths fo llo w in g June 30,
1957 (i. e . , b e fo r e , du rin g, and a fte r the su rv ey
y e a r ).
It ap p ea red that the m a jo r p o rtio n o f the
21, 000 sea m en during the su rv ey y e a r w ho w e re
not c o n s id e r e d in du stry con n ected w e r e e x -s e a m e n
who had retu rn ed to the in d u stry f o r one o r m o r e
t r ip s . It is a ls o safe to a ss u m e that m any in du s­
tr y con n ected sea m en cou ld have shipped out fo r
ev en a h igh er p r o p o r tio n o f the y e a r i f they had so
d e s ir e d .
F o r ex a m p le , s e v e r a l tim e s during the
y e a r o f study, union p a p e rs u rg ed m e m b e r s to r e g ­
is t e r fo r tr ip s b e ca u se they w e r e having to ship
out m en without se n io rity o r w ith low se n io rity .
Annual E m ploym en t
D uring the y e a r studied, in d u stry con n ected
sea m en a v e ra g e d 243 days o f em p loy m en t (table B-l).
T h is a v e ra g e , h o w e v e r, c o n c e a ls w ide v a ria tio n s
in the num ber o f days w o rk e d by in d u stry con n ected
sea m en .
T h u s, o v e r 8 p e rce n t w o rk e d l e s s than
120 d ay s and o v e r 30 p e rce n t w o rk e d l e s s than
210 d a y s .
On the oth er hand, 27 p e rce n t w ork ed
m o r e than 300 days during the y e a r .
T h is study
v e r ifie d the co m m o n b e lie f that lic e n s e d o f f ic e r s
m o r e freq u en tly stay w ith the sam e e m p lo y e r and
have f e w e r p e r i o d s o f unem ploym ent than do

u n lice n se d p e r s o n n e l. 1 T hey m igh t, t h e r e fo r e , be
6
e x p e c te d to a v e r a g e m any m o r e days o f em p loy m en t
than u n licen sed se a m e n .
D uring the p e rio d o f
study, h o w e v e r, th is d iffe r e n c e w a s s u rp ris in g ly
sm a ll (ch a rt 6).
The fa c t should b e k ept in m ind that the y e a r
o f em p loy m en t studied w a s one o f the peak p e a c e ­
tim e y e a r s fo r shipping and that m any seam en w e re
able to s e c u r e a ll the w o rk they w anted du rin g the
y e a r . The a v e r a g e lic e n s e d o f f i c e r , in fa c t, w as
e m p lo y e d fo r a s m any o r m o r e days a s the fu lly
e m p lo y e d sh ore side w o r k e r on a 5 -d a y w eek .
If
ea rn e d v a ca tion tim e , w h ich is not in clu d ed in the
em p loy m en t o r e a rn in g s e s tim a te s in the study, is
added to the a v e ra g e e m p lo y m e n t o f u n licen sed s e a ­
m en , they a ls o w ou ld have had, on the a v e r a g e ,
total em p loy m en t a lm o s t equal to a fu lly em p loy ed
5 -d a y w eek sh ore side w o r k e r . The a v era g e unli­
ce n s e d seam an w ou ld have ea rn ed 9 days* va ca tion
at b a s e pay f o r h is 239 da ys o f e m p lo y m en t. 1
7
The g re a t m a jo r ity o f sea m en , both lic e n s e d
and u n lic e n se d , w o rk e d at m o r e than 1 rating during
the y e a r o f study. M en c la s s ifie d (a c c o r d in g to the
ratin g in w h ich they spent the m o st tim e ) as a b le b o d ie d sea m en freq u en tly had b e e n e m p loy ed both at
h ig h e r ra tin g s , su ch a s b osu n , and a ls o lo w e r ra t­
in g s , such as o rd in a ry sea m en , fo r a m in or p a rt o f
th e ir t im e . L ic e n s e d o f f i c e r s g e n e ra lly had som e
tim e at a h igh er o r lo w e r ra tin g than the rating in
w h ich they w e r e c la s s ifie d , e s p e c ia lly th ose e m ­
p lo y e d at the m iddle le v e ls , such a s secon d and
th ird m a te s o r a ssista n t e n g in e e r s . T h ese changes
o f ra tin gs naturally a ffe c te d th e ir annual e a rn in g s .

E m p loy m en t o f L ic e n s e d O ffic e r s
In du stry co n n ected o f f i c e r s a v e r a g e d 258 days
o f em p loy m en t du rin g the y e a r o f study.
A s m ight
be a ss u m e d , the h igh er ra tin gs had the highest
num ber o f days o f e m p loy m en t.
M a s te r s , ch ie f
m a te s , and c h ie f e n g in e e rs a ll a v e ra g e d about
275 d a y s.
Secon d m a tes a v e ra g e d 264 days and
ra d io o f f i c e r s , 261. T h ird m a te s and fir s t , se co n d ,
and th ird a ss is ta n t e n g in e e rs a ll a v e ra g e d sligh tly
o v e r 250 d a y s.
F ou rth m a tes and ju n io r th ird
o r fo u rth ) a ss is ta n t e n g in e e r s a v e r a g e d 235 days
table B - l ) .
A fifth o f the lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s w ork ed fr o m
300 to 330 days a y e a r and a sligh tly s m a lle r p r o ­
p o rtio n w o rk e d 270 to 300 days (table B -2 ). T h is
1
6
See data under E m p loy m en t by num ber
t r ip s , sh ips, and co m p a n ie s on p. 30.
" The am ount o f va ca tion pay w as g en era lly
14 days a fte r 360 days o f em p loy m en t but g re a te r
i f the seam an w as e m p lo y e d by 1 com pany fo r a
w h ole y e a r .
S e e p. 35 fo r d e ta ils of va ca tion
p la n s.
It should be noted that s e a m e n ^ v acation
b e n e fits a re com pu ted on b a s e pay on ly and a re
t h e r e fo r e equal to about tw o -th ir d s o f th eir a v e r ­
a g e d a ily e a rn in g s .



c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e r s em p lo y e d fr o m 9 to
11 m onths w as ty p ica l o f ea ch o f the lic e n s e d r a t­
in g s w hich a re c a r r ie d on a ll sh ip s. Som e o f the
lo w e r ratin gs not c a r r ie d on a ll v e s s e ls had co n ­
ce n tra tion s at lo w e r le v e ls in the d istrib u tion by
days o f em p loy m en t.
One out o f 6 in du stry con n ected o ff i c e r s w o rk e d
le s s than 180 days durin g the 12-m on th p e r io d .
T h ere w e re in d ica tion s during the su rv ey that som e
o f th ose with low em p loy m en t w e re in the h osp ita l
fo r va ryin g p e r io d s .
A m o r e g en era l fa c to r is
that som e sea m en a ls o take s e a s o n a l sh ore side
em p loy m en t and a r e not av a ila b le fo r sea duty at
c e r ta in p e r io d s during the y e a r .
M edian days o f em p loy m en t (the am ount b elow
and above w hich 50 p e rce n t o f the seam en w e re
found) w e re g e n e ra lly 5 to 7 p e rce n t (o r 13 to
18 d a y s) above the w eigh ted a v e r a g e s (m ea n s) cite d
above.
The m ed ian em p loy m en t fo r lic e n s e d o f ­
f i c e r s a s a group w as 276 d a y s, co m p a re d w ith
the w eigh ted a v e ra g e o f 258 (table B -8 ). In te c h ­
n ica l t e r m s , th is in d ica te s that the d istrib u tio n o f
lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s by days o f em p loy m en t w as skew ed
to the le ft; that is , a la r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f o f f i c e r s
had am ounts o f em p loy m en t a bov e ra th er than b e ­
low the w eigh ted a v e r a g e .
O n e -fifth o f the o f f i c e r s em p lo y e d during the
y e a r w e re not c la s s ifie d a s in d u stry con n ected b e ­
cau se they had eith e r not w o rk e d in the fir s t h alf
o f 1956 o r in the m onths fo llow in g the end o f the
p e r io d studied. Som e o f th ose who w ork ed at som e
point during the su rv ey y e a r , but neither im m e d i­
a tely b e fo r e nor a fter that y e a r , m ay w e ll have
c o n s id e r e d th e m s e lv e s to have b e e n in the in d u stry
during the en tire y e a r . It m ay be that they w e re
unable to get w o rk in the b e fo r e o r a fte r p e r io d s
o r fo r p e rs o n a l re a s o n s did not seek em p loy m en t.
W hen o f f i c e r s w ho w ork ed anytim e during the y e a r
w e re taken into a ccou n t, the resu ltin g a v e ra g e days
o f em p loy m en t fo r lic e n s e d seam en w as g e n e ra lly
about 10 p e rce n t lo w e r than that f o r in d u stry co n ­
n ected o f f i c e r s re p o r te d a b o v e . In the lo w e r r a t­
in g s, the d e c r e a s e s w e r e g r e a te r .
The a v e ra g e
num ber o f days fo r a ll o f f i c e r s w ho w ork ed an y­
tim e during the y e a r w as 233 d a y s. A v e r a g e s by
rating fo r a ll o ff i c e r s ran ged fr o m 198 days fo r
the lo w e s t lic e n s e d ra tin gs to 259 days fo r ch ie f
e n g in e e r s .
(See table B - 5 . )
G e n e ra lly , about 80 p e rce n t o r m o r e o f the
lic e n s e d o f f ic e r s in the h igh er ra tin gs w e re c o n ­
s id e re d in d u stry co n n ected . In the lo\yer ra tin g s,
such as ju n io r e n g in e e rs and fou rth m a te s , the
of p r o p o r tio n d rop p ed to about tw o -th ir d s .
F iv e p e rce n t o f a ll lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s w ork ed
during only 1 q u a rter o f the y e a r , 10 p e rce n t w ork ed
2 q u a r te r s , and 13 p e rce n t w ork ed 3 q u a r te r s .
S ev en ty -tw o p e rce n t w ork ed som e tim e in ea ch o f
the q u a r te r s , a v era g in g 276 days o f w o rk . T h ese
r a tio s w e re a lm o s t the sam e fo r both the d e ck and
en g in eerin g o f f i c e r s . C o m p a r is o n s am on g ratin gs
in d icate that both the p ro p o rtio n s o f a ll seam en

Chart 6. A N N UA L DAYS OF EM PLOYM ENT
Percentage Distribution of Industry Connected Seamen
by Number of Days of Employment, July 1, 1956—June 30, 1957
Percent

Percent
25

20

15

10

5

0

Under 30
30
an«*
under
60

60 -

90-

120- 150- 180 - 210 - 240 - 270 - 300 - 330 - 360
and

90

120

150

180

210

D A Y S EMPLOYED
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU Of LABOR STATISTICS




240

270

300

330

360

over

29

Chart 7. PROPORTIONS INDUSTRY CONNECTED
A N D EMPLOYED IN ALL Q UARTERS
July 1, 1956 —June 30, 1957
Percent of seamen considered industry
connected during year studied1

RATING

Percent of seamen employed in each of
the 4 q uarters of the year studied

.. *■ ■
■
■
1
______1 74.6
__ i ______:____
....... 1 7 9 A

M asters
Chief mates
Second mates
Th ird mates

f
:

Fo u rth mates

?S:S_.

Radio o ffic e rs

[

86.6

-

: '

■

.
................................

.... : : .......

:

>

I 80 6

r,' 1 67.9
56.1

......::i 70.7

Chief engineers
F ir s t assistant engineers
Second a ssista nt engineers
T h ird assistant engineers
Junior third a ssista n t engineers
Licensed ju n io r engineers

Bo suns
Carpenters
Deck maintenance
Able-bodied seamen
Ordinary seamen

Ele c tric ia ns

7 3 .9
lift. 5

Second electricians

\

8 1 .7

O ile rs

1

Fire m e n , water te n d e rs

7 5 .5
62 7

F............ .......' "

W ip e rs

Chief stewards, a ll sh ip s
C hefs, passenger
Cooks, passenger
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker
A ssista nt cooks, passenger
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker
Stew ards, passenger
W a ite rs, passenger
Messmen, all ship s
Bellb oys, passenger

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
B U R E A U OF LABO R S T A T I S T I C S




*A seaman was considered industry connected if he had been
employed in the ind ustry at any time during the f ir s t half of
1956 and had also been employed after June 3 0 ,1 9 5 7 .

30
e m p lo y e d in e a ch o f the 4 q u a r te r s and the a v era g e
num ber o f da ys w o r k e d w e r e h igh est in the h igher
ra tin g s . N e a rly 80 p e r c e n t o f the c h ie f m a te s and
c h ie f e n g in e e rs w o rk e d so m e tim e in ea ch o f the
4 q u a r te r s and a v e ra g e d 287 and 289 d a y s o f e m ­
p loy m e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly (table B - 9 ) .
L ic e n s e d o f f i c e r s fre q u e n tly changed c o a s ts of
em p lo y m e n t. F o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r is o n by co a s t,
o f f i c e r s w e r e c la s s ifie d b y the c o a s t fr o m w h ich the
la r g e s t p r o p o r tio n o f th e ir em p loy m en t orig in a te d .
L ic e n s e d o f f i c e r s c la s s ifie d on the W e st C o a st a v ­
e ra g e d 262 d a y s o f e m p lo y m e n t c o m p a re d with
256 da ys on the A tla n tic and G ulf C o a s ts . H ighest
annual em p loy m en t fo r any g rou p w a s r e p o r te d fo r
c h ie f e n g in e e r s on the W est C o a st w ho a v e ra g e d
298 days (ta b le s B - 3 and B - 4 ) .
M o st o f the lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s w o rk e d som e tim e
durin g the y e a r a s r e l ie f m a tes o r r e l ie f e n g in e e rs
b etw een v o y a g e s .
O th er lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s spent
m o s t o f th e ir e m p lo y e d tim e a s r e l ie f m en and
w e r e so c la s s if ie d . T h e se m en r e lie v e the re g u ­
la r o f f i c e r s w h ile in p o r t. D uring the y e a r studied,
a lm o s t 2, 600 m en spent m o s t o f th e ir tim e in m a r i­
tim e em p loy m en t a s r e l ie f m en . O f th e s e , 1,583
w e r e c o n s id e r e d a s in d u stry co n n e cte d f o r the w hole
y e a r ; 965 m en w ork in g p r im a r ily a s r e l ie f m ates
a v e r a g e d 105 da ys o f e m p loy m en t and 618 w ork in g
a s r e l ie f e n g in e e r s a v e r a g e d 89 d a y s. F req u en tly ,
su ch o f f i c e r s to o k 1 sh ort v oya g e du rin g the y e a r
and that tim e w a s cou n ted in th e ir a v e ra g e e m p lo y ­
m ent (table B - 2 ) .
E m p loy m en t o f U n lice n se d Seam en
U n lice n se d se a m e n c la s s ifie d a s in du stry c o n ­
n ected (th r e e -fo u r th s o f the to ta l) a v e ra g e d 239 days
o f em p lo y m e n t a y e a r (table B - l ) .
A s in the c a s e
o f lic e n s e d p e r s o n n e l, the h igh er ra tin gs had the
h igh er a v e r a g e e m p lo y m e n t.
In the d e ck d e p a rt­
m en t, h igh est a v e r a g e e m p lo y m e n t (250 d a y s) w as
r e c o r d e d fo r b o su n s .
M o r e than h a lf o f the d eck
d ep a rtm en t se a m e n spent m o s t o f th eir tim e as
a b le -b o d ie d se a m en and a v e r a g e d 240 days e m p lo y ­
m en t in the y e a r stu d ied . In the engine dep artm en t,
e le c t r ic ia n s had the h igh est a v e ra g e em p loy m en t,
257 d a y s. O ile r s , the la r g e s t g rou p , w e r e secon d
h igh est w ith an a v e r a g e o f 244 d a y s.
In du stry co n n e cte d c h ie f stew a rd s had the high­
e s t a v e r a g e em p loy m en t o f any o f the u n lice n se d
ra tin g s , a v e ra g in g 273 d a y s. P a s s e n g e r c h e fs a v ­
e r a g e d a lm o s t a s m any d a y s and m o st o f those
studied w ho w o rk e d on p a s s e n g e r ships had h igher
annual em p loy m en t than th ose w ork in g on c a r g o
v e s s e ls .
M e ss m e n , the la r g e s t grou p in the d e ­
partm en t, a v e r a g e d 229 d a y s.
The lo w e st a v e r ­
age e m p loy m en t (219 d a y s) w as fo r a ssista n t co o k s
on d r y - c a r g o v e s s e ls o r ta n k e rs.
M o r e than a fou rth o f the in d u stry con n ected
u n lice n se d se a m en w o rk e d 300 o r m o r e days a
y e a r ; o v e r a fifth , h o w e v e r, a v e r a g e d l e s s than
180 d a y s.
M edian em p loy m en t fig u r e s fo r unli­
ce n s e d ra tin g s w e r e g e n e r a lly about 5 p e rce n t above
the a r ith m e tic a l a v e r a g e s (table B - 8 ) .




O n e -fo u rth o f the u n licen sed sea m en w e re not
c o n s id e r e d in du stry con n e cte d .
The in clu s io n in
the ca lcu la tio n s o f a ll sea m en w ho w o rk e d any tim e
during the y e a r g e n e ra lly re d u ce d the a v e ra g e days
o f em p loy m en t by 15 p e r c e n t. In the lo w e r ra tin g s,
the red u ctio n w as 20 p e r c e n t o r m o r e (table B -5 ).
T he a v e ra g e fo r a ll u n lice n se d sea m en w a s 207 d a y s,
ranging fr o m about 260 d a y s fo r c h ie f stew ard s and
ch e fs on p a s s e n g e r ships to a p p ro x im a te ly 180 days
fo r o rd in a ry sea m en and w ip e r s .
A bout 9 p e r c e n t o f a ll u n lice n se d seam en
w o rk e d in only 1 q u a rter o f the y e a r . A little m o r e
than 11 p e rce n t w o rk e d so m e tim e du rin g 2 q u a rte rs
o f the y e a r , 15 p e r c e n t w ork ed during 3 q u a r te r s ,
and a lm o s t tw o -th ir d s had som e em p loy m en t in a ll
4 q u a r te r s .
The la tte r grou p a v e ra g e d 261 days
o f e m p loy m en t.
In som e o f the lo w e r ra tin g s,
little m o r e than h alf o f the sea m en w o rk e d in a ll
4 q u a rte rs o f the y e a r .
The fa ct that a h igh er
p r o p o r tio n o f sea m en in th ese lo w e r ra tin g s than
in som e o f the h igh er ra tin g s w e r e c la s s ifie d a s
in d u stry con n ected w ou ld su g g est that m any o f th ose
sea m en in lo w e r ra tin g s lea v e the in d u stry p e r i ­
o d ic a lly fo r sh ore side em p loy m en t and then retu r n
fo r one o r m o r e tr ip s w hen em p loy m en t i s re a d ily
a v a ila b le (ta b les B - 1 and B -9 ).
U n lice n se d sea m en a s a ru le d id not change
th e ir c o a s t o f em p loy m en t.
N ea rly 76 p e r c e n t o f
the in d u stry con n ected seam en w o rk e d out o f A t­
la n tic and G ulf C o a st p o r ts ; they a v e ra g e d 7 p e r ­
cent m o r e days o f e m p loy m en t than th ose w ork in g
out o f W est C o a st p o r ts , o r 243 days co m p a re d
w ith 227 d a y s. The h igh er le v e l o f em p loy m en t on
the A tla n tic and G ulf C o a s ts w as noted in n ea rly a ll
ra tin gs (table B - l ) . The A tla n tic and G ulf C o a sts
a ls o had a h igh er p r o p o r tio n o f sea m en w ork in g
som etim e during a ll 4 q u a rte rs o f the y e a r , 70 p e r ­
cen t co m p a re d w ith 61 p e rce n t on the W est C o a st
(ta b le s B -1 0 and B - l l ) .
E m p loy m en t by N um ber o f T r ip s ,
and C om p a n ies

S hips,

W ith the e x ce p tio n o f som e lic e n s e d p e rs o n n e l
and a few u n licen sed seam en on p a s se n g e r sh ip s,
sea m en ty p ica lly w ork ed on tw o o r m o r e ships
during the y e a r .
W hen a seam a n changed sh ip s,
he g e n e ra lly a ls o changed e m p lo y e r and freq u en tly
a ls o changed h is ra tin g .
The a v e ra g e in d u stry con n ected seam a n sa iled
on about 7 v o y a g e s o f 10 o r m o r e days during the
year. 1
8 T h ese v o y a g e s w e re g e n e ra lly on 2 o r
3 v e s s e ls owned by 2 d iffe re n t co m p a n ie s .
L i­
ce n se d o f f i c e r s changed ships o r co m p a n ie s le s s
freq u en tly than u n lice n se d sea m en . T h ey a v e ra g e d
1
8
The so u r c e r e c o r d s showing days o f e m p lo y ­
m ent did not d iffe re n tia te b etw een a ctu a l v oy a g es
and s h o r t -t e r m em p loy m en t r e c o r d s such a s p ort
p a y r o lls o r r e l ie f w o rk .
T o elim in a te th ose en ­
t r ie s w hich w e re p re s u m a b ly not a ctu a l v o y a g e s,
th ose e n trie s o f l e s s than 10 days w e r e not counted.

31

Chart 8.

SEAM EN W O RKIN G FOR O NLY O NE
EMPLOYER DURING THE YEAR
Percent o f Soam tn in Salectod Ratings Who Worked
fo r One Em ployer During the Year, Ju ly I, 1 9 5 6 —June 3 0 , 195 7

Chief mates
Third mates
Radio officers

\/y////////////////////////y/y/A
wz7yyy7//////////J7//yA>**

«•«

Chief engineers
Second assistant
engineers
Junior third assistant
engineers
Bosuns
Able-bodied seamen
Electricians
Oilers

p
yyyyyyyyyyyyy//////yyy/yyyy ™
vyyyyyyy/yyyyyyyyyyzzLV"
'yyyyyyyyyyyy//.
'yyyyyyy/yyyy/yy™
v/y///////////////y ^

»»
■

vyyyyyyyyyyyyyy **

Chief stewards,
all ships
Cooks, passenger
Cooks, dry-cargo
and tanker
Stewards, passenger
Messmen, all ships

^wyyy/yyyyyy/yyjyyysS'
vyy/yyyyyyyy™
y.7 -y y y y y 'y y y 77797
77//////y/y////A

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




6.4 trips, 2.1 ships, and 1.6 companies, com­
pared with an average of 6.8 trips, 2.4 ships, and
2.2 companies for unlicensed seamen (tables B-12,
B-13, and B-14).
The number of voyages per year varied mainly
in that passenger ship ratings tended to have a
higher average number of sailings. Seamen on
passenger ships also had a lower average number
of ships and companies of employment. Seamen
on the large luxury passenger ships usually re ­
main with the ship for many voyages.
Unlicensed seamen on dry-cargo ships change
ships and companies frequently. Officers with
higher ratings tended to stay with 1 company, al­
though they often changed ships within the com­
pany. About 80 percent of the masters, chief mates,
and chief engineers worked for only 1 company
during the year. The proportion of other licensed
officers serving with only 1 company was consid­
erably lower for the lower ratings, falling as low
as 42. 5 percent for fourth mates -(chart 8).

in the vacation funds, for voyages listed and for
any other maritime employment that occurred in
the period studied.2
0 Thus, any vacation pay re ­
ceived from vacation funds was not included in the
study. 2
1
One fact emerging from the study of annual
earnings was that differences in average earnings
among ratings were substantially greater on an
annual than on a daily basis. Differences in av­
erage daily earnings and average number of days
of employment, from one- rating to the next higher
or lower rating, appeared minor. However, the
combined effect of these apparently small differ­
ences produced considerable differences in annual
earnings as reflected in the following tabulation.
Annual average earnings of —
Industry
connected
seamen
»

Among the unlicensed ratings (employed on
ships other than passenger vessels) *the highest
proportion of seamen working for 1 company was
found among carpenters and second electricians.
This was partly due to the fact that these jobs are
not carried by all ships; seamen in those ratings,
therefore, were restricted in the number of em­
ployment opportunities (table B-14).
Although the study of the number of trips,
ships, and companies was limited to industry con­
nected seamen, it included seamen that had limited
employment during the year, sometimes with only
1 trip. The proportion working with 1 company is
therefore not indicative of the proportion who would
qualify for longer vacations (see data on vacations,
page 35). Most of those with only 1 employer had
probably not worked for 1 employer continuously
for the required 360 days.
Annual Earnings
Total earnings from seagoing employment dur­
ing the period studied were obtained for individual
seamen in 6 numerically important ratings— 2 li­
censed and 4 unlicensed. ** Two ratings were se­
lected from each of the departments. Classification
of seamen, established in the study of annual em­
ployment, was based on the rating in which they
worked a majority of the time. Earnings infor­
mation was obtained from employers, as identified

Rating

Second m a te s -----------------Third assistant
engineers _________ -----Able-bodied seamen _____
Oilers ______________ -----Cooks ---------------------- -----Messmen------------------- ------

All
seamen

Mean

Median

Mean

Median

$8,110

$8,510

$7,499

$8,035

7,032
4,607
4,315
5,345
3,285

7,135
4,685
4, 370
5,170
3,135

6,390
4,234
3,918
4,898
2,806

6,640
4,450
4,140
4,440
2,880

Although the daily earnings of second mates
were less than 10 percent greater than daily earn­
ings of third assistant engineers, average annual
earnings were more than 15 percent higher because
of their higher average days of employment. The
difference between the earnings of licensed officers
and unlicensed seamen is also accentuated when
earnings are presented on an annual basis. Annual
earnings of second mates were almost 2l times
/z
as great as the annual earnings of messmen. The
$423 that a messman might receive for a 30-day
trip, as indicated by the daily earnings study, does
not yield, because of the average amount of annual
employment, the annual earnings from maritime
work that might be anticipated. Annual earnings
for cooks reflected their relatively full employment,
$5, 345 for an average of 249 days of employment.

2 In a few cases, the original data were in­
0
complete and the net result of additions owing to
previously unreported employment would have in­
creased the annual employment estimates by an
average of 0.8 percent, almost identical to the
understatement indicated by the Coast Guard rec­
1
9
Although average annual earnings can be e s­ ords. (See f o o t n o t e 1, p. 1.) The number of
timated from the average daily earnings and aver­ days employed as determined by the annual earn­
age number of days worked during the year, the ings study was higher in 4 of the 6 ratings studied
product would not reflect secondary employment at by from 1 to 3 days. In the other 2 ratings, the
other ratings or possible seasonal differences in average employment was slightly lower.
2 Payments from vacation funds could not be
1
daily ehrnings. Also, distributions of seamen by
annual earnings cannot be developed from data on related to time worked during the particular time
daily earnings and annual employment.
period studied.



Chart 9. A N N UA L EARNINGS
Annual Earnings of Industry Connected1 Seamen and of Seamen Who Worked in
Each of the Four Quarters of the Year, July 1,1956-dune 3 0,1 95 7

0
1

$2,000

$4,000

$6,000

$8,000

$10,000

------------------------ 1
--------------------------- 1
---------------------------1
--------------------------- 1
--------------------------- 1

Second mates

Oilers

Cooks

Messmen

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

Industry connected seamen
Seamen employed in
each of 4 quarters

1For definition of industry connected seamen,
see fable B - l.

B U R E A U OF L A B O R STATISTICS




CM

C
M

The tabulation also shows that median earnings
for licensed officers were higher than the arith­
metical averages. Although this was also true of
2 of the unlicensed ratings, the differences were
smaller.
As brought out in the study of annual employ­
ment, the average income of seamen is greatly af­
fected by the earnings of those with short periods
of employment. The distribution of industry con­
nected seamen in the 6 selected ratings according
to average annual earnings shows that 1 \out of
8 second mates earned less than $5,000 a\year and
1 out of 10 third assistant engineers earned less
than $3, 500. On the other hand, 42 percent of the
second mates earned $9, 000 or more during the
survey year, and 38 percent of the third assistant
engineers earned $8,000 or more.
More than
12 percent of the able-bodied seamen, oilers, and
cooks earned less than $3,000 annually and 28 per­
cent of the messmen earned less than $2, 500. At
the upper end, more than 40 percent of the ablebodied seamen earned $5,000 or more; 32 percent
of the messmen had annual earnings from maritime
employment of $4,000 or more (table B-15).
When all seamen who worked anytime during
the year were included in the calculations, annual
earnings were reduced by abput 8 percent in nearly
all the ratings studied, with the exception of m ess­
men. The inclusion of messmen who did not work
prior to or after the survey year reduced their an­
nual earnings 15 percent to $2,806 (table B-16).
It was also interesting to note that the average
daily earnings (based on annual employment and
earnings) also decreased when those not considered
industry connected were included, indicating that
part-time seamen in a given rating earn less per
day than those regularly in the industry.

About 80 percent of the second mates and
75 percent of the third assistant engineers worked
in each of the 4 quarters of the year studied. Sec­
ond mates averaged $8,363 for 276 days and third
assistant engineers averaged $7,467 for 272 days
(table B-17). About 70 percent of the able-bodied
seamen, oilers, and cooks worked in each of the
4 quarters, compared with only about 60 percent
of the messmen. Average annual earnings of the
unlicensed seamen employed in each of the 4 quar­
ters were 9 or 10 perce’nt higher than the average
for all of those classed as industry connected.
As previously indicated, the differences be­
tween coasts for industry connected licensed of­
ficers were small for both daily earnings and an­
nual employment. Second mates on the Atlantic
and Gulf Coasts averaged less than 2 percent more
per year than those on the West Coast. Third
engineers had almost identical annual earnings
(table B-15). For the unlicensed ratings, the dif­
ferences were more substantial.
Able-bodied seamen on the West Coast aver­
aged almost 9 percent higher annual earnings than
their counterparts working from the Atlantic and
Gulf ports, even though the latter group averaged
more days of employment. Oilers on the West
Coast averaged nearly 7 percent more and m ess­
men over 10 percent more with almost the same
number of days of employment registered in the
2 coastal groups. The average annual earnings
and employment of cooks on the Atlantic and Gulf
Coasts exceeded the corresponding averages on the
West Coast by $348 and 33 days, respectively. A
higher proportion of cooks on the Atlantic Coast
worked on passenger ships; such cooks had higher
daily earnings and a longer number of days of em­
ployment than cooks on other types of vessels.

Income Security and Vacation Benefits

The establishment and rapid expansion of pen­
sion, welfare, and vacation plans by employers and
unions through collective bargaining is recognized
as one of the outstanding developments of the sea­
faring industry in recent years.
The development
of these benefits has added to the income security
and paid leisure of seamen and has imposed addi­
tional cost on employers.
Concurrent with the rapidly expanding private
pension and welfare programs in business estab­
lishments ashore, was the equally rapid develop­
ment of such plans for seafaring personnel. Since
1950, negotiations concerning this type of fringe
benefits have been extended to such a degree that
they must be considered substantial components of
maritime collective bargaining and operator-union
contracts.
Union request and subsequent negotiations for
contract improvements have included "package"




demands embracing basic wages, overtime, va­
cations for members of the seafaring unions, and
have emphasized social security protection in the
form of welfare-pension advantages and employ­
ment security.
The increase in employers* expenditures for
seafaring fringe benefits (welfare, pension, vaca­
tion, and unemployment plans) is clearly apparent
from the data presented in table C - l .
For un­
licensed seamen, employer contributions advanced
from $0. 25 per man-day in 1950 to as high as
$1.95 in 1957. During the same period, contri­
butions for licensed seamen advanced from $0. 25 to
more than $3.20 for fringe benefits per m an-days.22

22
Contributions to funds for masters total as
high as $6. 30 per day.

35

West Coast licensed engineers and unlicensed
personnel contributed 1 percent of annual wages,
up to $3,000, toward financing the California Un­
employment Compensation Disability Fund. Con­
tributions are made on a voluntary basis when ship
operators and a majority of the seamen agree to
the payroll deduction. Disability compensation, as
stipulated in the operator-union bargaining agree­
ments or Declaration of Trusts, is payable when
seamen covered by the plans are denied California
disability insurance.
Welfare Plans
In the original welfare plans, negotiated in 1950,
stipulations of the various benefits incorporated in
the respective plans generally included, and with
few exceptions were confined to, insurance features
covering life, accident, dismemberment and inhospital benefits. Periodically, either by negotia­
tion or trustee action, supplementary items were
embodied in the respective plans, containing a wide
range of health and social benefits, such as broad
extension of hospital care, surgical expenses, medi­
cal and hospital advantages for seamen’ s depend­
ents, maternity benefits, disability compensation,
unemployment subsistence program, scholarships
for members1 children, job training, preventive
medicine, health clinics, and funeral expenses.
Employment Security
The only operator-union employment security
plan in effect for all unlicensed seamen manning
ships covered by the participating union agreement
stipulates that qualified seamen are eligible for
weekly unemployment benefit payments when out of
work by reason of ship layup, shipwreck, transfer
or sale of vessels, reduction of ships* crews, disa­
bility recovery periods, involvement in certain legal
proceedings, and other specified contingencies.
Ship operators who are parties to this agree­
ment contribute $0.25 per man-day to finance the
plan.
Qualifying seamen receive unemployment
payments of $30 per week if not entitled to State
unemployment benefits or $15 per week when eli­
gible for State aid. Payments are limited to $ 180
in any period of 365 consecutive days except for
payments for disability which may continue for a
maximum of 13 weeks.




Pensions
Prior to 1953, provision for retirement benefits
for a limited number of seamen was confined to
major shipping companies operating dry-car go and
passenger vessels. In addition, seamen manning
the ships of large oil companies were included in
company sponsored and financed overall personnel
benefit programs.
During 1953, seafaring unlicensed unions and
3 ship operators* associations negotiated multicom­
pany pension plans which provided that employers
contribute $0. 40 per man-day to support the plans.
In 1955, licensed deck, engine and radio officers1
retirement plans were established. Employer con­
tributions f o r deck and engineering o f f i c e r s
amounted to $0. 85 per man-day. Contributions to­
ward radio officer pension plans, however, varied
between different unions and also within the same
union depending upon whether the contract was ne­
gotiated on the East or West Coast.
The basic provisions incorporated in the sea­
man's pension plan generally follow a pattern found
in many nonmaritime plans. Older or disabled sea­
men may qualify for any 1 of 4 types of pensions—
normal, early, reduced, or disability. Normal or
full retirement payments of $100 per month or more
are provided for those who reach the qualifying age
of 65 and who have 20 or more years of creditable
service. Early, reduced, or disability annuities
range from $50 to $95 per month depending on such
factors as age of pensioner, years of creditable
service, and type of retirement.
Vacations
For many years, paid vacations for seamen,
particularly licensed officers, either have been
granted in accordance with established company
policy or developed through the process of coll ac­
tive bargaining. The first negotiated multioperator
seafaring vacation plan became effective in 1951.
To date, 11 additional major operator-union plans
have been instituted. Ship operator expenditures
for financing these group plans vary from a stipu­
lated amount per man-day to a percentage contri­
bution of the straight-time basic wage.
Early in 1958 changes in the paid vacation plans
provided for seamen to receive from 14 to as high as
60 days at base pay for each 360 days of employ­
ment. The maximum days are applicable when the
seaman involved remains in the employ of 1 com ­
pany for a year or more.




TABLE A-1.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing ships in the United States Maritime Industry by rating, all ports and by coast, May 1957

Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports

All ports
Rating

Average daily
premium 2J

U)

West Coast ports

Average daily
premium £/

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Average daily
premium 2/

Hours

Earnings

Number
of
seamen

$19.72

2.9

$6.22

14,205

$21.21

2.5

*6.U

6,531

$29.73

2.8

$8.19

3,096

$29.83

2.8

$8.24

9.22
10.59
9.48
9.19
9.17
9.08
8.61
4.54
11.17

3,275
612
622
625
4P5
685
63
141
80

23.97
35.65
29.34
27.42
25.76
27.61
30.06
22.32
26.94

* 3.1
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
1.3
4.0

9.20
10.42
9.41
8.92
8.95
9.03
9.52
3.90
12.67

1,545
270
273
278
213
295
20
131
24

29.18
36.61
29.63
28.14
26.84
27.61
31.44
23.82
23.01

3.1
3.5
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.1
1.8
1.7
2.0

9.26
10.97
9.64
9.80
9.59
9.20
5.78
5.24
6.20

7.19
1.87
9.64
8.90
8.16
7.71
5.90

3,256
619
611
633
695
443
210

30.60
38.64
35.15
29.21
26.80
24.99
22.86

2.5
.4
3.2
3.2
2.9
3.0
2.1

7.18
1.37
9.83
9.22
8.05
7.36
5.76

1,551
270
270
282
297
337
95

30.47
40.27
34.98
29.07
27.03
25.16
23.61

2.5
.7
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.7
2.3

7.23
3.02
9.21
8.18
8.41
7.47
6.21

Average
Number
daily
of
seamen earnings 2/

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

Earnings

All seaman (except masters and cadets) ..........

44.785

$20.19

2.8

$6.21

30.580

All licensed seamen ..........................

9,627

$29.30

2.8

$8.21

Deck department i j ........................
Chief mates........... ....... .........
Second mates ..........................
Third mates...........................
Fourth mates ..........................
Radio officers .........................
Chief pursers, passenger .................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Assistant pursers, passenger .............

4,820
332
895
903
618
980
83
272
104

29.04
35.94
29.43
27.64
26.13
27.61
30.39
23.04
26.03

3.2
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.1
2.7
1.5
3.5

Engine department ij .......................
Chief engineers........................
First assistant engineers ................
Second assistant engineers ...............
Third assistant engineers .............. .
Junior third assistant engineers ..........
Licensed junior engineers.......... t,....

4,307
839
881
915
992
780
305

30.56
39.14
35.09
29.17
26.87
25.06
23.10

2.5
.
5
3.1
3.1
2.9
2.8
2.2

Hours

Earnings

All unlicensed seamen ........................

35,158

17.56

2.8

5.66

24,049

16.99

3,0

5.70

11,109

18.80

2.4

5.56

Deck department I j ........................
Bosuns ...............................
Carpenters...... ...... ...............
Deck maintenance.... ................ .
Able-bodied seamen .....................
Ordinary seamen ........................

11,354
908
429
1,656
5,503
2,560

18.80
22.44
21.48
18.96
19.50
14.83

3.2
3.1
2.9
2.6
3.3
3.1

6.71
6.97
6.85
5.88
7.30
5.41

7,727
633
243
1,060
3,800
1,842

17.75
21.40
20.39
17.74
18.56
14.39

3.2
2.9
3.0
2.4
3.4
3.4

6.41
6.30
6.35
5.16
7.17
5.60

3,627
275
186
596
1,703
718

21.05
24.82
22.91
21.15
21.61
15.94

3.0
3.3
2.7
2.7
3.1
2.5

7.35
8.52
7.51
7.17
7.60
4.92

Engine department ( J ......................
Unlicensed junior engineers ..............
Electricians ...........................
Second electricians....... .............
Engine maintenance .....................
Oilers ...............................
firemen, water tenders ..................
Winers. ...............................

10,095
308
667
510
230
2,720
2,749
2,224

17.34
16.94
24.23
22.97
16.38
17.33
17.56
12.77

2.4
1.2
2.6
2.6
1.5
2.9
3.0
1.2

5.00
2.51
6.15
6.36
3.18
5.93
6.13
2.02

6,956
264
454
288
176
1,909
1,944
1,540

16.72
16.95
22.61
20.91
16.25
16.89
17.33
12.a

2.3
1.2
2.2
2.1
1.5
2.7
3.0
1.1

4.55
2.52
4.53
4.36
344
5.54
6.01
1.82

3,139
44
213
222
54
811
805
684

18.71
16.89
27.67
25.63
16.80
18.54
18.13
13.59

2.7
1.1
3.7
3.4
1.6
3.2
3.0
1.2

5.96
2.50
9.61
8.95
3.32
6.83
6.40
2.45

Stewards department i j .................. .
Chief stewards, passenger.......... .....
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker ..........
Second stewards, passenger ............ .
Chefs, passenger ........................
Cooks, passenger .......................
Cooks, dry cargo and tanker...... .... .
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker......
Assistant cooks, passenger....... ........
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Stewards, passenger .....................
Waiters, passenger .....................
Messmen, all ships ..... ................
Bellboys, passenger .....................

13,709
50
833
65
72
358
856
759
246
857
1,108
1,103
5,799
208

16.70
32.04
22.94
26.19
31.54
24.39
20.59
19.86
21.79
18.49
14.78
15.51
14.10
14.04

2.8
4.0
3.2
4.7
4.6
3.8
2.8
2.7
3.8
2.7
2.9
3.3
2.6
3.1

5.28
8.64
6.99
10.18
10.38
8.39
6.01
5.94
8.10
5.85
4.77
5.50
4.31
5.06

9,366
38
579
48
42
242
591
540
183
560
764
747
3,983
147

16.56
31.61
22.71
26.40
31.79
24.72
20.30
19.56
21.64
18.16
15.11
15.60
13.76
14.44

3.3
4.7
3.5
5.3
6.0
4.8
3.0
2.9
4.5
3.0
3.8
4.2
2.9
4.0

5.97
9.61
7.35
11.99
12.57
10.00
6.31
6.05
9.19
6.14
6.15
6.75
4.70
6.48

4,343
12
254
17
30
116
265
219
63
297
344
356
1,816
61

16.99
33.39
23.49
25.62
31.18
23.71
21.24
20.61
22.21
19.12
14.05
15.32
14.85
13.07

1.7
1.4
2.5
1.8
2.6
1.8
2.2
2.3
1.8
2.1
.8
1.3
1.8
.8

3.78
4.99
6.18
5.07
7.31
5.03
5.33
5.66
4.93
5.31
1.70
2.89
3.45
1.64

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as nonwatch allowance, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals, passenger allowances, payments for division of work,
and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total o f overtime and penalty tim e.
00
T/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




00

TABLE A-2.

00

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — ALL PORTS, LICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of licensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 1957 1/)

Percent of seamen receiving daily earnings of—
Rating

Number Average
£
daily Under ♦
20
21
of
earn­
and
seamen ings z/ *
20
under
21
22

All licensed seamen ....................

