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Bulletin No. 1223
November 1957

Comparative Job
Performance by Age:




Large Plants in the
Men’ s Footwear and
Household Furniture
Industries

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ew Clague, Commissioner
an




Bulletin No. 1223
Novem ber 1957

Comparative Job
Performance by Age:
L arge

P la n ts

M e n ’s

F o o tw e a r

H o u s e h o ld

in

th e
and

F u r n itu r e

In d u s tr ie s

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
B R A O LA O STA ISTIC
UEU F BR
T
S
E an Clague, Com issioner
w
m

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price




cents




Preface
The d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by old er workers in securing and retain in g em
­
ployment c o n stitu te a national problem which i s becoming more p ressing as the
proportion o f old er workers in the to ta l labor fo rce r i s e s . The U. S .
Department o f Labor, in response to t h is challenge, has been conducting a
broad program to examine the problem and to fin d means fo r overcoming i t .
As
one phase o f t h is program, the present study attempts to furnish inform ation
on the r e la tio n sh ip s between age and work performance.
Much o f the e a r lie r research in th is general area has shown q u ite c le a r ly
th at many employers hold d e fin ite — and o ften unfavorable— a ttitu d e s toward
employing o ld er workers. However, o b je c tiv e means o f determining the v a lid it y
o f these views have g en erally been la c k in g .
In other stu d ies \J conducted by the Department o f Labor, the statu s o f
the o ld e r worker has been examined from the standpoint o f pension c o s ts , in ­
surance p la n s, counseling and placement s e r v ic e s , and certain other s p e c ific
a sp e c ts. The present study i s d irected toward a measurement o f actual o n -th e job performance o f old er production workers, as compared with the performance
o f those in the younger groups. I t represents a continuation o f e a r lie r work
in t h is f i e l d . A p i l o t study o f r e la tio n sh ip s betwen job performance and
age was undertaken by the Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s during 1 9 5 5 -5 6 , and the
r e s u lts were published as BLS B u lle tin 1203, Job Performance and Ages A Study
in Measurement, September 1956.
The p i l o t study was planned as a means o f developing o b je c tiv e techniques
which would be u se fu l in comparing the performance o f production workers in
d if f e r e n t age groups and was p rim arily m ethodological in nature. The present
study has as i t s purpose the accumulation o f more extensive data in t h is area
which w ill permit the drawing o f more d e fin it iv e conclusions than were p o s s ib le
from the p i l o t work.
This study was conducted in the Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s ' D iv isio n o f
P rod u ctivity and Technological Developments under the d ir e c tio n o f Jerome A.
Mark, a s s is te d by Bernard N. Rein, Stanley F. M i lle r , and Margaret L . M o e lle r.
The Bureau wishes to thank those firm s whose cooperation made th is work
p o s s ib le . They generously made th e ir records a v a ila b le to the Bureau's
rep resen ta tiv es and furnished h elp fu l suggestion s.

\J Older Workers Under C o lle c tiv e Bargainings Part I t H irin g, R etention,
Job Termination, BLS B u ll. 1 1 9 9 -1 ; Older Workers Under C o lle c tiv e Bargaining:
Part I I : H ealth, Insurance, and Pension P lan s, BI£ B u ll. 1 1 9 9 -2 ; Pension Costs
in R elation to the H iring o f Older Workers; Older Worker Adjustment to Labor
Market P ra ctice s? An A nalysis o f Experience in Seven Major Labor Markets,
BES No. R. 1 5 1 ; Counseling and Placement Services fo r Older Workers, BES No. E.
1 5 2 ; How to Conduct an Earning-Opportunities Forum in Your Community.




- iii -




CONTENTS

Page
Summary o f f i n d i n g s .........................................................................................................................
1
Findings
...........................................................................................................................................
1
S c o p e .........................................
3
Concepts and m e t h o d s ....................................................................................................................
^
Output per man-hour ....................................................................................................................
k
L im itations o f comparing employedpieceworkers
. . ............................................
5
Attendance
.......................................................................................................................................
6
C ontinuity o f s e r v i c e .......................................................................................
7
S t a t i s t i c a l procedures
...................................................................................................... . .
8
Establishment o f d ir e c t comparison groups ................................................................
8
Combinations o f d ir e c t comparison groups ...............................................................
9
A d d ition al combinations ..................................... . .............................................................
10
In d ivid u al v a r ia tio n
................................................................................................................ 11
S t a t i s t i c a l sig n ific a n c e te s tin g
......................................................................... 11
F i n d i n g s ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Output per m an -h ou r......................................................................................................................... 12
Industry t o t a l s .............................................................................................................................. 12
Higher and lower paid o c c u p a tio n s .................................................................................... 17
Machine and hand o c c u p a t i o n s ............................................................................................. 21
A t t e n d a n c e ...................................................................................................................................... 2 6
C ontinuity o f s e r v i c e .....................................................................................................................

30

TABLES

1.
2.
3.

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r incentive workers in 15 men's
footwear establish m en ts, by sex and age g r o u p ...........................................................
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r incentive workers in 11 household
fu rn itu re establish m en ts, by sex and age g r o u p ...................................................... 13
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men in cen tive workers in higher
and lower paid occupations in
men's footwear establish m en ts, by

13

15

age g r o u p ..................................................................................................................................................19

1+.

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men incentive workers in higher
and lower paid occupations in 11 household furniture establish m en ts,
by age g r o u p ...................................................................................................................................
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women incentive workers in higher
and lower paid occupations in
men's footwear estab lish m en ts, by
age g r o u p ............................................................................................................................................20
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women incentive workers in higher
and lower paid occupations in 11 household fu rn itu re establish m en ts,
by age g r o u p .................................................................................................................................. 20
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men incentive workers performing
machine and hand operations in
men's footwear establish m en ts, by
age g r o u p ............................................................................................................................................ 2 b
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men incentive workers performing
machine and hand operations in 11 household fu rn itu re establish m en ts,
by age g r o u p .................................................................................................................................. 2 b

19

5.

6.

7-

8.




15

15

▼ -

CONTENTS—Continued
Page
T ables— Continued
9.

10.

11.
12.
13.
1*4-.

15 .
16.

17.
18.
19.

20.
21.
22.

23.
2*4-.

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women in cen tive workers p er­
forming machine and hand operations in 15 men's footwear e s ta b lis h ­
ments, by age g r o u p ...........................................................................................................
Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women in cen tive workers p er­
forming machine and hand operations in 11 household fu rn itu re e sta b ­
lish m en ts, by age g r o u p ................... .... ..........................................................................
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 men’ s footwear
establish m en ts, by sex and age g r o u p ..................................................................
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 household fu r n i­
ture estab lish m en ts, by sex and age g r o u p ........................................................
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 footwear e sta b ­
lish m en ts, by se x , method o f wage payment, and age g r o u p ...................
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 household fu r n i­
ture establish m en ts, by se x , method o f payment, and age group . . .
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in higher and lower
paid occupations in
footwear estab lish m en ts, by sex and age
g r o u p ............................................................................................................................................
Indexes o f attendance f o r production workers in higher and lower
paid occupations in
household fu rn itu re estab lish m en ts, by sex
and age group .........................................................................................................................
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 footwear e sta b ­
lish m en ts, by se x , years o f s e r v ic e , and age g r o u p ............................ ....
Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 household fu r n i­
ture establish m ents, by se x , years o f s e r v ic e , and age group . . .
Attendance ra tes fo r production workers in 11 men's footwear and
fu rn itu re establish m en ts, by se x , method o f payment, length o f
s e r v ic e , and occupational pay l e v e l ..........................................................................
Indexes o f co n tin u ity o f service fo r production workers in 11 f o o t ­
wear establish m en ts, by sex andage g r o u p .............................................................
Indexes o f con tin u ity o f service fo r production workers in 11 house­
hold fu rn itu re establish m en ts, by sex and age g r o u p ............................
Indexes o f con tin u ity o f service fo r production workers in 11 f o o t ­
wear establish m en ts, by sex, years o f s e r v ic e , and age group . . .
Indexes o f con tin u ity o f service fo r production workers in 11 house­
hold fu rn itu re establish m en ts, by se x , years o f s e r v ic e , and age
group ...........................................................................................................................................
C o n tin u ity -o f-se r v ic e ra tes fo r production workers in 11 men's f o o t ­
wear and
fu rn itu re establish m en ts, by sex and length o f s e r v ic e .

25
25
29
29
31
32

11

11

11

11

33

3^
35
36
37
39
39
*40

*4
-1

h2

CHARTS
1.

Percent o f workers age *4 and over with output per man-hour greater
-5
than the average fo r age group
- ^ .................................................................




35

-

vi -

l

6

CONTENTS— Continued
Page
C h a rts— Continued
2.
3*
4.
5-

Percent o f o ld e r workers in h igh er p aid occu pation s w ith output per
man-hour g r e a te r than the average f o r age group 3 5 - ^ .................................. 22
Percent o f o ld e r workers in lower paid occu pation s w ith output per
man-hour g r e a te r than the average f o r age group 3 5 - ^ .................................. 2 3
Percent o f o ld e r workers in machine occu pation s w ith output per man­
hour g r e a te r than average f o r age group 3 5 - ^ ......................................................27
Percent o f o ld e r workers in hand occu pation s w ith output per man-hour
g r e a te r than average f o r age group 3 5 - ^ ............................................................... 28
APPENDIXES

I.
II.

Q u estionnaire and w o r k s h e e t s ............................................................................................ ^3
D e r iv a tio n o f f o r m u l a s .......................................................................................................... 5^-




- v ii -




Summary o f Findings

This survey o f job performance and age represents one segment o f the
U. S . Department o f Labor’ s program in the area o f old er worker stu d ies and
i s an extension o f the p i l o t work undertaken in 1 9 5 5 -5 6 . U t ili z in g the methods
developed during the p i l o t work, t h is survey centered on the measure o f the
r e la tio n sh ip s between age and output per man-hour, attendance, end con tin u ity
o f se rv ice in la r g e establishm ents manufacturing men’ s footwear and household
fu r n itu r e . Output data were included f o r over 5 ,1 0 0 production workers in
26 establishm ents— 15 in the footwear industry and 11 in the fu rn itu re in d u stry .
Comparable output per man-hour data fo r workers in 4 footwear establishm ents
included in the p i l o t in v e stig a tio n were incorporated with the data obtained
in the current in v e stig a tio n in order to furnish a broader base fo r the fin d in g s .
Attendance data were obtained fo r about 9 ,4 0 0 workers and c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e
data f o r almost 1 0 ,0 0 0 in 22 establishm ents— 11 in each in d u stry.
Findings
With respect to output per man-hour th is study r e v e a ls, in gen eral, th at
fo r both men and women the indexes o f output per man-hour are p ro g ressiv ely
higher from the under-25 group to the 2 5 -3 4 age group; indexes fo r subsequent
age groups show a gradual d eclin e which i s somewhat more marked fo r the 5 5 -6 4
age group. F in a lly , at the 65-and-over l e v e l , a sharper d eclin e occu rs. How­
ever, the d iffe r e n c e s between age groups through the 5 5 -6 4 group are gen erally
small 6*ith the exception o f only 1 group o f women in 1 in d u stry, they are with­
in 8 percentage p oin ts o f the base, 3 5 -4 4 age group) and the d iffe r e n c e s be­
tween average output per man-hour o f adjacent groups (a ls o with 1 exception)
are p a r tic u la r ly sm all.
At the same tim e, there i s a wide range in output w ithin each o f the age
groups, so th at the output o f any given ind ivid u al i s l i k e l y to d i f f e r sharply
from the average o f h is age group. V ariations in the output per man-hour o f
persons in the same age group are greater than d iffe r e n c e s between the average
output o f d iffe r e n t age b rack ets.
Consequently, su b sta n tia l proportions o f
workers in o ld er age groups perform b e tte r than the average fo r younger groups.
As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , in the 4 5 -5 4 age group. 47 percent o f the women workers
(in both the footwear and fu rn itu re p la n ts) have higher p ro d u c tiv ity than the
average woman worker in the 3 5 -4 4 age group. This wide v a r ia b i li t y w ithin age
groups coupled with the small d iffe r e n c e s between age group averages in d ica te s
that conclusions about individual performance cannot be based s o le ly on chrono­
lo g ic a l age.
Analysis o f r ela tio n sh ip s between age and output per man-hour when the
workers are c la s s if ie d and compared by type o f operation and pay l e v e l-h a n d
operators versus machine op erators, higher versus lower paid occupations—
re v e a ls the same b asic pattern as shown by the industry t o t a l s .




-

1 -

The in feren ce to be drawn from the fin d in g s concerning output per man­
hour i s that in d ivid u al c a p a b ilitie s are the most important fa c to r s to be
considered in s e le c tin g workers f o r s p e c ific jo b s and th at any attempt to
e s ta b lis h formal age l i m i t s fo r various c la s s e s o f jo b s , even where the job
content i s c le a r ly d efin ed , f a i l s to take in to account the wide d iv e r s ity o f
a b i l i t y l e v e l s shown by persons o f the same age.
D iffe ren ces in attendance ra te s between one age group and another are
extremely sm a ll.
In the 11 footwear p la n ts f o r which attendance data were
compiled, the indexes o f attendance among the 6 age groups vary by l e s s than
1 percent f o r the men and by 1 . 2 percent fo r the women. In the fu rn itu re
p la n ts they vary by l e s s than 4 percent f o r both men and women. The absence
o f any trend in r e la tio n to age and the apparently random manner in which the
in s ig n ific a n t d iffe r e n c e s between age groups are d is tr ib u te d , suggest th a t
age as a f a c t o r r e la tin g to a w orker's attendance can be ignored.
No age attendance p attern s emerge from the indexes o f workers c la s s i f i e d
according to method o f payment, len g th o f s e r v ic e , and occupational pay l e v e l ,
although in a few cases the d iffe r e n c e s between age groups are somewhat la r g e r
than the d iffe r e n c e s f o r the industry t o t a l s .
In the two in d u strie s the women workers, regard less o f age, show a
s l i g h t l y low er attendance re te than the men workers. At the same tim e, both
men and women in the footwear p la n ts have higher attendance ra te s than those
in the fu rn itu re p la n ts . For both in d u strie s hourly paid workers have lower
attendance r a te s than in cen tive workers and workers with 2 or more years o f
se r v ic e have higher ra te s than those with l e s s than 2 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e . F in a lly ,
f o r the most p a r t, workers in higher paid job s have a b e tte r attendance record
than those in lower paid jo b s .
In tern s o f con tin u ity o f serv ic e (th e proportion o f workers who remained
on the jo b during a 1 -y e a r p e r io d ), the study revealed th at the percentage o f
workers who remain i s high est f o r ages 45 through 6 4 . As might be expected,
both the youngest and o ld e s t groups have the highest percentage o f sep aration s.
Yet in the footwear p la n ts the in flu en ce o f retirem ent on the o ld e s t groups i s
not as great as the in flu en ce o f other fa c to r s causing separations among the
youngest group.
Examination o f the con tin u ity indexes o f workers grouped by in d u stry, sex ,
and len gth o f se rv ic e rev ea ls the same p attern in d icated above except th at among
workers with l e s s than 2 y e a r s' s e r v ic e , the d eclin es in the ra tes fo r the o ld e s t
and youngest groups are greater than those fo r the corresponding groups o f
workers with 2 or more years o f s e r v ic e .
I t i s apparent th at the rela tio n sh ip between job performance and age i s by
no means sim ple. For each o f the three asp ects o f job performance examined a
d iffe r e n t p attern emerges. For output per man-hour, although there are changes
on the average associated with age, there i s wide v a r i a b i li t y about the averages;
in the case o f attendance, no rela tio n sh ip i s found; and fo r con tin u ity o f
s e r v ic e , with the exception o f the o ld e s t age group where the in flu en ce o f re­
tirem ent i s f e l t , as age in creases the indexes gen erally in c re a se .




