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FOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION:
Patrick C. Jackman (202) 606-7000
CPI QUICKLINE:
(202) 606-6994
FOR CURRENT AND HISTORICAL
INFORMATION:
(202) 606-7828
MEDIA CONTACT:
(202) 606-5902
INTERNET ADDRESS:
http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX:

USDL-98-382
TRANSMISSION OF
MATERIAL IN THIS
RELEASE IS EMBARGOED
UNTIL 8:30 A.M. (EDT)
Thursday, September 17, 1998

AUGUST 1998

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) rose 0.1
percent in August, before seasonal adjustment, to a level of 163.4 (198284=100), the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor
reported today. For the 12-month period ended in August, the CPI-U has
increased 1.6 percent.
The Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
(CPI-W) also rose 0.1 percent in August, prior to seasonal adjustment.
The August 1998 CPI-W level of 160.0 was 1.4 percent higher than the index
in August 1997.
CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI-U rose 0.2 percent in August,
the same as in July. In August the food index increased 0.2 percent for
the second consecutive month. Prices for food at home advanced 0.3
percent as a sharp increase in prices for dairy products was partially
offset by a decline in the index for fruits and vegetables. The energy
index, which was unchanged in July, declined 1.0 percent in August. The
index for petroleum-based energy decreased 1.4 percent, and the index for
energy services fell 0.4 percent. Excluding food and energy, the CPI-U
increased 0.2 percent in August, the same as in July. An upturn in the
index for apparel, reflecting the introduction of fall-winter wear, was
largely offset by smaller increases in the indexes for cigarettes and
airline fares, coupled with a decline in the index for telephone services.
Table A.

Percent changes in CPI for Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
Seasonally adjusted
UnCompound adjusted
Expenditure
Changes from preceding month
annual rate 12-mos.
Category
1998
3-mos. ended ended

Feb. Mar. Apr.
All Items
.1
Food and beverages .0
Housing
.1
Apparel
.2
Transportation
-.4
Medical care
.3
Recreation
.3
Education and
communication
-.1
Other goods and
services
.8
Special Indexes
Energy
-2.2
Food
.0
All Items less
food and energy .3

May June July Aug.

Aug. `98

Aug. `98

.0
.0
.2
-.2
-.5
.3
.4

.2
.1
.4
-.1
-.1
.4
.0

.3
.5
.3
.4
.1
.3
.0

.1
.1
.1
.2
-.3
.4
.1

.2
.2
.2
-.3
.3
.2
.0

.2
.3
.1
1.1
.0
.4
.1

1.7
2.8
1.8
4.0
.0
3.9
.8

1.6
2.1
2.5
1.2
-1.8
3.5
1.3

.3

.3

.3

.1

.0

-.5

-1.6

1.5

-.3

1.0

.7

.0

.7

.1

2.9

5.4

-1.2
.0

-.1
.1

.3
.6

-.7
.1

.0 -1.0
.2
.2

-6.4
2.5

-7.7
2.2

.1

.3

.2

.1

2.1

2.5

.2

.2

Beginning with release of data for January 1999, the BLS will introduce a
new formula for calculating the basic components of the CPI. See page 4
for more details. See pages 5 and 6 for announcements on methodological
changes concerning utility rebates and hedonic quality adjustment for
televisions.
During the first eight months of 1998, the CPI-U rose at a 1.6
percent seasonally adjusted annual rate (SAAR). This compares with an
increase of 1.7 percent for all of 1997. Declines in energy costs have
continued to act as a moderating influence on overall consumer price index
movements thus far in 1998, decreasing at a 10.5 percent annual rate after
declining 3.4 percent in all of 1997. Food costs, which rose 1.5 percent
in 1997, have risen at a 2.4 percent SAAR in the first eight months of
1998. Excluding food and energy, the CPI-U has advanced at a 2.5 percent
rate thus far in 1998, compared with a 2.2 percent rise for all of 1997.
The food and beverages index rose 0.3 percent in August. The index
for food at home increased 0.3 percent in August, the same as in July. A
1.6 percent increase in the index for dairy products accounted for almost
half of the August food at home advance. The indexes for other food at
home--reflecting a 5.3 percent increase in butter prices--and cereal and
bakery products rose 0.7 and 0.5 percent , respectively. On the other
hand, prices for fruits and vegetables and for non-alcoholic beverages
turned down in August, and the index for meats, poultry, fish, and eggs
moderated. The index for fruits and vegetables, which rose 0.3 percent in
July, declined 0.4 percent in August. The indexes for fresh fruits and

for fresh vegetables declined 0.5 and 1.0 percent, respectively, more than
offsetting a 0.5 percent increase in the index for processed fruits and
vegetables.
(Prior to seasonal adjustment, prices for fresh fruits rose
0.5 percent, while fresh vegetable prices fell 3.9 percent.) The index
for meats, poultry, fish, and eggs rose 0.3 percent in August, following a
0.5 percent increase in July. A 0.3 percent decline in meat prices was
more than offset by increases in prices for poultry, eggs, and fish and
seafood. Prices for poultry and for fish and seafood rose 1.5 and 1.2
percent, respectively, and the index for eggs rose 1.0 percent. The other
two components of the food and beverage index--food away from home and
alcoholic beverages--rose 0.2 percent and were unchanged, respectively.
The housing component rose 0.1 percent in August. Shelter costs rose
0.3 percent, following increases of 0.2 percent in each of the preceding
two months. Within shelter, the index for rent rose 0.3 percent; owners'
equivalent rent, 0.2 percent; and the cost of lodging away from home, 0.7
percent. The index for fuels and utilities, which was unchanged in July,
declined 0.4 percent in August.
The indexes for electricity and for fuel
oil each declined 0.9 percent, more than offsetting a 0.4 percent rise in
the index for natural gas. (Prior to seasonal adjustment, charges for
natural gas declined 0.5 percent.) The index for household furnishings
and operations declined 0.2 percent in August.
The transportation component was unchanged in August, following a 0.3
percent rise in July. The index for motor fuel, which was unchanged in
July, declined 1.6 percent in August. Gasoline prices have fallen 10.1
percent thus far in 1998 and are 23.3 percent lower than their peak level
in November 1990. The index for new and used vehicle prices rose 0.2
percent. The index for new vehicles, which increased 0.5 percent in July,
rose 0.3 percent in August. (Prior to seasonal adjustment, new vehicle
prices rose 0.1 percent.) The index for used cars and trucks fell 0.1
percent. Public transportation costs increased 2.2 percent in August.
The index for airline fares, which typically declines in August, increased
0.2 percent.
The index for apparel rose 1.1 percent in August, following a 0.3
percent decline in July. (Prior to seasonal adjustment, apparel prices
rose 1.5 percent, reflecting the introduction of higher priced fall-winter
wear.)
Medical care costs rose 0.4 percent in August to a level 3.5 percent
above a year ago. The index for medical care commodities--prescription
drugs, nonprescription drugs, and medical supplies--increased 0.6 percent.
The index for medical care services rose 0.3 percent. Charges for
professional services and for hospital and related services each increased