9.627 *29.80

Deck department $ / .....................
Chief mates........................
Second mates .......................
Third mates ........................
Fourth mates.......................
Radio officers .....................
Chief pursers, passenger .............
Pursers, dry-cargo and tinker.........
Assistant pursers, passenger ...... ...

4,820 ♦29.04
882 35.94
895 29.43
903 27.64
618 26.13
930 27.61
83 30.39
272 23.04
104 26.03

Engine department 2/ ....................
Chief engineers ........... .........
First assistant engineers .............
Second assistant engineers ............
Third assistant engineers .............
Junior third assistant engineers .......
Licensed junior engineers .............

4,807
889
881
915
992
780
305

30.56
39.14
35.09
29.17
26.87
25.06
23.10

1.0 i l
-?
1.6
.3
.3
.
12.9
22.1

. 1.2
5
-

_

.3
.3
•4
7.5 15.4
-

tl
il

0.8 1.7
- • .8
.3 1.0
.3
3.6 6.0
7.0 21.7
1.9 1.9

£
22

£
23

£
24

$
25

26

$
27

-r28

•
29

30

♦
31

32

33

&
34

£
35

f
t
36

£
37

$
38

£
39

♦
40
and

23

24 ' 25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

over

ri
S7

A,A

?,?

3tA

hi

6iA

Ai6

4|?

4l?

3.4

hi

Si?

h$

2.2_ Si7

Si?

6.2

2.1 3.4 5.3 10.1 13.6 10.6 9.8 7.4 5.6
-’ .3 1.0 2.2 4.0
.8
.2
.2 5.0 10.3 15.5 17.5 13.1 13.4
10.2 16.4 14.4 15.0 10.9 10.5 6.5
1.4 2.5
5.5 8.9 12.8 23.8 19.6 8.7 9.2 2.8 2.4
2.4 2.8 4.8 11.6 27.2 15.6 13.2 3.1 3.1
7.2 9.6 18.1 3.6
2.4 2.4 2.4 3.6
9.2 7.0 9.6 2.6 1.1 1.1
8.5 16.5
1.9 ‘ 1.9 1.9 6.7 12.5 9.6 9.6 8.7 3.8

5.2
7.1
7.7
3.9
3.7
3.9
4.8
1.8
7.7

4.1 4.4
9.5 13.7
4.2 5.3
3.1 2.2
.
1.0
3.2 1.6
2.4 2.4
1.1
3.8 1.9

1.3
5.1
.4
.3
.3
.2.4
-

1.2
6.1
.7
*
-

1.0 3.7
5.1 17.8
.7
.
3
.3
3.6 3.6
-

2.5 3.3 5.4 7.1 9.7 7.6 6.3 6.3
5.4
- • .5 1.9 1.0 3.5
10.6 11.5 20.1 13.9
2.2 9.5
1.3
•4
5.1 15.9 19.4 17.2 10.8 7.2 7.4
.4 3.6
4.2 8.3 21.8 17.8 20.1 11.3 7.8 3.8 2.2
24.9 19.7
5.9 6.2 7.5 1.0 4.6 2.3 1.3

1/ Data relate to latest trips endir g prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as nonwatch allowance, and w a r-risk bonuses.
Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.

T
/




3.7
6.0
9.8
3.1
.5

3.8 3.9
.3
7.5 14.0
7.5 3.4
3.7 2.9
.3
.5
“

2.7 2.9
9.6 11.3
2.1 2.2
.7
.9
.3
.3
8.4 9.6
2.9 1.0

1.5
7.0
.2
.5
3.6
-

5.8 3.1 3.9 3.0 8.7
2.4 3.6 2.9
r.2
3.8 3.0 18.2 11.2 16.2 13.7 32.2
7.3 12.9 10.7 11.5 4.8 3.1 2.2 13.3
.2 1.1
1.7 1.5 1.2. 1.6
.3 1.6
.8
•6
.3
.9
.
3
.4
1.3 1.3 1.0
—
~
-

Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.

TABLE A-3.

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — A LL PORTS, UNLICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of unlicensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 1957 1/)

Percent of seamen receiving daily earnings of—
Number
of
seamen

Average
daily Under i
12
earn­ %
and
ings 2J 12
under
13

35.168

£.7.56^

Deck department j / ............................. .
.
Bosuns ................................... .
Carpenters .................. . ..............
Deck maintenance ..............................
Able-bodied seamen.... ........................
Ordinary seamen...............................

11,354
908
429
1,656
5,503
2,560

$13.80
22.44
a . 48
18.96
19.50
14.83

Engine department 2 / ..... ........................
Unlicensed junior engineers .....................
Electricians .................................
Second electricians ...........................
Engine maintenance ............................
Oilers .... .................................
Firemen, water tenders .........................
Wipers .......................... ...........

10,095
308
667
510
230
2,720
2,749
2,224

17.34
16.94
24.23
22.97
16.38
17.38
17.56
12.77

Stewards department 2 / .... .................... .
Hi a P
V4
a nienfr . .
f e c f o * . . ........... .....
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Second stewards, passenger .....................
Chefs, passenger .............................
Cooks, passenger .............................
Cooks, dry-cargo end tanker........ \...........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ............
Assistant cocks, passenger...... ...............
'
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Stewards, passenger ...........................
Waiters, passenger ............................
Mesemen, all ships ............ ...............
Bellboys, passenger ...........................

13,709
50
833
65
72
358
856
759

16.70
32.04
22.94
26.19
31.54
24.39
20.59
19.86
21.79
18.49
14.78
15.51
14.10
14.04

Hating

All unlicensed seamen ............................

246

857
1,108
1,103
5,799
208

4
13
14

7.3 Ul?
0 .5

-

.5
.2
1.3

$
14

15

f6

$
17

15

16

17

18

7.7

7iP 101? l t T
lf

fs

■&

19

20

?t£

7,1

2.0 13.0 21.0 12.9
-

_
-

-

-

-

.8
21.2
5.5
21.8
18.3

.2

_
.3
.3
-

29.9
20.6
35.6
25.5

.8
-

7.3
_
2.0
-

1.6 1.6
•6
.9
14.6 7.5
9.0
27.2
18.6 11.1
25.5 6.3

6.3

5.3

5.5

6.2

It

i5

24

25

26

27

28

fi
it

1,7

li?

9,7

0.7

2.4

1.3
4.6
5.8
1.6
1.9
.1

0.8
3.3
2.1
.5

0.9
2.9
2.3
.9
.7
-

k

k

k

21

22

23

?!?

4,$

3.5 6.6 4.4 7.1 13.2 13.8 11.7 8.8 7.2 6.6
.
3
1.3 3.6 11.2 13.3 11.5 13.9
.5 7.0 15.2 13.5 12.8 13.3
2.2 13.8 13.8 16.2 11.5 9.1 9.4 7.0
.4
.1
.9 4.7 16.8 13.5 15.2 10.5 3.4 7.8
,Q
15.0 29.0 15.9 11.4 11.3 7.4 4.7 2.2
.
5

3.6 5.7 5.3 4.6 9.2 14.7 16.2 11.6 6.3
- 16.9 30.5 20.1 11,0 7.8
.6
1.0 4.3 6.9
.8 1.2 8.6 6.3 3.4
1.3 24.3 12.6 10.4 18.7 5.7 6.5 10.9
.
1
.3 1.3 3.7 15.5 23.4 24.3 16.0 7.9
#
3
.1 1.8 8.3 24.4 29.5 20.0 8.4
.9
37.8 24.8 19.6 9.0 4.9 1.2 1.1
.7
.7

2.4
3.2
2.0
10.1

Is

hi

3.9
8.8
7.0
4.3
4.7
-

3.6
10.6
10.0
3 .7
3.5
.2

5.3
8.2
3.0
2.2
-

1.1
1.9
9.6

k

•7
#
Q

4.5 2.9 2.4 1.9
1.5
1.0
1.9 3.2 1.3 2.6
8.1
9.3 9.7 11.7 12.9
9.4 10.4 11.0 6.5 11.4
2.6
3.5 2.2 1.3
.3
4.7
.6
1.5
4.0 1.4
.1
.7
.2
-

4.7
_
-

5.8
2.5
.1
-

3.0

1.1

4.9

_
.
.2
2.9 14.2
4.6 1.5 9.2
1.7 1.7 3.1 7.5 7.3
.7 2.5 11.7 30.1 23.0
.3 4.7 27.3 32.1 17.3
1.6 2.4 4.1 13.8 11.0
15.2 27.7 24.5 12.1 11.7
3.8 7.8 2.5 1.4
.5
.5
12.4 3.3 5.6 4.1
5.8 2.5
.2
.
7
.7
4.8 5.3 1.9 1.9
“

4.2

1.6

£7

Is

l9

to
and

29

30

over

0.6

0.3

1.6

0.5
2.2
1.2
.6
.3

0.2
1.4
.5
.2
.1
-

2.6
4.7
.7
1.3
2.7

.5
1.6
4.9
_
-

.6
_
3.0
4.9
_
_
-

.5 1.3
4.8 11.1
1.2 7.8
_
_
_
•
-

.6

.6

2.3

1.4

1.1

24.6 13.7 15.1
10.8
3.1
4.2
8.7 7.5 6.1
12.9 8.5 4.8
8.2 .4.1 4.3
14.6 11.0 15.4
3.4 2.6
.4
.1
.5
.
3
.2
.7 1.0
.6
.1
.2
.5

9.4
6.2
6.9
3.9
2.6
.3
8.1
.4
.1
.7
(V)
“

5.6 4.7 1.6
.2
9.2 12.3 4.6 18.5
- 11.1
8.3 12.5
8.1 10.3 10.9 8.1
1.1 1.3
.2
.5
1.1
.4
3.7 1.2
6.9
.2
.2
.2
.5
.9
.2
.2
.4
*
*
“
"

_

.3

1.1
62.0

.8 1.9
4.6 15.4
2.8 54.2
2.0 10.1
.2

-

-

-

-

1.2
.2
.5
.2
“

.1
.1
-




AO

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
27 Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses.
Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.
? / L ess than 0.05 percent.

TABLE A-4.

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS, LICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of licensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 195/ 1/)

Percent of seamen receiving daily earnings of—
Rating

Average
Number daily
Under 20
of
earn­
and
seamen ings %/ $
20
under

\
p

21

22

s
p
23

24

25

26

24

25

26

?!?

21

All licensed seamen...... ........ .........

6.531 t
'29.78

Deck department 2/ .................. ......
Chief mates ............................
Second mates ...........................
Third mates ............................
Fourth mates ............................
Radio officers ............ .............
Chief pursers, passenger ..................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Assistant pursers, passenger ..............

3,275 $23.97
612
35.65
622
29.34
625 27.42
405 25.76
685 27.61
63 30.06
22.32
ia
30 26.94

Engine department 2/ .......................
a
m
n
First assistant engineers.................
'
Second assistant engineers ................
Third assistant engineers „ .......... ....
Junior third assistant engineers ...........
Licensed junior engineers .................

3,256
619
611
633
695
443
210

30.60
38.64

35.15
29.21
26.80
24.99
22.86

22

23

hi

2.2

2.8

4.4_

0.7 1.8
.6
1.5
~
4.8 7.9
12.8 10.6 23.4
16.3
- 2.5

2.2

3.5
-

7.4
2.3
3.2
6.4
2.5

1.5 2.6

3.3

0.9
1.3
-

.5

.3
1.8

_
.5 .6
.4 .6 4.2
.7 4.1 8.8
8.3 18.6 26.7 19.5

2.5

5.7
11.7
16.0
5.3
3.2
8.5
-

5.4

6.8

.6
2.2

9.6
3.1
3.2
22.0

_
1 .4

6.2
25.3
2.4

28

$ n ~
30
29

$
31

32

$
33

$
35

$
36

V
37

&

34

38

$
39

$
40
and

27

28

29

30

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

over

7,8

8,7

4.1

3.5

3.4

3.0

?|7

2.6

3.0

It? 5.4

3.8 4.4 2.8
2.7
9.8 15.5 10.6 10.6
4.0 1.3 2.1
3.5
1.8
2.7 1.3
.6
3.2
.4
.4
3.2
6.3 9.5
5.0 2.5 3.8 1.3

0.9
3.3

1.5
7.7
.
5
-

1.7

0.9 3.1
4.6 14.4
- . .6
.
4
4.8 4.8
-

31

8l
l

12.6 11.6
9.4 7.7 5.7 5.7
.
5
.7 2.5 3.6 8.3
5.0 3.0 18.5 18.2 14.5 14.1 8.2
17.3 13.8 16.0 9.6 11.5 6.7 3.0
2.0 3.0
24.4 17,3 9.4 7.7 1.2
12.1 27.3 16.1 11.8
7.4 3.1 5.1
- 6.3
9.5 12.7 15.9
- 3.5
3.5 4.3
8.8 13.8 8.8
5.0 10.0
8.8
8.8
10.2

9.6

6.8

4.5

3.0 4.0

4.4

2.5
1.8

.7 1.1
1.5 1.6
1.4 9.8 9.2 13.6 24.2 11.7
17.0 21.0 16.7 7.8 5.3 6.3
17.2 18.3 11.7 6.5 3.2 1.6
5.2 1.9 1.9
5.2 8.1

8.8
7.3
4.0
.2
~

15.7
2.5
3.7
.9
“

2.1
1.3
.7
.5

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
S Includes all wage payments, and allowances, such as nonwatch allowance, and w a r-risk bonuses.
3/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




*
27

7.1

5.7

5.1
7.0
2.9
.9

6.4

.2

-

-

.9
-

-

8.0

.
3
-

.4
4.8
-

4.0 3.3 6.5 3.6 4.3 2.8 7.6
3.9 3.9 21.0 12.9 17.0 13.4 26.2
14.1 11.8 11.3 5.1 3.6 1.1 12.1
.3 1.6
.5 2.1
1.4 1.4 1.6
.6
1.2
.4
•4
1.9
—
~
~
*

Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.

TABLE A-5.

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS, UNLICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of unlicensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 1957 J7)

Rating

All unlicensed seamen .........................

j/

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily Under
earnand
ings
under
12
13 14

Z £
/

24.049 _&L6*99-_

4.2

Percent of seamen receiving daily earnings of— 7-1

it h t* f5 f6 fv is U & & iz ,1 7 h i5 I T T
>

J9.Q

15

16

17

7.1_ 8.2.

Deck department
..... * ...................
.
Bosuns .................................
Carpenters ....................... *...... ..
Deck maintenance ............. ............
Able-bodied seamen ......... ..... .........
Ordinary seamen............. ............

7,727
633
243
1,060
3,800
1,842

$17.75
21.40
20.39
17.74
18.56
14*39

0.7 4.6 7.7 5.2 8.6 15.8
.5
1.4
.8
.8
.
6
3.1 20.1 17.7
.1
.
3
1.3 6.2 21.5
1.8 18.9 32.4 17.0 10.4 9.5

Engine department $J ..........................
Unlicensed junior engineers........... .....
Electricians .............................
Second electricians .......................
Engine maintenance ........................
Oilers .................................
Firemen, water tenders................ ....
Wipers........... ......................

6,956
264
454
288
176
1,909
1,944
1,540

16.72
16.95
20.91
16.25
16.89
17.33
12.41

10.9 5.4 4.9 4.6 11.0 18.0
- 15.5 31.8 22.3
1.4 2.1
1.7 29.0 16.5 7.4 13.1
.
1
.4 1.6 5.0 19.3 28.3
•2 2.2 10.4 29.5
.5
48.6 23.3 16.2 6.5 3.1
.9

Stewards department j/........................
Chief stewards, passenger ..................
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Second stewards, passenger .................
Chefs, passenger ..........................
Cooks, passenger .........................
Cooxs, dry-cargo and tanker.................
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and trnker ........
Assistant cooks, passenger ............ ......
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Stewards, passenger .......................
Waiters, passenger ........ ...............
Messmen, all ships.... .................. ..
Bellboys, passenger .......................

9,366
38
579
48.
42
242
591
540
183
560
764
747
3,983
147

16.56
31*61
22.71
26.40
31.79
24.72
20.30
19.56
a.64
18.16
15.11
15.60
13.76
14.44

22.61

2.0 15.2
1.1
.4
3.6 18.2
4.7 6.6
2.2 27.7
8.2 12.2

22.2
.4
1.1
22.3
20.2
40.3
25.2

10.5
-

2.2
1.4
13.4
19.4
14.7
28.5

18

21

22

j

is i9 I T
-

25

26

1.4
2.1
9.0
3.3
.
5
2.3
-

1.4
4.9
7.8
1.0
1.1
-

18.5 9.0 3.9 3.5 2.6 2.4 1.9
.8 2.3 3.8 1.5 3.0
8.7 6.8
1.5 6.4 8.6 13.7 12.1 16.1 15.0
12.5 11.1 13.2 11.8 13.9 14.6 5.2
5.7 2.8 14.2 2.3 1.7 1.7
.8
.6
28.4 10.9 2.4 1.8
.3
33.0 14.6 4.3 3.3 1.3
.2
.5
.6
.2
.
1
.5
-

1.2
9.5
8.7
3.4
-

and

1.1

19

12«A_ 9*2
15.0
4.6
12.3
19.4
20.4
5.0

2D

6.5

23

24

\ -3.8

13.2 8.3 6.6 5.2
15.2 17.2 12.6 13.4
20.6 15.2 11.5 16.9
13.4 7.1 8.4 4.4
17.4 10.0 7.8 5.8
.7
3.1 1.0
-

5.9 6.4 5.7 6.1 6.9 5.0
.
3
3.5 17.8
2.1 12.5
.8 2.5 1.2 3.3 6.6 6.2
2.4 14.6 36.0 23.0
.4 5.4 30.4 37.6 13.0
2.2 2.2 3.3 4.4 9.3 12.6
.9 16.4 33.9 23.2 7.1 13.9
.
8
9.7 12.8 11.3 3.4 2.0
.7
10.7 13.0 9.0 7.1 6.0
.6
7.2 4.8 1.8
.
5
5.4 6.8 7.5 2.7 2.7
“

2.8
8.8
7.8
1.4
3.2
-

27

23

29

1.3
3.5
3.7
1.5
1.4
.1

0.5
3.0
.5
.3

0.3
2.7
.2

0.2
1.1
.
_
.2
-

0.1
.9
-

0.3
1.1

.1
-

.5

.9
2.3
9.3
1.4
-

.4
1.1
3.1
.
3
i
.1
-

.1
1.7
-

.2
2.1
_
_

.
3
2.9
.
_
-

.3
_
1.9
_

-

-

i 30

over

_

_
_
-

.6
.2 1.0
3.7 2.5 2.0 1.5 . 1.0
.7
.9
- 31.6 13.2 55.3
- • .9
24.5 17.1 13.1 10.4 5.9 4.8 1.7
14.6
4.2 2.1 6.2 10.4 6.2 25.0 2.1 14.6
- 11.9 14.3 9.5
- 11.9
- 52.4
10.7 9.9 4.5 2.5 6.2 9 . 11.6 9.5 2.9 11.2
.9
9.6 6.3 3.6 3.2
.2
.2
.7
.
3
7.8 2.4 3.1
14.8 11.5 14.2 7.1 8.2 3.8 1.6
.
5
.9 1.2
.
5
.
1
.
1
.1
.
1
.
5
.5
.5
.
3
.4
.
1 1.1
.1
.3
.
3
.
3
.3
.3
.1
.7
—
“
“
*

(V (V
) )

{/
&
)

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
? / Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses.
Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.
37 L ess than 0.03 percent.




TABLE A-6.

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — WEST COAST PORTS, LICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of licensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 1957 1/)
Percent of seamen receiving d a ily earnings of—

Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
T ~ -T~
daily Under 20
21
22
earn­ $
and
ings 2/ 20
under
21
22 : 23

3 ”T “ ~ T “
23
25
24
25

26

6 tl

24

< , 1.9
27

9.9

4.3
.7
6.8
6.6
3.7
9.9
8.3

9.8
5.1
14.4
22.5
10.5
15.0
10.7
-

26

27

“T “
“
28

29

27

28

29

30

32

32

33

34

w

3.2 . 2.6

31

All licensed seamen ........................

3.0% £29.83

Deck department j / ..... ...................
Chief mates ........................ .
Second mates ...........................
Third mates ............................
Fourth mates...........................
Radio officers .........................
Chief pursers, passenger .................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Assistant pursers, passenger........... .

1,545 £29.18
270 36.61
273 29.63
278 28.14
213 26.84
295 27.61
20 31.44
131 23.82
24 23.01

2.1
1.1
13.0
41.7

0.9 1.6
- 1.1
.9
1.0 3.1 14.5
8.3 -

1.9 3.3
1.1
.7 3.2
1.9 7.5
2.7 2.0
10.7 10.7
-

Engine department 2/.............. .........
Chief engineers .........................
First assistant engineers.................
Second assistant engineers ................
Third assistant engineers.................
Junior third assistant engineers ...........
Licensed junior engineers .................

1,551
270
270
282
297
337
95

30.47
40.27
34.98
29.07
27.03
25.16
23.61

.4
6.3

.5 2.3
- 4.5
8.4 21.1

3.4 5.3 7.9 9.9 8.6 7.5 5.4 7.3 5.1 3.4
- 1.1
7.8 8.1 4.4
3.7
1.1 3.9 8.9 13.8 6.7 11.0 18.8 16.3 8.2
2.4 2.7 13.5 15.5 18.5 17.8 11.4 9.8 3.7 3.0
- 1.5
7.7 17.2 18.7 22.6 10.7 9.5 4.7 3.0
20.0 13.7 8.4 6.3 3.2 3.2 3.2
*
*

w

8.L

7*9

~Tp “333 34

" T " ""I
30
31

hit

15.6 8.3 10.8 6.7 5.4 4.2
1.9 1.5 4.8 4.4
15.4 8.8 16.1 9.9 11.7 6.6
15.3 12.6 13.7 8.3 6.1 5.3
23.9 7.5 12.2 5.6 3.3 5.2
27.1 14.6 16.3 9.5 3.1 1.0
- 25.0 15.0 15.3 5.3 2.3 2.3
8.3 12.5 12.5 8.3
- •-

4.8
8.9
5.9
6.1
2.8
3.1
-

-

$
35

$
36

3
37

3 “TT~
38
39

36

37

38

39

2.7

3.4 1.3

2.0

2.2 7.9

4.4 2.4 3.4 2.3 0.6
9.6 7.4 13.0 9.3 2.6
8.1 4.0 2.6 1.1 1.1
1.1
2.2 1.1 _
_
_
_
_
.7 4.1
10.0 15.0 10.0 10.0 _
.
2.3
-

1.0
4.8

1.1 5.0
6.3 25.6
.7
_ 1.1
_
_
_
_
.
.
_
_
-

35

2.9 ' 2.0 2.8
3.7
10.0- 9.3 10.4
5.3 1.1 1.8
1.0
3.2
•

2.1 4.4 2.0
1.1 11.9 7.4
8.1 11.9 4.1
.7 1.8 .7
3.2
-

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.

27 Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as nonwatch allowance, and w a r-risk bonuses. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
T/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




_
_
.7
_
-

40

40
and
over

3.0 3.3 10.8
14.4 14.4 45.9
1.9 4*4 15.9
.7
-

TABLE A-7.

DISTRIBUTION BY AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — WEST COAST PORTS, UNLICENSED SEAMEN

(Percentage distribution of unlicensed seamen manning seagoing ships of the United States Maritime Industry by average daily earnings, May 1957 ^1/)

Percent of seamen receiving daily earnings of—
Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
♦ 1
daily s
Under 12 13
earn­
and
♦
ings 2/ 12
under
13 14

All unlicensed seamen ............................

n-.io9

Deck department j/ ...............................
Bosuns .......... .......................... .
Carpenters ..................................
Deck maintenance... .............. ............
Able-bodied seamen..... ......................
Ordinary seamen ..............................

3,627
275
186
596
1,703
718

Engine department
.......... •..................
Unlicensed junior engineers .....................
Electricians .................................
Second electricians ...........................
Engine maintenance ............................
Oilers.... .................................
Firemen, water tenders .........................
Wipers......................................

3,139
44
213
222
54
811
805
684

18.71 3.4
16.89
27.67
25.63
16.80
18.54
18.13 1.9
13.59 13.5

Stewards department y ...........................
Chief stewards, dry—cargo and tanker .............
Chefs, passenger .*............................
Cooks, passenger .............................
Cook8 dry-cargo and tanker ....................
,
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ............
Assistant cooks, passenger .....................
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Stewards, passenger.... .......................
falters, passenger ............................
Messiaen, all ships ................ ...........
Dml1VAl0 Y o
l!T \
..
.
/
...

4,343
254
30
116
265
219
63
297
344
356
1,816
61

16.99 1.9
23.49
31.18
23.71
21.24
20.61
22.21
19.12
14.05
15.32
14.35 1.5
13.07 14.8

y

14

«
15

15

16

ITIT

L

I2

%

L

*5

Is

I?

Is

I9

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

.29

30

over

1.8

1.6

1.3

0.9

0.6

4,0

3.0
7.3
8.6
1.7
3.0
-

1.5
4.0
4.8
.7
1.6
-

2.0
3.3
5.4
2.5
2.0
-

1.1
4.7
2.7
1.7
.6
-

0.5 7.6
2.5 13.1
1.1 1.6
.5 3.5
.4 7.8
-

1.9 2.1 1.4 2.0
.
6.8
8.5 5.2 10.3 11.7
8.1 14*9 9.0 5.4
.6
_
-

1.2
5.2
9.0
-

1.5
9.4
8.6
_
-

.9 3.5
8.9 30.5
2.7 18.0
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

.6
.4
.8
1.2
- 10.0
9.5 5.2
.8
•
_
1.7
-

.
3 1.3
2.8 4.3
6.7 56.7
7.8
_
_
_
_
3.2
_
.7
.
6
.
-

and
17

Sl8.8Q_ -1.7♦ 21.05
24.62
* 22.91
21.15 ' 21.61
15.94
-

\
o

i3

18
8.6

19

20

4.4

6,4

1.0 4.0 2.6 3.9
.5 2.7
1.4
5.0 20.3 13.0 14.1

7.6 11.4 8.5 9.7 8.4 9.6
1.1 1.5 2.2 5.8 8.7 14.9
8.1 11.3 14.5 3.6
6.7 10.6 8.1 12.8 11.2 11.6
6.3 14.2 10.3 11.6 9.7 12.2
16.0 13.5 8.9 5.2 1.4 1.9

6.4

6.1 4.5 5.3
- 25.0 22.7
- 20.4
- 9.3
.7 6.4
1.1 .7 3.2
28.2 27.2 14.8 8.8

7.4 11.2
6.8 25.0
- 3.6
37.0 5.6
11.7 14.7
12.2 21.0
1.9 2.6

8.1
27.9
3.4
9.0
32.8

4.4 4.2 4.8 4.7 5.1 4.3 3.2 1.2 1.2
1.6 5.9 24.8 22.4 19.7 7.1 5.1
- 10.0
2.6 2.6 9.5 9.5 4.3 2.6 9.5 6.9 12.1
2.6 5.3 17.0 23.0 20.0 13.6 7.5 1.1 3.0
3.2 19.6 1J.7 27.9 9.1 8.2 7
.3.
.9 3.7
3.2 27.0 6.3 14.3 9.5 19.0 11.1 3.2*
15.8 26.9 21.5 7.4 8.1 5.1
1.0
.6
.
6
.
6
.
6
11.2 7.0 2.5
2.2 2.8
8.0 4.1 1.0
.
6
.7 1.8
.9
.3

18.4
4b.8
21.3
25.4
26.2

17.9 10*3
2.6 4.3
17.4 2.6
43.5 5.3
26.9 19.7
18.0 8.2

6.2
2.3
12.8

17.3 11.4 6.6
13.6
3.3
2.3 6.3
5.6
18.5
28.0 21.1 11.3
32.9 18.3 5.8
.9 1.8
.4

3.6
4.7
5.9
3.7
3.2
1.7
-

6.3 6.8
3.7 14.2
5.9 18.8
9.4 9.4
8.2 6.2
.7
2.3
2.3
6.3
2.2
1.1
-

4.5
8.0
8.6
6.5
4.7
-

1.4
4.3
16.7
11.2
3.8
1.4
3.2
.7
.
6
.6
-

_
-

Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, sue’ as tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses.
Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-8.

DISTRIBUTION BY DAILY PREMIUM EARNINGS — ALL PORTS

(Percentage distribution of seamen manning seagoing ships in the United Spates Maritime Industry by average daily premium earnings, May 1957 1/)

Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
$
premium Under 1
end
earn­ $
under
ings 7j 1
2

Percent of seamen receiving daily premium earnings of—
2

$
3

>

4

4

4

$
5

6

7

V
3

V
9

10

$
11

12

$
13

14

$
15

16

17

$
13

19

5

6

7

8

.9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

$
20
and
over

3.8 7.4 6.2
16.3 9.1 4.3
14.6 7.4 5.1
10.4 5.9 3.7
13.0 4.8 3.8
9.0 6.4
1.1
1.1
1.9 10.4 10.4

5.5
4.0
2.3
2.6
2.4
1.3
5.7

6.3
1.3
2.6
2.4
1.4
5.1
3.3

3.8
.9
1.4
.6
.8
_
6.6

3.1 3.4
.
3
.
3
.2
.3
.
6
.3
2.6 '3.8
1.1
5.7 6.6

1.1
.7
.3
_
_
2.8

0.6
.
3
_
_
3.8

2.9
•2
_
_
•4
3.8
1.9

.2
9.6
8.3
5.0
6.5
2.5

4.0
8.8
4.1
1.4
.6

3.3
4.0
6.0
1.5
1.6

.3
4.8
2.1
2.3
.4
1.6

.2
6.1
2.0
2.0
.4
-

1.0
3.3
.3
-

1.3
.1
.9
1.0

2.0
.5
.
5
-

1.1
1.6

1.7
.7
-

1.7
.
3
.2
-

7.9
4.9
5.1
6.3
2.9

4.4
7.2
2.3
4.3
.9

5.1
1.6
.6
2.0
.3

2.6
2.8
1.8
2.4
;7

.2
1.2
.8
1.6
-

.2
.6
.7
-

.3
.2
•2
.1

1.2
1.3
•4
-

.6
.7
.
3
-

.2
.5
-

.2
.4
-

1.4
1.1
-

1.3
3.1
3.3
1.4
2.2
.2

1.0
4.2
4.2
2.6
.8
.
3
-

.
6
3.6
3.3
•6
.1
-

3.1
3.3
.2
-

1.0
2.2
2.1
-

1.7
1.5
-

1.0
1.0
-

.7
1.3
-

.3
.6
-

-

-

-

6.0 10.0 10.0
.2
.7
3.
7.7 1 . 8 9.2
8.3
4.7 3.1 2.8
.7
.8
.8
2.4
•6 •2
.5
.3
(2/)

2.0
.2
1.5
5.6
1.1
-

.4
2.8
.1
-

5.6
.3
.
1
-

3.1
•6
-

2.8
-

4

4

4

4

4

Licensed seamen:
Deck department:
Chief mates .........................
Second mates .........................
Third mates .........................
Fourth mates ............ ............
Radio officers .......................
Chief pursers, passenger ................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker .*....... .
Assistant pursers, passenger.... ........

882
895
903
618
930
83
272
104

$10.59
9.48
9.19
9.17
9.08
8.61
4.54
11.17

Engine department:
Chief engineers ......................
First assistant engineers ..............
Second assistant engineers.... .........
Third assistant engineers ..............
Junior third assistant engineers .........
Licensed junior engineers............. .

389
881
915
992
780
305

1.36
9.64
8.90
8.16
7.50
5.66

Deck department:
Bosuns ..............................
Carpenters ............. ..............
Deok maintenance .....................
Able-bodied seamen....................
Ordinary seamen .......................

908
429
1,656
5,503
2,560

6.95
6.85
5.82
7.30
5.39

1.1
. 1 2.1
4
.4 1.1
.
3 2.9

Engine deportment:
Unlicensed junior engineers .............
Electricians .........................
Second electricians ..... ..............
Engine maintenance ................ .
Oilers..............................
Firemen, water tenders .................
Wipers .............................

308
667
510
230
2,720
2,749
2,224

2.40
6.08
6.25
3.18
5.89
6.13
2.01

34.7 19.8
7.1
6 .4
7.1 7.1
27.4 13.0
•4
.4
.3
24.9 35.2

50
833
65
72
358
856
759
246
857
1,108
1,103
5,799
203

6.99
10.18
10.38
8.08
6.01
5.94
7.95
5.85
4.55
5.28
4.27
4.91

0.4 0.9
.4
.6
.9
.3
.3
9.0
18.0 *5.5
5.7 -.9

0.2
1.0
.8
.3
6.2
2.3

47.3 15.5 13.81.2
•4 1.7
.2 2.2
.4
1.4 1.4 3.4
.7 2.2
.9
5.1 5.4 11.1

2.3 5.4 5.1 4.6 9.8 13.3
1.2 1.7 2.3 7.4 14.2 16.4
.9 1.0 3.0 11.1 15.1 18.8
.3 1.4 2.7 9.9 13.0 18.6
1.4 3.3 4.4 7.2 13.9 27.0
3.3 14.1 10.3 7.7 7.7 3.8
9.9 1 . - 14.7 9.6 9.2 4.8
54
4.7 1.9 5.7 3.8 6.6 8.5
9.6 4.1 4.7
4.4 4.3 8.5
1.8 2.7 5.2
1.7 2.7 8.1
2.0 3.2 5.1
6.7 13.1 14.6

.3
10.6
10.7
19.9
18.5
16.2

.7
9.0
12.6
17.0
25.7
10.5

8.5
13.5
12.6
27.4
13.6
5.1
3.3
-

1.0
13.6
18.8
10.8
18.6

.
6
.6.3
17.3
12.0
12.9
1.9
6.4

-

6.4

Unlicensed seamen:

Stewards department:
Chief stewards, passenger... ...........
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker.....♦
Second stewards, passenger .............
Chefs, passenger .....................
Cooke, passenger .....................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Assistant cooks, passenger .............
Assistant codes, dry-cargo and tanker .....
Stewards, passenger ...................
Hesemen, all ships ....................
Bellboys, passenger ...................

8.64

17.2
19.3
15.2
10.9
27.7

9.3 11.9 10.6 5.3
13.3 7.9 11.9 16.6
15.8 8.6 11.2 6.0
19.4 19.8 13.9 8.6
22.7 10.2 8.9 5.1

5.2
11.7
12.7
12.6
18.2
12.8
4.7

8.4
10.7
10.4
9.6
26.4
30.5
2.2

.6
10.1
10.0
8.3
25.4
28.8.3

■
4.0 12.0
1.9 5.5 5.2
4.6 9.2
4.2
.6 6.1 7.3 7.0
.6 3.0 6.6 6.2
1.6 6.0 9.2
•8 6.9 3.3 5.7
3.4 4.7 10.2
14.0 7.5 10.1 15.3
7.9 12.9 10.1 15.6
4.9 8.6 17.2 45.3
9.1 7.7 8.7 13.5

14.0
13.8
4.6
8.3
9.5
34.1
38.5
9.3
36.9
11.3
16.1
13.5
10.6

6.0 6.0 14.0
28.6 20.6 11.2 7.4 1.7
9.2 6.2
6.2 1.5
9.7 19.4 13.9 1.4 8.3
8.9 12.6 5.6 5.0 10.1
•2
31.1 9.7 4.7 2.0
34.0 5.1 3.4
.4
8.5 6.5 18.3 18.3 9.3
28.0 7.1 4.3 2.0
•6
'8.7 7.9 6.4 5.6 1.4
9.0 3.9 5.4
7.3 7.4,
.
3
.4
3.1 2.1 1 1.1
19.7 7.7 4.3 3.8 5.3

.3
.9

2.0
•

4.6
.
_
1.6
9.8
1.3
2.6
3.7

6.9
1.2
9.4
2.6
3.0

12.0
10.5,
17.9
3.0
13.9

16.9 8.1
12.0 6.5
8.1 8.3
13.9 8.7
1.6 8.0
.6 3.2
20.3 10.6

1/ Data relate to latest trip ending prior to June 1957. Includes seamen with no daily premium earnings.
7 / Total of overtim e and penalty earnings. Seamen with no premium earnings were included in "Under $ 1.
T/ L ess than 0.05 percent.




.6
7.7
8.7
2.6
11.9
16.3
.6

1.6
7.7
6.5
1.3
4.9
4.5
.5

6.0 8.0
1.1 1.4
3.1 15.4
4.2 5.6
8.9 5.9
.8
.9
.7
•4
4.1 4.5
.9
.4
.2
.9
1.6
•6
.
5
.4
.5
•

"

.4
.1
(
2/)

TABLE A-9.

DISTRIBUTION BY DAILY PREMIUM EARNINGS — ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(Percentage distribution of seamen manning seagoing ships in the United States Maritime Industry by average daily premium earnings, May 1957 1/)

Hating

Number
of
seamen

Average
$
daily
$
2
premium ■
Under 1
earn­
and
ings 2J '
under
1
2 ...1_

Percent of seamen recei\ring daily premiian earnings of£
1
4 ■ 5

$
3
L

—

6

I
6

$
7

$
3

$
9

1
10

$
12

$
13

$
14

&
15

i

11

16

17

T
18

£
19

1 —

-2-

8

9

10

11

IS

12

14

1?

16

17

13

19

20

over

9.6 7.8 8.7 6.5
20.3 18.2 9.3 4.8
13.0 18.6 4.3 4.5
29.9 9.9 6.2 3.2
14.7 13.1 4.2 3.2
- 11.1 7.9
3.2
2.5 13.8 13.8
-

3.3
2.6
2.9
1.2
2.5
1.6
7.5

5.4
.2
2.1
2.0
.9
6.3
5.0

4.6
1.3
1.6
_
.4
8.8

3.6

4.1
_
_
1.2
4.8
8.8

1.3
.
5
-

0.5

_
.9
3.2
7.5

1.1
_
_
_
.
6
4.8
2.5

20
and

Licensed seamen:
Deck departmentt
Chief mates..................... .
Second mates........... ............
Third mates ........................
Fourth mates ........................
Radio officers .............. .
Chief pursers, passenger ..............
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Assistant pursers, passenger ....... .

63
141
80

$10.42
9.41
8.92
8.95
9.03
9.52
3.90
12.67

Engine department:
Chief engineers .....................
First assistant engineers ..... .......
Second assistant engineers ............
Third assistant engineers .............
Junior third assistant engineers ........
Lioensed junior engineers ...».........

619
611
633
695
443
210

1.37
9.83
9.22
8.05
7.66
5.41

612
622
625
m
685

1.6
.5
12.7
21.3
5.0

0.5
.
3
.8
6.3
5.7
1.3

0.3
.6
1.4
-

56.1 12.9 14.4
.8 .8
.5 .3
2.7 2.0 3.6
.9 1.1
7.6 4.3 11.0

2.3 4.6 4.7 3.4 12.7 15.2
.8 6.6 14.8 18.5
.3 1.6
.6
.8 3.0 12.6 14.6 18.7
1.2 3.5 11.9 13.1 17.5
.9 2.6 4.5 7.2 14.5 28.0
4.3
7.9 3.2 9.5 4.8
8.5 26.2 19.9 5.0 7.8 4.3
5.0
2.5
2.5 5.0
8.6 1.8 5.5
2.3 4.2 9.3
.9 2.1 2.2
1.4 2.9 7.9
.
5 2.7 5.2
1.0 14.3 12.9

10.1
11.7
19.6
17.3
16.7

8.7
14.2
15.1
30.7
12.9

_
7.9
3.8

_
_
_
_
5.0
_
2.1
.9
_
.
-

.3
17.3 8,3
19.4 20.7
11.5 10.2
16.3 14.9
8.6
-

8.3
7.0
5.2
6.1
3.8

4.9
9.0
5.0
1.4
1.0

3.4
3.9
5.6
1.1
2.4

3.9
3.0
2.7
.7
2.4

5.4
2.4
2.4
.7
-

.5
3.4
.6
-

1.8
.2
1.3
-

1.5
.5
*4
-

1.1
1.0

4.1
8.6
4.1
9.0
6.1

5.3
4.5
2.4
6.3
3.1

4.3
4.5
1.1
4.9
1.3

4.7
2.9
2.2
.8

2.1
2.5
2.3
2.1
.7

.
3
.5
1.4
-

.
3
.8
-

.3
_
.
3
.1

.8
.1
-

.2
-

-

.
3
.1
-

.1
-

1.9

1.5
2.1
.
6
2.1
.
3

1.1
.9
3.4
.4
.
3
-

.3
.4
.4
.
2
-

2.4
2.1
.
3
-

1.1
-

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
.
_
_
-

-(
9.5
.4

4.2
.8

_
4.8
_
1"

.
2.5
.5
.
3
-

Unlicensed seamen:
Deck department:
Bosuns .......................... ..
Carpenters .........................
Deck maintenance ............... .
Able-bodied seamen... ...............
Ordinary seamen .....................

1,342

6.30
6.35
5.08
7.16
5.53

Engine department:
Uhlicensed junior engineers ...........
Electricians .................... .
Second electricians ..................
Engine maintenance ........... .......
Oilers ............................
Firemen, water tenders ................
Wipers ............................

264
454
288
176
1,909
1,944
1,540

2.33
4.53
4.31
3.14
5.52
6.01
1.32

Stewards department:
Chief stewards, passenger .............
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Second stewards, passenger .......... .
Chefs, passenger .......... .........
Cooks, passenger ....................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ....
Assistant cooks, passenger .......... .
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Stewards, passenger .................
Waiters, passenger ..................
Messmen, all ships ..................
Bellboys, passenger ..................

