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COLLEGE WOMEN SEVEN YEARS AFTER GRADUATION Resurvey of Women Graduates—Class of 1957 Bulletin U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR WOMEN'S BUREAU 292 1966 W.Willard Wirtz, Secretary Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 40 cents Foreword The high rate of employment among mature women, particularly educated women, is one of the most remarkable and significant facts of modern life. Their interest in a paid job appears to be not a temporary phenomenon. Forecasts indicate that the economic, social, and personal reasons for this development will continue to attract increasingly larger numbers of women into the work force in the coming decade. With the extended work life of mature women have come new concerns relating to their job preparation and retraining, continuing education, dual responsibilities of home and job, and psychological adjustments. In order to gain deeper understanding of the needs and interests of college-educated women, the Women's Bureau questioned 7-year graduates concerning their activities and plans, particularly relating to employment and education. When viewed in terms of the full lifespan of educated women, the survey has meaning for numerous groups in society. The findings have important implications for virtually all college women as well as for those concerned with their guidance and counseling. College students need information that contributes to a long-range view of women's life patterns so they can determine how best to prepare for their own probable future. Mature college women can make more assured decisions about their own lives when they know how other women are satisfying their rising aspirations and combining the roles of homemaker, citizen, and worker. The plans expressed by the survey graduates can indicate to educators the growing demand that may be made on their facilities by adult women. The graduates' plans also may serve to alert employers and manpower officials to the probable job participation of college women, as well as to stimulate them to seek the maximum utilization of educated womanpower. Above all, the paramount value of the study lies in its challenge to all society to encourage and assist women toward achievement of their full potentiality. MARY DUBLIN KEYSEKLING Director, Women's Bureau Acknowledgments Acknowledgment is made to the participating women graduates of the June 1957 class and their colleges, universities, and alumnae associations for excellent cooperation in making this followup survey possible. Continuing appreciation is also due the Women's Section of the National Vocational Guidance Association, who helped to conduct the 1957-58 survey on which the 1964 survey is structured. This study was carried out and reported by Jean A. Wells, Special Assistant to the Director, with the assistance of Muriel B. Wool. Contents Page Table Introduction Survey Highlights Characteristics of Graduates Continuing Education of Graduates __ Employment Status in 1964 Family Status and Employment Occupational Patterns 1 3 4 5 7 9 12 F-7 Graduates' Salaries in 1964 Work Histories of Graduates Future Employment Plans 14 15 16 F-10 Future Educational Plans Volunteer Activities Conclusions Appendix A. Questionnaire Form B. Counseling and Placement Services C. Continuing Education Programs D. Graduate Fellowship, Grant, and Loan Programs E. Suggested Readings r F. Tables 18 19 19 21 23 27 31 32 35 36 F-8 F-9 F-ll F-12 F-13 F-14 F-l 5 Table F-l F-2 F-3 F-4 F-5 F-6 Coverage of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup Survey Response of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup Survey Age of June 1957 Graduates in 1964 Marital and Family Status of Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58 Residence of June 1957 Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58 Comparison of Graduates' Residences in 1964 and 1957 -58 F-l 6 36 F-17 36 F-18 37 F-19 37 F-20 37 F-21 38 Page Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by Highest Degree in 1964 Postgraduate Education of June 1957 Graduates, 1957 Through 1964 Field of Study of Graduates With Postgraduate Education Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by E m p l o y m e n t Status in 1964 Employment and School Status of Graduates, 1964 and 195758 Main Reason of Graduates for Working, by Marital Status, 1964 Employment Status of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status, 1964 Husband's Attitude T o w a r d Wife's Employment, by Employment and Family Status of Wife, 1964 Employment Status of Wife, by Employment Status of Husband „ Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers, 1964 Weekly Hours Worked by Employed Married Graduates, 1964 Married Graduates Performing Paid Work at Home, 1964 __ Occupational Distribution of Employed Graduates Occupation of Graduates Employed in 1964, by Undergraduate Major Graduates' Salaries, by Occupation, 1964 and 1957-58 . „ 38 39 39 40 40 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 46 48 v Contents—Continued Table F-22 F-23 F-24 F-25 F-26 vi Page Distribution of Average Annual Salaries of Graduates, by Occupation, 1964 Average Annual Salary of Graduates, by Occupation and Region of Employment, 1964 S a l a r y of Graduates, by Undergraduate Major, 1964 and 1957-58 Years of Paid Employment of Graduates, 1957-64 Main Reason of Graduates for Leaving Work Force, by Marital Status, 1964 Table F-27 49 50 51 51 52 Employment Plan of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status, 1964 F-28 Future Plan of Graduates, by Employment Status, 1964 F-29 Comparison of Employment Plans Held in 1964 and 195758 F-30 Training or Education Plan and Interest of Graduates, by Employment Status, 1964 F-31 Major Reason for Interest in Additional Education, by Employment Status, 1964 __ Page 52 53 53 54 54 College Women Seven Years After Graduation Resurvey of Women Graduates, Introduction A longitudinal survey of women at important stages of their lifespan is one tool for gaining greater insight into their needs and interests under changing personal and economic circumstances. Conducted in the sixties, such a survey reflects growing interest in women's response to the new and challenging opportunities facing them and in the extent and variety of their participation in today's world. The urgency for obtaining factual knowledge is heightened by the marked rise over the past quarter century in the number and percentage of married women 1 who combine home responsibilities and paid employment. In 1940 the number of married women workers was just over 4 million. By 1965 it had reached 14.7 million and was approaching the 18 million level estimated for 1970. Over this 25-year period the percentage of wives who work jumped from 15 to 35 percent. A further increase is anticipated in the future. Questions arise about women's growing desire to utilize their abilities and education in the workplace as well as in 1 In this report the terms "married women" and "working wives" refer to women with husband present- Class of 1957 the home. When and why are more and more married women deciding they want a paid job? What obstacles or problems interfere with their efforts or desires to work? Are they able to obtain the jobs they want and are qualified for? How firm is the attachment of college-educated women to the labor force, and how significant is their availability as a skilled labor reserve? Are adult women seriously interested in obtaining more education or training? How important are volunteer activities in the lives of married women? Answers to some of these questions are available from a group of women college graduates surveyed in 1964. They are largely the same group of June 1957 graduates who participated in a survey made in the winter of 195758.- That survey was conducted jointly by the Women's Bureau and the National Vocational Guidance Association. It involved participation of a scientifically selected sample of 153 women's colleges and coeducational universities and of almost 6,000 women graduates. Primary focus of the earlier survey was on the relationship between undergraduate education and subsequent em- First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1957. Women's Bureau Bull. 268. 1 ployment of recent women graduates. Attention was given particularly to the influence of the graduates' marital status, the extent of their advanced education and additional job training, and their attitudes toward future employment. The widespread interest stimulated by the survey findings indicated a need for additional' information covering later periods of a woman's life. The audience for such information is considerable. Both the population and the work force of college women are expanding in the United States. By 1965 more than 4 million women aged 18 years and over in the population had obtained a college degree. About 2.5 million, or 58 percent of the total, had a paid job. When women 18 to 64 years of age were counted in the 1940 census, there were only slightly more than three-quarters of a million college women workers—about 52 percent of the 1.5 million college woman population. Traditionally, college women have engaged in paid employment to a greater extent than women with lesser amounts of formal education. The increase in the labor force participation of college women during the 25-year period has not been as sharp as that of all women 18 years of age and over. For the latter group the participation rate rose from 30 percent in 1940 to 40 percent in 1965. In the 1964 resurvey, questionnaires were mailed to 5,846 graduates after their names and addresses had been updated from the records of alumnae associations or college and university 2 offices. (See the questionnaire form in appendix A, page 23.) The sample group represented almost 88,000 women who were graduated in June 1957 from colleges and universities granting bachelor's degrees and classified as coeducational or women's colleges. (See table F-l.) The second survey centered on the interrelated influences on college women of their undergraduate education, postgraduate specializations, family and community activities, and work careers. The women college graduates resurveyed in 1964 were at an age when most were married and mothers of young children. Many had left the work force because of household and child care responsibilities. The high rate of survey response in 1964 is a testimonial to the graduates' interest in the survey purpose and findings. Fully 84 percent of the graduates to whom questionnaires were mailed participated in the survey (table F-2). On the basis of telephone calls made to a few nonrespondents, there is reason to believe that many who failed to return the questionnaire never received it. Graduates expressed appreciation to the Women's Bureau for making the survey and inviting their participation, as the following comments indicate: "It is gratifying to know that an attempt is being made to solve the problems of women in our society." "This inquiry stimulated me to think about my future responsibilities to myself and others—something often obscured in day-to-day living." "I appreciate the opportunity to be part of this study, since I read your former report and am always in- terested in this type of information." Even more important than the complimentary references to the survey are the comments which confirm that its substance touched on vital aspects of the graduates' lives. Illustrative remarks wTere: "Dissatisfaction with previous work experience I blame largely on lack of proper guidance and counseling. My plans for future employment and education hinge just now on obtaining counseling assistance. I would be interested in the results of this survey and in knowing whether my problem is unusual." "It is a source of great frustration to be unable to use one's education or training during this period." "It is important for a woman to belong to the mainstream of life just as her husband and children do, so that she does not try to see the world and live only through their experiences." "The most difficult problem for me has been working out a pattern of family living that permitted definitions of mother-child and wife-husband roles acceptable to everyone and compatible with professional commitments." "Despite obviously negative financial reward, I suddenly felt desire to use dormant, stagnating mental abilities, and to have an identification other than as someone's wife or mother. Rebuilding my professional self has been rewarding to my family and myself. I have more self-respect and the 'other me' is fascinating to my children." "I think we make a great mistake in American culture by promoting the idea that the man's job should be superior to that of his wife. We promote guilt in women regarding success and allow waste in regard to what women can contribute to our country. We associate job and contribution with the roles of masculinity and femininity in an unrealistic way. Why deny that a woman can be very feminine while using all her potential as a woman, whether working and/or keeping house?" Survey Highlights Rising interest of college women in paid employment and continuing education was confirmed by this second followup survey of June 1957 women college graduates. When questioned 7 years after graduation, more than onefourth of the survey women said they wanted a career and almost one-half had some other type of future work plan. Less than one-fifth indicated no interest in paid employment. In response to inquiries about their educational plans, almost three-fourths of the graduates recorded affirmative interest in further training or education—principally university courses. Slightly over half of those desiring more education were motivated by jobconnected reasons ; the remainder, by cultural or personal interests. A majority of the June 1957 women graduates (51 percent) were part of the work force 7 years after graduation. Thirty-nine percent had full-time jobs, 10 percent had part-time jobs, and 2 percent were seeking work. The size of the work group had declined considerably since the earlier survey in the winter of 1957-58, when it constituted 85 percent of the recent graduates. Most of the survey women employed in 1964 had worked continuously since 3 graduation, but a few had stopped work for a while—primarily to attend school or have children. At the time of the survey, over three-fifths of the graduates were married women with young children, and slightly over onefourth of them were employed. The college women surveyed had averaged 5.5 years of employment since graduation. A measure of their attachment to the labor force is revealed in the fact that as many as 43 percent of the total group had worked at least 6 years during the 7-year period. It is significant also that 32 percent had had only one employer since graduation. The graduates' jobs, in terms of broad occupational groups, were generally similar in the two survey periods. Teachers (60 percent) continued to be