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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

+

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY
INDUSTRY IN THE
UNITED STATES

By
BERTHA M. NIENBURG

^aent^>

[Hill

Bulletin of the Women’s Bureau,

No. 169

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1939

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




Price 20 cents




CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal__________________________
vii
Findings
Problems of the industry as a whole.!
The foremost problems due to external causes_________________
The seasonal factor
The style factor
The price factor__________________________________ ______
The foremost of the problems due to internal conditions of the
establishments...__________________________________________
Excess of workers
Excessive competition
Lack of scientific business organization.._________________
Conditions in competitive production areas_________________
Amounts paid to workers___________
Relative cost of labor
Comparison of other cost factors and selling prices_____________
Income from millinery manufacture
Firm income
Employee’s income or earnings
10
Conclusion___________________________________
I. Introduction
13
Conditions leading to survey_________________________ _______
Scope of survey
Areas covered
Extent of millinery business in each area_________________
Firms included in analytical survey______________________
Data secured
16
II. The millinery manufacturing business
18
Size of business
18
Type of organization
18
Kind and price of hat manufactured__________
Price groups_______________________________ ________________
Length of time in business
20
Equipment investment
23
Credit facilities:
Selling facilities
25
Seasonality of millinery production
29
The industry as a whole...
Fluctuation differences among production areas__________
Effect of kind of hat produced on pay-roll fluctuation____
Effect of sales to syndicates on pay-roll fluctuation________
III. The millinery worker..._________________________________________
The crafts_________________________________________ ________
Sex of employees_________________
Numbers employed__________________________________ _______
Average, minimum, and maximum numbers______________
Differences by craft
40
Weekly fluctuation in numbers
40
Individual worker’s amount of employment___________________
Excess of labor
44
Employment of individuals in each production area________
Amount of employment of individual workers by occupation.




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IV

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY
Page

IV. Earnings of millinery workers_
Amount the industry pays its workers
51
Amounts paid to individuals given any employment in year___
Year’s earnings of blockers
Year’s earnings of cuttersI
Year’s earnings of trimmers and milliners_________________
Year’s earnings of sewing-machine operators______________
Year’s earnings of general factory laborers________________
Year’s earnings of nonproductive staff________ ___________
Differences in hourly earnings of millinery workers________
Problem of fixing piece rates for workers______________
Production variations
71
Earnings on hats of different prices._________________
Hourly earnings by production area__________________
V. Operating costs of millinery manufacture
87
Major departmental costs
Labor costs
Differences by price of hat
Differences by volume of business
Other costs of manufacture
Differences by price of hat______________________________
Differences by volume of business
Costs of the several production areas
Millinery wholesaling at $7.50 a dozenand below__________
Millinery wholesaling at above $7.50 and including $13.50
a dozen_______________________________
Millinery wholesaling at above $13.50 and including $24 a
dozen___________________
Millinery wholesaling at above $24 and including $48 a dozen.
Millinery wholesaling at above $48 a dozen_______________
VI. Gross and net sales and net returns
101
Trade practices
101
Returned goods
104
Selling prices, costs, and net returns in the several production
areas
104
VII. Income accounts of millinery firms
110
“Net profits” and “book profit or loss”
Income related to sales
Production areas
VIII. Distribution of income among employees andemployers___________
Appendix A—Schedule forms
Appendix B—Instructions to agents

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TABLES
I. Extent and location of millinery industryof 1937___________
II. Number of firms included in survey and average number of
their employees, by amount of net sales and by area______
III. Amount of net sales, by kind and prevailing price of hat and by
area
21
IV. Time in business, by prevailing price of hat and by area_____
V. Amount of net sales, by time in business—all areas and New
York City
23
VI. Credit facilities used by firms, by amount of net sales and by
area
26
VII. Distributing channels used and amount of product marketed
through each, by prevailing price of hat and by area_______
VIII. Amount of gross sales, by distributing channels used and by
area
29
IX. Fluctuation in productivity, as measured by pay rolls of pro­
ductive workers, of firms selling to syndicates or chain
stores, by amount of output thus disposed of and by chief
occupations_______________________ ______________________
X. Distribution of employees in occupationsspecified, by area___
XI. Sex of employees in the various occupations,by area____________




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CONTENTS

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XII. Average number of persons the millinery industry employed
during the year and actual number in the week of maximum
and of minimum employment, by occupation and by area..
XIII. Number of weeks worked by employees in the various firms,
by area
48
XIY. Number of weeks worked by employees in the various firms,
by occupation—all areas
49
XV. Average weekly amount the millinery industry paid its workers
during the year and in the week of maximum and of mini­
mum employment, by occupation and by area____________
XVI. Distribution of year’s earnings of employees, by occupation—
all areas__
XVII. Year’s earnings of blockers, by weeksworked—all areas_____
XVIII. Average year’s earnings of blockers, by weeks worked and by
area_________________________ ;
XIX. Year’s earnings of trimmers, by weeks worked—all areas___
XX. Average year’s earnings of trimmers, by weeks worked and by
area
60
XXI. Year’s earnings of operators, by weeksworked—allareas____
XXII. Average year’s earnings of operators, by weeks worked and by
area
62
XXIII. Average year’s earnings of general factory workers, by weeks
worked and by area
64
XXIV. Average year’s earnings of nonproductive workers, by weeks
worked and by area
66
XXV. Average hourly output and earnings of trimmers, week of
March 28, 1938, by prevailing price of hat and by area___
XXVI. Differences by firm in average hourly output and earnings of
trimmers, week of March 28, 1938, by prevailing price of
hat and by area:
XXVII. Hourly earnings of individual employees, week of March 28,
1938, by area—all occupations
76
XXVIII. Hourly earnings of individual employees, week of March 28,
1938, by area—blockers, trimmers, operators_____________
XXIX. Week’s earnings of individual employees, week of March 28,
1938, by occupation and by area
80
XXX. Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to services
rendered by firm members—all areas____________________
XXXI. Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to pre­
vailing price of hat—all areas______________________
XXXII. Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to volume
of sales—all areas
92
XXXIII. Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at $7.50 a dozen and below
95
XXXIV. Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen________
XXXV. Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen__________
XXXVI. Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at above $24 and including $48 a dozen_____________
XXXVII. Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at above $48 a dozen
100
XXXVIII. Cash and service discounts, reported by the various firms, by
area
102
XXXIX. Extent of returns of millinery from wholesalers or retailers, by
prevailing price of hat and by area
103
XL. Comparison of gross and net sales, returns and allowances, and
discounts, by area
105
XLI. Average amount per hat of selling price, costs, and net returns
to firm members, by prevailing price of hat and by area___
XLII. Income accounts in relation to net sales of millinery firms
according to book profit shown, by area
112
XLIII. Income accounts of firms by amount of net sales—all areas
XLIV. Distribution of net profits before firm members’ withdrawals,
by volume of sales and principal production area_________
XLV. Distribution of income to employees and employers from
millinery business, by amount of net sales and by area___



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VI

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

CHARTS
T

•

PSge

I. Fluctuation in employment and amount paid in major pro­
ductive occupations in millinery factories in 1937—all areas
TT tii i x.
,
Frontispiece
11. fluctuation in employment and amount paid to productive
workers in millinery factories in 1937—all areas________
30
III. Fluctuation in employment and amount paid to productive
workers in millinery factories in 1937—by area32-34
IV. Fluctuation in employment and amount paid in major pro­
ductive occupations in millinery factories in 1937—New
York City_________________________ ___________________
45
V. Fluctuation in employment and amount paid in major pro­
ductive occupations in millinery factories in 1937—Illinois. _
46




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department op Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, February 14, 1939.
I have the honor to transmit herewith the intensive study
of conditions of the millinery industry which you requested the
W omen s Bureau to make. The wholehearted cooperation of the
majority of employers and their association officials, as well as of the
employees and their local and international union officials, has made
this diagnosis of the ills of the industry a thorough one upon which
remedial policies may be based. The Bureau also has had the con­
tinued and valued counsel of Dr. Paul F. Brissenden, member of
the Millinery Stabilization Commission, and of Joseph Lipshie, its
auditor.
The survey was planned and directed by Bertha M. Nienburg,
Chief Economist for the Bureau. She has had the valuable assistance
of Ethel L. Best in supervising the field investigation and of Isadore
Spring in supervising the statistical compilation.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. Frances Perkins,
Secretary oj Labor.
Madam:




in

CHART 1—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID IN MAJOR
PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—ALL
AREAS




Pay roll
217.3

BLOCKERS

176.5

TRIMMERS

146.4

CUTTERS

OPERATORS

Conditions in the Millinery Industry in the
United States
FINDINGS
The mutuality of interest of management and labor in the solution
of the basic problems of the millinery industry forms the ground work
of this study. This measurement of forces at work within and without
the industry was brought about, in fact, by the recognition of many
within the industry that the welfare of both groups is dependent on
such solution, that one group cannot be lifted to a sound economic
plane without the other, or regardless of the millions the industry
serves.
The millinery industry, in which nine-tenths of the firms operating
a full year had net incomes from their manufacture, in which the
amounts paid to employees in that year averaged $1,224 per worker,
an industry whose product has a permanent market, presents no
problem not susceptible of solution. The degree of success that has
been achieved by individuals within the industry even under present
conditions, the cooperative efforts toward stabilization already made
by unions, manufacturers’ associations, and the Millinery Stabiliza­
tion Commission, lay the ground for confidence that further control
may be established over the forces affecting the industry when their
importance is more clearly and widely understood.
THE PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRY AS A WHOLE

Millinery is manufactured in 12 major production areas. In 1937
manufacturers numbered in excess of 800, their employees averaged
22,000, their gross sales were over $91,000,000. Sales, employees, and
manufacturers had decreased markedly in the last 10 years.
The problems of the millinery industry today are twofold: Those due
to external factors beyond the control of any individual firm, factors
that the public imposes; and those of an internal nature relating to the
structure of individual business operations.
I. THE FOREMOST PROBLEMS DUE TO EXTERNAL CAUSES
A. The seasonal factor.

In 1937 there were 24 weeks in which the millinery manufacturer
and his workers were busy—15 prespring and spring weeks and 9 fall



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2

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

weeks; there were 14 weeks in which production was two-thirds or less
of the year’s average—5 summer weeks and 9 winter weeks; and there
were 14 transition weeks in which firms were preparing for the busy
season or lessening production as orders receded.
At its spring peak, production was five-sixths above the year’s
average; at its fall peak it was nearly two-thirds above the year’s
average. At its summer low it was about one-third, and at its
winter low it was about one-half, of the year’s average.
Its effects.

1. Eighty-four percent more workers were employed during the
week of maximum production than were employed during the week
of minimum production. The workers employed only during busy
periods had to find employment elsewhere or be dependent on others.
2. Those employed in the week of minimum production earned only
one-half as much as when employed in the busiest week. The worker
employed the full year had to spread his busy-period earnings to make
up for his dull-period earnings.
3. The numbers needed in the various crafts shift as the season
demands a different kind of hat.
Sewing-machine operators, employed especially on straw-braid
or fabric hats in the spring, suffer seasonal irregularity in employ­
ment most extensively. Their numbers are two and one-half
times as large in the busiest week as in the dullest week.
Trimmers and milliners also suffer more seasonal unemployment
than do blockers, cutters, or other factory workers.
B. The style factor.

Because retail merchants prefer to test each style of hat against
women consumers’ demand for beauty and change, hat orders tend to
be small and call for immediate delivery.
Its effects.

1. Many milliners pursue a hand-to-mouth policy of purchasing hat
materials.
In New York City only 8 percent of the firms reported buy the
bulk of their materials in advance of production. Outside New
York City over half make purchases in advance.
2. Manufacture remains largely a hand or light-machine operation.
3. Only limited capital resources are necessary to purchase equip­
ment. Men enter the business without adequate business knowledge
and the turn-over is large.
Twenty-nine percent of millinery firms operating at least 11
months in 1937 had been organized in 1935, 1936, or 1937. In
New York City the proportion was one-third of all in business.



FINDINGS

3

While this survey did not attempt to check the number of mil­
linery firms going out of business in 1937, reports indicate that they
approximated 100.
J
About half the factories had two firm members; less than a fourth
had three members. Firm members not only participate actively
m the business management but buy, sell, design, and produce.
4. The lack of assets in real estate, machinery, and equipment, in
merchandise whether in the raw or the finished state, finds the millinery
manufacturer in a weak position from a credit standpoint.
Only 45 percent of the millinery firms reported banking connec­
tions that permitted of the procurement of credit.
The dependence for credit on materials-supply houses, reported by
one-third of the firms, increases the weakness of the manufac­
turer’s position as a purchaser of hat materials.
5. The wide variation in work requirements calls for continuous
determination of piece rates if the yield to the worker is to be the
same.
The record of trimmers’ earnings by firm during the same week
in -New York City showed a difference in yielding power of piece
rates paid from under 40 cents in 2 firms, through every 5-cent
interval, to as much as $1 in 23 firms, in spite of shop committees
whose aim was to fix uniform-yielding piece rates.
C. The price factor.

ff he demand for cheap hats creates a demand for wholesale prices
economically possible only on a volume-production basis, though pro­
duction remains largely on a unit basis.
The largest volume of sales in 1937 was of hats wholesalingat
above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen; three-eighths of all net
sales fell in this group. One-fifth of the net sales were of hats at
over $13.50 and including $24, and not far from the same propor­
tion of net sales were of hats selling at $7.50 or less a dozen.
The profit to the manufacturer on hats at over $7.50 to $13 50
a dozen was $0,039 a hat; on hats at $7.50 and less a dozen it was
$0.03; and on hats at over $13.50 and including $24 a dozen it
was $0,047 a hat.
Its effects.

1. Thirty-eight percent of manufacturers’ gross sales are now made
to syndicates that have millinery departments in department stores
or to chain stores with a series of retail outlets.
The growth of these channels of retail distribution has lessened
the sales of New York City manufacturers through jobbers to
14 percent.
. 2- 0nly when volume of business exceeds $100,000 does average net
income available for firm members exceed materially the earnings
of the full-time better-paid employees.



4

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Firms with net sales of $50,000 and under had an average net
income of $2,284. Firms with net sales of over $50,000 and
including $100,000 averaged net incomes of $4,344. As these
amounts must cover payment for full-time services usually of
two or more firm members, as well as any interest on their invest­
ment and any capital reinvested, each firm member receives less
than some of the workers he employs full time to block, cut, or
sew the hats.
3. Less labor is put on cheap hats than on more expensive ones.
Hats wholesaling at $7.50 and below have labor costs of 26 percent;
hats at above $7.50 and including $13.50 have costs of 30% percent;
and hats sold at above $24 a dozen bear labor costs of at least 32
percent.
II. THE FOREMOST OF THE PROBLEMS DUE TO THE INTERNAL
CONDITIONS OF THE MILLINERY ESTABLISHMENTS
A. Excess of workers.

1. Over and above the seasonal difficulties that make, the maxi­
mum number employed in any week 84 percent higher than
the minimum number employed in any week, the industry has
many more persons to draw from than are needed at any time.
Though the average number employed per firm in the peak
week of employment was 35, the number of names on all pay
rolls during the year averaged 71 per firm.
2. The heaviest oversupply was among general factory workers
and among nonproductive employees whose employment is
only indirectly affected by seasons. Trimmers and operators
given some employment were twice as many as necessary,
blockers and cutters one-half again as many as necessary.
B. Excessive competition.

Ninety percent of all firms state that they market some of their
hats to syndicates or chain stores, and 87 percent sell to
retailers. As three-fifths of the firms make only one-fourth
of the sales, the competition among them must needs, be ex­
cessive. The extent to which this results in different discount
rates will be revealed by the detailed report of trade practices
to be made by the Federal Trade Commission.
C. Lack of scientific business organization.
1. Buying practices.

Although the cost of hat materials is almost half the expense
incurred by millinery manufacturers, purchasing is a special­
ized function in relatively few firms. Little attention has
been given to the differences in material prices asked before
and at the height of the season, or to the wide range of cash
discounts allowed.
2. Record keeping and cost accounting.

While some firms keep a careful accounting of the cost of
each item on each hat, the majority do not attempt any analy­
sis of costs.



FINDINGS

5

The itinerant accountant common in New York City is paid
a flat sum to audit the books each month. He is paid too
little to justify more than the most essential service to a
firm, so record keeping is at a minimum in smaller firms.
Twenty-one firms visited kept no records. One-fifth of the
firms had no annual record of expenses, or the record was so
poorly kept as to be unusable. Only where the system of time
payments prevailed were records made of hours worked by
employees.
3. Factory management.

A careful planning of factory arrangement and operations so
that hats can pass from the first through the last operation
automatically is lacking in the smaller factory. Much running
about, much shouting, take the place of efficiency.
While no attempt was made to record physical conditions of
plant operations in this study, the oral reports leave no doubt
as to the waste of time and effort of workers and management
through lack of production planning.
The small millinery manufacturer has no bargaining power in the pur­
chase of hat materials, which are supplied by a few well established
houses. He has little bargaining power in the sale of his hats to everenlarging retail selling outlets. He falls between a seller’s market for
supply goods and a buyer's market for trimmed hats.

CONDITIONS IN COMPETITIVE MILLINERY-PRODUCTION
AREAS

New York City millinery manufacturers sell about 60 percent or
more of the hats in each price range but that above $13.50 and includ­
ing $24 a dozen. As their markets are Nation-wide, all other produc­
tion areas making hats of a specific price in any volume may be
considered potential competitors.
On the cheapest hat, wholesaling at $7.50 and below a dozen,
the major areas of competition with New York City are northern
New Jersey, Massachusetts, and the area outside New York
City in New York State and Connecticut. Minor areas of
competition include Texas and Missouri.
On the largest sales-volume number, above $7.50 and including
$13.50 a dozen, competition with New York City comes chiefly
from Illinois, Missouri, Massachusetts, and northern New Jersey.
The hat selling at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen is
made chiefly in New York City, Massachusetts, Missouri, and
Illinois.
In hats selling at above $24, Los Angeles becomes an important
area of production, as do New York State and Connecticut, the
Philadelphia-Trenton area, Illinois, and San Francisco.



6

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

A. Amounts paid to workers.

1. New York City millinery manufacturers paid more per worker
during the year than manufacturers in any other production area.
New York City’s weekly average of $27.18 for all workers was
approximately 30 percent higher than the amount paid to all
workers by firms outside the city in New York State and Con­
necticut and in northern New Jersey.
It was 39 percent higher than the amount paid in Illinois, 48
percent higher than that paid by Missouri firms, and 65 percent
higher than that paid by Massachusetts firms.
2. New York City millinery manufacturers paid blockers wages
that averaged $43.27 a week in 1937. The area paying the next
largest amount was Illinois, where blockers had an average for the
year of $35.37 a week.
3. Sewing-machine operators had a weekly average of $37.43 in
New York City; in the Philadelphia-Trenton area the amount was
$27.65 a week.
4. Trimmers and milliners averaged $18.55 a week in New York
City; milliners in San Francisco firms had the second highest average,
$16.67 a week.
5. General factory workers had their highest earnings in Massa­
chusetts, $18.37 a week; the second largest amount was paid by San
Francisco firms.
6. Nonproductive workers averaged the most for the entire year in
the Philadelphia-Trenton area, $26.14 a week, and their second
highest average was in the Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee area,
$25.90.
7. When earnings of employees during the week of March 28,
1938, are reduced to an hourly basis:
Blockers averaged $1.92 in New York City, $1.47 in Illinois,
$1.15 in the Philadelphia area, $1.04 in the Cleveland, Detroit,
and Milwaukee area, $0.92 in Missouri, $0.87 in San Francisco,
$0.84 in northern New Jersey, and $0.48 in Texas.
Trimmers averaged $0.79 in New York City, $0.62 in Illinois,
$0.60 in northern New Jersey, $0.56/4 in Missouri, $0.55 in the
Philadelphia area, $0.52 in the Cleveland, Detroit, and Mil­
waukee area, $0.48 in San Francisco, and $0.35 in Texas.
B. Relative cost of labor.

The validity of any comparison of productivity from area to area
is doubtful because of the wide variation in work done by employees
in the same occupation in the same shop during any one week.
A safer measurement of relative labor cost may be found in the cost
of labor on hats competing in the same price market.




FINDINGS

7

1. On the cheapest hats, New York City firms had manufacturing
labor costs of 28.7 percent of total costs. Such costs include both
productive and nonproductive manufacturing labor.
In the New York State and Connecticut area manufacturing
labor costs formed 22.4 percent, in northern New Jersey 22.5
percent, and in Massachusetts 19.8 percent of total costs. They
formed 17.8 percent of total costs among Texas firms and 24.3
percent among Missouri firms.
2. On the hats having sales in largest amount, those wholesaling
at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen, New York City firms
had manufacturing labor costs of 30.9 percent of total costs.
In Illinois the labor cost formed 36.1 percent, in Missouri 31.3
percent, in Massachusetts 22.9 percent, and in northern New
Jersey 28 percent of total expenses.
3. New York City firms making hats wholesaling at above $13.50
and including $24 a dozen had manufacturing labor costs of 29
percent of the total costs.
In Illinois and in Massachusetts they were 30.2 percent and in
Missouri 27.6 percent of the total.
4. In New York City firms making hats wholesaling at above $24
and including $48 a dozen had manufacturing labor costs of 32.4
percent of total costs.
Los Angeles firms had practically the same relativ, cost as New
York City firms, while San Francisco costs were 35.8 percent
and Illinois costs 30.3 percent of total expense. In the highestprice brackets New York City firms’ labor costs were 36.3 per­
cent, Los Angeles’ costs were 33.8 percent, and San Francisco’s
were 31.9 percent of total expenses.
C. Comparison of other cost factors and selling prices.
1. The hat wholesaling at $7.50 or below a dozen.
SELLING PRICE

While the gross sales price for all firms reporting was $0.55 a hat,
the New York State and Connecticut area sold its hats gross at $0.42
a hat, New York City and New Jersey each sold at $0.56, Massachu­
setts and Texas at $0.59, and Missouri at $0.62 a hat.
Discounts, allowances, and returns per hat were $0.04 in New
York City, $0.05 in northern New Jersey, $0.03 in Massachusetts,
$0.02 in New York State and Connecticut, and $0.06 in Texas
and in Missouri.
Net sales price in the regions selling at approximately the same level
was $0.52 in New York City, $0.51 in northern New Jersey, $0.55 in
Massachusetts, $0.56 in Missouri, $0.54 in Texas, and $0.40 in the
New York State and Connecticut area.



8

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY
COSTS

Manufacturing costs were approximately the same in the four major
competing areas in spite of differences in labor cost. Of the minor
competing areas, Texas had the lowest manufacturing cost and
Missouri the highest manufacturing cost of all competing areas.
These costs were overcome in total expenses by low sales and over­
head cost in Missouri firms and by high sales and overhead costs in
Texas firms.
2. The hat wholesaling at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen.
SELLING PRICE

While New York City firms’ hats in this price range average a
gross price of $0.99, Illinois firms’ hats of $1.01, Missouri hats of $1,
and Massachusetts hats of $1.06, northern New Jersey firms quoted
an average gross price of $0.74, thereby reaching a somewhat different
market from that of other major competing areas.
Discounts, allowances, and cost of returns were 9 cents a hat
in New York City, 8 cents in Illinois, 10 cents in Missouri and
in Massachusetts, and 6 cents in northern New Jersey.
The net selling price per hat was $0.91 in New York City, $0.93
in Illinois, $0.90 in Missouri, $0.96 in Massachusetts, and $0.68
in northern New Jersey.
COSTS

Manufacturing costs were very close in New York City firms,
Illinois firms, and Missouri firms. They were lower in northern New
Jersey but higher in Massachusetts firms. Massachusetts, however,
had the lowest sales and overhead cost.
3. The hat wholesaling at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen.
SELLING PRICE

New York City firms averaged $1.65 gross for a hat in these brackets,
Illinois $1.24, and Missouri $1.46.
Discounts, allowances, and costs of returns amounted to $0.16,
$0.11, and $0.17, respectively.
The net selling price was $1.49 in New York City, $1.13 in Illinois,
and $1.29 in Missouri.
COSTS

Manufacturing costs per hat varied considerably, from $0.87 in
Illinois to $1.22 in New York City. Sales and overhead ranged from
$0.18 in Illinois to $0.28 in Missouri.
4. The hat wholesaling at above $24 a dozen.
SELLING PRICE

As the hat increases in price there is extended variation in selling
price. On hats at above $24 and including $48, the average gross



FINDINGS

9

price was from $2.89 in New York City to $3.25 in Los Angeles.
Net selling prices reported were from $2.61 to $3.01 in these areas of
production.
On higher-priced hats there is more divergence of price, so that
comparison of costs or selling price is not important.
COSTS

Manufacturing costs on the hat including the $48 model varied
from $2.02 in Illinois to $2.36 in San Francisco. Sales and overhead
ranged from $0.36 in San Francisco to $0.51 in Los Angeles.
INCOME FROM MILLINERY MANUFACTURE
A. Firm income.

“Income” is the net profit—the total amount available for firm
members after all expenses are paid but before firm members pay them­
selves anything for their services. It is the sum of firm-member
withdrawals plus or minus the profit or loss shown on the books.
1. All firms.

Some income was derived from the 1937 millinery business by all
but 11 percent of the firms reporting that operated at least 11 months
of that year.
Operation at a loss was reported in all areas but the small pro­
duction areas of New York State and Connecticut, Philadelphia and
Trenton, and Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee.
Firms operating without real loss had income of 5.92 percent of
net sales.
Income was highest among Texas firms, 10.25 percent, and among
Los Angeles firms, 8.15 percent. In the Pliiladelphia-Trenton
area the net profit was 7.6 percent, for Illinois firms it was 6.74
percent, for Massachusetts firms 6.19 percent, and for New York
City firms 5.79 percent. Income for firms operating without
loss was lowest among northern New Jersey firms, 4.25 percent.
2. Income by price of hat.

Profits and losses were incurred by firms making hats in each price
range below $48 a dozen.
The proportion reporting losses varied from 7 percent among
firms making the cheapest hats to 19 percent among firms making
hats wholesaling at above $13.50 and including $24.
Firms having some income from manufacture made:
$0,033 on the hats at $7.50 and below a dozen, or 6/4 percent of
net sales;
$0,048 on the hats at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen,
or 5.3 percent;
$0,077 on the hats at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen, or
5.8 percent;



10

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

$0,169 on the hats at above $24 and including $48 a dozen, or
6.3 percent;
$0,365 on the hats at over $48 a dozen, or 6.8 percent of net sales.
3. Income by volume of business.

Profits and losses were incurred by firms having different volumes
of business.
The proportion that reported losses ranged from 3 percent among
firms having net sales of over $200,000 and including $300,000 to
12 percent among firms doing a business of $50,000 or less.
Income of firms having some profit from manufacture was:
Net sales of $50,000 and under—9.3 percent, or average income of $2,831;
Net sales of over $50,000 and including $100,000—7.3 percent, or average
income of $5,249;
Net sales of over $100,000 and including $200,000—6.7 percent, or average
income of $9,120;
Net sales of over $200,000 and including $300,000—5 percent, or average
income of $12,077;
Net sales of over $300,000 and including $500,000—4.1 percent, or average
income of $15,009;
Net sales of over $500,000—3.9 percent, or average income of $33,110.

As the income received usually must be divided by two or more
firm members, and as some is needed for reinvestment in the
business, it is obvious that even with the elimination of firms
operating at a loss, net sales must exceed $100,000 before em­
ployers can earn an amount sufficient for the risks assumed.
B. Employee’s income or earnings.

1. At present rates of pay and under present conditions in the in­
dustry, full-time work (46 weeks or more) brings average earnings of:
$1,927 a year to blockers;
$1,601 a year to operators;
$858 a year to trimmers;
$943 a year to general factory workers;
$1,514 a year to nonproductive workers.
The proportions working 46 weeks or more in 1937 were 41.5
percent of blockers, 21.1 percent of operators, 25.5 percent of
trimmers, 16.5 percent of general factory workers, and 35 percent
of nonproductive workers.
2. The amount of net sales available for productive labor was 25.4
percent, for nonproductive labor 5.4 percent, for the sales force 4.9
percent.
Production workers received the largest proportion of firm in­
come when net sales were over $100,000 and including $200,000
a year.
Nonproductive workers received the largest proportion of earnings
in the largest businesses.




CONCLUSION
The economic equilibrium between millinery manufacturer, ma­
terials supply bouse, and millinery purchaser can be attained and
maintained by bard, intelligent effort and mutual confidence within
the manufacturing branch itself. The strength of the manufacturing
branch will be built up to equal that of the branches that service it
and that it services, however, only when control is gained over the
destroying forces within the industry. Such control requires effective
cooperation and systematic effort of employer and employee. Not
only is a strong union of employees, such as exists, necessary to
accomplish this end, but a strong association of employers is necessary
in order that both may work together through a voluntary, repre­
sentative organization to promote their common interest in the welfare
of the industry.
That such cooperation is possible in the millinery industry is evi­
denced by the seeds of life shown in the present strengthening of some
of the local employers’ organizations, in the interest shown in a
National Council of Millinery Associations, and in the effective edu­
cational work already accomplished by the Millinery Stabilization
Commission. The importance of stimulating continued efforts in
cooperation until the industry is ready for self-regulation is evidenced
throughout the findings of this survey.
Many of the internal ills of the millinery industry arise from at­
tempts to operate without adequate resources and without knowledge
of sound business methods or market conditions. It is important
that every employer producing today and every employee who may
consider investment of his savings in a factory of his own in the future
shall realize that continued success in millinery manufacture calls not
only for ability to produce millinery but for the exercise of the follow­
ing functions:
1. To secure credit from legitimate sources at legitimate rates.
2. To interpret price trends and market conditions in order to
negotiate to best advantage with raw-materials dealers. As
materials are the largest item of expense in millinery, purchas­
ing should be a specialized function and made most efficient.
3. To plan each season’s production with the aid of style research
agencies.
4. To calculate costs of manufacture, including allotment for
factory management, selling, and overhead charges on each
type of hat. It is the saving of a fraction of a cent at many
points that makes for profit in millinery.
5. To negotiate sales on the basis of preliminary designs as far
in advance of delivery as possible.



11

12

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

It is vital to employer and employee alike that they recognize that
the very small margin of profit on cheaper hats can be offset only by
large volume sales if the manufacture of such hats is to yield sufficient
income to make assumption of employer responsibility profitable and
employee earnings adequate.
The importance of these facts should be stressed not only in the
campaign of education being carried on by the Millinery Stabilization
Commission but by employers’ organizations and by the union among
its members. If jobs are to be held and earnings are to be steady,
profit must be reasonably certain.
When the forces of disorder within the industry are subdued,
attempts should be made to enlist the woman consumer’s aid in so
lengthening seasons and steadying style caprice as to facilitate the
industry’s efforts to increase sales, plan for changes, lengthen produc­
tion seasons, and give better values as a consequence of better plans,
thus further advancing the industry as an economic and cultural
force in our lives.
The largest and best potential millinery market today is among
women of 30 to 55 years of age. If the 2,500,000 women of these
ages engaged in business and the professions became interested in
buying 3 or 4 hats a year, and the home makers of the same ages
bought 2 hats a year, the sales of millinery would be materially
increased.
Estimates based on sample studies of purchases made by women
in different occupations and in different areas leave little doubt
that the potential hat market at present prices can be expanded
at least 50 percent.
While the numbers of potential hats to be sold to women in the
twenties and to women between 30 and 55 years of age differ
by only about 2,000,000 the wholesale value of potential sales is
materially higher in the case of the older group of women.
To make the contact between the consumer and the manufacturer
more direct, with resultant stabilization of production, it is suggested
that the millinery-manufacturing industry as a whole adopt organized
methods of assessing style trends for itself far enough in advance to
permit planning each season’s manufacture; and that it invite the
cooperation of women with a quickened artistic sense—seriousminded women in every walk of life—to assist in appraising suggested
styles for four seasons each year before they are offered to the retailer.
With better management within the millinery industry and a
lengthening of seasons, it will be possible to assess the number of
new workers to be trained for and introduced into the industry yearly.
The oversupply of millinery workers today only abets the existing
quick order, peak production, short employment turmoil.



Conditions in the Mill inery Industry in the United
States
I. INTRODUCTION
CONDITIONS LEADING TO SURVEY

This study was initiated at the request of the Secretary of Labor
after a delegation of representatives of employers and employees and
the Millinery Stabilization Commission waited upon her and pre­
sented the problems of the millinery industry. The written state­
ment left with the Secretary by Max Meyer, chairman of the Milli­
nery Stabilization Commission, which clearly states the problem
and the assistance sought, is as follows:
_ “During the past 3 years, while most of the other manufacturing
industries have been showing heartening gains in employment, pay
rolls, average labor earnings, salaries, and profits, the millinery manu­
facturing industry has either marked time or suffered serious losses.
“Between 1935 and 1936 there was no gain in employment; very
slight, if any, improvement in average labor earnings (which ran
about $1,100 each year); a decline in average annual salaries of of­
ficers and firm members; and a marked decline in average net profits.
In both years more than half of the firms in the industry did business
at a loss and a larger number were in the red in 1936 than in 1935.
In such a situation it is not surprising to find more than one firm out
of four going out of business each year. * * *
“A more thorough diagnosis of the ills of the industry with an eye
to the development of plans for its rehabilitation depends upon much
fuller knowledge of prevailing conditions. It is believed that a com­
prehensive survey of the labor conditions and business practices pre­
vailing in the industry is desperately needed. The future job security
of thousands of millinery workers and the business solvency of hun­
dreds of millinery manufacturers are largely dependent upon the
guide posts of remedial policy that can be set up only in the light of
full information. We.therefore request that such a survey be made.”
The Millinery Stabilization Commission is an unofficial, impartial
body, whose personnel is agreed upon by representatives of the employ­
ers and workers in the industry, and whose purpose is to investigate
the evils of the industry and to initiate a campaign of stabilization.
Though all organized workers are in one union, the United Hatters,
Cap, and Millinery Workers’International Union, manufacturers are
not associated in one organization. More than 80 percent of the
workers were in this union, but even the 12 employers’ organizations
in existence in the spring of 1938 did not include all employers.
13
137582°—39----- 2




14

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

The principal function of the commission has been the development
of fair commercial practices in the.industry, the introduction of cost­
accounting methods, trade promotion, and the education of manufac­
turers, raw-materials supply houses, and wholesale and retail dis­
tributors to the importance of cooperation inputting the industry on
a sound economic basis. It has been supported morally and finan­
cially by most of the manufacturers in New York City and New Jer­
sey. The millinery labor leaders, both in the national organization
and in the locals serving this area, have recognized fully the impor­
tance of a stabilized industry to the worker as well as to the employer.
They have given vigorous support to the Millinery Stabilization Com­
mission in its efforts to bring about adoption of fair trade practices
and to interest all groups in the industry’s welfare.
_
The commission issues a consumers’ protection label, sewed into
hats as a notification to the consumer public that the hat has been
produced by a manufacturer abiding by fair trade practices and under
established labor standards. The label is also a source of financial
support.
SCOPE OF SURVEY

Areas covered.

A Nation-wide picture of the millinery industry was_ necessary for
a thorough understanding of its problems. All areas in which firm
sales exceeded $1,000,000 were included. These areas are:_ New York
City; New York State, outside the chief city, and Connecticut; north­
ern New Jersey; Philadelphia and Trenton; Massachusetts; South
Atlantic cities, including Richmond, Va., Birmingham, Ala., and At­
lanta, Ga.; Texas, including Dallas and Waco; Illinois, including
Chicago and De Kalb; Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee;Missouri,
including St. Louis and Elvins; Los Angeles; and San Francisco.
Extent of millinery business in each area.

The field investigation began in January 1938. A list of firms be­
lieved to be manufacturing women’s millinery was compiled in coop­
eration with local trade associations, local trade-unions, and from
trade directories. Of 1,091 firms listed, 836 were found to be produc­
ing women’s millinery on a factory basis in 1938. The other firms
could not be located or were custom milliners, jobbers, or manufac­
turers chiefly of children’s hats or novelties. The Ribbon, Silk, and
Velvet Association, Inc., a trade organization of importers, jobbers,
and manufacturers of millinery supplies, which handles cases for its
members against millinery manufacturers unable to meet supply pay­
ments, reported that in 1937 as many as 100 firms had made over to
it assignments for the benefit of creditors, had gone into bankruptcy,
or had discontinued business with unpaid bills. _
_
Not all the 836 firms making women’s hats in 1938 had been in
business during 1937. Only 659 firms were in business as much as 11
months of 1937 and also in the spring of 1938; the remainder began
business under the specific firm name after February 1937, some
beginning business late in th’e year or even in 1938. As the survey
covered operations during 1937, firms manufacturing only in 1938
and those operating less than 11 months of 1937 were excluded from
the study except from the general statement as to extent and loca­
tion of the industry in 1937 (table I). Thus, the survey proper was
confined to manufacturers of women’s hats in business at least 11
months of 1937 and in the spring of 1938.



Table

I.—Extent and location of millinery industry of 1937
Firms in business part of 1937 and in 1938
Em­
ployees 1

Production area

Firms in business at least 11 months of 1937 and in 1938

Net sales 2

Employees i

Number

Net sales2

Number
Average
number

Amount

Average
number

Percent

Percent

Amount

Percent

812

22,130

$83, 769, 315

100.0

659

20,455

100.0

$80, 712, 086

100.0

521
11
30
12
27
9
24
75
13
29
45
16

11,080
578
1, 217
589
1,581
797
600
3,046
464
1,099
730
349

46,898, 839
2,956, 521
3,821, 701
2,098, 781
4, 706, 208
2, 856, 659
2,367, 648
9,482,421
1, 507, 899
3,458, 596
2, 585, 474
1,028, 568

56.0
3.5
4.6
2.5
5.6
3.4
2.8
11.3
1.8
4.1
3.1
1.2

404
8
23
10
25
9
22
66
11
29
37
15

9,942
520
926
558
1,564
797
561
2,915
522
1,099
718
333

48.6
2.5
4.5
2.7
7.6
3.9
2.7
14.3
2.6
5.4
3.5
1.6

44,973, 429
2,891, 521
3, 537, 237
2,073. 381
4, 690, 708
2, 856, 659
2, 236, 297
9,173, 593
1, 253,989
3,458, 596
2, 545, 246
1,021, 430

55.7
3.6
4.4
2.6
5.8
3. 5
2.8
11.4
1. 6
4.3
3.2
1.3

1 yhere records employees for 52 weeks were available, average number for year was
used; where records not available, employers reported “usual number.” Maximum
number employed in any one week and total number given some employment during
year far exceed this figure. See tables XII and XV.




2 Figure represents sales after discounts, allowances, and returns are deducted, Where
records not available, firms’ oral statements of sales were used.

INTRODUCTION

Total________ _____________
New York City__________________
Up-State New York and Connecticut.
Northern New Jersey_____________
Philadelphia and Trenton_________
Massachusetts___ ________________
South Atlantic area_______________
Texas___________________________
Illinois_______ __________________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee. _
Missouri_____________ _______ ___
Los Angeles_____________________
San Francisco____________________

Oi

16

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

The 812 firms operating for any part of 1937 and in 1938 together
employed an average of 22,130 persons during 1937 1 and did a net
business of $83,770,000. How much the sales of the 100 firms that
went out of business in 1937 would have added to this figure is not
known; that they could have increased only slightly the New York
City and Chicago figures is the general belief. From the data
available it would seem that at least 50 percent of the employees were
working in New York City proper and that firms in that city did about
56 percent of all the business in 1937. The second largest market
was Illinois, chiefly Chicago, where 75 firms employed an average of
over 3,000 persons and did 11 percent of the Nation’s business.
Massachusetts milliners ranked third, with 7 percent of the employees
and 5.6 percent of the net sales. Firms in northern New Jersey gave
employment to an average of over 1,200 persons and had 4.6 percent
of the net sales. Missouri ranked fifth with 5 percent of the employees
and 4.1 percent of the net sales. Between 3 percent and 4 percent of
total net sales in 1937 were made by firms in Los Angeles, in the South
Atlantic area, and in Connecticut and up-State New York; Texas
and the Philadelphia-Trenton area each made between 2 percent and
3 percent of all net sales; and San Francisco and the Cleveland, De­
troit, and Milwaukee area each made less than 2 percent of the total.
Firms included in analytical survey.