38
579
48
42
242
591
540
183
560
764
747
3,983
147

9.61
7.35
11.99
12.57
9.54
6.31
6.05
8.99
6.14
5.33
6.42
4.66
6.27

633
243'
1,060
3,800

. 1.1 7.7 14.4
5
- 11.9
1.6 1.3 2.2 12.6 21.3
.3 1.6
.
3 .
6 .4
.5 14.3
34.1 21.6
7.9 9.0
9.4 11.1
33.0 15.9
.
3 .6
.
6 30.3 33.9
2.6
.4
.4
.3
1.0
“

.1
.3
.1
—

20.2
21.4
18.3
10.3
29.8

9.3 12.2 11.5
17.7 7.8 16.5
14.6 9.0 10.4
23.4 20.5 15.6
24.2 9.0 9.1

.8
.3
13.6 6.4 2.7 8.7
17.3 7.0 16.7 13.9 11.2 6.2
12.2 13.7 12.3 8.3 7.3
12.8
6.2 5.1 13.1 10.2 9.7 1.7
1.6 9.2 21.5 31.6 24.9 6.6
.2 2.3 15.1 35.6 28.4 12.0
18.1 10,5 3.3 2 0
.6
..
.
5
.5
-

3.0
.
3
.9
1.4

.'
3
.7
1.9
1.1
1.4
13.7
9.6
16.0
5.4

7.9
3.7
3.0
5.0
3.3
3.0
21.7
15.8
56.7
19.0

12.3
6.2
11.2
36.3
42.8
8.2
45.9
15.6
21.6
16.5
15.0

37.1
12.5
11.9
6.6
39.5
41.7
3.3
33.0
12.6
10.0
3.6
27.9




3.5
1.7
1.9
3.3
.1

7.9 7.9 I8.4 7.9 10.5 7.9 13.2 13.2
.2
23.7 13.3 8.1 1.9 1.2 1.6
4.2
8.3 2.1 4.2 14.6 10.4 18.7 12.5
- 14.3
16.7 4.3 2.4 4.8 7.1 9.5
12.0 6.2 7.4 12.4 13.2 8,7 7.0 4.5 4.1
12.0 4.6 2.4
.
3
.
3
5.4 3.3
5.5 23.5 24.6 12.6 5.5 6.0 3.3 1.1 1.1
9.3 5.5 1.4
11.3 9.0 7.9 1.8 1.3
.9
.
3
.3
10.7 13.3 5.5 8.0 2.4
.7
.9
•4
2.3 1.5
.1 (
.4
.4
2/) .1
10.9 6.1 5.4 8.2
.
7
~
“

1/ D»t*» relate to latest trip ending prior to June 1957. Includes seamen with no daily premium earnings.
Total of overtime and penalty earnings. Seamen with no premium earnings were included in "Under $1. "
T/ Less than 0.05 percent.

1
/

6 .4

2.6
.3
2.1
9.5 4.8
1.7
.5
.1
.1
(2/) ~

-

-

.1
-

“

TABLE A-10.

DISTRIBUTION BY DAILY PREMIUM EARNINGS — WEST COAST PORTS

(Percentage distribution of seamen manning seagoing ships in the United States Maritime Industry by average daily premium earnings, May 1957 1/)

Percent of seamen receiving daily premium earnings of—
Rating

Number
of
seamen

daily
$
premium Under
1
earn­
and
under
ings 2J 1
2

T
2

3

S
4

3

4

5

5

§ " T
6
7

8

n r
9

$
10

$
11

12

n?
13

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

“ ~
T
14

15

$
16

V
17

18

$
19

15

16

17

18

19

20

5.4 10.5 ‘ 8.3
3.2 7.2 3.9
6.3 2.4 3.8
4.5 5.0 3.2
5.2 2.3 2.6
2.3
-

2.2
1.0
1.8
1.6
-

2.2
1.1
.7
_
_
_
-

1.8
1.1
1.0
_
2.3

0.7
1.1
1.0
_
-

0.7
1.0
_
_
-

6.9
.7

2.2
8.2
1.9
1.4
-

4.7
4.1
6.8
2.0
-

1.1
6.9
2.9
-

.7
7.6
1.0
1.0
-

2.2
2.9
1.0

1.8
-

-

2.9

3.2
.7
.6
-

1.1
2.9

.7
.
-

-

5.8
1.7
1.6
.7

4.0
3.2
1.0
2.9
.7

2.7
1.5
1.9
-

1.7
.4
-

1.8 2.2
.5 3.5
- *1.1
-

1.8
1.6
.
.5
-

.7
.
1.8
•

1.1
-

4.7
3.5
-

9.5 10.9 10.0
4.7 9.5 8.6
3.3 1.7 1.1
2.5
.4
-

4.5
4.7
-

6.8 4.1
4.7 3.4
- 1 -

3.2
2.2
-

2.3
3.0
-

.9
1.3
-.
-

-

-

-

2.0
“

-

1.2
“

- ■ “

—
-

20
and
over

Licensed seamen:
Deck department:
Chief mates ................ ........
Second mates .........................
Third mates .........................
Fourth mates....... .................
Radio officers .......................
Chief pursers, passenger ...... ......
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker ...........
Assistant pursers, passenger ............

270
273
273
213
295
20
131
24

$10.97
9.64
9.80
9.59
9.20
5.78
5.24
6.20

Engine departments
Chief engineers.......................
First assistant engineers ..............
Second assistant engineers .............
Third assistant engineers ...............
Junior third assistant engineers ............
Licensed junior engineers ..............

270
270
282
297
337
95

2.97
9.21
3.18
8.41
7.29
6.21

275
136
596
1,703
718

8.44
7.51
7.14
7.60
4.92

4.0 7.2 5.8 7.2 3.2 9.0
1.4 1.8
.7 0.7 3.2 1.8 5.7 9.3 12.9 11.8
.7
2.4 1.4 1.4 2.8 7.7 16.0 18.8
.9 2.3
.9 1.8 1.4 6.3 12.6 20.3
1.0 1.3 2.6 4.8 4.2 7.4 12.6 24.8
- 13.0
- 47.8 13.0 17.4
14.5 5.3 11.5 11.5 3.8 9.2 14.5 10.7 5.3
20.0
10.0 10.0 6.7 13.3
23.3 16.7
-

6.1
14.7
11.5
22.5
11.0
8.7
6.9
-

10.8 4.7
12.2 8.6
5.9 13.9
11.3 5.4
12.6 6.1
2.3
-

27.4 21.5 12.6 11.9 9.6 3.0 2.6 2.2 3.3 1.1
.7
2.2 1.4 3.6 9.0 4.3 6.9 11.6 9.7 5.4 2.5 12.3
6.9 3.8 4.1 11.7 8.6 8.9 17.2 9.6 12.7
1.4
2.9 2.3 2.3 8.4 20.4 21.0 9.1 15.9 4.5
1.4 3.4 2.0 4.0 3.7 4.9 19.2 19.2 21.5 10.3 6.9
6.7 11.5 18.3 10.6 18.3 15.4 5.8 1.9 5.8
-

_

_

.
-

Unlicensed seamen:
Deck department:
Bosuns ............. ................
Carpenters ..........................
Deck maintenance ....... ...............
Able-bodied seamen ....................
Ordinary seamen ......................
Engine departments
Unlicensed junior engineers .............
Electricians .........................
Second electricians........ ..... .....
Engine maintenance.... .... .... ......
Oilers...............................
’
Firemen, water tenders ......................
Wipers .............................
Stewards deoartment:
Chief stewards, passenger........... .
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Second stewards, passenger .............
Chefs, passenger .....................
Cooks, passenger .....................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ....
Assistant cooks, passenger .............
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .....
Stewards, passenger .............,
......
Waiters, passenger ....................
Kessmen, all ships ....................
Bellboys, passenger ...................

44
213
222
54
811
805
684.
12
254
17
30
116
265
219
63
297
344
356
1,816
61

.7
-

1.1
1.8
3.6
9.3

5.1 6.5 10.2 9.1 11.3 8.4 9.8 12.7 4.7
2.7 8.6 16.7 7.5 8.1 5.9 26.9 5.4 10.8
3.7 11.2 9.4 18.0 8.1 12.6 9.4 10.1 5.9
7.6 6.1 11.0 10.3 18.3 10.3 7.8 6.3 3.2
9.4 12.6 22.2 18.6 13.2 3.6 2.5 2.2
-

2.50
9.37
8.76
3.32
6.77
6.40
2.43

38.6 9.1 .6.8 18.2 20.5 6.8
5.5 1.4 5.5 7.7 10.9 10.5
3.2 3.2
4.3 2.2 2.2 3.4 5.2 7.3 12.5 10.3 10.3
9.3 3.7 38.9 20.4 11.1 7.4 3.7 5.6
1.5 5.2 10.6 14.5 26.5 23.9 11.7
.
4 1.0 1.6 5.2 7.4 18.1 29.6 26.5 7.4
.6 1.6
14.0 36.9 24.7 10.6 7.7 2.7 1.3

4.99
6.18
5.07
7.31
5.03
5.33
5.66
4.93
5.31
1.70
2.39
3.40
1.64

17.6
4.0
30.5
3.4
6.4
29.5

1.7
1.9
3.2
44.6
23.9
15.5
31.1

6.3
17.6
19.0
8.7
5/4
27.0
9.8
17.4
39.3
25.3
23.0

16.7
17.3
35.3
10.0
22.4
20.0
16.3
9.5
10.8
2.0
11.0
19.4
16.4

25.0
16.9
13.8
13.2
19.5
11.1
23.6
1.2
15.2
20.4

58.3
17.3
20.0
6.0
28.3
28.1
12.7
19.9
1.7
4.8
6.7
“

9.1
6.7
13.8
12.5
15.4
23.8
18.5
1.4
2.1

13.8 6.3
11.8
23.3 26.7
13.8 4.3
4.5 4.9
4.5 3.6
9.5 3.2
3.0 2.0
.
6
. .
6
.6
.6
.
3
-

1/ Data relate to latest trip ending prior to June 1957. Includes seamen with no daily premium earnings.
27 Total of overtime and penalty earnings. Seamen with no premium earnings were included in "Under $1.".




5.9 1.2
- 13.3
5.2
1.1
1.4
3.0 1.7
.6
.
6
.6
.
3
.
3
"
"

.8 1.2
- 17.6
2.3 2.6
1.4 2.3
2.7 1.0
1.0 1.5
“

.8
2.3
“

—

TABLE A—11.

SUPPLEMENTARY EARNINGS — ALL PORTS

(Average daily supplem entary earn ings of seam en manning seagoin g ships in the United States M aritim e Industry by type of paym ent, May 1957 1_/)

War-risk bonus

Total suppleBentary pay 3/
Rating

All aaaaen (exeept masters and cadets) ..........

JUL7B5

80.23

25.7

*0.90

*0.12

All licensed seamen ........................

9,627

80.21

14.4

*1.47

Deck department £ / ......................
Chief antes.........................
Second antes ........................
third antes................ .........
Fourth antes ..... ....................
Radio officers .......................
Chief pursers, passenger ................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker ............
Assistant pursers, passenger.............

A,320
332
395
903

.21

14.4
14.4
13.6
13.5
18.4
14.9
20.5
13.6
7.7

1.44

E a i e department 2/ ............. ........
tgn
Chief engineers.... ................ .
First assistant engineers.............. .
Second assistant engineers ............. .
Third assistant engineers ...............
Junior third assistant engineers ..........
Licensed junior engineers ...............

4,307
889
381
915
992
780
305

618

930
83
272
104

.23
.19
.17
.21
.21

.3
7
.17
.23
.21

11.0

*0.19

11.9

♦1.58

11.7

1.57

1.37
1.28

.18
.23
.18
.17

1.16

•21

1.41
3.56
1.26

1.60

3.01

12.1

1.86

.18
.30
.16
.08

11.5
11.4
15.2
11.3
9.6
12.5
3.8

1.55
1.45
1.35
1.57
3.11
1.28
2.17
1.59
2.63
1.78
1.55
1.32
.99

1.49
2.27

.19
.30

12.2
11.6

1.66

.21

1.31

.17
.?
1
(/
4)

11.7
11.3
11.9
19.2
3.0

1.68

.82

.11

10.7

.99

.39
1.18
.94
.94
.89
.72

.12

11.8
11.8

.99

1.21

•16

.08

.
93
1.93

35,158

.24

28.8

Deck department 2/ .......................
Bosuns...... ............ ......... .
Carpenters ..........................
Deck maintenance......................
Able-bodied seamen....................
Ordinary seamen....... ...............

11,354

17.4

908

.15
.19

429

.12

1,656

.19
.16
.13

12.4
19.9
17.6
17.7

Engine department 2 / .....................
Unlicensed junior engineers .............
Electricians............. ...........
Second electricians ...................
Engine maintenance ....................
Oilers .............................
Firemen, water tenders.................
Vipers ................ .............

10,095
667
510
230
2,720
2,749
2,224

.5
1
.23
•23

18.0
a.4
19.6

•20

21.2

.13
.
15
.14
.13

Stewards department 2 / ...................
Chief stewards, passenger...............
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker... .
Second stewards, passenger ...............
Chefs, passenger......................
Cooks, passenger........... ..........
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker... ..........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker.....
Assistant cooks, passenger..............
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Stewards, passpnger ...................
Waiters,*passenger ........... .........
Messmsn, all ships................... .
Bellboys, passenger ...................

13,709
50
833
65
72
358
356
759
246
857
1,108
1,103
5,799
208

.37
.3
5
.65
•
22
.37
.21
.67
.
65
.15
.53
•12
.17
.38
.16

5,503
2,560
308

.34
.24
.17
.17
.20

16.2

.
15

1.26

.96

.12

U.7
14.9
11.3

1.01
1.02

.09

12.0

.77

.11

.11

.5
1

25.7
19.3
16.9
16.2

.
85
1.06
1.45
.94
.50
.77
.81
.82

.07

11.7
14.6
15.0
12.7
15.2

.11
.10
.11

11.6
11.1
12.1

1.48
.82
.44
.92
.90
.87

46.3
22.0
55.8
18.5
41.7
21.2
72.1
75.5
12.6
63.1
10.0
53.5
51.6
15.4

.30
2.42
1.16
1.18
.38
.98
.
93
.86
1.22
.85
1.19
.1
3
.74
1.01

.09
.
26
.14
.14
.18
.09
.3
1
.12
.11
.12
.07
.
06
.09
.05

9.0
8.0
11.2
6.2
5.6
3.4
11.6
10.8
4.9
12.6
4.7
4.4
11.4
3.8

1.03
3.24
1.22
2.28
3.20
2.59
1.14
1.12
2.32
.92
1.46
1.46
.79
1.33

.18
•22
.10

.94
1.22

1_/ Data relate to la te s t trips ending prior to June 1957.
2 / Includes other paym ents, such as for penalty c a rg o e s, no linen, etc. , in addition to those shown sep arately.
sid e re d as part of the base pay.
3 / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown sep arately.
4 / L e s s than V cent.
2
NOTE: Where en tries are om itted, data w ere eith er not applicable or not com puted.




Passenger pay

*1.13

14.3
14.3
14.4
12.9
13.8
21.4
3.9

All unlicensed seamen......................

Extra meals

Division of work

Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving
*11
a .1
u
ux
all
Number Average Percent Average seamen Percent Average semen Percent Average seamen Percent Average seamen Percent Average
Total rating

♦0.04
WX
W)

-

(A/)

w)
(/
4)
(/
4)
(4/ )
\L/j
w)
.09

.3
1
.1
1
.0
1
.7
1
.5
1
(4/)

.2
1

WX

(4/)

.9
0
.0
1

3.8

♦0.91

.8

.67
.9
2
-

.
3
.
3
1.1

.
5
.
3

•16

.59
1.45

.2
.2

.23
.24
.28
•14

9.0
8.3
18.1
5.6
18.2
15.8
2.3
15.9
2.3
1.9
9.4
10.1

.5
9
1.52
.2
6
1.06
.94
.97
.38
.6
7
.9
8
.0
5
.6
9
1.01

-

.
9

♦0.08
.13
.07
.08
.6
0
.5
1
.
16
.03
.5
1
(4 /)

.
09
.8
0

(4 /)

31.8
35.3
12.3
18.1
12.3
53.7
57.4
4.9
52.9
2.9
51.5
34.1
4.3

♦0.26
.38
:6o
.42
.50
.29
.28
.61
.29
1.31
.17
.3
2
.04

10.08
.18
.
.
.
16
.16
.
15

9.8

♦0.84

22.9
•
•
•
21.3
22.4
.
17.0

.8
7

-

-

-

11.2
-

.10
-

«
.5
7
.74
.
86
•

•
.90

D oes not include nonwatch pay, uniform or tool allow an ces, which w ere con­

00
TABLE A-12.

SUPPLEMENTARY EARNINGS — ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(A verage daily supplem entary earn ings of seam en manning seagoing ships in the United States M aritim e Industry by type of paym ent, May 1957 1/)

Total supplementary pay 2/
Rating

Total rating

War-risk bonus

Division of work

Extra meals

Passenger pay

Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving
all
all
all
all
seamen Percent Average seamen Percent Average seamen Percent Average seamen Percent Average

Number Average Percent Average
All seamen (except masters and cadets) ..........

30f
t
?80

*0.25 — 27,1

40*93

fo,1^

11.2

tl.15

All licensed seamen.............. .........

6,531

*0.21

14.4

*1.48

*0.20

11.9

$1.66

Deck department 2/.................. *...
Chief mates .........................
Second mates.................. .
Third mates.........................
Fourth mates .........................
Radio officers........ ............ . .
.
Chief pursers, passenger ...............
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker ............
Assistant pursers, passenger .............

3,275
612
622
625
405
685
63
HI
80

.
22
.24
.
19
.
18
.3
2
.22
.87
.3
2
.30

15.0
14.9
14.3
14.2
19.3
15.0
19.0
13.5
10.0

1.50
1.58
1.34
1.26
1.18
1.45
4.55
1.74
3.01

.0
2
.24
.9
1
.17
.
22
.20
.
39
.3
2
.11

12.2
12.6
11.7
11.7
15.3
11.8
12.7
13.5
5.0

1.66
1.92
1.59
1.48
1.39
1.65
3.11
1.74
2.17

F n i e department y .......................
jgn
Chief engineers ......................
First assistant engineers ............ .
Second assistant engineers............. .
Third assistant engineers.............. .
Junior third assistant engineers ..........
Licensed junior engineers ...............

3,256
619
611
633
695
443
210

.20
.5
3
.24
.17
,18
.01

13.9
14.1
14.9
13.4
12.8
21.2
2.9

1.47
2.51
1.60
1.26
1.24
.86
.5
2

.19
.2
3
.2
2
.18
.5
1
.8
1
(/
4)

11.6
11.8
11.9
11.5
10.5
18.1
2.9

1.67
2.72
1.82
1.58
1.44
.7
9
.6
1

All unlicensed seamen ................. ..... .

.16

24,049

.26

30.6

.5
8

.11

11.0

1.00

$0.03

2.8

$1.04

Deck department y ...... ................
Bosuns ...... .......................
Carpenters... .............. .........
Deck maintenance .....................
Able-bodied seamen ................. .
Ordinary seamen............ ..........

7,727
633
243
1,060
3,800
1,842

.6
1

18.6
18.0
9.1
20.8
18.8
19.0

.88
1.18
.
70
.3
9
.
90
.
70

.1
1
.6
1
.6
0
.14
.2
1
.09

12.0
12.2
9.1
13.8
11.8
11.9

.6
9
1.28
.1
7
1.01
.99
.3
7

.01
(/
4)

.
7
.
5
.
3
.
9
.
7

.82
.29

Engine department y .....................
Unlicensed junior engineers ........... .
Electricians........................
Second electricians .................. .
Engine maintenance ....................
Oilers.............................
Firemen, water tenders .................
Wipers .............................

6,956
264
454
288
176
1,909
1,944
1,540

.91

.32
.14
.09

1.48
.66
.58
.5
8
.87
.84

.11
.1
2
.24
.
06
.07
.11
.
10
.10

11.7
17.0
15.9
12.8
13.1
11.8
11.1
11.8

.8
9
1.22
1.53
.0
5
.3
5
.5
9
.2
9
.9
8

(/
4)
_

Stewards department y ...................
Chief stewards, passenger.... ..........
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Second stewards, passenger .... ..... .
Chefs, passenger ......................
Cooks, passenger............. ........
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker... .
Assistant cooks, passenger.... .......
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Stewards, passenger ...................
Waiters, passenger ....................
Nessmen, all ships ....................
Bellboys, passenger.................. .

9,366
38
579
48
42
242
591
540
183
560
764
747
3,983
147

.
42
.54
.
70
.30
.44
.27
.78
.71
.
19
.71
.5
1
.17
.3
4
.07

.3
8
3.44
1.17
1.18
1.08
1.09
.
99
.87
1.47
.89
1.44
.3
3
.74
1.33

.0
1
.34
.3
1
.9
1
.
30
.3
1
.3
1
.12
.5
1
.
10
.
10
.09
.
09
.07

9.6
10.5
10.9
8.3
9.5
5.0
11.7
10.7
6.6
11.6
6.8
6,4
11.4
5.4

1.06
3.24
1.28
2.28
3.20
2.59
1.12
1.11
2.32
.
88
1.46
1.46
.
78
1.33

.
07
.8
0
.5
0
.
18
.0
1
.2
1
•
02
.
08
-

.21

.
06
.
19
.17
.3
1
.16
.26

.16

.14
.14

17.2
25.0
21.4
20.5
14.8
18.4
16.7
16.8
50.4
15.8
60.1

25.0
40.5
24.4
78.8
81.3
13.1
79.6
10.7
51.9
57.6
5.4

1.06

U
Data relate to la te st tr ip s ending prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes other paym ents, such a s 'fo r penalty ca rg o e s, no linen, e t c . , in addition to th ose saown sep arately.
sid ered as part of the base pay.
3/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to th ose shown sep arately.
4/ L e ss than 1/ 2 cent.

NOTE: Where e n tries w ere om itted, data w ere eitner not app licable or not computed.




&/)

.
01
.
01

-

•24
.68
1.45

.
1
.
.
.
5
-

.
16
-

6.5
6.4
1.2
16.6
11.7
14.8

1.07
1.21
3.73
1.08
.87
.0
8
3.54
1.08
—

.5

7.4
”

.
16
$0.11
.
19
.
10
.13
.
09
.
21
.21

.04
.22
.d
.7
0
.
10
"

39.8
48.4
16.7
31.0
18.2
69.4
71.7
6.6
71.6
3.9
49*3
43.3

_

$0.27
.39
.0
6
.2
4
.50
.0
3
.30
•
61
.30
.14
.14
.24
“

$0.10
.21

.19
.20
.20
.
13
~

11.2
22.6
20.5
22.4
23.2
13.8
“

$0.92
.
93
*5
9
.89
.88
.3
9

D oes not include nonwatch pay, uniform or tool a llow an ces, which w ere con­

TABLE A—13.

SUPPLEMENTARY EARNINGS — WEST COAST PORTS

(A verage daily supplem entary earn ings of seam en manning seagoing ships in the United States M aritim e Industry by type of paym ent, May 1957 1/)

Total supplementary pay
Rating

Total rating
Number

All seemen (except masters and cadets) .....

Division of work

War-risk bonus

Seamen receiving

Average Percent Average

Extra meals

Passenger pay

Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving Average Seamen receiving
all
all
all
all
seaman Percent Average seaman Percent Average seamen Percent Average seamen Percent Average

80.19

2.,
27

*0.84

*0,u

All licensed seamen ........................

3,096

$0.20

14.3

$1.43

$0.17

12.0

$1.41

Deck department 2 / ......................
Chief mates .........................
Second mates.......... ..... .... .
Third mates ..........................
Fourth mates...................... .
Radio officers ......................
Chief pursers, passenger ................
Pursers, dry-cargo and tanker............
Assistant pursers, passenger .............

1,545
270
273
278
213
295
20
131
24

.17
.2
2
.17
.16
.19
.19
.
30
-

13.3
13.3
12.1
11.9
16.9
14.6
25.0
13.7
-

1.31
1.65
1.43
1.34
1.13
1.33
1.19
.75
-

.5
1
.
19
.
16
.
15
.18
.14
.08
-

10.7
11.1
11.0
10.8
14.1
10.2
11.5
-

1.36
1.70
1.47
1.37
1.26
1.34
.70
-

Engine department
.....................
Chief engineers......................
First assistant engineers...............
Second assistant engineers ..............
Third assistant engineers ...............
Junior third assistant engineers........ ..
Licensed junior engineers ...............

1,551
270
270
282
297
337
95

.23
.36
.24
.17
.19
.22
.
23

15.2
14.8
13.3
11.7
16.2
21.7
6.3

1.54
2.46
1.81
1.43
1.15
1.03
3.60

.19
.27
.19
.16
.17
.1
2
.5
1

13.4
11.1
11.1
10.6
15.2
20.8
3.2

1.45
2.39
1.68
1.47
1.14
1.01
4.73

All unlicensed seaman .......................

11,109

.19

25.1

.74

.10

10.1

.5
9

Deck department 2 / ......................
Bosuns .............................
Carpenters ..........................
Deok maintenance.................. .
Able-bodied seamen....................
Ordinary seamen....... ...............

3,627
275
186
596
1,703
718

.13
.14
.19
.17
.3
1
.11

14.8
12.C
16.7
18.1
14.7
14.5

.90
1.18
1.12
.96
.89
.79

.12
.13
.17
.17
.1
1
.11

11.4
10.9
15.1
16.8
10.0
12.1

1.05
1.21
1.15
1.01
1.12
.87

Engine department % / ........... .........
Unlicensed junior engineers ...... ..... .
Electricians.............. ..........
Second electricians ...................
Engine maintenance....................
Oilers .............................
Firemen, water tenders.................
Wipers .............................

3,139
44
213
222
54
811
805
684

.14
.
22
•28
.27
.3
1
.
12
.12

19.8
16.0
22.1
61.1
21.5
17.4
14.8

.
72
1.36
1.28

.10
.18
.
16
.
06
.09
.10
•11

11.8
13.1
12.6
22.2
11.1
11.2
12.9

.37
1.34
1.25
.28
.85
.6
8
.84

Stewards department £/ ...................
Chief stewards, passenger ...... .........
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker.......
Second stewards, passenger ..............
Chefs, passenger.............. .......
Cooks, passenger.................... .
Cooke, dry-cargo and tanker .............
Cooke and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .....
Assistant oooks, passenger ..............
Assistant oooks, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Stewards, passenger ...................
Waiters, passenger ....................
Naeemen, all ships ....................
Bellboys, paesenger....... ............

4,343
12
254
17
30

.26
.50
.52
.27
.09
•42
.52
.04
.33
.04
.
16
.28
.36

37.6
41.7
46.1
43.3
14.7
57.0
61.2

.70
1.20
1.13
.62
.9
5
.
73
.5
8
.38
.1
7
.47
.29
.74
.90

.07
.16
.
13

7.8
11.8
11.3
11.0
14.5

.3
9
1.33

1/
2/
sid ered
3/
¥/

116

265
219
63
297
344
356
1,816
a

.10

11.1

46.5
8*4
56.7
38.4
39.3

.4 4

.
60
.67
.78

.1 2

.14
-

.09
”

_10.5__ .61.07

-

11.5
•

-

1.19
1.13
.98
-

.80
•

Data relate to la te s t tr ip s ending p rior to June 1957.
Includes other paym en ts, such a s for penalty cargoes,, no linen, e t c ., in addition to those shown sep arately.
a s part of the b a se pay.
Includes data for other ratings in addition to th o se shown sep arately.
L e s s than V2 cent.

NOTE: Where entries are omitted, data were either not applicable or not computed.




$0.05

6.1

$0.79

(/
4)
-

1.0
.
3
1.6
-

.5
4
.5
0
.48
-

.
8
1.8
.
6
.
7

.6
2
.29
.28
.14

14.2
12.6
43.3
14.7
21.9
26.0

.3
8
1.88

{&/)
.01

W)

.
01
(A/)
&)

.2
1
.24
.27
.09
.6
1
.28
.04
.12
.04
.
03
.
11
.5
3

11.1

17.8
7.8
5.9
13.9
34.4

-

.2
6
.
59

.71

1.09
.8
3
.69
.50
.50
.2
8
1.01

$0.03
.1
0
-

.3
0
.04
.3
0
( /)
4
.3
1
.0 2

.1
0

14.8
5.5
-

18.9
22.4
17.5
.
6
56.2
13.8
14.8

$0.20
.18
-

.18
•18
.8
1
.01
.24
.17
.04

$0.04
.
11
.08
.08
.04
-

.04
“

6.6
23.6
23.0
22.4
5.4
.
.

5.6
*

♦0.54
_
.5
4
_
.5
3
.6
3
.
73
.

.6
7
-

Doe s not include nonwatch. pay, uniform or tool allow an ces, wnich w ere con-

TABLE A-14. AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — ON PORT PAYROLLS

(A verage daily earn ings of seam en manning seagoing ships in tne United States M aritim e Industry w hile on port p ayrolls,

a ll ports and by coast, May 1957 2 / )
Vest Coast ports

Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports

All ports
Rating

1/

Average daily
premium

ij

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2 /

Hours

Average dally
premium

jj

Earnings

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

Earnings

2.5

$5.68

2.562

$22.56

Number
of
seamen

Hours

Earnings

$28.62

2.2

$7.27

27.92
39.12
26.29
23.93
23.38
24.68

2.5
3.7
2.9
2.4
2.2
1.5
1.9

8.01
12.58
9.20
7.31
6.95
4.77
6.22

345
49
55
55
66
93
24

29.26
42.17
37.50
29.91
25.46
22.32
21.12

2.0
1.1
3.3
2.6
2.0
1.6
1.2

6.60
4.66
11.21
8.24
6.48
4.78
3.31

1,903

20.47

2.3

7.02

729
52
55
143
320
159

22.40
25.87
23.14
23.22*
23.30
18.44

3.2
3.4
3.0
3.3
3.1
3.1

8.28
9.36
8.10
9.09
8.53
6.67

$20.22

2.6

$6.04

7.435

tl9.il

2,454

$28.92

2.3

$7.62

1,795

$29.03

2.4

$7.74

659

Deck department *>/.... ........................ .
Chief mates .................................
Second mates ............................ .
Third m a t e s .................................
Fourth mates ........................ ........
Radio officers .................... ..........
Pursers, dry-cargo and t a n k e r ...............

1,209
213
210
209
207
231
114

27.98
39.12
28.48
25.49
24.17
24.66
24.28

2.6
3.3
2.9
2.4
2.3
2.0
2.0

8.47
12.35
9.24
7.62
7.48
6.32
6.42

895
158
155
154
152
176
75

28.00
39.13
28.22
25.20
24.25
25.06
24.07

2.7
3.8
2.9
2.4
2.4
2.1
2.1

8.64
12.95
9.26
7.55
7.67
6.31
6.52

314
55
5
5
55
55
55
39

Engine department *>/.... ............. .......
Chief engineers ..............................
First assistant engineers ................... .
Second assistant engineers ..................
Third assistant engineers................ .
Junior third assistant engineers .............
Licensed junior engineers ...................

1,245
207
213
213
262
257
90

29.84
38.93
39.51
29.28
25.16
22.52
22.21

2.1
.
3
3.3
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.4

6.79
1.42
13.28
9.01
6.13
5.35
4.53

900
153
158
158
196
164
66

30.06
37.93
40.21
29.07
25.06
22.63
22.61

2.1
.
1
4.0
2.9
1.9
1.5

6.86
.
42
14.00
9.29
6.01
5.67
4.79

7,543

17.39

2.7

5.53

5,640

16.35

2.6

5.03

6.45
6.46
6.90
6.75
6.30
5.40

2,034
165
90
324
986
457

17.19
21.15
20.04
18.34
17.54
13.66

2.9
2.6
3.0
2.7
3.0
3.0

5.79
5.55
6.17
5.71
6.22
4.96

%/

tj

tr.o8__

9.997

1.8

earnings j/

Average daily
premium

2.7

All seamen (except masters and cadets).............
All licensed s e a n e n .......... .....................

All unlicensed s e a m e n ........................... .

Average
dally

Number
of
seamen

29.20

Deck department
...................... ........
B o s u n s ............... .............. .......
Carpenters..... ................ .............
Deck maintenance ............................
Able-bodied s e a m e n ..................... .
Ordinary s e a m e n .................. ...........

2,763
217
145
467
1,306
616

18.56
22.28
21.21
19.84
18.95
14.89

3.0
2.8
3.0
2.9
3.1
3.1

Engine department £/ ............................
Unlicensed junior engineers ..................
Electricians ................................ .
Second electricians .........................
Engine maintenance .......................... .
O i l e r s ...... ................................
Firemen, vater tenders ......................
Vipers .......................................

2,405
57
210
135
100
637
623
579

17.14
14.34
23.84
23.33
14.56
17.53
18.55
11.79

2.2
.2
2.5
2.9
.
6
2.9
3.4
.
6

4.35
.47
5.93
7.05
1.32
6.19
7.20
1.10

1,799
55
158
86
85
480
478
430

16.36
14.73
21.88
20.54
14.25
16.79
13.19
11.58

2.1
.
2
1.9
2.1
.
6
2.7
3.4
.
7

4.24
.
36
3.96
4.40
1.17
5.56
6.98
1.04

606
2
52
49
15
157
150
149

19.44
13.00
29.78
28.22
16.27
19.79
19.69
12.40

2.7
1.3
4.3
4.2
.
9
3.4
3.3
.
6

6.68
3.51
11.92
11.69
2.15
8.13
7.90
1.28

Stewards department £ / ......... ................
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker ........
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ..................
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and t a n k e r ......
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tinker .......
Messmsn, all shins ........................ .

2,375
197
207
195
205
1,304

16.28
23.01
20.31
19.62
18.48
14.05.

2.7
3.3
2.3
2.6
2.3
2.7

5.15
7.38
6.32
5.93
6.40
4.59

1,807
145
152 '
145
145
961

15.40
22.25
19.16
13.34
17.13
13.14

2.7
3.5
2.9
2.3
2.9
2.3

4.96
7.35
6.08
5.30
5.37
4.48

568
52
55
50
60
343

19.08
25.12
23.48
21.89
21.74
16.60

2.5
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.8
2.4

5.76
7.44
6.99
6.30
7.69
4.90

1 / Includes data for seam en w hile on sep arate port pa y ro lls or coast p ayrolls which preced ed sea p a y r o lls. If no separate port payroll w as prepared, the tim e in port w as not included in
th is tabulation.
2 / Data rela te to la te s t tr ip s ending prior to June 1957.
3/ Includes a ll w age paym ents and a llo w a n ces, such a s pay in lieu of o v ertim e, tool and uniform allo w a n ces, pay for serving extra m ea ls, p assen ger a llow an ces, paym ents for d ivision of
worlc, and w a r -r isk bonuses in addition to p rem ium s shown sep a ra tely . D oes not include any value for board and lodging or gratu ities.
4/ T otal of ov ertim e and penalty tim e.
5/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown sep arately.




TABLE A-15.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY SUBSIDIZED STATUS, ALL PORTS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry
by subsidized status, May 1957 U )
Subsidized
Rating

All seamen (except masters and cadets) ......

Nonsubsidized

Average daily
premium y

Average daily
premium y

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

13.017

$20.38

2.6

*5.92

_ 19.831

*20.56

2.3

*6.3A

2.7

$7.90

4,638

$29.66

2.3

$8.14

Number
of

Earnings

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

Earnings

3,293

$29.40

Deck department ( J ...... .............
Chief mates.......................
Second mates ............ ..........
Third mates ........... ...........
Fourth mates..................... .
Radio officers .....................
Pursers ..........................

1,584
282
282
286
269
282
178

29.09
36.76
30.10
27.92
26.75
27.69
23.22

3.1
3.1
3.5
3.3
3.5
3.2
1.6

9.27
10.28
10.24
9.48
9.74
9.46
4.99

2,304
476
476
476
291
476
94

28.57
34.77
28.45
27.10
25.47
26.90
22.71

3.1
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.0
1.2

8.89
10.20
8.88
8.89
8.60
8.75
3.69

Engine department j j ..... .............
Chief engineers ....................
First assistant engineers ............
Second assistant engineers.... ......
Third assistant engineers ...........
Junior third assistant engineers......
Licensed junior engineers...........

1,709
282
282
282
358
360
145

29.68
40.31
34.46
28.85
26.05
25.02
21.86

2.2
.7
2.4
3.0
2.5
2.9
1.6

6.63
2.77
7.99
8.54
6.39
7.76
4.34

2,334
476
472
474
476
350

30.73
38.00
34.71
28.46
26.85
24.31
25.96

2.5
•4
3.3
3.0
3.1
2.9
2.7

7.38
1.43
10.20
8.65
8.86
7.71
7.97

All unlicensed seaman....... ............

9,724

17.32

2.5

5.24

15,193

17.78

2.8

5.79

Deck department t j ....................
Bosuns ...........................
Carpenters.......... ..............
Deck maintenance ...................
Able-bodied seamen.................
Ordinary seamen....................

3,550
282
167
594
1,681
826

18.07
21.34
21.06
18.72
14.52

2.8
2.5
2.7
2.3
3.0
2.8

5.98
5.74
6.58
5.48
6.56
5.11

5,762
473
196
805
2,851
1,336

19.02
22.53
21.66
18.87
19.30
14.78

3.3
3.2
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.1

6.92
7.29
6.98
5.74
7.56
5.32

Engine department y ..................
Unlicensed junior engineers..........
Electricians ......................
Second electricians... ...........
Engine maintenance.................
Oilers ...........................
Firemen, water tenders..............
Wipers...........................

3,208
112
279
196
94
848
832
745

17.17
15.79
23.32
22.37
14.36
17.56
17.84
12.24

2.3
.6
2.3
2.3
.5
2.9
3.2
.9

4.77
1.36
5.40
5.75
1.19
6.13
6.48
1.52

4,966
121
317
231
67
1,431
1,398
1,126

17.36
17.07
24.92
23.56
19.10
17.29
17.62
13.04

2.5
1.1
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.8
3.0
1.3

5.11
2.43
6.88
6.91
5.48
5.80
6.16
2.22

Stewards department y ................
Chief stewards .....................
Cooks ............................
Cooks and bakers ...................
Assistant cooks ....................
Messmen.................. ....... .

2,966
275
278
268
288
1,825

16.60
23.46
20.84
20.03
18.79
14.11

2.6
3.2
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.5

4.86
7.02
5.82
5.73
5.86
4.15

4,465
473
471
443
480
2,582

16.65
22.55
20.28
19.79
18.18
14.09

2.7
3.1
2.7
2.8
2.7
2.6

5.09
6.82
5.95
6.02
5.83
4.32

All licensed seamen ......................

18.76

a

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
27 Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and war-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
? / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




Cn
TABLE A-16. AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY SUBSIDIZED STATUS, ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry
by subsidized status, May 1957 _!/)
Nonsubsidized

Subsidized
Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
dally
earnings 2/

Average dally
premium 2/
Hours

Earnings

Number
of
seamen

Average daily
premium 2/

Average
daily
earnings 2J

Hours

Earnings

All seamen (except masters and cadets) ......

9.342

*19.66

2.6

#5.65

02.665

*19.91

2.9

.*6.17

All licensed seamen............... •.... .

2,363

*29.06

2.6

#7.63

2,902

#29.67

2.8

#8.18

Deck department tj .................. .
Chief mates ............... .......
Second mates.....................
Third mates ........................
Fourth mates... ...................
Radio officers ....................
Pursers .......................... .

1,144
207
207
211
201
207
106

28.73
36.30
29.79
27.43
26*19
27.37
22.28

3.0
2.9
3.4
3.2
3.4
3.1
1.5

9.05
9.34
10.07
9.08
9.52
9.22
4.54

1,4?9
309
309
309
168
309
35

28.44
34.27
28.31
26.39
25.10
26.76
22.47

3.0
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
.6

8.77
10.06
8.82
8.69
8.23
3.57
1.96

department Lj ..................
Chief engineers ....................
First assistant engineers ...........
Second assistant engineers ...........
Third assistant engineers..... .
Junior third assistant engineers.... ..
Licensed junior engineers .......... ..

1,219
207
207
207
262
220
116

29.37
39.35
34.06
28.51
25.61
24.34
21.84

2.1
.5
2.3
3.0
2.3
2.9
1.6

6.29
1.90
7.64
8.63
6.43
7.75
4.51

1,463
309
305
307
309
162
26

30.89
37.53
34.93
28.51
26.97
24.63
23.87

2.6
.3
3.5
3.2
3.2
3.0
2.1

7.60
1.09
10.86
9.10
9.08
8.09
6.35

6,979

16.48

2.6

4.98

9,763

17.01

2.9

5.57

5.53
4.82
5.50
4.03
6.36
5.01

3,657
312
104
480
1,832
925

17.91
21.61
21.06
17.87
18.77
14.60

3.4
3.1
3.4
2.5
3.5
3.5

6.61
6.71
6.97
5.30
7.38
5.70

Engine

All unlicensed seamen........... .
Deck department l j ............ .......
Bosuns.... ....................
Carpenters ........................
Deck maintenance ...................
Able-bodied seamen .................
Ordinary seamen ....................

2,544
207
92
381
1,249
615

16.79
20.00
19.29
16.80
17.64
13.60

2.8
2.3
2.6
2.0
3.1
2.9

Engine department l j ..................
Uniiconsed junior engineers.......
Electricians.......... ....... .....
Second electricians ................
Engine maintenance .................
Oilers ...........................
Firemen, water tenders....... ......
Wipers................ ..........

2,313
109
207
127
79
625
626
540

16.31
15.57
21.53
19.98
14.02
17.02
17.49
11.75

2.1
.6
1.7
1.7
•4
2.8
3.2
.8

4.12
1.24
3.65
3.40
.89
5.72
6.26
1.22

3,207
101
186
123
57
934
930
720

16.71
17.25
23.50
21.77
19.46
16.69
17.26
12.74

2.3
1.2
2.6
2.5
2.8
2.6
2.9
1.3

4*63
2.55
5.40
5.24
5.91
5.33
5.90
2.11

Stewards department l j ................
Chief stewards ................. .
Cooks ............................
Cooks and bakers ...................
Assistant cooks ....................
Messmen............. .............

