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U N IT E D ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R L. B. SCHWELLENBACH, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS EWAN CLAGUE, Commissioner COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROVISIONS Apprentices and Learners B ulletin No. 908-4 For sale b y the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C. Price 15 cents Letter of Transmittal U n it e d S tates D B e p a r t m e n t of u reau of L abor L abor, S t a t is t ic s , Washington, D. <7., April 15, 1948. The S e c r e t a r y of L abor : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on apprentice and learner provisions in collective bargaining agreements. The report is based on an examination o f collective bargaining agreements on file in the Bureau. The chapter was prepared by and under the direction of Abraham W eiss in the Division o f Industrial Relations, Boris Stern, Chief. James C. N ix and Priscilla B ill assisted in the preparation. E w an C lague, Commissioner. Hon. L . B . ScHWELLENBACH, Secretary of Labor. m Preface A s early as 1902 the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, then the Bureau o f Labor in the Department of the Interior, recognized the growing im portance o f collective bargaining, and published verbatim the bitu minous coal m ining agreement o f 1902 between the Associations o f Coal Mine Operators o f Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois and the respective districts of the United Mine W orkers o f America. Since 1912 the Bureau has made a systematic effort to collect agree ments between labor and management in the leading industries and has from time to time published some of those agreements in fu ll or in summary form in the M onthly Labor Review. The first bulletin entirely devoted to collective bargaining agree ments was published in 1925 under the title “ Trade Agreements in 1923 and 1924.” Similar annual bulletins were published in 1926, 1927, and 1928. These bulletins analyzed only outstanding agree ments affecting certain industries and certain skilled crafts in which collective bargaining has followed a more or less established pattern. No bulletins in this field were published by the Bureau between 1928 and 1942— a period during which collective bargaining first lost ground in the depression and then made rapid strides follow ing the enactment of the National Labor Relations A ct in 1935. The growth in trade-union membership from fewer than 4,000,000 workers in 1935 to more than 10,000,000 in 1942 not only resulted in a large increase in the number o f collective agreements covering industries hitherto not included under collective bargaining, but also extended the scope and area of bargaining in individual industries. In recognition o f this development, the Bureau’s 1942 report on union agreements (B u l letin No. 686) dealt with provisions and clauses on particular labormanagement problems rather than with the agreements o f each union or industry separately. The substance and character o f collective bargaining agreements change continuously, and many o f the clauses and provisions covered in Bulletin No. 686 underwent significant changes during the war emergency, as a result not only o f the normal processes of collective bargaining but o f the decisions of the National W a r Labor Board. New problems meant new clauses and new provisions. The Board also gave added impetus to certain forms of union security, and to certain practices, now deeply imbedded in the entire field o f labormanagement relations. IV PREFACE V The liquidation o f the Board, and the renewal o f emphasis on free collective bargaining after V J -d ay, led to a tremendous increase in the demand for information on specific current provisions in agree ments. Urgent requests came from employers and unions, from the United States Conciliation Service, and from mediators and arbitra tors engaged in settling or preventing labor-management disputes. I t was largely in response to these requests that the Bureau o f Labor Statistics undertook to revise and bring up to date the material on union agreements. In this revision two significant departures have been m ade: (1) Accumulation of data has made possible the use of a larger sample than was possible heretofore. (2 ) The information will be presented in a series o f small bulletins, each stressing a major area or significant problem of collective bargaining. This will permit the material for each major problem to be published as rapidly as finished without waiting until all of the subjects o f collective bargaining are analyzed. I t will have the advantage of greater flexibility in handling specific requests for material from employers, unions, and the public. Some clauses are more or less stable and undergo relatively minor changes even over a considerable period of time and therefore need only occa sional revision, whereas others undergo rather rapid change. A lso, as new issues develop it will be possible to add new bulletins to the series without revising those already published. The clauses used are designed to facilitate, but not to condition, the bargaining process. No special attempt has been made to determine the prevailing industry practice or the most frequently used provi sions. The clauses are presented, not as models, but as a source of reference for those who participate in collective bargaining negotia tions, by making available to them a wide variety of provisions on the specific subjects under consideration. A n index o f all the contract clauses quoted, with a brief description of each clause, is appended to each report. This report, dealing with provisions covering apprentices and learn ers, is the fourth in this Collective Bargaining Provisions series. The bulletins already published are as follow s: No. 908 -1 Union Security Provisions. No. 9 0 8 -2 Vacations; Holidays and W eek-E n d W ork. No. 908-3 Incentive W age Provisions; Time Studies and Stand- dards o f Production. Bulletin N o. 9 0 8 -4 of the United States Bureau o f Labor Statistics Contents A pprentices Page E stablishment and A dministration ofA pprenticeship Program_____ Clauses (1-21) __________________________ A pprenticeship I ndenture___________________________ Clauses (22-28)___________________________________________ D etermining the N umber of A pprentices____________________________ Clauses (29-56)___________________________________________ Length of A pprenticeship Period _____________________________________ Clauses (57-66)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q ualifications for E ntering A pprenticeship_________________________ Clauses (67-81).................................................................................................... Union Membership Requirements____________________________________ Clauses (82-87)............. T raining on the Job____________________________________________________ Clauses (88-102)___________________ C lassroom I nstruction__________________________________________________ Clauses (103-113)__________________________________ R egulations G overning W ork by A pprentices______________________ Clauses (114-120)_______________________________________ A dmission to Journeyman Status______________________________________ Clauses (121-128)____________________________________________________ R ate of Pay _____________________________________________________________ Clauses (129-140)................................ H ours and Overtime ____________________________________________________ Clauses (141-148)________________________________ S eniority Status_________________________________________________________ Clauses (149-158) C ontinuous E mployment; L ay - off andR eemployment________________ Clauses (159-169)_______________ D ischarges and Quits___________________________________________________ Clauses (170-181)................... 3 3 7 7 8 10 13 14 15 15 17 17 18 18 21 22 24 24 25 26 27 27 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 L earners L earners _________________________________________________________________ Clauses (182-193)............ Index of C lau ses A pprentices______________________________________________________________ Learners _________________________________________________________________ 36 36 VII 39 44 Collective Bargaining Provisions Apprentices and Learners APPRENTICES The primary object o f apprenticeship is to supply industry with a steady flow o f skilled labor through a systematic and supervised course o f training on the job. A s defined by the United States E m ployment Service, an apprentice is “ a worker not less than 16 years of age engaged under direct journeyman supervision, and according to a prescribed or traditional series o f work processes graded to coincide with increasing trade maturity in learning a skilled occupation that requires, during the learning process, several years of reasonably con tinuous employment prior to the time that the worker may be consid ered a qualified journeyman. In general, apprenticeship is legally recognized only if recorded in a written contract, indenture, or agree ment, in which, in return for services rendered, the employer promises to teach the worker the processes of his trade. The terms o f an appren ticeship agreement usually include specific reference to the duration o f the apprenticeship period, a progressive scale of wages, and the nature o f the processes to be taught. Frequently the agreement also specifies the amount and nature o f related schooling in vocational subjects in which the worker shall engage during his apprenticeship period.” 