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FOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION:
Patrick C. Jackman (202) 606-7000
CPI QUICKLINE:
(202) 606-6994
FOR CURRENT AND HISTORICAL
INFORMATION:
(202) 606-7828
MEDIA CONTACT:
(202) 606-5902
INTERNET ADDRESS:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX:

USDL-99-11
TRANSMISSION OF
MATERIAL IN THIS
RELEASE IS EMBARGOED
UNTIL 8:30 A.M. (EST)
Thursday, January 14, 1999

DECEMBER 1998

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) declined 0.1
percent in December, before seasonal adjustment, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today. The December
1998 CPI-U level of 163.9 (1982-84=100) was 1.6 percent higher than the
index in December 1997.
The Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
(CPI-W) was unchanged in December, prior to seasonal adjustment, remaining
at a level of 160.7. For the 12-month period ended in December, the CPI-W
has increased 1.6 percent.
CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI-U rose 0.1 percent in
December, following increases of 0.2 percent in each of the preceding two
months. The food index was unchanged in December after advancing 0.1
percent in November. The index for food at home, which increased 0.2
percent in November, declined 0.2 percent in December, reflecting further
decreases in the indexes for fruits and vegetables and for meats, poultry,
fish, and eggs and a downturn in the index for other food at home. The
energy index, which was unchanged in November, fell 1.4 percent in
December. The index for petroleum-based energy declined 2.9 percent, and
the index for energy services decreased 0.3 percent. Excluding food and
energy, the CPI-U increased 0.3 percent in December, following increases
of 0.2 percent in each of the preceding four months. Three-fourths of
the December rise in the index for all items less food and energy was
accounted for by a 18.8 percent rise in the index for cigarettes,
reflecting the pass-through to retail of the 45-cents-a-pack wholesale
price increase announced by major tobacco companies in late November.
Table A.

Percent changes in CPI for Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
Seasonally adjusted
Compound

Unadjusted

Expenditure
Category

Changes from preceding month
annual rate 12-mos.
1998
3-mos. ended ended
June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Dec. `98 Dec. '98

All Items
.1
Food and beverages .1
Housing
.1
Apparel
.2
Transportation
-.3
Medical care
.4
Recreation
.1
Education and
communication
.1
Other goods and
services
.0
Special Indexes
Energy
-.7
Food
.1
All Items less
food and energy
.1

.2
.2
.2
-.3
.3
.2
.0

.2
.3
.1
1.1
.0
.4
.1

.0
.0
.2
-.7
-.4
.3
.1

.2
.5
.2
.1
.3
.2
-.3

.2
.2
.3
.0
.0
.2
.2

.1
.0
.1
-.8
-.4
.3
.0

2.2
2.7
2.5
-3.0
-.6
2.6
-.4

1.6
2.3
2.3
-.7
-1.7
3.4
1.2

.0

-.5

.0

.2

.2

-.1

1.2

.7

.7

.1

.9

.3

-.3

4.2

18.0

8.8

.0 -1.0 -1.3
.2
.2
.0

.9
.6

.0 -1.4
.1
.0

-2.0
2.8

-8.8
2.3

.2

.2

.2

2.5

2.4

.2

.2

.3

As previously announced, effective with release of data for January 1999,
the BLS will introduce a new formula for calculating the basic components
of the CPI. See page 5 for more details. See pages 6-10 for
announcements of other methodological changes to be introduced with data
for January 1999.
For the 12-month period ended in December 1998, the CPI-U rose 1.6
percent. This compares with an advance of 1.7 percent in 1997 and was the
smallest annual increase since a 1.1 percent rise in 1986. The energy
component, which generally has acted as a moderating influence on the
overall change in consumer prices since the early 1980's, registered its
largest annual decline--down 8.8 percent in 1998--since a 19.7 percent
drop in 1986. Petroleum-based energy costs fell 15.1 percent, and charges
for energy services decreased 3.3 percent. The food index rose 2.3
percent in 1998. Grocery store food prices rose 2.1 percent after
advancing 1.0 percent in 1997. Each of the six major grocery store food
groups accelerated in 1998, relative to 1997, except for the index for
nonalcoholic beverages, which declined 1.1 percent after increasing 4.9
percent in 1997. This group's decline was due to the sharp deceleration
in coffee prices, which fell 8.8 percent in 1998 after increasing 16.9
percent in 1997. The index for dairy products showed the sharpest
acceleration, advancing 6.6 percent in 1998 after declining 0.5 percent in
the previous year.

The CPI-U excluding food and energy advanced 2.4 percent in 1998,
following an increase of 2.2 percent in 1997. The slightly larger
increase in 1998 than in the preceding year was attributable to the sharp
rise in tobacco prices--up 31.8 percent--which accounted for 15 percent of
the annual increase in the index for all items less food and energy. The
rates for selected groups during the past five years are shown below.
Percent change
12 months ended in December
1994
All Items
2.7
Food and beverages 2.7
Housing
2.2
Apparel
-1.6
Transportation
3.8
Medical care
4.9
Recreation
1.4
Education and
communication
3.3
Other goods and
services
4.2
Special indexes
Energy
2.2
Energy
commodities 5.2
Energy
services
-.6
All items less
energy
2.6
Food
2.9
All Items
food and
energy
2.6

1995
2.5
2.1
3.0
.1
1.5
3.9
2.8

1996
3.3
4.2
2.9
-.2
4.4
3.0
3.0

1997
1.7
1.6
2.4
1.0
-1.4
2.8
1.5

1998
1.6
2.3
2.3
-.7
-1.7
3.4
1.2

4.0

3.4

3.0

.7

4.3

3.6

5.2

8.8

-1.3

8.6

-3.4

-8.8

-3.3

13.8

-6.9

-15.1

.8

3.8

.2

-3.3

2.9
2.1

2.9
4.3

2.1
1.5

2.4
2.3

3.0

2.6

2.2

2.4

The food and beverages index was unchanged in December. The index for
food at home, which rose 0.2 percent in November, declined 0.2 percent in
December, reflecting further decreases in the indexes for fruits and
vegetables and for meats, poultry, fish, and eggs and a downturn in the
index for other food at home. The index for fruits and vegetables
declined 0.9 percent in December, the same as in November. In December,
the index for fresh vegetables fell 3.1 percent, more than offsetting a
0.9 percent rise in the index for fresh fruits. The index for processed

fruits and vegetables declined for the fourth consecutive month--down 0.3
percent in December. Despite registering declines in the last two months,
the index for fruits and vegetables rose 4.9 percent in 1998 after
advancing 2.2 percent in 1997. The index for meats, poultry, fish, and
eggs declined 0.3 percent in December to a level 0.7 percent below a year
ago, its second consecutive annual decrease. The index for pork declined
0.3 percent in December and 5.8 percent in the last 12 months. The index
for beef rose 0.3 in December to a level 0.1 percent above a year ago.
Poultry prices declined 0.2 percent in December, but rose 2.6 percent in
1998. The index for other food at home declined 0.3 percent in December,
reflecting a sharp drop in prices for fats and oils. Within this group,
butter prices fell 9.7 percent in December, but were up 31.7 percent over
the year. The index for nonalcoholic beverages declined 0.3 percent in
December and 1.1 percent over the last 12 months after increasing 4.9
percent in all of 1997. Coffee prices fell 8.8 percent in 1998 after
increasing 16.9 percent in 1997. The indexes for dairy products and for
cereal and bakery products rose 1.1 and 0.1 percent, respectively, in
December and 6.6 percent and 2.2 percent in all of 1998. The other two
components of the food and beverage index--food away from home and
alcoholic beverages--rose 0.2 and 0.4 percent, respectively, in December.
During the last 12 months, these groups increased 2.5 and 2.0 percent,
respectively.
The housing component rose 0.1 percent in December. Shelter costs
rose 0.2 percent, bringing the annual increase to 3.3 percent in 1998.
Within shelter, the indexes for rent and for owners' equivalent rent each
rose 0.3 percent in December, while the cost of lodging away from home
decreased 1.4 percent. The index for fuels and utilities declined 0.2
percent in December. The index for household fuels fell 0.4 percent,
reflecting declines in the indexes for fuel oil and for natural gas--down
2.2 and 1.1 percent, respectively. Charges for electricity were
unchanged. For the 12-month period ended in December, prices for fuel oil
fell 15.2 percent and charges for natural gas and for electricity declined
3.5 and 3.2 percent, respectively. Among other utilities, the index for
water and sewerage treatment rose 0.4 percent in December and 2.7 percent
in the last 12 months. The index for garbage and trash collection
increased 0.3 percent in December and 2.8 percent over the year. The
index for household furnishings and operations increased 0.2 percent in
December and 1.2 percent in all of 1998.
The transportation component declined 0.4 percent in December and 1.7
percent in all of 1998. Falling gasoline prices were responsible for both
the one-month and 12-month decline in transportation costs. The index for
gasoline fell 2.9 percent in December, bringing the decline over the last
12 months to 15.4 percent. As of December, gasoline prices were 27.9

percent lower than their peak level in November 1990. The index for new
and used vehicle prices was unchanged in December. The index for new
vehicles rose 0.1 percent. (Prior to seasonal adjustment, new vehicle
prices rose 0.4 percent.) As of December, over 70 percent of the new
vehicle sample was represented by 1999 models. The 1999 models will
continue to be phased in, with appropriate adjustments for quality change,
over the next several months as they replace old models at dealerships.
(For a report on quality changes for the 1999 vehicles represented in the
Producer Price Index sample, see news release USDL-98-457, dated Nov. 13,
1998.) The index for used cars and trucks decreased 0.6 percent. For the
12-month period ended in December, new vehicle prices were unchanged,
while used car and truck prices rose 3.5 percent. Public transportation
costs, which had declined in each of the preceding three months, increased
1.2 percent in December, reflecting a 1.0 percent rise in airline fares.
The index for apparel decreased 0.8 percent in December. (Prior to
seasonal adjustment, apparel prices fell 3.2 percent, reflecting preholiday discounting.) During the 12-month period ended in December,
apparel prices fell 0.7 percent, following a 1.0 percent rise in all of
1997.
Medical care costs rose 0.3 percent in December to a level 3.4
percent above a year ago. The 1998 increase follows a 2.8 percent rise in
1997 and represents the first acceleration in the annual increase since
1990, when the medical care component advanced 9.6 percent. In December,
the index for medical care commodities--prescription drugs,
nonprescription drugs, and medical supplies--increased 0.5 percent. The
index for medical care services rose 0.2 percent. Charges for
professional services and for hospital and related services each increased
0.2 percent in December and 3.3 and 3.2 percent, respectively, in 1998.
The index for recreation costs was unchanged in December, but
advanced 1.2 percent in all of 1998. During the last 12 months, cable
television costs increased 6.9 percent, and club membership dues and
admissions to sporting events each rose 5.0 percent.
These increases
were partially offset by declines in prices for toys, photographic
equipment, televisions, and other video equipment.
The index for education and communication declined 0.1 percent in
December, as a 0.5 percent rise in educational costs was more than offset
by a 0.7 percent decrease in the index for communication. Within the
latter group, the indexes for telephone services and for information and
information processing other than telephone services declined 0.8 and 1.4
percent, respectively.
During the 12 months ended in December, education
costs rose 4.7 percent, with college tuition costs up 3.9 percent.