As has been stated, the analysis of conditions of millinery manu­
facture was confined to firms in business at least 11 months of 1937
and in 1938. Of these 659 firms, together employing an average of
20,455 persons and doing a net business of approximately $81,000,000,
21 were without records and 40 refused access to detailed pay-roll
and cost records. The 598 firms supplying statistical data employed
over 90 percent of the workers of all firms in business and did 90 per­
cent of the net business. While not all the 598 firms had complete
records on each subject under consideration in the survey, the
volume available is always adequate to outline the problems of the
industry and suggest possible solutions.
Data secured.

Firm information is for the calendar year 1937. Bureau investi­
gators visited each millinery factory and copied necessary data from
firm records. The data sought comprised the volume of business in
dollars and in hats; the cost of production; the pay roll for each of
52 weeks’ production records where obtainable; and individual
employment and earnings.
Where available, cost of production and profit and loss data were
copied from accountants’ statements. Each item entered was
analyzed and further broken down when necessary to permit of a
uniform assembling of items later in the Bureau’s statistical division.
Original bookkeeping entries were totaled only when no accountants’
records were available.
There were compiled from pay-roll entries, for the employees in
each occupation, the total number and the amount of wages paid them
each week in 1937. As no record of hours worked is made and
generally no weekly record of hat production is kept, the size of the1
1 Maximum number employed for peak week exceeds this and total number given some employment
during the year is greatly in excess of maximum. See pp. 40 to 60.




INTBODUCTION

17

productive staff pay roll becomes the most accurate index available
of fluctuation in production during the year.
While such data show the amount of employment available in the
industry, the individual’s employment and earnings were copied from
the accounting of each individual made for Social Security purposes.
An effort was made to secure production from workers’ records, in
order to compare production rates from firm to firm and region to
region. Though women employed in trimming hats kept a book in
which they entered the amount they produced, or turned in slips with
their production record, the hours worked were not entered and records
were, therefore, inadequate for purposes of comparison. For the
week beginning with March 28, 1938, through the cooperation of the
United Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers’ International Union all
workers were asked to keep a daily record of the time worked, the work
received, its piece price, and the total amount paid for the week.
These records were sent to the Bureau’s Washington office for com­
pilation of individual production and hourly earnings.
In addition to data secured from records, firm members were asked
questions as to type of business organization and internal set-up,
time in business, price and kind of hats manufactured, operating
method, purchasing practices, credit facilities, selling methods,
discount practices, returns, methods of wage payment, and method
of securing new workers.




II. THE MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS
Size of business.

The organization of the millinery-manufacturing industry can be
understood most clearly from the vantage point of its sales volume.
Thirty-six percent of the firms in business at least 11 months of 1937
and in 1938 did a business of $50,000 or less in 1937. Sixty percent
did a $100,000 business or less. Forty percent had over $100,000 net
sales, but only 8 percent had sales in excess of $300,000. For the
most part, in the larger production areas the small producer played
as important a part proportionately as he did in the national picture.
However, the workers employed by the smallest producers were but
10 percent of the total for the industry, while the comparatively few
firms producing over $300,000 worth of millinery employed a third of
the workers.
Type of organization.

One-sixth of the millinery manufacturers reporting operated as
individuals and a similar proportion as partnerships. Sixty-three
percent were organized as corporations. Nineteen firms were con­
tractors, that is, firms that received the materials with hat orders from
the seller and merely made up the hats.
_ Regardless of legal structure, about half the factories had 2 members
in the firm; less than a fourth had 3 members, and only 26 firms had
more than 3. Firms of more than 3 members and of only 1 member
were proportionately more numerous outside the New York City area.
Firm members participate actively in the business not only in man­
agement and buying but in serving as designers, salesmen, and pro­
ducers. _ Sometimes their activities are incidental to those performed
by specialists employed to perform these functions, but again the firm
member may be the salesman, the designer, or a regular member of the
manufacturing staff.
Kind and price of hats manufactured.

Women’s hats are classified as to the material out of which they are
made and the price at which they are sold. So-called “felt hats” may
be wool felts made of sheep’s wool or fur felts made from rabbits’ fur,
and may be called velours, suede, or soleil to designate the finish to a
fine fur body. Straw hats may be made of braid sewed together in the
millinery factory; of straws woven into hat bodies in Italy, China, the
Philippines, Central and South America, or Java; of synthetic straw
bodies or synthetic braids. In addition, hats are made of various
kinds of fabrics, such as rayon, taffeta, crepe, linen, and cotton. They
are made also of leather and of fur.
The material out of which hats are made has economic importance to
the worker for two reasons: First, different numbers of persons are
required in the several occupations necessary to produce hats of various
materials, and second, the combination of hats of different materials
may determine the spread of employment during the year. Both of
these factors will be discussed when volume of employment is con­
sidered.
18



V

Table II.—Number

of firms included in survey and average number of their employees, by amount of net sales and by area
All firms

Production area

New York City—total
_____ _ _
Percent distribution of—
Number of firms_______________
Average number of employees.. .. _
Up-State New York and Connecticut.
Northern New Jersey_____ __________
Philadelphia and Trenton__
Massachusetts________ ______ _____
South Atlantic area.._ ______
Texas___________________ _______
Illinois_______ _____ ____________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee...
Missouri__________
_. _ ______
Los Angeles.____ ... ___
___
San Francisco....... ........... ....................... .

Over $50,000, includ­ Over $100,000, includ­ Over $200,000, includ­
$50,000 and under
Over $300,000
ing $100,000
ing $200,000
ing $300,000
Average
Number number of
of firms employees2
Average
Number number of Number Average Number Average
Number Average Number Average
of firms employees of firms number of of firms number of of firms number of of firms number of
employees
employees
employees
employees
588
100.0
363
100.0
7
21
9
23
8
16
59
11
29
37
15

18,395
100.0
8,865
100.0
384
845
462
1, 532
774
376
2,475
522
1, 099
718
333

216
36.1
125
34.4

1,867
10.1
980
11.1

1
8

12
66

12

160

7
23
4
8
20
8

98
193
19
115
142
82

1 Amount of sales after discounts, allowances, and returns are deducted. Where records
not available, firms’ oral statements of sales were used.




142
23.7
95
26.2
3
4
3
2
4
9
4
6
8
4

2,768
15.0
1,752
19.8
56
62
46
55
79
224
92
133
177
92

144
24.1
98
27.0

4,891
26.6
3,025
34.1

49

2,833

8.2
25
6.9

47

6,036

7.9
1,287
14.5

20

1,821

5.5

3
2

99
57

4

229

1

32

3

219

4

1,075

4
15
1
10
6
2

684
32
448
202
68

7

501

4
2

231
120
91

5
2
1
1

379
172
77

2 Where records of employees for 52 weeks were available, average number for year was
used; where records not available, employers reported “usual number.” Maximum
number employed in any one week and total number given some employment during
year far exceed this figure. Sec tables XII and XV.

MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

All areas—total________________ ..
Percent distribution of—
Number of firms..
_ _
Average number of employees_____

Firms having net sales 1 of—

20

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Forty-six percent of the firms reporting produced felt, straw, and
one other type of hat, and their sales constituted 45 percent of total
sales. More than a fourth produced felt and straw hats only, their
net sales amounting to over one-third of the total. Less than 10
percent confined their production to felt hats and had sales comprising
about the same proportion of the total. Firms making straw hats
only, fabric hats only, fur hats only, felt and fabric hats only, or some
combination other than those listed sold proportionately less in volume
than their numbers would indicate.
Price groups.

Women’s hats are wholesaled by the dozen until they reach the upper
levels, where the price is on a single-hat basis. As the volume of busi­
ness done on the single-hat basis is slight, in this report all higher-priced
hats are included in the group above $48 a dozen. The trade has es­
tablished these lower-priced groups: Hats wholesaling at above $24
and including $48 a dozen, hats at above $13.50 and including $24,
hats at above $7.50 and including $13.50, and lastly hats at $7.50 or
less a dozen. (Table III.)
_
The largest volume of sales in 1937 was for hats wholesaling at
above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen. Three-eighths of the net
sales fell in this group. Hats at this price constitute the larger part
of sales of New York City, of Illinois, of Missouri, and of Cleveland,
Detroit, and Milwaukee manufacturers. The cheaper hat, at $7.50
and less, is a more important item in northern New Jersey and Texas.
Massachusetts firms sell about equal amounts of hats at two price
levels, the cheapest and those at above $7.50 and including $13.50.
On the Pacific coast the volume factor is the hat at above $24 a dozen,
which is important also in the Philadelphia and Trenton section.
When considered from the viewpoint of competition on each price
hat, New York City produced 58 percent of the cheapest hats, north­
ern New Jersey 15 percent, Massachusetts 12 percent, and New York
State and Connecticut 7 percent. Texas and Missouri are minor
competitors in this field. In hats wholesaling at over $7.50 and in­
cluding $13.50, New York City sells 63 percent of the total, with Illi­
nois, its closest competitor, selling 11 percent of the total. Other pro­
duction centers of importance in hats at this price are Missouri, Massa­
chusetts, and northern New Jersey. When the price advances to
over $13.50 and including $24, New York City sells 47 percent of the
total, Massachusetts 15 percent, Missouri 11 percent, and Illinois
9 percent. In hats wholesaling at above $24, Los Angeles ranks next
to New York City.
Length of time in business.

Only about a third of the firms in millinery manufacture during
1937 and 1938 had been established before 1930, and so had been
operating more than 8 years. This does not mean that many indi­
vidual firm members were without long experience in the industry,
but only that a third of the firms had maintained their firm identity
for over 8 years. The proportion of these well-established firms is
larger in all areas but one—Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee—
than in New York City. In such areas more than 35 percent (in all
cases but one, over 40 percent) of the firms operating in 1937 and
1938 had this longer experience. (Table IV.)



V

♦

9

1

III.—Amount of net sales, by kind and 'prevailing price of hat1 and by area

Table

Prevailing price of hat per dozen 1
All firms reporting

Over $7.50, including
$13.50

$7.50 and below

Over $13.50, including
$24

Net sales

Net sales
Num­
ber
Amount
All areas—total

Num­
ber of
Per­ firms
cent

Amount

494 $60, 577, 714

100.0

48
134
226
86

5, 666,758
21, 482,105
27, 200,044
6, 228,808

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

28
51
39

1,079,433
4, 374, 620
3, 582, 691
1,886,864

306

35, 516,016

100.0

91

6,

6

18

2,067,018
3,357,837

100.0
100.0

12

7
19
3
15
42

1,338, 839 100.0
4,485,176 100.0
749, 360 10C.0
1, 306, 670 100.0
4, 666,129 100.0

6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

Felt only
Felt and straw____
Felt, straw, 1 other..
Other 3
New York City..............

100.0

TJp-State New York
and Connecticut.........
Northern New Jersey...
Philadelphia and Trenton.......... ..................
Massachusetts
South Atlantic area.......
Texas
Illinois. __________
Cleveland, Detroit, and
Milwaukee_
_
Missouri.. _.
Los Angeles................. ..
San Francisco..... ........ .

29
30
13

313,074
3, 458, 596
2, 390, 778
928. 221

126 $10,923,608

18.0

$22,402, 591

37.0

19.0
20.4
13.2
30.3

40 7
30
53
85
33

3,328,106
7, 376, 211
9, 281, 314
2,416, 961

58.7
34.3
34.1
38.8

357,850

17.9

117

14,088,030

39.7

1, 603,254

47.7

1,302,824

8

29.0

175^ 502

3.8

(2)
3

5

322’ 996

9.3

1 Wholesale price per dozen of largest volume of hats produced in each firm.
2 Number too small to be shown separately in this price classification.




201

Amount

Num­
ber of
Per­ firms
cent

(2)
25

10

3

Amount

Num­
ber of
Per­ firms
cent

73 $12,303,660
14. 8
6
778,125
4, 664, 649
29
5, 745, 225
31
1,115, 661
7

13.7
21.7

5,802, 692

16.3

47
15.4

20.3
21.1

17.9

15.9

481,095
3, 832, 687
5,121,054

8.5
17.8
18.8

<!>
19

33

6,032, 591

17.0

18
5.9

10.8

52.6

(2)
4

1,109,494

23.8

7

74. 3
51 4
13.8
12.7

g

1, 357, 818
371,519
76,491

39.3
15.5

14

3

2
2

8.2

26
5.3
6

Amount

Per­
cent

$5, 327, 384

8.8

3,469,760
623, 687

12.8
10.0

3,234, 853

9.1

416,409
400,238

17.4
43.1

(1
2)

«

38.3
40. 5
74.9

' 330,857
117,710
3

$9,620,470

512,113
' 561, 583

2, 453^ 249

than

68

13.8
4
23
40
(!)

2

12. 5
30.5

Amount

Num­
ber of
Per­ firms
cent

(!)

(2)
166, 932
1,366, 775

Net sales

Net sales

Net sales

Net sales

Num­
ber of
Per­ firms
cent

Over $48

6

6

382,098
892; 286

29.2
19.1

1,271, 992
333, 783

53.2
36.0

(>)

4

2

MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

Production area and (for
total) hat materials

Over $24, including
$48

Includes fabric; straw; fur; felt and 1 material other than straw; felt, straw, and more
1 other; and straw, fabric, and leather.

to

Table IV.—Time in businesSj by 'prevailing price of bat and by area
Firms in business 3 years or less

Production area

New York City—number of firms.
Percent distribution by—
Time in business___________
Price of hat.................._.........
Up-State New York and Connecticut.................. .............................
Northern New Jersey........ ..........
Philadelphia and Trenton
Massachusetts....
South Atlantic area
Texas_____________ _
Illinois________________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee----- ---------- --------------------Missouri. .........................................
Los Angeles___________________

1 Exclusive

1574

164

100.0

28.6

Firms in business over 3, including 8 years

Prevailing price of hat

Prevailing price of hat

Over Over Over
$7.50 $7.50, $13.50, $24,
and includ­ includ­ includ­ Over
$48
below ing
ing
ing
$13.50 $24
$48
51

72

22

13

6

Total
firms

214
37.3

Total
firms

7

21
8
22
8

15
59
11

29
37
15

85

26

36

12

196

39

74

34

33

16

39.7

12.1

16.8

5.6

100.0

19.9

37.8

17.3

16.8

8.2

7

97

28

5.3

100.0

28.9

33.0

15.5

11.3

11.3

1

1

31.1

43.9

13.4

7.9

3.7

100.0

25.7

113

37

47

17

7

5

132

37

48

19

21

32.7

41.6

15.0

6.2

4.4

100.0

28.0

36.4

14.4

15.9

2
6
2

2
1
1

1
6
2

1
6

1

33.0

7

1
2
12

4
4

10
2

4
3

4
1

1

5

1

3
4
5
1

2
1

1
1

3

38.6

1

7
4

3

1

14

12

4

3

2
1

24

11

— - -

3

1

1

of 19 contract firms, 8 in business 3 years or less, 6 over 3 and including 8 years, 5 over 8 years.




Over Over Over
$7.50 $7.50, $13.50, $24,
and includ­ includ­ includ­ Over
$48
below ing
ing
ing
$13.50 $24
$48

55

100.0

100.0

Prevailing price of hat

Over Over Over
$7.50 $7.50, $13.50, $24,
and includ­ includ­ includ­ Over
$48
below ing
ing
ing
$13.50 $24
$48

100.0

342

Firms in business over 8 years

3

1

------

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas—number of firms
Percent distribution by—
Time in business_______ ____
Pries of hat............
. .

All
firms
re­
port­ Total
ing
firms

to

23

MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

A larger proportion of New York City manufacturers were estab­
lished between 1930 and 1937, as 39 percent dated their establish­
ment within these years. One-third were organized in 1935, 1936, or
1937, as compared with 29 percent for all producing areas. There­
fore, even after the business failures of 1937 and the firms beginning
business after February 1, 1937, have been eliminated, New York
City firms appear to have shorter tenure than those in the Middle
West, the South, or the West.
Firms manufacturing for the shortest period of time devote a larger
proportion of their production to the cheaper hats than do other
groups, though the hats at over $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen
are made in largest volume regardless of the length of firm operation.
The proportion of firms making hats to wholesale at over $13.50
increases with length of experience.
While the time in business is no guarantee of the size of the business,
over 42 percent of the firms selling more than $100,000 worth of mil­
linery were in operation prior to 1930, and 39 percent of those doing
a business of $50,000 or less had been engaged in millinery production
not more than 3 years.
Table

V.—Amount of net sales, by time in business—all areas and New York City
All areas

New York City

Percent distribu­
tion by—

Net sales and time in business

Percent distri­
bution by—

Number
Number
of firms Amount Time of firms Amount Time
of net in busi­
of net in busi­
sales
sales
ness
ness
All firms reporting................... .

493
161
62
62
37

32.7

Net sales of over $50,000, including $100,000total
In business—3 years or less--------------------Over 3, including 8 years____ ________
Over 8 years............................................. .

129
42
49
38

26.2

Net sales of over $100,000—total. _
In business—3 years or less—
Over 3, including 8 years.
Over 8 years__________

203
40
77

41.2

305

100.0

93
44
27

30.5

100.0

100.0

86

30
36

28.2

100.0

32.6
38.0
29.5
100.0

126
29
57
40

41.3

100.0

100.0

Net sales of $50,000 and under—total.
In business—3 years or less_____
Over 3, including 8 years---Over 8 years........................

86

100.0

38.5
38.5
23.0

19.7
37.9
42.4

22

20

47.3
29.0
23.7
34.9
41.9
23.3
23.0
45. 2
31.7

Equipment investment.

Stock issuance is rare among millinery firms. Only limited capital
resources are necessary for the purchase of equipment. Millinery
manufacture is still carried on as a unit process, the work being done
by hand or by light machines.
Only a few millinery houses create designs. These original designs
are sent to block and die manufacturers as models for the production
of wooden, composition, or metal dies and blocks over which hat
bodies are shaped. The die manufacturer reproduces these originals
for sale to other hat manufacturers; these models are copied by others
until the model has passed swiftly through the industry. Because of
the constant creation of new models and the belief that many different



24

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

shapes of hats are necessary, dies and blocks constitute not an initial
blit a continuous investment; in fact, they are an item of current
expense.
A short description of the processes of millinery manufacture will
add to an understanding of the equipment used by the industry. The
felt hat body as it comes from the body manufacturer may go to a
hand blocker for steaming and pressing, in which case it is pulled
down by hand over the particular die until it is well fitted and then
is tied with a cord and allowed to stand until it has taken on the
desired shape; or when steamed it may go to a stamping press, which
can block several hats into rough shape, after which a hydraulic press
does the drying necessary to effect final shaping. Both presses are
operated by foot pedals, pressure upon which brings the block and the
cover containing the dies together and releases them when the felt
has been shaped.
Excess material is cut off each shape and, if specific finishes are to
be given the felts, they are run against buffing wheels or similar
devices.
The hat is now ready to be trimmed and finished according to a
sample made up by the factory’s designer. These operations consist
of sewing on lining, inner band, outer band, and trimming. Some­
times these operations can be done faster on a sewing machine and
sometimes faster by hand sewing.
If a straw hat is made from a hat body, the operations are similar
except that the body may be sized to give stiffness or finish and the
rim may be wired. If the straw hat is made up of braid, the sewing
machine is used to sew braid together. Hats usually are retouched
with steam irons.
If a fabric hat is manufactured, cutting the design out of cloth is
the important operation, followed by sewing it together and then
blocking into final shape.
Regardless of the type of hat made, the machines necessary for
effective millinery operations are stampers, hydraulic presses, and
sewing machines. Other necessary equipment consists of sprayers,
sizing vats, steam irons, buffers, hand-blocking jacks, cutters, and
tables. _ With numerous failures in business, such equipment is put up
at auction in New York and Chicago at frequent intervals. According
to Joseph Lipshie, auditor of the Millinery Stabilization Commission,
the capital necessary to operate a $100,000 business is $2,000 for
equipment purchases and $8,000 to meet current pay rolls and other
current expenses.
Credit facilities.

Not only are the assets of millinery manufacturers in equipment
relatively small, but there is little cash tied up in materials or finished
hats. New York City milliners usually purchase materials in small
amounts as needed and do not keep a stock of materials on hand. In
other areas about 52 percent of the firms reporting purchased at least
part of their materials in advance of production. As hats are made
almost entirely on order, little finished merchandise accumulates.
Another thing: City milliners find most advantageous locations
near the retailing sections of cities, so space is rented in loft buildings
and the manufacturer acquires no factory site.



MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

25

This lack of assets in real estate, machinery, or equipment, or in
merchandise whether in the raw material or in finished state, leaves the
milliner in a weak position from a credit standpoint. His chief assets
are customers’ accounts receivable. Only 45 percent of the millinery
firms reported banking connections for the purpose of procuring credit.
By far the largest proportion of these firms with bank connections do
more than $100,000 worth of business. (Table VI.)
A third of the millinery manufacturers depend on supply houses for
credit. The material supply houses furnish the raw materials on
credit, and extend credit to both small and large producers.
Only 5 percent of the manufacturers admitted using finance com­
panies as factors for financing. Such companies advance cash on the
assignment of accounts receivable and exact a high rate of interest
for the loan. Whether the firms reporting that they used no source
of credit wished to imply that they were amply capitalized or that
credit was obtained wherever credit could be got is not known. The
fact that a large proportion of these firms did a business of $50,000
or less would indicate that their credit facilities were uncertain rather
than ample.
The fact that less than a fifth of the firms doing a business of $50,000
or below could secure credit from banks, and about a third of them
from supply houses, indicates the uncertain financial position of
milliners doing a small amount of business. Even affording credit
facilities to this limited number is believed by many to be extending
credit too easily, because so large a proportion each year go out of
business with debts not paid in full. That such credit extension is
not to the advantage of supply houses would seem to be the case, for
even if the milliner makes an assignment for the benefit of creditors
to the attorneys for the Ribbon, Silk, and Velvet Association of New
York, assignees and attorneys’ fees must be paid and there is an
auctioneer’s fee for the sale of assets. Even though handling milliners’
liquidations through their own association probably has effected a
saving to supply houses, fees consume much of the milliners’ assets,
and the supply houses, which are the chief creditors, would seem to
stand to lose by a too generous extension of credit.
Selling facilities.

Millinery reaches the retail purchaser through many thousands of
shops devoted primarily to the sale of millinery, through millinery
departments in department, dry-goods, and apparel stores, and
through general-merchandise and limited-price stores. The retail
channels of distribution, therefore, total very many thousands.
Now, as always, the manufacturer sells some of his hats to the re­
tailer directly or through a commission resident buyer. Almost seveneighths of the millinery manufacturers reported sales to retailers, but
in only a comparatively few cases were all the manufacturers’ sales so
made. In New York City 40 percent of the firms having this outlet
sold one-third or less of their hats through such channels. In Cali­
fornia, Texas, and the South, however, the majority of manufacturers
sold at least two-thirds of their hats to retailers. The proportion of
gross sales so handled for the country as a whole was 45 percent. In
San Francisco it was 88 percent, in Los Angeles 72% percent, in Texas
56 percent.



Table VI. -Credit facilities used by firms, by amount of net sales and by area

to

o
Banks

Supply houses

Net sales of—

Friends, personal and
other loans

Finance companies

Net sales of—

Net sales of—

No regular credit
facilities

Net sales of—

Net sales of—

85
O XJ
3 *«8
© a--;
All areas—total_________
Percent distribution by—
Type of facility_____
Amount of net sales. __
New York City—total___
Percent distribution 2 by—
Type of facility_____
Amount of net sales.
Up-State New York and Connecticut...
Northern New Jersey_______________
Philadelphia and Trenton__________
Massachusetts_____________________
South Atlantic area
Texas.._____ ________
Illinois.
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee..
Missouri.................. ............... .............
Los Angeles_____________________
San Francisco_______________

492

223

100.0

©X3

®d
<=> a

100.0

306

45.1

100.0

141

167
100.0

36.5

24.6
34

38.6

65.2 100.0

4
7
4
9

3

7

38.9 100.0
10

57.7
6

26.9

1

52

6.5

15.4 100.0

50.0

31.2

16

8

6

3

3.3

5.2

18.8 100.0
2

63
20.6
100.0

1

1
5

10

6
2

6

1

20

13

2

36

45.2

31.3

23.5

30

19

14

23.4

3
7

1
7

28.8

© wo
dn

© a © d. .
O
32

i A number of totals are exceeded by details, as some firms used more than 1 facility.




®d

a *8;
©d

5.3

44

s'^s

©xJ

65

40

90
10.1

© -o
®d
©s

33.9

14.3

138

100.0

50

SJaS

o

45.3

32

8.2

© —<
©'d ©

©X3©

Not computed for less than 25.

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Production area

MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

27

The second long-established method of distributing millinery is
through jobbers. More than half of the millinery manufacturers
reported the use of jobbers as an avenue of distribution, but 60 percent
of the firms having this outlet reported that not more than one-third
of their hats were sold in this way. A larger proportion of firms in
Massachusetts and Missouri than in New York City appear to employ
jobbers. Forty-three percent of gross sales in Massachusetts were
handled by jobbers, 27 percent were so handled in Missouri, and 26
percent in northern New Jersey, whereas in New York City only about
14 percent cleared through jobbers.
The newer method of selling is through syndicates and chain stores,
new because these organizations of wholesaling and retailing are rela­
tively new to millinery. The syndicate leases the millinery depart­
ment in department stores under the trade name of the store. The
chain store may be a series of retail outlets operated under the same
name or under the same management. As the reporting firms did
not distinguish between the syndicate representative and the chainstore representative, these are thrown together in tables VII and VIII.
Ninety percent of all manufacturers reported some sales as made
through the syndicates or chains, but 45 percent of the firms having
this outlet marketed a third or less of their hats, and 39 percent mar­
keted between a third and two-thirds, through these channels. In
all, about 38 percent of the gross sales were made through syndicates
or chains. The firms selling solely to syndicates or chains numbered
only 7 for the entire United States, and these firms manufactured the
lower-priced hats.
Sales through syndicates or chains were made in largest volume in
New York City. Nineteen percent of the firms selling through these
channels disposed of two-thirds or more of their hats, and 43 percent
disposed of between one-tliird and two-thirds, in this way. In all,
44 percent of the gross sales in New York City cleared through syndi­
cates. The cheaper hats were sold in this way, and higher-priced hats
were sold only in small amounts to syndicates or chains.
Firms in northern New Jersey also sold through syndicate or chain
buyers many of the hats wholesaling at $7.50 and below. In all, 37
percent of their gross sales were made in this way.
While only two Texas firms made two-thirds or more of their sales
through syndicates, 40 percent of the gross sales of Texas manufac­
turers were through these channels.
Sales to syndicates represented less than one-tliird of the gross sales
in the Philadelphia region, in Massachusetts, Illinois, Missouri,
California, and in the South Atlantic area.
Millinery manufacturers throughout the country, therefore, seem
ready to sell to retailers or to syndicates or chains without favor. The
largest volume of sales, or 45 percent, still goes to retailers, 38 percent
clears through the syndicates or chains, and 17 percent goes through
jobbers.
In New York City the syndicate has outstripped the retailer in the
amount of goods bought, and the jobber has become a negligible
factor—-14 percent—in the wholesaling of millinery.




i
Table

VII.—Distributing channels used and amount of product marketed through each, by prevailing price of hat and by area
Number of firms that distributed through—

New York City.- ................................ _
Percent distribution by—

498

100 0

Over $7.50, including $13.50__________

552

90.2

100.0

142
223
78
76
33

134

330

308

100.0

93.3

202

7
1.4
5

2

72
63
27

14. 5
39
21

9
3
5

100.0

1.6

93
115
46
35
19

3

123
49
36
7

6
20

58

1

100

Over $7.50, including $13.50_____ ______

72

22

21
8
21

7
13
58
11

29
33
14

2

10

290
100.0

4
133

112

186

20

43.2
40
57
23
11
2

3

36.4

20

38
16
21

2
6

2

12

3
2

4

4

1
1

10

4

17
4
7
8

106
137
40
7

56. 4

100.0

75
81
24
6

All
hats

8
2.8
2

5
1

4
2.2
2
1

Twothirds
of hats
and
over

Over
onethird,
less
than
twothirds
of hats

Onethird
of
hats
and
less

35

73

174

12.1

14
18
3

25.2
29
37
5
2

60.0
61
77
32
4

23

43

116

12.4
13
9
1

23.1
18
19
4

2

1

17

2
1

52. 5

45.2
34
95
33
40
23

39.0
56
84
30

11

i Totals are exceeded by details, as most firms used more than 1 channel.




225

3

12

25
23

Total

3

7
17
7
53

18.8
30
18
7
3

194

Onethird
of
hats
and
less

3

8

31
5
18
14

10

3
18

1

17

1

1
1
2

1

28

150

138

159

5.9

31.6

8

29.1
24
62
28

33.5
71
67
16
5

6

192
74
75
33

11
6

55
27
39
23

280

8

69

90

113

2.9

32.1
15
42

40.4
53
42
13
5

2

2
8
1

84.8

3

22

3

1
10

5
15
7
18

1

1
2
1

7

13

5

6

12

1

1

475

24.6
3
17
13
19
17

4
9
4

3
1

Onethird
of
hats
and
less

86.1
100.0
101

100.0

3

1

All
hats

Over
onethird,
less
than
twothirds
of hats

62.4
42
52
19
3

1

23
2

5
2

6
1

24
3

7
2

6

Total

Twothirds
of hats
and
over

71
105
47
35

4
1

6

13
52
10

23
33
13

1

4
2

9
3

5
4
8

24
4
7
15
10

20

4

20
11
2

5
4
4
1
2

14
4
4
8

9

1
2
10
2
10
1

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas______________________ _____
Percent distribution by—

Total

All
hats

Over
oneTwo- third,
thirds
less
of hats than
and
twoover thirds
of hats

Retailers

Jobbers

Syndicates or chain stores
Num­
Production area and (for total and New ber of
firms
York City) prevailing price of hat
report­
ing i

MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS
Table

29

VIII.—Amount of gross sales, by distributing channels used and by area
All firms reporting

Sales made directly to—

Gross sales

Syndicates or chain stores

Production area
Number
of firms 1

Gross s ales
Amount

Per­
cent

Number
of firms
Amount

All areas 2___ _____ ____ _____
Percent distribution. _ _______

100.0

New York City____ ____ _________
Percent distribution.. __

100.0

Northern New Jersey___ _____
Philadelphia and Trenton______
Texas___ ______________ _ _
Illinois__________
____
Missouri______ ______________
San Francisco____________ ______

Per­
cent

417 $54,873, 712

100.0

380 $20,660,750
91.1

37.9

255

32,199, 265

100.0

239
93.7

14,151,454

43.9

15

3, 217, 309
747,182
3,911, 414
993, 817
4,862, 447
3,882, 773
2, 319,139
973, 601

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

14

1,197, 260
247, 933
913,115
400, 786
1, 451, 586
907, 508
635, 349
89, 057

37.2
33.2
23.3
40.3
29.9
23.4
27.4
9.1

6

16
11

38
29
24
13

6

13

10

35
25
20

9

Sales made directly to—
Jobbers

Eetailers

Production area
Gross sales
Number
of firms
Amount

Gross sales

Per­
cent

Number
of firms
Amount

Per­
cent

All areas 2__ _ ___ ..
Percent distribution____ ______

229
54.9

$9,315,692

New York City___________
Percent distribution__________

149
58.4

4, 357,690

13.5

217
85.1

13,690,121

42.5

13
5
13

842,344
85,996
1,688, 299
33,544
807,472
1,047,167
2,024
28,681

26.2
11.5
43.2
3.4
16.6
27.0
.1
2.9

13
5
14

1,177, 705
413, 253
1, 310,000
559,486
2,603, 389
1,928,098
1, 681, 766
855, 863

36.6
55.3
33.5
56.3
53.5
49.7
72.5
87.9

Northern New Jersey..___ _____ _
Philadelphia and Trenton.
_____
Texas ...
...
___
Illinois.. _ _______

___

San Francisco.......... .........................
1
2

1

14
24

2
2

17.0

362 $24, 897,270

86.8

11

35
23
24
12

45.4

Totals are exceeded by details, as most firms used more than 1 channel.
Totals exceed details, as 3 areas with very few firms are not shown separately.

SEASONALITY OF MILLINERY PRODUCTION

Weekly records of hats produced, either by dozens or value, are
seldom kept by millinery manufacturers. While numbers employed
indicate general need for service, wherever trade-union contracts are
in effect such contracts call for a spread of work among all workers,
so that the employment curve is leveled out of close relationship to
production. A more accurate measurement of the volume of work
done each week is the amount paid out for hat production to the pro­
ducers of hats, that is, the productive workers' pay roll. Other
workers are hired on a weekly or monthly basis and are paid even
when production may be slack,
137582°—39------ 3




CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

30

THE INDUSTRY AS A WHOLE

Viewing the country’s millinery production in 1937 as a single unit,
spring manufacture was getting under way in the week of January 25
and lasted to the week of May 3, or 15 weeks. There followed 6
weeks of gradually decreasing production, until for a 5-week summer
period pay rolls were not more than two-thirds of the average. Pro­
duction began on its upward spiral the week of July 26. By August
9 production was average, and it continued so or better for. 9 weeks.
It required only 2 weeks of downward trend to reach the winter dull
season, when for 9 weeks pay rolls again were two-thirds or less of
CHART II—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID TO PRO­
DUCTIVE AND NONPRODUCTIVE WORKERS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES
IN 1937—ALL AREAS
Employment
182.3

180

f-

■ ■ . ■

Pay roll

PRODUCTIVE

NONPRODUCTIVE
120 r-

114.5

the average. With the first of the year the curve was upward, until
after 3 weeks’ production it was average again.
In summary, there were 15 weeks in the prespring and spring and
9 weeks in the fall when production was average or better than
average, or a total of 24 weeks in which the millinery manufacturer
and his workers were busy. There were 5 summer weeks and 9
winter weeks, or a total of 14, in which production as measured by
pay rolls was two-thirds or less of the average, and there were 14
transition weeks in which firms were preparing for the busy season
or were lessening production as orders receded.
At its spring peak, production was five-sixths above the year’s
average; at its fall peak it was nearly two-thirds above the year’s
average; at its summer low it was about one-third of the average;
and its winter low was about one-half the year’s average. . The
spring is busier than the fall, but the summer is duller than the winter.
The millinery manufacturer must make enough during the 24 busy
weeks to carry himself and his overhead, which is continuous, during
14 very dull weeks and some part of the 14 transition weeks. The



MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

31

millinery worker, even though he may be employed 52 weeks in the
year, must plan so that his earnings of the 24 busy weeks will carry
him during the 28 weeks of reduced earning power.
FLUCTUATION DIFFERENCES AMONG PRODUCTION AREAS

. How did the amount of work available, as measured by the produc­
tive pay roll, vary with production area? The longest period in which
pay rolls were average or above occurred in northern New Jersey
factories. Here pay rolls started upward the third week in January
1937 and continued above average until the second week in June.
New York City earnings had dropped by the second week in May,
or fully a month earlier. The length of the fall season of full work
was the same in New Jersey as in New York, or 9 weeks. These two
periods of employment gave to New Jersey manufacturers and workers
31 weeks in which production was average or better. About half of
northern New Jersey sales are of the very cheap hats.
The Philadelphia-Trenton area follows the same general trend of
production as does northern New Jersey, but its spring season and fall
season are shorter, totaling 26 weeks, and its peak in spring and depres­
sion in summer are sharper.
The South Atlantic area and San Francisco have 28 weeks in which
production is average or better. San.Francisco has fewer weeks than
any other area in which it is two-thirds or less of the average. In
Connecticut and New York State, Massachusetts, and the Cleveland,
Detroit, and Milwaukee area the weeks in which production was
average or better were 27; the weeks in which it was two-thirds or
less of the average varied from 8 weeks in Connecticut and New York
State to 14 weeks in Massachusetts.
The fewest weeks of normal or better pay rolls—as already stated,
the only measure of production—were in Illinois and Missouri, where
they totaled only 23. Missouri milliners had 18 weeks of good spring
and summer operation and 5 weeks of good fall operation, with 7
weeks of lull in summer and 11 weeks of low production in winter.
Illinois firms had 14 busy weeks of spring operation and 1 busy sum­
mer week, with 8 weeks of better than average production in the fall.
Illinois had fewer weeks of low production than any other area but
Connecticut and New York State and San Francisco, or only 5 weeks
in summer and 3 weeks in winter.
Areas the spring pay rolls of which reach the highest peaks also
have the pay rolls that fall to the lowest point in summer. So too,
the pay rolls of such areas as Texas, Connecticut and New York
State, and Los Angeles, that do not reach abnormal heights in the
spring do. not fall helow 50 percent of the average in the summer.
This relation does not exist between fall and winter; for the most part,
the differences between high and low points in these seasons are not
so great as those in the earlier months of the year. Only in Con­
necticut and New York State, the South Atlantic area, and Texas
does the. fall high pay roll exceed the spring high pay roll. Only in
Connecticut and New York State, Massachusetts, and Texas is the
winter low pay roll less than the summer pay roll.




32

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

CHART III—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID TO PRO­
DUCTIVE WORKERS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—BY AREA
18, ,

Employment ----------

Pay roll........

NEW YORK CITY

175.4

MASSACHUSETTS

184.2

ILLINOIS

MISSOURI

When comparison is made with New York City, it is obvious that
areas that have not ironed out their curve in numbers employed by
spreading the work have a closer relationship between the earnings



MILLINERY MANUFACTUEING BUSINESS

33

CHART III—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID TO PRO­
DUCTIVE WORKERS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—BY AREACONTINUED
Employment--------

Pay roll ........
168.0

OUTSIDE NEW YORK CITY
AND CONNECTICUT

178.7

NORTHERN NEW JERSEY

PHILADELPHIA AND TRENTON

170.4

SOUTH ATLANTIC AREA
120

'

curve and the employment curve. In New York City the earnings
peaks stand out markedly against the fairly steady curve of numbers
employed week by week.




CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

34

CHART III—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID TO PRO­
DUCTIVE WORKERS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—BY AREACONTINUED
Employment —

220
200

<

Pay roll...............

CLEVELAND, DETROIT,
AND MILWAUKEE

-

180 "
160 -

20 L
180 r

177.6

LOS ANGELES

171.7

160 r
140 -

SAN FRANCISCO

154.0
140 r

120

TEXAS

-

EFFECT OF KIND OF HAT PRODUCED ON PAY-ROLL FLUCTUATION

To what extent are the differences in duration of high and low pro­
duction due to the material used in the making of hats? Segregation
was made of pay rolls of all firms making felt hats only, of those
producing felt and straw hats only, and of those making hats of felt,
straw, and one other material, such as fabric.



MILLINERY MANUFACTURING BUSINESS

35

The effect of the type of hat produced on spread of production is
not obvious, particularly in the number of busy weeks in the spring
and the dull weeks in summer, as these periods were about the same
length in all three groups of hat manufacture. Its effect can be seen
rather in the transition periods and in the winter period.
Where felts only were produced, it was the week of February 15
before the average pay roll was reached, whereas when felt and straw
hats both were made production reached the norm in the week of
January 25, and when fabric or another material was added, produc­
tion was normal the week of January 11. Then too, the all-felt and
the felt-and-straw manufacturers started the year with pay rolls at
just about two-thirds of normal; and the three-material manufacturers
at 91 percent of normal.
Pay rolls were_ at least 50 percent above the average for 4 weeks
when straw, fabric, and felt hats were made, for 5 weeks when straw
and felt hats were made, and for 3 weeks when felt hats only were
produced. The spring peak was highest for the straw and felt com­
bination, being 28 points higher than when felt only was produced.
The downward trend started in the same week for felt and straw
hats and for felt, straw, and other fabric, but it began later for felts.
When the three materials were used, the summer low was nearly 10
points higher than, when felts only, or felts and straws, were produced.
For the fall millinery trade the all-felt producer ran pay rolls above
average for 11 weeks, reaching a peak double his year’s average in the
week of September 20. The straw-and-felt factory ran above aver­
age for 9 weeks, as did the three-material manufacturers, and in no
case did these firms equal the high of their spring season.
When the winter lull came, the manufacturer equipped to produce
any of these types of hat had only 1 week when production reached
as low as 57, whereas the felt-hat producer was lower than this for
7 weeks and dropped to 44, and the felt-and-straw producer was
lower than 57 also for 7 weeks and fell to 42.
While factors other than type of hat unquestionably influence the
pay-roll distribution,_ the producer of hats of felt, straw, and one
other type of material would appear to have the advantage over
firms specializing in felt or felt and straw hats.
EFFECT OF SALES TO SYNDICATES ON PAY-ROLL FLUCTUATION

It is frequently stated that millinery firms seek syndicate or chain
orders because they are large and afford steadier employment to
workers. To determine the validity of this statement, tabulations of
productive-worker pay rolls for each week in 1937 have been made
separately for the firms that reported selling two-thirds or more of
their hats to syndicates or chain stores and the firms selling less than
two-thirds of their hats through these channels. (See table IX.)
There is little difference between the groups in the fluctuation in
number of workers employed, primarily because of the general policy
of spreading the work during the year. When the amount paid pro­
ductive workers is used, as the measurement of production and earn­
ings fluctuation, the chief difference between firms selling much and
those selling little to large units appears to be that the peak of pro­
ductivity is slightly higher, the slump slightly less, in the syndicate­
selling firms. Productive pay rolls were above average for 28 weeks
in syndicate-selling firms, compared with 25 weeks in other firms.