predominant in the 1964 occupational distribution, followed by nurses (6 percent) and secretaries (4 percent). But 89 percent of the employed graduates held professional jobs in 1964, as compared with just 83 percent in 1957-58. The proportion performing clerical work dropped to 8 percent in 1964 from 14 percent in 1957-58. Salaries of the June 1957 women graduates were on the average almost 60 percent higher in 1964 than in 195758. Average annual s a l a r y o f the graduates was $5,947 in 1964. An average of $3,739 had been reported by the members of the class employed in 195758. Almost half the June 1957 women graduates had taken at least one graduate course since leaving college, but 3 4 In this report "average" refers to arithmetic mean. only 15 percent had earned a master's degree by 1964 and less than 1 percent had their doctorate. The largest group of graduates with an advanced degree had specialized in education. However, the undergraduate fields in which the highest proportions of graduates obtained an advanced degree were sociology or social work, foreign languages, history, chemistry and other physical sciences, music, psychology, and social sciences. Characteristics of Graduates At the time of the second survey, the June 1957 women graduates were at an age when their childrearing and other family responsibilities were near the maximum. As many as 70 percent were 28 or 29 years of age, and 91 percent were between 27 and 34 years (table F-3). By 1964, 81 percent of the survey graduates were married—in marked contrast to the 38 percent who were married when surveyed 6 months after graduation (table F-4). An additional 4 percent of the graduates were widowed, separated, or divorced. Over three-fourths of the graduates who had ever been married had children; virtually all in this group had children of preschool age. As few as 3 percent of the graduates had only older children (6 years and over). The percentage of graduates who had never married dropped to 16 percent in 1964 from 60 percent in 1957-58. The predominant family groups for whom the graduates and/or their husbands had major financial responsibility in 1964 consisted of two adults and two children (28 percent), two adults and one child (20 percent), two adults and three children or more (16 percent), and two adults and no children (16 percent). The fact that few of today's young marrieds support another adult was reflected in the survey statistic that just 2 percent of the families dependent on the graduate or her husband consisted of three or more adults. In terms of the total survey group, the regions in which the June 1957 women graduates resided were relatively similar in 1964 and the winter of 1957-58 (table F-5). Nevertheless, in 1964 slightly more of the graduates were living in the West; slightly fewer, in the North Central States and the Northeast. An examination of the State addresses of individual graduates in the two survey periods revealed their relatively high mobility. In 1964 as many as 20 percent of the graduates were in a region different from 6 ^ years earlier, and an additional 16 percent were in a different State in the same region (table F~6). About 61 percent of the graduates lived in the same State both periods. Of course, many of these had changed residences within their State. The concentration of today's population in urban areas also was characteristic of the survey group. About 54 percent of the graduates dwelt in a metropolitan area in 1964; another 39 percent, in a small town or city. Only 6 percent resided on a farm or in open country. Continuing Education of Graduates During the 7-year period since grad uation, 15 percent of the women had earned a master's degree, but less than 1 percent had earned a doctor's degree (table F-7). The women with graduate degrees tended to cluster in a few subject areas. Fully 2 out of 3 of the women with a doctorate had specialized in the health fields (largely medicine); most of the others, in chemistry or physical sciences, journalism, or social sciences. Of those with a master's degree, 43 percent did graduate work in education; 9 percent, in English; and 8 percent, in sociology or social work. In terms of undergraduate field of study, the highest proportions of women with an advanced degree were those whose major had been sociology or social work (27 percent); foreign languages (24 percent); history (23 percent) ; chemistry and physical sciences (23 percent); or music (23 percent). Those with relatively few advanced degrees had had undergraduate majors in home economics (8 percent), religion (8 percent), or the health fields (3 percent). (The principal undergraduate major of the doctors of medicine was biological science; few of them had majored in a health field.) In most of the graduate fields reported, the majority of women with advanced degrees were continuing to specialize in the field of their undergraduate major. For example, 95 percent of those with advanced degrees in nursinghad undergraduate majors in nursing. Likewise, there was a close similarity in subject matter for 90 percent of those with advanced degrees in foreign languages; 79 percent, in English and journalism; and 57 percent, in educa5 tion and physical education. The major exceptions were the graduate fields of library science, social sciences, and health. In none of these exceptions did a majority of the graduates with advanced degrees have undergraduate majors in the same field of study. Reflecting the widespread interest of college women in continuing education, fully 46 percent of the survey women had taken at least one graduate or professional course since college graduation (table F-8). Many had taken nonprofessional courses—mostly cultural or recreational in nature. Relatively few had taken business, vocational, or technical courses following graduation. When surveyed in 1964,17 percent of the June 1957 class were enrolled in graduate or professional schools, and an additional 29 percent reported having taken p r e v i o u s postgraduate courses. About three-fourths of the current enrollees were candidates for a degree (usually a master's degree) or a certificate (usually a teaching certificate). Education was the predominant field of study of the women in the June 1957 class during their postgraduate years as well as during their undergraduate years. For almost half the women with postgraduate courses, education was the major graduate subject (table F-9). Other numerically important graduate fields among the survey women were English (6 percent), nursing (5 percent), and sociology or social work (4 percent). Financial aid was received by more than one-fourth of the women who had 6 done some graduate work. Of this group, more than three-fifths were awarded a fellowship, a scholarship, or a grant; one-fourth, an assistantship or traineeship. Fields in which the highest percentages of graduates obtained financial assistance were sociology or social work (67 percent), biological sciences (63 percent), mathematics (61 percent), social sciences (51 percent), foreign languages (49 percent), and nursing (47 percent). However, only low percentages of graduate students received financial aid among those specializing in education (14 percent), business and commerce (22 percent), home economics (25 percent), and library science (25 percent). In general, these figures reflect the relative availability of aid among various fields of graduate study. Graduates who were continuing their education were frequently motivated by their desire to advance professionally, as noted in the following remarks: "I decided to return to school to continue my education and get a Ph. D. in biochemistry. The primary reason was 3 years of very frustrating work experiences . . . . The feeling seemed to be that it was not worthwhile to train women for more than the most menial laboratory jobs, since they do not stay at one job very long. They get married . . . . The only way to move upward is with more education." "I have experienced some prejudice on the part of employers to hire women in a traditionally man's job [pharmacist]. Even under the merit system of Civil Service, there is some prejudice against women, and promotions are not on the same basis as for men. An additional degree might help, so I'm getting it." In their efforts to engage in graduate study, some women encountered such obstacles as age requirements, restrictions on financial aid, and limited course offerings. Illustrative comments follow: "Although I am interested in earning a Ph. D. degree in psychology, I feel that this will be almost impossible. In the area of psychology, most major universities require full-time enrollment in a Ph. D. program. Also there is a trend toward placing a ceiling on the age at which one can enroll in a Ph. D. program. Even if it were possible to be accepted as a part-time student, nearly all financial aid in the form of scholarships and fellowships is available only to full-time stux dents." "Grants and loans often do not permit the student to work full time and go to school part time. I had to pay for all my education because financial responsibilities would not allow me to attend school full time." "I wish that more postgraduate courses were available closer to home and at more convenient locations." However, one graduate who was attending school reported favorable circumstances both in her community and at home. "I am especially fortunate because five universities and colleges are within commuting range. I am further blessed by having a husband and parents who encourage women to greater e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and, in fact, are pushing me to complete a master's." Employment Status in 1964 Slightly over half (51 percent) of the women graduates were in the labor force when surveyed in 1964, 7 years after their college graduation 4 (table F-10). Forty-nine percent were employed : 39 percent, full time and 10 percent, part time (table F - l l ) . The fact that very few (only 2 percent) were looking for a job reflected the brisk demand for trained workers in 1964. The percentage of workers in the survey group had dropped considerably from the 85 percent level recorded in the winter of 1957-58, just about 6 months after graduation. The proportion of women attending school only was also down—from 8 percent in 195758 to 4 percent in 1964. Similarly, those combining school attendance with employment declined from 13 to 9 percent. As might be expected, the group of women neither working nor attending school grew from 7 to 45 percent over the 6V<>-year span. The degree level of the women graduates had a marked influence on the extent of their employment The percentages employed in 1964 ranged from 91 percent of those with a doctorate to 71 percent of those with a master's degree, and 45 percent of those with a baccalaureate. On the other hand, the proportions not in the labor force were 4, 21, and 50 percent, respectively. The remaining proportions of the group were attending school or seeking work. The employment status of the graduates varied by undergraduate major also. That the music majors included 4 This percentage is the same as that reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its Special Labor Force Report No. 53, "Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964." Among women who were 25 to 34 years of age and had 4 years or more of college, 51 percent were in the labor force in March 1964. 7 the highest proportion (65 percent) of employed graduates may be related to the fact that music teachers can adapt their work to family life more easily than many other kinds of workers can. The relatively high amount of employment among women who had majored in health fields (61 percent) may be explained by the rising job demand and fairly high salaries in the health services. On the other hand, fairly low salary rates may have influenced the relatively small extent of labor force participation among women who majored in religion (33 percent), home economics (39 percent), art (45 percent), and English (45 percent). Only minor differences in the graduates' extent of employment appeared to stem from the region or the type of area where they were living in 1964. By region the percentage who were working ranged from 47 percent in the Northeast to 51 percent in the South and also in the West. As for residential areas, jobs were held by 50 percent of the women in large metropolitan cities, where employment opportunities are relatively abundant. But this proportion of employed was only slightly above the 48 percent for graduates living in small cities or towns and the 45 percent for those on farms or in open country. The majority (67 percent) of the graduates working in 1964 were employed by governmental organizations, chiefly local boards of education. About 29 percent were employed by private organizations, and only 4 percent were self-employed. The predominant industry of the graduates' employers was 8 educational service (68 percent), followed by medical service (12 percent), and social or religious service (4 percent). When asked why they were working in 1964, more than two-thirds of the graduates gave a financial reason; onefifth, a work-oriented reason (table F 12). More than three-fourths of the single graduates and nine-tenths of the widowed, separated, and divorced graduates needed to support themselves or others, and almost half of the married graduates wanted to increase family income. Interest in having a career stimulated employment among relatively large proportions of single women and of married women with only older children (6 years of age or over) or with no children. The graduates noted numerous hindrances to satisfactory work experiences, particularly in regard to hiring, pay, and advancement opportunities. A few of their comments were: "I now live in a small town where job opportunities for college women are not readily available. Teaching is almost all there is." "I'm unhappy and disturbed to hear reports that many school systems, especially in larger cities, do not like or refuse to hire female teachers over 40 years of age." "Past experience in an executive training program in the merchandising field shows tremendous barriers still exist against women. Lower pay and lack of advancement are common." "Promotions are not easily obtained by women. My rank [assistant professor of English] bothers some of my colleagues. Not until this year was my pay on a comparable level with men in our department." "In this area of the country, jobs in my field [chemistry] are very limited; and where available, there is much prejudice against women. However, I work for my husband and enjoy doing it." "I cannot resist the opportunity to express continued distress that in so many areas of business women are denied advancement and salary commensurate with their education, experience, and proved ability because of their sex. It is most difficult to see so many men hired at immediately higher salaries in better jobs, to help train them, and