Communication costs declined 2.9 percent during that period, reflecting a
35.8 percent decrease in the index for personal computers and peripheral
equipment.
The index for other goods and services increased 4.2 percent in
December, reflecting a 18.3 percent increase in the index for tobacco and
smoking products. For the 12 months ended in December, the index for
tobacco and smoking products increased 31.8 percent.
CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W)
On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI for Urban Wage Earners and
Clerical Workers increased 0.2 percent in December.
Table B. Percent changes in CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W)
Seasonally adjusted
UnCompound
adjusted
Expenditure
Changes from preceding month
annual rate
12-mos.
Category
1998
3-mos. ended
ended
June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
All Items
.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
.1
.2
Food and beverages .1
.3
.2
.0
.5
.2 -.1
Housing
.1
.2
.1
.2
.2
.3
.1
Apparel
.3
-.4
.9 -.5
.4
.1 -.6
Transportation
-.1
.2 -.1 -.4
.4
.0 -.6
Medical care
.5
.2
.3
.3
.2
.2
.3
Recreation
.1
-.1
.2
.0 -.3
.1
.0
Education and
communication
.1
.1 -.5
.1
.1
.3 -.2
Other goods and
services
-.1
.9
.2 1.3
.3 -.5 5.8
Special Indexes
Energy
-.6
-.1 -1.1 -1.4 1.0 -.1 -1.5
Food
.1
.3
.3 -.1
.5
.2 -.1
All Items less
food and energy
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.4

Dec. `98
2.5
2.5
2.6
-.6
-.6
2.7
-.8

Dec.`98
1.6
2.1
2.2
-.4
-2.0
3.3
.8

.8

.9

24.3

11.3

-2.4
2.5

-9.2
2.2

3.1

2.5

Consumer Price Index data for January are scheduled for release on
Friday, Feb. 19, 1999, at 8:30 A.M. (EST).
_________________________________________________________________________

Planned Change in the Consumer Price Index Formula
On April 16, the Bureau of Labor Statistics announced its decision to
use a new formula for calculating the basic components of the Consumer
Price Index for all Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). This change will
become effective with data for January 1999.
The new formula, the geometric mean estimator, will be used in index
categories that comprise approximately 61 percent of total consumer
spending represented by the CPI-U. The remaining index categories, which
are shown in the table below, will continue to be calculated as they are
currently. Based upon BLS research, it is expected that planned use of the
new formula will reduce the annual rate of increase in the CPI by
approximately 0.2 percentage point per year.
The geometric mean estimator will be introduced in both the CPI-U and
the CPI-W effective with data for January 1999, in accord with the past
practice of introducing methodological changes at the beginning of a
calendar year. BLS will continue to publish "overlap" CPI-U and CPI-W
series using the current calculation method for the first six months of
1999. These indexes will not be published regularly for months subsequent
to June 1999, but will be available upon request.
Additional information on this change will be published in the April
1998 CPI Detailed Report and is available on the Internet
(http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm). This information may also be obtained
by writing to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Consumer Prices
and Price Indexes, 2 Massachusetts Ave. N.E., Room 3615 Washington, D.C.
20212 or by calling (202) 606-7000.
Arithmetic Mean (Laspeyres) Formula
1.

Selected shelter services:

A) Rent of primary
residence

2.

B) Owners' equivalent
rent of primary
residence

C) Housing at school,
excluding board

Selected utilities and government charges:

A) Electricity

C) Residential water and
sewerage maintenance

E) Telephone services,
local charges

B) Utility natural gas
service

D) State and local
registration, license,
and motor vehicle

F) Cable television

property tax
3.

Selected medical care services:

A) Physicians' services
B) Dental services

C) Eyeglasses and eye
care
D) Services by other
medical professionals

E) Hospital services
F) Nursing homes and
Adult daycare

__________________________________________________________________________
Changing the Treatment of Mandated Pollution Control Measures in
the Consumer Price Index
Beginning in 1999, modifications to goods and services made solely
for purposes of meeting air pollution standards, and that do not otherwise
provide direct value to consumers, will no longer be treated as quality
improvements
in the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
Price
increases
associated with such modifications will be reflected as increases in the
index.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) recently undertook to explain
more precisely the relationship between the CPI and a complete measure of
changes in consumers' living costs. As part of this activity the BLS
reviewed the treatment of pollution control measures in the CPI. The new
policy for treating pollution control measures is a direct result of that
review.
BLS has stated that the proper objective of the CPI is to approximate
changes in the cost of living of U.S. consumers /1. The CPI is intended to
approximate a particular subindex of a complete cost-of-living index, a
subindex that is limited to prices of market goods and services and is
conditional upon the levels of other determinants of changes in living
costs, such as the environment, crime level, and numerous governmentprovided goods and services.
The choice of this index definition
recognizes that not all important living cost determinants can be reliably
measured and also provides users of the CPI with a clear specification of
its scope and limitations.
Given the current definition, changes in air quality, as well as in
other important environmental factors, are beyond the scope of the CPI and
thus properly cannot be included in its construction. A more complete
explanation of the relationship between the CPI and a comprehensive

measure of changes in living costs is contained in
Mandated Pollution Control Measures in the CPI." /2

"The

Treatment

of

The new policy for the treatment of air pollution measures will
become effective with CPI data for January 1999. The new practice will
have its most significant effect on the motor fuel and new and used motor
vehicle components of the index. In the vehicle indexes, the policy will
apply to all vehicle models introduced on or after January 1, 1999. Since
most of the 1999 model-year vehicles will be introduced before that date,
the old practice will be used for the 1998-to-1999 model-year changeover
in most cases.
Historically, quality adjustments for anti-pollution measures
have been made to the new car (or new vehicle) component of the CPI since
1969 (automobile model year 1970), with their estimated dollar effect
published annually. Since 1988, these data have also been utilized to make
quality adjustments in the used car component. In addition, beginning in
late 1994, quality adjustments were made for the introduction
of
reformulated gasoline, which was required in selected areas for compliance
with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Available information is not
sufficient to make possible a complete accounting of the impacts of this
policy in all years. The estimates presented below should be viewed,
therefore, as approximations rather than as precise values. In adherence
with standard policy, the official CPI historical data will not be revised
to be consistent with the new practice. For the period from December 1968
through December 1997, the new car component of the CPI-U rose 174.2
percent. BLS estimates that not adjusting for anti-pollution
measures would have resulted in an increase of 230.2 percent over
this period. Quality adjustments for light trucks have been made
since they were introduced into the CPI in 1983. For the
period from December 1983 through December 1997, this index rose 51.4
percent, but with the quality adjustments for anti-pollution measures
factored back into the index, it would have risen by an estimated 55.1
percent in this period. The CPI used car index rose 27.2 percent between
December 1987 and December 1997; with the quality adjustments for antipollution measures factored back into the index, it would have risen
approximately 28.8 percent in that 10-year period.
The motor fuel
component, whose index rose 7.5 percent between December 1993 and December
1997, would have increased by an estimated 15.4 percent over that period
if adjustment for environmental quality change had not been made. BLS
estimates that the aggregate effect of these component changes on the
CPI-U All Items index would have increased the percentage change over the
period from December 1968 to December 1997 from 354.4 percent to 357.7
percent. Past experience, however, is not necessarily an indicator of the
future impact of this policy change.