36

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

They were two-thirds or less of the average for 15 weeks in the syn­
dicate-selling firms compared with 14 weeks in other firms. The inter­
mediate periods lasted 9 weeks for the first group and 13 weeks for the
second group of firms.
It would seem, therefore, that while syndicate selling may increase
slightly the length of the busy periods, it has as yet done little to
lessen the extremes brought about by the seasonal and fashion factors.
Table IX.—Fluctuation in productivity, as measured by pay rolls of productive
workers,1 of firms selling to syndicates or chain stores, by amount of output thus
disposed of and by chief occupations
[Average weekly productive pay roll=100]
Index of productivity 1

Week in 1937

All productive workers:
Firms selling to syndi­
cates or chain stores—

Blockers: Firms selling
to syndicates or chain
stores—

Trimmers: Firms selling
to syndicates or chain
stores—

Two-thirds Less than Two-thirds Less than Two-thirds Less than
or more of two-thirds or more of two-thirds or more of two-thirds
their hats of their hats their hats of their hats their hats of their hats

10
11
12_____________

_____
13_______ ____-........ .
14
15____________ ______
16_________________
17___ _______________
18
19___ _______________
20
21___
22

_____ _________

23____ ______________
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31______ ____________
32............ .........................
33______________ ____
34
35__________________
36
37
38_____ _____________
39_________ _________
40
41
42__________________
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51_____ _____________
52

78.3
87.6
87. 1
90.4
108. 5
106.4
109.9
133.3
159.7
186.7
184.4
168.6

121.0

121.9
121. 1
118.1
109. 5
111.5
116.9
117.4
118.9
116.4
147.4
121.7
77.7
51.1
43.9
49.8
61.1
74.9
91.4
97.3
113.4
128.6
151.2
129.8
153.9
159.0
135. 4
113.2
86.3
65.4
58.3
54.8
56.7
49.4
38.6
41.8
41.3
39.1
41.8
52.1

83.5
94. 1
98.0

100.0

107.6
115.9
134.3
153.3
168.9
181.6
175.9
147.9
109.0
125.9
125.2
121.1

108.1

101.0

93.6
87.6
92.2
85.0
107.0
80.9
48.7
39.3
34.5
49.5
65.2
81.5
96.6
106.4
114.9
131.5
150.6
124.1
147.4
165.7
139.1
108.6
86.3
73.6
66.4
66.3
71.9

66.2

56.3
61.1
62.2
63.1
61.9
62.7

64.6
67.5
69.5
73.0

101.0

91.6
87.6
116. 5
132.8
162.4
156.4
143.9
116.4
115.5
114.2
107.2
99.7
104.0
105.2
116.1
110.1
108. 1

135.0
99.3
63.8
33.6
38.6
53.7
70.2
90. 6
121. 6
125.7
142.0
174.5
199.0
166.9
197.0
216.6
179.1
145.9
106.7
77.1
69.5
60.8
52.5
40.1
29.9
31.3
29.4
24.0
29. 1
33.2

59.7

80.8

93.8

66.6

88.6

102.2

74.3
79.4
87.8
97.1
116. 5
136.5
150.6
172.8
160.1
135.7
109.6
125.2
118.5

93.9
91.6
98. 1
99.2
104.4
120. 1
141. 1
165.3
169.0
166.1
108.1
107.0
111.4
107.4
97.5

101.5

112.1

97.3
91.6
88.4
81.1
85.4
78.7

100.6

67.8
40.9
36.4
33.8
54.8
77.7
99.8
119. 8
133.8
149. 5
173.5
201.4
157.9
194.2
217.4
170.9
132.8
103.9
84.9
71.8
67.1
67.3
50.5
41.0
42.9
44.2
45.8
46.5
45.8

102.2

108. 5

112.1

118.3
118.3
148. 6
123.5
77.0
54.0
40.4
49.7
61.8
76.5
92.0

102.6

120.9
129.3
155.5
128. 5
155.7
163.4
150.4
124.0
96.8
77.4
67.1
63.0
74. 1
61.0
48.0
53.5
50.5
47.4
43.6
54.6

102.6

106.1

112.0

123.8
138.8
158.5
168.6
172.0
147.2
98.8
110.7
116.3
113.9
103.0
95.3
86.9
84.3
92.6
84.9

112.1
86.0

49.0
37.5
31.0
46.9
62.9
81.3
98.7
108.8
116.5
133.0
153. 6
125.8
152.6
177.0
153.1
119.3
90.4
76.0
68.5
69.2
77.9
77.3
62.6
69.7
67.4
63.8
58.8
59.5

1 The weekly productive pay roll is used as the measure of productivity because no weekly records of
production were kept.




III. THE MILLINERY WORKER
THE CRAFTS

. A general description of women’s hat-making processes has been
given. (See 24.) From this it is evident that volume differences in
production of hats of particular materials or prices shift the proportion
of workers required in any craft. However, as the largest proportion
of factories produce hats of felt, straw, and one other type of fabric,
the shift in volume in each craft is primarily a seasonal one.
The occupations are classified as follows:
Blockers, men who steam and pull hat bodies over hand blocks,
or who operate stampers and hydraulic presses.
Cutters, who cut out parts of fabric hats or who cut off surplus
brim or crown material after blocking.
Straw operators, who sew braids into hat shapes. Operators,
who operate sewing machines on any other process for which
machine sewing can be used.
Trimmers, who put linings, bands, or trimmings on by hand.
Milliners, classed with trimmers, who make hats that are not
made by blocking and trimming.
Designers, who plan the trimming of hats and make up samples
for the workers to follow. (Only a few firms employ creative
designers to make models from which blocks and dies are made.)
Other factory workers include girls who assemble the several
materials according to specifications to go with each shape for
the trimmers and operators, inspectors, working foremen, and
other persons performing various jobs around the workroom.
Other staff members of millinery establishments are shipping
clerks, office staff, and messengers.
When the average number employed in each productive craft in
1937 is used as the basis of comparison—omitting only shipping and
office employees—trimmers or milliners comprise 48 of every 100
workers. These workers are women. Sewing-machine operators,
who may be either men or women, are the second largest group, or 19
of every 100. Blockers, in all cases men, are 15 of every 100 workers.
Cutters represent but 2 in every 100, designers the same proportion,
and all other factory employees included, 14 of every 100.
The ratio in each craft varies with production area. In every area
but New Jersey, trimmers and milliners constitute the largest single
proportion, but this proportion ranges from 29 percent in northern
New Jersey to 62 percent in Los Angeles. In northern New Jersey
about 50 percent of the sales are of hats priced at $7.50 and less a
dozen, which means that as much of the work as possible is done on
the sewing machine and trimming is reduced to a minimum. Conse­
quently, in northern New Jersey, machine operators form 30 percent
37



38

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

of the productive staff and trimmers form but 29 percent, while
general factory workers and foremen are 23 percent. In Los Angeles
and San Francisco the cheapest hats are not made, and the bulk of
sales are of hats wholesaling at over $24 a dozen. Then, too, the
Pacific coast factories employ proportionately more designers than
do other areas, as they market chiefly through local retailers who call
for special designs and copies of originals. Northern New Jersey
manufacturers, on the other hand, sell to syndicates and chains to a
greater extent than to retailers, and therefore have calls for sales in
larger quantities requiring a minimum of designing.
The millinery industry of Illinois and of Cleveland, Detroit, and
Milwaukee also employs more than the average number of trimmers,
more than half of the employees in each case being trimmers. In
these areas, too, a large number of hats are marketed directly to local
retailers, which increases the amount of custom service and hand work.
The proportion of sewing-machine operators is greater than the
proportion for all areas not only in New Jersey but in Massachusetts
and in Missouri. In these two States firms do not make any volume of
hats at above $24, so the higher-priced hat with much hand trim­
ming is not important to their trade. Missouri has long been the
center of straw-body manufacture, the craft having begun there over
a generation ago.
The ratio of blockers to other crafts varies from only 7 or 8 in every
100 in San Francisco and Chicago to 26 in every 100 in the Connecti­
cut-New York State area. Wherever the good tailored hat is an
important item of production, blockers increase in numbers.
Table

X.—Distribution of employees in occupations specified, by area
Percent of total employees who were—

Numher of
firms

All areas
New York City
Up-State New York and
Northern New Jersey--------Philadelphia and Trenton...
South Atlantic area----------Texas____ _______________
Illinois
Cleveland, Detroit, and MilMissouri ...

Los Angeles...
San Francisco______

___

Block­
ers

Cutters

Opera­
tors

Trim­
mers

516

Production area

Total
employees 1
(per­
cent)
100.0

15

2

19

48

2

14

330

100.0

16

2

19

47

3

13

7
18
9
19

26
15
19
15
28

16
30
19
28
18

39
29
42
43
‘35
46
57

1
1
2
1

15
46

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

2

18
23
17
13
15
17
13

7
19
31
13

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1

14

2

21
8

17

10

14
7

2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2

12

18
19
28

12

14

53
45
62
61

De­ All other
signers factory 2

3
3

10

5
5

6
11

1 Average number is used throughout this table.
2 General factory and foremen only; shipping and all other not included.

Sex of employees.

Women formed 64 percent of millinery workers employed during
1937. Their principal occupation was hat trimming or making hats
by hand. However, sewing-machine operating was done by more
women than men in all areas but New York City. Women usually
outnumbered men in the miscellaneous jobs around the factory, and
they were the largest group in every case among office workers.



Table

XI.—Sex of employees in the various occupations, by area

All employees1

Block­
ers

Total

Men

Men

All areas (516 firms)—number
Percent distribution..................... ...........

14,903

5,337
35.8

9,566
64.2

2,018
13.5

New York City (330 firms)—number
Percent distribution. ................. ......... ............

8,127

3,539
43.5

4,588
56.5

159
40.4

235
59.6

Production area and number of firms

Up-State New York and Connecticut (7 firms)—
number___________ ______________________
Percent distribution

100.0

100.0

394

100.0

100.0

Philadelphia and Trenton (9 firms)—number
Percent distribution

100.0

755

770

Men

Women

15
0. 2

295
3. 6

1,176
14.5

134

3

1,192
14.7

178

2.2

3,463
42.6

525
6.5

644
7.9

497

95
24.1

0.3

11
2.8

46
11.7

144
36.5

10.2

40

30
7.6

11
2.8

1
0. 3

15
3.8

51

61

108
14.3

29
3.8

0.3

2

25
3.3

5
1.1

16
3.5

1.6
1

8.6

6.1

0.1

495
65.6

106
14.0

1.5

6.8

162
21.5

26. 5

8.1

287
62.0

79
17.1

2

0.4

33
7.1

48
10.4

178
38. 4

8.2

38

45
9. 7

19
4.1

22

2.9

26
3.4

1.8

14

3
0.4

22
2.9

16
9. 2

7
4.0

3
1.7

___
___

9
5.2

11

2

200

64
36.8

110

63.2

42
24.1

2
1.1

1
0.6

27
15.5

55
31. 6

6.9

363

102

4

1

174

100.0

130

12

28.1

0.3

39
10.7

154
42.4

3.3

57
15.7

3.3

4
1.1

11
3.0

1,464
79.0

137
7.4

1.8

34

69
3.7

246
13.3

994
53.7

82
4.4

10.0

185

58
3.1

8

0. 4

39
2.1

94
72.3

15.4

1
0.8

4
3.1

19
14.6

63
48.5

4
3.1

8
6.2

4.6

1
0.8

686

78
9.1

1.0

3
0.3

201

79.7

155

544
77.8

90
12.9

5
0.7

250
79.4

7.0

22.2

65

20.6

■ Average number is used throughout this table.

H

fei

4
3.1

175
20.3

861

1.1

36
27.7

100.0

69
19.0

388

100.0

261
71.9

21.0

1,852

315

5

720
4.8

100.0

100.0

512
3.4

1,284

6.2

76
9.9

San Francisco (13 firms)—number
Percent distribution_______________ _____

44
0. 3

921

305
39.6

699

46
0.3

6,482
43.5

189
24.5

100.0

Women

1,232
8.3

7
0.9

Los Angeles (31 firms)—number
Percent distribution_____ ____ ____________

Men

Women

1,426
9.6

0.3

Missouri (19 firms)—number___ ______________
Percent distribution

Men

Office

208
1.4

104
13.5

Illinois (46 firms)—number
Percent distribution_______________ _____

Shipping

10
0.1

552
71.7

100.0




Women Women

218
28.3

Texas (15 firms)—number
Percent distribution

Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (7 firms)—
number---------------------------------------------------Percent distribution

Men

Other factory 2

176
38.0

100.0

South Atlantic area (2 firms)—number
Percent distribution___ __________________

Women

Trim­
mers

260
34.4

463

Massachusetts (19 firms)—number
Percent distribution

Men

Operators

MILLINERY WORKER

Northern New Jersey (18 firms)—number
Percent distribution____ _________________

Women

Cutters

20

22

3

9

3

1.0

14

12

12

6

1.6

23.3

345
40.1

42
4.9

80
9.3

30
3.5

23
2.7

2
0.2

34
3. 9

0.3

24
3.4

55
7.9

404
57.8

17
2.4

54
7.7

2.6

18

1
0.1

1

0.1

28
4.0

2
0.6

22

6.0

177
56.2

3.8

2
0.6

14
4.4

2

19

7.0

Includes general factory, foremen, designers.

12

35

11.1

3

7

2.2

Less than 0.0S percent.

co
co

40

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

NUMBERS EMPLOYED
Average, minimum, and maximum numbers.

The 598 firms included in the survey employed an average of
approximately 18,000 workers. A detailed statement of numbers
employed each week of 1937 was secured from 516 millinery firms; their
employees averaged 14,837. However, for one week in the year—
and one week only—these 516 firms employed 17,883 workers, and in
another week they employed but 9,723 workers; that is, the maximum
number employed was not far from twice (184 percent) the minimum
number employed.
_
During the dullest week of the year New York City employed 57
percent, and during the busiest week 52 percent, of the millinery
workers reported for all areas. Yet in the busy season the staff of
workers in New York City was 70 percent larger than in the dullest
week. Only in Connecticut and New York State, where firms were
few, was a better ratio maintained. Here the maximum employed
was only 53 percent higher than the minimum.
In Illinois the situation was similar to that in New York City, for
the difference between maximum and minimum was 72 percent. In
Missouri, however, the maximum was almost five times the minimum,
and in the Cleveland area it was nearly nine times the minimum.
Differences by craft.

When comparisons between minimum and maximum numbers are
made by crafts, sewing-machine operators are shown to suffer unem­
ployment most extensively. In all areas combined there were two
and one-half times as many operators employed in the busiest week
as in the dullest week of 1937. There was not so large a difference in
New York City, but in the Cleveland area, Missouri, and Massa­
chusetts the differences were pronounced. The use of operators in
sewing straw braids into hat forms in some areas during the spring
accounts for much of this difference in employment. _
Trimmers and milliners ranked next in differences in total number
employed at various times of the year. Their maximum was about
195 percent of their minimum.
In New York City blockers’ employment was more stable than that
of any other craft. This is due unquestionably to the “corporation
system,” under which many union blockers work. Under this system
the work is divided among a group of three or four, and even if some
in the group do not produce every day, the earnings are divided by
the group and each man continues on tbe pay roll.
The cutters are so few that the small numbers employed usually are
kept on the staff.
Weekly fluctuation in numbers.

A clearer picture of the fluctuation in numbers employed in the
several areas and in the several crafts may be got from the charts that
show the changes in numbers as they occur week by week. In these
charts the average employment for the year, that is, the varying
numbers on the weekly pay rolls totaled and then divided by 52, is
represented by 100 percent. (Pages 30 and 32 to 34 and frontispiece.)
For all productive workers included in the study, average employ­
ment was reached the second week in January. The staff was increased



THE MILLINERY WORKER

41

until it reached its spring maximum (121.8) in the week of March 15,
or one week before Easter. There was an immediate reduction in
staff from the maximum week until average (100) was again reached
toward the end of May. The curve of employment dips sharply at
the end of June, reaching its lowest point (62.6) in the first week of
July. In the week of August 9 employment was again average, but
the numbers employed in the fall season did not reach spring heights;
nor did the falling off in employment from the middle of October
reach the summer low. It would appear, therefore, that while the
curve of employment of all productive workers in the industry is
changing continuously, the changes are not so abrupt as the differences
between the minimum and maximum numbers would lead one to infer.
The curves of employment for the various crafts are very different.
Sewing-machine operators exceeded their average from the second
week in January to the third week of June, or during the straw-hat
manufacturing season. At no time thereafter did they reach 100.
Trimmers had a good spring season of employment and a fall season
of shorter duration. Blockers reached their average of employment
later in the year than operators or trimmers, and had no such peaks in
numbers employed as these crafts had in the spring. Consequently,
the summer drop was not so great. However, blockers are employed
in largest numbers in the fall, when operators are not used extensively.
The numbers of workers on the nonproductive staff follow the
general trend week by week. Office workers are employed more
steadily than any other group.
Missouri’s curve is illustrative of what happens when straw hats
are the specialty. Numbers employed soar to far greater heights
than in almost any other production area. The summer slump
amounts almost to a shut-down, and the fall season of average or
better employment lasts only 8 weeks. Comparison with Illinois
shows that while Missouri’s number increased above the average by
44 points in the week of March 15, Illinois’ number increased by only
19 points. While Missouri’s fell to 22 percent of the average in the
week of June 28, Illinois’ curve fell only to 66.5 in the week following.
In the fall season Illinois workers’ employment varied from high to
low by 21 points, Missouri’s by 57 points.
While all production areas follow the same general trend of employ­
ment—that is, upward from January to Easter, downward to the
lowest point in July, upward to a fall high in late September or Oc­
tober, and downward again to the holiday week—there are differences
in the gradations of the rise and fall in each area. In the Illinois area
the decrease, in employment after Easter is more marked than in
New York City, and the fall rise is a little higher, the winter decrease
less sharp than in New York. Outside New York City and in Con­
necticut the decreased employment in summer is markedly less than
in New York City, but the fall peak is higher and the winter fallingoff much greater than in the city proper, winter employment in this
area being less than summer employment. Northern New Jersey has
a long spring and an earlier summer season. Its workers suffer more
complete unemployment in winter months than do New York workers.
Massachusetts firms have a much higher peak of employment in
spring and much greater drops in summer and winter than New York
City firms. The same situation is true in the Cleveland, Detroit, and
Milwaukee area.



Table

XII.—Average number of persons the millinery industry employed during the year and actual number in the week of maximum and of
minimum employment, by occupation and by area

to

Occupations
Production area and number of firms

New York Citv (330 firms):
Minimum_____
.
Maximum......... .....................
Average. ____________ __________
Ratio, maximum to minimum________________
Up-State New York and Connecticut (7 firms):
Minimum____ ______________________________
Maximum____ ____ ____________________ ______
Average ______ ____ _____ _____
___
Ratio, maximum to minimum____________________
Northern New Jersey (18 firms):
Minimum_____ ______________ ____________ ._
Maximum. __________ ______ ______ ______
Average. _____ ______________________ _________ . _
Ratio, maximum to minimum___ ______ ______ _
Philadelphia and Trenton (9 firms):
Minimum................. ....................................... ...................... ......
Maximum________ _____
Average.. ___________ ____________________ _
Ratio, maximum to minimum____________ _____ _________
Massachusetts (19firms):
Minimum... ____ ___________..._____ ________________
Maximum... __________ ____________ ______ _____ _____
Average
____________________
Ratio, maximum to minimum................ ............ .......................
South Atlantic area (2 firms):
Maximum........................ ................................
.....................
Average____________________________ ______ ______ _____
Ratio, maximum to minimum.. _____ ___________________




Blockers

Cutters

Operators

Trimmers

Other factory

Shipping

Office

492
600
547

9,723
17, 883
14,837
183.9

1, 509
2,402
2,009
159.2

170
258
218
151.8

1,522
3,855
2, 654
253.3

3,857
7, 500
6, 461
194.5

1,614
2,743
2,195
170.0

546
929
753
170.1

122.0

5, 518
9, 372
8,079
169.8

893
1,308
1,168
146.5

111

953
1,842
1,368
193.3

2,075
3, 909
3,455
188.4

849
1,430
1,160
168.4

361
602
489
166.8

267
338
302
126.6

312
478
394
153.2

75
108
95
144.0

0

27
76
57

112

55
89
70

6

15

13
17
16

488
931
755
190.8

77
131
106
170.1

7
16

309
549
462
177.7

«
105
79
228.3

389

60
146
104
243.3

1,000

770
272.5
121

207
173
171.1

29
50
42
172.4

167
137
150.5
5

1

281.5

110

182
144
162.5
130
240

161.8

250.0

106

220

302
213
274.5

1816

34
137
81
402.9

119
230
178
193.3

159.7

2
2
2

49
365
196
744.9

162
394
305
243.2

69
125
98
181.2

2
2
2

14
45
28

34
70
54

22

11

228.6
2

3

2

150.0

100.0

100.0

11

321.4

200

205.9

169
207.5
62
99
82

33
28
150.0

238.9

130.8
18
43
29

22

140.9

11

209.1

368.8

23
19
16
59
40

19
23

21
121.1

157.9

19
30
25
7

7

12
10

171.4

31
27

11

157.1

9

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas (516 firms):
Minimum.. ___
Maximum _____ _______________ ___
Average__ _____
Ratio, maximum to minimum________ ____________

All employ­
ees




240
448
363
186.7

36
92
69
255.6

1,270
2,187
1,849
172.2

105
186
137
177.1

22

2

196
130
890.9

33

23
41
34

171
473
313
276.6

660
1,113
994
168.6

0
2
1

1

178.3

55
23

85
63
1,416.7

27
403
215
1, 492.6

70
454
345
648.6

4

5,500.0

22

496
907

688

164.7

90

4
15

12

375.0

86

69
187.0
211

32

21

12

187.5

150.0

403
267
191.0

44
84
58
190.9

3
16

3
9

533.3
63
156

300.0

33

66

53

200.0

11

50
107
79
214.0

256
556
393
217.2

56
83
71
148.2

24
19
218.2

23
52
41

94
244
176
259.6

29
63
47
217.2

4
9
7

226.1

3

6
200.0

300.0

122

247.6

124.4

225.0

18
15

41
51
46

6

12

5
9
7

5

12

15

2
6

180.0

12

266.7

245.5

8

46

6

300.0

68
112

192
413
313
215.1

99
203
154
205.1

1,650.0
154
78
700.0

182.9

54
40

20

253
1,203
861
475.5

22

2
6

5

31
38
36

122.6

26
31
29
119.2
12
21

175.0

16

THE MILLINERY WORKER

Texas (15 firms):
Minimum___________________________
Maximum..,________________________
Average_______ _______ _____________
Ratio, maximum to minimum_________
Illinois (46 firms):
Minimum......................................................
Maximum____ ______________________
Average_____ ______________________
Ratio, maximum to minimum_________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (7 firms):
Minimum........... ........ ................................
Maximum___________________________
Average-------------------------------------------Ratio, maximum to minimum...................
Missouri (19 firms):
Minimum___________________________
Maximum.....................................................
Average ....... ......... .......................... .
Ratio, maximum to minimum__________
Los Angeles (31 firms) •
Minimum___________________________
Maximum__________________ ________
Average_________________ ___________
Ratio, maximum to minimum__________
San Francisco (13 firms):
Minimum................................... ..................
Maximum___________________________
Average-------------------------------------------Ratio, maximum to minimum__________

CO

44

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

In the South Atlantic area and in San Francisco the spring season
of manufacture begins early in January and is a long season. In
Texas and Los Angeles also spring is a season of longer employment
than in the New York area. Even so, both the spring and the fall
peak of employment are higher in these areas than in New York City.
Save for the summer decrease in numbers employed, which may be
accounted as vacations without pay, New York City has achieved a
greater degree of stability in numbers employed than has any other
center of production. This is unquestionably due to the longer experi­
ence of putting into effect the sections of the union contract that read:
At all times there shall be an equal distribution of work among all workers
in the shop. Sueh distribution of work shall be arranged between the shop
committee of the workers and the employer, in such a way as not to hinder
shipments.
No overtime shall be required unless all workers in the crafts affected are
employed full time and unless all available seats and benches are occupied.2

Comparison of craft curves of numbers employed in New York City
and Illinois reveals clearly the effect of these principles on the numbers
of blockers and operators employed during the year.
THE INDIVIDUAL WORKER’S AMOUNT OF EMPLOYMENT

The description of changes in the numbers employed, given in the
preceding pages, indicates the numbers the millinery industry had on
its pay rolls from week to week. From these charts may be deter­
mined the number of weeks in which employment was at certain levels.
However, though indicative of the demand for workers, the charts
do not show how many weeks of employment each person actually
received. From the individual’s point of view the number of weeks
he may work is of supreme importance, though, of course, he cannot
work more weeks than the productive curve of the industry warrants.
The Women’s Bureau therefore transcribed, from the records of 445
millinery manufacturers, the number of weeks each individual whose
name appeared on the pay roll worked for that firm during 1937.
Unfortunately, 71 firms that kept a pay roll of total numbers employed
week by week did not keep a record of the individual worker’s
employment.
Excess of labor.

According to their own detailed records, these 445 millinery firms
gave some employment to 31,750 workers, an average of 71 per firm,
in 1937. The largest number employed in any 1 week by the 516
firms already discussed was 17,883 workers. Thus an average of 35
workers per firm was the largest number required in any 1 week, but
an average of 71 workers per firm was the total out of which those
needed were drawn. Even though duplications occurred, obviously
many more workers than were really needed were available for mil­
linery work and were given some employment during the year. Over
and above the seasonal difficulties that made the maximum number
employed in any 1 week 84 percent higher than the minimum number
employed in any 1 week, appears this oversupply of labor, giving the
industry many more to draw from than are ever needed.
2 Contract of the Eastern Women’s Headwear Association, Inc., and The Cap and Millinery Department
of the United Hatters, Cap, and Millinery Workers’ International Union and the Joint Board of Millinery
Workers Union, Locals 24 and 42 of said union, 1938.




THE MILLINERY WORKER

45

CHART IV—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID IN MAJOR
PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—NEW
YORK CITY
Employment ...

Pay roll..........

220.5

BLOCKERS

180
160 -

TRIMMERS

HO 120

-

120

-

CUTTERS

222.0

OPERATORS

Is this overabundance of labor a condition prevailing in all produc­
tion areas? Apparently it is, for even in the Philadelphia and Trenton
area—which shows the least difference between the maximum number
employed at any one time and the total number having employment
137582°—39------- 4




46

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

CHART V— FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND AMOUNT PAID IN MAJOR
PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN MILLINERY FACTORIES IN 1937—ILLINOIS

BLOCKERS

TRIMMERS

CUTTERS

OPERATORS

in any firm in 1937, in both cases on the basis of average number per
firm—one-half again as many as were needed in the busiest season
had been on the pay rolls at some time. In New York City proper,



THE MILLINERY WORKER

47

nearly twice as many had been given some employment as had been
needed at the height of the spring season. In northern New Jersey
and in Illinois the number having employment at any time during
the year was more than twice that in the maximum week, in the Cali­
fornia cities it was exactly twice, and in Massachusetts and Texas
over two and a half times, the maximum.
Did the oversupply of millinery workers occur in all occupations?
Again the answer is yes. However, among blockers and cutters for
all States combined the available workers were only one-half again as
many as were employed in the week of maximum employment, while
among operators and trimmers there were about twice as many as
were necessary. Heavy excesses were found also among general
factory workers and among the nonproductive workers whose employ­
ment is only indirectly affected by season.
In terms of employment of the individual worker, such a situation
means that many persons are employed for short periods by individual
firms. The analysis of the firms’ pay rolls for 1937 shows that 22
percent of the names appeared on the rolls of the employing firm in
less than 4 weeks. Because the union contract in New York City
provides that any person employed over a week, and in certain other
areas over 10 days, 2 weeks, or 3 weeks, is to be considered a regular
employee, it is believed that many firms drop persons of doubtful value
before such periods expire. Even so, 10 percent were employed 4 but
less than 8 weeks, and as many as 40 percent, or two in every five, were
employed less than one-fourth of a year. More than half those whose
names appeared on millinery firm pay rolls had worked less than half
a year for the firm.
Not 1 in 10 employees worked in each of the 52 weeks. If 46 weeks
or more may be considered regular employment, that is, a steady job
with vacation and occasional absences, only a little more than a fourth
of the millinery staff fell within this classification. Thirty-six percent
worked three-fourths of a year or more, and 45 percent worked onehalf of the year or more. If the employees working 20 but under 26
weeks are added to this 45 percent, it is obvious that 51 percent repre­
sents the steadier element among millinery workers and that those
employed for less than 20 weeks are extras taken on and put off again
without recurrent employment in the same establishment.
Employment of individuals in each production area.

In the several production areas the proportion of all workers who
were employed regularly, that is, who worked in 46 weeks or more of
1937, varied from 14 percent in Texas, 16 percent in Cleveland, De­
troit, and Milwaukee, and 18 percent in Massachusetts, to 39 percent
in the Connecticut and New York State area. In New York City, 32
percent of the workers were at their benches 46 weeks or more during
the year; in northern New Jersey and in Missouri the proportion was
but 20 percent, in Illinois it was 27 percent, and in the California cities
it was about 25 percent.
New York City factories employed 42 percent of their total available
workers three-fourths or more of the year and 50 percent of them for
one-half or more of the year. In Illinois only 35 percent of the total
were employed three-fourths or more of the year and 41 percent for
half or more of the year. Missouri firms employed only 30 percent
three-fourths or more of the year and only 43 percent were employed
for half or more of the year.




Table

XIII.—Number of weeks worked by employees in the various firms, by area
Employees

Production area




Total
Number Total number
of firms number with
reported given weeks Under 4, un­
der 8
4 weeks weeks
some
employ­ worked
re­
ment ported
445

31, 750

27, 262

22.0

278
5
14
7

14, 242
642
1, 512
636
3, 282

11, 558
638
1, 111
636
2, 520
955
1,108
4,045
1,080
1,793
1, 244
574

22.0

21

7
14
41
9
15
25
9

1,221

1,109
4, 205
1,080
1, 793
1,454
574

24.3
23.7
14.6
20.3
18.8
32.3
25.6
12.1

18.4
22.7
20.9

8, un­
der 13
weeks

13
weeks

14, un­ 20, un­
27, un­ 33, un­
40, un­ 46, un­
26
39
52
der 20 der 26
der 33 der 39
der 46 der 52
weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks weeks

p

8.1

1.3

7.5

6.1

0.8

3.9

4.5

0.9

8.4

17.0

9.5

8.4

6.9
4.4
10.5
9.6

1.0
.6

6.1

.6

3.2

9.9
4.4
8.4

20.4
21.3
11.3

11.2

6.8

4.2
3.8
7.0
3.0
5.7
4.9
4.6
3.5
4.2
5.9
4.3
5.6

.8

1.5

5.2
5.0
4.0
7.9
7.6
7.6
4.9
5.6

10.

8.6

11.4
12.3
11.1
11.8

13.4
10.9
11.7

10.8

11.5
8.9

10.0
8.2

12.5
7.5

12.8

7. 1
9.7
8.4

.8

1.5
1.5
2.3
1.4
1.6
1.6

2.3
1.4

5.5
7.7
9.4
10.4
7.3
7.8
10.7
10.2

12.6
8.8

7.6
9.9

4.6
6.4

.5
1.4
1.7
1.1
1.6
.8

.5

.8
.8
1.0

.9

2.8

4.6
5.2
5.5
5.1
4.2
2.8

3.6
6.3
4.4
4.9

.9

1.0
.8

1.5
.7
.5
.7
1.9

1.0
.8

.3

6.0
8.6

7.3
3.2
6.4

12.2
8.8
6.1
8.0

20.0

10.4
12. 1
9.7
17.9
11.5
13.8
16.6
19..0

17. 9
8.6

10.5
7.3
9.8
4.3
9.5
4. 4
6.4
8.3
5.4

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas____ _______________
New York City...........................
Up-State New York and Connecticut...
Northern New Jersey_____
Philadelphia and Trenton___
Massachusetts.......... ........................
South Atlantic area______
Texas______________________
Illinois............ .......
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee___
Missouri___________ _ ______
Los Angeles______________
San Francisco......................................

Percent of total employees reported who worked—

Table

XIV.—Number of weeks worked by employees in the various firms, by occupation—all areas
Employees (441
firms)

Occupation
Total
number

Percent of total employees reported who worked—

Total
number
with
weeks
worked
reported

Under
4
weeks

weeks

8,
under
13
weeks

4,
under
8

13
weeks

14,
under
20

weeks

20,
under
26
weeks

26
weeks

27,
under
33
weeks

33,
under
39
weeks

39
weeks

40,
under
46
weeks

46,
under
52
weeks

52
weeks

26,798

22.1

10.0

8.1

1.3

7.4

6.0

0.8

3.8

4.4

0.9

8.5

17.2

9.5

2,886

7.7
11.3

6.3

1.1

1.7

.5

3.8
1.3
4. 9
3.9
3.2

4.7
4.9
3.4

1.1
1.1
.6

10.6

11.1

6.3
7.6

.5
.3
1.3

.9
.3

8.7
16.1

4.5
4.8
9.6
4.9
5.1

10.3

10.2

6.4
4.2

4.6

10.1

7.3
5.8

1.2

310
5,132
11, 501
3, 508

11.4
18.7
16.6
26.0
30.0

4.2

23.4
17.7
14.7
19.7
9.7

18.1
24.5
6.4
5.8

3,988

3, 461

18.5

10.1

8.6

1.3

7.0

6.8

1.0

3.1

3.7

.5

4.5

i4.6

20.4

All occupations___ _________________

All nonproductive_______ ______________ __




1.9
1.5

10.6

.6

1.0

8.1

8.3

6.8

THE MILLINERY WORKER

31,020

3, 251
Blockers..._______________ _______ ______
345
Cutters ________________________
. -Operators_____________ _______ ___ ______ 5,902
13,385
Trimmers. _______________ ______
4,149
General factory

50

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Amount of employment of individual workers by occupation.

The occupation which had the largest proportion of workers on
the pay roll 52 weeks was that of cutting, in which about one-fourth
of the total were employed 52 weeks. As many firms employ but
one or two cutters, this is not surprising. The nonproductive pay
roll had one-fifth who were paid the year round, and not far from onefifth of the blockers were employed 52 weeks. Only 6 of every 100
trimmers and sewing-machine operators, however, were paid for
52 weeks. Considering 46 weeks as regular employment, that is,
a period with allowance for several weeks of vacation and other
absences, approximately two-fifths of the blockers and of the cutters,
one-fourth of the trimmers, one-fifth of the sewing-machine operators,
and one-sixth of the general factory workers were employed at least
46 weeks and might be considered, therefore, as having regular
employment.
At the opposite end of the scale of employment, a smaller proportion
of the blockers than of any other occupational group worked under 4
weeks, their figure being 11 percent in contrast to 26 percent of the
trimmers and 30 percent of the general factory workers. Taking
less than 20 weeks’ employment as a criterion, 34 percent of the
blockers, 42 percent of the cutters, 48 percent of the trimmers, 49
percent of the sewing-machine operators, 67 percent of the general
factory workers, and 46 percent of the nonproductive workers were
on the firm’s pay roll in less than 20 weeks of 1937.
Comparing employment conditions in New York City’s firms with
those throughout the country, blockers had a far more assured position
in New York City than elsewhere. In New York City more than
three-fifths worked 46 weeks or more, compared with two-fifths for
the country as a whole; and only one-eighth in New York City,
compared to a third in all areas, worked less than 20 weeks. Trim­
mers and sewing-machine operators had a somewhat more assured
position, for about 31 percent of each craft worked 46 weeks or longer,
compared with one-fourth and one-fifth, respectively, throughout
the country, and the proportions who worked less than 20 weeks were
nearer two-fifths than the 48 percent and 49 percent, respectively, for
the country as a whole. There was little difference in amount of
employment for the miscellaneous group of general workers, while a
smaller proportion of New York City cutters worked 46 weeks and
more and a larger proportion worked less than 20 weeks than was the
case in all areas combined.
In Illinois, blockers had the same problem of unemployment as is
pictured for the country as a whole, that is, only 42 percent worked
46 weeks or more and over a third worked less than 20 weeks. Cutters,
on the other hand, fared better in Illinois than in New York City or
the rest of the country, as about half of them had at least 46 weeks’
employment. More than half the trimmers in Illinois had less than
20 weeks’ employment, as was true also of sewing-machine operators.




IV. EARNINGS OF MILLINERY WORKERS
AMOUNT THE INDUSTRY PAYS ITS WORKERS

For the week of maximum employment in the millinery industry
in 1937, each worker would have received $32.55 had wages been
evenly distributed. The average amount paid blockers in that week
was $60.14, cutters $48.11, operators $45.36, trimmers and milliners
$24.34, general factory workers $17.32, and members of the non­
productive staff $24.23. (Table XV.)
For the week of minimum employment, when the maximum num­
ber had dropped to almost one-half, earnings also had declined, the
average being $15.60. This earnings drop did not affect the non­
productive workers, that is, office, shipping, and supervisory workers,
as their weekly earnings remained at over $24. Blockers’ earnings,
however, were but $16.57 for the dullest week. Operators’ earnings
dropped to $17.10, and trimmers and milliners employed in the
dullest week averaged but $8.74.
If the total amount paid to workers during the year had been evenly
distributed among the average number employed, each would have
received $23.54 a week for 52 weeks.
The few cutters employed had the highest average earnings, or
$39.04 a week. The blockers were next with $36.96. Sewing-ma­
chine operators averaged $30.31, nonproductive workers $24.20, and
trimmers and general factory workers averaged $16.44 and $16.11,
respectively.
The average amounts paid to all workers combined and to workers
in each productive occupation were greater in New York City than
elsewhere; general factory workers averaged more in two other
cities and nonproductive workers more in three other cities than in
New York City. No single production area ranked second in amount
paid to each group of productive workers, but the PhiladelphiaTrenton area was second in the average for all workers combined.
The New York State and Connecticut area ranked third and northern
New Jersey fourth in average weekly amount paid to all workers.
The Pacific coast area followed, with San Francisco paying more
than Los Angeles to blockers, trimmers, general factory workers, and
nonproductive workers. In total amounts paid in the Middle West,
Illinois ranked highest; Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee next;
and Missouri last, or ninth among all production areas. Massa­
chusetts was tenth in average amount paid to all workers, with the
South Atlantic area and Texas following.
AMOUNTS PAID TO INDIVIDUALS GIVEN ANY
EMPLOYMENT IN YEAR

To only 19 percent of the workers whose names appeared on any
factory pay rolls in 1937 had the employing firm paid $1,000 or more.
To only a little over one-third had it paid the equivalent of $50 a
month (a total of $600) or more.