2,122
203
203
203
203
1,286

16.30
23.52
20.40
19.72
13.54
13.66

3.0
3.6
2.9
2.8
3.0
2.9

5.25
7.61
6.10
5.97
6.14
4.55

2,899
309
307
296
301
1,673

16.22
22.05
19.93
19.48
17.78
13.63

2.9
3.3
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.9

5.29
7.06
6.21
6.08
6.02
4.53

JV Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
\ l Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A—
17.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY SUBSIDIZED STATUS, WEST COAST PORTS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry
by subsidized status, May 1957 !_/)
Subsidized
Rating

All seamen (except masters and cadets).......

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Nonsubsidized

Average daily
premium
Earnings

2.6

?f
67?

Hours

Number
of
seamen

§6.59

Average
daily
earningsg/\

7,166

_

Average daily
premium 2/

Hours

Earnings

2.8

§6.63

2.9

§8.60

1,736

$29.64

2.8

§8.05

75
75
75
68
75
72

30.03
38.00
30.95
29.31
28.41
28.56
24.61

3.3
3.5
3.7
3.7
3.9
3.3
1.8

9.86
11.51
10.70
10.63
10.41
10.12
5.66

865
167
167
167
123
167
59

28.80
35.70
28.71
27.48
25.97
27.15
22.85

3.2
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.1
1.6

9.09
10.46
9.00
9.27
9.12
9.08
4.72

Engine department jj ............ ......
Chief engineers................ .
First assistant engineers ...........
Second assistant engineers........ .
Third assistant engineers ...........
Junior third assistant engineers ......

490
75
75
75
96
140

30.44
42.95
35.54
29.80
27.25
25.30

2.5
1.3
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

7.46
5.22
8.96
8.29
8.12
7.77

871
167
167
167
167
188

30.47
38.85
34.31
28.37
26.64
24.96

2.4
.
5
2.9
2.7
3.0
2.7

7.01
2.05
9.00
7.81
8.44
7.38

All unlicensed seamen ..... ...............

2,745

19.47

2.5

5.90

5,430

19.16

2.£

6.18

1,006
75
75
213
432
• 211

21.30
25.02
23.23
22.27
21.83
17.20

2.7
3.1
2.9
3.0
2.6
2.6

7.10
8.29
7.90
8.05
7.10
5.43

2,105
161
92
325
1,019
411

20.95
24.31
22.32
20.35
21.66
15.19

3.1
3.4
2.6
2.5
3.3
2.4

7.44
8.43
6.99
6*4^
7.88
4.46

895
72
69
15
223
206
205

19.39
28.48
26.77
16.19
19.06
18.92
13.53

2.8
3.8
3.7
1.2
3.4
3.4
1.1

6.44
10.45
10.10
2.81
7.28
7.17
2.33

1,759
131
108
10
497
468
406

18.55
26.93
25.60
17.05
18.43
18.35
13.55

2.7
3.5
3.4
1.5
3.2
3.2
1.2

5.96
8.99
8.81
3.04
6.70
6.67
2.40

844
72
75
65

17.37
23.31
22.02
21.01
19.38
15.17

1.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.6

3.91
5.34
5.07
4.98
5.19
3.21

1,566
164
164
147
179
909

17.44
23.49
20.93
20.42
18.85
14.94

2.3
2.7
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.1

4*73
6.38
5*46
5.88

All licensed seamen .................. .....

930

Deck department jj ...................
Chief mates .......................
Second mates .......................
Third mates.......................
Fourth mates .......................
Radio officers ...... ..............
Pursers....... ...................

m

Deck department i j ...................
Bosuns ............................
Carpenters ........................
Deck maintenance................. ..
Able-bodied seamen................ .
Ordinary seamen....................
Engine department U ................ .
Electricians .... ...... ..........
Second electricians .............. .

Engine maintenance ................
Oilers... .................... .
Firemen, water tenders ..............
Wipers ...........................
Stewards department t j ............... .
Chief stewards................. ..
C o o k s ....................................................

Cooks and bakers............... .
Assistant cooks ............. ..... .
Messmen..........................

85

539

$30.25

5.51

3.93

J7 Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2/ Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
¥/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




cn

TABLE A-18. AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY SUBSIDIZED STATUS— C -2 AND C-3

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning C-2 and C-3 types of dry-cargo ships
in the United States Maritime Industry, all ports, May 1957 1/)
Subsidized
Rating

All seamen (except masters and cadets)

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Nonsubsidized

Average daily
premiums 2/
Hours

Earnings

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
•arnings 2/

Average dafJbr
premiums £/
Hours

Earnings

10.011

*20.21

2.6

*5.86

6.681

$20.40

2.8

$6.13

2,557

$29.17

2.6

$7.74

1,562

$29.00

2.6

$7.50

Deck department l j ........... ...... ..
Chief mates..... ..................
Second mates ......................
Third mates.......................
Fourth nates ................... .
Radio officers ....................
Pursers ............. .............

1,223
218
218
222
208
218
134

28.99
36.73
29.98
27.66
26.55
27.68
23.24

3.1
3.0
3.5
3.3
3.5
3.2
1.7

9.23
10.26
10.16
9.28
9.61
9.47
5.18

773
148
148
148
148
148
33

28.01
34.08
28.45
26.27
25.34
27.28
21.88

2.8
2.4
3.1
2.9
3.1
3.1
1.1

7.90
8.69
8.00
8.58
9.18
3.47

Engine department f j ..................
Chief engineers....................
First assistant engineers ...»........
Second assistant engineers ....... ..
Third assistant engineers......... .
Junior third assistant engineers ......
Licensed junior engineers...........

1,334
218
218
218
278
260
142

29.34
40.25
34.25
28.54
25.70
24.74
21.80

2.2
.8
2.4
2.9
2.4
2.9
1.5

6.38
2.81
7.73
8.29
6.51
7.63
4.30

789
148
144
146
148
174
29

29.96
38.35
34.93
28.03
25.38
24.91
26.00

2.3
.5
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.9
2.4

6.76
1.76
8.99
8.02
7.13
7.73
7.23

7,454

17.13

2.5

5.22

5,119

17.78

2.8

5.72

Deck department ( J ................. .
Bosuns ...........................
Carpenters ........................
Deck maintenance ...................
Able-bodied seamen................ .
Ordinary seamen....................

2,754
218
134
454
1,305
643

17.76
20.99
20.47
18.33
18.46
14.27

2.8
2.5
2.7
2.2
3.0
2.8

5.87
5.70
6.30
5.16
6.49
5.08

1,920
151
77
367
881
435

18.68
22.41
21.59
19.40
19.31
14.97

3.1
3.2
2.9
2.8
3.2
3.2

6,61
7.41
7.03
6.42
7.08
5.49

Engine department i j ... ............ .
Unlicensed junior engineers......... .
ELectrioians ......................
Second electricians............ .
Engine maintenance..... ........ .
Oilers.................... ......
Firemen, water tenders ..............
Wipers .................... ......

2,433
74
218
147
73
652
640
578

16.98
15.90
22.83
22.05
14.45
17.39
17.81
12.13

2.2
.7
2.1
2.2
.6
2.9
3.2
.9

4.65
1.43
4.96
5.a
1.32
6.00
6.49
1.46

1,688
24
148
117
21
444
440
392

17.92
16.96
25.31
24.42
19.42
17.20
18.04
13.00

2.6
.9
3.2
3.3
2.7
2.8
3.2
1.3

5.39
2.16
7.38
7.77
5.68
5.76
6.62
2.18

Stewards department l j ...... ..........
Chief stewards ........... ........ .
Cooks ........................... .
Cooks and bakers........ ......... .
Assistant cooks.... ...............
Messmen ....................... .

2,267
211
214
207
214
1,392

16.54
23.52
20.77
20.03
18.73
14.01

2.7
3.4
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.6

5.01
7.26
5.96
5.88
6.08
4.28

1,511
148
146
148
148
921

16.48
22.25
20.29
19.77
18.25
14.14

2.7
3.0
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6

4.93
6.66
5.91
5.35
5.80
4.22

All licensed seamen................... .

All unlicensed seamen ....................

8.26

\ J Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2 / Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowanced, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and war-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3 / Total of overtime and penalty time.
4 / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-19.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY TYPE OF SHIP

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing ships in the United States Maritime Industry by type of ship, May 1957
Dry-cargo ships

Passenger ships
Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average dally
premium 2/

Average
daily
earnings 2/

if)

Hours

Tankers

Average daily
premium 2/

Earnings

Number
of
seamsn

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

Earnings

Number
of
seamsn

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Average daily
premium £/
Hours

Earnings

All seamen (except Masters and cadets)..........

8.779 .
.
.

*18.53

3.0

*5.92

32.848

*20.49

2.7

*6.17

2.899

*21.57

_ 3.5

All licensed seamen ........................

985

#29.10

3.0

#8.58

7,931

#29.55

2.7

#8.03

663

#33.47

3.3

#9.68

Deck department i j ......................
Chief nates.........................
Second mates ........................
Third mates ...................... .
Fourth mates ........................
Radio officers ......... ............. .
Chief pursers, passenger ................
Pursers, toy-cargo and tanker............
Assistant parsers, passenger .............

586
39
52
59
46
140
83
104

28.81
37.61
31.62
29.00
26.50
28.07
30.39
26.03

3.1
3.3
3.7
3.5
3.4
2.9
2.7
3.5

9.36
10.53
10.62
9.86
9.42
8.19
8.62
11.17

3,888
758
758
762
560
758
272
“

28,78
35.51
29.06
27.41
26.08
27.19
23.04
-

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.1
_
1.5
-

9.05
10.23
9.38
9.12
9.15
9.01
4.54
-

322
79
79
76
12
76
-

32.54
39.43
31.70
29.11
26.94
30.57
-

3.8
4.8
3.4
3.4
3.0
4.0
-

11.11
13.97
9.80
9.61
8.81
11.35
-

Engine department jj ................ ..... .
Chief engineers ..................... .
First assistant engineers...............
Second assistant engineers.......... .
Third assistant engineers ...............
Junior third assistant engineers..........
Licensed junior engineers..............

399
46
45
77
74
33
119

29.33
a.72
36.28
32.00
28.01
26.08
23.61

2.7
.6
2.7
3.5
3.1
2.9
2.7

7.51
2.21
8.40
9.99
8.28
7.69
7.10

4,043
758
754
756
834
710
186

30.29
38.86
34.61
28.61
26.51
24.92
22.77

2.4
.
5
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
1.8

7.06
1.93
9.38
8.61
8.01
7.73
5.15

341
79
76
76
78
32
-

34.35
40.51
38.96
31.70
29.25
26.97
-

2.8
.
3
4.3
3.6
3.2
2.8
-

8.32
1.27
12.53
10.55
9.27
8.18
-

.

*7.54 .
.
.

7,794

17.20

3.0

5.58

24,917

17.60

2.7

5.58

2,236

18.43

3.5

6.91

Deck department y ........................
Bosuns ... ..........................
Carpenters..... .....................
Deck maintenance...... ...............
Able-bodied seamen ......... ...........
Ordinary seamsn......................

1,111
76
66
146
529
172

19.02
24.82
22.05
19.76
19.12
14.92

2.9
3.4
3.1
3.1
2.9
3.0

6.38
8.05
7.17
6.96 •
6.51
5.14

9,312
755
363
1,399
4,532
2,162

18.66
22.08
21.38
18.82
19.40
14.68

3.1
2.9
2.9
2.4
3.3
3.0

6.56
6.71
6.80
5.63
7.19
5.24

853
71
•
111
388
208

20.19
23.50
19.69
21.38
16.38

4.4
3.9
3.6
4.6
4.5

8.77
8.39
7.55
9.63
7.42

Engine department £/ ............. ........
Unlicensed junior engineers..... ........
Electricians....................... .
Second electricians........... ....... .
Engine maintenance.... ...............
Oilers ............ ................
Firemen, water tenders ............. ....
Wipers .............................

1,054
60
62
83
64
198
273
157

17.44
17.80
24.97
22.74
16.22
16.72
16.45
12.81

2.2
1.6
2.9
2.6
1.7
2.6
2.4
1.3

4.56
3.40
6.46
6.27
3.44
5.28
4.89
2*01

8,174
233
596
427
161
2,279
2,230
1,871

17.29
16.46
24.17
23.01
16.33
17.39
17.70
12.72

2.4
.9
2.6
2.7
1.4
2.3
3.1
1.1

4.97
1.92
6.20
6.372.98
5.93
6.28
1.94

789
15
3
•
5
225
210
190

17.81
21.04
19.34
19.83
18.02
17.70
13.22

2.9
4.0
.
8
3.2
3.2
3.1
1.6

5.79
8.28
1.69
6.46
6.64
6.33
2.75

Stewards department y ....................
Chief stewards, passenger...............
Chief stewards, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Second stewards, passenger ..............
Chefs, passenger............. ........
Cooks, passenger............. ........
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker....... ......
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker.....
Assistant cooks, passenger ............. .
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Stewards, passenger ....................
Waiters, passenger ....................
Msssmen, all ships....................
Bellboys, passenger........ ...........

5,629
50
65
72
358
246
1,108
1,103
1,022
208

16.79
32.04
26.19
31.54
24.39
21.79
14.78
15.51
14.25
14.04

3.1
4.6
4.7
4.6
3.8
3.8
2.9
3.3
2.6
3.1

5.61
9.85
10.18
10.38
8.39

7,431
748
749
711
768

16.63
22.88
20.48
19.88
18.41

2.6
3.1
-

5.00
6.89
5.90
5.91
-’
5.84

594
73

16.71
23.68
-

3.2
3.6
-

5.73
7.83
-

All unlicensed seamen ......................

_

_
8.10
4.77
5.50
4.38
5.06

..

-

4,407
*

-

2.7
2.7
2.7

-

-

-

70
42
•
46

20.95
19.69
18.49

3.2
3.1
3.1

-

6.85
6.48
6.26

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.10
-

2.5
*

13.81

3.0
-

42.
.4

346
•

4.88
-'

„

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957. Data on tankers exclude those operated by oil companies.
Z j Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals, passenger allowances, payments for division of
work, and war-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
4/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-20.

ON

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — DRY-CARGO SHIPS, BY COAST

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry
by coast of departure, May 1957 l / )
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts
Rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

Hours

22.007

119.81

’ licensed seamen........ .............

5,265

$29.40

De -k department { J ................... .
Chief mates.... ................. .
Second mates ......................
Third mates.......................
Fourth mates ......................
Radio officers ....................
Pursers ..........................

2,583
516
516
520
369
516
HI

28.57
35.09
28.90
27.11
25.69
27.01
22.32

Engine department 4/ ... ........ ......
Chief engineers ....................
First assistant engineers ............
Second assistant engineers ...........
Third assistant engineers ...........
Junior third assistant engineers ......
Licensed junior engineers.... .......

2,682

30.20
38.26

Ml seamen (except masters and cadets) ......

All unlicensed seamen.................. .
Deck department ij .....................
Bosuns ...........................
Carpenters ........................
Deck maintenance ...................
Able-bodied seamen .................
Ordinary seamen....... ............
Engine department A/ ..................
Unlicensed junior engineers ..........
Electricians........... ..... ••••••
Second electricians ................
Engine maintenance.......... .
Oilers ................... ...... .
Firemen, water tenders....... .
Wipers .......... .................
Stewards department ij .................
Chief stewards
......... .
Cooks..... ......... ..............
Cooks and bakers......... ...... ..
Assistant cooks........... ........
Messmen ............... ...........

516

512
5H
571

West Coast

Average daily
premium '$J

Average daily
premium 2/

Earnings

Number
of
seamen

Average
daily
earnings 2/

2.7

$5.94

10.841

$21.87

2.7

$6.62

2.7

$7.93

2,666

$29.85

2.8

$3.24

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.0
1.3

8.89
9.97
9.32
8.85
8.93
8.83
3.90

1,305
242
242
242
191
242
131

29.21
36.a
29.4L
28.04
26.84
27.59
23.82

3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.1
1.7

9.35
10.79
9.52
9.69
9.58
9.40
5.23

2.4
3.7
3.0
3.1

7.00
1.41
9.56
8.91
7.87
7.89
4.85

1,361

30.46

2.4

242
242

40.12

.8

34.69
28.81

2.9

7.17
3.03
3.99
7.96
8.32
7.54;

Hours

Earnings

382

34.58
28.51
26.35
24.75

142

22.21

2.9
1.7

16,742

16.79

2 .8

5.32

8,175

19.27

2.6

6.09

6,201

17.45
20.97
20.23
17.40
18.31
U .20

3.1

6.16

3,111

21.06

2 .8

5.95
6.28
4.73
6.97
5.42

236

167
538
1,451

24.54
22.73

3.0
3.2
2.7
2.7
3.1
2.4

7.33
8.38
7.40

4.42
1.87
4.48
4.30
2.99
5.48
6.04
1.73

2,654
23
203
177
25
720
674
611

18.84
17.19
27.48
26.05
16.54
18.63

5.27
7.28
6.17
6.04
6.07
4.54

2,410

519
196
861

3,081
1,540
5,520
210

2 .8

3.0
2.2

3.4
3.3

16.54
16.37

2 .2

.9

22.46
20.86

2 .1
2.0

1.4
2.7
3.0

1,260

16.30
16.82
17.35
12.32

5,021
512

16.25
22.63

2.9
3.5
3.0
2.9
2.9

393
250

136
1,559
1,556

510
499
504
2,959

20.11

19.58
18.08
13.64

1 .1

2 .8

’

242
263
328
44

622

236

239
212

264
1,448

2 .8

26.86

3.0

25.11
24.57

2 .8
2.1

6.11

21.11

21.71
15.87

7.06

7.65
4.79

2.7

6.13

1 .0

2.32

9.51
9.39

18.52

3.6
3.5
1.3
3.2
3.2

13.55

1.2

2.38

17.42
23.44
21.27

2 .1

4.44

2.5

6.06

2.2

5.34

20.60
19.02

2.3

5.60

2.2

5.41

15.02

1.9

3.66

2.90

6.89
6.82

l/
Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
2 j Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtime, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals,
passenger allowances, payments for division of work, and war-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any
value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3 / Total of overtime and penalty time.
4 / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-21.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY TYPE OF DRY-CARGO SHIP, ALL PORTS

(A verage daily earnings o f seam en manning seagoin g dry-cargo ships in the United S tates M aritim e Industry by sele c te d types of dry-cargo sh ip s, May 1 957

Victory (VC-2)
Rating

Liberty (EC-2)

C-2

\J )

Bulk earrier (dry)

C-3

Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Number daily premium 2/
Number dally
Number daily premium 2/
Number daily premium 2/
Number daily premium 2/
premium £/
of
of
of
of
of earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
seamen ings 2/ Hours Earnings seamen ings 2/ Hours Earnings seamen ings 2/ Hours Earnings seamen ings 2/ Hours Earnings seamen ings 2/ Hours Earnings

All seamen (except masters and cadets)....

5.067 *®.05._ 3t?

$5.32

2.509 821.31

3.2

$7.36

10.657 $20.03

2.6

$5.83

6.035 $20.7A

2.7

#6.22

0L
3.816 $20.

2.9

*6.43

All licensed seamen ....................

1,204 $29.09' 2.5

17.38

586 $30.79

3.3

$9.68

2,615 $29.24

2.6

$7.64

1,504 $28.88

2,6

$7.67

871 $30.44

3.1

$9.10

298

29.34

70
70
70

36.18

3.7
4.8
3.5
3.9
2.9

10.90
14.66
10.33

1,265 28.76
236 35.46
236 29.57
236 27.28

2.9
2.9
3.2
3.0
3.4
3.1
1.4

8.77
9.63
9.36
8.52
9.45
9.37
4.62

.9.61
12.07
3.57
9.35

20

28.96
34.63
27.78
27.69
25.35

103

2.0

3.0
2.7
3.4
3.2
3.3
3.1
1.7

2.8
.2

2.3

Deck department i j ................
Chief mates ...................
Second mates ..................
Third Mites...................
Fourth mates ...................
Radio officers .................
Pursers..... .................

59$
113
113
113
113
113
33

Engine department i j ...............
Chief engineers ................
First assistant engineers .........
Second assistant engineers....... .
Third assistant engineers .........
Junior third assistant engineers ....
Licensed junior engineers .........

606
113
113
113
113
14$

28.11
34.37

2.8

26.78
25.91
27.07

2.3
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.0

21.22

1.0

30.06
38.64
33.87
28.5$
26.30

2.2

.4
2.3
2.7
2.9

24.80

2.8

-

-

3,
$$3

17.24

2.2

Deck department £ / ................
Bosuns .......................
Carpenters ....................
Deck maintenance ...............
Able-bodied seamen..............
Ordinary seamen ................

1,445
113
59
271
675
327

17.99
21.31
21.42
18.72
18.58
14.41

2.3
2.3
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.4

Engine department i j ...... .........
Unlicensed junior engineers ........
Electricians............. .....
Second electricians ....... ......
Engine maintenance ..............
Oilers .......................
Firemen, water tenders ...........
Wipers .......................

1,315
112
113
93
339
339
316

17.21
16.33
24.26
22.73
17.60
17.68
12.47

Stewards department ij ..............
Chief stewards..................
Cooks ........................
Cooks and bakers ...............
Assistant cooks........ ........
MBsemen............ ..........

1,123
113
113
100
126
671

16.32
21.77
20.06
19.27
18.15
13.99

8.18
7.73

All unlicensed seamen... ......... .

28.46

8.46

3.31
3.98
8.79
3.44

-

70
11

29.21
28.61
26.49
22.54

11.12

8.90

9.13
9.68

8.91
9.03
9.34
5.03

-

226 26.06

8.48

5.70

236 27.52
90 23.45

8.42
.90
12.25
9.84
10.75
7.88
-

1,350 29.68
236 39.59
232 34.49
234 28.34
296 25.45
267 24.64
85 23.34

2.2
.6

2.8
2.2

6.23
7.52
6.04

731
130
130
134
130
130

28.35
36.01
28.96
26.80
26.02

77

27.51
22.42

773
130
130
130
130
167

29.37
39.29
34.56
28.33
25.90
25.08

2.7
2.9
2.9
2.9

86

21.70

1.2

6.62
2.24
8.48
8.29
7.34
7.91
3.57

288
70
70
70
70

31,78
37.18
34.13
23.68

8

-

23.82
-

4.0
3.4
3.6
3.0
-

4*69

1,923

13.42

3.2

6.66

8,042 17.03

2.6

5.24

4,531

18.05

2.7

5.18
5.66
6.25
5.14
5.50
4.21

764
67
22
42
412
186

20.41
23.92
21.41
13.01
21.32
14.96

3.8
3.8
2.8
2.4
4.0
3.1

8.35
8.59
7.06
5.18
9.10
5.56

2,999
236
123
512
1,420
699

17.58
21.03
20.30
18.07
18.26
14.17

2.9
2.7
2.7
2.4
3.1
3.0

5.84
5.92
6.13
5.11
6.48
5.00

1,675
133
88
309
766
379

19.14
22.54
21.70
20.03
19.31
15.27

2.2
.3
2.6
2.4
2.9
2.9
.
3

4.60
1.69
6.28
6.05
6.04
6.06
1.53

613
-

16,67

2.5
2.1
2.8
3.0
1.5

5.23
-

8
204
206
138

18.40
17.29
17.64
13.45

4.58
5.37
6.29
2.74

2,606
48
236
153
92
708
696
623

16.98
16.47
22.98
22.49
15.56
17.20
17.66
12.33

2.3
1.1
23
.
2.5
1.1
2.9
3.2
1.0

4.70
2.24
5.09
5.74
2.31
5.81
6.35
1.68

1,515
50
130
in
2
388
384
347

2.1
2.3
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.1

4.14
5.23
4.87
4.96
4.80
3.59

546
70
70
65
73
268

17.60
22.78
20.81
20.34
18.24
14.57

3.0
3.3
3.0
3.2
2.9
2.9

5.89
7.40
6.63
6.99
6.27
4.93

2,437
236
234
232
236
1,487

16.41
23.06
20.41
19.30
18.46
13.90

2.7
3.4
2.9
2.7
2.3
2.6

5.07
7.22
6.03
5.37
6.00
4.34

1,341
123

6.59
1.82
7.54
7.74
7.92
7.56

-

28.06

-

-

2.5
2.9
2.3

6.
46

2.47
8.09
8.12

126

123
126
826

.6

26.50

3.3
4.0
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.0

2

26.65

2.8

437
103
103
103
103
19

31.91
36.98
35.03
28.08

2.9

434
103
103
103

29.02

.2

4.2
3.2
3.9
3.5
4.0

8.88

8.60
9.77
8.60
.96
12.60
9.04
11.48
9.55

6

25.56
26.75

5.73

2,945

16.96

2.9

5.63

3.0
3.1
2.9
2.7
3.1
3.0

6.77
7.24
7.17
6.74
7.18
5.72

1,134
103
17
100
616
298

17.75
21.34
23.93
17.11
18.67
14.45

3.3
3.0
4.5
2.2
3.4
3.4

6.50
6.50
10.02
4.64
7.17
5.52

18.02
15.36
25.37
23.94
15.29
17.53
13.34
12,74

2.5
.
5
3.0
3.0
. .7
2.9
3.3
1.1

5.40
1.00
7.49
7.44
1.56
6.05
6.89
1.87

964
5
22
13
24
309
309
218

16.40
16.75
23.15
21.97
20.48
16.93
17.00
12.66

2.4
1.2
2.5
2.4
3.2
2.7
2.8
1.3

4.77
2.48
5.53
5.45
6.65
5.61
5.69
2.06

16.72
22.39
20.88
20.15
18.67
14.36

2.6
2.9
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.5

4.81
6.61
5.77
5.88
5.89
4.09

847
103
103
88
97
456

16.55
22.77
19.63
19.56
17.75
13.62

2.9
3.5
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

5.46
7.41
6.05
6.13
6.16
4.60

11.22

I / Data rela te to la te s t trip s ending p rior to June 1 9 5 7 .
2 / Includes all wage paym ents and a llo w a n ces, such as pay in lie u of o v e rtim e , tool and uniform allow an ces, pay for serving extra m e a ls, passen ger allow an ces, paym ents for d ivision of
w ork, and w a r -r isk bonuses in addition to prem ium s shown sep a ra tely . D oes not include any value for board and lodging or gratu ities.
3 / Total of o v ertim e and penalty tim e.
4 / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown sep a ra tely .




Cn
<1

C/i

TABLE A-22.

o
c

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY TYPE OF DRY-CARGO SHIP, ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry by selected types of dry-cargo ships, May 1957

Rating

1.307 $20.07

?r°

$6.64

8.203 &9_.25_ 2t7

*5.82

3.653

$19.72

2.7

$5.79

3.207 $20.03

300 $30.37

2.6

$7.65

904

$28.64

2.5

$7.41

?.9
2.6
3.2
3.0
3.2
3.0
1.2

8.48
8.71
9.34
8.42
8.99
8.69
3.76

2.408 *19.37

2 t?

$5.47

All licensed seamen .............................................

554 $29.43

2.6

$7.71
8.27
7.90
8.92
8.35
8.74
8.58
3.92

152
37
37
37

?t°

$6.46

725 $30.72

3.2

$9.33

360
88
88
88
8
88

29.16
34.78
27.89
27.80
25.05
26.55

3.4
4.2
3.1
3.3
3.2
3.0

9.82
12.65
8.71
9.39
8.61
8.64

3.1

$9.19

2,015 $29.10

37
4

28.90
34.92
28.24
27.46
.
26.17
18.04

3.4
4.4
3.2
3.5
2.8
.6

9.98
13.41
9.38
9.82
8.17
1.97

975
183
183
183
177
183
61

28.82
35.62
29.71
27.27
25.88
27.44
23.66

3.1
2.8
3.4
3.2
3.3
3.1
1.9

9.11
9.45
9.95
9.05
9.16
9.34
5.54

439
81
81
85
81
81
30

28.13
35.19
28.87
26.75
25.60
27.04
20.85

7.11
1.31
8.45
9.36
8.40
8.04
-

148
37
37
37
37

31.88
36.91
33.86
28.76
27.98

2.8
.1
4.1
3.4
3.6

8.39
.59
12.39
9.89
10.67

-

-

-

-

-

1,040
183
179
181
238
183
76

29.37
38.73
34.55
28.26
25.14
24.47
22.24

2.1
.4
2.5
2.9
2.1
2.9
1.9

6.28
1.86
8.22
8.37
5.91
7.62
5.29

465
81
81
81
81
81
60

29.22 %
38.48
33.64
28.28
25.96
24.72
21.72

2.2
.6
2.4
3.1
2.9
3.0
1.2

6.38
1.30
7.85
8.80
7.92
8.18
3.51

365
88
88
88
88
7
6

32.26
37.13
35.54
28.07
29.14
26.68
26.75

3.0
.3
4.5
3.2
3.9
3.7
4.5

8.86
1.06
13.44
9.02
11.57
9.98
12.67

2.5

4.79

1,007

17.01

3.0

5.88

6,188

16.70

2.7

5.23

2,749

16.79

2.7

5.26

2,482

16.91

2.9

5.63"

16.90
19.91
19.73
16.82
17.80
13.90

2.8
2.2
2.9
2.0
3.1
3.1

5.60
4.86
6.13
4.15
6.50
5.03

397
37
9
25
211
111

18.13
22.76
19.60
17.60
19.06
14.72

3.5
3.7
2.9
2.4
3.7
3.5

7.13
8.08
6.00
5.01
7.90
6.01

2,297
183
87
369
1,109
549

17.16
20.63
19.70
17.47
17.90
13.87

3.0
2.7
2.8
2.3
3.2
3.1

5.87
5.71
5.99
4.81
6.64
5.05

1,019
84
39
171
482
243

17.15
20.23
19.46
16.96
18.11
.13.93

3.0
2.5
2.6
2.1
3.3
3.2

5.93
5.40
5.55
4.38
6.74
5.67

962
88
17
75
520
262

17.84
21.56
23.93
17.21
18.73
14.63

3.4
H 3
*6.69
3.1
x
4.5 \10.02
4.97
2.4
7.24
3.5
3.4
5.65

667
100
54
37
162
162
149

16.34
16.48
22.11
20.16
16.98
16.96
11.83

1.9
.9
2.0
1.7
2.8
2.7

326

15.75

2.2

6
109
107
76

-

-

4.43
_
4.53
4.91
5.80
1.91

2,009
45
183
105
74
549
559
476

16.57
16.42
22.09
21.33
15.38
16.89
17.49
12.11

2.2
1.1
2.0
2.2
1.0
2.7
3.2
1.0

4.45
2.21
4.24
4.63
2.16
5.62
6.27
1.60

914
48
81
665
243
243
214

2.2
.4
2.2
2.2

18.43
16.13
17.00
12.40

_
«.
2.1
2.4
2.8
1.2

16.87
15.79
22.79
21.13

.8

3.83
1.81
4.11
3.59
.
5.67
5.65
1.23

813
5
10
8
21
264
264
192

16.12
16.75
22.03
21.28
20.90
16.81
16.91
12.64

2.3
1.2
2.1
2.3
3.5
2.7
2.7
1.3

4.62
2.48
4.39
4.85
7.25
5.48
5.59
2.09

533
54
54
54
54
317

15.74
21.27
19.69
19.04
17.53
13.26

2.8
3.0
2.8
2.7
2.8
2.7

5.01
6.30
5.86
5.72
5.77
4.40

284
37
37
37
37
136

16.88
21.47
20.19
19.90
17.70
13.69

3.1
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1

5.79
6.97
6.55
6.57
6.38
4.89

1,882
183
181
183
183
1,140

16.29
23.04
20.24
19.63
18.49
13.73

2.9
3.6
3.1
2.8
3.0
2.8

5.30
7.52
6.25
5.99
6.24
4.59

816
77

707

16.53
22.55
19.72
19.39
17.63
13.57

2.9
3.5
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8

5.41
7.39
6.11
6.10
6.05
4.50

Deck department £ / .......................................
Chief m ates..................... .........................
Second mates ..............................................
Third m ates................ ..............................
Fourth mates ..............................................
Radio officers ............................... .
.
Pursers ........................................... .........

284
54
54
54
54
54
14

28.19
34.70
28.85
26.79
25.66
26.83
20.84

2.8
2.4
3.1
3.0
3.1
2.9
1.2

Engine department L j .....................................
Chief engineers ..................................... ..
First assistant engineers .......................
Second assistant engineers...............
Third assistant engineers .......................
Junior third assistant engineers ...........
Licensed junior engineers .......................

270
54
54
54
54
54

30.73
38.07
34.72
29.21
26.77
24.90
-

2.4
.3
2.5
3.2
3.0
2.9
-

A ll unlicensed seamen .........................................

1,854

16.36

Deck department f j .........................................
Bosuns .........................................................
Carpenters ..................................................'
Deck maintenance .......................................
Able-bodied seamen...................................
Ordinary seamen............................ ...........

654
54
9
114
321
156

Engine department
.....................................
Unlicensed junior engineers ....................
Electricians ..............................................
Second electricians . . ..............................
Engine maintenance.............................. .
Oilers .........................................................
Firemen, water ten ders................ ...........
Wipers ............................................ ............
Stewards department i j ......................... .
Chief stewards ..........................................
Cooks ..........................................................
Cooks and bakers .......................................
Assistant cook s................ .................... ..
Messmen .......................................................

\
J

Bulk carrier (dry)

C-3

Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
N ber daily premium 2 /
um
Num
ber daily premium 2 /
N ber daily premium 2 /
um
Num
ber daily premium 2 /
N ber daily premium 2 /
um
of
of
of
of
of
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings seamen ings g/ Hours Earnings seamen ings g/ Hours Earnings seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings

A ll seamen (except roasters and ca d e ts)...........

2/
work and
3/
4/

C-2

Liberty (EC-2)

Victory (VC-2)

l)
/

-

-

-

-

-

.

77
77
77

496

-

-

16.57
18.03
12.31

2.5
3.2
1.0

4.44
.91
4.80
4.65
5.22
6.70
1.62

16.26
22.76
20.18
19.83
18.09
13.83

3.1
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1

5.33
7.40
6.25
6.26
6.04
4.65

-

88
88

75

80
376

Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtim e, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of
w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
Total of overtim e and penalty time.
Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-23.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — BY TYPE OF DRY-CARGO SHIP, WEST COAST PORTS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry by selected types of dry-cargo ships, May 1957

Victory (VC-2)
Rating

A ll seamen (except masters and cadets)......... .

Liberty (EC-2)

C-2

C-3

\)
J

Bulk oarrier (dry)

Average Average dally
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
Average Average daily
N ber daily premium £ /
um
Num
ber dally premium £ /
N ber daily
um
um
Num
ber daily
premium £ /
premium 2 /
premium 2 / N ber dally
of
of
of
of
of
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
seaman ings J / Houre Earnings seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings seamen ings 2 / Hours Earnings seamen ings g / Hours Earnings
M
3.4

* 8 .u

$20.95

2.6

$6.86

609

286 $31.24

$10.19

600 $29.70

2.6

$7.60

600

$29.23

2.8

$8.05

146 $29.04

146
33
33
33
33
7

30.31
37.59
30.31
29.90
26.84
25.11

4.0
5.2
3.8
4.3
3.0
2.7

11.85
16.06
11.40
12.57
8.82
7.84

290
53
53
53
49
53
29

28.58
34.90
29.09
27.29
26.70
27.30
23.01

2.9
2.4
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.1

1.4

8.16
8.03
8.78
8.41
8.56
9.36
3.97

29®
49
49
49
49
49
47

28.67
37.38
29.12
26.39
26.70
28.31
23.42

3.1
3.4
3.2
3.1
3.7
3.4
1.6

9.22
11.17
9.40
8.68
10.20
10.50
5.17

74
15
15
15
12
15
2

6.18
2.29
6.7?
6.25
7.47
7.28
-

140
33
33
33
33
8
-

31.69
37.48
34.44
28.58
28.15
23.82
-

2.8
.3
3.9
3.3
3.7
3.0
-

8.45
1.25
12.08
9.77
10.84
7.88
-

310
53
53
53
58
64
-

30.75
42.54
34.30
28.60
26.74
25.01
-

2.4
1.2
2.3
2.6
2.8
2.7
-

7.08
4.57
7.65
7.26
7.55
7.30
-

308
49
49
49
49
86

26

29.76
40.63
36.09
28.40
25.80
25.42
21.66

2.4
1.0
3.1
2.6
2.8
2.8
1.2

6.94
3.76
9.52
7.45
7.70
7.65
3.38

2.0

4.59

916

19.98

3.4

7.51

1,654

18.12

2.4

5.23

1,782

19.98

2.6

18.90
22.59
21.72
20.10
19.29
14.88

1.9
2.4
2.3
2.2
1.7
1.8

4.84
6.39
6.28
5.84
4.59
3.46

367
30
13
17
201
75

22.88
25.35
22.67
18.61
23.68
15.33

4.2
3.9
2.8
2.5
4.4
2.7

9.68
9.24
7.79
5.43
10.35
4.89

702
53
36
143
311
150

18.98
22.42
21.74
19.62
19.54
15.25

2.5
2.7
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6

5.72
6.64
6.48
5.90
5.89
4.78

656
49
49
138
284
136

22.23
26.48
23.49
23.83
22.70
17.65

646
12
59
56
177
177
167

18.11
15.01
26.23
24.43
18.18
18.33
13.04

2.4
.4
3.1
2.9
3.0
3.0
.9

5.39
.74

287

8.26

7.67
6.37
6.44
1.80

2
95
99
62

17.72
18.30
18.61
18.33
14.73

2.9
2.2
3.3
3.3
1.9

6.14
•
4.70
6.98
6.82
3.76

597
3
53
48
18
159
137
147

18.35
17.12
26.09
25.03
16.32
18.23
18.34
13.04

2.5
1.0
3.2
3.5
1.3
3.1
3.2
1.1

5.55
2.64
8.00
8.48
2.92
6.51
6.69
1.95

601
2
49
46
2
145
141
133

590
59
59
46
72
354

16.84
22.23
20.39
19.53
18.61
14.64

1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.5

3.36
4.25
3.97
4.07
4.08
2.86

262
33
33
28
36
132

18.38
24.24
21.50
20.92
18.79
15.48

2.9
3.3
2.8
3.2
2.6
2.8

6.00
7.88
6.71
7.54
6.15
4.98

555
53
53
49
53
347

16.80
23.11
20.96
20.43
18.38
14.45

2.1
2.7
2.2
2.3
2.2
2.0

4.30
6.20
5.28
5.39
5.19
3.51

525
46
49
46
49
330

2.679 £20.66

A ll licensed seamen .............................................

650

Deck deportment j j ........................................
Chief m ates................ ...............................
Second mates ..............................................
Third m ates................................................
Fourth m ates.................................... .
Radio o ffic e r s ..........................................
Pursers .......................................................

314
59
59
59
59
59
19

Engine department t j .....................................
Chief engineers .........................................
First assistant engineers
.......
Second assistant engineers .....................
Third assistant engineers..................... •
Junior third assistant engineers...........
licensed junior engineers .......................

*5.20.
2.4

$7.10

28.05
34.07
28.09
26.76
26.14
27.29
21.50

2.8
2.3
2.8
3.0
3.4
3.0
.9

8.09
7.58
8.04
8*28
9.21
8.98
3.08

336
59
59
59
59
94
-

29.52
39.16
33.10
28.01
25.88
24.75
-

2.1
.6
2.1
2.2
2.7
2.7
-

A ll unlicensed seamen .........................................

2,029

18.05

Deck department j j . .......................................
Bosuns.............. .........................................
Carpenters .................................................
Deck maintenance.......................................
Able-bodied seamen ...................................
Ordinary seamen.........................................

791
59
50
157
354
171

Engine department ( J .....................................
Unlicensed junior engineers ....................
E lectricia n s..............................................
Second electricians ..................................
Engine maintenance ....................................
Oilers ........................................................
Firemen, water tenders .............................
W ipers.........................................................
Stewards department ( J ......................... .
Chief stewards...........................................
Cooks ..........................................................
Cooks and bakers.......................................
Assistant cook s..................................... .
Messmsn........... ..................................... .

-

*5.81

fit?
2.8

$8.02

27.99
33.72
27.12
27.04
25.56
26.20
26.65

3.1
2.8
2.9
3.3
3.4
3.0
2.8

8.62
8.69
7.75
9.17
9.05
8.35
9.77

72
15
15
15
15
12
-

30.11
36.11
32.03
28.15
28.33
24.91
-

2.6
.1
2.5
3.3
3.8
3.3
-

7.40
.37
7.67
9.15
10.91
9.30
-

6.46

463

17.26

2.8

5.68

3.1
3.9
3.1
3.5
2.9
2.7

8.08
10.4L
8.47
9.67
7.93
5.81

172
15
25
96
36

17.21
20.09
16.81
18.39
13.15

2.8
2.5
1.7
3.1
2.8

5.76
5.43
6.79
4.60

19.77
•17.49
29.64
27.92
15.29
19.14
18.87
13.42

3.0
1.2
4.3
4.1
.7
3.4
3.4
1.1

6.84
3.01
11.93
11.38
1.56
7.45
7.22
2.28

151
12
5
3
45
45
26

17.89
24.08
23.08
17.51
17.64
17.55
12.83

2.6
2.9
2.7
1.2
3.1
3.0
1.0

5.57
6.49
6.41
2.51
6.41
6.31
1.81

17.42
23.11
21.97
20.69
19.57
15.16

1.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.6

4.00
5.29
5.01
5.24
5.66
3.24

140
15
15
13
17
80

16.66
24.03
1902
20.59
18.30
13.83

3.0
3.5
2.7
3.0
3.1
3.0

5.70
7.56
5.70
6.31
6.66
5.05

3M

1 / Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957.
Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtim e, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of
work, and w a r-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging o r gratuities.
3 / Total of overtim e and penalty time.
4 / Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.

JJ




g
TABLE A-24.

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS

DRY-CARGO SHIPS, BY NUMBER OF PORT STOPS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry according to number o f port stops on trips, all ports, May 1957

5 or less
Rating

Average
Num
ber dally
of
earn-,
seamen ings 2/

6 • 10

Average daily
premium £ /
Hours

Num
ber
of
Earning* seamen

11 - 15

Average
Average
Average daily
N ber dally
um
dally
premium 2/
of
earnearn­
lug* 2 / , Hours Earnings seamen ings g f

10.233 *80.71 .