For additional information on these changes, write to
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes
2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 3130
Washington, DC 20212
or send e-mail to Jackman_P@bls.gov, or telephone Patrick Jackman at (202)
606-6950, or obtain the information on the internet at:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm.
__________________________________
/1 "Measurement Issues in the Consumer Price Index," paper prepared in
response to a letter from Representative Jim Saxton, Chairman of the Joint
Economic Committee, June 1997. Paper available by contacting BLS or on
the internet at: http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm
/2 Paper available by contacting BLS or on the internet at:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm
__________________________________________________________________________
Improvements to CPI Procedures for
Handling Refunds for Utilities
Effective with the calculation of the index for January
1999, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) will change its treatment
of refunds for electricity, natural gas, or other utility
services when the refunds are based on earlier periods' utility
consumption amounts. The change will affect both the price
indexes and the average prices computed by the CPI program.
Under the current practice, the CPI utility indexes reflect
refunds that appear on current period bills but that are based
on past period utility consumption. Generally these refunds
result from the rollback of temporary rate increases, lower
than anticipated energy costs, or a reevaluation of rates with
respect to actual costs. The current practice makes these
indexes rather volatile and do not reflect the actual current
price (for example, what a new customer would pay) for a
utility service such as electricity.
Under the new procedure, the CPI will disregard any refund
for past excess charges when it appears on residential customer

bills as a separate refund credit that is subtracted from the
charges for current billing period's usage. The movement of the
CPI utility indexes will reflect all changes in rates-generally
in the month they are effective. The CPI utility indexes will
continue to reflect current period credits that are based on
current period consumption, such as those associated with
purchased gas or fuel adjustments.
For additional information on this change, write to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Consumer Prices and
Price Indexes, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 3615, Washington,
DC 20212-0001; or telephone Bob Adkins at (202) 606-6985 ext.
264, or send e-mail to Adkins_B@bls.gov
________________________________________________________________________
Using a hedonic model to adjust television
Consumer Price Index for changes in quality

prices

in

the

Effective with the release of the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
for January 1999, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will
introduce an improvement in the way in which it calculates the
Television stratum of the CPI.
As of December 1997, Televisions constituted 0.215 percent
in the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (the CPI-U)
and 0.256 percent in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage
Earners and Clerical Workers (the CPI-W).
Bureau
of
Labor
Statistics researchers
developed
a
regression procedure, called a hedonic model, that decomposes
the price of television sets into implicit prices for each
important feature and component /1. This model uses Television
observations collected for the CPI and provides an estimate of
the value of each of the significant features and components of
the sets for which prices are collected. This yields a
mechanism for replacing obsolete televisions in the CPI sample
with current ones, allowing the CPI to capture the price change
that may occur as new models replace old ones in the market
place without counting the value of quality improvements as
price increases.
The CPI has used similar hedonic methods to adjust apparel
prices for many years. In January 1998, the CPI began using a
similar approach for Personal Computers. In the coming years,
BLS plans to extend the method to additional CPI items.
Starting with the CPI for January 1999, when a television

model in the CPI sample improves in some way, the value of that
change, as derived from the regression estimates, will be
deducted from the observed price change for that product.
(Conversely, if a model deteriorates, the value of
the
difference will be added to the price.)
For additional information on these changes, write to
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes
2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 3260
Washington, DC 20212-0001
or telephone Tim LaFleur at (202) 606-6982 ext. 253,
or send e-mail to LaFleur_T@bls.gov
________________________
/1 Brent R. Moulton, Timothy J. LaFleur, and Karin E. Moses,
"Research on Improved Quality Adjustment in the CPI: The Case
of Televisions," presented to the Conference of the Ottawa
Group, April 1998.
__________________________________________________________________________
Revision of the CPI Housing Sample and Estimation Process
BLS will implement the housing portion of the ongoing CPI revision
process beginning with the index for January 1999. This part of the CPI
revision is directed at the major shelter indexes, "rent of primary
residence" and "owners' equivalent rent of primary residence." The CPI
will shift to an improved estimation method for homeowner shelter costs
and will use a new housing unit sample based on the 1990 decennial census.
The new estimator for "owners' equivalent rent of primary residence"
will employ the same rental observations that form the basis of the
revised "rent of primary residence" index. Those observations will be
weighted to reflect the total urban stock of owner-occupied and renteroccupied housing, respectively. The current CPI estimates the change in
the implicit rents of a sample of owner-occupied units from the rent
change of rental units matched specifically to them. Among other
advantages, the new method will not require selection of an owner-occupied
sample.
The new sample will provide a current set of rental housing units
that, as noted above, will be the basis of both the "rent of primary
residence" and "owners' equivalent rent of primary residence" indexes.
The decennial census provided information that BLS has used to select

small geographic areas (called segments) within the CPI's 87 pricing areas
that represent the urban United States. The segment selection process
utilizes random sampling so that the housing sample will represent all
varieties and locations of the housing stock throughout each CPI pricing
area. Segments have been selected for the initial sample. Augmentation
segments also will be supplied to replenish the current sample. The CPI
will use another sample augmentation process to bring housing units
constructed since the decennial census into the CPI housing sample.
Additional information on these and other changes to the housing
component of the CPI can be found in the December 1996 Monthly Labor
Review article, "Revision of the CPI Housing Sample and Estimators." For
additional information, write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division
of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes, 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE, Room 3615,
Washington, DC 20212-0001 or telephone Frank Ptacek at 202-606-6991 ext.
278, or send e-mail to Ptacek_F@bls.gov
__________________________________________________________________________
BLS to Maintain Current Reference Base of 1982-84=100 for
most CPI index series
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) previously
indicated its intention to change the numerical reference
base for both the Consumer Price Index for All Urban
Consumers (CPI-U) and the Consumer Price Index for Urban
Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) from their present
1982-84=100 base to a 1993-95=100 base, effective with
release of the January 1999 index in February 1999. BLS
also indicated that the alternate, or 1967=100 base, would
be discontinued in 1999 as well. This plan was initially
described in the December 1996 Monthly Labor Review, a
publication which contained several articles that dealt with
the 1998 CPI Revision.
The BLS has now decided not to implement this rebasing
plan. Instead, the BLS will maintain the reference base of
1982-84=100 used for most items. In addition, the 1967=100
reference base will continue to be the alternate base for
the All Items indexes. This decision is based in part on
the fact that historical data have less precision after
rebasing. Rebasing is simply an arithmetic transformation
that does not substantially impact the index. Because the
rebased index values are smaller, however, the loss of

precision due to rounding is more serious. In addition,
retaining the old index reference bases would spare users
the inconvenience associated with conversion.
Changes in the numerical reference base should not be
confused with the updating of the CPI's the market basket.
With release of the January CPI in February 1998, the
expenditure weights applied to CPI categories are based on
consumer spending patterns for 1993-95.
______________________________________________________________________
Recalculated Seasonally Adjusted Indexes to be Available on
February 17, 1999
Each year with the release of the January CPI, seasonal
adjustment factors are recalculated to reflect price
movements from the just-completed calendar year. This
routine annual recalculation may result in revisions to
seasonally adjusted indexes for the previous 5 years. BLS
will make available recalculated seasonally adjusted
indexes, as well as recalculated seasonal adjustment
factors, for the period January 1994 through December 1998,
on Wednesday, February 17, 1999. This date is two working
days before the scheduled release of the January 1999 CPI on
Friday, February 19, 1999.
The revised indexes and seasonal factors will be
available on the Internet. The address is
http://stats.bls.gov. Select Data, then select FTP Site,
then select special requests, then select cpi. The revised
seasonal data will be in the file REVSEAS_1998.CPI.
For further information please contact Claire Gallagher
or Richard Kerr at (202) 606-6968, or send e-mail to
Gallagher_C@bls.gov

Table 1. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity
and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-U

Relative
importance,
December
1997

Unadjusted
Unadjusted indexes percent change to
Dec. 1998 fromNov.
1998

Dec.
1998

Dec.
1997

Nov.
1998

Seasonally adjusted
percent change fromSep. to Oct. to Nov. to
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

Expenditure category
All items ...................................
All items (1967=100) ........................

100.000
-

164.0
491.3

163.9
491.0

1.6
-

-0.1
-

0.2
-

0.2
-

0.1
-

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

16.310
15.326
9.646
1.536
2.629
1.037
1.394

162.5
162.1
162.5
182.1
147.9
155.9
198.8

162.7
162.3
162.6
182.3
147.3
157.6
200.7

2.3
2.3
2.1
2.2
-0.7
6.6
4.9

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.4
1.1
1.0

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.2
0.2
1.4
3.2

0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
-0.2
0.6
-0.9

0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.1
-0.3
1.1
-0.9

1.077
1.972
.377
.291
1.305
.309
5.680
.172
.983

132.7
152.7
149.6
155.1
166.7
104.8
162.6
103.3
166.8

131.7
152.4
150.1
151.9
166.9
104.9
163.0
103.3
167.2

-1.1
3.2
1.5
8.3
2.5
4.9
2.5
3.3
2.0

-0.8
-0.2
0.3
-2.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.2

0.4
0.1
-0.1
2.6
-0.4
-0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1

0.5
0.7
0.3
-0.3
1.1
1.3
0.2
0.6
0.2

-0.3
-0.3
0.3
-1.9
-0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.4

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..