2

Scope

This study represents an outgrowth o f a p i l o t survey o f r e la tio n sh ip s
between jo b performance and a g e . Whereas the e a r lie r survey was methodological
in approach, the present work concentrated on expanding the coverage so th a t
more d e f in i t i v e conclusions could be drawn. The number o f workers on which
data were obtained was increased and the coverage was expanded geographically
to include p la n ts in the Middle West and Southeast regions as w ell as the
Middle A tla n tic and New England re g io n s.
This report p resents data fo r the in d u strie s producing wooden household
fu rn itu re (upholstered and unupholstered) and men's footwear (excep t ru bber).
These in d u strie s were selec ted fo r study because they show a d is tr ib u tio n o f
men and women workers throughout a l l age groups which i s sim ila r to manufac­
turing as a whole and because they involve wide use o f in cen tiv e systems o f
payment. This l a t t e r c h a r a c te r istic i s e s s e n t ia l, fo r i t fu rn ish es a means
to measure individual output. The f a c t that management and union sources in
these two in d u stries had expressed in te r e s t in the problem o f job performance
and age was a contributing fa c to r in th e ir s e le c tio n f o r study.
Because o f the n e c e ssity o f making output per man-hour comparisons on ly
among workers o f the same sex engaged in the same occupation, i t was important
to s e le c t la r g e establishm ents fo r t h is study to secure’ a s u f f ic ie n t number o f
o b se rv a tio n s. The sample was drawn from a r o s te r o f a l l la r g e firm s having
in cen tiv e payment plans in the 2 in d u strie s— u su a lly firm s se le c te d employed
a t l e a s t 300 workers paid on an in cen tive b a s is . The establishm ents may not
n e c e ssa r ily be representative o f a l l la r g e firm s in the in d u s tr ie s , f o r some
establishm ents were eventually excluded because o f an unw illingness to co­
operate or a la c k o f su ita b le record s. In order to fu rn ish a broader base fo r
the fin d in g s , comparable output per man-hour data f o r workers in U footwear
establishm ents included in the p i l o t in v e stig a tio n were incorporated with the
data f o r output per man-hour.




- 3 -

Concepts and Methods
As a r e s u lt o f the p i l o t in v e s tig a tio n , three in d ic a to rs were found to
be su ita b le fo r representing an in d iv id u a l's job perform ance-output per
man-hour, attendance, and con tin u ity o f s e r v ic e . They were selec ted because
they afforded o b je c tiv e measures and were d ir e c t ly a v a ila b le from p lan t records
Output Per Man-Hour
Probably the most important aspect o f an in d iv id u a l's job performance i s
h is p ro d u c tiv ity , f o r the ra te at which a worker produces acceptable output
i s a key in d ica tio n o f how w ell he w i l l be able to meet production requirements
In t h is study, p ro d u ctiv ity was defined as the in d iv id u a l' s p h ysical
volume o f production per hour— h is output per man-hour. For the most p a r t,
output per man-hour was measured by average str a ig h t-tim e hourly piecework
earnings. As described in the report on the p i l o t study, 2 / t h is in d ica to r
was chosen as the b e st a v a ila b le measure o f an in d iv id u a l’ s p h ysical output.
Although the lim ita tio n s o f th is measure were recognized, i t was found to be
su ita b le f o r the purpose at hand.
To d erive t h is measure, i t was necessary th at the earnings data exclude
payments f o r other than production work. Thus, bonuses fo r length o f s e r v ic e ,
makeup payments, 2 / and premium payments fo r overtime and holiday work were
elim inated from the earnings fig u r e s f o r each worker. In a d d itio n , a l l time­
work hours and earnings were removed from the fig u r e s on in d iv id u a ls who worked
on both piecework and timework during the survey p erio d .
In some c a se s, output per man-hour was measured in terms o f the number
o f standard time u n its produced per hour worked. These data were maintained
in certa in p lan ts fo r group in cen tive workers as w ell as those paid on an
in d iv id u a l p ie c e -r a te b a s is , so that i t was p o s s ib le to expand the coverage
to include these workers.
The observation period fo r output per man-hour data ranged from U to 12
weeks in the various p la n ts . This was a compromise between a very long period
which would tend to even out a ty p ic a l in flu en ces o f a temporary nature, and a
very short p erio d , which would permit the in c lu sio n o f a la r g e r number o f
in d iv id u a ls . Only those employees who had worked during a l l , or nearly a l l ,
o f the survey p eriod , were included.

2 / Job Performance and Age, BLS B u ll. 1203 ( p p .8 - 9 ) .
2 / The term "makeup payments" r e fe r s to the ad d ition al amounts paid to
workers whose raw piecework earnings f a l l below some le g a l or guaranteed
minimum.




Eliminated from the p rod u ctiv ity sample were pieceworkers in occupations
f o r which management imposed production l i m i t s in order to maintain q u a lity
standards. Output measures based on earnings in these jo b s would not have
represented production ra tes determined by the individual worker. Beginners
and employees who were paid according to group in cen tiv e plans ( f o r whom no
in d ivid u al output data were a v a ila b le ) were a lso excluded from the output per
man-hour sample. Beginners were id e n tifie d through d isc u ssio n s with foremen
and by examining records o f len gth o f serv ic e in the p a r tic u la r jo b . In most
occupations, employees with l e s s than 3 months' serv ic e on the jo b were
considered beginners.
k in d t -a tic B g -a f .SfflmBE-rlflg fin ploggfl. f.is&gwgr.kegjg

Although th is study includes data on the p ro d u ctiv ity o f a small number
o f group in cen tiv e workers, the great m ajority o f the in d ivid u als studied
were paid according to piecework system s. Consequently, many o f the lim ita ­
tio n s c f any study which examines only pieceworkers are relevan t to th is
survey.
The performance o f pieceworkers, i t i s recognized, may not be e n tir e ly
represen tative o f a l l production workers. S k ille d craftsmen are u s u a lly not
paid according to production by the p iece and most u n sk ille d workers are paid
on a time b a s is . However, the bulk o f production workers are employed in the
sem isk illed type o f jo b s , many o f which are covered by piecework p la n s.
I t i s q u ite p o ssib le that the fa c to r s determining p ro d u c tiv ity o f piece­
workers may be d iffe r e n t from those determining the p ro d u c tiv ity o f in d u stria l
workers as a whole, and that these d iffe r e n c e s may not apply uniform ly to a l l
age groups. For example, p ie c e -r a te job s may, on the average, p la ce greater
emphasis on speed, a g i l i t y , and other p hysical a ttr ib u te s which are gen erally
assumed to d eterio ra te with age. I f t h is i s so , then data based on the per­
formance o f pieceworkers would tend to show the old er in d iv id u a ls in a l e s s
favorable l i g h t than would be the case i f a v a r ie ty o f payment plans had been
included. N evertheless, there i s ju s t i f i c a t i o n fo r a study confined to piece­
workers, sin ce in many establishm ents the p ie c e -r a te system i s the dominant
method o f payment.
I t may a lso be argued th a t because only employed persons were included
in the study, the old er workers who were s t i l l present in the occupations
studied a c tu a lly represented a selected group, since many workers o r ig in a lly
in these occupations had l e f t fo r other job s which were not included in the
study. However, there are a c tu a lly two types o f s e le c tio n operating here,
which may be expected to cancel each other to some extents
the excep tion ally
superior workers may be assumed to have gone in to b etter paying occupations;
the marginal workers who could not maintain the minimum standards required fo r
th e ir jobs would a lso have l e f t to enter other occupations. Thus, the o ld er
workers' average output ra te s would be influenced by the removal o f these two
extremes, and th erefore would be comparable with those o f the younger groups.




- 5 -

There are no l if e t im e job h is t o r ie s o f workers in the in d u strie s studied
which show the exten t to which workers enter e ith e r as time or p ie c e -r a te
workers and move from one type o f work with i t s associated pay procedure to
another over th e ir l i f e span. N either i s there evidence o f the extent o f
movement from production to supervisory or entrepreneurial work on the one
hand, and to cu stod ial job s on the o th e r . Therefore, i t was not p o s s ib le ,
w ithin the scope o f the present study, to determine the extent to which these
s itu a tio n s p rev a il in the p la n ts surveyed. Since th e ir e f f e c t s tend to be
o f f s e t t i n g , the net r e s u lt i s not believed to be very g r e a t.
Attendance
Although very im portant, an in d iv id u a l's rate o f production i s not the
on ly aspect o f h is jo b performance. The amount o f time he can be depended
upon to be on the jo b and maintain h is output— h is attendance ra te— i s a lso
s ig n if ic a n t .
For purposes o f t h is study, the attendance rate was defined as the r a tio
o f days worked to days scheduled. To compute th is r a te , an employee's absences
were subtracted from the t o t a l number o f days on which he was scheduled to
work during the observation p eriod , and t h is y ield ed the t o t a l days worked.
This fig u r e was then divided by the number o f days scheduled. I f a worker per­
formed any work a t a l l during a day, he was not considered absent th a t day.
Days on which a worker was away because o f l a y o f f s , h o lid a y s, shutdowns, or
regu lar vacations were excluded from both the days worked and days scheduled.
Attendance rather than absenteeism was selected because i t i s believed
th a t the proportion o f to ta l scheduled time an employee i s on the jo b i s o f
greater importance as a performance in d ica to r than the proportion o f to ta l
time he i s o f f .
Small d iffe r e n c e s in absenteeism r a te s would tend to exag­
gerate the r e la t iv e performance o f d iffe r e n t workers. For example, a worker
who was absent 2 days in 100 scheduled workdays cannot r e a l i s t i c a l l y be
considered twice as dependable as a worker absent U days in 1 0 0 . I t would
seem more appropriate to r e la t e the two workers in terms o f th e ir attendance
r a t e , i . e . , 98 days present out o f 100 as compared with 9 6 .
Unlike the output per man-hour measure, the attendance concept need not
be r e s t r ic t e d to workers paid according to any one s p e c ific arrangement.
Data are presented fo r timeworkers and group bonus workers, as w ell as fo r
piecework employees.
For attendance, as in the case o f output per man-hour, the observation
period must be lo n g enough to avoid a ty p ic a l s itu a tio n s . The period selec ted
fo r obtaining attendance data in the various p la n ts ranged from 12 weeks to
1 y ea r, depending on the nature o f the reco rd s. Parts o f that period coincided
with the observation period fo r output per man-hour.




-

6

-

C ontinuity o f Service
A th ird aspect o f job performance examined in th is survey was the rate
o f co n tin u ity o f se rv ic e — the proportion o f to ta l workers who remained on
the job during a 1 -y e a r p eriod . This in d ica to r— the converse o f the separation
ra te— was included as a measure o f the r e la tiv e s t a b i l i t y o f the various age
groups.
The con tin u ity ra te was computed by d ivid in g the number o f workers in a
given group who were s t i l l employed, i . e . did not q u it, get discharged or
r e t i r e , a t the end o f the observation period by the number in the group at
the beginning o f the p erio d .
Employees who were separated, as a r e s u lt o f
production l a y o f f were not considered as sep aration s. Accessions during the
p erio d , were excluded from both the numerator and denominator. A ll workers
fo r whom the necessary data could be obtained were included in th is measure
regard less o f payment method.
As in the case o f attendance, con tin u ity o f serv ic e rather than sepa­
ra tio n s were used because small d iffe r e n c e s in the separations rates would
tend to exaggerate d iffe r e n c e s between age groups.




- 7 -

S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures

The s t a t i s t i c a l methods applied in th is study were designed, f i r s t , to
i s o l a t e the in flu en ce o f age from the many other fa c to r s which a f f e c t a
person18 jo b performance and second, to combine measures drawn from small
groups o f workers in to la r g e r aggregates. The i n i t i a l measures drawn from
small groups, could not fu rn ish meaningful r e s u lt s , but th e ir combination
perm itted the drawing o f s t a t i s t i c a l con clu sion s.
Establishment o f D irect Comparison Groups
Workers were f i r s t grouped according to fa c t o r s , other than age, which
might a f f e c t ind ivid u al job performance, such as s p e c ific occupation, method
o f payment, and len g th o f s e r v ic e . Within each o f these groups, comparisons
were made o f the average performance o f workers in various age groups. The
non-age fa c to rs which determined these groups varied f o r each o f the in d ic a to r s
(output per man-hour, attendance and con tin u ity o f s e r v ic e ), although fo r a l l
three in d ica to rs the groups were lim ite d to workers o f the same sex in the
same p la n t. The purpose here was to insure that age-performance observations
were made only among workers having in common those c h a r a c te r is tic s which would
have an inportant bearing on the performance t r a i t being measured. I f t h is
had not been done, any apparent d iffe r e n c e s in the performance o f age groups
m ight, in r e a l i t y , be only a m anifestation o f the unequal d is tr ib u tio n o f
these c h a r a c te r is tic s among the age groups. For example, i t would be mis­
le a d in g to compare the average hourly earnings o f two age groups composed o f
d iffe r in g proportions o f men and women, sin ce t h is would introduce important
fa c to r s other than age.
For output per man-hour, d ir e c t comparisons were lim ite d to workers o f
the same sex who were regular operators (not beginners or p a rt-tim e workers)
performing the same job or se r ie s o f operations in the same p la n t.
In
parison
non-age
payment
(higher

the case o f attendance, the b a sis fo r e sta b lish in g the d ir e c t com­
groups was somewhat d if f e r e n t .
I t was believed th a t the fo llo w in g
c h a r a c te r is tic s would in flu en ce attendances
Sex; p la n t; method o f
(time or in c e n tiv e ); len gth o f se r v ic e ; and l e v e l o f occupation
paid or lower p a id ).

Workers paid a t an hourly rate are l i k e l y to have d iffe r e n t attendance
m otivations from those under an in cen tive system. S im ila r ly , employees with
varying le n g th s o f serv ic e may have d iffe r e n t attendance m otivation s. F in a lly ,
i t i s probable that the fa c to r s in flu en cin g the attendance o f workers in lower
paid jobs d i f f e r from those a ffe c tin g the attendance o f workers in higher
paid jo b s . Attendance comparisons by age, ignoring these d iffe r e n c e s , might
then r e f l e c t changes associated with these fa c to r s rather than with age.
T herefore, the groups ‘were estab lish ed so that a l l o f the above fa c to r s were
constant w ithin a given group.




-

8

-

For the c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e measure, the groups were estab lish ed ac­
cording to the fo llo w in g c h a r a c te r is tic s :
Sex} p lan t} and len gth o f s e r v ic e .
The le n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e c la s s if ic a t io n divided workers in to those who had
been employed in the p lan t 2 years or more and those with l e s s than 2 y e a r s '
s e r v ic e . Most probably, separations are greater among r e la t iv e ly new employees
than among a group o f workers with extended s e r v ic e .
To c l a s s i f y each occupation as higher paid or lower p a id , the fo llo w in g
procedure was adopted: S p e c ific average hourly earnings c r it e r ia were d eter­
mined sep arately by region , sex, in d u stry, and method o f payment (in c en tiv e
or timework), which were then used to d istin g u ish between the two pay l e v e l s .
These c r i t e r i a were derived from data obtained in wage surveys conducted by
the Bureau, and represented averages o f a l l employees in each category, re­
gardless o f p la n t . The actual occupations found in the current study were
then designated as higher paid i f the average o f the hourly earnings o f workers
in th at category equaled or exceeded the predetermined c r ite r io n , and lower
paid i f i t did n o t.
Each worker was then c la s s if ie d by age in to 1 o f 6 groups— under 2 5 ,
2 5 -3 4 , 35-44-, 4 5 -5 4 , 5 5 -6 4 , and 65 and over.
For each in d ic a to r , the performance o f age groups w ithin the b a sic com­
parison groups was measured by c a lc u la tin g indexes fo r each age group average,
u sin g the average o f the 3 5 -4 4 age group as the base. Thus, a measure was
derived f o r each age group r e fle c t in g the r e la t iv e performance o f th a t given
age group as compared with the corresponding 3 5 -4 4 age group. By transforming
the average hourly earnings data o f in cen tive workers into indexes fo r output
per man-hour, the p o s s i b i li t y o f d is to r tio n from v a ria tio n s in absolute pay
l e v e l s in d iffe r e n t operations or in d iffe r e n t p lan ts was elim inated, and the
indexes could be viewed as independent o f the p lant in which the individual
worked.
Combinations o f D irect Comparison Groups
To obtain r e s u lts which would represent la r g e r numbers o f in d ivid u als than
were a v a ila b le in the basic d iv is io n s mentioned above, these groups were com­
bined in to c la s s e s in which the e f f e c t o f fa c to r s other than age was believed
to be f a i r l y uniform fo r a l l age groups.
In the case o f output per man-hour,
the indexes fo r workers in s p e c ific occupations were grouped according to
( l ) sex , (2 ) higher or lower paid occupations, (3) hand or machine occupations,
and (4) in d u stry.
The b a sis fo r c la s s ify in g occupations in to higher or lower paid categories
has already been d escrib ed . The hand-machine d is tin c tio n was drawn by d efin in g
a machine job as one which required the use o f a powered d e v ic e . Most o f these
d esignations were assigned a fte r d iscu ssion with p lan t o f f i c i a l s as to the
p a r tic u la r equipment used in various occupations.
The machine-hand d is tin c tio n
was made in order to separate jobs which p lace somewhat d iffe r e n t requirements




- 9 -

on workers. Machine jo b s c a ll fo r s k i l l s said ta le n ts d iffe r e n t from those
needed f o r hand op eration s, and the s k i l l s p ecu lia r to machine operations
or to hand operations may in flu en ce the p ro d u ctiv ity o f various age groups
d i f f e r e n t l y . By making t h is d is t in c t io n , the in flu en ce o f these fa c to r s in
age group comparisons was minimized.
In the case o f attendance, the p lan t indexes fo r workers in higher and
in low er paid job s were combined across p la n ts in to la r g e r groups o f workers
c l a s s i f i e d according to ( l ) sex, (2) higher or lower paid occupations,
(3) in cen tiv e or timeworkers, ( ) len gth o f se r v ic e , and t'5) in d u stry.

