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College Educated
Workers,
1 9 6 8 - 8 0

BULLETIN 1 676
U. S . D E P A R T M E N T

O F LABOR




College Educated
Workers,
1 9 6 8 -8 0

A S t u d y o f S u p p ly
an d D em and
BULLETIN 1676

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR




For sale b y the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402 - Price 35 cents




Contents
Page

Introduction..................................................................................................................................
Highlights.....................................................................................................................................

1
1

Chapter I. Supply and demand for workers having bachelor’s and
advanced degrees........................................................................................................................

3

Chapter II. Analysis o f supply-demand in selected occupations generally
requiring a bachelor’s or advanced degree for entry .................................................................
Engineers..................................................................................................................................
Chemists..................................................................................................................................
Physicists..................................................................................................................................
Life scientists...........................................................................................................................
Geologists and geophysicists ...................................................................................................
Mathematicians.........................................................................................................................
Physicians................................................................................................................................
Dentists....................................................................................................................................
Dietitians..................................................................................................................................
Pharmacists.............................................................................................................................
Optometrists ...........................................................................................................................
Elementary and secondary school teachers................................................
College and university teachers .....................
Lawyers ..................................................................................................................................
Architects...................
Counselors................................................................................................................................
Social scientists........................................................... ............................................................

5
5
6
7
7
8
9
10
11
11
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18

Chapter III. Junior college trained m anpower...............................

20

Chapter IV. Analysis of supply and demand in selected occupations generally
requiring junior college training for e n try .................................................................................. 22
Engineering and science technicians ................... . ................................................................. 22
’
Forestry aids ........................................................................................................................... 23
Dental assistants..................................................................
23
Dental hygienists...................................................................................................................... 23
Radiologic technologists.................................................................
24
Library technicians ........................................................................
24
Police officers........................................................................................................................... 25
Tables:
1. Occupational employment, 1968 and projected requirements, 1980
for college graduates .............................................................................................................
1
2. Degree credit enrollments in higher education, 1958-68 ..................................................... 21







COLLEGE E D U C A T E D W O R K E R S , 1 9 6 8 - 8 0
A Study o f Supply and Demand*

This bulletin analyzes the expected sup­
ply and demand for college graduates through the
1970’s. It presents a review of the manpower situation
for all college graduates as well as for selected individual
occupational fields. Also presented are separate discus­
sions of two subjects of special interest— the outlook
(1)
for college educated women and (2) the effect of the
rapid expansion of junior colleges on the supply of
college trained manpower. This information was re­
quested by the House Subcommittee on Higher Educa­
tion for use as a background document for evaluating
proposed legislation.
Supply and demand in this bulletin are not discussed
in the usual economic sense in which wages play a major
role in equating supply with demand. The long training
period required to enter professional and technical
occupations prohibits the immediate adjustments nor­
mally associated with the terms supply and demand.
Supply represents estimates of the numbers of workers
who may enter a particular occupation if past trends of
entry to the occupation were to continue. Demand
represents estimates of the number of workers who will

In tro d u ctio n .

*The bulletin was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Division of Manpower and Occupational Outlook by, Neal H.
Rosenthal with the assistance of Michael Crowley, Michael Pilot,
and Joyce Kling.

be required to produce the amount of goods and services
implied in the Bureau’s basic model of the economy for
1980. Included are estimates of manpower needs result­
ing from growth and replacements due to deaths,
retirements, and other separations from the labor force,
and from transfers to other occupations.
The supply and demand for college grad­
uates as a whole is expected to be in relative balance
during the 1970’s. Nevertheless, imbalances may occur
in many individual occupations if past study and work
patterns continue.
Among individual fields, perhaps the most dramatic
change is in elementary and secondary school teaching in
which a more than adequate supply is expected.
For several specific occupations that were analyzed,
projected growth and prospective supply-demand rela­
tionships if study and work patterns were to continue
are shown in table 1.
Projections presented in this report, thus, are not
attempts to forecast actual supply-demand conditions in
the future. Rather, they indicate what conditions can be
expected if current supply,, patterns continue. This
analysis provides Congress and others concerned with
educational planning information on prospective occupa­
tional imbalances so that informed decisions can be
made to advert prospective supply-demand imbalances

H ig h lig h ts.

Table 1. Occupational employment, 1968 and projected requirements, 1980, for college graduates
O ccu p ation

Estimated
1968
em ploy m en t

Projected
1980
requirem ents

Percent
change

Supply
estim ated
to be

C h e m is t s ...............................................
C o u n s e lo r s ............................................
Dietitians ............................................
Dentists ...............................................
P h y s ic ia n s ...........................................
Physicists ............................................

1 3 0 ,0 0 0
7 1 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 0,00 0
2 9 5 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,0 0 0

2 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 7,00 0
4 2 ,1 0 0
1 3 0,00 0
4 5 0 ,0 0 0
7 5 ,0 0 0

55.7
49 .8
40.3
31.7
53.1
63 .9

Significantly
b e lo w requirem ents

Engineers ............................................
G eologists and geophysicists . . . .
O ptom etrists .....................................

1 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0
17 ,000

1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 6 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,0 0 0

4 0 .2
20.6
23.5

Slightly short o f
requirem ents

A r c h i t e c t s ............................................
L a w y e r s ...............................................

3 4 ,0 0 0
2 7 0 ,0 0 0

5 0 ,000
3 3 5 ,0 0 0

47.1
22.7

In balance with
requirem ents

P h a r m a c is t s ........................................

1 2 1,00 0

1 3 0,00 0

7.0

Slightly above
requirem ents

M a th e m a tic ia n s ..................................
Life s c i e n t i s t s .....................................
Teachers, elem entary
and s e c o n d a r y ..................................

7 0 ,0 0 0
16 8,00 0

11 0,00 0
2 3 8 ,0 0 0

60.5
4 0 .8

2 ,1 7 0 ,0 0 0

2 ,3 4 0 ,0 0 0

7.8




Significantly
above requirem ents

1

among fields. Projected imbalances in the form of
surpluses, however, do not necessarily mean unemploy­
ment; rather they mean that workers trained specifically
for an occupation would have to shift to other occupa­
tions. Historically, low unemployment rates for college
graduates suggest that these workers have shifted their
career patterns in response to changes in demand
resulting from factors such as cyclical movements in the
economy or changes in national priorities. They likely
will continue to do so in the future. However, in this
situation, our country’s trained manpower is not put to
its fullest use. Prospective supply-demand conditions can
provide information by which individuals and training
programs of colleges and other institutions can be
adjusted to bring supply and demand into better
balance. Manpower balances would result in the maxi­
mum utilization o f trained manpower and the maximum
of goods and services.
The demand for college trained manpower presented
in this bulletin reflects the Bureau of Labor Statistics’
basic model of the economy in 1980. As such, they are
influenced by the economic, political, and technological
assumptions underlying the Bureau’s model. Specifically,
the projections assume that:
The institutional framework of the economy will not
change radically through the 1970’s.
There will be full employment in 1980, with an
unemployment rate of 3 to 4 percent.
The international climate will be improved. The United
States will no longer be fighting a war, but the still
guarded relationship between major powers will permit no

2



major arms reduction. Defense spending, however, will be
reduced from the peak levels of the Viet Nam conflict.
Armed Forces strength will return to approximately the
pre-Viet Nam level.
Economic, social, technical, and scientific trends will
continue, including the values placed on work, education,
income, and leisure.
Fiscal and monetary policies and an active manpower
program will achieve a satisfactory balance between low
unemployment rates and relative price stability without
reducing the long-term economic growth rate.
All levels of government will unite to meet a wide
variety of domestic requirements, but Congress will
channel more funds to State and local governments.

Estimates of future supply also are greatly influenced
by their underlying assumptions. For example, wage
differentials, social status of occupations, the availability
of training, the nature and extent of student financial
support, the length of training, and immigration laws all
affect the supply of workers in a particular occupation.
Specific assumptions underlying the supply projections
presented in this bulletin are:
Occupational status will have the same effect in causing
workers to enter specific occupations as in the past.
Trends in the proportion of the college age population
who attend college will continue.
Trends in the study patterns of college students will
continue.
Entry patterns of college graduates, by field of study, to
specific fields of work will continue.
Entry to fields of work by those other than new college
graduates including immigrants, upgraded workers, and
those reentering the labor force will continue.

Chapter I. Supply and Demand for Workers Having Bachelor’ s and
Advanced Degrees

Supply
U.S. colleges and universities are expected to turn out
record numbers of graduates each academic year through
the 1970’s. The number o f bachelor’s degrees awarded
between 1968 and 1980 will increase 48 percent and the
number of master’s and doctorates degrees will increase
even more rapidly, 95 percent and 117 percent, respec­
tively. In numerical terms, about 13.3 million degrees
are expected to be awarded between 1968 and 1980,
10.2 million bachelor’s degrees, 2.7 million master’s
degrees, and 400,000 doctor’s.
Not all recipients o f degrees over the 1968-80 period
can be considered part of the effective new supply of
college educated workers in the year they receive their
degree. Most master’s and doctor’s degree recipients, for
example, are employed before receiving their advanced
degree, and therefore, are already counted in the existing
supply of college educated workers. Other new degree
recipients, especially at the bachelor’s level, delay entry
into the civilian labor force. Some continue their
education, others enter the Armed Forces, and some
women graduates become housewives.
Based on past employment patterns, about 9.3 of the
13.3 million new degree recipients will enter the civilian
labor force between 1968 and 1980. Bachelor’s degree
recipients will constitute 8.4 million; master’s degree
recipients 900,000; and those with doctor’s, 18,000.
Most persons who will receive degrees during this period
and enter the Armed Forces will have returned to
civilian life by 1980. Hence, the effect of Viet Nam on
the supply of college graduates is assumed to be limited.
Besides new graduates, the supply of college-educated
workers between 1968 and 1980 will be augmented by
persons who graduated before 1968 but were not in the
labor force in 1968. Most will be housewives either
reentering or entering the labor force for the first time.
Immigrants are still another source o f college trained
workers, particularly in medicine. These sources are
expected to provide 1.2 million additional workers with
4 years or more of college training. This number, added
to the available new degree recipients, brings the total
from 1968 to 1980 to about 10.5 million.
Requirements
From 1968 to 1980, the need for workers with college




degrees will stem from two sources: Growth in demand
and replacements for workers who die, retire, or leave
the labor force for other reasons.
Reflecting the continuing influence of many variables,
growth will be the major factor underlying manpower
needs for college graduates. For example, a growing
population will demand more health services resulting
in increased requirements for college trained workers.
Requirements for scientific and technically trained work­
ers will reflect the complexity of industrial production,
expanded housing requirements, and essential improve­
ments in urban renewal and public transportation. In
addition, environmental pollution problems will create
new demands for scientists and engineers.
A college degree is necessary in many jobs once
performed by workers with less education. The propor­
tion of jobs requiring college degrees in professional,
technical, and kindred occupations is expected to
increase from about three-fifths to about two-thirds
between 1968 and 1980;1 in management, this propor­
tion is expected to grow from one-fifth to nearly
one-third.
Over the 1968-80 period, these three factors—
growth,
replacement, and rising entry requirements—
indicate a
need for about 10.4 million graduates, 6.1 million for
growth, and 4.3 million for replacement.
The methods used to project occupational require­
ments in this bulletin make them an integral part of the
Bureau’s projections of Gross National Project and its
component distribution, industry output, and industry
employment levels. Very briefly, the occupational pro­
jections are developed by applying projected occupa­
tional composition patterns of industry to the projected
industry employment levels as well as by analyzing in
depth occupations as they relate to specific economic
indicators. For example, enrollments of pupils are used
to develop projections of teacher requirements. Detailed
discussions of these methods are presented in T o m o r ­
r o w ’s M a n p o w e r N e e d s , Volume 4, BLS Bulletin 1606,
February, 1969; O c c u p a t io n a l E m p l o y m e n t P a t t e r n s f o r

*In many individual occupations within this major occupa­
tional group, only a small proportion have a college degree,
e.g., draftsmen, engineering and scientist technicians, radio oper­
ators, and entertainers.

