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Conclusions a n d R esolutions


A dopted by the In tern a tio n a l
L a b o r C onference in the
Twenty-Seventh Session


P aris, F ra n ce, O ctober 1 5 to
N ovem ber 5, 1 9 4 5

¿ ¿ > ¿ ,7
194 6
( 4 ~ r f for
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

by KATH ARINE F. LENROOT, Chief Children9s B ureau1
U. S. Department of Labor
Against a background of war and plenty in the utmost measure.
The work of the Conference cen­
destruction, and amidst the stirring of
reconstruction, representatives of Gov­ tered upon four main subjects: mainte­
ernments, employers, and workers of nance of high levels of employment;
48 nations assembled in Paris October protection of children and young work­
15, 1945 for the twenty-seventh session ers; minimum standards of social policy
of the International Labor Conference. in dependent territories; and constitu­
Created after the first World War, the tional questions relating to the struc­
International Labor Organization was ture and functioning of the Interna­
established on the principle that lasting tional Labor Organization and the ways
peace could be founded only on social in which it may be brought into rela­
justice. Its vitality and record of solid tion with the United Nations Organ­
achievement make it one of the most ization.
It is significant indeed that the prob­
important international instruments of
lems of children and youth should have
the present postwar era.
An American who has not before been given so prominent a place in the
visited war-torn Europe can fully meas­ work of this first postwar International
ure the depth of the impression made Labor Conference. Their needs and
only on her return, when she sees here measures necessary to assure adequate
the streets full of automobiles, the peo­ protection were considered in a tri­
ple well-clothed and well-fed, the shops partite committee of representatives of
and markets full of goods at prices governments, employers, and workers,
which bear at least some measurable which held 22 sessions and presented
relation to prewar levels, and knows two reports to the Conference in plenary
that everywhere in the country homes session.
As is customary, the Director’s re­
and buildings are intact, streets bril­
liantly lighted, and houses warmed. port and speeches commenting upon it
Even after a short absence one feels a gave opportunity for bringing general
sense of unreality about the security matters before the Conference. This
which has saved our mainland shores year delegates from European countries
from attack and destruction through were asked particularly to describe
two world wars, but which will not briefly the general conditions in their
again protect us should we and. our own countries. Their statements of
allies fail to take measures to make a loss, suffering, deprivation, and cou­
third cataclysm impossible. The only rageous determination to rebuild were
way in which we can share in the unforgettable.
Cold, hunger, tuberculosis, and sep­
spiritual rebuilding of peoples arising
from the ashes of destruction, as we aration of families through deportations
shared in the battles which brought for forced labor in Germany, service in
victory to the free nations', is to make the armed forces and in the resistance
their cause our own and give of our movement, all have had serious effects
1 Miss Lenroot attended the I. L. O. Conference as an official adviser to the delegates for the Govemment of the United States of America.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

upon children and young persons in all Troclet, Minister of Labor and Social
the occupied countries. In Belgium, Welfare of Belgium. Mr. David Zellerone-sixth of the working population bach, employers’ member for the United
had been deported to Germany or, in States of America, and Miss Florence
lesser numbers, to occupied France, for Hancock, workers* member of the
forced labor. From Poland, the Minister United Kingdom of Great Britain and
of Labor and Social Welfare reported Northern Ireland, were vice-chairmen.
that of the 7 million children under T he writer and Mrs. Alva Myrdal,
the age of 14 years, 650,000 are full Swedish Government member, served
orphans; 300,000 had been forcibly as reporters and presented the work of
abandoned by their parents, most of the committee to the plenary session of
whom had been placed in concentra­ the Conference. Many of the 56 mem­
tion camps or taken for conscript labor; bers of the committee (24 government
1,000,000 are half-orphans; and 2,000,- members, 16 employers’ members, and
000 more have to be clothed and fed 16 workers’ member) had come from
because their parents are too impover­ countries recently liberated from enemy
ished to care for them. There are 1,000,- occupation. They brought to the com­
000 homeless persons, about 300,000 of mittee their deep conviction that the
whom “are compelled to occupy holes protection and welfare of children and
dug in the earth. Some of them have young persons are matters of the most
neither clothing nor even shoes.” In urgent importance, and must be given
personal conversation the speaker said, priority in plans for social reconstruc­
“Our people can stand being without tion.
The first part of the committee’s
food; they are used to it. But they can’t
stand being without clothing in the work dealt with proposed lists of points
winter cold.”
for consultation with governments,
The Government delegate from Italy preparatory to nexY year’s conference
reported that Italian towns, large and when draft conventions will be drawn
small, are largely in ruins, and that up for presentation to member govern­
eight and a half million people have ments for ratification. The subjects dis­
no roof to cover them during the com­ cussed were medical examinations for
ing winter. Very few schools are left, fitness for employment and restriction
most of them having been destroyed or of night work, both relating to children
requisitioned for other purposes. In the and young persons.
Netherlands, though progress has been
It was proposed that the medical ex­
made since liberation, the food supply amination convention cover both indus­
is still scanty. 'There is an appalling trial and nonindustrial occupations, and
shortage of clothes, shoes, and other that the night-work convention cover
necessities. People in many districts are nonindustrial undertakings, since in­
living in cellars or barns. Infant mortal­ dustrial undertakings had already been
ity is at a high level. In France, in­ covered in the night-work convention
formation brought to the writer’s atten­ of 1919. It was pointed out that young
tion indicated that the weights of chil­ agricultural workers also need the pro­
dren at birth are down 200 to 300 grams tection of medical examinations.
and infant mortality has increased.
A resolution was adopted recom­
Adolescent children present grave prob­ mending that the staff of the I. L. O.,
lems of malnutrition and tuberculosis. in consultation with the Permanent
Clothing, fuel, and food are seriously Committee on Agriculture, undertake
short. Juvenile delinquency is causing a study of the possibility of extending
great concern.
the protection of medical examinations
The Committee on Protection of for fitness for employment to children
Children and Young Workers met un­ and young persons engaged in agricul­
der the chairmanship of Mr. Leon Eli tural occupations. Another resolution

