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EWAN CLAGUE, Commissioner

Apprentices and Learners

B ulletin No. 908-4

For sale b y the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C.
Price 15 cents


Letter of Transmittal

n it e d

S tates D

e p a r t m e n t of

u reau of





S t a t is t ic s ,

Washington, D. <7., April 15, 1948.
The S e c r e t a r y





I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on apprentice and
learner provisions in collective bargaining agreements. The report
is based on an examination o f collective bargaining agreements on file
in the Bureau. The chapter was prepared by and under the direction
of Abraham W eiss in the Division o f Industrial Relations, Boris Stern,
Chief. James C. N ix and Priscilla B ill assisted in the preparation.

w an

C lague,



Secretary of Labor.


A s early as 1902 the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, then the Bureau o f
Labor in the Department of the Interior, recognized the growing im­
portance o f collective bargaining, and published verbatim the bitu­
minous coal m ining agreement o f 1902 between the Associations o f
Coal Mine Operators o f Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
and the respective districts of the United Mine W orkers o f America.
Since 1912 the Bureau has made a systematic effort to collect agree­
ments between labor and management in the leading industries and
has from time to time published some of those agreements in fu ll or
in summary form in the M onthly Labor Review.
The first bulletin entirely devoted to collective bargaining agree­
ments was published in 1925 under the title “ Trade Agreements in
1923 and 1924.” Similar annual bulletins were published in 1926,
1927, and 1928. These bulletins analyzed only outstanding agree­
ments affecting certain industries and certain skilled crafts in which
collective bargaining has followed a more or less established pattern.
No bulletins in this field were published by the Bureau between
1928 and 1942— a period during which collective bargaining first lost
ground in the depression and then made rapid strides follow ing the
enactment of the National Labor Relations A ct in 1935. The growth
in trade-union membership from fewer than 4,000,000 workers in 1935
to more than 10,000,000 in 1942 not only resulted in a large increase
in the number o f collective agreements covering industries hitherto
not included under collective bargaining, but also extended the scope
and area of bargaining in individual industries.

In recognition o f

this development, the Bureau’s 1942 report on union agreements (B u l­
letin No. 686) dealt with provisions and clauses on particular labormanagement problems rather than with the agreements o f each union
or industry separately.
The substance and character o f collective bargaining agreements
change continuously, and many o f the clauses and provisions covered
in Bulletin No. 686 underwent significant changes during the war
emergency, as a result not only o f the normal processes of collective
bargaining but o f the decisions of the National W a r Labor Board.
New problems meant new clauses and new provisions.

The Board

also gave added impetus to certain forms of union security, and to
certain practices, now deeply imbedded in the entire field o f labormanagement relations.



The liquidation o f the Board, and the renewal o f emphasis on free
collective bargaining after V J -d ay, led to a tremendous increase in
the demand for information on specific current provisions in agree­
ments. Urgent requests came from employers and unions, from the
United States Conciliation Service, and from mediators and arbitra­
tors engaged in settling or preventing labor-management disputes.
I t was largely in response to these requests that the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics undertook to revise and bring up to date the material on
union agreements.
In this revision two significant departures have been m ade: (1)
Accumulation of data has made possible the use of a larger sample than
was possible heretofore. (2 ) The information will be presented in a
series o f small bulletins, each stressing a major area or significant
problem of collective bargaining. This will permit the material for
each major problem to be published as rapidly as finished without
waiting until all of the subjects o f collective bargaining are analyzed.
I t will have the advantage of greater flexibility in handling specific
requests for material from employers, unions, and the public. Some
clauses are more or less stable and undergo relatively minor changes
even over a considerable period of time and therefore need only occa­
sional revision, whereas others undergo rather rapid change.

A lso, as

new issues develop it will be possible to add new bulletins to the series
without revising those already published.
The clauses used are designed to facilitate, but not to condition, the
bargaining process. No special attempt has been made to determine
the prevailing industry practice or the most frequently used provi­
sions. The clauses are presented, not as models, but as a source of
reference for those who participate in collective bargaining negotia­
tions, by making available to them a wide variety of provisions on the
specific subjects under consideration. A n index o f all the contract
clauses quoted, with a brief description of each clause, is appended to
each report.
This report, dealing with provisions covering apprentices and learn­
ers, is the fourth in this Collective Bargaining Provisions series. The
bulletins already published are as follow s:
No. 908 -1

Union Security Provisions.

No. 9 0 8 -2

Vacations; Holidays and W eek-E n d W ork.

No. 908-3

Incentive W age Provisions; Time Studies and Stand-

dards o f Production.


Bulletin N o. 9 0 8 -4 of the
United States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

A pprentices

E stablishment and A dministration ofA pprenticeship Program_____
Clauses (1-21) __________________________
A pprenticeship I ndenture___________________________
Clauses (22-28)___________________________________________
D etermining the N umber of A pprentices____________________________
Clauses (29-56)___________________________________________
Length of A pprenticeship Period _____________________________________
Clauses (57-66)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q ualifications for E ntering A pprenticeship_________________________
Clauses (67-81)....................................................................................................
Union Membership Requirements____________________________________
Clauses (82-87).............
T raining on the Job____________________________________________________
Clauses (88-102)___________________
C lassroom I nstruction__________________________________________________
Clauses (103-113)__________________________________
R egulations G overning W ork by A pprentices______________________
Clauses (114-120)_______________________________________
A dmission to Journeyman Status______________________________________
Clauses (121-128)____________________________________________________
R ate of Pay _____________________________________________________________
Clauses (129-140)................................
H ours and Overtime ____________________________________________________
Clauses (141-148)________________________________
S eniority Status_________________________________________________________
Clauses (149-158)
C ontinuous E mployment; L ay - off andR eemployment________________
Clauses (159-169)_______________
D ischarges and Quits___________________________________________________
Clauses (170-181)...................


L earners

L earners _________________________________________________________________
Clauses (182-193)............


C lau ses

A pprentices______________________________________________________________
Learners _________________________________________________________________






Collective Bargaining Provisions
Apprentices and Learners
The primary object o f apprenticeship is to supply industry with
a steady flow o f skilled labor through a systematic and supervised
course o f training on the job. A s defined by the United States E m ­
ployment Service, an apprentice is “ a worker not less than 16 years of
age engaged under direct journeyman supervision, and according to
a prescribed or traditional series o f work processes graded to coincide
with increasing trade maturity in learning a skilled occupation that
requires, during the learning process, several years of reasonably con­
tinuous employment prior to the time that the worker may be consid­
ered a qualified journeyman. In general, apprenticeship is legally
recognized only if recorded in a written contract, indenture, or agree­
ment, in which, in return for services rendered, the employer promises
to teach the worker the processes of his trade.

The terms o f an appren­

ticeship agreement usually include specific reference to the duration
o f the apprenticeship period, a progressive scale of wages, and the
nature o f the processes to be taught. Frequently the agreement also
specifies the amount and nature o f related schooling in vocational
subjects in which the worker shall engage during his apprenticeship
period.” 1
The shortage o f skilled workers which developed in many industries
during the war, and provision for apprenticeship training under the
G I B ill of Rights, have recently accentuated interest in the systematic
training of skilled craftsmen. Moreover, considerations o f national
defense and full employment require that the optimum number o f
skilled workers be trained to meet production needs.
The problem of apprentice training is not new and has long been
an issue in collective bargaining.

Labor-management determination

of apprentice-training standards emphasizes three elements: A n equi­
table adjustment o f the number of apprentices to employment oppor­
tunities in the trad e; proper selection o f apprentices; and thorough

Although in the long run labor and management may arrive

1 Dictionary of Occupational Titles— ra rt I : Definitions of Titles.
Service, United States Department of Labor, June 1939 (p. 16).
778306°— 48------2

U. S. Employment




at identical solutions to these problems, in some instances their imme­
diate objectives may appear to be conflicting. In respect to the num­
ber o f apprentices, for example, unions may tend to emphasize the
danger o f training more craftsmen than can be furnished employment,
while employers are more keenly aware that failure to train a suffi­
cient quota may cause an uneconomical distribution of labor. In
other instances, the positions may be reversed. W ith their multicom­
pany commitments and perhaps a greater stake in the continuing
existence of the trade, unions are more insistent that at least some
apprentices be trained. In contrast, some employers may refuse to
bother with training even a single apprentice, preferring to pay pre­
mium rates during periods o f scarcity to craftsmen obtained from the
labor market.
Standards o f apprentice training are often covered by international
union constitutions and the bylaws or working rules o f local unions.
Some unions and employers have reached agreement on basic standards
to guide local unions and employers in negotiating their contracts.
Local collective bargaining agreements covering workers in apprenticeable occupations usually contain specific rules and requirements for
selection o f apprentices, on-the-job training, related classroom instruc­
tion, and admission to journeyman status. Subsidiary problems o f
apprentices’ seniority, pay, hours, overtime, lay-off, discharge, and
quits are also often covered. Often, the rules governing apprentice
training are drawn up as an amendment or supplement to the regular
collective bargaining agreement.
The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, the labor-management
policy committee for the Apprentice-Training Service o f the United
States Department o f Labor, has recommended the following stand­
ards o f apprenticeship:
1. An apprenticeable occupation is considered one which requires 4,000
or more hours to learn.
2. A schedule of the work processes to be learned on the job.
3. A progressively increasing scale of wages for the apprentice that
should average approximately 50 percent of the journeyman’s rate
over the period of apprenticeship.
4. Provision for related classroom instruction (144 hours per year o f
such instruction is normally considered necessary).
5. The terms and conditions of the employment and training of each
apprentice to be stated in a written agreement and registered
with the State apprenticeship council.
6. Review of local apprenticeship by a State apprenticeship council.
7. Apprenticeship should be jointly established by the employer and the
8. Adequate supervision and the keeping of records should be required
for all apprenticeship programs.



Some State apprenticeship agencies and national unions have estab­
lished their own standards, differing in varying degrees from those
o f the Federal committee.

Establishment and Administration o f Apprenticeship Program
A number o f recently negotiated agreements state that the parties
agree in principle to an apprenticeship program and provide for the
establishment o f such a program in the near future. Some of these
agreements require that the program be set up within a specified time
limit, but in most cases time limits are not stipulated.
N ot infrequently an apprenticeship program is established under a
separate agreement and is incorporated by reference in the collective
bargaining agreement. In such cases, it is often specified that no ap­
prenticeship rules are to be adopted which conflict with the terms of
the collective bargaining agreement.
Many agreements provide for the establishment and administration
o f the program by an apprenticeship committee composed o f represent­
atives o f management and the union. Although the details o f plan­
ning the program are usually left to the joint committee, agreements
frequently lay down certain specifications for the guidance of the
committee. F or example, the committee may be instructed to place
particular emphasis on apprentice training for veterans; or it may
be required to adopt standards o f apprenticeship conforming to those
recommended by the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship.
Various methods are provided for handling grievances arising out
o f the apprenticeship program. In some cases, such disputes are
settled through the regular grievance procedure. More commonly,
grievances are submitted to the joint apprenticeship committee for
adjustment. In a few cases, grievances not settled by the parties may
be appealed to a State apprenticeship agency.
In order to facilitate the administration of the apprenticeship pro­
gram, some agreements specify that employers must keep detailed
records on their apprentices and that such records are to be available
for inspection by the joint committee or by union representatives.
1. Program To Be Established Within Specified Period of Time
Within sixty (60) days after the signing o f the contract a program shall be
set up for the purpose of establishing standards of apprenticeship that will
be applicable to the different production departments in our plant and which
are mutually agreed to by the parties of this agreement.
2. Program To Be Established When Conditions Are Favorable
Whenever the conditions and opportunities for establishment of an apprentice­
ship system become favorable, the company and the union will endeavor to work
out a mutually acceptable plan.



3. Program To Be Established on Association-Wide Basis
Because of the shortage of workers in the millinery industry, the parties do
hereby mutually agree to promptly inaugurate a system of apprentices for all
the crafts of the millinery industry that may require same. The administrative
board shall formulate the terms and conditions under which the said system of
apprenticeship shall operate.
4. Apprentice Program at Option of Local Management and Union
Where the management of any station and the local union involved agree
the following apprentice training plan may be adopted * * *.
N ote.—The agreement from which this clause is taken covers a chain of radio
broadcasting stations.