3

BLS Bulletin 1599, December, 1968;
BLS Bulletin 1536; and briefly in
“ The United States Economy in 1980” M o n t h l y L a b o r
R e v i e w , April 1970.
1960

and

P r o je c tio n s

1975,

1970,

Supply-demand outlook
Statistically, a rough balance between the supply and
demand for college educated personnel is indicated over
the 1970’s. Thus, after a long period, a turning point
may have been reached in recruiting adequate numbers
of highly trained workers. However, this picture does
not assure that all imbalances will be eliminated. Many
occupations have had shortages for years. An increased
supply of graduates offers the hope that the number of
students who enter each occupation will more closely
match job openings. Later, this bulletin lists several
occupations which may have imbalances unless correc­
tive measures are taken.
The incidence of more college-trained workers in these
occupations could have an adverse effect on less edu­
cated workers. Those without a degree, for example,
could have difficulty advancing in occupations such as
engineering and accounting, achieving high-level manage­
ment positions, and obtaining work while completing
their education.
Effect on women
Changing demand-supply conditions in individual oc­
cupations may affect women in view o f their increasing
labor force participation and their narrow range of
occupations. For example, the anticipated adequate
supply o f teachers in elementary and secondary schools
suggests that unless more women enter other highdemand professions, the outlook for college educated

4



women may be less favorable than in the past.
In 1968, about 3.9 million women were employed in
the professions. This was a 43-percent increase over
1960, compared with a 35-percent increase for men. The
growth of professional women workers reflected ex­
panded employment in teaching, nursing, library science,
social and welfare work, and other careers staffed largely
by women.
Efforts to improve women’s representation in other
professions including medicine, dentistry, law, engineer­
ing, the natural sciences, architecture, and college
teaching have had only limited success. For example, the
21,000 women physicians in 1968 were only about 7
percent of the nearly 300,000 in the country. Only
about 3 percent of the Nation’s lawyers, or the same
proportion as 15 years ago, are women. Engineering and
science have attracted relatively few women although
their participation in the natural sciences is increasing.
Women have made some progress in employment in
the social sciences, psychology, health technology,
physical and occupational therapy, recreation, person­
nel, accounting, mathematics, and statistics.
Over the 1968— period, the number o f women
80
graduates is expected to increase two-thirds or twice the
rate for men. Traditional “ women’s” fields will not be
able to absorb this increase because about 2 out o f every
5 women in professional and related jobs are elementary
or secondary school teachers. Through proper counsel­
ing, women can be made aware of this expected sharp
decline in the proportion of new graduates who will be
needed in teaching. Some may enter social work,
chemistry, engineering, or other shortage areas to help
achieve a supply-demand balance and improve their own
employment prospects. Unless women enlarge the range
of occupations, strong competition for jobs may de­
velop.

Chapter II. Analysis o f Supply-Demand in Selected Occupations Generally
Requiring A Bachelor’s or Advanced Degree for Entry

Different supply-demand conditions are in the offing
among individual occupations for the 1970’s, despite the
expected rough balance for college graduates as a whole.
The following statements present prospective supplydemand conditions for several selected occupations if
current trends in patterns o f study and entry to the
profession continue. These statements, therefore, are not
intended to forecast a shortage, surplus, or balance of
supply relative to demand, but to indicate prospective
imbalances if current trends continue.
The projections of degrees awarded used in this report
are those developed by the U.S. Office of Education. The
Office of Education’s projections assumes that enrollment
patterns and the propensity of students to study particu­
lar fields will continue trends experienced over the past
10 years.

Engineers
Nearly 1.1 million engineers were em­
ployed in the United States in 1968. More than
half—
about 580,000 in 1968—
were employed in manu­
facturing industries. Within manufacturing, large num­
bers were employed in the electrical equipment, aircraft
and parts, machinery, ordnance, chemicals, instruments,
and fabricated metals product industries. About 300,000
engineers were employed in private nonmanufacturing
industries in 1968, primarily in construction, public
utilities, engineering and architectural services, and
business and management firms.
Federal, State, and local government agencies em­
ployed almost 150,000 engineers in 1968. Of these,
almost 60 percent were employed by the Federal
Government, primarily the Department of Defense.
Engineers in State and local government were employed
primarily by highway and public works departments.
Educational institutions employed about 39,000 engi­
neers in 1968, in research as well as in teaching
positions. Relatively few (6,000) were employed by
nonprofit organizations.
Engineers are employed in every State. Within the
private industry sector, however, approximately twothirds are employed in only 10 States—
California, New
York, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Texas, New
Jersey, Massachusetts, and Indiana. Engineers specializ­
ing in certain branches of the profession are concen­

E m p lo ym en t.

 - 70 - 2
402-887 0


trated in particular industries that have unique patterns
of regional concentration. Aerospace engineers, for
example, are employed mainly in the aircraft and parts
industry which is concentrated in the Pacific region.
Over the 1968-80 period, employment
requirements for engineers are expected to increase from
about 1.1 million to more than 1.5 million. This
40-percent increase represents a 2.9-percent annual rate
of growth,2 compared with an average of 3.7 percent a
year from 1960 to 1968.
Among the factors underlying the anticipated increase
in demand for engineers are population growth and the
resulting expansion of industry to meet the demand for
additional goods and services. More engineering time is
required to develop new products, industrial processes,
and increased automation. R & D expenditures are
expected to rise rapidly through the 1970’s although
more slowly than in the past. Increased research will
expand existing fields of work and initiate new areas.
One of the major fields to expand is pollution control.
More specific factors are expected to increase require­
ments in certain branches of engineering. Continued
rapid growth is expected for industrial engineers, for
example, because of the growing importance o f scientific
management and safety engineering to reduce costs and
increase productivity. Increased requirements for civil
engineers reflect the growing demands for housing,
industrial buildings, and highways; and work relative to
urban living, such as improved water and sewage
systems.
In addition to manpower needs of 430,000 for growth,
nearly 210,000 engineers will be needed to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the labor force. Another
245.000 engineers will be required to replace those who
transfer to other occupations. Growth and replacement
needs are expected to total about 885,000, an average of
74.000 a year from 1968 to 1980.

P r o jec ted N ee d s.

New graduates are the primary source
of new engineers. However, significant numbers come
from transfers from other occupations, including up­
graded technicians, reentrants into the labor force,

S u p p l y -d e m a n d .

2 A compound rate has been used throughout this report to
describe annual rates of growth.

5

including those from the Armed Forces, immigrants, and
new graduates who did not major in engineering.
If past patterns of entry from nonengineering gradu­
ates continue, an average of 36,000 annually can be
expected between 1968 and 1980. Under this assump­
tion, only an average of about 38,000 new engineering
graduates would have to enter the profession annually to
meet requirements.
Followup studies indicate that only about 85 per­
cent o f all new engineering graduates enter the pro­
fession. Based on this entry rate, an average of approxi­
mately 45,000 engineering graduates would be needed
annually to obtain 38,000 entrants.
In 1968, about 37,000 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in engineering. To meet requirements, the number of
bachelor’s degrees granted annually in engineering over
the 1968-80 period will have to average about 21
percent above 1968 levels. From 1968 to 1980 the U.S.
Office of Education estimates the average annual num­
ber of bachelor’s degrees in engineering will be about 14
percent above 1968 levels. Thus, based on past patterns
of study and entry to the profession, the supply of
engineers would fall slightly short or at best barely meet
the need.
In 1968 women engineers, constituting less than
1 percent o f all workers in the profession, numbered
approximately 8,000. Although employed in virtually all
branches o f engineering, most women are employed as
either industrial or electrical engineers.
About 210 women, almost 50 percent more than the
number in 1960, received bachelor’s degrees in engineer­
ing in 1968. This growth, however, has not kept pace
with the increase in all bachelor’s degrees awarded to
women.
W om en.

Chemists
Chemistry is the largest field of employ­
ment in the physical sciences. Approximately 130,000
chemists were employed in the United States iri 1968.
More than 70 percent—
over 90,000 in 1968—
were
employed by private industry. The major industrial
employer of chemists, the chemicals manufacturing
industry, employed over 45 percent o f those in private
industry. Relatively large numbers of chemists also were
employed in industries manufacturing food, instruments,
rubber, petroleum, paper, electrical equipment, textiles
and apparel, and primary metals products. Independent
laboratories, consulting firms, and distributors of chemi­
cals, pharmaceutical, food, and petroleum products also
employed significant numbers.
In 1968, nearly 24,000 chemists did research and
teaching in colleges and universities. Government
agencies—
Federal, State, and local—
employed about
12,000. About three-fourths of these worked in Fed­
eral Government agencies, chiefly the Departments of
E m p lo ym en t.

6



Defense; Health, Education, and Welfare; Agriculture;
and Interior. Only about 3,000 chemists worked for
State and local governments, primarily in agencies
concerned with health or agriculture. A small number,
about 2,000 in 1968, worked for nonprofit research
organizations.
Chemists are employed in all States, in small as well as
large cities. Nearly one-fifth of all chemists, however,
were located in four metropolitan areas—
New York,
Chicago, Philadelphia, and Newark. About half worked
in the six States of New York, New Jersey, California,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois.
Over the 1968-80 period, employment
requirements for chemists are expected to increase 56
percent from approximately 130,000 to slightly over
200,000. This 3.8-percent annual rate of growth is faster
than the 3.5-percent from 1960 to 1968.
Chemists will be required in increasing numbers for R
& D, the activity of nearly half of all chemists
Expenditures for R & D will probably continue to rise,
although more slowly than in the past. Resulting from
research are jobs for chemists in types o f work such
as in the manufacture of products including plastics,
manmade fibers, drugs, fertilizers, and high energy and
nuclear fuels for missiles and rockets. Combating air and
water pollution should also be a rapidly growing field for
chemists.
The number of college and university chemistry
teachers is projected to at least double by 1980 because
of the large increase in enrollments expected through the
1970’s. The greatest demand will be for those having Ph.
D. degrees; many positions especially in 2-year colleges
will be filled by chemists who have only the master’s
degree.
In addition to manpower needs of over 70,000
resulting from increased requirements, nearly 80,000
chemists will be required to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer. Between 1968 and 1980, openings
resulting from both growth and replacements are thus
expected to total more than 150,000, an average of
almost 13,000 a year.

P r o jec ted N ee d s.

Annual requirements for chemists may
be met by persons who shift to chemistry from other
occupations; from persons not in the labor force,
including housewives and those in the Armed Forces;
from immigrants; from new college graduates who did
not major in chemistry; as well as new college graduates
majoring in chemistry. If the past patterns o f entry to
chemistry—
new graduates and others—
continue, then
approximately 17,000 bachelor’s degree graduates in
chemistry would be needed annually to meet projected
requirements.
In 1968, about 10,800 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in chemistry. To meet requirements, the number of
bachelor’s degrees granted annually in chemistry will
have to average almost 65 percent above 1968 levels.

S u p p l y -d e m a n d .

From 1968 to 1980 the U.S. Office of Education
estimates the average annual number of bachelor’s
degrees in chemistry will be about 5 percent above 1968
levels. Thus, based on past patterns of study and entry
to the profession, the supply of chemists is expected to
fall short of demand.
Women. Women

chemists representing less than 10
percent of all workers in the profession, numbered
approximately 10,000 in 1968. Chemistry is the largest
field of employment for women in the physical sciences.
In 1968, about 1,900 women or 22 percent more than
the 1,580 awarded in 1960, received bachelor’s degrees
in chemistry. This increase has not kept pace with the
growth in all bachelor’s degrees awarded women over the
1960-68 period, nor with the total number of degrees
awarded in chemistry over the same period.
Physicists
More than 45,000 physicists were em­
ployed in the United States in 1968. Almost 18,000
were employed by private industry; half of these worked
in the electrical equipment, ordnance, chemicals, and
aircraft and parts industries. Commercial laboratories
and independent research firms employed more than a
fourth of those in private industry.
In 1968, about 20,000 did research or taught in
colleges and universities. Federal Government agencies
employed 6,500, nearly three-fourths in the Department
of Defense. Significant numbers of physicists also were
employed by the National Bureau of Standards and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. More
than 1,500 physicists worked for nonprofit organiza­
tions.
Physicists are concentrated in those areas having
industrial concentrations and large colleges and univer­
sities. Nearly one-fourth were employed in four metro­
politan areas-Washington, D.C., Boston, New York, and
Los Angeles-Long Beach. About one-half of the total
were employed in only six States—California, New York,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.

E m ploym en t.

Over the 1968-80 period, employment
requirements for physicists are expected to increase
about 64 percent, from more than 45,000 to slightly
over 75,000. This 4.2 percent annual rate of increase is
substantially slower than the 5.9 percent between 1960
and 1968.
Physicists will be required in substantial numbers to
perform complex research and development. They have
made substantial contributions to scientific progress in
recent years in such areas as nuclear energy, electronics,
communications, and aerospace and are expected to
continue to do so. Expenditures for R & D will continue
to rise, although more slowly than in the past. Also, there
probably will be a strong demand for physicists to teach.

Projected needs.