39.560
29.788
6.885
2.327

161.3
184.0
174.5
106.3

161.3
184.0
174.9
103.8

2.3
3.3
3.4
3.8

0.0
0.0
0.2
-2.4

0.2
0.2
0.3
-0.3

0.3
0.3
0.2
1.3

0.1
0.2
0.3
-1.4

20.199
.377

190.3
99.9

190.7
99.9

3.2
-0.1

0.2
0.0

0.3
0.5

0.2
0.2

0.3
0.0

Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

4.942
4.018
.261
3.757
4.831

126.5
111.4
86.8
118.9
126.6

126.6
111.4
86.1
118.9
126.6

-2.6
-3.8
-11.4
-3.3
1.2

0.1
0.0
-0.8
0.0
0.0

-0.2
-0.4
-0.8
-0.3
0.2

0.6
0.8
-0.9
0.8
0.2

-0.2
-0.4
-1.8
-0.3
0.2

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

4.944
1.390
1.990
.268
.895

135.0
134.1
127.5
131.3
130.4

130.7
130.3
122.4
129.6
127.5

-0.7
-0.7
-1.0
3.0
-0.5

-3.2
-2.8
-4.0
-1.3
-2.2

0.1
1.2
-1.5
4.2
-0.2

0.0
-0.2
-0.5
0.8
0.8

-0.8
-0.9
-0.8
-1.3
-0.6

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

17.578
16.240
7.899
5.063
1.880
2.995
2.976
.560
1.603
1.338

141.5
138.0
100.7
143.5
154.0
89.7
89.2
101.4
169.5
187.4

140.7
137.2
100.9
144.1
153.1
86.2
85.7
101.2
169.6
188.4

-1.7
-2.0
0.9
0.0
3.5
-15.4
-15.4
-0.2
3.0
2.2

-0.6
-0.6
0.2
0.4
-0.6
-3.9
-3.9
-0.2
0.1
0.5

0.3
0.4
-0.1
-0.3
0.7
2.6
2.7
0.2
0.4
-1.3

0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.7
-1.0
-0.9
-0.2
0.5
-0.5

-0.4
-0.5
0.0
0.1
-0.6
-3.0
-2.9
-0.2
0.1
1.2

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

5.614
1.222
4.392
2.808
1.334

244.7
224.5
249.3
224.4
290.8

245.2
225.6
249.6
224.6
291.4

3.4
4.1
3.2
3.3
3.2

0.2
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.2

0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

6.145
1.763

101.3
100.8

101.2
100.7

1.2
0.7

-0.1
-0.1

-0.3
-0.3

0.2
-0.3

0.0
-0.1

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

5.528
2.615
.194
2.421
2.913

101.0
104.6
257.1
301.4
97.8

100.7
104.7
257.3
301.7
97.1

0.7
4.7
6.0
4.6
-2.9

-0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.7

0.2
0.5
1.4
0.4
-0.1

0.2
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.0

-0.1
0.5
0.3
0.5
-0.7

2.706
2.357

97.6
101.1

96.9
100.3

-3.1
0.3

-0.7
-0.8

-0.1
0.0

0.0
0.4

-0.7
-0.8

.350

35.3

34.8

-26.6

-1.4

-1.6

-2.2

-1.4

.234

65.6

64.2

-35.8

-2.1

-1.5

-2.8

-2.1

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

4.321
.894
3.427
.737
.963
1.465

240.5
281.3
158.0
148.8
167.6
237.2

250.3
331.2
158.3
148.7
168.3
237.8

8.8
31.8
2.8
2.3
2.7
3.4

4.1
17.7
0.2
-0.1
0.4
0.3

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3

-0.3
-1.1
-0.1
-0.4
0.1
0.3

4.2
18.3
0.2
-0.1
0.4
0.5

42.635
16.310
26.326
14.729
4.944

142.5
162.5
130.6
132.9
135.0

142.2
162.7
130.2
132.1
130.7

0.4
2.3
-0.8
-1.0
-0.7

-0.2
0.1
-0.3
-0.6
-3.2

0.4
0.5
0.2
0.6
0.1

-0.1
0.2
-0.2
-0.5
0.0

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.6
-0.8

9.785
11.596
57.365
29.410
6.984
10.625

136.8
127.4
185.6
191.5
188.3
219.5

137.8
127.4
185.7
191.5
188.4
219.5

-1.2
-0.5
2.6
3.3
1.3
3.0

0.7
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0.6
-0.2
0.2
0.2
-0.2
0.1

-0.4
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3

1.1
-0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1

84.674
70.212
94.386
27.309
15.712
10.768
31.039
27.955
52.973
7.013
92.987
77.661

164.3
157.9
159.5
132.1
135.0
138.8
147.8
192.7
179.7
100.5
172.3
174.8

164.2
157.8
159.4
131.7
134.2
139.7
147.5
192.8
179.8
98.9
172.3
174.8

1.5
0.9
1.5
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9
0.7
1.7
2.5
-8.8
2.4
2.4

-0.1
-0.1
-0.1
-0.3
-0.6
0.6
-0.2
0.1
0.1
-1.6
0.0
0.0

0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.9
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.2
-0.2
-0.2
-0.3
-0.1
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.2

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.9
0.3
0.3
0.2
-1.4
0.3
0.3

24.053
3.256
53.608

143.8
89.6
192.4

143.9
86.3
192.5

1.3
-15.1
3.0

0.1
-3.7
0.1

0.0
2.4
0.2

-0.1
-1.0
0.3

0.6
-2.9
0.2

-

$ .610

$ .610

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ .204

$ .204

-

-

-

-

-

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1982-84=$1.00) .........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1967=$1.00) ............................

1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1982=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

base.
base.
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 2. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): Seasonally adjusted U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
Seasonally adjusted indexes

Seasonally adjusted annual rate percent
change for

CPI-U

3 months ended-Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Dec.
1998

All items ...................................

163.6

164.0

164.3

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........

161.7
161.4
161.4
182.1
147.1
152.9
197.0

162.5
162.3
162.6
182.4
147.4
155.0
203.3

132.1
152.5
150.7
152.7
166.4
103.6
162.1
102.7

132.6
152.7
150.5
156.6
165.8
103.5
162.3
102.7

6 months
ended--

Mar.
1998

June
1998

Sep.
1998

Dec.
1998

June
1998

Dec.
1998

164.5

0.2

2.5

1.5

2.2

1.4

1.8

162.8
162.5
162.9
182.8
147.1
155.9
201.5

162.8
162.5
162.6
183.0
146.7
157.6
199.7

1.0
1.3
0.5
2.3
-2.9
1.6
4.5

2.8
3.0
3.3
2.0
0.8
-0.8
18.6

2.3
2.0
1.5
2.5
0.5
13.6
-8.5

2.7
2.8
3.0
2.0
-1.1
12.9
5.6

1.9
2.2
1.9
2.1
-1.1
0.4
11.3

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
-0.3
13.2
-1.7

133.3
153.8
151.0
156.2
167.7
104.8
162.6
103.3

132.9
153.4
151.4
153.2
167.6
104.9
163.0
103.3

-1.8
1.6
3.8
0.9
1.5
6.1
2.3
1.2

-2.1
3.0
-1.1
4.3
3.7
4.0
2.0
2.8

-2.7
5.7
1.1
28.9
2.2
4.4
3.5
6.9

2.4
2.4
1.9
1.3
2.9
5.1
2.2
2.4

-1.9
2.3
1.3
2.6
2.6
5.1
2.1
2.0

-0.2
4.0
1.5
14.3
2.6
4.7
2.9
4.6

Expenditure category

Alcoholic beverages .......................

166.5

166.7

167.1

167.7

0.5

1.5

2.9

2.9

1.0

2.9

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

161.0
183.3
173.4
104.2

161.3
183.7
173.9
103.9

161.8
184.2
174.3
105.2

162.0
184.6
174.9
103.7

1.5
2.7
2.9
-0.4

3.1
3.8
3.6
6.1

2.3
3.8
3.8
11.5

2.5
2.9
3.5
-1.9

2.3
3.3
3.2
2.8

2.4
3.3
3.6
4.6

189.0
99.2
127.0
111.5
88.2
119.1
126.4

189.6
99.7
126.8
111.1
87.5
118.8
126.6

189.9
99.9
127.6
112.0
86.7
119.8
126.8

190.5
99.9
127.3
111.5
85.1
119.5
127.0

3.1
1.2
-7.1
-9.6
-14.9
-9.4
2.6

3.7
-4.7
0.0
-0.7
-7.2
0.0
1.3

3.0
0.4
-4.0
-4.9
-10.2
-4.9
-0.6

3.2
2.9
0.9
0.0
-13.3
1.4
1.9

3.4
-1.8
-3.6
-5.3
-11.1
-4.8
1.9

3.1
1.6
-1.6
-2.5
-11.8
-1.8
0.6

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

133.2
130.6
127.7
124.9
128.9

133.3
132.2
125.8
130.2
128.6

133.3
132.0
125.2
131.3
129.6

132.2
130.8
124.2
129.6
128.8

-2.1
3.4
-0.6
-4.4
-10.1

2.1
-3.3
5.9
1.0
7.5

0.0
-3.3
1.6
0.6
1.6

-3.0
0.6
-10.5
15.9
-0.3

0.0
0.0
2.6
-1.7
-1.7

-1.5
-1.4
-4.7
8.0
0.6

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

141.1
137.5
100.8
143.7
151.9
88.8
88.1
101.3
168.1
191.0

141.5
138.1
100.7
143.2
153.0
91.1
90.5
101.5
168.7
188.6

141.5
138.1
100.9
143.2
154.0
90.2
89.7
101.3
169.5
187.6

140.9
137.4
100.9
143.4
153.1
87.5
87.1
101.1
169.6
189.9

-4.9
-6.4
0.4
0.8
-1.6
-34.8
-35.0
-0.8
2.5
14.3

-1.1
-0.3
0.0
-2.8
10.1
-3.8
-4.3
0.4
2.2
-7.9

-0.6
-1.2
2.8
2.8
2.7
-13.6
-14.1
0.4
3.7
6.1

-0.6
-0.3
0.4
-0.8
3.2
-5.7
-4.5
-0.8
3.6
-2.3

-3.0
-3.4
0.2
-1.0
4.1
-20.8
-21.1
-0.2
2.3
2.6

-0.6
-0.7
1.6
1.0
2.9
-9.7
-9.4
-0.2
3.6
1.8

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

244.4
224.5
248.6
224.0
289.5

244.9
224.7
249.2
224.4
290.5

245.3
225.2
249.6
224.9
291.1

246.0
226.3
250.1
225.3
291.7

2.9
1.3
3.2
3.5
2.6

4.6
6.6
4.2
4.2
3.0

3.5
5.3
2.9
3.1
4.0

2.6
3.2
2.4
2.3
3.1

3.7
3.9
3.7
3.9
2.8

3.1
4.3
2.7
2.7
3.5

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

101.3
101.4

101.0
101.1

101.2
100.8

101.2
100.7

4.1
5.7

0.4
-0.8

0.8
0.8

-0.4
-2.7

2.2
2.4

0.2
-1.0

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare

100.4
103.3
253.2
296.1

100.6
103.8
256.8
297.4

100.8
104.2
257.6
298.5

100.7
104.7
258.3
299.9

0.8
4.9
4.2
5.0

2.8
5.6
5.8
5.6

-2.0
2.8
5.6
2.5

1.2
5.5
8.3
5.2

1.8
5.3
5.0
5.3

-0.4
4.1
6.9
3.8

Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................
Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