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

adopted by the committee requested come an instrument of progress even
the Governing Body to examine the though for some countries certain of
possibility of revision of the 1919 con­ the standards proposed constitute an
vention on night work for young per­ objective that can only be realized step
by step. They thought such a plan
sons in industrial occupations.
Employers’, Workers’, and govern­ might stimulate interest in these prob­
ment members were all in general lems and encourage collaboration be­
agreement on the importance of medi­ tween all the administrations concerned.
Included in the resolution are sec­
cal examinations and restriction of night
work. T he report of the committee, tions on:
General Social Protection, including
containing revised lists of points for
consultation and the two resolutions maintenance, health, and social protec­
noted above, was adopted unanimously tion; Educational Opportunities; Ad­
by the Conference, and the Governing mission to Employment; Protection of
Body later placed these matters on the Young Workers; Administration of
agenda of next year’s International La­ Protective Policies; and Collaboration
bor Conference, which will meet in on an International Basis. Discussions
of the subjects of hours of work and
Twelve meetings of the committee wages gave rise to the adoption of
were devoted to a draft resolution on compromise texts concerning which cer­
the protection of children and young tain reservations were made. The reso­
workers and another on youth of lib­ lution as amended was adopted by the
erated countries. T he text of the first committee without opposition, though
resolution, proposed by the Office, had with certain reservations, and was in
been prepared after consultation with turn adopted by the whole Conference
a group of experts from some 12 coun­ without a negative vote. The text
tries, which met in Montreal last spring. should receive careful study by all con­
It aimed to present a coordinated cerned with the protection of our own
scheme of various measures for the children and young persons and the de­
realization of the essential objectives velopment of international standards.
The draft resolution concerning the
of the International Labor Organiza­
tion on the protection of youth, formu­ youth of liberated countries, with minor
lated in its constitution and in the amendments, received the unanimous
Declaration of Philadelphia. In the approval of the committee and the
words of the report of the committee Conference. It calls for giving full ma­
to the Conference, “It amalgamates the terial and moral support in the task of
many decisions already formulated by reconstruction by all nations which are
the Conference in the form of conven­ able to do so, and in particular by those
tions and recommendations, and sug­ which have escaped the ordeal of oc­
gests supplementary standards on ques­ cupation by the enemy.
Two other resolutions were adopted:
tions which have not yet been studied
by the Conference.” A representative One requests the Governing Body to
of the Conference of Allied Ministers place on the agenda of an early—if pos­
of Education attended the sessions of sible the next—session of the Interna­
the committee and collaborated in its tional Labor Conference the question
of regulating the underground work
During the general discussion of the of young persons in mines. The other
resolution, many employers’, workers’, requests the Governing Body to set up
and government members of the com­ a n advisory committee for studying the
mittee gave their warm approval to the problems of young workers.
broad outlines of the plan and expressed
N ote .— T he material which follows is
the hope that the resolution might be- quoted from the official report of the meeting.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Committee on Protection of
Children and Young Workers at the
27th session of the International Labor
Organization Conference held in Paris,
October 15 to November 5, 1945, presented two reports to the Conference as
a whole.
The first report, printed as No. 25
of the Provisional Record of the Conference, presents the committee’s conelusions on points for consultation with
Governments, preparatory to the drafting of Conventions or Recommendations on medical examination for fitness
for employment (young workers) and
restriction of night work of children
and young persons (nonindustrial occupations). Two resolutions were also
presented, relating to future work of

the International Labor Conference in
relation to medical examinations and
night work.
The second report, printed as No. 34
of the Provisional Record of the Con­
ference, presents a Draft Resolution concerning the protection of children and
young workers, and draft resolutions
on underground work of young persons in mines and the setting up of an
advisory committee in juvenile work.
The Resolutions and Conclusions
were unanimously adopted by the Conference.
The Resolution concerning the pro­
tection of Children and Young Workers is here presented first because of its
broad scope and great importance,

co n ce rn in g th e p ro te ctio n o f
ch ild ren an d y o u n g w o rk e rs
Whereas the preamble to the constitution of the International Labor Organization includes among the objects
of the Organization the protection of
children and young persons and the
organization of vocational and technical
education; and
Whereas article 41 of the constitution
declares the “abolition of child labor
and the imposition of such limitations
on the labor of young persons as shall
permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical
development” to be of special and urgent importance; and

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Whereas the Declaration of Philadelphia recognizes the solemn obligation of the International Labor Organization to further among the nations of
the world programs which will achieve
“provision for child welfare and maternity protection” and “the assurance
of equality of educational and vocational opportunity”; and
Whereas these solemn commitments
involve the acceptance by the public
authorities of member states of responsibility for ensuring by all appropriate
means that children, the citizens and
workers of the future, are brought into

the world and grow up under condi- instruments of social progress, affords
tions which afford opportunities for a unique opportunity of reviewing the
proper physical, mental, and moral de- work already accomplished under the
velopment and for training for a use- auspices of the International Labof
ful employment or career; and
Organization for the benefit of childWhereas, although the war and the hood and youth and of drawing up for
abnormal living conditions resulting the future a comprehensive policy by
from it have gready aggravated some formulating the general principles to
of the social problems relating to chil- be followed in order to achieve these
dren and young workers, many of these ends within the framework of the
problems are of a permanent character fundamental objectives of the Internaand require the adoption of coordinated tional Labor Organization;
measures, in order to improve the soThe General Conference of the Incial conditions on which the well-being ternational Labor Organization, meetof children and young persons depends; ing in its twenty-seventh session in
Paris, this day of November 4, 1945,
Whereas the reconstruction period, hereby adopts the present resolution
during which all democratic nations concerning the protection of children
will seek to restore and improve their and young workers.

1. The Conference, conscious of its
obligation to further the material and
spiritual advancement of working people everywhere, Reaffirms its conviction
that in order to develop to the fullest
extent the capacities of the workers and
citizens of the future it is necessary that
governments, whilst encouraging the
fullest discharge of individual and
family obligations, should accept responsibility for assuring the health,
welfare, and education of all children
and young persons and the protection
of all youthful workers of either sex,
regardless of race, creed, color or family
circumstances, both by national action
and by appropriate measures of interna-

tional cooperation,
2. The Conference recognizes that
questions relating to the health, education, employment, protection, and general welfare of children and young
persons are interrelated, and cannot be
solved in isolation,
3. The Conference further recognizes
that certain of the matters dealt with
in this resolution will be primarily the
responsibility of other intergovernmental agencies, either existing or
projected, and expresses the hope that
such agencies will carefully consider
the views which are stated in the resolution.

4. The Conference affirms its deep
interest in the furtherance among the
nations of the world of programs which
will make possible the complete abolition* of child labor by providing for
every child proper maintenance and
such conditions of life as will foster
the talents and aptitudes of the child

and his full development as a citizen
and worker,
, _ .
A . JM ilifttCttilflCC
5. All necessary measures should be
taken to assure the material well-being
of children and young persons by:
{a) The adoption by members of
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policies calculated to secure full em­ Medical Care and
Health Services:
( b ) the provision of a living wage
(a) Medical-care services, curative
for all employed persons sufficient to
maintain the family at an adequate and preventive, for pregnant women,
infants, children of preschool age and
standard of living;
(c) relieving the financial pressure school age, and young workers, de­
on the family by such measures as sub­ veloped in the light of the special needs
sidized housing suitable for family life, of urban and rural communities and
supplementary feeding for children, and organized in accordance with the prin­
other social services, family allowances, ciples set forth in the medical-care
and tax concessions, thereby redistribut­ recommendation, 1944;
(b) general health services for main­
ing the cost of maintenance of children;
(d) appropriate provision for family taining and improving the health of
responsibilities under national income- children and young persons, including,
security schemes, based on the guiding for example, services providing ade­
principles and suggestions for applica­ quate food for pregnant and nursing
tion set forth in the income-security mothers, infants and school children,
recommendation, 1944, and including instruction in elementary nutrition and
hygiene, physical culture, and holidays
more particularly:
(/) The provision under insurance in the country, and provision, where
schemes of supplementary allowances necessary, for children requiring such
for dependent children, designed to services as home help and day-nursery
meet contingencies and emergencies care;
(ic ) special mental-hygiene services,
which destroy or impair the wage
children arxl young persons
earner’s ability to provide a livelihood
for his children, and of maternity al­ expert guidance to prevent or assist in
correcting mental ill-health and to aid
( « ) the provision of similar al­ in normal adjustment to family, school,
lowances under other income-security and vocation;
schemes; and
Social Services:
(iii) general measures of social as­
(d ) The encouragement of the or­
sistance to secure the well-being of de­
ganization of facilities for leisure-time
pendent children and young persons;
(<?) services through which homeless activities adapted to different age
normal children and young persons, if groups and the encouragement of youth
not placed in private homes, are cared organizations, for the purpose of pro­
for in circumstances approximating to moting the physical, intellectual, and
home life as closely as possible, in or­ moral development and public spirit of
der to place such children on an equal children and young persons;
(<?) measures to protect children and
footing with other children of their
age, as regards well-being, health care, young persons from moral or physical
and general and vocational education neglect and harmful influences;
(/) the services and institutions nec­
suited to their aptitudes.
essary to ensure the legal protection,
proper care, and reeducation of chil­
B. Health and Social
dren and young persons with special
handicaps or adjustment problems, in­
6. In order to safeguard the general cluding those who require care away
health and well-being of all children from their own home, with a view to
and young persons, the following serv­ helping them to become socially ad­
ices and facilities should be provided justed and useful members of the com­
as a minimum:

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

signed to meet among other purposes
the actual needs of children and adoles­
Vocational Guidance
cents and of facilities to enable each
child to receive the kind of education
7. The Conference reaffirms the con­ best suited to his age and aptitudes,
viction expressed in the Declaration of taking into account:
Philadelphia that the assurance of
(/') Special circumstances among va­
equality of educational opportunity is a rious elements of the population;
necessary condition for equality of voca­
(it) special needs of children whose
tional opportunity.
schooling has been retarded or inter­
8. All children and young persons rupted; and
should be provided free of charge with
(//V) special problems of children
general education which should be of with physical and mental handicaps,
a standard and duration permitting who need rehabilitation for a useful
adequate physical, intellectual, and life.
moral development.
11. The vocational interests of chil­
9. ( 1) Preschool education should be dren and young' persons should be fos­
accessible to all children, without be­ tered and their selection of an employ­
ing compulsory, as soon as possible and ment or career guided through:
as far as practicable.
(a )
~Programs for prevocational prep(2 ) School attendance should be eration which are destined to develop
compulsory up to an age not lower an idea of, taste for, and esteem for
than 16 years ingpll countries as soon work and are consistent with the pur­
as circumstances permit and should in poses of general education, according
all cases be compulsory up to the gen­ to the principles laid down in part III
eral minimum age for admission to of the vocational-training recommenda­
employment; the school-leaving age tion, 1939;
should be raised simultaneously with
(b ) free vocational-guidance services,
the minimum age for admission to em­ offered through the school or the em­
ployment in accordance with the pro­ ployment service and available to all
visions of paragraph 19 (2 ) below.
adolescents during their years of school
10. Effective access to suitable educa­ attendance and at the time when they
tion should be guaranteed through:
leave school, the use of such facilities
(a) Provisions to make educational being encouraged as the best means of
facilities universally accessible, espe­ helping young persons to choose suit­
able careers, in keeping with the pro­
(/) The establishment of a sufficient visions of paragraph 37 (b ) of the un­
number of schools of varied types with employment (young persons) recom­
adequate and qualified teaching staffs; mendation, 1935, and of paragraph 32
( « ) measures to facilitate school at­ (1 )
of the employment (transition
tendance by children and young peo­ from war to peace) recommendation,
ple who live at a distance from centers 1944.
of population by such means as group
12. The continued education of
transportation and boarding schools; young workers should be required un­
til they reach the age of 18; in ac­
(/«) the assignment of a high pri­ cordance with the principles laid down
ority to public works for the establish­ in paragraph 8 of the unemployment
ment, restoration, or improvement of (young persons) recommendation, 1935,
educational facilities.
through supplementary courses de­
(b ) the provision of instruction de- signed principally to promote general

A . General Education and

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education but also providing general and trade knowledge; these courses
training for occupational activity and might form part of the compulsory
organized on a part-time basis for em­ continued education provided for above
ployed young persons in conformity in paragraph 12 for young persons un­
with the conditions laid down in para­ der the age of 18, and could be made
available to all young persons over 18
graph 25 ( b ) below.
13. Young persons who can benefit who wish to attend them in order to
thereby should be encouraged to con­ obtain a better post; provided that noth­
tinue their full-time education in sec­ ing in this paragraph shall be construed
ondary and technical schools beyond as prejudicing the general educational
the compulsory school-leaving age, in character of continued education.
(2 )
Young workers who are obliged
accordance with the principle laid
down, in paragraph 7 (1 ) of the un­ to attend part-time technical and voca­
employment (young persons) recom­ tional training should be protected by
workmen’s compensation against acci­
mendation, 1935.
14. In order to promote the develop­ dent during the course of such training.
ment of the child, schools should co­
operate closely with parents and with
C. Economic Assistance
institutions and agencies interested in
the welfare of children and young per­
(1 ) Economic assistance should
sons or in their occupational career.
be provided, to aid in raising the
school-leaving age, and effectively as­
B. Technical and Vocational sure equal access to all stages of techni­
cal, vocational, and higher education,
T raining
in accordance with fcie principles laid
down in paragraphs 1, 5, and 7 (2 ) of
15. (1 ) In order that young per­ the unemployment (young persons)
sons may obtain the knowledge neces­ recommendation, 1935, in paragraph 6
sary for carrying on the occupation in of the vocational-training recommenda­
which they intend to engage and to tion, 1939, and paragraphs 30 (2 ) and
maintain the supply of trained workers, 31 of the employment (transition from
technical and vocational-training op­ war to peace) recommendation, 1944.
portunities should be provided by
(2 ) This assistance should consist, as
means of:
circumstances and needs may require,
(a) Free technical and vocational of:
schools and courses, organized in the
(a) The free use of textbooks and
manner defined in the vocational-train­ other materials and school equipment;
ing recommendation, 1939, and the vo­
( b ) free or low-cost meals;
cational-education (agriculture) rec­
( c ) free or reduced-cost transporta­
ommendation, 1921, which make avail­ tion; and
able programs adapted to the economic
( d ) maintenance allowances during
requirements of each region or locality the period of compulsory education and
and of the country as a whole and pro­ student aid to enable young persons to
vide young persons with adequate tech­ continue, subject to proof of merit, their
nical or trade knowledge;
vocational, technical, or higher educa­
(t>) part-time supplementary courses tion beyond the compulsory period.
organized in the manner defined in
paragraph 12 of the vocational-training
recommendation, 1939, which provide D . Apprenticeship and
for all young workers, whether or not
In-Plant Training
they have received vocational training
(1 ) Special consideration should
before entering employment, the op­
portunity of extending their technical be given to the development of appren-

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ticeship for young workers and in par­
ticular to measures for making appren­
ticeship fully effective in accordance
with the principles laid down in the
apprenticeship recommendation, 1939,
and in paragraph 33 of the employ­
ment (transition from war to peace)
recommendation, 1944, with a view to
ensuring sustained improvement in the
standards and methods of apprentice­
ship and the widening of the responsi­
bilities of public authorities in this field.
(2 ) Special efforts should be made,

in collaboration with employers’ and
workers’ organizations, to develop sys­
tematic arrangements for ensuring in
accordance with paragraph 34 of the
employment (transition from war to
peace) recommendation, 1944, that all
young workers employed in any under­
taking have an opportunity to acquire
or to improve their specialized techni­
cal training and to acquaint themselves
with the operations of the undertaking
as a whole.