1 The shortage o f skilled workers which developed in many industries during the war, and provision for apprenticeship training under the G I B ill of Rights, have recently accentuated interest in the systematic training of skilled craftsmen. Moreover, considerations o f national defense and full employment require that the optimum number o f skilled workers be trained to meet production needs. The problem of apprentice training is not new and has long been an issue in collective bargaining. Labor-management determination of apprentice-training standards emphasizes three elements: A n equi table adjustment o f the number of apprentices to employment oppor tunities in the trad e; proper selection o f apprentices; and thorough training. Although in the long run labor and management may arrive 1 Dictionary of Occupational Titles— ra rt I : Definitions of Titles. Service, United States Department of Labor, June 1939 (p. 16). 778306°— 48------2 U. S. Employment 1 2 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS at identical solutions to these problems, in some instances their imme diate objectives may appear to be conflicting. In respect to the num ber o f apprentices, for example, unions may tend to emphasize the danger o f training more craftsmen than can be furnished employment, while employers are more keenly aware that failure to train a suffi cient quota may cause an uneconomical distribution of labor. In other instances, the positions may be reversed. W ith their multicom pany commitments and perhaps a greater stake in the continuing existence of the trade, unions are more insistent that at least some apprentices be trained. In contrast, some employers may refuse to bother with training even a single apprentice, preferring to pay pre mium rates during periods o f scarcity to craftsmen obtained from the labor market. Standards o f apprentice training are often covered by international union constitutions and the bylaws or working rules o f local unions. Some unions and employers have reached agreement on basic standards to guide local unions and employers in negotiating their contracts. Local collective bargaining agreements covering workers in apprenticeable occupations usually contain specific rules and requirements for selection o f apprentices, on-the-job training, related classroom instruc tion, and admission to journeyman status. Subsidiary problems o f apprentices’ seniority, pay, hours, overtime, lay-off, discharge, and quits are also often covered. Often, the rules governing apprentice training are drawn up as an amendment or supplement to the regular collective bargaining agreement. The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, the labor-management policy committee for the Apprentice-Training Service o f the United States Department o f Labor, has recommended the following stand ards o f apprenticeship: 1. An apprenticeable occupation is considered one which requires 4,000 or more hours to learn. 2. A schedule of the work processes to be learned on the job. 3. A progressively increasing scale of wages for the apprentice that should average approximately 50 percent of the journeyman’s rate over the period of apprenticeship. 4. Provision for related classroom instruction (144 hours per year o f such instruction is normally considered necessary). 5. The terms and conditions of the employment and training of each apprentice to be stated in a written agreement and registered with the State apprenticeship council. 6. Review of local apprenticeship by a State apprenticeship council. 7. Apprenticeship should be jointly established by the employer and the employees. 8. Adequate supervision and the keeping of records should be required for all apprenticeship programs. APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM 3 Some State apprenticeship agencies and national unions have estab lished their own standards, differing in varying degrees from those o f the Federal committee. Establishment and Administration o f Apprenticeship Program A number o f recently negotiated agreements state that the parties agree in principle to an apprenticeship program and provide for the establishment o f such a program in the near future. Some of these agreements require that the program be set up within a specified time limit, but in most cases time limits are not stipulated. N ot infrequently an apprenticeship program is established under a separate agreement and is incorporated by reference in the collective bargaining agreement. In such cases, it is often specified that no ap prenticeship rules are to be adopted which conflict with the terms of the collective bargaining agreement. Many agreements provide for the establishment and administration o f the program by an apprenticeship committee composed o f represent atives o f management and the union. Although the details o f plan ning the program are usually left to the joint committee, agreements frequently lay down certain specifications for the guidance of the committee. F or example, the committee may be instructed to place particular emphasis on apprentice training for veterans; or it may be required to adopt standards o f apprenticeship conforming to those recommended by the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. Various methods are provided for handling grievances arising out o f the apprenticeship program. In some cases, such disputes are settled through the regular grievance procedure. More commonly, grievances are submitted to the joint apprenticeship committee for adjustment. In a few cases, grievances not settled by the parties may be appealed to a State apprenticeship agency. In order to facilitate the administration of the apprenticeship pro gram, some agreements specify that employers must keep detailed records on their apprentices and that such records are to be available for inspection by the joint committee or by union representatives. 1. Program To Be Established Within Specified Period of Time Within sixty (60) days after the signing o f the contract a program shall be set up for the purpose of establishing standards of apprenticeship that will be applicable to the different production departments in our plant and which are mutually agreed to by the parties of this agreement. 2. Program To Be Established When Conditions Are Favorable Whenever the conditions and opportunities for establishment of an apprentice ship system become favorable, the company and the union will endeavor to work out a mutually acceptable plan. 4 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 3. Program To Be Established on Association-Wide Basis Because of the shortage of workers in the millinery industry, the parties do hereby mutually agree to promptly inaugurate a system of apprentices for all the crafts of the millinery industry that may require same. The administrative board shall formulate the terms and conditions under which the said system of apprenticeship shall operate. 4. Apprentice Program at Option of Local Management and Union Where the management of any station and the local union involved agree the following apprentice training plan may be adopted * * *. N ote.—The agreement from which this clause is taken covers a chain of radio broadcasting stations. 5. Apprentice Program to Emphasize Training of Veterans The parties agree in principle that the industry should school and train its own mechanics and to this end a joint committee of the industry and the union shall be formed for the purpose of establishing an apprentice training program with particular emphasis on affording employment to war veterans. 6. Apprentice and Refresher Training Program for Veterans The company reserves the right to train apprentice veterans according to the G.I. Bill of Rights and also to set up a refresher training program under the same bill for returning veterans formerly employed b y ------ Co. 7. Apprentice Program Incorporated in Agreement by Reference The attached schedule of apprenticeship standards and apprenticeship rates of pay is a part of this agreement. 8. Apprentice Program Formulated by Joint Committee Both parties agree to institute an apprentice training program to train new workers. The kind of training, length of apprenticeship, wages, and gradual promotion periods are to be worked out by the joint conference committee and made part of this agreement. 