97.9

97.8

97.8

97.1

-2.8

0.4

-5.9

-3.2

-1.2

-4.6

97.7
100.7

97.6
100.7

97.6
101.1

96.9
100.3

-2.8
1.6

0.0
4.0

-6.3
-2.7

-3.2
-1.6

-1.4
2.8

-4.8
-2.2

36.7

36.1

35.3

34.8

-29.7

-23.4

-33.2

-19.2

-26.6

-26.5

68.5

67.5

65.6

64.2

-38.1

-33.8

-46.2

-22.8

-36.0

-35.6

240.9
283.2
157.5
149.1
167.1
236.5

241.7
284.0
158.1
149.4
167.5
237.3

241.0
280.8
158.0
148.8
167.6
237.9

251.1
332.2
158.3
148.7
168.3
239.0

3.9
3.5
4.0
5.6
2.0
2.1

6.9
21.3
3.4
5.3
1.5
3.1

6.9
26.8
1.8
-0.3
4.4
4.0

18.0
89.3
2.0
-1.1
2.9
4.3

5.4
12.1
3.7
5.4
1.7
2.6

12.3
54.9
1.9
-0.7
3.7
4.1

142.0
161.7
130.4
132.2
133.2

142.5
162.5
130.7
133.0
133.3

142.4
162.8
130.5
132.4
133.3

142.6
162.8
130.7
133.2
132.2

-2.2
1.0
-4.5
-8.3
-2.1

1.4
2.8
0.9
2.8
2.1

0.6
2.3
-0.6
-1.2
0.0

1.7
2.7
0.9
3.1
-3.0

-0.4
1.9
-1.8
-2.9
0.0

1.1
2.5
0.2
0.9
-1.5

136.8
127.4
185.2
191.2
188.0
218.6

137.6
127.2
185.5
191.5
187.7
218.8

137.0
127.4
186.0
192.1
187.9
219.5

138.5
127.2
186.3
192.5
188.4
219.8

-10.7
0.3
2.2
2.8
5.0
3.2

3.6
-1.2
3.1
3.7
-1.5
4.3

-2.0
0.0
2.4
4.1
1.1
2.0

5.1
-0.6
2.4
2.7
0.9
2.2

-3.8
-0.5
2.7
3.2
1.7
3.8

1.5
-0.3
2.4
3.4
1.0
2.1

163.9
157.4
158.9
131.9
134.2
138.7
147.0
192.4
179.3
100.2
171.9
174.5

164.2
157.8
159.3
132.3
134.9
139.5
147.8
192.4
179.5
101.1
172.3
174.8

164.4
158.0
159.6
132.1
134.6
139.1
147.7
192.9
180.1
101.1
172.5
175.1

164.7
158.1
159.8
132.3
135.1
140.4
148.1
193.4
180.5
99.7
173.0
175.6

0.2
-0.8
0.3
-4.1
-7.1
-10.0
-3.2
1.3
2.1
-21.1
2.1
2.4

2.2
1.8
2.0
0.6
2.1
3.5
2.2
2.8
3.0
-1.9
2.6
2.6

1.5
0.5
1.5
-0.6
-0.9
-1.4
0.8
1.0
2.3
-8.7
2.4
2.3

2.0
1.8
2.3
1.2
2.7
5.0
3.0
2.1
2.7
-2.0
2.6
2.5

1.2
0.5
1.1
-1.8
-2.6
-3.5
-0.5
2.0
2.5
-12.1
2.4
2.5

1.7
1.1
1.9
0.3
0.9
1.7
1.9
1.6
2.5
-5.4
2.5
2.4

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............

Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1982=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

143.6
88.6
191.9

143.6
90.7
192.3

143.5
89.8
192.8

144.3
87.2
193.1

0.8
-33.3
3.0

1.1
-4.2
3.2

1.1
-13.6
3.0

2.0
-6.2
2.5

1.0
-20.1
3.1

1.5
-10.0
2.7

base.
base.
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 3. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): Selected areas, all items index
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
All items

CPI-U

Pricing
schedule
(1)

Indexes

Percent change to
Dec.1998 from--

Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Dec.
1998

M

163.6

164.0

164.0

Northeast urban .............................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)..........

M
M
M

170.6
171.7
102.2

171.3
172.3
102.6

Midwest urban (4)............................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

159.9
161.4
102.2

M

South urban .................................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)........

M
M
M

U.S. city average ...........................

Percent change to
Nov.1998 from--

Dec.
1997

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Nov.
1997

Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

163.9

1.6

-0.1

-0.1

1.5

0.2

0.0

171.2
172.2
102.6

171.2
172.2
102.5

1.7
1.8
1.2

-0.1
-0.1
-0.1

0.0
0.0
-0.1

1.6
1.7
1.3

0.4
0.3
0.4

-0.1
-0.1
0.0

160.1
161.4
102.4

160.1
161.3
102.4

159.8
161.0
102.3

1.6
1.8
1.3

-0.2
-0.2
-0.1

-0.2
-0.2
-0.1

1.5
1.8
1.1

0.1
-0.1
0.2

0.0
-0.1
0.0

154.0

154.3

154.7

155.0

1.3

0.5

0.2

0.7

0.5

0.3

159.5
158.8
102.5

159.8
159.0
102.8

159.6
158.6
102.8

159.6
158.3
102.8

1.5
1.3
1.5

-0.1
-0.4
0.0

0.0
-0.2
0.0

1.1
1.4
0.9

0.1
-0.1
0.3

-0.1
-0.3
0.0

Region and area size(2)

Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M

160.1

159.8

160.0

160.4

2.2

0.4

0.3

1.8

-0.1

0.1

West urban ..................................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........

M
M
M

165.1
165.9
102.7

165.5
166.3
103.0

165.8
166.5
103.5

165.8
166.5
103.4

1.8
2.1
1.4

0.2
0.1
0.4

0.0
0.0
-0.1

1.8
2.3
1.1

0.4
0.4
0.8

0.2
0.1
0.5

M
M
M

148.2
102.4
159.7

148.5
102.7
159.7

148.5
102.8
159.9

148.4
102.7
160.2

1.9
1.3
1.7

-0.1
0.0
0.3

-0.1
-0.1
0.2

1.9
1.1
1.3

0.2
0.4
0.1

0.0
0.1
0.1

Size classes
A (5)......................................
B/C (3)....................................
D .........................................
Selected local areas(6)
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI ..............
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA .....
New York-Northern N.J.-Long Island,
NY-NJ-CT-PA .............................

M
M

165.3
162.6

165.7
163.2

165.4
163.4

165.1
163.5

1.4
1.4

-0.4
0.2

-0.2
0.1

1.5
1.7

0.1
0.5

-0.2
0.1

M

174.4

174.8

174.7

174.7

1.6

-0.1

0.0

1.6

0.2

-0.1

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT .........
Cleveland-Akron, OH .........................
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX .......................
Washington-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV (7)........

1
1
1
1

172.1
161.5
154.5
102.9

-

173.3
160.8
154.0
102.4

-

-

-

-

2.3
2.4
1.9

0.7
-0.4
-0.3
-0.5

-

Atlanta, GA .................................
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI .................
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX ..............
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL ...................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City,
PA-NJ-DE-MD .............................
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA ..........
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA ................

2
2
2
2

-

162.0
161.0
148.5
161.1

-

161.6
161.2
146.1
161.1

1.4
2.6
0.3
1.1

-0.2
0.1
-1.6
0.0

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

-

170.3
167.2
169.3

-

169.0
167.4
169.4

1.6
3.0
2.7

-0.8
0.1
0.1

-

-

-

-

1 Areas on pricing schedule 2 (see Table 10) will appear next month.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions. See map in technical notes.
3 Indexes on a December 1996=100 base.
4 The 'North Central' region has been renamed the 'Midwest' region by the Census Bureau. It is composed of the same
geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986=100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in Tables 34 and 39 of the
January and July issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley,
CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, WI; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland-Salem,
OR-WA; St. Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.

7 Indexes on a November 1996=100 base.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.
Table 4. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-W

Relative
importance,
December
1997

Unadjusted
Unadjusted indexes percent change to
Dec. 1998 fromNov.
1998

Dec.
1998

Dec.
1997

Nov.
1998

Seasonally adjusted
percent change fromSep. to Oct. to Nov. to
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

Expenditure category
All items ...................................
All items (1967=100) ........................

100.000
-

160.7
478.6

160.7
478.6

1.6
-

0.0
-

0.3
-

0.1
-

0.2
-

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

17.903
16.861
10.785
1.678
3.125
1.135
1.447

161.7
161.4
161.3
181.9
147.6
155.5
197.6

161.9
161.5
161.3
182.0
146.9
157.4
199.0

2.1
2.2
2.0
2.2
-0.7
6.7
4.7

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
-0.5
1.2
0.7

0.5
0.5
0.7
0.1
0.2
1.3
3.3

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3
-0.2
0.6
-0.9

-0.1
-0.1
-0.2
0.1
-0.3
1.2
-1.0

1.215
2.185
.420
.332
1.432
.344
6.076
.212
1.042

131.4
152.0
149.5
154.4
166.6
104.9
162.6
103.4
165.7

130.4
151.7
150.0
151.2
166.7
104.9
163.0
103.4
166.2

-1.0
3.1
1.6
8.0
2.5
4.9
2.5
3.4
1.9

-0.8
-0.2
0.3
-2.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.3
0.1
-0.1
2.6
-0.5
-0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2

0.5
0.7
0.3
-0.4
1.1
1.5
0.2
0.6
0.3

-0.3
-0.3
0.5
-1.9
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.4

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................

