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COLLEGE
WOMEN
SEVEN YEARS AFTER GRADUATION




Resurvey of Women Graduates—Class of 1957
Bulletin

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
WOMEN'S

BUREAU

292

1966

W.Willard Wirtz, Secretary
Mary Dublin

Keyserling,

Director

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 40 cents



Foreword
The high rate of employment among mature women, particularly educated women, is one of the most remarkable and significant facts of modern life. Their interest in a paid job appears
to be not a temporary phenomenon. Forecasts indicate that the
economic, social, and personal reasons for this development will
continue to attract increasingly larger numbers of women into
the work force in the coming decade.
With the extended work life of mature women have come new
concerns relating to their job preparation and retraining, continuing education, dual responsibilities of home and job, and
psychological adjustments. In order to gain deeper understanding of the needs and interests of college-educated women, the
Women's Bureau questioned 7-year graduates concerning their
activities and plans, particularly relating to employment and
education. When viewed in terms of the full lifespan of educated
women, the survey has meaning for numerous groups in society.
The findings have important implications for virtually all college women as well as for those concerned with their guidance
and counseling. College students need information that contributes to a long-range view of women's life patterns so they can
determine how best to prepare for their own probable future.
Mature college women can make more assured decisions about
their own lives when they know how other women are satisfying
their rising aspirations and combining the roles of homemaker,
citizen, and worker.
The plans expressed by the survey graduates can indicate to
educators the growing demand that may be made on their facilities by adult women. The graduates' plans also may serve to alert
employers and manpower officials to the probable job participation of college women, as well as to stimulate them to seek the
maximum utilization of educated womanpower. Above all, the
paramount value of the study lies in its challenge to all society
to encourage and assist women toward achievement of their full
potentiality.




MARY DUBLIN KEYSEKLING

Director, Women's Bureau

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgment is made to the participating women graduates of the June 1957 class and their colleges, universities, and
alumnae associations for excellent cooperation in making this
followup survey possible. Continuing appreciation is also due the
Women's Section of the National Vocational Guidance Association, who helped to conduct the 1957-58 survey on which the 1964
survey is structured. This study was carried out and reported by
Jean A. Wells, Special Assistant to the Director, with the assistance of Muriel B. Wool.




Contents
Page

Table

Introduction
Survey Highlights
Characteristics of Graduates
Continuing Education of Graduates __
Employment Status in 1964
Family Status and Employment
Occupational Patterns

1
3
4
5
7
9
12

F-7

Graduates' Salaries in 1964
Work Histories of Graduates
Future Employment Plans

14
15
16

F-10

Future Educational Plans
Volunteer Activities
Conclusions
Appendix
A. Questionnaire Form
B. Counseling and Placement Services
C. Continuing Education Programs
D. Graduate Fellowship, Grant, and
Loan Programs
E. Suggested Readings
r
F. Tables

18
19
19
21
23
27
31
32
35
36

F-8
F-9

F-ll
F-12

F-13

F-14

F-l 5

Table

F-l
F-2
F-3
F-4
F-5
F-6

Coverage of June 1957 Women
College Graduates in 7-Year
Followup Survey
Response of June 1957 Women
College Graduates in 7-Year
Followup Survey
Age of June 1957 Graduates in
1964
Marital and Family Status of
Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58
Residence of June 1957 Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58
Comparison of Graduates' Residences in 1964 and 1957 -58




F-l 6
36

F-17

36

F-18

37

F-19

37

F-20

37
F-21
38

Page

Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by Highest Degree in
1964
Postgraduate Education of
June 1957 Graduates, 1957
Through 1964
Field of Study of Graduates
With Postgraduate Education
Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by E m p l o y m e n t
Status in 1964
Employment and School Status
of Graduates, 1964 and 195758
Main Reason of Graduates for
Working, by Marital Status,
1964
Employment Status of Graduates, by Marital and Family
Status, 1964
Husband's Attitude T o w a r d
Wife's Employment, by Employment and Family Status
of Wife, 1964
Employment Status of Wife,
by Employment Status of
Husband
„
Child Care Arrangements of
Working Mothers, 1964
Weekly Hours Worked by Employed Married Graduates,
1964
Married Graduates Performing
Paid Work at Home, 1964 __
Occupational Distribution of
Employed Graduates
Occupation of Graduates Employed in 1964, by Undergraduate Major
Graduates' Salaries, by Occupation, 1964 and 1957-58 . „

38
39
39
40

40
41

42

42

43
43

44
44
45

46
48
v

Contents—Continued
Table

F-22
F-23

F-24
F-25
F-26

vi

Page

Distribution of
Average
Annual Salaries of Graduates, by Occupation, 1964
Average Annual Salary of
Graduates, by Occupation
and Region of Employment,
1964
S a l a r y of Graduates, by
Undergraduate Major, 1964
and 1957-58
Years of Paid Employment of
Graduates, 1957-64
Main Reason of Graduates for
Leaving Work Force, by
Marital Status, 1964




Table

F-27
49

50
51
51
52

Employment Plan of Graduates, by Marital and Family
Status, 1964
F-28 Future Plan of Graduates, by
Employment Status, 1964
F-29 Comparison of Employment
Plans Held in 1964 and 195758
F-30 Training or Education Plan
and Interest of Graduates,
by Employment Status, 1964
F-31 Major Reason for Interest in
Additional Education, by
Employment Status, 1964 __

Page

52
53

53

54

54

College Women Seven Years After Graduation
Resurvey

of Women

Graduates,

Introduction
A longitudinal survey of women at
important stages of their lifespan is
one tool for gaining greater insight
into their needs and interests under
changing personal and economic circumstances. Conducted in the sixties,
such a survey reflects growing interest
in women's response to the new and
challenging opportunities facing them
and in the extent and variety of their
participation in today's world. The urgency for obtaining factual knowledge
is heightened by the marked rise over
the past quarter century in the number
and percentage of married women 1 who
combine home responsibilities and paid
employment.
In 1940 the number of married women workers was just over 4 million. By
1965 it had reached 14.7 million and was
approaching the 18 million level estimated for 1970. Over this 25-year period the percentage of wives who work
jumped from 15 to 35 percent. A further increase is anticipated in the future.
Questions arise about women's growing desire to utilize their abilities and
education in the workplace as well as in
1
In this report the terms "married women" and "working
wives" refer to women with husband present-




Class of

1957

the home. When and why are more and
more married women deciding they
want a paid job? What obstacles or
problems interfere with their efforts or
desires to work? Are they able to obtain the jobs they want and are qualified for? How firm is the attachment
of college-educated women to the labor
force, and how significant is their availability as a skilled labor reserve? Are
adult women seriously interested in obtaining more education or training?
How important are volunteer activities
in the lives of married women?
Answers to some of these questions
are available from a group of women
college graduates surveyed in 1964.
They are largely the same group of
June 1957 graduates who participated
in a survey made in the winter of 195758.- That survey was conducted jointly
by the Women's Bureau and the National Vocational Guidance Association.
It involved participation of a scientifically selected sample of 153 women's
colleges and coeducational universities
and of almost 6,000 women graduates.
Primary focus of the earlier survey
was on the relationship between undergraduate education and subsequent em- First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates,
Class of 1957. Women's Bureau Bull. 268.

1

ployment of recent women graduates.
Attention was given particularly to the
influence of the graduates' marital
status, the extent of their advanced education and additional job training, and
their attitudes toward future employment. The widespread interest stimulated by the survey findings indicated a
need for additional' information covering later periods of a woman's life.
The audience for such information is
considerable. Both the population and
the work force of college women are expanding in the United States. By 1965
more than 4 million women aged 18
years and over in the population had
obtained a college degree. About 2.5
million, or 58 percent of the total, had
a paid job. When women 18 to 64 years
of age were counted in the 1940 census,
there were only slightly more than
three-quarters of a million college
women workers—about 52 percent of
the 1.5 million college woman population.
Traditionally, college women have
engaged in paid employment to a greater extent than women with lesser
amounts of formal education. The increase in the labor force participation
of college women during the 25-year
period has not been as sharp as that of
all women 18 years of age and over. For
the latter group the participation rate
rose from 30 percent in 1940 to 40 percent in 1965.
In the 1964 resurvey, questionnaires
were mailed to 5,846 graduates after
their names and addresses had been updated from the records of alumnae associations or college and university
2




offices. (See the questionnaire form in
appendix A, page 23.) The sample
group represented almost 88,000 women who were graduated in June 1957
from colleges and universities granting
bachelor's degrees and classified as coeducational or women's colleges. (See
table F-l.) The second survey centered
on the interrelated influences on college
women of their undergraduate education, postgraduate specializations, family and community activities, and work
careers.
The women college graduates resurveyed in 1964 were at an age when most
were married and mothers of young
children. Many had left the work force
because of household and child care responsibilities. The high rate of survey
response in 1964 is a testimonial to the
graduates' interest in the survey purpose and findings. Fully 84 percent of
the graduates to whom questionnaires
were mailed participated in the survey
(table F-2). On the basis of telephone
calls made to a few nonrespondents,
there is reason to believe that many
who failed to return the questionnaire
never received it.
Graduates expressed appreciation to
the Women's Bureau for making the
survey and inviting their participation,
as the following comments indicate:
"It is gratifying to know that an
attempt is being made to solve the
problems of women in our society."
"This inquiry stimulated me to
think about my future responsibilities to myself and others—something often obscured in day-to-day
living."
"I appreciate the opportunity to be
part of this study, since I read your
former report and am always in-

terested in this type of information."

Even more important than the complimentary references to the survey are
the comments which confirm that its
substance touched on vital aspects of
the graduates' lives. Illustrative remarks wTere:
"Dissatisfaction with previous work
experience I blame largely on lack
of proper guidance and counseling.
My plans for future employment
and education hinge just now on
obtaining counseling assistance. I
would be interested in the results of
this survey and in knowing whether
my problem is unusual."
"It is a source of great frustration
to be unable to use one's education
or training during this period."
"It is important for a woman to belong to the mainstream of life just
as her husband and children do, so
that she does not try to see the
world and live only through their
experiences."
"The most difficult problem for me
has been working out a pattern
of family living that permitted
definitions of mother-child and
wife-husband roles acceptable to
everyone and compatible with professional commitments."
"Despite obviously negative financial reward, I suddenly felt desire to
use dormant, stagnating mental
abilities, and to have an identification other than as someone's wife or
mother. Rebuilding my professional
self has been rewarding to my
family and myself. I have more
self-respect and the 'other me' is
fascinating to my children."
"I think we make a great mistake
in American culture by promoting
the idea that the man's job should
be superior to that of his wife. We
promote guilt in women regarding
success and allow waste in regard



to what women can contribute to
our country. We associate job and
contribution with the roles of
masculinity and femininity in an
unrealistic way. Why deny that a
woman can be very feminine while
using all her potential as a woman,
whether working and/or keeping
house?"

Survey Highlights
Rising interest of college women in
paid employment and continuing education was confirmed by this second followup survey of June 1957 women college graduates. When questioned 7
years after graduation, more than onefourth of the survey women said they
wanted a career and almost one-half
had some other type of future work
plan. Less than one-fifth indicated no
interest in paid employment.
In response to inquiries about their
educational plans, almost three-fourths
of the graduates recorded affirmative
interest in further training or education—principally university courses.
Slightly over half of those desiring
more education were motivated by jobconnected reasons ; the remainder, by
cultural or personal interests.
A majority of the June 1957 women
graduates (51 percent) were part of the
work force 7 years after graduation.
Thirty-nine percent had full-time jobs,
10 percent had part-time jobs, and 2
percent were seeking work. The size of
the work group had declined considerably since the earlier survey in the
winter of 1957-58, when it constituted
85 percent of the recent graduates.
Most of the survey women employed in
1964 had worked continuously since
3

graduation, but a few had stopped
work for a while—primarily to attend
school or have children. At the time of
the survey, over three-fifths of the
graduates were married women with
young children, and slightly over onefourth of them were employed.
The college women surveyed had averaged 5.5 years of employment since
graduation. A measure of their attachment to the labor force is revealed in
the fact that as many as 43 percent of
the total group had worked at least 6
years during the 7-year period. It is
significant also that 32 percent had had
only one employer since graduation.
The graduates' jobs, in terms of
broad occupational groups, were generally similar in the two survey periods.
Teachers (60 percent) continued to be
predominant in the 1964 occupational
distribution, followed by nurses (6 percent) and secretaries (4 percent). But
89 percent of the employed graduates
held professional jobs in 1964, as compared with just 83 percent in 1957-58.
The proportion performing clerical
work dropped to 8 percent in 1964 from
14 percent in 1957-58.
Salaries of the June 1957 women
graduates were on the average almost
60 percent higher in 1964 than in 195758. Average annual s a l a r y o f the
graduates was $5,947 in 1964. An average of $3,739 had been reported by the
members of the class employed in 195758.
Almost half the June 1957 women
graduates had taken at least one graduate course since leaving college, but
3

4

In this report "average" refers to arithmetic mean.