51

Taele

XV.—Average weekly amount the millinery industry paid its workers during the year and in the week of maximum and of minimum em­
ployment, by occupation and by area
All employees i

All areas (516 firms):
Employment—Average for year_
_
Maximum for year..
Minimum for yearNew York City (330 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year_____
Minimum for year ___
Up-State New York and Connecticut (7
firms):
Employment—Average for year____
Maximum for year..
Northern New Jersey (18 firms): '
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
Philadelphia and Trenton (9 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year......... .
Minimum for year
Massachusetts (19 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year____
Minimum for year
South Atlantic area (2 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
Texas (15 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Minimum for year




Cutters

Operators

Trimmers

General factory

Non-productive

Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Number week’s Number week’s Number week’s Number week’s Number week’s Number week’s Number week’s
earnings
earnings
earnings
earnings
earnings
earnings
earnings

14,837
17,883
9, 723

$23. 54
32. 55
15.60

2,009
2, 402
1,509

$36. 96
60.14
16. 57

218
258
170

*39. 04
48.11
31.12

2,654
3,855
1,522

$30. 31
45. 36
17.10

6,461
7, 500
3,857

$16.44
24.34
8. 74

1,411
1,932
926

$16.11
17. 32
14. 69

1,739
1, 980
1,429

$24.20
24.23
24.16

8,079
9, 372
5, 518

27.18
38. 29
16. 95

1,168
1, 308
893

43. 27
77. 47
17. 21

137
167

42.68
51.80
31.08

1,368
1,842
953

37. 43
59. 12
19. 33

3, 455
3,909
2,075

18. 55
28. 32
9.05

713
960
466

17.27
17. 87
16.56

1, 034
1,186
842

24.87
24. 32
25.02

394
478
312

21.16
28.08
10.36

95
108
75

29. 69
34. 27
30.70

1

34.08
45.77

57
76
27

23. 76
32. 85
19.17

144
182

15.17
22. 89
13. 60

52
72
37

16.53
19.18
14.85

40
47
34

24. 26
24. 89
23.63

755
931
488

20. 92
28. 68
14. 45

106
131
77

31.10
32.13
17. 54

11

41.12
40.51
36. 67

213
302

23. 45
32.21
16.13

200

240
130

14.17
15. 78
6. 23

133
181
73

12. 79
12.17
8. 82

87
108

110

66

25. 65
25. 81
25. 81

462
549
309

22. 55
34. 26
12. 62

79
105
46

34. 91
49.07
15. 58

2

3

2

31. 58
28.81
30.00

81
137
34

27. 65
47. 27
10.31

178
230
119

14.17
20. 92
5. 91

35

17.06
62
16.25

61
67
46

26.14
27.42
19. 89

770
1,060
389

16. 45
20. 33
11.52

104
146
60

22.16
26. 99
15.87

2
2
2

39.18
41.00
34.63

196
365
49

16. 27
22. 24
10. 07

305
394
162

11.72
15.61
5.84

57
83
32

18.37
14.51
19. 64

99
123
65

21. 70
20. 86
24. 75

173
207
121

15. 64
19. 46
13.72

42
50
29

16. 87
26.29
5. 09

2
2
2

25.49
34.70
13. 57

28
45
14

16.41
18.72
9. 45

54
70
34

9. 35
14.15
5.29

19
25
13

13. 37
14.12
14. 75

23
27
17

23.99
23.45
23.15

363
448
240

14.15
16.68
13.72

69
92
36

17. 45
18.64
17.09

6
2

4

16. 97
11.50
16.70

22

40
54

14.14
15. 75
8.91

154
203
99

11.40
13. 94
7.84

48
65
30

11.59
11.40
13.12

36
40
31

20.10

111

5

0

16
7

112

52

68

20.

19.15
18.42

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Production area, number of firms, and em­
ployment

Blockers

Ox




1

1,849
2,187
1, 270

19.50
28. 68
14. 27

137
186
105

35. 37
68. 46
13.17

36.05
36. 53
35.53

313
473
171

24. 83
40. 18
13.51

994
1,113
660

14. 59
22. 57
9.08

194
332
143

15.12
15. 71
14.34

130
196

19.02
25. 30
17. 79

20

23.19
34.92

16.56
28.10

23
55

63
85

6

13. 66
18.41
8.03

10.86

1

25. 96
35.12
50. 00

3

22

8
0

14.03

861
1,203
253

18. 29
27.90
14.44

78
154

89

688

907
496

20.19
25.41
16.02

313
413
192

20.52
25. 06
15.07

33
2

11.86

121

138
170

24.27
23.41
24. 86

19
23

25.90
26. 77
20. 24
22. 59

25. 57
39. 39
16.99

27.82
32.32
29.04

215
403
27

24. 63
39. 75
10. 21

345
454
70

12.29
19. 33
6.50

38

15.25
16. 28
14.50

111

122

90

29. 55
42. 58
20.13

30.27
26. 73
28.10

79
107
50

23.11
26. 99
16. 91

393
556
256

15.85
19. 37
11.33

26
35
15

13.83
14. 33
14.18

60
67
47

22.50
22. 73
21.83

21

32.06
31. 57
32. 96

26. 56
31.90
19. 00

41
52
23

23.04
25. 70
20.17

176
244
94

16.67
21.43
10.77

24
38
13

17.46
18. 93
15.62

31
38
23

24.08
26. 47
21. 58

22

112
68

32

12

Includes designers, not shown separately.

* Includes foremen, shipping, and office.

127
81

20.11

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

Illinois (46 firms):
Employment—Average for year..............
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (7firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
Missouri (19 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
Los Angeles (31 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year
San Francisco (13 firms):
Employment—Average for year
Maximum for year
Minimum for year

Oi

CO

54

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

To 10,000 workers, moreover—practically 1 in 3 of the whole—the
firm had given so little employment that total earnings were less than
$100; to 3,000 it had given so little work that earnings were even less
than $10.
.
.
From the point of view of earnings the best craft is blocking. The
employing firms paid $1,500 or more to 36 percent of the blockers on
their pay rolls, and paid at least $1,000 to 50 percent of all the blockers
employed. Cutters, comparatively few in number, had similar pay­
roll records; but only one-fourth of the sewing-machine operators were
paid as much as $1,000, and for less than one-half was the total as
much as $500.
.
Trimmers, who are women, had much lower earnings. To only
7 percent of all whose names were found on the firms’ books had the
employer paid as much as $1,000, and to less than one-third had he
paid as much as $600.
How many weeks did the persons in each of these groups work? _A
division of the workers into the productive group directly engaged in
manufacturing and the nonproductive group shows only a general
relation between weeks worked and earnings. To understand this
relation between year’s earnings and weeks worked, the figures must
be reviewed by craft, the average earnings in which vary greatly.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF BLOCKERS

Tables XVII and XVIII reveal a very direct relation between the
amount earned in the year by men who block hats and the number of
weeks they worked. The 18 percent who were employed all of 1937
averaged $2,127; the 23 percent who worked 46 weeks or more but not
52 weeks averaged $1,772. Some in both of these groups earned
$4,000 and over and none earned less than $500.
The amount earned drops somewhat for blockers who were on the
pay roll 40 but less than 46 weeks, their average eamings being
$1,557. It goes down to $1,005 for the 5 percent who worked for 33
but under 39 weeks. Only a very few blockers employed a shorter
period than 33 weeks could earn as much as $1,000.
Twenty weeks or more of employment was necessary for the blockers
to average $600 and over. Few blockers employed 13 weeks (onefourth of the year) or less received as much as $500; and when em­
ployment dropped to less than 8 weeks, the great majority so employed
received less than $100. There were exceptions in every group,
indicating that some employed for short periods were experienced,
rapid workers.
Earnings by production areas.

How do blockers’ earnings and length of employment vary in the
several production areas?
In New York City proper, 52 weeks’ employment for blockers
resulted in earnings of $2,396, the highest in any area. Northern
New Jersey blockers averaged $2,116 for full-time service, Philadel­
phia and Trenton blockers $2,080. In Connecticut and New York
State, blockers’ earnings for 52 weeks were $1,698.
In the Middle West highest earnings for a year’s employment were
found among Illinois blockers, the average being $1,938. In the
Cleveland area the average was $1,746, in Missouri $1,581.



w

Table

XVI.—Distribution of year's earnings of employees, by occupation—all areas
All occupations

Blockers

Cutters

Operators

Trimmers

General factory

All nonproductive
occupations

Year’s earnings
Number
of em­
ployees 1

Per­
cent

Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
of em­ Percent of em­ Percent of em­ Percent of em­ Percent of em­ Percent of em­ Percent
ployees
ployees
ployees
ployees
ployees
ployees

31,750

100.0

3,251

100.0

345

100.0

5,902

100.0

13,385

100.0

4,149

100.0

3,988

100.0

3, 002
2,519
2,104
1,375
1,039

9.5
7.9

131
109

4.0
3.4
3.8

3

22
22
8
8

.9
6.4
6.4
2.3
2.3

233
288
311
234
177

3.9
4.9
5.3
4.0
3.0

1,954
1,269
889
532
385

14.6
9.5

495
544
460
324
233

11.9
13.1
7.8
5.6

157
251
258
179
136

3.9
3
5
4. 5
3.4

$100, under $200________ ________________
$200, under $300 _________________ _____
$300, under $400__________ _______ .
$400, under $500_____
_______________
$500, under $600.___ ___________ ______ _

28
16
18
7

8.1

8.0

7.4
7.0
7.0
6.4

1,067
759
679
794
823

8.0

4.6
5.2

517
297
194
150
119

12.5
7.2
4.7
3.6
2.9

446
274
191
144
151

11. 2

6.1

174
159
219
198
53

4.2
3.8
5.3
4.8
1.3

146
182
326
587
255

3. 7
4. 6
8. 2
14.7
6.4

.2
.1

126

66

3.2
1.7

14

.4

6.6

122

4.3
3.3

83
77

2, 794
1,984
1,695
1,663
1,639

8.8
6.2

195
140
135
99
99

$600, under $700.____ ______ ____________
$700, under $800
$800, under $1,000..............................................
$1,000, under $1,500______ ______ __ __ _
$1,500, under $2,000______________

1,615
1,689
2, 718
3,016
1,344

5.1
5.3

$2,000, under $2,500___
___________ .
$2,500, under $3,000_____ .
$3,000, under $3,500____..........................
$3,500, under $4,000________________
$4,000, under $4,500______ _______________

884
402
134
75
37

$4,600, under $5,000 ..
$5,000 and over_____________ ____ _______

16




1

6

5.3
5.2
5.2

2.6

2.4
6.0

10

2.9

473
439
415
413
380

2.6

6

3.3

5
13
53
47

1.7
1.4
3.8
15.4
13.6

320
267
439
691
395

5.4
4.5
7.4
11.7
6.7

823
935
1,461
914
87

36
28

10.4

302
113

5.1
1.9

13

4.3
4.2
3.0
3.0

83
108
196
502
481

15.4
14.8

.2
.1

388
187
61
30
24

11.9
5.8
1. 9
.9
.7

.1

1

8.6

9.5
4.2
2.8

1.3
.4

6.0

2.0

3

8.1

.9

2

1

6.6

4.0
2.9
5.7
5.1
5.9
6.1

7.0
10.9

6.8
.6

(*)
(3)

8

3

(■)

11.1

p)

6.
6.

6.9
4.8
3.6
3.8

EARNINGS OE WORKERS

Total reported.______ _____________
Under $10____ _______
$10, under $25_________________________ .
$25, under $50 ___________________ ____
$50, under $75 .. ... ____________________
$75, under $100...______ ___________ ____

(*)

«

Includes employees in 4 firms for whom occupation was not reported.

* Less than 0.05 percent.

Crr

Ql

XVII.— Year’s earnings of blockers, by weeks worked—all areas

Table

Oi
os

Number of blockers who worked—
Under 4
weeks

2,886

328
118
89
77
26

76
76

4, under 8, under 13 weeks 14, under 20, under 26 weeks 27, under 33, under 39 weeks 46, under 46, under 52 weeks
46 weeks 52 weeks
33 weeks 39 weeks
20 weeks 26 weeks
8 weeks 13 weeks

11

7

120

222

$l,500j under $2,000 ..
$2,000, under $2,500
$4^000, under $4,500. _

35

88

11

5
13

14

111

9
19

1

4

20

1

19
17
13
14
17

3

7
15
16
17
28
15

30
46
41
28

133

25

674

522

3

8
1

17

2

2
6

8

1
2

52
29
15

$600, under $700............. ..........

296

12

57
25
9
5
3

129

185

8

37
42
47
64
14
6

91
90
80
96
178
443
435
314

212

1

11

2
2

7

8
1

1
2

3
3

1

5

3

10

23
29
46

10

4
7

8

3

2
1

3
9
16
36
83
75
44
24
3

7

1

8
8

3
4
15
56
160
146
83
24
17
13

38
214
186
122

51
25

12
2
1

1

Table

XVIII.—Average year’s earnings of blockers, by weeks worked and by area
Weeks worked in year

Production area

All areas:




All
blockers
reported Under 4 4, under
8

2,886
100.0

$1,134

328
11.4
$25

8, under

13

222

212

7.7

7.3
$218

$110

14, under

13

20

35

1.2

$320

185
6.4
$432

20, under

26

26

129
4.5
$643

14
0.5
$740

27, under 33, under
33
39

111

3.8
$752

133
4.6
$1,005

39

25
0.9
$1,025

40, under 46, under
46
52

296
10.3
$1,557

674
23.4
$1, 772

52

522
18.1
$2,127

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Total........................ ........

of
blockers
reported

118
97

Year’s earnings

t




1,113

100.0

$1, 789
102
100.0

$1,303
103

100.0

$1,008
72

100.0

$974
373

100.0

$614
124

100.0

42
3.8
$37

27
2.4
$190

3
2.9
$63

2
2.0

10

$84
7

6.8

33
3.0
$249
6

5.9
$146

5
4. 9
$509

20

19.4
$1,346

18
17. 5
$2,116

4
5.6
$1,426

$1,607

18
25.0
$2,080

37
9. 9
$1,007

67
18.0
$1, 250

26
7.0
$1,431

$655

17
4.6
$858

11

8.9
$206

3
2.4
$325

$264

4
3.2
$317

$750

9
4.9
$242

5
2.7
$349

13
7.1
$598

10

1

0.5
$569

5.4
$685

0.5
$554

13
5.2
$500

$697

10

20

12
$110

3
2.4
$181

9.7

12

7.5
$37

27
16.8
$82

15
9.3
$193

2
1.2

11
6.8

$366

$415

3.7
$634

38
19.2
$26

21
10.6
$110

29
14.6
$226

5
2.5
$337

27
13.6
$445

3

1.6

3

1.2

33

2

11

21.2

20
12.8

10

100.0

$778

$30

$114

6.4
$246

1.3
$321

7.1
$393

52

13
25.0
$32

5
9.6
$84

9
17. 3
$260

1

2

1. 9
$400

3.8
$385

$642

15
14. 6
$1, 200

19
5.1
$437

44

$488

100.0

3
2. 9
$957

39
10.5
$384

11.8

19
7.7
$334

156

40
39.2
$1 698

$174

34
9.1
$81

24
9.7
$158

198

31
30. 4
$1, 585

2.7

52
13.9
$14

29
11.7
$42

$498

3
2. 9
$1, 259

$211

1.4
$643

$247

100.0

$730

2. 8
$848

1

13.9
$270

19
10.3
$140

161

1
1. 0

3
4.2
$508

10

8.3

29
15.8
$70

$800

304
27.3
$2,396

8
11.1

6
$121

$12

100.0

5
4. 9
$947

374
33.6
$2,084

$472

9
12.5
$25

62
33.7

248

3
2. 9
$1,146

168
15.1
$1,900

6

184

100.0

3
2.9
$614

8

0. 7
$1,281

5.8
$568

$15

$1,048

$933

43
3.9
$1, 236

12

$377

$305

25

2.2

11. 7
$422

16.1
$45

100.0

3
0.3
$938

6

$229

25

44
4.0
$810

5.8
$352

9.7
$28

20.2

37
3.3
$573
5
4. 9
$455

5
0.4
$509

20
8.1

1
1.0

$780
2

23

6.2
1
0.8
1

3
4.2
$937
5
1.3
$926

8

22

$668

6.5

1
0.8

17.7
$870

14
11.3
$971

5
2.7
$757

17
9.2
$930

5.4
$1,068

13
5.2
$1,361

48
19.4
$1, 582

57
23.0
$1, 938

19

36
22.4
$1,499

$1, 746

7

12

$1,021

4.8
$1,026

9
5.6
$700

11
6.8

2
1.2

11.8

$1,012

$969

$894

$1, 213

5.6
$610

3
1.5
$660

14
7.1
$707

18
9.1
$871

3
1.9
$696

3
1.9
$749

6

3.8
$836

9
5.8
$839

5
9. 6
$817

1

2

1. 9
$1,186

3.8
$1,400

6

11

4
7. 7
$560

1

0.4
$691
1
0.6

2.8

8
11.1

2
0.8

$1,150

10

10
6.2

10

3
1.9
$873

16

5.1
$1,161

$1, 230

3.0
$1,581

28
17.9
$1,595

16
10.3
$2,114

7
13. 5
$1,841

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

NT«w York City:
Number of employees....................
Percent distribution................... .
Average year’s earnings____ ____
Up-State New York and Connecticut:
Number of employees...................
Percent distribution_______ ____
Average year’s earnings.................
Northern New Jersey:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution.......................
Average year’s earnings......... ......
Philadelphia and Trenton:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution...................
Average year’s earnings...............
Massachusetts:
Number of employees___ ______
Percent distribution....................
Average year’s earnings.................
South Atlantic area:
Number of employees___ ______
Percent distribution.......................
Average year’s earnings------------Texas:
Number of employees.....................
Percent distribution.......................
Average year’s earnings________
Illinois:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings....... ..........
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee:
Number of employees........... ........
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings.................
Missouri:
Number of employees............ ........
Percent distribution.......................
Average year’s earnings________
Los Angeles:
Number of employees....................
Percent distribution........... ...........
Average year’s earnings.............. .
San Francisco:
Number of employees....................
Percent distribution......................
Average year’s earnings________

3
5.8
$1, 944

12

7.7
$1,050

8.1

6

Cn

^1

58

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

On the Pacific coast, though blockers employed 52 weeks were few,
their earnings averaged $2,114 in Los Angeles and $1,944 in San Fran­
cisco. In Texas, earnings for the few blockers employed 52 weeks
were $1,068. While some blockers in each of these areas were em­
ployed in 52 weeks, it must not be inferred that the same volume of
work was done by those in each production area. Being employed
52 weeks means simply that the blockers were at the shop to do
whatever work was required, though the volume may have been
small and the earnings for any specific week very little.
The group of blockers who were employed 46 weeks but not so long
as 52 weeks averaged as much as $2,000 only in New York City
($2,084). The year’s average was less than this but as high as $1,500
in Illinois, the Connecticut and New York State area, Philadelphia
and Trenton, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
If blockers are to average $1,000 or more a year at prevailing rates
paid in each area, they must have a minimum of 33 weeks’ employ­
ment in New York City and the nearby area of Connecticut and New
York State, in Illinois, and in San Francisco. In Massachusetts,
northern New Jersey, Philadelphia and Trenton, Missouri, and Los
Angeles, only employment for at least 40 weeks will yield to the aver­
age worker an income of $1,000 or over.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF CUTTERS

Cutters who worked 52 weeks in 1937, about one-fourth of the
total, averaged $2,271. Almost one-fifth of all (18 percent) worked
46 and under 52 weeks and averaged $1,740. Eight percent worked
40 and under 46 weeks and had earnings of $1,558. Thus one-half
the cutters employed worked 40 weeks or more and almost all earned
as much as $1,000, with the majority earning over $1,500.
The great majority of the cutters were employed either as much as
40 weeks or less than 13 weeks. Those employed less than one-fourth
of 1937 averaged less than $200. It would seem that if there is not
enough cutting in an establishment to employ a cutter as a regular
staff member, there is too little for the employment of a special person.
In only a few areas were enough cutters employed 52 weeks to
warrant a comparison of earnings. In New York City cutters with 52
weeks’ employment averaged $2,455, and in Illinois $2,173.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF TRIMMERS AND MILLINERS

Of the trimmers and milliners, who are all women and who con­
stitute by far the largest occupational group in the industry, only 7 in
every 100 employed in 1937 earned $1,000 or more. Eleven in every
100 earned $800 but less than $1,000, and 13 in every 100 earned $600
but less than $800. Thus fewer than one-third averaged as much as
$50 a month for the year. While the vast majority of the trimmers
earning $600 or more had been on the pay rolls at least 39 weeks, a
very considerable proportion (over one-fifth) of those employed as
long as this earned less than $600. (Table XIX.)
Trimmers working 52 weeks had average earnings of $889, those
working 46 weeks or more but not the entire year had earnings of $849.




EARNINGS OF WORKERS

59

When employment was 40 but under 46 weeks the 11 percent working
these weeks averaged $714, and the small proportion who worked 39
weeks averaged $643. While scattered individuals working less than
39 weeks earned $600 and well above, no group with less than threefourths of a year’s employment averaged as much as $600.
. The appearance of one-fourth of the trimmers on a firm’s pay rolls
in less than 4 weeks of 1937 unquestionably was a drag on the entire
group and of little value to the individuals concerned, whose earnings
averaged but $13.. The industry does not need extras to this extent;
m fact, the individuals employed 14 weeks and over in a firm were
sufficient to meet all the needs of the industry. A smaller number
of individuals employed would have resulted in better earnings.
Earnings by production area.

Trimmers’ earnings were higher in New York City than in the
country as a whole. The three-tenths who worked 46 weeks or more
averaged over $960. In Connecticut and New York State, San
Francisco, Los Angeles, northern New Jersey, and the Cleveland
area, trimmers employed 62 weeks averaged in excess of $900, but,
with the exception of a negligible group in the area last named, some­
what less than in New York City. However, when employed 46 and
under 52 weeks, only in San Francisco and New York City did trim­
mers earn over $900. In northern New Jersey the average for
trimmers working 46 and under 52 weeks was but $769, in Philadel­
phia and Trenton $713. Trimmers who worked 52 weeks in Massa­
chusetts factories averaged $784, those who worked 46 but less than
52 weeks $635. In Texas the full-year workers earned $735, and
those at 46 and less than 52 weeks $671. Earnings were lower in
Missouri, with respectively $667 and $627, and in Illinois, with re­
spectively $771 and $752.
. While New York City trimmers averaged $600 or more for each
time group from 33 weeks to 52 weeks, in a number of other areas
trimmers working as many as 40 weeks earned less than $600. This
was due partly to the difference in rates paid but partly to the amount
of work to be done.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS

Sewing-machine operators are more numerous in millinery than
blockers, and fewer are employed 46 weeks or more <?f the year. The
6 percent who worked 52 weeks in 1937 averaged $1,793, and those
working 46 weeks but less than 52 weeks earned $1,517; that is, to
earn $1,500 or more at present rates, at least 46 weeks of employ­
ment apparently is necessary, as will be seen in table XXII. A very
few earned $1,000 or more in less than 26 weeks of 1937, but for the
most part 40 weeks of employment was necessary to attain such earn­
ings under prevailing conditions. Without at least 20 weeks of em­
ployment a very small proportion could earn as much as $600.




Table

Year's earnings

11,501

O

Number of trimmers who worked—
Under 4
weeks

4, under
8 weeks

2,988

1,002

14, under 20, under 26 weeks 27, under 33, under 39 weeks 40, under 46, under 52 weeks
8, under
46 weeks 52 weeks
33 weeks 39 weeks
13 weeks 13 weeks 20 weeks 26 weeks
74

444

9
70
109

729

6

30
298
249

3
72
168
152

32

104
38
14
4

15

4

2,271

19
60

49

11

17
26

141
205
217
194

91
190
306
434

25
39
34
105

20
6

221

662
463
62
4

287
155

4

15
69
31

1,216

3

28
65

127

671

123

569

9

560

727

10

’741

366

337

37
113

4

146
118
7

2

149
357
62
5

1

1

i

934
6G1
593
700
744
717
819

101

6

12

3

1, 237
793

11
22

1

1

152
150

1

123
70
34
19

1

9

11

33

12

3

20
20

86

42

1

12

156
2

5
Table

10

3

11
1

XX.—Average year’s earnings of trimmers, by weeks worked and by area
Weeks worked in year

Production area

All areas:

All
trim­
mers re­
ported

11,501

100.0

Average year’s earnings............. - -




$398

Under
4

2,988
26.0
$13

4,
under
8

1,002

8.7
$62

8,
under
13

727
6.3

$121

13

127

1.1

$171

14,
under
20

729
6.3
$229

20,
under
26

560
4.9
$339

27,
under
33

74

0.6

$383

A

33,
under
39

444
3.9
$440

26

569
4.9
$547

40,
under
46

46,
under
52

123

1,216

$643

$714

2, 271
19.7
$849

39

1.1

10.6

52

671
5.8
$889

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Total....... ......... —.........

Number
of trim­
mers re­
ported

05

XIX.— Year’s earnings of trimmers, by weeks worked—all areas

137582

i




4, 743
mo
$508

1, 239
26. 1
$13

264
5.6
$80

231

60
26.0
$16

9.1
$46

100.0

$437
277

56

21

28

207
4.4
$143
7
3.0

$100

24
8.7

34
0.7
$205

241
5.1
$284

4.4
$400

2

0.9
$196

18
7.8
$169

9
3.9
$278

7
2.5
$155

$202

16
5.8

13
4.7
$359

1.1
$285

17

211

25
0.5
$488

238
5.0
$622

7
3.0
$397
3

186
3.9
$516

17

$747

1.143
24.1
$960

$969

1
0. 4
$382

10

4. 3
$567

4.3
$611

47
20.3
$852

39
16.9
$960

34
12.3
$470

1.8

11.2

11.2

$536

$597

$769

4.3
$902

20

75
27.1
$713

$866

20.2

10.1

$341

$14

$58

$112

277

42
15.2
$ii

40
14.4
$41

8

$89

$221

$160

13
4.7
$289

2

11.2

0.7
$312

2.9
$,363

$534

253
25.1
$9

1/14
11.3
$46

94
9.3
$99

9
0.9
$126

85
8.4
$184

56
5.6
$248

9
0.9
$260

49
4.9
$332

35

2
1.2

9
5.5
$116

3.6
$203

1

$107

$144

41
7.5
$163

26
4.8
$256

121
6.1
$200

96
4.8
$320

0. 6
$374

31
7.1
$244

10.0

44

$354

59
8.4
$191

31
4.4
$273

4

$228

100. 0

100.0

$366
1,008

100.0

$270
165

31

2

0.7

6.1

116
11.5
$f535

45
4.5
$784

9
5.5
$261

7
4.2
$351

1

$207

19
11.5
$471

24
14.5
$559

13
7.9
$529

5
0.9
$299

19
3.5
$325

19
3.5
$430

4
0.7
$380

17
3.1
$531

49
9.0
$671

$735

12

63
3.2
$412

74
3.7
$499

13
0.7
$548

169
8.5
$626

428
21.4
$752

139
7.0
$771

1
0.2

8
1.8

2.7
$571

89
20.3
$636

12.1

1.1

$454

16
3.6
$510

12

$424

$723

$1,208

33
4.7
$361

52
7.4
$446

1.4
$559

87
12.4
$576

128
18.2
$627

$667

30
3.9
$444

33
4.3
$545

4
0.5
$684

49
6.3
$704

15.6
$826

45
5.8
$940

15
4.5
$421

19
5.7
$591

2
0.6

10.1

$779

$690

56
16.7
$922

3.0
$955

9
5.5
$75

547

204
37.3
$9

71
13.0
$36

12.8

567
28.4
$14

192
9.6
$60

5.1
$m

$151

96
21.9
$13

46
10.5
$64

32
7.3
$146

1.4
$203

166
23.6

10. 1

71

$52

38
5.4
$106

$121

196
25.3
$18

92
11.9
$75

86
11.1

22
2.8

$140

$176

54
7.0
$243

36
4.6
$316

$395

74

33
9.8
$75

28
8.3
$154

5
1.5
$219

37

$271

19
5.7
$337

$416

1.999

100.0

$350
439

100.0

$349
703

100.0

$304
776

100.0

$341
336

$10

100.0

22.0

$390

$19

101

8

1.5
$123
24

1.2
6

6

0.9

11.0

18
6.5

9.9
$567

30
18.2
$32

70

12

17
1.7
$596

$9

$83

31

$492

21.2

$172

3

31

7.2
$581

$235
100.0

6
2.2

5

6.6

1.1
$738

100.0

6

6.1

$457

313

591
12.5
$823

10

51

1.1

0.6

0.6
8
1.0

4

1.2

61

6.1

0.6

10

100

34

53

121

14

2.6

5

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

New York City:
Number of employees......................
Percent distribution....... ........... .
Average year's earnings_________
Up-State New York and Connecticut:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings...................
Northern New Jersey:
Number of employees.......... ...........
Percent distribution........................
Average year’s earnings_________
Philadelphia and Trenton:
Number of employees.......... ...........
Pe'rcent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Massachusetts:
Number of employees____ ______
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_____ ____
South Atlantic area:
Number of employees.......... ...........
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings................. _
Texas:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings.......... ........
Illinois:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee:
Number of employees,.__________
Percent distribution................ ........
Average year’s earnings...............
Missouri:
Number of employees.....................
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings.......... ........
Los Angeles:
Number of employees......................
Percent distribution........................
Average year’s earnings................. .
San Francisco:
Number of employees......................
Percent distribution______ ______
Average year’s earnings_________

18

2.6

10

cn>

Table

Year’s earnings

to

Number of operators who worked—

Number
of oper­
ators
reported

Under 4
weeks

4, under
8 weeks

5,132

850

517

14, under 20, under 26 weeks 27, under 33, under 39 weeks 40, under 46, under 52 weeks
under
46 weeks 52 weeks
33 weeks 39 weeks
13 weeks 13 weeks 20 weeks 26 weeks
8,

79

546

100

11

63

42
60
106
91

2

48
32
24
13

62
50
44
31

753

331

14
23

3
14

4

30
31
93
129
65

23
32
95
260
146

17
82
77

30
7

122

428

54

252

240

5
18
28
48

2

6

23
23

5

45
29
40
34
5

66

494

16
25
7

522

33
24
56
49
16

11

13
2
1

74

20

3
3

358
358
322

88

47
25
15

281
229
386
620
315

8
1

119
111

4

4

8
10
11
10

4
7

10

1

3

12

6

4
9

12

5

1

96

Table

1
2
11

94
35

54

8

2
2

XXII.—Average year’s earnings of operators, by weeks worked and by area
Weeks worked in year

Production area

All areas:
Number of employees
Percent distribution................... . Average year’s earnings....... ..........




All
operators
reported

5,132
100.0

$685

Under
4

4,
under

850
16.6
$35

10.1

10.2

$130

$276

8,
under
13

8

522

517

»—

-

13

79
1.5
$356

14,
under
20

546

10.6

$454

20,
under
26

494
9.6
$575

27,
under
33

26

66

1.3
$638

33,
under
39

252
4.9
$719

240
4.7
$851

40,
under
46

39

54

1.1

$854

46,
under
52

428
8.3
$1,176

753
14.7
$1,517

52

331
6.4
$1,793

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Total_____ __________

05

XXI.—Year’s earnings of operators, by weeks worked—all areas




1,938

100.0

$1,005
113

100.0

$593
278

330
17.0
$47

180
9.3
$180

192
9.9
$383

$522

29
25.7
$45

12
10.6

$116

5
4.4
$157

56

100.0

20.1

$535

$36

154

100.0

$667
678

100.0

$346
98

100.0

$343
100
100.0

$290
699

100.0

$601
355

100.0

$441
530

100.0

$484
120
100.0

$615
69

100.0

$631

20

13.0
$32

27
9.7
$134
18
11.7

35

12.6

$244

22
1.1

151
7.8
$631

97
5.0
$785

0.9
$453

5
4.4
$480

5
4.4
$1, 045

4
1.4
$313

15
5.4
$396

10

8

3.6
$549

2.9
$589

15
9.7
$478

25
16.2
$543

7
4.5
$770

17

6

$810

3.9
$881

50
7.4
$480

38
5.6
$582

1

12

15

0.8

$887
2
1.8

$1,105

60
3.1
$976

73
3.8
$1,163

18
0.9
$1,210

$1,482

3
2.7
$599

10
8.8

4
3.5
$619

$786

17

$620
19

6.1

6.8

$671

$787

1
0.6

$111

7.8
$284

$20

65
9.6
$75

62
9.1
$128

13
1.9
$258

84
12.4
$291

97
14.3
$395

16
2.4
$380

27
27.6

13
13.3

12
12.2

1
1.0

$368

$557

6
6.0

1
1.0

6
6.0

$305

$149

$412

7
7.0
$452

3
0.4

26
3.7
$671

33
4.7
$793

$618

6

18
5.1
$598

13
•3.7
$812

$720

44
8.3
$778

26
4.9
$777

122

18.0

8
8.2

1
1.0

$66

$165

$183

4
4.1
$203

19
19.0
$14

14
14.0
$57

14
14.0
$123

4
4.0
$204

7
7.0
$225

113
16.2
$34

69
9.9
$132

71

$267

13
1.9
$384

107
15.3
$458

$604

$688

13
3.7
$37

41
11.5
$116

$236

9
2.5
$300

67
18.9
$389

79
22.3
$531

1.7
$568

92
17.4

11.1

11
2.1

$250

71
13.4
$389

92
17.4
$609

$22

59

10.2

71

20.0

57

8.2

$22

$97

38
7.2
$218

17
14.2
$28

14
11.7
$105

10.8
$210

12

5
7.2
$60

1

1

10

6

1.4
$230

1.4
$169

14.5
$323

8.7
$424

17.4
$25

10

8

8.3
$421

13

6.7
$534

6
1.1

$653
1
0.8

$342

11.0

4
4.1
$428

6

8

$520
11
1.6

$523
1
1.0

$948

8
1.1

3

0.8
6
1.1

$832

395
20.4
$1, 881

10.3
$2,092

17
15.0
$1, 250

9.7
$1,308

$958

43
15.5
$981

14
5.0
$1,388

9
5.8
$1,008

19
12.3
$1, 745

5
3.2
$1, 760

57
8.4
$693

43
6.3
$823

2.9
$1,003

5
5.1
$618

16
16.3
$795

$1,068

5
5.0
$610

2

0.7
$1, 254

205

16
16.0
$738

$1, 299

41
5.9
$1,123

113
16.2
$1,236

45
6.4
$1,414

18
5.1
$933

14
3.9
$1,061

$1, 739

42
7.9
$966

$1,142

10.6

9

8.0

28

10.1

36

6.8
21

5.0
$605

7
$845

7
5 8
$798

5
7.2
$620

3
4.3
$738

2

20

2. 9
$819

29 0
$1,229

6.

17 5

200

11

20

6
6.1

1

1.0

3

0.8

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

New York City:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings_________
Up-State New York and Connecticut:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings_________
Northern New Jersey:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings_________
Philadelphia and Trenton:
Number of employees__________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Massachusetts:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings........... ......
South Atlantic area:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Texas:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution___ ________
Average year’s earnings_________
Illinois:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution.. __________
Average year’s earnings_________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Missouri:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Los Angeles:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
San Francisco:
Number of employees___________
Percent distribution____________
Average year's earnings.............. ...

7
1.3
$1,322
15
12.5
$1,437
4
5.8
$1,311

C5
CO

C*

Table XXIII.—Average year’s earnings of general factory workers, by weeks worked and by area
Weeks worked in year
Production area

New York City:
Number of employees......................
Percent distribution....... ................
Average year's earnings--------------Up-State New York and Connecticut:
Number of employees.._.................
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings_________
Northern New Jersey:
Number of employees....................
Percent distribution-----------------Average year’s earnings_________
Philadelphia and Trenton:
Number of employees_____ _____
Percent distribution................. ......
Average year’s earnings-------------Massachusetts:
Number of employees............ ........
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings-------------South Atlantic area:
Number of employees—....... ........
Percent distribution____________
Average year’s earnings............ ......
Texas:
Number of employees----------------Percent distribution-----------------Average year’s earnings....... ...........
Illinois:
Number of employees----------------Percent distribution--------- ------ -Average year’s earnings...................




8,

4,

Under
4

20,
under
26

14,

13

20

27,
under
33

26

8

13

$287

1,054
30.0
$16

565
16.1
$62

11.1
$120

60
1.7
$159

268
7.6
$214

178
5.1
$322

17
0.5
$386

1,589
100. 0
$313

454
28.6
$19

254
16.0
$67

182
11.5
$129

27
1.7
$178

120

7.6
$231

84
5.3
$359

$420

3,508

100.0

391

4
3.3
337

100.0

$163

56
16.6
$47

129
38.3
$10

41

12.2

$80

14 7
$40
178

100.0

$293

12.4
$127

22

27

8.0

$163
6
8.0

10

3.0
$278

5

2.8

$173

4.5
$273

2
8

8

3.
$141

$447

4
7. 7
$237

659

235
35.7
$16

$40

100.0

$248

1

$89

$101

$133

75
11.4
$131

10

1.5
$169

46
7.0
$217

25
3.8
$307

16.7
$69

66

8

4.2
$576

0.5
$617

147
4.2
$739

339
9.7
$884

$1,028

90
5.7
$798

132
8.3
$970

/. 0
$1,037

30
24.6
$842

4.9
$1,352

2

0.3
$281

20

3
4.0
$604

11

10

1.3
$1,021

14.7
$834

13.3
$1,114

3
1.7
$699

7
3.9
$887

2

1

9
5.1
$392

9
5.1
$614
1

2

1.9
$538

3.8
$356

8

3

1.6

4.3
$404

8
1.2

2.1

$392

$478

14

6

5.9
$713

2.7
$351

$435

111

8

9
2.7
$421

4

240

6.8

2.4
$540

13
3.9
$289

2.2

5.9
$292

110

til

51
3.2
$472

Q.6
$637

4
7.7
$369

1
0.6

11

$154

118
3.4
$532

3
4.0
$285

2
0.6
$200

52

5
4.1
$609

20

3.2
$410

$328

5
6.7
$293

13
7.3
$246

46,
under
52

40,
under
46

39

2
1.6

6

4.9
$279

$193

7
9. 3
$103

32
18.0
$60

46
25.8
$19

5
1.5
$149

10
0.6

111

33,
under
39

$492
6

0.9
$563

13

15

17
5.0
$791

8

8.4

$872

4.5
$1,181

4
7.7
$656

19.2
$835

10

5.4
$728
71

2.0

10.8

$708

$832

10

5
2.7
$810
44
6. 7
$932

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas:
Number of employees.
Percent distribution___
Average year’s earnings..

All
general
factory
workers
reported

r

\

V

Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee:
Number of employees_________
Percent distribution_________
Average year’s earnings.......... .
Missouri:
Number of employees_________
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings_______
Los Angeles:
Number of employees..................
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings. ..............
San Francisco:
Number of employees............... _.
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings............... 1
Not computed; base less than 50.




!

1

V

’

f

Tf

36

7

7

4

2

1

$17

$75

$153

$238

$416

$647

100.0

175

21
12.0

$368

$15

30
17.1
$55

$126

3
1.7
$141

17
9.7
$206

16
9.1
$272

59

19
32.2

7
11.9
$117

1

1.7
$99

7
11.9
$299

$339

TV

f

1

$670

v

0)

100.0

$254

$11

8

13.6
$67

14

8.0

4

6.8

1
0.6

$456

13
7.4
$342

2

6

3.4
$454

1
0.6

$644

5

7

9
5.1
$695

29
16.6
$797

$987

5
8.5
$923

3.4
$1,128

$1,036

$991

1

2

1

2

1.7
$500

3.4
$362

1.7
$671

3.4
$542

41

5

6

2

5

4

1

3

$15

$73

$50

$252

$295

$481

$531

$422

2

3

$454

15

8.6

(?)