36.450
27.033
8.347

157.7
178.6
174.1

157.8
178.8
174.6

2.2
3.3
3.4

0.1
0.1
0.3

0.2
0.3
0.3

0.3
0.3
0.2

0.1
0.2
0.4

Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

1.346

106.6

104.0

4.0

-2.4

0.3

1.2

-1.5

17.016
.324
5.053
4.143
.229
3.914
4.365

173.4
100.3
126.4
110.9
87.4
118.3
124.8

173.7
100.3
126.4
110.9
86.6
118.4
124.8

3.2
0.3
-2.5
-3.7
-10.7
-3.3
1.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.9
0.1
0.0

0.3
0.6
-0.2
-0.2
-0.7
-0.3
0.2

0.2
0.3
0.7
0.7
-0.7
0.8
0.2

0.3
0.0
-0.2
-0.2
-1.9
-0.1
0.1

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

5.300
1.503
1.985
.337
1.082

134.0
134.0
125.9
132.7
130.9

129.8
130.2
121.0
130.9
128.2

-0.4
-0.4
-0.4
3.5
-0.8

-3.1
-2.8
-3.9
-1.4
-2.1

0.4
1.7
-1.2
4.1
-0.2

0.1
-0.3
-0.3
1.3
0.6

-0.6
-1.0
-0.2
-1.4
-0.5

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

19.847
18.790
9.285
5.304
3.162
3.682
3.658
.694
1.664
1.057

140.6
138.2
101.1
144.7
155.2
89.7
89.2
100.7
170.8
184.2

139.6
137.1
101.1
145.3
154.3
86.0
85.5
100.5
170.9
185.1

-2.0
-2.1
1.1
0.0
3.2
-15.4
-15.5
-0.3
3.1
1.4

-0.7
-0.8
0.0
0.4
-0.6
-4.1
-4.1
-0.2
0.1
0.5

0.4
0.5
0.0
-0.4
0.7
2.6
2.8
0.2
0.5
-1.2

0.0
0.0
0.4
0.1
0.6
-1.1
-1.0
-0.1
0.4
-0.4

-0.6
-0.7
-0.2
0.1
-0.6
-3.1
-3.2
-0.4
0.1
1.3

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

4.591
.906
3.684
2.372
1.097

244.0
221.1
249.1
225.9
286.9

244.4
222.1
249.4
226.2
287.4

3.3
3.7
3.2
3.3
3.1

0.2
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.2

0.2
-0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2

0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

5.969
1.968

100.8
100.8

100.8
100.7

0.8
0.7

0.0
-0.1

-0.3
-0.3

0.1
-0.2

0.0
-0.1

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing

5.396
2.402
.192
2.211
2.994

101.2
104.6
259.5
295.4
98.5

100.9
104.7
259.7
295.8
97.8

0.9
4.7
5.9
4.6
-2.2

-0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.7

0.1
0.5
1.5
0.4
-0.1

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.1

-0.2
0.6
0.3
0.5
-0.7

2.841
2.547

98.4
101.2

97.7
100.4

-2.3
0.4

-0.7
-0.8

-0.1
0.0

0.1
0.4

-0.7
-0.8

other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

.294

36.6

36.0

-26.4

-1.6

-2.1

-2.1

-1.6

.191

65.3

64.0

-36.0

-2.0

-2.2

-3.3

-2.0

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

4.544
1.300
3.244
.832
.964
1.226

239.2
281.4
158.1
149.8
168.0
236.9

252.6
332.0
158.3
149.6
168.6
237.4

11.3
32.3
2.9
2.4
2.7
3.7

5.6
18.0
0.1
-0.1
0.4
0.2

0.3
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3

-0.5
-1.2
-0.1
-0.4
0.1
0.3

5.8
18.6
0.1
-0.1
0.4
0.5

47.234
17.903
29.331
15.928
5.300

142.4
161.7
130.9
132.5
134.0

142.3
161.9
130.6
132.1
129.8

0.5
2.1
-0.5
-0.8
-0.4

-0.1
0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-3.1

0.4
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.4

0.0
0.2
-0.1
-0.5
0.1

0.2
-0.1
0.4
0.9
-0.6

10.628
13.403
52.766
26.708
6.824
10.006

136.3
127.4
182.4
172.0
186.1
216.2

137.9
127.4
182.5
172.2
186.1
216.1

-1.0
-0.1
2.4
3.4
1.2
3.0

1.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0

0.9
-0.1
0.2
0.3
-0.1
0.1

-0.7
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3

1.6
-0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1

83.139
72.967
95.409
30.373
16.970
11.670
33.831
26.057
49.082
7.825
92.175
75.315

160.4
155.7
156.8
132.2
134.5
138.2
147.4
171.4
176.8
99.6
169.1
171.1

160.4
155.6
156.8
132.0
134.1
139.7
147.3
171.5
176.9
97.8
169.3
171.3

1.5
0.9
1.5
-0.4
-0.7
-0.7
0.8
1.6
2.4
-9.2
2.5
2.5

0.0
-0.1
0.0
-0.2
-0.3
1.1
-0.1
0.1
0.1
-1.8
0.1
0.1

0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.7
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
1.0
0.2
0.2

0.2
0.1
0.1
-0.1
-0.3
-0.4
0.0
0.2
0.3
-0.1
0.2
0.2

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.8
1.5
0.3
0.2
0.2
-1.5
0.4
0.4

26.463
3.910
48.852

143.6
89.7
189.6

144.1
86.2
189.7

1.8
-15.2
2.9

0.3
-3.9
0.1

0.1
2.4
0.2

0.0
-1.1
0.3

0.8
-3.0
0.2

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar

(1982-84=$1.00)..........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1967=$1.00) ............................
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1984=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

-

$ .622

$ .622

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ .209

$ .209

-

-

-

-

-

base.
base
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 5. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): Seasonally adjusted U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
Seasonally adjusted indexes

Seasonally adjusted annual rate percent
change for

CPI-W

3 months ended-Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Dec.
1998

All items ...................................

160.1

160.6

160.8

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................