yet sincerely to feel—even after many years—that they never prove themselves to be even equal in performance—much less superior." Family Status and Employment Family responsibilities were a paramount concern in the lives of most of the college women 7 years after graduation, since 85 percent of the women were or had been married and 66 percent were mothers of children under 18 years of age (table F-13). Whether or not the graduates were employed was strongly affected by their family status. Mothers of young children (under 6 years old) were the only group of survey graduates in which a majority were not in the labor force in 1964. Only 26 percent of this group had paying jobs and about half of these women worked part time. In addition, 2 percent were seeking work. By contrast, 93 percent of both the single graduates and the widowed, separated, or divorced graduates were employed, and 1 percent in each of these groups were looking for a job. Among married women with only older children (6 years of age or over) and those with no children, the proportions in the labor force were 90 percent and 80 percent, respectively. In addition to their family status, various other factors were important to the married graduates when they decided whether or not to work outside the home. A principal consideration was the attitude of the husbands toward their wives' employment. When the married graduates were questioned about the husbands' attitudes, more than half described the attitudes as favorable, and more than one-fourth, as neutral (table F-14). Less than onefifth thought their husbands were opposed to their participation in the work force. The highest proportion of favorable replies (82 percent) was reported by wives who were already working, and the fewest favorable replies (37 percent), by wives not in the work force. The percentages of husbands in the two groups described as opposed to their wives employment were 4 percent and 28 percent, respectively. In each of these employment status groups, there was relatively little difference in the response of those with or without children. Some of the women not working in 1964 volunteered the view that their husbands would no longer oppose their working outside the home when their children become older. On the other hand, some of those working thought their husband would disapprove if the employment were full time rather than 9 part time. But despite the few qualified answers given to this question, the overall response reflects the changing attitude of society in favor of the employment of married women. A few comments of the wives reveal the high value they place on their husbands' attitudes, as follows: "I would love to work, but my husband feels that my place is in the home caring for my family. Counseling and opportunities are needed for a woman who can't or won't devote full time to a job but needs to be doing something of importance other than just being chief cook and bottle washer. Clubs aren't important enough." "A favorable attitude of the husband is vital to the working wife, in my opinion." "I am extremely active in many extracurricular areas of my field [teaching chemistry]. This is possible only because I'm married to an extraordinary man who is more interested in me as a professional colleague and partner than in the accumulation of dirt in our house." The employment status of the husband and the kind, of occupation he holds are other factors which may exert strong influence on a wife's employment status. Among the large group of survey women whose husbands were employed in 1964, 38 percent of the wives had paid jobs. (Table F-15.) However, in the smaller groups in which the husbands were attending school or were neither working nor attending school, as many as 62 percent and 68 percent, respectively, of the wives were employed. In terms of the husband's occupation, the highest proportions of wives who 10 were working were among those whose husbands were employed as laborers (88 percent), service workers (69 percent), operatives (60 percent), or clerical workers (56 percent). Conversely, relatively small percentages of wives were employed when their husbands were farm workers (32 percent), professional workers (35 percent), or managers, officials, or proprietors (36 percent). The ability of a mother to make satisfactory arrangements for the care of her children is also an important determinant in her decision regarding paid employment. Approximately three-tenths of the mothers in the class of June 1957 were employed in 1964. During their working hours, twothirds5 of the group and child care arrangements for their children in their own home; about one-sixth, outside their home (table F-16). Most of the other working mothers, primarily those with older children (6 to 17 years of age) only, had adjusted their work so that their children were not alone or considered that their children were old enough to care for themselves. Among both the mothers who were working and those not working, there was considerable feeling that insufficient attention was being given to their needs and problems. The following comments shed light on their situations and views. "Our society has made virtually no provision for a woman with young children who wants or needs to For comparison with information for all working mothers, see "Child Care Arrangements of the Nation's Working Mothers, 1965," a preliminary report of the Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. work. Many young talented women I know are frustrated in their attempt to escape the boredom they feel at home by engaging in activities even on a part-time basis. It is simply too expensive to hire a fulltime nursemaid for care of young children. It's a horrible and discouraging struggle for those brave enough to make the attempt to work." "I would consider taking a job now if excellent inexpensive day care centers were available for children." "I have contemplated private duty nursing, but felt the financial gain at this time would be hardly worthwhile since I would have to hire a babysitter. I think the establishment of really good inexpensive day nurseries—maybe government-run —would get many young mothers back to nursing and teaching." "To make it possible to unleash more female brainpower, there should be a healthy, realistic federal income tax deduction for all gainfully employed women who must pay baby sitters in order to work." "I recently was interviewed for a good job for which I was well qualified, but the employer would not hire a woman with little children. As long as employers refuse to take chances, people like myself must either be underemployed or unemployed . . . . It is stupid to ask women to keep out of things until their children are grown." "I find substitute teaching the perfect answer for a wife and mother. It keeps my credential active and enables me to stay current in the teaching profession. Beside the good pay, the hours are convenient for my children. It also gets me away from everyday chores, and I feel like a person in my own right again." Another concern that influenced the graduates' interest in paid employment was their ability to obtain satisfactory employees to assist with housework. Slightly more than one-fifth of the June 1957 women graduates engaged a household worker in 1964. The extent of employing h o u s eh o 1 d workers ranged from 28 percent among the employed married graduates to 14 percent among the single graduates. Only among the employed married graduates was there a significant proportion (7 percent) who had at least 40 hours of paid housework a week. Most of the graduates with household assistance had 8 hours a week or less. A short workweek was considered by some of the graduates as a satisfactory solution to handling dual responsibilities at home and in the workplace. About one-third of the employed married graduates had a part-time job (less than 35 hours a week); the majority of this group worked no more than 16 hours a week (table F-17). Of the employed married women with young children (under 6 years), about half were working on a part-time basis. Remarks such as the following indicate growing interest in the promotion of part-time employment opportunities, particularly for educated women who wish to keep in touch with their profession while their children are young. "Satisfying professional opportunities for young mothers on a parttime basis would help so much in providing that thread of continuity between college, graduate school, early employment, and later years of education and e m p l o y m e n t . Whatever can be done to advance these opportunities and gain ac11 ceptance, by employers particularly, of the part-time employment of professional workers, will be widely welcomed by many of us.** "There seems to be a tremendous lack of information available concerning part-time work for married women with children who cannot spend a full week away from home but who have a college degree and adequate work experience to qualify them for interesting jobs. Do these jobs exist? If so, it seems impossible to find out about them/' For some women, a partial answer to their wish to combine home and work activities is found by performing paid work in their own home. Of the survey women who were married, 5 percent were doing paid work at home (table F-18). More than two-fifths of these women were teaching or tutoring; other significant proportions were engaged in writing, typing, secretarial work, research, bookkeeping, child care, or telephone selling. A few specific jobs included a free-lance artist working on greeting cards, music teacher, reader of high school papers, abstractor of chemistry reports, sales counselor, thesis editor and typist, and translator. Occupational Patterns More than four-fifths of the employed women graduates considered their 1964 job the kind they wished to hold. Most of those with another preference named teaching; some were already teaching but were interested in another job in the field. Significant numbers of other dissatisfied graduates wanted a job in nursing or other health work, entertainment or the arts, or social work. 12 Consistent with this general indication of satisfaction with job choice was the report by a majority (53 percent) of the graduates that the chief reason for taking their present job was that it was "interesting work." Other major reasons named were good hours and working conditions (17 percent) and good pay (13 percent). Relatively small proportions said they accepted their present job because of a promotion (3 percent), advancement opportunities (4 percent), or chance to be creative (5 percent). Teaching, the occupation of 59.9 percent of the employed graduates in 1964, continued to be their favorite (table F-19). As in the winter of 1957-58, the next largest occupational groups were those of nurses (6.4 percent) and secretaries and stenographers (4.4 percent). Despite this concentration, the graduates' occupations covered a broad gamut of fields and levels of responsibility. Among the rather unusual positions held in 1964 were those of security analysis investment officer, highway engineer technician, college mathematics professor, clinical psychologist, Peace Corps volunteer, assistant hospital administrator, professional cellist, film a c t r e s s , senior programer, assistant theater designer, radio performer, geography editor, and company staff physician. About 9 of every 10 survey graduates employed in 1964 had a professional job. The increase in the proportion of graduates in professional occupations since the winter of 1957-58, when only 83 percent were professional workers, is probably due to the improved job status of some of the graduates, including those who had been graduate students, and to the relatively greater tendency of those with nonprofessional jobs to leave the labor force. Although the increase in professional representation was distributed among numerous professions, it was most noticeable for three. The percentage of employed graduates with jobs as teachers rose from 58.8 to 59.9 percent; as editors, copywriters, and reporters, from 0.8 to 1.7 percent; and as social, welfare, and recreation workers, from 2.8 to 3.2 percent. In addition, 1.6 percent of the women employed in 1964 were librarians, a group with insufficient numbers to warrant reporting in 1957-58. Professional groups with a relatively significant decrease in representation over the e^-year period were home economists, down from 1.2 to 0.5 percent, and dietitians, down from 1.4 to 0.9 percent. Graduates holding clerical jobs decreased from 14 percent of the total employed in 1957-58 to 8 percent in 1964. Those clerical groups with significantly decreased representation were secretaries and stenographers, down from 6.7 to 4.4 percent, and miscellaneous clerical workers, down from 6.2 to 2.4 percent. Comparison of the employment status in 1964 for each of the various occupational groups in 1957-58 provides some indication of the relative extent of withdrawal from the labor force. Occupations with the highest percentages of women who were out of the labor force in 1964 were home economists (63 percent), secretaries and stenographers (56 percent), dietitians (54 percent), religious workers (53 percent), buyers, and sales workers (52 percent), and social and welfare workers (51 percent). Occupations with the lowest percentages out of the labor force in 1964 were artists, musicians, and actresses (34 percent), therapists (35 percent), recreation workers (36 percent), and bookkeeping and accounting clerks (37 percent). Teachers also had a relatively low withdrawal rate; 43 percent of their group were out of the labor force in 1964." ^ The graduates had a generally high opinion of the relevancy of their formal education to their 1964 employment. However, fewer reported a direct relationship in 1964 than in 1957-58. Sixtyeight percent of the June 1957 graduates employed in 1964—as compared with 86 percent employed 6V2 years earlier—considered that there was a direct relationship between their undergraduate major and their current job. In regard to the relationship between their 1964 job and their graduate education, three-fourths said it was direct; an additional one-seventh, indirect. The undergraduate subjects that generally had the closest relationship with the jobs held in 1964 were education and other job-oriented majors. For example, of the graduates employed in 1964, 93 percent of those who had majored in nursing in college were working as nurses, and 87 percent of those with an education major were teaching (table F-20). Also, half or more of the employed graduates who had majored in physical education, English, foreign languages, music, home economics, his13 tory, and mathematics were teachers. Among other employed graduates, 43 percent of those with majors in the health fields (excluding nursing) were working as biological technicians and 20 percent as therapists; 37 percent with sociology or social work majors as social, welfare, or recreation workers; and 31 percent with biological science majors as biological technicians. Of the chemistry majors, 25 percent were working as chemists and 19 percent as biological technicians. Many graduates volunteered statements about the rewarding aspects of their particular profession, usually because of its opportunities for social service, stimulating challenges, or easy accommodation of home and work schedules. Occupations receiving special praise included teacher, children's librarian, medical technologist, recreation worker, computer programer, and physicist. A few of the graduates, however, were disillusioned by their employment experiences, particularly in fields where men still predominate, as illustrated in the following remarks: "Although I have a B.S. in chemical engineering and spent 6 months looking for a job, I ended up working as a reports librarian because it was the only offer I g o t Thus, the end of chemical engineering for me." "I tried for over 2 years to get a job as a mathematician and found private industry very prejudiced against hiring women as mathematicians—especially in research and related fields." 