A . Regulation of Minimum

18. The Conference reaffirms its duty
to promote the abolition of child labor,
and, convinced that it is in the best
interests of children in order to assure
an adequate preparation for their future
to fix the minimum age for admission
to employment as high as possible for
all categories of employment:
(a) Invites all members to ratify as
soon as possible either the four conven­
tions fixing at 14 years the minimum
age of admission to industrial employ­
ment, employment at sea, nonindus­
trial employment, and employment in
agriculture, or preferably as regards the
first three categories of employment,
the revised conventions in which the
minimum age for industrial employ­
ment, employment at sea, and non­
industrial employment is raised to 15
years; and
(b ) urges them to take as their
objective the gradual raising to 16 years
of the minimum age of admission to
19. (1 ) When regulating the mini­
mum age of admission, consideration
should be given to the following prin­
ciples, which would appear to afford an
appropriate basis of regulation.
(2 ) The gradual raising of the mini­
mum age should be accompanied, at

each successive stage, by simultaneous
measures for assuring the maintenance
of children in accordance with the pro­
visions of paragraph 5 above and for
organizing compulsory school attend­
ance until at least the same age, in
accordance with the provisions of para­
graphs 9 (2 ) and' 10 above.
(3 ) So far as possible the minimum
age should be fixed simultaneously for
the various important categories of oc­
cupations and especially for industrial
and nonindustrial employments carried
on mainly in urban areas, in order to
avoid the risk that application of stricter
rules to industrial employments may
induce younger children to enter em­
ployments which are inadequately regu­
lated and in which they will therefore
receive less protection.
(4 ) Attention should be given to
regulating the admission of a child to
domestic service outside of his own
family in the same way as to other non­
industrial occupations in accordance
with the provisions of the minimumage (nonindustrial employment) con­
ventions, 1932 and 1937; special efforts
should be made to eliminate forms of
employment involving the placing of
children in, or their transfer on a basis
of quasi adoption to, the family of an
employer where they work for main­
(5 ) The employment of children of
school age should be carefully regulated
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to prevent interference with schooling prove his compliance with the law.
(7 ) The regulations concerning the
and to ensure full opportunity for
study, recreation, and rest, with due m in i m u m age for admission to employ­
ment which are already applicable to
regard for the following standards:
(a) No child of school age should be certain categories of family undertak­
allowed to work during school hours, ings in accordance with the minimumwhether on his own account, for his age (agriculture) convention, 1921, the
minimum-age (nonindustrial employ­
parents, or for an employer;
( b ) exemptions permitting the em­ ment) conventions, 1932 and 1937, and
ployment of children of school age out­ the minimum-age (industry) (revised)
side school hours should be eliminated convention, 1937, should be extended
as soon as possible and pending such to all family undertakings in the spirit
elimination should be strictly limited of the minimum-age (family under­
in accordance with the following pro­ takings) recommendation, 1937.
(8 ) For those occupations which, by
(*) As regards the nature of the em­ their nature or the circumstances in
ployment, such exceptions should be which they are carried on, are danger­
granted only for light agricultural em­ ous to the life, health, or morals of the
ployment or for nonindustrial employ­ children and young persons employed
ments which are clearly unobjection­ therein, an age higher than the general
minimum age should be fixed in ac­
( « ) as regards the number of hours cordance with the provisions of the
and other conditions under which em­ minimum-age (industry) (revised) con­
ployment might be authorized by the vention, 1937, and the minimum-age
competent authority, so that it is not (nonindustrial employment) conven­
harmful to the health or normal devel­ tions, 1932 and 1937; & fixing this age
opment of the child and is not such as it would be advisable:
(a) To fix the minimum age for the
to prejudice his attendance at school
or capacity to benefit from instruction admission of young persons to employ­
there given, in accordance with the pro­ ment as trimmers and stokers on vessels
visions of article 3 of the minimum-age at not less than 18 years in accordance
(nonindustrial employment) conven­ with the provisions of the minimumage (trimmers and stokers) convention,
tions, 1932 and 1937;
(/«) as regards age, exemption should 1921;
(b ) to fix the minimum age for the
be granted only to children who are not
more thân 2 years below the minimum admission of young persons to employ­
ments liable to cause lead poisoning at
age of admission to employment.
not less than 18 years, in accordance
(6 )
In order to ensure the effective
application of the regulations concern­ with the provisions of the white-lead
ing the minimum age of admission to (painting) convention, 1921, and the
employment, documentary proof of age lead-poisoning (women and children)
should be required before any child or recommendation, 1919;
young person is permitted to enter em­
(c) to adjust the minimum age for
ployment; such proof of age should:
other hazardous occupations to the seri­
(a ) Be furnished by means of a birth ousness of the physical or moral risks
certificate issued free of charge for the for young workers in each occupation,
purpose or, where the system of birth so as to afford them adequate protec­
registration is inadequate, by means of tion, with an ultimate goal of at least
other recognized types of documentary 18 years;
evidence or by medical examination;
( d ) to prohibit or to lay down con­
( £ ) be recorded in documents to be ditions safeguarding the entry of young
kept by the employer or the young persons below the age of 18 into occu­
worker in his possession in order to pations bringing them into contact with

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

the public such as certain of those in quate schooling in conformity with the
the hotel industry which may be blind- law and all appropriate measures are
alley occupations and may involve being taken to make up any educa­
tional deficiencies;
moral risks;
to consider carefully the risks (c) the competent authority should
involved for children or young persons have the power to lay down in the
in the carrying on of certain types of work permit special conditions, in con­
itinerant trading and similar occupa­ formity with the law, taking into con­
tions in the streets or in places to which sideration both the health of the child
the public have access, in order to fix or adolescent as determined by the
an appropriate minimum age of admis­ medical examination, and the nature of
sion for these employments as required the employment; the permit should be
by the minimum-age (nonindustrial renewed at intervals and, in any case,
employment) conventions, 1932 and at every change of employment;
( d ) should local conditions make it
impossible to raise to 18 years the age
of admission to itinerant trading or
B. Authorization for
similar occupations in the streets or in
Employment or Work. places to which the public have access,
the carrying on of such trades or occu­
by a child or young person
As the conditions under which pations
child or young person enters employ­ under 18 years of age, whether for an
ment may have a lasting effect on his employer, for his parents or on his own
future, entry into employment should account, should be subject to the pro­
be subject to the following safeguards: curing of a special permit and to the
(a) The consent of the parents or wearing of a badge as provided for by
guardian of the minor should be re­ the minimum-age (nonindustrial em­
quired for the entry into employment ployment) recommendation, 1932.
of a child or young person under the
age of 16 years;
C. Juvenile "Placement
( b ) the entry into employment of
(1 ) In order that young persons
children and young persons under t&to 21.
age of 18 years should be subject to the may be placed in the employment
written authorization of an appropriate where they can best utilize their apti­
tudes and resources, gain a good liveli­
authority responsible for verifying:
(?) That satisfactory proof has been hood, and enjoy personal satisfaction in
furnished that the child or young per­ their work, the employment service in
son seeking employment has reached each country should provide special ar­
the minimum age for the occupation rangements for the placing of juveniles,
direcdy or in cooperation with other
in which he is to be engaged;
(??) that the child or young person appropriate agencies in accordance with
has been found fit for the said employ­ a coordinated program under the lead­
ment by a medical examination made ership of the employment service; the
free of charge to the child or young chief purposes of these arrangements
person by a doctor approved by the should be:
( a) T o offer to young persons who
competent authority, in accordance with
the provisions already laid down for are seeking employment, or who wish
employment at sea by the medical ex­ to change from one employment to
amination of young-persons (sea) con­ another, free vocational guidance which
vention, 1921, or in a comparable man­ would take into account their special
ner in the case of employment in other aptitudes, the general economic situa­
tion and existing employment possibili­
categories of occupations;
(???) that the child has received ade­ ties and which would supplement the

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

may obtain income security as soon as
possible, apart from any indirect claim
which certain young workers might
possess as dependents of either an in­
sured person or a person entitled to
social-security benefits, young per­
sons should be compulsorily included
under social-insurance or social-security
schemes on entering employment.
(2 ) In the case of apprentices who
receive no remuneration:
(a) The benefits of a sickness insur­
ance or social-security medical-care serv­
ice should be available at once without
payment of contributions by the appren­
(b ) the compensation for employ­
ment injuries should, as from the date
at which they would have completed
their apprenticeship for their trade, be
based on the wages current for workers
in that trade, according to paragraph
20 (2 ) of the income-security recom­
mendation, 1944.
(3 ) Young persons employed for re­
muneration and apprentices receiving
no remuneration who become invalids
at a time when they are not yet entided
to social-insurânce or social-security
benefits sufficient for their needs should
be entided to maintenance allowances
tSou g h social assistance, in accordance
with paragraph 29 of the incomesecurity recommendation, 1944.
D. Liability to Social-Insur­ (4 ) Workmen’s compensation should
payable in respect of any occupa­
ance or Social-Security be
tional accident occurring to a child
illegally employed; in such cases the
employer should be liable for the pay­
23. (1 ) In order that young workers ment of additional compensation.