2.8

*6.41

9,055

*80.20

-2 ,7

2,425 129.79

2.8

$8.20

2,152

$29.58

2.8

Deek department 4 / ........................................ ..........
Chief m ates..................................................
Second n a tes.................. .......................................
Third m ates............................................................
fourth m ates..........................................................
Radio o ffic e r s ..................... ........... ....................
Pursers ..................................................................

1,182
241
241
245
128
241
78

3.2
3.5
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.0
1.4

9.09

1,085
217
217
217
159
217
46

28.48
35.02
28.64
26.91
25.58
26.92

3.1
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.0

Engine department U ..................... .......................
Chief engineers....................... .............................
First assistant engineers ....................................
Second assistant engineers ................
Third assistant engineers ....................................
Junior third assistant engineer* ................ .
Licensed Junior engineer .....................................

1,243
241
241
2a

1,067
217
217
217

30.70
38.74
34.78

184

1.9

A ll teaman (exoept matters and eadets).........................
A ll llaensed teamen................ ............................

28.83
35.26
28.76
27.46

25.86

26.98
23.63

47

30.70
38.33
34.83
28.65
27.10
24.96
23.94

2.5
.3
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.7

268
160

2.6

10 . 9a
9.10
9.22
8.90
8.82
4.24

7.35
1.19
10,40

8.86

22.00

28,46

8.50
7.45
7.26

221
11

26,40
24.55
25.05

1.6

Hours

7.650 *20.50

2.7

$6.06

5.910 $20.53

2,6

$6 . 0i

$8.15

1,891 $29.28

2.7

$7.76

1,463

$29.46

2.7

$7.94

3.0
3.1
3.3
3.1
3.2
3.0

8.79

173
77

28.70
35.72
29.35
27.24
25.95
27.30
23.16

704
127
127
127
125
127

29.28
36.53
29.97
28.40
27.11
27.92
22.94

3.2
2.9
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.2
1.9

9.45
9.91
9.95
9.91
9.94
9.71
5.59

974
173
169
171
189
199
73

29.83
39.04
34.55
28.68
26.14
24.90
22.79

2.4
.5

2.3

6.53
2.58
7.46

8.94
9.83

9.26

8.91
8.83
8.81
4.83

.6

2.8

8.35
7.76
5.87

3.0
3.0
3.0

16 and over
Average
Average daily
Num
ber daily
premium £ /
of
earnEarnings seamen ings g/ i Hours Earnings

Average daily
premium 2/

.*6,10 .

7.35
2.28
9.82

2.5

l)
/

8.66

917
173
173
173

148

1.1

10.02

9.53
8.65

9.06

9.02
3.70
6.80
2.04
8.78
8.42

n

2.9
2.7

7.68

1.9

7.59
5.25

167
55

29.63
39.82
34.01
28.68
26,10
25.30
21.27

2.8

2.8

759
127
127
127

156

.8

2.3
2.9

2.6

3.1
1.1

8.28

7.09
8.13
3.04

7,808

17.89

2.8

5.85

6,903

17.27

2.7

5.46

5,759

17.62

2.7

5.50

4,447

17.59

2.6

5.37

Deek department 4 / ..................... .............................
Bosun* ...................................... ............................
Carpenter*....... ......................... ...........................
Deek maintenance ...................... ...........................
Able-bodied seamen...............................................
Ordinary teamen.....................................................

2,958
238
124
406
1,454

3.4
3.2
3.0

18.13

2,142
173
99
338

6.28
5.84

490

1,627
127
79“
289
754
378

18.45
21.91
21.31
19.12
19.07
14.94

2.8

5.35

18.47
21.32
21.17
18.69
19.36
14.68

3.0

1,288
628

3.0
3.1
3.0
2.4
3.2
3.1

6.38
6.89

3.5
3.1

7.14
7.36
6.78
6,07
7.78
5.34

2,585
217
61

666

19.36
22.79
21.52
19.33
20.08
14.83

2.7
2.7
2.4
3.0
2.9

6.14
6.39
6.71
5.67
6.72
5.16

Engine department 4 / .......................... ................
Unlicensed junior engineers ................................
Electricians ..................................... ....................
Second electrloia n a .............................................
Engine maintenance .................. ............................
O ile rs ........................................... ......................
Firemen, water tenders .........................................
Wipers .....................................................................

2,575
50
155
94
59
732
707
587

17.25
17.83
24.65
24.42
15.73
17.22
17.42
12.98

2.4

5.01

2,270

2.3

12.66

1.0

2.7
2.5
1.5
3.1
3.3

430

17.63
15.80
24.35
22.91
16.70
17.86
17.94
12.54

1.22

1.2

1,455
47
125
*04
36
377
376
338

.6

3.1

3.43
6.57
7.71
2.53
5.72
5.97

1,874
36
152
109
48
523

1.1

6.35
6.29
3.23
6.44
6.51
1.76

Stewards department 4 / ............................................
Chief stewards *....................................................
Cooks .......................................................................
Cooks and bakers........................................... .
Assistant cooks .....................................................
Hessmen ........................................................ .

2,275
238
238
220
245
1,318

16.71
23.00
20.3*
19,71
18.49
u .10 ,

2.7
3.2
2.7
2.8
2.8
2.6

1,743
169
167
163
170
1,051

16.74
22.97
20.85
20.08
18.75
14.29

2.6
3.1
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5

1,365
124
127
120
131
854

16.51
22.80
20.71
19.91
18.70
14.17

2.5
3.0
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.4

4.72
6.60
5.65
5.66
5.76
4.04

A ll unlicensed seamen ............................................... .

2.6

1.6
2.8
1.2
2.8

2.9

366

22.02

21.53
18.16
18.86
14.36

7.22
5.22
6.88

2.16

18
647
637
516

16.97
16.20
23.87
22.29
17.77
17.11
17.54
12.59

1.1

4.76
1.56
5.98
5*71
4.08
5.71
6.19
1.87

5.13
7.08
5.93
6.03
6.01
4.31

2,048
217
217
208
222
1,184

16.52
22.74
20.17
19.90
17.88
13.87

2.8
3.2
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7

5.07
6.89
5.93
5.89
5.71
4.32

100
164

120

.8

2.7
2.5

2.0
2.8

3.0

1,036

510

2.6
2.8

6.62

2.4
3.3
3.0

5.53
7.08
5.03

17.46

2.4

23.87
22.69

2.5
2.4
1.3
2.9
3.2

5.07
1.71
5.61
5.90

16.11

16.26

17.64
18.12

.8

6.05

2.93
6.11
6.66
Of
Xo85
4.99

6.02
5.94

5.83
4.29

2.5

5.12

1 / Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957,
2 / Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtim e, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra m eals, passenger allowances, payments for division of
work, and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3 / Total of overtim e and penalty time.
Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE A-25,

AVERAGE DAILY EARNINGS — DRY-CARGO SHIPS, BY TRADE AREAS

(Average daily earnings of seamen manning seagoing dry-cargo ships in the United States Maritime Industry by selected trade areas, May 1957

M)

Trade areas
Prom West Coast to—

Prom Atlantic and Gulf Coast to—
KineYlBr'alRl"

Intercoaatal
Pacifio
Garibbean ,
A e rage
v:
A e rage
v]
Aeajc
vrgf
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
daily
d:
a uy , Number daily
d:
a Uy
daily
Number daily
daily
Number daily
Number daily
Number daily
Number daily
daily
of
of
remiipe 3/ of
of
premiums 3/ of
premiuma 3/
earn­
earn­ e
earn- premiums 3/ of
Earn­ seamen inga 2/ Hours Earn­
seamen ings 2/ Hours Fam­ seamen ings 2/ Hours Earn­ seamen ings 2/ Hours Earn­ seamen ings 2/ Hours Earn­ seamen ings 7j Hours
ings
ings
ines
ig.
ns,
ings
ings
All seamen (except masters and
cadets) ....................

Mediterranean

"Atlantic Europe and

£19.68
*20.01 . 2.9 i M ?
1,070 *29.33 2.9 *3.06 1,171 $29.69

Pacific

5.122 ft9.75
2t7
2.9 *3.30 1,206 $29.73

2« ??.?? 1*053 *19.72
?

2,7 £5.32 5,797 S20.36

2.7 $7.38 1,224 $23.90

, 3,2 ,$7.2L

2.6 $7.58 1,409 $29.44

2*
?
2,6 $7.54

920 $29.68

2.3 $8,30

3.0 *.91
3.3 10.56
3.4 9.62
3.4 9.46
3.5 9.67
3.0 3,32
1.2 3.64

560
115
115
115
72
115
23

29.22
35.26
29.46
27.96
26.19
26.97
25.67

3.2 9.63
3.3 10.75
3.4 10.03
3.5 10.06
3.3 9.45
3.0 9.86
1.7 5.12

619
121
121
121
104
121
31

23,51
35.90
28.75
26.39
25.44
27.21
20.32

2.9
2.9
3.1
3,0
3.1
3.0
1.0

3.53
9.53
8.79
3.47
3.39
3.77
3.40

536
115
115
115
103
115
13

23.19
34.02
23.56
26.70
25.53
27.20
21.75

3.0
2.5
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.1
1.3

3.57
3.28
8.95
8.63
8.35
9.08
4.31

677
127
127
127
109
127
60

23.57
34.65
29.09
27.38
26.62
27.73
22.42

2.9
2.5
3.2
3.2
3.5
3.2
.9

8.35
8.35
3.95
3.76
9.05
9.35
2.37

461
99
99
99
35
99
17

29.19
36.12
23.47
26.94
24.80
26.$4
27.31

3,3 9.69
4.2 13.09
3.1 9.21
3.0 8.60
3.0 3.26
2.9 3.52
3.2 8.92

545 30.26
99 39.94
99 35.18

2.5
,
5
3.1

7.24
2,01
9.72

611 30.13
115 33,03
115 35.65

2.3 7.07
.
3 1.35
3.4 10.92

537 31.13
121 39,01
121 34.30

2.5
.
3
2.9

7.20
1,24
9.26

633 29.56
115 33.10
111 33.50

2.3
.4
2.5

6.68
1.62
7.92

732 30.25
127 40.20
127 33.69

2.3
.7
2.4

6.79
2.39
7.57

459 30,17
99 37.56
99 33.73

2.4 6,90
.
3 1.29
3.3 10.15

99 29.17
99 26.37

3.1
3.0

3.43
3.21

115 28.39
146 26.55

3.0
2.6

3,33
7.53

119 29.52
121 26.77

3.3
3.0

9.54
3.44

115 23.83
139 25.65

3.2
2.5

9.19
6.92

127 23.65
141 27,09

2.6
3.0

7.33
3.23

99 27.38
99 26.56

2.8
3.0

7.97
3,78

66 25.19
46 22.49

3.2
1.7

3.70
4.79

77 24.10
43 21.76

2.6
1.3

7.43
5.01

97 25.05
3 20.00

3.0
.
3

3.13
.64

123 24.39
35 23.22

3.0
2.0

7.33
5.37

192 24.91
13 28.77

2.6 7.03
3.4 10.05

45 23.49
10 21.04

3.0
.
5

6.92
1.63

3,390 17.06

2.9

5.73 3,654 16.47

2.6

5.09 3,916 16.65

2.5

4.81 3,334 16.79

2.7

5.26 4,333 18.11

2.2

4.94 2,946 18.78

3.3

6,91

Peck department £/ ..........
Bosuns ........ ........
Carpenters.... .
Peck maintenance....... *
.
Able-bodied seamen ........
Ordinary seamen ..........

1,203 19.30
99 22.32
43 20.93
159 19.69
609 19.07
295’ 14.91

3.6
3.6
3.4
3.0
3.3
3.7

7.10 1,330 17.13
7.64
115 20.57
6.62
47 20.70
6.05
195 17.47
634 17.93
7.97
5.99
339 13.75

2.9
2.6
3.0
2.3
3.1
3.0

5.33 1,452 16,39
5.50
121 20.03
6.61
19 19,73
230 17.16
4.94
6.53
715 17.77
4.93
363 13.74

2.6
2,1
2.5
1.3
2,9
2,8

5.30 1,440 17.28
113 20.55
4.59
5.46
63 19.54
4.01
229 17.06
635 18,14
6.01
4.95
345 14.17

3.0
2.7
2,7
2.1
3.3
3.3

5.91 1,660 18.32
5.56
127 22.29
5.64
89 21.22
326 19.73
4.54
6.73
749 19.29
360 15.11
5.24

2.2
2.4
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.2

5.16 1,137 21.02
6.23
99 24.67
5.70
49 21.50
5.72
80 17.77
5,13
590 21.82
258 15.14
4,11

4,1
4.0
3.3
2.3
4.2
3.4

8.36
9.37
7.43
5.07
9,58
5.31

Engine department jj ........
Unlicensed junior
engineers..... ...... .
Electricians... ........
Second electricians ..... .
Engine maintenance......
Oilers .................
Firemen, water tenders ....
Wipers.... .............

1,119 16.72

2.3

4.69 1,199 15.93

2.0

4.13 1,309 16.56

2,0

4.03 1,269 16.71

2.2

4.50 1,419 13.41

2.5

5.68

932 17.54

2.3

5.59

90
69
22
306
297
251

16,29
23.51
22.17
19.07
16.40
17.24
12.63

1.2
2.7
2.7
2.2
2.6
2.9
1.3

2.45
5.74
5.69
4.62
5.22
6.05
2.13

22
30
33
49
345
345
235

16.14
21.76
19.29
14.39
16.71
16.73
12.00

1.2
1.9
1.4
.
6
2.7
2.7
.9

2.39
4.03
2.77
1.35
5.49
5.57
1.53

96
104
64
10
363
359
293

16.77
22.11
19.70
17.79
16.88
17.55
12.23

.9
1.7
1.4
2.0
2.5
2.9
.
3

1.36
3.60
3.07
4,14
5.24
5.95
1.34

15.30
22.57
21.17*
15.12
16.87
17,60
12.35

.
6
2.2
2.2
.
3
2.7
3.1
1.1

1,21
4.71
4.54
1.79
5.59
6.32
1.32

19.33
27.00
25.52
16.64
18.30
18.35
13.13

1.5
3.4
3.3
1.3
3.1
3.2
1.0

3.90
8.92
3.31
3.02
6.56
6.65
1.95

45
30
15
293
275
225

24.48
23.18
22.08
13.04
17.97
13.39

2.9
3.0
4.0
3.1
3.4
1.6

6.77
6.70
3.40
6.50
6.53
2.65

Stewards department ij .......
Chief stewards, tanker ....
Cooks .*..... .
Cooks and bakers .........
Assistant oooks .............
Messmen ................

1,069
99
99
99
99
643

16.03
23.19
20,12
19.66
1*.16
13.53

2.9
3.9
3.0
2.9
3.0
2.3

5.25 1,075 16.22
3.20
115 22.39
6,38
115 19.63
111 19.44
6.17
6.13
112 17.95
4.52
622 13.47

2.9
3.4
2.9
2,3
3.0
2.9

5.21 1,155 16.47
121 22 . a
7.12
5.93
119 20.43
5.37
119 19.73
121 13.16
6.23
4.44
675 13.34

2.9
3.2
2.3
2.9
2.7
2.3

5.08 1,125 16.25
6.70
111 21.90
6.02
111 20.31
106 19.64
5.73
116 13.33
5.74
631 13.79
4.38

2.9
3.2
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.3

5.27 1,309 16.37
6.64
127 22.64
6.21
127 20.63
6.13
114 20.21
6.04
141 18.56
4.62
797 14.57

1.3
2.1
1.9
2.1
2.0
1.7

3.38
5.15
4.73
5.00
4.73
3.21

877
99
99
95
91
435

17.18
24.02
20.70
20.05
13.a
14.27

3.1
3.8
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9

5.30
3.35
6.68
6.65
6.44
4.31

All licensed seamen .*....... .
Peck department £/ ........ .
Chief mates.............
Second mates...... .
Third mates .............
Fourth mates..... .... ..
radio officers......... .
Pursers
......

525
99
99
99
66
99
63

Engine department (J ........
Chief engineers .........
First assistant engineers . .
.
Fecond assistant
engineers......... .
Thirds assistant engineers . .
.
Junior third assistant
engineers .......... .
Licensed junior engineers . .
.
All unlicensed seamen .........

a

2*.36
35.42
29.18
27.57
26.14
26.93
21.*0

51
103
67
40
347
355
230

8
113
101
23
381
360
336

•
*

1/ Data relate to latest trips ending prior to June 1957. For definition of trade areas see Scope and Method of Survey in appendix A.
? / Includes all wage payments and allowances, such as pay in lieu of overtim e, tool and uniform allowances, pay for serving extra meals, passenger allowances, payments for division of work,
and w ar-risk bonuses in addition to premiums shown separately. Does not include any value for board and lodging or gratuities.
3/ Total of overtime and penalty time.
? / Includes data fo r other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE B-1.

ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT

(Number of seamen and average days of em ploym ent^/ by selected ratings, all seamen and those considered industry connected, 2/ and by coast of employment
in the United States Maritime Industry, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
—

All seamen
All ports
Rating

Atlantic and Gulf
Cossts ports

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

All seamen (except pursers and reliefmen).......

*5.541

212

63.976

215

All licensed seamdn ............ .............

16,30*

233

10,*89

231

Deck denartsient 2/ .............. .
Masters ...............................
Chief mates ........ ....................
Second mates ................. ....... .
Third mates........................ .
Fourth mates ........................ .
Radio officers ..................... .

7,999
1,004
1,262
1,339
1,604
1,060
1,6*0

235
254
255
244
227
19*
234

4,684
714
927
1,044
1,209
765
-

236
250
253
245
228
199
-

Engine department 2/ ..................... .
Chief engineers................... .
First assistant engineers ............. .
Second assistant engineers ...... .
Third assistant engineers ................
Junior third assistant engineers ...........
Licensed junior engineers ................

*,309
1,378
1,354
a-,342
1,834
1,437
456

231
259
243
232
231
201
201

6,205
1,106
1,026
1,402
1,3*6
917
-

228
254
240
225
230
193
-

All unlicensed seamen........................

69,233

207

53,087

Deck department 2/ .................
Bosuns .....••......... ......... ...... .
Carpenters........................... .
Deck maintenance..... ......... .........
Able-bodied seamen ............. ..... .
Ordinary seamen ........................

24,613
1,727
640
3,111
15,525
5,866

210
228
219
219
220
180

Engine department 2/ ..................... .
Electricians ............. ..... .......
Second electricians .................... .
Oilers ...............................
Firemen, miter tenders ................ ..
Wipers........................ .......

19,746
1,239
662
5,7*9
4,901
5,095

Stewards department 2 / .................. .
Chief stewards, all ships ................
Chefs, passenger ...................... .
Cooks, passenger ................. ......
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker...............
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ......
Assistant cooks, passenger ••«...... .
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Stewards, passenger ••••••••••••.••.........
Waiters, passenger ................ .
Messmen, all ships....... .......... .
Bellboys, passenger .......... .

24,874
1,649
830
505
1,038
1,162
560
1,202
1,455
1,495
11,877
440

Industry connected seamen
West Coast ports
Number
of
seamen

All ports

Atlantic and Gulf
Coasts ports

West Coast ports

Average
days
worked

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

201

64.583

243

49 .o a

245

14.211

235

3,739

238

12,727

258

8,374

256

3,022

262

1,635
290
335
295
395
295
-

236
263
261
242
223
193
-

6,140
794
1,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

261
274
276
264
254
235
261

3,579
569
732
*59
924
470
-

260
271
276
265
251
232
-

1,230
225
275
240
270
200
-

265
2*4
277
258
264
240
-

2,104
272
328
440
448
520
-

239
279
251
254
233
216
-

6,5*7
1,194
1,136
1,544
1,468
945
300

255
276
257
253
253
235
246

4,795
954
832
1,152
1,092
521
-

254
271
254
248
252
238
-

1,792
240
304
392
376
424
-

259
298
265
268
257
232
-

211

16,146

193

51,856

239

40,667

243

11,1*9

227

18,587
1,440
_
2,140
9,607
4,520

214
233
216
224
192

6,026
287
971
2,918
1,346

196
198
226
209
139

19,037
1,485
565
2,616
10,192
3,784

237
250
228
233
240
226

14,607
1,240
.
1,820
7,767
3,240

2a
255
230
245
232

4,430
245
796
2,425
5U

224
220
•
2a
224
193

206
222
216
221
208
177

14,880
9*0

209
228
224
210
178

4,866
259
_
1,309
1,141
1,275

197
201
_
208
204
175

14,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

240
257
229
244
237
230

11,260
720

242
264

3,430
196

235
234

3,740
2,880
2,460

245
236
230

987
819
735

240
238
231

205
258
261
249
216
222
241
134
211
187
195
187

19,620
1,300
700
960
•
860

211
276
•
228
222
185
199
•

5,254
349

186
191
•
190
220

18,129
1,494
730
455
795
857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

2a
273
269
264
235
247
264
219
243
224
229
238

14,800
1,220
560
700
620
•

245
286

3,329
274

240
250
_
218

•
235
157

225
213
•
»
224
234

4,430
3,760
3,*20

9,460

- 19,885

338
202
_
342

184

-

2,417
-

191
•

-

•

-

7,000
-

230

222
-

1,607
•

220
•
228
-

I Includes all maritim e employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and unions in the industry. Does not include shoreside employment or
f
employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation tim e. Employment on oil company tankers not covered by these funds was also excluded.
2 A seaman was considered "industry connected" if he had been employed in the industry at any time during the first half of 1956 and had also been employed after June 30, 1957. No check
f
was made to see if he was. actually available for work.
3/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately. Data on radio officers were not available by coast.




TABLE B-2. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — INDUSTRY CONNECTED SEAMEN,-^ALL PORTS
(P e rce n ta g e d istrib u tion o f se a m e n w ho w e re em p loy ed both b e fo r e and a fte r the y ea r o f study in the United States M aritim e Industry
b y nu m ber o f days o f seagoin g em p loym en t 2 / during the y e a r ...July 1, 1956— June 30, * 1957)
300

Averagei
30
Maher days
Under
of
Worked
30 under
seamen during days
60

90

13Q

150

180

2IP

240

370

W

All seamen (except pursers and relief
m e n ) ......................................

6A.583

243

0.6

1.8

2.5

?f6

5.3

6.8

JCfJ

Ht?

14,6

itf*?

All licensed seamen.... ........ ......... .

12,727

258

0.6

1.1

2.1

2.8

4.6

4.8

6.9 10.3

13.2

18.1

Deck department 2/ .......................
Misters ......... .....................
Chief m a t e s ...........................
Second ma t e s ...... .......... ....... .
Third m a t e s .........* ................
Fourth mates ............. .............
Radio officers.... ...................

6,1£0
7941,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

261
274
276
264
254
235
261

•4
.
•5

.9
1.4
1.5
2.3*

2.6
3.1
2.0
2.3
3.8
3.7
1.4

1.9
1.3
1.0
.9
3.4
3.7
1.8

5.0
4.4
5.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
4.8

5.3
3.1
4.0
4.5
4.2
8.2
7.7

5.8
8.9
5.7
.6
8.9
2.5
9.1
7.3
6.7
10.5
8.2 19.4
5.0 #7.1

Engine department 2 / ....... •............
Chief engineers .................... .
First assistant engineers............ .
Second assistant engineers............
Third assistant engineers.............
Junior third assistant engineers.......
Licensed Junior engineers ..............

6,587
1.194
1,136
1,544
1,468
945
300

255
276
257
253
253
235
246

1.0
.5
1.7
2.7

1.2
.7
2.1
2.2
.8
-

1.7
1.3
.7
1.0
1.1
3.4
8.0

3.6
1.3
5.8
3.9
3.8
3.4
2.7

4.2
1.3
7.0
3.1
3.8
7.8
-

4.3
2.0
5.1
3.6
3.8
8.5
3.3

8.0
4.0
7.0
7.9
12.1
7.6
8.0

All unlicensed seamen.......................

51,856

239

.6

2.0

2.6

3.8

5.4

7.3

10.9 11.6

14.9

14.3

7.8

3.3

Deck department 2 / .......................
Bosuns ...............................
Carpenters ................... .
Deck maintenance......................
Able-bodied seamen....................
Ordinary seaman.......................

19,037
1,485
565
2,6l6
10,1%
3,784

237
250
228
233
240
226

.4
1.2
.7
-

2.2
.9
4.4
1.5
3.9

2.8
4.6
8.3
3.1
2.4
2.7

3.4
1.8
2.5
2.1
3.1
6.4

6.1
1.3
18.1
5.4
6.5
5.9

7.3
9.0
1.2
8.8
6.4
8.4

11.2 11.3
9.5 12.3
6.0 14.5
7.3
14.2
10.9 12.3
11.6 10.5

15.7 16.4 13.4
19.9 15.4 10.4
9.7 13.1
9.7
15.7 15.4 14.1
15.2 17.6 13.6
15.5 13.6 14.8

7.7
12.2
10.8
6.2
8.1
6.2

2.0
2.7
4.8
3.4
1.8
.7

Engine department 2 / .....................
Electricians..........................
Second electricians..... ........ .....
Oilers ...............................
Firemen, water tenders.... ............
Wipers ...............................

14,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

240
257
229
244
237
230

.8
4.6
1.1
.5
.4

1.5
4.4
.3
1.3
1.1

1.7
.
2.4
2.4
1.8
1.9

4.3
.8
2.4
3.3
4.0
6.5

4.9
2.3
9.2
3.9
4.9
6.8

6.3
5.9
4.8
5.8
5.9
9.0

12.3
7.4
11.6
11.8
16.0
11.8

Stewards department 2 / ...................
Chief stewards, all s h i p s .............
Chefs, passenger .......................
Cooks, passenger.... ..................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ........... .
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ..
Assistant cooks, passenger ............
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Stewards, passenger............ ......
Waiters, passenger ....................
Msemen, all ships •••••...............
b
Bellboys, passenger................ .

18,129
1,494
730
455
795
857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

241
273
269
264
235
247
264
219
243
224
229
238

.6
.7
.6
1.9
2.1
.5

2.2
.7
2.2
2.3
5.9
2.8
4.1
2.6
1.5

2.9
3.1
2.7
1.1
1.8
.6
5.3
2.4
6.2
3.3

3.8
1.7

5.3
3.5
1.0
3.0
5.7
3.1
4.8
6.1

5.2
5.0
2.7
1.1
6.3
5.3
1.0
4.8
7.1
4.6
5.3
7.6

965
618

105
89

8.3
28.8

20.7
20.7

20.7
7.8

15.0
9.1

10.9
10.4

Arimary rating

-

.8
.5
.9
.7
-

-

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

330
-

-

-

and

360

over

8t?

W

3.4 _

20.2

11.7

3.7

13.7 18.2 20.0
17.6 23.9 19.5
12.4 14.2 28.8
12.7 19.6 20.5
17.6 13.8 16.8
13.4 15.7 12.7
10.1 21.2 20.0

13.1
11.8
15.3
12.6
15.8
5.2
14.3

4.2
8.8
5.5
4.5
1.7
2.2
3.6

10.3
9.9
12.7
7.3
12.8
8.8
10.7

3.2
2.8
3.7
1.6
5.6
2.5
2.7

11.6 12.8
9.4 16.6
9.5
9.5
12.4 13.5
11.6 13.2
7.6
16.9
8.0 21.3

18.0 20.3
22.9 27.6
15.7 22.5
20.1 22.5
16.5 12.9
13.1 17.8
18.7 14. 0
15.4

11.9 17.7 14.1
6.7 24.2 18.3
9.2
16.4 19.8
13.5 19.1 12.7
10.4 17.7 16.6
14.5 13.2 14.1

13.9
17.6
3.6
15.1
12.0
12.7

7.1
5.9
4.6
7.6
6.9
5.3

3.5
6.6
11.4
3.4
2.0
2.7

8.2
9.5
5.5
7.4
8.2
5.5
8.8
5.5
15.7 13.2
5.8
9.3
5.2
9.4
9.5 10.1
7.5
2.4
13.3 11.3
8.9 11.1
13.6
-

11.6
4.5
2.7
13.2
5.9
18.1
16.7
10.3
7.5
4.6
14.3
25.8

11.9
8.4
8.2
17.6
13.8
10.5
16.7
20.8
12.3
11.3
10.9
6.1

15.4
16.9
32.9
18.7
10.1
17.2
16.7
19.0
23.6
12.8
14.0
21.2

15.7
8.4
19.1 19.5
24.7
3.4
14.3
9.9
8*4
3.1
19.8
2.9
16.7 12.5
4.8
4.8
14.2
9.9
8.7
14.9
15.0
6.5
6.1 12.1

4.5
8.4
8.2
7.7
15.7
4.7
4.2
1.8
2.8
3.1
2.8
-

6.2
7.8

3.6
3.9

4.1
3.9

1.0
-

Relief workers, not included in above:
Relief mates .............................
Relief engineers ••••...... ...............

9.3
7.8

-

-

-

1/ F o r d efin ition of in d u stry c o n n e cted sea m en , se e footn ote 2, table B - l .
]Z/ Includes a ll m a r itim e em ploym en t as r e p o r te d to the v a r io u s v a ca tion funds m aintained join tly by the com pan ies and the unions in the
in d u stry . D oes not includ e sh o re sid e em p loy m en t or em ploym en t on inland w aterw ays or the G reat Lakes o r p aid-vacation tim e . E m p loy ­
m ent on oil com pan y tan k ers not c o v e r e d by the funds w as a ls o ex clu d ed .
3 Includes other ra tin g s in addition to th ose shown s e p a r a te ly .
1




TABLE B-3. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — INDUSTRY CONNECTED SEAMEN,-^ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS
(P e rce n ta g e d istrib u tion o f seam en who w e re em p loy ed both b e fo r e and a fter the y ea r of study in the United States M aritim e Industry
b y num ber o f days o f seagoin g em ploym en t 2 / during the y e a r , July 1, 1956*—June 30, 1957)
210

Average
30
Number days
Under
and
worked
30 under
of
seamen during days
year
6p

60

90

120

150

130

49.041

245

°t5

lT?

2 t4

?f6

?T°

6.J> 10,0

^T?

iVr-4

8,374

256

0.7

1.1

2.3

3.1

4.6

4.2

7.3

10.5

14.3

Deck department 2 / .......**.... . •.......
Masters ...............................
Chief mates ............ ..............
Second m a t e s .... .....................
Third mates ......... ..................
Fourth mates ....... ............. .....

3,579
569
732
859
924
470

260
271
276
265
251
232

.3
1.1
-

.6
1.2
2.1

2.8
3.5
2.7
1.2
4.3
2.1

2.0
1.8
1.4
3.2
4.3

5.6
5.3
4.1
4.7
6.0
3.5

5,0
3,5
4.1
5.3
4.3
8.5

6.4
2.7
8.1
10.8
8.5

9.1 14.7
4.4 20.2
7.5 13.7
9.9 12.3
7.6 16.2
19.1 10.6

Engine department 2 j ......*.... .........
Chief engineers .......................
First assistant engineers ..............
Second assistant engineers •,. ........ ..
Third assistant engineers ........... .
Junior third assistant engineers

4,795
954
832
1,152
1,092
521

254
271
254
248
252
238

1.0
.8
•
1.4
.7
1.5

1.5
_
1.0
2.8
2.2
1.5

2.0
1.7
1.0
1.4
1.5
4*6

4.0
1.7
6.0
4.5
4.4
3.1

3.9
1.7
8.7
2.8
2.2
8.1

3.6
2.5
3.1
3.5
2.9
7.7

7.9 11.6
5.0
9.2
6.7 11.1
9.2 11.1
12.6 13.4
4.6 15.4

40,667

243

.5

2.0

2.4

3.7

5.1

7.0

10.6

2.5
3.2
4.4
1.3
1.9

3.2
1.6
2.2
2.7
6.2

5.3
1.6
5.5
6.2
5.6

7.0 10.5
9.7
9.7
7.7 15.4
5.9 10.0
8.0 10.5

11.0
11.3
5.5
12.1
10.5

15.5
21.0
16.5
14.9
14.3

16.4
34.5
9.9
18.5
14.8

Primary rating

90

120

150

180

240

270

300

330

3&
and

2*0

J60

over

}6,2

8t?

3.6

17.4

19.2

12.0

3.1

17,1
22.0
16.1
19.8
12.4
17.0

19.3
20.2
28.0
19.2
15.2
11.7

13.2
10.4
14.2
12.7
17.7
6.4

4.1
8.8
5.5
4.7
1.1
1.1

14.1
19.1
12.0
13.2
14.1
7.7

17.7
19.5
13.7
20.7
16.3
16.1

19.1
27.0
18.3
21.2
11.5
18.4

11.1
10.7
15.4
7.6
12.1
11.3

2.5
1.0
3.1
.7
6.0

14.5

15.1

15.6

8.2

3.7

15.1
11.3
16.5
15.2
16.7

8.4
12.9
7.7
3.5
6.3

2.2
3.2
3.3
2.1
.6

?7Q

?0Q ,

All seamen (except pursers, relief
men, and radio officers) ....................
All licensed seamen.... ....................

All unlicensed seamen.... ..................

11.7

-

Deck department 2/ ••.....................
Bosuns ...............................
Deck maintenance ........ ............ ..
Able-bodied seamen......... ..........
Ordinary seamen ........... ........... .

14,607
1,240
1,820
7,767
3,240

2U
255
230
245
232

•4
.8
-

2.2
5.5
1.3
3.7

Engine department 2 / ................ ..
Electricians .............. ............
Oilers ...............................
Firemen, water tenders ............ .
Wipers............. ............... .

11,260
720
3,740
2,880
2,460

242
264
245
236
230

.7
1.1
.7

1.4
5.6
1.4
.3

1.6
2.7
1.4
1.6

4.4
3.7
4.2
6.5

4.4
3.2
4.9
6.5

6.0 12.6
5.6
5.6
5.9 11.2
4.9 17.4
9.8 13.0

12.8
5.6
14.4
11.1
17.1

16.9
25C0
19.3
17.4
10,6

13.1
19.4
11.3
15.3
13.3

14.2
19.4
15.0
11.3
12.2

7.5
5.6
7.5
7.6
4.9

4.3
8.3
4.3
2,1
3.3

Stewards department 2 / ...................
Chief stewards, all ships ..............
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ............
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ..
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Masemen, all ships .............. .

14,800
1,220
560
700
620
7,000

245
286
240
250
218

230

.3

2.3
.
•
2.9
6.5
2.9

2.3
1.6
•
6.5
3.4

3.5
1.6
3.6
2.9
3.2
4.6

5.0
3.3
7.1
5.7
3.2
5.4

7.3
9.1
8.2
3.3
17.9 17.9
8.6
5.7
9.7
6.5
8.6 10.9

11.5
3.3
3.6
20.0
9.7
14.6

11.6
8.2
14.3
8.6
25.3
10.0

15.4
18.0
3.6
14.3
19.4
14.0

17.2
21.3
7.1
22.9
3.2
16.6

8.6
21.3
3.6
2.9
6.5
6.0

4.7
9.3
21.4
5.7
2,9

730
458

102
92

5.5
26.6

24.7
19.2

23.3
7.0

16.4
3.7

6.3
14.0

2.7
5.2

4.1
1.7

1.4
-

-

•

.4
-

-

Relief workers not included in abovet
Relief mates ............................ .
Relief engineers ............ .

9.6
10.5

5.5
7.0

*
■

1/

F o r d e fin ition o f in d u stry co n n e cte d sea m en , see footnote 2, table B - l .
Includes all m a r itim e em ploy m en t as r e p o r te d to the v a riou s v a ca tion funds m aintained join tly by the com p an ies and the unions in the
in d u stry . D oes not in clu d e s h o re s id e em ploym en t or em p loym en t on inland w aterw ays or the Great L akes or p a id -v a ca tio n tim e . E m p loy ­
m ent on oil com p an y tan k ers not c o v e r e d by the funds w as a ls o ex clu d ed .

"f
I

37 Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.
not in This tabulation.




Data on radio officers were not available by coasts and are, therefore,

TABLE B-4. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — INDUSTRY CONNECTED SEAMEN,-M*EST COAST PORTS
(P e rce n ta g e d istrib u tio n o f sea m en who w e r e e m p loy ed both b e fo r e and after the y e a r o f study in the United States M aritim e Industry
by num ber o f days o f seagoin g em p loym en t 2 / during the y e a r , July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
—

Primary rating

Average
H r -ar “ *r
Under and
Number
days
30 under
of
worked
seamen during daya
sear _
n
to 90

All stamen (except pursers, relief
men, end radio officers) ..................

235

0.8

1.7

t s t

150 - n r “ 3 F - s a r

270

300

330

360
and

180

210

240

270

300 ,33P

360

over

?t?

4.0

6||

7.8

11.0

11.3

15.5

16|8

12.5

6.8

2.6

All licensed seamen.............. .........

3,022

262

0.4

0.4

1.9

2.4

4.4

5.0

6.8

11.0

11.5

18.4

22.9

9.6

5.3

Deck department £/ •••••.................
Misters..... ........................
Chief n a t e s .......... ...............
Second m a t e s .........................
Third mates .................... .
fourth m a t e s ...................... .

1,230
225
275
240
270
200

265
284
277
258
264
240

.4
.4
1.8
2.1
- • -

3.3
2.2
6.2
1.9
7.5

2.0

3.3
2.2
3.6
3.7
7.5

4.9
2.2
1.8
4.2
9.3
7.5

10.2 14.6
8.9 11.1
9.1
12.7
6.2 12.5
22.2
3.7
20.0 20.0

17.9
23.9

3.7
2.5

3.7
2.2
7.3
4.2
1.9
-

22.4 U . 8
17.8 15.6
30.9 18.2
25.0 12.5
22.2
9.3
15.0
2.5

5.3
8.9
5.5
4.2
3.7
5.0

Engine department J/ .........................................
Chief engineers ............... .
First assistant engineers ............
Second assistant engineers ............
Third assistant engineers.......... .
Junior third assistant engineers......

1,792
240
304
392
376
424

259
298
265
268
257
232

1.9

.4
2.1
-

.9
1.9

2.7
5.3
2.0
2.1
3.8

4.9
2.6
4.1
8.5

7.5

6.2
10.5
4.1
6.4
9.4

8.0
7.9
4.1
10.6
11.3

11.6
9.4 18.7
10.0
6.7 36.7
2.6 21.1
5.3
16.3 14.3 18.4
6.4 10.6 17.0
18.9
7.5
9.4

All unlicensed seamen ............. ....... ..

11,189

227

.9

2.0

3.3

4.4

6.6

8.5

12.2

H.4

16.5

Seek department £ / .................... ..
Bosuns ......... ........... ..........
Peek maintenance ......... ........... .
Able-bodied teamen ...............
Ordinary seamen.... ...... .

4,430
245
796
2,425
544

224
220
2a
224
193

.3
.3
-

2.4
5.7
1.8
2.0
5.1

4.1
11.4
«
4.3

4.3
2.9
1.8
4.3

7.1
5.3
7.5

7 .7

7 .7

7 .7

8.4
5.7
11.4
8.1
10.3

13.2
8.6
11.4
13.7
18.0

Engine department £ / .................. .
ElectricIans .........................
Oilers..............................
Firemen, water tenders ...............
Wipers ..............................

3,430
196
987
819
735

235
234
240
238
231

1.0
1.4
-

1.6
1.4
.9
1.9

2.2
1.4
3.4
2.9

3.7
3.6
1.4
3.4
6.7

6.5
10.7
6.4
5.1
7.6

7.1
7.1
5.7
9.4
6.7

11.4
14.3
14.2

.9.2
10.7

Stewards department 3 / ..................
Ohief stewards, all ships .............
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .
Assistant cooks, dry-oargo and tanker ••
Maasmen, all ships ...................

3,329
274
235
157

225
213
224
234

1.7
3.6

2.0

3.3

2.1

9.9
6.0

222

220

-

•
4.5

1,607

228

1.4

1.2

235

113
224

17.0
“

8.5
•

.4
-

-

1.9

-

-

4.2

23.2
30.0
34.2
26.5
17.0
17.0

8.0
6.7
5.3
6.1
14.9
5.7

5.4
10.0
5.3
4.1
4.3
5.7

16.4

9.7

6.1

1.9

12.5 16.4
17.1 14.3
11.4 14.1
13.0 16.2
10.3 19.3

16.4
20.0
28.1
14.4
6.4

7.8

5.5
8.6
2.6
6.6
2.6

1.6

5.7
8.5
8.4
3.5

20.2
21.4
9.9 18.4
7.7 18.8
5.7 21.9

17.1
14.3
16.3
21.4
15.2

12.9
10.7
15.6
12.3
14.3

5.9
7.1
7.8
4.3
6.7

1.0
1.7
1.0

5.8 10.1 11.7 12.3 12.9 15.6
5.2
9.0
7.1
1.8 12.4 15.3 3.6 9.9 9.1 11.7 9.1 11.7
2.1 11.5 12.8 25.5 11.5 2.1
4.3 10.6
9.4

1.8
2.1

3.2
9.0
4.7

6.4
9.0
10.5

12.8 10.6 23.4

8.5
“

3.2
2.3
2.5

9.1
18.7
18.5
12.5

6.4
2.3

6.0

11.1
7.6

12.7
20.3

9.6

19.1

29.9

12.2

6.8 13.0
12.0 13.4 14.8 13.9

6.4
9.0
8.3

3.2

3.5
1.2
1.3

3.3
-

6.8
8.8

2.5

Relief workers, not included in above:
Relief m a t e s ..........................
Relief engineers ........... ............

56

14.3

1 / F or d e fin ition o f in d u stry co n n e cte d se a m e n , se e footn ote Z table
,
2 / Includes a ll m a r itim e em ploy m en t as r e p o r te d to the v a riou s v acation
the in d u stry . D oes not includ e s h o re s id e em ploym en t or em ploym en t on inland
ploym ent on oil com pan y tan kers not c o v e r e d by the funds w as a ls o e x clu d ed .
3 / Includes other ratin gs in addition to th ose shown s e p a r a te ly . Data on
not in I b i s tabu lation .