In addition to manpower needs of almost 30,000 re­
sulting from increased requirements, about 26,000 will
be required to replace those who die, retire, or transfer
to other fields of work. Thus, manpower needs will
total more than 55,000, an average of 4,600 a year.
Supply-demand. New graduates of physics curriculums

are the major source of supply of new physicists. How­
ever, many entrants also are derived from graduates who
did not major in physics; from immigrants; from persons
reentering the labor force, including housewives and
those in the Armed Forces; and from persons employed
in other occupations.
If past patterns continue in the number of entrants
from other than new graduates with degrees in physics,
only about 3,600 physics graduates would have to enter
the field each year on the average over the 1968-80
period. For 3,600 new physics graduates to enter the
profession annually, however, many more will have to
obtain bachelor’s degrees. Followup studies indicate that
less than one-half of all persons who receive bachelor’s
degrees in physics eventually enter the occupation.
Based on past patterns of entry, therefore, approxi­
mately 8,000 physics graduates would be needed annu­
ally to meet projected requirements.
In 1968, about 5,000 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in physics. To meet requirements, the average number of
bachelor’s degrees granted annually in physics will have
to be about 60 percent above 1968 levels. From 1968 to
1980, the U.S. Office of Education estimates the average
annual number of bachelor’s degrees in physics will be
less than 3 percent above 1968 levels. Thus, based on
past patterns of study and entry to the profession, the
supply of physicists is expected to fall short of demand.
W o m e n . In
1968 approximately 1,500 women
physicists—about 3.5 percent of total—were employed in
research or teaching.
In 1968, about 290 women received bachelor’s degrees
in physics representing about 6 percent of the total. This
represents an increase of almost 75 percent over the 168
physics degrees awarded to women in 1960, compared
with an increase of only 19 percent in the total number
of bachelor’s degrees awarded in physics. Over the same
period, however, the total number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded to women more than doubled.

Life scientists
In 1968, approximately 168,000 per­
sons were employed as life scientists in the United
States. Of these, about 48,000 were agricultural scien­
tists, more than 66,000 were biological scientists, and
about 54,000 were medical scientists.
In 1968, 56 percent of all life scientists were employed
by colleges and universities. Medical schools and asso­
ciated hospitals employed particularly large numbers of

E m ploym en t.

7

those. State agricultural colleges and agricultural experi­
ment stations employed sizeable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, and other agricultural related
specialists.
Federal Government agencies employed nearly 26,000
life scientists in 1968, primarily in the Department of
Agriculture. The estimated 19,000 life scientists em­
ployed by State and local government agencies in 1968
were mostly fish and wildlife specialists, microbiologists,
and entomologists working in the areas of conservation,
plant breeding, and in the detection and control of
diseases.
Nearly 25,000 life scientists worked in private industry
in 1968. Among the major industrial employers were
manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals,
and food products. Almost 5,000 were employed by
nonprofit foundations and privately financed research
organizations.
Although life scientists are employed in all States,
nearly two-fifths were located in only five States—
California, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Mary­
land. About 1 of every 10 life scientists were located in
only two metropolitan areas—Washington, D.C. and New
York, N.Y.
Employment requirements for life sci­
entists are expected to increase 41 percent from about
168,000 to almost 238,000 over the 1968-80 period.
This annual growth rate of 2.9 percent is slower than in
the 1960-68 period when employment increased 7.0
percent a year. Much of the past growth can be traced to
increased requirements in colleges and universities.
Causes for increasing employment have been twofold—
the rise in enrollments and the extensive growth in
research.
One major factor which will contribute to the increase
in employment of life scientists is the anticipated growth
in medical research sponsored by the Federal Govern­
ment and voluntary health agencies, including those
supporting research on heart disease, cancer, and birth
defects. Increased research in relatively new areas such as
space biology, environmental health, and biological
oceanography also will require more life scientists.
Increased expenditures for R & D by private industry
also will increase the demand. Furthermore, more
stringent health standards of the Federal regulatory
agencies are likely to demand additional life scientists in
private industry for research and testing before new
drugs and chemicals are made available to the public.
Larger college and university enrollments expected
during the 1970’s will also increase requirements for life
scientists, primarily for those holding the Ph. D.
In addition to manpower needs of almost 70,000
resulting from growth of the profession, nearly 50,000
life scientists will be needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the labor force and another 63,000 life
scientists for those who transfer to other occupations.
Manpower needs for both growth and replacement are

Projected needs.

8



thus expected to total over 180,000 an annual average of
15,000 over the 1968-80 period.
Supply-demand. New college graduates with majors in

the life sciences are the major source of supply of new
life scientists. However, a substantial portion of the
supply of life scientists comes from new graduates who
did not major in the life sciences, from transfers from
other occupations, from immigrants, and from persons
not in the labor force, including those in the Armed
Forces.
If past patterns of entry to the life sciences of workers
other than new graduates having degrees in life science
were to continue, and if the proportion of new graduates
entering the field continue as indicated by followup
studies, approximately 15,000 life science graduates
would be needed annually to meet projected require­
ments.
In 1968, about 42,000 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in the life sciences. To meet requirements, the number
of bachelor’s degrees granted annually in the life sciences
could be as much as two-thirds below 1968 levels.
Projections developed by the U.S. Office of Education
show the average annual number of bachelor’s degrees in
the life sciences increasing by about 34 percent above
1968 levels over the 1968-80 period. Thus, a more than
adequate supply of life scientists should result if
students continue to elect these fields in the same
proportion as in the past. Many graduates who would
like to be life scientists will probably have to work in
other fields.
Women. Women represented about 10 percent of the
estimated 168,000 life scientists employed in 1968.
Although employed as agricultural, biological, and medi­
cal scientists, most women worked as either biological or
medical scientists.
In 1968, more than 9,500 or 20 percent of all
bachelor’s degrees in the life sciences were granted to
women. This is an increase of about 125 percent over
the 4,200 life science degrees awarded to women in
1960 compared with the 75 percent increase in the
total number of bachelor’s degrees in the life sciences.

Geologists and geophysicists
Approximately 30,000 geologists and
geophysicists were employed in the United States in
1968. Almost three-fifths of the total were employed by
private industry, primarily by mining and independent
consulting firms.
Approximately 2,800 geologists and geophysicists
were employed by Federal Government agencies in
1968, chiefly by the Department of the Interior in the
U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the
Bureau of Reclamation. State agencies employed slightly
over 1,000. Some worked on surveys conducted in
cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey.

E m p loym en t.

In 1968, colleges and universities employed about
8,000 geologists and geophysicists both in teaching and
research. A few members of these professions worked
for nonprofit research institutions and museums.
Geologists and geophysicists generally work in areas
having rich mineral deposits. In 1968, nearly half were
located in only five States—Texas, California, Louisiana,
Colorado, and Oklahoma. Some employed by American
firms are assigned to work in foreign countries.
P rojected Needs. Over the 1968-80 period, employment

requirements for geologists and geophysicists are expected
to increase from approximately 30,000 to almost 36,000.
This increase of 20 percent represents a substantially
slower annual rate of growth, 1.6 percent, than in the
1960-68 period when employment increased by an aver­
age of 6.1 percent a year.
An increasing population and continued emphasis on
industrial growth will require petroleum, minerals, and
fresh water resulting in increased requirements for
geologists and geophysicists. These workers will be
needed to devise techniques for exploring deeper within
the earth’s crust, both on land and under the sea, and to
work with engineers to develop more efficient methods
of recovering natural resources.
Space-age activities such as the exploration of the
outer atmosphere and the analyses of surface conditions
on the moon and other planets also will require
additional geologists and geophysicists.
In addition to manpower needs of slightly over 6,000
resulting from increased requirements, about 16,000
geologists and geophysicists will be required to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to other fields. From
1968 to 1980, manpower needs for both growth and
replacement are thus expected to total over 22,000, an
average of 1,800 a year.
Supply-demand. After allowances are made for entrants

from new college graduates who did not major in
geology and geophysics; from immigrants; from persons
not in the labor force including housewives and those in
the Armed Forces, and from persons employed in other
occupations, fewer than 1,000 new geologists and
geophysicists graduates would have to enter the profes­
sion annually to meet requirements. For this number to
enter the profession annually, however, many more will
have to obtain bachelor’s degrees. Fewer than one-half
of all persons who receive degrees in geology and
geophysics enter the profession, based on past patterns
of entry. Approximately 2,100 geology and geophysics
graduates would, therefore, be needed annually to meet
projected requirements.
In 1968, about 2,100 bachelor’s degrees were granted
in the earth sciences. To meet requirements, the average
number of bachelor’s degrees granted annually would
have to remain at 1968 levels. From 1968 to 1980, the
U.S. Office of Education estimates the average annual
number of bachelor’s degrees in the earth sciences will




decline more than 7 percent from 1968 levels. Thus,
based on past patterns of study and entry to these
professions, the supply of geologists and geophysicists is
expected to fall slightly short of demand.
Women. Only about 3 percent of the approximately
30,000 geologists and geophysicists employed in 1968
were women. They worked for educational institutions
or government agencies; very few were employed in
private industry.
In 1968, women received 225 or 11 percent of the
bachelor’s degrees awarded in the earth sciences. This
represents an increase of about 190 percent over the 80
earth science degrees awarded to women in 1960. Over
the same period, the total number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded in the earth sciences declined 17.5 percent.

Mathematicians
Almost 70,000 men and women were
employed as mathematicians in 1968. More than h alfover 36,000—worked in private industry, primarily in
independent research and development firms, and in the
ordnance, machinery, aircraft, electrical equipment, and
chemicals industries. Insurance companies employed a
significant number as actuaries.
In 1968, nearly 25,000 mathematicians worked for
colleges and universities; 4,800 for the Federal Govern­
ment, mostly in the Department of Defense; and small
numbers for State and local governments and nonprofit
organizations.
Mathematicians are employed in all States. However,
they are concentrated in those States having large
industrial concerns and sizeable college and university
enrollments. Over half of the total were found in only
seven States—California, New York, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and New Jersey. Nearly
one-fourth were located in just three metropolitan
areas—New York, N .Y.; Washington, D.C.; and Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Calif.

E m p loym en t.

Over the 1968-80 period, employment
requirements for mathematicians are expected to in­
crease 60 percent from almost 70,000 to about 110,000.
This 4.0-percent annual rate of growth is substantially
slower than the 1960-68 period when employment
increased an average of 9.4 percent a year.
A strong demand for mathematics in teaching and
research positions is expected in colleges and univer­
sities. The number of mathematics majors and students
majoring in other fields but taking mathematics courses
are expected to increase sharply. Over 50 percent of the
growth requirements in the profession will result from
the anticipated expansion in colleges and universities.
Mathematicians also will be required in substantial
numbers to solve complex R & D problems in engineer­
ing, natural and social science, military sciences, opera­
tions research, and business management. Such work

P rojected Needs.

9

requires a high degree of mathematical competence,
familiarity with electronic computers, and a broad
knowledge of one of these fields of application.
In addition to manpower needs of almost 42,000
resulting from increased requirements, nearly 60,000
mathematicians will be required to replace those who
die, retire, or transfer to other fields of work. Over the
1968-80 period, openings resulting from growth and
replacement are expected to total more than 100,000,
an average of about 8,400 a year.
Annual requirements for mathe­
maticians may be met by persons who shift to occupa­
tions in mathematics from other occupations; from
persons not in the labor force, including housewives and
those in the Armed Forces; from immigrants; from new
college graduates who did not major in mathematics; as
well as from the- major source, new college graduates
receiving degrees in mathematics. Based on past patterns
of entry, approximately 22,000 new bachelor’s degree
graduates in mathematics would be needed annually to
meet projected requirements.
In 1968, approximately 24,000 bachelor’s degrees
were granted in mathematics. To meet requirements,
therefore, the number of bachelor’s degrees granted
annually in mathematics could decline slightly below
1968 levels. From 1968 to 1980, the U.S. Office of
Education, estimates average annual number of bache­
lor’s degrees in mathematics will increase over 65
percent above 1968 levels. Thus, a more than adequate
supply of mathematicians should result if students
continue to elect this field as in the past. Many
mathematics graduates who would perhaps prefer careers
in mathematics will probably have to work elsewhere.
The education and training necessary for a degree in
mathematics is also an excellent foundation for a
number of other occupations. An increasing proportion
of mathematics graduates likely will seek and find jobs
in statistics, systems analysis, engineering, and physics
throughout the 1970’s.

S u p p ly -d e m a n d .