9. Composition and Jurisdiction of Joint Apprenticeship Committee There is hereby established a joint apprenticeship committee as defined in sec tion —. This committee shall be composed of four (4) members, two (2) of whom shall be appointed by the union, and two (2) of whom shall be appointed by the company. The representatives who compose the committee shall serve for 1 year from the date of their selection (or until their successors are duly selected and quali fied). In case of a vacancy in the committee, such vacancy shall be filled for the unexpired term by the selection of a successor in the same manner as that in which the original selection was made. The committee shall meet in [city] on an appointed date and shall organize by selecting a chairman, a vice chairman, and a secretary, all of whom shall be committee members. The term of office of the chairman, vice chairman, and the secretary shall be 1 year. Each officer so selected shall serve until his successor is duly selected and qualified. The office of the chairman of the committee shall be filled and held alternately by a company representative and by a union representative. When a company representative is chairman, a union representative shall be vice chairman and vice versa. Meetings of the committee shall be held once a month, or more frequently if found necessary. The chairman of the committee, any other two members of the APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM 5 committee, or the supervisor of personnel shall have authority to call and estab lish the date of meetings of the committee. The committee shall consider at its meetings problems relating to the effective operation of the standards of apprenticeship, concerning eligibility, apprentice ship agreements, transfers, job training, processes, wages, ratios, working condi tions, related classroom instruction, settlement of apprenticeship complaints, and completion of apprenticeship; and it shall make recommendations based upon its consideration of such questions. It shall be the duty of the committee to recommend to the public school author ities, the form, content, and schedule of the course or courses of instruction to be provided, and upon the request of such authorities, to recommend eligible persons as instructors. The committee will also cooperate with the school authorities and the supervisor of personnel in coordinating the related classroom instruction with the apprentices’ basic schedule of work experience. The supervisor of personnel and the president of the union may attend the apprenticeship committee meetings as nonvoting members. The apprenticeship committee may request representatives of the ApprenticeTraining Service and the [city] Board of Education or other interested agencies to serve as consultants. The consultants will be asked to participate without vote in conference on special problems related to apprenticeship training which affect the agencies that they represent. 10. Joint Committee Composed of Two Union Representatives and One Company Representative The apprentice technician shall devote forty (40) hours each week to learning the theory and practice of radio broadcasting, maintenance, control, and trans mission, under the direction and guidance of the technicians at the station, and shall follow a course of training and study to be developed by a joint apprentice training committee, composed of one person to be named by [company] and two persons to be named by the local union involved. All assignments of the appren tice technician to either practical work or theoretical study shall be made by the joint apprentice-training committee, but shall be performed on [company] premises. 11. Federal Committee on Apprenticeship Consulted in Establishing Program In the event an apprenticeship system is established in the plant, the company and the union shall meet with a representative of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship to institute a proper apprenticeship system. In all respects, unless otherwise changed by agreement of the parties, apprenticeship shall be governed by the terms of this agreement. 12. Program to Incorporate Federal Apprenticeship Standards It is agreed that if the employer should, in the future, hire any apprentices, the parties hereto will negotiate an apprenticeship agreement which recognizes and includes the Federal apprenticeship standards and when such agreement is negotiated and entered into, it shall become a part of this agreement and attached hereto. 13. Standards to Conform With Those of Federal Committee on Apprenticeship A joint apprenticeship committee of equal number consisting of employer rep resentative and representatives of the union may be selected by the parties to this agreement to formulate standards of apprenticeship in conformity with the standards of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. These standards shall cover a selection, a progressive schedule of wages, job training, periodic examina 6 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS tions, ratios, classroom instruction, and adjustment of complaints; and shall establish a system of administration and supervision. The apprenticeship standards thus formulated shall be submitted to the parties hereto for approval, and when ratified shall become part of this agreement. 14. Union, State, and Federal Apprenticeship Standards Incorporated in Agree ment The parties to this agreement shall name an apprenticeship committee of equal representation. The company agrees to abide by the terms and conditions of the standards of apprenticeship promulgated by the [union] in collaboration with the Industrial Commission of [State] and the Apprenticeship and Training Service of the United States Department of Labor. It is agreed that these standards of apprenticeship shall be a supplement and a part of this agreement. 15. Apprenticeship Rules Adopted by Employer Must Not Conflict With Union Agreement The company has in the past made available to selected employees training courses for special skills and crafts. The company is privileged to continue this practice, but in no case shall an employee enter an apprenticeship training course after reaching the age of 30 years. The company may adopt such rules as it may deem advisable to continue such training and may provide rules governing the selection of apprentices, provid ing such rules are not contrary to the terms of this agreement. 16. Apprentice Agreement Not to Violate Terms of Collective Bargaining Agreement The company and the union agree to continue the apprentice agreement now existing between them first executed [date] and approved by the ------ State Apprentice Council [date], and as may from time to time be amended by the parties signatory to said apprentice agreement. No provisions of the apprentice agreement shall contravene the provisions of this agreement. 17. Differences Regarding Program Adjusted Through Grievance Procedure Any differences arising between the company and the union as to -the mean ing or application of the terms of this [apprenticeship] program shall be subject to the grievance procedure as stipulated in the agreement between the company and the union dated * * *. 18. Grievances Regarding Apprentices Decided by Joint Apprenticeship Committee It shall further be the duty of the joint apprenticeship committee to see that no apprentice is discriminated against. Should an employer or an apprentice have any complaint to make relative to the conduct of the apprentice or the treatment accorded the apprentice, said employer or apprentice shall submit his complaint in writing to the committee, who shall pass upon the merits of the case. The committee shall have power to summon before it any member of either party to this contract. 19. Grievances May Be Appealed to State Apprenticeship Agency Apprentices are encouraged to take up all individual suggestions, recommenda tions, or minor grievances connected with their work or training with any union member of the joint apprenticeship committee. In the event the matter is not satisfactorily adjusted in this manner, either party to the apprenticeship agree ment may ask th e ------State Apprenticeship Council to consider the matter. APPRENTICESHIP INDENTURE 7 20. Modification of Program May Be Negotiated at Any Time This apprenticeship program may be modified at any time subject to agree ment between the company and the union. A copy of such modified program will be filed with the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. 21. Representatives of Union and Employers9 Association to Have Acess to Apprentice Records Manufacturers shall keep a record of all apprentices in their employ; such records shall state the date when apprentice leaves. Any manufacturer hiring an apprentice who may have already served part of his apprenticeship elsewhere shall demand and receive a record of such time served. All such records must be kept on file; also the time such apprentice may have been employed by him. All of which records must be open to inspection by the shop steward or business agent of either association. N ote.—This clause is taken from an agreement covering an employers" association. Apprenticeship Indenture A n indenture is a written agreement stating the terms and condi tions of the employment and training o f an individual apprentice. To be effective, the indenture must be signed by the apprentice and his employer. Although few collective bargaining agreements make any reference to indentures, an apprentice is usually required to sign such an agree ment with his employer or, in some instances, with a joint apprentice ship committee. In most cases, the indenture agreement incorporates directly or by reference the standards o f apprenticeship defined by the collective bargaining agreement and may not conflict with that agreement. Some collective bargaining agreements specify, however, that if the standards o f apprenticeship are amended, indenture agree ments in effect at the time may not be altered without the consent of the apprentice. I f the apprentice is a minor, his parents or guardian are ordinarily required to sign the agreement, and the document is usually registered with a State or Federal apprenticeship agency. 22. Definition and Content of Apprenticeship Agreement “Apprenticeship agreement” shall mean a written agreement between the company and the person employed as an apprentice, which agreement shall be registered with the registration agency. The “ apprentice agreement” shall contain a statement covering the terms and conditions of employment and training, a statement of the trade to be learned, a schedule of the trade processes, and a requirement that the apprentice attend classes in subjects related to his trade for a minimum pf 144 hours each year of his apprenticeship. 