0.3 percent.
The index for recreation costs rose 0.1 percent in August. Increases
in the indexes for admissions to sporting events, for club membership dues
and fees for participant sports, and for books were partially offset by
declines in the indexes for sporting goods and for other recreational
goods.
The index for education and communication declined 0.5 percent in
August. A 0.4 percent increase in education costs was more than offset by
a decline in the index for information processing costs. Within the
latter group, the indexes for telephone services and for personal
computers and peripheral equipment declined 1.1 and 5.5 percent,
respectively.
The index for other goods and services, which rose 0.7 percent in
July, increased 0.1 percent in August. The deceleration largely was
attributable to moderation in the index for tobacco and smoking products,
which rose 0.1 percent in August after increasing 2.6 percent in July.
CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W)
On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI for Urban Wage Earners and
Clerical Workers increased 0.1 percent in August.
Table B. Percent changes in CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W)
Seasonally adjusted
UnCompound adjusted
Expenditure
Changes from preceding month
annual rate 12-mos.
Category
1998
3-mos. ended ended
Feb. Mar. Apr.
All Items
.0
-.1
.3
Food and beverages .0
.0
.0
Housing
.1
.3
.3
Apparel
-.2
-.5
.2
Transportation
-.4
-.6
.0
Medical care
.2
.3
.4
Recreation
.3
.3
.1
Education and
communication
.0
.4
.2
Other goods and
services
1.1
-.6 1.4
Special Indexes

May June July Aug.
.3
.1
.2
.1
.6
.1
.3
.2
.3
.1
.2
.1
.3
.3 -.4
.9
.1 -.1
.2 -.1
.3
.5
.2
.3
-.2
.1 -.1
.2

Aug.`98
1.3
2.5
1.5
3.4
-.3
4.1
.8

Aug. `98
1.4
2.0
2.3
.4
-2.2
3.5
1.0

.4

.1

.1

-.5

-1.2

1.8

.8

-.1

.9

.2

3.6

6.3

Energy
-2.1
Food
-.1
All Items less
food and energy
.2

-1.3
.0

-.2
.1

.3
.6

-.6
.1

.1

.4

.2

.1

-.1 -1.1
.3
.3
.2

.2

-6.8
2.8

-8.3
2.1

2.1

2.3

Consumer Price Index data for September are scheduled for release on
Friday, October 16, 1998, at 8:30 A.M. (EDT).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Planned change in the Consumer Price Index Formula
On April 16, the Bureau of Labor Statistics announced its decision to
use a new formula for calculating the basic components of the Consumer
Price Index for all Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Consumer Price Index
for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). This change will
become effective with data for January 1999.
The new formula, the geometric mean estimator, will be used in index
categories that comprise approximately 61 percent of total consumer
spending represented by the CPI-U. The remaining index categories, which
are shown in the table below, will continue to be calculated as they are
currently. Based upon BLS research, it is expected that planned use of the
new formula will reduce the annual rate of increase in the CPI by
approximately 0.2 percentage point per year.
The geometric mean estimator will be introduced in both the CPI-U and
the CPI-W effective with data for January 1999, in accord with the past
practice of introducing methodological changes at the beginning of a
calendar year. BLS will continue to publish "overlap" CPI-U and CPI-W
series using the current calculation method for the first six months of
1999. These indexes will not be published regularly for months subsequent
to June 1999, but will be available upon request.
Additional information on this change was published in the April
1998 CPI Detailed Report and is available on the Internet
(http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm). This information may also be obtained
by writing to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Consumer Prices
and Price Indexes, 2 Massachusetts Ave. N.E., Room 3615 Washington, D.C.
20212-0001 or by calling (202) 606-7000.
Arithmetic Mean (Laspeyres) Formula
1.

Selected shelter services:

A) Rent of primary
residence

B) Owners' equivalent
rent of primary

C) Housing at school,
excluding board

residence
2.

Selected utilities and government charges:

A) Electricity

C) Residential water and
sewerage maintenance

E) Telephone services,
local charges

B) Utility natural gas
service

D) State and local
registration, license,
and motor vehicle
property tax

F) Cable television

3.

Selected medical care services:

A) Physicians' services
B) Dental services

C) Eyeglasses and eye
care
D) Services by other
medical professionals

E) Hospital services
F) Nursing homes and
adult daycare

-------------------------------------------------------------------------Improvements to CPI Procedures for Handling Refunds for Utilities
Effective with the calculation of the index for January 1999, the
Consumer Price Index (CPI) will change its treatment of refunds for
electricity, natural gas, or other utility services when the refunds
are based on earlier periods' utility consumption amounts.
The
change will affect both the price indexes and the average prices
computed by the CPI program.
Under the current practice, the CPI utility indexes reflect
refunds that appear on current period bills but that are based on
past period utility consumption. Generally these refunds result
from
the
rollback of temporary rate increases, lower
than
anticipated energy costs, or a reevaluation of rates with respect to
actual costs. The current practice makes these indexes rather
volatile and do not reflect the actual current price (for example,
what a new customer would pay) for a utility service such as
electricity.
Under the new procedure, the CPI will disregard any refund for
past excess charges when it appears on residential customer bills as
a separate refund credit that is subtracted from the charges for

current billing period's usage. The movement of the CPI utility
indexes will reflect all changes in rates-generally in the month
they are effective. The CPI utility indexes will continue to reflect
current period credits that are based on current period consumption,
such as those associated with purchased gas or fuel adjustments.
For additional information on this change, write to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes, 2
Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 3615, Washington, DC 20212-0001; or
telephone Bob Adkins at (202) 606-6985 ext. 264, or send e-mail to
Adkins_B@bls.gov
-------------------------------------------------------------------Using a hedonic model to adjust television prices in the
Price Index for changes in quality

Consumer

Effective with the release of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for
January 1999, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will introduce an
improvement in the way in which it calculates the Television stratum
of the CPI.
As of December 1997, Televisions constituted 0.215 percent in the
Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (the CPI-U) and 0.256
percent in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and
Clerical Workers (the CPI-W).
Bureau of Labor Statistics researchers developed a regression
procedure, called a hedonic model, that decomposes the price of
television sets into implicit prices for each important feature and
component /1. This model uses Television observations collected for
the CPI and provides an estimate of the value of each of the
significant features and components of the sets for which prices are
collected.
This
yields a mechanism for
replacing
obsolete
televisions in the CPI sample with current ones, allowing the CPI to
capture the price change that may occur as new models replace old
ones in the market place without counting the value of quality
improvements as price increases.
The CPI has used similar hedonic methods to adjust apparel prices
for many years.
In January 1998, the CPI began using a similar
approach for Personal Computers. In the coming years, BLS plans to
extend the method to additional CPI items.
Starting with the CPI for January 1999, when a television model
in the CPI sample improves in some way, the value of that change, as
derived from the regression estimates, will be deducted from the
observed price change for that product. (Conversely, if a model
deteriorates, the value of the difference will be added to the

price.)
For additional information on these changes, write to
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Division of Consumer Prices and Price Indexes
2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 3260
Washington, DC 20212-0001
or telephone Tim LaFleur at (202) 606-6982 ext. 253,
or send e-mail to LaFleur_T@bls.gov
/1 Brent R. Moulton, Timothy J. LaFleur, and Karin E. Moses,
"Research on Improved Quality Adjustment in the CPI: The Case
of Televisions," presented to the Conference of the Ottawa
Group, April 1998.
------------------------------------------------------------------------BLS to Maintain Current Reference Base of 1982-84=100 for most CPI
index series
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) previously indicated its
intention to change the numerical reference base for both the
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
(CPI-W) from their present 1982-84=100 base to a 1993-95=100 base,
effective with release of the January 1999 index in February 1999.
BLS also indicated that the alternate, or 1967=100 base, would be
discontinued in 1999 as well. This plan was initially described
in the December 1996 Monthly Labor Review, a publication which
contained several articles that dealt with the 1998 CPI Revision.
The BLS has now decided not to implement this rebasing plan.
Instead, the BLS will maintain the reference base of 1982-84=100
used for most items. In addition, the 1967=100 reference base
will continue to be the alternate base for the All Items indexes.
This decision is based in part on the fact that historical data
have less precision after rebasing. Rebasing is simply an
arithmetic transformation that does not substantially impact the
index. Because the rebased index values are smaller, however, the
loss of precision due to rounding is more serious. In addition,
retaining the old index reference bases would spare users the
inconvenience associated with conversion.
Changes in the numerical reference base should not be
confused with the plans by BLS to update the market basket of the
CPI. Since release of the January CPI in February 1998, the

expenditure weights applied to CPI categories have been based on
consumer spending patterns for 1993-95.
Table 1. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): U.S. city average, by expenditure category and commodity
and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-U

Relative
importance,
December
1997

Unadjusted
Unadjusted indexes percent change to
Aug. 1998 fromJuly
1998

Aug.
1998

Aug.
1997

July
1998

Seasonally adjusted
percent change fromMay to June to July to
June
July
Aug.