*

8.5

28.6

6.4
—

4.3
28.6

14.3

•

14.3

-

B -l.
funds m aintained jo in tly by the com pan ies and the unions in
w aterw ay s or the G reat Lakes or p a id -v a ca tion tim e . E m ­
r a d io o ff ic e r s w e r e not available by coa sts and a r e , th e r e fo r e ,

p\

TABLE B-5. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — ALL SEAMEN, ALL PORTS

(Percentage distribution of all seamen employed any time during the year in the United States Maritime Industry
by number of days of seagoing employment, ) J July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
Average
30
Under and
Dumber
days
30
of
worked
under
seamen during days
year
ft

60

ft

90

^20

All seamen (except pursers and relief
mAn )......................................

85.5A1

212

4.0

5.1

6.1

All lloensed seamen.... ....................

16,306

233

2.1

3.4

Deck department 2 / ................ ......
Masters....................... .......
Chief mates ........... ...............
Second m a t e s .........................
Third m a t e s ..........................
Fourth mates ........ ........... ......
Radio officers ............. ..........

7,999
1,004
1,262
1,339
1,604
1,060
1,680

235
254
255
244
227
198
234

1.8
1.0
1.2
.7
3.1
1.4
2.6

Engine department 2 / .....................
Chief engineers ........... ...........
First assistant engineers............ .
Second assistant engineers .............
Third assistant engineers.............
Junior third assistant engineers.......
Licensed junior engineers ..............

8,309
1,378
1,354
1,342
1,334
1,437
456

231
259
243
232
231
201
201

All unlicensed seamen ..................... ..

69,233

Deck department 2 / .....................
Bosuns ................................
Carpenters ...................... .....
Deck maintenance......................
Able-bodied seamen........ ...........
Ordinary seamen .......................

24,613
1,727
640
3,111
12,525
5,866

Engine department g/ ...................
Electricians..................... .
Second electricians ...................
Oilers.... .................... .... .
Firemen, water tenders................
Wipers...............................

ldo

210

W

180

ft
fO

5.8

6.2

7.0

4.8

5.0

5.9

3.6
1.6
4.5
1.9
6.1
6.7

5.5
9.0
4.4
3.7
6.2
8.5
3.0

4.3
2.0
4.0
2.2
5.9
8.5
3.3

6.0
3.5
4.0
7.1
6.5
9.0
5.1

2.4
2.3
.6
1.3
2.2
4.2
5.3

3.2
.6
1.3
4.0
3.9
4.2
5.3

4.2
2.3
2.4
3.9
3.2
7.2
11.0

5.8
2.3
6.1
6.0
5.7
6.3

u .o

5.8
3.5
8.9
3.9
6.1
9.2
-

207

4.5

5.5

6.4

6.0

6.3

7.2

12.0

U.l

210
228
219
219
220
180

3.2
•4
1.1
.6
2.2
7.7

5.3
3.9
1.1
5.4
3.7
8.1

6.4
7.8
10.5
5.3
4.9
8.7

5.2
5.4
2.2
2.2
4.9
8.0

6.8
1.2
18.1
7.6
7.0
6.9

7.6
8.2
2.2
8.7
6.9
8.5

1C .4 10.3
10.5 10.5
5.3 17.0
8.1
13.5
10.6 11.2
9.4
9.1

13.0 13.2
17.1 13.3
8.6 11.6
14.3 13.0
13.4 15.0
8.8
10.7

10.7
8.9
8.6
12.7
11.5
9.6

19,746
1,239
662
5,789
4,901
5,095

206
222
216
221
208
177

4.3
3.3
4.1
4.5
3.4
7.4

4.9
5.4
2.1
1.8
3.4
3.9

6.2
4*4
4.2
5.5
5.4
9.0

6.8
3.3
4.2
4.9
7.3
10.0

6.4
8.2
11.2
4.9
6.7
7.1

6,2
4.4
5.3
6,1
6.3
7.6

10.5 10.3
6.1
7.7
10.3 15.6
11.1 12.3
9.5
13.9
7.4 10.5

U . 4 10.8
21.1 13.6
8.2
17.5
16.9 10.5
14.9 12.3
9.2
9.4

10.4
13.0
3.2
12.3
9.2
8.1

5.6
4.4
4.1
6.5
5.6
3.3

2.7
4.3
10.1
2.8
1.5
2.1

Stewards department*?/.................. . *24,374
Chief stewards, all sh i p s.............
1,649
Chefs, passenger ............. ........
330
Cooks, passenger ......................
505
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...........
1,038
1,162
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .
.
Assistant cooks, passenger ............
560
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
1,202
Stewards, passenger...................
1,455
Waiters, oassenger................ .
1,495
Messmen, all ships .................... 11,377
Bellboys, passenger ....................
440

205
258
261
249
216
222
241
184
211
187
195
187

5.4
1.6

6.5
3.7
2.4
2.0

6.2
1.5
2.4

i.3

4.5
7.5
4.1
4.7
4.5
17.0

6.3
2.7
.6
3.0
3.9
7.3
2.7
7.5
8.2
9.7
6.3
2.3

6.0
.9
6.2
4.1
8.4
8.5
4.5

6.4
3.0
1.3
10.0
6.2
8.4
7.7
4.5

8.6
5.7
7.5
5.8
5.0
9.7
9.6
7.2
2.4
4.0
7.9
5.9
9.2 12.7 14.5
4.7
6.5 10.3
6.2
8.0
.9
3.7
7.1 11.2
8.2
8.2
4.1
5.0 11.4
8.0
8.1
5.6
9.0
8.0
10.2
-

12.0
17.3
21.7
12.9
8.9
16.8
14.3
3.3
11.3
10.0
11.5
4.5

6.2
17.7
3.0
9.9
2.4
2.6
10.7
3.7
7.2
5.7
4.8
9.1

3.3
7.6
7.2
6.9
12.0
3.4
3.0
1.2
2.1
2.0
2.0

77
61

31.2
50.1

17.5
15.3

17.9
6.3

10.7
7.6

6.8
6.9

•

—

•

Primary rating

-

3.0
2.6

-

240

270

240

2?0

300

9.3

10.2

12.1

6.2

7.1

9.7

11.5

6.2
4.5
4.4
4.9
5.9
8.5
8.5

120

3ft “555" - % r ~
and

-

339

3ft

over

12.7

12.1

6.7

2.6

15.3

I6.4

9.6

3.0

6.2
8.9 11.9 15.1
8.0 16.4 19.4
1.5
5.2
9.5 11.5 12.9
9.0 10.5 17.2
6.7
8.7 14.3 11.8
8.7
8.0 13.7 H . 3 10.8
6.0
9.0 17.8
6.2

16.4
16.4
24.6
17.9
13.1
9.4
16.7

10.8
10.4
12.6
11.9
12.4
3.3
12.1

3.4
8.0
4.4
3.7
1.2
1.4
2.9

6.3
7.9 10.4 11.0 15.5
4.6
8.7 15.5 20.5
4.1
6.6
8.6 16.2
9.2
7.1
5.4
7.5 12.2 12.2 16.8
5.3 11.5 10.6 11.1 U . 5
8.6
6.7
11.4
8.5 12.2
3.9
5.3
5.3 U . O 18.0

16.4
24.5
18.9
13.9
10.8
12.8
9.2

8.4
8.6
10.6
6.1
10.3
7.0
7.0

2.7
2.5
3.1
1.3
4.9
1.7
1.8

6.0

2.5

9.8

10.3

12.3

9.9
10.4
8.0
4.1
9.6
2.4
11.9 15.8
5.0 13.5
17.2
9.5
17.9 U . 3
9.7 U . 6
7.9 10.7
8.4
8.4
11.8
9.4
19.3
4.5

11.9
15.3
31.3
16.8
7.7
12.7
U.3
U.l
17.5
10.0
10.7
15.9

6.2 ' 1.6
2.3
10.5
4.2
9.5
2.8
5.2
7.1
1.5
4.0
.5

-

Relief workers, not included in above:
Relief m a t e s .... •.......... .............
.
Relief engineers........... .............

1,540
1,046

5.8
4.6

4.5
4.6

2.3
2.3

2.6
2.3

.6

•

If
Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and the unions in the
industry. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland, water ways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Employment
on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
2/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE B-6. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — ALL SEAMEN, ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(Percentage distribution of all seamen employed any time during the year in the United States Maritime Industry
by number of days of seagoing employment, 1/ July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

Averse
Number
days
of
worked
seamen during
year

30
Under and
30 under
days

60

300

330

??°

?60

over

12.1 12.5 12.7

7,x

2.8

14.7

io

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

}00

10.3

360
and

All seamen (except pursers, relief men,
and radio officers) ...... .................

63.976

215

3.9

4.8

6.1

5.8

6.0

6 tJ

9.3

All licensed seamen

2a

3.3

4.8

5.7

6.2

5.6

7.6 10.1

12.3

15.4

9.7

2.6

6.6
4.9
2.8
4.2
3.2
5.4
1.0
7.7
6.6
6.2
9.2 11.8

5.7
2.8
4.3
6.2
6.6
7.8

9.6
6.9
7.7
1.4
9.2
5.9
7.7
9.1
9.1
9.5
8.5 13.7

13.0 13.9 15.6
18.2 17.5 16.1
12.9 13.8 23.2
10.5 17.2 16.3
14.1 10.3 12.4
9.2
10.5 11.8

10.9
9.7
11.2
12.4
14.4
3.9

3.3
8.4
4.3
3.8
•8
.7

.... .......... .

10,889

231

Deck department 2/ .......................
Masters ...............................
Chief mates ...........................
Second m a t e s .......... .............. .
Third mates ...........................
Fourth mates ............ ...... ........

i ,684
.
7U
927
1,044
1,209
765

236
250
253
245
228
199

1.6
1.4
1.1
.5
3.3
1.3

2.9
1.1
4.8
2.1
6.5

5.0
9.8
4.3
2.9
4.5
5.2

Engine department 2/ .....................
Chief engineers.......... .......... ..
First assistant engineers.............
Second assistant engineers............
Third assistant engineers •............
Junior third assistant engineers .......

6,205
1,106
1,026
1,402
1,336
917

228
254
240
225
230
193

2.4
2.2
2.4
1.7
4.8

3.6
.7
1.6
4.7
3.5
6.5

4.6
2.9
3.1
4.0
3.6
8.7

6.3
2.2
6.4
7.3
6.9
6.3

53,087

211

4.3

5.1

6.3

Deck department 2 / .......................
Bosuns ......... .......... .......... .
Deck maintenance..... .
Able-bodied seamen ........ .
Ordinary seamen................... .

18,587
1,440
2,140
9,607
4,520

214
233
216
224
192

3.2 4.8
2.8
.9 6.5
2.3 3.5
7.5 6.2

Engine department 2/ ................ •••••
Electricians......... ........... .
Oilers ...............................
Firemen, vater tenders ................
Wipers............................

14,880
930
4,480
3,760
3,820

209
228
224
210
178

4.7
2.0
4.5
3.2
7.9

Stewards department g/ ...................
Chief stewards, all ships ..............
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...........
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Msssmen, all s h i p s ....................
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ..

19,620
1,300
700
860
9,460
960

211
276
228
185
199
222

4.9
7.0
4.2
-

1,155
694

76
70

All unlicensed seamen .................

4.0
5.2
9.2

5.6
4.3
5.7
5.4
4.8
10.0

8.1
5.8
7.0
8.7
11.7
ea

10.4
8.7
10.5
10.8
12.3
10.5

11.8 15.3
17.2 17.5
10.5 15.2
11.4 17.0
11.8 14.6
7.0
9.2

15.2
24.1
14.8
17.4
9.1
12.2

8.8
9.2
12.5
6.3
9.5
7.5

2.0
.9
2.5
.6
5.3
-

5.8

6.0

6.7

9.7

10.4

12.1

12.2

6.5

2.9

6.3
6.9
7.5
4.8
7.5

4.8
5.6
1.9
4.4
7.1

6.5
1.4
7.5
6.7
6.6

7.0
8.3
7.5
6.5
7.5

10.2 10.0 12.9 13.5 12.2
11.1
9.7 18.1 12.5
9.7
14.0
6.5 15.0
8.4 15.0
10.2 10.8 13.1 15.8 12.7
9.3
9.3 11.1 10.6 11.9

6.9
11.1
6.5
7.5
4.9

1.7
2.8
2.8
1.7
•4

4.6
6.1
.9
3.2
8.9

5.8
4.1
5.4
4.8
7.9

6.9
4.1
5.4
7.4
9.4

6.3
8.2
4.0
6.9
7.3

5.8
4.1
5.8
5.9
7.3

10.8 11.0 14.0
4.1 22.4
6.1
10.7 13.4 17.4
10.1 14.9
14.9
8.4 12.6
7.3

5.8
3.1
2.9
7.0
5.9
8.3

6.7
1.5
7.0
9.1
6.2

5.9
1.5
2.9
11.6
7.6
2.1

5.3
3.1
11.4
2.3
5.7
4.2

7.0
3.1
14*3
7.0
7.8
6.2

29.9 18.2
43.2 16.1

19.9
6.1

12.1 4.3
8.1 10.4

6a
6.9

5.9
4.3

10.1

8.4 10.3
10.8
3.1
20.0
2.9
9.3
9.3
8.7 11.8
10.4 18.7

12.1

10 a
14.3
9.8
11.7
9.4

10.8
14.3
12.5
9.0
7.9

6.0
4.1
6.7
6.4
3.1

3.4
6.1
3.6
1.6
2.6

9.9 12.3
7.7 16.9
14.3
2.9
18.6 14.0
8.9 11.0
8.3 10.4

13.4
20.0
3.6
2.3
12.7
18.7

6.5
20.0
2.9
4.7
4.4
2.1

3.6
9.2
17.1
2.1
4.2

-

-

-

Relief workers, not included in above:
Relief mates ............................
Relief engineers •••••.............. .....

4.3
4.6

1.7
3.5

2.6
1.2

.9
-

] J Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and the unions in the
industry.. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid*'vacation time. Employ­
ment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
Z j Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE B-7. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT j - ALL SEAMEN, WEST COAST PORTS
(Percentage distribution of all seamen employed any time during the year in the United States Maritime Industry
by number of days of seagoing employment, 1/ July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

All seamen (exceot pursers, relief men, and
radio officers) .......................

Average
Number
days
worked
of
seamen during
year

19.985

30
Under and
30 under
days

to

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

3-30

360 '
and

99

1%

159

199

219

201 _

4.5 6 #*

$.4

6 tJ

7.1

M

249

279
12.4

9.4

330

360

9.7

300

5.2

M l

over

All licensed seamen.... ......... ...........

3,739

238

2.0

2.4

5.7

3.3

5.5

7.0

5.9

10.1

10.0

15.8

19.5

8.1

4.3

Deck department 2/ ..•••••••••••••••.... .
Masters..............................
Chief m a t e s ..........
Second mates ........ ........... .
Third mates
Fourth mates ............... ........ .

1,635
290
335
295
395
295

236
263
261
242
223
193

1.5
1.5
1.7
2.5
1.7

2.4
3.0
3.4
1.3
5.1

9.2
6.9
4.5
6.8
11.4
16.9

3.4
6.8
3.3
6.8

5.2
5.2
8.6
1.7
6.0
4.5
5.1
7.6
3.8
1.7 10.2

4.3
1.7
3.0
3.4
6.3
6.8

9.3 11*6
8.6 12.1
10.4
7.5
8.5 10.2
7.6 15.2
13.6 13.6

15.6
24.1
10.4
16.9
16.5
8.5

18.7
17.2
28.4
23.7
15.2
10.2

9.2
12.1
16.4
10.2
6.3
1.7

4.0
6.9
4.5
3.4
2.5
3.4

Engine department 2/ ......... ............
Chief engineers.............. .
First assistant engineers ..............
Second assistant engineers •••.••••••••••
Third assistant engineers.... .
Junior third assistant engineers .......

2,104
272
323
440
448
520

239
279
251
254
233
216

2.3
2.9
2.4
3.6
3.1

2.3
2.4
1.3
5.4
-

3.0
3.6
1.3
4.6

4.2
2.9
4.9
1.3
1.3
6.2

5.7

8.4
2.9
9.8
4.9
3.6
5.5
7.1
8.9
9.2 13.8

7.2
7.3
3.6
10.7
9.2

10.3
8.7
3.8
8.8
2.4
4.9
16.4 14.5
5.4
3.9
6.2
15.4

16.0
32.4
19.5
16,4
14.3
7.7

20.2
26.5
31.7
23.6
16.1
13.3

7.2
5.2
4.9
5.5
12.5
6.2

4.6
3.3
4.9
3.6
3.6
4.6

16,146

193

5.1

6.9

6.6

6.9

7.4

8.3

10.2

10.1

12.9

11.9

7.4

4.5

1.3

Deck department 2 / .................... .
Bosuns ........ .......................
Deck maintenance ........................
Able-bodied seamen ........ ..... .
Ordinary seamen.......................

6,026
237
971
2,918
1,346

196
193
226
209
139

3.1 6.6
2.4 9.3
2.9
1.9 4.2
3.3 14.6

6.5
12.2
2.2
5.3
12.5

6.6
4.9
2.9
6.2
10.9

8.0
7.9
3.2
7.3

9.3 11.1
7.3
7.3
11.5 12.3
8.4 12.1
12.0
9.9

11.4
14.6
11.5
12.5
8.3

13.3
12.2
13.0
14.4
9.7

12.4
17.1
23.1
12.5
2.6

6.3
4.9
7.7
7.7
1.9

4.2
7,3
2.2
5.3
1.0

1.2
2.9
1.0
.5

Engine department 2 / ........ ............
Electricians ..........................
Oilers.................... ...........
Firemen, vater tenders .......... .
Wipers ........................ .......

4,866.
259
1,309
1,141
1,275

197
201
208
204
175

5.2
8.1
4.8
4.3
6.0

6.0
2.7
4.8
4.3
3.3

7.4
5.4
5.9
7.4
12.5

6.6
2.7
3.2
6.7
11.5

6.8
8.1
8.0
6.1
6.6

9.6
7.7
5.4 13.5
7.0 12.3
8.0 10.4
8.5
4.4

7.9
13.5
3.6
7.4
4.4

15.7
16.2
15.0
14.7
14.8

12.8
10.3
12.3
16.6
9.3

9.4
3.1
11.8
9.3
8.8

4.2
5.4
5*9
3.1
3.8

.7
1.2
.5

Stewards department 2/ ....................
Chief stewards, all chips •••••.....«...
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker.......... .
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ••
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Messmen, all ships ............... .....

5,254
349
338
202
342
2,417

186
191
190
220
134
191

7.4
7.7
8.0
8.8
5.5

8.1
1.4
5.9
2.5
8.3
3.0

5.8. 7.4
11.7
1.4
4.1 13.6
5.0
7*4
5.3
4.4
3.0
6.2

7.3
9.1
16.0 12.0
9.5
4.4
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.3
9.1
5.4

9.7
5.7
3.0
9.9
16.1
10.1

10.6
7.7
9.5
9.9
10.3
11.7

9.9
P.2
11.3
14.9
4.4
11.5

10.4
9.2
17.3
23.3
14.6
9.7

6.9
7.2
9.5
7.4
5.8
6.9

5.1
9.2
1.5
5.0
1.5
6.2

2.1
1.4
1.5
4.4
1.7

385
352

79
45

11.7
6.3

14.3
-

5.2
-

5.2
4.5

3.9

2.6
4.5

All unlicensed seamen ••••••......

-

Relief workers, not included in above*
Relief m a t e s .......... .............. .

35.1 15.6
63.6 13.6

6.5
6.8

_
-

-

1/ Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and unions in the
industry. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Employ­
ment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
Z j Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE B-8. ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — MEAN AND MEDIAN AVERAGE DAYS EMPLOYED
(Number of seamen and mean and median average days of employment 1/ in the United States Maritime Industry
during the year, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
All seamen
Rating

Humber
of
seamen

Industry connected seamen

Average number of days
Mean

Median

Number
of
seamen

Average number of days
Mean

Median

All seamen (except pursers and relief
men)..................... .............

35.541

212

229

64.583

243

256

All licensed seaman ................... .

16,308

233

255

12,727

253

276

Deck department 2 / ....................
Masters .......... ................
Chief mates..... .............. .
Second mates .......................
Third mates.... ..................
Fourth mates.... ..................
Radio officers ............. ........

7,999
1,004
1,262
1,339
1,604
1,060
1,680

235
254
255
244
227
193
234

259
276
230
271
247
210
269

6,140
794
1,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

261
274
276
264
254
235
261

279
288
299
281
267
239
283

Engine department 7j ...................
Chief engineers ....................
First assistant engineers...........
Second assistant engineers ...........
Third assistant engineers.......... ..
Junior third assistant engineers ......
Licensed junior engineers ...........

8,309
1,378
1,354
1,342
1,334
1,437
456

231
259
243
232
231
201
201

251
279
265
253
244
206
239

6,587
1,194
1,136
1,544
1,468
945
300

255
276
257
253
253
235
246

273
288
279
272
265
240
264

69,233

207

223

51,856

239

252

Deck department £ / ............ .......
Bosuns ............................
Carpenters.... ...................
Deck maintenance...................
Able-bodied seamen... ..............
Ordinary seamen..... ..............

24,613
1,727
640
3,111
12,525
5,366

210
228
219
219
220
180

225
244
227
233
236
187

19,037
1,485
565
2,616
10,192
3,784

237
250
228
233
240
226

250
256
236
249
252
2a

Engine department
...... ............
Electricians ......................
Second electricians ................
Oilers.................... ......
Fireman, water tenders ....... .......
Vipers........ .......... ...... .

19,746
1,239
662
5,789
4,901
5,095

206
222
216
221
208
177

222
250
227
237
221
130

14,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

240
257
229
244
237
230

251
268
237
252
249
236

Stewards department g / ................
Chief stewards, all ships ...........
Chefs, passenger.... ..............
Cooks, passenger ...................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ..........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker •
•
Assistant oooks, passenger......... .
Assistant oooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Stewards, passenger................
Valters, passenger.... &............
Messmen, all ships ...... ...........
Bellboys, passenger......... .......

24,374
1,649
830
505
1,038
1,162
560
1,202
1,455
1,495
11,877
440

205
253
261
249
216
222
241
134
211
187
195
137

221
285
283
263
209
231
255
201
236
189
215
215

18,129
1,494
730
455
795
857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

2a
273
269
264
235
247
264
219
243
224
229
238

255
294
288
271
243
255
270
242
271
242
235
235

All unlicensed seamen...... ......... .

1/ The mean number of days employed is the arithmetical average and the median number of days employed the point below and above
which~50 percent of the seamen were employed. The employment includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation
funds maintained jointly by the companies and the unions in the industry. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland
waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Employment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
2/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




O

TABLE B-9.

ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — ALL SEAMEN BY NUMBER OF QUARTERS EMPLOYED
\

(Number of seamen and average days worked during the year in the United States Maritime Industry by number of calendar quarters
in which they were employed at least 1 day, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
One quarter
Primary rating

Number Average
of
days
seamen worked i/

Number

of
seamen

Average Number
days
of
worked seamen

All seamen (except pursers and relief
pn) ................ .................

85.541

212

7.090

All licensed seamen ......................

16,308

233

876

45

Deck department g / ....... ............
Masters ..........................
Chief mates.......................
Second mates......................
Third mates ......... ..............
Fourth mates ....... ....... ........
Radio officers .....................

7,999
1,004
1,262
1,339
1,604
1,060
1,680

235
254
255
244
227
198
234

496
65
40
75
90
80
146

48
72
a
44
42
51
44

Engine department g/ ...................
Chief engineers •••••...............
First assistant engineers ............
Second assistant engineers ...........
Third assistant engineers...........
Junior third assistant engineers......
Licensed junior engineers ...........

3,309
1,378
1,354
1,842
1,334
1,437
456

231
259
243
232
231
201
201

380
40
24
74
66
120
48

69,233

207

6,214

Deck department g/ .....................................
Bosuns ...........................
Carpenters........................
Deck maintenance.................. .
Able-bodied seamen ..................
Ordinary seamen ....................

24,613
1,727
640
3,111
12,525
5,866

210
228
219
219
220
180

1,349
95
7
121
625
840

Engine department g / . .. ................................
Electricians ................
Second electricians................
Oilers ............................
Firemen, water tenders............. .
Wipers ...........................

19,746
1,239
662
5,739
4,901
5,095

206
222
216
221
208
177

Stewards department g/ ............ .....
Chief stewards, all ships ...............
Chefs, passenger ...................
Cooks, passenger ...................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ..........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .
.
Assistant cooks, passenger ..........
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Stewards, passenger................
Waiters, passenger .................
Messmen, all ships .................
Bellboys, passenger ................

24,874
1,649
830
505
1,038
1,162
560
1,202
1,455
1,495
11,877
440

1,540
1,046

All unlicensed seamen ...................

Two quarters

Three quarters

Average Number
days
of
worked seamen

Four quarters
Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

56.Z65

Average
days
worked

264

92

12.6A.7

1,563

103

2,160

172

n,709

276

721
50
105
80
155
180
151

103
92
no
95
93
104
114

1,036
140
105
270
205
196

182
200
188
193
189
158
175

5,746
749
1,002
1,079
1,089
595
1,187

278
291
287
274
270
259
283

40
27
a
45
33
43
43

842
104
112
164
176
188
98

104
127
116
100
103
98
84

1,124
136
178
266
256
230
58

162
188
147
160
162
157
181

5,963
1,098
1,040
1,338
1,336
899
252

274
289
277
272
270
255
281

38

7,776

90

10,487

163

44,756

261

53
44
36

2,763
148
94
337
1,201
923

90
94
88
89
93
88

3,672
241
128
439
878

165
169
176
181
166
152

16,329
1,243
4U
2,214
8,828
3,225

259
268
265
255
261
251

1,366
75
28
399
393
761

39
36
45
35
42
37

2,303
147
62
540
432
867

93
101
79
103
98
85

3,182
176
137
811
1,018
748

164
176
169
168
164
150

12,395
8a
435
4,039
3,058
2,719

263
270
261
265
260
253

205
258
261
249
216
222
241
184
211
187
195
187

2,499
89
5
30
42
70
35
160
140
190
1,093
100

35
54
54
30
29
46
30
29
33
35
36
26

2,710
78
40
10
88
125
15
125
105
185
1,584
20

87
89
126
138
100
98
94
87
80
88
87
107

3,633
196
100
45
231
120
75
240
200
230
1,899
65

159
171
183
180
152
178
195
160
171
136
153
189

16,032
1,286
685
420
677
847
435
677
1,010
890
7,301
255

263
296
282
276
264
260
272
248
257
254
254
256

77
61

260
324

7
11

235
136

20
26

175
194

55
35

870
392

117
128

39

Q
A
33

9.339

115

1,871

Relief workers, not included in abovet
Relief mates....... .................
Relief engineers .....................

_1/ Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and the unions in the
industry. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Employ­
ment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
2/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




TABLE B-10.

ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT— ALL SEAMEN BY QUARTERS EMPLOYED, ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST PORTS

(Number of seamen and average days worked during the year in the United States Maritime Industry by number of calendar quarters
in which they were employed at least 1 day, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

One quarter
Two quarters
Number Average
days
of
Number Average Number Average
days
seamen worked g/
days
of
of
seamen worked seamen worked

Three quarters
Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Four quarters
Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

All seamen (except pursers, relief men,
and radio officers) ....... ••••••••••.....

63.976 , -215
-

9.184

164 . .43.064.:

All licensed seamen.......... ...........

10,889

231

501

43

1,140

101

1,524

171

7,724

275

Deck department g/ ....................
Masters ..........................
Chief nates.......................
Second nates ............ ..........
Third mates.......................
Fourth mates.................... .

4,684
714
927
1,044
1,209
765

236
250
253
245
228
199

225
50
20
55
60
40

48
70
40
45
38
42

450
50
100
60
110
130

1C1
92
113
90
92
108

640
90
80
75
215
180

184
196
199
192
193
157

3,369
524
727
854
824
4.5

276
292
284
274
269
262

Engine department g / ......... .........
Chief engineers........... ........
First assistant engineers...........
Second assistant engineers .......... .
Third assistant engineers ...........
Junior third assistant engineers.... .

6,205
1,106
1,026
1,402
1,386
917

228
254
240
225
230
193

276
32
16
66
34
96

39
31
52
45
33
40

690
88
88
148
128
156

101
125
117
95
97
99

384
136
146
178
224
166

162
188
146
154
164
155

4,355
850
776
1,010
.1,000
499

273
286
276
268
268
265

53,087

211

4,420

37

5,667

87

7,660

162

35,340

267

Deck department g / ....................
Bosuns ...........................
Deck maintenance ...................
Able-bodied seamen •«...............
Ordinary seamen................. .

18,587
1,440
2,140
9,607
4,520

214
233
216
224
192

1,380
60
100
520
560

42
58
52
44
35

2,007
120
260
907
580

87
98
76
91
82

2,720
220
320
1,360
640

170
172
183
171
157

12,480
1,040
1,460
6,820
2,740

271
272
259
265
255

Engine department g/ .................. .
Electricians......... ...........
Oilers...... ;...................
Firemen, water tenders..............
Vipers... .......................

14,880
980
4,480
3,760
3,820

209
228
224
210
178

1,280
40
280
260
560

38
39
37
40
34

1,680
140
400
320
580

91
98
104
94
83

2,300
120
580
780
580

161
174
165
164
146

9,620
680
3,220
2,400
2,100

264
275
266
258
251

Stewards department g/ .... ..........
Chief stewards, all ships...........
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker..........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .
.
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ...
Messmen, all ships ..................

19,620
1,300
700
960
860
9,460

211
276
228
222
185
196

1,760
40

34
59

60
100
780

45
27
36

1,980
20
40
100
100
1,300

85
54
103
98
88
87

2,640
140
180
80
160
1,460

156
173
153
175
159
148

13,240
1,100
480
720
500
5,920

264
3d
267
259
244
255

1,155
694

76
70

165
164

6
16

190
96

18
30

130
146

57
32

670
288

113
132

All unlicensed seamen ...................

4,321 _ 38__

-

-

6.807

90___

268...

Relief workers, not included in abovej
Relief mates ........ ........... .
Relief engineers............... .....

1/ Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies and the unions in
the industry. Does not include shore side employment or employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Em­
ployment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
2/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately. Data on radio officers were not available by coasts and are, therefore,
not in this tabulation.




TABLE B—11.

ts9

ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT — ALL SEAMEN BY QUARTERS EMPLOYED, WEST COAST PORTS

(Number of seamen and average days worked during the year in the United States Maritime Industry by number of calendar quarters
in which they were employed at least 1 day, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)
One quarter
Primary rating

Number Average
of
days
seamen worked \J

Number
of
seamen

All seamen (except pursers, relief men,

Two quarters

Average Number
days
of
worked seamen

Average
days
worked

Three quarters
Number
of
seamen

Four quarters

Average I Number
days
1 of
worked
seamen

Average
days
worked

19.885
All licensed seamen ........................

201

2,023

40

2.381

97

3,267

166

12.214

258

3,739

238

229

50

272

106

440

174

2,798

276

54
77
43
41
50
61

120
5
20
45
50

95
55
no
95
93

200
50
35
30
55
25

184
208
163
196
175
168

1,190
225
275
225
265
180

277
288
293
277
274
253

1,608
248
264
328
336
400

274
297
282
286
277
243

Deck department 7 j ... ,.................
Masters.... .......................
Chief mates •........................
Second mates ........................
Third mates........................
Fourth mates .......... ..............

1,635
290
335
295
395
295

236
263
261
242
223
193

125
15
20
20
30
40

Engine department g/ ....................
Chief engineers ......................
First assistant engineers .............
Second assistant engineers ............
Third assistant engineers ..............
Junior third assistant engineers.......

2,104
272
328
440
448
520

239
279
251
254
233
216

104
8
8
8
32
24

44
13
19
49
33
56

152
16
24
16
48
32

114
134
no
142
120
95

240
32
88
32
64

166
157
173
149
163

All unlicensed seamen. ............ ..........

16,146

193

1,794

39

2,109

96

2,827

164

9,416

252

Deck department g / ... ...............
Bosuns ........ ......... ..... . .
Deck maintenance .....................
Able-bodied seamen ........... ......
Ordinary seamen ........ ..............

6,026
287
971
2,918
1,346

196
198
226
209
139

469
35
21
105
280

40
61
45
38

756
28
77
294
343

101
78
132
100
98

952
21
n9
5n
238

153
135
176
155
141

3,849
203
754
2,008
485

244
249
247
247
227

Engine department g/ ................... .
Electricians..... ..........
Oilers..... ......... ..............
Firemen, water tenders..... ..........
Wipers .............................

4,866
259
1,309
1,141
1,275

197
201
208
204
175

586
35
119
133
201

42
32
32
47
48

623
7
140
112
287

97
171
100
in
89

882
56
231
238
168

171
179
175
164
163

2,775
161
819
658
619

261
246
261
267
260

Stewards department g f ...... ............
Chief stewards, all ships .......... .
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ..... ..... .
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker ....
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .....
Messmen, all ships .................. .

5,254
349
338
202
342
2,417

186
191
190
220
184
191

739
49
42
10
60
313

37
50
29
51
33
39

730
58
48
25
25
284

91
101
98

993
56
51
40
80
439

169
166
147
184
163
169

2,792
186
197
127
177
1,381

256
264
258
268
258
254

385
352

79
45

95
160

8
6

45
40

27
17

45

51
43

200
104

131
n7

a

-

101

85
91

-

Belief workers, not included in above:
Belief mates ........... ......... .....
Relief engineers ....... ....... .

48

1/ Includes all maritime employment as reported to the various vacation funds maintained jointly by the companies add the unions in the
industry. Does not include shoreside employment or employment on inland waterways or the Great Lakes or paid-vacation time. Employ­
ment on oil company tankers not covered by the funds was also excluded.
2/ Includes other ratings in addition to those shown separately. Data on radio officers were not available by coasts and are, therefore,
not in This tabulation.




TABLE B -I2 .

NUMBER OF TRIPS PER YEAR

(Percentage distribution of industry connected seamen by number of trips
No
trips
of 10
or more
days

Average
number
of
trips

-64.583

6.7

0.2

2.A

5.2

12,727

6.4

0.2

3.7

6.3

9.6

Deck department 2/
.....................
Masters.... ........................
Chief mates..........................
Second mates................... .
Third mates ..........................
Fourth mates ..........................
Radio officers ................... .

6,140
794
1,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

6.7
7.4
7.7
7.0
6.1
5.2
6.7

-

4.1
2.5
4.0
7.3
5.9
3.0
1.3

4.8
1.9
2.5
4.1
4.6
11.9
5.3

8.5
11.3
2.5
5.5
12.6
14.9
7.4

Engine department g/ ......................
Chief engineers .......................
First assistant engineers ...............
Second assistant engineers ...............
Third assistant engineers ...............
Junior third assistant engineers..........
Licensed•
junior engineers ...............

6,587 /
1,194
1,136
1,544
1,468
945
300

6.2
7.2
6.2
6.5
5.9
5.2
6.4

.4
.
5
.
5
2.7

3.3
.
7
4.4
3.2
4.4
4.2
2.7

7.6
6.4
7.9
5.3
7.3
11.9
8.7

10.6
5.7
10.2
10.6
13.4
13.8
3.0

All seamen (except pursers and relief men).....
All licensed seamen.................. .

during the year, July 1, 1956__June 30, 1957)
Number of trips of 10 o more days
r

Number
of
seamen

Primary rating

U

1

2

6

7

1§t? A t 4
, ?,

3

12,$

11.1

13.1

12.9

10.9
10.7
7.4
13.3
16.4
9.2

12.1
8.3
11.4
10.9
15.5
10.4
13.1

11.2
6.7
10.7
12.7
12.3
11.0
19.3

14.1
13.1
10.0
13.6
15.5
19.7
10.7

4

10.0

5

8

9

10

19*1,

3.1

6,4

4.6

11.7

9.6

4.1

5.5

12.1
3,2
19.9
10.0
11.3
9.0'
13.1

12.9
13.9
14.4
9.1
3.4
15.7
16.5

11.1
3.3
11.2
19.1
10.1
9.0
7.7

4.3
5.7
4.0
3.2
1.7
3.7
6.5

13.7
14.9
13.7
13.5
10.6
17.4
13.3

10.6
12.7
14.1
12.0
9.9
4.2
5.3

8.3
12.7
7.7
6.7
9.4
6.3
-

4.0
4.7
4.9
4.7
1.6
2.5
10.7

16
or
more

12

13

3.4

3.0

1.3

1.2

0.8

2.5

5.9
7.4
4.9
4.5
5.4
2.2
9.3

4.1
6.9
4.0
6.3
.
3
2.2
3.3

2.9
7.6
1.0
1.4
3.4
1.5
3.1

1.7
1.3
2.0
1.4
2.9
1.4

3
. - .
9
3.0
1.0
2.7
.
9
.8
1.3
-

3.0
5.0
7.0
3.2
1.7
.
1.1

5.2
8.2
7.0
4.1
5.3
2.6
-

2.3
3.5
2.1
3.1
2.2
2.5
5.3

3.2
4.0
1.4
3.6
3.3
.
3
8.0

.
9
.
7
1.4
1.0
.
5
.
3
-

1.5
3.4
1.4
1.0
.
5
.
3
2.7

.
7
.
7
1.4
.
5
1.1
-

1.9
2.0
1.4
3.6
1.1
.
3
2.7

11

14

15

1.6 -ill- M

.

4t2

All unlicensed seamen... ....................

51,856

6.3

.
1

2.1

5.0

3.3

13.4

13.4

12.6

10.6

7.3

6.6

4.3

3.2

2.4

1.7

1.6

1.7

4.6

Deck department 2 / ....... ...............
Bosuns ....... ......... ......... • • •
••
Carpenters .......... •••»..... .
Deck maintenance .......................
Able-bodied seamen.................... .
Ordinary seamen.......................

19,037
1,485
565
2,616
10,192
3,734

6.5
6.9
5.8
6.3
6.6
6.4

.
1
1.2
.
2

2.3
1.9
3.6
2.6
1.2

6.2
2.3
15.6
6.2
4.7
10.5

8.6
5.5
15.3
8.9
7.2
12.7

14.6
13.1
19.5
14.0
14.3
14.2

14.1
11.8
7.3
17.6
14.8
10.5

12.2
10.8
14.5
8.5
14.1
10.3

11.7
12.3
2.5
11.4
13.5
8.3

6.6
8.6
3.3
8.8
5.2
8.1

5*3
7.2
4.3
6.6
5.4
5.5

4.6
5.0
5.6
4.9
3.7

3.7
2.7
1.3
4.1
3.2

2.3
9.4
1.5
2.3
2.6

1.5
1.3
3.5
1.2
3.2

1.5
1.5
2.0
1.1

1.1
.
1.5
1.2
1.1

2.7
2.7
7.1
2.3
2.4
3.2

Engine department g/ ......................
Electricians .... .
Second electricians ....................
Oilers .............................
Firemen, water tenders..................
Vipers ..............................

14,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

6.9
7.2
6.6
7.3
6.5
6.8

.
3
.
1
1.1
-

1.5
1.2
1.4
1.1
2.5

4.4
6.7
7.0
3.6
3.7
4.3

9.0
5.2
9.4
9.8
10.2
7.3

13.1
15.4
14.0
9.3
16.3
11.2

13.3
9.0
13.0
12.2
14.4
17.7

12.2
12.6
12.8
15.6
3.0
13.1

9.9
8.1
9.2
11.7
10.6
9.5

8.9
12.4
12.6
3.0
9.1
8.0

6.6
6.6
6.0
5-0
7.7
7.5

5.6
8.3
3.4
5.0
5.5
7.1

3,3
2.2

2.2
6.6
3.3
2.0
-

1.0

1.9

4.5
4.5
3.3

2.5
4.4
3.4
1.6
2.0
2.7

1.2
1.3
1.3
.
6

3.4
2.1
.
5
.
6

3.7
2.2
3.4
5.1
1.6
3.8

Stewards department g / ....................
Chief stewards, all ships ................
Chefs, passenger «..................... .
Cooke, passenger .......................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker ............ .
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and tanker .......
Assistant cooks, passenger ...............
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker.....
Stewards, passenger ......... ..... ••*. .
..
Walters, passenger............ .........
Mesemsn, all ships .....................
Bellboys, passenger ....... ............

18,129
1,494
730
455
795
857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

7.1
7.2
8.1
8.2
6.1
6.7
8.5
5.7
9.5
8.8
6.5
10.8

.
1
-

2.4
2.0
2.2
3.5
9.5
.
5
4.1
2*6
1.5

4.1
4.1
2.7
1.1
6.2
2.9
1.2
2.8
2.6
5.7

8.3
7.1
8.9
3.3
9.7
5.3
1.0
11.3
6.6
7.2
11.0
13.6

12.3
13.3
8.2
8.8
17.6
11.3
19.3
16.6
7.5
4.6
14.7
1.5

12.3
15.9
11.0
13.2
18.5
15.8
16.7
13.1
11.3
10.8
13.4
1.5

13.3
10.0
24.7
14.3
5.3
18.7
11.3
10.4
8.7
14.7
19.7

10.1
8.0
2.7
16.5
21.4
11.7
16.7
11.9
9.4
8.7
8.5
1.5

8.1
8.0
3.2
9.9
5.0
2.3
12.5
10.3
6.6
11.8
8.9
6.1

3.0
7.4
2.7
10.7
8.9
8.8
4.4
8.2
3.1
2.3
12.3
12.5
3.0
9.5
8.5
.
5
8.7
4.1
6.9 « 2.6
6.1
-

2.2
7.0
2.7
4.7
3.8
6.2
.
7
18.2

2.1
1.7
8.2
4,4
2.3
3.8
1.4
6.1

1.5
1.3
2.5
2.3
5.7
4.1
.
9
•

2.2
2,7
2.7
2.3
4.2
3.3
2.1
1.9
“

2.2
1.3
2.7
2.3
8.3
3.3
2.1
1.6

-

7.4
4.0
8.2
13.2
2.5
8.3
2.4
45.1
14.4
4.4
24.2

1/ Actual sea voyages could not be identified on the vacation^fund records used. For purposes of the study of the number of trips, ships, and companies by which seamen were employed,
each entry in the record that covered a period of 10 or more days was arbitrarily considered as a trip. Entries covering less than 10 days were not counted as trips, to minimize the effect of
relief jobs, short-term port jobs, or supplementary retroactive payments. From the basic trip data, seamen were then classified as to the number of different ships and companies for which
employed (tables B-13 and B -14). For definition of industry connected seamen, see footnote 2, table B -l.
2/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




S
3

TABLE B—13.