5. Apprentice Program to Emphasize Training of Veterans
The parties agree in principle that the industry should school and train its
own mechanics and to this end a joint committee of the industry and the union
shall be formed for the purpose of establishing an apprentice training program
with particular emphasis on affording employment to war veterans.
6. Apprentice and Refresher Training Program for Veterans
The company reserves the right to train apprentice veterans according to
the G.I. Bill of Rights and also to set up a refresher training program under
the same bill for returning veterans formerly employed b y ------ Co.
7. Apprentice Program Incorporated in Agreement by Reference
The attached schedule of apprenticeship standards and apprenticeship rates
of pay is a part of this agreement.
8. Apprentice Program Formulated by Joint Committee
Both parties agree to institute an apprentice training program to train new
workers. The kind of training, length of apprenticeship, wages, and gradual
promotion periods are to be worked out by the joint conference committee and
made part of this agreement.
9. Composition and Jurisdiction of Joint Apprenticeship Committee
There is hereby established a joint apprenticeship committee as defined in sec­
tion —. This committee shall be composed of four (4) members, two (2) of
whom shall be appointed by the union, and two (2) of whom shall be appointed
by the company.
The representatives who compose the committee shall serve for 1 year from
the date of their selection (or until their successors are duly selected and quali­
fied). In case of a vacancy in the committee, such vacancy shall be filled for the
unexpired term by the selection of a successor in the same manner as that in
which the original selection was made.
The committee shall meet in [city] on an appointed date and shall organize by
selecting a chairman, a vice chairman, and a secretary, all of whom shall be
committee members. The term of office of the chairman, vice chairman, and the
secretary shall be 1 year. Each officer so selected shall serve until his successor
is duly selected and qualified.
The office of the chairman of the committee shall be filled and held alternately
by a company representative and by a union representative. When a company
representative is chairman, a union representative shall be vice chairman and
vice versa.
Meetings of the committee shall be held once a month, or more frequently if
found necessary. The chairman of the committee, any other two members of the



committee, or the supervisor of personnel shall have authority to call and estab­
lish the date of meetings of the committee.
The committee shall consider at its meetings problems relating to the effective
operation of the standards of apprenticeship, concerning eligibility, apprentice­
ship agreements, transfers, job training, processes, wages, ratios, working condi­
tions, related classroom instruction, settlement of apprenticeship complaints, and
completion of apprenticeship; and it shall make recommendations based upon its
consideration of such questions.
It shall be the duty of the committee to recommend to the public school author­
ities, the form, content, and schedule of the course or courses of instruction to be
provided, and upon the request of such authorities, to recommend eligible persons
as instructors. The committee will also cooperate with the school authorities and
the supervisor of personnel in coordinating the related classroom instruction with
the apprentices’ basic schedule of work experience. The supervisor of personnel
and the president of the union may attend the apprenticeship committee meetings
as nonvoting members.
The apprenticeship committee may request representatives of the ApprenticeTraining Service and the [city] Board of Education or other interested agencies
to serve as consultants. The consultants will be asked to participate without
vote in conference on special problems related to apprenticeship training which
affect the agencies that they represent.
10. Joint Committee Composed of Two Union Representatives and One Company
The apprentice technician shall devote forty (40) hours each week to learning
the theory and practice of radio broadcasting, maintenance, control, and trans­
mission, under the direction and guidance of the technicians at the station, and
shall follow a course of training and study to be developed by a joint apprentice
training committee, composed of one person to be named by [company] and two
persons to be named by the local union involved. All assignments of the appren­
tice technician to either practical work or theoretical study shall be made by
the joint apprentice-training committee, but shall be performed on [company]
11. Federal Committee on Apprenticeship Consulted in Establishing Program
In the event an apprenticeship system is established in the plant, the company
and the union shall meet with a representative of the Federal Committee on
Apprenticeship to institute a proper apprenticeship system. In all respects, unless
otherwise changed by agreement of the parties, apprenticeship shall be governed
by the terms of this agreement.
12. Program to Incorporate Federal Apprenticeship Standards
It is agreed that if the employer should, in the future, hire any apprentices,
the parties hereto will negotiate an apprenticeship agreement which recognizes
and includes the Federal apprenticeship standards and when such agreement
is negotiated and entered into, it shall become a part of this agreement and
attached hereto.
13. Standards to Conform With Those of Federal Committee on Apprenticeship
A joint apprenticeship committee of equal number consisting of employer rep­
resentative and representatives of the union may be selected by the parties to
this agreement to formulate standards of apprenticeship in conformity with the
standards of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. These standards shall
cover a selection, a progressive schedule of wages, job training, periodic examina­



tions, ratios, classroom instruction, and adjustment of complaints; and shall
establish a system of administration and supervision.
The apprenticeship standards thus formulated shall be submitted to the parties
hereto for approval, and when ratified shall become part of this agreement.
14. Union, State, and Federal Apprenticeship Standards Incorporated in Agree­
The parties to this agreement shall name an apprenticeship committee of equal
The company agrees to abide by the terms and conditions of the standards of
apprenticeship promulgated by the [union] in collaboration with the Industrial
Commission of [State] and the Apprenticeship and Training Service of the United
States Department of Labor. It is agreed that these standards of apprenticeship
shall be a supplement and a part of this agreement.
15. Apprenticeship Rules Adopted by Employer Must Not Conflict With Union
The company has in the past made available to selected employees training
courses for special skills and crafts. The company is privileged to continue this
practice, but in no case shall an employee enter an apprenticeship training
course after reaching the age of 30 years.
The company may adopt such rules as it may deem advisable to continue such
training and may provide rules governing the selection of apprentices, provid­
ing such rules are not contrary to the terms of this agreement.
16. Apprentice Agreement Not to Violate Terms of Collective Bargaining
The company and the union agree to continue the apprentice agreement now
existing between them first executed [date] and approved by the ------ State
Apprentice Council [date], and as may from time to time be amended by the
parties signatory to said apprentice agreement.
No provisions of the apprentice agreement shall contravene the provisions
of this agreement.
17. Differences Regarding Program Adjusted Through Grievance Procedure
Any differences arising between the company and the union as to -the mean­
ing or application of the terms of this [apprenticeship] program shall be subject
to the grievance procedure as stipulated in the agreement between the company
and the union dated * * *.
18. Grievances Regarding Apprentices Decided by Joint Apprenticeship
It shall further be the duty of the joint apprenticeship committee to see that
no apprentice is discriminated against. Should an employer or an apprentice
have any complaint to make relative to the conduct of the apprentice or the
treatment accorded the apprentice, said employer or apprentice shall submit
his complaint in writing to the committee, who shall pass upon the merits of
the case. The committee shall have power to summon before it any member
of either party to this contract.
19. Grievances May Be Appealed to State Apprenticeship Agency
Apprentices are encouraged to take up all individual suggestions, recommenda­
tions, or minor grievances connected with their work or training with any union
member of the joint apprenticeship committee. In the event the matter is not
satisfactorily adjusted in this manner, either party to the apprenticeship agree­
ment may ask th e ------State Apprenticeship Council to consider the matter.



20. Modification of Program May Be Negotiated at Any Time
This apprenticeship program may be modified at any time subject to agree­
ment between the company and the union. A copy of such modified program
will be filed with the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship.
21. Representatives of Union and Employers9 Association to Have Acess to
Apprentice Records
Manufacturers shall keep a record of all apprentices in their employ; such
records shall state the date when apprentice leaves. Any manufacturer hiring
an apprentice who may have already served part of his apprenticeship elsewhere
shall demand and receive a record of such time served. All such records must
be kept on file; also the time such apprentice may have been employed by him.
All of which records must be open to inspection by the shop steward or business
agent of either association.
N ote.—This clause is taken from an agreement covering an employers"

Apprenticeship Indenture
A n indenture is a written agreement stating the terms and condi­
tions of the employment and training o f an individual apprentice.
To be effective, the indenture must be signed by the apprentice and his
Although few collective bargaining agreements make any reference
to indentures, an apprentice is usually required to sign such an agree­
ment with his employer or, in some instances, with a joint apprentice­
ship committee. In most cases, the indenture agreement incorporates
directly or by reference the standards o f apprenticeship defined by
the collective bargaining agreement and may not conflict with that
agreement. Some collective bargaining agreements specify, however,
that if the standards o f apprenticeship are amended, indenture agree­
ments in effect at the time may not be altered without the consent of
the apprentice.
I f the apprentice is a minor, his parents or guardian are ordinarily
required to sign the agreement, and the document is usually registered
with a State or Federal apprenticeship agency.
22. Definition and Content of Apprenticeship Agreement
“Apprenticeship agreement” shall mean a written agreement between the
company and the person employed as an apprentice, which agreement shall be
registered with the registration agency.
The “ apprentice agreement” shall contain a statement covering the terms and
conditions of employment and training, a statement of the trade to be learned,
a schedule of the trade processes, and a requirement that the apprentice attend
classes in subjects related to his trade for a minimum pf 144 hours each year
of his apprenticeship.
28. Standards of Apprenticeship Incorporated by Reference in Indenture Agree­
Apprenticeship agreements shall be made out and signed in quintuplicate, one
copy to be retained by the company, one given to the apprentice, one given to the
union, and two registered with the ------ State Apprenticeship Council. Prior



to distribution, all copies shall be forwarded to the ------ State Apprenticeship
Council for registration.
Every apprenticeship agreement entered into these standards of apprentice­
ship shall contain a clause making the standards a part o f the agreement with
the same effect as if expressly written therein. For this reason every applicant
(and if he is a minor, his parent or guardian) shall be given the opportunity to
read the standards before he signs the apprenticeship agreement.
24. Indenture Agreement and Training to Comply with Federal Apprenticeship
All apprentices employed by the company shall be trained in accordance with
the standards of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. The union, through
its machine shop committee, shall have the privilege of advising and suggesting
methods employed by the company in training apprentices in the company’s plant.
Every apprentice employed shall be covered by an apprenticeship agreement be­
tween the apprentice and the company. This agreement shall be in form and
content as will meet with the approval of the Federal Committee on Apprentice­
ship, United States Department of Labor. These agreements shall be executed
in quadruplicate; one copy to the [local union], one copy to the company, one
copy to the apprentice, and one copy to be registered with the Federal Committee
on Apprenticeship, United States Department of Labor.
25. Parent or Guardian to Sign Indenture Agreement if Apprentice a Minor
“Parties to the apprenticeship agreement” shall mean the apprentice, his par­
ents or guardian, if he is a minor, and a duly authorized official of the company
and an officer of the joint apprenticeship committee, each of whom shall sign the
apprenticeship agreement.
26. No Apprentice Hired Unless Covered hy Indenture Agreement
No apprentice shall be employed until there is executed by the employer and
Lodge------ , an indenture agreement covering said apprentices.
27. Apprentices Indentured to Both Employer and Union
Apprentices—after passing medical examination acceptable to the union— shall
be indentured to both parties to this agreement and shall be governed by the con­
stitution and general laws of the [international union] and the local union a
party hereto.
28. No Alteration of Agreement Without Consent of Apprentice
The standards of apprenticeship may at any time be amended upon mutual
agreement of the company and the union, providing that no such change shall
alter an apprenticeship agreement in force at the time of such change without the
written consent of the apprentice; and providing such change shall be submitted
to the registration agency to determine if it meets with the standards established
by it. A copy of any such amendment will be furnished each apprentice employed
by the company.

Determining the Number o f Apprentices
The problem as to how many apprentices should be employed in the
particular plant or industry is one o f the most controversial issues
relating to apprenticeship.

Purely economic motives and a strict be­

lief in the law o f supply and demand might cause some unions to favor
a labor market in which no apprentices were trained.

On the other



hand, for the same reasons, employers might advocate the training of
an unnecessarily large number of craftsmen. Establishment o f a max­
imum number to be trained is therefore arrived at by a compromise,
generally in conformity with experience or practices which exist in
other trades, occupations, and professions.
.Relatively few agreements specify an absolute number o f appren­
tices which may be employed regardless o f the total number o f jour­
neymen employed. Generally, they set the maximum number to be
trained by establishing a ratio of apprentices to the total number o f
journeymen, e. g., one apprentice for each five journeymen.