guidance which these young persons
received at school in the course or at
the end of their studies, as provided for
by paragraph 11 ( ¿ ) above, close col­
laboration being maintained with edu­
cational authorities for this purpose;
( b ) to place them in employment or
help them to change their employment;
(c) to maintain contact with the
young workers who have been placed
by the service in order to give them the
opportunity of discussing their prob­
lems with experienced advisers and to
help them to solve these problems.
(2 ) This employment service should
be entrusted to a special staff and ad­
vised by bodies composed of representa­
tives of other public authorities, of em­
ployers, of trade unions, and of young
22. Suitable work opportunities should
be provided for young persons either in
private employment or in public-works
programs. In applying the policy of
timing public works provided for in
the public-works (national planning)
recommendation, 1937, consideration
should be given to the possibility of
including works which will give em­
ployment to young workers in accord­
ance with paragraph 6 of that recom­

The Conference reaffirms its obli­
A . Hours of Work
gation to lay down international stand­
In order to restrict the working
ards for the protection of young work­
ers with the object of extending and hours of children and young persons
improving the protection of such work­ within limits compatible with the main­
tenance of their health and with their
ers in all types of occupation.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

recreational and educational needs, there
should be:
(a) Strict regulation of the daily and
weekly hours of work, with due regard
for the varying needs of young people
at different ages; efforts to reduce, in
so far as may be practicable, the work­
ing week of young persons and chil­
dren not attending school, to not more
than 40 hours;
(b ) suitable arrangements during
working hours permitting young work­
ers to attend the continuation courses
of general or technical education pro­
vided for in paragraph 12 above until
they attain the age of 18 years at least,
an appropriate maximum being fixed
by legislation for the aggregate hours
of school and work and an appropriate
minimum for the number of hours dur­
ing which young workers should be
released in every day, week, month, or
year for attending school, these hours
being preferably paid working time.

order to limit such exceptions to the
indispensable minimum and to elimi­
nate them so far as possible;
(b ) to prohobit night work in agri­
cultural undertakings by requiring rest
periods not shorter than those provided
for in the night work of children and
young-persons (agriculture) recommen­
dation, 1921; ancj
(c) to prohibit night work in non­
industrial occupations in a m a n n e r
which is adapted to the conditions and
takes into account the special risks in­
volved in nonindustrial night work for
children and young persons of differ­
ent age groups.

C. Rest Periods and


27. In order that all young workers
may enjoy daily breaks, weekly rest
periods, and annual holidays of suffi­
cient duration to restore the loss of
physical and mental energy resulting
B. Night Work from continued employment, young
persons under 18 years of age, irrespec­
In order to protect all young
tive of occupation, should be assured:
workers under 18 from the adverse
(a ) Regular breaks during working
effects of night work, which include hours and a rest period of a fixed mini­
undue fatigue and interference with the mum length allowing sufficient time
time normally free for recreational and for a meal in the middle of the working
cultural activities, measures should be period;
(b ) a weekly rest period in every
To prohibit night work in in­
week without exception which should
dustrial employment, at least to the whenever possible be of 36 hours and
extent to which such work is prohibited should in all cases include 24 consecu­
by the provisions of the night-work tive hours; the rest period should nor­
(young persons) convention, 1919, mally include Sunday or the day estab­
which requires a rest period of at least lished by the traditions or customs of
11 consecutive hours including the in­ the country or district, and the substi­
terval between 10 o’clock in the evening tution of another day for the weekly
and 5 o’clock in the morning for young rest should be limited to cases in which
workers under 18 years of age; with such substitution is authorized by the
additional limitations for children and competent authority as being in the
young persons below the age of 16 years public interest and should be authorized
to cover a consecutive rest period of at only on condition that a longer com­
least 12 hours; and to undertake a pensatory rest period is granted;
thorough examination of the cases in
( c) annual holidays with pay, of a
which night work is authorized for minimum duration of:
young persons over 16 for continuous
(/) Twelve working days per year
processes in prescribed industries in taken in a single period for all young
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(Hi) experienced supervision to in­
culcate safe working habits and ensure
that the young worker uses guards and
protective equipment correctly, avoids
work postures likely to cause physical
deformation, and observes all safety
rules and practices; and
(ip) enforcement of particularly rig­
orous measures of hygiene in work
places where there is a danger of indus­
trial poisoning or disease;
(c) to fix shorter working hours or
provide more frequent breaks for young
persons engaged in exacting occupa­
D . Industrial Safety and
( d ) to require a renewal of medical
examinations at shorter intervals in the
28. Without prejudice to the fixing case of young persons engaged in occu­
of a higher age of admission for certain pations which are unhealthy or exact­
occupations especially hazardous to life ing.
and health, as provided for in para­
graph 19 (8 ) above, special conditions E . Moving of Loads
of employment should be prescribed
29. In order to protect young workers
for children and young persons en­
gaged in occupations which involve from exertion beyond their physical
special hazards to the health and safety strength, the lifting, carrying, drawing,
of the young worker; to this end meas­ or pushing of loads which are unrea­
sonably heavy in view of the age and
ures should be taken:
(a) T o arrange for the inclusion in sex of the child or young person should
the curricula of elementary schools and be prevented by:
(a ) Prescribing the maximum weight
continuation courses of lessons in acci­
dent prevention and first aid and to of loads which a young worker may
give systematic instruction in accident move or carry by his own efforts, hav­
prevention in vocational schools of all ing regard to the age and sex of the
grades as recommended in paragraph worker and to the conditions in which
13 of the prevention of industrial acci­ the work is done, as for example, the
dents recommendation, 1929, and in characteristics of the load, temperature,
the vocational-education (building) rec­ and ventilation of work place, the dis­
tance covered, the gradients climbed,
ommendation, 1937;
(b ) to make employers responsible the heights at which the load is picked
for providing for young workers train­ up and deposited, the technical method
ing in safety methods and supervision, of transport, the frequency and length
of the exertion and the physical devel­
by the following means:
(?) Information on the general ar­ opment of the worker in relation to the
rangements in the undertaking for pre­ weight of the load;
(b ) prohibiting the employment of
venting accidents and promoting safety;
(ii) explanation of the possible dan­ children and young persons in work
gers of the work, or the^ machinery or which consists essentially in carrying
plant connected with the work, and heavy loads; and
precise training in the use of machines
( c) promoting the use of mechanical
and tools so as to ensure that the young devices to reduce the physical effort
worker knows how to work safely be­ required in moving loads and of safe
fore he is permitted to start on the job; methods of lifting loads.

workers and apprentices under 18 years
of age, in accordance with the principle
already established for young workers
and apprentices under 16 years of age
in industry and commerce by article
2 (2 ) of the holidâys-with-pay conven­
tion, 1936, except that the 1-year period
of service therein referred to need not
be continuous; and
(it) eighteen working days per year
for young workers engaged in particu­
larly unhealthy or exacting occupations.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