NUMBER OF SHIPS PER YEAR

(Percentage distribution of industry connected seamen by number of ships sailed on 1/ during the year, July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

Number
of
seamen

Average
number
of
ships

o
Number of ships sailed <n
No trips
of 10 or
more days

1

2

3

All seamen (except pursers and relief
men) .......... ......................

64.583

2.4

0.2

All licensed seamen...... ,
.............

12,727

2.1

0.2

36.2

32.6

18.5

Deck department £ / ...................
Masters ......................... .
Chief mates ......................
Second mates .....................
Third mates.... ..................
Fourth mates............ .........
Radio officers........... ..... .

6,H O
794
1,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

2.0
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
2.3
1.8

-

40.3
41.4
42.6
37.3
38.5
22.4
51.8

32.9
29.6
30.3
34.0
39.7
44.8
24.3

Engine department 2 / ... ........ .....
Chief engineers ...................
First assistant engineers ...........
Second assistant engineers ..........
Third assistant engineers ...........
^ Junior third assistant engineers.... .
Licensed junior engineers ...........

6,587
1,194
1,136
1,544
1,46a
945
300

2.2
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2

•4
.5
.5
2.7

32.4
40.0
29.4
28.6
33.5
30.9
32.7

All unlicensed seamen.......... .........

51,856

2.4

.1

Deck department 2 / ...... ............
Bosuns ............. ..............
Carpenters.......................
Deck maintenance ................ .
Able-bodied seamen............ .
Ordinary seamen ........ ...........

19,037
1,485
565
2,616
10,192
3,784

2.6
2.4
1.9
2.7
2.6
2.9

.1
1.2
.2

Engine department 2 / .................
Electricians........... ........ .
Second electricians .................
Oilers ..........................
Firemen, water tenders......... ..
Wipers..........................

14,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

2.6
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.7
2.9

Stewards department 2 / ................
Chief stewards, all ships ...........
Chefs, all passengers..... .........
Cooks, passenger ...................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and
tanker ..... ...... ......... .....
Assistant cooks, passenger ..... .....
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .
.
Stewards, passenger................
Walters, passenger.................
Messmen, all ships.............. .
Bellboys, passenger ..... ...........

18,129
1,494
730
455
795
857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

4

6
or
more

A.3

2.4

8.6

2.7

1.1

15.7
17.0
12.4
18.7
13.8
16.4
15.6

7.8
6.9
8.9
8.2
6.3
12.7
5.6

2.5
2.5
4.5
1.8
.8
3.7
2.0

.9
2.5
1.3
.8
.8

32.4
35.8
35.9
30.6
28.7
33.2
30.0

21.1
15.4
22.7
26.6
22.6
17.0
16.0

9.4
6.0
7.0
10.1
10.1
13.5
10.7

2.9
2.0
3.5
1.6
2.2
5.3
8.0

1.4
.7
1.4
2.1
2.3
-

27.7

31.1

22.6

11.2

4.6

2.7

22.3
30.4
29.7
21.7
24.0
15.2

31.2
29.0
45.8
29.7
31.2
29.6

23.9
18.6
20.7
26.9
22.2
27.7

12.9
12.6
2.5
12.6
13.5
H.4

6.0
8.1
-

3.7
1.3
5.3

5.8
7.9

3.3

.3
.1
1.1
-

21.9
34.3
25.4
23.1
17.4
17.5

30.0
31.1
32.9
28.5
32.1
24.9

26.3
23.6
28.8
28.4
25.6
28.5

12.7
6.7
7.0
13.1
12.0
16.4

5^6
4.4
1.2
3.4
8.5
8.2

3.2
•
4.6
3<4

2.1
1.8
1.9
1.7
2.4

.1
•

38.2

47.0
49.3
48.4
20.8

31.9
34.9
33.6
35.2
38.7

18.3
13.1
6.2
15.4
27.3

8.0
4.7
5.5
1.1
10.7

2.7
2.5

1.1
2.7
-

2.2
1.8
2.1
1.8
1.6
2.3
1.5

“

29.2
50.0
37.4
52.4
59.0
28.6
59.1

40.5
32.3
30.5
27.8
25.1
33.1
28.8

15.8
9.4
21.4
13.7
12.8
21.9
12.1

9.9
8.3
7.7
1.9
1.0
11.6
-

2.3

2.3

3.0
4.2
2.1
2.9
-

•
-

r

1/ For method of determining number of ships sailed on, see footnote 1, table B-12
see footnote 2, table B -l.
2/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




5

3.8

2.4
.3

4.9

3.3

4.4

•

19
..
-

For definition of industry connected seamen,

TABLE B—14.

NUMBER OF EMPLOYERS PER YEAR

(Percentage distribution of industry connected seamen by number of employers 1/ during the year, July l f 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

m

1 4

Numhai*

All seamen (except pursers and relief
men)..... ...........................

Average No trips
number
of 10 or
of
more days
employers

— ■2.0

0.2

1

Number of employers
6
or
more

1

2

3

4

41.7

29.4

17.2

7.7

2.6 _

1.3
0.4

5

All licensed seamen ........... i........

12,727

1.6

0.2

64.2

21.8

9.8

2.8

0.8

Deck department 2 / ...................
Masters ..........................
Chief mates .......................
Second mates .....................
Third mates......................
Fourth mates.....................
Radio officers.... ...............

6,H O
794
1,007
1,099
1,194
670
1,331

1.5
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.8
1.7

_
.
-

65.9
77.3
80.1
70.9
64.4
42.5
56.3

24.1
22.7
16.9
20,0
26.4
38.1
25.6

7.4
3.0
8.2
6.7
12.7
12.8

2.1
.9
2.1
6.7
3.8

.4
.4
1.4

-

Engine department g / .................
Chief engineers ...................
First assistant engineers ...........
Second assistant engineers ..........
Third assistant engineers ...........
Junior third assistant engineers.... .
Licensed junior engineers.......... .

6,587
1,194
1,136
1,544
1,468
945
300

1.6
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.4

.4
.5
.5
2.7

62.6
79.2
68.0
59.3
54.8
50.7
68.0

19.6
16.8
17.1
18.8
20.4
25.4
21.3

12.1
3.4
10.7
13.6
17.2
16.3
5.3

3.5
.7
2.1
6.2
3.8
4.2
2.7

1.2
2.1
1.6
3.4
-

.7
1.6
1.6
-

51,856

2.2

.1

36.2

31.3

19.0

8.9

3.0

1.5

Deck department 2 / ...................
Bosuns ...........................
Carpenters .......................
Deck maintenance
...........
Able-bodied seamen....... .........
Ordinary seamen ...................

19,037
1,485
565
2,616
10,192
3,784

2.3
2.3
1.7
2.3
2.3
2.6

.1
1.2
.2

30.6
32.3
45.5
31.3
32.9
21.1

31.8
29.5
.38.6
32.5
30.6
33.7

20.6
19.4
12.2
19.3
20.4
24.3

11.1

3.7
2.7

2.0

16.2
2.5
12.3
10.3
12.9

-

-

3.1
3.7
4.4

1.5
2.0
3.4

Engine department 2 / ............... ...
Electricians................ .....
Second electricians..... ..........
Oilers.................. '
.......
Firemen, water tenders........ .....
Wipers..........................

H,690
916
586
4,727
3,699
3,195

2.3
1.9
1.9
2.3
2.5
2.5

.3
.1
1.1
-

32.4
40.9
46.4
31.6
25.5
27.5

29.9
33.3
20.1
30.6
31.4
27.9

21.7
16.3
28.8
21.7
23.3
24.4

9.7
9.5
4.6
10.9
9.2
12.6

4.1
2.8
7.2
5.6

1.8
2.1
2.2
1.9

Stewards department g/ ................
Chief stewards, all ships...........
Chef8, passenger ..................
Cooks, passenger ..................
Cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .........
Cooks and bakers, dry-cargo and
tanker........... ......... .
Assistant cooks, passenger ..........
Assistant cooks, dry-cargo and tanker .
.
Stewards, passenger ................
Waiters, passenger .................
Messmen, all ships ................
Bellboys, passenger ...............

18,129
1,494
730
455
795

1.9
1.6
1.7
1.6
2.1

.1
-

45.0
58.9
55.5
51.6"
26.3

31.8
29.4
27.4
33.0
43.5

15.0
8.4
8.9
15.4
19.5

6.0
3.0
5.5
10.7

1.4
.3
2.7

_

857
480
842
1,060
975
8,607
330

2.1
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.5
2.1
1.5

32.9
50.0
47.7
64.2
65.6
35.1
65.2

40.3
37.5
22.0
19.8
23.1
35.6
22.7

15.2
8.3
22.0
12.3
8.7
18.0
12.1

7.0
4.2
8.3
1.9
.5
8.4
—

4.7

All unlicensed seamen................. .

-

-

-

-

-

-

.7
-

-

-

1.9
2.1
1.6
—

-

1.5
—

1 For method of determining number of employers, see footnote 1, table B-12.
_/
see footnote 2, table B -l.
2/ Includes data for other ratings in addition to those shown separately.




For definition of

industry connected

seamen,

Cn

TABLE B—15. ANNUAL EARNINGS — INDUSTRY CONNECTED SEAMEN-

(P ercen ta g e d istribu tion of industry connected seam en ih 6 s ele c te d ratings of the United States M aritim e Industry
by amount of annual m aritim e earn ings, 2/ July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

Primary rating

i— ■•
$
4
$
$
l—
$
$
i—
$
$
$
%
*
%
$
$
t
*
Number Average Average Under 1,000 1,50C 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500 7,000 7,500 8,000 8,500 9,000 9,500 10,000 10,500 11,000
and
days
annual $
of
and
seamen worked earnings 1,000 under
1,500 2,OOC 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500 7,000 7,500 8,000 8,500 9,000 9,500 10,000 10,500 11,000 over
All ports

Second mates....,...........
Third assistant engineers ......
Able-bodied seamen ...........
Oilers ...................
Cooks 2 / ........... ......
Msssmen .............. .....

1,099
1,46*
10,192
4,727
1,250
8,607

267
256
239
245
249
225

$8,110
7,032
4,607
4,315
5,345
3,285

0.9
.
6
1.0
1.7
1.3
5.3

1.7
1.0
3.3
1.6
5.8

.5 2.3 0.9 4.1 0.9 1.4 3.6
1.4 1.4 0
.
6 1.7 1.7 3.9
.
6 3.9 2.3 7.3 5.5
3.2 3.2 6.2 8.3 9.9 11.7 14.7 10.9 13.4
2.0 3.3 5.9 3.4 12.1 17.9 13.4 10.9 8.5
3.1 8.0 5.9 13.4 11.3 2.9 7.5 3.4
5.5 11.2 10.7 20.1 9.1 16.2 8.5 3.1 3.5

3.6
8.4
7.2
6.6
7.1
.
2

54
.'
7.3
5.8
4.3
5.5
-

8.6
3.4
2.6
.3
8.8
.
2

8.6
8.1
.4
.
8
2.9
.
3

5.9 9.0 12.2
8.5 10.5 7.0
_
.
2
•
2
.
1
1.7 2.9 1.7
-

7.1
4.5
_
_
1.7
-

4.6
9.0
5.4
4.7
4.7
-

9.8
6.8
2.3
.
8
9.3
-

9.2
7.9

5.2 3.6 12.1
8.5 11.1 7.9
_
.
8
2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
- . -

6.3
4.6
2.3
-

2.3
-

6.2
3.7
1.7

8.3
4.3
.
•

8.3
2.2
1.5
-

8.1
1.7
2.1
-

5,4
2.2
_
.4

9.0
3.5
•
2
1.7
-

6.3
1.5

8.7
3.1
2.3
“

Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports
Second mates ...............
Third assistant engineers .....
Able-bodied seamen ••••*.......
Oilers...................
Cooks 2 / ................
Messmen ...................

859
1,092
7,767
3,740
920
7,000

269
256
244
246
258
225

$8,140
7,024
4,511
4,257
5,442
3,213

1.2
.
7
.
3
1.3
-

6.1

1.5
.
3
3.6
6.9

1.2
2.3 1.2 4.6 1.2 1.2 4.6
.
7 2.2 1.5 2.2
.
7 3.7 3.0 3.3 4.4
3.1 3.3 7.0 8.5 10.0 12.4 16.7 10.0 14.2
2.3 3.9 5.5 9.1 12.5 19.5 U.1 8.6 6.2
2.3 9.3 7.0 16.3 11.6 2.3 7.0 7.0
3.5 12.1 11.3 21.1 3.7 16.5 7.8 2.6 3.5

3.5
9.0
5.5
7.0
7.0
-

-

8.1
1.5
-

-

-

West Coast ports
Second mates ...............
Third assistant engineers
Able-bodied seamen...........
Oilers ....................
Cooks 2 / ..................
Messmen...................

240
376
2,425
987
330
1,607

263
258
227
240
225
224

$7,999
7,056
4,906
4,540
5,094
3,558

1.7
3.5
4.5
2.7

2.1
2.2
1.7 3.4
2.1
.7
5.8
1.6 13.2

6.2
_
2.5
.7

5.2
7.7

2.1
2.1 2.1
2.1
4.2
.
2.2 3.7
4.3 2.2 4
.3 8.7 6.5
3.9 7.6 9.3 9.7 8.5 13.5 10.8 12.7
7.8 5.7 10,6 11.3 10.6 19.9 17.0 5.0
4.5 3.0 6.1 10.6 4.5 8.8 12.1 7.6
.
8
8.6 16.5 10.7 15.3 11.3 4.9 3.6

8
.3 4.2
2.2 13.0
7.0 3.4
2.8
.7
7.6 7.6
1.2
"

.7

4.5
1.6

3.3 10.4 12.5.
8.7 3.7 4.3
.
3
.8
.7
4.5
~

2.1
4.3
1.5

10.4
4.3
.
3
—

\_! For definition of industry connected seam en , s e e footnote 2, table B - l.
2/ Includes a ll m aritim e earn ings for em ploym ent w ith com panies contributing to the various vacation funds m aintained jointly by the com panies and the unions in the industry. D oes not
include incom e from sh o resid e em ploym ent or em ploym ent on inland w aterw ays or the Great L akes or vacation paym ents.
Income from w ork on o il company tankers not covered by the
funds, if any, was a lso excluded.
3 / Includes c h ief cooks on cargo v e s s e ls and com parable ratings on p a ssen g er v e s s e ls .
D oes not include seam en c la ss ifie d as cooks and b ak ers.




TABLE B—16. ANNUAL EARNINGS — A LL SEAMEN

(P ercen ta g e distribu tion of a ll seam en in 6 se le c te d ratings em ployed any tim e during the year in the United States M aritim e Industry
by amount of annual m aritim e earn ings, !_/ July 1, 1956— June 30, 1957)

1.500 2.000 2,500 3,000

8
C 1 8
c
*\

Primary rating

*------ A
$
Number Average Average Under 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500
and
days
annual
of
seamen worked learnings 1,000 under

$
%
$
$
$
3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 1,000 f ,500 7,000 7,500 1,000 f ,500 9,000

ft

$
9,500 fo,ooo $
10,500 11,000

4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500 7,000 7,500 8,000 8,500 9,000 9,500 10,000 10,500 11,000

and
over

All ports
Second mates ...............
Third assistant engineers .....
Able-bodied seamen ..........
Oilers ...................
Cooks 2/ ..................
Messmen ..................

1,339
1 , 834'
12,525
5,799
1,5 A3
11,377

24*
233
220
222
229
194

2.6
$7,499
2.6
6,390
5.2
4,234
7.0
3,918
4,893
5.5
2,306 14.9

0 .4
2.6
3.2
5.3
2.3
10.3

3.7
1.9
4.2
3.3
.7
6.6

1.5
2.2
4.4
3.7
4.1
9 .7

2.2
3.5
6.3
6 .7
9.9
9.2

2.2
3.0
2.6
4 .4
9.0
8.8
3.3 10.9
5.5 13.8
16.4
7.3

4 .4 0 . 7
5.0
2.6
9 .9 13.3
15.6 11.9
9 .4
2 .4
13.0
6 .8

1 .9 3.7
8.0 5.3
9.5 11.5
9.1 7.1
7.3 7.1
2.3 2.6

3.3
7.7
6.0
5.6
6.4
.1

4 .4
5.8
5.0
3.6
4 .7

-

7.3
7.2
2 .7
.6
8.3
.2

7.8
6.5
.3
.6
2 .4
.3

5.6
7.3
.2

7.8
8.8
.2

1.3
-

5.2
7.3

_

10.7
6.1

6.2
4.1

6 .7
1.3

5.9
1.3

2 .4
“

1.3

.1
1.3

7.4
2.7
.2

1 .7

1.3

-

-

.3
•

7.6
9.3

10.0

7.1

7.1
2.5

-

-

-

-

_
_

-

-

Atlantic and C u f Coast ports
-l
Second mates..... ..........
Third assistant engineers .....
Able-bodied seamen ...........
Oilers ................. .
Cooks 2/ ...............................................
Messmen...................

1,044
1,336
9,607
4,480

1,060
9,460

2 48
233
223

226
247
195

$7,519
6,384
4,138
3,910

2.3
2.3
5.3

5,201

6.0
2.0

2,759

14.6

_
2.3
3.2
5.3

-

12.3

4.3
1 .9
4 .4
3.1
-

5.3

3.3
2 .9
3.9
6.0
11.3
2.0 12.0 6.0 13.0
10.2 9.6 16.8 7.0
2.3
4 .0
4.0

1.9
4.1
7.0

1.9
3.5
9.5
9 .3

4 .7
4 .8

0 .9
2 .9

17.3

12.7

13.4

6 .4

10.1 15.0
10.0

2.0

1.9 4.3
8.9 4.6
8.9 12.3
7.3
5.3

2.8
3.4
4.5
6.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

1.9

2.5

-

3.8 9.0
7.1 6.0
4.4 2.5
4.0
.7
4.0 10.0

-

-

8.5

6.2
_
2.0

_
2.0

_
2.0

-

-

-

5.1
7.3
1 .4
.5
3.1

6.8

8.5
7.3
.7
3.1
"

.7

6.2

.
2.0
-

5.6
4.2

_
2.0
-

6 .6

1.2
.
2.0
-

1.2
.
_
_
-

-

2.0
-

West Coast ports
Second mates ...............
Third assistant engineers ......
Able-bodied seamen........ .
Oilers ...................
Cooks 2/ ..................
Messmen................. .

295
448
2,918
1,309
483
2,417

246

$7,427

234
209
208
189
190

6,406
4,547
3,946
4,271
2,989

1.7
3.6
5.0

10.6
12.8
15.8

1.7

1.8
3.2
3 .7
7.0
4 .9

1.7
3.6
3.6
3.7

2.1
11.7

6.8
1.8

1.8

5.8
2.7
8.5
7.6

4.1
9.1
5.2
7.6

3.4

3 .4
7.3
7.4
5.3
4.6
14.7

_

1.8
8.6
9.6
5.2

3 .4
5.5
9.2
9.6
3.3

8.6 11.6

1 .3
7.9
9.1
3.1
8.4

1 .7 1.7
5.5 7.3
11.5 9.2
15.0 13.4
6.0 9.3
3 .7 2 .7

5.1
5.5
10.3
4.3
7.2

.
6

6.8 3.4
1.8 10.9
6.9

3.1
.5

2.1
6.2

6.2

*

.9

1.2

7.3
.7
.
-

13.6
5.5
_
.5
“

3.5
3.6
_
-

6.8
1.8
_
1 .0
•

1.7
3.6
_
1.0
-

8.5
3.6
.7
_

1/ Includes a ll m aritim e em ploym ent as reported to the various vacation funds m aintained join tly by the com pan ies and the unions in the industry. D oes not include em ploym ent or incom e
from sh o resid e or inland w aterw ays o rG rea t Lakes em ploym ent or paid vacations. E m ploym ent on oil com pany tankers not covered by the funds was a lso excluded.
2 / Includes c h ief cooks on ca rg o v e s s e ls and com parable ratings on p assen ger v e s s e ls .
D oes not include seam en c la ssifie d as cooks and bak ers.




<1

00

TABLE B—17. ANNUAL EARNINGS — BY QUARTERS EMPLOYED

^A verage days em ployed and annual m aritim e earnings 1/ for seamenj em ployed any tim e during the year by number of calendar quarters
in w hich they w ere em ployed for s ele c te d ratihgs and by coast, July 1, 195b—June 3 0, 1 95 7)

Primary rating

1 Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Three quarters

Two quarters

One quarter
Average
annual
earnings

Number
of
seamen

Average
days
worked

Average
annual
earnings

Number
of
seamen

Four quarters
Average
annual
earnings

Number
of
seamen

210
168
168
169
164
151

♦6,502
4,634
3,257
2,928
3,353
2,132

1,079
1,336
8,328
4,039
1,097
7,301

276
272
261
269
270
250

203
164
172
167
169
146

♦6,526
4,469
3,190
2,783
3,327
1,990

854
1,000
6,820
3,220
820
5,920

275
271
264
270
272
249

231
186
153
174
151
163

♦6,428
5,493
3,411
3,314
3,421
2,505

225
336
2,008
819
277
1,381

278
277
250
263
263
252

Average
days
worked

Average
days
worked

Average
annual
earnings

All ports
Second mates ............................
Third assistant engineers..................
Able-bodied seamen ........................
Oilers ......................... .......
Cooks 2/.......... ....................
Messmen *...............................
.

75
66
625
399
72
1,093

46
33
47
40
35
32

♦1,347
868
859
682
752
494

80
176
1,201
540
98
1,584

96
103
95
101
101
82

♦2,692
2,806
1,843
1,698
2,022
1,138

105
256
1,871
811
276
1,899

*8,363
7,467
5,029
4,755
5,848
3,636

Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports
Second mates ............................
Third assistant engineers ..................
Able-bodied seamen ....... ....... .......
Oilers ................................
Cooks 2 / ...............................
Msssmen.... ...........................

5
5
34
520
280
780

48
33
48
44
.
30

♦1,391
901
863
743
484

60
128
907
400
40
1,300

92
97
94
101
103
81

♦2,539
2,667
1,815
1,658
1,902
1,122

75
224
1,360
530
200
1,460

♦,3a
8

7,437
4,900
4,693
5,303
3,549

West Coast ports
Second mates ............... .......... .
Third assistant engineers ........... .......
Able-bodied seamen........................
Oilers ............................. .
Cooks g / ..... ..........................
Msssmen ............ .................. .

20
32
105
119
72
313

a

33
39
33
35
36

♦1,228
833

sa

567
752
514

20
48
294
140
58
284

110
121
97
102
100
85

♦3,150
3,174
1,932

i,8a

2,091
1,252

30
32
511
231
76
439

♦8,446
7,562
5,468
4,995
5,978
4,019

1/ Includes all m a ritim e em ploym ent as reported to the various vacation funds m aintained join tly by the com panies and the unions in the industry.
Does not include em ploym ent or
incom e from sh o resid e or inland w aterw ays or Great Lakes em ploym ent or paid vacation s.
E m ploym ent on o il company tankers not covered by the funds was a lso excluded.
2/ Includes c h ief cooks on ca rg o v e s s e ls and com parable ratings on passen ger v e s s e ls .
D oes not include 3eam en c la ss ifie d as cooks and bak ers.




TABLE C-l. INCOME SECURITY AND VACATION BENEFITS

(P r o v isio n s for join tly a d m in istered w elfare, pension, and vacation funds for seam en at time of survey and subsequent changes)

Welfare and pension plans
Vacation plans
Coast

Union

MfP
Mc

Effective Employer
date
contribu­
tion

R0U

Atlantic and Gulf 6-16-56
10-1-57
Pacific
6-16-56
6-16-57
6-16-58
6-16-59
Atlantic and Gulf 6-16-56
6-16-57
6-16-58
6-16-59
Pacific
6—16—56
6-16-57
6-16-58
6-16-59
Atlantic and Gulf 6-16-56
6-16-57
6-16—58
6-16-59
Pacifie
6-16-56
6-16-57
6—16—58
6-16-59
All
9- 1-55

BHD

All

BME

All

M5BA

ARA

tl.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

Insuran3
e
In
Depend­
ents hospital Disa­
Life Accident Dismem­
berment hospitali­ disa­ bility
zation bility

Pension i/

X
X

•

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
Y
X

Y
X
X
X

X
X
Y
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

x
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X

X

X

X

X

X
X
X
X

£100
100
100
100
150
150
100
100
150
150
100
100
150
150
130
180
225
225
180
180
225
225
100

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
U 15

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

X
X

y
X
X
X

Years
Amount
of
service (month)

Employ­
ment
Age
security

Surgical Other

The welfare and pension benefits are provided for by contributions from the employee as well as the employer.
Employees are eligible to enter plan after 5 years of service with the company.
|
1
1
1
1
I!
1
1
1
I
|
1
1
ty
No funds for Welfare and Pensions. Benefits provided direc: l by the c m a : e .
opnLs

Atlantic and Gulf 6-16-56
1.25
6-16-57
1.25
6-16-58
1.25
1.05
Atlantic and Gulf 10-1-56
siu 2/
1.28
SUP
Pacific
10-1-56
10-1-57 I/-1.28
1.28
MFOW
Pacific
10-1-56
1.28
10-1-57
1.28
M3S
Pacific
10-1-56
1.28
10-1-57
NMU

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X

X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X

X
X
X

X

X
X
X

X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X

i

1

1
1

Employer
contribution
8% of base pay %/
8% of base pay 2/

tl.60 a day
1.60 a day
. 1.60 a day
1.60 a day
8% of base pay
8% of base pay
8% of base pay
8% of base pay
tl.25 a day
1.25 a day
1.25 a day
1.25 a day
of base pay
9&% of base pay
9» of base pay
9s% of base pay
tl.AO a day
1.40 a day
1.40 a day
1.40 a day
(SA

Number of days at base pay
for 360 days employment 2/
Regular
One employer
14
14
14
14
30
30
14
14
30
30
14
14
30
30
14
14
30
30
14
14
30
30
28

28
28
28
28
48
60

28
28
48
60
28
28
48
60
28
28
48
60
28
28
48
60
(/
5)

Vacation plan operated by the companies,
23 days at base pay after 1 year, 35 days
after 2 years.
1
1

(/
5)
X
X

~x

20
65
5
5
20
65
65
20
100
65
Disability only
20
100
65
20
100
65
20
100
65
100
20
65
20
100
65
20
100
65

28

(5/)

of base pay
6% of base pay
6$ of base pay
t0.90 a day
t0.50 a day
0.50 a day 2/
t0.50 a day
0.50 a day 2/
,
t0.65 a day
0.65^a day 2/

14
14
30
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

28
28
(/
6)
28
21
21
21
21
21
21

6%

1/ Data shown are for n orm al r etir em en ts. A ll pension plans made p rovision s for ea rly retir em en t on reduced pensions and for d isability.
A ll plans provide for accum ulated vacation tim e being availab le on a pro rata b asis after 90 days' em ploym ent. In order to qualify for the longer vacation period, the seam an m ust have
continuous em ploym ent w ith 1 com pany for 360 d ays. Table B - 1 4 shows the proportion in each rating that worked for only 1 company. Only a fraction of th ose,
how ever, had
360 days' continuous
em ploym ent. Regular vacation benefits do not req uire continuous em ploym ent.
3/ 12 percent for m a s te r s.
4 / Plus 1 year each y ea r sin ce 1955 until 25 y e a rs.
5 / Com panies pay vacation benefits d ir e c t to em p lo y ees. A fter 1 year of s e r v ic e with 1 com pany, vacation accum ulates at the rate of 56 days per year.
~E/ Upon com pletion of 360 days w ith 1 com pany, an em p loyee r e c e iv e s 15 days for the next su cceed in g 180 days of em ploym ent. If em ployee has been in continuous em ploy of 1 em ployer
for 3 y e a rs, he is entitled 45 days for the third and each subsequent year of continuous em ploym ent.
7/ In August 1958, the SIU signed a m em orandum of understanding with som e operators in c r e a sin g c er ta in vacation and fringe benefits and paym ents to the funds.
? / A lso provides for an additional 5 cen ts per day for a fund for a m ed ical cen ter.
9 / Adjusted as required. Changed to $ 0 . 60 a day on N ovem ber 1, 1957.
T!

NOTE: X indicates benefits provided.







81
Appendix A:
Scope and Method of Survey
The su rv e y o f seam en* s em p loy m en t and e a r n ­
ings in the m a ritim e in d u stry c o n s is te d of 3 d istin ct
p a rts— a v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in gs as found in s e le c te d
trip s (in clu din g se p a ra te data on p re m iu m pay), an ­
nual e m p loy m en t, and annual e a rn in gs.
A ll 3 s e g ­
m ents o f the study w e r e con d u cted on a sam p le
b a s is , but the pu blish ed r e s u lts a re e stim a te s of
the em p loy m en t and ea rn in gs o f a ll sea m en , not
m e r e ly th ose in the s a m p le s.
In e v e r y c a s e , the
sam p le m e m b e rs w e re given the w eight re q u ire d to
r e p r e s e n t the e n tire group fr o m w h ich they w ere
s e le c te d .
B e ca u se o f rounding, sum s o f individual
p erce n ta g e e stim a te s do not n e c e s s a r ily equal 100.

P a y r o ll P e r io d . — T o a v oid the p r o b le m o f
changes in w age ra tes during the tr ip , the c o m ­
panies op era tin g the s e le c te d ships w e re re q u e ste d
to fu rn ish the B u r e a u s fie ld re p re s e n ta tiv e s with
the la s t p a y ro ll fo r the s p e c ifie d ship ending p r io r
to June 1, 1957. 23 T o obtain p r o p e r re p re se n ta tio n
of sea m en ’ s earn in gs in p o rt as w e ll as at se a , the
com p a n ies w e re a ls o re q u e ste d to fu rn ish data on
the sep a ra te p o rt p a y r o lls , if any, that p r e c e d e d
the s e le c te d sea t r i p . 24 Data fo r the 2 p a y ro lls
w e re co m b in e d and when p o s s ib le , the data fo r an
individual seam an w e re co m b in e d . When d iffe re n t
sea m en held the sam e p e titio n on the 2 p a y r o lls ,
th eir earn in gs w e re com b in e d to re p r e s e n t 1 s e a ­
m an’ s e a rn in g s.

D a ily E arn in gs
S eam en C o v e r e d . — This seg m en t o f the study
c o v e r e d sea m en in a ll ratin gs e x c e p t m a s te rs and
ca d e ts . On p a s s e n g e r sh ip s, data f o r e m p lo y e e s o f
c o n c e s s io n a ir e s and fo r e n te rta in e rs, su rg eon s and
n u rses w e re a ls o om itted.

A sam p le o f ships in the M a ritim e A d m in is ­
tr a tio n 's V e s s e l In ven tory R e p o r t o f M ay 1957 was
s e le c t e d to r e p r e s e n t a ll a ctiv e seagoing, ships of
1, 000 o r m o r e g r o s s to n s, e x c e p t tankers o p era ted
by o il co m p a n ies o r th e ir s u b s id ia rie s f o r th eir own
use and a ll G overn m en t o p e ra te d sh ips m anned by
c i v i l se rv a n ts. The e stim a te d n u m ber o f ships r e p ­
re s e n te d and the p r o p o rtio n s o f the v a rio u s c a t e ­
g o r ie s o f ships in clu d ed *in the sa m p le a re shown
in the a cco m p a n y in g ta b le.

23 N ew c o n tra cts a re u su ally e ffe c tiv e in June
and O c to b e r .
24 A p r e lim in a r y study in d ica ted that the sa m e
c r e w was m o r e lik e ly to be on the p o rt p a y r o ll
p re ce d in g ra th er than fo llo w in g the sea v oy a g e.

Universe and sample for study of daily earnings
Atlantic and Gulf
Coast ports

All ports
Item

Within
scope of
study

Studied

------------------------------------------

877

253

Passenger -----------------------------------------Subsidized ---------------------------------------Nonsubsidized ----------------------------------

41
31
10

T a n k ers---------------------------------------------

Within
scope of
study

West Coast ports

Studied

Within
scope of
study

Studied

624

171

253

82

18
15
3

31
24
7

14
12
2

10
7
3

4
3

76

28

61

22

15

6

Dry ca rgo------------------------------------------Subsidized ---------------------------------------Nonsubsidized ______________________

760
278
482

207
70
137

532
206
326

135
48
87

228
72
156

72
22
50

By type:
Victory (V C -2 ) -----------------------------Liberty (E C -2 ) ----------------------------0 2 ---------------------------------------------C-3 ---------------------------------------------Bulk c a r rie r ---------------------------------All o th e r --------------------------------------

113
70
232
130
103
112

36
20
58
34
27
32

65
37
179
81
88
82

19
10
43
19
22
22

48
33
53
49
15
30

17
10
15
15
5
10

All ships




1

82
The d a ily earn in gs p re se n te d fo r lic e n s e d s e a ­
m en as a group in clu d e data fo r p u r s e r s , who,
te ch n ica lly , a re not lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s .
N u m ber o f S ea m en . — The n u m ber o f sea m en
r e p r e s e n t an a p p ro x im a tio n o f the num ber o f fu ll­
tim e se a m en r e q u ir e d to o p e ra te the ships within
the s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
When two o r m o re m en
w e r e e m p lo y e d in the sa m e p o sitio n at d iffe re n t
tim e s during the sea and p o rt p a y r o ll c o v e r e d , data
fo r th ese w e re co m b in e d and cou n ted as 1 m an.
Data f o r p o sitio n s fille d le s s than h a lf o f the total
tim e o f the v oya g e (p o rt and sea p a y r o lls com bin ed)
w e r e c a n c e le d . S in ce the ships w e r e studied on the
b a s is o f th eir la st v oya ge ending p r io r to June 1,
1957, and the dates o f trip s exten ded o v e r s e v e r a l
m onths the e stim a te s tend to o v e rsta te the num ber
o f p o s itio n s r e q u ir e d as o f a sin g le day, sin ce som e
v e s s e ls a re la id up at any one tim e .
Ships la id up
fo r a p e r io d o f 6 m onths p r io r to June 1, 1957,
w e r e not in clu d ed in the study.
O ccu p a tion a l C la s s ific a t io n . ---- S e a m e n w e re
c la s s if ie d as r e p o r te d on the s h ip s 1 a r t ic le s e x cep t
in so m e situ ation s w h e re te r m in o lo g y v a rie d am ong
sh ip s.
1.

If a seam a n spent tim e at m o r e than 1 r a t­
ing, he w as c la s s ifie d at the ratin g in
w h ich he spent m o st o f his tim e.
H is
a v e ra g e d a ily ea rn in gs r e fle c te d his pay
at a ll ra tin g s.

2.

Ju n ior th ird m ates
fou rth m a tes.

3.

A l l r a d io o f f ic e r s w e r e grou ped in a sin g le
c a te g o r y

4.

F ou rth a ssista n t e n g in e e rs w e re c la s s ifie d
as ju n io r th ird a ss is ta n t e n g in e e rs.

5.

U tility m en in the d e ck and engine d e ­
partm en ts w e r e c la s s ifie d as m aintenance
m en.

w ere

c la s s ifie d

as

6.

Secon d c o o k and b a k er o r night c o o k and
b a k er w e re c la s s if ie d as co o k s and b a k e rs.

8.

S econ d o r th ird c o o k s w e re c la s s ifie d as
a ssista n t c o o k s .

9.

U tility m en in the stew a rd s
w e re c la s s ifie d as m e s s m e n .

O v ertim e pay.
P en a lty pay.
S u p plem en tary paym ents (not a s s o c ia te d w ith
s p e c ific h ou rs o f w ork) su ch a s:
W a r -r is k bonus.
P a y fo r se rv in g ex tra m e a ls .
P a y fo r s e rv in g p a s s e n g e rs on ships not
sta ffed f o r p a s s e n g e r s .
P a y fo r d iv is io n o f w o rk under c e r ta in c o n ­
dition s when ship d oes not have a fu ll c o m ­
plem en t.
P a y fo r hauling penalty type c a r g o e s .
P ay fo r not getting cle a n lin en .
N onw atch pay, to o l a llo w a n ce s , and u n iform
a llo w a n ce s w e r e c o n s id e r e d as base pay and not in ­
clu d ed under su p p lem en ta ry pay.
S p e c ific a lly ex clu d ed fr o m a ll earn in gs quoted
w e r e any a llow a n ces fo r b o a rd and lo d g in g s , tra v e l
pay, and g ra tu itie s.
G ro s s pay and o v e rtim e fo r
c h ie f en g in eers in clu d es a llo w a n ce s fo r e x tra v a ­
ca tio n pay w h ich a re m ade fo r o v e r tim e re p o rte d .
G roup a v e ra g e s p re s e n te d in the tables w e re
obtained by adding the in dividual d a ily a v e ra g e e a r n ­
ings (o r hours) fo r ea ch seam a n and divid in g by the
nu m ber o f sea m en r e p re s e n te d .
C la s s ific a tio n by C o a s t . — Ships w e re c la s s ifie d
by c o a s t a c c o r d in g to the p o rt o f d ep a rtu re at w hich
the c r e w was o r ig in a lly sign ed on.

C h ie f c o o k s w e r e c la s s if ie d as c o o k s .

7.

A v e ra g e D a ily E a rn in g s. — A v e r a g e d a ily e a r n ­
ings a re p re s e n te d on the b a s is o f days paid fo r
ra th er than days w ork ed .
Included in g r o s s e a r n ­
ings in add ition to base pay w e r e :

10.

11.

dep artm en t

Subsidy S tatus. — A ship w as c la s s ifie d a c c o r d ­
ing to su bsid y status on the b a s is o f the individual
trip studied.
T ra d e R o u te s . — Data re p o rte d by a re a o f trade
a re grou pin gs of the m o re co m m o n trade rou tes
r e c o g n iz e d in the in du stry.
Som e rou tes a re not
re p r e s e n te d in the s e le c te d g rou p in gs.

Seam en on p a s se n g e r ships w e re c l a s s i ­
fie d in ratin gs c o n s id e r e d co m p a ra b le on
c a r g o ships and tan kers e x ce p t fo r a few
p a s se n g e r ship ratin gs s p e c ific a lly s e ­
le c te d fo r sep a ra te study.

South A m e r ic a n and C a rib b ea n in clu d e rou tes
fr o m A tlan tic and Gulf C o a s t to both the E ast
C o a s t and W est C o a st of South A m e r ic a and to
the C a rib b ea n .

Som e ratings^ p a r tic u la r ly on p a s se n g e r
v e s s e ls , w e re c la s s ifie d on ly as ''o t h e r 1
1
but w e re in clu d ed in d ep a rtm en tal totals
as w e ll as in the totals fo r lic e n s e d and
u n licen sed sea m en .

A tlan tic E u rope and United K ingdom inclu d e
rou tes fr o m the A tlan tic and G ulf C oa sts to
United K ingdom , Irelan d, S can d in avia, B a ltic
Sea, G erm any, B elgiu m and N etherlands, A t ­
lan tic F ra n ce and parts o f Spain.




83
M e d ite rra n e a n and A fr ic a in clu de rou tes fr o m
A tla n tic and G ulf C o a st to M ed ite rra n ea n , B la ck
S ea , P o rtu g a l, and p a rts o f Spain, a ll co a sts
o f A fr ic a and M a d a g a sca r.
P a c ific d a t a a r e p re se n te d se p a ra te ly fo r
ro u te s fr o m E a st C o a st p o rts and W est C oa st
p orts.
They in clu de rou tes to the F a r E ast,
A u stra lia , S traits S ettlem en ts, N eth erlan d s,
E a st In d ies, India, P e r s ia n G u lf, and Red Sea.
In te rco a sta l in clu d es rou tes betw een the A tlan tic Gulf1and P a c ific p o r ts but d oes not include
c o a stw ise rou tes con fin ed to 1 c o a s t.
N um ber o f P o r ts V is it e d . —The n u m ber o f p orts
v is ite d a fte r lea vin g the o r ig in a l p o rt but not cou n t­
ing p o r t v is its m ade during c o a stw ise loading p r io r
to d e p a rtu re.
Annual E m ploym en t
L a b o r-m a n a g e m e n t a g re e m e n ts r e q u ire that the
individual co m p a n ie s sh all pay a s p e c ifie d am ount
o f m o n e y o r p e rce n ta g e o f b a se pay into one o f the
v a rio u s v a ca tio n funds fo r ea ch day an em p loy ee
c o v e r e d b y the fund is e m p lo y e d .25 The r e c o r d s o f
th ese paym ents fo r individual sea m en in m o s t ca s e s
fu rn ish ed the data u sed in this r e p o r t f o r e m p lo y ­
m en t during the y e a r studied.
The d e s c rip tio n o f this p a rt o f the su rv e y ,
th e r e fo r e , is e s s e n tia lly lim ite d to the co v e ra g e of
th ese fu n ds. A lthough d iffe rin g in b e n e fits , a il of
the funds fu rn ish ed a p p ro x im a te ly the sam e type o f
data.
A random sa m p le o f about 7 ,0 0 0 seam en was
s e le c te d fr o m the v a rio u s fu n ds, u sin g the la st
2 digits o f the s o c ia l s e c u r ity n u m ber as the b a s is
o f s e le c tio n .
In the s m a lle r fu n ds, the sam pling
ra tio w as g r e a te r in o r d e r to obtain a n u m ber la rg e
enough to give a c c u r a te r e s u lt s . E ach fund, h ow ­
e v e r , w as a p p r o p r ia te ly r e p re se n te d in the total
e s tim a te s .
P e r io d S tu died. — The em p loym en t estim a tes
c o v e r the y ea r fr o m July 1, 1956, through June 30,
1957. T rip s extending b e fo r e and a fte r this p e r io d
w e r e adju sted to r e f le c t on ly the days w ork ed d u r­
ing the study p e r io d .
Ratings In clu d e d .— A ll ratin gs e x ce p t p u r s e rs
w e re studied. Data on som e ratin gs not shown s e p ­
a ra te ly w e re in clu ded in dep artm en tal totals and in
totals f o r lic e n s e d and u n lice n se d sea m a n . Seam en
w e r e c la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g to the ratin g in w hich they
w e r e em p loy ed the g r e a te s t n u m ber o f days during
the y e a r studied.