A fixed

or uniform ratio is usually specified, i. e., the ratio remains the same
no matter how great the number o f journeymen employed. In some
cases, however, the ratio is progressively lowered so as to avoid a
large number of apprentices in the larger establishments, e. g., 1 to 4,
2 to 10, and so on. In many cases, apprentices may be hired on a
ratio basis until a specified number o f apprentices is reached. Agree­
ments sometimes prohibit apprentices in shops employing less than a
specified number of journeymen or prohibit the employment o f ap­
prentices altogether. More frequently, however, each shop is per­
mitted at least one apprentice.
A ratio arrangement has the advantage o f flexibility in that ap­
prentices can be added or dropped in proportion to changes in the
employer’s needs (as reflected by the number o f journeymen em­
ployed) . On the other hand, if apprentices are periodically laid off
because of decreases in the number of journeymen, their training is
likely to suffer. Employers whose operations are characterized by
frequent lay-offs may choose not to employ the full number o f appren­
tices permitted by the ratio, since the training of one or more appren­
tices may be disrupted by the application of the ratio. Some agree­
ments solve this problem, partially at least, by basing the ratio on the
average number o f journeymen employed over a period o f several
Ratios specified by union agreements vary widely, reflecting general
economic conditions, the bargaining strength of the parties, the needs
o f the employer, the technology o f the industry, the awareness of
both parties o f their responsibility to the industry, and other factors.
In some cases, agreements provide for periodic review and change of
the ratio, especially when there is a shortage of labor in the trade.
Other agreements allow relaxation o f the ratio requirements in order
to employ veterans as apprentices or to permit the indenture o f sons
o f employers or journeymen.
Another type of hiring regulation is designed to insure that ap­
prentices are not taken on by employers who are unable to provide
adequate training.
778306°— 48----- 3

For example, employers who have been i n busi-



ness for less than some specified period of time may be prohibited
from indenturing apprentices.
29. Number of Apprentices Specified
[The employer] may employ six (0) apprentices. A joint apprenticeship com­
mittee consisting of an equal number of employers or employer representatives,
and representatives of this union, shall be selected by the parties of this agree­
ment to formulate standards of apprenticeship in conformity with the standards
of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship.
30. Ratio of One Apprentice to Three Journeymen
One apprentice shall be allowed to every three (3) journeymen.
31. One for Every 10 or Major Fraction Thereof
In shops where there is a steady journeyman machinist employed, there may
be employed one (1) apprentice; and one additional apprentice may be em­
ployed for every ten (10) journeymen or major fraction thereof steadily em­
ployed in said shop.
32. One Apprentice for Each Five Journeymen “Employed Regularly”
One apprentice shall be allowed for each five journeymen and journeywomen
employed regularly.
83. Minimum of One Apprentice, Regardless of Ratio
There shall be one (1) apprentice allowed for each qualified shop and one (1)
additional apprentice for each ten (10) journeymen, employed on a normal one
or two shift basis. Apprentices shall not be required to work on a third shift.
34. Employment of Apprentice Compulsory Provided Three Journeymen Employed
The ratio of class A apprentices to journeymen employed in a shop shall not
exceed 1 apprentice to 5 journeymen or a majority fraction thereof, save that
in shops employing 3 and not more than 7 journeymen, 1 apprentice shall be
employed. There shall not be more than 1 apprentice on any job having less
than 5 journeymen and not more than 5 apprentices on any job having less than
100 journeymen. One additional apprentice may be employed to each additional
20 journeymen on jobs having more than 100 journeymen, provided in each of the
foregoing instances such apprentices are available from among those previously
indentured by th e ------Joint Apprenticeship Committee.
35. One-to-Four Ratio, With Maximum Specified
One apprentice to every four journeymen—not more than five apprentices
allowed in any one plant.
36. One Apprentice to Each Shift
In baking departments one steadily employed apprentice shall be allowed on
each shift where a foreman is employed.
37. Minimum of One Apprentice for Each Apprenticeable Trade
There shall be not more than one apprentice for each apprenticeable trade at
any one time, and no new apprentices shall be hired in the machine shop until
those who are now members of the armed forces have returned or given notice
of intention not to return, or shall have failed to apply for reemployment within
ninety (90) days after honorable discharge from such service.
38. Number of Apprentices Limited by Average Number of Journeymen Employed
(This article shall be applicable exclusively to such departments, trades, or
classifications as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties.)



The union agrees that apprentices may be employed in such numbers as the
company considers necessary to maintain an adequately trained working force
of first class mechanics and replacements; provided, however, that no new
apprentices may be hired in any d e p a rtin g if the number of apprentices already
employed in such department equals or exceeds ten (10) percent of the average
number of first class mechanics employed per week in such department during
the preceeding six (6) months’ period commencing on either July 1 or January 1.
39. Variable Ratio: Proportion of Apprentices Decreases as Number of Journey­
men Increases
Apprentices may be employed in the ratio o f :
2 to 4 journeymen___
5 to 8 journeymen___
9 to 12 journeymen—.
13 to 20 journeymen..
21 to 30 journeymen..
31 to 45 journeymen..
46 to 60 journeymen..
61 to 75 journeymen..
76 to 90 journeymen..
91 to 100 journeymen.



40. Variable Ratio: Proportion of Apprentices Increases as Number of Journey­
men Increases
The company agrees not to place more than one (1) apprentice to every fifteen
(15) journeymen for the first thirty (30) journeymen and one (1) apprentice for
each additional ten (10) journeymen.
41. More Liberal Ratio for Smaller Departments
Apprentices shall not exceed in number, one (1) to each ten (10) journeymen
tool and die makers, except in the smaller departments, such as maintenance
department, etc., where it will be one (1) to five (5), this ratio to be modified
as found necessary by the joint apprenticeship committee.
42. Ratio Varies According to Type of Work
One apprentice shall be permitted to each seven (7) journeymen on all work
except ornamental ironwork, and on such work one (1) apprentice will be per­
mitted to four (4) journeymen ironworkers, and on the spinning o f cables on
suspension bridges one (1) apprentice shall be permitted to each journeyman.
43. Apprentices Banned in Shops With Less Than Three Employees
Where there are less than three (3) employees no apprentice shall be allowed.
44. Change in Ratio Must Be Discussed With Union
The employment of indentured apprentices shall, in any one (1) classification,
be limited to fifteen (15) percent of the total number o f employees within that
classification. If it becomes necessary to change the percentage in any classifica­
tion, it will be discussed with the union.
45. Ratio To Be Revised Periodically
All employees classified as apprentices under this agreement shall be allowed
to complete their apprenticeship unless discharged for just cause, and the joint
committee on standards of apprenticeship will make a periodic determination
of a proper ratio of apprentices to be employed in the future.



46. Ratio Modified if Union Constitution Liberalized on Number of Apprentices
The union agrees that the employer shall have the right to employ one ap­
prentice for the shop and one additional apprentice for each eight journeyman
molders and coremakers employed in the shop, it being understood that, if the
union’s constitution is liberalized in regard to the number of apprentices, this
contract shall be modified accordingly.
47. Ratio Requirement Waived in Order to Reemploy Former Apprentices Re­
turning From Military Service
Apprentices shall be limited in number, the ratio of one (1) apprentice to
each five (5) journeymen except by mutual agreement of the employer and the
union, provided nothing in this section shall prevent the company from granting
reemployment rights to veterans who were formerly tool and die apprentices in
addition to the present apprentices.
48. Ratio Waived for Sons of Employer or Journeymen
Where the shop has the alloted number of apprentices registered, an exception
may be made in registering a master plumber or journeyman plumber’s son in
addition to the quota. If, however, the master or journeyman’s son are part
of the original quota no other apprentice or apprentices shall be permitted.
49. No Apprentices Indentured if Journeymen Unemployed
While there are an average number of journeymen unemployed in any branch,
no apprentices shall be indentured to that branch. All questions and differences
arising through this rule shall be referred to and decided by the joint apprentice
50. Apprentices Entering Military Service Not Replaced by New Apprentices
(Substitute indentured apprentices may be employed if available.)
Apprentices entering Government military service shall not be replaced by
new apprentices, and shall be reinstated in employment under the same condi­
tions and status as previously held upon their return to civil life and resuming
affiliation with the Union, providing they report ready for employment within
ninety (90) days after discharge from such military service. This provision
shall not prevent the employment o f substitute indentured apprentices if
51. Employer Not Entitled to Train Apprentice Unless He Employs at least Five
Men for 6 Months in 1 Year
No contractor shall be entitled to an apprentice unless he employs at least
five (5) men for at least six (6) months in 1 year, nor shall he be entitled to
the second apprentice unless he employs twelve (12) men steadily.
52. Employer Must Have Been in Business at Least 2 Years Before Employing
Contractors who have been in business for 2 years or more shall be entitled
to apprentices on the following basis:
Yearly average of four journeymen—one apprentice.
Each additional 10 journeymen shall entitle them to an additional apprentice.
53. Apprentice Not To Be Employed Where He Has No Fair Opportunity to Learn
No apprentice shall be employed in any shop unless there obtains a fair op­
portunity for him to acquire a fundamental knowledge of the trade and become
a competent machinist.



54. No Apprentice Indentured During Life of Contract
No apprentices shall be indentured during the life of this agreement.
55. No Apprentice Indentured During Life of Contract Except by Union-Employer
No apprentices shall be indentured during the life of this agreement except
by mutual consent of both parties hereto.
56. New Apprentices Selected From Unemployed Apprentices Subject to Em­
ployer’s Option to Select From Present Employees
When new apprentices are employed the said apprentices shall be selected
from the regular list of unemployed registered apprentices; provided, that the
employer shall have the first preference to select an apprentice from boys who
have been employed at least 1 year in his composing room. The director of the
school at all times shall have on hand a list of all unemployed registered ap­

Length o f Apprenticeship Period
Considered independently o f other elements o f apprenticeship, the
term o f training is not particularly significant. In contrast to such
professions as law, medicine, or teaching, which require long years
o f schooling without compensation and often at large personal expense,
the skilled trade offers the apprentice from the start a paying job as
well as a course o f training. Given a wage scale commensurate with
the apprentice’s output and a training schedule which assures the ac­
quisition o f additional skill throughout the term, prolongation o f his
training status within reasonable limits will work no injustice on the
apprentice. However, a term longer than necessary to master the
trade can be abused and in combination with a substandard wage
scale may result in a “ cheap labor” market. W ith a fixed ratio a
longer term o f apprenticeship m ay also result in fewer skilled workers
available to industry.
In some cases, the international union constitution and the bylaws
or working rules of the local union specify the apprenticeship term or
a minimum term. In others, the local union negotiates the term with
employers. A t any rate, the length o f the period specified by agree­
ments varies considerably, depending largely on the complexity o f the
skills to be learned, and to some extent on the employment situation
in the industry.
The term is usually stated in years, and in order to receive credit for
a year the apprentice is usually required to work a minimum number
o f hours during the year, most commonly 2,000 hours.
Some agreements authorize the joint apprenticeship committee, or in
a few cases, the employer, to reduce the period if justified by the ap­
prentice’s progress.

Credit is often given for past experience or

education or for time served in a previous apprenticeship, although



the credit given may be limited to a specified period, such as 1 or 2
57. Four-Year Apprenticeship
All apprentices in the employ*of the company shall serve a 4-year term, during
which time the company will undertake to afford them every reasonable oppor­
tunity to learn their trade, and will vary their tasks accordingly.
58. Four-Year Term With Minimum Number of Hours Specified
Unless given credit by the apprenticeship committee for prior related experience,
they will serve an apprenticeship of four (4) years of two thousand (2,000) hours
each and will be given every opportunity to gain a complete and thorough knowl­
edge of the trade in which they are apprenticed.
59. Term Stated in Hours
Apprenticeship period shall be 7,424 hours of shop work, and 576 hours of
school training. The first 500 hours of shop work being probationary.
60. No Credit Given for Any Year in Which Apprentice Fails to Qualify for Annual
Wage Increase
I f at the end of each year an apprentice’s deservance of the stipulated increase
is in doubt he shall come before a board of examiners composed of three (3)
journeymen cutters in his line of work, said board to be appointed by the president
of local union —. I f the board finds the apprentice not entitled to promotion he
shall serve another year at the same wages and the first year in which he served
shall not count in his 4-year apprenticeship, provided employer agrees.
61. Employer May Reduce the Apprenticeship Period
All apprentices in the employ of the company shall serve as such for a period of
4 years, except that if in the company’s opinion the apprentice has been good in
his attendance and has shown aptitude, skill, and ability, the company may reduce
his apprenticeship period to 3 years.
62. Joint Apprenticeship Committee May Shorten Training Period
The joint apprentice training committee may accelerate this training period at
any time.
63. Credit Allowed for Previous Apprenticeship or Work Experience
All persons now employed as apprentices will be placed under these standards
and registered with the registration agency. The apprentices may be given full
credit for the time they have served as apprentices under a written or verbal
Other employees of the company who desire to become apprentices and are
selected will be allowed credit for the applicable experience they have had after
their record and rate have been checked and evaluated by the joint apprenticeship
64. Credit Allowed for Education and Experience
All persons now employed as apprentices will be placed under this program.
Such apprentices shall be given full credit for the time they have served as
apprentices under a written or verbal agreement. Apprentices who receive credit
for previous experience shall be paid upon entrance the wage rate of the period
to which such credit advances them.
Credit of 1 year may be allowed for mechanic arts or other trade school
students who have completed a minimum of 2 years in the specific craL or trade



with an average or above rating. The wage rate shall be that of the period to
which such credit advances them.
(ft) Other employees of the company and new employees who desire to become
apprentices and are selected will be allowed credit for the applicable experience
they have had after their records have been checked and evaluated by the
coordinator of apprentices. The wage rate shall be that of the period to which
such credit advances them.
65. Credit Allowance for Previous Experience Equivalent to Training Under
Company Program
An applicant for trainee program shall be allowed credit on his term of
training for that portion of his experience, whether with the company or else­
where, which is equivalent to any he would have received under his trainee
66. Maximum of 2 Years' Credit for Prior Apprenticeship or Experience
An apprentice may be credited with apprenticeship served in another plant,
or knowledge and experience gained before entering apprenticeship training
with the company. However, no apprentice shall be given more than two (2)
years’ credit in the apprenticeship training course.