Women. About 10 percent of the approximately
70,000 persons employed as mathematicians in 1968
were women. In 1968, over 8,700 degrees, more than
one-third of the bachelor’s degrees awarded in the field,
were awarded to women. This number, which was more
than 180 percent higher than the 3,100 awarded in
1960, has more than kept pace with the growth in all
bachelor’s degrees awarded women over the 1960-68
period and the 110-percent increase in the total number
of bachelor’s degrees awarded in mathematics.

hospitals. Nearly three-fifths of the 37,000 who held
full-time staff positions in hospitals, were in Government
hospitals. Others were employed in private industry,
State and local health departments, medical schools,
research foundations, and professional organizations.
About one-third of the physicians engaged in private
practice are general practitioners. The other two-thirds
specialized in 1 of 33 fields recognized by the medical
profession.
In 1968, more than 40 percent of all physicians were
in five States: New York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, and Ohio. In general the Northeastern States
have the highest ratio of physicians to population, and
the Southern States, the lowest. General practitioners
are much more widely distributed geographically than
specialists, who tend to be concentrated in large cities.
needs. Manpower needs for physicians are
expected to rise more than one-half from nearly
295,000 to 450,000 between 1968 and 1980. This 3.6
percent is faster than the 2.9 percent in the 1960-68
period. However, the number of new graduates of
medical schools limited employment growth in the past
whereas the 1980 requirements were estimated without
consideration of possible future supply limitations.
In addition to growth needs of 155,000, nearly 90,000
physicians will be needed to replace those who are
expected to die, retire, or stop practicing because of
other reasons between 1968 and 1980.
Important factors underlying the expected very rapid
growth in requirements for physicians between 1968 and
1980 are the increasing population, particularly in the
youngest and oldest age groups, those needing the most
health care; the rising health consciousness of the public;
and the trend toward higher standards of medical care.
Demand for physicians also will increase as a result of
expanding prepayment programs for hospitalization and
medical care; continued Federal Government provisions
of medical care for members of the Armed Forces, their
families, veterans; and the continuing growth in public
health, rehabilitation, industrial medicine, and mental
health. In addition, more physicians will be needed for
research and for new and expanding medical schools.
Projections of manpower needs for physicians are
estimates for workers in 1980 that were developed under
economic assumptions rather than needs based on
specific goals of medical care. For example, physician
requirements are based on anticipated increases for
services resulting from such factors as population
growth, rising expenditures for health care, and research
rather than some predetermined standards of health
care.

P rojected

Physicians
Supply-demand. New medical graduates and immigrants
E m p loym en t. Nearly 295,000 physicians were profes­

sionally active in early 1968. About 190,000, more than
three-fifths of the total, were engaged in private practice.
Approximately 45,000 were interns or residents in
10



are the primary sources of supply for physicians in the
United States. To meet the projected need for 245,000
new physicians between 1968 and 1980—155,000 for
growth and 90,000 for replacement—these sources

would have to average about 20,000 new physicians
annually over the 12-year period, 1968-80. If medical
schools continue at their current capacity and the annual
number of immigrant physicians does not change signifi­
cantly from the level of recent years, however, only
about 10,000 persons would become physicians each
year between 1968 and 1980.3 On this basis, the average
annual output of our medical schools would have to be
increased about 10,000 if the implied deficit is to be
met. Some expansion is being provided for under the
Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1963
but not enough to meet requirements projected in this
report.
Women. The proportion of women in medicine is
small—about 7 percent of all practicing physicians in
1968, nearly 21,000. About 8 percent of all firstprofessional degrees conferred in medicine in 1967-68
were received by women, up from 6 percent 8 years
earlier. The number of such degrees received by women
totaled 626 in 1967-68, according to Office of Educa­
tion data, an increase of three-fifths over the 387
awarded in 1959-60. In contrast, the total number of
degrees conferred in medicine increased 13 percent from
7,032 to 7,944 over the period.

Dentists
In 1968, about 100,000 dentists, 3 per­
cent more than the 93,000 employed in 1960, were at
work in the United States. Nine out of 10 dentists were
in private practice. About 6,800 of the remainder served
as commissioned officers in the Armed Forces; about
1,300 had other types of Federal Government
positions—chiefly in the hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the Public Health Service;
fewer than 2,000 held full-time positions in schools,
hospitals, or State and local health agencies.
Dentists tend to be concentrated in large cities and
populous States. In early 1968, about one-third of all
dentists were located in New York, California, Pennsyl­
vania, and Illinois.

E m ploym en t.

P rojected needs. Manpower needs for dentists are ex­

pected to rise almost one-third from 100,000 employed
in 1968 to 130,000 required in 1980. This annual rate of
growth, 2.2 percent a year is faster than the 1960-68
period when employment increased 0.9 percent a year.
However, as with physicians, the number of new
graduates of dental schools has limited past employment
growth. The 1980 requirements projections were de­
veloped exclusive of possible future supply limitations.
In addition to growth needs of 30,000, about 27,000
dentists will be needed to replace those who die, retire,
3The number of foreign trained physicians licensed to prac­
tice medicine in the United States averaged about 1,000 per year
between 1964 and 1968.




or stop working for other reasons over the 1968-80
period.
Factors contributing to the expected rapid growth in
demand for dental services are expanding population;
the growing awareness of the importance of regular
dental care; and the development of pre-payment ar­
rangements so that people may obtain dental service
more easily. Expanded dental research will require more
trained personnel; dental public health programs will
need qualified administrators; and dental colleges will
need additional faculty members.
Technological developments, such as new equipment
and drugs, and extensive use of auxiliary workers should
permit individual dentists to care for more patients.
Improved dental hygiene and fluoridation of community
water supplies will prevent some tooth and gum dis­
orders but probably will stimulate rather than restrict
the demand for services by preserving teeth that might
otherwise be extracted.
Projections of manpower needs for dentists are esti­
mates for workers in 1980 developed under economic
assumptions rather than needs based on specific stand­
ards of dental care.
The supply of new dentists in the
United States is drawn primarily from graduates of
dental schools. To meet projected needs for 57,000 new
dentists between 1968 and 1980—30,000 for growth and
27,000 for replacement—an average of 4,900 new
dentists would have to graduate each year over the
12-year period. In 1968, only 3,400 dentists graduated
from these schools. Thus, the annual number of dental
graduates will have to be increased 1,500 above current
levels between 1968 and 1980 to meet projected
requirements. As a result of financial assistance under
the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of
1963, dental school facilities are expected to increase,
but not enough to meet projected requirements.

Supply-demand.

Women. In 1968, approximately 2,000 women, about 2
percent of the profession, were dentists.
Only 47 or 1.4 percent of the total 3,422 first
professional degrees conferred in dentistry in 1967-68
were received by women, according to Office of Educa­
tion data.

Dietitians
In 1968, about 30,000 dietitians, an
increase of one-fifth over the 25,000 employed in 1960,
were employed. About two-thirds of all dietitians,
including about 1,100 who were employed by the
Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public Health
Service, worked in hospitals and related institutions. A
sizeable number were employed by colleges, universities,
and school systems as teachers or as dietitians in
food-service programs. Most of the remainder worked
for public health agencies, restaurants or cafeterias, and

E m p loym en t.

11

large companies that operate food-service programs for
their employees. Some dietitians were commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces.
needs. Employment requirements are ex­
pected to increase 40 percent from about 30,000 to
more than 42,000 between 1968 and 1980. This 2.8percent annual rate growth is faster than the 1960-68
period when employment increased 2.3 percent a year.
Contributing to the very rapid increase in requirements
for dietitians is the increase in the patient load of
hospitals, nursing homes, and other extended care
facilities primarily resulting from population growth and
the increasing ability of the population to pay for
institutional care. In addition, more dietitians will be
needed to direct food services for the growing number of
schools, day care centers, industrial plants, and to work
in research and public health programs.
In addition to the more than 12,000 to staff new
positions, nearly 20,000 dietitians will be needed to
replace those who die, retire, or leave the labor force for
family or other reasons over the 1968-80 period.

P rojected

increasing employment opportunities, especially as ad­
ministrative dietitians in college and university food
services, hospitals, and commercial eating places.
Ninety-eight percent of the degrees conferred in home
economics in 1968 were women. By 1980, men are
expected to increase their share of bachelor’s degrees in
home economics to about 6 percent.
Pharmacists
E m p loym en t. More than 121,000 pharmacists, 6 per­

cent more than file 114,000 employed in 1960, were
working in the United States in 1968. Almost 50 percent
of the 103,000 working in retail pharmacies were owners
or part owners of drugstores. Most of the remainder
were employed by hospitals, pharmaceutical manufac­
turers, and wholesalers. Others worked in the clinics of
the Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public Health
Service, taught in colleges of pharmacy, worked for
State and local government agencies, or served in the
Armed Forces.
Between 1968 and 1980, employment
requirements for pharmacists are expected to increase
from more than 121,000 to 130,000 or 7 percent. This
represents a slightly lower annual rate of growth, 0.6
percent, than in the 1960-68 period when employment
increased by an average of 0.7 percent a year.
Compared with the 9,000 pharmacists needed for the
growth of the occupation, about 45,000 pharmacists will
be needed to replace workers who die, retire, or leave
the labor force for other reasons between 1968 and
1980.
Some pharmacists will be needed for newly established
pharmacies, particularly in residential areas and subur­
ban shopping centers. Also, some drugstores may hire
additional pharmacists because of a trend toward shorter
working hours. However, continuing expansion in the
preparation of pharmaceuticals by manufacturing estab­
lishments will partially offset the need for additional
pharmacists as well as the trend towards larger drug­
stores, and the greater use of pharmacist assistants.

P rojected Needs.
Supply-demand. New graduates

of bachelor’s degree
programs in home economics and experienced dietitians
reentering the occupation, primarily housewives return­
ing to work when their family responsibilities no longer
require their full-time attention, are the primary source
of entrants to this profession. A few enter after receiving
bachelor’s degrees in other fields.4
After allowances for entrants from other fields of
study and reentry of women assuming they follow the
reentry patterns of women teachers, home economics
programs will have to provide an annual average of about
1,800 entrants over the 1968-80 period. Although
7,350s persons received degrees in home economics in
1968, only about one-fifth or about 1,500 were esti­
mated to have become dietitians based on data available
on the working patterns of new degree recipients. Thus,
to obtain 1,800 entrants from these programs, the
average annual number of graduates must expand by
one-fifth above 1968 levels over the 1968-80 period.
Projections developed by the U.S. Office of Education
show the average annual number of bachelor’s degrees in
home economics, including home economics education,
declining by 13.5 percent over the 1968-80 period.
Thus, based on past patterns of study and entry to the
occupation, the supply of dietitians is expected to fall
short of demand.

Supply-demand. The new supply of pharmacists in the

United States is drawn primarily from new graduates of
colleges of pharmacy to meet the projected need of
54,000—9,000 for growth and 45,000 for replacement.
These schools would have to average 4,400 new pharma­
cists annually over the 12 years. In 1968, about 4,000
students graduated from colleges of pharmacy. Thus, to
meet projected requirements the average number of
Women. More than 90 percent of all dietitians in 1968
graduates between 1968 and 1980 must be increased
were women. The number of men employed has been
growing slowly but steadily. Men are likely to find
about 400 or 10 percent.
Over the 1968-80 period, the U.S. Office of Educa­
4After completion o f 4 years of college, the profession en­
tion estimates the average annual number of bachelor’s
courages completion of a 12 or 18 month internship program or
degrees in pharmacy will increase about 25 percent over
3 years of preplanned experience.
5
Number of degrees in home economics excluding home eco­ the 1968 level. Thus, the supply of pharmacists is
nomics education since dietitians seldom become teachers.
expected to slightly exceed projected requirements.
12




Women. Women represented about 8 percent of all
pharmacists in 1968, about 9,700. They are employed in
all branches of the profession.
Women received 610, or 15 percent of the total 3,987
bachelor’s and first-professional degrees conferred in
pharmacy in 1967-68, an increase of 56 percent over the
390 awarded in 1959-60. Women averaged about 13
percent of the 3,500 degrees conferred annually in
pharmacy over the period.

Optometrists
Approximately 17,000 optometrists, vir­
tually the same number as in the early 1950’s, were in
practice in the United States in 1968. More than
nine-tenths were self-employed. Several hundred served
in the Armed Forces and some taught in colleges of
optometry. The remainder worked for established practi­
tioners, health clinics, hospitals, optical instrument
manufacturers, or government agencies.
About 4 out of 10 optometrists are located in five
States—California, Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, and
Ohio. Many small towns and rural areas, especially in the
South, have no optometrists.

E m p loym en t.