Expenditure category
All items ...................................
All items (1967=100) ........................

100.000
-

163.2
488.8

163.4
489.6

1.6
-

0.1
-

0.1
-

0.2
-

0.2
-

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

16.310
15.326
9.646
1.536
2.629
1.037
1.394

160.9
160.5
160.8
181.8
146.9
148.2
198.2

161.4
161.0
161.4
182.7
148.2
150.5
195.9

2.1
2.2
1.8
2.3
-0.6
5.0
4.6

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.9
1.6
-1.2

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
-1.0

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.3

0.3
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.3
1.6
-0.4

1.077
1.972
.377
.291
1.305
.309
5.680
.172
.983

132.3
151.1
149.9
147.6
165.9
102.6
161.1
101.6
165.6

132.0
152.1
150.2
149.7
166.9
103.5
161.5
102.3
165.7

-3.4
2.3
1.6
5.9
3.2
2.6
1.5

-0.2
0.7
0.2
1.4
0.6
0.9
0.2
0.7
0.1

0.4
0.8
0.9
1.6
0.6
1.1
0.1
0.4
0.4

0.0
0.3
-0.7
2.6
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.3

-0.7
0.7
0.6
2.0
0.5
0.9
0.2
0.7
0.0

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................

39.560
29.788
6.885

161.2
182.6
172.2

161.5
183.3
172.8

2.5
3.3
3.3

0.2
0.4
0.3

0.1
0.2
0.3

0.2
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.3
0.3

Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

2.327

111.7

112.9

-

1.1

-0.7

-0.7

0.7

20.199
.377
4.942
4.018
.261
3.757
4.831

188.0
99.3
131.3
116.8
87.8
124.9
127.2

188.5
99.2
130.6
115.9
86.7
124.0
126.8

3.2
-0.6
-2.3
-7.3
-2.1
1.3

0.3
-0.1
-0.5
-0.8
-1.3
-0.7
-0.3

0.2
-0.5
-0.4
-0.5
-1.2
-0.4
0.2

0.3
0.2
0.0
0.0
-0.3
0.0
0.3

0.2
-0.1
-0.4
-0.4
-0.7
-0.4
-0.2

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

4.944
1.390
1.990
.268
.895

129.6
129.4
120.6
122.0
127.0

131.6
130.6
123.8
124.4
127.7

1.2
1.3
2.9
-2.3
1.1

1.5
0.9
2.7
2.0
0.6

0.2
0.2
0.6
-1.7
1.5

-0.3
0.2
-0.9
-2.2
0.1

1.1
0.3
1.9
2.0
0.7

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

17.578
16.240
7.899
5.063
1.880
2.995
2.976
.560
1.603
1.338

141.8
138.0
99.9
142.7
151.3
93.7
93.2
101.1
166.8
192.0

141.2
137.4
99.9
142.8
151.1
91.6
91.1
101.2
167.3
192.2

-1.8
-2.4
0.4
-0.1
1.8
-14.9
-15.2
-0.6
2.4
4.8

-0.4
-0.4
0.0
0.1
-0.1
-2.2
-2.3
0.1
0.3
0.1

-0.3
-0.1
-0.1
-0.3
0.6
-1.0
-0.9
0.5
0.4
-1.1

0.3
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.0
-0.2
0.1
0.2
1.0

0.0
-0.2
0.2
0.3
-0.1
-1.6
-1.5
0.0
0.2
2.2

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

5.614
1.222
4.392
2.808
1.334

242.7
222.2
247.4
222.8
288.2

243.5
223.1
248.2
223.3
289.5

3.5
3.5
3.5
3.2
3.8

0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5

0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.3

0.2
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.6

0.4
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

6.145
1.763

101.1
101.1

101.3
101.2

1.3
1.2

0.2
0.1

0.1
0.0

0.0
-0.1

0.1
0.1

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing

5.528
2.615
.194
2.421
2.913

100.0
101.0
249.0
291.1
99.1

100.1
102.6
249.1
295.8
97.9

1.5
4.9
3.8
4.9
-1.9

0.1
1.6
0.0
1.6
-1.2

0.1
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.0
0.3
0.4
0.3
-0.3

-0.5
0.4
-0.3
0.4
-1.2

2.706
2.357

99.0
101.5

97.7
100.4

-2.1
-

-1.3
-1.1

0.0
0.3

-0.3
0.1

-1.3
-1.1

other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

.350

39.1

37.6

-22.0

-3.8

-2.2

-3.7

-3.8

.234

75.2

71.1

-

-5.5

-3.3

-6.0

-5.5

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

4.321
.894
3.427
.737
.963
1.465

237.8
273.2
157.0
149.1
166.1
235.1

238.0
273.7
157.1
148.5
166.6
235.7

5.4
12.4
3.0
3.5
2.4
3.1

0.1
0.2
0.1
-0.4
0.3
0.3

0.0
-0.6
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
0.4

0.7
2.6
0.1
-0.1
0.5
0.3

0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.4
0.3
0.4

42.635
16.310
26.326
14.729
4.944

141.6
160.9
130.1
131.8
129.6

141.7
161.4
130.0
131.9
131.6

0.2
2.1
-1.0
-1.4
1.2

0.1
0.3
-0.1
0.1
1.5

-0.1
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
0.2

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
-0.3

0.1
0.3
0.0
-0.1
1.1

9.785
11.596
57.365
29.410
6.984
10.625

138.0
127.5
184.9
190.1
187.8
216.9

137.1
127.2
185.3
190.8
187.8
217.6

-2.6
-0.4
2.8
3.3
1.9
3.3

-0.7
-0.2
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
-0.2
0.3

0.1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1

-0.4
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.1

84.674
70.212
94.386
27.309
15.712
10.768
31.039
27.955
52.973
7.013
92.987
77.661

163.6
157.3
158.7
131.5
133.8
139.7
146.4
192.6
179.0
105.2
170.8
173.3

163.9
157.4
159.0
131.4
133.9
138.9
146.8
192.7
179.5
103.8
171.2
173.8

1.6
1.0
1.5
-0.9
-1.2
-2.3
0.5
2.1
2.7
-7.7
2.3
2.5

0.2
0.1
0.2
-0.1
0.1
-0.6
0.3
0.1
0.3
-1.3
0.2
0.3

0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.1
-0.1
0.1
-0.1
0.1
0.2
-0.7
0.1
0.1

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
-0.1
-0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
-1.0
0.2
0.2

24.053
3.256
53.608

142.4
93.3
190.9

142.7
91.3
191.5

1.1
-14.0
3.1

0.2
-2.1
0.3

0.0
-1.0
0.2

0.1
-0.1
0.2

0.2
-1.4
0.3

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar

(1982-84=$1.00) .........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1967=$1.00) ............................
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1982=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

-

$ .613

$ .612

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ .205

$ .204

-

-

-

-

-

base.
base.
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 2. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): Seasonally adjusted U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
Seasonally adjusted indexes

Seasonally adjusted annual rate percent
change for

CPI-U

3 months ended-May
1998

June
1998

July
1998

Aug.
1998

All items ...................................