Qualifications for Entering Apprenticeship
A g e requirements are usually specified for apprentices. Minimum
age limits are most commonly 16 or 18 years. Agreements covering
plants in more than one State sometimes provide that the minimum
age limit be determined by the legal age for employment in the State
where the apprentice is employed. A maximum age lim it is also
specified by many agreements, especially in trades where a long period
o f apprenticeship is required.
Completion o f high school (or its equivalent) is the only educational
requirement in most cases although some agreements require gradua­
tion from an accredited vocational school. Physical qualifications are
often specified, and less frequently, also citizenship requirements. In
some instances, applicants must pass a technical examination or apti­
tude test before they.are accepted as apprentices.
Present employees or sons o f present employees are given preference
for apprentice training under the terms o f some agreements. In
other cases, the union must approve the would-be apprentice before
he enters training.
A n increasing number of agreements grant preference to veterans
in the selection o f personnel for apprentice training.


specifying age limits sometimes waive or m odify such requirements
in the case o f veterans entering apprentice training.
67. Minimum Age Limit Specified
Apprentices shall not be employed by the employer, or accepted for membership
by the union, unless they are at least 18 years old.



68. Minimum Age Determined by State Law
Apprentices employed by the company shall be in age at least equal to the
legal age for employment in the State in which they are employed and not over
twenty-three (23) years o f age at the time of starting their apprenticeship.
69. Minimum and Maximum Age Limits Specified
No boy shall be engaged as an apprentice before having reached the age of
sixteen (16) years or after having reached the age of twenty-one (21) years.
70. Age Requirements Waived for Veterans
Apprentice members of the union who have served in the armed forces of the
United States Government during the Second World War shall not be subject
to the age limits set forth herein and shall be assured an opportunity to resume
their former job and training; applicants for apprenticeship training who other­
wise entered the armed service after September 15, 1941, who are within the
prescribed age limits at the time of their entry into the service, and providing
such applicants apply for apprenticeship training within six (6) months after
71. Age Requirements Modified for Veterans
An apprentice is employed with the intention o f training him to become a
first-class mechanic. He shall not be kept continuously occupied on one class
of work but so far as possible shall be used in various occupations. He shall be
between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Any applicant for apprenticeship who has
served in the United States armed forces and who has been honorably discharged,
shall be allowed the length of time served, plus 1 year, in arriving at age limits
for apprenticeship.
72. Physical, Educational, and Citizenship Requirements for Apprentices
An applicant for apprenticeship should possess the following qualifications:
(a) Physical development necessary to enable him to perform all duties of
the craft.
( b) Be an American citizen or in the process of naturalization.
(c) Sufficient education to master the rudiments of the trade. (Normally this
would require high-school education.)
73. Passing Medical Examination a Requirement for Apprenticeship
Apprentices, after passing medical examination acceptable to the union, shall
be indentured to both parties to this agreement.
74. Applicant for Apprenticeship Must Pass Technical Examination
Before entering the trade as an apprentice, applicant shall first be approved
by the local union, must pass a technical examination given by the union’s appren­
tice committee, and undergo a physical examination by a qualified medical exam­
iner approved by the local union.
75. Applicants Given Aptitude Test by Joint Apprentice Committee
All apprentices employed by members of the association shall be selected by
the employer from a list of apprentices prepared by the joint apprentice com­
mittee. Such list shall be kept in duplicate, one copy to be in the office of the
union and the other copy in the office of the association. All applicants shall be
given an aptitude test under the supervision of the joint apprentice committee
before being placed on the list.



76. Present Employees Given Preference for Apprentice Training
All applications for apprenticeship shall be submitted to the local joint appren­
ticeship committee for approval. Although the employer may select as an appren­
tice any applicant whose qualifications have been approved by the committee,
first preference in hiring shall be given to present employees approved by such
77. Sons of Present Employees Given Preference
In hiring apprentices, the employer shall prefer morally and physically fit
applicants, eighteen (18) to twenty (20) years of age, with a high school educa­
tion and vocational machine shop experience, having a residence i n ------ County
[State]. All other qualifications being equal, sons of present employees shall
have the preference.
78. Apprentices Selected from Employees Having Minimum of 3 Months' Service
in Specified Department
Apprentices shall be selected from male helpers in the shop who have had not
less than 3 months’ service in the weaving department.
79. Veterans Given Preference in Apprenticeship Program
World War II veterans who have been discharged (other than dishonorably)
will be given preference in this [apprenticeship] program.
80. Employer and Union Act Jointly in Selecting Apprentices
The selection of apprentices shall be by the joint action of the shop committee
and the company.
81. Apprentice Must Be Approved hy Union
The employer shall have the right to employ not more than one apprentice
candler for every three candler journeymen in the employ of the employer, and
such apprentices shall be paid in accordance with the wage scale schedule herein­
above provided. No apprentice shall be employed except upon prior approval
of the union. The apprenticeship shall consist of not more than 2 years, upon
the conclusion of which they shall be classified as journeymen and shall be
compensated in accordance with the above specified wage scale schedule for
the type of work on which they are engaged.

Requirements governing admission o f apprentices into the union
are usually covered in the union’s constitution and bylaws rather
than in agreements.

Some unions specify that apprentices must

join the union as soon as accepted.

Others do not admit apprentices

until completion o f a probationary period, or on admission to
journeyman status. Nearly always, however, apprentices must be
registered with the union.
82. Apprentices Must Join Union SO Days A fter Employment
An apprentice is a learner beginning service in the industry. Such apprentice
shall become a member of the union thirty (30) days after his first employment.
Apprentice shaU be considered a regular employee after having passed a pro­
bationary period of forty-five (45) days after his first employment.
778306°— 48------4



83. Apprentices to Join Union Within 6 Months
Apprentice technicians shall be required to become members of the [union]
not later than six (6) months after the beginning of their apprenticeship
84. “ Semibeneficial" Union Membership for Apprentices
Upon signing of indenture papers by an apprentice, he shall also make ap­
plication for membership in the [union], as a semibeneficial member and shall
pay the same initiation fee and dues as all other semibeneficial members.
85. Apprenticeship Card To Be Obtained From Union
I f an apprentice has been employed for a period of 3 months he or she shall
apply to the union for an apprenticeship card.
86. Union Given Names of Apprentices
The company will keep the union informed of the identity o f apprentices.
87. Union Not to Have Bargaining Rights for Apprentices
The apprentices shall annually elect an apprentice committee consisting of
three journeymen to make recommendations to the management in connection
with the training of apprentices by journeymen in the shop. The apprentice
committee and representatives of the management shall meet quarterly for
discussion of training problems. Special meeting may be called at any time,
either at the request of the apprentice committee or management. The provi­
sions of this section are not to be construed as granting the union bargaining
rights for indentured apprentices.

Training on the Job
Once an apprentice has acquired skill at some particular process
o f the trade he is learning, there may be a tendency to retain him on
that job rather than shift him to other types of work. In order to
insure that apprentices receive a thorough and well-rounded training,
some agreements include an outline of the major processes to be taught
and the time to be spent on each. On the other hand, a number o f
agreements merely stipulate that apprentices will be shifted peri­
odically from one type of work to another, or that they will be given
every opportunity to learn their trade in all its ramifications.
Another type o f provision designed to guarantee proper training
specifies that the apprentice will work under the supervision o f a
journeyman at all times, or that two apprentices will not be assigned
to work as partners.

In some cases, union discipline is provided for

journeymen who refuse to cooperate in training apprentices.
In order that the apprentice as well as the union and management
may know what progress he is making, many agreements require pe­
riodic examinations during the training term and provide for periodic
reports by the apprentice’s immediate supervisor.
88. Schedule of Time To Be Spent on Each Process
The total term of apprenticeship will be at least four (4) years (not less than
8,000 hours) of reasonably continuous employment and a minimum of 144 hours



per year of related instruction included. During his apprenticeship, the ap­
prentice shall receive instruction and experience in the following processes:

1— Tool crib______________________________________—________
2—Drill press__________________:__________________________
3— Engine lathe----------------------------------------------------------------- 1,500
4— M illing________________________________________________ 1, 500
5— Shaper______________________________________________ 1,000
6— Cylindrical andsurface grinder_________________________
7— Tool cuttergrinder____________________________________
8— Bench________________________________________________ 1,334
9— Planer_______________________________________________
10—Hardening room_________________________________________
Total________________________________________________ 8,000
This schedule shall mean that during the apprentice period the apprentice shall
receive the amount of time listed on the various machines, the time to be allotted
in accordance with production requirements and training needs. The joint
apprenticeship committee may change this schedule to suit a special condition.
89. Miscellaneous Related Work May Be Substituted for Part of Schedule
During the term of the apprenticeship, the apprentice shall be given such
instruction and experience on the processes and operations herein listed for the
trade as is necessary to develop a practical skilled mechanic. The time on any
process or operation need not be continuous; due to the diverse nature of shop
operations. During the last half of the third year and first half of the fourth
year of apprenticeship, approximately 500 hours of the schedule may be used
for miscellaneous related work. The apprentice shall perform such other duties
in the shop and on the job as are commonly related to apprenticeship.
A break-down of the work processes of the toolmaker trade shall be used and
followed as nearly as possible to the following:
Division of work processes

Approximate number hours
( accumulative— need
not be consecutive)

Tool crib— ----------------------------------------------------------------------300
Heat treating--------------------------------------------------------------------300
Drill press-------------------------------------------------------------------------200
Lathes—all types----------------------------------------------------------------- 1,100
Shaper and planer-------------------------------------------------------------900
Milling machine and jig borer_______________________________1,500
Grinding—all types________________________________________ 1, 500
Lay-out and bench work____________________________________ 2,200
Total__________________________ ____________________ 8,000
90. Operations To Be Studied in Consecutive Order
The following system shall cover apprentices who propose to become sandblast
First twelve (12 months as an apprentice granite cutter in a grade of work
which will be beneficial to him as a sandblast operator.
The next four (4) months applied to blowing.
Next four (4) months cutting to shape.
Next eight (8) months to shaping.
Next eight (8) months cutting to blow.



91. Apprentices Periodically Transferred to New Operations
In order that apprentices in the baking departments may learn the trade
thoroughly, they shall be transferred to a new line of operations at 3-month inter­
vals until all operations of the trade in such shop have been covered, at which
time this process shall be repeated. Apprentices shall not be on duty without
supervision and shall not be employed as jobbers.
92. Time Limit on Period that Apprentices May Be Assigned to Any One Type of
Such apprentices will be given an approximately equal amount of work on all
machine, floor, and bench work in the department in which they are employed.
To effectively comply with these provisions, apprentices will be changed from one
type of work to another at least every 6 months.
93. Apprentices Under General Supervision of Joint Committee and Immediate
Supervision of Department Foreman
Apprentices shall be under the general direction of the joint apprenticeship
committee and under the immediate direction o f the foreman of the department
to which they are assigned. The foreman is authorized to move apprentices from
one type of work to another in accordance with the predetermined schedule of
work training. No apprentice may be retained on one type of work for a
period longer than the time schedule for such work unless so authorized in
writing by the joint apprenticeship committee.
94. Journeyman to Supervise Apprentices at All Times
Apprentices shall be under the supervision of a journeyman at all times.
95. Apprentices Not to Work Together as Partners
Two or more apprentices shall not be worked together as partners.
96. Union-Management Pledge of Cooperation in Training Apprentices
The employer agrees to cooperate with the union in giving the apprentice the
opportunity to learn.
97. Apprenticeship Terminated if Employer Fails to Teach Trade in Proper
Any contractor found not teaching the apprentice the trade of carpentering in
the proper manner, after due investigation by the joint arbitration board, shall
be deprived of said apprentice and shall not be entitled to another boy until the
end of the period said apprentice’s papers call for.
98. Refusal to Assist Apprentices in Learning Trade Subjects Journeymen to
Union Discipline
An apprentice member of this union is considered a pressman under instruction,
and is entitled to call on any journeyman member for such assistance as will
assist him in properly learning his trade. Journeymen members refusing to give
such assistance to an apprentice when requested in a proper manner shall be
subject to the laws as conduct unbecoming a member of the union.
99. Apprentice to Receive Annual Report of Eis Progress
The foreman and chairman are required to test the ability of all apprentices
during each year of their service to determine the fitness of such apprentices
for the trade and advancement. The apprentice shall thereupon receive from
his foreman a written statement of his qualifications, copies of which the foreman
shall file with the union and the joint apprenticeship committee.