4

S im ila r ly , fo r con tin u ity o f se r v ic e , the p lan t indexes fo r workers with
d iffe r e n t le n g th s o f serv ice were combined across p lan t l i n e s • Here, they
were c l a s s i f i e d according to ( l ) se x , (2) length o f s e r v ic e , and ( ) in d u stry .

3

To obtain these combinations, each o f the age group indexes fo r a d ir e c t
comparison group was combined with a weight which r e fle c te d i t s r e la t iv e
importance in the p a rtic u la r combination group. For example, the output per
man-hour age group indexes fo r s p e c ific occupations were combined with weights
r e f le c t in g the contribution o f each s p e c ific occupation to the output per
man-hour measure f o r an occupational group ( e .g . higher paid machine j o b s ) .
The weight took in to account the number o f workers in the age group as w ell
as the number o f workers in the base group (age 3 5 -4 4 ) fo r each occupation «r*d
took the form NaNb/(Na + N^), where Na was the number o f workers in the age
group and
the number in the base group. L j
For attendance and con tin u ity o f se r v ic e , the same form o f weights was
a p p lied , except th at the weight was m u ltip lied by a constant fo r each p la n t
in order to account fo r d iffe r e n c e s in the periods fo r which these data were
c o lle c t e d . In the case o f attendance, t h is constant was the number o f
scheduled workdays in the p lan t during the survey p e rio d . For con tin u ity o f
s e r v ic e , the fig u r e was the len gth o f the observation period in the p la n t.
Additional Combinations
Besides the indexes fo r the basic comparisons and the i n i t i a l l y combined
groups, more generalized in d ica tio n s o f the r e la t iv e performance o f the various
age groups were derived . By combining the occupational group indexes fo r output
per man-hour, a separate measure fo r workers in each industry by s e x and occu­
p ation al c la s s (hand, machine, higher p a id , lower paid) was obtained. S im ila r ly ,
by subsequently combining these indexes, a separate measure fo r men and fo r
women workers in each industry was d erived . For attendance and c o n tin u ity ,
sim ila r combinations were made to obtain indexes fo r each industry by s e x .
To derive these indexes, each o f the component indexes was assigned a
constant weight fo r a l l age groups. With th is weighting system, the f in a l

lj

The d erivation o f th is formula i s shown in appendix I I (pp. 5 4 -5 6 ) .




-

1 0

-

index was not influenced by d iffe r e n t proportions o f the component groups in
one age c la s s as compared with another. Thus, the in flu e n ce o f fa c to r s other
than age was constant fo r a l l age groups. The weight used in a l l cases was
the t o t a l number o f workers o f a l l ages w ithin the component group.
Ind ivid ual V ariation
In ad d ition to p resenting the indexes fo r an age group a t the various
stages o f combination, the study a lso includes a measure o f the extent o f
in d iv id u a l v a r ia tio n w ithin each age group. This measure in d ica te s whether
an index derived fo r a p a r tic u la r age group r e f l e c t s the performance o f
in d iv id u a ls whose scores show considerable uniform ity or whether, on the other
hand, t h e ir scores vary widely about the average fo r the group.
A d isp ersion measure was derived fo r the output per man-hour combinations
o n ly . D ispersion measures fo r attendance were not derived , since they have
lim ite d u s e fu ln e s s . The d is tr ib u tio n o f in d ivid u al attendance ra te s i s skewed,
with most scores very d o s e to the maximum score o f 1 0 0 . I t was not fe a s ib le
to d erive a d isp ersion in d icator fo r employment con tin u ity because o f the
nature o f the measure.
The d isp ersion measure employed was the c o e ffic ie n t o f v a r ia tio n , which
was expressed as a percent o f the group sco re.
As with the age group indexes, the c o e ffic ie n ts o f v a ria tio n fo r the
s p e c if ic occupations were combined to obtain a measure fo r the occupational
group. These measures in turn were combined to obtain more general in d ica tio n s
o f the d isp e rsio n . In each combination, weights were used to r e f l e c t the
r e la t iv e importance o f the component measure in the combination. In each case,
the weight applied was the number o f workers in the component group, l e s s one.
S t a t i s t i c a l S ig n ific a n ce T estin g
In the case o f output per man-hour, procedures were employed fo r te s tin g
f o r s t a t i s t i c a l sig n ific a n c e the d iffe r e n c e between the age group in d exes.
Each age group index fo r an occupational group and combinations o f these
groups was compared with the corresponding base group index o f 1 0 0 . The
standard error o f the d iffe r e n c e between the two indexes was obtained and i t s
standard score computed. With few excep tion s, i t was found that these d i f ­
feren ces were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ig n ific a n t a t the 5-percent le v e l — that i s , these
indexes were s ig n ific a n t ly d iffe r e n t from 100 in the sense th a t, i f there were
r e a lly no d iffe r e n c e between an age group and base group, a d iffe r e n c e as
great as t h is would be obtained l e s s than 1 time in 20 on repeated sampling^
The indexes found to be not s ig n ific a n t were those o f the women employees
aged 4 5 -5 4 and the men aged 2 5 -3 4 in the footwear p la n ts and women aged 4 5 -5 4
and under 25 and men under 25 and 2 5 -3 4 in the fu rn itu re p la n ts . The d i f f e r ­
ences between these indexes and 100 were so small that even with the s iz a b le
samples they were not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y d iffe r e n t from 1 0 0 .




-

11

-

?lP<foagg
The fin d in g s presented here r e f l e c t the experience o f production workers
in c e rta in la r g e establishm ents in the footwear and household fu rn itu re indus­
tr ie s .
Data on one or more o f the performance in d ic a to r s— p ro d u c tiv ity ,
attendance, or con tin u ity o f serv ic e — are presented f o r 1 3 ,3 5 0 workers em­
ployed in 26 establish m en ts, 15 o f which were in the men's footwear industry
and 11 in the wood and upholstered fu rn itu re in d u stry.
(In the footwear
in d u stry , data on attendance and con tin u ity o f serv ic e were obtained from
11 p la n t s .)
The data were c o lle c te d f o r s u b s ta n tia lly fu ll-p r o d u c tio n p eriod s
during 1 9 5 5 -5 6 .
Output Per Man-Hour
D irect comparisons o f output per man-hour were lim ite d to those workers
whose in d ivid u al contribution to t o t a l production could be measured, and who
were performing the same o p era tio n s. Consequently, i t was not p o ssib le to
c o lle c t p ro d u c tiv ity inform ation f o r a l l workers in the establish m en ts. How­
ev e r, output per man-hour measures were obtained f o r 5 ,1 4 7 production workers—
1 ,6 5 1 in the fu rn itu re establishm ents and 3 ,4 9 6 in the footwear p la n ts .
The m ajority o f these workers, as mentioned above, were pieceworkers, but
there were some workers fo r whom ind ivid u al output data could be d erived , even
though they were paid according to a group in cen tive p la n .
I t was not p o s s ib le ,
however, to include any hourly rated workers in t h is group.
Separate r e s u lts are presented fo r men and women employed in the 2 indus­
t r i e s (t a b le s 1 and 2 ) , and the r e s u lts are fu rth e r subdivided in to earnings
l e v e l groups (ta b le s 3 , 4 , 5, and 6 ) , and according to hand and machine
occupations (ta b le s 7 , 8 , 9 , and 1 0 ) .
Industry T o ta ls . From an examination o f the combined indexes representing
a l l occupational l e v e l s , two broad conclusions emerge. F i r s t , there i s a
c o n siste n t p attern o f re la tio n sh ip between age and output— a r i s e in the
indexes from the under 25 age group to the 2 5 -3 4 group, follow ed by a gradual
d e c lin e which i s somewhat more marked fo r the 5 5 -6 4 group. F in a lly , a t the
65-en d-over l e v e l , a sharper d eclin e occu rs. Second, i t should be noted th at
d iffe r e n c e s between age groups are g en era lly sm a ll. With only one excep tion,
a l l o f the output indexes, through the 5 5-6 4 year group are w ithin 8 percentage
p o in ts o f the base group indexes. D ifferen ces between adjacent 1 0 -y e a r age
groups are (a ls o with one exception) r e la t iv e ly sm a ll.
These observations apply to both the footwear and fu rn itu re in d u s tr ie s ,
and to both men and women workers. The one exception ind icated above occurs
in the case o f women fu rn itu re workers aged 5 5 -6 4 , with the index d e c lin in g
to 8 5 .6 .




-

1 2

-

Table 1 .

Indexes o f output per man-hour f o r in cen tive workers in 15 men's
footwear establishm ents, by sex and age group
age group

jo—

Women

Men

Age
group

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(percent)

Number
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a r ia tio n
(percent)

98

9 3 .8

1 7 .9

111

9 4 .4

1 7 .1

1 0 0 .3
1 0 0 .0

1 6 .3
1 3 .8

292

1 0 2 .8

589

1 0 0 .0

1 7 .5
1 5 .2

9 7 .7

1 4 .1

534

9 8 .8

1 5 .6

Number
of
workers

Under 25

9

2 5 -3 4

. .

278

3 5 -4 4

. .
. .

484
460

55-64 . .

322

9 2 .5

1 4 .5

219

9 4 .1

1 3 .1

75

8 1 .1

1 6 .6

34

8 8 .0

2 0 .7

4 5 -5 4

65 and over

Table 2 .

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r in cen tive workers in 11
household fu rn itu re establishm ents, by sex and age group
(Age group 35-4A=100)
Women

Men

Age
group

Number
of
workers

Under 25 •

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(percent)

liumber
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a r ia tio n
(percent)

9 8 .5

1 6 .3

22

I d .4

1 8 .8

1 0 1 .5
1 0 0 .0

1 5 .1
1 1 .8

79
97

107. A
1 0 0 .0

1 9 .4
1 7 .8

2 5 -3 4
3 5 -4 4

. .
. .

214
436
372

4 5 -5 4

.

218

9 6 .1

1 1 .0

63

9 8 .7

16.0

96

9 4 .5
9 3 .6

1 1 .8

33
1

8 5 .6

1 8 .6

.

5 5-6 4 . .
65 and ovei

20

1 1 .6

0 /)

( 1 /)

1 / Fewer than 5 observations were considered in s u ffic ie n t fo r d erivin g
the in d exes.




13

-

In the footwear p la n ts , the men show a s l i g h t l y more pronounced tendency
to d e clin e in performance, with advancing age, than do the women. For age
group 4 5 -5 4 , the index fo r the women i s 9 8 .8 whereas the men in t h is group
record an index o f 9 7 . 7 .
S im ila r ly , a t age 5 5 -6 4 , the 2 indexes are 94*1
and 9 2 * 5 , r e s p e c tiv e ly . In the fu rn itu re p la n ts , a p attern o f d iffe r e n c e i s
not apparent. In the 4 5 -5 4 age group, the women1s output i s s l i g h t l y b e tte r
than the men’ s (an index o f 9 8 .7 as compared with 9 6 . l ) ; the reverse i s true
f o r the 5 5 -6 4 age group— an index o f 9 4 .5 fo r the men as again st 8 5 .6 f o r the
women. I t i s p o s s ib le th at t h is l a t t e r age group i s one in which the r e la ­
t i v e l y heavier p h ysical demands o f occupations in the fu rn itu re in d u stry, as
compared with those in the footwear p la n ts , p lace the old er women in a l e s s
advantageous p o s it io n . The jobs in which the women are commonly employed in
the fu rn itu re industry are sewing covers, tacking u p h olstery, packing and
wrapping c h a ir s, and hand sanding. In comparison with the usual footwear
occupations fo r women— s titc h in g , p a stin g , cementing, sk iv in g , fo ld in g , and
d ressing— the fu rn itu re occupations in volve la r g e r p ie c e s on which to work
and operations which n e c e ssita te strength in ad d ition to s k i l l .
Even in the
5 5 -6 4 age group o f women fu rn itu re workers, however, performance i s w ithin 15
percentage p oin ts o f the base group index (th e 3 5 -4 4 age group).
Although the 2 5 -3 4 age group, in both the footwear and fu rn itu re p la n ts ,
and fo r both men and women, c o n stitu te s the age group showing the peak per­
formance index, the su p erio rity o f t h is group over those aged 3 5 -4 4 i s gener­
a l l y s l i g h t . In the case o f women fu rn itu re workers, the index fo r t h is age
group i s 1 0 7 .4 , but in none o f the other 3 categories does i t exceed 1 0 2 .8 .
In the 65-and-over age group fo r which data are a v a ila b le , the indexes
are a l l considerably lower than those o f the base groups (3 5 -4 4 y e a r s ).
In
the footwear p la n ts , output o f the women workers age 65 and over holds up
b e tte r than th at o f the men, with an index o f 8 8 .0 as compared with 8 1 .1 fo r
the men* Among the fu rn itu re workers, the number o f women 65 and over was
in s u f f ic ie n t to permit the presentation o f a meaningful index, but the men
showed an index o f 9 3 .6 .
The foregoin g comments r e fe r to the average indexes o f the age groups.
However, in an actual employment s itu a tio n , there are always s p e c ific in d i­
vidual workers in volved, so that inform ation regarding the average performance
l e v e l s o f la r g e groups i s , by i t s e l f , o f lim ite d v a lu e . What i s necessary i s
some measure o f how c lo s e ly the performance scores o f the ind ivid ual workers
conform to t h is group average.
In t h is study, the measure used to provide t h is inform ation i s the coef­
f i c i e n t o f v a r ia tio n , which r e f le c t s the d iffe r e n c e between the age group
average and the individual sc o re s, j j /
*>/ The c o e ffic ie n t i s calcu lated by d iv id in g the standard d eviatio n by the
mean and in d ica te s the r e la tio n sh ip between the value o f the mean and d istan ce
from the mean w ithin which a s p e c ifie d proportion o f the observations w ill be
i f the ind ivid ual observations included in the mean are d istr ib u te d in a normal
frequency curve. For example, i f the index o f an age group were 90 and the
c o e f f ic ie n t o f v a r ia tio n 10 p ercent, then about tw o-th ird s o f the ind ivid ual
indexes would be between 8 1 .0 and 9 9 .0 (th e se lim it s being the mean p lu s and
minus 10 percent o f the mean).