14 "From my own experience and that of others I have known, I believe it is sound advice for students majoring in one of the arts fields to get an education degree first and then pursue the arts degree. In seeking employment or earning dollars for further study, this would be more beneficial," "Analytical chemists—e specially women analysts—are second class citizens of the chemical world. If I ever work again I might teach but would more likely do stenographic work. This is women's work, traditional and respectable." "I have found a significant degree of discrimination against women in fields of mathematics and higher education. Also there seems to be a consistently small proportion of fellowship and assistantships awarded to female applicants." "I feel the position of women in the business world is difficult because of male competition. The teaching profession is more comfortable for a woman because here she is accepted. . . . Much as I would like to see women get ahead in business, I feel they don't, generally, b e c a u s e things are made difficult for them." "It is unfortunate that school systems have a hiring preference for men over women in administrative and/or supervisory jobs, and that individuals from outside the system are hired for these positions." "As often as we move, it would be nice if nationwide requirements for teacher certification were standard. I have a currently valid credential to teach in one State, but another State won't renew my certification because the required undergraduate credits which I have received since college graduation were earned in the night program of a junior college instead of a 4-year college." Graduates' Salaries in 1964 An average of $5,947 was earned in 1964 by women out of college 7 years and employed full time in the United States (table F-21). The salary was more than half again as large as their $3,739 average in the winter of 1957-58, about 6 months after their graduation. The highest average salaries earned by the June 1957 women graduates were received by those employed as chemists, mathematicians, or statisticians ($8,039), followed by managers or officials ($7,466), and professional workers in schools, excluding teachers ($6,744). The teachers, with an average salary of $5,890, earned slightly less than the average for the total group of survey graduates. Lowest average earnings were reported by the secretaries and stenographers ($4,527), miscellaneous clerical workers ($4,813), and librarians ($5,658), Fully 20 percent of the employed graduates earned $7,000 or over in 1964; only 5 percent, less than $4,000 (table F-22). The graduates' earnings were generally highest in the West ($6,358) and Northeast ($6,266) and lowest in the South ($5,215) (table F 23). The positive influence of advanced education on salary levels was corroborated by the $6,409 average salary of graduates with a master's degree and the $5,800 average of those with a baccalaureate only. The earnings of the few survey graduates with a doctorate degree are not reported because most were resident physicians in hospitals and had typically low earnings. In terms of their undergraduate ma jor, graduates with the highest average salaries in 1964 were those who had majored in mathematics ($7,517), chemistry ($6,535), or psychology ($6,393) (table F-24). The large group of graduates with an education major averaged $5,877—slightly below the average for the total group. Lowest average salaries were received by graduates with a major in music ($5,566) or business and commerce ($5,568). Complaints of low pay or salary discrimination were voiced by some of the graduates, as illustrated by the following: "Women are still discriminated against in business . . . . As a commercial artist, I am paid considerably less than a 24-year old man who has a fifth of my education and background—and much less talent. I also find it ironic that a 19-yearold secretary with one previous job makes only $5 a week less than I." "I am still appalled at the low scale of women's wages and that the old battle of the sexes still prevails in hiring women executives in this day and age." "I do feel that wages are drastically low for this profession [nursing] and must be remedied before the shortage becomes greater." Work Histories of Graduates The women had an average of 5.5 years' paid employment between their graduation from college in June 1957 and the 1964 survey (table F-25). The fact that as many as 27 percent had worked throughout the 7-year interval, and an additional 16 percent for at least 6 years, supports the view that college women are making significant economic use of their college education. 15 Only 3 percent of the survey graduates included paid employment in their plans (table F-27). As many as 27 percent of had not had any paid employment since graduation. Nine out of ten of those the total group said they wanted to with some employment history had have a career. These included almost two-thirds of the single women, almost worked primarily on a full-time basis. There were several indications that three-fourths of the married women with older children (6 to 17 years of the women in the June 1957 class had considerable job stability. In the posi- age) only, and fully three-fourths of tions held in 1964, they had spent an the widowed, separated, or divorced average of 3.9 years. As many as 32 women. Almost two-fifths of the total percent had worked for only one em- group planned to resume work when ployer between graduation and 1964. family responsibilities were less deThe average number of jobs the group manding. had held was 2.6—which was also the The employment plans of the gradaverage number of employers for uates bore a strong relationship to their whom they had worked. Factors tend- employment status in 1964. Those who ing to increase job changes were that wanted a career included over half the some graduates had quit to accompany employed graduates but less than 1 pertheir husbands to new locations and cent of those not in the work force (tasome teachers had taken temporary ble F-28). On the other hand, more jobs during the summer. than one-third of those not working did Principal reasons given by the June not plan to work in the future. 1957 women graduates for leaving the The extent of the graduates' interest work force were the birth and care of in employment increased during the their children (72 percent), marriage 6V2 years' survey interval, as revealed (12 percent), and moves to a new loca- by comparison of the graduates' emtion (7 percent) (table F-26). The ma- ployment plans in 1964 and in the winjority of the single graduates who left ter of 1957-58. Of those who had said work, however, left to attend school. in 1957-58 that they did not plan to About three-fifths of the married wom- work in the future, only two-fifths gave en without children who left did so be- the same response in 1964 (table F-29). cause of marriage, location moves, or One-tenth of the group wanted a career household responsibilities; some left be- and the remainder had some work plan. cause they were expecting a child in the Of those planning in 1957-58 to pursue near future. Of the total group of grad- a career, about three-fifths felt the uates not in the labor force in 1964, al- same way in 1964 and only 5 percent most half were last employed in 1961- had no future work plan. 63. One-tenth of the graduates not employed in 1964 reported immediate Future Employment Plans plans to seek work. The majority of Four of every 5 graduates, when these women wanted a part-time job. asked about their anticipated activities, Teaching or related work was pre16 ferred by almost two-thirds of the "near-future" job seekers; nursing, by one-tenth. When questioned about the main reason for preferring a certain type of work, almost one-half said it was work for which they had been trained, and one-third, work that was interesting. About one-eighth of all the survey graduates indicated they would like to receive counseling assistance regarding employment. One graduate, 28 years of age, who was not interested in counseling, added, "No, too late now." The percentage of those wanting counseling was slightly higher among the employed than among those not employed. Remarks of the graduates regarding counseling assistance related not only to their present needs but also to their conviction that more employment information should be given young women in high school and college. Typical remarks follow: "Greatly interested in counseling assistance. Feel this is the answer to many a graduate's problem after trying first job—then being so disappointed in outcome." "At this point, I feel that I would have prepared myself more carefully for a profession had I taken the time to find out where my real interest and ability to perform should be directed." "There is a tremendous need for occupational guidance on the college level. Most college students have no idea of the wide range of occupations that might be available and do not consider the practical consequences of taking subjects just because they're interested in them." "I have a desire to return to work when my children are in school full time. I feel the greatest need for women in my present position is guidance. There should be more information about the availability of jobs." "I feel that employment opportunities for women college graduates are grossly lacking or underpublished. Women graduates in liberal arts are often aware of no other type of employment than teaching." "I think a State job placement and counseling service for college graduates would be very valuable." G Numerous graduates revealed serious intentions of returning to the work force when childrearing demands diminished, as noted below: "I plan to return to work when my oldest child is in high school for two reasons: (1) to pay for a college education for each child; and (2) to regain contact with and make contribution to the community outside the home and family unit." "If I go back to work after my children are in school, it would be a teaching job. My reasons would be the enjoyment I get from teaching, plus my feeling that those who are capable and qualified owe it to the community to contribute to the care and education of all children, not just their own. I would plan to spend a good share of my wages to employ household help." "I want to go back to work in the near future but, as I see it now, on a part-time basis. I am hoping to find something to do that I will enjoy without taking too much away from my home and family. As do many of my friends, I regret the lack of contact with people and using my mind and education." "I do not believe that my previous educational training h a s b e e n wasted just because I am not now ® See patre 27 for further information. 17 working in the field for which I was trained. I was not sorry to give up teaching for my family, and I feel my children need me to be with them in their early years. My time is coming again when I can do more for myself." "Although 1 enjoyed teaching and felt successful in it, I would like to start anew in another entirely unrelated field and return to school to train for it. Perhaps nursing or secretarial work or optometry would be satisfactory." Future Educational Plans Almost as many graduates included further education in their future plans as mentioned paid employment (table F-30). Over three-fourths of the employed and over two-thirds of those not employed said they were planning to continue their education. The majority were considering a variety of university courses, but significant proportions named refresher courses in their professional field or enrollment in a teacher certification program. A job-oriented reason for seeking additional education was given by slightly over half the graduates with an education plan or interest (table F-31). In this group, about three-fifths wanted further education for job advancement purposes; the remainder wished to obtain job preparation or a teaching certificate. Graduates who did not relate their desire for more education to employment said they had a general educational or cultural reason or were working toward a degree. About two-thirds of the survey graduates felt they were keeping up to date in their professional field. This favor18 able view was reported by twice as many of those employed (88 percent) as of those not employed (44 percent). Most of the employed were keeping up to date by working in their professional field. In addition, many were doing outside reading, attending conferences, and taking courses. More than fourfifths of those not employed who reported they were keeping up to date were reading journals, magazines, or books in their field. Other significant methods used by this group to update their knowledge and skills were by maintaining contacts with others in their profession (24 percent), taking courses (17 percent), and attending meetings, conferences, or workshops (14 percent). Graduates' statements about their educational plans and needs ranged from firm declarations of intent to return to school to earnest appeals for more assistance in bridging the homemaking period between jobs. "Fully intend and look forward to becoming an accredited children's librarian and will return to graduate school once my husband has completed medical training and is in practice." "I plan to go back to college on a regular basis to get a master's degree after my husband acquires his degree. He then would be available to babysit with our son." "I think now that our oldest child has started the first grade, my interest in education and teaching is higher then it has ever been since graduation. I find myself wishing I were back in the classroom. When all my children are in school, I hope to start teaching after completing some refresher courses." "My degree in liberal arts prepared me for absolutely nothing. I would like to go back and get some kind