only 15 percent had earned a master's
degree by 1964 and less than 1 percent
had their doctorate. The largest group
of graduates with an advanced degree
had specialized in education. However,
the undergraduate fields in which the
highest proportions of graduates obtained an advanced degree were sociology or social work, foreign languages,
history, chemistry and other physical
sciences, music, psychology, and social
sciences.
Characteristics of Graduates
At the time of the second survey, the
June 1957 women graduates were at an
age when their childrearing and other
family responsibilities were near the
maximum. As many as 70 percent were
28 or 29 years of age, and 91 percent
were between 27 and 34 years (table
F-3).
By 1964, 81 percent of the survey
graduates were married—in marked
contrast to the 38 percent who were
married when surveyed 6 months after
graduation (table F-4). An additional
4 percent of the graduates were widowed, separated, or divorced. Over
three-fourths of the graduates who had
ever been married had children; virtually all in this group had children of
preschool age. As few as 3 percent of
the graduates had only older children
(6 years and over). The percentage of
graduates who had never married
dropped to 16 percent in 1964 from 60
percent in 1957-58.
The predominant family groups for
whom the graduates and/or their husbands had major financial responsibility in 1964 consisted of two adults and

two children (28 percent), two adults
and one child (20 percent), two adults
and three children or more (16 percent), and two adults and no children
(16 percent). The fact that few of today's young marrieds support another
adult was reflected in the survey statistic that just 2 percent of the families
dependent on the graduate or her husband consisted of three or more adults.
In terms of the total survey group,
the regions in which the June 1957
women graduates resided were relatively similar in 1964 and the winter of
1957-58 (table F-5). Nevertheless, in
1964 slightly more of the graduates
were living in the West; slightly fewer,
in the North Central States and the
Northeast.
An examination of the State addresses of individual graduates in the
two survey periods revealed their relatively high mobility. In 1964 as many
as 20 percent of the graduates were in
a region different from 6 ^ years earlier, and an additional 16 percent were
in a different State in the same region
(table F~6). About 61 percent of the
graduates lived in the same State both
periods. Of course, many of these had
changed residences within their State.
The concentration of today's population in urban areas also was characteristic of the survey group. About 54
percent of the graduates dwelt in a
metropolitan area in 1964; another 39
percent, in a small town or city. Only
6 percent resided on a farm or in open
country.
Continuing Education of Graduates
During the 7-year period since grad


uation, 15 percent of the women had
earned a master's degree, but less than
1 percent had earned a doctor's degree
(table F-7). The women with graduate
degrees tended to cluster in a few subject areas. Fully 2 out of 3 of the women with a doctorate had specialized in
the health fields (largely medicine);
most of the others, in chemistry or
physical sciences, journalism, or social
sciences. Of those with a master's degree, 43 percent did graduate work in
education; 9 percent, in English; and 8
percent, in sociology or social work.
In terms of undergraduate field of
study, the highest proportions of women with an advanced degree were those
whose major had been sociology or social work (27 percent); foreign languages (24 percent); history (23 percent) ; chemistry and physical sciences
(23 percent); or music (23 percent).
Those with relatively few advanced degrees had had undergraduate majors in
home economics (8 percent), religion
(8 percent), or the health fields (3 percent). (The principal undergraduate
major of the doctors of medicine was
biological science; few of them had majored in a health field.)
In most of the graduate fields reported, the majority of women with advanced degrees were continuing to specialize in the field of their undergraduate major. For example, 95 percent of
those with advanced degrees in nursinghad undergraduate majors in nursing.
Likewise, there was a close similarity in
subject matter for 90 percent of those
with advanced degrees in foreign languages; 79 percent, in English and
journalism; and 57 percent, in educa5

tion and physical education. The major
exceptions were the graduate fields of
library science, social sciences, and
health. In none of these exceptions did
a majority of the graduates with advanced degrees have undergraduate
majors in the same field of study.
Reflecting the widespread interest of
college women in continuing education,
fully 46 percent of the survey women
had taken at least one graduate or professional course since college graduation (table F-8). Many had taken nonprofessional courses—mostly cultural
or recreational in nature. Relatively
few had taken business, vocational, or
technical courses following graduation.
When surveyed in 1964,17 percent of
the June 1957 class were enrolled in
graduate or professional schools, and
an additional 29 percent reported having taken p r e v i o u s postgraduate
courses. About three-fourths of the
current enrollees were candidates for a
degree (usually a master's degree) or
a certificate (usually a teaching certificate).
Education was the predominant field
of study of the women in the June 1957
class during their postgraduate years
as well as during their undergraduate
years. For almost half the women with
postgraduate courses, education was
the major graduate subject (table F-9).
Other numerically important graduate
fields among the survey women were
English (6 percent), nursing (5 percent), and sociology or social work (4
percent).
Financial aid was received by more
than one-fourth of the women who had

6


done some graduate work. Of this
group, more than three-fifths were
awarded a fellowship, a scholarship, or
a grant; one-fourth, an assistantship or
traineeship.
Fields in which the highest percentages of graduates obtained financial
assistance were sociology or social work
(67 percent), biological sciences (63
percent), mathematics (61 percent),
social sciences (51 percent), foreign
languages (49 percent), and nursing
(47 percent). However, only low percentages of graduate students received
financial aid among those specializing
in education (14 percent), business and
commerce (22 percent), home economics (25 percent), and library science (25
percent). In general, these figures reflect the relative availability of aid
among various fields of graduate study.
Graduates who were continuing their
education were frequently motivated
by their desire to advance professionally, as noted in the following remarks:
"I decided to return to school to
continue my education and get a
Ph. D. in biochemistry. The primary reason was 3 years of very
frustrating work experiences . . . .
The feeling seemed to be that it was
not worthwhile to train women for
more than the most menial laboratory jobs, since they do not stay at
one job very long. They get
married . . . . The only way to move
upward is with more education."
"I have experienced some prejudice
on the part of employers to hire
women in a traditionally man's job
[pharmacist]. Even under the merit
system of Civil Service, there is
some prejudice against women, and
promotions are not on the same

basis as for men. An additional degree might help, so I'm getting it."

In their efforts to engage in graduate
study, some women encountered such
obstacles as age requirements, restrictions on financial aid, and limited
course offerings. Illustrative comments
follow:
"Although I am interested in earning a Ph. D. degree in psychology,
I feel that this will be almost impossible. In the area of psychology,
most major universities require
full-time enrollment in a Ph. D. program. Also there is a trend toward
placing a ceiling on the age at which
one can enroll in a Ph. D. program.
Even if it were possible to be accepted as a part-time student,
nearly all financial aid in the form
of scholarships and fellowships is
available only to full-time stux
dents."
"Grants and loans often do not permit the student to work full time
and go to school part time. I had to
pay for all my education because
financial responsibilities would not
allow me to attend school full time."
"I wish that more postgraduate
courses were available closer to
home and at more convenient locations."

However, one graduate who was attending school reported favorable circumstances both in her community and
at home.
"I am especially fortunate because
five universities and colleges are
within commuting range. I am
further blessed by having a husband and parents who encourage
women to greater e d u c a t i o n a l
achievement and, in fact, are pushing me to complete a master's."

Employment Status in 1964
Slightly over half (51 percent) of the



women graduates were in the labor
force when surveyed in 1964, 7 years
after their college graduation 4 (table
F-10). Forty-nine percent were employed : 39 percent, full time and 10 percent, part time (table F - l l ) . The fact
that very few (only 2 percent) were
looking for a job reflected the brisk demand for trained workers in 1964.
The percentage of workers in the
survey group had dropped considerably
from the 85 percent level recorded in
the winter of 1957-58, just about 6
months after graduation. The proportion of women attending school only
was also down—from 8 percent in 195758 to 4 percent in 1964. Similarly, those
combining school attendance with employment declined from 13 to 9 percent.
As might be expected, the group of
women neither working nor attending
school grew from 7 to 45 percent over
the 6V<>-year span.
The degree level of the women graduates had a marked influence on the
extent of their employment The percentages employed in 1964 ranged from
91 percent of those with a doctorate to
71 percent of those with a master's degree, and 45 percent of those with a
baccalaureate. On the other hand, the
proportions not in the labor force were
4, 21, and 50 percent, respectively. The
remaining proportions of the group
were attending school or seeking work.
The employment status of the graduates varied by undergraduate major
also. That the music majors included
4
This percentage is the same as that reported by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in its Special Labor Force Report No. 53,
"Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964." Among
women who were 25 to 34 years of age and had 4 years or
more of college, 51 percent were in the labor force in March
1964.

7

the highest proportion (65 percent) of
employed graduates may be related to
the fact that music teachers can adapt
their work to family life more easily
than many other kinds of workers can.
The relatively high amount of employment among women who had majored
in health fields (61 percent) may be explained by the rising job demand and
fairly high salaries in the health services. On the other hand, fairly low salary rates may have influenced the
relatively small extent of labor force
participation among women who majored in religion (33 percent), home
economics (39 percent), art (45 percent), and English (45 percent).
Only minor differences in the graduates' extent of employment appeared
to stem from the region or the type of
area where they were living in 1964.
By region the percentage who were
working ranged from 47 percent in the
Northeast to 51 percent in the South
and also in the West. As for residential
areas, jobs were held by 50 percent of
the women in large metropolitan cities,
where employment opportunities are
relatively abundant. But this proportion of employed was only slightly
above the 48 percent for graduates living in small cities or towns and the 45
percent for those on farms or in open
country.
The majority (67 percent) of the
graduates working in 1964 were employed by governmental organizations,
chiefly local boards of education. About
29 percent were employed by private
organizations, and only 4 percent were
self-employed. The predominant industry of the graduates' employers was

8


educational service (68 percent), followed by medical service (12 percent),
and social or religious service (4 percent).
When asked why they were working
in 1964, more than two-thirds of the
graduates gave a financial reason; onefifth, a work-oriented reason (table F 12). More than three-fourths of the
single graduates and nine-tenths of the
widowed, separated, and divorced graduates needed to support themselves or
others, and almost half of the married
graduates wanted to increase family income. Interest in having a career stimulated employment among relatively
large proportions of single women and
of married women with only older children (6 years of age or over) or with
no children.
The graduates noted numerous hindrances to satisfactory work experiences, particularly in regard to hiring,
pay, and advancement opportunities. A
few of their comments were:
"I now live in a small town where
job opportunities for college women
are not readily available. Teaching
is almost all there is."
"I'm unhappy and disturbed to hear
reports that many school systems,
especially in larger cities, do not like
or refuse to hire female teachers
over 40 years of age."
"Past experience in an executive
training program in the merchandising field shows tremendous
barriers still exist against women.
Lower pay and lack of advancement
are common."
"Promotions are not easily obtained
by women. My rank [assistant professor of English] bothers some of

my colleagues. Not until this year
was my pay on a comparable level
with men in our department."
"In this area of the country, jobs in
my field [chemistry] are very
limited; and where available, there
is much prejudice against women.
However, I work for my husband
and enjoy doing it."
"I cannot resist the opportunity to
express continued distress that in
so many areas of business women
are denied advancement and salary
commensurate with their education,
experience, and proved ability because of their sex. It is most difficult to see so many men hired at
immediately higher salaries in
better jobs, to help train them, and
yet sincerely to feel—even after
many years—that they never prove
themselves to be even equal in
performance—much less superior."

Family Status and Employment
Family responsibilities were a paramount concern in the lives of most of
the college women 7 years after graduation, since 85 percent of the women
were or had been married and 66 percent were mothers of children under 18
years of age (table F-13). Whether or
not the graduates were employed was
strongly affected by their family status.
Mothers of young children (under 6
years old) were the only group of survey graduates in which a majority were
not in the labor force in 1964. Only 26
percent of this group had paying jobs
and about half of these women worked
part time. In addition, 2 percent were
seeking work. By contrast, 93 percent
of both the single graduates and the
widowed, separated, or divorced graduates were employed, and 1 percent in
each of these groups were looking for a



job. Among married women with only
older children (6 years of age or over)
and those with no children, the proportions in the labor force were 90 percent
and 80 percent, respectively.
In addition to their family status,
various other factors were important
to the married graduates when they decided whether or not to work outside
the home. A principal consideration
was the attitude of the husbands toward their wives' employment. When
the married graduates were questioned
about the husbands' attitudes, more
than half described the attitudes as
favorable, and more than one-fourth, as
neutral (table F-14). Less than onefifth thought their husbands were opposed to their participation in the work
force.
The highest proportion of favorable
replies (82 percent) was reported by
wives who were already working, and
the fewest favorable replies (37 percent), by wives not in the work force.
The percentages of husbands in the two
groups described as opposed to their
wives employment were 4 percent and
28 percent, respectively. In each of
these employment status groups, there
was relatively little difference in the response of those with or without children.
Some of the women not working in
1964 volunteered the view that their
husbands would no longer oppose their
working outside the home when their
children become older. On the other
hand, some of those working thought
their husband would disapprove if the
employment were full time rather than
9

part time. But despite the few qualified
answers given to this question, the
overall response reflects the changing
attitude of society in favor of the employment of married women.
A few comments of the wives reveal
the high value they place on their husbands' attitudes, as follows:
"I would love to work, but my husband feels that my place is in the
home caring for my family. Counseling and opportunities are needed
for a woman who can't or won't devote full time to a job but needs to
be doing something of importance
other than just being chief cook and
bottle washer. Clubs aren't important enough."
"A favorable attitude of the husband is vital to the working wife,
in my opinion."
"I am extremely active in many
extracurricular areas of my field
[teaching chemistry]. This is
possible only because I'm married to
an extraordinary man who is more
interested in me as a professional
colleague and partner than in the
accumulation of dirt in our house."