- 14 -

W ith resp ect to the v a r ia b ilit y o f in d ivid u al age groups, th ere appears
to be no c o n siste n t re la tio n sh ip between age and the c o e ffic ie n t o f v a r ia tio n .
Although fo r both sexes and in both the footw ear and fu rn itu re in d u s tr ie s ,
th ere i s a s lig h t tendency fo r the average c o e ffic ie n t s o f v a ria tio n o f the
medium age groups (coverin g the ages 3 5 -5 4 ) to be sm aller than those in the
younger and old er groups, th is p attern i s not very marked and i t i s u n lik e ly
th a t any broad conclu sions on th is p o in t would be j u s t i f i e d .
W ithin the in d ivid u al age groups, t h is v a r ia b ilit y i s q u ite la r g e and
c a rr ie s s ig n ific a n t im p lic a tio n s. As can be seen from chart 1 , su b sta n tia l
proportions o f the workers age 4 5 -5 4 have output indexes which are higher than
the average index o f the 3 5 -4 4 age group. This proportion v a rie s from 47
percent fo r th e women workers in both footw ear and fu rn itu re p la n ts to 39
percent in the case o f men fu rn itu re w orkers. 6 /
Even in the age group 5 5 -6 4 th ere i s a s ig n ific a n t prop ortion o f workers
w ith output indexes higher than the average o f the 3 5 -4 4 age group. In the
case o f men w orkers, they coraprise 30 percent o f the employees in the footw ear
p la n ts w ithin t h is age group and 34 percent in the fu rn itu re p la n ts . For
women w orkers, the percentages are 35 and 2 1 , r e s p e c tiv e ly .
These r e s u lts in d ica te th a t an evalu ation o f in d iv id u a l workers i s fa r
more im portant than any general id ea s concerning the r e la tio n sh ip between
age and p ro d u c tiv ity .
In view o f the sm all d iffe r e n c e s in the averages o f
the age groups and the wide v a r ia b ilit y in in d ivid u al performance r a te s found
in th is stu d y, i t i s c le a r th a t an employer should emphasize th e development
o f e ffe c t iv e means fo r determ ining the in d ivid u al c a p a b ilitie s o f p a rtic u la r
w orkers, rath er than attem pt to apply conclu sions based on the ch ron ological
age o f the workers in v o lv ed .
I t may be noted th at the women workers show s lig h t ly higher average c o e f­
f ic ie n t s than the men. In the footw ear p la n ts , the average fo r men i s 14*6
percent and fo r women, 15 *6 p ercen t. In the fu rn itu re p la n ts , the men showed
an average c o e ffic ie n t o f v a ria tio n o f 1 3 .9 p ercen t, whereas the women averaged
1 7 .9 p e rc e n t. W hile the women show a higher v a r ia b ilit y in both in d u s tr ie s ,
the d iffe r e n c e between the men and women workers i s g reater in the fu rn itu re
p la n ts .

§/ These p rop ortion s were derived u sin g the index and the average coef­
f ic ie n t o f v a ria tio n w ith the assumption th a t the form o f the d is tr ib u tio n
o f the output per man-hour scores fo r in d iv id u a ls was norm al. There i s
evidence supporting the view th at th is w ill be the case in output per man-hour
sc o r e s . See In d ivid u al P ro d u ctiv ity D iffe ren ces S e ria l No. R. 1 0 4 0 , February
1940 (p p. 18 and 19) • The actu al prop ortion s were computed and fo r the most
p a rt they were very c lo s e to those based on the normal d is tr ib u tio n .




- 15 -

Chart 1
.

PRETO WR E SA E4 A DOE WT O T U PR
ECN F O KR G 5 N V R I H UP T E
MN O R GETRT A T EA E A E F RA E G O P35-44
A -H U RAE HN H V RG O G R U
WOMEN
P ercen t

Age

F ootw ear
P la n ts

G rou p

I
M
ON

4 5 - 5 4

Furniture
.P la n ts

I

A ge

F o o tw ea r
P la n ts

G rou p
5 5 - 6 4

Furniture
.P la n ts

U ITED STATES DEPARTMENT O LABOR
N
F
B R A O L B R S A IS IC
UEU F A O T T T S




The b a sis fo r th ese d iffe r e n c e s i s not c lea r*
I t i s p o s s ib le th a t the
economic and dom estic situ a tio n o f women employees shows le s s u n iform ity than
th a t o f men, and th a t t h is , in tu rn , r e s u lts in im portant d iffe r e n c e s in
m otiv a tio n . The ages o f the ch ild ren , fo r example, should have more e ffe c t
on the m other's employment requirem ents than on the f a t h e r 's . In g en era l,
i t should be pointed out th at women tend to move in and out o f the la b o r fo rc e
more freq u en tly than men. Their movement i s in response to a wide range o f
in flu e n ce s— both economic and s o c ia l.
As noted p re v io u sly , the current study in d erivin g the p ro d u c tiv ity indexes
did not consider any fa c to r s other than volume o f output per man-hour. Charac­
t e r is t ic s such as perseveran ce, q u a lity o f ou tp u t, and m aturity o f judgment
are not r e fle c te d in the in d exes. These a re , o f cou rse, im portant y a rd stick s
to be employed in determ ining the o v e r a ll e ffe c tiv e n e s s o f an employee. A l­
though they are im precise and s u b je c tiv e ly evaluated c h a r a c te r is tic s , variou s
other stu d ies 7 / in d ica te th a t o ld er workers would have the advantage in
th ese r e s p e c ts . T herefore, bearing in mind the nature o f the age-output re­
la t io n s h ip -s m a ll d iffe r e n c e s between the several age groups and great v a ria tio n
among the in d iv id u a ls w ithin age groups— i t would be appropriate fo r an employer
to consider the advantages o f d ispensin g w ith s p e c ific age lim it s in h ir in g ,
and thus provide h im se lf with a much broader f i e ld from which to make in d ivid u al
s e le c tio n s .
Even the p ra c tic e o f s e ttin g age lim it s fo r jo b s which are considered
e s p e c ia lly rigorous would appear to have doubtful m e rit, sin ce the fin d in g s in
the fu rn itu re p la n ts , where p h ysical cap acity does appear to be an im portant
fa c t o r , in d ica te th at su b sta n tia l percentages o f workers age 5 5 -6 4 performed
b e tte r than the average o f those age 35— 4 .
4
Higher and Lover Paid Occupations. As in d icated in the se c tio n on sta ­
t i s t i c a l methods, the s p e c ific occupation indexes in th is study are combined
in to broader groupings to fu rn ish more general conclu sions than are p o s s ib le
from the lim ite d numbers o f workers in in d ivid u al occu p ation s. Such groupings
are based on c h a r a c te r is tic s oth er than age which are b eliev ed to in flu en ce
the measure under co n sid era tio n . In the case o f output per man-hour, the
groupings are determined by the average earnings le v e ls o f the occupations
and by the d is tin c tio n between hand and machine occu p ation s.

2 / See, fo r example, V a lte r G ershenfeld, Job S p e c ific a tio n s and
Employment P o lic y (p p. 1 7 1 -1 7 2 ) and James H. M ullen, The C osts o f R etaining
Older Vbrkers in Industry (p . 1 9 7 ). (In Proceedings o f the Second Conference
on the Problems o f Making a L ivin g W hile Growing O ld .)
Commonwealth o f
Pennsylvania and Temple U n iv e rsity , 1 9 5 3 . W illiam H. Bowers, An Appraisal
o f Workers C h a ra cte ristics as R elated to Age (in Journal o f A pplied P sychology,
October 1 9 5 2 , V o l. 3 6 , No. 5 , p p .2 9 6 -3 0 0 ).




- 17 -

The summarization o f r e s u lts sep arately fo r employees in higher and low er
paid occupations i s based on the assumption th at th ese two groups may rea ct
d iffe r e n t ly , in terms o f th e ir output per man-hour, to the changes a sso cia ted
w ith age. I t i s g e n era lly assumed, fo r example, th a t higher paid jo b s tend to
in clu d e the more complex op eration s in which s k i l l and experience are im portant
fa c to r s in determ ining perform ance, whereas the low er paid jo b s tend to be
sim pler and more r e p e tit iv e , p o s s ib ly p la cin g a greater premium on p h ysical
a b i l i t i e s as con trasted w ith mental ones or where s k ill and experience re­
quirements are lo w er.
The s p e c ific content o f many jo b s v a rie s from p la n t to p la n t. Some o f
the common higher paid jo b s in the fu rn itu re p la n ts , fo r example, are uphol­
s te r e r s , assem bler8 , boring machine o p era to rs, and shaper o p era to rs. In the
footw ear p la n ts , examples o f higher paid jo b s are the ou tsid e le a th e r c u tte r s ,
p u llo v er o p e ra to rs, top s t it c h e r s , and goodyear s t it c h e r s . Lower paid jo b s
in the fu rn itu re p la n ts in clu d e cuslons f i l l e r s and glue damp operators and
in the footw ear p la n ts , cem enters, heel trim m ers, lin in g and le a th e r d o s e r s ,
and fo ld e r s .
As shown in ta b le s 3 and 5 , the same general p attern i s follow ed by
indexes fo r the higher and low er paid occupations in the footw ear p la n ts as
i s follow ed by the indexes represen tin g the industry t o t a l s . For both the
men and women w orkers, in both higher and low er paid occu p ation s, indexes
covering the age groups from 2 5 -5 4 d isp la y o n ly minor v a r ia tio n from one age
group to sm other, and a l l are d o s e to the base group index o f 1 0 0 . For most
o f the c a teg o ries m entioned, the under 25 group, as w d l as the 2 o ld e st groups
(5 5 -6 4 and 65 and o v e r ), have low er indexes than the m iddle groups. This again
i s c o n siste n t w ith the in d u stry to ta l fin d in g s .
There i s l i t t l e evidence th a t the r d a tio n s h ip between age and output per
man-hour d if f e r s g r e a tly between the higher sind low er paid occupations in the
footw ear p i suits, except in two age groups. In the 65-an d-over group, both
men smd women in the higher paid jo b s show a much more pronounced d e d in e than
do th ose in low er psdd jo b s .
Comparison o f the v a r ia b ilit y o f output among footw ear workers in higher
smd low er paid occupations re v e a ls no d iffe r e n c e o f any s iz a b le p ro p o rtio n s.
The average c o e ffic ie n t o f v a ria tio n ( a l l age groups combined) i s alm ost
id e n tic a l fo r the upper smd low er paid occupations fo r workers o f both se x e s.
F urther, the p attern o f v a r ia b ility -a g e r d a tio n s h ip s i s irre g u la r and u n d e a r ;
the tendency fo r the c o e ffic ie n ts o f v a ria tio n to be sm a llest among the medium
age groups i s le s s evident than i s the case in the c o e ffic ie n ts fo r the industry
t o t a ls .
Among the workers in the fu rn itu re p la n ts (ta b le s 4 and 6 ) , the indexes
fo llo w a somewhat d iffe r e n t tendency. There i s a s ig n ific a n t d e d in e in the
performance o f men workers in the higher paid jo b s in the 45-an d -over groups,
whereas the corresponding d e d in e among men in the low er paid jo b s does not
appear u n til the next higher age group ( 5 5 -6 4 ) . For women, on the other hand,




- 18 -

Table 3 .

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men in c e n tiv e workers in higher
and low er paid occupations in 15 men’ s footw ear estab lish m en ts, by
age group

Lower paid

Higher paid
Age
group

Number
of
workers

Under 25 ♦

59

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

9 4 .8

1 8 .7

Number
of
workers
39

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

9 0 .4

1 7 .4

2 5 -3 4

. •

212

1 0 0 .5

1 6 .5

66

9 9 .5

1 5 .6

3 5 -4 4

. •

353

1 0 0 .0

1 3 .9

131

1 0 0 .0

1 3 .2
1 5 .3

4 5 -5 4

. •

386

9 7 .4

1 3 .9

74

9 8 .8

55-6 4

. •

271

9 2 .2

1 4 .9

51

9 3 .3

1 2 .9

65 and over

50

7 9 .1

1 7 .6

25

9 7 .9

1 5 .2

Table 4 .

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r men in c e n tiv e workers in higher
and low er paid occupations in 11 household fu rn itu re estab lish m en ts,
by age group
(Age group 35-44=100)
Lower paid

Higher paid
Ace
group

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(percent)

Number
of
workers

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

Number
of
workers

Index

Under 25 .

182

9 9 .1

1 6 .8

32

9 6 .5

1 1 .7

2 5 -3 4

. .

361

1 0 0 .9

1 4 .3

75

1 0 3 .3

1 8 .8

3 5 -4 4

. .

279

1 0 0 .0

1 2 .8

93

1 0 0 .0

7 .3

4 5 -5 4

. .

146

9 4 .9

9 .3

72

9 9 .9

1 3 .6

5 5 -6 4

. .

60

9 4 .7

8 .7

36

9 3 .9

1 4 .0

10

9 4 .3

10

9 1 .5

1 1 .6

65 and over

0 />

1 / Data in s u ffic ie n t to d e r iv e measure.




- 19 -

Index

Table 5 .

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women in cen tiv e workers in higher
and low er paid occupations in 15 men’ s footw ear estab lish m en ts, by
age group
( Age__grou.p 35-44=lQQ)
.
Lower paid

Higher paid
Age
group

Number
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

Under 25 *

72

9 2 .7

1 7 .2

39

9 7 .6

1 5 .3

25-3-4

. •

202

1 0 3 .6

1 3 .5

90

1 0 1 .1

2 1 .0

3 5 -4 4

.

•

377

1 0 0 .0

1 7 .8

212

1 0 0 .0

1 6 .6

4 5 -5 4

.

•

357

9 9 .1

1 5 .7

177

9 8 .1

1 4 .0

5 5 -6 4

.

•

131

9 3 .3

1 6 .4

88

9 5 .5

1 3 .9

22

8 4 .0

2 3 .3

12

9 5 .4

4 .4

65 and ovei

Table 6 .

Number
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

Indexes o f output per man-hour fo r women in cen tiv e workers in higher
and low er paid occupations in 11 household fu rn itu re estab lish m en ts,
by age group
(Age group 35 -4 4 = 100)
Higher paid

Age
group

Lower paid

Number
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p ercen t)

Under 25 •

16

1 0 6 .8

1 8 .0

2 5 -3 4

. •

61

1 0 5 .9

1 8 .8

3 5 -4 4

.

•

55

1 0 0 .0

1 8 .0

4 5 -5 4

.

•

34

9 8 .6

5 5 -6 4

. •

13

8 4 .1

rn m
mm

--

65 and over

Number
of
workers

Index

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a r ia tio n
(p ercen t)

6

9 2 .5

2 0 .4

18

1 0 9 .7

2 1 .9

42

1 0 0 .0

1 6 .6

1 6 .0

29

9 8 .8

1 6 .0

1 4 .4
—

20

8 8 .1

2 0 .3

1

( 1 /)

( 1 /)

1 / Fewer than 5 observation s were considered in s u ffic ie n t fo r d erivin g
the in d exes.




20

-

th ere i s no im portant d iffe re n c e between the p attern s o f the higher and low er
paid occu pation s, except fo r the under 25 group. The index fo r t h is group i s
con sid erably higher than the base group (1 0 6 .8 ) in higher paid occu pation s,
w hile the reverse i s tru e in the low er paid jo b s . In th is la t t e r category,
the under 25 group o f women workers shows an average index o f 9 2 .5 .
With regard to In d ivid u al v a r ia b ilit y , the r e s u lt s in the fu rn itu re
in d u stry are sim ila r to those seen in the footw ear in d u stry . Average coef­
f ic ie n t s o f v a r ia tio n ( a l l age groups combined) are v ir t u a lly id e n tic a l fo r
higher and low er paid occu p ation s. A ls o , c o e ffic ie n t s fo r s p e c ific age groups
show no d isc e rn ib le tendency to be re la te d to a g e. In both in d u s tr ie s , as may
be seen from ch arts 2 and 3 , the magnitude o f the in d iv id u a l v a r ia tio n s i s
s u b s ta n tia l, in d ic a tin g th a t in each o f the occupational c a te g o rie s many workers
w ill be found whose performance indexes are higher than the average o f the base
group.
Machine and Hand O ccupations. Findings are presented sep a ra tely fo r
workers in machine and hand occupations in order to a sc e rta in whether d if f e r ­
ences between the requirem ents imposed by the two typ es o f jo b s a f f e c t the
variou s age groups d is s im ila r ly . Machine occupations are d efin ed as those
in which a powered d evice i s u t i l i z e d . The d is tin c tio n between the two types
o f jo b s in v o lv es the notion th a t the p h ysical demands o f machine occupations
are l i k e l y to be d iffe r e n t from those o f hand occu p ation s.
R esu lts o f t h is a n a ly sis are shown in ta b le s 7 through 1 0 , from which no
d e a r p attern em erges. For example, although the men footw ear workers in the
2 o ld e s t age groups (5 5 -6 A and 65 and over) do b e tte r in the machine jo b s ,
r d a t i v e to th e ir re sp e ctiv e base groups than in the hand occu p ation s, the
reverse i s true in the case o f women workers in t h is in d u stry . Among the men
fu rn itu re w orkers, th e average index o f the 5 5 -6 4 age group i s higher fo r those
in hand occu pation s, w hile fo r those in the 65-an d -over bracket th e machine
workers have a higher in d ex.
Examination o f the c o e ffic ie n ts o f v a ria tio n re v e a ls some lim ite d d if f e r ­
ences between the hand and machine occu p ation s. For example, the c o e ffic ie n t s
o f v a ria tio n (fo r a l l age groups combined) in both in d u str ie s are h igh er fo r
hand than fo r machine occupations among the men. For women workers the reverse
i s tr u e , w ith employees in the machine occupations showing the g rea ter v a r i­
a b i l i t y . This su ggests th a t no g e n e ra liza tio n i s warranted concerning the
eq u a lizin g e ffe c t o f the machinery used by in d u str ia l w orkers. V h ile t h is
e f f e c t may be a s ig n ific a n t fa c to r in some occu p ation s, i t i s evident from
th is study th at i t i s by no means u n iv e r s a l.
Comparisons o f the a g e -v a r ia b ility p attern s between the hand and machine
occupations reveal no d is t in c t tren d s. Although th ere appears to be a s lig h t
tendency fo r the c o e ffic ie n t o f v a ria tio n to be higher among the younger and
o ld er age groups than in the m iddle groups, the d iffe r e n c e i s rath er sm a ll, as
was noted in the comparison between higher and low er paid occu p ation s.