162.9

163.0

163.3

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................

160.6
160.4
160.7
180.5
146.9
148.1
203.5

160.8
160.6
160.8
181.0
146.9
148.1
201.4

132.5
149.2
149.0

133.0
150.4
150.3

6 months
ended--

Nov.
1997

Feb.
1998

May
1998

Aug.
1998

Feb.
1998

Aug.
1998

163.6

2.3

0.5

2.2

1.7

1.4

2.0

161.2
161.0
161.3
181.2
147.6
148.2
202.0

161.7
161.4
161.8
182.1
148.1
150.5
201.1

2.0
2.0
1.3
1.8
-1.6
10.4
2.5

1.3
1.3
0.5
1.3
-3.7
1.9
6.8

2.3
2.5
2.5
2.5
-0.8
1.1
18.9

2.8
2.5
2.8
3.6
3.3
6.6
-4.6

1.6
1.7
0.9
1.6
-2.7
6.1
4.7

2.5
2.5
2.6
3.0
1.2
3.8
6.5

133.0
150.9
149.3

132.1
152.0
150.2

-4.6
-0.3
2.5

-3.5
0.8
1.9

-4.7
1.1
-1.1

-1.2
7.7
3.3

-4.0
0.3
2.2

-3.0
4.3
1.1

Expenditure category

Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

141.1
164.5
101.4
160.6
100.6
164.7

143.3
165.5
102.5
160.7
101.0
165.3

147.0
165.7
102.6
161.1
101.6
165.8

149.9
166.5
103.5
161.5
102.3
165.8

-0.8
2.8
3.1
1.7

-0.8
3.2
2.5
1.7

0.3
1.7
4.0
2.5
0.8
-0.2

27.4
5.0
8.5
2.3
6.9
2.7

-0.8
3.0
2.8
1.7

13.0
3.3
6.3
2.4
3.8
1.2

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

159.9
181.3
171.3
102.1

160.1
181.6
171.8
101.4

160.4
181.9
172.2
100.7

160.6
182.4
172.8
101.4

3.4
3.0
3.1
-

1.0
3.4
2.6
-

3.3
4.1
3.8
7.4

1.8
2.4
3.5
-2.7

2.2
3.2
2.9
-

2.5
3.3
3.7
2.2

187.2
99.6
128.8
113.5
91.7
121.1
126.4

187.6
99.1
128.3
112.9
90.6
120.6
126.6

188.1
99.3
128.3
112.9
90.3
120.6
127.0

188.5
99.2
127.8
112.4
89.7
120.1
126.8

2.7
6.3
9.7
-0.4
10.8
0.6

3.5
-12.1
-17.9
-17.7
-18.0
2.3

3.7
-2.4
2.8
2.9
-0.9
2.7
1.0

2.8
-1.6
-3.1
-3.8
-8.4
-3.3
1.3

3.1
-3.4
-5.1
-9.5
-4.7
1.4

3.3
-2.0
-0.2
-0.5
-4.7
-0.3
1.1

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

132.9
131.5
126.5
126.9
126.5

133.2
131.7
127.2
124.7
128.4

132.8
131.9
126.0
122.0
128.5

134.2
132.3
128.4
124.4
129.4

1.2
0.9
3.2
-4.0
1.6

-0.9
3.4
-2.5
-8.9
-4.3

0.6
-1.5
3.9
12.9
-1.9

4.0
2.5
6.1
-7.7
9.5

0.2
2.2
0.3
-6.5
-1.4

2.3
0.5
5.0
2.1
3.7

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

141.7
138.1
100.2
143.2
150.0
93.0
92.3
100.7
165.9
190.2

141.3
137.9
100.1
142.7
150.9
92.1
91.5
101.2
166.6
188.2

141.7
138.2
100.5
143.4
151.3
92.1
91.3
101.3
167.0
190.1

141.7
137.9
100.7
143.9
151.1
90.6
89.9
101.3
167.3
194.2

-1.1
-1.4
-1.4
-2.4
-4.8
-5.2
-1.6
1.5
1.7

-4.1
-5.3
-0.6
2.2
-29.2
-29.6
-1.6
4.0
11.9

-2.0
-2.0
0.4
-0.8
4.4
-13.4
-14.2
-1.6
1.0
-2.5

0.0
-0.6
2.0
2.0
3.0
-9.9
-10.0
2.4
3.4
8.7

-2.6
-3.4
-1.0
-0.1
-17.9
-18.3
-1.6
2.7
6.7

-1.0
-1.3
1.2
0.6
3.7
-11.7
-12.1
0.4
2.2
2.9

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

241.4
221.2
245.7
221.3
285.9

242.3
221.6
246.8
222.3
286.7

242.8
221.7
247.4
222.6
288.5

243.7
223.1
248.2
223.3
289.5

2.7
1.5
3.0
2.2
3.6

3.1
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.6

4.3
6.0
3.7
3.9
2.7

3.9
3.5
4.1
3.7
5.1

2.9
2.2
3.1
2.7
3.6

4.1
4.7
3.9
3.8
3.9

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

101.0
101.2

101.1
101.2

101.1
101.1

101.2
101.2

1.2

3.6

1.6
0.0

0.8
0.0

2.4

1.2
0.0

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

100.8
102.3
249.9
293.5
99.4

100.9
102.6
249.8
294.3
99.4

100.9
102.9
250.8
295.3
99.1

100.4
103.3
250.1
296.4
97.9

3.2
4.5
1.2

3.5
4.8
-3.5

3.7
6.5
8.4
6.4
0.8

-1.6
4.0
0.3
4.0
-5.9

3.3
4.7
-1.2

1.0
5.2
4.3
5.2
-2.6

99.3
101.1

99.3
101.4

99.0
101.5

97.7
100.4

1.2
-

-3.9
-

0.8
4.5

-6.3
-2.7

-1.4
-

-2.8
0.8

41.5

40.6

39.1

37.6

-4.9

-25.0

-23.0

-32.6

-15.5

-28.0

82.7

80.0

75.2

71.1

-

-

-32.7

-45.4

-

-39.4

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

237.0
268.4
156.6
149.3
165.4
233.3

236.9
266.9
156.8
149.2
165.3
234.2

238.5
273.8
157.0
149.1
166.1
234.8

238.7
274.2
157.1
148.5
166.6
235.7

5.6
10.9
4.8
7.4
2.0
2.8

6.8
18.6
1.8
1.7
2.0
2.6

5.8
11.5
4.2
7.3
2.7
3.0

2.9
8.9
1.3
-2.1
2.9
4.2

6.2
14.7
3.3
4.5
2.0
2.7

4.3
10.2
2.7
2.5
2.8
3.6

141.9
160.6
130.7
132.7
132.9

141.8
160.8
130.6
132.6
133.2

142.1
161.2
130.7
132.7
132.8

142.2
161.7
130.7
132.6
134.2

1.1
2.0
0.0
0.9
1.2

-1.4
1.3
-3.0
-5.2
-0.9

0.3
2.3
-0.9
-0.9
0.6

0.8
2.8
0.0
-0.3
4.0

-0.1
1.6
-1.5
-2.2
0.2

0.6
2.5
-0.5
-0.6
2.3

137.5
127.4
183.9
189.0
187.8
216.8

137.5
127.4
184.1
189.3
187.5
217.5

137.6
127.8
184.4
189.5
187.8
217.8

137.1
127.8
184.8
190.3
188.6
218.1

-0.3
-1.2
3.1
3.3
1.1
2.5

-8.3
-0.3
2.0
3.3
4.6
3.2

-0.6
-1.2
3.6
4.1
0.0
4.6

-1.2
1.3
2.0
2.8
1.7
2.4

-4.4
-0.8
2.6
3.3
2.8
2.9

-0.9
0.0
2.8
3.4
0.9
3.5

163.2
157.1
158.3
132.2
134.7
139.1
146.8

163.3
157.2
158.3
132.1
134.5
139.2
146.7

163.6
157.5
158.6
132.3
134.8
139.3
147.0

163.8
157.6
158.9
132.3
134.6
138.9
147.0

2.3
1.8
2.3
0.3
0.9
0.0
1.9

0.2
-0.8
0.3
-2.7
-4.3
-7.4
-1.9

2.2
1.3
2.0
-1.2
-0.9
-0.9
0.8

1.5
1.3
1.5
0.3
-0.3
-0.6
0.5

1.2
0.5
1.3
-1.2
-1.8
-3.8
0.0

1.9
1.3
1.8
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
0.7

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................

Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1982=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

191.7
178.0
103.2
170.7
173.3

191.9
178.3
102.5
170.9
173.5

192.4
178.7
102.5
171.3
173.8

192.4
178.9
101.5
171.7
174.2

3.7
3.5
2.9
2.2
2.1

-0.2
1.6
-22.9
2.4
2.8

3.8
3.4
-4.2
2.6
2.6

1.5
2.0
-6.4
2.4
2.1

1.7