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

1

*

05
Oi

Table

Production area

New York City:
Number of employees..............—
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings------------Up-State New York and Connecticut
Number of employees.................
Percent distribution___________
Average year’s earnings------------Northern New Jersey:
Number of employees------ ------ Percent distribution----------------Average year’s earnings-----------Philadelphia and Trenton:
Number of employees—............ .
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings-----------Massachusetts:
Number of employees..................
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings-----------South Atlantic area:
Number of employees------ ------Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings-----------Texas:
Number of employees-------------Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings------------




All
nonpro­
ductive
workers
reported

Weeks worked in year

Under
4

8,
under
13

4,
under
8

349

3, 461

299

20,
under
26

14,
under

13

20

235

34

39

33,
under
39

27,
under
33

26

17
0.5
$942

156
4.5
$1,061

507
14.6
$1, 394

705
20. 4
$1, 601

51

$754

64
3.2
$900

9
0.5
$999

80
4.0
$1,172

280
14.1
$1,502

325
16. 4
$1,622

3
4.6
$703

1

11

1.5
$696

16.9
$1, 303

18
27. 7
$1, 597

6.8

1.0

$575

$893
20
1.0

2.6

$957
1

$32

$115

1,986

430
$35

224
11 3
$126

173
8.7

$710

$220

25
1.3
$306

151
7.6
$374

154
7.8
$641

5
7.7
$79

3
4.6
$217

1

1.5
$192

3
4.6
$306

10.8

$409

8

8
8.0

$38

$64

$131

3
3.0
$331

5
5.0
$394

$259

3
5 4
$162

1
1.8

$885

10 7
$47

3
5.4
$593

4
7.1
$318

3.6
$937

280

38

12

2

8

$711

15
5.4
$206

4.3
$371

0.7
$552

2.9
$427

3

1
2.0

6.0

1
2.0

$434

$30

1
2.0
$2,000

3

6.0

$849

$2. 890

5
5.9
$239

5
5.9
$416

3
3.5
$611

8.2

65

100.0

$793

12

18. 5

$20

100
100.0

$972
56

100.0

100.0

11.1

$27

$74

$169

10 0

4.0

10
11 8

6

9

100.0

$595

2

6.0

$802
85

31

12.1

50

100.0

34

$297

2

3.6
$137

$29

7.1

$112

10. 6
$112

0.7
$170

2

2.4
$176

7

1.5
$376
1
1.0
2

2

2.4
$681

52

128
3.7
$821

241
7.0
$350

$746

100.0

46,
under
52

107
3.1
$699

44
1.3
$303

8. G
$200

10.1

100.0

40,
under
46

4
4.0
$499

11
11.0

1
1.0

11
11.0

10
10.0

$729

$2,560

$939

$1,203

27
27.0
$2,114

3
5.4
$1,080

2

3.6
$532

3.6
$706

14
25.0
$1, 369

14
25.0
$1, 316

15
5.4
$792

20

7.1
$991

84
30.0
$1,617

2

18
6.4
$553

7

$617

1

0.4
$384

2

12

4.0
$530

24.0
$821

17
34.0
$1,177

5
5.9
$430

13
15.3
$1,278

18
21. 2
$1,039

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

All areas:
Number of employees------Percent distribution______
Average year’s earnings-----

C&
05

XXIV.—Average year’s earnings of nonproductive workers, by weeks worked and by area

V




385

81

40
10.4

100.0

21.0

$719

$26

$112

35
9.1
$173

28
7. 3
$330

$572

85

3
3.5
$27

5
5.9
$107

15
17.6
$209

5
5.9
$304

7.1
$461

$1,699

9
5.2
$142

9
5. 2
$197

7
4.1
$303

$523

5
4.0
$175

13
10. 5
$347

4.8
$592

7
9.6
$280

3
4.1
$473

4
5. 5
$399

100.0
$888

172

11

12

$917

6.4
$28

$111

16
12.9
$32

6.5
$104

100.0

124

100.0

$922
73

100.0

$810

16
21.9
$20

7.0
8

2

2.7
$107

24

6.2
6

2

T

1
1.2
1
0.6

6

8
2.1

1

20

1.8

$648

$799

0.3
$628

5. 2
$1,106

53
13.8
$1, 415

82
21. 3
$1, 593

3
3.5
$661

5
5.9
$856

2

2.4
$765

3
3.5
$1,045

16
18.8
$1,287

24. 7
$1,630

9
5.2
$583

3
1.7
$689

$524

7
4. 1
$675

32
18.6
$925

39. 5
$1,563

10
8.1

0.5
$504

3
2.4
$712

6

$696

29
23. 4
$1,581

17.7
$1,734

17
23. 3
$1, 380

9
12. 3
$1,520

$726
1

2

1.4
$1,024

2.7
$735

7

6
8.2

$1,090

1
0.6
2
1.6

4.8
$1,334
5

6.8

$1, 392

21

68

22

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

Illinois:
Number of employees...................
Percent distribution.....................
Average year's earnings________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee:
Number of employees...................
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings________
Missouri:
Number of employees_________
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings________
Los Angeles:
Number of employees_________
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings________
San Francisco:
Number of employees_________
Percent distribution__________
Average year’s earnings________

V

?

Oi

68

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Earnings by production area.

In New York City, sewing-machine operators employed 52 weeks
averaged $2,092, those working 46 and under 52 weeks $1,881. In no
other area did earnings even approximate these amounts. These
New York City operators were chiefly men. The Philadelphia area
paid to its operators for a year’s service $1,760, and the Cleveland
area $1,739. In northern New Jersey, however, operators employed
52 weeks earned but $1,388, those employed 46 and under 52 weeks
$981. In the New Jersey area, operators are largely women. Massa­
chusetts operators, also largely women, averaged $1,003 and $823 for
the respective periods of service. In Illinois 52 weeks’ work netted
operators $1,414 and work for 46 but less than 52 weeks $1,236. In
Missouri the average earnings for these periods of employment were
$1,322 and $1,142.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF GENERAL FACTORY LABORERS

As employees classed under the heading of general factory labor
may be doing widely varying jobs, comparison of earnings has little
value. However, as the number employed in this group is the third
largest in the industry, the earnings are of importance to the workers
and to the industry. In New York City $1,037 was the average
amount earned by those working 52 weeks, $970 being the average for
46 but less than 52 weeks. In the Cleveland area, where only a few
were employed in general capacities the year round, earnings were
exceptionally high. In Massachusetts 52-week workers earned $1,181,
and those at 46 and under 52 weeks $872. In Illinois the general
worker received $932 for full time and $832 for a few weeks less of
work. (Table XXIII.)
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF NONPRODUCTIVE STAFF

While a few of the higher-paid workers are included in this groupfourth largest in size—the chief groups are office workers and shipping
clerks. Twenty percent were paid for full time and averaged $1,601.
A large number, however, earned $1,000 but less than $1,500 as a
salary. The group on the pay roll 46 but under 52 weeks also had a
majority earning within this range, the average being $1,394.
New York City paid the 52-week workers in this group $1,622,
those working 46 and under 52 weeks $1,502. In Massachusetts
factories earnings for 52 weeks were $1,617, but for the shorter period
only $991. Office and other nonproductive workers in Illinois
averaged $1,593 for 52 weeks’ work and $1,415 for work for 46 and
under 52 weeks. In Missouri the earnings were $1,563 for the group
of full-time workers and $925 for those of somewhat less employment.
Earnings on the Pacific coast for the 52-week period were $1,520 in
San Francisco and $1,734 in Los Angeles. (Table XXIY.) _
The comparison of a year’s earnings in the several production areas
for all crafts combined, and considering as a year’s employment work
for 46 weeks and more, reveals that New York City craftsmen had
higher earnings on the whole than those employed anywhere else. No
area ranks second in amount earned in the case of every craft, though
the two Pacific coast cities always rank to the fore in each craft’s
earnings. In the Middle West, earnings usually are higher in Illinois



EARNINGS OP WORKERS

69

than in Missouri. The Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Detroit area
yields earnings to workers for 46 weeks or more that at times are
higher than those in the Missouri area. Massachusetts craftsmen
usually earn less than others in the same crafts on the Atlantic coast,
the Pacific coast, or in the Middle West.
DIFFERENCES IN HOURLY EARNINGS OF MILLINERY WORKERS

. After consideration is given to the difficulty of fixing piece rates to
yield the same earnings to individual craftsmen for services rendered
from week to week, the problem of attaining a similar ratio between
the earnings of workers and the value of their services to employers
from firm to firm and from area to area will be understood.
Problem of fixing piece rates for workers.

As women’s millinery is produced on an order basis, and as many
firms order only a few of any given hat and then reorder as the hat
meets with public approval, the different types of hat worked on in any
one week may be very many. Each hat may require somewhat dif­
ferent handling, and whenever work is paid on a piece-rate basis, piece
rates must be set for each operation on each hat. Wherever there is a
union contract, the basic hourly rates for “an average good worker”
are stated in the contract and the piece rates for each operation on
each hat are set to yield these amounts.
In each shop elected representatives of the workers and the shop
chairmen of the employers constitute a price committee to adjust
prices on each operation at a specific time each week. If this com­
mittee does not reach a satisfactory decision on the piece rates for each
craft on each pattern of hat, the matter is reported to the employers’
association and to the union, whose representatives attempt to settle
the matter. If these representatives fail, the impartial chairman is
called in; he is aided by one expert named by the employers’ associa­
tion and one expert designated by the union.
Complaints from trimmers are to the effect that the time neces­
sarily elapsing before a major dispute is settled redounds to the
advantage of the employer. They argue that when they first work on
a new style they are slow, and that speed is attained only when they
have made many hats of a given style. The organization committees
or impartial chairman consider the problem after they have attained
their speed, throwing the cost of acquiring speed upon them instead of
upon the employer. When trimmers in the same shop, in the same
week, work on hats for which they are paid as much as $6.92 a dozen
and as little as 15 cents a dozen, the variety of the work to be done and
the possibilities for errors of judgment in piece-rate fixing are obvious.
A minimum scale of week wages also is stated in contracts between
millinery associations and the United Hatters, Cap, and Millinery
Workers’ International Union. In San Francisco, all workers are
paid a weekly rate because the character and volume of the work are
largely on a fill-in basis and do not permit of attainment of speed.
In other localities cutters and general factory workers frequently are
paid on a time basis. Blockers usually work as a “corporation,”
that is, two, three, or four blockers pool their earnings, each getting a
specified amount for the week. Occasionally, where fabric hats are
an item of production, sewing-machine operators work as a “corpora­
tion.”



Table

XXV.—Average hourly output and earnings of trimmers, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by prevailing price of hat and by area

M

[Data reported by trimmers themselves]
Prevailing price of hat
Over $7.50, including $13.50

Over $13.50, including $24

Over $48

Over $24, including $48

Average hourly—
Average hourly—
Average hourly —
Average hourly—
Average hourly—
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
of em­
of em­
of em­
of em­
of em­
ployees Output Earn­ ployees Output Earn­ ployees Output Earn­ ployees Output Earn­ ployees Output Earn­
(hats)
ings
(hats)
ings
(hats)
(hats)
ings
(hats)
ings
ings
265
Up-State New York and Connecti­
cut__________________ ____
Northern New Jersey

20.42

$0.71

1,506

9.55

$0.68

611

162

22.15

.76

771

11.39

.77

306

6.85

13
48

22.87
20.14
2.17

.48
.72
.45

35
29

11.49
10.13

.52
.54

35

404
134
133

6.20

.59
.53
.55

28
140
80

11

South Atlantic area............... .. ..
Illinois __
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee.


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve— *____________ i_____
- Bank of St. Louis

l

13
14
4

3.86
10.33
20.49

.42
.47

.68

'

*

7.95

8.21

*

22

'

1,076

3.14

$0.77

471

1.20

$0.78

.80

748

3.37

.81

471

1.20

.78

7.69
4. 77
13.40
6.18

.54
.61
.39
.62

31

4.12

.58

297

2.28

.65

7. 53

.57

$0.68

7.19

A

A

A

l

A.

1

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

$7.50 and below
Production area

i.

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

71

Production variations.

It is not a usual practice among millinery firms to keep a record of
the number of each pattern of hat produced per employee in any given
period, nor to determine scientifically the labor cost on different hats.
In its efforts, therefore, to compare production rates of each craft
from firm to firm and from area to area, the Women’s Bureau re­
quested employees to keep a record for one week of the number of
hours worked each day, the number of hats made each day, the price
paid for each pattern of hat, and their total earnings for the week.
The week for which workers kept records was a busy one in the
spring of 1938—in most cases the week ending March 28—a week in
which the volume of work everywhere permitted of full application of
each worker to hat blocking, cutting, trimming, or sewing. Even
though all hats were being produced for the spring season, they varied
greatly in style and in the work involved in producing them. It was
not possible to secure a description of each hat produced. The price
range of hats was used as a general measurement of the probable work
on the hat, but in any price range the work done by any craftsman
may vary widely. This condition coupled with the situation that
made it necessary to have each worker keep his or her own record
throws doubt about the validity of comparison of output either from
firm to firm or from area to area. It must be viewed as different in
character from other material secured for this study.
Of the total number of workers who sent in production cards, 5,408
piece workers reported hours worked each day, amount produced and
amount earned. Others were paid on a time basis or did not give
complete information on volume of goods made.
Over 3,900 trimmers reported their production during this spring
week. The largest number were employed on hats wholesaling at
over $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen. The average output in
New York City was 1134 hats of this price an hour. It was a fraction
higher in northern New Jersey but fell to 6.2 hats in Illinois. Mis­
souri trimmers trimmed 8.2 such hats an hour and in the Cleveland
area the output was about 8 hats an hour.
In general, the cheaper the hat the greater the trimmers’ output,
the more expensive the hat the smaller the output. However, when
trimmers in the South Atlantic area report practically twice as many
hats trimmed of the over $13.50 and including $24 grade as are done
in New York City or Illinois, unquestionably the trimming involved
in that area must be very different from that elsewhere. When
Illinois trimmers of hats at $7.50 and below report only 3.86 hats
trimmed an hour, as compared with almost 23 an hour in the New
York State and Connecticut area, the figures must be indicative
largely of differences in the tasks.
That the large differences in output in the several areas indicate only
the wide variation in work done is borne out also by the variation in
volume produced by trimmers from firm to firm in the same city. On
the hats at over $7.50 and including $13.50 New York City trimmer
production is under 4 hats an hour in 12 firms and ranges up to
nearly 30 hats in 2 firms. In Illinois and Missouri the range on this
price of hat per firm is from less than 4 to nearly 12 hats per hour.




Table

XXVI.—Differences by firm in average hourly output and earnings of trimmers, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by prevailing price of hat and
by area

^

[Data reported by trimmers themselvesl

Production area and prevailing price of hat

Over $7.50, including $13.50------------- -------

New York City.... .................. --------- -------------------Over $7.50, including $13.50------------- ----------




--

Number of firms whose trimmers had average hourly output of—
4, under 5, under
6 hats
5 hats

Under
4 hats

15

314
47
130
45
64

108
9
48

3
7
5

231
35
89

79

10

12

5
34
28

48

2
21

18

1
6

6,

under 7, under
7 hats
8 hats

8,

under 9, under
9 hats 10 hats

14

14

9

16
1

11
1

6

8
6

4
4

13

7

1

6
1
2

7

4
1
2
1

4

12
1
2

10

7

1

2

5
4

4
5

5
3

5

2

3

1

1
1

42

23

15

14

1

1
1

1
2

3

2

2
2

3

1
2

1

1

1

5

1

1

1

3
3

1
1

1
1

1
1

5

4
4

2
1
1

2
1
1

1
1

1

2

2
2

2

1
1

1
1

4

18

10

1

3

7

10

23

1
1

4
4

1

10
2

2

1

2
2

16

1
1

1

1

19

10

2

4

6

3

7

29
19

51
5
42

2
1

6

18, under 24 hats
24 hats and over

54
5
44
5

1
6

1

5

21

10, under 11, under 12, under
18 hats
11 hats
12 hats

3

2
1

2
1
1

1

1
1

i

•

.

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Number
of firms
report­
ing

Number of firms whose trimmers had average hourly earnings of—
Production area and prevailing price of hat

Under 40, under 45, under 50, under 55, under 60, under 65, under 75, under 80, under 85, under 90, under 95 cents,
40 cents 45 cents 50 cents 55 cents 60 cents 65 cents 75 cents 80 cents 85 cents 90 cents 95 cents under $1
9
1

5
Over $48l_____________ _______________

2
1

12

4

8

1
1

3

1

1
1

1

25
3
15
4

2
1

3

1
2

1

6
2

22
1

9
5
4
3
10

34
7

57
9

9

7
15

30
7
9
4

10
6
2

35
5
15
3
9
3

33
4

28
5

5
8
6

4
4
3

42
7
15
5
9

30
4
13

28
3

28
5

14

12

8

5

6

3

6
6

4
4
3

3
3

1
1

1
1

3

4

20
6

I

3

1

2

2
1
1

1
1

1

1

1
1

2
1

4
4

8

5

3

11

3

2
1

6

2
2

4
3
1

12
2
6
2
1
1

23
3
7
3
7
3

12
2
6
2
1
1

23
3
7
3
7
3

1

2
1

1

1

9
3
3

2
8

1
1

1

1
1

15

1

8
2

1
2
2

8

12

1

3

1

4
3

1

1
1

3

10

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

2

9
3
4

and
over

$1

4

2
2

5
4
1

2

3

1
2

5

2

1
1
1

2
2

1
1

1
1

1

Some totals exceed details because, if only 1 firm reported, data are not shown separately.




CO

74

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Comparison of blockers’ productivity cannot be attempted from
blockers’ cards, as the differences indicate clearly that some must
have been helpers doing very minor operations, that others pressed
finished hats, and that others did the complete blocking operation.
It is believed that some reported “corporation” output as individual
output.
From this attempt to compare craft productivity in millinery
through individual production records, it is obvious that the hats
produced in the spring of 1938 were too varied to make such com­
parison valid. Comparison can only be valid when operations on the
same hats are timed from firm to firm and from area to area. Such
a condition did not exist, so timing would have to be done under
conditions purposely created for the experiment.
Earnings on hats of different prices.

It is important to note that in New York City efforts to give to the
average worker the same earning power regardless of the amount of
work on any hat achieved some success. Earnings of trimmers on
the cheapest hats averaged 76 cents an hour; on the hats next in
price 77 cents; and on the hats at over $48, 78 cents an hour. Hats
wholesaling at over $13.50 and including $24 a dozen, and at over
$24 and including $48 a dozen, brought hourly earnings of 80 and 81
cents, respectively. (See Table XXV.) Such a degree of uni­
formity in average earnings was not achieved by trimmers elsewhere.
In Illinois the few reporting on the cheapest hats made 42 cents an
hour; the mass reporting on trimming hats to sell at over $7.50 and
including $13.50 earned 59 cents an hour; on the hats at above $13.50
and including $24 earnings were 62 cents and on those in the next
price range they were 65 cents an hour. In Missouri the average
earnings on different-priced hats ranged from 55 to 68 cents an hour.
In San Francisco, where trimmers were paid an hourly rate, earnings
averaged 47 cents an hour.
Hourly earnings by production area.

As has been said, every effort is exerted in most of the organized
millinery shops to fix piece rates so that the yield to the worker will
be approximately the same regardless of the wide variation in work.
As records of hours worked are kept only in shops where the time­
work system prevails, an accounting of hourly earnings can be got
for piece workers only for the spring week in which these workers
kept a record of time worked each day. Consequently, hourly
earnings are based on the individual’s record rather than the firm’s
record, the only exception being Texas, where firm records of hours
were obtainable and the individuals’ records were not secured.
Workers’ records showed for each day the hour of beginning work,
the hour of stopping for lunch and of beginning again, and the quitting
hour. From these records total hours worked during the week by
each worker were computed in the Women’s Bureau office. Total
hours were divided into the total earnings the worker reported that
he or she received, except when overtime had been worked and an
overtime rate was paid. In such cases overtime and overtime pay




EARHINGS OF WORKERS

75

were deducted, in order that hourly earnings might represent the
period worked at regular rates. (Tables XXVII and XXVIII.)
Hourly earnings in a week in March 1938 were available for 7,525
workers in 434 millinery factories. These factories were situated in
all production areas but Los Angeles and Massachusetts. The repre­
sentation is adequate for all areas but the New York State and
Connecticut area, where wages are relatively high, and the South
Atlantic area, where wages are lower. Hourly earnings data from
these two areas are shown in the total distribution but not by
occupation.
Table XXVII shows the distribution of hourly earnings for all
workers by production area. Only 1 percent of the workers earned
less than 25 cents an hour; 2 percent earned under 30 cents an hour,
4 percent under 35 cents, and 6 percent under 40 cents an hour during a
week in March 1938. The largest proportion of workers earning under
40 cents were concentrated in Texas factories; here over three-fifths
earned less than 40 cents, one-fifth earned less than 25 cents. As Texas
records of hours and earnings were copied from firm pay rolls, the record
is not subject to the doubt that may be cast on any individual em­
ployee’s record-keeping. The spring week was not an especially busy
one in Texas, as much short-time employment was recorded durmg the
week.
The area with the second largest group earning under 40 cents an
hour was the South Atlantic area. While the number reporting is too
small to be considered representative of the region, the earnings are
indicative of the same conditions as are found in records of year’s
earnings and labor costs in other sections of the report. About onetenth of the employees earned less than 25 cents an hour and approxi­
mately one-third earned less than 40 cents. The other areas had only
small proportions earning less than 35 cents an hour, and had from
one-half of 1 percent to about 5 percent earning 35 and under 40
cents an hour.
_ The effect of time rates is clearly seen in the San Francisco distribu­
tion of earnings._ Here over half of the workers earned between 45
and 50 cents, which includes the union rate for trimmers and milliners
in this area, and 15 percent were paid between 60 and 65 cents, which
includes the union rate for sewing-machine operators.
_ Table XXVIII shows distribution for the three principal occupa­
tions. Only in Texas, the South Atlantic area, and Missouri did any
proportion of blockers, or blockers’ helpers, earn under 75 cents
an hour.
Trimmers’ hourly earnings were widely spread, but there were
marked concentrations in Missouri at 50 and under 60 cents, in Illinois
at 50 and under 65 cents, in the New Jersey area at 55 and under
65 cents, and in New York City at 60 cents and over. Operators’
earnings differed more in the several regions, though everywhere
but in Texas they were relatively high in this spring week.




Table

XXVII.—Hourly earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28, 1988, by area—all occupations

M

[Data reported by employees themselves]
All areas
Hourly earnings

J 7. 525

Total number of employees
Average hourly earnings—

Percent

100.0

Philadel­ South At­
phia and
lantic
Trenton
area

Texas

Illinois

Cleveland,
Detroit, Missouri San Fran­
and Mil­
cisco
waukee

4,162

71

285

211

76

349

1.232

367

570

202

$1.08
.896

$0. 909
.778

Median_______ _________________

Up-State
New York New York Northern
City
and Con­ New Jer­
sey
necticut

$0. 726
.592

$0. 718

$0.783
.719

$0. 524
.506

$0. 368
.356

$0. 784
.680

$0. 670
.652

$0. 732
.715

$0. 538
.485

19.8
10. 3
18.1
14. 6
17. 2
5. 2
4.9
3.7
1.4
4.0
.9

0. 2

0.8

0.4

0.5
.5
.5
11.9
53. 0
4.5

.688

Percent o] total employees

Under 25 cents............................... ........ _

85

1.1

30, under 35 cents_____ _____________

135
165
270
378
419
502
561
462
455
479
428
416
588
795
353
441
239
214
53
19

1.8
2. 2

66

50, under 55 cents
55, under 60 cents __________________
60, under 65 cents____________ _____ _
65, under 70 cents______ ____________
70, under 75 cents

$1,50, under $1.75
$2.00, under $2.50.____ ______________
$3.00, under $3.50__________________




2

1

.9

(2)

.4
.6

1. 5
3.3
4.8

6.1
6.0

6.1
6.0

10.6

4.7
5.9
3.2

6.4
7.0

6.8
6.2

9.2

12.6
6. 2

2.8

(2)

.7
.3

5.6

1.2

3.6
5.0
5.6
6.7
7.5
6.4
5. 7
5. 5
7.8

0. 2

t!)

9.8
4.8
5.1
1.3
.5

General factory included in total.

12.7
38.0
7.0

2.8

4.2
8.

5
7.0
5. 6
5.6
2.8

0.4
.4
2.5
1. 4
2.8
8.1
6.0

12.3

12.6

4.9
5.3

11.6
4. 6

9.8
8.1
8.1

1.4

0.5
.9
1.9
3. 8
33
4. 7
9.5
5.2

11.8
6.2

5.7

6.6

5.7
3.3
7.1
15.6

6.6

9. 2
10.5
7.9
5.3
6. 6
9.2

11.8

7.9
7.9
5.3

2.6

5.3
1. 3

2.6

1.3
5. 3

1.4

* Less than 0.05 percent.

.4

1.8

3. 2
4.4
6.4
8.7
9.7

10.8

7.4
6. 1
4.8
4. 5
4.6
6.4
10.7
4. 6
2. 3
2.9
.1

.5
1.4
4. 6
7.1
9. 5
8.4
9.5
7.6
11.7
8.4
5. 4
8. 2
6.0

5.4
2.7

1.6

.8

1.1

2. 3
6.1
6.1

10.7
8.9
7.2
4.7
8.4
9.6
4.9
5.8
10.7

11.2
1.8

2.0

14.9
1.5
.5

2.0

4.0
2. 5
1.0
1.0

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Number
of em­
ployees

Table

XXVIII.—Hourly earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by area—blockers, trimmers, operators
[Data reported by employees themselves)

137582

All areas i
Hourly earnings

Number of
employees

Percent

New York Northern
City
New Jersey

Philadel­
phia and
Trenton

Texas

Illinois

Cleveland,
Detroit,
and Mil­
waukee

Missouri

San
Francisco

BLOCKERS
983

100.0

$1. 56
1.49

585
$1. 92
1.95

23

40

75
.469

m

(2)

134
1. 46

41

47

17

EARNINGS OE WORKERS

Total number of employees____________
Average hourly earnings—
Mean.. ________ _____ _______ .
Median............................. .............

.931

Percent of total employees

Under 25 cents.................................................................
25, under 30 cents___ ... ...
30, under 35 cents,..___ ______ ____
35, under 40 cents.......... ........ ........... ... _ _
40, under 45 cents_ _______ ____ ____
_
45, under 50 cents_ _ _____________________
_
50, under 55 cents........................... .......... ..
55, under 60 cents_ ...
_
...___ _.
60, under 65 cents__ ... ______________
65. under 70 cents..............................
70, under 75 cents__________ . ...
75 cents, under $1.00_______ ____ ___

8
122

$1.25, under $1.50________
$1.50, under $1.75_____________ _________________
$1.75, under $2.00______ _______________
$2.00, under $2.50....... ...... .............. .........................
$2.50, under $3.00______ _____ __________ ...
$3.00, under $3.50_____________________
$3.50 and over___... ______________ _____ _

152
115
95
116
204
53
19
32

See footnotes at end of table.




3
5
9

0.3
.5
.9

14

1.4

10
10

4.0

6. 7
12.0

1.0
1.0

10. 7

12.0
12.0
8.0

10
11

1.0
1.1

18

1.8
.8

.2

12.4
15. 5
11. 7
9.7

1. 3

.7

11.8
20.8

5.4
1.9

.2

0.3

10.8

11.5
13.3
34.7
9.1
3.2
.3

8.7
78. 3
8.7

30 0
25.0
5.0

2.1
2.1

4.0
18.7
4.0

4. 3

2.1

4. 9

19.4
.7

|

14.6
7,3

6l

4

5. 9

Table

XXVIII.—Hourly earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by area—blockers, trimmers, operators—Continued

M

[Data reported by employees themselves]
All areas
Hourly earnings

Percent

New York Northern
City
New Jersey

Philadelphia and
Trenton

Texas

Illinois

Cleveland,
Detroit,
and Milwaukee

Missouri

San
Francisco

TRIMMERS
Total number of employees.
Average hourly earnings—
Mean_________ ____________
Median_________________

4,723

100.0

2,837

159

95

157

871

160

224

151

$0. 794
.777

$0. 700
.673

$0. 596
.591

$0. 553
.541

$0. 347
.352

$0. 618
.603

$0. 515
.500

$0. 565
.550

$0.477
.473

0. 3

1 9
1.3
3. 1

0.9

0.7
.7
.7
15.9
70.9

Percent of total employees

g'SS

Under 25cents____ . ............
25, under 30 cents_______ _____________ _________
30, under 35 cents... _ .. ___
35, under 40 cents__ _____________
40, under 45 cents_____ _______________
.. _
45, under 50 cents___________________ _
50, under 55 cents____ _____________
55, under 60 cents .. _ .. ______ ___________ .
60, under 65 cents___________ . ...
65, under 70 cents____________
75 cents, under $1.00___________________ _
$1.00, under $1.25.
_________ ________
$1.25, under $1.50_________________________ ______
$1.50, under $1.75____________________




42
48
97
140

222

347
375
451
468
371
358
1,372
368
50
14

0.9
1.0
2.1

3.0
4.7
7.3
7.9
9.5
9.9
7.9
7. 6
29.1
7.8
1.1

.3

(4)

0.3

.6
1.0
1.8

2.3
4.9
6.9

8.8
8. 7

9.1
41.1
12.3
1.7
.5

0.6
.6

1.1
2.1

4.4
2.5
5.0
13.8

4.2
8.4
7.4
9.5

8.2

21.1

18.2
18.9
6.9
5. 0
14. 5
1.3

9.5
15.8
6.3
6. 3
8.4

18. 5
13.4
17.2

21.0

19.1
3.2
4.5
2.5
.6

.6

2.5
4.6

6.1

9.1
12.3
13.5
14.8
9. 8
7 6
2.1
.1

10.0

14.4
19.4
13.8
15. 6
7.5
5. 6
3 1

2.2

4.5
10.3

12.1
20. 1

17.4

6.0

1.3

11.2

2.0

10.3

L3

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Number of
employees

1

V

r

J

▼

T

OPERATORS
Total number of employees______ _ _
Average hourly earnings—
Mean .
Median______ _________________

1,757

100.0

735

103

76

64

227

166

295

34

$1.54
1.57

$1.12
1.04

$0. 879
.871

$0,879
.807

$0.377
.370

$1.02
.993

$0,727
.713

$0.827
.792

$0. 646
(2)

0.4

0.6
1.8

.4

6.0

0.3
.7
3.7
2.4
4.7
3.7
5.1
5.1
11.9
40.4
19.7
2.4

5.9
79.4

Percent of total employees
11

0.6

5

.3
1.3
.5

22

9
35
17
34
40
85
73

88

414
271
188
332
123
10

2.0
1.0

1.9
2.3
4.8
4.2
5.0
23.6
15.4
10.7
18.9
7.0
.6

0.3
.1
.4
.7
5.2

11.0

19.9
44.5
16.6
1.4

3.9
5.8
5.8
2.9
4.9
54.4
18.4
3.9

1.3
2.6

13.2
9.2
7.9
36.8
22.4
5.3
1.3

Includes Up-State New York and Connecticut, and South Atlantic area, not shown separately.
* Not computed; base too small.
1




12.5
3. 1
31.3
7.8
28. 1
6.3
6.3
4.7

1.8
2.6

4.0
42.3
37.0
10.1

2.4
5.4

9.6
20. 5
14.5
36.0
3.0

.9
.4
3 Actually $3 51 and $3 64
4 Less than 0.05 percent. '

8.8

2.9
2.9

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

Under 25 cents.........................
25, under 30 cents.........
30, under 35 cents..........
35, under 40 cents...
40, under 45 cents______
45, under 50 cents....... .............
50, under 55 cents_______ . _______
55, under 60 cents___ ...
.
60, under 65 cents.___ _______ ... ________
65, under 70 cents________ __________ ...
70, under 75 cents_____________ _________
75 cents, under $1.00___ _______
$1.00, under $1.25.._ ____________
$1.25, under $1.50_________ _________ _____
$1.50, under $1.75_______________ _______ .
$1. 75, under $2.00_______________________
$2.00, under $2.50. __ .......................................................

^4

<D

Table XXIX.—Week's earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28> 1938, by occupation and by area 1
A. BLOCKERS
Number and percent of blockers reporting hours worked
Total»

Under 35
hours

Over 35, under
40 hours

35 hours

Over 40, under
44 hours

40 hours

44 hours

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

585
Total number of blockers2
100.0
$77.15
Median..............................- - 75.90

100.0

88
15.0
$48. 60
45.60

100.0

201
34.4
$62.95
'60.15

100.0

14
2.4
$67.85

2
4
1
13
3
15
82
17
22
11
25
33
37
40
47
24
53
21
33
18
19
21
20
24

.3
.7
.2
2.2
.5
2.6
14.0
2.9
3.8
1.9
4.3
5.6
6.3
6.8
8.0
4.1
9.1
3.6
5.6
3.1
3.2
3.6
3.4
4.1

2
4
1
12
3
7
12
9
9
4
2
7
11

2.3
4.5
1.1
13.6
3.4
8.0
13.6
10.2
10.2
4.5
2.3
8.0
12.5

5

5.7

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Num­
ber

45
7.7
$83.05
81.75

100.0

10
1.7
$87.00

3
1
9
2
6
6
4
2
5

6.7
2.2
20.0
4.4
13.3
13.3
8.9
4.4
11.1

1

Per­
cent

Per­
cent

6

Num­
ber

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Per­
cent

Over 44, under 50 hours and
50 hours
over
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

74
12.6
$93. 35
91.45

100.0

128
21.9
$103.45
107.35

100.0

8
4
15
3

6.3
3.1
11.7
2.3

17
1
14
6
16
12
19
13

13.3
.8
10.9
4.7
12.5
9.4
14.8
10.2

Per­
cent

New York City (.117 firms)

$40, under $45 - ------------------------------

$65, under $70________ ____-........ -........
$80, under $85

i

.5

8
67
7
13
4
13
6
10
17
13
12
11
2
10
2
3

4.0
33.3
3.5
6.5
2.0
6.5
3.0
5.0
8.5
6.5
6.0
5.5
1.0
5.0
1.0
1.5

1
1

.5
.5

25
4.3
$100.35

3

1

1
6

11
5
2

7

6

8.1

13.3

10
1
3
3
23
4
9
4

13.5
1.4
4.1
4.1
31.1
5.4
12.2
5.4

2.2

8

10.8

3

3
1

4.1

2

7

Teras {16 firms)
75

100.0
Median................................ .




100.0

14
18.7
$20.45

25
33.3

18.50
—

1
1.3.

—

1
1.3

14
18.7
$21.50

20
26.7
$26.30

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Week’s earnings

^

t

v------ ’

r------ -

r

T

Under $10............ ..................... ......... . .
$10, under $15_______ _______________
$15, under $20......... .................. .................
$20, under $25
$25, under $30._____ ______________
$30, under $50..................................... .

11
13
17
11
17
6

14.7
17.3
22.7
14.7
22.7
8.0

11
7
4
3

2
5
1
6

1

1
6
2
4
1

1

2
2
4
7
5

Illinois (27 firms)

$25, under $30
$30, under $35
$35, under $40
$40, under $45
$50, under $55..........................................

$70, under $75_________

______

....

$85, under $90.......................................

100.0

18
13.4
$37.55

9
3
2
9
19
12
13
3
8
40
12
4

6.7
2.2
1.5
6.7
14.2
9.0
9.7
2.2
6.0
29.9
9.0
3.0

9

9
6.7
$42.50

7
5.2

1
1
2
5

100.0

2
7

44
32.8
$70.05
73.40

4.5

1

2.3

4

1
1
6

1
0.7

9.1

29
7
1

65.9
15.9
2.3

1

1

1
0.7

51
38.1
$63. 25
64.25

100.0

5

1

9.8

11
9
2
6
11
4
3

21.6
17.6
3.9
11.8
21.6
7.8
5.9

3
2.2

1
1
1

Missouri (12 firms)

47
100.0
$43. 95
45.25
$20, under $25.___

.

... ____

_

$35, under $40
$50, under $55.............................. ............

100.0

7
14.9

3
3
3
4
10
8
10
4
2

6.4
6.4
6.4
8.5
21.3
17.0
21.3
8.5
4.3

3
1
3

1 The week’s earnings include regular pay and overtime pay.
2 Percents and medians not computed on very small numbers.




8
17.0

32
68.1
$47.90

8

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

134
100.0
$59.75
61.50

Average 3—Mean_____

2
3
1
2
8
10
4
2

2 Means and medians computed on unpublished data ($1 intervals).

00

Table

XXIX.—Week’s earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 88, 1988, by occupation and by area—Continued
B. OPERATORS
Number and percent of operators reporting hours worked
Total 1
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Under 35
hours
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

35 hours
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Over 35, under
40 hours
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Over 40, under
44 hours

40 hours
Num­
ber

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Per­
cent

44 hours
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Over 44, under 50 hours and
50 hours
over
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

99
13.5
$77. 20
80. 50

100.0

203
27.6
$89.20
90. 30

100.0

i.o
2.0
8. 1
5. 1
7. 1
11. 1
14. 1
20.2
29.3
2.0

1
1

.5
.5

1
2
8
5
7
11
14
20
29
2

6
23
5
16
35
10
27
23
24
32

3.0
11.3
2.5
7.9
17.2
4.9
13.3
11.3
11.8
15.8

New York City (138 firms)

137
18 6
$31. 80

56.50

$105; under $125.........................................

6
15
33
44
34
37
41
33
124
30
50
42
31
55
39
29
23
24
32

1
1 6
.8
2.0
4 5
6 0
4. 6
5.0
5. 6
4.5
16.9
4.1
6.8
5.7
4. 2
7 5
5. 3
3.9
3. 1
3. 3
4.4

100. 0

1
12
6
12
30
28
13
21
6
8

.7
8 8
4.4
8.8
21.9
20. 4
9. 5
15. 3
4. 4
5. 8

188
25. 6
$50. 50
55. 20

100. 0

3
2
9
11
12
24
15
102
6
2
2

1.6
1.1
4. 8
5. 9
6. 4
12. 8
8.0
54. 3
3.2
1. 1
1. 1

30
4. 1
$47.10

1
5
2
3
6
3
8
2

8
1.1

63
8.6
$62. 95
67. 40

100.0

7
1.0

2
4

3.2
6.3

2

3
1
6
9
14
23
1

4.8
1.6
9.5
14.3
22.2
36.5
1.6

1
4
1
1
1

1
1
3

Texas (15 firms)

100.0
$17.00
Median............. ..................... 16.55




100.0

14.1

5
7.8

7
10.9

3
4.7

13
20.3
$18. 65

27
42.2
$19.60

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Week’s earnings

*

Under $10____________________
$10, under $15____________________
$15, under $20
$20, under $25
$25, under $35.............................................

6
16
26
10
6

9.4
25.0
40.6
15.6
9.4

▼

5
4

1
1
4

3
2
V
Illinois (24 firms)

Total number of operators!.. ...
227
Percent distribution, by hours
100.0
Average8—Mean__________________ $41.80
Median ...
41.30
2
3
17
20
24
36
35
25
20
36
6
3

29
12.8
$24. 55

.9
1.3
7.5
8.8
10.6
15.9
15.4
11.0
8.8
15.9
2.6
1.3

2
2
16
4
3
1
1

11
4.8
$31. 05

36
15.9
$37. 25

10
4. 4
$34. 20

13
5.7
$37, 60

8
3 5

120
52 9

100.0

48.65
1
2
7
1

1
8
8
9
4
1
5
1

1
7
1

2.5
Missouri (19 firms)

Total number of operators J_____
295
Percent distribution, by hours........... _. 100.0
Average 3—Mean
$40.05
Median________________ . 40.55
Under $10 __________ ____________
$10, under $15____________ _____
$15, under $20_____________ ..
$20, under $25_________
$25, under $30
$30, under $35
$35, under $40
$40, under $45______ ____________
$45, under $50. .. ......... ............. ............
$50, under $55._________ _________ ...
$55, under $60__________________
$60, under $65
$65, under $80................................ ...........

3
1
16
14
27
37
43
54
34
27
26
7
6

100.0

10
3.4
$14. 80

7
2.4

2
0.7

11
3. 7
$26.60

1
0.3

40

200

100.0

$37. 70
42. 65

1.0
.3
5.4
4.7
9.2
12.5
14.6
18.3
11.5
9.2
8.8
2.4
2.0

3
1
3
2
1

2 Percents and medians not computed on very small numbers.




24
8.1
$30.20

2
2
8
6
5
1

5

1

1
1

1

4

1

6
3 Means and medians computed on unpublished data ($1 intervals).