21 -




Chart 2.

PRETO WR E SA E4 A DOE I HG E P I
ECN F O KR G 5 N V R N I HR AD
O C P TO S W HO T U PRMN O R GETR
C U A I N I UP T E A -H U RAE
T
T A T EAE A EF RA E G O P35-44
HN H V RG O G R U
MEN

WOMEN
P ercen t

"F o o tw e a r
P la n t s

A ge
G roup
4 5 - 5 4

Furniture
.P la n t s

"F o o t w e a r
P la n t s

Age
G roup
5 5 - 6 4

-<

Furniture
.P la n ts

U ITE STATES DEPARTM
N D
ENT O LABOR
F
B R A O L B R S A IS IC
UEU F AO TT T S

P ercen t




Chart 3.

PRETO WR E SA E4 A DOE I L WRP I
ECN F O KR G 5 N V R N O E AD
O C P TO SW HO T U PRM N O RGETR
C U A I N I UP T E A -H U RAE
T
T A T EAE A EF RA EG O P35-44
H N H V RG O G R U
WOMEN
P ercen t

Footw ear
Plants

Age
G ro u p

-<

4 5 -5 4
V-

Footw ear
P lants

A ge
Group
5 5 -6 4

Furniture
Plants

W

B

m

S

i.

-<
Furniture
Plants
V-

i

U ITED STATES DEPARTM T O LA O
N
EN F B R
B r .A O L B R S A IS IC
U U F AO TT T S

T a b le 7 .

In d e x e s o f o u tp u t p e r m an-hour f o r men in c e n t iv e w o rkers p e rfo rm in g
m achine and hand o p e ra tio n s in 15 m en's fo o tw e a r e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
by age group
(A ge group 35-4.4=100)
M achine

Age
group

9 3 .4
9 9 .6

1 6 .9
1 6 .2

17
50

1 0 5 .4

2 0 .3
1 6 .5

1 0 0 .0

424
296

. .

65 and o v e r

T a b le 8 ,

Number
of
w o rkers

419

. ,

5 5 -6 4

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

228

. .
. .

4 5 -5 4

In d e x

9 7 .4
9 3 .0

1 3 .2
1 4 .0

65
36

1 0 0 .0
9 9 .8

1 7 .0
1 6 .0

1 4 .6

26

8 8 .6

1 3 .5

63

8 1 .8

1 6 .6

12

7 5 .8

1 6 .6

Number
of
w o rke rs

U nder 25 •
2 5 -3 4
3 5 -4 4

81

In d e x
9 7 .0

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

In d e x e s o f o u tp u t p e r m an-hour f o r men in c e n t iv e w o rkers p e rfo rm in g
m achine and hand o p e ra tio n s in 11 h o u seh o ld f u r n it u r e e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
by age group
(A ge group 3 5-44=100)
M achine

Age
group

U nder 25 •
2 5 -3 4 . .
3 5 -4 4
4 5 -5 4

Hand

. .
. .

5 5 -6 4 . .
65 and o v e r

Number
of
w o rke rs
82
199
242
182
72
17

Hand

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

1 0 0 ,3
1 0 0 .0
9 8 .6

1 1 .0
1 2 .9
8 .9
1 1 .3

132
237
130
36

1 0 0 .5
1 0 3 .2
1 0 0 .0
9 2 .6

1 8 .4
1 6 .4
1 5 .5
9 .0

9 4 .4
9 4 .7

1 1 .2
9 .0

24

9 4 .7

1 3 .3

3

tt/ )

(1 / )

In d e x

9 7 .0

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

1 / Few er than 5 o b s e rv a tio n s were co n sid e re d in s u f f ic ie n t f o r d e r iv in g
th e in d e x e s .




T a b le 9*

In d e x e s o f o u tp u t p e r m an-hour f o r women in c e n t iv e w o rkers p e rfo rm in g
m achine and hand o p e ra tio n s in 15 m en's fo o tw e ar e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
by age group
(A ge group 35-44=100)
Hand

M achine
Age
group

Number
of
w o rke rs
76
223
398

U nder 25 •
2 5 -3 4 . .
3 5 -4 4 . .
4 5 -5 4 . .
5 5 -6 4 . .

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

9 5 .7

Number
of
w o rkers

1 7 .8
1 9 .0

In d e x

In d e x

394
167

1 0 2 .4
1 0 0 .0
9 3 .9
9 3 .6

1 5 .9
1 6 .1

35
69
191
140

1 3 .8

52

9 1 .1
1 0 3 .7
1 0 0 .0
9 8 .5
9 5 .2

29

8 5 .7

2 0 .7

5

9 3 .9

65 and o v e r

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)
1 4 .2
9 .0

C l/ )

1 3 .2
1 3 .6
9 .5

1 / D ata in s u f f ic ie n t to d e riv e m easure.

T a b le 1 0 .

In d e x e s o f o u tp u t p e r m an-hour f o r women in c e n t iv e w o rke rs p e rfo rm in g
m achine and hand o p e ra tio n s in 11 h o u seh o ld f u r n it u r e e s t a b lis h m e n t ,
by age group

jA g e gro u p., ,2 5 -^ = 1 0 0 )
Machin<5
Age
group

Hand

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

9

1 0 5 .0

2 5 .6

Under 25 .

In d e x

C o e f f ic ie n t
o f v a r ia t io n
(p e rc e n t)

13

9 4 .8

1 6 .1

2 2 .7

52

1 0 4 .2

1 7 .8

1 7 .8
1 7 .7

26
17

1 0 0 .0
1 0 1 .0

1 5 .8
6 .8

1

(1 / )

0/)

2 5 -3 4

. .

27

3 5 -4 4
4 5 -5 4

. .
. .

71
46

1 0 9 .3
1 0 0 .0
9 7 .3

5 5 -6 4

. .

32

8 8 .9

1 8 .6

0/)

0/)

65 and o ve r

1

Number
of
w o rkers

—

—

—

1 / Few er than 5 o b s e rv a tio n s were co n sid e re d in s u f f ic ie n t f o r d e r iv in g
th e in d e x e s.




- 25 -

Even though th e y a re somewhat ir r e g u la r , th e c o e f f ic ie n t s o f v a r ia t io n
in a l l age gro u p s f o r both hand and m achine o ccu p a tio n s ten d to be la r g e .
In d iv id u a l v a r ia b ilit y i s a f a c t o r o f m a jo r s ig n if ic a n c e among a l l th e gro u p s
o f w o rk e rs s tu d ie d , and th e p erfo rm an ce o f an in d iv id u a l s e le c te d from one o f
th e se gro u p s i s l i k e l y to d if f e r m a rke d ly from th e a v e ra g e o f h is g ro u p .
As i s e v id e n t from c h a r ts 4 and 5 , s u b s t a n t ia l p ro p o rtio n s o f w o rk e rs
in th e h ig h e r age b ra c k e ts f o r both c la s s if ic a t io n s p e rfo rm b e t t e r th an th e
a ve ra g e f o r age group 35-44* Th e re was no c o n s is t e n t d iffe r e n c e in th e se
p ro p o rtio n s f o r m achine o p e ra tio n s a s c o n tra s te d w ith th o se engaged in hand
jo b s .
T h is w ide g e n e ra l v a r i a b i l i t y com bined w ith th e sm a ll d iffe r e n c e s in th e
a v e ra g e in d e x e s , a s w e ll a s th e ab sen ce o f any c o n s is t e n t d iffe r e n c e s in th e
p a tte rn s f o r hand and m achine o c c u p a tio n s , w ould in d ic a t e th a t th e re i s no
v a lid b a s is f o r s p e c ify in g d e f in it e age lim it a t io n s f o r c e r t a in c la s s e s o f jo b s .
A tte n d an ce
A tte n d an ce d a ta were c o lle c t e d f o r 9 ,4 4 0 w o rkers o f whom 4 ,7 8 0 w ere in
11 m en 's fo o tw e a r p la n t s and 4 ,6 6 0 were in 11 f u r n it u r e p la n t s . D epending
on th e p la n t s ' re c o rd s , d a ta w ere o b ta in e d f o r p e rio d s ra n g in g from 3 m onths
to 1 y e a r . The sam ple f o r t h is in d ic a t o r was la r g e r th a n th a t f o r o u tp u t p e r
m an-hour b e cau se h e re i t was p o s s ib le to in c lu d e w o rk e rs p a id on an h o u rly
b a s is a s w e ll a s th o se p a id a c c o rd in g to an in c e n t iv e syste m .
A s can be seen in t a b le s 11 and 1 2 , w hich show th e a tte n d a n ce f in d in g s
f o r th e in d u s t r y t o t a ls s e p a ra te ly by s e x , th e d a ta r e fu t e c u rr e n t id e a s th a t
th e re a re s t r ik in g d iffe r e n c e s between age gro u p s a s to r e g u la r it y o f a tte n d a n ce
a t w ork. The d iffe r e n c e s between age g ro u p s, h e re , a re e x tre m e ly s m a ll.
Among th e fo o tw e a r w o rkers, th e se d if fe r e n c e s do n o t even exceed 1 p e rc e n t f o r
th e men and 1 .2 p e rc e n t f o r th e women. In th e f u r n it u r e p la n t s , th e in d e x e s
f o r a l l age gro u p s f a l l w ith in 9 8 .6 and 1 0 2 .4 p e rc e n t o f th e base group (a
ra n ge o f 3 .8 p e rce n t) f o r men and w ith in 9 7 .1 and 100 f o r women (2 .9 p e r c e n t ).
T h e re i s no c o n s is te n t r e la t io n s h ip between a tte n d a n ce and a g e .
W ith re g a rd to in d iv id u a l v a r ia t io n s , th e d iffe r e n c e s in in d iv id u a ls '
r a t e s from th e group a ve ra g e in a l l c a se s were in s ig n if ic a n t .
The ab sen ce o f any p a tte rn o f th e in d e x e s by a g e , a s w e ll a s th e e x tre m e ly
sm a ll v a r ia t io n between age g ro u p s, s u g g e s ts th a t age a s a f a c t o r r e la t in g to
w o rk e rs' a tte n d a n ce can b e ig n o re d .
A lth o u g h th e re a re no c o n s is te n t d iffe r e n c e s in the p a tte rn o f th e in d e x e s
by age f o r men o r women in e it h e r in d u s t r y , th e re a re some d iffe r e n c e s in th e
o v e r a ll m easures f o r th e se g ro u p s. The men w o rke rs in both in d u s t r ie s have
s l i g h t l y h ig h e r a ve ra g e a tte n d a n ce r a t e s (num ber o f d ays worked p e r 100 sched­
u le d w orkdays) th an do the women w o rk e rs. In th e fo o tw e a r p la n t s th e r a te f o r
men i s 9 8 .3 and f o r women, 9 7 .0 . The r a t e s in th e f u r n it u r e p la n t s a re 9 6 .8
and 9 4 .5 , r e s p e c t iv e ly . A Lso , a s can be se e n , both the men and women in th e




-

26

-

Chart 4 .

PRE TO WR E S A E4 A DOE I MC I E
ECN F O KR G 5 N VR N A HN
O C P TO S W HO T U PRMN O R GETR
C U A I N I UP T E A -H U RAE
T
T A T EAE A E F RA E G O P35-44
H N H V RG O G R U
WOMEN

MEN

P ercen t

P ercen t

Age
Group

"Footwear
Plants
-<

4 5 -5 4

Age
Group
5 5 -6 4

Furniture
.Plants

"Footwear
Plants
<

Furniture
.Plants

UNITED STA T ES DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR

B R A O L B R S A IS IC
UEU F AO TT T S




m m

w
W

®
m

m
m

Chart 5 .

PRETO WR E S A E4 A DOE I HN O C P TO S
ECN F O KR G 5 N V R N A D C U A I N
WT O T U PRMN O R GETRT A
I H UP T E A -H U RAE HN
T EA E A EF RA EG O P35-44
H V RG O G R U
WOMEN

MEN
P ercen t

Age
Group
4 5 -5 4

Age
Group
5 5 -6 4

"Footwear
Plants
-<

Furniture
.Plants

"Footwear
Plants
-<

Furniture
.Plants

UNITED STA T ES D EP A R TM EN T OF LABO R

B R A O L B R S A IS IC
UEU F AO TT T S




P ercen t

T a b le I X .

In d e x e s o f a tte n d a n ce f o r p ro d u c tio n w o rkers in 11 m en's fo o tw e a r
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , by se x and age group
(Age group 3 5-44=100)
Women

Men
Number
of
w o rke rs

In d e x

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

U nder 25 . . . . . . . . .

251

9 9 .8

206

1 0 0 .5

2 5 -3 4
3 5 -4 4

........................................
........................................

381
447

420
724

1 0 1 .0
1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

.......................................

530

9 9 .9
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .1

804

1 0 1 .2

5 5 -6 4 ........................................
65 and o v e r . . ..................

442

396

1 0 1 .2

54

1 0 1 .2

Age group

T a b le 1 2 .

9 9 .9
9 9 .7

125

In d e x e s o f a tte n d a n ce f o r p ro d u c tio n w o rke rs in 11 h o u seh o ld
f u r n it u r e e s ta b lis h m e n ts , by se x and age group
LM s. r e pu p .. 35 t 4 A ^ lQQ)

Women

Men
Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

Number
of
w o rke rs

In d e x

U nder 2 5 . ...............................
2 5 -3 4 ........................................

562
1 ,1 2 2

1 0 1 .3
1 0 2 .4

54
140

9 9 .9
9 8 .9

3 5 -4 4
4 5 -5 4

.......................................
........................................

1 ,0 1 0
770

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .9

197
148

1 0 0 .0
9 9 .8

5 5-6 4

.......................................

433

1 0 1 .5

71

9 7 .6

149

9 8 .6

4

(1 / )

Age group

65 and o v e r

* • • * • • •

1 / Few er th an 5 o b s e rv a tio n s were co n sid e re d in s u f f ic ie n t f o r d e r iv in g
the in d e x e s .