2.5
-10.9
2.3
2.5

2.7
2.7
-5.3
2.5
2.3

143.2
92.8
190.2

143.2
91.9
190.5

143.4
91.8
190.9

143.7
90.5
191.4

1.1
-4.1
2.8

1.1
-28.5
3.5

0.8
-12.3
3.4

1.4
-9.6
2.5

1.1
-17.2
3.1

1.1
-10.9
3.0

base.
base.
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 3. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U): Selected areas, all items index
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
All items

CPI-U

Pricing
schedule
(1)

Indexes

Percent change to
Aug.1998 from--

May
1998

June
1998

July
1998

Aug.
1998

M

162.8

163.0

163.2

Northeast urban .............................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)..........

M
M
M

169.4
170.2
101.8

169.6
170.4
101.9

Midwest urban (4)............................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............

M
M

159.4
160.5

159.5
160.8

U.S. city average ...........................

Percent change to
July1998 from--

Aug.
1997

June
1998

July
1998

July
1997

May
1998

June
1998

163.4

1.6

0.2

0.1

1.7

0.2

0.1

169.9
170.7
102.0

170.5
171.4
102.2

1.6
1.8
1.0

0.5
0.6
0.3

0.4
0.4
0.2

1.4
1.5
1.0

0.3
0.3
0.2

0.2
0.2
0.1

159.8
161.2

159.5
161.0

1.5
1.9

0.0
0.1

-0.2
-0.1

2.0
2.5

0.3
0.4

0.2
0.2

Region and area size(2)

Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M

102.3

102.2

102.2

102.0

1.1

-0.2

-0.2

1.6

-0.1

0.0

M

153.4

153.3

153.5

153.3

0.5

0.0

-0.1

0.6

0.1

0.1

South urban .................................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

158.8
157.7
102.2

159.1
158.4
102.3

159.3
158.5
102.4

159.5
158.9
102.5

1.5
1.9
1.1

0.3
0.3
0.2

0.1
0.3
0.1

1.5
1.7
1.1

0.3
0.5
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.1

M

159.3

160.0

160.0

160.2

2.4

0.1

0.1

2.3

0.4

0.0

West urban ..................................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........

M
M
M

164.3
165.0
102.4

164.2
165.0
102.3

164.3
165.1
102.3

164.8
165.6
102.5

2.0
2.4
1.0

0.4
0.4
0.2

0.3
0.3
0.2

2.0
2.4
1.0

0.0
0.1
-0.1

0.1
0.1
0.0

M
M
M

147.3
102.2
158.8

147.5
102.2
159.2

147.7
102.3
159.3

148.1
102.4
159.4

2.1
1.1
1.7

0.4
0.2
0.1

0.3
0.1
0.1

2.0
1.2
1.7

0.3
0.1
0.3

0.1
0.1
0.1

Size classes
A (5)......................................
B/C (3)....................................
D .........................................
Selected local areas(6)
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI ..............
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA .....
New York-Northern N.J.-Long Island,
NY-NJ-CT-PA .............................

M
M

165.6
162.3

166.0
162.2

166.5
162.1

165.4
162.6

1.8
1.8

-0.4
0.2

-0.7
0.3

3.0
1.6

0.5
-0.1

0.3
-0.1

M

173.0

173.1

173.6

174.2

2.0

0.6

0.3

1.6

0.3

0.3

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT .........
Cleveland-Akron, OH .........................
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX .......................
Washington-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV (7)........

1
1
1
1

170.9
159.2
153.0
101.5

-

170.7
159.9
154.2
102.8

-

-

-

-

2.2
2.3
1.7

-0.1
0.4
0.8
1.3

-

Atlanta, GA .................................
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI .................
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX ..............
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL ...................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City,
PA-NJ-DE-MD .............................
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA ..........
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA ................

2
2
2
2

-

162.0
159.4
146.4
160.2

-

161.9
160.5
147.4
160.8

2.3
1.4
-

-0.1
0.7
0.7
0.4

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

-

168.0
165.5
167.5

-

168.6
166.6
168.5

1.1
3.3
-

0.4
0.7
0.6

-

-

-

-

1 Areas on pricing schedule 2 (see Table 10) will appear next month.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions. See map in technical notes.
3 Indexes on a December 1996=100 base.

4 The 'North Central' region has been renamed the 'Midwest' region by the Census Bureau. It is composed of the same
geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986=100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in Tables 34 and 39 of the
January and July issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley,
CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, WI; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland-Salem,
OR-WA; St. Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996=100 base.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.
Table 4. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)

CPI-W

Relative
importance,
December
1997

Unadjusted
Unadjusted indexes percent change to
Aug. 1998 fromJuly
1998

Aug.
1998

Aug.
1997

July
1998

Seasonally adjusted
percent change fromMay to June to July to
June
July
Aug.

Expenditure category
All items ...................................
All items (1967=100) ........................

100.000
-

159.8
476.0

160.0
476.5

1.4
-

0.1
-

0.1
-

0.2
-

0.1
-

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................
Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................