3.0

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

$10, under $15________
... ___ ...
$15, under $20_______ ______ ________
$20, under $25
$25, under $30______________ ...
$30, under $35
$35, under $40.___ ________ ________
$40, under $45______ ____________
$45, under $50..
$50, under $55...
...
$55, under $60______
... ___
$60, under $65 _____________________
$65, under $90______________________

100.0

Table

XXIX.—Week’s earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by occupation and by area—Continued

00
^

C. TRIMMERS

Number and percent of trimmers reporting hours worked
Week’s earnings

Total s

Under 35
hours

Over 35, under
40 hours

35 hours

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

2,837
100 0
$20 35
Median________
___ 28.55
7
48
214
354
$20, under $25---------------------------448
$25, under $30 _______________ _____
497
433
$30, under $35
$35, under $40
328
$40, under $45
243
125
92
$55| under $80.........................................
48

100.0

1,087
38.3
$20 35
19.75
7
45
203
305
267
154
86
11
3
5
1

100.0

299
10. 5
$28.30
28.10

100.0

373
13.1
$32. 75
32. 45

100.0

1
5
22
65
92
68
34
10

.3
1.7
7.4
21.7
30.8
22.7
11.4
3.3

1
1

.3
.3

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Over 40, under
44 hours

44 hours

Over 44, under 50 hours and
50 hours
over

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

323
11.4
$34.45
34.00

100.0

65
2.3
$46. 00
52. 20

100.0

440
15.5
$37.85
37.30

100.0

207
7.3
$39.95
40. 25

100.0

1
4
9
24
61
73
50
76
13
9
3

.3
1.2
2.8
7.4
18.9
22.6
15.5
23.5
4.0
2.8
.9

4
4
4
7
1
3
41
1

6.2
6.2
6.2
10.8
1.5
4.6
63.1
1.5

2
6
26
68
69
100
77
52
15
25

.5
1.4
5.9
15.5
15.7
22.7
17.5
11.8
3.4
5.7

1
16
18
30
35
39
36
17
15

.5
7.7
8.7
14.5
16.9
18.8
17.4
8.2
7.2

Num­
ber

New York City {253 firms)

Total number of trimmers *

2
1. 7
7.5
12.5
15.8
17.5
15.3
11.6
8.6
4. 4
3.2
1.7

.6
4.1
18. 7
28.1
24.6
14.2
7.9
1.0
.3
.5
.1

1

2.9
11.0
24.1
23.6
22.3
9.7
3.8
1.9
.5

100.0

.3

11
41
90
88
83
36
14
7
2

43
1.5
$33.40
31.65

5
10
15
8
1
2
1
1

11.6
23.3
34.9
18.6
2.3
4.7
2.3
2.3

Northern New Jersey {11 firms)

100.0
$24 55
23.80
25
52
31
20
11
4

9 4
15 7
32. 7
19. 5
12. 6
6. 9
2.5

8. 8
$22.95

1
7
7
3
2

3
1. 9

35
22.0
$23.20

3
1.9

22
13.8
$33.25

27
17.0
$28.95

2
2
4
5
1

12 6
$16. 50

35
22.0
$22.55
2
8
16
4
5

2
1

4
2
19
7
3

1
1
1

2
3
3
3
7
4

1
5
10
7
4

1
1.1

15
15.8
$33. 95

6
6.3

Philadelphia and Trenton {6 firms)

95
100 0
$19 65
Median.................................... 18.25




100. 0

50
52. 6
$13. 95
15.50

100 0

19
20.0
$20. 50

1
1.1

3
3.2

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Num­
ber

40 hours

Under $5....... ................................... .........

6
8
14
32
9
10
9
5
2

6.3
8.4
14.7
33.7
9.5
10.5
9.5
5.3
2.1

6
8
9
23
3
1

100.0

12.0
16.0
18.0
46.0
6.0
2.0

34
21. 7
$6. 55

2

3
7
5
3
1

1

1

1

1

2
2
1

3
6
4
2

Texas (15 firms)

100.0
$14 15
Median________ _____ — 14. 65

19. 7
28. 7
28.0
15.3
1. 9

5
3.2

48
30.6
$17. 50
18. 35

100.0

35
22.3
$16. 95

2
15
1

9
21
4

17
10.8
$15. 75
1
3
2
8
3

1
3
1

1
10
25
11
1

2.1
20.8
52.1
22.9
2.1

3
11
9
10
2

Illinois (42 firms)

100.0
Median. ............................... -

17.90
67
215
261

7.7
24.7
30.0

63
31
8
3
5

7.2
3.6
.9
.3
.6

160
100.0

100.0

80.1
$16. 65
16.50

100.0

4
6/
208
227
149
32
10
1

.6
9. 6
29.8
32.5
21. 3
4.6
1.4
.1

146
91.3
$15 05
14.05

6.3
$24.55
23. 20

100.0

2
7
25
9
10
2

100.0

69
7.9
$25.10
23.90

100.0

4
0.5

3.6
12.7
45.5
16.4
18. 2
3. 6

3
16
22
15
5
3
1
4

4.3
23.2
31.9
21. 7
7.2
4. 3
1.4
5.7

1
2
1

23
2.6
$22.60

7
9
4
3

22
2.5
$28.40

1
2
8
3
3
2
2
1

EARNINGS OF WORKERS

10
31
45
44
24
3

18
11. 5
$12. 90

Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (7 firms)

Median.................. ............ . 14.30

a Percents and medians not computed on very small numbers.




3
1.9

7
4.4

1
0.6

3
1.9

■
3 Means and medians computed on unpublished data C$1 intervals).
00
Or

Table

XXIX.— Weeks earnings of individual employees, week of Mar. 28, 1938, by occupation and by area—Continued

00

05

C. TRIMMERS—Continued
Number and percent of trimmers reporting hours worked
Total2

Under 35
hours

Over 35, under
40 hours

35 hours

40 hours

Over 40, under
44 hours

44 hours

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

1
19
76
33
21
10

.6
11.9
47.5
20.6
13.1
6.3

1
18
73
29
15
10

.7
12.3
50.0
19.9
10.3
6.8

Total number of trimmers 2
224
Percent distribution, by hours...... ......... 100.0
Average 3—Mean
___ ______ .
$21.80
22.10

100.0

63
28.1
$15.45
15.05

100.0

1
5
27
55
58
59
19

.4
2.2
12.1
24.6
25.9
26.3
8.5

1
5
25
21
7
4

1.6
7.9
39.7
33.3
11.1
6.3

Total number of trimmers 2...........
151
Percent distribution, by hours
100.0
Average 3—Mean........ ...... .......... ......... $17.85
Median___ ___ __________ 18. 75

100.0

27
17.9
$12. 60

.7
5.3
6.6
73.5
13.9

1
8
7
11

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Over 44, under 50 hours and
50 hours
over
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (7 firms)—Continued

Under $5________ __ _________ .
$5, under $10..............................................
$10, under $15_____ ___ _________
$15, under $20
$20, under $25____ _________________
$25, under $35______ ______________

1
1
1

2
3
2

1
2

1

Missouri (18 firms)

Under $5......... ......... ................................
$5, under $10_______ ____________ ___
$10, under $15
$20, under $25__________ ________ ___
$25, under $30___ ______ _
____
$30, under $45............................... .............

34
15.2
$24. 75

5
2.2

9
6
14
5

4
i

49
21.9
$21. 20
21.70

100.0

2
15
26
6

4.1
30.6
53.1
12.2

14
6.3
$23.35

23
10.3
$25.40

36
16.1
$28.35

3
6
4
1

3
6
12
2

7
18
11

San Francisco (12 firms)

Under $5
$5, under $10_________________ ____
$10, under $15___ __________________
$15, under $20_______________ __
$20, under $30

1
8
10
111
21

s Percents and medians not computed on very small numbers.




3
2.0

106
70.2
$18.65
18. 75

100.0

1
2

2
97
7

1.9
91.5
6.6

2
1.3

13
8.6
$22.25

2

1
12

* Means and medians computed on unpublished data ($1 intervals).

Per­
cent

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Week8s earnings

V. OPERATING COSTS OF MILLINERY
MANUFACTURE
Under what conditions is millinery produced most advantageously
today? How are costs distributed under different producing con­
ditions, on differently priced hats, and with different volume? Answers
to these questions are sought in the analysis of costs distribution
contained in tables XXX to XXXVII.
The factory accountant or the traveling auditor employed was
consulted in the case of each firm and his statement of 1937 operating
costs was secured. His allotments under each item were discussed
and broken down into component parts to clarify costs when necessary.
Only when this statement was not obtainable were all cost compilations
made from firms’ books by Women’s Bureau agents. When there
were no books, no attempt was made to secure data from firm members’
check- or notebooks, as these contained personal as well as firm expen­
ditures.
As the executive duties in a millinery establishment usually are
carried by firm members, administrative withdrawals of firm members
are not shown in tables on operating costs but appear separately on
employers’ earnings tables. The earnings of firm members who under­
took regularly specific manufacturing or sales functions have been
allotted, however, to the cost of the specific work done.
Major departmental costs.

Operating costs are divided into manufacturing costs, selling costs,
office and shipping and administrative costs exclusive of employers'
withdrawals, financial expenses, and depreciation.
Manufacturing costs comprise the cost of labor entering into hat
production, including designers, foremen, production workers, and
general helpers; all hat materials bought during the year plus or minus
inventory differences at beginning and end of 1937, purchasing
discounts, and express on incoming goods; block and die costs and
cost of other equipment adjustment and repair; cost of electricity,
gas, water, steam; rent; and workmen’s compensation and fire insur­
ance. In only two cases did a millinery factory own its building; as
these were too few to warrant separate tabulation, they have been
included with the group and notation made of any effect on rentals,
repairs, taxes, insurance, and maintenance labor. In several cases
millinery firms have a block-and-die foundry; the entire cost of blocks
and dies made is charged against blocks and dies, as is the cost of these
articles when they are purchased.
Selling costs comprise salaries or drawing accounts of salesmen;
commissions paid to salesmen, to resident buyers, and others; costs
of entertaining and traveling; costs of model displays, showroom, and
advertising.
Financial expenses comprise interest on loans, bank charges, credit
service charges (often included in association dues), cost of collections,




87

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

88

debts written off in 1937, insurance carried for the business by firm
members, and taxes of all kinds.
_
Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs include the labor costs of
these departments, packing supplies, outgoing shipping costs and
delivery, carfares, telephone and telegraph charges, postage, and
office supplies and sundries. Depreciation is the amount allotted for
depreciation on the firm’s 1937 income-tax returns. _
_
The cost of manufacturing millinery as reported in detail by 451
firms in all production areas covered by the survey appears in table
XXX. These firms had businesses in 1937 varying in sales from less
than $50,000 to over $500,000. Manufacturing costs were 84.3 per­
cent of the total; selling costs 6.8 percent; office, shipping, and sundry
expenses 6.7 percent; and financial expenses about 2 percent.
Table

XXX.'—Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to services
rendered by firm members—all areas

Total expense of
all firms
Classification of accounts

Amount
Total costs—................ ..................... $51, 206,771

Percent

Total expense of
firms employing
persons in all
major capacities
except adminis­
trative
Amount

100.0 $15,281,150

Percent

Amount

Percent

100.0 $35,925, 621

100.0

1.6

30,170,109
10,707, 711
17, 398, 539
43,183
542, 340

83.7
29.7
48.3
.1
1.5

.9
.9
2.0
.4

222,143
330, 599
783, 485
142,109

.6
.9
2.2
.4

921,857
693,803
75,798
152, 256

6.0
4.5
.5
1.0

2,544,947
1,946, 534
141,171
457, 242

7.1
5.4
.4
1.3

6.7
2.5
.3
2.1
.4
.6
.8

1, 058,518
398,417
35,347
382,204
49,464
91,862
101,224

6.9
2.6
.2
2.6
.3
.6
.7

2, 378,493
889, 578
117,279
696, 596
142,481
235,427
297,131

6.6
2.5
.3
1.9
.4
.7
.8

43,150,062
15,300,440
Hat materials---- ------ ----------- ----- 24,914,089
43,183
Special material buying costs.-------781,007
Blocks and dies----------------------------Other factory supplies and equip­
364, 553
ment repairs---- ------------ ------------460,715
Electricity, gas, water, steam. _ _
1,087,737
198,338
Factory and supply insurance
...

84.3
29.9
48.7
.1
1.5

12,979,953
4, 592, 729
7,515, 551

84.9
30.1
49.2

238, 667

.7
.9
2.1
.4

142, 410
130,116
304, 252
56,229

3,466,804
2, 640,337
216,969
609,498

6.8
5.2
.4
1.2

3,437,011
1,287,996
152, 626
1,078,800
191,944
327, 289
398, 356

Manufacturing costs—total..................... .

Selling costs—total--------- -- --------------Salaries and commissions........ ...........
Advertising---------------------------------Traveling and entertaining-------------Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—
Salaries
Legal, audit, and other special services.
Office, packing supplies, printing. _ _.
Telephone and telegraph Expressage, parcel post, and carfare. _
Sundries--------------------- ------------ -

Total expense of
firms whose
members served
as foremen, sales,
or office workers

Financial expenses—total
Credit service and association dues _ _.
Collections
Interest.-------- ----------------------------Bad debts...............................................
Taxes:
Old age-------- ---------- ------------Unemployment----------- ----------Other State, city, Federal---------Life and accident insurance-------------

974, 561
75, 568
3, 796
98, 361
144,293

1.9
.1
(0
.2
.3

279,225
15,671
1,742
25,739
41,470

1.8
.1
(')
.2
.3

695, 336
59,896
2,054
72, 622
102,824

195,361
370,630
76,207
10,345

.4
.7
.1
c)

56, 725
110,688
23,224
3,966

.4
.7
.2
«

138, 636
259,942
52,984
6, 379

Depreciation.................................................

178,334

.3

41,598

.3

136,736

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

1.9
.2

(0

(>)

.2
.3
.4
.7
.1
.4

.

The major item in manufacturing costs, in fact, in all costs, is hat
materials, which include not only bodies, braids, fabrics, trimmings,
thread, elastic, varnish, sizing, wire, and labels, but expressage and
special material-buying costs. These formed 48.7 percent of the en­
tire costs for all firms reporting. Direct and indirect manufacturing



OPERATING COSTS

89

labor costs ranked second, being 29.9 percent of the total costs. These
two items, materials and labor, comprised 78.7 percent of the total
cost of manufacturing hats. Other items chargeable to manufactur­
ing cost totaled 5.6 percent, of which rent was much the largest
amount, and blocks and dies the second largest amount.
In selling costs, the service of selling was the largest item, or 5.2
percent of all operating costs. Traveling and entertaining were 1.2
percent and advertising was less than one-half of 1 percent.
Under office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs, salaries again were
the major expense. The salaries to employees, plus amounts paid to
auditors or accountants, and for legal or other intermittent service,
comprised 2.8 percent of total production costs. Miscellaneous
supplies followed with 2.1 percent.
The principal financial expense was taxes, the amount paid to city,
county, State, and Federal governments being 1.2 percent of total
costs. Under interest, apparently only bank or personal loans were
included, as the amount is slight—but 0.2 percent—compared to the
use of other credit facilities. Depreciation was charged off at 0.3
percent of total cost.
LABOR COSTS

How did the cost of labor in relation to total costs of production
vary under different conditions? In determining total labor costs,
withdrawals of employers who helped in various sections of the factory
from time to time have not been included, as it is impossible to allot
such divided services with any accuracy. However, when an em­
ployer spent his entire time on one function, regardless of what that
function was, and his withdrawals for such services were recorded,
these sums have been allotted to the cost of the particular service.
All other firm-member withdrawals are considered as a part of ad­
ministrative costs. To gage the importance of employers’ services
not capable of division, separate cost tabulations have been made of
firms employing persons for all purposes other than administrative
duties and for those whose officers served as foremen, salesmen, or
office workers.
For 451 millinery factories reporting detailed costs of operation, all
labor costs chargeable against manufacturing, including cost of
designing and direct supervision, represented 29.9 percent. Selling
costs, paid on a salary or a commission basis or on both, formed 5.2
percent of costs. Office and shipping clerks’ salaries were 2.5 percent
of the total, with 0.3 percent being paid out for auditing of books, legal
service, or other special services. In all, therefore, about 38 percent
of the millinery industry’s expenditure is made for service of some
kind other than administrative.
Except in selling, labor costs were affected little by the policy of
hiring persons for all services but administrative, or by the policy of
using firm members in selling, in office work, or as foremen and
designers. This may be seen in table XXX. When members sold
goods regularly, firms raised the proportionate cost of this service to
themselves by nine-tenths of a point. Consequently, a separation of
costs by firm-member participation or lack of participation in operat­
ing functions was not continued in the tabulation of costs in the
several areas.



Table

XXXI.—Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to prevailing price of hat—all areas

CO

©

Prevailing price of hat
Above $7.50, in­
cluding $13.50

Above $13.50, in­
cluding $24

Amount

Amount

Amount

Total costs_______ _________________________________ ______ $9,046,493
Manufacturing costs—total___
___ ____ _____ ____
7,719, 901
Direct:
Labor____ ____________ __________ ____________________ _ 2,243,613
Hat materials_______________
4,870, 830
Special material buying costs_________________ _____________
5,302
Indirect:
Labor_______________________ ____ _
142, 706
Blocks and dies___ _____ ____ ______
...
131, 734
Other factory supplies and equipment repairs
47, 471
Electricity, gas, water, steam... ___
73, 280
Rent___ ___ __________ ...
163,678
Factory and supply insurance_____ ____________ ___________
41, 287
Selling costs—total.. ____ __________________ ___________ ___ ..
472,862
Salaries and commissions. _ _____ _ .
398,865
Advertising ..
____ _____________________________ _____
9,414
Traveling and entertaining___ ____ ____
__
64, 583
Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—total______________ _____
677, 353
Salaries________ ... _______ __
198, 515
Legal, audit, and other special services__ ___ _________ _
_
34, 586
Office, packing supplies, printing_______ _____________ ____ _____
252, 751
Telephone and telegraph______ ___________
33, 327
Expressage, parcel post, and carfare____
63, 245
Sundries.________ ______ __________ ______ _________________
94,929
Financial expenses—total___ _____
.. ______
145, 207
Credit service and association dues ____________________________
12, 639
Collections______ _________ ________ _________________________
1,161
Interest..
___ _______
14.427
Bad debts............................................................ ............... ........... ..........
22, 341
Taxes:
Old age_____
..
28, 754
Unemployment...... ............. .................................... ..........................
55, 391
Other State, city, Federal. _
10,494
Depreciation_____ ___ _________________ ________________________
1 Less than 0.05 percent.




-

- -

"

31,170

Percent

100.0 $21, 017, 257
85.3 17, 793, 744

Percent

100.0 $11,154, 557
84.7
9, 292,067

Above $24, includ­
ing $48

Above $48

Percent

Amount

Percent

Amount

100.0
83.3

$7, 313,145
G, 177,358

100.0
84.5

$2,675,319
2,166,992

100.0
81.0

Percent

24.8
53.8
.1

5, 777, 799
10, 216,953
2,046

27.5
48.6
(>)

2, 822,023
5,412,010
6, 111

25.3
48.5
o)

2,061, 297
3, 381,831
9,757

28.2
46.2
.1

773,616
1,032,464
19,966

28.9
38.6
.7

1.6
1.5
.5
.8
1.8
.5
5.2
4.4
.1
.7
7.5
2.2
.4
2.8
.4
.7
1.0
1.6
.1
0)
.2
.2

626, 571
300, 605
179, 651
209,920
402,207
77, 991
1,380, 370
1,146, 328
41,252
192, 790
1,372, 549
515,886
63, 598
443, 314
72,021
124,828
152, 901
404,028
28, 211
1,231
33.381
67,743

3.0
1.4
.9
1.0
1.9
.4
6.6
5.5
.2
.9
6.5
2.5
.3
2.1
.3
.6
.7
1.9
.1
(■)
.2
.3

384, 321
194,684
80, 379
94, 282
259,422
38,836
797, 749
589, 796
83, 501
124,453
797,755
323,153
26,561
246,457
38, 383
81,516
81,685
216, 550
15, 273
1,165
23, 558
29,520

3.4
1.7
.7
.8
2.3
.3
7.2
5.3
.7
1.1
7.2
2.9
.2
2.2
.3
.7
.7
1.9
.1
c>)
.2
.3

297,875
119, 656
38, 783
60, 299
178, 314
29, 546
554, 648
331, 284
62, 006
161, 357
418,551
172,861
19,881
100, 678
33, 292
41, 084
50, 756
140,437
12, 052
122
15, 998
16, 556

4.1
1.6
.5
.8
2.4
.4
7.6
4.5
.8
2.2
5.7
2.4
.3
1.4
.5
.6
.7
1.9
.2
(0
.2
.2

170, 619
34,327
18, 270
22, 934
84,117
10, 678
261,175
174, 064
20, 796
66, 315
170,804
77, 581
8, 001
35, 601
14,920
16,617
18, 084
68,338
7, 392
117
10,997
8,133

6.4
1.3
.7
.9
3.1
.4
9.8
6.5
.8
2.5
6.4
2.9
.3
1.3
.6
.6
.7
2.6
.3
(0
.4
.3

.3
.6
.1

86,124
156, 09!
28, 718
2, 529
66, 566

.4
.7
.1

41, 392
77, 663
22,569
5,410
50,435

.4
.7
.2

27, 702
57, 796
9,417
793
22,152

.4
.8
.1

11, 389
23, 689
5,009
1, 613
8, 010

.4
.9
.2
.1
.3

.3

(0

.3

(0

.5

0)

.3

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

$7.50 and below

CJassification of accounts

OPERATING COSTS

91

Differences by price of hat.

The price at which hats are sold was found to have a very direct
bearing on service costs. Hats wholesaling at $7.50 and less a dozen
bore a manufacturing labor cost of 26.4 percent, whereas hats whole­
saling at above $48 bore a manufacturing labor cost of 35.3 percent.
Selling services on the cheapest hats were 4.4 percent of total costs,
and those on the most expensive hats 6.5 percent. Even shipping
and office salaries formed a higher percent of total costs for the most
expensive hats than for the cheapest hats. All services combined,
with the exception of administrative, cost the manufacturers of hats
wholesaling at above $48 an even 45 percent of total costs; and they
cost the manufacturer of hats wholesaling at $7.50 and under 33.4
percent of total costs.
The direct labor costs, that is, manufacturing labor costs minus
cost of designers and foremen, comprised rising proportions of the
total with each rise in price of hat excepting only the line priced at
above $13.50 and including $24. While direct labor costs on the hat
priced at above $7.50 and including $13.50 were 27.5 percent, and on
hats wholesaling at above $24 and including $48 were 28.2 percent,
the group between had direct labor costs of but 25.3 percent. As a
consequence, all service costs combined were 37.1 percent of the
total in this group in contrast to 39.5 percent in the group immediately
above it and 38.8 percent in the group immediately below it.
Differences by volume of business.

When labor costs are compared by volume of sales, little direct
relationship is established between volume of sales and labor costs.
Manufacturing labor costs are lowest in the smallest businesses, where
firm members may perform some production in the rush season. But
they are only 1 point higher in firms doing at least 10 times the busi­
ness. Sales service costs are lowest in firms doing the largest volume
of business, but firms selling over $50,000 and including $100,000
worth of hats had a 6-percent selling service cost as compared with
5.6 percent in the smaller businesses. (See table XXXII.)
In considering office and shipping costs, auditing and legal services
must be added, for small firms frequently employ a young girl to
make simple journal entries and have the books posted each month
by a traveling auditor. However, even with these services office and
shipping salary expense formed but 2.7 percent of total costs when
business was $50,000 and less, and 3.1 percent when business was
double such volume.
In considering the variation in labor costs by region, therefore,
the important consideration is price of hat, rather than firm members’
participation in services or volume of business.
OTHER COSTS OF MANUFACTURE
Differences by price of hat.

While hats in different price ranges frequently enter the same retail
markets, the lower-priced hats and the higher-priced hats usually seek
distinct sales outlets, a fact clearly registered in the proportionate
distribution of expenses of millinery manufacture. Selling costs
increase as the milliner seeks a higher-priced market, and, for the most



Table

XXXII.—Operating costs of millinery manufacture, according to volume of sales—all areas

to
to

Volume of net sales
$50,000 and under

Over $50,000, in­
cluding $100,000

Over $100,000, in­
cluding $200,000

Over $200,000, in­
cluding $300,000

Over $300,000, in­
cluding $500,000

Amount

Classification of accounts

Percent

Amount

Amount

Percent

Amount

Percent

Amount

Percent

Amount

1 Less than 0.05 percent.




*

Percent

100.0

$8,349,261

100.0

$8, 254,912

100.0

$7, 748,435

100.0

$7,798,635

100.0

3, 485,416
1, 183,857
2, 023,034
100
47, 685
21,360
45,886
143,095
20,400
275, 585
233,161
6, 699
35, 725
271, 548
81,820
29,298
62, 767
20, 429
19, 407
57,827
93,680
8, 719
172
16, 435
18,802

83.9
28.5
48.7
«
1.1
.5
1.1
3.4
.5
6.6
5.6
.2
.9
6.5
2.0
.7
1.5
.5
.5
1.4
2.3
.2
0)
.4
.5

6,975,458
2, 538, 294
3,961,415
1,141
113,758
39, 518
85,134
201,169
35, 028
591, 426
499,832
12,160
79,434
569,020
222, 581
31,090
150,994
33,501
40,685
90,168
179,082
18, 530
759
15,929
34,536

83.5
30.4
47.4
«
1. 4
.5
1.0
2. 4
.4
7.1
6.0
.1
1.0
6.8
2.7
.4
1.8
.4
.5
1.1
2.1
.2
0)
.2
.4

12, 537,932
4. 565,337
7,125,572
13,890
232,116
91,191
134, 494
314,918
60,414
1,052,435
818,854
37,795
195,785
987,587
383,209
45,457
273, 585
59, 254
110,278
115,803
282,473
24, 777
1,161
26, 797
38,219

84.1
30.6
47.8
.1
1.6
.6
.9
2.1
.4
7.1
5.5
.3
1.3
6.6
2.6
.3
1.8
.4
.7
.8
1.9
.2
0)
.2
.3

6,987, 530
2,458, 304
4,094,085
15,408
129,462
45, 666
70,901
142, 671
31,034
562,753
439,081
26, 243
97,429
520,461
200,077
17,618
167,112
30,201
52, 302
53,151
162,311
12, 524
784
13,429
27, 557

84.6
29.8
49.6
.2
1.6
.6
.9
1.7
.4
6.8
5.3
.3
1.2
6.3
2.4
.2
2.0
.4
.6
.6
2.0
.2
0)
.2
.3

6, 539,162
2, 254,305
3,843,247
11,542
138, 678
56,074
65,685
140,277
29,354
525,835
326,604
52,625
146,606
529,114
183,076
19,002
205,003
28, 297
46,168
47, 568
131,832
8,122
919
16, 738
16, 651

84.4
29.1
49.6
.1
1.8
.7
.8
1.8
.4
6.8
4.2
.7
1.9
6.8
2.4
.2
2.6
.4
.6
.6
1.7
.1
0)
.2
.2

6,624, 564
2, 300, 343
3,866,737
1,102
119, 309
110, 744
58,615
145, 607
22,109
458,770
322,804
81,446
54, 520
559, 281
217,232
10,160
219,339
20,262
58, 450
33,839
125,182
2,896

84.9
29.5
49.6
0)
1.5
1.4
.8
1.9
.3
5.9
4.1
1.0
.7
7.2
2.8
.1
2.8
.3
.7
.4
1.6
p)

9,033
8, 529

.1
.1

16, 492
27, 677
5,140
244
26,163

.4
.7
.1
0)
.6

34, 650
62,913
11,607
158
34,276

.4
.8
.1
(‘)
.4

67,036
111,399
19,833
3, 251
42,710

.4
.7
.1
c>)
.3

29,158
62, 220
14, 434
2, 205
21,857

.4
.8
.2
p)
.3

27, 539
53, 609
7,814
440
22,491

.4
.7
.1

30,486
52,812
17,380
4,047
30,839

.4
.7
.2
.1
.4

100.0 $14, 903,136

p)

.3

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Total costs........ ............................................. .. $4,152,392
Manufacturing costs—total..........................................
All labor_____ _____ _
_
Hat materials________________ __________
Special material buying costs............................ .
Blocks and dies
Other factory supplies and equipment repairs.. _
Electricity, gas, water, steam
Rent..___________ __________ _____
Factory and supply insurance____________ _
Selling costs—total................ .
_
_
Salaries and commissions_ _______ _________
_
Advertising... ______ ____ ___
Traveling and entertaining
Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—total_ _
_
Salaries_________ _________ _____ ____
Legal, audit, and other special services
Office, packing supplies, printing.........................
Telephone and telegraph___ ______ _______
Expressage, parcel post, and carfare
Sundries................ ........................................ ..........
Financial expenses—total................ .............. .............
Credit service and association dues........... ..........
Collections______ _________________________
Interest___ _____ ________ _______________
Bad debts__________ ___________ ___ ____
Taxes:
Old age______ __________ _____________
Unemployment______
____
_______
Other State, city, Federal .
Life and accident insurance............................ .
Depreciation....................... ..................................

Percent

Over $500,000

OPERATING COSTS

93

part, with such increase manufacturing costs decrease. Though sell­
ing costs on the hat at $7.50 a dozen and below are but 5.2 percent of
operating costs, manufacturing costs are 85.3 percent. On the hat at
above $48 a dozen selling costs are almost 10 percent and manufactur­
ing costs are 81 percent.
As the labor on these cheapest hats is relatively small, the material
costs are proportionately high. The lowest-priced hat takes materials
that form 53.8 percent of total expenses; the hat wholesaling at above
$7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen calls for hat materials costing
48.6 percent of the total. The hat at above $24 and including $48 a
dozen has a materials cost of 46.2 percent; and the hat wholesaling
at above $48 has a materials cost that forms but 38.6 percent of the
total. On the highest-priced hats the labor of making the hats a dis­
tinct model almost equals the cost of the material. When the hat is
of the cheapest grade, the labor cost is only half as much as the cost
of the material.
Because more attention is given to the fabrication of the higherpriced hat, there is little difference in the cost of blocks and dies and
other equipment in the several price ranges or in the amount of water,
gas, or electricity consumed. Bents, however, become a more im­
portant item as the proportion of retailers to whom goods are sold
increases in comparison with the proportion sold to jobbers or syndi­
cates. The higher-priced hat seeking the retailer’s attention is made
In a shop close to the retailing district. It seeks to attract, as the
retailer usually comes to the manufacturing shop to place his order.
If hats are marketed through jobbers or syndicates, the location of the
factory is of less importance. Kent is, therefore, only 1.8 percent of
total operating costs on the cheapest hats but advances to 3.1 percent
on hats sold at above $48 a dozen.
Every item entering into selling costs usually increases as the price
of hat increases. The selling services advance from 4.4 percent to
6.5 percent, advertising from 0.1 percent to 0.8 percent, and traveling
and entertaining from 0.7 to 2.5 percent. The total difference in
selling is, therefore, 4.6 points, or the difference between 5.2 percent
and 9.8 percent on lowest-price and highest-price hats, respectively.
While the amount spent on office and shipping salaries by the firms
producing cheaper hats is less than that spent by firms manufacturing
in the higher brackets, their expense for office, shipping, and miscel­
laneous supplies is proportionately more than double that of firms
making hats at above $24 a dozen.
The greater financial expense of firms producing the highest-priced
hats is due in part to the fact that association dues and taxes are more
important items, and while interest on loans is entered here for firms
reporting interest, the cost of loans to firms using factors does not
appear under financial expenses. In fact, when the loan is based on
turning over accounts receivable, the firm often is unaware of the rate
of interest it is paying.
Differences by volume of business.

The volume of business varies among firms whose prevailing pro­
duction of hats is in the same price range. This is true even though
the average sales of firms increase with the increase in price of hats.
Consequently, the influence of the hat price on distribution of costs
is lost when the tabulations are made by volume of sales.
137582°—39------7




94

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

The proportionate cost of labor varies little whether the volume
is small or large, primarily because hats are handled singly and not
in volume. The proportionate cost of hat materials varies little, as
only a relatively few firms buy materials m volume in advance of
hat orders. Block and die and equipment cost increases somewhat
as the volume increases, though together they do not exceed 2.9
percent even in the largest factories. The relative cost of rent,
electricity, gas, water, and factory insurance, however, tends to be
disproportionate for the smaller producers of millinery.
Nor is there any direct relation between selling costs and volume
sold. The larger manufacturers do some advertising and often more
entertaining than the small firms. The latter, in turn, pay a some­
what higher percentage of commissions for selling service.
Even in office and miscellaneous expenses the higher relative costs
of services in one group are offset by higher relative miscellaneous
costs in the other groups. Financial expenses other than taxes
naturally are higher when plants are small, even though much of
such expense is not listed under this item.
COSTS IN THE SEVERAL PRODUCTION AREAS

The differences in allotment of expenditures for all areas were
related most consistently to the prevailing price of hat made. There­
fore, comparisons of cost allotments by production area must take such
price into consideration. Each table that compares operating costs in
various production areas is based on hats in one price group.
Millinery wholesaling at $7.50 a dozen and below.

The cheapest hat, that is, the hat wholesaling at $7.50 and less a
dozen, in almost all cases carried the lowest relative labor cost in each
area as it did for all areas combined. Even so, there were wide differ­
ences from area to area. In Illinois, where sales of firms specializing
in this cheap hat were less than 6 percent of total sales, 30.9 cents of
every dollar spent went for direct labor, that is, manufacturing labor
minus supervisory and designing labor. In New York City, out of
every dollar of cost 27.3 cents was for direct labor. In all other pro­
duction areas, labor costs formed a smaller part of the expense. In
northern New Jersey, where firms whose prevailing price of hat was in
this range had almost half the sales, labor expense was 20.3 cents of
every dollar. It was lowest in Texas and Massachusetts, in both cases
less than 19 cents per dollar of expense.
Hat-materials cost on the hats at $7.50 and less a dozen ranged from
47.8 cents to 60.4 cents of every dollar spent in the several production
areas. When materials cost was high, the hats made for this low price
were of felt or straw; when materials cost was low, the fabric and
novelty-material hat may have been a factor. This type distinction is
borne out further by the differences in cost of blocks and dies in the
several areas.
.
.
The gain in having the factory located in the market for this price
of hat is found in the lack of expense for travel and entertainment.
This item is insignificant in and around New York and Chicago, but
when firms in other production areas extend their sales beyond their
locality, travel and entertainment become an item in the sale of the
cheap hats.



OPERATING COSTS

95

While the relative cost of other items of firms making the cheapest
hat in largest volume varies, sometimes enough to account for a profit
or loss, the actual cost of any item is small in comparison with manu­
facturing costs.
Table

XXXIII.—Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats wholesaling
at $7.50 a dozen and below
Percent each expense item was of total operating expenses in—

Classification of accounts
York
City

Total costs

Up-State
New
NorthYork
Massa­
ern
and
New chusetts
Connect- Jersey
icut

CleveTexas

Illinois Detroit,
and
Milwaukee

100.0

Manufacturing costs—totalDirect:
Special material buying costs.......... ......
Indirect:
Blocks and dies
Other factory supplies and equip-

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

85.5

86.2

84.5

86.1

83.8

85.3

78.2

88.1

27.3
52.0

21.1
59.3

20.3
55.8

18.1
60.4

15.3
59.0

30.9
47.8

19.9
48.7

23.8
58. 6

1 4
1.2

1.3
1.6

2.1
1.8

.3

Factory and supply

(>)
2.5
3.7

1.1

5.0
1.6

.5
1.3

.1

1.2

1.9

1.1
1.1

12.8

2.4

.4

.8

.6

1.0

.8
1. 9

1.2

.9
1.9

.8
2.0

1.2
1.3

.9

5.2

4.3

5.4

j.
•,J
4.7

7.7

4.6

3.5
.2

4.7

3.4

.6

.5

1.3

4.6

7.4
2.2

8.0
1.6

8.2
2.5

7.5
2.1

6.5
1.5

.4

.5

.5

3.9

3.8

3.0

3.7

1.4

.4

.4

.2
.1

.8
.9

1.8

2.2

4
Selling costs—total........ ........
Salaries and commisAdvertising____
Traveling and entertainOffice, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—total______
Legal, audit, and other

.4

Office, packing supplies,
and

tele-

Expressage, parcel post,
Sundries......................
Financial expenses—total__
Credit service and association dues______
Collections_
_
Interest............... ...........
Taxes:

2.4
.4
.7
1.3

1.0
1.0

.8

‘ .
.6
.9

1.7

1.2

1.5

1.4

.2

.1

.1

Depreciation...... ..................

.3
3.0
.1

.5
6.0
5.8

0)

.1
.2

0)

6.0
2.0

1.0

6.3

6.9
2. 4

1.1

2.7

1.6

1.0
1.9

c)-1
.3
.3

.4
.6

.5
.1

.3

1. 4
.1

(l)
6.2

.1

.1

Unemployment__
Other State, city,

100.0

1.7
1.7

.5

Electricity, gas,
water, steam_____

Telephone

Mis­
souri

.5

.6

.5

.4
.2
.2

.1

.9
0)

.1
.4

1.0

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

Millinery wholesaling at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen.

. Firms whose prevailing type of hat wholesaled at above $7.50 and
including $13.50 a dozen had net sales totaling 37 percent of all sales.
Hats at this price comprised the largest volume of production in ali
areas combined, in New York City, Illinois, the Cleveland area, and
Missouri. They were made up in all the principal hat materials.



Table

XXXIV.—Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats wholesaling at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen
Percent each expense item was of total operating expenses in—

Classification of accounts

Hat materials_______________

Bad debts....................................... ...
Taxes:
Old age___________________
Unemployment
Other State, city, Federal--------




.. -

-

■*-

Massa­
chusetts

South
Atlantic
area

Illinois

Texas

Cleveland,
Detroit,
and Mil­ Missouri
waukee

Los
Angeles

San
Francisco

100.0
84.5

100. 0
85.5

100.0
82.5

100.0
84.7

100.0
88.1

100.0
81.4

100.0
81.8

100.0
84.7

100.0
81.7

100.0
85.9

100.0
82.7

100.0
81.4

27.9
47. 9

19.4
57.9

25.1
49.4

25.9
52.1

20.3
59.2

17.4
54. 8

19.3
53.8
.3

33.0
43.4
p>

24.5
49.7

28.9
49.6
C1)

27.0
48.9

23.7
46.3

3.1
1.4

2.4
1.9

2.9
1.7

2.2
1.5

2.6
2.4

2.3
3.7

3.1
.6

3.1
.8

3.1
1.3

2.5
1.3

2.2
.5

6.6
.9

.9
1.0
2.0
.4
6.5
5.5
.2
.8

.5
.5
2.8
.1
5.7
4.4

.8
1.0
1.1
.4
8.2
7.8
.3
.1

.2
1.1
1.6
.2
5.8
4.8

1.0
1.1
1.3
.3
5.1
3.4
.2
1.4

.8
1.0
1.1
.2
8.7
8.4

.6
1.0
2.4
.3
6.8
5.5
.3
1.1

.1
.3
2.5
.1
10.0
7.5
0
2.5

.8
.9
1.6
.3
6.0
4.1

.3

.7
1.4
2.7
.1
8.5
7.9
.2
.5

1.9

.8
.7
2.3
.3
6.8
5.7
.3
.8

.2
.4
2.9
.3
8.5
7.8
.6
.1

5.5
2.5

6.1
2.3

6.3
3.3

5.2
2.0

6.0
1.9

6.4
2.7

.3
1.7
.3
.6
.9
2.1
.1

.4
1.3
.3
.3
.6
1.8

.3
1.9
.3
.3
.3
2.5
.2

1.0
1.3
.5
.6
.7
3.5
.1

.2
1.2
.5
.7
1.1
2.5
.1

Indirect:
Labor........ ..................... ........ Blocks and dies _ Other factory supplies and
equipment repairs..... ........ ... Electricity, gas, water, steam—
Rent.. . __________ ... ..
Factory and supply insurance...
Selling costs—total __________ ______
Salaries and commissions-------------Traveling and entertaining----- -----Office, shipping, and miscellaneous
costs—total____________________
Salaries-------- ---------------------------Legal, audit, and other special services .. ----------------------- ---------Office, packing supplies, printing--Telephone and telegraph— ---------Expressage, parcel post, and carfareSundries----------------------- -----Financial expenses—total. -------- ...
Credit service and association dues..

Philadel­
phia and
Trenton

1.3

1.0

6.8
2.6

(!)

7.2
1.8

7.3
2.2

6.3
2.3

5.2
1.7

7.3
2.3

.3
2.2
.3
.6
.8
1.8
.1

.8
3.0
.6
.9
.1
1.3
.2

.2
3.2
.2
1.0
.5
1.6
.1

.2
1.4
.4
.4
1.6
2.6
.1

.3
1.4
.5
.9
.4
1.3

.5
3.3
.2
.5
.6
2.4
.1

.4
.6
.1
.3
1.6
3.9
.4

.9

.6
1.2

.1
.3

(!)
P)

0)

.2
.1

.4
.8
.1

.3
.7
.1

.4
.7
.2

.3

.3

.4

.4.-

(!)

o

p>
(i)

1.3

.2
.3

.4
.7

.3
.4
.1

0)
.6

..

.4

0

p)

.3

.A.

.4
.9
.3

,

0

0)

.3
.7

.2
.4

.4
.8
.5

.3
.6
.3
.2
.3

p>
0)

0)

p>

.2
.4

1.4
.3

.3
.9

.2
.5

.5
.8
.3
.1
.4

.6
1.0
.1

.3
.8
.2

1.0

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Total costs.................... ..................
Manufacturing costs—total_________
Direct:

Depreciation____
...
1 Less than 0.05 percent.

Up-State
New York Northern
New
and Con­
Jersey
necticut

New
York
City

1.2

.2

.1.-.

-

*

■

.»