of training that would prepare me for some field of work—not necessarily to use in the immediate future but as security if the need should ever arise for me to work/' "In a profession such as nursing, I find that reading professional publications is not enough to keep one up to date. Unused skills are readily lost. The only alternative seems to be part-time work, which is frequently undesirable to the mother of preschool children. Surely some program could be developed which would help nurses maintain skills and interests through this period." "Teacher certification courses are too time consuming. There should be intensive home-study courses or night courses for qualified students. Most courses drag too slowly and waste time. They are also very costly." "I feel that educational institutions should make more effort to enable college-trained women to come back to school for graduate work and refresher-type courses." Volunteer Activities thirds of the graduates answered affirmatively. A few worked as many as 40 hours a month in a voluntary capacity. Most spent from 9 to 16 hours (29 percent), 5 to 8 hours (25 percent), or 4 hours or less (23 percent) a month in volunteer service. Some of the women noted that they would like to do more volunteer work but were deterred by childrearing demands or by frequent moves of the husband to new communities. One revealed that when she engaged in extensive volunteer work she was encouraged by her husband to get a paid job and bring home a paycheck. Another speculated that the reason her husband preferred her to be a volunteer rather than a paid worker was that her volunteer status affected his ego less. Despite these conflicting influences, however, many of the women wanted to and did engage in &6me volunteer work—often along with homemaking and/or employment activities—because they wanted to perform some social service or to keep in touch with their community. In 1964 over three-fourths of the women out of college 7 years were active members of one or more voluntary organizations. The majority were affiliated with a religious institution. Significant proportions also belonged to a social or recreational club (40 percent), a community, welfare, or social service organization (38 percent), a professional society (34 percent), or a school or educational group (33 percent). When asked whether they were volunteer workers for community or national organizations, more than two- Conclusions In this period of rising interest in women's employment status, the views, accomplishments, and needs of the women who were surveyed 7 years after college reflected the changing social and economic climate of the Nation. By their questionnaire answers and observations, many of the women revealed that they were paying increased attention to fashioning a dynamic life pattern, thinking ahead to the time when their current responsibilities would lessen and they would be 19 seeking a new assortment of meaningful activities. The widespread desire of college women to participate in economic and/ or community activities outside the home was substantiated by the high rate of response to the survey, as well as by their thoughtful statements. A significant number of the survey women, some of whom were wives and mothers, had found jobs that utilized their capabilities and education to advantage. But social attitudes or economic forces restricted fulfillment of the personal goals of others. Some of those who encountered difficulties reported job barriers or rebuffs, particularly when they tried to follow earlier pioneers in occupational fields with relatively few women. Others found limited willingness on the part of employers to hire them for jobs commensurate with their abilities or to provide equitable pay and suitable work arrangements. A few were affected adversely by prejudices against working mothers. For some, there was an insufficient number of schools and colleges with convenient and suitable courses for housewives. And still others were frustrated in their efforts to reconcile work or school activities with homemaking schedules. Nevertheless, the most influential factor affecting the economic status of these women was the Nation's generally high level of economic activity in 1964. With rising demand for trained and skilled workers in virtually every profession, college women were in a relatively advantageous employment position. Employers, some of whom might have been reluctant to hire women if skilled men had been avail20 able, were more willing than usual to give women a chance to show their worth in new fields of employment. If recent legislative and related developments improve women's employment opportunities as expected, these college women—like other women—can look forward to further success in toppling traditional barriers to better economic status. In their search for a useful and satisfying life, the survey women generally had a positive outlook. Few revealed negative or defeatist thinking that might limit their ability to find appropriate solutions to their employment problems. Instead, they questioned social or economic prejudices in a forthright manner and analyzed their difficulties objectively. Questions arise about subsequent actions of this group of women. Will they retain their self-confidence and determination to reenter the work force as the years following graduation increase? Will the interruption in job career be shorter for them than it was for older alumnae? Will they follow through on their stated plans for additional education? The search for answers to questions such as these could stimulate subsequent study at the next important stage in their lives—when their youngest child is in school. Then the latent desire to return to work may reach the decisionmaking stage. Continuing concern by society about the activities and needs of educated women is essential—not only to enable them to make their maximum contribution to society but, even more importantly, to help them satisfy their individual aspirations and lead rewarding lives. Appendix 21 Appendix A QUESTIONNAIRE FORM FOLLOWUP SURVEY OF CLASS OF JUNE 1957 WOMEN BACCALAUREATE GRADUATES Name of graduate (include maiden name) Address (Number) (Street) (City) (State) Permanent address (if different) „ _ Undergraduate college (Location) INSTRUCTION: Please circle only one number in each question, except where otherwise indicated. Fill in all blanks where pertinent. Enter "none" if the item does not apply to you. I EDUCATION A. Highest degree received ? 1. B.A. or B.S. 2. M.A. or M.S. 3. Ph. D or Ed. D 4. Other (specify) B. If you are attending or have attended graduate or professional school: What is (was) your field of study? If you receive (d) any financial aid, specify the type (fellowship, loan, assistantship, or other). C. Are you currently attending any school ? 1. Yes, full time 2. Yes, part time 3. No D. Are you a candidate for a degree or certificate? 1. Yes 2. No E. If "yes," what degree or type of certificate? F. If you are taking (or have taken) courses not leading to a degree, circle one or more of the following: 1. Academic (credit) course(s) in 2. Business or commerical school course (s) in 3. Vocational or technical course (s) in 4. Recreation or cultural course (s) 5. Other (specify) II FAMILY AND BACKGROUND DATA A. Age on last birthday (years) B. Marital status 1. Single (never married) 2. Married 3. Widowed, separated, or divorced 23 C. If married, circle one or more which describe your husband's status: 1. Employed full time 2. Employed part time 3. Attending school full time 4. Attending school part time 5. In military service 6. Not working 7. Other (specify) . D. If your husband is employed, specify his occupation: ._ E. Total number of persons who depend on you and/or your husband for more than half their financial support: Adults (including self, husband) Children (under 18 years of age) F. If you have children, give their ages: G. Do you have paid help for housework? 1. Yes 2. No H. If "yes," about how many hours of help per week? I. Where do you live? 1. Metropolitan area 2. Small city or town 3. Farm or open country 4. Other (specify) A. Are you now employed ? 1. Yes, full time 2. Yes, part time 3. No, but seeking work 4. No, and not seeking work F. Main activity of employer: 0. Educational service 1. Medical service 2. Retail or wholesale trade 3. Finance, insurance, or law 4. Transportation, communications, or public utilities 5. Social service or religion 6. Advertising or public relations 7. Manufacturing 8. Government 9. Other (specify) G. How many hours a week do you usually work ? I. If teaching, how many pay checks do you receive per year? IF EMPLOYED, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING. (If not, skip to Part IV.) B. Give title and brief description of present job C. How long have you held this job? (years) 24 E. Which one of the following are you? 1. Employee of private enterprise 2. Government employee 3. Self-employed 4. Other (specify) ——- H. Annual salary or earnings before deductions $ If annual figure is not available, show gross received: (Answer one.) Per month $ Semimonthly $ Every 2 weeks $ Per week $ III EMPLOYMENT I), If employed as a teacher, give type of school: 1. Kindergarten 2. Grade school 3. Junior high 4. Senior high 5. Other (specify) J. What was your major reason for taking your present job ? 1. Promotion 2. Good pay 3. Good hours and working conditions 4. Interesting work 5. Advancement opportunities 6. Chance to be creative 7. Other (specify) . . K. Is your present job related to your undergraduate major? 1. Yes, directly 2. Yes, indirectly 3. No L. If you did graduate work, is your present job related to your field of graduate study? 1. Yes, directly 2. Yes, indirectly 3. No M. Is your present job the kind you would wish to hold? 1. Yes 2. No (Include periods.) full-time and part-time (years) C. What is the total number of different employers you have worked for since graduation? D. What is the total number of different jobs you have held since graduation? E. What was the title of your last job? (If not employed now, report last title; if now working, report title before current one.) F. In what industry was that job? N. If "no," what would you prefer ?_ _ „_ O. What is your main reason for working? 1. To support self and/or others 2. To increase family income 3. To get actual work experience 4. To escape household routine 5. To have a career 6. To help husband establish career 7. Other (specify) P. State your secondary reason for working: Q. If you perform any paid work in your own home, describe briefly what you do: R. If you have children, what arrangements have you made for their care while you work? IV RECENT WORK HISTORY A. When were you last employed? 1. Now employed 2. Last employed in (give year) 3. Never employed since college IF EVER EMPLOYED SINCE COLLEGE, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING. (If not, skip to Part V.) B. How many years of employment have you had since college graduation? G. Has your employment been mostly on a full-time basis? 1. Yes 2. No H. If you worked after graduation but are not employed now, circle the principal reason for leaving your last job: 1. Marriage 2. Birth and care of children 3. Household responsibilities 4. Attend school 5. Illness or disability 6. Moved to new location 7. Part-time work not available 8. Other (specify) I. State your secondary reason for not working: V FUTURE PLANS A. What are your future employment plans? (Circle the one which best describes your current view.) 1. Plan to continue work, interested in career 2. Expect to continue work indefinitely, but no interest in career 3. Plan to stop work when married 4. Plan to stop work at birth of child 5. Plan to stop work only while children are young 6. Plan to go to work in future 7. Do not plan to work in future 8. Other (specify) 25 B. If you are married, how would you describe your husband's altitude toward your employment? 1. Favorable 2. Neutral 3. Opposed C. Are you planning to enroll in any type of educational or training courses in the future? 1. Yes 2. No D. If "yes," what is your major reason for wanting to take more courses ? „ E. If "yes," what kind of course (s) are you interested in? (Circle one or more.) 1. Refresher or brush-up course (s) in 2. Teacher certification program 3. Business or commercial school course (s) in „ 4. Graduate education (specify field) 5. Other (specify) F. Would you like counseling assistance in choosing a suitable field of work? 1. Yes * 2. No IF NOT EMPLOYED NOW, THE FOLLOWING: ANSWER G. Are you now making plans to obtain a job? 1. Yes, full time 2. Yes, part time 3. No NOTE: II. If "yes," what type of job do you wish to get? (specify) L What are your main reasons for preferring this type of work? - VI GENERAL INFORMATION A. Are you an active member of any organization ? 1. Yes 2. No B. If "yes," circle one or more of the following organizations: 1. Community, welfare, or social service 2. Professional (specify) 3. Religious 1. School or educational 5. Social or recreational 6. Other (specify) C. Are you a volunteer worker for any of these organizations ? 1. Yes 2. No D. About how many hours a month do you spend in organization work? E. Do you feel that you are keeping fairly up to date in your professional field? 1. Yes 2. No F. If "yes," how are you keeping up to date? Please add any comments you wish to make concerning the previous questions or other topics. We are especially interested in your work experiences, attempts to obtain a job, and plans for future employment and/or education. 26 Appendix A COUNSELING AND PLACEMENT SERVICES In carrying out its key role of matching workers and jobs, the Federal-State employment service system offers college women the following services without charge: 1. A consultation service to assist professional people in selecting a career in accord with their training, experience, and interests as well as with present and future job demands. 2. Information about employment opportunities in specific areas, States, and the Nation as a whole. 3. Facilities of the Professional Office Network, composed of 120 public employment offices in major metropolitan areas, that enable each office to communicate directly with all the others in order to recruit workers for profesState City sional openings or to develop jobs for professional applicants. 