- 29 -

fo o tw e a r in d u s t r y show h ig h e r a tte n d a n ce r a t e s th an do th e co rre sp o n d in g
g ro u p s in th e f u r n it u r e in d u s t r y . B u t a l l o f th e se d iffe r e n c e s a re sm a ll— in
no c a se e x ce e d in g 2 .5 d a ys ta ke n o f f p e r 100 d ays sch e d u le d .
B ecause i t was b e lie v e d th a t th e atte n d a n ce m o tiv a tio n s m igh t d i f f e r f o r
w o rk e rs u n d e r v a r io u s system s o f paym ent, w ith v a r y in g le n g th o f s e r v ic e , o r
in h ig h e r o r lo w e r p a id jo b s , and th a t th e se m ig h t a f f e c t age gro u p s d if f e r ­
e n t ly , se p a ra te in d e x e s f o r th e se c la s s if ic a t io n s were d e riv e d . T a b le s 13 and
14- show age group in d e x e s f o r in c e n t iv e w o rke rs and f o r tim e w o rk e rsj t a b le s 15
and 1 6 , f o r w o rk e rs in h ig h e r p a id jo b s and in lo w e r p a id jo b s ; and t a b le s 17
and 1 8 , f o r w o rk e rs w ith l e s s th an 2 y e a rs* s e r v ic e and w ith 2 y e a rs o r more
o f s e r v ic e . The in d e x e s f o r each o f th e se gro u p s show no te n d e n cy to v a ry
c o n s is t e n t ly w ith a g e . N or do th e in d e x e s show o th e r th an random d iffe r e n c e s
in t h e ir p a tte rn s b y age g ro u p . F o r th e m ost p a r t , th e v a r ia t io n s between acre
gro u p s in th e se c la s s if ic a t io n s , ju s t a s in th e in d u s t r y t o t a ls , a re s m a ll, b u t
th e re a re a few gro u p s w hich do show r a th e r la r g e d if f e r e n c e s . F o r exam ple,
th e in d e x e s f o r both men and women w ith le s s than 2 y e a rs* s e r v ic e in th e
f u r n it u r e p la n t s v a r ie d b7 1 6 .2 and 1 0 .3 p e rce n ta g e p o in t s , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
A lth o u g h no a g e -a tte n d a n ce p a tte rn s emerge f o r th e v a r io u s c la s s if ic a t io n s ,
some d if fe r e n c e s between th e o v e r a ll r a t e s can be o b se rv e d . As shown in ta b le
19 b o th men and women in c e n t iv e w o rke rs in th e two in d u s t r ie s have h ig h e r a t­
ten d an ce r a t e s than th e h o u rly p a id w o rk e rs. S im ila r ly , th e w o rke rs w ith 2
y e a rs o r more o f s e r v ic e in a l l c a se s show h ig h e r r a t e s th an th o se w ith le s s
th an 2 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e and, w ith one e x c e p tio n , w o rkers in h ig h e r p a id jo b s in
both in d u s t r ie s have b e tte r a tte n d a n ce than th o se in lo w e r p a id jo b s . The
d if fe r e n c e s betw een th e r a t e s ,w h ile n o t la r g e , a re c o n s is t e n t and s u g g e st th a t
th e a tte n d a n ce m o tiv a tio n s f o r th e se v a rio u s c la s s if ic a t io n s do d i f f e r . The
ab sen ce o f any a g e -a tte n d a n ce p a tte r n , how ever, in d ic a t e s th a t w h ile th e e f f e c t
o f th e c la s s if ic a t io n on th e se m o tiv a tio n s m igh t v a r y , th e y do n o t a f f e c t age
gro u p s d if f e r e n t ly .
C o n t in u it y o f S e r v ic e
D ata on c o n t in u it y o f s e r v ic e were re co rd e d f o r a t o t a l o f 9 ,8 9 8 w o rke rs—
5 ,1 1 2 in th e fo o tw ear p la n t s and 4 ,7 8 6 in the f u r n it u r e p la n t s . T h is in d ic a t o r ,
th e co n v e rse o f th e s e p a ra tio n r a t e , m easures th e r e la t iv e p ro p o rtio n s o f work­
e r s in each age group who rem ained on th e jo b d u rin g a su rv e y p e rio d o f 1 y e a r.
I t i s in c lu d e d to r e f le c t th e r e la t iv e jo b s t a b i l i t y o f th e v a rio u s age g ro u p s.
The number o f w o rkers who rem ained was d eterm in ed b y s u b t r a c t in g th e number o f
w o rk e rs who q u it , r e t ir e d , o r w ere d is c h a rg e d ( in c lu d in g m ilit a r y and m e d ica l
s e p a ra tio n s b u t no la y o f f s ) from th e number o f w o rkers em ployed a t th e b e g in ­
n in g o f th e o b s e rv a tio n p e rio d .
The r e s u lt s o f th e stu d y show th a t th e p e rce n ta g e o f w o rkers who rem ain
on the jo b i s h ig h e s t f o r ages 45 th ro u gh 6 4 . (See t a b le s 20 and 2 ]J
Both
th e yo u n g e st and th e o ld e s t age gro u p s have the h ig h e s t p e rce n ta g e o f se p a ra ­
t io n s . The d e c lin e in th e in d e x e s f o r th e 6 5 -a n d -o v e r group la r g e ly r e f le c t s
th e in flu e n c e o f re tire m e n t. F o r th e fo o tw ear p la n t s , t h is in flu e n c e a p p a re n tly




- 30 -

T a b le 1 3 .

In d e xe s o f a tte n d a n ce f o r p ro d u c tio n w o rkers in 11 fo o tw ear
e s ta b lish m e n ts , by s e x , method o f wage paym ent, and age group

______________________________ (Age group 3 5-4 4 =100)____________________________
Men
In c e n t iv e

Age group

Number
of
w orkers
Under 2 5 ......................

168

2 5 -3 4

.......................................

3 5 -4 4

Tim ework
Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

In d e x

83
87

9 9 .9

294

9 9 .7
1 C 0 .1

.......................................

348

1 0 0 .0

99

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

.......................................

426

1 0 0 .3

104

9 9 .7

5 5 -6 4

.......................................

306

9 9 .9

136

9 9 .8

. ......................

64

9 9 .8

61

9 9 .5

65 and o v e r

9 9 .3

Women
In c e n t iv e

Age group

Tim ework

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

......................

138

1 0 1 .1

68

9 7 .4

2 5 -3 4

.......................................

301

1 0 0 .6

119

1 0 2 .3

3 5 -4 4

.......................................

536

1 0 0 .0

188

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

.......................................

562

1 0 1 .0

242

1 0 1 .9

5 5 -6 4

.......................................

278

1 0 1 .3

118

IC O .8

39

1 0 1 .2

15

1 0 1 .1

U nder 2 5 . . .

65 and o v e r




. ...................

- 31 -

Number
of
w orkers

In d e x

T a b le 1 4 .

In d e x e s o f a tte n d a n ce f o r p ro d u c tio n w o rkers in 11 household
f u r n it u r e e s ta b lish m e n ts , b y s e x , method o f paym ent, and age group
i i g e g rgup._3S=44=10p).
Men
Tim ework

In c e n t iv e

Age group

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

. ..................

425

103. .4

137

1 0 1 .2

2 5 -3 4

........................................

852

1 0 2 .8

270

Id .8

3 5 -4 4

........................................

74L

1 0 0 .0

2(B

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

........................................

509

1 0 1 .7

26L

9 9 .4

5 5 -6 4

.......................................

229

1 0 2 .0

204

1 0 0 .5

. ......................

40

9 6 .7

109

1 0 0 .5

U nder 25 . . .

65 and o v e r

Women
In c e n t iv e

Age group

Number
of
w o rkers
U nder 2 5 *

In d e x

Tim ew ork
Number
of
w o rkers

In d e x

...............................

35

9 7 .5

19

1 0 3 .9

2 5 -3 4

.......................................

96

9 8 .6

44

9 9 .5

3 5 -4 4

.......................................

142

1 0 0 .0

55

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

.......................................

103
46

9 9 .4
9 5 .9

1 0 0 .6

2

(1 / )

45
25
2

5 5 -6 4 .......................................
65 and o v e r . . . . . . .

1 0 0 .0

(1 / )

1 / Few er then 5 o b s e rv a tio n s w ere co n sid e re d in s u f f ic ie n t f o r d e r iv in g
th e in d e x e s .




32 -

Table 1 5 .

Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in higher and lower
paid occupations in 11 footwear establish m ents, by sex and age group
(Age group 35-44=100)
Men
Lower

Higher

Age group

Index

Number
of
workers

Number
of
workers

Index

.................................

84

9 9 .7

167

9 9 .8

2 5 -3 4

..........................................

212

1 0 0 .0

169

9 9 .8

3 5 -4 4

..........................................

252

1 0 0 .0

195

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

..........................................

312

1 0 0 .0

218

1 0 0 .3

5 5 -6 4

..........................................

193

9 9 .1

249

1 0 0 .7

65 and over.................................

34

9 9 .1

91

1 0 0 .3

Under 2 5 .

Women
Lower

Higher
Age group
Number
of
workers
.

2 5 -3 4

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

109

1 0 0 .7

97

1 0 0 .1

..........................................

257

1 0 0 .4

1 0 1 .9

3 5 -4 4

..........................................

458

1 0 0 .0

163
266

4 5 -5 4

..........................................

517

1 0 0 .5

287

1 0 2 .4

5 5 -6 4

..........................................

221

1 0 0 .5

175

1 0 2 .3

32

1 0 0 .4

22
g- , ■.... ......—
■

1 0 3 .1

Under 2 5 . . .

65 and over




...................

. . . . . . .

-

33 -

1 0 0 .0

Table 1 6 .

Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in higher and lower
paid occupations in 11 household fu rn itu re establish m ents, by sex
and age group
(Age group 3 5 -4 4=l .Q ).
P
Men
Lower

Higher

Age group
Number
of
workers
Under 25 • ............................

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

301

1 0 0 .3

26L

1 0 2 .7

2 5 -3 4

..........................................

651

1 0 0 .6

471

1 0 5 .1

3 5 -4 4

...........................................

583

1 0 0 .0

427

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

...........................................

434

1 0 0 .3

336

1 0 1 .9

5 5 -6 4

...........................................

206

9 9 .8

227

1 0 4 .0

63

1 0 0 .8

86

9 6 .6

65 and over

....................... ....

Women
Higher
Age group

Under 25 ......................................

Lower

Number
of
workers

Index

41

9 9 .8

13

9 9 .9

Number
of
workers

Index

2 5 -3 4

..........................................

109

9 9 .2

31

9 8 .4

3 5 -4 4

...........................................

124

1 0 0 .0

73

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

...........................................

90

1 0 0 .2

58

9 9 .1

5 5 -6 4

..........................................

34

9 7 .2

37

9 8 .5

2

( 1 /)

65 and over

. .

...................

2

( l/)
L - ----------------

l / Fewer than 5 observations were considered in s u ffic ie n t fo r derivin g
the in d exes.




Table 1 7 .

Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 footwear
establish m ents, by sex, years o f s e r v ic e , and age group
(Age group 35-44=100)
Men
2 y e a r s' service or more
Age group

Less than 2 y e a r s1 serv ice

Number
of
workers

•

•

•

•

#

#

•

55“ ^4
65 and over

. .

. . . .

108

9 9 .6

143

1 0 0 .9

9 9 .8

51

1 0 1 .1

1 0 0 .0

37

1 0 0 .0

500

1 0 0 .0

30

1 0 2 .1

411

•

Index

410
•

Number
of
workers

330

Under 25 .................................

Index

9 9 .6

31

1 0 2 .8

118

9 9 .8

7

9 7 .5

Women

Age group

2 y e a rs' serv ic e or more

Less than 2 y e a r s' serv ice

Number
of
workers
Under 25 .................................

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

97

1 0 0 .4

109

1 0 1 .3

2 5 -3 4

......................................

337

1 0 1 .3

83

9 8 .7

3 5 -4 4

......................................

627

1 0 0 .0

97

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

......................................

729

1 0 1 .1

75

1 0 1 .8

5 5 -6 4

......................................

363

1 0 1 .0

33

1 0 3 .3

51

1 0 1 .0

3

65 and over

. . . . . .

0 /)

\J Fewer than 5 observations were considered in s u ffic ie n t fo r d eriving
the indexes.




-

35 -

Table 1 8 .

Indexes o f attendance fo r production workers in 11 household
fu rn itu re establishm ents, by sex, years o f se r v ic e , and age group
(.Age group. .35r:44=lQ0l
Men
Age group

Less than 2 y e a rs' service

2 y e a r s' serv ice or more
Number
of
workers

Index

Number
of
workers

Under 25 . . . . . . .

235

9 9 .5

327

2 5 -3 4

.................................

851

1 0 0 .3

271

1 0 7 .4
1 1 0 .1

3 5 -4 4

.................................

870

1 0 0 .0

140

100.0

4 5 -5 4

.................................

693

9 9 .8

77

1 0 6 .5

5 5 -6 4

.................................

404

9 9 .0

29

1 1 6 .2

144

9 7 .3

5

1 1 4 .2

65 and over

. . . . .

Index

Women
2 y e a rs' se rv ic e or more

Less than 2 y e a r s' serv ice

Age group
Number
of
workers

Index
.

Number
of
workers

Index

Under 25 • ........................

22

1 0 1 .0

32

9 6 .0

2 5 -3 4

.................................

98

1 0 1 .1

42

9 0 .9

3 5 -4 4

.................................

150

1 0 0 .0

47

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

.................................

136

9 9 .6

12

1 0 1 .2

5 5 -6 4

.................................

67

9 7 .3

4

65 and

over

( 1 /)

—

. . . . .

4

C l/)
—

1 / Fewer than 5 observations were considered in s u f f ic ie n t fo r derivin g
the indexes.




36-

Table 1 9 .

Attendance ra tes \J fo r production workers in 11 men's footwear
and 11 fu rn itu re establish m ents, by sex, method o f payment, len gth
o f se r v ic e , and occupational pay le v e l

Industry
Men's
footwear

G la s s ific a tio n

Furniture

Men

Women

Men

Women

£8*2

£2*0

£6*8

£4*2

9 8 .4
9 8 .0

9 7 .2
9 6 .4

9 6 .9
9 6 .7

9 5 .4
9 3 .0

Less than 2 years ........................

9 7 .4

9 5 .5

9 5 .3

9 4 .0

2 yeers and more

9 8 .4

9 7 .3

9 7 .3

9 4 .6

9 8 .5
9 8 .1

9 7 .4
9 6 .4

9 7 .1
9 6 .5

9 4 .2
9 5 .2

T otal ........................................................
Method o f navment
Incen tive . • .................................
Time* • • • • • • • • • • • «
Lensrth o f service

• ...................

Occuoational Dav le v e l
Higher paid .....................................
Lower paid . . .............................

1 / Number o f days worked per 100 days scheduled.




-

37 -

i s not as great as the in flu en ce on the youngest age group o f other fa c to r s
causing sep aration s. The indexes fo r the youngest age group are markedly
lower than those fo r the o ld e s t age group.
Although the c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e ra te s f o r age group 5 5-6 4 are gen erally
higher than those fo r the 65-and-over group, there i s a rather sharp d e clin e in
the number o f workers in the l a t t e r group. I f the d is tr ib u tio n s o f workers by
age shown in ta b le s 20 and 21 are gen erally rep resen tative o f the actual s it u ­
a tio n over a period o f y ea rs, then the d eclin e in the number o f workers in the
o ld e s t age group r e f l e c t s in part the continuing in flu en ce o f separations in
the 5 5 -6 4 age group without replacement by workers in the same age group. Even
though the separation rate i s low est fo r th is age group, the fewer accession s
(r e s u ltin g from fewer people in t h is age group reentering the la b o r fo rce once
they le a v e as w ell as a fa ilu r e on the p art o f employers to h ire workers in
th is age group) le a d s to the sharp d eclin e in the number on the job a t 6 5 .
In ad d ition to the fin d in gs by sex and ind ustry, r e s u lts are shown sepa­
r a te ly f o r those employees with l e s s than 2 y e a r s' se rv ic e and fo r those with
2 or more years o f se r v ic e . This l a s t d is tin c tio n was made on the assumption
th at a r e la t iv e ly newly hired group o f workers may show a c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e
p attern d iffe r e n t from a group which had worked in the p lan t a longer p eriod ,
and that th is d iffe r e n c e , i f not taken in to account, might in flu en ce the actual
age-performance r e la tio n s h ip s .
Examination o f ta b le s 22 and 2 3, which present con tin u ity indexes by
len g th o f s e r v ic e , rev ea ls fo r the most part the same p attern as the industry
to ta ls .
The highest indexes were generally recorded f o r age groups 45 through
6 4 , and the low est fo r the youngest and o ld e st age groups. However, the d i f ­
feren ces in the rates between age groups are gen era lly la r g e r f o r workers with
l e s s than 2 y e a r s' s e r v ic e .
Although the age-performance patterns fo r the workers c l a s s i f i e d by
len gth o f service are sim ila r , the average c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e rates do
show wide d iffe r e n c e s . Table 24 shows the c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e ra tes fo r
a l l workers stu d ied , grouped by sex, in d u stry, and len gth o f s e r v ic e .
(Note
th at these are actual rates rather than in d ex es.)
In gen eral, the workers
with 2 or more years o f service show considerably higher ra tes them those
with l e s s than 2 y e a rs' s e r v ic e . A lso , the d iffe r e n c e between these two groups
i s more pronounced fo r men than i t i s fo r women. Among the women fu rn itu re
workers, the ra te s fo r the two groups are very d o s e .
On the other hand, the r e su lts show th at the c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e ra te s
fo r both men and women (over a ll age groups) in the two in d u strie s do not
d i f f e r a p p reciably. The ra tes are id e n tic a l in footwear p la n ts and show a
d iffe r e n c e o f s l i g h t l y over 1 percent fo r the fu rn itu re p la n ts .




-

38 -

Table 2 0 .