17.903
16.861
10.785
1.678
3.125
1.135
1.447

160.2
159.8
159.7
181.6
146.6
147.8
197.3

160.7
160.4
160.4
182.5
147.9
150.1
194.9

2.0
2.1
1.8
2.4
-0.6
5.0
4.3

0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.9
1.6
-1.2

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
-0.1
-1.2

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.5

0.2
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.3
1.6
-0.6

1.215
2.185
.420
.332
1.432

131.2
150.5
149.9
147.3
165.9

130.7
151.5
150.3
149.3
166.8

-3.3
2.4
1.7
5.7
3.2

-0.4
0.7
0.3
1.4
0.5

0.4
0.7
0.9
1.4
0.5

0.2
0.5
-0.6
2.5
0.4

-0.7
0.7
0.7
1.9
0.4

Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

.344
6.076
.212
1.042

102.8
161.1
101.5
164.5

103.5
161.4
102.2
164.6

2.5
1.3

0.7
0.2
0.7
0.1

1.0
0.1
0.4
0.3

0.3
0.2
0.5
0.4

0.7
0.2
0.7
0.0

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

36.450
27.033
8.347
1.346

157.6
177.0
171.8
111.9

157.7
177.6
172.4
112.8

2.3
3.1
3.2
-

0.1
0.3
0.3
0.8

0.1
0.2
0.3
-0.2

0.2
0.2
0.3
-1.1

0.1
0.2
0.2
0.5

17.016
.324
5.053
4.143
.229
3.914
4.365

171.2
99.4
131.5
116.6
88.2
124.6
125.6

171.8
99.4
130.6
115.6
87.0
123.6
125.2

3.2
-0.5
-2.1
-6.7
-2.1
1.2

0.4
0.0
-0.7
-0.9
-1.4
-0.8
-0.3

0.2
-0.4
-0.3
-0.4
-1.0
-0.4
0.0

0.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.3
0.1
0.4

0.2
0.0
-0.5
-0.6
-0.8
-0.7
-0.2

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

5.300
1.503
1.985
.337
1.082

128.2
129.1
118.6
122.7
127.4

129.9
129.9
121.3
125.0
128.4

0.4
0.9
1.4
-2.6
0.9

1.3
0.6
2.3
1.9
0.8

0.3
0.2
0.5
-1.6
1.5

-0.4
0.2
-1.0
-2.2
-0.2

0.9
-0.1
1.9
1.9
0.9

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

19.847
18.790
9.285
5.304
3.162
3.682
3.658
.694
1.664
1.057

140.8
138.2
100.2
143.9
152.7
93.9
93.4
100.5
168.0
188.7

140.2
137.6
100.2
144.0
152.4
91.7
91.2
100.5
168.4
188.9

-2.2
-2.5
0.6
-0.2
1.7
-14.9
-15.2
-0.5
2.6
4.0

-0.4
-0.4
0.0
0.1
-0.2
-2.3
-2.4
0.0
0.2
0.1

-0.1
-0.1
0.0
-0.3
0.7
-0.9
-0.9
0.6
0.4
-0.8

0.2
0.1
0.4
0.4
0.3
-0.2
-0.2
0.1
0.2
0.9

-0.1
-0.3
0.2
0.3
-0.2
-1.6
-1.6
-0.1
0.2
1.8

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

4.591
.906
3.684
2.372
1.097

242.1
219.1
247.2
224.4
284.3

242.8
219.9
248.0
224.8
285.6

3.5
3.5
3.5
3.3
3.8

0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5

0.5
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.3

0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.6

0.3
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.4

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

5.969
1.968

100.9
101.0

101.1
101.1

1.0
1.1

0.2
0.1

0.1
0.0

-0.1
-0.1

0.2
0.1

Education and communication (2).............

5.396

100.2

100.3

1.8

0.1

0.1

0.1

-0.5

Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................
Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

2.402
.192
2.211
2.994

101.1
251.3
285.3
99.6

102.6
251.3
289.9
98.4

5.1
3.9
5.2
-1.3

1.5
0.0
1.6
-1.2

0.3
-0.1
0.3
0.1

0.3
0.4
0.3
-0.2

0.3
-0.4
0.4
-1.2

2.841
2.547

99.5
101.5

98.3
100.5

-1.4
-

-1.2
-1.0

0.1
0.2

-0.3
0.1

-1.2
-1.0

.294

40.2

38.9

-21.1

-3.2

-1.9

-3.8

-3.2

.191

74.4

71.2

-

-4.3

-2.9

-6.4

-4.3

4.544
1.300
3.244
.832
.964
1.226

236.0
273.4
157.0
150.1
166.4
233.9

236.2
273.7
157.2
149.6
167.0
234.9

6.3
12.6
3.1
3.6
2.6
3.4

0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.3
0.4
0.4

-0.1
-0.6
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
0.3

0.9
2.7
0.1
-0.1
0.5
0.3

0.2
0.3
0.1
-0.3
0.4
0.5

47.234
17.903
29.331
15.928
5.300

141.5
160.2
130.3
131.4
128.2

141.5
160.7
130.0
131.3
129.9

0.1
2.0
-1.2
-1.9
0.4

0.0
0.3
-0.2
-0.1
1.3

0.0
0.1
-0.1
-0.2
0.3

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.4
-0.4

0.1
0.2
-0.1
-0.5
0.9

10.628
13.403
52.766
26.708
6.824
10.006

137.7
127.3
181.6
170.4
185.2
213.7

136.6
127.0
181.9
171.0
185.1
214.3

-3.0
-0.3
2.5
3.1
1.6
3.3

-0.8
-0.2
0.2
0.4
-0.1
0.3

-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.3
-0.1
0.3

0.1
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1

-0.4
-0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0

83.139
72.967
95.409
30.373
16.970
11.670
33.831
26.057
49.082

159.7
155.0
156.0
131.6
133.4
139.3
146.1
171.5
176.0

159.8
155.1
156.1
131.4
133.3
138.3
146.3
171.5
176.3

1.3
0.8
1.2
-1.1
-1.7
-2.5
0.2
2.0
2.5

0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.2
-0.1
-0.7
0.1
0.0
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
-0.3
-0.1
0.1
0.2

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.1
-0.3
-0.2
0.0
0.1
0.2

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes
All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........

Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1982-84=$1.00)..........................
Purchasing power of the consumer dollar
(1967=$1.00) ............................
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1984=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

7.825
92.175
75.315

104.5
167.4
169.4

102.9
167.8
169.8

-8.3
2.2
2.3

-1.5
0.2
0.2

-0.6
0.1
0.1

-0.1
0.2
0.2

-1.1
0.2
0.2

26.463
3.910
48.852

142.0
93.7
187.9

142.2
91.5
188.4

1.0
-14.2
3.0

0.1
-2.3
0.3

0.0
-0.8
0.2

0.2
-0.2
0.2

0.1
-1.6
0.2

-

$ .626

$ .625

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ .210

$ .210

-

-

-

-

-

base.
base
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 5. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): Seasonally adjusted U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity and service group
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
Seasonally adjusted indexes

Seasonally adjusted annual rate percent
change for

CPI-W

3 months ended-May
1998

June
1998

July
1998

Aug.
1998

All items ...................................

159.5

159.6

159.9

Food and beverages .........................
Food ......................................
Food at home .............................

160.1
159.7
159.7

160.2
159.8
159.8

160.7
160.3
160.3

6 months
ended--

Nov.
1997

Feb.
1998

May
1998

Aug.
1998

Feb.
1998

Aug.
1998

160.0

1.8

0.3

2.0

1.3

1.0

1.6

161.1
160.8
160.8

1.8
2.0
1.3

1.3
1.0
0.3

2.3
2.5
2.5

2.5
2.8
2.8

1.5
1.5
0.8

2.4
2.7
2.7

Expenditure category

Cereals and bakery products .............
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs ..........
Dairy and related products (1)...........
Fruits and vegetables ...................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials ...........................
Other food at home ......................
Sugar and sweets .......................
Fats and oils ..........................
Other foods ............................
Other miscellaneous foods (1) (2)......
Food away from home (1)...................
Other food away from home (1) (2)........
Alcoholic beverages .......................