28. Standards of Apprenticeship Incorporated by Reference in Indenture Agree ment Apprenticeship agreements shall be made out and signed in quintuplicate, one copy to be retained by the company, one given to the apprentice, one given to the union, and two registered with the ------ State Apprenticeship Council. Prior 8 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS to distribution, all copies shall be forwarded to the ------ State Apprenticeship Council for registration. Every apprenticeship agreement entered into these standards of apprentice ship shall contain a clause making the standards a part o f the agreement with the same effect as if expressly written therein. For this reason every applicant (and if he is a minor, his parent or guardian) shall be given the opportunity to read the standards before he signs the apprenticeship agreement. 24. Indenture Agreement and Training to Comply with Federal Apprenticeship Standards All apprentices employed by the company shall be trained in accordance with the standards of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. The union, through its machine shop committee, shall have the privilege of advising and suggesting methods employed by the company in training apprentices in the company’s plant. Every apprentice employed shall be covered by an apprenticeship agreement be tween the apprentice and the company. This agreement shall be in form and content as will meet with the approval of the Federal Committee on Apprentice ship, United States Department of Labor. These agreements shall be executed in quadruplicate; one copy to the [local union], one copy to the company, one copy to the apprentice, and one copy to be registered with the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, United States Department of Labor. 25. Parent or Guardian to Sign Indenture Agreement if Apprentice a Minor “Parties to the apprenticeship agreement” shall mean the apprentice, his par ents or guardian, if he is a minor, and a duly authorized official of the company and an officer of the joint apprenticeship committee, each of whom shall sign the apprenticeship agreement. 26. No Apprentice Hired Unless Covered hy Indenture Agreement No apprentice shall be employed until there is executed by the employer and Lodge------ , an indenture agreement covering said apprentices. 27. Apprentices Indentured to Both Employer and Union Apprentices—after passing medical examination acceptable to the union— shall be indentured to both parties to this agreement and shall be governed by the con stitution and general laws of the [international union] and the local union a party hereto. 28. No Alteration of Agreement Without Consent of Apprentice The standards of apprenticeship may at any time be amended upon mutual agreement of the company and the union, providing that no such change shall alter an apprenticeship agreement in force at the time of such change without the written consent of the apprentice; and providing such change shall be submitted to the registration agency to determine if it meets with the standards established by it. A copy of any such amendment will be furnished each apprentice employed by the company. Determining the Number o f Apprentices The problem as to how many apprentices should be employed in the particular plant or industry is one o f the most controversial issues relating to apprenticeship. Purely economic motives and a strict be lief in the law o f supply and demand might cause some unions to favor a labor market in which no apprentices were trained. On the other NUM BER OF APPRENTICES 9 hand, for the same reasons, employers might advocate the training of an unnecessarily large number of craftsmen. Establishment o f a max imum number to be trained is therefore arrived at by a compromise, generally in conformity with experience or practices which exist in other trades, occupations, and professions. .Relatively few agreements specify an absolute number o f appren tices which may be employed regardless o f the total number o f jour neymen employed. Generally, they set the maximum number to be trained by establishing a ratio of apprentices to the total number o f journeymen, e. g., one apprentice for each five journeymen. A fixed or uniform ratio is usually specified, i. e., the ratio remains the same no matter how great the number o f journeymen employed. In some cases, however, the ratio is progressively lowered so as to avoid a large number of apprentices in the larger establishments, e. g., 1 to 4, 2 to 10, and so on. In many cases, apprentices may be hired on a ratio basis until a specified number o f apprentices is reached. Agree ments sometimes prohibit apprentices in shops employing less than a specified number of journeymen or prohibit the employment o f ap prentices altogether. More frequently, however, each shop is per mitted at least one apprentice. A ratio arrangement has the advantage o f flexibility in that ap prentices can be added or dropped in proportion to changes in the employer’s needs (as reflected by the number o f journeymen em ployed) . On the other hand, if apprentices are periodically laid off because of decreases in the number of journeymen, their training is likely to suffer. Employers whose operations are characterized by frequent lay-offs may choose not to employ the full number o f appren tices permitted by the ratio, since the training of one or more appren tices may be disrupted by the application of the ratio. Some agree ments solve this problem, partially at least, by basing the ratio on the average number o f journeymen employed over a period o f several months. Ratios specified by union agreements vary widely, reflecting general economic conditions, the bargaining strength of the parties, the needs o f the employer, the technology o f the industry, the awareness of both parties o f their responsibility to the industry, and other factors. In some cases, agreements provide for periodic review and change of the ratio, especially when there is a shortage of labor in the trade. Other agreements allow relaxation o f the ratio requirements in order to employ veterans as apprentices or to permit the indenture o f sons o f employers or journeymen. Another type of hiring regulation is designed to insure that ap prentices are not taken on by employers who are unable to provide adequate training. 778306°— 48----- 3 For example, employers who have been i n busi- 10 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS ness for less than some specified period of time may be prohibited from indenturing apprentices. 29. Number of Apprentices Specified [The employer] may employ six (0) apprentices. A joint apprenticeship com mittee consisting of an equal number of employers or employer representatives, and representatives of this union, shall be selected by the parties of this agree ment to formulate standards of apprenticeship in conformity with the standards of the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. 30. Ratio of One Apprentice to Three Journeymen One apprentice shall be allowed to every three (3) journeymen. 31. One for Every 10 or Major Fraction Thereof In shops where there is a steady journeyman machinist employed, there may be employed one (1) apprentice; and one additional apprentice may be em ployed for every ten (10) journeymen or major fraction thereof steadily em ployed in said shop. 32. One Apprentice for Each Five Journeymen “Employed Regularly” One apprentice shall be allowed for each five journeymen and journeywomen employed regularly. 83. Minimum of One Apprentice, Regardless of Ratio There shall be one (1) apprentice allowed for each qualified shop and one (1) additional apprentice for each ten (10) journeymen, employed on a normal one or two shift basis. Apprentices shall not be required to work on a third shift. 34. Employment of Apprentice Compulsory Provided Three Journeymen Employed The ratio of class A apprentices to journeymen employed in a shop shall not exceed 1 apprentice to 5 journeymen or a majority fraction thereof, save that in shops employing 3 and not more than 7 journeymen, 1 apprentice shall be employed. There shall not be more than 1 apprentice on any job having less than 5 journeymen and not more than 5 apprentices on any job having less than 100 journeymen. One additional apprentice may be employed to each additional 20 journeymen on jobs having more than 100 journeymen, provided in each of the foregoing instances such apprentices are available from among those previously indentured by th e ------Joint Apprenticeship Committee. 35. One-to-Four Ratio, With Maximum Specified One apprentice to every four journeymen—not more than five apprentices allowed in any one plant. 36. One Apprentice to Each Shift In baking departments one steadily employed apprentice shall be allowed on each shift where a foreman is employed. 37. Minimum of One Apprentice for Each Apprenticeable Trade There shall be not more than one apprentice for each apprenticeable trade at any one time, and no new apprentices shall be hired in the machine shop until those who are now members of the armed forces have returned or given notice of intention not to return, or shall have failed to apply for reemployment within ninety (90) days after honorable discharge from such service. 