Indexes o f con tin u ity o f serv ice fo r production workers in 11
footwear establishm ents, by sex and age group

Women

Hen
Age group

Number
of
workers

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

Under 25 • • ........................

245

8 3 .9

238

8 8 .2

2 5 -3 4

......................................

418

9 6 .7

438

9 7 .6

3 5 -4 4

. . . .

...................

478

1 0 0 .0

749

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

......................................

589

1 0 1 .5

838

1 0 2 .1

5 5 -6 4

......................................

509

1 0 0 .4

393

1 0 1 .4

158

9 0 .4

59

65 and over

iJ

. . . . . .

1/

9 7 .5

Includes only employees with more than 2 y e a rs' s e r v ic e .

Table 2 1 .

Indexes o f continuity o f service fo r production workers in 11
household fu rn itu re establishm ents, by sex and age group
_ (Age group 35-44=100 j
_
Women

Men
Age group
....
Under 2 5 . ........................ ....

Number
of
workers

Index

561

8 7 .7

58

6 1 .1

Number
of
workers

Index

2 5 -3 4

......................................

1 ,1 7 9

9 4 .1

141

9 3 .0

3 5 -4 4

......................................

1 ,0 1 7

1 0 0 .0

206

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

......................................

783

1 C 1 .3

152

5 5-6 4

......................................

440

1 0 3 .7

168

8 7 .6

65 and over

\J

0 . .

. . .

1 0 2 .3

75

1/

1 0 5 .1

6

1/

4 7 .7

Includes only employees with more than 2 y e a r s' s e r v ic e .




-

39 -

T a b le

2 2 .

In d ex es

o f

fo o tw e a r

c o n tin u ity

o f

s e r v ic e

___________________________________

(A g e

fo r

b y

e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

y e a rs

grou p

sex*

p r o d u c tio n
o f

w ork ers

s e r v ic e ,

and

in
age

11
grou p

35-44=100)_________________________________
M en

2
A ge

y e a r s ’

s e r v ic e

o r

m ore

L e ss

th a n

2

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

grou p
N um ber

H um ber
o f
|

o f

In d ex

In d ex

w ork ers

w ork ers

•

12 0

8 4 .0

12 5

8 3 .0

2 5 -3 4

...................................

364

9 8 .8

54

8 0 .3

3 5 -4 4

...................................

447

1 0 0 .0

31

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

...................................

560

1 0 1 .2

29

1 0 3 .9

5 5 -6 4

...................................

483

1 0 0 .0

26

1 0 3 .9

65

o v e r

1 4 8

9 5 .1

1 0

5 4 .1

U nder

25

a fid

•

*

*

•

.

•

•

W om en

2
A ge

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

o r

m ore

o f

In d ex

w ork ers

25

th a n

2

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

N um ber

Som ber

U nder

L ess

grou p

•

•

•

•

n

•

o f

In d ex

w ork ers

o

8 7 .7

1 2 8

9 1 .3

2 5 -3 4

...................................

353

9 6 .3

85

1 0 4 .3

3 5 -4 4

...................................

642

1 0 0 .0

107

1 0 0 .0

4 5 -5 4

...................................

7 6 1

1 0 0 .0

77

1 1 3 .0

5 5 -6 4

...................................

363

1 0 0 .0

30

1 0 8 .6

65

o v e r

55

9 7 .5

4

and

1 /
th e

F ew er

*

•

•

th a n

5

o b s e r v a tio n s

w ere

c o n s id e r e d

in d e x e s *




-

40 -

in s u ffic ie n t

(1 /)

fo r

d e r iv in g

T a b le

2 3 .

In d ex es

o f

h o u s e h o ld
and

age

c o n tin u ity
fu r n itu r e

o f

s e r v ic e

fo r

e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

p r o d u c tio n
by

s e x ,

w ork ers

y e a rs

o f

in

11

s e r v ic e ,

grou p

(Age group 35-44=100)
M en

2
A ge

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

o r

L ess

m ore

th a n

2

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

grou p
N um ber

N um ber
o f

In d ex

In d e x

o f
w ork ers

w ork ers

258

8 8 .8

303

8 2 .7

923

9 5 .0

256

8 9 .9

•

900

1 0 0 .0

1 1 7

1 0 0 .0

•

717

1 0 1 .2

66

1 0 1 .4

5 5 -6 4

............................

417

1 0 1 .2

23

1 1 4 .4

65

o v e r

1 6 2

9 5 .0

6

5 5 .3

U nder

25

.

.

.

2 5 -3 4

•

•

s

e

3 5 —4 4

•

•

•

•

4 5 —5 4

•

•

e

e

and

.
e

•

•

W om en
\

2
A ge

grou p

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

o r

m ore

L ess

th a n

2

y e a r s '

s e r v ic e

num ber

N um ber
o f

In d ex

w ork ers

o f

In d e x

w ork ers

_

U nder

25

•

♦

•

•

33

5 9 .1

25

7 0 .0

2 5 —3 4

•

•

•

•

#

108

9 3 .6

33

9 0 .4

3 5 -4 4

•

•

•

#

•

1 6 1

1 0 0 .0

4 5

1 0 0 .0

4 5 —5 4

•

•

e

e

e

1 4 0

1 0 5 .1

1 2

1 0 2 .3

5 5 -6 4

•

•

e

•

•

71

1 0 5 .1

4

65

o y e r

•

#

6

4 7 .7

and

1 /
th e

F ew er

th a n

5

o b s e r v a tio n s

w ere

in d e x e s .




-

a

c o n s id e r e d

0 / )

—

in s u ffic ie n t

—

fo r

d e r iv in g

Tafale 2 4 .

C o n tin u ity -o f-se r v ic e ra tes 1 / fo r production workers in 11 men’ s
footwear and 11 fu rn itu re establish m ents, by sex and length o f
serv ice

Industry
---------------- K;n ’ s
Fool iwear

Length o f service

Furniture

Men

Total .................................................................

•

Women

Men

Women

9 5 .2

9 5 .2

9 0 ,4

9 1 .6

Less than 2 y e a r s ’ service

. . . .

8 0 .8

8 4 .4

7 4 .8

9 0 .4

2 y e a r s ' serv ic e and more .

.

9 6 .4

9 6 .4

9 4 .0

9 1 .6

. . .

\J Number o f workers per 100 who remained on the job during a survey
period o f 1 y e a r .




APPENDIX I :

Questionnaire and Worksheets

UNITED STATES DEPARTM
ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s
Washington 2 5 , D. C ,
Job Performance and Age

Industry
Plant

Address

Parent company__________________ ___________________________ Address__________
O f f i c i a ls interview ed:

(Cross out "C o ." or "P la n t")

Name

Ti t l e

(C o .) (P lan t)

Nam
e

Ti t l e

(C o .) (P lan t)

Survey made by___________ _________________________________________ Dates_____
Dates
The data submitted on t h is schedule w i l l be seen only by sworn employees o f
the Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s , The data w i l l not be released in ary form
which permits id e n tific a tio n with any s p e c ific company without w ritten permission,,
A,

General Information

1,

What are the p rin cip a l products manufactured in t h is p lan t and t h e ir p rice
range ?__________ ____________________________________
____

2,

During normal production periods approximately (a ) how many production workers
are employed?
, (b ) how many o f these workers are paid according to
in d iv id u a l in cen tive ra te s?
•




THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS REFER TO PRODUCTION W
ORKERS ONLY
B.

Plant Records

3*

For what periods (during the f i r s t h a lf o f 1956) was t h is p lan t operating
on a f u l l production schedule? ( I f these periods vary by department, s p e c ify )

U.

For what departments do you maintain records which w i l l y ie ld data on
output per man? (As measured by incentive earnings or p h y sic a l u n its )

5.

B r i e f ly d escribe these records

6.

Which o f the fo llo w in g are u t i l i z e d in determining piece ra tes or other
in d iv id u al incentive r a t e s :
a*

Time stu d ies

Yes

r

j

no

b*

Employee-management conference

Yes

r

j

n r
o

c•

Other ( spec i f y )_______________________________

o

’

j

7.

For what incentive jobs have maximum production lim it s been e sta b lish e d
( l i m i t s such as maximum number o f u n its paid fo r per hour)?

8.

Do you maintain sp e c ia l records o f employee absences?r

9.

I f y e s , d escribe________________________________________________________________________

Yes /

/

No /

J

10.

For employees who have l e f t durin g the p ast y e a r , do you record the date
on which they l e f t ,
Yes /
/
No /~ ~ 7 » and the reason (q u it , lack o f work,
e t c 0)? Yes /
/
No / ~ f

11.

Are employees on leave o f absence because o f i l l n ess or other reasons marked
on your records as separated? Yes /
/
No f~ 7 I f no, describe how they
are marked




-

u

C.

Placement Procedures

Do your procedures fo r p lacin g production workers include the follow in g*
12.

I n i t i a l p h ysical examination

Yes / ~ 7

No /

/

13.

Periodic p h ysical examination

Yes /

No /

/

/

I f y e s , give time in te r v a l between p h y sica l checkups___________________________
1U.
1$.

Aptitude te s tin g

Yes /

7

No /

/

A n alysis o f p h ysical job requirements;
a.

W ritten d escrip tio n o f p h ysical requirements ( such as working p o s itio n ,
p h y sic a l e x e r tio n , v is io n , e t c .)
Yes /
/
No /
/

b.

Inform al evaluation

Yes /

7

No /

/

16.

Other, s p e c ify

17.

Have any measures been taken to review and redesign jobs held by old er
workers? Yes /
j No / /
I f y e s , give examples, and i f p o ssib le
in d icate reasons fo r in i t ia t in g these measures

18.

Have there been instances o f r etra in in g or reassignment o f older workers?
Yes /
/
No /
/
I f y e s , give examples, including reasons fo r these s t e p s .

D«

Earnings Adjustments

19.

Do you compute, fo r in d ivid u al worker s , t h eir average hourly piecework
earnings over certa in periods? Yes /
/
No /
7
I f y e s , in d icate p e rio d s.

20.

How i s the vacation pay fo r incentive workers determined?____________

21.

Overtime rates become e ffe c t iv e a ft e r ____ hours per day,

22.

What i s the premium rate fo r overtime work____, Sunday or holiday work

23.

I f these rates o f extra pay do not apply to piecework, sp ecify the premium
rates on piecework fo r overtime
and holid ays__________________________________

2U.

Dates o f vacation periods o f p la n t_________________




-

A5 -

_____

hours per week.

Job Performance and Age
General In stru ctio n s fo r
Completing Questionnaire
The questionnaire and worksheet on Job Performance and Age are to be used
to c o l l e c t data pertain in g to p ro d u c tiv ity , absenteeism, and separations o f
in d iv id u a l production workers in the p lants stu d ied . These data are to be
c o lle c te d together with employees* ages and other p ertinent personal in fo r ­
mation. The questionnaire r e la te s to general inform ation, plant record s,
placement procedures, and earnings adjustments (se c tio n s A through D ). The
worksheet i s used fo r recording persbnnel information and data on output,
attendance, and separations o f an employee.
The recommended procedure i s to f i l l out the questionnaire through
sectio n D during the i n i t i a l interview with the plant o f f i c i a l , then to
record the in d ivid u al employee data on the worksheets.
Question n aire
In stru c tio n s are included only fo r those items not considered s e l f explanatory.
I f a d d itio n a l space i s needed fo r answers, use back o f sh e e ts .
1.

P rin cip al Products — In d icate p rin c ip a l products manufactured in tern s
o f broad product c la s s e s , such as Men's Goodyear Welt Shoes, wooden
c h a ir s . Designate p rice range at r e t a i l p ric e s fo r an in d ica tio n o f
general q u a lity range o f the p la n t 's production.

2.

Employment — a . Enter approximate number o f production and r e la te d
workers in t h is p la n t. These include workers (up through the working fo r e ­
man l e v e l ) engaged in fa b r ic a tin g , p rocessin g, assem bling, in sp ectio n ,
re c e iv in g , storage, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping (but not
d e liv e r y ), maintenance, r e p a ir, ja n it o r a l, watchman s e r v ic e s , product
development, a u x ilia ry production fo r p la n t 's own u se, recordkeeping and
other serv ic es c lo s e ly associated with these production op eration s.
b . Number o f workers on in d ivid u al (not group) incentive pay.

3.

Production Period — Obtain dates fo r 8 weeks (not n e c e ssa r ily consecutive)
when p lant was operating at f u l l production.

U ,5 .

Output Per Man Records —
P ayroll records which y ie ld s tr a ig h t piecework
earnings o f production workers separate from timework earnings w i l l furnish
output per man fig u r e s .
I f such p a y ro ll records are not a v a ila b le , production records from
which in d iv id u a l str a ig h t-tim e piecework earnings can be derived are
s a t is f a c t o r y . S traigh t-tim e piecework earnings can be computed from
records which show the q u a n titie s produced at given piece rates in given
numbers o f hours worked by in d ivid u al workers.
In other c a se s, output data may be a v a ila b le in terms o f time
standards•




-

-4 6

-

In some c a ses, output data may be recorded a lso fo r timeworkers.
Inquire whether these data are a v a ila b le *
6.

8 ,9 .

Incen tive Pay Rates - - The purpose o f th is question i s to ascertain
whether in cen tive ra tes r e f l e c t d ifferen c es in the time required to
perform the same operation on d iffe r e n t models. I f they do, workers
performing the same operation can be compared regardless o f d iffe re n c e s
in t h e ir product mix,
Absenteeism Records — In d ica te whether any sp e cia l records maintained
by the establishm ent w i l l furnish information on time scheduled and time
worked. Scheduled days and days worked may have to be obtained from time­
cards d ir e c t ly . Determine whether time cards are a v a ila b le fo r f u l l pro­
duction periods o f a t le a s t 8 weeks, p referably during the f i r s t h a lf o f
1956.

10.

Describe nature and lo c a tio n o f such records.

11.

I f i l l or absent employees are not marked as "s e p a r a te d ," determine what
entry i s used, fo r instance "temporary term ination" or no e n tr y .

16.

Other Placement Procedures — Indicate any steps not mentioned above which
are employed in p lacin g production workers.

20.

Vacation Pay — Record how the hourly rate during paid vacations i s
determined f o r p ie c e -r a te and other ind ivid ual incentive workers.

2 1 ,2 2 .

2U.

Premium Rates — I f the premium rates vary by job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l i s t
them on back 'o f the sh e e t•
Vacation Periods — I f vacation periods vary by department, l i s t the
department and relevant p eriod s.




- -47 -




CLO CK
NUM BER

P LA N T

1
1
1
1
1
1n
DEPT
PLANT
MM D A T E
CODE D E P A R T M E N T CODE NAME OF E M P LO Y E E f s R B o r n k AGE A S P S

T a te
r
= t
L------------------ 1
FI HAL

PPS

o c c u p a t io n

PREU H

M A CH IN ER Y U SED

O C C U P A T IO N C O O ES
P E R IO D
END \N6
T

O P E R A T IO N D E S C R I P T I O N

P IE C E W O R K E A R N 1NOS _______ HO OPS_________
S T R A IG H T
T 1 MEVIORK
O V E R T ! ME
TO TAL
T\M C

*
3"
*
8
4

n
II
i
1.
c
AVfcNRff’E ' U r i iK= 1 P r l Sgp .
H O U R LY
E A R N IN 6 S L - * !M=3. T s 3 . JANTO
CP
DATE

years’
Se r v i c e

1
1
YEAR^ 9C61M
HE1
E% PER

rem arks:

|
v iV if
RATE

7
ft
TO TAL
;^ / / / //
_ A D JU ST M EN T
.A D J U S T E D TOTAL

'/ / / // '
's s t f 's t t '''s

///
/'V / / / / / / / /f/
V f * f f.ss f

S' * '
*Sss / S,ss
r * SSS^

LEARN
T IM E




ABSEN TEEISM
" f C o c 'K

___NO-

1>'AYS

SC HE. P .