4. Cooperative action with nonprofit organizations in the professional placement field through joint operation of: a. Temporary on-site placement services when cooperating professional societies hold their annual conventions. b. Year-round national registers, currently established only in the fields of economics and library work with the names of job seekers and interested employers. Access to these services can be gained by contacting any of the 2,000 public employment offices located throughout the United States. However, the following 120 offices provide placement and counseling services for professional workers specifically: Street address ALABAMA Birmingham Huntsville Mobile Montgomery 1816 Eighth Ave., North 626 Lehman Ferry Rd. 457 Church St. 125 Clayton St. ALASKA Anchorage 524 Sixth Ave. ARIZONA Phoenix Tucson 207 East McDowell Rd. 7 North Granada Ave. ARKANSAS Little Rock 307 West Markham St. CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Oakland Sacramento San Diego San Francisco San Jose Van Nuys 3223 West Sixth St. 235 12th St. 1303 Seventh St. 1354 Front St. 134 California St. 970 West Julian St. 14400 Sherman Way COLORADO Denver 251 East 12th Ave. CONNECTICUT Hartford 49 Pearl St. DELAWARE Wilmington 801 West St. 27 State City S t re e t addrcx s DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Washington, D.C. 1000 16th St., NW. FLORIDA Fort Lauderdale Miami 105 East Broward Blvd. 20 SE. First Ave. GEORGIA Atlanta 161 Peachtree St., NW. IDAHO Boise 305 Main St. ILLINOIS Chicago 208 South LaSalle St. INDIANA Gary Indianapolis South Bend 475 Broadway 10 North Senate Ave. 216 North Michigan St. IOWA Des Moines 545 Sixth Ave. KANSAS Kansas City Topeka Wichita 552 State Ave. 1309 Topeka Blvd. 402 East Second St. KENTUCKY Lexington Louisville Winchester 300 South Upper St. 600 West Cedar St. 15 West Lexington Ave. LOUISIANA New Orleans 430 Canal St. MARYLAND Baltimore 1100 North Eutaw St. MASSACHUSETTS Boston Springfield Worcester 31 St. James Ave. 1592 Main St. 58 Front St. MICHIGAN Ann Arbor Battle Creek Detroit Flint Grand Rapids Jackson Kalamazoo Lansing 210 South Fourth Ave. 171 West Van Buren St. 7310 Woodward Ave. 706 Payne St. 255 Division Ave., South 540 North Jackson St. 143 Stockbridge Ave. 320 North Capitol Ave. MINNESOTA Duluth Minneapolis St. Paul 204 Bradley Bldg. 309 Second Ave., South 394 North Robert St. MISSISSIPPI Jackson 502 Yazoo St. MISSOURI Kansas City St. Louis 1411 Walnut St. 505 Washington St. MONTANA Billings 624 North 24th St. NEBRASKA Lincoln Omaha 1410 Q St. 207 Farm Credit Bldg. NEVADA Las Vegas 135 South Eighth S t NEW JERSEY Jersey City Newark Paterson 2 Enos PI. 2 Central Ave. 52 Church St. 28 State City Street address NEW MEXICO Albuquerque 1014 Central Ave., SW. NEW YORK Albany Buffalo New York Rochester Schenectady Syracuse White Plains 194 Washington Ave. 295 Main St. 444 Madison Ave. (nurses and medical workers) 444 Madison Ave. (other professionals) 500 Midtown Tower 236 Broadway 920 Erie Blvd., East 300 Hamilton Ave. NORTH CAROLINA Charlotte Durham Fayetteville Greensboro Raleigh Winston-Salem 112 West First St. 516 North Mangum St. 148 Rowan St. 229 North Greene St. 321 West Hargett St. 124 North Main St. NORTH DAKOTA Fargo Grand Forks 220 10th St., North 217 South Third St. OHIO Akron Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Dayton Toledo Youngstown 323 South Main St. 1916 Central Parkway 623 St. Clair Ave., NE. 309 South Fourth St. 20 North Jefferson St. 317 Superior St. 2026 South Ave. OKLAHOMA Oklahoma City Tulsa 107 Robinson St. 405 South Boston St. OREGON Eugene Portland 680 Pearl St. 610 SW. Broadway PENNSYLVANIA Erie Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh 144 West Seventh St. 1800 North Second St. 1218 Chestnut St. 327 Fifth Ave. RHODE ISLAND Providence 49 Westminster St. SOUTH CAROLINA Charleston 1061 King St. SOUTH DAKOTA Rapid City Sioux Falls 505 Kansas City St. 110 East 12th St. TENNESSEE Memphis Nashville 1295 Poplar Ave. 301 James Robertson Blvd. TEXAS Austin Dallas Fort Worth Houston San Antonio 1215 Guadalupe St. 1025 Elm St. 614 Texas St. 914 Main St. 330 Dwyer Ave. New York 29 State City Street address UTAH Brigham City Logan Ogclen Provo Salt Lake City 144 South Main St. 446 North First St. 2655 Adams Ave. 190 West 800 North 415 South Main St. VIRGINIA Norfolk Richmond Roanoke 147 Granby St. 5 South Seventh St. First St. and Kirk Ave. WASHINGTON Seattle Spokane 919 Second Ave. South 17 Washington St. WEST VIRGINIA Charleston Huntington Morgantown Parkersburg Wheeling 211 Broad St. 734 Fourth Ave. 106 High St. 512 Juliana St. 22 10th St. WISCONSIN Madison Milwaukee 206 North Broom St. 634 North Second Ave. 30 Appendix A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS Many colleges and universities are attempting to meet the educational needs of adult women by developing so-called continuing education programs for women. The types of special courses and services which are offered vary widely. Some special education programs for women accent the importance of individual counseling; others offer a formal course describing the world of work and the range of employment opportunities open to mature women. Refresher courses to update specific skills or to help women wishing to reapply for admission as degree candidates are also popular. Other special services included in continuing education programs are seminars in broad areas of study, proficiency examinations to measure knowledge gained through experience, fellowships and other financial assistance, nursery service, scheduling classes at convenient hours, and job placement. A complete listing of special education programs for adult women is difficult to compile because of continual changes. However, the Women's Bureau has prepared a partial listing which is available for distribution without charge.1 1 Single copies of "Continuing Education Programs for Women" may be obtained by writing to the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. 31 Appendix A GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP, GRANT, AND LOAN PROGRAMS Financial assistance is provided graduate students by numerous organizations in the form of fellowships, scholarships, grants, or loans—usually for full-time study in particular fields. Good sources of up-to-date information about financial aid opportunities are the professional societies in each field and the higher education institutions located nearby or specializing in the field of interest. 1 Of the various fellowship, grant, or loan programs administered by Federal Government agencies, several are of particular interest to women graduate students. For each program cited below, application forms requesting financial assistance can be obtained only from the universities and colleges participating in the Federal program. The higher education institutions also receive the completed applications and make the awards. Information about the types of financial aid they provide graduate students, eligibility requirements, and lists of participating institutions may be obtained by writing to the following Federal agencies: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education, Division of Educational Personnel Training, Washington, D.C. 20202 Administers the Experienced Teacher FeUotvship Program, which provides fellowships, through colleges and universities, for up to 2 years of full-time graduate study to inservice teachers in elementary or secondary education, including ancillary fields like counseling and guidance, school library work, school social work, and special education for handicapped children. 1 A comprehensive compilation, covering both private and public offerings, is presented in the brochure titled "A Selected List of Major Fellowship Opportunities and Aids to Advanced Education for United States Citizens." This may be obtained without charge from the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Fellowship Office, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW.. Washington, D.C. 20418. 32 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education, Division of Educational Personnel Training, Behavioral Sciences Branch, Washington, D.C. 20202 Administers the Grant Program for the Preparation of Professional Personnel in the Ediication of Handicapped Children, which provides fellowships for full-time graduate study, summer session traineeships, and special study institute traineeships, through participating institutions, to teachers, supervisors of teachers, research workers, and other specialists in the education of handicapped children. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Higher Education, Division of Foreign Studies, Student Assistance Section, Washington, D.C. 20202 Provides Modern Foreign Language Fellowships, through graduate schools, for full-time study leading to an advanced degree in an exotic language or area study and to a career as a college or university teacher or as a professional or technician in other public service. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Higher Education, Division of Graduate Programs, Graduate Academic Programs Branch, Washington, D.C. 20202 Administers the Prospective Teacher Fellowship Program, which provides up to 2 years of full-time graduate study for prospective or returning teachers in elementary or secondary education, including ancillary fields (described previously for Experienced Teacher Fellowship Program). U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Higher Education, Division of Graduate Programs, Graduate Academic Programs Branch, Graduate Fellowship Program, Washington, D.C. 20202 Provides National Defense Graduate Fellowships, through graduate schools, for 3 years of full-time study in any of a wide range of fields leading to a doctorate and a career as a college or university teacher. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Higher Education, Division of Student Financial Aid, Washington, D.C. 20202 Helps provide National Defense Student Loans, through colleges and universities, of up to $2,500 a year but not exceeding $10,000 to graduate or professional students who carry at least one-half the normal full-time academic workload. A maximum of 50 percent of loan indebtedness may be canceled for borrowers who become full-time teachers; the entire obligation may be canceled for teachers in certain eligible schools located in areas of primarily low-income families. Administers the Guaranteed Loan Program, which includes provisions for graduate students who carry at least half the normal full-time academic workload to borrow up to $1,500 a year from a bank or other financial institution under terms approved by the Federal Government. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, National Defense Education Act Institutes for Advanced Study, Washington, D.C. 20202 Supports NDEA Institutes for Advanced Study, conducted by sponsoring institutions usually during the summer and providing nominal stipends to teachers and special personnel in elementary and secondary schools for advanced study in 13 fields (history, geography, reading, English, English as a foreign language, modern foreign languages, counseling and guidance, educational media, school library work, the teaching of disadvantaged youth, and-—on a pilot basis— economics, civics, and industrial a r t s ) . U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Division of Community Health Services, Training Resources Branch, Washington, D.C. 20201 Provides Traineeships for Registered Nurses under the Public Health Traineeship Program, through training institutions, for up to 1 year of full-time study leading to a career in public health nursing. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Division of Nursing, Washington, D.C. 20201 Administers the Professional Nurse Traineeship Program, which is designed to prepare graduate nurses for positions as administrators, supervisors, nursing specialists, or teachers, by providing traineeships for full-time academic study or for short-term study in intensive training courses sponsored by public and nonprofit institutions. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institute of Mental Health, Training and Manpower Resources Branch, Bethesda, Md. 20014 Administers the NIMH Training Grants Program, which provides stipends and tuition, through participating institutions, for full-time study leading to a master's or doctoral degree in mental health specialties of such fields as social work, social sciences, biological sciences, psychology, and psychiatric mental health nursing. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, Division of Training, Washington, D.C. 20201 Administers the VRA Training Grants Program, which provides stipends and tuition, through institutions of higher learning, for full-time graduate study leading to a degree and a career in rehabilitation of disabled persons and including a variety of fields such as medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech pathology and 33 audiology, social work, rehabilitation counseling, psychology, recreation, and sociology. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau, Washington, D.C. 20201 Provides Child W elfare Trainees/tipsf through institutions of higher learning, for full-time study leading to a master's or doctoral degree in the field of child welfare; provides Child Welfare Services grants, through State public welfare agencies, for professional education of staff in child welfare programs; and provides Medical Social Services stipends, through State health departments, for training of social workers for programs covering maternal and child health and crippled children's services. U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration, Office of Manpower Policy, 34 Evaluation, and Research, Washington, D.C. 20210 Provides Manpower Research Grants to universities for support of doctoral candidates working on dissertations in the manpower field. U.S. National Science Foundation, Division of Graduate Education in Science, Graduate Traineeship Program, Washington, D.C. 20550 Administers the NSF Graduate Traineeship Program, which provides grants, through participating schools, for graduate study leading to a master's or doctoral degree in the biological, engineering, mathematical, or physical sciences; in anthropology, economics, geography, the history and/or philosophy of science, linguistics, political science, psychology, or sociology; or in interdisciplinary programs involving two or more sciences. Appendix A SUGGESTED READINGS Berry, Jane, and Sandra Epstein. Continuing Education of Women: Needs, Aspirations, and Plans. Kansas City, Mo., The University of Kansas City, 1963. Bunting, Mary I.: A Huge Waste: Educated Womanpower. In The New York Times Magazine, May 7, 1961. The Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study. In Educational Record, October 1961. Change and Choice for the College Woman. In Journal of the American Association of University Women, May 1962. Cooper, Joseph D. A Woman's Guide to Part-Time Jobs. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday and Co., 1963. Dennis, Lawrence E., ed. Education and a Woman's Life. Proceedings of the Itasca Conference on the Continuing Education of Women. Washington, D.C., American Council on Education, 1963. Dolan, Eleanor F. Higher Education for Women: Time for Reappraisal. In Higher Education, September 1963. Ford Foundation Program for the Retraining in Mathematics of College Graduate Women. In Notes and Comments, New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers, The State University, May 1963. A Lot More To Learn. In Mademoiselle, February 1962. Ludwig, Jack. New Shining Minds for Rusty Ladies. In Glamour, July 1961. O'Neill, Barbara Powell. Careers for Women After Marriage and Children. New York, N.Y., The Macmillan Co., 1965. President's Commission on the Status of Women. American Women. 