38. Number of Apprentices Limited by Average Number of Journeymen Employed (This article shall be applicable exclusively to such departments, trades, or classifications as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties.) 11 NUMBER OF APPRENTICES The union agrees that apprentices may be employed in such numbers as the company considers necessary to maintain an adequately trained working force of first class mechanics and replacements; provided, however, that no new apprentices may be hired in any d e p a rtin g if the number of apprentices already employed in such department equals or exceeds ten (10) percent of the average number of first class mechanics employed per week in such department during the preceeding six (6) months’ period commencing on either July 1 or January 1. 39. Variable Ratio: Proportion of Apprentices Decreases as Number of Journey men Increases Apprentices may be employed in the ratio o f : 2 to 4 journeymen___ 5 to 8 journeymen___ 9 to 12 journeymen—. 13 to 20 journeymen.. 21 to 30 journeymen.. 31 to 45 journeymen.. 46 to 60 journeymen.. 61 to 75 journeymen.. 76 to 90 journeymen.. 91 to 100 journeymen. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 apprentice. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. apprentices. 40. Variable Ratio: Proportion of Apprentices Increases as Number of Journey men Increases The company agrees not to place more than one (1) apprentice to every fifteen (15) journeymen for the first thirty (30) journeymen and one (1) apprentice for each additional ten (10) journeymen. 41. More Liberal Ratio for Smaller Departments Apprentices shall not exceed in number, one (1) to each ten (10) journeymen tool and die makers, except in the smaller departments, such as maintenance department, etc., where it will be one (1) to five (5), this ratio to be modified as found necessary by the joint apprenticeship committee. 42. Ratio Varies According to Type of Work One apprentice shall be permitted to each seven (7) journeymen on all work except ornamental ironwork, and on such work one (1) apprentice will be per mitted to four (4) journeymen ironworkers, and on the spinning o f cables on suspension bridges one (1) apprentice shall be permitted to each journeyman. 43. Apprentices Banned in Shops With Less Than Three Employees Where there are less than three (3) employees no apprentice shall be allowed. 44. Change in Ratio Must Be Discussed With Union The employment of indentured apprentices shall, in any one (1) classification, be limited to fifteen (15) percent of the total number o f employees within that classification. If it becomes necessary to change the percentage in any classifica tion, it will be discussed with the union. 45. Ratio To Be Revised Periodically All employees classified as apprentices under this agreement shall be allowed to complete their apprenticeship unless discharged for just cause, and the joint committee on standards of apprenticeship will make a periodic determination of a proper ratio of apprentices to be employed in the future. 12 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 46. Ratio Modified if Union Constitution Liberalized on Number of Apprentices The union agrees that the employer shall have the right to employ one ap prentice for the shop and one additional apprentice for each eight journeyman molders and coremakers employed in the shop, it being understood that, if the union’s constitution is liberalized in regard to the number of apprentices, this contract shall be modified accordingly. 47. Ratio Requirement Waived in Order to Reemploy Former Apprentices Re turning From Military Service Apprentices shall be limited in number, the ratio of one (1) apprentice to each five (5) journeymen except by mutual agreement of the employer and the union, provided nothing in this section shall prevent the company from granting reemployment rights to veterans who were formerly tool and die apprentices in addition to the present apprentices. 48. Ratio Waived for Sons of Employer or Journeymen Where the shop has the alloted number of apprentices registered, an exception may be made in registering a master plumber or journeyman plumber’s son in addition to the quota. If, however, the master or journeyman’s son are part of the original quota no other apprentice or apprentices shall be permitted. 49. No Apprentices Indentured if Journeymen Unemployed While there are an average number of journeymen unemployed in any branch, no apprentices shall be indentured to that branch. All questions and differences arising through this rule shall be referred to and decided by the joint apprentice committee. 50. Apprentices Entering Military Service Not Replaced by New Apprentices (Substitute indentured apprentices may be employed if available.) Apprentices entering Government military service shall not be replaced by new apprentices, and shall be reinstated in employment under the same condi tions and status as previously held upon their return to civil life and resuming affiliation with the Union, providing they report ready for employment within ninety (90) days after discharge from such military service. This provision shall not prevent the employment o f substitute indentured apprentices if available. 51. Employer Not Entitled to Train Apprentice Unless He Employs at least Five Men for 6 Months in 1 Year No contractor shall be entitled to an apprentice unless he employs at least five (5) men for at least six (6) months in 1 year, nor shall he be entitled to the second apprentice unless he employs twelve (12) men steadily. 52. Employer Must Have Been in Business at Least 2 Years Before Employing Apprentices Contractors who have been in business for 2 years or more shall be entitled to apprentices on the following basis: Yearly average of four journeymen—one apprentice. Each additional 10 journeymen shall entitle them to an additional apprentice. 53. Apprentice Not To Be Employed Where He Has No Fair Opportunity to Learn Trade No apprentice shall be employed in any shop unless there obtains a fair op portunity for him to acquire a fundamental knowledge of the trade and become a competent machinist. LENGTH OF APPRENTICESHIP PERIOD 13 54. No Apprentice Indentured During Life of Contract No apprentices shall be indentured during the life of this agreement. 55. No Apprentice Indentured During Life of Contract Except by Union-Employer Agreement No apprentices shall be indentured during the life of this agreement except by mutual consent of both parties hereto. 56. New Apprentices Selected From Unemployed Apprentices Subject to Em ployer’s Option to Select From Present Employees When new apprentices are employed the said apprentices shall be selected from the regular list of unemployed registered apprentices; provided, that the employer shall have the first preference to select an apprentice from boys who have been employed at least 1 year in his composing room. The director of the school at all times shall have on hand a list of all unemployed registered ap prentices; Length o f Apprenticeship Period Considered independently o f other elements o f apprenticeship, the term o f training is not particularly significant. In contrast to such professions as law, medicine, or teaching, which require long years o f schooling without compensation and often at large personal expense, the skilled trade offers the apprentice from the start a paying job as well as a course o f training. Given a wage scale commensurate with the apprentice’s output and a training schedule which assures the ac quisition o f additional skill throughout the term, prolongation o f his training status within reasonable limits will work no injustice on the apprentice. However, a term longer than necessary to master the trade can be abused and in combination with a substandard wage scale may result in a “ cheap labor” market. W ith a fixed ratio a longer term o f apprenticeship m ay also result in fewer skilled workers available to industry. In some cases, the international union constitution and the bylaws or working rules of the local union specify the apprenticeship term or a minimum term. In others, the local union negotiates the term with employers. A t any rate, the length o f the period specified by agree ments varies considerably, depending largely on the complexity o f the skills to be learned, and to some extent on the employment situation in the industry. The term is usually stated in years, and in order to receive credit for a year the apprentice is usually required to work a minimum number o f hours during the year, most commonly 2,000 hours. Some agreements authorize the joint apprenticeship committee, or in a few cases, the employer, to reduce the period if justified by the ap prentice’s progress. Credit is often given for past experience or education or for time served in a previous apprenticeship, although 14 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS the credit given may be limited to a specified period, such as 1 or 2 years. 57. Four-Year Apprenticeship All apprentices in the employ*of the company shall serve a 4-year term, during which time the company will undertake to afford them every reasonable oppor tunity to learn their trade, and will vary their tasks accordingly. 58. Four-Year Term With Minimum Number of Hours Specified Unless given credit by the apprenticeship committee for prior related experience, they will serve an apprenticeship of four (4) years of two thousand (2,000) hours each and will be given every opportunity to gain a complete and thorough knowl edge of the trade in which they are apprenticed. 59. Term Stated in Hours Apprenticeship period shall be 7,424 hours of shop work, and 576 hours of school training. The first 500 hours of shop work being probationary. 