OPERATING COSTS

97

Direct labor costs again were relatively high in Illinois, where they
constituted 33 cents of every dollar spent by firms making this hat in
largest volume. In New York City direct labor costs were 27.9 cents
in the dollar, in northern New Jersey 25.1 cents, in Missouri 28.9
cents, and in the Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee area 24.5 cents.
The areas of lowest labor costs were the South, the Southwest, Massa­
chusetts, and the Connecticut and New York State area. And again
these areas of low labor cost paid relatively more for hat materials
than did the areas of high labor cost.
Hats at this price are marketed through the several distribution
channels and they bear, on the whole, a higher relative cost for salaries
and commissions than do the cheaper hats. Firms situated away from
the largest marketing centers have the higher selling costs, northern
New Jersey affording an exception to this, possibly because much of
its output at this price is sold through jobbers and commission resident
buyers.
In every area, manufacturing costs and selling costs amount to ap­
proximately 90 cents of every dollar of total costs on hats at this price,
the variation being from 89.5 cents of a dollar in Los Angeles and in
Texas to 93.2 cents of a dollar in Massachusetts.
Millinery wholesaling at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen.

Firms making millinery to sell at above $13.50 and including $24
a dozen had net sales amounting to 20 percent of all sales. This
hat is less important than the cheaper hats as a product of New York
City and northern New Jersey, though production in New York
City far exceeds that in any other area. It is a volume seller for firms
in the Philadelphia area, Massachusetts, Missouri, and the South
Atlantic area.
In New York City, direct labor cost on the hat wholesaling at above
$13.50 and including $24 a dozen was but 25.4 percent, or a smaller
proportion than on lower-priced hats. In the Philadelphia area labor
costs were but 20.2 cents in the dollar, but hat materials cost 63.1
cents of every dollar spent. Selling costs were exceptionally low.
Massachusetts firms for which this price of hat was a prevailing line
had higher relative direct labor costs than other eastern producers,
northern New Jersey excepted, and the labor cost was materially
higher than on the cheaper hats produced in the Massachusetts area.
Twenty-six cents of every dollar was used for labor, a figure exceeded
only by Illinois. Hat-material costs are a very variable factor from
area to area. (Table XXXV.)
Millinery wholesaling at above $24 and including $48 a dozen.

Hats at above $24 and including $48 are the most important item
in Pacific coast manufacture. They are important also in the Phila­
delphia area, in Texas, and in Illinois. While firms producing them
as a major type sold only 17 percent of New York City's millinery,
such firms wholesaled far more than any other area of this price of hat.
Labor costs formed practically the same part of total costs in New
York City and Los Angeles—28.3 and 28.4 percent, respectively—
but they were higher in San Francisco. Such costs were relatively
lower in all other regions. Relative material costs were somewhat
similar except that they consumed a higher proportion of the total
in Texas, though not higher than did the cheaper Texas models.



Table

XXXV.—Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats wholesaling at above $13.60 and including $34 a dozen

cO
00

Percent each expense item was of total operating expenses in—
Classification of accounts

New York Northern Philadel­
City
New Jersey phia and
Trenton

Massachu­
setts

Texas

Illinois

Missouri

Los
Angeles

San Fran­
cisco

___

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Manufacturing costs— total............................................
Direct:
Labor____ ______ ... __________ ...
Hat materials

85.2

82.1

89.9

82.4

79.6

86.4

83.2

77.0

83.5

82.7

25.4
50.2

30.1
42.9

20.2
63.1

26. 2
45. 7

18.9
49.7
.6

17.3
59.4
1. 4

27.4
47.5

24.8
43.4
.1

23.8
53.1

25.3
44.2

3.6
1.8
.5
1.0
2.4
.4
6.1
4.6
.1
1.4
6.5
2.5
.3
1.7
.4
.6
1.0
1.9
.2

3.0
1. 7
.4
.6
3. 1
.4
9.4
8.4
.5
.6
6.0
2.8
.1
2.4
.3
.4
.1
1.9

2.0
1.9
.2
.7
1.6
.2
3.7
3.4
.1
.3
5.0
1.5
.1
2.0
.3
.7
.4
.9
.1

4.0
1.6
1.5
.6
2.6
.3
8.5
6.0
2.1
.3
7.1
2.8
.1
3.1
.2
.4
.5
1.7

3.7
2.1
1.7
.7
1.4
.7
9.7
7.1
.4
2.2
8.4
3.2
.2
2. 5
.2
1.2
1.0
1.9
.1

1.6
4.0

(')

6.1
2.2
.3
1.9
.6
.3
.8
1.5
.3

2.9
1.6
.4
.7
2.5
.2
7.1
4.7
.7
1.8
7.3
3.0
.2
2.4
.3
.6
.7
2.0
.1

2.4
1.6
.4
.7
1.4
.1
8.4
7.0
.5
.9
4.1
1.5
.2
1.7
.4
.1
.1
3.0

7.4
1.1
.7
.9
2.7
.4
7.4
6.6
.3
.6
5.3
2.4
.3
1.1
.5
.7
.3
4.5
.1

.1
.2

.1
.2

0)

.3

.1
.2

2.9
1.7
.9
1.0
2.0
.4
8.1
5.3
2.0
.8
11.6
5.3
.2
3.0
.3
2.3
.6
2.3
.1
.1
.4
.3

.3
.8
.2
.1
.4

.3
.6
.4
.1
.5

.4
.8
.2
.1
.5

.5
.5
.3
.1
1.0

Total costs...

...

_

____ _______

Indirect:
Labor..................................................... ...........
Blocks and dies __________________ ___
Other factory supplies and equipment repairs _
Electricity, gas, water, steam.____ ________
Kent________________________ ___ _ ....
Factory and supply insurance_______ _____
Selling costs—total__________ _____ ______ _____
Salaries and commissions____________ ______ .
Advertising ________ _______ ______________
Traveling and entertaining_____ _____________
Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—total
Salaries__
_______ .. ._ ___ . ____
Legal, audit, and other special services. _______
Office, packing supplies, printing. . ..
Telephone and telegraph. __________________
Expressage, parcel post, and carfare___ ______
Sundries. ...___ _ ...
Financial expenses—total _________________ ____
Credit service and association dues........................
Interest__________________ _____________ . .

0)

.1
.3

(>)
M

(>)

Taxes:
Old age .. ................... ......... ............. —
Unemployment_________ __________ ___
Other State, city, Federal

.4
.7
.1

.4
.8
.6

Depreciation.......... ................................. .............. ......

.3

.5

1 Less than 0.05 percent.


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of* St. Louis

0)

.2
.5
.5

0)

0)

.7
1.8
.2
5.8
5.7
.1

.2
.4
.3
.3

(0

1.5
.4

0)

2.4
.8

.3
.6
.1

.3
.9
.1

1.1

.1

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

South
Atlantic
area

OPEBATIifG COSTS

99

Selling costs are relatively low in San Francisco, where much work
is done directly for retailers. Illinois also sells these hats largely to
retailers, and yet selling costs are 10.4 percent of total costs as com­
pared with 6.6 percent in San Francisco. (Table XXXVI.)
Table

XXXVI.—Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats wholesaling
at above $24 and including $48 a dozen
Percent each expense item was of total operating expenses in—
Classification of accounts

Total costs..
Manufacturing costs--total.
Direct:
Labor.___ _______ _______
Hat materials
Special material buying costs___
Indirect:
Labor__________ ______ _____
Blocks and dies
Other factory supplies and equip­
ment repairs
Electricity, gas, water, steam...
Rent_________ ____ __________
Factory and supply insurance.. _

New
York
City

Illinois

Los Ang­ San Fran­
eles
cisco

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

85.1

80.6

84.2

82.0

82.2

86.8

28.3
46. 7
0)

24.1
48.8

18.5
56.9

26.4
44.8
1.4

28.4
44.3

31.8
44.5
.3

4.1
1.7

.1

3.6
.9

3.9
1.4

4.1
1.6

4.0
1.2

.7
1.4
3.1
.4

.2
.7
3.4
.1

.1
.9
2.6
.3

.5
.7
2.2
.4

1.5
.7
2.4
.3

7.1
3.6
.9
2.6

9.5
9.5

8.6
2.6
.3
5.7

10.4
8.8
.8
.7

8.9
6.8
.8
1.4

6.6
4.9
.5
1.1

5.8
2.4
.3
1.4
.5
.6
.7
(0

1.1

.3
.8
2. 5
.4

Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—
total............................. ................. ...........
Salaries____________________
Legal, audit, and other special services!
Office, packing supplies, printing____
Telephone and telegraph
Expressage, parcel post, and carfare..
Sundries.___________ ____________

Depreciation..

Texas

100.0

Selling costs—total
Salaries and commissions
Advertising
Traveling and entertaining

Financial expenses—total
Credit service and association dues..
Collections................................... .
Interest.._________ ______________
Bad debts........ ..............................
Taxes:
Old age
Unemployment”
Other State, city. Federal
Life and accident insurance

Up-State
New
York and
Connect­
icut

7.0
2.0
.6
1.8
.5
1.8
.3

3.8
2.0
.4
. 1
.5
.2
.5

5.9
2.6

5.5
2.4
.2
1.6
.5
.3
.5

4.5
1.5
.6
.8
.4
.2
.9

1.8
.2

2.3
.2

2.6
.1

.2

.3
.5
.4
.7
.2

.4
.5
.2

.2

.7

.8

1.0
.3
1.0
.9
1.6
. 1

.3
1.2

.4
.8
.1

«

. 1
.2

(9

0)

.4
.5

.3
.8
.1
.2

2.7
.2

(0

0)

1.9
.2
.2
.3

.4
.8
.3

.3
.8
.1

.7

.3

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

Millinery wholesaling at above $48 a dozen.

Again in the most expensive millinery field New York City and the
Pacific coast areas have a similar distribution of major costs. Rents
are noticeably higher in New York City for this price of hat and selling
costs are higher in San Francisco.




100

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Table

XXXVII.—Relative cost of millinery manufacture, by area—hats whole­
saling at above $48 a dozen
Percent each expense item was of
total operating expenses in—
Classification of accounts
New York Los Angeles San Fran­
City
cisco

Total costs-----------------------------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

Manufacturing costs—total................ .................. ..........
Direct:
Labor____________________ ____________ _
Hat materials___________________________
Special material buying costs______________
Indirect:
Labor___________________ _________ ____
Blocks and dies_________________________
Other factory supplies and equipment repairs.
Electricity, gas, water, steam______________
Rent__________________________________
Factory and supply insurance - ........................

81.5

81.9

77.4

29.4
38.4
.5

27.7
42.8
.2

27.9
35.7
2.3

6.9
1.1
.5
.9
3.5
.4

6.1
1.7
.4
.6
2.2
.4

3.9
1.7
2.0
1.0
2.5
.3

Selling costs—total_____________________________
Salaries and commissions____________________
Advertising_____ ______________ __________
Traveling and entertaining___________________

9.3
6.0
.8
2.5

9.1
6.5
.8
1.8

12.6
9.2
.5
2.9

Office, shipping, and miscellaneous costs—total_____
Salaries___ ________________________________
Legal, audit, and other special services_________
Office, packing supplies, printing______________
Telephone and telegraph_____________________
Expressage, parcel post, and carfare____________
Sundries....... ........ ....................................... ..........

6.6
2.8
.4
1.4
.6
.5
.8

6.2
2.7
.1
1.4
.4
1.2
.5

5.7
3.5
.1
.8
.4
.8
.1

Financial expenses—total__________ _____________
Credit service and association dues............ ...........
Collections______ __________________________
Interest____ _______________________________
Bad debts________ _____ __________ ________
Taxes:
Old age__....... .................................... .............. .
I] nemployment.......... .......................................
Other State, city, Federal_________________
Life and accident insurance______________ ____

2.4
,2

2.4
.4

3.7
.6

.2

1.2
.1

.4
.9
.2

.6
1.0
.3

.4
.9
.2

Depreciation.................................................. ................

.2

.3

.6

iLoss than 0.05 percent.




.3
.4

o
0)

VI. GROSS AND NET SALES AND NET RETURNS
Net sales are the actual amount that the millinery manufacturer
receives from sales of hats after the deduction from gross sales of trade
discounts, allowances, and losses on returns. Both gross and net
sales were secured, when obtainable, from the firms’ records. Each
manufacturer was questioned also as to the regular discounts allowed
on sales to various buyers, the special concessions or extra services
rendered for customers and the amount of returns and the losses
due to such returns. While the replies were merely the employers’
statements and were not checked, they are interesting in view of the
detailed survey made later by the Federal Trade Commission.4
TRADE PRACTICES

The Millinery Stabilization Commission, operating as an unofficial
body created by employers and employees, has set up certain trade
practice provisions m its efforts to stabilize the industry In such
provisions are these sections:
Terms of sale shall not include any discount in excess of 7 percent 10 days
'
ex?eP j
merchandise shipped on or after the 25th of the
shah nol^be anenwdedtaS ^ -first °f th? followinS month. Anticipation
snail not be allowed at a rate in excess of 6 percent per annum.
fOTrTum^hLCoarrgflet/nnnm ditii°
ordinary selling price must be made
tor lurmslung or attaching labels, tags, or special linings which bear the
customer s name, trade-mark, factory number, or identification mark.

‘Wubli«b2l0S+eS i°f tabulati°n. th?se conditions have been termed
established trade and anticipation discounts” and adherence or
variance m firm practice is listed in table XXXVIII.
One-third of the millinery manufacturers stated that they followed
the established trade and anticipation discount practices; 56 percent
employed the established trade discount but gave no anticipation
either:Q+V and+°Kryi3j firm? allowed as a regular practice more than
the eftabllshod trade or the anticipation discount. ThreethiMre^orTed6 evSiPeCla dlscounts under sPecial circumstances and a
third reported extra services.
of these statements of adherence or nonadherence to the
fr C iteda 'f.r trade dlscount practices, when it was possible
to obtain the actual discounts from firm records it was found that total
discounts were but 6 percent of gross sales. In New York City ConAthS ari
York,State> northern New Jersey, and theSouth
wm, 7 rf the percent was less than 6. The highest amount paid

S’Mlddle Wo.st- more conservative than those
de ^ somewbat Obviously, the discount rates

emnloved
bdfeved toprevad

4 U“ted States Federal Trade Commission. Distribution Methods in the Millinery Industry.




101

1939.

XXXVIII.—Cash and service discounts, reported by the various firms, by area

Table

O
to

Firms reporting usual practice 1

Total re­
porting

Established trade, no
anticipation

No special
discounts
136

All areas_
New York City
Up-State New York and Connecti­
cut________________ __________
Northern New Jersey-----------------Philadelphia and Trenton
Massachusetts---------------------------South Atlantic area--------------------Texas...................... ................ ...........
Illinois------------------------------- -----Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee.
Missouri----------------------------------Los Angeles------------------------------San Francisco----------------------------

5 341

Some spe­
cial dis­
counts

Some spe­ N o special
cial dis­
discounts
counts
224




Some spe­
Percent Firms re­ Amount
cial dis­ Number of total3 porting
counts

117

162

2
6
4
1
1
2
31
2
19
7
3

8
21
88

15
0 58
11

29
35
1° 15

1 These data are based on statements of manufacturers; for data from invoices see report
of Federal Trade Commission.
2 Sewing on labels.
3 Not computed for less than 30.
4 Details aggregate less than total; see footnotes 5 to 10.
e Includes 1 firm that sells net and
anticipation.

No special
discounts

Firms reporting ex­ Amount of actual cash discounts
tra service 3

195

67
7 21

* Includes 12 firms reporting no discounts.

Trade or anticipation
more than estab­
lished

__

of 1 percent discount, and 1 that sells net and no

34.3
34.3

53.4

Percent
of gross
sales

376

$2,954, 396

6.0

228

1,695, 079

5.9

4
14
5
13
3
12
31
2
25
26
13

25, 278
153, 507
33, 221
244,586
49,788
68,327
269,412
2,471
190,987
157,063
64,677

3.1
5.2
6.5
6.6
5.8
6.4
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.5
6.5

7 Includes 2 firms that sell net.
8 Includes lfirtn reporting 6 percent discount.
0 Includes 1 firm that sells net and H of 1 percent anticipation, 1 that sells only % of 1
percent anticipation.
Includes 1 firm reporting no discounts.

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Production area

Established trade and
anticipation

V

Table

T

1

▼

XXXIX— Extent of returns of millinery from wholesalers or retailers, by prevailing price of hat and by area
Firms report-

Firms reporting percent returns were of gross sales made to—
Retailers

Over
Over
1 per­ 1 per­
Total
1 per­ 1 per­ Over
Over Total
cent,
No re­ cent cent, Over
2 per­ report­ turns
includ 2 per­ re­ No re­ cent includ 2 per­
or
port­ turns
cent
ing
or
under ing 2 cent
ing
under ing 2 cent
per­
per­
cent
cent
50

226

72

104

24

26

380

10.6
11
8
5

11.5
13
9
4

16

16

100.0
89
136
62
65
28
223

11.0
10
2
4

11.0
7
6
3

1
3

2
1
3

2

58

134

89

99

15.3
9
24
5
15

23.4
16
33
23
11

26.1
20
34
19
19

19

35.3
44
45
15
20
10
92

57

55

8.5
8
6
2
1

41.3
33
25
13
14

25.6
13
17
18
6

24.7
10
18
12
10

18
1

4

1
7

3

4
1

2

41

12

7

10

12

2

10
15
35|
14 1

13
9

8
2

8
3

44.9
11
16
13
9
1
32

75.5

90
96
35
5

17
40
13
2

49
39
13
3

146

46

68

45.9

70.1

12 9
5
11
10
5
1

65
53
23
5

2
1
1
4

2
16
2
17
1

5

16

8

1
3
1

2
18
4
2

1
8
3
2

12
24
8
2

2

36
21
8
3
2
11
1
9
1
4
8

1
1

100.0
64
66
45
31
17
4
13

----- . -

10
6

103




Jobbers

GROSS AND NET SALES AND NET RETURNS

of returns
Syndicates or chain stores
Firms
All report
Production area and (for total and firms
ing
Over
New York) prevailing price of hat report some
Per­
per­ per­
ing
cent Total No re­ 1cent cent,
re­ Num­
of report turns
turns ber
includ
or
ing
gross
under ing 2
sales
per­
cent
All areas
562
503
285
3.0
400
117
185
48
Percent distribution by—
Type of distributing chan­
nel............. .......................
100.0
56.7
79.5
Percent returns were of
gross sales____________
100.0
29.3
46.3
$7.50 and below
143
135
74
3.0
114
18
72
13
Over $7.50, including $13.50 _ _
228
203
112
2.8
147
56
60
15
Over $13.50, including $24
82
77
47
3.3
61
14
20
14
Over $24, including $48
78
62
35
3.3
56
23
21
3
Over $48........................... ...............;
31
26
17
2.9
22
6
12
3
New York City
332
318
194
3.1
249
48
131
38
Percent distribution by—
Type of distributing chan­
nel...____ _______ ____
100. 0
61.0
78.3
Percent returns were of
gross sales____________
100.0
19.3
$7.50 and below_______ ______
100
94
47
2.9
81
13
52
11
Over $7.50, including $13.50"!
124
119
79
2.9
78
21
35
11
Over $13.50, including $24
51
50
35
3.2
45
7
16
12
Over $24, including $48.._ _.
37
36
21
3.3
31
5
19
2
Over $48___________ _______ ___
20
19
12
3.1
14
2
9
2
Up-State New York and Connect­
icut __________________ ____ _
7
7
4
1.7
5
2
1
Northern New Jersey______
21
21
14
4.1
15
13
1
Philadelphia and Trenton
8
8
2.3
2
1
Massachusetts
21
17
10
2.4
17
4
7
2
South Atlantic area
8
7
2
2
Texas
15
15
12
3.5
4
4
Illinois____________________
58
45
14
2.2
42
27
9
1
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwau­
kee
11
11
3
6.7
10
7
2
Missouri’’
29
27
14
3.2
18
4
10
1
Los Angeles___ _______________
37
21
10
3.2
25
15
7
2
San Francisco _
15
6
4
1.4
11
8
1
2

104

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

RETURNED GOODS

In a highly styled industry, returned merchandise may have lost
much of its value in the period between initial shipment and return
shipment. Though 90 percent of the millinery firms reported some
returns, only 57 percent kept any record of the volume of goods re­
turned, the others saying that it was insignificant. For all areas
combined, the total firms having records of returns showed that they
represented 3 percent of gross sales. This figure includes allowances
for goods damaged on arrival at destination. The proportion varied
greatly with production area: In New York City it was 3.1 percent,
in northern New Jersey 4.1 percent, in Illinois only 2.2 percent, and
in the Cleveland area 6.7 percent. San Francisco reported the small­
est proportion of firms with returns and the smallest volume of returns.
Retailers are responsible for more returns, proportionately, than
either jobbers or syndicates, for 85 percent of the firms selling to
retailers reported returned merchandise and 26 percent reported that
it amounted to over 2 percent of grocs sales. Syndicates or chain
stores returned over 2 percent of the sales in only 12.5 percent of the
cases, and jobbers returned over 2 percent to only 11.5 percent of the
firms selling to them.
_
...
While millinery in every price range was returned, in specific cities
the proportion was the greatest among hats wholesaling at over $7.50
and including $13.50 and among those at above $48.
When returns and allowances and discounts, for whatever reason
given, are deducted from gross sales, net sales for all firms combined
represent 91 percent of gross. Missouri firms have a greater difference,
or 89 percent net of gross, due both to high discount payment and
to a large percent of returns. San Francisco shows the least differ­
ence, due to the small volume of returns.
An examination of the differences between gross and net sales of
hats in different price ranges reveals that the differences were least
on the lowest-priced hats in New York City, northern New Jersey,
Illinois, Massachusetts, and Missouri, greatest on hats at above $24
in Texas, New York City, and San Francisco.
SELLING PRICES, COSTS, AND NET RETURNS IN THE
SEVERAL PRODUCTION AREAS

The millinery price ranges referred to throughout this report are
those in common usage in the industry. Within each there may be
wide variations, and a firm classed according to the prevailing price of
its millinery may produce hats at lower and higher prices. The dis­
cussion following indicates for the production areas the differences in
prices within each price range and relates to the average selling price,
the average cost of manufacture, and other average cost items.




Table

XL.

Comparison of gross and net sales, returns and allowances, and discounts, by area

Total reporting gross and net sales
Gross sales

Production area

Total i__________
New York City .
Northern New Jersey
Philadelphia and Trenton...
Massachusetts.
Texas_____
Chicago______
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee,
MLssouri__
Dos Angeles___.
San Francisco___

Net sales

Gross sales

Percent
of gross

Amount

Amount

422

$55, 319,126

$50, 427, 489

91.2

258
15
6
15
12
38
3
29
26
13

32,453, 506
3,217, 309
747,182
3,892, 474
1,069, 315
4,862, 447
96,989
3,882, 773
2, 426, 749
1,000, 606

29, 632, 485
2,930, 729
679,044
3, 535, 527
963, 366
4, 450, 268
88, 031
3, 458, 596
2, 233,058
928, 221

91.3
91.1
90.9
90.8
90.1
91. 5
90.8
89.1
92.0
92.8

1 Totals exceed details, as 2 areas with very few firms are not shown separately.




Number
of firms

Returns and allow­
ances

Net sales
Percent
of gross

Percent
of gross

Discounts
Percent
of gross

Amount

Amount

381

$49,414, 935

$45, 016,622

91.1

$1,443,917

2.9

$2, 954, 396

6.0

232
14
5
13
12
31
3
25
26
13

29,104, 762
2, 952, 345
507, 406
3, 728, 686
1, 069, 315
4, 000, 812
96, 989
2,857, 490
2, 426, 749
1,000, 606

26, 553, 516
2, 679, 234
464, 433
3, 381, 267
963, 366
3, 649, 062
88,031
2, 548, 270
2, 233,058
928, 221

91.2
90.7
91.5
90. 7
90. 1
91.2
90.8
89.2
92.0
92.8

856,167
119, 604
9,753
102,834
37, 622
82,338
6,487
118, 233
36, 628
7,708

2.9
4.1
1.9
2.8
3.5
2.1
6.7
4. 1
1. 5
.8

1, 695,079
153, 507
33, 221
244, 586
68, 327
269, 412
2, 471
190, 987
157, 063
64,677

5.8
5.2
6.5
6.6
6.4
6.7
2.5
6.7
6.5
6.5

Amount

Amount

GROSS AND NET SALES AND NET RETURNS

Number
of firms

Total reporting returns and allowances and discounts

O
Cn

106

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Millinery priced at $7.50 and below a dozen.

The gross sales price for millinery within this lowest range in 1937,
for all firms reported, was $6.60 a dozen, or 55 cents a hat. This gross
sales price varied from 41.9 cents a hat in Connecticut and New York
State to 62.5 cents a hat in the Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee
area. After discounts and allowances and returns were deducted, the
net sales price per hat still was lowest in Connecticut and New York
State, or 40.1 cents. It was similar in New York City and northern
New Jersey, with respectively 52.3 and 51.4 cents a hat. In Texas
the net on this hat was 53.7 cents, while in the middle western areas it
was approximately 56 cents. The manufacturing costs, including
equipment, rent, heat, and light as well as labor and materials, totaled
the same per hat in northern New Jersey and New York City, 42.1
cents, and manufacturing costs in Massachusetts, Illinois, and the
Cleveland area were very close to this amount. In Texas, however,
manufacturing costs were but 39.2 cents a hat.
_
This left a gross margin of 10.2 cents a hat for manufacturers in
New York City, a figure similar to that in Missouri, 10.7 cents. A
better margin remained in Massachusetts, in Illinois, in the Cleveland
area, and in Texas, where gross sales prices were higher than in New
York City. A smaller margin on a per-hat basis remained in northern
New Jersey and in Connecticut and New York State.
When selling costs and other costs of operation were deducted,
there was an average of 3 cents a hat in this price range out of which
firm members had to get their payment for services rendered and their
profit. Texas firms had the most profitable net returns, or 6.9 cents
a hat. Illinois manufacturers had the second highest returns, or 5.9
cents a hat, and Missouri firms were third with 4.5 cents a hat.
Among New York City producers the net returns out of which firm
members’ services had to be reimbursed as well as profits taken, were
3.2 cents a hat. Only the surrounding areas had lower returns, north­
ern New Jersey having the lowest, with only 1.6 cents a hat, or but 3
percent of the net selling price. As tins price of hat is the chief
product of the industry in northern New Jersey, the larger discounts
given and the slightly larger percentages paid for a number of minor
items than in New York City become of importance if this millinery
price line is to survive.
Millinery priced at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen.

The average price charged for this millinery was $11.83 a dozen, or
98.6 cents a hat. The gross sales price was much lower than this in
New Jersey, or 73.6 cents a hat, and in the Philadelphia and Trenton
area, where it was 90 cents a hat. Hats were sold gross at a little
less than a dollar by Missouri and Texas firms and at a little more
than a dollar by firms in Massachusetts, in Illinois, and on the Pacific
coast. These figures are the averages of all hats sold in this price
range.




GROSS AND NET SALES AND NET RETURNS
Table

XLI.

107

Average amount per hat of selling price, costs, and net returns to firm
members, by prevailing price of hat and by area

Gross
selling
price
per hat

Production area

Discounts,
allow­
ances,
and
returns
per hat

—
Sales,
Net sell­ Manufac­ Gross operating, Net re­
ing price turing
margin financial turns to
per hat costs per per hat expenses firm per
hat
hat
per hat

$7.50 AND BELOW (98 FIRMS REPORTING)
All areas....

$0. 550

New York City.. _
Up-State New York and Con­
necticut___
Northern New Jersey.
Massachusetts___
Texas_______
Illinois..
Cleveland, Detroit, and Mil­
waukee________
Missouri____

$0.038

$0. 512

$0. 411

$0. 101

$0.071

.559

.036

.523

.421

.102

.070

+.032

.419
.561
.585
.593
.605

.018
.047
.032
.056
.049

.401
.514
.553
.537
.556

.326
.421
.416
.392
.423

.075
.093
. 137
. 145
.133

.052
.077
. 100
.076
.074

+. 023
+.016
+. 037
+.069
+. 059

.625
.622

.059
.060

.586
.562

.415
.455

.151
. 107

.116
.062

+.035
+. 045

+$0. 030

ABOVE $7.50 AND INCLUDING $13.50 (163 FIRMS REPOR
riNG)
All areas______ ..

$0. 986

$0,088

$0.898

$0. 728

$0.170

$0.131

+$0.039

New York City..
Northern New Jersey.
Philadelphia and Trenton..
Massachusetts...
Texas_______
Illinois____
Missouri.. ____
Los Angeles.
San Francisco- ..... ..................

.994
.736
.900
1.061
.995
1.010
.997
1.063
1.092

.088
.056
.082
. 102
.092
.081
. 100
.082
.066

.906
.680
.818
.959
.903
.929
.897
.981
1.026

.736
.532
.615
.794
.712
.753
.746
.694
.760

.170
.148
.213
. 165
.191
.176
.151
.287
.266

.134
. 118
.109
. 106
. 161
.135
. 122
. 127
. 173

+.036
+.030
+. 104
+. 059
+.030
+. 041
+.029
+. 160
+.093

ABOVE $13.60 AND INCLUDING $24 (57 FIRMS REPORTING)
All areas.............

$1. 520

$0.152

$1. 368

$1. 097

$0. 271

$0. 224

+$0. 047

New York City_
_
Northern New Jersey
Philadelphia and Trenton. _.
South Atlantic area. .
Texas...................
Illinois____
Missouri___ _____
Los Angeles___
San Francisco_
_

1.654
1. 430
1.226
1. 218
2. 000
1. 239
1.461
1.441
1.720

. 160
. 168
. 124
. 132
.178
. 109
.174
. 141
. 115

1.494
1.262
1. 102
1.086
1.822
1.130
1.287
1.300
1. 605

1.224
.964
.947
.823
1. 514
.871
.952
1.044
1. 439

.270
.298
.155
.263
.308
.259
.335
.256
. 166

.208
.210
. 106
.211
.239
. 176
.284
.207
.301

+. 062
+.088
+.049
+. 052
+.069
+.083
+. 051
+.049
-.135

ABOVE $24 AND INCLUDING $48 (48 FIRMS R EPORTING)
All areas_________
New York City_____
Texas __ _______
Illinois_____
Los Angeles .
San Francisco... .

$2. 969

$0. 270

$2. 699

$2.136

$0.563

$0. 405

+$0.158

2. 890
3. 000
2. 935
3.250
3. 206

.280
.344
.262
.238
.226

2. 610
2.656
2. 673
3.012
2.980

2. 096
2.163
2. 024
2. 295
2. 359

.514
.493
.649
.717
.621

.380
.405
.445
.507
.360

+. 134
+. 088
+. 204
+. 210
+. 261

ABOVE $48 (20 FIRMS REPORTING)
All areas......... . _ ._
New York City____ _
Los Angeles_____
San Francisco________




$5. 919

$0. 531

$5.388

$4. 049

$1. 339

$0. 974

+$0. 365

6. 560
4.908
5.161

.616
.422
.404

5.944
4. 486
4. 757

4. 493
3. 292
3. 587

1.451
1.194
1.170

1. 042
.725
. 1.048

+.409
+.469
+.122

108

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

The net selling price for hats in this price range was 90.6 cents a hat
in New York City. It was approximately the same in Texas and was
1 cent less in Missouri. Northern New Jersey firms sold their hats
net at 68 cents a hat, the Philadelphia and Trenton area at 81.8
cents a hat. All other production areas sold goods at higher net prices
than New York City, reaching $1,026 in San Francisco. After
manufacturing costs were deducted, the gross margin was 17 cents in
New York City firms. It was higher in the Philadelphia area, in
Texas, in Illinois, and on the Pacific coast, but lower in northern
New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Missouri. After costs of selling,
shipping, office, and miscellaneous overhead were deducted, the
margin left for firm members was 3.6 cents a hat in New York City,
or less than 4 percent of the net selling price. It was even less per
hat among northern New Jersey firms and Texas firms. And Missouri
firms in this price bracket had but 2.9 cents a hat for their services
and profit. Pacific coast and Philadelphia and Trenton firms were
most successful on hats at this price, as there was a margin of 16
cents in Los Angeles, of 9.3 cents in San Francisco, and of 10.4 cents
in the Philadelphia and Trenton area.
As this price of hat is the largest volume number and is made in
every production area, its successful manufacture is of great impor­
tance to the firms and to the employees in the industry.
Millinery priced at above $13.50 and including $24 a dozen.

The average gross price at which millinery in this price range was
sold was $18.24 a dozen, or $1.52 a hat. The range in such price
from was $2 a hat in Texas to $1,218 in the South Atlantic area.
The net selling price ranged from $1,822 in Texas to $1,086 in the
South Atlantic area. For this class of millinery New York City’s
average net price was $1,494 a hat; that of Illinois was $1.13.
After all costs chargeable to manufacturing were deducted, the
gross margin in New York City was 27 cents. It was about the same
in the South Atlantic area, Illinois, and Los Angeles, it was higher in
Missouri and Texas, and was much lower in the Philadelphia area and
San Francisco. When all other expenses of operation were sub­
tracted, the net return to New York City employers was 6.2 cents a
hat, or over 4 percent of the net selling price. Net returns to firm
members were better in northern New Jersey, with 8.8 cents a hat,
and in Illinois, with 8.3 cents. In the Philadelphia area, the South
Atlantic area, Los Angeles, and Missouri, the net returns were approxi­
mately 5 cents a hat. San Francisco firms failed to meet operating
expenses on these hats.
Millinery in higher price ranges.

Millinery in the price range above $24 and including $48 was sold
at a gross price of $35.63 a dozen, or $2,969 a hat. The net selling
price on these hats was $2,699 apiece. The net price averaged $3,012
in Los Angeles, $2.98 in San Francisco, and $2.61 in New York City.
After all manufacturing costs were deducted, the gross margin was
51.4 cents a hat among New York City producers, in Texas it was
49.3 cents, and in Los Angeles it was 71.7 cents. And after all other
expenses were deducted, New York City firms had net returns of 13.4
cents a hat, Illinois firms made 20.4 cents, Los Angeles firms 21 cents



GROSS AND NET SALES AND NET RETURNS

109

and San Francisco firms 26.1 cents. Texas firms made operating
expenses with but 8.8 cents net on these hats.
Hats in the price range of above $48 bore an average gross sales
price of $71 a dozen or $5,919 a hat, and a net price of $5,388 a hat.
Hats made by New York City manufacturers were sold at materially
higher prices than those made on the Pacific coast. The manufactur­
ing costs were correspondingly higher in New York City, leaving a
gross margin per hat of $1,451 in New York City, of $1,194 in Los
Angeles, and of $1.17 in San Francisco. After all other expenses were
deducted, New York City employers had 40.9 cents a hat for their
own use, Los Angeles employers had 46.9 cents, and San Francisco
firms had but 12.2 cents.
A summary of what millinery firms’ returns were under 1937
conditions—returns for their own services as well as any profit on
investment or for reinvestment in the business—gives the following:
On hats in the lowest price group, they made 3 cents a hat; on those
at above $7.50 and including $13.50 a dozen, 3.9 cents; on those at
above $13.50 and including $24, 4.7 cents; on those at above $24 and
including $48, 15.8 cents; and on those at above $48, 36.5 cents. The
ratio to the net sales price was highest on hats at above $48, for which
there is least reported demand; these brought a net return of 6.77
percent of the net selling price. Hats in the price group next lower
and the lowest-priced hat had about the same ratio to net selling
price (5.88 percent), while on the volume number above $7.50 and
including $13.50 the ratio was but 4.34 percent.

137582”—39-




■8

VII. INCOME ACCOUNTS OF MILLINERY FIRMS
“NET PROFITS” AND “BOOK PROFIT OR LOSS”

As has been stated, millinery firm members are active participants
in the management of the business and often perform other functions.
Consequently, they make cash withdrawals with some regularity
during the year. These withdrawals may well be considered as pay­
ment for services rendered, but they constitute income of the millinery
business as much as do profits that accrue at the end of the year.
Under such operating conditions the showing of profits on the books
at the end of the year may depend on the size of firm-member with­
drawals during the year rather than the profitableness of the business.
If withdrawals are sufficiently limited in relation to the condition of
the business, additional profit may be available for withdrawal or
reinvestment as the books are closed; but if withdrawals are out of
line with the business done, the result may be a book or a real loss.
Throughout the following tables and discussion, “net profit” is the net
return before firm members’ withdrawals, and “book profit or loss” is
the bookkeeping entry after firm members’ withdrawals have been
deducted.
Of 458 firms reporting details on sales, costs, and withdrawals, 49,
or 11 percent, made no net profit in 1937; that is to say, their costs of
carrying on the manufacture exceeded the revenues therefrom without
any payments to firm members. It must be remembered that these
49 firms with actual losses in 1937 were still operating in the spring of
1938. and that firms going out of business in 1937 are not included in
this income accounting. There were, therefore, 409 firms that had
a net profit before firm-member withdrawals had been deducted. Of
this number 144, or 31 percent of the 458 firms reporting, also showed
a book profit after firm members’ withdrawals. While this condition
may indicate only that among the 144 firms were some wuth a more con­
servative attitude toward monthly withdrawals, it is significant that
for this group as a whole the net profits were 7.67 percent as compared
with 5.92 percent for the entire 409 firms.
Operations at a loss were reported in every production area but the
small ones of Connecticut and New York State, Philadelphia and
Trenton, and Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee.. While the num­
ber of firm losses was small except in New York City, the proportion
was large enough to affect the total showing of net profits and must
be taken into consideration when reviewing the total profits for all
458 firms. For all firms combined, the net profit of the 1937 millinery
business was 4.9 percent.of net sales. The profit was highest in
Texas and Los Angeles, with over 8 percent, and next highest in the
Philadelphia, and Trenton area, with 7.6 percent.
Although individual New York City firms made higher profits than
elsewhere, when areas are considered as units, Texas and Los Angeles
show the most profitable millinery business operations. When firms
operating at a loss were eliminated, the net profit was 10.25 percent
in Texas and 8.15 percent in Los Angeles, and firms with best opera­
tions made respectively 11.23 percent and 10.87 percent as net profit.
As there were no losses reported in the Philadelphia-Trenton area
and only one firm did not show a book profit after firm withdrawals,
110



INCOME ACCOUNTS

111

there is a uniform net profit shown here of over 7 percent. The Con­
necticut and New York State area, also small, reported 6.27 percent
net profit on net sales; firms in this area made smaller firm with­
drawals than those in other regions, so they had a considerable book
profit.
The Illinois area, with two firms operating at a loss, had a net profit
of 6.03 percent. With these firms eliminated, the net profit was 6.74
percent. When only those showing book profit after firm members’
withdrawals are considered, Illinois firms had approximately 9 percent
net profit. The Cleveland area follows Illinois closely, the net for
all being 5.23 percent and for those with best business 8.87 percent.
San Francisco’s profit statement for all manufacturers reveals the
effect of losses by two firms, for while the net profit for all firms was
4.7 percent, it was 6 percent when these were eliminated, and it was
14.12 percent for the firms having the most lucrative business in 1937.
Massachusetts figures for all firms also reflect heavy losses in the total.
When the losing firms were eliminated the net profit for Massachusetts
was 6.19 percent of the net sales. The South Atlantic area’s total
also was influenced unduly by firm losses; the firms reporting on costs
represent only a part of the area, and their condition may not be
indicative of the business in this section.
When consideration is given to firms that were able to meet all
expenses, it is found that the lowest net profit was among northern
New Jersey firms, with but 4.25 percent. Among larger areas Mis­
souri came next, with but 5.12 percent, and New York City. firms
were third, with 5.79 percent. When only those firms are considered
that showed a book profit after firm members’ withdrawals, the
Massachusetts area has a smaller profit than New Jersey. Other
areas, however, follow in the same order as in the larger groups.
INCOME RELATED TO SALES

The percentage of net profit decreases as the volume of sales increases.
Firms doing a business of $50,000 and under had net profits—that is,
profits before firm members’ withdrawals were made—of 7.47 percent;
in the next business-volume group, net profits were 6.06 percent.
When sales were over $100,000 and including $200,000, net profits
were 5.61 percent; when over $200,000 and including $300,000, they
were 4.86 percent; when over $300,000 and including $500,000, they
were 3.09 percent; and when over $500,000, they were 2.46 percent.
Net sales of $50,000 and under.