The employment status of the husband and the kind, of occupation he
holds are other factors which may exert strong influence on a wife's employment status. Among the large group
of survey women whose husbands were
employed in 1964, 38 percent of the
wives had paid jobs. (Table F-15.)
However, in the smaller groups in
which the husbands were attending
school or were neither working nor attending school, as many as 62 percent
and 68 percent, respectively, of the
wives were employed.
In terms of the husband's occupation,
the highest proportions of wives who
10



were working were among those whose
husbands were employed as laborers
(88 percent), service workers (69 percent), operatives (60 percent), or clerical workers (56 percent). Conversely,
relatively small percentages of wives
were employed when their husbands
were farm workers (32 percent), professional workers (35 percent), or managers, officials, or proprietors (36 percent).
The ability of a mother to make satisfactory arrangements for the care of
her children is also an important determinant in her decision regarding paid employment. Approximately
three-tenths of the mothers in the class
of June 1957 were employed in 1964.
During their working hours, twothirds5 of the group and child care arrangements for their children in their
own home; about one-sixth, outside
their home (table F-16). Most of the
other working mothers, primarily those
with older children (6 to 17 years of
age) only, had adjusted their work so
that their children were not alone or
considered that their children were old
enough to care for themselves.
Among both the mothers who were
working and those not working, there
was considerable feeling that insufficient attention was being given to their
needs and problems. The following
comments shed light on their situations
and views.
"Our society has made virtually no
provision for a woman with young
children who wants or needs to
For comparison with information for all working mothers,
see "Child Care Arrangements of the Nation's Working Mothers, 1965," a preliminary report of the Children's Bureau, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Women's
Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor.

work. Many young talented women
I know are frustrated in their attempt to escape the boredom they
feel at home by engaging in activities even on a part-time basis. It is
simply too expensive to hire a fulltime nursemaid for care of young
children. It's a horrible and discouraging struggle for those brave
enough to make the attempt to
work."
"I would consider taking a job now
if excellent inexpensive day care
centers were available for children."
"I have contemplated private duty
nursing, but felt the financial gain
at this time would be hardly worthwhile since I would have to hire a
babysitter. I think the establishment of really good inexpensive day
nurseries—maybe government-run
—would get many young mothers
back to nursing and teaching."
"To make it possible to unleash
more female brainpower, there
should be a healthy, realistic federal
income tax deduction for all gainfully employed women who must
pay baby sitters in order to work."
"I recently was interviewed for a
good job for which I was well
qualified, but the employer would
not hire a woman with little children. As long as employers refuse
to take chances, people like myself
must either be underemployed or
unemployed . . . . It is stupid to
ask women to keep out of things
until their children are grown."
"I find substitute teaching the perfect answer for a wife and mother.
It keeps my credential active and
enables me to stay current in the
teaching profession. Beside the
good pay, the hours are convenient
for my children. It also gets me
away from everyday chores, and I
feel like a person in my own right
again."

Another concern that influenced the



graduates' interest in paid employment
was their ability to obtain satisfactory
employees to assist with housework.
Slightly more than one-fifth of the June
1957 women graduates engaged a
household worker in 1964. The extent
of employing h o u s eh o 1 d workers
ranged from 28 percent among the employed married graduates to 14 percent
among the single graduates. Only
among the employed married graduates
was there a significant proportion (7
percent) who had at least 40 hours of
paid housework a week. Most of the
graduates with household assistance
had 8 hours a week or less.
A short workweek was considered by
some of the graduates as a satisfactory
solution to handling dual responsibilities at home and in the workplace.
About one-third of the employed married graduates had a part-time job (less
than 35 hours a week); the majority of
this group worked no more than 16
hours a week (table F-17). Of the employed married women with young children (under 6 years), about half were
working on a part-time basis.
Remarks such as the following indicate growing interest in the promotion
of part-time employment opportunities,
particularly for educated women who
wish to keep in touch with their profession while their children are young.
"Satisfying professional opportunities for young mothers on a parttime basis would help so much in
providing that thread of continuity
between college, graduate school,
early employment, and later years
of education and e m p l o y m e n t .
Whatever can be done to advance
these opportunities and gain ac11

ceptance, by employers particularly,
of the part-time employment of
professional workers, will be widely
welcomed by many of us.**
"There seems to be a tremendous
lack of information available concerning part-time work for married
women with children who cannot
spend a full week away from home
but who have a college degree and
adequate work experience to qualify
them for interesting jobs. Do these
jobs exist? If so, it seems impossible to find out about them/'

For some women, a partial answer to
their wish to combine home and work
activities is found by performing paid
work in their own home. Of the survey
women who were married, 5 percent
were doing paid work at home (table
F-18). More than two-fifths of these
women were teaching or tutoring;
other significant proportions were engaged in writing, typing, secretarial
work, research, bookkeeping, child
care, or telephone selling. A few specific jobs included a free-lance artist
working on greeting cards, music
teacher, reader of high school papers,
abstractor of chemistry reports, sales
counselor, thesis editor and typist, and
translator.
Occupational Patterns
More than four-fifths of the employed women graduates considered
their 1964 job the kind they wished to
hold. Most of those with another preference named teaching; some were already teaching but were interested in
another job in the field. Significant
numbers of other dissatisfied graduates
wanted a job in nursing or other health
work, entertainment or the arts, or social work.
12




Consistent with this general indication of satisfaction with job choice was
the report by a majority (53 percent)
of the graduates that the chief reason
for taking their present job was that it
was "interesting work." Other major
reasons named were good hours and
working conditions (17 percent) and
good pay (13 percent). Relatively small
proportions said they accepted their
present job because of a promotion (3
percent), advancement opportunities
(4 percent), or chance to be creative (5
percent).
Teaching, the occupation of 59.9 percent of the employed graduates in 1964,
continued to be their favorite (table
F-19). As in the winter of 1957-58, the
next largest occupational groups were
those of nurses (6.4 percent) and secretaries and stenographers (4.4 percent).
Despite this concentration, the graduates' occupations covered a broad gamut of fields and levels of responsibility. Among the rather unusual
positions held in 1964 were those of
security analysis investment officer,
highway engineer technician, college
mathematics professor, clinical psychologist, Peace Corps volunteer, assistant hospital administrator, professional cellist, film a c t r e s s , senior
programer, assistant theater designer,
radio performer, geography editor, and
company staff physician.
About 9 of every 10 survey graduates
employed in 1964 had a professional
job. The increase in the proportion of
graduates in professional occupations
since the winter of 1957-58, when only
83 percent were professional workers,
is probably due to the improved job

status of some of the graduates, including those who had been graduate students, and to the relatively greater tendency of those with nonprofessional
jobs to leave the labor force. Although
the increase in professional representation was distributed among numerous
professions, it was most noticeable for
three. The percentage of employed
graduates with jobs as teachers rose
from 58.8 to 59.9 percent; as editors,
copywriters, and reporters, from 0.8
to 1.7 percent; and as social, welfare,
and recreation workers, from 2.8 to 3.2
percent. In addition, 1.6 percent of the
women employed in 1964 were librarians, a group with insufficient numbers
to warrant reporting in 1957-58. Professional groups with a relatively significant decrease in representation over
the e^-year period were home economists, down from 1.2 to 0.5 percent, and
dietitians, down from 1.4 to 0.9 percent.
Graduates holding clerical jobs decreased from 14 percent of the total
employed in 1957-58 to 8 percent in
1964. Those clerical groups with significantly decreased representation
were secretaries and stenographers,
down from 6.7 to 4.4 percent, and miscellaneous clerical workers, down from
6.2 to 2.4 percent.
Comparison of the employment status in 1964 for each of the various occupational groups in 1957-58 provides
some indication of the relative extent
of withdrawal from the labor force.
Occupations with the highest percentages of women who were out of the
labor force in 1964 were home economists (63 percent), secretaries and stenographers (56 percent), dietitians (54



percent), religious workers (53 percent), buyers, and sales workers (52 percent), and social and welfare workers
(51 percent). Occupations with the
lowest percentages out of the labor
force in 1964 were artists, musicians,
and actresses (34 percent), therapists
(35 percent), recreation workers (36
percent), and bookkeeping and accounting clerks (37 percent). Teachers
also had a relatively low withdrawal
rate; 43 percent of their group were out
of the labor force in 1964." ^
The graduates had a generally high
opinion of the relevancy of their formal
education to their 1964 employment.
However, fewer reported a direct relationship in 1964 than in 1957-58. Sixtyeight percent of the June 1957 graduates employed in 1964—as compared
with 86 percent employed 6V2 years
earlier—considered that there was a
direct relationship between their undergraduate major and their current
job. In regard to the relationship between their 1964 job and their graduate
education, three-fourths said it was direct; an additional one-seventh, indirect.
The undergraduate subjects that
generally had the closest relationship
with the jobs held in 1964 were education and other job-oriented majors. For
example, of the graduates employed in
1964, 93 percent of those who had majored in nursing in college were working as nurses, and 87 percent of those
with an education major were teaching
(table F-20). Also, half or more of the
employed graduates who had majored
in physical education, English, foreign
languages, music, home economics, his13

tory, and mathematics were teachers.
Among other employed graduates, 43
percent of those with majors in the
health fields (excluding nursing) were
working as biological technicians and
20 percent as therapists; 37 percent
with sociology or social work majors as
social, welfare, or recreation workers;
and 31 percent with biological science
majors as biological technicians. Of the
chemistry majors, 25 percent were
working as chemists and 19 percent as
biological technicians.
Many graduates volunteered statements about the rewarding aspects of
their particular profession, usually because of its opportunities for social
service, stimulating challenges, or easy
accommodation of home and work
schedules. Occupations receiving special praise included teacher, children's
librarian, medical technologist, recreation worker, computer programer, and
physicist.
A few of the graduates, however,
were disillusioned by their employment
experiences, particularly in fields where
men still predominate, as illustrated in
the following remarks:
"Although I have a B.S. in chemical
engineering and spent 6 months
looking for a job, I ended up working as a reports librarian because
it was the only offer I g o t Thus, the
end of chemical engineering for
me."
"I tried for over 2 years to get a
job as a mathematician and found
private industry very prejudiced
against hiring women as mathematicians—especially in research and
related fields."
14




"From my own experience and that
of others I have known, I believe
it is sound advice for students
majoring in one of the arts fields to
get an education degree first and
then pursue the arts degree. In
seeking employment or earning
dollars for further study, this would
be more beneficial,"
"Analytical chemists—e specially
women analysts—are second class
citizens of the chemical world. If I
ever work again I might teach but
would more likely do stenographic
work. This is women's work, traditional and respectable."
"I have found a significant degree
of discrimination against women in
fields of mathematics and higher
education. Also there seems to
be a consistently small proportion
of fellowship and assistantships
awarded to female applicants."
"I feel the position of women in the
business world is difficult because of
male competition. The teaching profession is more comfortable for a
woman because here she is accepted.
. . . Much as I would like to see
women get ahead in business, I feel
they don't, generally, b e c a u s e
things are made difficult for them."
"It is unfortunate that school systems have a hiring preference for
men over women in administrative
and/or supervisory jobs, and that
individuals from outside the system
are hired for these positions."
"As often as we move, it would be
nice if nationwide requirements for
teacher certification were standard.
I have a currently valid credential
to teach in one State, but another
State won't renew my certification
because the required undergraduate
credits which I have received since
college graduation were earned in
the night program of a junior college instead of a 4-year college."

Graduates' Salaries in 1964
An average of $5,947 was earned in
1964 by women out of college 7 years
and employed full time in the United
States (table F-21). The salary was
more than half again as large as their
$3,739 average in the winter of 1957-58,
about 6 months after their graduation.
The highest average salaries earned
by the June 1957 women graduates
were received by those employed as
chemists, mathematicians, or statisticians ($8,039), followed by managers
or officials ($7,466), and professional
workers in schools, excluding teachers
($6,744). The teachers, with an average
salary of $5,890, earned slightly less
than the average for the total group of
survey graduates. Lowest average
earnings were reported by the secretaries and stenographers ($4,527), miscellaneous clerical workers ($4,813),
and librarians ($5,658),
Fully 20 percent of the employed
graduates earned $7,000 or over in
1964; only 5 percent, less than $4,000
(table F-22). The graduates' earnings
were generally highest in the West
($6,358) and Northeast ($6,266) and
lowest in the South ($5,215) (table F 23).
The positive influence of advanced
education on salary levels was corroborated by the $6,409 average salary of
graduates with a master's degree and
the $5,800 average of those with a baccalaureate only. The earnings of the
few survey graduates with a doctorate
degree are not reported because most
were resident physicians in hospitals
and had typically low earnings.
In terms of their undergraduate ma


jor, graduates with the highest average
salaries in 1964 were those who had majored in mathematics ($7,517), chemistry ($6,535), or psychology ($6,393)
(table F-24). The large group of graduates with an education major averaged $5,877—slightly below the average
for the total group. Lowest average
salaries were received by graduates
with a major in music ($5,566) or business and commerce ($5,568).
Complaints of low pay or salary discrimination were voiced by some of the
graduates, as illustrated by the following:
"Women are still discriminated
against in business . . . . As a commercial artist, I am paid considerably less than a 24-year old man
who has a fifth of my education and
background—and much less talent.
I also find it ironic that a 19-yearold secretary with one previous job
makes only $5 a week less than I."
"I am still appalled at the low scale
of women's wages and that the old
battle of the sexes still prevails in
hiring women executives in this day
and age."
"I do feel that wages are drastically
low for this profession [nursing]
and must be remedied before the
shortage becomes greater."