P rojected needs. Between 1968 and 1980, employment

requirements are expected to increase from 17,000 to
21,000, or nearly one-fourth. The demand for the
services of optometrists is expected to rise moderately
primarily as a result of some basic factors that will
contribute to increased demand for other health
workers—population growth and the increasing ability of
individuals to pay for health care. In addition, the
general public is becoming more conscious of the need
for regular examinations since greater demands are being
made on the eyes and because of the necessity of good
vision for efficiency at work and in school.
The increasing use of assistants and technicians in
optometrists’ offices, however, will tend to slow the
growth of employment requirements for optometrists.
Also, some of the expanded demand for eye care is
expected to be met by ophthamologists, medical doctors
who are eye specialists.
In addition to the growth needs of 4,000, 5,800
optometrists will be needed to replace those who die or
retire over the 1968-80 period.
Supply-demand. New graduates of schools of optometry

are the primary source of supply for new optometrists in
the United States. To meet the projected need for 9,800
optometrists between 1968 and 1980—4,000 for growth
and 5,800 for replacement—schools would have to
provide an annual average of more than 800 graduates
over this period. In 1968, optometry schools provided
only about 450 graduates. Thus, to meet projected 1980
requirements, the average annual number of graduates of
optometry schools must be increased about 350 over
current levels. Part of the increase is expected to be met




by expanding training facilities resulting from assistance
received under the Health Professions Educational As­
sistance Act of 1963. However, based on planned
expansion to 1980, the supply of optometrists is
expected to fall short of requirements as projected in
this report.
Women. An estimated 2 percent (350) of all optome­
trists in 1968 were women. Women received 11 or only
2.4 percent of the 452 bachelor’s and first-professional
degrees conferred in optometry in 1967-68 according to
Office of Education data. Over the 1959-60 to 1967-68
period, women have averaged less than 2 percent of all
such graduates.

Elementary and secondary schoolteachers
E m p loym en t. Nearly

2.2 million elementary and
secondary schoolteachers, over one-third more than in
1960, were employed during academic year 1968-69.
The largest part was kindergarten and elementary
teachers numbering more than 1.2 million in the
1968-69 school year, or about one-fourth more than the
990.000 working in 1960. About 940,000, an increase
of more than one-half over the 610,000 in 1960, were
employed in the Nation’s public and private secondary
schools in 1968-69.

P rojected needs. The increase in the school-age popula­

tion has slowed and caused a decline in the number of
additional teachers required annually. During the 1970’s,
school enrollment will level off even more. Reflecting
the recent decline in births, elementary schools are
expected to decline in enrollment up to 1976. After
that, elementary enrollments will probably begin to
climb slowly, but in 1980 they are expected still to be
slightly below the 1968 level. Secondary school enroll­
ments will rise about one-fifth over the 1968-76 period,
but only about two-fifths as fast as during the preceding
8 years.
Employment requirements for teachers are expected
to rise about 8 percent between 1968 and 1980—from
2.17 million to about 2.34 million despite an anticipated
continuation of the decline in pupil-teacher ratios. This
compares with an increase of more than one-third during
the 1960-68 period when employment of classroom
teachers in elementary and secondary schools increased
from 1.60 million to 2.17 million.
Many more new teachers will be needed to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the profession for other
reasons than will be needed to handle increased enroll­
ments. This will be true even if pupil-teacher ratios are
reduced further, in line with recent trends. Fewer than
200.000 teachers will be needed to staff new positions
between 1968 and 1980, compared with 2.1 million to
replace those who retire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons. In addition, about 90,000 teachers will be
needed to replace persons not meeting certification

13

requirements. Altogether, requirements for new teachers
from these sources are expected to total about 2.4
million over the 1968-80 period—roughly 1.2 million for
elementary and 1.2 million for secondary school posi­
tions.
To meet the projected need of 2.4
million elementary and secondary teachers between
1968 and 1980, the number of persons entering the
profession must average about 200,000 a year. The
supply is expected to exceed demand if recent entry
patterns continue.
Reentrants, late entrants, and new degree recipients
are primary sources of teacher supply. Between 1968
and 1980, almost 11 million bachelor’s degrees, or 5.3
million more than the number awarded the previous 12
years, are expected to be awarded. More than 20 percent
of all recipients of bachelor’s degrees in 1968 met high
school teaching requirements; nearly 15 percent met
elementary school requirements. However, for many
reasons, including higher salaries, better working condi­
tions, and preferred locations, not all who have certifi­
cates enter teaching. In 1968, about 80 percent who met
requirements taught at elementary schools and about 66
percent of those who met requirements taught at high
schools. If these trends continue, about 2.7 million new
graduates will enter teaching between 1968 and 1980.
All other entrants, the great majority of whom are
reentrants, also constitute large numbers of entrants to
teaching; in recent years, they have made up about
two-fifths of all entrants. If the number of reentries each
year through 1980 should continue to be governed by
the number of teachers who separated 8 years previously
(since the average length of separation is 8 years), more
than 1.4 million reentering teachers would be added to
supply during this period. Altogether, based on past
patterns of entry, the number of persons seeking to
enter elementary and secondary teaching would reach
about 4.2 million over the 1968-80 period, or an annual
average of 350,000 a year—more than three-fourths
above requirement needs.
Even with this anticipated improved supply, however,
teaching opportunities for both men and women will be
very favorable in urban ghettos, rural districts, and other
areas offering unfavorable working and living conditions.
Also, for subjects such as mathematics and the physical
sciences for which the demand in private industry and
government is also great. In addition, increased demands
are expected for teachers of the mentally retarded or
physically handicapped. Further specialized training may
qualify many secondary school teachers for positions in
vocational and technical schools and in junior colleges,
where demand is expected to be especially great in
future years.
In addition, the demand-supply situation is likely to be
affected by a number of adjustments. For example, as
manpower constraints are eased, more communities may
introduce or expand kindergartens, nursery schools, and

Supply-demand.

14



curricula for the physically and mentally handicapped,
underprivileged, and the gifted. In addition, as the
relative supply improves, educational planners may
improve the quality of education by hiring additional
teachers to reduce class size. The resulting requirements
could be significant. Nevertheless, many potential
teachers will have to change their occupation choice and
pursue other careers.
Women. Women constitute about 85 percent of all
kindergarten and elementary schoolteachers and hold
almost 50 percent of the teaching positions in the
secondary (junior and senior high) schools. Men, how­
ever, predominate in supervisory and administrative
positions in both public and private schools. In 1968,
women made up more than 40 percent of all bachelor’s
and first professional degrees. They are expected to
constitute about the same proportion of all such degrees
over the 1968-80 period.
Since 70 percent of all college graduates who enter
teaching are women, the changing labor-market in
teaching could affect women’s opportunities in profes­
sional employment.6 Thus, under present circumstances,
many young women who would enter teaching may have
to seek other employment.

College and university teachers
The college teaching faculty in the 196869 academic year comprises several major groups. The
largest, instructional staff for resident degree-credit
courses, totaled 503,000 and included 286,000 full-time
and 142,000 part-time teachers at the instructor level or
above plus 75,000 graduate students who were em­
ployed as assistant instructors, teaching fellows, and
teaching assistants. The faculty also included about
101.000 teachers of resident nondegree courses; corre­
spondence, radio, or television instruction; extension
work; and short courses.
In 1968, about nine-tenths of all full- and part-time
teachers were employed by universities and 4-year
colleges; most of the remainder were in 2-year institu­
tions.
In the fall of 1968, resident and extension enrollments
exceeded 1.1 million in California and 700,000 in New
York. Seven other States had enrollments of from
200.000 to 350,000: Illinois, Texas, Pennsylvania, Mich­
igan, Ohio, Massachusetts, and Florida.

E m p loym en t.

Between 1968 and 1980, employment
requirements for full-time teachers for degree-credit
courses in institutions of higher education are expected
to increase 40 percent from 286,000 to 395,000. This
2.7-percent annual rate of growth was slower than was
the 6.8-percent experienced during the 1960-68 period.

P rojected needs.

6
School teaching constituted two-fifths of all professional and
related jobs held by women in 1968.

Enrollments in higher education are the key factors
underlying the need for college teaching faculty. During
the 12 years from 1968-80, degree-credit enrollments
are expected to increase more than 50 percent from 6.9
million to 10.7 million. This represents only 40 percent
of the annual rate of growth that occurred in the
1960-68 period. The main factor restricting growth of
faculty will be the slow increase in enrollments. In
addition, average student-teacher ratios are likely to rise,
as public junior and community colleges continue their
rapid growth and as technological innovations, such as
language laboratories and instructional television, are
utilized more widely.
Between 1968 and 1980, about 95,000 college
teachers will be needed to replace workers who retire or
die and 110,000 will be needed for growth—a total of
205,000.
Supply-demand. To meet this demand for new teachers,

colleges and universities will draw on record numbers of
new graduates having advanced degrees. Projections
developed by the U.S. Office of Education indicate a rise
of more than 125 percent in Ph. D.’s between 1968 and
1980 and a doubling in master’s degrees.
Between 1968 and 1980, earned doctoral degrees are
expected to total more than 515,000, three times as
many as during the previous 12 years. Despite alternative
opportunities in industry and government, an increasing
proportion of doctoral recipients have continued in
college teaching in recent years. If trends continue, the
number of new doctoral recipients entering full-time
teaching would total about 275,000 between 1968 and
1980, compared with total projected needs of 205,000
and would, therefore, be adequate to meet manpower
needs.
More doctoral recipients relative to requirements for
college teachers makes it possible and necessary to focus
on providing adequate teacher manpower in all disci­
plines, and on improving the quality of education at
4-year colleges that fall significantly below the national
average in the proportion of faculty holding a Ph. D.
degree (about 40 percent in 1968). Among these are
included many predominantly Negro colleges and univer­
sities.
Because of the rapidly rising number of Ph. D.’s in
college teaching, the demand for teachers without Ph. D.
degrees is expected to drop sharply in degree-credit
programs. However, such teachers should find many
opportunities in the expanding nondegree programs and
in special fields including extension, mail, and television
teaching. Furthermore, junior and community colleges
may value teaching and work experience more highly
than the research-oriented doctorate.
Women. Only about one-fourth of all college and
university teachers are women. Women hold fewer than
one-tenth of the college teaching positions in engineering
and physical sciences, agriculture, and law. However,




most teachers in nursing, home economics, and library
sciences are women.
Lawyers
In 1968, the great majority of approxi­
mately 270,000 lawyers worked full time. More than 75
percent were in private practice. Over 50 percent of
these were in practice by themselves; and about 47
percent were in partnerships or worked for other lawyers
or law firms.
The greatest number of salaried attorneys worked for
Government agencies. Over 16,000 attorneys were em­
ployed by the Federal Government, chiefly in the
Departments of Justice, Defense, Treasury, and the
Veterans Administration. About 7,500 attorneys were
employed by State Government, and 7,600 held posi­
tions with city or county governments. Large manufac­
turing firms, banks, insurance companies, real estate
firms, and public utilities also employ lawyers. Most of
the remainder teach in law schools.
Although lawyers practice in nearly every city and
town in all areas of the country, most are employed in
cities and States having the greatest population. Over
two-fifths of all lawyers are located in only five
States—New York, California, Illinois, Texas, and Ohio.
Many people who have legal training are not employed
as lawyers, but are in occupations where they can use
their knowledge of the law. For example, insurance
adjusters, probation officers, and claim examiners.

E m p loym en t.

Projected needs. Over the 1968-80 period, requirements

for lawyers are expected to increase from approximately
270,000 to 335,000 or 23 percent. This 1.7 percent
annual increase is faster than 1.5 percent experienced
over the 1960 to 1968 period.
Increased requirements for lawyers reflect the contin­
uing expansion of business activity and an increasing
population. In addition, low- and middle-income groups
will use more legal services. For example, expansion of
legal services for low-income groups has come about
through the Community Action Programs authorized
under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. The
growing complexity of business and government activi­
ties are expected to create a steadily expanding demand
for lawyers in corporation, patent, administrative, labor
and international law.
In addition to manpower needs of 65,000 resulting
from increased requirements, about 108,000 lawyers will
be required to replace those who die, retire, or otherwise
leave the labor force. Manpower needs for both growth
and replacement thus are expected to total more than
173,000, an average of 14,500 a year from 1968-80.
Supply-demand. A person must be admitted to the bar

to practice law. To take the examinations generally
required by the States for bar admission, an applicant
usually must graduate from an approved law school.