F . Wages

G. Board and Lodging

31. In order to assure proper living
30. Provisions with reference to wages conditions for young workers who are
paid to young workers should have the away from home for the purpose of
objective of assuring that they are paid vocational training or employment, pro­
wages commensurate with the work vision should be made for:
performed, observing wherever possible
the principle of equal pay for com(a ) Fixing proper standards of saniparable jobs. Provision should be tation, comfort, moral decency, and ademade for inexperienced young workers quate nutrition to be complied -with
through learners’ rates when substan- when an employer furnishes board and
tial periods of learning are required lodging to a young worker or apprenand through apprenticeship programs, tice, and making an appropriate author*
Wherever the arrangements normally ity responsible for ensuring that these
made by means of collective bargaining standards are respected;
are not effective, special efforts should
( £ ) satisfactory living quarters and
be made to assure:
meals for young workers living away
, from home, whose employers do not
{a) The payment to apprentices of
j ^
and lodging, if necessary
fair and reasonable rates of compensa- b enco
the ° s4 lis h m e n t of
tion for productive labor performed as h’ sttls or bf eMblishing them,
a part of training, and the inclusion in
apprenticeship contracts of provisions
regarding the method of determining H . Methods of Supervision
remuneration and the scale of increase
of remuneration during the apprentice32. In order that the regulation of
ship, in accordance with the provisions the employment of children and young
of paragraph 4 (1 ) of the apprentice- persons may be fully effective, appropriate methods of supervision, includ­
ship recommendation, 1939;
ing the following, should be established:
( ¿ ) the application of the following
(a ) Labor inspectors should be speprinciples where the wage rates for
young workers not employed under cially trained so that they will pay parapprenticeship are customarily fixed ticular attention to the working condiseparately from those of adults;
tions of children and young persons and
will supplement legal measures with
0 ) Responsibility for fixing the rates practical advice regarding the applicashould be entrusted to joint-wage boards tion 0f the meaSures to particular cases;
or to other suitable bodies on which the special training should also be provided
interests of the employer and worker for vocational-guidance counselors and
are represented; and
placement personnel;
( « ) the rates should be fixed in the
light of educational requirements, experience, job content and the average
output of young workers, with provision for successive increases in minimum-wage rates commensurate with
the average time needed to gain proficiency, and without prejudice to the
principle of equal pay for equal work,
fhere remuneration is based on output, special safeguards against overstrain should be introduced.

(b ) supervisory authorities should be
assigned, within limits carefully defined by law, authority to suspend employment or to modify conditions of
employment which might be injurious
to young workers;
(c) there should be close collaboration between the employment and laborinspection services, the public medical
and sqcial services and the appropriate
departments of undertakings in super­
vising the employment conditions of

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

young workers, in a combined effort to
obtain for children and young persons
suitable job assignments;
( J ) joint supervision by the employ­
ment and social-service authorities of
the working and living conditions of
young persons employed in private
households or institutions;
(e ) arrangements should be made to
obtain the full cooperation of local and
educational authorities and of private
a n d public social agencies with labor
inspectors, in order to supervise em­
ployment in street trading and similar
occupations; and
(/) employers should be required to
facilitate the task of inspectors by plac­

ing at their disposal-the special register
provided for in the minimum-age (in­
dustry) conventions, 1919 and 1937,
and in the minimum-age (nonindus­
trial employment) (revised) convention,
1937, and all other useful documents
which give precise information on chil­
dren and young persons in their em­
ployment and on the conditions under
which they are employed.

I. Right of Association
Young workers should have the
same freedom as adults to join the
trade union of their own choosing as
from their entry to employment.

The Conference considers that an (c ) put into execution the various
adequate and coordinated framework parts of the unified national program,
of law and administration is essential as defined above, in an integrated man­
for the application by governments of ner through satisfactory methods of co­
the broad social policies necessary for ordination suited to the administrative
the full protection of children and structure in each country;
(d ) ensure by appropriate means a
young persons and that, for this pur­
guiding policy in the protection of chil­
pose, it is necessary to:
(a ) Draw up the laws and regula­ dren and young persons so that the
tions proposed above in a coordinated programs relating to each problem may
manner so as to cover all the problems be continually revised and improved
and revise them periodically so as to with a thorough understanding of their
ensure consistency and progressively total needs;
(e) stimulate the interest, and obtain
harmonize statutory provisions with
the support and participation of the
current trends;
(b ) organize competent, specialized general public as well as appropriate
services to administer the proposed so­ organized movements, and especially
cial programs, and provide these serv­ youth movements with social aims, in
ices with the requisite authority, suffi­ order to achieve a complete realization
cient resources, and adequate, profes­ of these protective policies.
sionally qualified personnel;

The Conference, realizing that national bodies interested in certain asthe problems of children and young pects of these problems already exist or.
persons may be considered from many may be established, declares its convicdifferent angles, and that other inter- tion that the fullest collaboration be16
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(£ ) coordinated action so that, by
tween all the international bodies con­
cerned is desirable in order to secure: utilizing to the greatest possible extent
the respective means of international
The exchange of information
and the sharing of experience and tech­ action, the progress of institutions and
nical knowledge so that each body may social measures for the well-being of
obtain a more comprehensive oudook children and young persons may be
on the needs of children and young better assured.

RESOLUTION co n ce rn in g th e y o u th o f
lib e ra te d co u n trie s
Whereas the Conference, at its twentysixth session in 1944, expressed the
hope that the United Nations and other
members of the Organization will unite
in their efforts to promote in every way
the economic and social recovery of all
the countries sorely tried by enemy
occupation and the devastation of war,
and asserted the determination of the
International Labor Organization to
associate its endeavors with the con­
certed will of the oppressed nations for
the purpose of rebuilding their social
life according to principles of interna­
tional solidarity and of respect for fun­
damental spiritual and human values;
W hereas victory has now been
achieved and the liberation of the coun­
tries which suffered occupation is now
an accomplished fact;
Whereas millions of children have
died under enemy oppression, and mil­
lions of others face a seriously com­
promised future since, in each of the
occupied countries, countless numbers
of children and young people have suf­
fered from undernourishment and neg­
lect, from the loss of parents, friends,
and homes, from the horrors of concen­
tration camps and the slavery of labor
camps, from the complete lack of oppor­
tunities for educational, social, and
cultural development, or, uprooted from
their own countries, have lost their
nationality and even their identity;
Whereas it is a universally recognized
principle that children and youth con­
stitute the first claim upon the services

of relief and reconstruction;
The Conference, mindful of the suf­
ferings and the heroic achievements of
youth on the batdefield and in resist­
ance movements and convinced that the
speedy reconstruction of liberated coun­
tries is indispensable to the future secu­
rity and happiness of all free peoples,
hereby adopts the following resolution:

1. It is the earnest hope of the Con­
ference that the nations of the world
which are able to do so and in particu­
lar those which have escaped the ordeal
of occupation by the enemy will con­
tinue to give as long as necessary full
material and moral support to the task
of reconstructing the liberated countries
of Europe and will give similar assist­
ance to the countries of Asia which
have also now been liberated, in order
that the collaboration of all free and
united nations in this stupendous task
may manifest their spiritual solidarity,
their common ideals, and their mutual
economic and social dependence.