Work Histories of Graduates
The women had an average of 5.5
years' paid employment between their
graduation from college in June 1957
and the 1964 survey (table F-25). The
fact that as many as 27 percent had
worked throughout the 7-year interval,
and an additional 16 percent for at least
6 years, supports the view that college
women are making significant economic use of their college education.
15

Only 3 percent of the survey graduates included paid employment in their plans
(table F-27). As many as 27 percent of
had not had any paid employment since
graduation. Nine out of ten of those the total group said they wanted to
with some employment history had have a career. These included almost
two-thirds of the single women, almost
worked primarily on a full-time basis.
There were several indications that three-fourths of the married women
with older children (6 to 17 years of
the women in the June 1957 class had
considerable job stability. In the posi- age) only, and fully three-fourths of
tions held in 1964, they had spent an the widowed, separated, or divorced
average of 3.9 years. As many as 32 women. Almost two-fifths of the total
percent had worked for only one em- group planned to resume work when
ployer between graduation and 1964. family responsibilities were less deThe average number of jobs the group manding.
had held was 2.6—which was also the
The employment plans of the gradaverage number of employers for uates bore a strong relationship to their
whom they had worked. Factors tend- employment status in 1964. Those who
ing to increase job changes were that wanted a career included over half the
some graduates had quit to accompany employed graduates but less than 1 pertheir husbands to new locations and
cent of those not in the work force (tasome teachers had taken temporary ble F-28). On the other hand, more
jobs during the summer.
than one-third of those not working did
Principal reasons given by the June not plan to work in the future.
1957 women graduates for leaving the
The extent of the graduates' interest
work force were the birth and care of
in employment increased during the
their children (72 percent), marriage 6V2 years' survey interval, as revealed
(12 percent), and moves to a new loca- by comparison of the graduates' emtion (7 percent) (table F-26). The ma- ployment plans in 1964 and in the winjority of the single graduates who left ter of 1957-58. Of those who had said
work, however, left to attend school. in 1957-58 that they did not plan to
About three-fifths of the married wom- work in the future, only two-fifths gave
en without children who left did so be- the same response in 1964 (table F-29).
cause of marriage, location moves, or One-tenth of the group wanted a career
household responsibilities; some left be- and the remainder had some work plan.
cause they were expecting a child in the Of those planning in 1957-58 to pursue
near future. Of the total group of grad- a career, about three-fifths felt the
uates not in the labor force in 1964, al- same way in 1964 and only 5 percent
most half were last employed in 1961- had no future work plan.
63.
One-tenth of the graduates not employed in 1964 reported immediate
Future Employment Plans
plans to seek work. The majority of
Four of every 5 graduates, when these women wanted a part-time job.
asked about their anticipated activities, Teaching or related work was pre16




ferred by almost two-thirds of the
"near-future" job seekers; nursing, by
one-tenth. When questioned about the
main reason for preferring a certain
type of work, almost one-half said it
was work for which they had been
trained, and one-third, work that was
interesting.
About one-eighth of all the survey
graduates indicated they would like to
receive counseling assistance regarding
employment. One graduate, 28 years of
age, who was not interested in counseling, added, "No, too late now." The percentage of those wanting counseling
was slightly higher among the employed than among those not employed.
Remarks of the graduates regarding
counseling assistance related not only
to their present needs but also to their
conviction that more employment information should be given young women in high school and college. Typical
remarks follow:
"Greatly interested in counseling
assistance. Feel this is the answer
to many a graduate's problem after
trying first job—then being so disappointed in outcome."
"At this point, I feel that I would
have prepared myself more carefully for a profession had I taken
the time to find out where my real
interest and ability to perform
should be directed."
"There is a tremendous need for
occupational guidance on the college
level. Most college students have
no idea of the wide range of occupations that might be available and do
not consider the practical consequences of taking subjects just because they're interested in them."
"I have a desire to return to work
when my children are in school full



time. I feel the greatest need for
women in my present position is
guidance. There should be more
information about the availability
of jobs."
"I feel that employment opportunities for women college graduates
are grossly lacking or underpublished. Women graduates in liberal
arts are often aware of no other
type of employment than teaching."
"I think a State job placement and
counseling service for college graduates would be very valuable." G

Numerous graduates revealed serious intentions of returning to the work
force when childrearing demands diminished, as noted below:
"I plan to return to work when my
oldest child is in high school for
two reasons: (1) to pay for a college education for each child; and
(2) to regain contact with and make
contribution to the community outside the home and family unit."
"If I go back to work after my children are in school, it would be a
teaching job. My reasons would be
the enjoyment I get from teaching,
plus my feeling that those who are
capable and qualified owe it to the
community to contribute to the care
and education of all children, not
just their own. I would plan to
spend a good share of my wages to
employ household help."
"I want to go back to work in the
near future but, as I see it now, on
a part-time basis. I am hoping to
find something to do that I will enjoy without taking too much away
from my home and family. As do
many of my friends, I regret the
lack of contact with people and using my mind and education."
"I do not believe that my previous
educational training h a s b e e n
wasted just because I am not now
® See patre 27 for further information.

17

working in the field for which I was
trained. I was not sorry to give up
teaching for my family, and I feel
my children need me to be with
them in their early years. My time
is coming again when I can do more
for myself."
"Although 1 enjoyed teaching and
felt successful in it, I would like to
start anew in another entirely unrelated field and return to school
to train for it. Perhaps nursing
or secretarial work or optometry
would be satisfactory."

Future Educational Plans
Almost as many graduates included
further education in their future plans
as mentioned paid employment (table
F-30). Over three-fourths of the employed and over two-thirds of those not
employed said they were planning to
continue their education. The majority
were considering a variety of university courses, but significant proportions
named refresher courses in their professional field or enrollment in a teacher certification program.
A job-oriented reason for seeking additional education was given by slightly
over half the graduates with an education plan or interest (table F-31). In
this group, about three-fifths wanted
further education for job advancement
purposes; the remainder wished to obtain job preparation or a teaching certificate. Graduates who did not relate
their desire for more education to employment said they had a general educational or cultural reason or were
working toward a degree.
About two-thirds of the survey graduates felt they were keeping up to date
in their professional field. This favor18




able view was reported by twice as
many of those employed (88 percent)
as of those not employed (44 percent).
Most of the employed were keeping up
to date by working in their professional
field. In addition, many were doing outside reading, attending conferences,
and taking courses. More than fourfifths of those not employed who reported they were keeping up to date
were reading journals, magazines, or
books in their field. Other significant
methods used by this group to update
their knowledge and skills were by
maintaining contacts with others in
their profession (24 percent), taking
courses (17 percent), and attending
meetings, conferences, or workshops
(14 percent).
Graduates' statements about their
educational plans and needs ranged
from firm declarations of intent to return to school to earnest appeals for
more assistance in bridging the homemaking period between jobs.
"Fully intend and look forward to
becoming an accredited children's
librarian and will return to graduate school once my husband has
completed medical training and is in
practice."
"I plan to go back to college on a
regular basis to get a master's degree after my husband acquires his
degree. He then would be available
to babysit with our son."
"I think now that our oldest child
has started the first grade, my interest in education and teaching is
higher then it has ever been since
graduation. I find myself wishing I
were back in the classroom. When
all my children are in school, I hope
to start teaching after completing
some refresher courses."

"My degree in liberal arts prepared
me for absolutely nothing. I would
like to go back and get some kind of
training that would prepare me for
some field of work—not necessarily
to use in the immediate future but
as security if the need should ever
arise for me to work/'
"In a profession such as nursing, I
find that reading professional publications is not enough to keep one
up to date. Unused skills are readily
lost. The only alternative seems to
be part-time work, which is frequently undesirable to the mother
of preschool children. Surely some
program could be developed which
would help nurses maintain skills
and interests through this period."
"Teacher certification courses are
too time consuming. There should
be intensive home-study courses or
night courses for qualified students.
Most courses drag too slowly and
waste time. They are also very
costly."
"I feel that educational institutions
should make more effort to enable
college-trained women to come back
to school for graduate work and refresher-type courses."

Volunteer Activities

thirds of the graduates answered affirmatively. A few worked as many as
40 hours a month in a voluntary capacity. Most spent from 9 to 16 hours (29
percent), 5 to 8 hours (25 percent), or
4 hours or less (23 percent) a month in
volunteer service.
Some of the women noted that they
would like to do more volunteer work
but were deterred by childrearing demands or by frequent moves of the
husband to new communities. One revealed that when she engaged in extensive volunteer work she was encouraged by her husband to get a paid job
and bring home a paycheck. Another
speculated that the reason her husband
preferred her to be a volunteer rather
than a paid worker was that her volunteer status affected his ego less. Despite
these conflicting influences, however,
many of the women wanted to and did
engage in &6me volunteer work—often
along with homemaking and/or employment activities—because they wanted
to perform some social service or to
keep in touch with their community.

In 1964 over three-fourths of the
women out of college 7 years were active members of one or more voluntary
organizations. The majority were affiliated with a religious institution. Significant proportions also belonged to a
social or recreational club (40 percent),
a community, welfare, or social service
organization (38 percent), a professional society (34 percent), or a school
or educational group (33 percent).
When asked whether they were volunteer workers for community or
national organizations, more than two-

Conclusions
In this period of rising interest in
women's employment status, the views,
accomplishments, and needs of the
women who were surveyed 7 years
after college reflected the changing social and economic climate of the Nation. By their questionnaire answers
and observations, many of the women
revealed that they were paying increased attention to fashioning a dynamic life pattern, thinking ahead to
the time when their current responsibilities would lessen and they would be




19

seeking a new assortment of meaningful activities.
The widespread desire of college
women to participate in economic and/
or community activities outside the
home was substantiated by the high
rate of response to the survey, as well
as by their thoughtful statements. A
significant number of the survey
women, some of whom were wives and
mothers, had found jobs that utilized
their capabilities and education to advantage. But social attitudes or economic forces restricted fulfillment of
the personal goals of others.
Some of those who encountered difficulties reported job barriers or rebuffs,
particularly when they tried to follow
earlier pioneers in occupational fields
with relatively few women. Others
found limited willingness on the part of
employers to hire them for jobs commensurate with their abilities or to provide equitable pay and suitable work
arrangements. A few were affected adversely by prejudices against working
mothers. For some, there was an insufficient number of schools and colleges with convenient and suitable
courses for housewives. And still others
were frustrated in their efforts to reconcile work or school activities with
homemaking schedules.
Nevertheless, the most influential
factor affecting the economic status of
these women was the Nation's generally high level of economic activity in
1964. With rising demand for trained
and skilled workers in virtually every
profession, college women were in a
relatively advantageous employment
position. Employers, some of whom
might have been reluctant to hire women if skilled men had been avail20




able, were more willing than usual to
give women a chance to show their
worth in new fields of employment. If
recent legislative and related developments improve women's employment
opportunities as expected, these college
women—like other women—can look
forward to further success in toppling
traditional barriers to better economic
status.
In their search for a useful and satisfying life, the survey women generally
had a positive outlook. Few revealed
negative or defeatist thinking that
might limit their ability to find appropriate solutions to their employment
problems. Instead, they questioned social or economic prejudices in a forthright manner and analyzed their difficulties objectively.
Questions arise about subsequent actions of this group of women. Will they
retain their self-confidence and determination to reenter the work force as
the years following graduation increase? Will the interruption in job
career be shorter for them than it was
for older alumnae? Will they follow
through on their stated plans for additional education?
The search for answers to questions
such as these could stimulate subsequent study at the next important stage
in their lives—when their youngest
child is in school. Then the latent
desire to return to work may reach
the decisionmaking stage. Continuing
concern by society about the activities
and needs of educated women is essential—not only to enable them to make
their maximum contribution to society
but, even more importantly, to help
them satisfy their individual aspirations and lead rewarding lives.




Appendix

21




Appendix A

QUESTIONNAIRE FORM
FOLLOWUP SURVEY OF CLASS OF JUNE 1957 WOMEN
BACCALAUREATE GRADUATES
Name of graduate (include maiden name)
Address
(Number)

(Street)

(City)

(State)

Permanent address
(if different)

„

_

Undergraduate college
(Location)

INSTRUCTION: Please circle only one number in each question, except where
otherwise indicated. Fill in all blanks where pertinent. Enter "none" if the item
does not apply to you.
I

EDUCATION
A. Highest degree received ?
1. B.A. or B.S.
2. M.A. or M.S.
3. Ph. D or Ed. D
4. Other (specify)
B. If you are attending or have attended
graduate or professional school:
What is (was) your field of study?
If you receive (d) any financial aid,
specify the type (fellowship, loan,
assistantship, or other).
C. Are you currently attending any
school ?
1. Yes, full time
2. Yes, part time
3. No
D. Are you a candidate for a degree or
certificate?
1. Yes
2. No




E. If "yes," what degree or type of
certificate?
F. If you are taking (or have taken)
courses not leading to a degree, circle
one or more of the following:
1. Academic (credit) course(s) in
2. Business or commerical school
course (s) in
3. Vocational or technical course (s)
in
4. Recreation or cultural course (s)
5. Other (specify)
II FAMILY AND BACKGROUND DATA
A. Age on last birthday
(years)

B. Marital status
1. Single (never married)
2. Married
3. Widowed, separated, or divorced
23

C. If married, circle one or more which
describe your husband's status:
1. Employed full time
2. Employed part time
3. Attending school full time
4. Attending school part time
5. In military service
6. Not working
7. Other (specify)
.
D. If your husband is employed, specify
his occupation: ._
E. Total number of persons who depend
on you and/or your husband for more
than half their financial support:
Adults (including self, husband)
Children (under 18 years of
age)
F. If you have children, give their ages:
G. Do you have paid help for housework?
1. Yes
2. No
H. If "yes," about how many hours of
help per week?
I. Where do you live?
1. Metropolitan area
2. Small city or town
3. Farm or open country
4. Other (specify)

A. Are you now employed ?
1. Yes, full time
2. Yes, part time
3. No, but seeking work
4. No, and not seeking work

F. Main activity of employer:
0. Educational service
1. Medical service
2. Retail or wholesale trade
3. Finance, insurance, or law
4. Transportation,
communications,
or public utilities
5. Social service or religion
6. Advertising or public relations
7. Manufacturing
8. Government
9. Other (specify)
G. How many hours a week do you
usually work ?