100. Immediate Supervisor to Make Monthly Report on Apprentice’s Progress
In order to properly coordinate the program, the supervisor of employee
services, as training director, shall serve as an apprentice coordinator whose duty
it will be to see that each apprentice progresses from one division of work to the
next, in accordance with the schedule and job classifications of his trade. The
general foreman of the tool room will be responsible for over-all supervision
of the apprentice, and he will receive direct supervision from the supervisor or
foreman in the tool room.
The coordinator of apprentices shall prepare adequate record forms to be
filled in by the foreman or journeyman under whom the apprentice receives his
instruction and experience. Foremen or journeymen shall make a report at
least once a month to the coordinator of apprentices on the work and progress
of apprentices under their direction. These reports shall be placed before the
coordinator for consideration and such action as may be necessary or called for
in the agreement.
101. Progress Reports Made by Joint Committee to Management and Union
The joint apprentice training committee shall report to the local management
•of the station and to the local union on the progress of the apprentice tech­
nician^ training.
102. Examinations Required Annually
Apprentices may be required to take an examination at the end of each
.yearly period. It is further agreed that apprentices shall be retained the
full three (3) years, and be given an opportunity to learn the trade thoroughly.

Classroom Instruction
The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship recommends a minimum
o f 144 hours per year o f related classroom instruction, and many
trades reflect acceptance o f this principle by incorporating provisions
in their agreements requiring related instruction. Some union agree­
ments outline the subjects to be covered in school. Union bylaws
or working rules often require school training even though it is not
mentioned in the collective bargaining agreement. Outside instruc­
tion may be given in schools jointly conducted by employers and
unions or by the union alone, or in public vocational schools. Time
spent in school is sometimes counted as part o f the total hours o f the
apprenticeship period.
Some trades, particularly printing, require the apprentice to take
correspondence courses prepared by the international union in addi­
tion to his everyday work in the shop.
Apprentices are sometimes disposed to regard classroom instruction
as impractical and unnecessary.

To curb this tendency, many agree­

ments provide for discipline, or even termination o f the apprentice­
ship, in the event o f the apprenticed failure to maintain regular
attendance or to make passing grades.
Some collective bargaining agreements specify that school hours
are considered part o f the regular working day and are to be paid
for by the employer.



103. Minimum of 144 Hours Per Year of Classroom Instruction
The term of apprenticeship shall be a minimum of eight thousand (8,000)
hours of work and an additional five hundred seventy-six (576) hours o f related
technical instruction. The first one thousand (1,000) hours shall be considered
a probationary period. During this period annulment of the apprenticeship
agreement may be made by either party, but notice of such action shall be given
to the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship.
The total number of hours assigned to related classroom instruction shall
not be less than 144 hours per year, and such time shall not be counted as hours
of work as related to the minimum of 8,000 hours required in the term of
104. Statement of Subjects To Be Covered in Classroom Instruction
All apprentices shall be required to attend classroom instruction in subjects
related to their trade for a minimum of 144 hours per year during each year of the
term of apprenticeship or a total of 576 hours. The schedule of class hours
should be for 4 hours per week, 36 weeks per year. This time spent in related
instruction shall be classed as hours of work and shall be paid for.
In case of failure on the part of any apprentice to fulfill his obligation as to
school attendance, the joint apprenticeship committee may cancel his agreement,
advising the registration agency of such cancellation.
When the related work of the apprentice is not of the calibre necessary to
X>roficiency relative to the trade being followed, such deficiency will be called
to the attention of the supervisor of personnel by the school authorities carrying
on the related work.

The classes of related instruction shall be arranged for by the ------ State
Education Department in cooperation with the local school authorities and when
established shall be under the supervision of the local school authorities.
The course content of the related instruction shall be determined by the super­
visor of personnel under the direction of the joint apprenticeship committee, in
conjunction with the ------ State Education Department and the local school
The related classroom instruction shall cover the following subjects:
Elementary and Basic Work
Blueprint reading (elementary and advanced).
Shop sketching.
Related trade drawing.
Related trade science.
Related trade theory.
Related trade mathematics.
Industrial history and labor problems.
Course in safety.
Other courses, as necessary.
N ote.—The following courses are basic courses. The apprentice will take his
major part of instruction in the field of specialization in which he intends to work
in the plant with enough basic instruction in the other divisions to give him a
general knowledge of those phases o f toolmaking.



Advanced Basic Work
Principles of jig and fixture design.
Principles of gage design.
Principles of cutting tool design.
Principles of punch and die design.
Lay-out, inspection, and assembly practices.
The amount of time to be devoted to each subject and the sequence they are
to follow will depend upon the type of work being performed by the apprentice
in the plant. It is intended that this classroom instruction shall be so inte­
grated with the work in the plant that the apprentice and the company shall
receive the maximum benefits from such instruction.
The school authorities shall be requested to submit once a week, registration and
school attendance records of each apprentice to the supervisor of personnel.
105. Apprentice to Attend Vocational School 2 Nights a Week
Apprentices shall attend regular vocational school 2 nights per week, one
hundred forty-four (144) hours per year.
106. Apprentice to Take Correspondence Course Conducted l)y TJnion
Beginning with the second year apprentices shall be enrolled in and complete
t h e ------ Course of Lessons in Printing1 before being admitted as journeymen
members of the union. During the last year of apprenticeship the apprentice
shall be permitted to learn the operation of typesetting and typecasting machines,
and must be given opportunity to acquire knowledge of all classes of work on
such machines.
107. Time Spent in School Credited as Part of Apprenticeship
All apprentices shall be required to attend whatever trade school the joint
arbitration board shall make arrangements for them to attend. They shall be
given credit for the length of time that they spend in the school, the same as
though they were actually working on the job.
108. Failure to Attend School May Terminate Apprenticeship
The apprentice shall enroll in and attend classes in subjects related to his
trade at Mechanic Arts School for not less than 144 hours per year during his
apprenticeship. These courses must be passed with grades satisfactory to
Mechanic Arts School. The related classroom instruction shall be under the
direction of the Department of Vocational Education, Mechanic Arts School.
The coordinator of apprentices shall act in an advisory and consultant capacity
in determining subjects to be taught, and in any other problems pertaining to
related education of apprentices.
In case of failure on the part of the apprentice to fulfill his obligation with
respect to school attendance (except in case of sickness or injury) the company
shall have the authority to suspend or revoke the agreement with the individual.
109. Monetary Penalty or Suspension for Failure to Attend School
Should apprentices fail to attend any session of the school without an excuse
that is acceptable to the joint arbitration board, they shall be penalized 1 day’s
wages for each session not attended, or ruled off the job for a period of days at
the discretion of the joint arbitration board.
1A correspondence course.



110. Joint Committee May Discipline Apprentices Showing Lack of Interest or
Aptitude in Schooling
It shall be the duty of the joint apprenticeship committee to arrange for the
technical schooling of all apprentices, such schooling to be given the apprentices
under competent instructors. The committee shall arrange a definite schedule
o f classes and courses of study in applied physics, chemistry, and such other
subjects as the committee may deem essential to the proper technical education
of the apprentice. Any apprentice habitually absenting himself from his classes,
failing to show the proper interest or make the required grades in his studies
shall be subject to discipline, suspension, or dismissal at the discretion of the
join t apprenticeship committee.
111. Regular Rate Paid for Time Spent in School Instruction
The hours of work for apprentices shall be paid for and conform to the stipu­
lations of the agreement between the company and the union, excepting, however,
that hours spent in supplemental school instruction shall be paid for at the
regular rate excluding overtime.
112. Paid School Time Not to Exceed 4 Hours Per Week
Apprentices shall be paid at their straight hourly rate of pay for time actually
spent attending school provided such pay shall not exceed 4 hours per week.
113. Allowance for Meal and Carfare on School Nights
Apprentices shall be allowed one dollar ($1) for carfare and supper money
on the nights they are required to attend classes, this amount to be paid by the
firm giving them employment.

Regulations Governing Work B y Apprentices
Although provisions governing the type o f work performed by ap­
prentices are based in part on consideration of public safety, quality
o f product, and job security o f the journeyman, the principal objective
is to assure that the apprentice is trained in all aspects o f the work
under a journeyman’s supervision.
Some agreements permit the apprentice to do any work assigned
to him by a journeyman or foreman. Others do not allow apprentices
to perform juorneymen’s work except in emergencies; or apprentices
may not be permitted to do any work for which a journeyman is re­
quired by law to assume responsibility.

Other agreements do not

allow the apprentice to do any work outside the shop unless accom­
panied by a journeyman, so as to insure direct training and super­
vision; still others do not permit the apprentice to work alone until
his last, or next to last, year of training.
A type o f restriction designed to insure an adequate amount o f work
for journeymen stipulates that apprentices will not be permitted to
work if journeymen are averaging less than a specified number o f
hours per week.
114. Apprentice to Do Any Work Assigned by Journeyman or Foremen
Any apprentice may do any work assigned to him by a mechanic or a foreman.



115. Apprentice Not to Work Outside Shop Unless Accompanied by Journeyman
No apprentice will be allowed to work outside the shop unless accompanied
by a journeyman until the completion of his second year of apprenticeship.
116. Apprentice Not To Be Assigned Work for Which Journeyman Is Required
to Assume Responsibility
Apprentice mechanics may be assigned to productive work, but shall not be
assigned to work for which there is a governmental requirement that such work
be signed for by a mechanic, except when such assignment is under the super­
vision of a mechanic qualified to sign for such work.
117. Experienced Apprentices May Perform Journeyman's Work Only in Special
Apprentices shall not perform the work of a journeyman except in a special
case and then only the most experienced apprentices shall be assigned to this,
118. Solo Work on Specified Job Limited to 4 Hours
No apprentice shall work alone on any job except the fourth-year apprentices
may work alone on repairs or maintenance, or they may make additions to existing
installations not requiring more than four man-hours of labor.
119. Apprentices Not to Work in Any Department Wher e Journeymen Are Working Less Than 40 Hours a Week
All journeymen in any department must be working not less than 40 hours
per week before apprentices and helpers of same department will be permitted
to work.
120. Apprentice Not To Be Assigned to Department Where His Presence Would
Bring Average Workweek Below 24 Hours
In the apprentice school, the students shall have various prearranged assign­
ments requiring them to spend a period of time in each of the various divisions
of the crafts for which they are apprentices.
In no case, however, shall any employee of the above groups be sent on a
scheduled assignment into an operation in a department whereby such assign­
ment would cause the average work hours to be brought below twenty-four (24)
per week.

Admission to Journeyman Status
In many eases agreements do not specify the procedure by which
apprentices achieve journeyman status upon completion o f the term.
Some agreements state that apprentices automatically become jour­
neymen at the end o f the training period.

Others require the appren­

tice to pass an oral or written examination or to give a practical
demonstration of his ability to perform the job.

In some cases, ex­

perience with his other employers is considered in determining the
apprentice’s qualifications for journeyman status.
Agreements sometimes stipulate that completion o f apprenticeship
does not guarantee a job as journeyman with the company.


agreements, while they do not guarantee a job, grant qualified appren­
tices priority over outsiders for any journeyman vacancies which

Another method of dealing with the situation created by



the lack o f a journeyman vacancy when the apprentice completes his
term is to grant him a leave o f absence and permit him to take other
employment until a vacancy occurs.
Some agreements provide for the relaxation o f qualifications for
admission to journeyman status during periods o f national emergency.
121. Journeyman Status Automatically Given Upon Completion of Apprenticeship
Apprentices having worked 4 years at the trade shall automatically become
journeymen and be paid as such.
122. Practical Examination in Other Shops Prerequisite for Journeyman Status
It is further understood that apprentices shall work at the trade at least three
(3) years, and pass a practical examination in other shops than the one in which
they work, before being transferred to a journeyman baker.
123. Allowance for Experience in Determining Admission to Journeyman Status
Apprentice mechanics will be advanced to the classification of mechanic pro­
vided there is a vacancy in that classification upon meeting the qualifications re­
quired for the job to which they are to be assigned and upon meeting the approval
o f the review board, consideration will be given to the employee’s experience
both before and since employment by the company.
124. Certificate of Apprenticeship Granted Employees Completing the Program
Upon the successful completion of the apprenticeship, under this program, and
upon the recommendation of the company, the Federal Committee on Apprentice­
ship will furnish each apprentice with a certificate o f apprenticeship. The
company will likewise furnish each successful apprentice a company certificate.
No apprentice shall be granted such certificate until he has complied in all
respects with the terms of the agreement. The apprentice will, upon such
successful completion, be transferred to a class II toolmaker’s classification.
125. Completion of Apprenticeship Does Not Guarantee Employment as Journey­
After satisfactory completion of a four (4) years’ course, and upon the fore­
man’s recommendation, an apprentice shall receive a certificate or letter to that
effect and, if a vacancy exists, receive the classification of first-class mechanic
with a group B seniority status.
Nothing in this article shall be construed to mean that the company guarantees
or promises that upon the satisfactory completion of his 4 year term an
apprentice will be employed as a mechanic.
126. Outsiders Not to Fill Journeyman Vacancies If Qualified Apprentices
No vacancy in the classification of mechanic shall be filled from outside of the
company if an apprentice mechanic in the employ of the company is qualified to
fill such vacancy.
127. Apprentice May Take Other Employment While on Leave of Absence if No
Journeyman Vacancy Exists
I f after 90 days from the date an apprentice mechanic becomes eligible for
advancement to the position of mechanic and no position is available for him
in the classification of mechanic, the apprentice mechanic to be reclassified may
take a leave of absence from the company and engage in other employment.