25
See se c tio n on In com e S e cu rity and V acation
B e n e fits , p. 34.



Scope o f E m p lo y m e n t.— Seam en who w ork ed at
anytim e during the y e a r under an a g re e m e n t p r o v id ­
ing fo r such a v a ca tio n fund w ere within the sco p e
of the study.
Data on em p loy m en t f o r sea m en in
1 lic e n s e d o ffic e r s union, w hich did not m aintain a
sep a ra te v a ca tion fund, w e re obtained fr o m r e c o r d s
of the em p loy in g shipping co m p a n ie s. Seam en s e ­
le cte d in the sa m p le w e re c r o s s ch eck ed with the
v a rio u s funds. E m ploym en t under any of the funds
f o r the sam e sea m en was com b in ed .
W ork in the m a r itim e in du stry not r e g u la rly
c o v e re d by the fu n ds, such as shipping on the G reat
Lakes and oth er inland w aterw ays and towing and
p ilotin g s e r v i c e s , w e re not included as tim e e m ­
p loy ed in the in d u stry. A ls o ex clu d ed was tim e on
o il com pan y tankers not co v e re d b y the funds. S ea ­
m en on som e o il com pan y tankers w e re c o v e re d by
som e o f the fu n ds, h o w e v e r , and that em p loy m en t
w as in clu d ed .
The m a jo r d iffe r e n c e betw een the
c o v e r a g e o f m en in clu d ed in the d a ily earn in gs part
o f the annual em p loy m en t part o f the study was the
in clu sio n o f the la tter group.
A ch e ck of r e c o r d s m aintained b y the C oa st
Guard in dicated that few sea m en tr a n s fe r r e d to (o r
fr o m ) the m a ritim e in d u stry as studied and those
seg m en ts o f the in d u stry w hich w e re ex clu d e d . The
e ffe c t of these tr a n s fe r s on the em p loy m en t data
shown w as n e g lig ib le .
V acation tim e earn ed o r paid f o r was not in ­
clu ded in the num ber o f days e m p lo y e d .
C la s s ific a tio n of G r o u p s .— A seam an was c o n s id e re d in du stry con n ected fo r the w hole y e a r only
if he had em p loy m en t so m e tim e in the fir s t h alf of
1956 and a fte r June 30, 1957. He was co n s id e re d
as having b een em p loy ed in any 1 o f the 4 q u a rters
o f the y ea r studied if he was em p loy ed fo r one o r
m o r e days in that q u a rte r. It w a s, th e r e fo r e , th e o ­
r e t ic a lly p o s s ib le fo r a seam an to have b een e m ­
p lo y e d on ly 6 days during a 2 -y e a r p e rio d and be
c la s s ifie d as in d u stry con n ected fo r the y ea r of
study and em p loy ed in a il 4 q u a rte rs . C o n v e r s e ly ,
it w as p o s s ib le fo r a seam an to have a lm o s t fu ll
em p loy m en t during the y ea r and not be co n sid e re d
as in d u stry con n ected if he had no em p loy m en t in
eith er the fi r s t h alf of 1956 o r a fte r June 30, 1957.
C la s s ific a tio n o f C oa st o f E m p loy m en t.— T ran s f e r betw een co a s ts was freq u en t am ong the lice n s e d
seam en*s funds but not com m on am ong the un­
lic e n s e d funds. In such c a s e s , the data w e re c o m ­
bined and the seam a n c la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g to the
c o a s t w h ere he was em p loy ed the m o s t tim e.
N um ber of Ships, C om pa nies, and T r i p s .— A
seam an w as c la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g to the num ber of
d iffe re n t trip s and ships he was em p loy ed on and
b y the num ber o f d iffe re n t com p a n ies that em p loy ed
h im . F o r p u rp o se s of this study, paym ents fo r le s s
than 10 days w ere not co n s id e re d in the counting of
tr ip s , sh ip s, o r co m p a n ie s.
T h e r e fo r e , p o rt p a y ­
r o lls , r e l ie f o r standby jo b s , and oth er s h o r t -t e r m

84
em p lo y m e n t w a s not r e fle c t e d in the num ber of
sh ip s, t r ip s , o r c o m p a n ie s .
Such em p loy m en t
w as cou n ted, h o w e v e r, in the tota l num ber o f days
w o rk e d .

o rig in a l sam p le w e r e a r r a y e d in o r d e r o f num ber o f
days w o rk e d , and e v e r y secon d o r th ird seam an w as
taken in the m o r e n u m erou s ra tin g s . E a rn in g s w e re
obtain ed fo r ea ch trip the seam a n w a s on during the
y e a r studied, July 1, 1956, th rou gh June 30, 1957.

C o m p le te n e ss o f D ata. — A s in m o st c a s e s of
re co r d k e e p in g , the e r r o r s d is c o v e r e d during the
c o u r s e o f the su rv e y w e r e o f o m is s io n ra th er than
d u p lica tio n . S e v e ra l step s w e r e taken, h o w e v e r, to
c o r r e c t th is con d itio n .
In m o st c a s e s , seam en*s
a p p lica tio n s f o r v a ca tion w e r e co m p a r e d with p a y ­
m en t r e c o r d s .
T h is ch e ck fre q u e n tly c o r r e c t e d
o m is s io n s .

R ating C la s s ific a t io n . — A s in the study o f an ­
nual em p loy m en t, a seam an w as c la s s ifie d at the
rating at w h ich he spent m o st o f h is tim e , but e a r n ­
in g s r e fle c t in co m e fr o m any oth er ra tin gs he m ay
have w o rk e d at during the y e a r .

In a ll c a s e s , the sam p le m e m b e r s w e r e tr a c e d
by th e ir s o c ia l s e c u r ity n u m b ers through a ll v a c a ­
tion funds to c o n so lid a te th e ir e m p loy m en t data.
R e c o r d s o f the C o a st G uard w e r e ch e ck e d fo r
th ose se a m en w h ose r e c o r d s in the v a ca tion funds
w e r e not c o m p le te . S am ples o f oth er seam en*s r e ­
c o r d s w e r e a ls o ch e ck e d at the C o a st Guard to
d e te rm in e the a c c u r a c y o f the data c o lle c t e d . An
a n a ly sis o f the r e s u lts o f the added data obtained
fr o m C o a st G uard r e c o r d s in d ica te d that the u n d er­
statem en t o f em p loy m en t w h ich w as due to o m is ­
sio n s in the s o u r c e r e c o r d s am ounted to l e s s than
1 p e r c e n t o f the tota l em p loy m en t fo r the y e a r .
C om p a n ie s a r e not r e q u ir e d to r e p o r t seam en*s
em p loy m en t to the C o a st G uard, e x ce p t w hen the
sea m en a re under a r t i c le s . The C o a st G uard r e ­
c o r d s , t h e r e fo r e , do not a lw a y s in clu d e s h o r t -t e r m
em p lo y m e n t on p o r t p a y r o lls o r r e l ie f w o rk .
Annual E a rn in gs
Annual e a rn in g s data w e r e c o lle c t e d fo r only
6 o f the ra tin g s studied in the annual em p loy m en t
part o f the s u r v e y . The sco p e o f the 2 p arts w e re
o th e rw ise id e n tic a l.
Sam pling P r o c e d u r e . — A sub sam p le o f the s e a ­
m en studied in the annual e m p loy m en t p a rt o f the
su rv e y w as s e le c t e d to obtain e a rn in g s fr o m the in ­
divid u a l com p a n ies* s o c ia l s e c u r ity r e c o r d s . B e ­
fo r e s e le ctin g the su b sa m p le, the sea m en in the




E a rn in gs In clu d e d . — The e a rn in g s in clu d ed in
the annual e a rn in g s s e c tio n a r e the sam e a s th ose
d e s c r ib e d f o r the d a ily ea rn in g s (page 81).
They
in clu d e a ll sh ip boa rd pay in clu d in g r e l ie f o r standby
a s s ig n m e n ts . E a rn in gs fo r s h o r e -g a n g w o rk w e r e
a ls o in clu d ed i f they w e r e a m in o r p art o f the s e a ­
m e n ^ ea rn in g s and c o v e r e d b y the v a ca tion funds.
S p e c ific a lly ex clu d e d w a s v a ca tion p a y
or
any a llo w a n ce s not d ir e c t ly a s s o c ia te d w ith a ship
p a y r o ll.
P a y m en ts w e re a d ju sted to r e p r e s e n t on ly that
em p loy m en t that o c c u r r e d during the y e a r studied,
r e g a r d le s s o f w hen the paym ents w e re m a d e.

W hen r e c o r d s fo r a m in o r p art o f a seam an*s
ea rn in g s cou ld not be lo c a te d the am ount w as e s ­
tim a ted on the b a s is o f oth er e a rn in g s at the sam e
ra tin g . In no c a s e did su ch e stim a te d ea rn in g s e x ­
ce e d 5 p e r c e n t o f the seam an*s e a rn in g s .

T im e E m p lo y e d . — See explan ation under Annual
E m p loy m en t. The d iffe r e n c e betw een the e stim a te
o f days em p lo y e d in the annual em p loy m en t ta b le s
and the annual earn in gs ta b le s a re due p r im a r ily to
c o r r e c t io n s o f em p loy m en t data w hen annual e a r n ­
in g s data w e r e b ein g c o lle c t e d .
Som e o f the d if­
fe r e n c e , h o w e v e r, m ay b e due to sam pling e r r o r
sin ce a su bsam ple was u sed in the annual ea rn in gs
study o f som e o f the ra tin g s .

85

Appendix B:
Descriptions of Selected Ratings
M a ster (C aptain)

P u r s e r or P u r s e r /P h a r m a c is t - Continued

In com m a n d o f ship; c h ie f n a v ig a tor; r e s p o n ­
sib le fo r d isc ip lin e and o r d e r , sa fe ty o f ship, p a s ­
s e n g e r s , c r e w and c a r g o ; is so le r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f
ship’ s o w n e r.
In co n su lta tion w ith C h ief O ffic e r ,
a rra n g e s o rg a n iza tio n a l a ssig n m e n ts o f duties fo r
sh ip ’ s o p e ra tio n , n a v ig a tion , and m a in ten an ce.

When s e r v i n g in the c a p a c i t y o f P u r s e r /
P h a r m a c is t, is re s p o n s ib le f o r m e d icin e ch e st,
f i r s t - a i d trea tm en t, and* in ju ry r e p o r ts in addition
to the oth er d u ties.

D eck D epartm ent
C h ief M ate (F ir s t M ate or C h ief O f f ic e r )
A c ts as M a s te r ’ s f ir s t a ssista n t; in ch a rg e o f
a ll d e ck w o rk and r e s p o n s ib le fo r hull m ain ten an ce,
c a r g o planning; a s s is t s w ith n a viga tion , d is c ip lin e ,
and o r d e r .
S econ d M ate (Secon d O f f i c e r )
A s s is t s w ith n a viga tion and c a r g o w ork ; in
ch a rg e o f m a ils ; r e s p o n s ib le fo r c a r e and m a in te­
nan ce o f a ll navigating equipm ent and c h a rts ; u sually
stands 4 to 8 w atch in ch a rg e o f navigating b r id g e .
T h ird M ate (T h ird O f f ic e r )
R e s p o n s ib le fo r m ain ten an ce o f life b o a ts and
fire fig h tin g equipm ent; a c ts a s sign al o f f i c e r in
ch a rg e o f a ll sign alin g equipm ent; a s s is t s w ith c a r g o
w o rk ; u su ally stands 12 to 4 w atch in ch a rg e o f
navigatin g b r id g e .
F ou rth o r Junior T h ird M ate (F ou rth O ffic e r )
A s s is t s in su p e r v is io n o f d e c k departm ent
a c tiv itie s and w o r k d e ta ils . In ch a rg e o f navigating
b r id g e when standing w atch , u su a lly 8 to 12.
R a d io O ffic e r
P e r fo r m s a ll du ties r e q u ir e d fo r the op era tion
and m ain ten an ce o f r a d io and other e le c t r o n ic c o m ­
m u n ica tion s d e v ic e s ; m aintains depth r e c o r d in g
equipm ent and e le c t r o n ic n avigation al aid s such as
R ada r and L o rn a .
S e r v ic e s e m e r g e n cy b a tte rie s
and life b o a t t r a n s c e iv e r s . H andles a ll co m m u n i­
ca tio n s at the d ir e c tio n o f the M a ste r .

Bosun (B oa tsw a in )
C a r r ie s out o r d e r s fo r w ork d eta ils as is s u e d
by C h ief O ffic e r ; la y s out d eck w o r k and s u p e r v is e s
sea m en ; d ir e c ts m aintenance ta sk s such a s chipping
and painting; s p lic e s ro p e and w ir e fo r rig g in g ;
handies life b o a ts and can vas c o v e r in g s .
C arpen ter
Under d ir e c tio n o f the C h ief O ffic e r , s h o re s up
c a r g o or tightens c a r g o la sh in g s ; sounds b ilg e s ,
fr e s h w ater and b a lla st tanks; b olts and unbolts
tanktop c o v e r s . Stands by w in d la ss when n e c e s s a r y ;
a s s is t s with g e n e ra l m aintenance and re p a ir w o rk .
D eck

M aintenance

M ust be an A b le -B o d ie d Seam an.
P e r fo r m s
duties in co n n ection w ith m ain ten an ce o f the D eck
D epartm ent under the d ir e c tio n o f the C h ief O ffic e r ;
sounds b ilg e s and ov erh a u ls c a r g o gear as d ir e c te d .
U sually w o rk s an 8 -h o u r day, M ondays through
F r id a y s .
A b le -B o d ie d Seam an (A B )
P e r fo r m s g en era l sea m en ’ s du ties; r ig s c a r g o
b o o m s ; a s s is t s in read y in g g ear fo r c a r g o loading
or d isch a rg in g o p e ra tio n s; stands w atch as look ou t;
a cts as h elm sm a n under d ir e c tio n o f the o ffic e r on
w atch; m u st be a q u a lified life b o a tm a n able to take
ch a rg e o f a life b o a t c r e w . Two A B sea m en stand on
each the 12 to 4 , 4 to 8 , and the 8 to 12 w a tch e s.
O rd in a ry Seam an (OS)
L e a rn s and a s s is t s in p e r fo r m in g the duties o f
an A b le -B o d ie d Seam an, c le a n s , ch ip s , pain ts, and
w a sh es down; c o ils and s p lic e s r o p e s .
One OS
usu ally stands on each the 12 to 4 , 4 to 8 , and the
8 to 12 w a tch e s.
Engine D epartm en t
C h ief E n gin eer

P u r s e r o r P u r s e r /P h a r m a c is t
M aintains p a y ro ll data; r e c o r d s o v e rtim e r e ­
p orte d by the D eck , E n gin e, and Stew ards d ep a rt­
m en ts; k eeps sh ip ’ s a cco u n ts; and p r e p a re s cre w
and c a r g o m a n ife sts and o ffic ia l docu m en ts fo r
fo r e ig n port a u th o ritie s .




In ch a rg e o f and r e s p o n s ib le fo r the op era tion
and m aintenance o f a ll p ro p u lsion m a ch in e ry , a u x il­
ia r ie s , and pow er gen eratin g equipm ent.
K eeps
lo g s on m a ch in e ry p e r fo r m a n c e , fu el con su m p tion ;
re s p o n s ib le fo r m a ch in e ry r e p a ir s and p re p a re s
s p e c ific a tio n s fo r p e r io d ic ov erh a u l or r e p a ir s w hen
in p o rt.
In stru cts and train s w h ere n e c e s s a r y .

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F ir s t A ss is ta n t E n g in eer

Secon d E le c tr ic ia n (o r A ssista n t)

C o o p e r a te s w ith and a s s is t s C h ie f E n g in eer
with r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s fo r a ll s h ip 's m a ch in e ry ; has
d ir e c t r e s p o n s ib ility fo r o p e ra tio n s in the en g in er o o m and su p e rv isio n o f e n g in e r o o m p e rs o n n e l;
in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith C h ie f E n g in e e r, plans and
d ir e c t s r e p a ir s , s u p e r v is e s m ain ten an ce o f lu b r i­
catin g s y s te m s , e le c t r ic a l equipm ent and en g in e r o o m a u x ilia r ie s .

W ork s under the su p e rv is io n o f the E le c t r ic ia n .
A s s is t s in m aking r e p a ir s and p rov id in g m a in te­
nance o f e l e c t r ic m o t o r s ; k e e p s r e s is t e r hou ses
cle a n and tid y ; m aintains sto ck o f e l e c t r ic a l sp are
p a rts to m eet re p a ir o r re p la ce m e n t n eed s.

Secon d A ss is ta n t E n g in e e r
A s s is t s in the o p e ra tio n o f s h ip 's p ro p u ls io n ,
a u x ilia r y and gen eratin g m a c h in e r y .
R e sp o n sib le
fo r fu e l and w a te r ; s u p e r v is e s tank soundings and
k ee p s r e c o r d s o f fu e l and w a te r con su m p tion ; m ay
be ch a rg e d w ith the r e s p o n s ib ility fo r o p era tion o f
s h ip 's b o ile r , b o ile r r o o m equ ipm en t, fe e d w a ter
s y s te m , pum ps and c o n d e n s e r s ; s u p e r v is e s o i le r s
and fir e m e n , w a te r te n d e r s fo r m aintenance o f
p r o p e r o il and w a ter te m p e r a tu r e s and steam p r e s ­
su re ; m a k es r e p a ir s in clu d in g m a ch in in g o f r e p la c e ­
m ent p a r ts , u su ally stands 4 to 8 w atch .

O ile r
Q u a lified M e m b e r o f the E ngine D epartm en t
(Q M E D ).
O ils and g r e a s e s b e a rin g s and m ovin g
p a rts o f m ain en gin e, a u x ilia ry m a ch in e ry and
e le c t r ic m o t o r s ; ch e ck s o i l p r e s s u r e s a n d flow ;
in s p e c ts jo u r n a ls , b e a r in g s , cou p lin g s; a s s is t s e n g i­
n eer in ch a rg e w ith r e p a ir and ov erh a u l o f m a ch in ­
e r y ; m ay a ls o be g iv en the r e s p o n s ib ility fo r m a in ­
taining b o ile r w a ter at p r o p e r l e v e ls .
One o ile r
stands e ith er the 12 to 4, 4 to 8, o r 8 to 12 w atch .
F ire m a n ,

W ater T en d er

S u p e rv ise s o p e ra tio n and m ain ten ance o f en ­
g in e ro o m a u x ilia r ie s and s h ip 's pu m ps; re s p o n s ib le
f o r the o p e ra tio n o f m a in en gin es w hen on w atch;
s u p e r v is e s e n g in e ro o m p e r s o n n e l; k e e p s log o f a c ­
tiv it ie s and m a ch in e ry p e r fo r m a n c e ; m a k e s r e p a ir s
u sin g m ach in e shop equ ipm en t.

Q u a lified M e m b e r o f the E ngine D epartm en t
(Q M E D ). C lea n s o il burning equipm ent in*the b o ile r
r o o m ; cle a n s fu el o il s tr a in e r s ; c h e c k s b o ile r
gau ges f o r p r o p e r w ater le v e ls ; m ain tain s s p e c ifie d
steam p r e s s u r e ; re g u la te s fu el o il v a lv e s a s r e ­
q u ired fo r in c re a s in g o r d im in ish in g b o ile r f i r e s ;
ch e c k s o p e ra tio n o f e v a p o r a to r s and c o n d e n s e r s and
ch e ck s b o ile r w a te r fo r sa lin ity ; m ay re p a ck pum ps,
g rin d v a lv e s , ren ew p ip in g. F ire m a n , Water T en d er
stands on ea ch o f the 12 to 4 , 4 to 8, and 8 to
12 w a tch e s.

Ju n ior T h ird A ss is ta n t E n g in eer (o r Fourth)

W ip er

W o rk s u n d e r the su p e r v is io n o f the F ir s t
A ss is ta n t E n g in e e r. P e r f o r m s s u p e r v is o r y fu n ction s
in the e n g in e ro o m du rin g w a tch h o u r s, u su a lly 8 to
12 w atch when he is r e s p o n s ib le f o r o p e ra tio n and
m ain ten an ce o f the e n g in e r o o m .

A s s is t s in k eepin g e n g in e ro o m clea n ; w ip e s
dow n m a ch in e ry w ith co tton w aste o r s o lv e n ts;
cle a n s o il s p ills ; h elp s d ism a n tle and r e p a ir m a ­
ch in e ry under the d ir e c t io n o f the e n g in eer in
ch a rg e ; a s s is t s in g e n e ra l m aintenance o f e n g in er o o m . One w ip e r i s a s s ig n e d to e a ch o f the 12 to
4 , 4 to 8, and 8 to 12 w a tch e s .
M ay loa d engine
dep artm en t s to r e s in p o r t.

T h ird A ss is ta n t E n g in e e r

L ic e n s e d Junior E n g in e e r
W o rk s under the su p e r v is io n o f the C h ief and
F ir s t A s s is ta n t E n g in e e r s .
P e rfo rm s n ecessa ry
fu n ction s in the e n g i n e r o o m du rin g the p e rio d
fr o m 8 to 5 fo r the o r d e r ly m ain tenance o f the
e n g in e r o o m .
U n lice n se d Junior E n g in eer
A s s is t s e n g in e e r on w atch ; p e r fo r m s en g in er o o m du ties w h ile w ork in g f o r lic e n s e ; d o e s m a in te­
nance w o rk on d e ck m a ch in e ry ; c a r e and m a in te­
nance o f s h ip 's plu m bin g; a s s i s t s e le c t r ic ia n s
w hen r e q u ir e d .

E ngine M aintenance
A s s is t s C h ief E n g in eer and oth er e n g in eer o f f i ­
c e r p e rs o n n e l in re p a irin g and m aintaining p ro p u l­
sion , g en eratin g , and a u x ilia r y m a ch in e ry . M akes
r e p a ir s , m ach in in g re p la ce m e n t p a rts under the d i­
r e c tio n o f the C h ie f o r F ir s t A s s is ta n t E n g in eer,
in sta lls new p a rts , m a k es a d j u s t m e n t s , p e r ­
fo r m s ta sk s o f O ile r o r F ir e m e n , W ater T en d er
a s r e q u ir e d .
S tew ards D epartm en t

E le c t r ic ia n

C h ief Stew ard

R e s p o n s ib le f o r w o rk a s s ig n e d by C h ie f o r F ir s t
A s s is ta n t E n g in e e r s .
R e p a ir s and m aintains a ll
e l e c t r ic m o to r s and e l e c t r ic a l c ir c u it s .
A ctiv a te s
c ir c u it s fo r e le c t r ic a l d e ck m a ch in e ry and stands
by w hen c a r g o gea r is in o p e ra tio n .

S u p e rv ise s the o p e ra tio n and m aintenance o f
s e r v ic e s fo r liv in g q u a r te r s , fo o d p re p a ra tio n and
m e s s r o o m s ; m aintains in v en tory r e c o r d s o f fo o d ­
stu ffs, lin e n s , bedding and fu rn itu re ; p r e p a r e s r e q ­
u isitio n s fo r v oyage re q u ire m e n ts; in con su lta tion




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C h ie f S tew a rd— C ontinued

A ss is ta n t C ook (T h ird C ook)

w ith t h e C h i e f C o o k ,
plans m e a ls , s u p e r v is e s
p rep a ra tio n and s e r v ic e o f m e a ls ; is s u e s n e c e s s a r y
su p p lies and is r e s p o n s ib le fo r the g e n e ra l c le a n ­
lin e s s o f p a s se n g e r an4 c r e w liv in g sp a ce s and
a c c o m m o d a t io n s .

W ork s under the d ir e c tio n o f the C h ief C ook;
sta rts g a lle y ran ge fir e ; k e e p s w ork in g top and
oven s cle a n ; cle a n s and p r e p a r e s v e g e ta b le s fo r
cook in g ; a s s is t s in w ithdraw ing m e a ts , v e g e ta b le s ,
and other p e ris h a b le s fr o m s h ip 's r e fr ig e r a t io n
b o x e s ; k eep s b u tch er shop and g a rb a g e d is p o s a l
r o o m cle a n and o r d e r ly ; draw s d a ily su p p lies such
as fo o d s tu ffs , clean in g equ ipm en t, and lin en s fo r
the g a lle y .

C ook (C h ief C ook)
P r e p a r e s a ll m e a ls and, in con ju n ction with
C h ief Stew ard, plans m enus in advan ce o f m e a ls .
S u p e rv ise s Secon d C ook and U tilitym an in fo o d p r e ­
p ara tion s and m ain ten an ce o f c le a n lin e s s in the
s h ip 's g a lle y . Issu e s s to r e s fr o m s h ip 's r e f r ig e r a ­
to r s and s t o r e r o o m s ; b u tch e rs m e a ts .
C ook and B aker (S econ d C ook and B a k er)
W ork s under the d ir e c tio n o f the C h ief C ook;
bak es a ll b r e a d and p ie s , p r e p a r e s d e s s e r t s , salad s
and night lu n ch es; r e s p o n s ib le fo r the sa fety and
upkeep o f g a lle y u ten sils and equipm ent; k eep s r e ­
fr ig e r a tio n s p a c e s and s t o r e r o o m neat and o r d e r ly ;
a s s is t s in g e n e ra l clea n in g and m aintenance o f
s h ip 's g a lle y .




M essm a n (Or Me ss m a n /U tility m a n )
W ork s under the d ir e c tio n o f the C h ief Stew ard
and C h ief C ook; sets ta b le s, s e r v e s m e a ls , w a sh es
g la s s w a r e and tablew are a fte r e a ch m e a l; draw s
table lin en s fo r the m e s s r o o m s and dining sa loon ;
d is p o s e s o f tra sh and garb a g e fr o m dining a r e a s ;
s cru b s pantry, m e s s r o o m , and dining sa lo o n d e ck s;
r e s p o n s ib le fo r c le a n lin e s s o f s e rv in g pantry; cle a n s
p o rth o le s , fa n s, and fu rn ish in g s; m aintains c le a n li­
n e s s o f p a s s a g e s , sta irw a y s and c o r r id o r s ; m ak es
up b erth s in o ffic e r s * and c r e w q u a r te r s ; k eep s r a ­
dio r o o m and v a r io u s s h ip 's o f f i c e s c le a n and tidy.

88
Appendix C:
Employment Procedures
International O rg a n iza tion o f M a s t e r s ,
hfates and P ilo t s (M hfP l

N ational M arin e E n g in e e r s 1 B e n e fica l
A s s o cia tio n (M E B A )— C ontinued

1.

P r e fe r e n c e o f e m p loy m en t is given to m e m b e r s
o f the M M P when a v a ila b le and the e m p lo y e r
a g r e e s that when h irin g new e m p lo y e e s they
shall be obtain ed through the o ffic e s o f the
M M P.

M EBA a c c o r d s the e m p lo y e r the rig h t to s e le c t his
own C h ief E n g in eers and F ir s t A s s is ta n t E n g in eers
b e ca u se o f the d ir e c t r e s p o n s ib ility th ese in d iv id ­
uals have to the sh ip ow n er.

2.

The e m p lo y e r has the rig h t to s e le c t p e rson n el
c o n s id e r e d to be q u a lifie d and s a tis fa cto r y .

A m e r ic a n R ad io A s s o c ia tio n (A R A )

3.

The e m p lo y e r a ls o r e s e r v e s the righ t to s e le c t
h is own M a ste rs (C aptains) and C h ief O ffic e r s .
A s fir s t and s e co n d in com m a n d , r e s p e c t iv e ly ,
th ese in dividu a ls have a d ir e c t r e s p o n s ib ility
to the sh ip o w n e r.

4.

The e m p lo y e r m a y w a ive the r e q u ire m e n t o f
obtaining lic e n s e d o f f i c e r s fr o m the M M P if
the a v a ila b le p o sitio n is to be fille d by a l i ­
c e n s e d d e ck o ffic e r w ho has b een em p lo y e d by
the com p a n y fo r at le a s t 6 m onths within the
p re ce d in g 2 y e a r s and who has not b een e m ­
p lo y e d by any oth er stea m sh ip com p an y e x ce p t
as a r e l ie f m ate ( o f f ic e r ) .

The e m p lo y e r is ob lig a ted to p r o c u r e R a d io O ffi­
c e r s fr o m a lis t o f u n em p loy ed A R A m e m b e r s
r e g is t e r e d at the n e a r e s t em p loy m en t o ffic e o f
the A s s o c ia tio n .

2.

P r e fe r e n c e shall be given to the R a d io O ffice r
lo n g e s t u n em ployed, who is q u a lifie d , com p eten t,
and s a tis fa cto r y and who ca n p re s e n t p r o o f o f
p re v io u s em p loy m en t a b oa rd ships o f one or
m o r e com p a n ies under c o n tr a c t to the A R A or
p r o o f o f at le a s t 2 years* em p loy m en t as a
R a d io O ffic e r on U. S. flag v e s s e l s not under
c o n tr a c t to the A s s o c ia tio n .

3.

Upon w ritten a g re e m e n t b etw een the e m p lo y e r
and the A s s o c ia tio n , tr a n s fe r o f a con tin ou sly
em p lo y e d R a d io O ffic e r b etw een ships m ay be
p e rm itte d .

O ffic e r p e rso n n e l not m e m b e r s o f the M M P,
m u st in itiate m e m b e r sh ip in the O rg an ization
w ithin 30 days a fter being h ir e d by an e m p lo y e r
in o r d e r to continue su ch em p loy m en t o r to be
e lig ib le fo r future e m p loy m en t.

5.

1.

6.

A ny lic e n s e d d e ck o f f ic e r who has b een d is ­
ch a rg e d fo r ju st ca u se w i t h o u t r e v e r s a l o f
c h a r g e s by g r ie v a n c e p r o c e d u r e , shall not be
d isp a tch ed to the sa m e e m p lo y e r fo r any future
a v a ila b le p o sitio n .

7.

E ach em ployin g com p a n y sh all a dh ere to the
p o lic y o f p ro m o tio n o r dem otion fr o m w ithin
ranks o f its lic e n s e d d e ck o f f i c e r s and se n io rity
sh all p r e v a il u n less n e c e s s a r y jo b q u a lifica tion s
take p r e c e d e n c e .

1.

In the event o f v a c a n c ie s , the e m p lo y e r a g r e e s
to n otify the Union o f the p e rs o n n e l r e q u ir e ­
m en ts.

2.

When m e m b e r s o f the Uni^n a re to be h ire d ,
p ro m o te d , or tr a n s fe r r e d , the e m p lo y e r a g r e e s
to subm it such p r o p o s a ls to the Union fo r c l e a r ­
a n ce . The Union a g r e e s to g ran t such cle a r a n c e
fo r the p o s itio n to w hich the R a d io O ffic e r is to
be a s s ig n e d .

The e m p lo y e r shall have the u n r e s tr ic te d righ t
to keep in continuous em p loy m en t w ithin its own
fle e t, any lic e n s e d d e ck o ffic e r p ro v id e d such
o ffic e r m ain tain s m e m b e r sh ip in the M M P and
the con tin ued em p loy m en t is m u tu ally d e s ir e d .

8.

R a d io O ffic e r s Union o f the C o m m e r c ia l
t e l e g r a p h e r s l)n ion (R b U )

A m e r ic a n M erch an t M arine S ta ff O ffic e r s
A s s o c ia tio n (AM M SOA)
1.

The A s s o c ia tio n p ro v id e s the e m p lo y e r with
n a m e s, e x p e r ie n c e , and q u a lifica tio n s o f m e m ­
b e r s who a re u n em ployed to p e rm it the e m ­
p lo y e r to g iv e co n s id e r a tio n to such m e m b e r s
w hen h irin g p u r s e rs p e rs o n n e l to fill v a c a n c ie s .

2.

A p p lica n ts s e le c te d fo r em p loy m en t m ust make
a p p lica tion fo r m e m b e rsh ip in the AM M SOA
w ithin 30 days a fter date o f em p loy m en t.
The
A s s o c ia tio n shall in fo rm an e m p lo y e r in w ritin g ,
upon the term in a tion o f any e m p lo y e e ^ m e m b e r ­
ship in the A s s o c ia tio n b e fo r e an e m p lo y e r shall
d is ch a rg e an e m p lo y e e .

N ational M arin e E n g in e e r s 1 B e n e fica l
A s s o c ia t io n (M fcfeA)
The em p loy m en t p r o c e d u r e s fo r m a rin e en g i­
n e e r s p a r a lle l th ose p r e s c r ib e d fo r d eck o f f i c e r s .
The 2 o r g a n iz a tio n s, M M P and M E B A , com p lem en t
one another in the fo rm u la tio n o f p r o c e d u r e s and
p r a c t ic e s o f the in d u stry in r e g a r d to the h irin g o f
s h ip s 1 o f f i c e r s .
In r e fe r e n c e to ite m 3 a b o v e , the




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A m e r ic a n M erch an t M arine Staff O ffic e r s
A s s o c ia t io n r(AIvflvf>SOAJ— C ontinued

S e a fa r e r s 1 International Union o f
N orth A m e r ic a X SlU)

3.

1.

The e m p lo y e r shall r e c o g n iz e the o rg a n iz a tion
as the s o le and e x c lu s iv e ba rg a in in g r e p r e s e n ­
tative fo r a ll u n licen sed p e r s o n n e l.

2.

The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s that, as a con d ition o f e m ­
p loy m en t, a ll u n licen sed p e rs o n n e l sh all b e co m e
m e m b e r s o f the SIU w ithin 31 days a fte r being
h ire d and shall re m a in *m em b er s w h ile em p lo y e d
a b o a rd any v e s s e l s o p e ra te d by stea m sh ip c o m ­
panies under co n tra ct to the SIU.

3.

A ss ig n m e n ts to jo b s s h a l l
follow in g s e n io rity b a s is :

Staff O ffic e r s shall be bon ded in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
the e sta b lish e d p o lic y o f the e m p lo y e r and shall
be c o n s id e r e d u n qu alified i f a p p lica tion fo r bond
is den ied by any su re ty com p a n y .

Staff O ffic e r s A s s o c ia t io n o f A m e r ic a (SOA)
1.

2.

M e m b e rsh ip in the SOA sh all be a con d ition o f
continued e m p loy m en t on and a fte r the 30th day
an e m p lo y e e is h ir e d , and the com pan y sh all
d isc h a r g e any e m p lo y e e w hen n o tifie d in w ritin g
by the SOA, that such e m p lo y e e is n ot, or is
no lo n g e r , a m e m b e r in g o o d standing.
Staff O ffic e r s shall be b on ded in a c c o r d a n c e
w ith the e sta b lish e d p o lic y o f the e m p lo y e r and
shall be c o n s id e r e d un qu alified i f a p p lica tion
fo r bond is den ied by any s u r e t y com p an y .

2.

on the

This c la s s ific a t io n shall be p o s s e s s e d
by a ll seam en w ith ra tin gs a b ov e O r ­
din ary S eam en, W ip e r , o r M essm a n
who have been r e g u la r ly e m p lo y e d
a b o a rd ships under co n tra ct to the
SIU during the p e r io d co m m e n cin g
p r io r t o January 1, 1952, up to
D e ce m b e r 31, 1954.

C la ss B .

T his next h igh est c la s s ific a t io n sh all
be p o s s e s s e d by a ll sea m en (including
O rd in a ry S eam en, W ip e r s , and M e s s m en) who have b e e n re g u la r ly e m ­
p loy ed a b o a rd sh ip s under co n tra ct to
the SIU during the p e r io d co m m e n cin g
p r io r or a fter J a n u a r y
1, 1951,
through D e ce m b e r 31, 1954, and who
do not have a C la s s A s e n io rity ra tin g .

C la ss C .

The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s that it w ill p r o c u r e a ll
U n lice n se d P e r s o n n e l in the D eck , E n gine, and
Stew ards D epartm en ts fr o m the em p loy m en t
o ffic e s o f the NM U.

T his next highest s e n io r it y c l a s s i f i ­
ca tion sh all be p o s s e s s e d by a ll un­
lic e n s e d p e rs o n n e l who do not have a
C la s s A o r B s e n io r ity ra tin g .

In the h irin g o f u n lice n se d p e r s o n n e l, the e m ­
p lo y e r w ill p r e fe r and the Union w ill r e fe r c o m ­
petent and dependable a p p lica n ts in the follow in g
o r d e r o f p r io r ity :
G roup 1.

m ade

C la s s A .

N ational M a ritim e Union o f A m e r ic a (NMU)
1.

be

T h ose c e r t ifie d as b elon gin g to the
nR eg u la r E m ploym en t P o o l 1 and e m ­
*
p lo y e d as u n lice n se d se a m en a b oa rd
any NMU c o n tr a c te d deep sea ta n k er,
c a r g o o r p a sse n g e r ship during the
7 -m on th p e r io d o f June 1 through
D e c e m b e r 31, 195 3.
4.

G roup 2 .

G roup 3.

G roup 4 .




T h ose e m p lo y e d as u n lice n sed seam en
a b o a rd any NMU co n tr a c te d ship p r io r
to June l , 195 3, or sin ce D e ce m b e r 31,
195 3.
G roup 2 a p p lica n ts m ay not be
r e f e r r e d fo r em p loy m en t as long as
a p p lica n ts in G roup 1 a r e a v a ila b le .
T h ose e m p lo y e d as u n lice n se d seam en
a b o a rd any U. S. flag m erch a n t ship
not under c o n tra ct to the NMU, sin ce
D e c e m b e r 31, 1953. G roup 3 a p p li­
can ts sh all not be r e f e r r e d fo r e m ­
ploym en t a s l o n g as a p p lica n ts in
G rou ps 1 and 2 a r e a v a ila b le .
T h ose w h o, upon a p p lica tion fo r e m ­
p loy m en t, subm it v a lid C oa st Guard
D ocu m en ts o r M erch an t M a r in e r s 1
id e n tifica tio n but who have had no
p r io r e x p e r ie n c e on U. S. flag m e r ­
chant sh ip s. G roup 4 a p p lica n ts shall
not be r e f e r r e d fo r em p loy m en t as
lon g as a p p lica n ts in G roups l , 2 , and
3 a r e a v a ila b le .

U n licen sed p e rs o n n e l p o s s e s s in g a C la s s B sen ­
io r it y rating sh all be e n titled to a C la s s A se n ­
io r it y rating a fte r having b e e n re g u la r ly e m ­
p loy ed fo r a p e r io d o f 8 y e a r s a b o a rd the ships
o f any e m p lo y e r under c o n tr a c t to the SIU.

$.

U n licen sed p e rs o n n e l p o s s e s s in g a C la s s C se n ­
io r it y rating shall be en titled to a C la s s B se n ­
io r it y rating a fter having b e e n r e g u la r ly e m ­
p loy ed fo r a p e rio d o f 2 y e a r s a b o a rd the ships
o f any e m p lo y e r under c o n tr a c t to the SIU.

S a ilo rs Union o f the P a c ific (SUP)
The SUP togeth er w ith its a ffilia te s fo r un li­
ce n s e d p e rso n n e l in the engine departm ent and the
stew ard s departm ent fo llo w em p loy m en t p r o c e d u r e s
w hich v a ry slig h tly fr o m one a n oth er, as fo llo w s :
(SUP)
1.

The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s when h irin g p e r s o n ­
n e l, to p r e fe r a p p lican ts who have p r e v i­
ou sly been em p loy ed as u n licen sed m e m ­
b e r s o f the d e ck departm ent on v e s s e ls o f
P a c ific C oa st steam sh ip co m p a n ie s .

90

S a ilo r s Union o f the P a c if ic (SU P)—-C ontinued

S a ilo rs Union o f the P a c ific (SU P)— Continued

(SU P )— C ontinued

(M CS)

2.

A p p lica n ts w ith 3 o r m o r e y e a r s o f such
em p loy m en t sh all have p r e fe r e n c e o v e r
a p p lica n ts w ith l e s s than 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e .

1.

3.

The SUP a g r e e s to fu rn ish com p eten t and
dependable e m p lo y e e s through the fa c ilitie s
o f its em p loy m en t o f f i c e s .

The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s to se cu re a ll stew ard s
dep artm en t p e rson n el through the h irin g
h a lls o f the M arin e C o o k s and Stew ards
Union.

2.

The MCS a g r e e s to fu rn is h the e m p lo y e r
w ith ca p a b le , com p eten t, and p h y sica lly fit
p e rso n n e l w h ere and w hen r e q u ir e d .

3.

A ll p e rson n el seeking em p loy m en t m ust be
cap ab le and com p eten t to the sa tis fa ctio n o f
the e m p lo y e r .

4.

No p e rs o n shall be e lig ib le to r e g is t e r fo r
em p loy m en t u n less he has been e lig ib le
fo r h irin g on P a c ific C oast ships sin ce
O ctob er 1, 1952, and has s a ile d fo r at le a st
6 m onths in such e m p loy m en t.

(M FO W )
1.

2.

The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s to g ive p r e fe r e n c e
o f e m p loy m en t to u n lice n se d engine d e p a rt­
m ent p e rso n n e l having attained se n io rity
through em p loy m en t during the p e rio d o f
O cto b e r 1, 195 3, to S ep tem b er 30, 1955,
w ith any com p a n y under c o n tra ct to the
M F O W , and th ose a pp lica n ts w ho a re th e r e ­
a fte r e m p lo y e d by su ch co m p a n ies for a
p e r io d e x ce e d in g 6 m on th s.
The e m p lo y e r a g r e e s to s e c u r e a ll un­
lic e n s e d en g in eerin g p e rso n n e l fr o m and
through the o f f ic e s o f the M FO W .




☆U. S.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1958 O - 4 9 0237


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102