PAY
W EEK

V/EEK OF YEAR

0
1 z 3 4 S < 7 « 4 10 l i !Z

M O N D AY
T u esd a y
W ED N ESD A Y
TH U RSPA X
F R ID A Y

I»1 IS lb 17 IS 14 20 2.1 22 23 24 2S 26

d a

Y

r y y

rr
1
n z t 24 3o 31 i t 33 34- 35 3b 37 3S 34 40 41 4 * 43 44 45 46 47 4* 44 SO 51 52

s

lAMS-iill

MONDAY
TU ESD AY
; We d n e s d a y
THURSDAY
FR ID A Y
P ates
h ired

DATES
SEPARATED

X;
"s
t's

/ /-/

\

"

/> /

/✓ V
/,

/

'/
/ '/
s

"✓
^
'//,
' */
''

s
S '/
' '/
' s s

tt«cM "REMARKS- >

IDATE.
F\«VT
H'PfED

Se r a r a i e d

%

Job Performance and Age
In stru ctio n s fo r the Worksheet
Clock Somber — Record d o c k number l i s t e d on the p a y ro ll or the w orker's
tim ecard. I f th is number d i f f e r s from the number on the personnel record s,
note t h is in "Remarks" space.
P lant Code — Record p lan t code from q u estion n aire.
Dent. Code — Record department number as l i s t e d by the p la n t. I f p lan t
does not number departments, use a rb itra ry code and record code on p lan t
qu estio n n a ire.
Name n f Employee — Record f i r s t and l a s t name.
M = 1 . F = 2 — In d icate sex by t h is code.
Date Born
Age —

Record l a s t two d ig it s o f year o f b ir t h .

Do not f i l l in a t p lan t u n less convenient.

AS)
) — Do not f i l l
PS)

in a t p la n t.

PPS — P relim . Prod. Sample • Check i f workers belong to a prelim inary
—
p ro d u c tiv ity sample group. Such a group c o n sists o f a t l e a s t two in cen tive
workers o f the same sex performing the same o p era tio n s. For groups which
f a i l to f u l f i l l t h is con d ition , do not take down p ro d u c tiv ity inform ation.
Occupation T i t l e — L i s t occupation t i t l e (and grade, i f used) o f the worker
( e . g . , "c h a ir assem bler") .
Prelim inary Occupation Code — Where a v a ila b le , record occupation number as
used by establish m en t. Otherwise, leave blank.
Final Occupation Code — Do not f i l l

in a t p la n t.

Operation D escrip tion — Describe the s p e c ific operation or operations
performed, including where relevan t the names o f the products turned o u t.
T his should be in s u ffic ie n t d e ta il to determine whether the employee's
a c t i v i t y i s comparable with th at o f o th e r s. I f standard operation numbers
are a v a ila b le , l i s t them in t h is space. This inform ation may be obtained
from production records (p a r tic u la r ly operation numbers) and from the foreman.
In doubtful ca ses, confirm from the appropriate p lan t o f f i c i a l th at a l l
workers in an occupation a c tu a lly perform the same types o f op era tio n s.




50 -

Machinery Used — L is t the type o f machines or to o ls u sed . W rite in "autom atic
fe e d " i f the machine employs an autom atic feed and discharge mechanism fo r the
work p ie c e s , so th a t the in d ivid u al work p ie c e s do not have to be in se rted and
removed by hand.
AHE — Average Hourly Earnings o f in cen tiv e workers o n ly . I f average hourly
p ie c e -r a te earnings fo r the p ro d u c tiv ity period have already been computed
by the company, record in t h is c e l l .
O therw ise, le a v e blan k .
P = 1 . L = 2 — Do not f i l l in a t p la n t.
H o r M — Hand or Machine — In d ica te by " 1 " or " 2 " whether worker i s prima­
r i l y a hand or a powered machine o p era to r.
( " 1 " = Hand, " 2 " = machine;
P = 1 . T = 2 — P iece or Time Work — In d ica te by " 1 " i f worker i s paid by
p ie c e ra te and " 2 " i f worker i s paid on a tim e b a sis (h ou rly r a t e ) . I f a
worker i s on both p ie c e and time work during the rep o rtin g p erio d , in d ica te
by " 1 " ( i . e . , l i s t as p ie c e -r a te w orker).
Sep. Sample — Do not f i l l

in a t p la n t.

Esrtgfle.
pgfflprfc.JwnlBga*.. JOBTg — J*> not f i l l in i f the p la n t
c a lc u la te s average hourly piecework earnings fo r a f u l l production period o f
A weeks or more.
For the rep o rtin g p eriod
p r ia te company o f f i c i a l ,
during the f i r s t h a lf o f
a v a ila b le , u se a minimum

on p r o d u c tiv ity , s e le c t , w ith the aid o f the appro­
a f u l l production period to t a lin g 8 weeks, p re fe ra b ly
1956 (n ot n e c e ssa r ily c o n se c u tiv e ). I f t h is i s not
o f U weeks fo r the p eriod stu d ie d .

Period Ending — Record in spaces 1 to 8 number o f the month and day and
on ly the l a s t d ig it o f the year fo r the ending d ates o f th e relev a n t p e rio d .
I f p ro d u c tiv ity inform ation i s a v a ila b le on the b a sis o f a 2-week pay p e rio d ,
record p ro d u c tiv ity inform ation in every other row, i f i t i s m onthly, record
on every fou rth row.
Straigh t-T im e Piecework Earnings - - Record s tr a ig h t-tim e piecework earn in gs.
Include d o lla r s and cen ts w ith .0 0 i f no c e n ts.
O vertjpg — Record overtim e piecework earn in gs. Do not a d ju st to s tr a ig h ttim e l e v e l s . Where records have overtim e earnings already adjusted to
s tr a ig h t-tim e r a te s , in d ica te in "Remarks" sp ace. Record both d o lla r s and
c e n ts .
T o ta l Hours - - Record the t o t a l number o f hours worked during the tim e p eriod
stud ied to n earest quarter hour. Mark quarter hours as d ecim als, i . e . , .2 5
or .5 0 . I f to ta l piecework hours are a v a ila b le , record in th is space and
in d ic a te t h is fa c t in the "Remarks" space.




51 -

— Record the to ta l number o f hours fo r which the worker was paid
on a tim e b a sis (h ou rly r a te ) during the period stu d ied . I f to ta l piecework
hours are recorded in the to ta l hours column, le a v e t h is column blank.
C. P . Date — Current P a y ro ll — Record the month and day o f the pay period
n earest to the tim e o f the p la n t v i s i t , i f the employee was on the p a y r o ll.
I f the employee was not on the p a y r o ll, le a v e blan k . T his inform ation i s not
needed i f complete data on separations are conveniently a v a ila b le .
Y ears* S ervice — Do not f i l l in a t the p la n t.
Taapff* Exp erien ce — Determine whether inform ation i s a v a ila b le on experience
on sim ila r jo b s in the same company, or in previous employment and record .
Beginner —
Do not f i l l in i f years o f experience are obtain ed . I f years o f
experience are n ot a v a ila b le , obtain id e n tity o f beginners from the forem an.
frearnjnp Tjjqe — Obtain from production manager or foreman inform ation on
average le a rn in g period required fo r an inexperienced employee to a tta in
average e ffic ie n c y in h is occu pation . For each group o f employees working a t
the same occu pation , t h is inform ation needs to be entered on one card o n ly .
In d ica te whether tim e i s sta ted in months or y e a rs, e . g . , "6 m o ." or nU y e a r s ."
Tlmeunpk
— Record here the wage ra te paid to employees on timework. This
in clu d es workers p a r tly on in cen tiv e work and p a r tly on timework. For incen­
t iv e workers fo r whom a wage ra te i s not a v a ila b le , determ ine whether the
p la n t m aintains a record o f th e ir ra te o f pay per minute (o r hour) o f standard
tim e and en ter in t h is sp ace.
Absenteeism Cal pndnp — I f a convenient absenteeism record i s m aintained in
the p la n t fo r each employee, record absenteeism fo r the year 1956 up to the
time o f p la n t v i s i t , i f a v a ila b le . I f absenteeism has to be recon structed
from tim ecards, record absenteeism fo r a period o f 8 to 12 weeks, covering
the 8-week f u l l production period used fo r the measurement o f p ro d u c tiv ity .
In d ica te by "A " on a m aster card the f i r s t and l a s t d ates o f the absen­
teeism survey p e rio d . A lso in d ica te on t h is card, by marking M B in the
appropriate c e l l , the h olid ays and weekdays which the e n tir e p la n t was shut
down.
On th e calen d ar, fo r each employee mark by " 0 " each workday m issed by
the em ployee. Do not mark an employee as m issing ( " 0 " ) on days on which you
know th a t the e n tir e p la n t was shut down.
Clock Mo. — Repeat clock number from other sid e o f card .
Days Scheduled. Days A bsent. A ttend. Rate — Do not f i l l in a t p la n t.




-

52

Dates Hired — Record o r ig in a l date hired and subsequent d ates rehired from
beginning o f absentee period to time o f p la n t v i s i t .
Include day, month, and
year i f a v a ila b le .
Dates Separated — Record a l l separation d ates (by day, month, and year)
from beginning o f absenteeism period to tim e o f p la n t v i s i t .
Reason — R efers to reason the worker l e f t .
Try to ob tain reason fo r each
in cid en t and in d ica te by the fo llo w in g coding:
L ayoff
Quit
Discharge

-1
-2
-3

R etired
Other

- U
- 5

Date F ir s t Hired and Separated Code — Do not f i l l in a t the p la n t.




-

53 -

APPENDIX I I .

1.

D erivation o f Formulas

F ir s t Stage o f A ggretation
The b a sic index fo r each in d ica to r takes the form :

is i
f bi

Where Xc^ i s the average performance ra te o f workers o f a s p e c ific 1 0 -y e s r
age group (c ) w ithin the b a sic comparison group ( i ) , and X ^i i s the average
performance ra te o f workers in the base age group (3 5 -4 4 ) w ithin the same
b a sic comparison group.
The performance ra te may be average hourly earn in gs, attendance r a te ,
or c o n tin u ity -o f-s e r v ic e r a te , and, as in d icated elsew here, the b a sic com­
p arison group i s d iffe r e n t fo r each o f the three m easures.
In aggregating th ese o r ig in a l indexes so th a t they w ill represent la r g e r
groupings, i t i s d e sira b le th a t the aggregate indexes should have the minimum
p o s s ib le v a ria n ce.

T herefore, each component index i s w eighted according to

i t s r e lia b ilit y , i . e . ,
error




according to the recip ro ca l o f i t s squared standard

I f the numerator and denominator samples are u n correlated , then the
r e l-v a r ia n c e o f each age group index fo r a d ir e c t comparison group i s
_

V 2

V2 ( I o i >

= 5s-

w. 2
+

Is»bi

ci
where

Vc^ and

and Nci and

2 /

are the population r e l-v a r ia n c e s o f the in d ivid u al scores
are number o f in d iv id u a ls in the age group and base group,

r e s p e c tiv e ly .

Another form o f V * (IC^) i s

V2 ( l c i )=
» b iNc i
S e ttin g

W = N lNo l
±
b
V

»ci + N i
,
b

vc2

^ d e i)

then

=

!

but

v2 ^

)

=

<r2 ( I °| )

wc i

I .2

where I c i s the population index fo r age group c and
<“ * ( l ci )
5

i s the variance o f the sample in d ex.

8 / In the cases o f attendance and o f co n tin u ity o f s e r v ic e , the r e l variance o f the p la n t indexes i s dependent not on ly on the number o f in d i­
vid u a ls in the sample but a lso on the len gth o f the observation p e rio d . T his
i s because the u n it o f observation fo r attendance i s a man-day and fo r
co n tin u ity o f s e r v ic e , a man-month. The on ly m od ifica tio n in the d eriv a tio n
which i s en ta ile d by th is i s th a t
V2( I ci )

-

V
N ,S,

+

V ^
_J2__
N is k
b

where Sfc = the number o f days scheduled

in the attendance period in the K^b establish m en t, or the number o f months
in the observation period fo r co n tin u ity o f s e r v ic e .




55

U sing the re cip ro c a l o f the variance o f each d ir e c t comparison group
sample index as the w eight, then the aggregate index i s

E

I c l

* c *

<r 2 d « i )

l

Since

h

? * *

1

Vc2 and I c^

c

I 2

c

are constant w ith resp ect to the summation,

V

c l

Vb2

E Hi

7 2

+

I f the assumption i s made th a t the r e l-v a r ia n c e o f the age groups are
the same, i . e .

th en ,

Vb2

Wi

=

Vc2

2/

------N l + Nc i
b

2 / There i s l i t t l e
th a t Vc 2 = Vb2 #

=

12/

evidence in the fin d in g s to ch allen ge th e assumption

The d iffe r e n c e s between the age group c o e ffic ie n t o f v a r ia tio n

were not c o n siste n t n o r, fo r the most p a r t, s iz a b le .
I t should a lso be noted th a t any d iffe r e n c e s between Vb2 and Vc2
would have l i t t l e

e ffe c t on the r e la tiv e w eights used fo r averaging the

indexes fo r the d ir e c t comparison groups,
1 2 / For attendance and employment c o n tin u ity




» b i» c A
+ Nc i

-

5

6

-

becomes

2.

Variance o f an Age Group Index fo r an Occupational Group
The occupational group index Ic Tor age group C i s

T 6

^
l
I W
i

and the variance o f Xc

■

KA-)

is

« - 2( i .)

•

li/

V 2j 2
As shown above,

J S L l ft-

=

o -^ ( I ci )

,

%

th e r e fo r e ,

<r*^(Ic)

i

=

V

(I« i)2

L

» A

2 V 2
"1

2
2

2

c

1 1 / In th is d e riv a tio n , use i s made o f the p r in c ip le s th a t (a) the
variance o f a sum o f uncorrelated v a ria b le s i s the sum o f the varian ces o f
the v a r ia b le s , and (b) the variance o f a v a ria b le tim es a constant i s the
square o f the constant tim es the variance o f the v a r ia b le .




57 -

3.

Combining ftfle s e a .fg r .F jn al .Aggregates
The indexes fo r the i n i t i a l aggregations (occupational groups, higher

and low er paid jo b s and len g th o f serv ic e c la s s e s ) were in turn combined to
d erive indexes fo r fin a l aggregations (men and women).

These indexes were

combined w ith w eights equal to the to ta l number o f workers o f a l l ages in a
p a r tic u la r group, i . e . ,

l

c

"A

I

I

Hi

where I i s equal to a major grouping index (hand, machine, e t c .) fo r age
group c , M i s equal to the number o f workers o f a l l ages in the i n i t i a l
aggregate group.
The variance o f t h is in d ex, fo llo w in g the same procedure ou tlin ed in
"2 " is




i M j 2 0- 2 ( l e )
d M i)2

( jr

-

58 -

A*

C o e ffic ie n t o f V ariatio n fo r Output per Man-Hour Occupational Group
The age group c o e ffic ie n t o f v a ria tio n fo r an occupation group was

derived by combining the re l-v a r ia n c e s o f s p e c ific occupation samples and
tak in g the square root o f th is average r e l-v a r ia n c e .

This sectio n exp lain s

how the w eights were applied to obtain the average r e l-v a r ia n c e .
For an age group in a s p e c ific occupation l e t
%

= the number o f in d iv id u a ls in occupation i

(must be >

2)

X i = mean o f the sample

X£ = mean o f the population in the s p e c ific occupation

(t h is value

i s estim ated by the sample mean X^)

£

— JL
% -l

( X i j -X i ) 2

which i s an estim ate o f the population

variance o - j 2

V i2 s S j2 / X i2 , the r e l-v a r ia n c e o f the sample, an estim ate o f the
population r e l-v a r ia n c e V2

V2 = ° i 2 /

*1 * *

Assuming a normal d is tr ib u tio n in the s p e c ific occu pation, the re l-v a ria n o e
o f S ,2 i s
1

V2 ( ? i 2 ) ~

2
N i-1

and the r e l-v a r ia n c e o f

AV2 ,

-S I 1 2 / X<2 *
*i
/

S2 •
*i

according to a general r u le fo r the r e l-v a r ia n c e o f a

Ni
square•




Xi i s

-

59 -

w

I f SA2 and X i

O

A

are u n co rrela ted , the r e l-v a r ia n c e o f

^ ( S la) + v 2 ( P

=

) ^

i s approxim ately

-

2 & + z £ l

272

1
%

H ^ l

,

(1

*

2 V2T

sin ce the second term o f the bracketed

H i-1

exp ression w ill be le s s than 0 .0 8 provided V < 0 .3 and

n £ 2

and l e s s

than 0 .1 2 provided V < 0 . A and n ^ 2 .

SVMl + 2V2

So the variance o f V i2 i s approxim ately

^

where Wi = N ^ -l.

wi
The estim ate o f the re l-v a r ia n c e fo r an occupational group i s th erefo re

I

W jV i2

and i t s estim ated variance i s

Z*±




27^(1 + 2V2 )
Z w
i

-

60

* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 0 — 449348