128. Advancement to Journeyman Status During Periods of National Emergency
During a period of national emergency, an apprentice may be advanced to the
status of a skilled worker if the need is sufficiently great to warrant such ad­
vancement and if it is found by the committee that he has the ability to handle
the work. A worker so advanced shall be required to attain proficiency at the
earliest possible opportunity. The committee may require an apprentice awarded
such advancement to continue his related instruction until its completion. The
registration agency shall be advised of such advancements.

Rate of Pay
The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship recommends a progres­
sively increasing scale of wages for the apprentice.

The principle of

automatic wage progression plans for apprentices is recognized in most
union agreements. Such wage progressions may be stated in terms of
hourly rates, as a percentage o f the journeyman’s rate, or as a combina­
tion o f the two. W here an apprentice has previous experience an al­
lowance is sometimes made for such experience in determining the rate
to which he is entitled under a wage progression plan. Occasionally,
agreements specify that no wage increase will be given unless the
apprentice’s progress is satisfactory.
Some agreements state that any general wage increase affecting the
regular working force is also applicable to apprentices’ rates. Such
a clause is of course unnecessary where apprentices’ rates are expressed
as a percentage of journeymen’s rates. Periodic union-management
review o f apprentices’ rates are provided by some agreements.
Occasionally the apprentice is given a cash bonus or a set o f the tools
of his trade upon completion o f the term.
129. Automatic Wage Progression for Apprentices
The apprentice rate of wages for the first six ( 6 ) months of apprenticeship
shall be the company minimum hiring rate and shall be progressively increased
each six ( 6 ) months in equal steps so that upon completion of the four ( 4 ) years'
apprenticeship the rate shall be within eight ( 8 ) cents per hour of the maximum
of the machinists’s rate range.
Wage schedule under wage rates in effect May 1,1945:
Per hour

1st 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________$0. 64
2d 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours________________________________
. 71
3d 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________
4th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________
5th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_____________________
6th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________
7th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ 1.06
8th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ 1.13
After completion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.19

The company will use its best efforts to give apprentices every reasonable oppor­
tunity to learn all branches of the trade, and shall not keep them on one machine
or job for more than six ( 6 ) months.




Apprentices who are given credit for previous experience shall be paid, upon
signing the apprenticeship agreement, the wage rate for the period to which such
credit advances them.
130. Automatic Progression Based on Journeyman's Rate
Apprentices shall be paid not less than the following percentages of the journey­
men machinists’ minimum wage rates:

1st 6 months of employment_________________________________52.0
2d 6 months of employment_________________________________ 56. 5
3d 6 months of employment_________________________________60.0
4th 6 months of employment------------------------------------------------- 65.0
5th 6 months of employment_________________________________69.5
6th 6 months of employment_________________________________74.0
7th 6 months of employment--------------------------------------------------82.5
8th 6 months of employment_________________________________91.0
Thereafter journeyman’s rate of pay.
131. Apprentices' Rates Expressed as Percentage of Journeyman's Rate and as
Hourly Rate
A pprentice R ates : Computed on percentage basis of journeyman machinist’s
rate as follows:
Per hour

1st 928 hours, 52 percent------------------------------------------$0. 78
. 85
2d 928 hours, 56.5 percent-------------------------------------3d 928 hours, 60 percent___________________________
. 90
4th 928 hours, 65 percent__________________________
. 98
5th 928 hours, 69.5 percent________________________ 1.05
6th 928 hours, 74 percent---------------------------------------- 1.12
7th 928 hours, 82.5 percent------------------------------------- 1. 25
8th 928 hours, 91 percent__________________________ 1.37
132. No Wage Progression if Apprentice's Work Unsatisfactory
Hates of pay for apprentices shall be as follows; provided, however, that no
apprentice shall receive an increase in pay at the end of any six (6) months’
period unless his progress in shop work is satisfactory:
Per hour

1st 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- $0.76
2d 6 months______________________________________
3d 6 months_______________________________________ 1. CO
4th 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- 1.08
5th 6 months______________________________________ 1.13
6th 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- 1.18
7th 6 months______________________________________ 1.27
8th 6 months______________________________________ 1.35
First-class mechanic’s rate thereafter.
133. Allowance for Previous Experience in Determining Apprentice's Wage Rate
Apprentices who are given credit for previous experience shall be paid, upon
signing the apprenticeship agreement, the wage rate for the period to which
such credit advances them.
134. Apprentices to Receive Not Less Than Minimum Common Labor Rate
Trade apprentices in any plant of the company shall receive not less than the
minimum common labor rate, applicable at that plant, for each hour worked
during the first period of the trade apprentice training program.



135. Starting Rate Equal to Minimum Labor Rate but May Retain Present Rate
if Higher
The starting rate for apprentices shall be the minimum rate paid to laborers:
Provided, however, That, if an employee is selected for apprenticeship who is
receiving a higher rate of pay than the minimum labor rate, he may start at the
rate he is receiving, if not higher than the metal pourers’ rate, and if he has been
working in the plant for a sufficient length of time to have received under the
apprentice schedule a rate of pay equal to that currently received under his
present classification. Increases shall be granted to apprentices at the end of each
6-month period equal to one-eighth of the difference between his starting rate
and the journeyman’s rate, said increases to continue until he has served the
necessary term.
136. General Wage Raise Also Applicable to Apprentices
All apprentices shall be entitled to any general raise applicable in their
respective departments.
137. Rate of Pay to be Negotiated When Apprentice System Reinstated
The company and the union agree that upon the reinstatement by the company
of an apprentice system of training, the question of remuneration shall be the
subject of negotiation between the company and the union.
138. Apprentices’ Rates Subject to Periodic Review by Union and Employer
Apprentices’ wage rates are to be increased at least twenty percent (20% >
every 6 months, and are to be reviewed every 6 months by the secretary-business
manager of the union and the employer.
139. Cash Bonus Upon Completion of Apprenticeship
Upon completion of a 4 years’ course (or its equivalent) an apprentice shall
receive a certificate from the company to that effect and a bonus of $100.
140. Tools of the Trade Given Apprentice Upon Completion of Term
The company will furnish the apprentice with a kit of tools applicable to the
trade of toolmaker (list attached). Upon satisfactory completion of the term
of apprenticeship, these tools will become the property of the apprentice.

Hours and Overtime
The workday and the workweek for apprentices are usually the same
as for journeymen. However, apprentices are often prohibited from
working overtime or on night shifts. Such prohibitions may be in­
tended to protect both the job security o f journeymen and the health
o f young apprentices.

A lso, the apprentice is likely to get better

training on the regular day shift than on night shifts or during over­
time hours.

Overtime is sometimes permitted in emergencies or in

cases where journeymen also work overtime.
141. Hours and Overtime Provisions Same for Apprentices as for Journeymen
Apprentices shall work the same hours and be subject to the same conditions
regarding overtime as the skilled workers in their trade who are employed by
the company.
142. Prohibition of Overtime Work
Apprentices shall not be allowed on the night shift or in any branch where a
journeyman is not employed. They shall not be permitted to work overtime.



143. No Overtime for Apprentices Unless Regular Employees Also Work Overtime
No apprentice in his probationary period shall work when any regular employee
in his department, if performing the same work, is laid off. No such apprentice
shall work overtime in his department unless all of the regular employees in said
department performing his work also work overtime.
144. No Overtime Except in Emergencies
Apprentices shall not be permitted to work overtime, except in emergencies,
and will not be assigned to night shifts except in furtherance of their training
while they are training at a line service station, and at a maintenance base only
when approved by the local joint apprenticeship committee.
145. No Overtime Unless Apprentice-Journeyman Ratio Maintained
No apprentice shall be employed on overtime work in an office unless the number
o f journeymen on the same shift equals ratio prescribed in the local scale; at no
time shall any apprentice have charge of a department.
146. No Overtime by Apprentices Under 18; Ratio To Be Maintained
In no instances shall an apprentice be allowed to work overtime unless he is 18
years of age and then only when one or more of the regular force other than the
foreman shall be so employed. The ratio of one to eight shall be maintained for
all overtime.
147. No Overtime Unless Journeymen in Department Approve and Apprentice
Has Served 4 Nears
An apprentice shall not work overtime except in an emergency, and then only
with the approval of the journeymen in the department to which he is indentured,
and further, such apprentice shall have served 4 years of his apprenticeship.
148. Apprentice to Work Only the Day Shift
An apprentice shall work only the day shift so as to enable him to get the
maximum training.

Seniority Status
One important problem is that of establishing the apprentice’s
seniority in relation to journeymen, once he completes his term and
becomes a full-fledged member o f the working force. Agreements
handle the problem in various w a y s: In some cases full seniority credit
as a journeyman is given for time spent in apprenticeship; in others,
the apprentice receives partial seniority credit, usually equal to oneh alf the total apprenticeship period; and, in still others, no seniority
credit is given for the apprenticeship period. Some agreements merely
state that apprentices attaining journeyman status will have no seni­
ority rights over journeymen already on the seniority list.
In some cases, separate seniority lists are kept for apprentices and,
when journeyman vacancies occur, qualified apprentices may be pro­
moted on the basis o f seniority.
Agreements sometimes outline special procedures to enable the
apprentice to establish seniority rights if he graduates from appren­
ticeship when no journeyman vacancies exist.

For example, he may

be permitted to work one day as a journeyman in order to establish



seniority, so that if the company calls him to work at some future time,
he receives seniority credit as a journeyman for the period o f lay-off.
149. Seniority Credit for Time Spent in Apprenticeship
When apprentices are removed from the apprenticeship course for any reason,
including graduation, and given other employment in the plant, they shall be given
credit for the time they have spent in the apprenticeship course for seniority
150. Seniority Credit for Military Service Given Veteran Upon Completion of
A returned veteran apprentice shall, upon completion of apprenticeship, be
given seniority as a journeyman of 2 years plus the length of his service in the
armed forces.
151. Apprentice Given 2 Years' Seniority Credit on Graduation
Upon completion of indenture, apprentices shall be given two (2) years of
seniority and be classified within the grade covering their particular job.
152. Apprentice Given 1 Year's Seniority Credit on Graduation
When an apprentice receives a completion certificate, upon satisfactory com­
pletion of the apprenticeship program, he shall be made a journeyman and given
1 year’s seniority in his craft.
153. No Accumulation of Seniority During Apprenticeship
An apprentice does not accumulate any seniority while serving his time.
154. Seniority Rights Begin When Apprenticeship Ends
At the end of the third such period, such apprentice technician shall become a
regular technician, and his seniority rights shall commence with the end of his
155. Separate Seniority List for Apprentices
Seniority lists will be kept separate between regular tool room operators and
machine repair operators and apprentices.
156. Apprentice Attaining Journeyman Status Has No Seniority Rights Over
Present Journeymen
Apprentices who are transferred to the journeyman classification shall retain
no seniority rights over any journeyman listed on the seniority list at the time
of such transfer.
157. Procedure for Establishing Seniority as a Journeyman When No Opening
Upon completion of apprenticeship, if no opening exists in the mechanic’s classi­
fication, he will be permitted to work one (1) day as a mechanic at the mechanic’s
minimum rate of pay to establish his system seniority as a mechanic, and will
then be furloughed and classified as “waiting.” Thereafter his bid for any
vacancy that may be bulletined on the system will be given the same considera­
tion as any other bid from a mechanic and his first permanent assignment will
establish his “point seniority.”
158. Promotions on Basis of Seniority
When openings occur, mechanical helpers and mechanical apprentices will
be promoted, if qualified, to more skilled jobs in the mechanical department on
basis of seniority.



Continuous Employment; Lay-off and Reemployment
The proper training of apprentices requires steady employment,
and some agreements assure apprentices continuous employment dur­
ing their entire apprenticeship or for a stated portion thereof. Since
steady employment is not always possible, many agreements have
provisions governing the lay-off and recall of apprentices. The most
common provision is the maintenance o f the ratio o f apprentices to
journeymen in lay-offs and reemployment.