15

Some States will accept study in a law office instead of,
or in combination with, study in a law school. A few
States will accept study of the law wholly in a law
office; only two States will accept study of the law by
correspondence. For supply-demand analysis, however,
sources other than law school graduates can be ignored.
In any given year the number of persons passing bar
examinations is greater than the number of law school
graduates since some graduates delay and others repeat
taking bar examinations. However, not all those who
pass a bar examination practice law. Based on past
relationships between law school graduates, numbers
taking and passing bar examinations, and numbers
actually entering the occupation, an average of about
20,000 law school graduates would be needed annually
over the 1968-80 period to meet projected require­
ments.
In 1968, almost 17,000 persons received bachelor’s or
first professional degrees in law. To meet requirements,
the average number of law degrees granted annually will
have to increase about 20 percent above 1968 levels.
Projections developed by the U.S. Office of Education
estimate the average number of degrees awarded in law
will increase slightly over 20 percent. Thus, the supply
of law school graduates should about balance the
demand for lawyers based on past patterns of study and
entry to the profession.
Women. Approximately 8,000 women or about 3 per­
cent of the profession were working as lawyers in 1968.
More than 50 percent were employed in salaried
positions by government agencies or as law associates for
another lawyer or law firm. Only a few were selfemployed.
In 1968, approximately 675 women received law
degrees. This represents an increase of more than 190
percent over the 230 law degrees granted women in
1960. Over the same period, the total number of law
degrees awarded increased approximately 83 percent.

Architects
An estimated 34,000 registered (licensed)
architects were employed in the United States in 1968.
In addition, many other unlicensed architectural gradu­
ates were working in positions requiring a knowledge of
architecture.
Approximately two-fifths of all architects are selfemployed, either practicing individually or as partners.
Many work for architectural service firms; some are
employed by engineering, building, and real estate firms,
as well as for other businesses with large construction
programs.
Architects also are employed by government agencies,
often in fields such as city planning and urban redevelop­
ment. Approximately 1,500 of these were employed by
the Federal Government. About 2,500 architects primar­
ily in teaching positions were employed by colleges and
universities.

E m p loym en t.

16



Though employed in all parts of the country, archi­
tects are concentrated in those States with large metro­
politan areas. Nearly half of all architects are employed
in only six States—California, New York, Illinois, Texas,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio.
P rojected needs. Over the 1968-80 period, employment

requirements for architects are expected to increase
from 34,000 to 50,000 or 47 percent. This 3.3-percent
annual rate of growth is slower than the 1960-68 period,
when employment increased an average of 3.4 percent a
year.
A major factor contributing to the anticipated increase
in requirements for architects is the expected growth in
nonresidential construction—the major area of work for
architects. Moreover, the increasing size and complexity
of modern nonresidential buildings, as well as home­
owner’s growing awareness of the value of architects’
services, are likely to bring about a greater demand for
architects.
Urban redevelopment and city and community plan­
ning are expected to increase requirements for archi­
tects. Expanding college enrollments will create an
additional need.
In addition to manpower needs of 16,000 resulting
from increased requirements, about 12,000 architects
will be required to replace those who die, retire, or leave
the labor force for other reasons. Over the 1968-80
period, manpower needs for both growth and replace­
ment are thus expected to total about 28,000, an
average of 2,300 a year.
Supply-demand. All States and the District of Columbia

require a license to practice architecture. Although
licensing requirements are set by the individual States,
graduation from an accredited professional school is
usually required. Most States accept 10 to 12 years’
practical experience as a substitute for formal training.
Thus, almost the entire number of annual average
openings for architects will have to be met from new
college graduates receiving degrees in architecture. Not
all who receive degrees in architecture, however, become
registered architects.
Based on past relationships between graduates and
registration, approximately 4,200 architectural graduates
would be needed annually to meet projected require­
ments. In 1968, almost 3,300 bachelor’s or first profes­
sional degrees were granted in architecture. To meet
requirements, therefore, the average number of bache­
lor’s degrees granted annually in architecture over the
1968-80 period will have to be almost 30 percent above
1968 levels. Projections developed by the U.S. Office of
Education estimate that the average number of bache­
lor’s degrees will increase by about a third. Thus, the
supply of new architectural school graduates should
be in rough balance with the demand for registered
(licensed) architects based on past patterns of study
and entry to the profession.

Women. About 4 percent of all registered architects are
women. In contrast to all architects, few women are
self-employed; most work for architectural service firms
and government agencies.
In 1968, 140 women received degrees in architecture.
This is an increase of about 145 percent over the 57
architectural degrees awarded women in 1960. Over the
same period, the total number of bachelor’s degrees
awarded in architecture increased about 80 percent.

Counselors
E m p loym en t. More than 70,000 persons were employed

in three areas of counseling in 1968: School, rehabilita­
tion, and employment.7
S ch ool counselors represent the largest group. Approx­
imately 54,000 persons did counseling in public second­
ary schools during the 1968-69 school year. More than
29.000 were full-time counselors. Counseling services in
the elementary schools are being steadily expanded;
about 5,500 persons worked as counselors at this level in
1968-69.
The majority of counselors are in large schools. An
increasing number of school districts, however, are
assigning several schools to a counselor.
Rehabilitation counselors employment totaled about
12.000 in 1968. About three-fourths were full-time
counselors.
About three-fourths of all rehabilitation counselors
were employed in State and local agencies financed
cooperatively with Federal and State funds. The re­
mainder were employed by hospitals, labor unions,
insurance companies, special schools, rehabilitation cen­
ters, sheltered workshops, and other public and private
agencies conducting rehabilitation programs and pro­
viding job placement for the disabled.
E m p lo ym en t counselors in State offices in early 1968
totaled about 5,300. They were located in every large
city and in many smaller towns. More than four-fifths
were employed full-time. The next largest number—
probably about 2,000—worked for various private or
community agencies offering vocational counseling, pri­
marily in the larger cities. In addition, some worked in
prisons, training schools for delinquent youths, and
mental hospitals. The Federal Government employed a
limited number chiefly in the Bureau of Indian Affairs
and the Veterans Administration. Some people trained
in employment or vocational counseling do research or
graduate teaching.
Projected needs. Manpower requirements for schools,

rehabilitation, and employment counselors are expected
to rise about 50 percent from more than 70,000 in 1968
7Some people who are identified with other professions includ­
ing the counseling psychologist and social worker also provide
counseling services. Other workers who do some counseling but
whose primary work is in teaching, health, law, religion, or other
fields, are not included in this discussion.




to more than 105,000 in 1980.
Manpower requirements for school counselors, the
largest group, are expected to rise 40 percent from
54.000 to 75,000 between 1968 and 1980. This repre­
sents a slower annual rate of growth, 3.2 percent, than
the 1961-62 to 1968-69 period, when employment
increased an average of 5.8 percent a year.
Continued strengthening of counseling services and
some increase in secondary school enrollments underlie
the expected rapid growth in requirements for school
counselors. Contributing to demand also is the impor­
tance of guidance services to help students with personal
and social problems remain in school. Employment
growth of counselors also will be stimulated by the great
numbers of high school students planning to go to
college or entering the labor force for the first time.
Many will seek advice about rising educational require­
ments for entry jobs, job changes resulting from automa­
tion and other technological advances, and places where
employment can be found.
In addition to growth needs of about 21,000, about
23.000 school counselors will be needed to replace
workers who die or leave the field because of family
responsibilities, or retire.
From 1968 to 1980, employment requirements for
rehabilitation counselors are expected to increase almost
75 percent, from 12,000 to 21,000. This 4.7-percent
annual rate of growth is only a quarter of the 19.7percent annual growth rate that occurred from 1961 to
1968.8
Factors contributing to the expected very rapid
increase in requirements for rehabilitation counselors are
population growth and the increased numbers of handi­
capped persons; extension of services to the severely
disabled; increasing support for social welfare; and the
growing awareness that expenditures for rehabilitation
often are returned as savings on the appropriations for
custodial care of health and social welfare programs.
In addition to growth needs of 9,000 rehabilitation
counselors, about 4,000 will be needed to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the labor force for family
responsibilities or other reasons over the 1968-80
period.
Manpower needs for employment counselors, the
smallest of the three counseling groups, are expected to
more than double between 1968 and 1980 from 5,300
to 10,800. This represents about the same annual rate of
growth, 6.1 percent, that occurred over the 1964-68
period.
Among the factors contributing to the expected very
rapid growth in requirements for counselors in State
employment service offices are three major Federal laws:
the Vocational Education Act of 1963, which provides
for vocational guidance and counseling for people who
are out of school and seeking employment; the
8
In recent years the rapid increase in employment growth was
stimulated by legislation which expanded and improved rehabili­
tation services and facilities.

17

Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962, as
amended, which provides for counseling in connection
with the occupational training or retraining of large num­
bers of unemployed workers; and the Economic Oppor­
tunity Act of 1964, as amended, which provides for
counseling to implement such programs as Job Corps,
Neighborhood Youth Corps, Work Training, Work Exper­
ience, and Urban and Rural Community Action. State
employment service offices also will employ additional
counselors to work with returning veterans, older persons,
American Indians, and inmates of correctional institu­
tions. Moreover, the population growth and particularly
the large number of young workers entering the labor
force each year will be reflected in larger numbers
seeking vocational counseling.
In addition to the 5,500 needed for the growth of the
occupation about 3,100 employment counselors will be
needed to replace workers who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons over the 1968-80 period.
Thus, growth and replacement needs for school,
rehabilitation, and employment counselors are expected
to average about 5,500 a year, or total about 65,000
over the 1968-80 period.
However, persons graduating with master’s degrees in
counseling and guidance, probably will constitute the
major portion of new supply of qualified counselors.
Supply also will be augmented as experienced counselors
reenter the labor force (primarily housewives returning
to work when their family responsibilities no longer
require their full-time attention). Master’s degree recip­
ients from rehabilitation counselor training programs,
both in education and psychology, and from counseling
psychology programs also will contribute to supply.
Not all who receive master’s degrees represent new
entrants to the profession. For example, many persons
work in counseling positions while taking additional
training at college and universities leading to a master’s
degree. If past trends of entry to the profession
continue; and if patterns of reentry of women in
counseling follow the reentry patterns of women
teachers (specific data are not available for counselors),
about 12,000 graduates with master’s degrees in counsel­
ing and guidance and related fields would be needed
annually to meet projected requirements.
In 1967-68, about 8,400 persons received master’s
degrees in counseling and guidance; another 700 were
graduated from M.A. programs in counseling psychology
and from education or psychology programs in rehabili­
tation counselor training. Thus, the average annual
output from these programs will have to increase at least
by one-third over the 1968-80 period to meet man­
power needs.
Separate projections of earned degrees in these specific
programs were not developed by the U.S. Office of
Education. The average annual total number of master’s
degrees, however, are expected to increase only about 20
percent over the 1968 level. Thus, unless counseling
makes up a greater proportion of total education degrees
18



or unless more persons receiving master’s degrees in
social work and psychology enter the occupation, supply
is expected to continue to fall short of demand.
W om en . About one-half of all persons employed in high

school and employment counseling are women.
Women constituted almost one-half of all master’s
degree recipients in 1967-68 from programs in counsel­
ing and guidance, counseling psychology, and education
or psychology programs in rehabilitation counselor
training. This number was about one-eighth more than
their proportion in 1960-61. Over the 1968-80 period,
women are expected to increase slightly their proportion
of master’s degrees awarded in education and psychol­
ogy.
Social scientists
More than 70,000 people were employed
professionally in the basic social sciences in 1968.
Overlapping among the basic social sciences are related
fields such as business administration, foreign service
work, and high school teaching. Determining the exact
size of each profession is difficult.
Economists are the largest social science group. In
1968, over two-fifths of all professionally employed
social scientists—about 31,000—were economists. This
number was more than double the 14,000 historians, the
second largest group. Political scientists numbered
11,400; sociologists, 10,000; geographers, 3,900; and
anthropologists, 3,000.
The majority of social scientists—about 60 percent in
1968—are employed by colleges and universities. Non­
profit organizations and private industry employed
almost 30 percent of all social scientists. The remainder
worked for government agencies.
Places of employment differ for the various groups of
social scientists. About 50 percent of all economists, for
example, are employed by business and industry; only
about 25 percent work in colleges and universities, and
about 20 percent are employed by government
agencies—chiefly Federal. In contrast, over 80 percent of
all anthropologists are employed by educational institu­
tions, and less than 5 percent, by Federal Government
agencies.
Social scientists can be found in every State. They
generally are concentrated, however, in those areas with
numerous or large colleges and universities and large
concentrations of government employment. The largest
group of economists, for example, is in the New York
and Washington, D.C. metropolitan areas.

E m ploym en t.