60. No Credit Given for Any Year in Which Apprentice Fails to Qualify for Annual Wage Increase I f at the end of each year an apprentice’s deservance of the stipulated increase is in doubt he shall come before a board of examiners composed of three (3) journeymen cutters in his line of work, said board to be appointed by the president of local union —. I f the board finds the apprentice not entitled to promotion he shall serve another year at the same wages and the first year in which he served shall not count in his 4-year apprenticeship, provided employer agrees. 61. Employer May Reduce the Apprenticeship Period All apprentices in the employ of the company shall serve as such for a period of 4 years, except that if in the company’s opinion the apprentice has been good in his attendance and has shown aptitude, skill, and ability, the company may reduce his apprenticeship period to 3 years. 62. Joint Apprenticeship Committee May Shorten Training Period The joint apprentice training committee may accelerate this training period at any time. 63. Credit Allowed for Previous Apprenticeship or Work Experience All persons now employed as apprentices will be placed under these standards and registered with the registration agency. The apprentices may be given full credit for the time they have served as apprentices under a written or verbal agreement. Other employees of the company who desire to become apprentices and are selected will be allowed credit for the applicable experience they have had after their record and rate have been checked and evaluated by the joint apprenticeship committee. 64. Credit Allowed for Education and Experience All persons now employed as apprentices will be placed under this program. Such apprentices shall be given full credit for the time they have served as apprentices under a written or verbal agreement. Apprentices who receive credit for previous experience shall be paid upon entrance the wage rate of the period to which such credit advances them. (a) Credit of 1 year may be allowed for mechanic arts or other trade school students who have completed a minimum of 2 years in the specific craL or trade QUALIFICATIONS FOR ENTERING APPRENTICESHIP 15 with an average or above rating. The wage rate shall be that of the period to which such credit advances them. (ft) Other employees of the company and new employees who desire to become apprentices and are selected will be allowed credit for the applicable experience they have had after their records have been checked and evaluated by the coordinator of apprentices. The wage rate shall be that of the period to which such credit advances them. 65. Credit Allowance for Previous Experience Equivalent to Training Under Company Program An applicant for trainee program shall be allowed credit on his term of training for that portion of his experience, whether with the company or else where, which is equivalent to any he would have received under his trainee program. 66. Maximum of 2 Years' Credit for Prior Apprenticeship or Experience An apprentice may be credited with apprenticeship served in another plant, or knowledge and experience gained before entering apprenticeship training with the company. However, no apprentice shall be given more than two (2) years’ credit in the apprenticeship training course. Qualifications for Entering Apprenticeship A g e requirements are usually specified for apprentices. Minimum age limits are most commonly 16 or 18 years. Agreements covering plants in more than one State sometimes provide that the minimum age limit be determined by the legal age for employment in the State where the apprentice is employed. A maximum age lim it is also specified by many agreements, especially in trades where a long period o f apprenticeship is required. Completion o f high school (or its equivalent) is the only educational requirement in most cases although some agreements require gradua tion from an accredited vocational school. Physical qualifications are often specified, and less frequently, also citizenship requirements. In some instances, applicants must pass a technical examination or apti tude test before they.are accepted as apprentices. Present employees or sons o f present employees are given preference for apprentice training under the terms o f some agreements. In other cases, the union must approve the would-be apprentice before he enters training. A n increasing number of agreements grant preference to veterans in the selection o f personnel for apprentice training. Agreements specifying age limits sometimes waive or m odify such requirements in the case o f veterans entering apprentice training. 67. Minimum Age Limit Specified Apprentices shall not be employed by the employer, or accepted for membership by the union, unless they are at least 18 years old. 16 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 68. Minimum Age Determined by State Law Apprentices employed by the company shall be in age at least equal to the legal age for employment in the State in which they are employed and not over twenty-three (23) years o f age at the time of starting their apprenticeship. 69. Minimum and Maximum Age Limits Specified No boy shall be engaged as an apprentice before having reached the age of sixteen (16) years or after having reached the age of twenty-one (21) years. 70. Age Requirements Waived for Veterans Apprentice members of the union who have served in the armed forces of the United States Government during the Second World War shall not be subject to the age limits set forth herein and shall be assured an opportunity to resume their former job and training; applicants for apprenticeship training who other wise entered the armed service after September 15, 1941, who are within the prescribed age limits at the time of their entry into the service, and providing such applicants apply for apprenticeship training within six (6) months after discharge. 71. Age Requirements Modified for Veterans An apprentice is employed with the intention o f training him to become a first-class mechanic. He shall not be kept continuously occupied on one class of work but so far as possible shall be used in various occupations. He shall be between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Any applicant for apprenticeship who has served in the United States armed forces and who has been honorably discharged, shall be allowed the length of time served, plus 1 year, in arriving at age limits for apprenticeship. 72. Physical, Educational, and Citizenship Requirements for Apprentices An applicant for apprenticeship should possess the following qualifications: (a) Physical development necessary to enable him to perform all duties of the craft. ( b) Be an American citizen or in the process of naturalization. (c) Sufficient education to master the rudiments of the trade. (Normally this would require high-school education.) 73. Passing Medical Examination a Requirement for Apprenticeship Apprentices, after passing medical examination acceptable to the union, shall be indentured to both parties to this agreement. 74. Applicant for Apprenticeship Must Pass Technical Examination Before entering the trade as an apprentice, applicant shall first be approved by the local union, must pass a technical examination given by the union’s appren tice committee, and undergo a physical examination by a qualified medical exam iner approved by the local union. 75. Applicants Given Aptitude Test by Joint Apprentice Committee All apprentices employed by members of the association shall be selected by the employer from a list of apprentices prepared by the joint apprentice com mittee. Such list shall be kept in duplicate, one copy to be in the office of the union and the other copy in the office of the association. All applicants shall be given an aptitude test under the supervision of the joint apprentice committee before being placed on the list. APPRENTICES— UNION M EM BERSHIP 17 76. Present Employees Given Preference for Apprentice Training All applications for apprenticeship shall be submitted to the local joint appren ticeship committee for approval. Although the employer may select as an appren tice any applicant whose qualifications have been approved by the committee, first preference in hiring shall be given to present employees approved by such committee. 77. Sons of Present Employees Given Preference In hiring apprentices, the employer shall prefer morally and physically fit applicants, eighteen (18) to twenty (20) years of age, with a high school educa tion and vocational machine shop experience, having a residence i n ------ County [State]. All other qualifications being equal, sons of present employees shall have the preference. 78. Apprentices Selected from Employees Having Minimum of 3 Months' Service in Specified Department Apprentices shall be selected from male helpers in the shop who have had not less than 3 months’ service in the weaving department. 79. Veterans Given Preference in Apprenticeship Program World War II veterans who have been discharged (other than dishonorably) will be given preference in this [apprenticeship] program. 80. Employer and Union Act Jointly in Selecting Apprentices The selection of apprentices shall be by the joint action of the shop committee and the company. 