I. If teaching, how many pay checks do
you receive per year?

IF EMPLOYED, ANSWER THE
FOLLOWING. (If not, skip to Part
IV.)
B. Give title and brief description of
present job
C. How long have you held this job?
(years)

24

E. Which one of the following are you?
1. Employee of private enterprise
2. Government employee
3. Self-employed
4. Other (specify)
——-

H. Annual salary or earnings before
deductions $
If annual figure is not available, show
gross received: (Answer one.)
Per month
$
Semimonthly
$
Every 2 weeks
$
Per week
$

III EMPLOYMENT




I), If employed as a teacher, give type of
school:
1. Kindergarten
2. Grade school
3. Junior high
4. Senior high
5. Other (specify)

J. What was your major reason for taking your present job ?
1. Promotion
2. Good pay
3. Good hours and working conditions
4. Interesting work
5. Advancement opportunities
6. Chance to be creative
7. Other (specify) .
.

K. Is your present job related to your
undergraduate major?
1. Yes, directly
2. Yes, indirectly
3. No
L. If you did graduate work, is your
present job related to your field of
graduate study?
1. Yes, directly
2. Yes, indirectly
3. No
M. Is your present job the kind you
would wish to hold?
1. Yes
2. No

(Include
periods.)

full-time

and

part-time

(years)

C. What is the total number of different
employers you have worked for since
graduation?
D. What is the total number of different
jobs you have held since graduation?
E. What was the title of your last job?
(If not employed now, report last
title; if now working, report title before current one.)
F. In what industry was that job?

N. If "no," what would you prefer ?_ _
„_
O. What is your main reason for working?
1. To support self and/or others
2. To increase family income
3. To get actual work experience
4. To escape household routine
5. To have a career
6. To help husband establish career
7. Other (specify)
P. State your secondary reason for working:
Q. If you perform any paid work in your
own home, describe briefly what you
do:
R. If you have children, what arrangements have you made for their care
while you work?
IV RECENT WORK HISTORY
A. When were you last employed?
1. Now employed
2. Last employed in (give year)
3. Never employed since college
IF EVER EMPLOYED SINCE COLLEGE, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING. (If not, skip to Part V.)
B. How many years of employment have
you had since college graduation?



G. Has your employment been mostly on
a full-time basis?
1. Yes
2. No
H. If you worked after graduation but
are not employed now, circle the principal reason for leaving your last job:
1. Marriage
2. Birth and care of children
3. Household responsibilities
4. Attend school
5. Illness or disability
6. Moved to new location
7. Part-time work not available
8. Other (specify)
I. State your secondary reason for not
working:
V FUTURE PLANS
A. What are your future employment
plans? (Circle the one which best describes your current view.)
1. Plan to continue work, interested
in career
2. Expect to continue work indefinitely, but no interest in career
3. Plan to stop work when married
4. Plan to stop work at birth of child
5. Plan to stop work only while children are young
6. Plan to go to work in future
7. Do not plan to work in future
8. Other (specify)
25

B. If you are married, how would you
describe your husband's altitude toward your employment?
1. Favorable
2. Neutral
3. Opposed
C. Are you planning to enroll in any type
of educational or training courses in
the future?
1. Yes
2. No
D. If "yes," what is your major reason
for wanting to take more courses ? „
E. If "yes," what kind of course (s) are
you interested in? (Circle one or
more.)
1. Refresher or brush-up course (s) in
2. Teacher certification program
3. Business or commercial school
course (s) in
„
4. Graduate education (specify field)
5. Other (specify)
F. Would you like counseling assistance
in choosing a suitable field of work?
1. Yes
* 2. No
IF NOT EMPLOYED NOW,
THE FOLLOWING:

ANSWER

G. Are you now making plans to obtain a
job?
1. Yes, full time
2. Yes, part time
3. No

NOTE:

II. If "yes," what type of job do you wish
to get? (specify)
L What are your main reasons for preferring this type of work?
-

VI GENERAL INFORMATION
A. Are you an active member of any
organization ?
1. Yes
2. No
B. If "yes," circle one or more of the following organizations:
1. Community, welfare, or social
service
2. Professional (specify)
3. Religious
1. School or educational
5. Social or recreational
6. Other (specify)
C. Are you a volunteer worker for any of
these organizations ?
1. Yes
2. No
D. About how many hours a month do
you spend in organization work?
E. Do you feel that you are keeping fairly
up to date in your professional field?
1. Yes
2. No
F. If "yes," how are you keeping up to
date?

Please add any comments you wish to make concerning the previous questions or other topics. We
are especially interested in your work experiences, attempts to obtain a job, and plans for future
employment and/or education.


26


Appendix A

COUNSELING AND PLACEMENT SERVICES
In carrying out its key role of matching
workers and jobs, the Federal-State employment service system offers college women the
following services without charge:
1. A consultation service to assist professional people in selecting a career in
accord with their training, experience,
and interests as well as with present
and future job demands.
2. Information about employment opportunities in specific areas, States, and
the Nation as a whole.
3. Facilities of the Professional Office
Network, composed of 120 public employment offices in major metropolitan
areas, that enable each office to communicate directly with all the others
in order to recruit workers for profesState

City

sional openings or to develop jobs for
professional applicants.
4. Cooperative action with nonprofit
organizations in the professional placement field through joint operation of:
a. Temporary on-site placement services when cooperating professional
societies hold their annual conventions.
b. Year-round national registers, currently established only in the fields
of economics and library work with
the names of job seekers and interested employers.
Access to these services can be gained by
contacting any of the 2,000 public employment offices located throughout the United
States. However, the following 120 offices
provide placement and counseling services
for professional workers specifically:
Street

address

ALABAMA

Birmingham
Huntsville
Mobile
Montgomery

1816 Eighth Ave., North
626 Lehman Ferry Rd.
457 Church St.
125 Clayton St.

ALASKA

Anchorage

524 Sixth Ave.

ARIZONA

Phoenix
Tucson

207 East McDowell Rd.
7 North Granada Ave.

ARKANSAS

Little Rock

307 West Markham St.

CALIFORNIA

Los Angeles
Oakland
Sacramento
San Diego
San Francisco
San Jose
Van Nuys

3223 West Sixth St.
235 12th St.
1303 Seventh St.
1354 Front St.
134 California St.
970 West Julian St.
14400 Sherman Way

COLORADO

Denver

251 East 12th Ave.

CONNECTICUT

Hartford

49 Pearl St.

DELAWARE

Wilmington

801 West St.




27

State

City

S t re e t addrcx s

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Washington, D.C.

1000 16th St., NW.

FLORIDA

Fort Lauderdale
Miami

105 East Broward Blvd.
20 SE. First Ave.

GEORGIA

Atlanta

161 Peachtree St., NW.

IDAHO

Boise

305 Main St.

ILLINOIS

Chicago

208 South LaSalle St.

INDIANA

Gary
Indianapolis
South Bend

475 Broadway
10 North Senate Ave.
216 North Michigan St.

IOWA

Des Moines

545 Sixth Ave.

KANSAS

Kansas City
Topeka
Wichita

552 State Ave.
1309 Topeka Blvd.
402 East Second St.

KENTUCKY

Lexington
Louisville
Winchester

300 South Upper St.
600 West Cedar St.
15 West Lexington Ave.

LOUISIANA

New Orleans

430 Canal St.

MARYLAND

Baltimore

1100 North Eutaw St.

MASSACHUSETTS

Boston
Springfield
Worcester

31 St. James Ave.
1592 Main St.
58 Front St.

MICHIGAN

Ann Arbor
Battle Creek
Detroit
Flint
Grand Rapids
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Lansing

210 South Fourth Ave.
171 West Van Buren St.
7310 Woodward Ave.
706 Payne St.
255 Division Ave., South
540 North Jackson St.
143 Stockbridge Ave.
320 North Capitol Ave.

MINNESOTA

Duluth
Minneapolis
St. Paul

204 Bradley Bldg.
309 Second Ave., South
394 North Robert St.

MISSISSIPPI

Jackson

502 Yazoo St.

MISSOURI

Kansas City
St. Louis

1411 Walnut St.
505 Washington St.

MONTANA

Billings

624 North 24th St.

NEBRASKA

Lincoln
Omaha

1410 Q St.
207 Farm Credit Bldg.

NEVADA

Las Vegas

135 South Eighth S t

NEW JERSEY

Jersey City
Newark
Paterson

2 Enos PI.
2 Central Ave.
52 Church St.


28


State

City

Street

address

NEW MEXICO

Albuquerque

1014 Central Ave., SW.

NEW YORK

Albany
Buffalo
New York

Rochester
Schenectady
Syracuse
White Plains

194 Washington Ave.
295 Main St.
444 Madison Ave. (nurses and
medical workers)
444 Madison Ave. (other professionals)
500 Midtown Tower
236 Broadway
920 Erie Blvd., East
300 Hamilton Ave.

NORTH CAROLINA

Charlotte
Durham
Fayetteville
Greensboro
Raleigh
Winston-Salem

112 West First St.
516 North Mangum St.
148 Rowan St.
229 North Greene St.
321 West Hargett St.
124 North Main St.

NORTH DAKOTA

Fargo
Grand Forks

220 10th St., North
217 South Third St.

OHIO

Akron
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Columbus
Dayton
Toledo
Youngstown

323 South Main St.
1916 Central Parkway
623 St. Clair Ave., NE.
309 South Fourth St.
20 North Jefferson St.
317 Superior St.
2026 South Ave.

OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma City
Tulsa

107 Robinson St.
405 South Boston St.

OREGON

Eugene
Portland

680 Pearl St.
610 SW. Broadway

PENNSYLVANIA

Erie
Harrisburg
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh

144 West Seventh St.
1800 North Second St.
1218 Chestnut St.
327 Fifth Ave.

RHODE ISLAND

Providence

49 Westminster St.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Charleston

1061 King St.

SOUTH DAKOTA

Rapid City
Sioux Falls

505 Kansas City St.
110 East 12th St.

TENNESSEE

Memphis
Nashville

1295 Poplar Ave.
301 James Robertson Blvd.

TEXAS

Austin
Dallas
Fort Worth
Houston
San Antonio

1215 Guadalupe St.
1025 Elm St.
614 Texas St.
914 Main St.
330 Dwyer Ave.

New York




29

State

City

Street

address

UTAH

Brigham City
Logan
Ogclen
Provo
Salt Lake City

144 South Main St.
446 North First St.
2655 Adams Ave.
190 West 800 North
415 South Main St.

VIRGINIA

Norfolk
Richmond
Roanoke

147 Granby St.
5 South Seventh St.
First St. and Kirk Ave.

WASHINGTON

Seattle
Spokane

919 Second Ave.
South 17 Washington St.

WEST VIRGINIA

Charleston
Huntington
Morgantown
Parkersburg
Wheeling

211 Broad St.
734 Fourth Ave.
106 High St.
512 Juliana St.
22 10th St.

WISCONSIN

Madison
Milwaukee

206 North Broom St.
634 North Second Ave.

30



Appendix A

CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Many colleges and universities are attempting to meet the educational needs of
adult women by developing so-called continuing education programs for women. The
types of special courses and services which
are offered vary widely.
Some special education programs for
women accent the importance of individual
counseling; others offer a formal course describing the world of work and the range of
employment opportunities open to mature
women. Refresher courses to update specific
skills or to help women wishing to reapply
for admission as degree candidates are also
popular. Other special services included in




continuing education programs are seminars
in broad areas of study, proficiency examinations to measure knowledge gained through
experience, fellowships and other financial
assistance, nursery service, scheduling
classes at convenient hours, and job placement.
A complete listing of special education
programs for adult women is difficult to compile because of continual changes. However,
the Women's Bureau has prepared a partial
listing which is available for distribution
without charge.1
1
Single copies of "Continuing Education Programs for
Women" may be obtained by writing to the Women's Bureau,
U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210.

31

Appendix A

GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP, GRANT, AND LOAN PROGRAMS
Financial assistance is provided graduate
students by numerous organizations in the
form of fellowships, scholarships, grants, or
loans—usually for full-time study in particular fields. Good sources of up-to-date information about financial aid opportunities are
the professional societies in each field and the
higher education institutions located nearby
or specializing in the field of interest. 1
Of the various fellowship, grant, or loan
programs administered by Federal Government agencies, several are of particular interest to women graduate students. For each
program cited below, application forms requesting financial assistance can be obtained
only from the universities and colleges participating in the Federal program. The
higher education institutions also receive the
completed applications and make the awards.
Information about the types of financial
aid they provide graduate students, eligibility requirements, and lists of participating
institutions may be obtained by writing to
the following Federal agencies:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of
Elementary and Secondary Education,
Division of Educational Personnel Training, Washington, D.C. 20202
Administers the Experienced
Teacher
FeUotvship Program, which provides
fellowships, through colleges and universities, for up to 2 years of full-time
graduate study to inservice teachers in
elementary or secondary education, including ancillary fields like counseling
and guidance, school library work,
school social work, and special education
for handicapped children.
1
A comprehensive compilation, covering both private and
public offerings, is presented in the brochure titled "A Selected
List of Major Fellowship Opportunities and Aids to Advanced
Education for United States Citizens." This may be obtained
without charge from the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Fellowship Office, 2101 Constitution
Avenue, NW.. Washington, D.C. 20418.