180.3
146.5
147.8
203.0

180.8
146.6
147.7
200.5

181.0
147.3
147.8
201.6

181.9
147.8
150.1
200.4

2.0
-1.9
11.1
2.1

1.4
-3.7
1.6
7.1

2.7
-0.8
1.1
18.9

3.6
3.6
6.4
-5.0

1.7
-2.8
6.2
4.6

3.2
1.4
3.7
6.3

131.2
148.6
148.9
141.1
164.5
101.5
160.6
100.6
163.6

131.7
149.7
150.2
143.1
165.3
102.5
160.8
101.0
164.1

131.9
150.4
149.3
146.7
165.9
102.8
161.1
101.5
164.7

131.0
151.5
150.3
149.5
166.6
103.5
161.4
102.2
164.7

-4.1
-0.3
1.9
-0.8
2.2
3.1
1.2

-3.5
1.1
1.9
-0.8
3.7
2.5
1.5

-4.7
1.1
-0.8
0.9
1.7
4.0
2.5
1.2
-0.5

-0.6
8.0
3.8
26.0
5.2
8.1
2.0
6.5
2.7

-3.8
0.4
1.9
-0.8
3.0
2.8
1.4

-2.7
4.5
1.5
12.7
3.4
6.1
2.3
3.8
1.1

Housing ....................................
Shelter ...................................
Rent of primary residence ................
Lodging away from home (2)................
Owners' equivalent rent of primary
residence (3).........................
Tenants' and household insurance (1) (2)..
Fuels and utilities .......................
Fuels ....................................
Fuel oil and other fuels ................
Gas (piped) and electricity .............
Household furnishings and operations ......

156.3
176.0
171.0
102.1

156.5
176.4
171.5
101.9

156.8
176.8
172.0
100.8

156.9
177.2
172.4
101.3

3.4
2.8
3.2
-

0.5
3.5
2.6
-

3.4
3.7
3.8
8.2

1.5
2.8
3.3
-3.1

2.0
3.2
2.9
-

2.5
3.2
3.6
2.4

170.6
99.7
128.4
112.8
92.0
120.5
125.0

170.9
99.3
128.0
112.4
91.1
120.0
125.0

171.4
99.4
128.1
112.4
90.8
120.1
125.5

171.8
99.4
127.4
111.7
90.1
119.3
125.2

2.7
6.6
10.1
-0.4
11.6
0.6

3.6
-12.2
-18.0
-17.4
-18.3
2.6

3.6
-2.0
2.5
2.5
0.9
2.7
1.0

2.8
-1.2
-3.1
-3.8
-8.0
-3.9
0.6

3.1
-3.2
-5.0
-9.3
-4.5
1.6

3.2
-1.6
-0.3
-0.7
-3.7
-0.7
0.8

Apparel ....................................
Men's and boys' apparel ...................
Women's and girls' apparel ................
Infants' and toddlers' apparel (1).........
Footwear ..................................

131.1
131.1
124.0
127.4
127.1

131.5
131.4
124.6
125.4
129.0

131.0
131.6
123.4
122.7
128.8

132.2
131.5
125.7
125.0
130.0

0.6
0.9
1.6
-4.0
2.2

-2.7
1.2
-4.4
-12.0
-4.8

0.0
0.0
2.0
14.7
-2.8

3.4
1.2
5.6
-7.3
9.4

-1.1
1.1
-1.4
-8.1
-1.4

1.7
0.6
3.8
3.1
3.1

Transportation .............................
Private transportation ....................
New and used motor vehicles (2)...........
New vehicles ............................
Used cars and trucks (1).................
Motor fuel ...............................
Gasoline (all types) ....................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment ........
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair .....
Public transportation .....................

140.6
138.1
100.3
144.4
151.3
93.2
92.5
100.0
167.0
187.0

140.4
138.0
100.3
144.0
152.3
92.4
91.7
100.6
167.7
185.5

140.7
138.2
100.7
144.6
152.7
92.2
91.5
100.7
168.1
187.2

140.5
137.8
100.9
145.1
152.4
90.7
90.0
100.6
168.5
190.6

-1.7
-2.0
-1.6
-1.9
-6.2
-5.9
-1.6
1.7
1.8

-4.7
-5.6
-0.8
1.9
-28.4
-29.0
-0.4
3.7
9.0

-2.0
-1.7
0.8
-0.6
3.8
-12.6
-13.8
-2.4
1.2
-2.3

-0.3
-0.9
2.4
2.0
2.9
-10.3
-10.4
2.4
3.6
7.9

-3.2
-3.8
-1.2
0.0
-18.1
-18.3
-1.0
2.7
5.3

-1.1
-1.3
1.6
0.7
3.4
-11.5
-12.1
0.0
2.4
2.7

Medical care ...............................
Medical care commodities ..................
Medical care services .....................
Professional services ....................
Hospital and related services ............

240.5
218.1
245.4
222.7
282.0

241.6
218.5
246.6
223.9
282.8

242.1
218.7
247.2
224.1
284.5

242.9
219.9
248.0
224.6
285.6

2.8
2.3
2.9
2.6
3.5

3.1
2.3
3.4
3.3
3.8

4.1
6.1
3.7
3.5
2.4

4.1
3.3
4.3
3.5
5.2

2.9
2.3
3.1
3.0
3.7

4.1
4.7
4.0
3.5
3.8

Recreation (2)..............................
Video and audio (1) (2)....................

100.8
101.1

100.9
101.1

100.8
101.0

101.0
101.1

1.2

3.6

0.8
-0.4

0.8
0.0

2.4

0.8
-0.2

Education and communication (2).............
Education (2)..............................
Educational books and supplies ...........
Tuition, other school fees, and childcare
Communication (1) (2)......................
Information and information processing (1)
(2)...................................
Telephone services (1) (2)...............
Information and information processing
other than telephone services (1) (4)
Personal computers and peripheral
equipment (1) (2)...................

100.9
102.3
252.6
287.5
99.7

101.0
102.6
252.4
288.5
99.8

101.1
102.9
253.3
289.4
99.6

100.6
103.2
252.3
290.5
98.4

3.7
5.3
1.6

3.8
4.8
-3.2

4.1
6.5
8.7
6.2
1.6

-1.2
3.6
-0.5
4.2
-5.1

3.7
5.1
-0.8

1.4
5.0
4.0
5.2
-1.8

99.7
101.2

99.8
101.4

99.5
101.5

98.3
100.5

1.6
-

-3.2
-

1.6
4.9

-5.5
-2.7

-0.8
-

-2.0
1.0

42.6

41.8

40.2

38.9

0.0

-25.5

-25.2

-30.5

-13.7

-27.9

81.9

79.5

74.4

71.2

-

-

-34.7

-42.9

-

-38.9

Other goods and services ...................
Tobacco and smoking products ..............
Personal care (1)..........................
Personal care products (1)................
Personal care services (1)................
Miscellaneous personal services ..........

234.6
268.3
156.7
150.5
165.7
232.3

234.3
266.6
156.8
150.3
165.6
233.1

236.3
273.7
157.0
150.1
166.4
233.7

236.7
274.5
157.2
149.6
167.0
234.9

6.6
10.8
5.1
7.7
2.2
3.0

8.2
19.2
1.8
1.4
2.0
3.2

6.6
11.5
4.5
8.1
3.0
3.0

3.6
9.6
1.3
-2.4
3.2
4.6

7.4
14.9
3.4
4.5
2.1
3.1

5.1
10.5
2.9
2.7
3.1
3.8

141.6
160.1
130.6
132.2
131.1

141.6
160.2
130.5
131.9
131.5

141.9
160.7
130.7
132.4
131.0

142.0
161.1
130.6
131.8
132.2

0.6
1.8
-0.3
0.6
0.6

-1.4
1.3
-3.3
-5.8
-2.7

0.0
2.3
-0.9
-1.2
0.0

1.1
2.5
0.0
-1.2
3.4

-0.4
1.5
-1.8
-2.7
-1.1

0.6
2.4
-0.5
-1.2
1.7

137.2
127.0
180.6
169.3
185.5
213.6

136.9
127.0
180.9
169.8
185.3
214.2

137.1
127.6
181.2
170.1
185.6
214.5

136.5
127.5
181.5
170.5
186.0
214.6

-0.3
-1.9
3.2
2.9
0.9
2.9

-8.5
0.3
1.6
3.2
3.8
3.3

-0.9
-1.2
3.4
3.4
0.6
4.6

-2.0
1.6
2.0
2.9
1.1
1.9

-4.5
-0.8
2.4
3.0
2.3
3.1

-1.4
0.2
2.7
3.1
0.9
3.2

Commodity and service group
Commodities .................................
Food and beverages .........................
Commodities less food and beverages ........
Nondurables less food and beverages .......
Apparel ..................................
Nondurables less food, beverages, and
apparel ..............................
Durables ..................................
Services ....................................
Rent of shelter (3).........................
Transportation services ....................
Other services .............................
Special indexes