81. Apprentice Must Be Approved hy Union The employer shall have the right to employ not more than one apprentice candler for every three candler journeymen in the employ of the employer, and such apprentices shall be paid in accordance with the wage scale schedule herein above provided. No apprentice shall be employed except upon prior approval of the union. The apprenticeship shall consist of not more than 2 years, upon the conclusion of which they shall be classified as journeymen and shall be compensated in accordance with the above specified wage scale schedule for the type of work on which they are engaged. UNION MEMBERSHIP REQUIREMENTS Requirements governing admission o f apprentices into the union are usually covered in the union’s constitution and bylaws rather than in agreements. Some unions specify that apprentices must join the union as soon as accepted. Others do not admit apprentices until completion o f a probationary period, or on admission to journeyman status. Nearly always, however, apprentices must be registered with the union. 82. Apprentices Must Join Union SO Days A fter Employment An apprentice is a learner beginning service in the industry. Such apprentice shall become a member of the union thirty (30) days after his first employment. Apprentice shaU be considered a regular employee after having passed a pro bationary period of forty-five (45) days after his first employment. 778306°— 48------4 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 18 83. Apprentices to Join Union Within 6 Months Apprentice technicians shall be required to become members of the [union] not later than six (6) months after the beginning of their apprenticeship period. 84. “ Semibeneficial" Union Membership for Apprentices Upon signing of indenture papers by an apprentice, he shall also make ap plication for membership in the [union], as a semibeneficial member and shall pay the same initiation fee and dues as all other semibeneficial members. 85. Apprenticeship Card To Be Obtained From Union I f an apprentice has been employed for a period of 3 months he or she shall apply to the union for an apprenticeship card. 86. Union Given Names of Apprentices The company will keep the union informed of the identity o f apprentices. 87. Union Not to Have Bargaining Rights for Apprentices The apprentices shall annually elect an apprentice committee consisting of three journeymen to make recommendations to the management in connection with the training of apprentices by journeymen in the shop. The apprentice committee and representatives of the management shall meet quarterly for discussion of training problems. Special meeting may be called at any time, either at the request of the apprentice committee or management. The provi sions of this section are not to be construed as granting the union bargaining rights for indentured apprentices. Training on the Job Once an apprentice has acquired skill at some particular process o f the trade he is learning, there may be a tendency to retain him on that job rather than shift him to other types of work. In order to insure that apprentices receive a thorough and well-rounded training, some agreements include an outline of the major processes to be taught and the time to be spent on each. On the other hand, a number o f agreements merely stipulate that apprentices will be shifted peri odically from one type of work to another, or that they will be given every opportunity to learn their trade in all its ramifications. Another type o f provision designed to guarantee proper training specifies that the apprentice will work under the supervision o f a journeyman at all times, or that two apprentices will not be assigned to work as partners. In some cases, union discipline is provided for journeymen who refuse to cooperate in training apprentices. In order that the apprentice as well as the union and management may know what progress he is making, many agreements require pe riodic examinations during the training term and provide for periodic reports by the apprentice’s immediate supervisor. 88. Schedule of Time To Be Spent on Each Process The total term of apprenticeship will be at least four (4) years (not less than 8,000 hours) of reasonably continuous employment and a minimum of 144 hours 19 APPRENTICES— TRAINING ON THE JOB per year of related instruction included. During his apprenticeship, the ap prentice shall receive instruction and experience in the following processes: Hours ________ 334 1— Tool crib______________________________________— 2—Drill press__________________:__________________________ 592 3— Engine lathe----------------------------------------------------------------- 1,500 4— M illing________________________________________________ 1, 500 5— Shaper______________________________________________ 1,000 6— Cylindrical andsurface grinder_________________________ 500 7— Tool cuttergrinder____________________________________ 200 8— Bench________________________________________________ 1,334 9— Planer_______________________________________________ 540 10—Hardening room_________________________________________ 500 Total________________________________________________ 8,000 This schedule shall mean that during the apprentice period the apprentice shall receive the amount of time listed on the various machines, the time to be allotted in accordance with production requirements and training needs. The joint apprenticeship committee may change this schedule to suit a special condition. 89. Miscellaneous Related Work May Be Substituted for Part of Schedule During the term of the apprenticeship, the apprentice shall be given such instruction and experience on the processes and operations herein listed for the trade as is necessary to develop a practical skilled mechanic. The time on any process or operation need not be continuous; due to the diverse nature of shop operations. During the last half of the third year and first half of the fourth year of apprenticeship, approximately 500 hours of the schedule may be used for miscellaneous related work. The apprentice shall perform such other duties in the shop and on the job as are commonly related to apprenticeship. A break-down of the work processes of the toolmaker trade shall be used and followed as nearly as possible to the following: Division of work processes Approximate number hours ( accumulative— need not be consecutive) Tool crib— ----------------------------------------------------------------------300 Heat treating--------------------------------------------------------------------300 Drill press-------------------------------------------------------------------------200 Lathes—all types----------------------------------------------------------------- 1,100 Shaper and planer-------------------------------------------------------------900 Milling machine and jig borer_______________________________1,500 Grinding—all types________________________________________ 1, 500 Lay-out and bench work____________________________________ 2,200 Total__________________________ ____________________ 8,000 90. Operations To Be Studied in Consecutive Order The following system shall cover apprentices who propose to become sandblast operators: First twelve (12 months as an apprentice granite cutter in a grade of work which will be beneficial to him as a sandblast operator. The next four (4) months applied to blowing. Next four (4) months cutting to shape. Next eight (8) months to shaping. Next eight (8) months cutting to blow. 20 APPBENTICES AND LEARNERS 91. Apprentices Periodically Transferred to New Operations In order that apprentices in the baking departments may learn the trade thoroughly, they shall be transferred to a new line of operations at 3-month inter vals until all operations of the trade in such shop have been covered, at which time this process shall be repeated. Apprentices shall not be on duty without supervision and shall not be employed as jobbers. 92. Time Limit on Period that Apprentices May Be Assigned to Any One Type of Work Such apprentices will be given an approximately equal amount of work on all machine, floor, and bench work in the department in which they are employed. To effectively comply with these provisions, apprentices will be changed from one type of work to another at least every 6 months. 93. Apprentices Under General Supervision of Joint Committee and Immediate Supervision of Department Foreman Apprentices shall be under the general direction of the joint apprenticeship committee and under the immediate direction o f the foreman of the department to which they are assigned. The foreman is authorized to move apprentices from one type of work to another in accordance with the predetermined schedule of work training. No apprentice may be retained on one type of work for a period longer than the time schedule for such work unless so authorized in writing by the joint apprenticeship committee. 94. Journeyman to Supervise Apprentices at All Times Apprentices shall be under the supervision of a journeyman at all times. 95. Apprentices Not to Work Together as Partners Two or more apprentices shall not be worked together as partners. 96. Union-Management Pledge of Cooperation in Training Apprentices The employer agrees to cooperate with the union in giving the apprentice the opportunity to learn. 97. Apprenticeship Terminated if Employer Fails to Teach Trade in Proper Manner Any contractor found not teaching the apprentice the trade of carpentering in the proper manner, after due investigation by the joint arbitration board, shall be deprived of said apprentice and shall not be entitled to another boy until the end of the period said apprentice’s papers call for. 98. Refusal to Assist Apprentices in Learning Trade Subjects Journeymen to Union Discipline An apprentice member of this union is considered a pressman under instruction, and is entitled to call on any journeyman member for such assistance as will assist him in properly learning his trade. Journeymen members refusing to give such assistance to an apprentice when requested in a proper manner shall be subject to the laws as conduct unbecoming a member of the union. 