32


U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of
Elementary and Secondary Education,
Division of Educational Personnel Training, Behavioral Sciences Branch, Washington, D.C. 20202
Administers the Grant Program for the
Preparation of Professional Personnel in
the Ediication of Handicapped Children,
which provides fellowships for full-time
graduate study, summer session traineeships, and special study institute traineeships, through participating institutions,
to teachers, supervisors of teachers, research workers, and other specialists in
the education of handicapped children.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of
Higher Education, Division of Foreign
Studies, Student Assistance Section, Washington, D.C. 20202
Provides Modern Foreign
Language
Fellowships, through graduate schools,
for full-time study leading to an advanced degree in an exotic language or
area study and to a career as a college
or university teacher or as a professional or technician in other public service.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of
Higher Education, Division of Graduate
Programs, Graduate Academic Programs
Branch, Washington, D.C. 20202
Administers the Prospective
Teacher
Fellowship Program, which provides up
to 2 years of full-time graduate study
for prospective or returning teachers in
elementary or secondary education, including ancillary fields (described previously for Experienced Teacher Fellowship Program).
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of

Higher Education, Division of Graduate
Programs, Graduate Academic Programs
Branch, Graduate Fellowship Program,
Washington, D.C. 20202
Provides National Defense
Graduate
Fellowships, through graduate schools,
for 3 years of full-time study in any of
a wide range of fields leading to a
doctorate and a career as a college or
university teacher.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of
Higher Education, Division of Student
Financial Aid, Washington, D.C. 20202
Helps provide National Defense Student
Loans, through colleges and universities,
of up to $2,500 a year but not exceeding
$10,000 to graduate or professional students who carry at least one-half the
normal full-time academic workload. A
maximum of 50 percent of loan indebtedness may be canceled for borrowers who
become full-time teachers; the entire
obligation may be canceled for teachers
in certain eligible schools located in
areas of primarily low-income families.
Administers the Guaranteed Loan Program, which includes provisions for
graduate students who carry at least
half the normal full-time academic workload to borrow up to $1,500 a year from
a bank or other financial institution
under terms approved by the Federal
Government.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, National Defense Education Act Institutes for Advanced Study, Washington, D.C. 20202
Supports NDEA Institutes for Advanced
Study, conducted by sponsoring institutions usually during the summer and
providing nominal stipends to teachers
and special personnel in elementary and
secondary schools for advanced study in
13 fields (history, geography, reading,
English, English as a foreign language,
modern foreign languages, counseling
and guidance, educational media, school
library work, the teaching of disadvantaged youth, and-—on a pilot basis—
economics, civics, and industrial a r t s ) .



U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service, Division
of Community Health Services, Training
Resources Branch, Washington, D.C.
20201
Provides Traineeships for Registered
Nurses under the Public Health Traineeship Program, through training institutions, for up to 1 year of full-time
study leading to a career in public health
nursing.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service, Division
of Nursing, Washington, D.C. 20201
Administers the Professional
Nurse
Traineeship Program, which is designed
to prepare graduate nurses for positions
as administrators, supervisors, nursing
specialists, or teachers, by providing
traineeships for full-time academic
study or for short-term study in intensive training courses sponsored by public and nonprofit institutions.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service, National
Institute of Mental Health, Training and
Manpower Resources Branch, Bethesda,
Md. 20014
Administers the NIMH Training Grants
Program, which provides stipends and
tuition, through participating institutions, for full-time study leading to a
master's or doctoral degree in mental
health specialties of such fields as social
work, social sciences, biological sciences,
psychology, and psychiatric mental
health nursing.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, Division of Training, Washington, D.C. 20201
Administers the VRA Training Grants
Program, which provides stipends and
tuition, through institutions of higher
learning, for full-time graduate study
leading to a degree and a career in rehabilitation of disabled persons and including a variety of fields such as medicine, nursing, occupational therapy,
physical therapy, speech pathology and
33

audiology, social work, rehabilitation
counseling, psychology, recreation, and
sociology.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau, Washington, D.C. 20201
Provides Child W elfare Trainees/tipsf
through institutions of higher learning,
for full-time study leading to a master's
or doctoral degree in the field of child
welfare; provides Child Welfare Services grants, through State public welfare
agencies, for professional education of
staff in child welfare programs; and
provides Medical Social Services stipends, through State health departments, for training of social workers for
programs covering maternal and child
health and crippled children's services.
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration, Office of Manpower Policy,

34




Evaluation, and Research, Washington,
D.C. 20210
Provides Manpower Research Grants to
universities for support of doctoral
candidates working on dissertations in
the manpower field.
U.S. National Science Foundation, Division
of Graduate Education in Science, Graduate Traineeship Program, Washington,
D.C. 20550
Administers the NSF Graduate Traineeship Program, which provides grants,
through participating schools, for graduate study leading to a master's or doctoral degree in the biological, engineering, mathematical, or physical sciences;
in anthropology, economics, geography,
the history and/or philosophy of science,
linguistics, political science, psychology,
or sociology; or in interdisciplinary
programs involving two or more
sciences.

Appendix A

SUGGESTED READINGS
Berry, Jane, and Sandra Epstein. Continuing Education of Women: Needs, Aspirations, and Plans. Kansas City, Mo., The
University of Kansas City, 1963.
Bunting, Mary I.:
A Huge Waste: Educated Womanpower.
In The New York Times Magazine, May
7, 1961.
The Radcliffe Institute for Independent
Study. In Educational Record, October
1961.
Change and Choice for the College Woman.
In Journal of the American Association of
University Women, May 1962.
Cooper, Joseph D. A Woman's Guide to
Part-Time Jobs. Garden City, N.Y.,
Doubleday and Co., 1963.
Dennis, Lawrence E., ed. Education and a
Woman's Life. Proceedings of the Itasca
Conference on the Continuing Education
of Women. Washington, D.C., American
Council on Education, 1963.
Dolan, Eleanor F. Higher Education for
Women: Time for Reappraisal. In Higher
Education, September 1963.
Ford Foundation Program for the Retraining in Mathematics of College Graduate
Women. In Notes and Comments, New
Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers, The State University, May 1963.
A Lot More To Learn. In Mademoiselle,
February 1962.
Ludwig, Jack. New Shining Minds for
Rusty Ladies. In Glamour, July 1961.
O'Neill, Barbara Powell. Careers for Women
After Marriage and Children. New York,
N.Y., The Macmillan Co., 1965.
President's Commission on the Status of
Women. American Women. 1963.1
Proceeeding from The First Catalyst on
Campus Conference. A Program Proposal.
1
Single copies of Women's Bureau publications may be obtained without charge, as long as the supply lasts, from the
Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.
20210.




Pittsburgh, Pa., Margaret Morrison Carnegie College, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 1961.
Raushenbush, Esther. Unfinished Business:
Continuing Education for Women. In
Educational Record, October 1961.
Senders, Virginia L. The Minnesota Plan for
.Women's Continuing Education: A Progress Report. In Educational Record,
October 1961.
Stern, Bernard H. Never Too Late for College: The Brooklyn Degree Program for
Adults. Chicago, 111., The Center for the
Study of Liberal Education for Adults,
1963.
Swerdloff, Sol. Room at the Top for College
Women? In Occupational Outlook Quarterly, May 1964. Useem, Ruth Hill. The Furor Over Women's
Education. In University College Quarterly, East Lansing, Mich., Michigan State
University, May 1963.
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. 1
Continuing Education Programs for Women. 1966.
Fifteen Years After College—A Study of
Alumnae of the Class of 1945. Bull. 283.
1962.
First Jobs of College Women—Report on
Women Graduates, Class of 1957. Bull.
268. 1959.
Job Horizons for College Women in the
1960's. Bull. 288. 1964.
New Approaches to Counseling Girls in
the 1960's. A Report of the Midwest
Regional Pilot Conference. 1965.
White, Martha S., ed. The Next Step—A
Guide to Part-Time Opportunities in
Greater Boston for the Educated Woman.
Cambridge, Mass., Radcliffe Institute for
Independent Study, 1964.
2
Reprints may be obtained without charge from the Occupational Outlook Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210.

35

Appendix A

TABLES
Note 1: Due to rounding, percentages in these tables do not necessarily add to 100.
Note 2: The total of women graduates represented in each table varies with the number
of women who reported on the specific characteristics described in the table.
Note 3: In all tables showing undergraduate majors, the following definitions apply:
Health fields include such fields as dental hygiene, medical records library work, medical
technology, medicine, and public health, but exclude nursing.
Social sciences exclude history, psychology, sociology, and social work.
Note 4: In tables in which the full list of employment status groups are combined into four
categories, the following definitions apply:
Employed includes graduates who were "employed only" and also those employed primarily and attending school.
Attending school includes graduates who were "attending school only" or "attending
school full time, employed part time."
Note 5: The terms "working mothers" and "married graduates" refer to women with husband present.
Note 6: The average annual salaries are arithmetic means computed by adding the items
and dividing the sum by the number of items.
TABLE F-L.—Coverage of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup
Total represented

Size of graduating class 1
Women graduates

_ _

500 and over
250 to 499 _
100 to 249
50 to 99
Under 50

Number
. —_

_
.
.

_ -

.
.

Survey

Survey sample

Percent

Number

Percent

87,669

100

4,930

100

9,165
17,461
29,114
20,787
11,142

"10
20
33
24
13

455
1,121
1,549
1,165
640

9
23
31
24
13

1
Refers to number of women in graduating classes of colleges and universities that grant baccalaureates and are classified as coeducational or women's colleges.

TABLE F-2.—Response of June 1957 Women College Graduates in 7-Year Followup
Group
Total receiving questionnaire
Respondents
1st mailing
2d mailing
3d mailing
4th communication
Deceased graduates
Nonrespondents
1
2

-

Excludes 132 graduates included in the 1957-58 survey but not identified.
Less than 0.5 percent.

36



Survey

Total
Number
1

Percent

5,846

100

4,930
3,692
835
332
71
13
903

~84
63
14
6
1
(-)
15

TABLE F-3.—Age of June 1957 Graduates in 1964
Age

87,482

Under 27 years
27 years
28 years
29 years
30 to 34 years
35 to 39 years
40 years and over

100

941
10,101
46,509
14,476
7,487
1,933
6,032

Graduates represented

TABLE F-4.—Marital

Pcrcent

Number

1
12
53
17
9
2
7

and Family Status of Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58
1964

Marital status

1957-58
Percent
Number

Number
87,638

1

87,663

100

16
81
64
61
3
16
4
2
2

52,802
33,116
7,724
5,404
2,320
25,392
1,745
930
815

60
38
9
6
3
29
2
1
1

1964 and

1957-58

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.

TABLE F-5.—Residence

Region of residence
Graduates represented
Northeast
North Central
South
West
Other 1
1

100

13,768
70,664
56,311
53,881
2,430
14,353
3,206
1,577
1,629

With children
With no children

Percent

-

of June 1957 Graduates,
1964

1957-58

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

87,638

100

87,703

100

24,332
20,796
22,899
18/261
1,350

28
24
26
21
2

25,368
22,725
22,718
15,546
1,346

29
26
26
18
9

Outside continental United States.




37

TABLE F-6.—Comparison

of Graduates Residences in 1904 and 1957-58
Number

Same State both periods
Different State, same region _
Different region
Outside continental United States at least one period

TABLE

Graduates represented
Percent
Art
- Biological sciences Business and commerce
Chemistry, physical sciences
Education
English _
Health
fields
_
History
Home economics _
Journalism
Languages, foreign
Mathematics
Music
- _
Nursing
Physical education
Psychology
Religion
_ _
Social sciences
Sociology, social work _
Speech, dramatic arts
Other majors

38

Less than 0,5 percent*




61
16
20
3

F-7.—Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by Highest Degree in 196/+

Undergraduate maior

1

100

53,095
14,42(5
17,750
2,367

Graduates represented .

Percent

87,638

Location of residence

Total
Number

Percent

84,214
100
2,268
2,789
4,626
1,465
27,567
6,912
1,350
3,060
6,855
708
2,135
1,186
1,983
5,102
1,804
2,936
953
3,429
3,503
2,045
1,538

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Highest degree in 1964
Doctor's
Master's Bachelor's
395
V)
4
0)
3

2
3

_

5
-

_

_

„^

^ — _

0)
_.
_
_„
3

12,575
15
17
14
12
20
13
18
1
20
8
6
24
19
23
11
19
20
8
20
27
17
8

71,244
85
83
81
88
77
87
82
97
76
92
89
76
81
77
89
81
79
92
80
73
83
90

TABLE

F-8.—Postgraduate Education of June 1957 Graduates, 1957 Through 169U
Postgraduate enrollment

Enrolled in school in 1964 1
Candidate for degree or certificate
Doctor's degree
Master's degree
Other type of degree
Teaching certificate
Other type certificate
Type not reported ;
Not a candidate
Full-time student
Part-time student
No report on candidacy
Not enrolled in school in 1964
Enrolled prior to 1964 1
No postgraduate courses
1
2

Percent

87,638

Graduates represented

Number

100

14,951
10.761
1,172
6,273
120
2,558
529
109
3,602
17
3,585
588
72,687
25,467
47,220

17
12
1
7
(-)
3
1
(-)
4
(*)
4
1
83
29
54

Refers to enrollment in graduate or professional courses.
Less than 0.5 percent.