All items less food .........................
All items less shelter ......................
All items less medical care .................
Commodities less food .......................
Nondurables less food .......................
Nondurables less food and apparel ...........
Nondurables .................................
Services less rent of shelter (3)............
Services less medical care services .........
Energy ......................................
All items less energy .......................
All items less food and energy .............
Commodities less food and energy
commodities ...........................
Energy commodities .......................
Services less energy services .............
1 Not seasonally adjusted.
2 Indexes on a December 1997=100
3 Indexes on a December 1984=100
4 Indexes on a December 1988=100
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as

159.1
154.9
155.6
132.1
134.1
138.6
146.4
170.7
175.0
102.5
167.4
169.5

159.2
154.9
155.7
132.0
134.0
138.2
146.3
170.8
175.4
101.9
167.6
169.7

159.5
155.2
156.0
132.2
134.2
138.5
146.7
171.1
175.7
101.8
168.0
170.1

159.6
155.3
156.1
132.1
133.8
138.2
146.7
171.2
176.0
100.7
168.3
170.4

2.0
1.8
2.1
0.0
0.6
1.4
0.8
3.4
3.3
2.2
2.0
2.2

-0.3
-1.0
0.0
-3.3
-5.7
-8.4
-2.4
-0.7
0.9
-23.0
2.2
2.4

2.0
1.3
1.8
-0.9
-0.6
-1.7
1.4
4.1
3.7
-4.9
2.7
2.6

1.3
1.0
1.3
0.0
-0.9
-1.1
0.8
1.2
2.3
-6.8
2.2
2.1

0.9
0.4
1.0
-1.6
-2.6
-3.6
-0.8
1.3
2.1
-11.3
2.1
2.3

1.6
1.2
1.6
-0.5
-0.7
-1.4
1.1
2.6
3.0
-5.9
2.4
2.4

142.7
93.1
187.5

142.7
92.4
187.9

143.0
92.2
188.2

143.2
90.7
188.6

0.8
-5.6
2.6

1.1
-27.6
3.3

0.8
-12.3
3.5

1.4
-9.9
2.4

1.0
-17.3
3.0

1.1
-11.1
2.9

base.
base
base.
a whole, not to any specific date.

Table 6. Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W): Selected areas, all items index
(1982-84=100, unless otherwise noted)
All items

CPI-W

U.S. city average ...........................
Region and area size(2)

Pricing
schedule
(1)

M

Indexes

Percent change to
Aug.1998 from--

May
1998

June
1998

July
1998

Aug.
1998

159.5

159.7

159.8

160.0

Percent change to
July1998 from--

Aug.
1997

June
1998

July
1998

July
1997

May
1998

June
1998

1.4

0.2

0.1

1.5

0.2

0.1

Northeast urban .............................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)..........

M
M
M

166.4
166.1
101.5

166.5
166.3
101.5

166.6
166.5
101.5

167.1
167.1
101.7

1.3
1.6
0.7

0.4
0.5
0.2

0.3
0.4
0.2

1.2
1.3
0.7

0.1
0.2
0.0

0.1
0.1
0.0

Midwest urban (4)............................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

155.6
155.9
102.1

155.7
156.2
101.9

155.9
156.5
101.9

155.6
156.4
101.7

1.3
1.8
0.9

-0.1
0.1
-0.2

-0.2
-0.1
-0.2

1.8
2.4
1.4

0.2
0.4
-0.2

0.1
0.2
0.0

M

151.3

151.3

151.7

151.4

0.3

0.1

-0.2

0.7

0.3

0.3

South urban .................................
Size A - More than 1,500,000 .............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3)........
Size D - Nonmetropolitan (less than
50,000) ...............................

M
M
M

156.7
155.3
101.8

157.1
155.9
101.8

157.2
156.1
101.9

157.5
156.3
102.1

1.3
1.5
1.0

0.3
0.3
0.3

0.2
0.1
0.2

1.2
1.4
0.9

0.3
0.5
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.1

M

159.6

160.4

160.4

160.6

2.3

0.1

0.1

2.4

0.5

0.0

West urban ..................................
Size A
- More than 1,500,000 ............
Size B/C - 50,000 to 1,500,000 (3).........

M
M
M

160.3
159.4
102.2

160.3
159.3
102.1

160.3
159.3
102.1

160.7
159.7
102.3

1.7
2.0
0.8

0.2
0.3
0.2

0.2
0.3
0.2

1.7
2.0
0.8

0.0
-0.1
-0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0

M
M
M

145.8
101.9
157.8

146.0
101.8
158.1

146.2
101.9
158.3

146.4
101.9
158.3

1.7
0.8
1.5

0.3
0.1
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0

1.8
1.0
1.6

0.3
0.0
0.3

0.1
0.1
0.1

Size classes
A (5)......................................
B/C (3)....................................
D .........................................
Selected local areas(6)
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI ..............
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA .....
New York-Northern N.J.-Long Island,
NY-NJ-CT-PA .............................

M
M

159.9
156.2

160.2
156.1

160.6
155.9

159.6
156.1

1.9
1.4

-0.4
0.0

-0.6
0.1

2.9
1.4

0.4
-0.2

0.2
-0.1

M

168.6

168.8

169.1

169.7

1.8

0.5

0.4

1.5

0.3

0.2

Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA-NH-ME-CT .........
Cleveland-Akron, OH .........................
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX .......................
Washington-Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV (7)........

1
1
1
1

168.9
151.2
152.8
101.3

-

168.8
152.1
154.0
102.5

-

-

-

-

1.8
2.6
1.4

-0.1
0.6
0.8
1.2

-

Atlanta, GA .................................
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI .................
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX ..............
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL ...................
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City,

2
2
2
2

-

159.3
154.0
145.1
157.6

-

159.1
155.1
146.1
158.0

2.3
0.8
-

-0.1
0.7
0.7
0.3

-

-

-

-

PA-NJ-DE-MD .............................
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA ..........
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA ................

2
2
2

-

167.4
161.7
162.8

-

167.9
162.7
163.8

1.2
2.9
-

0.3
0.6
0.6

-

-

-

-

1 Areas on pricing schedule 2 (see Table 10) will appear next month.
2 Regions defined as the four Census regions. See map in technical notes.
3 Indexes on a December 1996=100 base.
4 The 'North Central' region has been renamed the 'Midwest' region by the Census Bureau. It is composed of the same
geographic entities.
5 Indexes on a December 1986=100 base.
6 In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and appear in Tables 34 and 39 of the
January and July issues of the CPI Detailed Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN; Denver-Boulder-Greeley,
CO; Honolulu, HI; Kansas City, MO-KS; Milwaukee-Racine, WI; Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland-Salem,
OR-WA; St. Louis, MO-IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL.
7 Indexes on a November 1996=100 base.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.