161.1
160.7
160.4
182.0
146.7
152.6
196.4

161.9
161.5
161.5
182.1
147.0
154.6
202.9

130.9
151.8
150.4
152.1

131.3
152.0
150.2
156.1

6 months
ended--

Mar.
1998

June
1998

Sep.
1998

Dec.
1998

June
1998

Dec.
1998

161.1

-0.3

2.5

1.3

2.5

1.1

1.9

162.2
161.8
161.7
182.6
146.7
155.5
201.1

162.1
161.7
161.4
182.8
146.3
157.4
199.0

1.3
1.3
0.8
2.0
-3.0
1.6
6.3

2.5
2.8
3.1
2.2
0.8
-1.1
17.4

2.3
2.3
1.5
2.7
0.3
13.9
-7.9

2.5
2.5
2.5
1.8
-1.1
13.2
5.4

1.9
2.0
1.9
2.1
-1.1
0.3
11.7

2.4
2.4
2.0
2.2
-0.4
13.6
-1.5

132.0
153.1
150.7
155.5

131.6
152.6
151.5
152.6

-1.5
2.2
4.1
0.3

-2.1
2.7
-1.3
4.9

-2.4
5.7
0.5
27.6

2.2
2.1
3.0
1.3

-1.8
2.4
1.3
2.6

-0.2
3.9
1.7
13.7

Expenditure category

Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

166.5
103.7
162.0
102.8
165.2

165.7
103.3
162.3
102.8
165.5

167.6
104.9
162.6
103.4
166.0

167.2
104.9
163.0
103.4
166.7

2.0
7.4
2.3
1.2
0.0

3.5
2.8
2.3
2.8
1.2

2.9
4.8
3.0
7.3
2.7

1.7
4.7
2.5
2.4
3.7

2.7
5.1
2.3
2.0
0.6

2.3
4.7
2.8
4.8
3.2

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

157.2
177.9
173.0
104.0

157.5
178.4
173.5
104.3

158.0
178.9
173.9
105.6

158.2
179.3
174.6
104.0

1.6
3.0
3.1
0.4

2.9
3.7
3.6
7.4

1.8
3.4
3.5
8.5

2.6
3.2
3.8
0.0

2.2
3.4
3.3
3.8

2.2
3.3
3.6
4.2

172.2
99.4
126.6
110.7
88.5
118.4
124.7

172.7
100.0
126.4
110.5
87.9
118.1
124.9

173.0
100.3
127.3
111.3
87.3
119.1
125.1

173.5
100.3
127.1
111.1
85.6
119.0
125.2

3.4
2.0
-7.2
-9.4
-13.4
-9.4
2.9

3.3
-4.7
0.0
-0.4
-5.9
0.0
0.6

3.1
0.4
-4.3
-5.9
-10.9
-5.2
-1.0

3.1
3.7
1.6
1.5
-12.5
2.0
1.6

3.4
-1.4
-3.6
-5.0
-9.8
-4.8
1.8

3.1
2.0
-1.4
-2.3
-11.7
-1.7
0.3

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

131.6
130.2
125.6
125.8
129.6

132.1
132.4
124.1
131.0
129.4

132.2
132.0
123.7
132.7
130.2

131.4
130.7
123.4
130.9
129.5

-4.5
2.2
-3.5
-6.2
-11.4

3.1
-1.5
5.3
2.9
7.8

0.3
-3.6
3.2
1.3
1.9

-0.6
1.5
-6.8
17.2
-0.3

-0.8
0.3
0.8
-1.7
-2.3

-0.2
-1.1
-1.9
9.0
0.8

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

139.9
137.4
100.9
144.8
153.2
88.8
88.2
100.6
169.3
187.4

140.5
138.1
100.9
144.2
154.2
91.1
90.7
100.8
170.2
185.2

140.5
138.1
101.3
144.4
155.2
90.1
89.8
100.7
170.8
184.4

139.7
137.2
101.1
144.6
154.3
87.3
86.9
100.3
170.9
186.8

-6.0
-6.7
0.0
0.8
-1.9
-33.2
-34.1
-0.4
2.2
10.4

0.0
0.3
1.2
-2.5
9.7
-3.8
-4.2
0.4
2.4
-6.6

-1.4
-1.7
2.4
2.2
2.4
-14.7
-14.4
0.0
3.9
4.2

-0.6
-0.6
0.8
-0.6
2.9
-6.6
-5.8
-1.2
3.8
-1.3

-3.1
-3.3
0.6
-0.8
3.8
-19.8
-20.6
0.0
2.3
1.5

-1.0
-1.2
1.6
0.8
2.6
-10.7
-10.2
-0.6
3.9
1.4

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

243.7
221.5
248.5
225.5
285.6

244.1
221.3
249.1
226.2
286.7

244.6
221.8
249.6
226.4
287.2

245.3
222.8
250.1
226.9
287.7

2.7
0.9
3.0
3.1
2.8

4.8
6.5
4.3
4.8
2.9

3.5
5.6
3.1
2.9
4.0

2.7
2.4
2.6
2.5
3.0

3.7
3.7
3.7
4.0
2.8

3.1
4.0
2.9
2.7
3.5

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

101.0
101.3

100.7
101.0

100.8
100.8

100.8
100.7

3.6
5.7

0.0
-1.2

0.4
0.8

-0.8
-2.3

1.8
2.2

-0.2
-0.8

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

100.7
103.4
255.3
290.6
98.5

100.8
103.9
259.1
291.7
98.4

101.1
104.2
260.0
292.8
98.5

100.9
104.8
260.7
294.3
97.8

1.2
4.9
4.3
5.1
-2.0

2.8
5.6
6.1
5.4
1.2

-1.2
3.2
4.7
2.9
-5.1

0.8
5.5
8.7
5.2
-2.8

2.0
5.3
5.2
5.3
-0.4

-0.2
4.3
6.7
4.1
-4.0

98.4
100.8

98.3
100.8

98.4
101.2

97.7
100.4

-2.0
1.6

1.2
4.0

-5.5
-2.3

-2.8
-1.6

-0.4
2.8

-4.2
-2.0

38.2

37.4

36.6

36.0

-29.6

-24.2

-30.2

-21.1

-26.9

-25.8

69.0

67.5

65.3

64.0

-39.2

-34.3

-43.3

-26.0

-36.8

-35.2

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

239.7
283.7
157.7
150.1
167.4
236.2

240.4
284.3
158.3
150.4
167.8
236.8

239.3
280.8
158.1
149.8
168.0
237.4

253.1
333.0
158.3
149.6
168.6
238.6

3.9
3.7
4.2
5.9
2.0
2.3

8.4
21.6
3.4
5.8
1.7
3.1

9.5
28.2
2.3
-0.5
4.4
5.4

24.3
89.8
1.5
-1.3
2.9
4.1

6.2
12.3
3.8
5.8
1.8
2.7

16.7
56.0
1.9
-0.9
3.7
4.8

141.8
161.1
130.3
131.5
131.6

142.4
161.9
130.7
132.6
132.1

142.4
162.2
130.6
132.0
132.2

142.7
162.1
131.1
133.2
131.4

-3.1
1.3
-5.1
-8.9
-4.5

2.0
2.5
1.5
2.5
3.1

0.6
2.3
-0.6
-1.2
0.3

2.6
2.5
2.5
5.3
-0.6

-0.6
1.9
-1.8
-3.4
-0.8

1.6
2.4
0.9
2.0
-0.2

136.1
127.2
181.9
171.3
185.5
215.3

137.3
127.1
182.2
171.8
185.4
215.5

136.4
127.4
182.7
172.4
185.6
216.2

138.6
127.1
183.0
172.7
185.9
216.4

-11.7
0.0
2.3
2.7
3.8
3.5

3.3
-0.9
2.9
3.6
-0.4
4.2

-2.3
0.6
2.2
3.6
0.4
2.1

7.6
-0.3
2.4
3.3
0.9
2.1

-4.5
-0.5
2.6
3.1
1.6
3.8

2.5
0.2
2.3
3.4
0.6
2.1

159.7
155.1
156.1
131.9
133.5
137.9
146.6
171.3

160.0
155.5
156.6
132.3
134.5
139.3
147.3
171.3

160.3
155.7
156.8
132.2
134.1
138.7
147.3
171.6

160.7
156.0
157.1
132.7
135.2
140.8
147.7
172.0

-0.5
-1.3
-0.5
-5.3
-8.3
-12.1
-3.2
0.9

2.6
2.1
2.6
1.5
2.7
2.6
2.2
2.6

1.3
0.5
1.0
-0.3
-1.5
-0.9
0.8
1.2

2.5
2.3
2.6
2.4
5.2
8.7
3.0
1.6

1.0
0.4
1.0
-1.9
-2.9
-5.0
-0.5
1.8

1.9
1.4
1.8
1.1
1.8
3.8
1.9
1.4

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............

Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1984=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

176.3
99.3
168.6
170.7

176.4
100.3
168.9
171.0

177.0
100.2
169.2
171.3

177.4
98.7
169.8
172.0

2.1
-21.2
1.7
1.9

3.0
-1.9
2.9
2.9

2.1
-9.8
2.4
2.4

2.5
-2.4
2.9
3.1

2.6
-12.1
2.3
2.4

2.3
-6.2
2.6
2.7

143.3
88.8
189.1

143.4
90.9
189.5

143.4
89.9
190.0

144.6
87.2
190.3

0.0
-32.1
3.3

2.0
-3.8
3.3

1.7
-14.7
2.6

3.7
-7.0
2.6

1.0
-19.2
3.3

2.7
-10.9
2.6

base.
base
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 6. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): Selected areas, all items index
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
All items

CPI-W

Pricing
schedule
(1)

Indexes

Percent change to
Dec.1998 from--

Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Dec.
1998

M

160.2

160.6

160.7

Northeast urban .............................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)..........

M
M
M

167.4
167.5
101.8

168.1
168.1
102.2

Midwest urban (4)............................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

156.0
156.7
101.9

M

152.2

U.S. city average ...........................

Percent change to
Nov.1998 from--

Dec.
1997

Oct.
1998

Nov.
1998

Nov.
1997

Sep.
1998

Oct.
1998

160.7

1.6

0.1

0.0

1.4

0.3

0.1

168.2
168.2
102.2

168.2
168.2
102.3

1.6
1.8
1.2

0.1
0.1
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.1

1.5
1.6
1.1

0.5
0.4
0.4

0.1
0.1
0.0

156.2
156.7
102.1

156.2
156.7
102.1

156.0
156.5
102.0

1.5
1.9
1.0

-0.1
-0.1
-0.1

-0.1
-0.1
-0.1

1.4
1.9
0.9

0.1
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0

152.4

152.9

153.3

1.5

0.6

0.3

0.9

0.5

0.3

Region and area size(2)

South urban .................................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

157.5
156.3
102.1

157.8
156.6
102.4

157.7
156.2
102.4

157.8
156.0
102.5

1.4
1.2
1.4

0.0
-0.4
0.1

0.1
-0.1
0.1

1.0
1.1
0.7

0.1
-0.1
0.3

-0.1
-0.3
0.0

M

160.6

160.4

160.6

160.8

2.1

0.2

0.1

2.0

0.0

0.1

West urban ..................................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........

M
M
M

160.9
160.0
102.5

161.5
160.5
102.8

161.8
160.7
103.3

161.8
160.8
103.3

1.6
1.8
1.4

0.2
0.2
0.5

0.0
0.1
0.0

1.6
1.9
1.0

0.6
0.4
0.8

0.2
0.1
0.5

M
M
M

146.6
102.0
158.7

147.0
102.4
158.9

147.0
102.4
159.1

146.9
102.5
159.2

1.7
1.3
1.6

-0.1
0.1
0.2

-0.1
0.1
0.1

1.7
0.9
1.4

0.3
0.4
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.1

Size classes
A (5)......................................
B/C (3)....................................
D .........................................
Selected local areas(6)
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI ..............
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA .....
New York-Northern N.J.-Long Island,
NY-NJ-CT-PA .............................

M
M

159.6
156.1

160.0
156.8

159.9
157.0

159.6
157.2

1.5
1.2

-0.3
0.3

-0.2
0.1

1.7
1.4

0.2
0.6

-0.1
0.1

M

169.9

170.5

170.5

170.5

1.7

0.0

0.0

1.5

0.4

0.0

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT .........
Cleveland-Akron, OH .........................
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX .......................
Washington-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV (7)........

1
1
1
1

169.9
153.3
154.3
102.7

-

171.5
152.8
153.8
102.2

-

-

-

-

2.2
2.5
1.8

0.9
-0.3
-0.3
-0.5

-

Atlanta, GA .................................
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI .................
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX ..............
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL ...................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City,
PA-NJ-DE-MD .............................
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA ..........
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA ................

2
2
2
2

-

159.2
155.7
146.9
158.6

-

158.8
155.9
144.8
158.7

1.3
2.8
0.2
1.2

-0.3
0.1
-1.4
0.1

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

-

169.3
163.4
164.9

-

168.5
163.7
164.9

1.7
2.7
2.7

-0.5
0.2
0.0

-

-

-

-

1 Areas on pricing schedule 2 (see Table 10) will appear next month.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions. See map in technical notes.
3 Indexes on a December 1996=100 base.
4 The 'North Central' region has been renamed the 'Midwest' region by the Census Bureau.
geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986=100 base.

It is composed of the same

6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in Tables 34 and 39 of the
January and July issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley,
CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, WI; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland-Salem,
OR-WA; St. Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996=100 base.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.
Table 1A. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): U.S. city average, by
expenditure category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-U

Annual
average
1997

Annual
average
1998

Percent
change
from 1997
to 1998

Expenditure category
All items ...............................................
All items (1967=100) ....................................

160.5
480.8

163.0
488.3

1.6
-

Food and beverages .....................................
Food ..................................................
Food at home .........................................
Cereals and bakery products .........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ......................
Dairy and related products ..........................
Fruits and vegetables ...............................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage materials .......
Other food at home ..................................
Sugar and sweets ...................................
Fats and oils ......................................
Other foods ........................................
Other miscellaneous foods (1).....................
Food away from home ..................................
Other food away from home (1).......................
Alcoholic beverages ...................................

157.7
157.3
158.1
177.6
148.5
145.5
187.5
133.4
147.3
147.8
141.7
161.2
157.0
162.8

161.1
160.7
161.1
181.1
147.3
150.8
198.2
133.0
150.8
150.2
146.9
165.5
102.6
161.1
101.6
165.7

2.2
2.2
1.9
2.0
-.8
3.6
5.7
-.3
2.4
1.6
3.7
2.7
2.6
1.8

Housing ................................................
Shelter ...............................................
Rent of primary residence ............................