TABLE F-9.—Field

of Study of Graduates With Postgraduate

Field of graduate study

Education

Number

Percent

Graduates represented

39,424

100

Art
Biological sciences
Business and commerce
Chemistry, physical sciences
Education
English
Health fields
History
Home economics
Languages, foreign
Library science
Mathematics
Music
Nursing
Physical education
Psychology
Religion
Social sciences
Sociology, social work
Speech, dramatic arts
Other majors

1,141
881
543
447
19,202
2,359
1,334
1,025
1,373
891
828
656
963
1,840
422
1,141
463
629
1,598
945
743




3
2
1
1
49
6
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
5
1
3
1
2
4
2
2
39

TABLE F-10.—Undergraduate

Undergraduate major
Graduates represented
Percent

Total
Number Percent Employed
_

Art
Biological sciences
_
Business and commerce
Chemistry, physical sciences __ _
Education
English
Health fields
History
Home economics
Journalism
Languages, foreign
Mathematics
Music
Nursing
Physical education
Psychology
Religion
Social sciences
Sociology, social work
Speech, dramatic arts
Other majors
1

Major of Graduates, by Employment

100

41,425
49

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

2,268
2,789
4,626
1,465
27,567
6,912
1,350
3,060
6,855
708
2,135
1,186
1,983
5,102
1,804
2,936
953
3,429
3,503
2,045
1,538

Not
Attending Seeking seeking
work
work
school
38,056
1,389
3,344
2
45
4

45
50
49
50
53
45
61
41
39
45
50
47
65
50
54
47
33
50
50
41
48

84,214

Status in 1964

7
9
2
4
3
4
1
5
2
4
10
7
3
2
6
5
4
3
5
11
11

43
40
48
45
42
49
38
52
57
51
38
43
31
47
39
45
59
46
44
48
40

6
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
3
0)
1
e>

Less than 0.5 percent.

TABLE F-LL.—Employment

and School Status of Graduates, 1964 and 1957-58
1964

1957-58

Number
Graduates represented _ _
Employed only
Full time
P a r t time
_
.
Employed and attending school
Employed full time, school part time
Employed part time, school part time
School full time, employed part time _
Attending school only
Full time
P a r t time
Seeking work
Not seeking work
_ _ _
1
2

Percent

Number

Percent

87,577

100

87,703

100

35,397
27,743
7,654
7,752
6,507
1,129
116
3,352
847
2,505
1,455
39,621

40
32
9
9
7
1
H
4
1
3
2
45

60,447
57,887
2,560
1
11,125
8,532
770
1,728
7,005
6,029
976
2,560
6,566

69
66
3
13
10
1
2
8
7
1
3
7

Includes 95 graduates who were employed full time and attending school full time.
Less than 0.5 percent.

40



TABLE F - 1 2 . — M a i n Reason of Graduates for Working, by Marital Status, 1964

Main reason for
working
Graduates
represented
Percent
To support self and/
or others
To increase family
income
To have a career
To get actual work
experience
Like to work
To do something
worthwhile „ To use talents and
keep alert
To help husband
establish a careerTo escape household
routine
Other reasons __
1
2

Total
NumP ^
ber
cent

Married (husband present)
Widowed,
With children
With
sepa
Under
6-17
no
rated,
Total 6 years 1 years children divorced

Single

100

12,685
100

27,175
100

13,654
100

2,192
100

11,329
100

2,985
100

14,881

35

78

8

5

10

12

92

13,509
5,763

32
13

(2)
17

49
13

51
9

55
21

46
16

2
3

1,694
1,402

4
3

1
1

6
5

7
4

4
3

5
6

1
1

742

2

2

2

2

1

2

330

1

(2)

1

2

2

(2)

1,929

5

7

8

1

7

2,360
235

6
1

9
1

12
1

4

5
1

42,845

n

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Less than 0.5 percent.




41

TABLE F - 1 3 . — E m p l o y m e n t

Status of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status,

196i

Marital status
Married (husband present)
Employment status

Total

With children

Number Percent Single

87,577

Total

Under
6 years 1

With

With
no
children children

3,170
4

1,541
2

1,629
2

100

100

100

100

100

63
59
5
27

69
61
8

72
69
3
21

69
67
2
24

75
71
4
18

2

25

9

20

22

17

1

2

2

1

2

1

2
1
1
1
4

1
1

3
1
2

by Employment

and

13,743
16

100

100

100

100

35,397
27,743
7,654
7,752

40
32
9
9

71
70
1
22

33
23
10
6

22
11
11
4

6,507

7

21

4

1,129

1

1

1

116
3,352
847
2,505
1,455
39,621

(2)

<a)

<*)

70,664
81

With
no
children Total

14,353
16

100

Graduates represented
Percent

6-17
years

Widowed,^separated,

53,881
62

2,430
3

Percent distribution

Total
Employed only
Full time
Part time
Employed and attending schoolEmployed full time, school
part time Employed part time, school
part time
School full time, employed
part time
Attending school only
Full time
Part time
Seeking work
Not seeking work
1
2

4
1
3
2
45

4
3
1
1
1

<2)
4
4
2
<2) <4)
3
2
56

2
68

(2)
3
1
2
1
17

3
1
2
1
7

2
3

4

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Less than 0.5 percent.

TABLE F - 1 4 . — H u s b a n d ' s

Attitude

Toivard Wife's Employment,
Status of Wife, 196U

Employment and family
status of wife

42




Attitude of husband
Favorable Neutral
Opposed

100

Graduates represented
Percent
Employed
With children
With no children
Attending school
_
With children
With no children
Seeking work
With children
With no children
Not seeking work
With children
With no children _

Total
Number Percent

Family

_

_

..

_

37,308
56

17,249
26

11,534
17

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

82
79
86
60
56
84
59
56
84
37
36
40

15
17
12
24
27
13
28
29
16
35
35
36

4
4
3
15
17
3
13
15

66,091

27,081
15,794
_ „
11,287
2,602
_ .
_
2,183
419
_ _ _
1,188
^ 1,037
151
35,220
33,069
_ _ _
2,151
_ .

28
29
24

TABLE F - 1 5 . — E m p l o y m e n t

Status of Wife, by Employment
Total

Married graduates represented
Percent
_

Status of husband

AttendIn
Numing
military
ber
Percent Employed school service

Status of wife

Total

Status of Husband

70,502
100
100

- .

Employed
Attending school
Seeking work
Not seeking work

27,177
2,748
1,222
39,355

64,096
91
100

39
4
2
56

38
4
2
56

TABLE F-16.—Child Care Arrangements

Child care arrangement

Other

2,196
3,215
995
1
3
5
Percent distribution
100
100
100
62
3
2
32

18
3
2
77

68
32

of Working Mothers, 1964
Graduates
with children
under 6 years 1

Total
Number Percent Number

Graduates
with children
6 to 17 years

Percent Number Percent

Working mothers represented

14,619

100

12,820

100

1,799

100

Care in own home
By employee
By relative
By employee and relative _
By employee and group care Care outside own home
By employee
By group care Work arranged so child not alone
Self care
Other arrangements

9,636
5,329
3,357
321
629
2,283
1,124
1,159
1,903
719
78

66
36
23
2
4
16
8
8
13
5
1

9,314
5,195
3,256
309
554
2,190
1,099
1,091
1,183
55
78

73
41
25
2
4
17
9
9
9

322
134
101
12
75
93
25
68
720
664

18
7
6
1
4
5
1
4
40
37

1
3
3

i

—

Includes some graduates w h o had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Includes care in nursery school, kindergarten, day care center, and private school.
Less than 0.5 percent.




43

TABLE F - 1 7 . — W e e k l y

Hours Worked by Employed Married Graduates, 1964
Graduates
with children
Total
Under
6-17
1
Number Percent 6 years
years

Hours worked per week

25,271

Married graduates represented

100

Total
41 hours or more 35-40 hours
33-34 hours
- _
31-32 hours
25-30 hours
17-24 hours
_
9-16 hours
8 hours
Less than 8 hours _
Average hours per week
1
2

3,835
12,760
162
227
1,569
1,660
2,444
1,045
1,569
37

—

_
_

15
50
1
1
6
7
10
4
6
—

Graduates
with no
children

10,583
12,722
1,966
Percent distribution
100
100
100
22
66
1

9
41
CO
1
6
9
15
7
11
33

2
1
5
1
1
39

21
59
1
1
7
4
4
1
1
39

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Less than 0.5 percent.

TABLE F - 1 8 . — M a r r i e d

Graduates Performing Paid Work at Home, 1964
Graduates
with children
Total
Under
6-17
Number Percent 6 years 1
years

Extent and type of
paid work at home
Extent of Practice
Graduates represented

70,664
3,374
67,290

Teaching or tutoring
Writing
Typing or secretarial work _
Other clerical work
Research
__
_ _
Bookkeeping
Child care work
—
Telephone selling
Other work
_
1

44

_ _

5
95

3,374

Performing paid work at home
Not performing paid work at home
Type of Work Performed
Graduates represented

100

100

1,478
266
239
230
178
153
150
140
540

44
8
7
7
5
5
4
4
16

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.




100

Graduates
with no
children

Percent distribution
100
100

5
5
95
95
Percent distribution
100
100
100
5
95

46
5
8
5
6
5
6
4
14

60
18
13

9
—

32
18
4
13
2
2
3
27

TABLE F-L9.—Occupational

Occupational group
Graduates represented
Artists, musicians, actresses
Chemists
Clerical workers (miscellaneous)
Dietitians
_
Editors, copywriters, reporters _
Home economists _
Librarians
Library assistants
Managers, officials _
Mathematicians, statisticians
Nurses
Professional workers
(miscellaneous) Religious workers
Research workers
School workers
(miscellaneous) 4
Secretaries, stenographers
Social, welfare, recreation
workers
Teachers
Kindergarten
Grade school
Junior high school
Senior high school
Other _
Technicians (biological)
Therapists
Typists
_
— -- Other occupations _

Distribution

Job held
in 1964
Number Percent

of Employed

Graduates

Previous
job held 1
Number Percent

Job held
in 1957-58
Number Percent

43,007

100.0

77,924

100.0

322
276
1,039
366
739
231
683
273
794
349
2,757

0.7
0.6
2.4
0.9
1.7
0.5
1.6
0.6
1.8
0.8
6.4

512
674
4,893
1,005
974
771
542
434
370
788
5,392

0.7
0.9
6.3
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.5
1.0
6.9

402
586
4,410
970
578
880
(*)
406
( :! )
703
4,915 .

2,205
365
399

5.1
0.8
0.9

2,541
503
681

3.3
0.6
0.9

2,167
549
646

846
1,890

2.0
4.4

701
6,288

0.9
8.1

(r>)
4,753

1,372
25,748
1,006
13,169
3,036
5,053
3,484
1,023
474
327
529

3.2
59.9
2.3
30.6
7.1
11.7
8.1
2.4
1.1
0.8
1.2

2,632
42,001
1,801
17,035
2,654
5,435
15,076
2,060
1,016
1,045
2,101

3.4
53.9
2.3
21.9
3.4
7.0
19.3
2.6
1.3
1.3
2.7

1,999
42,028
(")
26,793
4,882
8,863
1,490
1,977
887
566
2,019

71,441

100.0
0.6
0.8
6.2
1.4
0.8
1.2
.

0.6
1.0
6.9
3.0
0.8
0.9
—

6.7
2.8
58.8
—

37.5
6.8
12.4
2.1
2.8
1.2
0.8
2.8

1
Refers to job held prior to 1964 job or to last job held by those not employed- in 1964.
- Included with "professional workers, miscellaneous."
3
Included with "other occupations."
4
Includes such occupations as school counselor and principal.
5
School counselors included with "other teachers": principals, with teachers of appropriate schools.
«Included with "grade school teachers."




45

TABLE F-20.—Occupation

Occupational group

T Q ft a i
l
l

Number Percent
Graduates represented — 4 1 , 4 4 7
Percent
Chemists, mathematicians Clerical workers
(miscellaneous)
Dietitians, home
economists
Editoi*s, copywriters,
reporters
Librarians — _
Managers, officials __ _ _
Nurses _
Professional workers
(miscellaneous) _
School workers
(miscellaneous)
Secretaries, stenographers„
Social, welfare, recreation
workers _
- Teachers
__
Kindergarten
Grade school „„
Junior high school
Senior high school
Other
Technicians (biological) „
Therapists
Other occupations
_ „



100

of Graduates Employed in 1964, by Undergraduate

—-—:—
Biological
and
Art
sciences commerce
1,024
100

592

1

1,624

4

568

2
2
2
6

2
1

3,155

8

829
1,853

2
4

1,333
24,628
970
12,411
2,983
4,874
3,390
1,031
474
505

3
59
2
30
7
12
8
2
1
1

2,244
100

Undergraduate major
Business
—
—
Chem- Eduistry
cation English

Health
fields

14,611
100

825
100

684
100

4
5

(l)

13

3

—
—
Home
History economics

2

2,664
100
1

4

8

1,247
100
5

3,113
100

25

1

724
683
781
2,667

1,413
100

Major

3
21

n
2
1
1

1
10
1

32

16

9

9

2
1

1
23

48

0)
36

0)
41

4
13
10
9
31
4
1

6
3
23
10

22
—
—

25
—

13
13
9
13

3

5
13
7
19
—

1

—

1

( )

2
5

5
1
5
3

C1)
1

2

6

25

8

3

1
3

6

3
3

2

5
6

2
2

0)
87
6
62
6
6
7

2
67

2

1
58

2
61
3
12
16
25
5

0)
i
i
i

<0
1

7
2
1
x

—

—

21
9
22
15

—

2

27
11
17
4

43
20
1

—

3

Undergraduate major
Occupational group

Languages,
foreign Mathematics- Music
1,291
1,057
555
Graduates represented
100
100
100
Percent
Chemists,
mathematicians __
Clerical workers
(miscellaneous) _
Dietitians, home
economists
Editors, copywriters,
reporters
Librarians
Managers, officials
__
Nurses
Professional workers
(miscellaneous) _ __
School workers
(miscellaneous)
Secretaries,
stenographers
Social, welfare,
resreation workers—
Teachers
Kindergarten
Grade school __ __ __
Junior high school
Senior high school
Other
Technicians (biological)
Therapists
Other occupations
See footnote at end of table.