2. Bearing in mind the declaration
made at its twenty-sixth session in 1944
by the delegations of the occupied coun­
tries in Europe which intimated that
“the first task, and the most urgent,
will be to improve nutrition, to provide
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

medical aid and to distribute medica­ losses may be rapidly overcome and so
that the youth of these countries may
ments,” the Conference:
soon be placed in conditions which per­
(a )
Expresses its satisfaction that sev­
eral members with relatively abundant mit vocational training and normal cul­
food supplies have decided to continue tural development.
food rationing and have even curtailed
food consumption, or have adopted
IV .
other measures, in order to supply food
to the populations of devastated coun­
4. For displaced children and young
tries, and especially to the children in
persons who are homeless, stateless,
these countries, and looks forward to
the maintenance and extension of this orphaned, or separated from their fam­
ilies, measures for registration, identifi­
policy as long as circumstances so re­
cation, location of relatives and repatri­
( ¿ ) renews the appeal made in 1944 ation are of the first importance, and it
in the employment (transition from is the hope of the Conference that the
war to peace) recommendation to the members will give every possible assist­
spirit of cooperation of members, in ance, through national and international
order that, when requested, they may means, to obtain for these children and
supply to the liberated countries tech­ young persons the necessary care and
nical and material aid for the prompt to ensure that questions relating to their
reestablishment of medical care and nationality and citizenship should be
general health services so that the popu­ settled in a spirit of generosity and with
lations in these countries, especially a view to their future welfare.
youth, may speedily recover their vi­

. 3. The Conference, recognizing that
other international organizations are
endeavoring, within the limits of their
resources, to assist liberated countries in
restoring educational facilities, expresses
the hope that comparable assistance will
continue to be made available to these
countries for the complete reconstruc­
tion of educational and social institu­
tions which serve the interests of child­
hood and youth, so that educational

5. The Conference, realizing that re­
construction is viewed by liberated
countries not only as a mere emergency
task, but also in terms of lasting social
progress, invites these countries, when
they frame and administer their pro­
grams of social reconstruction, to take
into account the international standards
which the International Labor Organ­
ization has formulated in the resolution
concerning the protection of children
and young workers adopted by the
Conference at its present session.

RESO LUTIO N [co n cern in g th e re g u la tio n o f th e
u n d e rg ro u n d w o rk o f y o u n g
persons in m ines
The Conference requests the Govern- of the International Labor Conference
ing Body to place on the agenda of an the question of regulating the underearly and, if possible, the next Session ground work of young persons in mines.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

RESO LUTIO N co n ce rn in g th e s e ttin g u p o f an
a d v iso ry co m m ittee on ju v en ile
w o rk .
In order that the work of the twentyseventh session of the International
Labor Conference concerning the pro­
tection of children and young workers
may have the most fruitful results and
in order to hasten the application of

the principles stated in the resolution
on this question, the Conference re­
quests the Governing Body to set up an
advisory committee for studying the
problems of young workers.

(it) detailed list, as in the Holidays
with Pay Convention, 1936, subject to
addition of itinerant trading and other
occupations carried on in the streets or
in places to which the public have
(3 ) Necessity for covering all family
undertakings, or solely those in which
the work carried on is dangerous to
1. Form of the regulations health.
(4 ) Classes of undertakings or em­
(1 ) One or more Draft Conventions ployments, if any, to be excluded.
rather than a Recommendation.
(2 ) Desirability of a Recommenda­
tion establishing supplementary pro­ 3. Scope as regards age of
the young persons to he
This Conference,
Having examined the report submit­
ted by the International Labor Office
on the medical examination for fitness
for employment (young workers),
Invites the International Labor Office
to consult the Governments on the
following points:

2. Scope as regards employ­

ments to he covered
(1 ) Necessity for covering both in­
dustrial and nonindustrial occupations.
(2 ) Definition of scope:
(a) Industrial occupations:
(*) General definition broadly indi­
cating the categories to be covered; or
(ti) detailed list as in previous Con­
ventions, subject to revision.
(b ) nonindustrial occupations:
(t) Definition by exclusion of indus­
trial, agricultural and maritime occu­
pations; or

(1 ) (a ) Necessity of applying regu­
lations to all persons under the age of
18 years in the occupations concerned;
(b )
necessity of applying regulations
to all persons under the age of 21 years
in the occupations concerned.
(2 ) D esirability of prescribin g a
lower age-limit in the case of all persons
covered hereunder, such lower age to be
16 years, or such age between 16 and 18
years as may be considered desirable,
pending legislation in each country pre­
scribing a higher age-limit.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

lists of occupations involving
cimil ar health risks for the purpose of
avoiding unnecessary reexaminations on
changes of employment.
(3 ) Necessity of providing health
and social measures for children and
young persons found by medical exam­
4 • Provisions concerning
ination to have physical handicaps or
limitations, and of assuring effective
medical examinations
liaison between health, educational and
for fitness
social authorities for the purpose of en­
suring that such children and young
(1 ) Provisions for free and thorough persons shall, as the circumstances of
medical examination in relation to em­ the case demand:
(a) Receive the medical treatment
(a ) A thorough general examination required;
(b ) be encouraged to return to school
combined with medical advice to be
used in vocational guidance, before en­ or be guided towards suitable occupa­
tering employment and, preferably, be­ tions and trained for such occupations;
(c) have the advantage of other use­
fore leaving school; or
(b ) a specific examination as a con­ ful measures, including financial aid.
(4 ) Desirability of vesting in the
dition of entrance into employment,
taking into account the suitability of authorities responsible for the super­
vision of measures relating to fitness of
the particular kind of work; or
(c) a thorough general examination, employment:
( a ) The duty of drawing up a table
as indicated under (a) above, combined
with a specific examination as an obli­ of occupations and trades showing the
gation for certain occupations or for risks which they may involve for the
groups of occupations specified by order health of workers who are physically
of the supervisory authorities as involv­ handicapped or in a poor state of health,
ing similar health risks in order to together with a table of occupations
and trades suitable for such persons;
avoid unnecessary examinations.
(b ) the power to grant authoriza­
(2 ) Provisions for subsequent exam­
tion for employment or medical certifi­
(a) An annual reexamination com­ cate limited to particular occupations
bined with an examination on change or under special conditions, or to grant
temporary authorization or medical cer­
of employment; or
(b ) an annual reexamination com­ tificate covering a fixed period at the
bined with a special examination either end of which the young worker should
by order of the supervisory authorities appear for reexamination;
(c) the power to lay down specified
or at the request of parents in relation
to the state of health of the young conditions in particular cases to safe­
worker in question or the nature of the guard the health of the young worker.
occupation; or
(c) an annual reexamination, an ex­
5. Administration and
amination on change of employment
and a special examination as indicated
in (b ) above;
(1 )
Necessity for making the em­
(d ) necessity of reexamination at
shorter intervals in special circum­ ployment of a juvenile illegal unless
employment has been duly authorized
( f ) possibility of leaving to national through:
(/) An employment certificate or a
authorities discretionary powers to es-

(3 )
D esirability of prescribing
higher age-limit for occupations which
involve special hazards to the health
of young workers.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

work book, on which a statement con­
taining evidence as to fitness must be
endorsed; or _
(it) a medical certificate of fitness
for employment.
(2 ) Desirable methods of issue and
of renewal of medical certificates of
(3 ) Supervisory authorities:
(a ) Authorities responsible for the
issue of documents authorizing employ­
(b ) desirability of establishing tri­
partite bodies to examine disputed cases;
( c ) desirability:
(*) Of making examining doctors
responsible to public authorities; and
(it) of having examining doctors
paid by public authorities;
(d ) desirability of having examining
doctors experienced in matters relating
to the health of children and young
persons, and wherever possible, with
specific knowledge of the occupations
(e) authorities responsible for en­
forcement of the laws as to health and
safety in employment, and authorities
responsible for enforcement of laws re­
lating to the employment of children
and young persons.
(4 ) Responsibilities of the employer
in regard to enforcement:

(a) Obligation to keep available:
( i) Either the authorization of em­
ployment, such authorization to include
a statement as to medical examination
and limitations as to employment pre­
scribed as a result of medical examina­
(//) or the medical certificate of fit­
ness; or
(Hi) if (i) is preferred, desirability
of making provisions in order that the
confidential information contained in
the certificate of fitness should in no
case come to the knowledge of the
employer, the latter receiving from the
supervisory authorities only thé author­
ization for employment based on the
medical certificate.
(b ) obligation to send a notification
of the employment of young persons to
the competent supervisory authorities.
(5 ) Measures to assure the identifi­
cation and supervision of children and
young persons engaged in itinerant
trading or in any other occupation
carried on in the streets or in places to
which the public have access.
(6 ) Desirability of providing for the
prohibition of employment of young
persons under the age of 16 years in
occupations carried on in fairs and for
public entertainment, which arc dan­
gerous to their life and health.