1963.1 Proceeeding from The First Catalyst on Campus Conference. A Program Proposal. 1 Single copies of Women's Bureau publications may be obtained without charge, as long as the supply lasts, from the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. Pittsburgh, Pa., Margaret Morrison Carnegie College, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 1961. Raushenbush, Esther. Unfinished Business: Continuing Education for Women. In Educational Record, October 1961. Senders, Virginia L. The Minnesota Plan for .Women's Continuing Education: A Progress Report. In Educational Record, October 1961. Stern, Bernard H. Never Too Late for College: The Brooklyn Degree Program for Adults. Chicago, 111., The Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1963. Swerdloff, Sol. Room at the Top for College Women? In Occupational Outlook Quarterly, May 1964. Useem, Ruth Hill. The Furor Over Women's Education. In University College Quarterly, East Lansing, Mich., Michigan State University, May 1963. U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. 1 Continuing Education Programs for Women. 1966. Fifteen Years After College—A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945. Bull. 283. 1962. First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1957. Bull. 268. 1959. Job Horizons for College Women in the 1960's. Bull. 288. 1964. New Approaches to Counseling Girls in the 1960's. A Report of the Midwest Regional Pilot Conference. 1965. White, Martha S., ed. The Next Step—A Guide to Part-Time Opportunities in Greater Boston for the Educated Woman. Cambridge, Mass., Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study, 1964. 2 Reprints may be obtained without charge from the Occupational Outlook Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. 35 Appendix A TABLES Note 1: Due to rounding, percentages in these tables do not necessarily add to 100. Note 2: The total of women graduates represented in each table varies with the number of women who reported on the specific characteristics described in the table. Note 3: In all tables showing undergraduate majors, the following definitions apply: Health fields include such fields as dental hygiene, medical records library work, medical technology, medicine, and public health, but exclude nursing. Social sciences exclude history, psychology, sociology, and social work. Note 4: In tables in which the full list of employment status groups are combined into four categories, the following definitions apply: Employed includes graduates who were "employed only" and also those employed primarily and attending school. Attending school includes graduates who were "attending school only" or "attending school full time, employed part time." Note 5: The terms "working mothers" and "married graduates" refer to women with husband present. Note 6: The average annual salaries are arithmetic means computed by adding the items and dividing the sum by the number of items. TABLE F-L.—Coverage of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup Total represented Size of graduating class 1 Women graduates _ _ 500 and over 250 to 499 _ 100 to 249 50 to 99 Under 50 Number . —_ _ . . _ - . . Survey Survey sample Percent Number Percent 87,669 100 4,930 100 9,165 17,461 29,114 20,787 11,142 "10 20 33 24 13 455 1,121 1,549 1,165 640 9 23 31 24 13 1 Refers to number of women in graduating classes of colleges and universities that grant baccalaureates and are classified as coeducational or women's colleges. TABLE F-2.—Response of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup Group Total receiving questionnaire Respondents 1st mailing 2d mailing 3d mailing 4th communication Deceased graduates Nonrespondents 1 2 - Excludes 132 graduates included in the 1957-58 survey but not identified. Less than 0.5 percent. 36 Survey Total Number 1 Percent 5,846 100 4,930 3,692 835 332 71 13 903 ~84 63 14 6 1 (-) 15 TABLE F-3.—Age of June 1957 Graduates in 1964 Age 87,482 Under 27 years 27 years 28 years 29 years 30 to 34 years 35 to 39 years 40 years and over 100 941 10,101 46,509 14,476 7,487 1,933 6,032 Graduates represented TABLE F-4.—Marital Pcrcent Number 1 12 53 17 9 2 7 and Family Status of Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58 1964 Marital status 1957-58 Percent Number Number 87,638 1 87,663 100 16 81 64 61 3 16 4 2 2 52,802 33,116 7,724 5,404 2,320 25,392 1,745 930 815 60 38 9 6 3 29 2 1 1 1964 and 1957-58 Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. TABLE F-5.—Residence Region of residence Graduates represented Northeast North Central South West Other 1 1 100 13,768 70,664 56,311 53,881 2,430 14,353 3,206 1,577 1,629 With children With no children Percent - of June 1957 Graduates, 1964 1957-58 Number Percent Number Percent 87,638 100 87,703 100 24,332 20,796 22,899 18/261 1,350 28 24 26 21 2 25,368 22,725 22,718 15,546 1,346 29 26 26 18 9 Outside continental United States. 37 TABLE F-6.—Comparison of Graduates Residences in 1904 and 1957-58 Number Same State both periods Different State, same region _ Different region Outside continental United States at least one period TABLE Graduates represented Percent Art - Biological sciences Business and commerce Chemistry, physical sciences Education English _ Health fields _ History Home economics _ Journalism Languages, foreign Mathematics Music - _ Nursing Physical education Psychology Religion _ _ Social sciences Sociology, social work _ Speech, dramatic arts Other majors 38 Less than 0,5 percent* 61 16 20 3 F-7.—Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by Highest Degree in 196/+ Undergraduate maior 1 100 53,095 14,42(5 17,750 2,367 Graduates represented . Percent 87,638 Location of residence Total Number Percent 84,214 100 2,268 2,789 4,626 1,465 27,567 6,912 1,350 3,060 6,855 708 2,135 1,186 1,983 5,102 1,804 2,936 953 3,429 3,503 2,045 1,538 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Highest degree in 1964 Doctor's Master's Bachelor's 395 V) 4 0) 3 2 3 _ 5 - _ _ „^ ^ — _ 0) _. _ _„ 3 12,575 15 17 14 12 20 13 18 1 20 8 6 24 19 23 11 19 20 8 20 27 17 8 71,244 85 83 81 88 77 87 82 97 76 92 89 76 81 77 89 81 79 92 80 73 83 90 TABLE F-8.—Postgraduate Education of June 1957 Graduates, 1957 Through 169U Postgraduate enrollment Enrolled in school in 1964 1 Candidate for degree or certificate Doctor's degree Master's degree Other type of degree Teaching certificate Other type certificate Type not reported ; Not a candidate Full-time student Part-time student No report on candidacy Not enrolled in school in 1964 Enrolled prior to 1964 1 No postgraduate courses 1 2 Percent 87,638 Graduates represented Number 100 14,951 10.761 1,172 6,273 120 2,558 529 109 3,602 17 3,585 588 72,687 25,467 47,220 17 12 1 7 (-) 3 1 (-) 4 (*) 4 1 83 29 54 Refers to enrollment in graduate or professional courses. Less than 0.5 percent. TABLE F-9.—Field of Study of Graduates With Postgraduate Field of graduate study Education Number Percent Graduates represented 39,424 100 Art Biological sciences Business and commerce Chemistry, physical sciences Education English Health fields History Home economics Languages, foreign Library science Mathematics Music Nursing Physical education Psychology Religion Social sciences Sociology, social work Speech, dramatic arts Other majors 1,141 881 543 447 19,202 2,359 1,334 1,025 1,373 891 828 656 963 1,840 422 1,141 463 629 1,598 945 743 3 2 1 1 49 6 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 5 1 3 1 2 4 2 2 39 TABLE F-10.—Undergraduate Undergraduate major Graduates represented Percent Total Number Percent Employed _ Art Biological sciences _ Business and commerce Chemistry, physical sciences __ _ Education English Health fields History Home economics Journalism Languages, foreign Mathematics Music Nursing Physical education Psychology Religion Social sciences Sociology, social work Speech, dramatic arts Other majors 1 Major of Graduates, by Employment 100 41,425 49 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2,268 2,789 4,626 1,465 27,567 6,912 1,350 3,060 6,855 708 2,135 1,186 1,983 5,102 1,804 2,936 953 3,429 3,503 2,045 1,538 Not Attending Seeking seeking work work school 38,056 1,389 3,344 2 45 4 45 50 49 50 53 45 61 41 39 45 50 47 65 50 54 47 33 50 50 41 48 84,214 Status in 1964 7 9 2 4 3 4 1 5 2 4 10 7 3 2 6 5 4 3 5 11 11 43 40 48 45 42 49 38 52 57 51 38 43 31 47 39 45 59 46 44 48 40 6 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 3 0) 1 e> Less than 0.5 percent. TABLE F-LL.—Employment and School Status of Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58 1964 1957-58 Number Graduates represented _ _ Employed only Full time P a r t time _ . Employed and attending school Employed full time, school part time Employed part time, school part time School full time, employed part time _ Attending school only Full time P a r t time Seeking work Not seeking work _ _ _ 1 2 Percent Number Percent 87,577 100 87,703 100 35,397 27,743 7,654 7,752 6,507 1,129 116 3,352 847 2,505 1,455 39,621 40 32 9 9 7 1 H 4 1 3 2 45 60,447 57,887 2,560 1 11,125 8,532 770 1,728 7,005 6,029 976 2,560 6,566 69 66 3 13 10 1 2 8 7 1 3 7 Includes 95 graduates who were employed full time and attending school full time. Less than 0.5 percent. 40 TABLE F - 1 2 . — M a i n Reason of Graduates for Working, by Marital Status, 1964 Main reason for working Graduates represented Percent To support self and/ or others To increase family income To have a career To get actual work experience Like to work To do something worthwhile „ To use talents and keep alert To help husband establish a careerTo escape household routine Other reasons __ 1 2 Total NumP ^ ber cent Married (husband present) Widowed, With children With sepa Under 6-17 no rated, Total 6 years 1 years children divorced Single 100 12,685 100 27,175 100 13,654 100 2,192 100 11,329 100 2,985 100 14,881 35 78 8 5 10 12 92 13,509 5,763 32 13 (2) 17 49 13 51 9 55 21 46 16 2 3 1,694 1,402 4 3 1 1 6 5 7 4 4 3 5 6 1 1 742 2 2 2 2 1 2 330 1 (2) 1 2 2 (2) 1,929 5 7 8 1 7 2,360 235 6 1 9 1 12 1 4 5 1 42,845 n Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Less than 0.5 percent. 41 TABLE F - 1 3 . — E m p l o y m e n t Status of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status, 196i Marital status Married (husband present) Employment status Total With children Number Percent Single 87,577 Total Under 6 years 1 With With no children children 3,170 4 1,541 2 1,629 2 100 100 100 100 100 63 59 5 27 69 61 8 72 69 3 21 69 67 2 24 75 71 4 18 2 25 9 20 22 17 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 2 by Employment and 13,743 16 100 100 100 100 35,397 27,743 7,654 7,752 40 32 9 9 71 70 1 22 33 23 10 6 22 11 11 4 6,507 7 21 4 1,129 1 1 1 116 3,352 847 2,505 1,455 39,621 (2) <a) <*) 70,664 81 With no children Total 14,353 16 100 Graduates represented Percent 6-17 years Widowed,^separated, 53,881 62 2,430 3 Percent distribution Total Employed only Full time Part time Employed and attending schoolEmployed full time, school part time Employed part time, school part time School full time, employed part time Attending school only Full time Part time Seeking work Not seeking work 1 2 4 1 3 2 45 4 3 1 1 1 <2) 4 4 2 <2) <4) 3 2 56 2 68 (2) 3 1 2 1 17 3 1 2 1 7 2 3 4 Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Less than 0.5 percent. TABLE F - 1 4 . — H u s b a n d ' s Attitude Toivard Wife's Employment, Status of Wife, 196U Employment and family status of wife 42 Attitude of husband Favorable Neutral Opposed 100 Graduates represented Percent Employed With children With no children Attending school _ With children With no children Seeking work With children With no children Not seeking work With children With no children _ Total Number Percent Family _ _ .. _ 37,308 56 17,249 26 11,534 17 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 82 79 86 60 56 84 59 56 84 37 36 40 15 17 12 24 27 13 28 29 16 35 35 36 4 4 3 15 17 3 13 15 66,091 27,081 15,794 _ „ 11,287 2,602 _ . _ 2,183 419 _ _ _ 1,188 ^ 1,037 151 35,220 33,069 _ _ _ 2,151 _ . 28 29 24 TABLE F - 1 5 . — E m p l o y m e n t Status of Wife, by Employment Total Married graduates represented Percent _ Status of husband AttendIn Numing military ber Percent Employed school service Status of wife Total Status of Husband 70,502 100 100 - . Employed Attending school Seeking work Not seeking work 27,177 2,748 1,222 39,355 64,096 91 100 39 4 2 56 38 4 2 56 TABLE F-16.—Child Care Arrangements Child care arrangement Other 2,196 3,215 995 1 3 5 Percent distribution 100 100 100 62 3 2 32 18 3 2 77 68 32 of Working Mothers, 1964 Graduates with children under 6 years 1 Total Number Percent Number Graduates with children 6 to 17 years Percent Number Percent Working mothers represented 14,619 100 12,820 100 1,799 100 Care in own home By employee By relative By employee and relative _ By employee and group care Care outside own home By employee By group care Work arranged so child not alone Self care Other arrangements 9,636 5,329 3,357 321 629 2,283 1,124 1,159 1,903 719 78 66 36 23 2 4 16 8 8 13 5 1 9,314 5,195 3,256 309 554 2,190 1,099 1,091 1,183 55 78 73 41 25 2 4 17 9 9 9 322 134 101 12 75 93 25 68 720 664 18 7 6 1 4 5 1 4 40 37 1 3 3 i — Includes some graduates w h o had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Includes care in nursery school, kindergarten, day care center, and private school. Less than 0.5 percent. 43 TABLE F - 1 7 . — W e e k l y Hours Worked by Employed Married Graduates, 1964 Graduates with children Total Under 6-17 1 Number Percent 6 years years Hours worked per week 25,271 Married graduates represented 100 Total 41 hours or more 35-40 hours 33-34 hours - _ 31-32 hours 25-30 hours 17-24 hours _ 9-16 hours 8 hours Less than 8 hours _ Average hours per week 1 2 3,835 12,760 162 227 1,569 1,660 2,444 1,045 1,569 37 — _ _ 15 50 1 1 6 7 10 4 6 — Graduates with no children 10,583 12,722 1,966 Percent distribution 100 100 100 22 66 1 9 41 CO 1 6 9 15 7 11 33 2 1 5 1 1 39 21 59 1 1 7 4 4 1 1 39 Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Less than 0.5 percent. TABLE F - 1 8 . — M a r r i e d Graduates Performing Paid Work at Home, 1964 Graduates with children Total Under 6-17 Number Percent 6 years 1 years Extent and type of paid work at home Extent of Practice Graduates represented 70,664 3,374 67,290 Teaching or tutoring Writing Typing or secretarial work _ Other clerical work Research __ _ _ Bookkeeping Child care work — Telephone selling Other work _ 1 44 _ _ 5 95 3,374 Performing paid work at home Not performing paid work at home Type of Work Performed Graduates represented 100 100 1,478 266 239 230 178 153 150 140 540 44 8 7 7 5 5 4 4 16 Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. 100 Graduates with no children Percent distribution 100 100 5 5 95 95 Percent distribution 100 100 100 5 95 46 5 8 5 6 5 6 4 14 60 18 13 9 — 32 18 4 13 2 2 3 27 TABLE F-L9.