4

2,537
100

968
100

10

Sociology, Speech,
social dramatic Other
work
arts majors
1,728
1,763
1,471
840
100
100
100
100

Social
sciences

5

5

5
9
0)

2
4

1

1

11

—

1
1
1
2

—

14

14

63

1

9

3

7

9

4

4

4

3
82

14
44
5
24
5
5
5
5
____

12
46

37
36

20
8
16
3
0)
1

2

3
7
16
26

2
1

63
16
4
14
30

—

— —— —

8
11
35
9

i

2

i

—

1

—

—

—

10
23
36
13

4

—

—

22

8

42

20
7
2
8

52

11
10
4
1

9

1

7

19

8

7

5
9

3

6

3
93

1

11

1

2

6

4
3
__
11

Psychology
1,412
100
6

28

7

Nursing

Physical
education

1
26

—

—

—

12
11
14
5
21
—

13
2
3
8
2
1
8

TABLE F-21.—Graduates'

Salaries, by Occupation, 1964 and 1957-58
1957-58

1964

Number

Average
annual
salary

Number

Average
annual
salary

32,571

$5,947

63,945

$3,739

569

8,039
569
627

4,847
4.675

764
544
329
447
449
2,049

3,278
3,407
3,097
3.676
3,104
3,247

401
808
542

3,576
4,040
3,397

4,302

3,875

370
2,125
626

3,167
3,862
3,971

4,089

3,295

543
1,266
39,320

3,655
3,792
3,799

25,549
4,613
8,290
868
1,586
701

3,858
3,785
3,658
3,475
3,854
3,947

Occupational group
Graduates represented 1
Chemists, mathematicians, statisticians
Chemists
:
Mathematicians, statisticians
Clerical workers (miscellaneous)
Advertising, editorial assistants
Bookkeepers, accounting clerks
Library assistants
Personnel assistants
Typists
Clerical workers, other
Dietitians, home economists
Dietitians
Home economists
Editors, copywriters, reporters
Librarians
Managers, officials
Nurses
Professional workers (miscellaneous)
Religious workers
Professional workers, other
Research workers
School workers (miscellaneous)
Secretaries, stenographers
Social, welfare, recreation workers
Recreation workers
,—:
Social, welfare workers
Teachers
Kindergarten
Grade school
Junior high school
Senior high school
Other
Technicians (biological)
Therapists

1,010

527

585
646
511
1,930
1,775

310
674
1,410
1,230

20,140
728
11,243
2,682
3,856
1,631
732
316

4,813

6,110

6,274
5,658
7,466
6,078
6,557

6,388
6,744
4,527
6,137

5,890
6,060
5,843
5,837
5,852
6,313
5,843
6,214

1
Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States in 1964. Includes a few graduates who had an occupation not listed.

48




TABLE F-22.—Distribution

Occupational group

Graduates
represented 1
Percent

of Average Annual Salaries of Graduates, by Occupation, 196U

Average
annual
Number salary Total
32,571

Chemists, mathe569
maticians, statisticians
Clerical workers
1,010
(miscellaneous)
_
Dietitians, home
economists
527
Editors, copywriters,
585
reporters
646
Librarians
511
Managers, officials
1,930
Nurses
Professional workers
(miscellaneous) _ _ 1,775
310
Research workers
~
School workers
674
(miscellaneous)
Secretaries,
1,410
stenographers
Social, welfare,
recreation workers __ 1,230
20,140
Teachers
728
Kindergarten
11,243
Grade school
2,682
Junior high school
3,856
Senior high school
1,631
Other
_ __
732
Technicians (biological)
316
Therapists
-

Percent distribution by salary
$4,000 $5,000 $6,000
to
Under
to
to
$4,000 $4,999 $5,999 $6,999
9,947
31

6,671
20

12

11

77

100

8,039

100

_

4,813

100

26

24

33

12

5

6,110

100

4

12

14

48

23

6,274
5,658
7,466
6,078

100
100
100
100

13
7

3
21
6
13

24
28
19
27

21
21
29
25

39
23
46
28

6,557
6,388

100
100

7
11

9

16
23

33
32

35
34

6,744

100

2

14

16

25

43

4,527

100

29

34

29

8

1

6,137
5,890
6,060
5,843
5,837
5,852
6,313
5,843
6,214

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

13
19
5
19
19
22
11
19

29
28
34
27
31
28
25
37
26

38
34
48
35
30
30
33
33
56

20
17
13
15
17
17
28
11
18

6

3
3
2
3
3
_ j.

5,570
17

8,697
27

1,686
5

$5,947

1
Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States.
not listed.




$7,000
and
over

Includes a few graduates who had an occupation

49

TABLE F - 2 3 . — A v e r a g e

Annual Salary of Graduates, by Occupation and Region of Employment, 1964

Occupational group

Number
Total

Graduates represented 1

Average annual salary
North- North
east
Central South

West

32,571

$5,947

$6,266

$6,141

$5,215

$6,358

569
Chemists, mathematicians, statisticians _
Clerical workers (miscellaneous)
1,010
Dietitians, home economists
527
585
Editors, copywriters, reporters
646
Librarians
511
Managers, officials
1,930
Nurses
Professional workers (miscellaneous)2— 2,401
School workers (miscellaneous)
674
1,410
Secretaries, stenographers
1,230
Social, welfare, recreation workers
Teachers
20,140
Kindergarten
_
728
11,243
Grade school
2,682
Junior high school
Senior high school
_ 3,856
Other
1,631
732
Technicians (biological)

8,039
4,813
6,110
6,274
5,658
7,466
6,078
6,490
6,744
4,527
6,137
5,890
6,060
5,843
5,837
5,852
6,313
5,843

8,428
5,373
6,410
5,993
5,828
7,862
6,326
6,408
6,050
4,824
6,331
6,323
6,060
6,156
6,322
6,601
6,876
6,176

8,151
4,468
6,522
6,571
6,216
7,972
6,202
6,479
7,370
4,687
5,876
6,107
5,956
6,142
5,880
6,087
6,269
5,780

7,642
4,669
5,672
6,263
5,272
6,606
5,934
6,185
6,639
4,237
5,193
4,992
5,705
4,915
5,032
4,879
5,669
5,102

8,091
4,338
5,681
7,478
5,520
6,847
5,850
6,908
6,985
4,653
6,793
6,373
6,402
6,354
6,272
6,466
6,489
6,449

1
Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States. Includes a few graduates who had an occupation not
listed.
- Includes research workers and therapists as well as other professional workers not listed.

50



TABLE F - 2 4 . — S a l a r y

of Graduates, by Undergraduate Major, 1964. and 1957-58
1964
Average
annual
Number
salary

Undergraduate major

Graduates represented

1

_ _ 32,571

-

Art _
_
__
Biological sciences
_ _
Business and commerce
. _
Chemistry
Education
_
_
_ .
English
_
_
.
Health fields
—
History
- Home economics
Languages, foreign _ _
Mathematics
_ _
Music
Nursing
_
_
- .
Physical education
_
- Psychology
_
Social sciences
>
— — .
Sociology, social work
_ - .
Speech, dramatic arts
- „
. _
Other majors
_

.

671
1,080
1,639
557
11,727
2,274
506
989
2,047
748
431
735
_ _ 1,755
776
_
1,065
1,389
. 1,371
600
930

_
. „ _
-

1957-58
Average
annual
Number
salary

$5,947

63,945

$3,739

5,754
6,027
5,568
6,535
5,877
5,840
6,190
6,188
5,791
5,788
7,517
5,566
6,094
5,861
6,393
6,232
6,096
6,236

1,480
1,538
3,602
-972
22,919
4,716
1,135
1,882
4,628
1,287
891
1,241
3,875
1,497
1,719
2,219
2,211
1,269
710

3,570
3,683
3,630
4,509
3,796
3,608
4,106
3,617
3,693
3,561
4,244
3,667
3,820
3,662
3,646
3,676
3,609
3,614

1
Excludes part-time workers and those employed outside the United States in 1964. Includes a few graduates who did not report
their undergraduate major.
- In 1957-5S survey report, category was listed under "physical sciences;" about four-filths of the graduates had majored in
chemistry.

TABLE F - 2 5 . — Y e a r s

of Paid Employment

Since college
Number
Percent

Years of employment
Graduates represented

-

-

7 years
- 6 years
- —
- —
5 years
_ - ~
4 years
3 years
2 years
1 year
Less than 6 months - _
Median years of employment _ _ _ _




of Graduates, 1957-64
In current job
Number
Percent

- 81,580

100

41,602

100

. 21,979
13,003
. _ _ 10,728
. _
_ 9,546
__
__ 10,193
9,226
6,125
_ _
780
__
5.5
,

27
16
13
12
12
11
8
1

9,649
4,160
3,210
3,262
5,296
5,632
7,948
2,445
3.9

23
10
8
8
13
14
19
6

TABLE F - 2 6 . — M a i n Reason of Graduates for Leaving

Work Force, by Marital Status, 1964
Married (husband present)

Main reason for leaving work force

—
Number

Graduates represented
Percent

Percent

41,606

Marriage
Birth and care of children
Household responsibilities
Move to new location
School attendance
Illness or disability
Other

Single

5,128
29,953
1,338
2,974
865
339
1,009

1

12
72
3
7
2
1
2

13
73
3
7
1
1
2

12
9
56
4
19

W U h

„h£!Ln
children

Widow*!.
divorced'

188
100

12
78
2
6
1
(•)

1

2,893
100

201
100

9
37
13
13
11

37,594
100

40,675
100

730
100

100

With children
Under
6-17
6 years»
years

Total

25
17
14
22
5
5
12

4
52
17
6

17

21

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Less than 0-5 percent.

2

TABLE F-27.—Employment Plan of Graduates, by Marital and Family Status,
Married (husband present)

Number

Graduates represented
Percent „
Have a career
Work indefinitely, no career —
Stop work when married
Stop work at birth of child
Stop work only while children
are young _
Go to work in future
Do not plan to work in future
Other
1
3

Total

Percent

85,821
100

13,668
100

23,096
5,841
1,897
5,383

27
7
2
6

63
12
13
5

10,964
21,463
15,731
1,446

13
25
18

3
4

2

n
i

Includes some graduates who had children 6 to 17 years of age also.
Less than 0.5 percent.


52


With children

Single

Employment plan

68,980
100

Under
6 years 1

52,477
100

6-17
years

2,430
100

2
<7)

12
5
(*)
2

74
13

15
30
23
2

16
37
26
2

1
7
3

18
6

1

<8)

1964

separ™d1vorced

With
no
children

With
children

With
no
children

1,577
100

1,596
100

30
7
(a)
28

75
12
4

76
9
1

14
8
12
2

3
5
1

3
1
5
5

14,073
100

Plan of Graduates, by Employment

TABLE F - 2 8 . — F u t u r e

Total

Employment status of graduates

Employed

Attending
school

Seeking
work

Not
seeking
work

100

42,533
100

3,468
100

1,412
100

38,408
100

23,096
5,841
1,897
5,383

27
7
2
6

52
14
4
13

19
(')
1
0)

20
1

0)
0)
0)
0)

10,964
21,463

13
25

9
4

17
48

15
64

17
44

15,731
1,446

18
2

3
2

13
1

Employment plan
Number Percent
85,821

Graduates represented
Percent
Have a career
Work indefinitely, no career.
Stop work when married
Stop work at birth of child
Stop work only while
children are young
Go to work in f u t u r e
Do not plan to work in
future
Other __
1

Status, 1964

36
2

—

Less than 0.5 percent.

of Employment

TABLE F-29.—Comparison

Plans Held in 1964 and 1957-58
Employment plan in 1964

Total
Employment plan in 1957-58

Graduates represented 1
Percent
_
—

Number

100

20,519
26

5,276
7

6,892
9

10,261
13

19,249
25

14,129
18

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

59
36
28
22
16
17
9

3
14
7
11
6
6
8

8
9
4
13
9
12
4

10
10
8
8
17
14
2

14
14
28
18
31
27
36

5
14
21
26
20
22
41

For
marriage
or
children

Includes a few graduates who had work plans not listed or had indefinite plans in one period.




Only
while
children
young

Plan no
work in
future

Percent

indefinitely,
no career

77,597
-

13,398
Have a career
—
7,686
Work indefinitely, no career
Work only for economic reasons 4,939
4,247
Stop work when married
31,841
Stop work at birth of child
Work short time after marriage 13,649
Do not plan to work in future— 1,762
1

Stop work
Have a
career

Work in
future

TABLE F - 3 0 . — T r a i n i n g

or Education Plan and Interest of Graduates, by Employment
1964
Total

Education plan or interest
Number
85,021

Graduates represented

61,801
23,220

With plan or interest
With no plan or interest

1,351
17,962
15,339
38,582

Business course

1

Percent

Not
Employed employed
100

100

100

69
76
73
31
27
24
Percent of respondents with
t>lan or interest reporting
type of course desired 1
2
2
3
35
24
29
30
25
20
62
56
68

Includes graduates reporting Interest in more than one type of course.

TABLE F - 3 1 . — M a j o r

Reason for Interest in Additional Education, by Employment
196U
Total

Not
employed

100

Number
Graduates represented
Percent _
_ _

.

31,876
100

29,925
100

52
32
6
14
46
28
18
2

54
40
3
10
44
22
22
2

51
24
9
18
48
34
14
2

Percent

61,801

_

Job reason
Job advancement
—
__
Job preparation
Teacher certification
_ —
Nonjob reason
_
General interest
—
Working for degree
— —
Reason not specified

Status,

Employed

Major reason

1

Status,

. '32,268
. 19,767
.
3,689
,.
8,731
. '28,290
17,129
11,113
.
1,243

Includes a few graduates not shown separately.


54


iz u. s .

GOVERNENT PRINTING

OFFICE:

1966—O 221-682