156.8
176.3
166.7

160.4
182.1
172.1

2.3
3.3
3.2

Lodging away from home (1)............................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence (2)......
Tenants' and household insurance (1).................
Fuels and utilities ...................................
Fuels ................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ............................
Gas (piped) and electricity .........................
Household furnishings and operations ..................

181.9
130.8
117.9
99.8
125.1
125.4

109.0
187.8
99.8
128.5
113.7
90.0
121.2
126.6

3.2
-1.8
-3.6
-9.8
-3.1
1.0

Apparel ................................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...............................
Women's and girls' apparel ............................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel ........................
Footwear ..............................................

132.9
130.1
126.1
129.0
127.6

133.0
131.8
126.0
126.1
128.0

.1
1.3
-.1
-2.2
.3

Transportation .........................................
Private transportation ................................
New and used motor vehicles (1).......................
New vehicles ........................................
Used cars and trucks ................................
Motor fuel ...........................................
Gasoline (all types) ................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ....................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .................
Public transportation .................................

144.3
141.0
100.5
144.3
151.1
106.2
105.8
101.9
162.7
186.7

141.6
137.9
100.1
143.4
150.6
92.2
91.6
101.1
167.1
190.3

-1.9
-2.2
-.4
-.6
-.3
-13.2
-13.4
-.8
2.7
1.9

Medical care ...........................................
Medical care commodities ..............................
Medical care services .................................
Professional services ................................
Hospital and related services ........................

234.6
215.3
239.1
215.4
278.4

242.1
221.8
246.8
222.2
287.5

3.2
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.3

Recreation (1)..........................................
Video and audio (1)...................................

99.6
99.4

101.1
101.1

1.5
1.7

Education and communication (1).........................
Education (1)..........................................
Educational books and supplies .......................
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare ............
Communication (1).....................................
Information and information processing (1)...........
Telephone services (1)..............................
Information and information processing other than
telephone services (3)..........................
Personal computers and peripheral equipment (1)....

98.4
97.3
238.4
280.4
100.3
100.4
-

100.3
102.1
250.8
294.2
98.7
98.5
100.7

1.9
4.9
5.2
4.9
-1.6
-1.9
-

50.1
-

39.9
78.2

-20.4
-

Other goods and services ...............................
Tobacco and smoking products ..........................
Personal care .........................................
Personal care products ...............................
Personal care services ...............................
Miscellaneous personal services ......................

224.8
243.7
152.7
144.2
162.4
226.1

237.7
274.8
156.7
148.3
166.0
234.7

5.7
12.8
2.6
2.8
2.2
3.8

141.8
157.7
132.2
134.6
132.9
140.6
128.7
179.4
183.4
185.0
209.6

141.9
161.1
130.5
132.6
133.0
137.4
127.6
184.2
189.6
187.9
216.9

.1
2.2
-1.3
-1.5
.1
-2.3
-.9
2.7
3.4
1.6
3.5

161.1
155.9
156.3
133.4
136.3
141.8
146.4
188.1
173.9
111.5
167.1
169.5
142.3
105.7
185.0
$ .600
$ .200

163.4
157.2
158.6
132.0
134.6
139.2
146.9
191.8
178.4
102.9
170.9
173.4
143.2
92.1
190.6
$ .600
$ .200

1.4
.8
1.5
-1.0
-1.2
-1.8
.3
2.0
2.6
-7.7
2.3
2.3
.6
-12.9
3.0
-

Commodity and service group
Commodities .............................................
Food and beverages .....................................
Commodities less food and beverages ....................
Nondurables less food and beverages ...................
Apparel ..............................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and apparel ........
Durables ..............................................
Services ................................................
Rent of shelter (2).....................................
Transportation services ................................
Other services .........................................
Special indexes
All items less food .....................................
All items less shelter ..................................
All items less medical care .............................
Commodities less food ...................................
Nondurables less food ...................................
Nondurables less food and apparel .......................
Nondurables .............................................
Services less rent of shelter (2)........................
Services less medical care services .....................
Energy ..................................................
All items less energy ...................................
All items less food and energy .........................
Commodities less food and energy commodities ..........
Energy commodities ...................................
Services less energy services .........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar (1982-84=$1.00) .
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar (1967=$1.00) ....
1 Indexes on a December 1997=100 base.
2 Indexes on a December 1982=100 base.
3 Indexes on a December 1988=100 base.

- Data not available.
Table 4A. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-W

Annual
average
1997

Annual
average
1998

Percent
change
from 1997
to 1998

Expenditure category
All items ...............................................
All items (1967=100) ....................................

157.6
469.3

159.7
475.6

1.3
-

Food and beverages .....................................
Food ..................................................
Food at home .........................................
Cereals and bakery products .........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ......................
Dairy and related products ..........................
Fruits and vegetables ...............................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage materials .......
Other food at home ..................................
Sugar and sweets ...................................
Fats and oils ......................................
Other foods ........................................
Other miscellaneous foods (1).....................
Food away from home ..................................
Other food away from home (1).......................
Alcoholic beverages ...................................

157.2
156.8
157.2
177.3
148.2
145.2
186.6
132.3
146.8
147.7
141.4
161.1
157.0
162.1

160.4
160.0
160.0
180.9
147.0
150.4
197.0
131.8
150.2
150.1
146.5
165.4
102.6
161.1
101.6
164.6

2.0
2.0
1.8
2.0
-.8
3.6
5.6
-.4
2.3
1.6
3.6
2.7
2.6
1.5

Housing ................................................
Shelter ...............................................
Rent of primary residence ............................
Lodging away from home (1)............................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence (2)......
Tenants' and household insurance (1).................
Fuels and utilities ...................................
Fuels ................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ............................

153.4
171.2
166.3
165.8
130.5
117.3
99.6

156.7
176.6
171.7
109.0
171.1
100.0
128.4
113.3
90.3

2.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
-1.6
-3.4
-9.3

Gas (piped) and electricity .........................
Household furnishings and operations ..................

124.6
123.9

120.8
125.0

-3.0
.9

Apparel ................................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...............................
Women's and girls' apparel ............................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel ........................
Footwear ..............................................

132.1
129.9
124.9
130.1
128.5

131.6
131.4
123.9
126.7
128.7

-.4
1.2
-.8
-2.6
.2

Transportation .........................................
Private transportation ................................
New and used motor vehicles (1).......................
New vehicles ........................................
Used cars and trucks ................................
Motor fuel ...........................................
Gasoline (all types) ................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ....................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .................
Public transportation .................................

143.6
141.3
100.7
145.5
152.6
106.2
105.8
101.0
163.7
184.2

140.5
138.0
100.3
144.6
152.0
92.2
91.7
100.5
168.2
187.1

-2.2
-2.3
-.4
-.6
-.4
-13.2
-13.3
-.5
2.7
1.6

Medical care ...........................................
Medical care commodities ..............................
Medical care services .................................
Professional services ................................
Hospital and related services ........................

234.0
212.6
238.8
216.7
274.7

241.4
218.6
246.6
223.7
283.6

3.2
2.8
3.3
3.2
3.2

Recreation (1)..........................................
Video and audio (1)...................................

99.7
99.4

100.9
101.1

1.2
1.7

Education and communication (1).........................
Education (1)..........................................
Educational books and supplies .......................
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare ............
Communication (1).....................................
Information and information processing (1)...........
Telephone services (1)..............................
Information and information processing other than
telephone services (3)..........................
Personal computers and peripheral equipment (1)....

98.5
97.2
240.4
274.6
100.2
100.3
-

100.4
102.1
253.1
288.5
99.1
99.0
100.7

1.9
5.0
5.3
5.1
-1.1
-1.3
-

51.1
-

41.2
77.9

-19.4
-

Other goods and services ...............................
Tobacco and smoking products ..........................
Personal care .........................................
Personal care products ...............................
Personal care services ...............................

221.6
243.3
152.6
145.1
162.5

236.1
274.8
156.8
149.3
166.3

6.5
12.9
2.8
2.9
2.3

Miscellaneous personal services ......................

225.2

234.0

3.9

141.8
157.2
132.4
134.5
132.1
140.4
128.4
176.5
164.7
182.6
206.4

141.8
160.4
130.6
132.1
131.6
137.0
127.3
181.0
170.1
185.4
213.7

.0
2.0
-1.4
-1.8
-.4
-2.4
-.9
2.5
3.3
1.5
3.5

157.6
154.0
154.0
133.6
136.2
141.6
146.2
167.6
171.2
111.1
164.1
166.0
141.9
105.9
182.2
$ .600
$ .200

159.5
155.0
155.8
132.0
134.1
138.7
146.5
170.7
175.4
102.1
167.6
169.6
142.7
92.3
187.7
$ .600
$ .200

1.2
.6
1.2
-1.2
-1.5
-2.0
.2
1.8
2.5
-8.1
2.1
2.2
.6
-12.8
3.0
-

Commodity and service group
Commodities .............................................
Food and beverages .....................................
Commodities less food and beverages ....................
Nondurables less food and beverages ...................
Apparel ..............................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and apparel ........
Durables ..............................................
Services ................................................
Rent of shelter (2).....................................
Transportation services ................................
Other services .........................................
Special indexes
All items less food .....................................
All items less shelter ..................................
All items less medical care .............................
Commodities less food ...................................
Nondurables less food ...................................
Nondurables less food and apparel .......................
Nondurables .............................................
Services less rent of shelter (2)........................
Services less medical care services .....................
Energy ..................................................
All items less energy ...................................
All items less food and energy .........................
Commodities less food and energy commodities ..........
Energy commodities ...................................
Services less energy services .........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar (1982-84=$1.00)..
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar (1967=$1.00) ....
1
2
3
-

Indexes on a December 1997=100 base.
Indexes on a December 1984=100 base
Indexes on a December 1988=100 base.
Data not available.