Some agreements require

that apprentices be laid off in order of seniority, while others require
the consideration of both seniority and ratio in lay-offs. Some agree­
ments permit the abandonment of ratio requirements during periods
o f lay-off, i. e., all apprentices are laid off before any journeymen.
Rehires are usually in the reverse order of lay-offs, and some agree­
ments further stipulate that laid-off apprentices will be reliired before
any new apprentices are employed.
In a few cases, the State or Federal apprenticeship committee or
other registration agency must be notified o f lay-offs and reinstate­
ments of apprentices.
159. Apprentice Furnished 52 Weeks1 Work Per Year
It is mutually agreed and understood that the employer shall furnish work
for the apprentice 52 weeks per year. In the case apprentice does not report for
work the contractor is not obligated to pay him for the day he so absented
160. Apprentice to Receive Continuous Employment During First 3 Years; 25
Percent of Wages Paid During Lay-offs
The employer agrees to employ such apprentices continuously for the first
3 years. Apprentices may be laid off during dull periods, but in such cases
apprentices shall receive 25 percent of their wages as per this agreement.
161. Employment Regularized by Granting Priority for Apprentice Vacancies
in Other Shops
Apprentices must be regularly employed. If an apprentice is laid off to reduce
the force, or for other reasons beyond his control, he shall be given the oppor­
tunity to accept the next vacancy in any office party to the contract with such
standing as may be determined by the joint apprenticeship committee.
162. Lay-off of Apprentices in Proportion to Lay-off of Journeymen
When the number of class I and II toolmakers is reduced in employment, a
corresponding ratio of apprentices shall also be reduced.
163. Lay-off and Recall Based on Seniority
The company intends and expects to give the apprentice steady employment,
but reserves the right to lay off or to curtail his working hours whenever business
conditions make this course necessary. Apprentices with the least amount of
service with the company will be laid off first, and rehires will be made in reverse
164. Both Seniority and Ratio Considered in Laying Off Apprentices
Seniority for apprentices shall be as follow s: During his apprenticeship, that
apprentice shall be laid off and rehired in accordance to ratio and his appren­



ticeship seniority. During his apprenticeship period, the apprentice shall retain
his shop seniority in his former classification. After completion of his appren­
ticeship, the apprentices shall have the seniority to his credit earned as an
165. Apprentices Laid Off Before Journeymen and Before Reduction of Workweek
In the reduction of the working force, apprentices will be laid off before the
regular tool room operators and machine repair operators on the seniority list
and before any reduction of the hours of work.
166. No New Apprentices Employed Until Laid-Off Apprentices Reinstated
No additional apprentices will be employed until those laid off have been re­
turned to work under this program.
167. Apprentices Exempt From Seniority Provisions
All apprentices shall be exempt from the seniority provisions of this agree­
ment. The hiring, lay-off, and discharge of apprentices shall be within the
discretion of the company. An apprentice, at the completion of his contract, shall
Rave seniority in any group in which he has worked, based upon his company
length of service. The designation of such group shall be at the direction of
the company.
168. Apprentices May Not Replace Regular Employees During Lay-off
Apprentices shall not be used to replace employees with seniority when re­
ductions in force are necessary.
169. Registration Agency Must Be Notified of Lay-offs and Reinstatements
Whenever the number of skilled workers employed in the plant is reduced
for any reason, there shall be a corresponding reduction in the number of ap­
prentices employed in the trade. The principle of seniority as stated in the
“ agreement” shall be followed in making any such reduction. If any apprentice
is temporarily laid off because of business conditions, he shall be reinstated before
any additional apprentices are employed in the same trade. The registration
agency shall be notified of such lay-offs and reinstatements.

Discharges and Quits
The first few months of the apprenticeship term are usually con­
sidered a probationary period during which the employer (or the
joint apprenticeship committees) may determine the apprentice’s
ability to learn the trade. Probationary periods o f 3 to 6 months are
frequently specified by union agreements. In most cases, apprentices
may be discharged during the probationary period without recourse
to the grievance procedure.

A fte r completing probation, however,

apprentices are usually protected from summary discharge by the
same rules tin t govern the discharge of journeymen.

But when an

apprentice fails to make satisfactory progress, the employer can
terminate the apprenticeship, subject to the right o f the apprentice
to appeal to the union or to the joint apprenticeship committee.
Under the terms of some agreements, the employer forfeits the right
to replace an apprentice discharged without the consent o f the joint
apprenticeship committee.



Training apprentices represents an investment in time and money
which is lost to the employer if the apprentice quits before com­
pleting his term. F or this reason, many agreements penalize the
apprentice if he quits during the term of his apprenticeship. U sually,
permission o f both employer and union must be obtained; and
apprentices quitting without permission are often prohibited from
completing their apprenticeship in any other shop under the juris­
diction of the union.

However, in cases where the employer proves

unable to provide proper training, the apprentice may be transferred
to another employer.
170. Discharge During Prohationary Period Not Subject to Review
The employment of an apprentice for the first four full consecutive weeks
shall be deemed a trial period and therefore the lay-off or discharge of such
apprentice during this period shall not be subject to review. At the end o f
four full consecutive weeks, if such worker is retained for further employment,
he or she shall join the union immediately and be entitled to all benefits and
privileges of this agreement.
171. Joint Committee May Terminate Apprenticeship During Probationary Period
The first 1,000 hours or approximately 6 months of employment for every
apprentice, after signing an apprenticeship agreement, shall be a probationary
period. During this probationary period the agreement may be canceled by
the joint apprenticeship committee. After the probationary period the appren­
ticeship agreement may be canceled upon written request of both parties thereto
or upon adequate cause being shown by either party and with the approval o f
the joint apprenticeship committee. The registration agency shall be advised
of all such cane dlations.
172. Apprentice or Employer May Terminate Apprenticeship During Proba­
tionary Period
Should any apprentice during the first 6 months of his apprenticeship, in the
opinion of the company, prove unfit for learning the proposed trade, he may be
dismissed at any time during that period without previous notice and such
dismissal shall not be questioned by the union. After the first 6-month period,
he may only be dismissed from the company for just and proper cause.
In the event that the apprentice, during the first 6 months of his employment,
feels that he is unqualified for the work, and desires to be released, the company,
upon written request, shall release him from his apprenticeship agreement and
give him employment in such other classification as he may desire to work, pro­
vided the company then has a position open for him in that classification and
provided, in the company’s opinion, he is qualified to perform such work.
173. Foreman or Department Head May Discharge Apprentice for Just Cause
The foreman or head of department of any apprentice may discharge any
apprentice for lack of skill, ill health, or lack of application and interest in his
work and the work of the company, or any other just and proper cause.
174. Periodic Examinations to Determine Whether Apprenticeship Should B e
An examination of apprentices shall be given by the coordinator of apprentices
before each period of advancement or at such other times as may be determined.
In these examinations, consideration shall be given to school attendance, progress
in school and in the shop, and daily employment records of the apprentice.



If the coordinator of apprentices finds that an apprentice shows a lack of
interest or does not have the ability to become a competent mechanic, he may
request that the apprentice be removed from the program. The Federal Com­
mittee on Apprenticeship will be advised on all terminations and the reason
175. No Discharge Without Investigation by Joint Committee
Offices employing apprentices are not allowed to discharge an apprentice with­
out a full investigation and consideration by the joint standing committee.
176. Union To Be Notified Before Apprenticeship Terminated
Such apprentices shall be on a trial period for three (3) months, during which
time they may be discharged by the company, upon notice to the union, if found
177. Restriction on Replacement of Apprentice Discharged Without Consent of
Joint Committee
Should an employer discharge an apprentice without the consent of the joint
apprenticeship committee, he shall forfeit all rights to replace the discharged
apprentice until after the expiration of the term of said apprentice.
178. No Lay-off or Quit Without Mutual Consent of Employer and Union
After a probationary period of 500 hours, no apprentice shall be laid off or
permitted to leave his employment except by mutual consent of the employer
and the union.
179. Apprentice Quitting Without Permission May Not Complete Apprenticeship
in Any Shop Under the Union's Jurisdiction
Should an apprentice leave his position without the consent of the joint appren­
ticeship committee, he shall forfeit all rights to finish his apprenticeship in any
foundry within the jurisdiction of the [union] until after his term has expired.
180. Apprentice Transferred if Employer Unable To Fulfill His Obligations
If the company is unable to fulfill its obligations under the apprenticeship
agreement, the company may transfer the apprentice to another employer. The
registration agency shall be advised of all such transfers.
181. Apprentice Not To Transfer to Another Employer Without Permission of
Union and Present Employer
No apprentice shall be permitted to leave one shop to work in another during
the term of his apprenticeship, except with the consent of the society and the


The term “learner” is generally used in occupations for which new
and inexperienced workers are ordinarily trained directly upon hiring
into the establishment.

The term is usually applied to persons learn­

ing jobs which do not require form al apprenticeship training.
Learners differ from apprentices in that their trade or occupation
requires a lesser degree of skill and therefore a shorter period of train­
ing. Moreover, in the case o f learners, there is no apprenticeship
agreement to bind the worker and no corresponding responsibility on
the part of the employer or the union to provide training.

Few union

agreements refer to learners except with regard to length o f learning
period and wage rates.
The length o f the learning period depends on the complexity of the
operation, and may vary from a few weeks to a year or more.


some cases, the learning period may be shortened if justified by the
learner’s progress.
During their training period, learners are usually paid at a rate
lower than the minimum rate for the regular working force, although
a few agreements prohibit wage differentials for learners. Graduated
wage scales are sometimes provided, i. e., wage increases are given at
specified intervals until the minimum or job rate for regular employees
is reached.
Learners employed in interstate commerce or producing goods for
interstate commerce may not be paid at rates below the minimum
rates established by the Fair Labor Standards A c t unless special
permission is obtained from the W age and Hour Division of the United
States Department of Labor.
182. Necessity for Learners and Conditions of Employment Subject to Negotia­
tion (Arbitration invoked if parties unable to agree.)
Before learners are employed, the matter shall be taken up by the employer
with the union, and if the parties do not agree as to whether they are necessary
and the conditions of their employment, the matter shall be arbitrated as above
183. Learners Hired Only When No Trained Workers Available
The company may employ learners or short-term apprentices on a basis
mutually satisfactory to the company and the union.
Learners may be employed only when no trained operators are available
on the departmental seniority lists.



184. Learning Period of 9 Months
The term “learner,” as used in this agreement, constitutes one of the unskilled
employees of the employer covered by the appropriate bargaining unit, who is
engaged in learning a single operation not requiring knowledge of, nor skill in,
other operations. A learner may become a regular employee after satisfactorily
serving the employer as a learner for a period of not less than nine (9) months.
185. Foreman May Shorten the Learning Period
The maximum learning period for beginners and learners in the job classifi­
cations of sewer, patcher, hemmer, blower, turner, sorter, and trimmer shall be
480 working hours, providing that the learning period may be shortened if the
employee in the judgment of the foreman and other supervisory employees has
learned the job sufficiently to be transferred to the particular job classification.
The rates of pay for learners and beginners are as set forth in Schedule “A”
attached hereto.
186. Graduated Wage Scale for Learners
A learner is an employee who has worked less than two hundred forty hours
or less than 6 weeks on the job. The rate per hour of a learner on employment
shall be 60 cents which shall be increased after 2 weeks to 65 cents; after 4
weeks to 70 cents and after 6 weeks to 75 cents.
187. Time Limits on Progression From Hiring Rate to Basic Rate
Beginners’ (or learners’ ) rates applicable to women’s jobs must comply with
the following conditions:
(a) The total period between the time of employment and the attainment of
the basic rate of ninety and one-half (90y2) cents shall not exceed six (6)
(b) The period of any step rate between the rate at time of employment and
the basic rate of ninety and one-half (9 0 ^ ) cents shall not exceed two (2)
(c) There shall not be over seven and one-half (7y2) cents spread between the
hiring rate and the basic rate of ninety and one-half (9 0 ^ ) cents.
188. Starting and Minimum Rates Specified
The starting rate for new inexperienced employees shall be fifty (50) cents
per hour for the first six (6) weeks of employment, and fifty-five (55) cents per
hour thereafter, as a minimum rate.
189. Learner to R °ceive Rate Provided by Law
Learners are defined as those persons who have had no adequate previous
experience. The learning period shall be four (4) weeks, and learners shall
receive as their regular rate of compensation the rate provided by law.
190. No Wage Differential for Learners
The company shall not permit anyone to work around the plant as learners or
in any other capacity unless they receive the established rate of pay for the
type of work they are performing.
191. Minimum Weekly Earnings for Learners
Learners who have served an apprenticeship of less than 6 weeks shall re­
ceive earnings of not less than $26 per week of 40 hours. After 6 weeks, they
shall receive at least the established minimum.