P rojected needs. Employment requirements for social

scientists are expected to increase from over 70,000 to
more than 105,000 over the 1968-80 period. Require­
ments for anthropologists are expected to increase from
3,000 to 4,100; economists from 31,000 to 48,000;
geographers from 3,900 to 5,200; historians from

14,000 to 19,000; political scientists from 11,400 to
17,000; and sociologists from 10,000 to 14,000.
This increase of over 45 percent in requirements for all
social scientists over the 1968-80 period represents an
annual growth rate of 3.2 percent compared with 4.8
percent in the 1960-68 period. Much of the past growth
of social scientists, reflecting substantial increases in
college enrollments from 1960 to 1968, can be traced to
increased requirements by colleges and universities.
The anticipated rise in college teaching will continue
to be a major factor contributing to increased employ­
ment for social scientists. Government programs con­
cerned with manpower training, unemployment, and the
elimination of poverty will increase requirements for
social scientists to handle research and administrative
functions associated with these programs.
In addition to manpower needs of about 33,000
resulting from anticipated growth in social science
professions, almost 25,000 will be needed to replace
those who die, retire, or leave the labor force for other
reasons. Over the 1968-80 period, manpower needs for
both growth and replacement are expected to total
about 58,000, an average of 4,800 a year.
Supply and demand data are lacking for social
scientists. However, the small amount available suggests
that social scientists having doctor’s degrees will find
employment opportunities favorable through the 1970’s
in both teaching and nonteaching. For those having less
training, employment will differ among the fields.
College graduates with only the bachelor’s or master’s
degree in history, for example, probably will encounter
considerable competition as professional historians. On
the other hand, opportunities for geographers and
economists, for example, holding bachelor’s and master’s

O u tlo o k .




degrees will be more favorable, especially in Federal
Government agencies.
Since many social scientists are employed by colleges
and universities—
where the Ph. D. generally is required—
the key factor in the supply of social scientists is the
number of Ph. D.’s awarded in appropriate fields. A
more detailed discussion of the supply-demand for
college teachers is contained elsewhere in the report.
(See section on College and University Teachers).
W o m e n . About 10 percent of the more than 70,000
social scientists employed in 1968 were women. Among
the social science fields, however, the representation of
women varied considerably. For example, women consti­
tute 20 percent of all anthropologists, about 5 percent
of all economists, about 10 percent of all geographers,
and about 15 percent of all sociologists. As with all
social scientists, women in this field primarily are
employed by colleges and universities, and government
agencies.
Proportionally, more women than men are lost to the
social sciences in the progression up the academic
hierarchy. For example, women received 35 percent of
the bachelor’s degrees in the social sciences, 23 percent
of the master’s degrees, and less than 12 percent of the
doctorate’s in 1968. Increased employment for women
as social scientists centers around two factors. First,
women must be guided into those social science fields
offering the largest number of opportunities. Although
women received 35 percent of all bachelor’s degrees in
the social sciences, they constituted only 10 percent of
those awarded in economics. Second, more women who
received bachelor’s degrees in the social sciences must be
encouraged to continue study toward the doctor’s
degrees.

19

Chapter III. Junior College Trained Manpower

The development of an extensive network of com­
munity and junior colleges in the United States has been
beneficial in many ways. Foremost, community colleges
have trained the disadvantaged. Since they make college
opportunities available in the community and students
unable to meet requirements at 4-year institutions may
be admitted, many from low-income families can attend.
Also, junior college curriculums are flexible and can
develop training for occupations in a relatively short
time after a shortage of workers is found in the
community.
Many junior colleges offer 2 programs: the transfer or
liberal arts program, which provides courses for the first
2 years of a liberal arts college curriculum, and the
career preparation program which prepares a student for
a specific career upon graduation. Since students gradu­
ating from the transfer program are included in the
supply-demand analysis of bachelor’s degree holders, the
discussion here deals with graduates of career prepara­
tion programs.
Career training available
Junior college career-oriented programs fall into three
broad categories. The first includes training that has
been traditionally offered at junior colleges, but which
has been recently expanded to meet changing needs. For
example, many junior colleges have offered engineering
drafting; now they have expanded the curriculum to
provide the advanced technological aspects of engineer­
ing technology. The same is true of the health field
where increasing emphasis has been placed on areas such
as technical laboratory training. Courses available in­
clude science and engineering technologies. New pro­
grams are developing in marine technology and environ­
mental control technology; public services with new
emphasis being placed in many schools on transportation
planning and aide occupations; the business and com­
mercial fields which emphasize food service and distribu­
tion; the allied health and medical fields; and many
others.
The second category includes occupations where post­
secondary training had not been necessary but is
becoming increasingly desirable, if not required. A good
example of this category is the course offered in law
enforcement designed to train policemen.
The third category includes the newly developing aide
occupations in public services. Much o f the programing
20



in this area has been in conjunction with the New
Careers program. New Careers aims to recruit the
disadvantaged—
many without high school diplomas—
and
to offer both classroom and on-the-job training for
teacher aides, welfare aides, and other paraprofessional
jobs in public services, and to make possible further
advancement in these jobs.
Community colleges function in two aspects of the
program. First, some give special courses needed by the
trainees. For example, a group of trainee welfare aides
may require a psychology course. The junior college
provides instruction and space. The course may be the
same general course as taught to freshmen but less
concentrated. It may be set up specifically for the
trainees. Credit often can be applied later toward an
associate degree. If the trainee has not completed high
school, some junior colleges hold credits until high
school is completed.
A second aspect of the junior college participation
appears later. New Careers emphasizes further education.
Trainees wishing to advance beyond their initial training
may work toward an associate or a bachelor’s degree.
Courses to ease the shortage of professional manpower
have also been developed outside the New Careers
program. Should demand continue, a result that may be
contingent upon and the availability of Federal funds,
the junior college could be an effective training ground
for such personnel.
Career education programs vary in length and in
awards granted. Most programs are 2 years and lead to
the associate degree. A certificate or diploma may be
awarded if fewer “ general education” courses than
required by State law are offered. Some courses range
from a few months to a year and offer diplomas or
certificates rather than formal degrees. Other courses—
especially in the health field—
may extend to 3 years if
hospital experience is included.
Development of career education
Between 1958 and 1968, enrollment in community
and junior colleges increased about 200 percent, more
than twice as fast as degree enrollments in 4-year
institutions as table 2 shows. In the 1968-69 academic
year, nearly 1,000 junior colleges were in operation in
the United States compared with 678 in 1961. About 50
new institutions have opened each year since the 1960’s.
Originally, most students entering junior colleges

Table 2. Degree credit enrollments in higher education,
1958-68
[In thousands]
1958

E nrollm ent
T otal enrollm ents . . . .
Junior colleges ...........................
Other higher e d u c a t io n ..............

1968

Percent
change

3 ,2 36
386
2,851

6 ,7 5 8
1,164
5,595

108.8
20 1 .6
96.2

S O U R C E : U.S. O ffice o f E ducation , P rojection s o f Educa­
tional Statistics, 1 9 7 7 -7 8 , table 10, p. 18.

transferred to 4-year institutions to work toward the
baccalaureate degree. However, during the past 15 years,
junior colleges increasingly have emphasized career
education. In 1964, about 66 percent of junior college
students were in transfer programs. In 1968, the ratio of
transfers to career students was approximately 60 to 40,
and the percentage appears to be shifting even further.
Available data hamper the measurement of careeroriented programs. Data on choice of programs are
collected when students enter but do not reflect shifts in
curriculums nor degrees granted. They show only the
student’s intention upon entry. Many who enter as
transfer students and are unsuccessful in liberal arts shift
into career education where they often succeed. These
students prefer technically oriented programs geared to
immediate employment rather than the more theoretical
courses required for a bachelor’s degree. Counseling can
be extremely important to help a student make his
original choice and to remain in school.
Students also shift from career oriented programs into
transfer programs. A good example is the nursing
student who transfers and works for a BS in nursing
after studying the first year for an associate degree.
Receiving credit towards a bachelor’s degree for work
earned in occupational programs may be difficult.
However, many universities will accept credit earned by
the junior college graduate while he was in a career
oriented program. In the future as student mobility
increases, “ recognition” for course work is expected
regardless of the initial program.
Graduates
The following tabulation shows the number of asso­
ciated degrees awarded by junior colleges from 1965 to
1968.
A c a d e m ic
year

1 9 6 5 - 66 ..............
1 9 6 6 - 67 ...............
1 9 6 7 - 68 ...............

T o ta l
a s s o c ia te d
d e g re e s
a w a rd e d

9 3 ,6 8 7
119,151
137,821

A w a r d s in
2 -4 ye a r
o c c u p a tio n a l
p ro g ra m s

4 5 ,3 7 8
7 3 ,5 2 0
6 0 ,7 3 5

A w a r d s in
1 -2 year
o c c u p a tio n a l
p ro g ra m s

10 ,377
14,561
15,914

Many community colleges classify programs, pre­
viously considered terminal, as bachelor transfer pro­
grams, especially when 4-year training is becoming
increasingly available. This tendency explains most of




the apparent drop in occupational awards from 1966-67
to 1967-68. For example in collecting 1967-68 data,
the Office of Education specified that students in
preengineering be excluded for recipients of awards for
occupational competence since they are expected to
complete their education at the baccalaureate level.
The American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC)
reports that some 78,000 students earned degrees in
occupational programs and another 20,000 received
certificates for completion of programs for less than 2
years. The AAJC estimates that in 1969 enrollments
increased 20 percent, partially as a result of the opening
of new colleges. The AAJC figure is larger than that of
the Office of Education primarily because the Office of
Education data excluded several hundred junior colleges
that appear in the AAJC directory.
Occupational programs in junior colleges cannot be
measured by the number of graduates alone. Certain
factors make such a measure unreliable. For example,
some students begin their study in an area in which
demand in the community is strong. When on-the-job
training is offered elsewhere, they may drop out before
completing their education. Another possible measure of
growth in career presentation programs is the addition of
new courses. An indication of this is the increased
number of courses offered by the Vocational Educa­
tion Act of 1963.
Training under this act was in­
creased from 402 community colleges in 1967, 474 in
1968, and 509 in 1969.
In 1968, the largest number of graduates completed
business studies. The next largest groups, in order of
size, were mechanical and engineering technology, draft­
ing, construction, metallurgy, auto mechanics, elec­
tronics, instrumentation, and similar programs. Many
others also graduated from medical, dental, library, and
law enforcement programs.
Training and jobs
Information on job placement of junior college gradu­
ates is scarce. However, since junior colleges are usually
local and draw both student and financial support from
a very small area, their programs are designed to fit the
community. Therefore, career programs tend to be
formulated around manpower requirements o f the local
area. As a result students generally have little difficulty
in job placement.
One nationwide study of 2-year technology graduates
indicated success both in finding jobs and in furthering
students’ education. The known status of over 10,000
from a total group of 12,046 indicates the following:
63 percent
23 percent
6 percent
6 percent
1 percent

were employed
were continuing full-time study
were entering military services
were considering job offers
had other specific plans

21

Chapter IV. Analysis of Supply-Demand in Selected Occupations Generally
Requiring Junior College Training for Entry

The following statements on specific occupations are
presented to indicate the employment situation in some
occupational areas where junior colleges provide train­
ing. The list is by no means comprehensive, and the data
are not inclusive. These statements do, however, serve as
an example of the wide range of courses of study
available and the contribution of junior college graduates
to the supply of workers needed to fill manpower
requirements over the next decade.

space exploration or atomic energy, also will add to the
demand for technical personnel.
In addition to manpower needs of over 425,000 to fill
new positions, about 170,000 will be needed to replace
those who die and retire and about 430,000 will be
needed to replace those who transfer to other occu­
pations. Manpower needs for growth and replacement
are then expected to total about 1 million for the
1968-80 period, an average of almost 86,000 a year.

Engineering and science technicians

S ou rce

Approximately 970,000 engineering and
science technicians were employed in 1968. About
740,000, or more than 7 out of 10, were employed in
private industry, primarily in the electrical equipment,
machinery, chemical, and aerospace industries. In the
nonmanufacturing sector, the largest employers of these
technicians were the communications industry and
engineering and architectural firms.
In 1968, the Federal Government employed over
90,000 engineering and science technicians. The major­
ity worked for the Department of Defense; most of the
remainder in the Federal Government were employed by
the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and the
Interior.
About 60,000 engineering and science technicians
worked for State governments; more than 25,000 were
employed by local governments. Most of the remainder
were in colleges and universities, primarily in university
operated research institutes and nonprofit organizations.
E m p lo ym en t.