a Recommendation.
This Conference,
(2 ) Desirability of a Recommenda­
Having examined the report submit­
ted by the International Labor Office tion relating to administrative methods
on the restriction of night work of of application.
children and young persons (nonindus­
trial occupations),
2. Scope as regards employ­
Invites the International Labor Office
ments covered
to consult the Governments on the fol­
lowing points:
(1 ) Necessity of covering all non­
industrial occupations:
) Without exception, or
1. Form of the regulations (a
(b ) excluding domestic service in
(1 ) A Draft Convention rather than private households.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(b ) determination of the interval of
night hours during which all work is
(/) By the national authority, pro­
vided that the prohibited night hours
are coterminous with the total consecu­
tive rest period of fourteen hours or
sixteen hours according to the alterna­
tive chosen;
(it) By a provision included in the
3 . Scope as regards
Draft Cpnvention.
(3 ) Provisions applicable:
persons covered
(x ) T o young persons between 14
(1 ) Necessity of covering all children and 16 years of age; or
( * * ) T o young persons between 14
and young persons up to the age of 18:
(a ) Without exclusions; or
and 18 years of age:
(b ) by leaving to the discretion of
(a ) Abolition of night work during
the competent authority in each coun­ a consecutive rest period of:
try the decision to exempt children and
(?) Twelve hours in every twentyyoung persons engaged in family un­ four hours; or
dertakings in which only parents and
(it) Fourteen hours in every twentytheir children or wards are engaged, four hours;
provided the activities carried on are
(b ) The interval of night hours dur­
recognized as not being harmful, preju­ ing which all work is prohibited to
dicial or dangerous to children or young include:
(i) A t least the interval between
(2 ) D esirability of prescribing a 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.; or
lower age-limit in the case of all per­
(ii) A longer interval, for example
sons covered hereunder, such lower age 8 p.m. to 7 a.m.
to be 16 years or such age between 16
(4 ) If the alternative 3 ( * * ) is npt
and 18 years as may be considered accepted, provision applicable to young
desirable, pending legislation in each persons between 16 and 18 years of age:
country prescribing a higher age-limit.
(a ) Abolition of night work during
a consecutive rest period of twelve hours
in every twenty-four hours;
4. "Protective provisions
(b ) the interval of night hours dur­
(1 ) Fixing of separate and appro­ ing which all work is prohibited to
priate standards:
(a ) For children under 14 years of
(*) At least the interval between
10 p.m. and 6 a.m.;
(b ) either for young persons between
(it) possibility for the Governments,
14 and 16 years of age and young per­ in exceptional circumstances which af­
sons between 16 and 18 years of age, fect certain areas and occupations, and
or for young persons between 14 and after consultation with the employers’
18 years of age.
and workers’ organizations concerned,
(2 ) Provisions applicable to children to substitute the interval between
under 14 years of age:
11 p.m. and 7 a.m. for the above(a ) Abolition of night work during mentioned interval.
a consecutive rest period of:
, (/) Fourteen hours in every twenty5. Exemptions
four hours; or
( « ) sixteen hours in every twenty(1 ) In countries where the climate
four hours;
renders work by day particularly try-

(2 ) Definition of nonindustrial occu­
(a ) By excluding from the regulation
those occupations which are recognized
as industrial, agricultural or maritime,
including sea fishing; or
( b ) by listing types of nonindustrial

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ing to the health, provisions authoriz­ 6. Administration and
ing a shorter night period, in the case
of children and young persons 14 years
of age or older, provided that the com­
(1 ) Provisions to be included in the
pensatory rest is granted during the
Convention to specify certain measures
to be taken for ensuring its enforce­
( 2 ) In cases of serious emergency
declared by the Government to affect
(a ) Adequate public supervision and
the public interest, provision for tem­
by men or women as the
porary night work by young persons
may deem appropriate, in­
over 16 years of age.
cluding inspections at the request of
(3 ) In public entertainment, the au­
thorization of night work in the inter­
(b ) requirement that employers keep
est of art, science or education, under records showing name and date of
the following conditions, and only in birth of children and young persons in
most exceptional circumstances:
their employment and hours worked,
(a) Conditions applicable to children except in the case of young persons
and young persons under 16 years of employed in itinerant trading or in any
other occupation carried on in the
(i) No night employment in an oc­ streets of in places to which the public
cupation deemed by national authori­ have access, and whose working time,
ties to be, by its nature or the circum­ under national regulations, is not
stances in which it is to be carried on, deemed to be directly within the em­
dangerous to the life, health or morals ployer’s control;
of the child;
(c) suitable means of assuring the
( « ) no night work except in the case identification and supervision of chil­
of children who attend academies and dren and young persons engaged in
other institutions for dramatic or musi­ itinerant trading or in any other occu­
cal instruction;
pation carried on in the streets or in
(tit) no employment on more than places to which the public have access;
three evenings a week;
(d ) penalties applicable to the em­
(tv) no employment after midnight; ployer or other responsible adult for
(v) strict safeguards to assure the breaches of the night-work prohibition.
child’s health, morals and kind treat­
(2 ) Desirability of a Recommenda­
ment and to avoid interference with tion suggesting administrative methods
the child’s education;
and techniques useful in applying effec­
(vi) guarantee of a consecutive rest tively night-work regulations to non­
period of fourteen hours or sixteen industrial employment:
hours in every twenty-four hours ac­
(a ) For shops and other commercial
cording to the alternative chosen;
undertakings, offices and similar estab­
(b ) conditions applicable to young lishments, a system of employment cer­
persons between 16 and 18 years of age: tificates or work books to determine
(*) no night employment in an the child’s or the young person’s age
occupation deemed by the national au­ and eligibility for employment under
thorities to be, by its nature or the specified conditions, including the pro­
circumstances in which it is to be car­ hibition of night work;
ried on, dangerous to the life, health or
(b ) for street trading and similar
lorals of the young person;
(it) no employment after midnight;
(i) System of licensing or special
(tit) guarantee of a consecutive rest permits, with requirement that em­
period of twelve hours in every twenty- ployed children and young persons
four hours.
wear a special badge, to facilitate en23
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

forcement and inspection;
(it) arrangements for full cooperation
of local and educational authorities and
social agencies with labor authorities in
enforcing night-work regulations;
(iii) where an employer-employee re­
lationship exists, provision for holding
the employer legally responsible for vio­
lations of the night-work prohibition;
(tv) where no employer-employee
relationship exists, provision for requir­
ing those who supply the child or

young person with merchandise or sup­
plies for sale or resale to assure them­
selves that the minor is legally employed
and to keep suitable identifying records,
as an aid to the authority responsible
for enforcement of the night-work pro­
in public entertainment (if ex­
emption 5 (3 ) is adopted), provision
for a system of licenses or special per­
mits issued to the child by the national
or local authorities for a fixed period.

The Conference requests the Govern­
ing Body to examine the possibility of
placing on the agenda of an early
Session of the International Labor Con­

ference the question of the extension to
agriculture of medical examination for
fitness for employment of children and
young persons under the age of 18 years.

The Conference requests the Govern­ national Labor Conference the question
the revision of- the Night Work
ing Body to examine the possibility of
placing on the agenda of an early and, [ fc,ung Persons) Convention, 1919.
if possible, the next Session of the Inter­


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