When the average net profit per firm is shown in dollars, the order of
actual gain is reversed. Firms doing the smallest volume of business
averaged but $2,284 for the year, to be divided usually between two
members as their year’s income. Actually the withdrawals of firm
members exceeded this amount, as a loss of 2.7 percent was shown on
the firm books. This loss was more than a book loss in 18 of the 151
firms in this business-volume group, but 133 firms that averaged with­
drawals of $3,255 sustained only book losses, for their net profit was
$2,831. Twenty-two percent of the firms with businesses of $50,000
and less made a profit over and above firm members’ withdrawals.
For these firms the net profits were 13.8 percent, or $4,321 per firm.
When it is realized that most firms have two members, the actual net
profits yielded them by these small businesses seem inconsiderable, to
say the least.



112

Table

XLII.—Income accounts in relation to net sales of millinery firms according to book profit shown, by area
Firms showing profit before firm members’
withdrawals

All firms reporting
Percent of net sales that were—

Firms

Percent of net sales that were—

withdrawals
Percent of net sales that were—

Num­
Num­
Num­
Firm
Firm
Firm
ber of Cost of
ber of Cost of
ber of Cost of
Book
Book
Book
mem­
mem­
mem­
firms doing
Net
Net
firms doing
Net
bers’ profit (+)
bers’ profit (+) firms doing profit
bers’ profit (+)
busi­ profit with­ or loss (—)
busi­ profit with­ or loss (—)
busi­
with­ or loss (—)
ness
ness
ness
drawals
drawals
drawals
All areas
New York City
Up-State New York and Connecticut___
Northern New Jersey
Philadelphia and Trenton
Massachusetts__________ ___________
South Atlantic area
Texas...........................................................
Illinois_________ ___________________
Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee
Missouri.............................................. ........
Los Angeles_____ ___________________
San Francisco_________ _____________
1 Represents too small a part of area.




458

95.1

4.90

5.6

-0. 74

409

94.1

5.92

5.9

+0.05

144

92.3

7.67

5.8

+1.87

292
5
17
5
17
3
8
39
6
25
28
13

95.1
93.7
95.9
92.4
97.8
97.1
91.5
94.0
94.8
96. 1
92.0
95.3

4.91
6. 27
4.07
7. 60
2. 22
2. 94
8. 46
6.03
5. 23
3. 89
8.02
4.70

5.9
3.6
4.3
6.1
4.3
5.1
9.7
5.8
5.9
5.3
6.3
5.4

-.95
+2. 66
-.23
+1.51
-2.06
-2.18
-1. 24
+.22
-.69
-1.44
+1.75
-.69

261
5
15
5
14
2
6
37
6
20
27
11

94.2
93.7
95.7
92.4
93.8
95.2
89.7
93.3
94.8
94.9
91.8
94.0

5. 79
6. 27
4.25
7.60
6.19
4.81
10. 25
6. 74
5.23
5.12
8.15
6.00

6.0
3.6
4.2
6.1
5.7
5.2
10.8
6.0
5.9
5.3
6.3
5.3

-.25
+2.66
+.04
+ 1.51
+.53
-.41
-.58
+.68

86
3
4
4
7

92.3
92.9
94.0
92.6
94.2

7.70
7.11
5. 96
7.37
5.80

6.1
2.7
5.1
5.6
5.2

+1.59
+4.39
+.91
+1.80
+. 65

2
9
2
11
12
3

88.8
91.0
91.1
93.0
89.1
85.9

11.23
8.96
8. 87
7.04
10.87
14.12

7.7
6.3
7.2
5.5
6.4
5.8

+3.50
+2.69
+1.71
+1.47
+4. 51
+8.32

-.69

-.23
+1.92
+. 71

to

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Production area

w

9

\

ji

>

Table

T

T

T

▼

v

XLIII.—Income accounts of firms by amount of net sales—all areas
Firms doing business of—

All firms
$50,000 and under

Income accounts
Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

a „n.nnn Percent
Average
0fnet
amount j gales

Over $100,000, in­
cluding $200,000

Over $50,000, in­
cluding $100,000
Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

Over $200,000, in­
cluding $300,000
Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

Over $300,000, in­
cluding $500,000
Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

Over $500,000
Average
amount

Percent
of net
sales

ALL FIRMS

$117, 602
111, 838
5, 763
6. 644
Firm members’ withdrawals—-880
Book profit (+) or loss (—)----

100.0
95.1
4.90
5.6
-.74

(151 firms)
$30, 552
28, 268
2,284
3, 111
-827

100.0
92.5
7.47
10.2
-2.70

(124 firms)
$71,676
67,333
4,344
5,297
-953

100.0
93.9
6.06
7.4
-1.32

(117 firms)
$137,100
7, 697
8,466
-769

100.0
94.4
5. 61
6.2
-.56

(36 firms)
$241,021
229,303
11,718
11,107
+611

100.0
95.1
4.86
4.6
+.25

(21 firms)
$364.162
352,880
11, 282
14, 030
-2. 748

100.0
96.9
3.09
3.9
-.75

(9 fil ms)
$888,379
866, 515
21,864
25, 684
-3,820

100.0
97.5
2.46
2.9
-.43

firms showing profit before firm withdrawals

(409 firms)
$118,609
111,579
7.030
6,965
Firm members’ withdrawals.. Book profit (+) or loss (—)---+65

100.0
94.1
5.92
5.9
+.05

(133 firms)
$30,446
27. 615
% 831
3,255
-424

100.0
90.7
9.29
10.7
-1.39

(110 firms)
$71,904
66, 655
5, 249
5, 507
-258

100.0
92,7
7.29
7.7
-.35

(104 firms)
$137,063
127, 943
9 120
8,936
+185

100.0
93.3
6.65
6.5
+. 13

(35 firms)
$242, 012
229,934
12, 077
11,242
+835

100.0
95.0
4.99
4.7
+.34

(19 firms)
$368,061
353,052
15,009
14, 436
+573

100.0
95.9
4.07
3.9
+. 15

(8 films)
$854, 251
821, 141
33,lip
26,595
+6.514

100.0
96.1
3.87
3.1
+.76

INCOME ACCOUNTS

(458 firms)

FIRMS SHOWING PROFIT AFTER FIRM WITHDRAWALS
(144 firms)
$144, 771
133,654
11,117
8,406
Firm members’ withdrawals— _
Book profit (+) or loss (—)---- +2, 711
1

100.0
92.3
7.67
5.8
+1.87

Firm income before firm members’ withdrawals.




(33 firms)
$31,35,1
27, 030
4, 321
3,412
+909

100.0
86.2
13.78
10.9
+2.89

(36 firms)
$72, 764
65,807
6,956
5,607
+1,349

100.0
90.4
9.56
7.7
+1.85

(42 firms)
$139,920
127, 338
12,582
9,842
+2, 740

100.0
91.0
8.99
7.0
+1.95

(22 firms)
$238, 224
223,560
14, 664
11, 418
+3, 246

100.0
93.8
6.15
4.8
+1.36

(6 fi mas)
$382,042
363, 500
18,542
12, 492
+6, 050

100.0
95.1
4.85
3.3
+1.58

(5 fi rms)
$756,615
707, 519
49,095
31, 282
+ 17, 814

100.0
93.5
6.48
4.1
+2.35
00

114

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Net sales of over $50,000 and including $100,000.

One hundred and twenty-four firms reported net sales of over
$50,000 and including $100,000 in 1937. The average amount avail­
able for firm members after all expenses were met was $4,344. As in
the case of smaller businesses, firm members’ withdrawals exceeded
this amount, leaving a book loss of 1.3 percent. Actual loss before
firm members’ withdrawals was sustained by 14 of the 124 firms, or
11 percent. The remaining firms had an average net profit of $5,249.
About 30 percent of the firms had average net profits of about $7,000.
These reported smaller firm-member withdrawals and a book profit.
Net sales of over $100,000.

When sales exceeded $100,000 and included $200,000, the average
net profit of all firms combined, before firm members’ withdrawals, was
$7,697. In this group 13 of 117 firms, or 11 percent, operated at a
real loss, while about 36 percent averaged net profits of $12,582 and
book profits of $2,740.
The numbers of firms decrease markedly when volume of net
sales exceeds $200,000. For firms selling over $200,000 and including
$300,000, the average net profit was $11,718; for those selling over
$300,000 and including $500,000, the average was $11,282; and for
those doing a business of over $500,000, net profits were $21,864. In
each of these groups doing a large business, however, there were one
or two firms that operated at a real loss in 1937.
While real losses occurred in both large and small businesses, they
were more numerous in firms doing a business of $50,000 or less; and
while net profits were made in both large and small businesses, not
until the business is over $200,000 is the average yield per firm as much
as $10,000.
Production areas.

What were the differences in income by volume of business in the
several production areas?
Firms in Los Angeles doing a business of $50,000 or less had net
profits of 11.68 percent of sales, though the average firm earnings
were but $3,106. New York City firms of this size had net profits of
8.06 percent, an average of but $2,534 each for the 90 firms reporting.
Northern New Jersey firms made so little over expenses that with­
drawals by firm members left some bills unpaid. However, 1 New
Jersey firm in this group made 8 and under 10 percent profits.
Firms whose volume of sales was over $50,000 and including
$100,000 had their largest net profits, 12.76 percent, in the Philadel­
phia and Trenton area, where business yielded an average of $7,032
to each firm. In Illinois the net profits were 9.16 percent, the average
amount being $6,625. In New York City firms earned 5.55 percent,
net profits averaging $4,083 for firm members.
When all firms having net sales of over $100,000 are considered
together, Texas shows the largest relative net profits, for firms' earn­
ings were 11.01 percent of sales. In Los Angeles they were 7.10
percent, in Connecticut and New York State 6.05 percent, in Illinois
and San Francisco between 5 and 6 percent, and in New York City
4.38 percent. The percentage was lowest in Massachusetts and next
lowest in the South Atlantic area. The average amount available



115

INCOME ACCOUNTS

for firm members’ services and interest on investment ranged from
$7,349 to $23,513 in the various production areas. For firms doing
a business of over $100,000 total earnings were from approximately
$11,500 to $13,000 in Illinois, Los Angeles, Connecticut and New
York State, and northern New Jersey. In San Francisco the average
for all firms with these larger businesses was $9,307, in New York
City it was $9,081, in Massachusetts $8,222, and in Missouri $7,788.
The figures cited are net profits before any firm withdrawals were
made.
Table

XLIV.—Distribution of net profits before firm members' withdrawals, by
volume of sales and principal production area 1
Net profit
before firm
Per­
members’ with­ cent
Num­
drawals
of
ber of
firms
firms
oper­
report­
Per­ ating
ing
Aver­
cent
at a
age
of net loss
amount sales

Production area

Percent of firms operating at a net profit of—

Un­
der 4
per­
cent

4 per­
cent,
under
6 per­
cent

6 per­
cent,
under
8 per­
cent

8 per­ 10 per­ 12 per­
cent,
cent,
cent
under under
10 per­ 12 per­ and
over
cent
cent

FIRMS DOING BUSINESS OF $50,000 AND UNDER
Total ------New York City
Northern New Jersey-

Los Angeles_ ____
_

151

$2,284

7.47

11.9

17.9

9.9

10.6

13.2

8.6

27.8

90
4
8
4
17
6
12
7

2,534
49
2, 302
2, 493
1,591
1,905
3,106
756

8. 06
. 14
7.51
5.83
6.19
5.93
11.68
2. 65

10.0
50.0
25. 0
25.0

14.4
25.0
37.5

10.0

11.1

16.7
25.0

8.9

28.9

16. 7
8.3
28.6

47.1
8.3
14.3

11.8
33.3
8.3

12. 5
25.0

25. 0
25.0
17. 6
16. 7
41.7
42.9

25.0
11.8
16. 7
8.3
14.3

11.8
8.3

16. 7
16.7

FIRMS DOING BUSINESS OF OVER $50,000 AND INCLUDING $100,000
124
New York City
Northern New Jersey.
Philadelphia
and
Cleveland,

Detroit,

$4,344

6. 06

11.3

18.5

15.3

22.6

12.1

6.5

13.7

85
3

4,083
6, 672

5. 55
9. 79

12.9

22.4

15.3
33.3

22.4
33.3

8.2

7.1

11.8
33.3

4
3
8

7,032
4,443
6, 625

12. 76
7. 70
9.16

50.0
66.7
25.0

12.5

25.0

4
4
8
3

3,495
63
5,956
3,497

4. 99
.07
8.31
5.19

12.5

25.0
12.5

12.5
50.0

33.3

50.0
33.3

37.5
33.3

25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
33.3

50.0

25.0
12.5

FIRMS DOING BUSINESS OF OVER $100,000
183

$9, 596

4. 35

9.3

31.1

22.4

13.1

9.8

7.1

7.1

117

9,081

4. 38

9.4

26.5

27.4

10.3

12.0

10.3

4.3

4
10
6
3
14
15
8
3

Total
New York City
Up-State New York

11,791
111 530
8,222
7,349
11,438
7, 787
12,868
9,307

6. 05
3. 86
1.53
2. 94
5.39
4. 12
7.10
5. 29

25.0
60.0
16. 7
33.3
35.7
33.3
50.0
33. 3

25.0
20.0
33.3

25.0
20.0
16. 7
33.3
35.7
13.3

25.0

16.7
33.3
14.3
13. 3

12. 5

7.1
13.3
37. 5
33. 3

i Record not shown for areas where fewer than 3 firms reported.




20.0
33. 3

16. 7
7.1
6.7

VIII. DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME OF MILLINERY
BUSINESS AMONG EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS
Forty-one percent of the net sales figure of all millinery manufac­
turers combined was available for service of employers and employees
after costs of materials, supplies, and overhead were deducted. How
was this amount divided? The productive labor force—blockers,
cutters, operators, trimmers, and general factory service—was paid
25.4 percent of the net-sales figure; the nonproductive labor force,
including foremen, designers, shipping, and office workers, received
5.4 percent; the sales force was paid 4.9 percent in salaries and com­
missions; and there was left for firm members or for reinvestment in
the business, 4.86 percent. As a matter of fact, however, firm mem­
bers withdrew more than the earnings warranted, or 5.6 percent.
In shops doing a business in 1937 of $50,000 or less the proportions
of net sales that went to the productive and the nonproductive
workers were slightly smaller than those for all firms combined, and
the. amount withdrawn by employers was 10.3 percent though the
business warranted but 7.53 percent. It would appear that in busi­
nesses of this size, even when employers take out only what is earned,
the productive workers’ earnings are but 3}i times the employers’
earnings.
The proportion going to productive employees was 25.5 percent
for businesses of over $50,000 and including $100,000, or 4% times
what the employers earned. In firms doing a business of more than
$100,000 and including $200,000, productive workers received the
largest proportion, or 26 percent, which was 4% times the amount the
employers earned. . In businesses larger than this the proportion
received by productive workers was but little above 25 percent. This
figure is, however, increasingly large in its relation to employers’
earnings; in businesses of over $500,000 it is 10 times as great.
The proportion of the net sales, received by the nonproductive staff
was lowest in the smallest establishments and highest in the largest.
Between these, however, the proportion decreased as size of business
increased. The amount paid the sales force was proportionately
lower in the larger businesses and reached its maximum in those of over
$50,000 and including $100,000.
The amounts available for services of all kinds, after deduction of
expenses for materials, equipment and supplies, and overhead, varied
with production area. In New York City’s smallest firms, 41.2 percent
of net sales was left, in those of Illinois 43.6 percent, and of Los Angeles
47.3 percent, but in Massachusetts only 35.1 percent of net sales was
available, and in Texas only 32.4 percent. Naturally, the proportion
that could be made available to any group of workers would vary
accordingly.
116




DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME
Table

117

XLY.—Distribution of income to employees and employers from millinery
business, by amount of net sales and by area
Percent of net sales that went to—

Area and amount of net sales per firm

All areas—total__________

Number
of firms

Produc­ Nonpro­
tive
ductive
workers1 workers1
2

Sales
force

With­
drawals Profit(+)
of firm or loss (—)
members

451

New York City—total

25.4

5.4

4.9

5.6

-0.74

14G
123'
116
36
21
9

$50,000 and under
Over $50,000, including $100,000___
Over $100,000, including $200,000_____
Over $200,000, including $300,000
Over $300,000, including $500,000
Over $500,000

24.0
25.5
26. 0,
25.3
25.2
25.3

4.2
5.6
5.4
5.3
5.1
6.2

5.2
5.6
5.2
5.1
4. 1
4.0

10.3
7.4
6. 2
4.6
3.9
2.9

—2.7
—1.33
—. 53
+. 25
-.75
-.43

292

26.2

5.5

4.7

5.9

-.95

$50,000 and under----------------- --------Over $50,000, including $100,000
Over $100,000

90
85
117

23.7
25.8
26.6

4.1
5.7
5.6

5.3
5.7
4.4

10.9
7.2
4.9

—2.83
-1.63
-.55

Up-State New York and Connecticut—total3___ ___ ____ ...
Over $100,000

5
4

19.7
19.6

2.9
2.9

3.7
3.4

3.6
2.8

+2. 66
+3.25

Northern New Jersey—total____

17

22.7

4.8

6.1

4.3

-.23

$50,000 and under
Over $50,000, including $100,000
Over $100,000----------------------------------

4
3
10

24.4
20.6
22.8

4.4
4.8
4.8

6.3
6.3
6.1

7.7
9.1
3.8

—7. 58
+.73
+. 04

Philadelphia and Trenton—total 3_
Over $50,000, Including $100,000

5
4

20.5
19.8

3.6
3.8

3.6
5.0

6.1
10.5

+1. 51
+2. 23

Massachusetts—total----------- -------

16

22.6

5.4

4.6

4.3

-2.07

7
3
6

17.7
22.3
23.0

3.3
3.7
5.7

6.2
4.3
4.6

8.7
6.7
3.9

-. 84
+.97
-2. 32

South Atlantic area—total—over
$100,000

3

18.0

6.1

7.2

5.1

-2.18

Texas—total...-----------------------

8

15.6

4.2

4.3

9.7

-1.24

$50,000 and under.. _________
___
Over $50,000. including $100,000
Over $100,000.......... ......... .................

4
2
2

18.4
18.9
13.4

5.9
3.6
3.6

2.3
9.1
3.5

8.9
4.8
11.6

—3. 08
-1.13
-.54

$50,000 and under___ - --------Over $50,000, including $100,000
Over $100,000

—

Illinois—total -------------------------

35

28.4

5.4

5.3

5.9

+.22

$50,000 and under---- ------ ------- ---------Over $50,000, including $100,000. _____
Over $100,000

13
8
14

27.5
26.9
28.8

3.5
4.4
5.8

5.8
5.7
5.2

8.3
9.1
4.9

-1.50
+.02
+.47

Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee—total-------- --------------------

6

22.1

6.2

6.9

5.9

-.69

$50,000 and under------- -------- -----------Over $50,000, including $100,000

2
4

15.2
22.9

8.0
6.0

7.4
6.8

9.4
5.5

-2.22
-.51

Missouri—total........................... ..

25

25.9

5.6

4.2

5.3

-1.44

$50,000 and under--------------------------Over $50,000, including $100,000______
Over $100,000

6
4
15

28.7
30.1
25.3

2.7
4.1
5.9

1.4
3.3
4.5

7.9
8.0
4.9

-1.96
-7. 93
-.78

Los Angeles—total------------ -------

26

25.0

5.8

6.1

6.2

+2.09

12
7
7

25.4
25.8
24.5

4.7
7.4
5.4

5.5
4.0
7.1

12.4
7.7
4.1

-.73
+.18
+3.49

San Francisco—total-----------------

13

27.2

6.9

7.0

5.4

-.69

$50,000 and under --------------------------Over $50,000, including $100,000
Over $100,000

7
3
3

27.7
27.4
26.9

8.2
7.7
6. 1

5.2
7. 1
7.6

8.4
5.5
4.2

-5.79
-.26
+1.06

$50,000 and under-------- ----------------Over $50,000, including $100,000. ___
Over $100,000.

1 Blockers, cutters, operators, trimmers, general.
2 Foremen, designers, shipping, office.
2 Total exceeds details because data not shown separately where too few firms reported.




118

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Among firms doing a business of over $100,000, the four areas with
10 or more such firms had proportions of net sales available for services
and profits that varied from 37.5 percent in northern New Jersey to
45.2 percent in Illinois. Missouri and New York City firms fell
between, with respectively 39.8 percent and 40.9 percent left for these
needs.
The States ranked in the same order as this in the proportion paid
out for productive labor and in the final residual amount available for
employers’ withdrawals and reinvestments, these two items, for the
four States, being as follows: Northern New Jersey, 22.8 percent and
3.8 percent; Missouri, 25.3 percent and 4.1 percent; New York City,
26.6 percent and 4.4 percent; and Illinois, 28.8 percent and 5.4 per­
cent.




Appendix A—SCHEDULE FORMS 1
Schedule I
United States Department of Labor
WOMEN’S BUREAU
WASHINGTON

MILLINERY FIRM SCHEDULE
[Sheet 1J
Date______________
Agent....... ___.............
1. Firm name

...........................................................

2.

City........ ....................
Address_____ ____ _______________ _____

3. Persons interviewed and title................... .............................. .................. ......... ___■.............
4. Corporation.............. .

Partnership-------------

5. Number of firm members................................
7. Firm in business since________

In city since________

8. Price range of hats: Lowest________
Selling methods:

Contract firm

Came from

Highest......... ......

9. Operating methods: Own designer------10.

Individual_________

6. Work done by firm members

Largest volume

Manufactured from submitted samples____

(Salary_____ _____ ___ ______________

Other ...

Sell in shop..______________

Commission___________________ ______ Sell on road
Salary and commission Both ________________ _______________ ____ _
Group commission salesman____ _____
11.

Percent sales to jobbers---------------

Resident buyer Other

Syndicate or chain store Retailers_______________ ___

Main price of hat________________
12.

________ ___

Discount on sales...... .......................

.....................

................

_____ _____ _

________

Special

______ _________ _______

________

Extra service__________ _________

___________

________

13.

Percent returns from____ ______

___________

________

14.

Purchasing practices (materials)_________________ ______________ _______________________

16.

Credit facilities: Bank---------------

16. Production 1937:

Finance company Supply houses

Other................... .................. ...... ............................. ............. .......................................
Type hat

Price range

Returns..................................................... ........... ........

Dozens produced

Gross sales

Net sales........... ........ _....................

17. Employees: 1937 (From sheet 2 if taken).
Operators

Trimmers

General
factory

Total

Cutters

Blockers

______

______

________

________

_____________ ____

________

________

_______ __________

Employer’s statement:
Usual number___

18. Method of pay._____________________

Standard overtime ............. ............. ................

All other

............ ....................... ..............

Remarks____ .............................. ................ .................. ........ ............ ...............................
19. Usual weekly schedule of hours ______ _______________

Daily

20. New workers: Trained in shop Trade school.................................. ...........
1 For instructions to agents, see p. 124.




Other

119

[Sheets 2a and 2b]

to
o

PAY ROLL—YEAR ENDING
Total pay roll

Cutters

Blockers

Operators

Milliners and
trimmers

General factory

Week ending—
Sex

Number

Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number

Sex

Amount

[A line was allowed foi each weel : of the year]

PAY ROLL—YEAR ENDING
Officers

Salesmen

Designers

Working foremen

Office

Shipping

Week ending—
Number




Sex

Amount Number

Sex

Amount

Number

Sex

Amount

Number

Sex

[A line was allowed for each week of tt e year

Amount

Number Amount

Number

Sex

Amount

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Number Amount Number Amount

SCHEDULE FORMS

121

[Sheet 3]

FIRM PRODUCTION
Firm name---------------- ------- --------------Dates

Number of
workers

Type hat

Address
Price range

Production

Total
earnings

Value
$

$

[Data obtainable were ins ufficient for nclusion]

[Sheet 4]

INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTION
[Schedule II substituted for this; see p. 123]
[Sheet 5]

INDIVIDUAL ANNUAL EARNINGS
Firm name.
Occupation

Sex




Weeks
worked

Annual
earnings

Occupation

Sex

Weeks
worked

[Space al owed for e lcIi employee’s earnings]

121

Annual
earnings

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLING INDUSTRY

122

[Sheet 0]

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS: 1937
Firm name.
1. Manufacturing costs:
(a) Labor:
Productive----------------General factory----------Foremen or women-----Designing.........----........
(b) Materials:

Ind. bodies, yardage----

City
3. Shipping costs:
Labor costs
Packing supplies.......... ...........
Expressage, parcel post, and
carfares............ .....................
Total........................... .
4. Office:
Salaries......... ............................

Linings, labels, sweat
bands, ribbons, orna­
ments.........................

Supplies and printing----------

(c) Other:
Equipment adjustment
and repairs...................

Postage----------------------------

Telephone and telegraph.........

Credit service.......................
Association dues......... ..........

Blocks and dies----------Electricity......................
Gas or steam....... ..........
Rent.......... .....................

Total
5. Administrative:
Officers’ salaries______ _____

Insurance------------------

Legal, auditing, and other
special services

When factory is owned by firm,
state building upkeep and repairs,
and building insurance, taxes, other
building ownership costs.

Interest_________ _________
6. Taxes:
Corporate------------------------Old age^----- '............................
U nemployment
7. Bad debts----------------------------

Total.....................................
2. Selling costs:
Salaries or commission....... .
Advertising..............................

8. Depreciation*----------------------9. Sundries------------------- ---------Number of machines:

Traveling and entertaining-—

Total.




* State value of equipment upon which depreciation
is based. If new machinery is purchased and listed
on books, state amount.

SCHEDULE FORMS

123

Schedule II

INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE’S CARD
[Front]

Name or number of employee.

Male

□

Firm

Female □
Occupation_________________
Earnings week ended March

City_
1938

HOURS WORKED

Begin

Lunch
period

End

NUMBER OF HATS

Total
time
worked

Single

Piece
price

Dozen

Piece
price

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
[Back]

INSTRUCTIONS
Mark down your time, production, and earnings record for one week
Give exact hour you began and ended work each day and time out for lunch.
Example:

Begin
End
Lunch period
9:10
3:40
12 to 1
Give hats handled at different prices each day.
Example :

Single
20

@

Piece price
20$

3 @
40(4
Be sure your occupation and total earnings for this week are given.
CHie confidential information asked on the face of this card is to determine
differences in output and earnings per hour in millinery occupations in different
cities.)




Appendix B—INSTRUCTIONS TO AGENTS
Women’s Bureau
United States Department

op

Labor

Washington

MILLINERY INDUSTRY STUDY
Background.

The Millinery Stabilization Commission, formed at the suggestion of the Mayor
of New York in 1935, placed before the Secretary of Labor the continued un­
healthy condition of the millinery industry during 1936 and 1937 and requested
assistance. The Secretary of Labor instructed the Women’s Bureau to undertake
the study of manufacturing conditions and ordered that part of the funds neces­
sary for the study be allotted to it by other bureaus in the Department.

Purpose.

To diagnose the ills of the industry with a view to the development of plans
for its rehabilitation, insofar as those ills can be considered from a study of manu­
facturing practices and employee and employer relationships.
Major problems to be studied are:
1. Fluctuations in employment, in hours, in earnings, and in production
during 1937.
2. Variations in labor productivity by product, by plants, and by areas.
3. Variations in cost of production and receipts.
4. Methods of selling factory products.
It is recognized that such a survey will reveal only a part of the story and that a
further survey must be made by another Government department of wholesaling
and retailing millinery practices.

Scope.

The factory millinery industry throughout the United States. In addition, the
major men’s hat factories that produce women’s tailored hats will be visited to
determine competitive labor practices and marketing practices.
(The infants’ and children’s wear industry, the cap and cloth hat industry, and
the millinery supply industry will not be included.)
All information will be taken for the year 1937.

MILLINERY FIRM SCHEDULE
[To be used in millinery factories only]

This schedule is to be secured from all millinery factories operating in 1937.
It is recognized that firms out of business when the survey is being made cannot
be scheduled, but their number and relative size will be known from records of the
supply-distribution association.
.
All questions but 16, 17, and 18 will be answered by interview with firm mem­
bers. Questions 16, 17, and 18 will be secured from firm records, details of which
will appear on sheets 2 or 3 of schedule. If no records are available, question
firm member on subjects and mark source of answers.
[Sheet 1]
DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS

3. A member of firm or general manager should be interviewed. If more than
one person is interviewed, give both names and their titles.
4. Check type of firm organization. Contract firm is a firm that makes hats
from materials cut and furnished by another.
124




INSTRUCTIONS TO AGENTS

125

6. Specify carefully part each firm member takes in firm activities.
Examjlb:

i lactory, 80 percent.
First memberg supplies, 20 percent.
d member/Office manager, 25 percent.
I bells hats, 75 percent.
7. The first question refers to length of time this firm has been in business
under this firm name. The second question is to discover if the firm has always
been in this city or has moved from some other locality. If from another locality,
write name of city and State after “Came from.” If the I. P. gives the reason
for his moving, V and write “over” and give reason on back of sheet.
8. This refers to the selling price of the hat by the manufacturers. In the
less expensive hat it is usually given in dozens, as $12, $13.50, $24, etc., but in
the more expensive group this price is given on the individual hat, as $4, $6.50,
etc. Note after the price whether it is for a dozen or a piece. The range is the
least expensive or lowest-priced hat and the most expensive or the highestpriced hat. The largest volume, or greatest production, may be in the lowestor highest-priced hat or in one between the lowest and highest.
9. If an officer of the company does designing, write “Officer” after “Other.”
If there is no original designing and hats are not made up from samples, state
method under “Other.”
10. Does the firm have its own salesmen and, if so, are they paid a straight
salary by the week or month or are they paid a commission on their sales or a
mixture of the two methods—check under the proper heading. If the salesman
deals with his customers on the premises, check after “Sell in shop.” If he travels
and visits his customers, check after “Sell on road.” Sometimes a salesman may
do both, and then the check should be after “Both.” If a number of manu­
facturers sell through a commission merchant and this firm uses this method,
check after “Group commission salesman.” Check “Resident buyer” when
contact is with representative of retail trade. Under “Other” state different
method of selling and describe the method. If an officer of the company does
selling, wiite “Officer” after “Other”.
11. After the w'ord “Jobbers,” “Syndicate,” “Retailers,” give the percent of
sales to these different agencies. Underneath these headings and on line with
main price range, note the principal price hat sold to each agency. Chain store is
to be grouped with Syndicate. If sales to syndicates and chain stores can be
divided, give percent to syndicates above and to chain stores below.
12. It is customary to give a discount on sales according to the promptness of
the payment or sometimes the volume of the sales. If there is a special discount
allowed for some special reason, give reason and amount allowed. Under Extra
service should be placed such service as customer’s label (if thrown in and not paid
for), free advertising, and so forth. Show whether special discount or service is
given to jobber, syndicate, or retailer.
13. After hats are delivered to the buyer, frequently part or all of the hats are
returned for such reasons as late delivery, not up to specification, or because the
buyer fears he cannot sell. Note, if obtainable, the proportions of such re­
turns to gross sales; the percent of sales to jobbers returned, percent of sales to
syndicates returned, and percent of sales to retailers returned.
14. Are domestic or imported materials bought? From wholesale house, job­
bers, or importers? Is a discount allowed if payment is previous to a certain
day of the month, and so forth? Are large stocks bought in advance or is buying
only on orders? If not sufficient room on front sheet, write on back and mark
(over) on front; on back give number of question.
15. Check whether credit is obtained from banks, finance company, or from
supply house—the latter is the house or houses that supply the material for the
hats. Other may include friends or relatives.
16. The type of hat refers to whether it is made of felt, of straw, or of braid.
The price range is the selling price of the manufacturer; that is, the lowest and
highest price. Dozens produced refers to yearly production of hats. Gross
sales is the total sales in dollars. Returns can be given either in dollars, in dozens,
or in percent of dozens produced or of gross sales. Net sales need not be filled in
in the field. If data cannot be secured by type of hat, get total production, and
so forth. State how the number of dozens produced is obtained—if verbally given,
how was figure arrived at? if from books, how figured? If gross sales are for all
types of hats, as is usually the case, give figure on last line under “Gross sales”
137582°—39---- 9



126

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

and just above “Net sales”. Give sales discounts under “Returns.” If antici­
pation discount is given separately, put amount and mark “A. D.” above
“Returns.” Sales discount is not deducted from net sales unless specified.
17. Do not fill in this question if sheet 2 is taken. If no record of numbers,
take employer’s statement of normal number employed.
18. Under each occupation give method of pay, putting T. for time work, P.
for piece work, P. G. for group piece work, T. and P. for time and piece, O. for
other and describe other in note on back of schedule. Guaranteed minimum is
an hourly or weekly minimum wage guaranteed to a piece worker. If the guar­
anteed sum is greater than the actual earnings, the difference is made up by the
employer. Unless the piece worker earns additional earnings, under “Remarks”
should be given any description of minimum rates, such as learners’ pay or bonus
given.
19. This refers to the usual or regular weekly hours. If the schedule varies
in different seasons of the year give changes, but if the variation is from week to
week give only the most usual or customary hours. Give daily hours exclusive
of meal time. If daily hours vary in different seasons, give variation.
20. Check if new workers are taken without experience under “Trained in
shop.” If hired from trade school, check under “Trade school.” If hired from
union, write “Union” after “Other.” If there is variation in method for different
occupations, write (over) and give details on back of sheet.
[Sheet 2]

The Purpose of these data is to determine the fluctuations in employment of
each occupational group as shown by earnings of that group, numbers employed,
and hours wherever kept.
This record is taken directly from the pay-roll books. Each week is recorded
separately, and the date of the week ending is recorded. Unless the total pay
roll is given in the pay-roll books, the first two columns under “The pay roll”
can be added later from the details that follow.
In this table the number of workers in each group, their total earnings, and total
hours worked, are recorded.
The number of cutters recorded as working each week, the total amount earned
by all of them, and if available, the total hours worked by all of them should be
listed for each week or pay period. This same information should be given for
workers in each class listed. For operators the same information should be
recorded, but in addition the number of women should be noted. That is, if
there are 10 operators and 2 are women, under “Sex” should be recorded 2 W.
It is not necessary to give the number of men and if no women are employed
leave the space under “Sex” blank.
The blockers are always men and the milliners and trimmers are women, so no
space is left for “Sex” under these two occupations. The shipping employees are
men. For all other occupations, follow the directions for recording men and
women workers given for operators.
If other occupations are listed that cannot come under any one of the headings,
write the type of work on line with other headings at right hand side of sheet and
below it list the same information—number of workers, sex, amount earned, and
hours worked if recorded—as under the other headings.

Details.
Lump sum for make-up should be noted. Will the agent please specify over
what period and occupations it should be spread. The same method should be
employed for vacations.
If total hours are given each week, put them under “Week ending” at right of
date.
Under “Total pay roll” write “Firms’ totals” if taken from pay-roll book,
“Agent’s totals” if computed by agent.
Shoppers are included under “General.”
If there is a pattern cutter, give his earnings above regular cutter and mark
'with a “P.”
Operators.—Fill in under “Sex” only if women are employed and state number
cof females; for example, 5 employed, 2 women—put “5” under “Number” and
“2” under “Sex.”
Set-up usually done by operators.
Blockers.—If the blocking operation is broken down, workers on the following
operations should go under “Blocking”: Pulling, pouncing, hydraulizing.




INSTRUCTIONS TO AGENTS

Under
helpers.

127

General are stemmers, strikers, and finishers, floor girls, errand bovs,
[Sheet 3. Insufficient information obtainable for inclusion]

The Purpose of this sheet is to obtain gross production of firm and production
fluctuations during year. Many firms block all hats, in which case blockers’
record will give necessary data. If some hats are not blocked but record of hat
production is kept, take this record plus that of blockers to give total production.
If no such record is obtainable, take record of 2 weeks in busy season (without
overtime).
When year’s records are taken, check the two periods regarded as indicative
of normal blocker production.
Under “Dates,” give the date of week ending, but the year need not be re­
peated after first week; example, 1-9-37, 1-16, 1-23, and so forth. If periods are
in months, give January, February, and so forth.
Type hat.—Material of which made, whether of wool (W), silk (S), straw (St.),
braid (B). If hat of more than one material is made in a single period, give
initials as above for each type.
Hats produced.—Give number in each period of dozens or individual hats pro­
duced by the total number of blockers.
Value.—If this is obtainable, give value in dollars of hats produced in each
period. If not, give dollar value for year. This means the value of the finished
hats, not the value after blocking only.
Earnings.—Give group earnings.
[Sheet 4]

The Purpose is to compare production rates from firm to firm and from region
to region. If individual card is given out with satisfactory results, this sheet is
not necessary.
[Schedule II was substituted for this sheet (see p. 123]).
[Sheet 5]

If firm keeps card records of individual’s employment for Social Security pur­
poses, fill in this sheet to show the annual earnings of individual millinery
workers. If such an individual record is not kept, do not compile it for pay rolls.
This record, if taken, should be for each worker employed, regardless of number
of weeks worked.
List “Occupations” as occupations appear on sheet 2.
Weeks worked are number of weeks in which worker earned any amount, re­
gardless of hours worked.
[Sheet 6]

The Purpose of sheet 6 is to determine the variations in cost of production

from firm to firm and from region to region.
As accounting methods differ, it is essential to have groupings broken down into
component parts so that they can be reassembled uniformly by Bureau’s statisti­
cal division. Copy accountant’s statement wherever obtainable. Go back to
original records only when necessary.

Detailed Instructions.
la. Labor.—If accountant has assembled labor costs, copy his statement. If
not, these data will be assembled from sheet 2 in office.
lb. Materials.—This includes all materials from which hats are made, all bodies
of hats, trimmings, and thread. Needles and oil for the machines should be kept
under “Equipment” but should be listed separately under “Equipment supplies,”
writing this on second line under equipment. Put “Purchase discount” on sep­
arate line as “P. D.” Inventory should be listed after this entrv. Commission
labels put under supplies.
lc. Other.—This item includes repairs to machines, moving and rearranging
machinery, belts, and so forth, but does not include initial cost nor needles and oil
unless they cannot be separated from other repairs and upkeep.
Blocks and dies.—-'This item refers to all blocks and dies bought during the year
of 1937.
Electricity.—This includes light, power if electrical, and all electricity charges.
Gas or steam.—Gas or steam is frequently used in blocking and the cost should
be given here.




128

CONDITIONS IN THE MILLINERY INDUSTRY

Rent.—Of loft or building (if firm owns their building, leave this item blank)
If water is not included in rent, place under rent.
Insurance.—This refers to the insurance paid during 1937 on the machinery,
equipment, and stock (does not include insurance on building, if owned by firm).
If the firm owns its building, all items of expense thereto should be listed and
amounts recorded in space below “When factory is owned, and so forth.”
_ 2. Selling costs.—Salaries or commissions can be obtained from sheet 2. Adver­
tising should include all forms of advertising, but if advertising is given to some
special retailer who sells their product, list this item separately if possible to do so.
Traveling and entertaining.—This includes all items of travel and entertaining
that are charged to firm’s expenses or paid by firm to individuals. “Models and
showroom” costs are entered on extra line.
3. Labor costs can be obtained from sheet 2. Packaging supplies include
such items as paper boxes and twine to be used to wrap and pack goods shipped out.
Expressage, parcel post, and carfares.—The last named covers the expense
incurred when packages are sent by messenger, and under this heading would
be placed also the cost of messenger if from an outside agency as well as his carfare.
4. Salaries can be obtained from sheet 2.
Supplies and printing would cover all office supplies and books and printing
letter heads, circulars under advertising, and so forth.
Credit service.—May not be included in association dues. Be sure to ask what
is included as “Cost of collection” if accounts should be listed separately under “5.”
5. Officers’ salaries from sheet 2. If they do selling, supervising work in fac­
tory, or work in office, if possible ascertain amount of time spent on such duties
and note, as half the time spent selling, or three-fourths of time supervising in
plant, and so forth.
Legal, auditing, and other special service.—This would include lawyer fees, court
fees,, court costs, bookkeeping if done by an outside firm, or any other special
service of this type performed by outside people or organizations.
“Credit service” for “4,” as well as “Collection service and Bank charges,” is
listed here.
“Bank charges” are also listed separately under “5.”
Interest.—This refers to interest on loans or credits but does not include interest
on mortgages or loans on buildings.
Taxes.—Corporate tax includes the regular tax and surplus tax as well as
State or city taxes, all taxes on corporations or business. If possible break
down into Federal, State, and city.
Bad debts.—This includes only such debts as have been written off the books
during 1937.
Depreciation.—Take sum that firm gives for depreciation in income-tax returns.
Get value of equipment and number of machines. If any new equipment and
machines during 1937, note cost and ask how this cost is distributed.
Sundries.—This may be the term used or such items may be listed under
“Petty cash.” If possible ascertain what items are included. Put “Cleaning”
under “Sundries.”
At end of sheet give profit or loss statement of auditor.




o