Employment requirements for engineering and
science technicians are expected to reach 1.4 million by
1980, an increase of almost 45 percent above the 1968
levels, or an average o f 3.1 percent a year.
Among the factors underlying the increase in demand
for technicians are the anticipated expansion of industry
and the increasing complexity o f modern technologychanges resulting in an increasing need for technicians,
especially in production planning and technical sales
work. Furthermore, as the employment o f scientists and
engineers continues to grow, increasing numbers of
technicians will be needed to assist them. The trend
toward automation of industrial processes and the
growth of new areas o f work, such as that related to
G ro w th .

22



o f n e w e n tr a n ts. The skills necessary to enter
technician jobs may be gained in a variety of ways. One
way is through training taken expressly to prepare and
qualify for entry level technician jobs— preemployment
“
occupational training.” This training is offered by
post-secondary schools including junior colleges; em­
ployers; and government.
Other workers qualify for technician jobs through
training designed primarily for some other purpose
including training and/or experience in Armed Forces
technical work, and in bachelor’s degree programs in
engineering or science. Another way to qualify for
technician work is through “upgrading” —
experience in a
technician related job, often combined with some
academic training. Upgradings have been the largest
single source of new entrants to technician jobs in recent
years. Preemployrnent post-secondary school training,
however, provides the technicians who generally are in
greatest demand, according to information gathered by
BLS representatives in interviews with officials of
companies employing large numbers of technicians.
Also, this source of supply has grown most rapidly;
entrants increased from about 9,000 in 1960 to over
35,000 in 1968.9
The future supply-demand conditions for technicians
will depend on the expansion of preemployment post­
secondary training offered primarily in junior colleges.
The efforts underlying the rapid expansion of experience
during the 1960’s must continue through the 1970’s if
future manpower requirements for technicians are to be
filled with highly trained workers.

W om en.

About 11 percent of all science and engineering

9 Entrants represent about tw o-thirds o f graduates because
m any graduates con tin u e in sch ool or enter other occu p a tion s.

technicians in 1968 were women. The proportion of
women varies considerably by occupation within the
science and engineering field, the largest percentage—
about 25 percent—
were employed as life science techni­
cians.
Forestry aids
An estimated 13,000 persons were em­
ployed as forestry aids in 1968. About 5,000 were
employed by the Federal Government, mainly by the
Forest Service of the U.S. Department o f Agriculture.
Approximately 2,000 were working for State govern­
ments. About 6,000 were employed in private industry,
primarily by lumber, logging, and paper milling com­
panies. Forestry aids also worked in tree nurseries and in
forestation projects o f mining, railroad, and oil com­
panies.
Most forestry aids are employed in the heavily forested
States of Washington, California, Oregon, Idaho, Utah,
and Montana.

E m p lo ym en t.

Employment requirements for forestry aids are
expected to reach nearly 20,000 by 1980, an increase of
about 57 percent above the 13,000 employed in 1968.
Growth in demand is expected to accompany the
rising employment of foresters. In addition, employers
are expected to increasingly use aids to assume routine
jobs now done by foresters. Growth in government
employment will stem from factors such as increasing
demand for recreational facilities, more scientific man­
agement of forest land and water supplies, and the
increased timber cutting on Federal forest land.
In addition to the 7,000 forestry aids expected to be
needed to fill openings caused by growth in employment
over the 1968-80 period, another 3,000 will be needed
to replace those who die, retire, and leave the occupa­
tion for other reasons.
G ro w th .

Persons qualify for beginning
positions as forestry aids either by completing a special­
ized 1- or 2-year post-secondary school curriculum or
through work experience.
To meet projected needs for 10,000 forestry aids over
the next 12 years—
7,000 for growth and 3,000 for
replacement—
over 800 persons must enter the field each
year. In 1968, 564 persons graduated from less-than-4
year programs in forestry. To fill needs primarily with
trained workers, the annual number o f graduates of
these forestry aid curriculums should expand at least 50
percent above the 1968 level.

S o u r c e s o f n e w e n tr a n ts.

W o m e n . Although statistics are not available, it is
estimated that few women are employed in this occupa­
tion which requires a great deal o f heavy work in all
weather conditions often in remote areas.

Dental assistants
E m p lo ym en t.

Nearly 100,000 persons were employed




as dental assistants in 1968; about 1 out of 5 were
employed part time. Most dental assistants worked in
private dental offices, either for individual dentists or for
groups of dentists. Many of the remainder were em­
ployed in dental schools, hospital dental departments,
State and local public health departments, or private
clinics. The Federal Government employed about 2,000
dental assistants in 1968.
By 1980, employment requirements for dental assist­
ants may reach about 150,000, an increase of 50
percent above 1968 levels. This represents a more rapid
growth rate, 4.2 percent, than in the 1960-68 period
when employment increased by an average of 2.6
percent a year.
Growing awareness of the importance of regular dental
care and the increasing ability of persons to pay for care
are among the factors underlying an anticipated rapid
growth in the demand for the services of dental
assistants. Other factors affecting demand are an in­
creased participation in dental prepayment plans, and
the expansion of public programs such as Medicaid and
Head Start. The slow increase in the supply of dentists in
proportion to population growth will result in greater
use of auxiliary workers.
In addition to manpower needs of 50,000 resulting
from the rapid growth of the occupation, more than
54,000 assistants will be needed to replace workers who
will retire, die, and leave the occupation for other
reasons during the 1968-80 period.
o f n e w e n tr a n ts. Most dental assistants em­
ployed in 1968 had learned their skill on the job. In
recent years, however, an increasing number have
studied in formal post-secondary dental assisting pro­
grams.
To meet the projected need for 104,000 dental
assistants—50,000 for growth and 54,000 for replace­
ments— average of 8,500 persons would have to enter
an
the occupation each year during the 1960-68 period. In
1968, fewer than 2,000 persons graduated from post­
secondary training programs. Thus, the average number
of graduates of these programs could be expanded
fourfold through the 1970’s without ever meeting all
requirements with academically trained workers.

S ou rces

W o m e n . Almost all dental assistants are women. The
few men in the occupation are serving in the Armed
Forces.

Dental hygienists
Approximately 16,000 dental hygienists
were employed in 1968. Many worked part time. The
majority of all dental hygienists were employed in
private dental offices; others worked for public health
agencies, school systems, industrial plants, clinics, hospi­
tals, dental hygiene schools, and as civilian employees of
the Armed Forces.

E m p lo ym en t.

23

G r o w t h . By 1980, employment requirements for dental
hygienists are expected to reach 33,500, an increase of
about 109 percent above the 16,000 employed in 1968.
This represents a faster average annual rate of growth,
9.1 percent than in the 1960 period, when employment
increased by an average of 2.4 percent a year.
The demand for hygienists is expected to increase as a
result of the expanding population and the growing
awareness of the importance of regular dental care.
Increasing interest in dental care programs for children
also will expand employment. Increased participation in
dental prepayment plans and more group practice which
enable expense sharing by dentists also should result in
more jobs for dental hygienists.
In addition to the approximately 13,500 dental
hygienists expected to be needed to fill openings caused
by growth in employment, another 20,000 will be
needed to replace those who retire, die, and leave the
labor force for other reasons between 1968 and 1980.
From 1968 to 1980, manpower needs for both growth
and replacement thus are expected to total about
33,500, an average of 2,800 a year.
o f n e w e n tr a n ts . Most new entrants in dental
hygiene obtain certificates or associate degrees in dental
hygiene through formal 2-year programs offered in
post-secondary schools. A much smaller number are
graduates of 4-year bachelor’s degrees programs. In
addition, many will reenter the occupation after a period
outside the labor force, primarily women returning to
work when family responsibilities do not require their
full attention.
In 1968, a total of 1,555 dental hygienists graduated
from less than 4-year programs. After allowance for
entrants that can be expected from sources other than
new graduates of 2-year programs, significant expansion
of these programs would be needed to meet manpower
needs.

S ou rces

radiologic technologists is expected primarily as a result
of the anticipated expansion in the use o f X-ray
equipment in diagnosing and treating diseases. More
workers also will be needed to help administer radio­
therapy, as new knowledge of the medical benefits of
radioactive material becomes widespread. X-raying of
large groups of people will be extended as part of disease
prevention and control programs.
In addition to the technologists needed for new jobs,
replacement demands will total about 40,000 between
1968 and 1980. Manpower needs for both growth and
replacement are thus expected to total more than
85,000, an average of 7,000 a year.
o f n e w en tr a n ts . Training programs in X-ray
technology conducted by hospitals or medical schools
affiliated with hospitals are the primary source of
entrants to radiologic technology each year. Most of
these programs are of 2 years’ duration, although some
3- and 4-year programs are offered. Junior colleges offer
academic training coordinated with work experience in
hospitals in 3-year X-ray technician programs. In addi­
tion to these entrants, others are trained in the Armed
Forces and some women reenter after being out of the
labor force because of family responsibilities. In 1967,
the latest year for which data are available, 3,827
graduated from X-ray technology programs. To meet
anticipated manpower needs o f 7,000 openings a year
over the 1968 period, trends in the number of graduates
indicate that they can be expected to fall short of these
requirements.

S ou rces

W o m e n . About two-thirds of all radiologic technologists
are women, and trends indicate that the ratio is likely to
remain fairly stable.

Library technicians

E m p lo ym en t.

An estimated 70,000 library technicians
were employed in 1968. Most technicians were em­
ployed in public and school libraries. Smaller numbers
worked in college and university libraries, and in
business, medical, and other special libraries. The Fed­
eral Government employed about 3,000 library techni­
cians in 1968.

G r o w t h . By 1980, employment requirements for radiologic technologists are expected to reach 120,000, an
increase of about 60 percent over the 75,000 employed
in 1968.
The very rapid rate of growth in employment of

By 1980, employment requirements for library
technicians are expected to reach 124,000, an increase
of 77 percent above the 70,000 employed in 1968. The
increasing demands of a growing population for library
services and the continuing shortages of professional
librarians are among the chief factors underlying an
expected very rapid growth in employment requirements
for library technicians.
Besides the technicians for new positions, about
24,000 library technicians will be needed over the
1968-80 period to replace those who die, retire, or leave
the field for other reasons. Manpower needs are

E m p lo ym en t.

Virtually all dental hygienists are women and
data on graduates indicate that this will continue.
W om en.

Radiologic technologists
An estimated 75,000 radiologic technolo­
gists were employed in 1968. Approximately one-third
of all radiologic technologists were employed in hospi­
tals; most o f the remainder worked in medical laborator­
ies, physicians’ and dentists’ offices or clinics, Federal
and State health agencies, and public school systems. A
few were members of mobile X-ray teams, engaged
mainly in tuberculosis detection.

24



G ro w th .

therefore, expected to total 78,000, an average of 6,500
a year, for the 1968-80 period.
e n tr a n ts. Although most library tech­
nicians employed in 1968 were trained on the job, the
number receiving training in formal post-secondary
programs is continually increasing. In the future, most
employers may require such training.
In 1968, only 107 persons graduated from less than 4
year programs in technical library work. Thus, such
programs could expand enormously over the next 12
years and still fall short o f the annual needs of 6,500
library technicians.

S ou rces o f n ew

W o m e n . In 1968, about 70 percent of all library
technicians were women. However, limited data indicate
that the proportion of men in the profession is increas­
ing.

Police officers
An estimated 285,000 full-time police­
men and policewomen were employed in 1968 by local
government police departments. Policemen are concen­
trated in large cities although they are employed in
virtually every city and town in the country. The forces
upon which they work vary in size from over 31,000
officers to fewer than 25.

E m p lo ym en t.

G r o w t h . By 1980, employment requirements for police
officers are expected to reach 360,000, an increase of




more than 27 percent over the 285,000 employed in
1968.
Employment of police officers is expected to grow as
cities increase the size of their police forces to meet
needs of a growing population, including traffic control
as the number of motor vehicles continues to increase.
In addition to the more than 75,000 police officers to
fill new positions over the 1968-80 period, nearly
100,000 will be needed to replace those who die, retire,
and leave the occupation for other reasons.
o f n e w en tr a n ts. Most police departments re­
quire a high school diploma as a requisite for obtaining a
job. Some cities require some college training, and some
hire law enforcement students as police interns. Since
police departments are emphasizing post-high school
training in subjects such as sociology, psychology, and
minority group relations, more police officers probably
will be recruited from post-secondary training in the
future.
During the next 12 years, annual openings will average
close to 15,000. In 1968, 1,840 persons graduated from
programs of less than 4 year duration. This number will
have to expand rapidly to keep pace with the demand
for policemen with special law enforcement training.
S ou rces

W o m e n . About 5 percent of all police officers are
women. Almost all are employed by large city police
departments, where their work frequently involves han­
dling cases dealing with juveniles and women.

25





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