—Occupational Occupational group Graduates represented Artists, musicians, actresses Chemists Clerical workers (miscellaneous) Dietitians _ Editors, copywriters, reporters _ Home economists _ Librarians Library assistants Managers, officials _ Mathematicians, statisticians Nurses Professional workers (miscellaneous) Religious workers Research workers School workers (miscellaneous) 4 Secretaries, stenographers Social, welfare, recreation workers Teachers Kindergarten Grade school Junior high school Senior high school Other _ Technicians (biological) Therapists Typists _ — -- Other occupations _ Distribution Job held in 1964 Number Percent of Employed Graduates Previous job held 1 Number Percent Job held in 1957-58 Number Percent 43,007 100.0 77,924 100.0 322 276 1,039 366 739 231 683 273 794 349 2,757 0.7 0.6 2.4 0.9 1.7 0.5 1.6 0.6 1.8 0.8 6.4 512 674 4,893 1,005 974 771 542 434 370 788 5,392 0.7 0.9 6.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 6.9 402 586 4,410 970 578 880 (*) 406 ( :! ) 703 4,915 . 2,205 365 399 5.1 0.8 0.9 2,541 503 681 3.3 0.6 0.9 2,167 549 646 846 1,890 2.0 4.4 701 6,288 0.9 8.1 (r>) 4,753 1,372 25,748 1,006 13,169 3,036 5,053 3,484 1,023 474 327 529 3.2 59.9 2.3 30.6 7.1 11.7 8.1 2.4 1.1 0.8 1.2 2,632 42,001 1,801 17,035 2,654 5,435 15,076 2,060 1,016 1,045 2,101 3.4 53.9 2.3 21.9 3.4 7.0 19.3 2.6 1.3 1.3 2.7 1,999 42,028 (") 26,793 4,882 8,863 1,490 1,977 887 566 2,019 71,441 100.0 0.6 0.8 6.2 1.4 0.8 1.2 . 0.6 1.0 6.9 3.0 0.8 0.9 — 6.7 2.8 58.8 — 37.5 6.8 12.4 2.1 2.8 1.2 0.8 2.8 1 Refers to job held prior to 1964 job or to last job held by those not employed- in 1964. - Included with "professional workers, miscellaneous." 3 Included with "other occupations." 4 Includes such occupations as school counselor and principal. 5 School counselors included with "other teachers": principals, with teachers of appropriate schools. «Included with "grade school teachers." 45 TABLE F-20.—Occupation Occupational group T Q ft a i l l Number Percent Graduates represented — 4 1 , 4 4 7 Percent Chemists, mathematicians Clerical workers (miscellaneous) Dietitians, home economists Editoi*s, copywriters, reporters Librarians — _ Managers, officials __ _ _ Nurses _ Professional workers (miscellaneous) _ School workers (miscellaneous) Secretaries, stenographers„ Social, welfare, recreation workers _ - Teachers __ Kindergarten Grade school „„ Junior high school Senior high school Other Technicians (biological) „ Therapists Other occupations _ „ 100 of Graduates Employed in 1964, by Undergraduate —-—:— Biological and Art sciences commerce 1,024 100 592 1 1,624 4 568 2 2 2 6 2 1 3,155 8 829 1,853 2 4 1,333 24,628 970 12,411 2,983 4,874 3,390 1,031 474 505 3 59 2 30 7 12 8 2 1 1 2,244 100 Undergraduate major Business — — Chem- Eduistry cation English Health fields 14,611 100 825 100 684 100 4 5 (l) 13 3 — — Home History economics 2 2,664 100 1 4 8 1,247 100 5 3,113 100 25 1 724 683 781 2,667 1,413 100 Major 3 21 n 2 1 1 1 10 1 32 16 9 9 2 1 1 23 48 0) 36 0) 41 4 13 10 9 31 4 1 6 3 23 10 22 — — 25 — 13 13 9 13 3 5 13 7 19 — 1 — 1 ( ) 2 5 5 1 5 3 C1) 1 2 6 25 8 3 1 3 6 3 3 2 5 6 2 2 0) 87 6 62 6 6 7 2 67 2 1 58 2 61 3 12 16 25 5 0) i i i <0 1 7 2 1 x — — 21 9 22 15 — 2 27 11 17 4 43 20 1 — 3 Undergraduate major Occupational group Languages, foreign Mathematics- Music 1,291 1,057 555 Graduates represented 100 100 100 Percent Chemists, mathematicians __ Clerical workers (miscellaneous) _ Dietitians, home economists Editors, copywriters, reporters Librarians Managers, officials __ Nurses Professional workers (miscellaneous) _ __ School workers (miscellaneous) Secretaries, stenographers Social, welfare, resreation workers— Teachers Kindergarten Grade school __ __ __ Junior high school Senior high school Other Technicians (biological) Therapists Other occupations See footnote at end of table. 4 2,537 100 968 100 10 Sociology, Speech, social dramatic Other work arts majors 1,728 1,763 1,471 840 100 100 100 100 Social sciences 5 5 5 9 0) 2 4 1 1 11 — 1 1 1 2 — 14 14 63 1 9 3 7 9 4 4 4 3 82 14 44 5 24 5 5 5 5 ____ 12 46 37 36 20 8 16 3 0) 1 2 3 7 16 26 2 1 63 16 4 14 30 — — —— — 8 11 35 9 i 2 i — 1 — — — 10 23 36 13 4 — — 22 8 42 20 7 2 8 52 11 10 4 1 9 1 7 19 8 7 5 9 3 6 3 93 1 11 1 2 6 4 3 __ 11 Psychology 1,412 100 6 28 7 Nursing Physical education 1 26 — — — 12 11 14 5 21 — 13 2 3 8 2 1 8 TABLE F-21.—Graduates' Salaries, by Occupation, 1964 and 1957-58 1957-58 1964 Number Average annual salary Number Average annual salary 32,571 $5,947 63,945 $3,739 569 8,039 569 627 4,847 4.675 764 544 329 447 449 2,049 3,278 3,407 3,097 3.676 3,104 3,247 401 808 542 3,576 4,040 3,397 4,302 3,875 370 2,125 626 3,167 3,862 3,971 4,089 3,295 543 1,266 39,320 3,655 3,792 3,799 25,549 4,613 8,290 868 1,586 701 3,858 3,785 3,658 3,475 3,854 3,947 Occupational group Graduates represented 1 Chemists, mathematicians, statisticians Chemists : Mathematicians, statisticians Clerical workers (miscellaneous) Advertising, editorial assistants Bookkeepers, accounting clerks Library assistants Personnel assistants Typists Clerical workers, other Dietitians, home economists Dietitians Home economists Editors, copywriters, reporters Librarians Managers, officials Nurses Professional workers (miscellaneous) Religious workers Professional workers, other Research workers School workers (miscellaneous) Secretaries, stenographers Social, welfare, recreation workers Recreation workers ,—: Social, welfare workers Teachers Kindergarten Grade school Junior high school Senior high school Other Technicians (biological) Therapists 1,010 527 585 646 511 1,930 1,775 310 674 1,410 1,230 20,140 728 11,243 2,682 3,856 1,631 732 316 4,813 6,110 6,274 5,658 7,466 6,078 6,557 6,388 6,744 4,527 6,137 5,890 6,060 5,843 5,837 5,852 6,313 5,843 6,214 1 Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States in 1964. Includes a few graduates who had an occupation not listed. 48 TABLE F-22.—Distribution Occupational group Graduates represented 1 Percent of Average Annual Salaries of Graduates, by Occupation, 196U Average annual Number salary Total 32,571 Chemists, mathe569 maticians, statisticians Clerical workers 1,010 (miscellaneous) _ Dietitians, home economists 527 Editors, copywriters, 585 reporters 646 Librarians 511 Managers, officials 1,930 Nurses Professional workers (miscellaneous) _ _ 1,775 310 Research workers ~ School workers 674 (miscellaneous) Secretaries, 1,410 stenographers Social, welfare, recreation workers __ 1,230 20,140 Teachers 728 Kindergarten 11,243 Grade school 2,682 Junior high school 3,856 Senior high school 1,631 Other _ __ 732 Technicians (biological) 316 Therapists - Percent distribution by salary $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 to Under to to $4,000 $4,999 $5,999 $6,999 9,947 31 6,671 20 12 11 77 100 8,039 100 _ 4,813 100 26 24 33 12 5 6,110 100 4 12 14 48 23 6,274 5,658 7,466 6,078 100 100 100 100 13 7 3 21 6 13 24 28 19 27 21 21 29 25 39 23 46 28 6,557 6,388 100 100 7 11 9 16 23 33 32 35 34 6,744 100 2 14 16 25 43 4,527 100 29 34 29 8 1 6,137 5,890 6,060 5,843 5,837 5,852 6,313 5,843 6,214 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 13 19 5 19 19 22 11 19 29 28 34 27 31 28 25 37 26 38 34 48 35 30 30 33 33 56 20 17 13 15 17 17 28 11 18 6 3 3 2 3 3 _ j. 5,570 17 8,697 27 1,686 5 $5,947 1 Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States. not listed. $7,000 and over Includes a few graduates who had an occupation 49 TABLE F - 2 3 . — A v e r a g e Annual Salary of Graduates, by Occupation and Region of Employment, 1964 Occupational group Number Total Graduates represented 1 Average annual salary North- North east Central South West 32,571 $5,947 $6,266 $6,141 $5,215 $6,358 569 Chemists, mathematicians, statisticians _ Clerical workers (miscellaneous) 1,010 Dietitians, home economists 527 585 Editors, copywriters, reporters 646 Librarians 511 Managers, officials 1,930 Nurses Professional workers (miscellaneous)2— 2,401 School workers (miscellaneous) 674 1,410 Secretaries, stenographers 1,230 Social, welfare, recreation workers Teachers 20,140 Kindergarten _ 728 11,243 Grade school 2,682 Junior high school Senior high school _ 3,856 Other 1,631 732 Technicians (biological) 8,039 4,813 6,110 6,274 5,658 7,466 6,078 6,490 6,744 4,527 6,137 5,890 6,060 5,843 5,837 5,852 6,313 5,843 8,428 5,373 6,410 5,993 5,828 7,862 6,326 6,408 6,050 4,824 6,331 6,323 6,060 6,156 6,322 6,601 6,876 6,176 8,151 4,468 6,522 6,571 6,216 7,972 6,202 6,479 7,370 4,687 5,876 6,107 5,956 6,142 5,880 6,087 6,269 5,780 7,642 4,669 5,672 6,263 5,272 6,606 5,934 6,185 6,639 4,237 5,193 4,992 5,705 4,915 5,032 4,879 5,669 5,102 8,091 4,338 5,681 7,478 5,520 6,847 5,850 6,908 6,985 4,653 6,793 6,373 6,402 6,354 6,272 6,466 6,489 6,449 1 Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States. Includes a few graduates who had an occupation not listed. - Includes research workers and therapists as well as other professional workers not listed. 50 TABLE F - 2 4 . — S a l a r y of Graduates, by Undergraduate Major, 1964. and 1957-58 1964 Average annual Number salary Undergraduate major Graduates represented 1 _ _ 32,571 - Art _ _ __ Biological sciences _ _ Business and commerce . _ Chemistry Education _ _ _ . English _ _ . Health fields — History - Home economics Languages, foreign _ _ Mathematics _ _ Music Nursing _ _ - . Physical education _ - Psychology _ Social sciences > — — . Sociology, social work _ - . Speech, dramatic arts - „ . _ Other majors _ . 671 1,080 1,639 557 11,727 2,274 506 989 2,047 748 431 735 _ _ 1,755 776 _ 1,065 1,389 . 1,371 600 930 _ . „ _ - 1957-58 Average annual Number salary $5,947 63,945 $3,739 5,754 6,027 5,568 6,535 5,877 5,840 6,190 6,188 5,791 5,788 7,517 5,566 6,094 5,861 6,393 6,232 6,096 6,236 1,480 1,538 3,602 -972 22,919 4,716 1,135 1,882 4,628 1,287 891 1,241 3,875 1,497 1,719 2,219 2,211 1,269 710 3,570 3,683 3,630 4,509 3,796 3,608 4,106 3,617 3,693 3,561 4,244 3,667 3,820 3,662 3,646 3,676 3,609 3,614 1 Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States in 1964. Includes a few graduates who did not report their undergraduate major. - In 1957-5S survey report, category was listed under "physical sciences;" about four-filths of the graduates had majored in chemistry. TABLE F - 2 5 . — Y e a r s of Paid Employment Since college Number Percent Years of employment Graduates represented - - 7 years - 6 years - — - — 5 years _ - ~ 4 years 3 years 2 years 1 year Less than 6 months - _ Median years of employment _ _ _ _ of Graduates, 1957-64 In current job Number Percent - 81,580 100 41,602 100 . 21,979 13,003 . _ _ 10,728 . _ _ 9,546 __ __ 10,193 9,226 6,125 _ _ 780 __ 5.5 , 27 16 13 12 12 11 8 1 9,649 4,160 3,210 3,262 5,296 5,632 7,948 2,445 3.9 23 10 8 8 13 14 19 6 TABLE F - 2 6 . — M a i n Reason of Graduates for Leaving Work Force, by Marital Status, 1964 Married (husband present) Main reason for leaving work force — Number Graduates represented Percent Percent 41,606 Marriage Birth and care of children Household responsibilities Move to new location School attendance Illness or disability Other Single 5,128 29,953 1,338 2,974 865 339 1,009 1 12 72 3 7 2 1 2 13 73 3 7 1 1 2 12 9 56 4 19 W U h „h£!Ln children Widow*!. divorced' 188 100 12 78 2 6 1 (•) 1 2,893 100 201 100 9 37 13 13 11 37,594 100 40,675 100 730 100 100 With children Under 6-17 6 years» years Total 25 17 14 22 5 5 12 4 52 17 6 17 21 Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Less than 0-5 percent. 2 TABLE F-27.—Employment Plan of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status, Married (husband present) Number Graduates represented Percent „ Have a career Work indefinitely, no career — Stop work when married Stop work at birth of child Stop work only while children are young _ Go to work in future Do not plan to work in future Other 1 3 Total Percent 85,821 100 13,668 100 23,096 5,841 1,897 5,383 27 7 2 6 63 12 13 5 10,964 21,463 15,731 1,446 13 25 18 3 4 2 n i Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also. Less than 0.5 percent. 52 With children Single Employment plan 68,980 100 Under 6 years 1 52,477 100 6-17 years 2,430 100 2 <7) 12 5 (*) 2 74 13 15 30 23 2 16 37 26 2 1 7 3 18 6 1 <8) 1964 separ™d1vorced With no children With children With no children 1,577 100 1,596 100 30 7 (a) 28 75 12 4 76 9 1 14 8 12 2 3 5 1 3 1 5 5 14,073 100 Plan of Graduates, by Employment TABLE F - 2 8 . — F u t u r e Total Employment status of graduates Employed Attending school Seeking work Not seeking work 100 42,533 100 3,468 100 1,412 100 38,408 100 23,096 5,841 1,897 5,383 27 7 2 6 52 14 4 13 19 (') 1 0) 20 1 0) 0) 0) 0) 10,964 21,463 13 25 9 4 17 48 15 64 17 44 15,731 1,446 18 2 3 2 13 1 Employment plan Number Percent 85,821 Graduates represented Percent Have a career Work indefinitely, no career. Stop work when married Stop work at birth of child Stop work only while children are young Go to work in f u t u r e Do not plan to work in future Other __ 1 Status, 1964 36 2 — Less than 0.5 percent. of Employment TABLE F-29.—Comparison Plans Held in 1964 and 1957-58 Employment plan in 1964 Total Employment plan in 1957-58 Graduates represented 1 Percent _ — Number 100 20,519 26 5,276 7 6,892 9 10,261 13 19,249 25 14,129 18 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 59 36 28 22 16 17 9 3 14 7 11 6 6 8 8 9 4 13 9 12 4 10 10 8 8 17 14 2 14 14 28 18 31 27 36 5 14 21 26 20 22 41 For marriage or children Includes a few graduates who had work plans not listed or had indefinite plans in one period. Only while children young Plan no work in future Percent indefinitely, no career 77,597 - 13,398 Have a career — 7,686 Work indefinitely, no career Work only for economic reasons 4,939 4,247 Stop work when married 31,841 Stop work at birth of child Work short time after marriage 13,649 Do not plan to work in future— 1,762 1 Stop work Have a career Work in future TABLE F - 3 0 . — T r a i n i n g or Education Plan and Interest of Graduates, by Employment 1964 Total Education plan or interest Number 85,021 Graduates represented 61,801 23,220 With plan or interest With no plan or interest 1,351 17,962 15,339 38,582 Business course 1 Percent Not Employed employed 100 100 100 69 76 73 31 27 24 Percent of respondents with t>lan or interest reporting type of course desired 1 2 2 3 35 24 29 30 25 20 62 56 68 Includes graduates reporting Interest in more than one type of course. TABLE F - 3 1 . — M a j o r Reason for Interest in Additional Education, by Employment 196U Total Not employed 100 Number Graduates represented Percent _ _ _ . 31,876 100 29,925 100 52 32 6 14 46 28 18 2 54 40 3 10 44 22 22 2 51 24 9 18 48 34 14 2 Percent 61,801 _ Job reason Job advancement — __ Job preparation Teacher certification _ — Nonjob reason _ General interest — Working for degree — — Reason not specified Status, Employed Major reason 1 Status, . '32,268 . 19,767 . 3,689 ,. 8,731 . '28,290 17,129 11,113 . 1,243 Includes a few graduates not shown separately. 54 iz u. s . GOVERNENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1966—O 221-682