192. Minimum Hourly Rate for Learners on Piecework Occupations
The minimum wages of learners for piecework operations based on a work­
week of 40 hours shall be as follow s:
Hourly rate

First 6 weeks of employment---------------------------------- $0. 50
Second 6 weeks of employment____________________
. 53
Thereafter _______________________________________
. 56
193. Piece-Rate Earnings or Learner Rate, Whichever is Greater
Learners placed on piece or incentive rate jobs during the learning period
shall be paid their piece or incentive rate earnings of the learner rate provided for
in this section, whichever is greater.

I ndex

Establishment and administration of apprenticeship program:

P age



00 00 00 00




Program to be established within specified period of time_____
Program to be established when conditions are favorable______
Program to be established on association-wide basis__________
Apprentice program at option of local management and union.
Apprentice program to emphasize training of veterans________
Apprentice and refresher training program for veterans_______
Apprentice program incorporated in agreement by reference__
Apprentice program formulated by joint committee__________
Composition and jurisdiction of joint apprenticeship committee.
Joint committee composed of two union representatives and
one company representative.______________________________
(11) Federal Committee on Apprenticeship consulted in establishing
(12) Program to incorporate Federal apprenticeship standards_____
(13) Standards to conform with those of Federal Committee on
(14) Union, State, and Federal apprenticeship standards incorpo­
rated in agreement_____________
(15) Apprenticeship rules adopted by employer must not conflict
with union agreement_____________________________________
(16) Apprentice agreement not to violate terms of collective
bargaining agreement_____________________________________
(17) Differences regarding program adjusted through grievance
(18) Grievances regarding apprentices decided by joint apprentice­
ship committee___________________________________________
(19) Grievances may be appealed to State apprenticeship agency__
(20) Modification of program may be negotiated at any time______
(21) Representatives of union and employers’ association to have
access to apprentice records_______________________________
Apprenticeship indenture:
(22) Definition and content of apprenticeship agreement__________
(23) Standards of apprenticeship incorporated by reference in
indenture agreement______________________________________
(24) Indenture agreement and training to comply with Federal
apprenticeship standards__________________________________
(25) Parent or guardian to sign indenture agreement if apprentice
a minor___________________________________________________
(26) No apprentice hired unless covered by indenture agreem ent...
(27) Apprentices indentured to both employer and union---------------(28) No alteration of agreement without consent of apprentice-------



Determining the number of apprentices:

Length of

Number of apprentices specified_____________________________
Ratio of one apprentice to three journeymen_________________
One for every 10 or major fraction thereof____________________
One apprentice for each five journeymen “ employed regularly” _____________________________________________________
Minimum of one apprentice, regardless of ratio_______________
Employment of apprentice compulsory provided three journey­
men employed____________________________________________
One-to-four ratio, with maximum specified___________________
One apprentice to each shift_________________________________
Minimum of one apprentice for each apprenticeable trade_____
Number of apprentices limited by average number of journey­
men employed____________________________________________
Variable ratio: Proportion of apprentices decreases as number
of journeymen increases___________________________________
Variable ratio: Proportion of apprentices increases as number
of journeymen increases___________________________________
More liberal ratio for smaller departments____________________
Ratio varies according to type of work_______________________
Apprentices banned in shops with less than three employees__
Change in ratio must be discussed with union________________
Ratio to be revised periodically______________________________
Ratio modified if union constitution liberalized on number of
Ratio requirement waived in order to reemploy former ap­
prentices returning from military service___________________
Ra io waived for sons*of employer or journeymen____________
No apprentices indentured if journeymen unemployed________
Apprentices entering military service not replaced by new
Employer not entitled to train apprentice unless he employs
at least five men for 6 months in 1 year_ ___________________
Employer must have been in business at least 2 years before
employing apprentices_____________________________________
Apprentice not to be employed where he has no fair oppor­
tunity to learn trade______________________________________
No apprentice indentured during life of contract______________
No apprentice indentured during life of contract except by
union-employer agreement-------------------------------------------------New apprentices selected from unemployed apprentices sub­
ject to employer’s option to select from present employees . »
apprenticeship period:
Four-year apprenticeship____________________________________
Four-year term with minimum number of hours specified_____
Term stated in hours________________________________________
No credit given for any year in which apprentice fails to qualify
for annual wage increase___________________________________
Employer may reduce the apprenticeship period______________
Joint apprenticeship committee may shorten training period__
Credit allowed for previous apprenticeship or work experience.
Credit allowed for education and experience__________________





Length of apprenticeship period—Continued

P age

(65) Credit allowance for previous experience equivalent to training
under company program__ ___________________ ____________
(66) Maximum of 2 years’ credit for prior apprenticeship or ex­
Qualifications for entering apprenticeship:
(67) Minimum age limit specified—________________________________
(68) Minimum age determined by State law---------------------------------(69) Minimum and maximum age limits specified__________________
(70) Age requirements waived for veterans_________
(71) Age requirements modified for veterans______________________
(72) Physical, educational, and citizenship requirements for ap­
(73) Passing medical examination a requirement for apprenticeship.
(74) Applicant for apprenticeship must pass technical examination.
(75) Applicants given aptitude test by joint apprentice committee.
(76) Present employees given preference for apprentice training.__
(77) Sons of present employees given preference___________________
(78) Apprentices selected from employees having minimum of 3
months’ service in specified department____________________
(79) Veterans given preference in apprenticeship program_________
(80) Employer and union act jointly in selecting apprentices_______
(81) Apprentice must be approved by union______________________
Union membership requirements:
(82) Apprentices must join union 30 days after employment*_______
(83) Apprentices to join union within 6 months___________________
(84) “ Semibenefieial” union membership for apprentices___________
(85) Apprenticeship card to be obtained from union_______________
(86) Union given names of apprentices____________________________
(87) Union not to have bargaining rights for apprentices__________
Training on the job:
(88) Schedule of time to be spent on each process__________________
(89) Miscellaneous related work may be substituted for part of
(90) Operations to be studied in consecutive order_________________
(91) Apprentices periodically transferred to new operations________
(92) Time limit on period that apprentices may be assigned to
any one type of work_____________________________________
(93) Apprentices under general supervision of joint committee and
immediate supervision of department foreman______________
(94) Journeyman to supervise apprentices at all tim6s_____________
(95) Apprentices not to work together as partners_________________
(96) Union-management pledge of cooperation in training appren­
(97) Apprenticeship terminated if employer fails to teach trade in
proper manner____________________________________________
(98) Refusal to assist apprentices in learning trade subjects journey­
men to union discipline____________________________________
(99) Apprentice to receive annual report of his progress___________
(100) Immediate supervisor to make monthly report on apprentice’s




Training on the job— Continued

(101) Progress reports made by joint committee to management and
(102) Examinations required annually_____________________________
Classroom instruction:
(103) Minimum of 144 hours per year of classroom instruction______
(104) Statement of subjects to be covered in classroom instruction. _
(105) Apprentice to attend vocational school 2 nights a week________
(106) Apprentice to take correspondence course conducted by union. _
(107) Time spent in school credited as part of apprenticeship_______
(108) Failure to attend school may terminate apprenticeship________
(109) Monetary penalty or suspension for failure to attend school___
(110) Joint committee may discipline apprentices showing lack of
interest or aptitude in schooling____________________________
(111) Regular rate paid for time spent in school instruction__________
(112) Paid school time not to exceed 4 hours per week______________
(113) Allowance for meal and carfare on school nights______________
Regulations governing work by apprentices:
(114) Apprentice to do any work assigned by journeyman or foreman.
(115) Apprentice not to work outside shop unless accompanied by jour­
(116) Apprentice not to be assigned work for which journeyman is re­
quired to assume responsibility____________________________
(117) Experienced apprentices may perform journeyman’s work only
in special cases____________________________________________
(118) Solo work on specified job limited to 4 hours-------------------------(119) Apprentices not to work in any department where journeymen
are working less than 40 hours a week_____________________
(120) Apprentice not to be assigned to department where his presence
would bring average workweek below 24 hours_____________
Admission to journeyman status:
(121) Journeyman status automatically given upon completion of
(122) Practical examination in other shops prerequisite for journey­
man status________________________________________________
(123) Allowance for experience in determining admission to journey­
man status________________________________________________
(124) Certificate of apprenticeship granted employees completing
the program______________________________________________
(125) Completion of apprenticeship does not guarantee employment
as journeyman____________________________________________
(126) Outsiders not to fill journeyman vacancies if qualified appren­
tices available_____________________________________________
(127) Apprentice may take other employment while on leave of
absence if no journeyman vacancy exists___________________
(128) Advancement to journeyman status during periods of national
Rate of pay:
(129) Automatic wage progression for apprentices__________________
(130) Automatic progression based onjourneyman’s rate____________
(131) Apprentices’ rates expressed as percentage of journeyman’s rate
and as hourly rate_________________________________________

P age





Rate of pay—Continued

(132) No wage progression if apprentice's work unsatisfactory______
(133) Allowance for previous experience in determining apprentice's
wage rate________________________________________________
(134) Apprentices to receive not less than minimum common labor
(135) Starting rate equal to minimum labor rate but may retain
present rate if higher______________________________________
(136) General wage raise also applicable to apprentices_____________
(137) Rate of pay to be negotiated when apprentice system rein­
(138) Apprentices' rates subject to periodic review by union and
(139) Cash bonus upon completion of apprenticeship_______________
(140) Tools of the trade given apprentice upon completion of term__
Hours and overtime:
(141) Hours and overtime provisions same for apprentices as for
j ourney men_______________________________________________
(142) Prohibition of overtime work________________________________
(143) No overtime for apprentices unless regular employees also
work overtime--------------------------------------(144) No overtime except in emergencies___________________________
(145) No overtime unless apprentice-j ourney man ratio maintained-.
(146) No overtime by apprentices under 18; ratio to be maintained-.
(147) No overtime unless journeymen in department approve and
apprentice has served 4 years______________________________
(148) Apprentice to work only the day shift-----------------------------------Seniority status:
(149) Seniority credit for time spent in apprenticeship______________
(150) Seniority credit for military service given veteran upon com­
pletion of apprenticeship__________________________________
(151) Apprentice given 2 years' seniority credit on graduation______
(152) Apprentice given 1 year's seniority credit on graduation______
(153) No accumulation of seniority during apprenticeship___________
(154) Seniority rights begin when apprenticeship ends______________
(155) Separate seniority list for apprentices________________________
(156) Apprentice attaining journeyman status has no seniority rights
over present journeymen__________________________________
(157) Procedure for establishing seniority as a journeyman when no
opening exists_____________________________________________
(158) Promotions on basis of seniority_____________________________
Continuous employment; lay-off and reemployment:
(159) Apprentice furnished 52 weeks' work per year________________
(160) Apprentice to receive continuous employment during first 3
years; 25 percent of wages paid during lay-offs_____________
(161) Employment regularized by granting priority for apprentice
vacancies in other shops___________________________________
(162) Lay-off of apprentices in proportion to lay-off of journeymen. _
(163) Lay-off and recall based on seniority_________________________
(164) Both seniority and ratio considered in laying off apprentices__
(165) Apprentices laid off before journeymen and before reduction
of workweek______________________________________________




Continuous employment; lay-off and reemployment— Continued


(166) No new apprentices employed until laid-off apprentices rein­
(167) Apprentices exempt from seniority provisions_________________
(168) Apprentices may not replace regular employees during lay-off, _
(169) Registration agency must be notified of lay-offs and reinstate­
Discharges and quits:
(170) Discharge during probationary period not subject to review___
(171) Joint committee may terminate apprenticeship during proba­
tionary period____________________________________________
(172) Apprentice or employer may terminate apprenticeship during
probationary period_______________________________________
(173) Foreman or department head may discharge apprentice for just
cause______________________________________________ ^_____
(174) Periodic examinations to determine whether apprenticeship
should be terminated______________________________________
(175) No discharge without investigation by joint committee_______
(176) Union to be notified before apprenticeship terminated________
(177) Restriction on replacement of apprentice discharged without
consent of joint committee________________________________
(178) No lay-off or quit without mutual consent of employer and
(179) Apprentice quitting without permission may not complete ap­
prenticeship in any shop under the unions jurisdiction_____
(180) Apprentice transferred if employer unable to fulfill his obliga­
(181) Apprentice not to transfer to another employer without per­
mission of union and present employer____________________



(182) Necessity for learners and conditions of employment subject
to negotiation_____________________________________________
(183) Learners hired only when no trained workers available________
(184) Learning period of 9 months_________________________________
(185) Foreman may shorten the learning period____________________
(186) Graduated wage scale for learners____________________________
(187) Time limits on progression from hiring rate to basic rate______
(188) Starting and minimum rates specified________________________
(189) Learner to receive rate provided by law______________________
(190) No wage differential for learners___________________________
(191) Minimum weekty earnings for learners________
(192) Minimum hourly rate for learners on piecework occupations.,
(193) Piece-rate earnings or learner rate, whichever is greater-----------