99. Apprentice to Receive Annual Report of Eis Progress The foreman and chairman are required to test the ability of all apprentices during each year of their service to determine the fitness of such apprentices for the trade and advancement. The apprentice shall thereupon receive from his foreman a written statement of his qualifications, copies of which the foreman shall file with the union and the joint apprenticeship committee. APPRENTICES— CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 21 100. Immediate Supervisor to Make Monthly Report on Apprentice’s Progress In order to properly coordinate the program, the supervisor of employee services, as training director, shall serve as an apprentice coordinator whose duty it will be to see that each apprentice progresses from one division of work to the next, in accordance with the schedule and job classifications of his trade. The general foreman of the tool room will be responsible for over-all supervision of the apprentice, and he will receive direct supervision from the supervisor or foreman in the tool room. The coordinator of apprentices shall prepare adequate record forms to be filled in by the foreman or journeyman under whom the apprentice receives his instruction and experience. Foremen or journeymen shall make a report at least once a month to the coordinator of apprentices on the work and progress of apprentices under their direction. These reports shall be placed before the coordinator for consideration and such action as may be necessary or called for in the agreement. 101. Progress Reports Made by Joint Committee to Management and Union The joint apprentice training committee shall report to the local management •of the station and to the local union on the progress of the apprentice tech nician^ training. 102. Examinations Required Annually Apprentices may be required to take an examination at the end of each .yearly period. It is further agreed that apprentices shall be retained the full three (3) years, and be given an opportunity to learn the trade thoroughly. Classroom Instruction The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship recommends a minimum o f 144 hours per year o f related classroom instruction, and many trades reflect acceptance o f this principle by incorporating provisions in their agreements requiring related instruction. Some union agree ments outline the subjects to be covered in school. Union bylaws or working rules often require school training even though it is not mentioned in the collective bargaining agreement. Outside instruc tion may be given in schools jointly conducted by employers and unions or by the union alone, or in public vocational schools. Time spent in school is sometimes counted as part o f the total hours o f the apprenticeship period. Some trades, particularly printing, require the apprentice to take correspondence courses prepared by the international union in addi tion to his everyday work in the shop. Apprentices are sometimes disposed to regard classroom instruction as impractical and unnecessary. To curb this tendency, many agree ments provide for discipline, or even termination o f the apprentice ship, in the event o f the apprenticed failure to maintain regular attendance or to make passing grades. Some collective bargaining agreements specify that school hours are considered part o f the regular working day and are to be paid for by the employer. 22 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 103. Minimum of 144 Hours Per Year of Classroom Instruction The term of apprenticeship shall be a minimum of eight thousand (8,000) hours of work and an additional five hundred seventy-six (576) hours o f related technical instruction. The first one thousand (1,000) hours shall be considered a probationary period. During this period annulment of the apprenticeship agreement may be made by either party, but notice of such action shall be given to the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship. The total number of hours assigned to related classroom instruction shall not be less than 144 hours per year, and such time shall not be counted as hours of work as related to the minimum of 8,000 hours required in the term of apprenticeship. 104. Statement of Subjects To Be Covered in Classroom Instruction All apprentices shall be required to attend classroom instruction in subjects related to their trade for a minimum of 144 hours per year during each year of the term of apprenticeship or a total of 576 hours. The schedule of class hours should be for 4 hours per week, 36 weeks per year. This time spent in related instruction shall be classed as hours of work and shall be paid for. In case of failure on the part of any apprentice to fulfill his obligation as to school attendance, the joint apprenticeship committee may cancel his agreement, advising the registration agency of such cancellation. When the related work of the apprentice is not of the calibre necessary to X>roficiency relative to the trade being followed, such deficiency will be called to the attention of the supervisor of personnel by the school authorities carrying on the related work. The classes of related instruction shall be arranged for by the ------ State Education Department in cooperation with the local school authorities and when established shall be under the supervision of the local school authorities. The course content of the related instruction shall be determined by the super visor of personnel under the direction of the joint apprenticeship committee, in conjunction with the ------ State Education Department and the local school authorities. The related classroom instruction shall cover the following subjects: Elementary and Basic Work Blueprint reading (elementary and advanced). Shop sketching. Related trade drawing. Related trade science. Related trade theory. Related trade mathematics. Industrial history and labor problems. Course in safety. Other courses, as necessary. N ote.—The following courses are basic courses. The apprentice will take his major part of instruction in the field of specialization in which he intends to work in the plant with enough basic instruction in the other divisions to give him a general knowledge of those phases o f toolmaking. APPRENTICES— CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 23 Advanced Basic Work Principles of jig and fixture design. Principles of gage design. Principles of cutting tool design. Principles of punch and die design. Lay-out, inspection, and assembly practices. The amount of time to be devoted to each subject and the sequence they are to follow will depend upon the type of work being performed by the apprentice in the plant. It is intended that this classroom instruction shall be so inte grated with the work in the plant that the apprentice and the company shall receive the maximum benefits from such instruction. The school authorities shall be requested to submit once a week, registration and school attendance records of each apprentice to the supervisor of personnel. 105. Apprentice to Attend Vocational School 2 Nights a Week Apprentices shall attend regular vocational school 2 nights per week, one hundred forty-four (144) hours per year. 106. Apprentice to Take Correspondence Course Conducted l)y TJnion Beginning with the second year apprentices shall be enrolled in and complete t h e ------ Course of Lessons in Printing1 before being admitted as journeymen members of the union. During the last year of apprenticeship the apprentice shall be permitted to learn the operation of typesetting and typecasting machines, and must be given opportunity to acquire knowledge of all classes of work on such machines. 107. Time Spent in School Credited as Part of Apprenticeship All apprentices shall be required to attend whatever trade school the joint arbitration board shall make arrangements for them to attend. They shall be given credit for the length of time that they spend in the school, the same as though they were actually working on the job. 108. Failure to Attend School May Terminate Apprenticeship The apprentice shall enroll in and attend classes in subjects related to his trade at Mechanic Arts School for not less than 144 hours per year during his apprenticeship. These courses must be passed with grades satisfactory to Mechanic Arts School. The related classroom instruction shall be under the direction of the Department of Vocational Education, Mechanic Arts School. The coordinator of apprentices shall act in an advisory and consultant capacity in determining subjects to be taught, and in any other problems pertaining to related education of apprentices. In case of failure on the part of the apprentice to fulfill his obligation with respect to school attendance (except in case of sickness or injury) the company shall have the authority to suspend or revoke the agreement with the individual. 109. Monetary Penalty or Suspension for Failure to Attend School Should apprentices fail to attend any session of the school without an excuse that is acceptable to the joint arbitration board, they shall be penalized 1 day’s wages for each session not attended, or ruled off the job for a period of days at the discretion of the joint arbitration board. 1A correspondence course. 24 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 110. Joint Committee May Discipline Apprentices Showing Lack of Interest or Aptitude in Schooling It shall be the duty of the joint apprenticeship committee to arrange for the technical schooling of all apprentices, such schooling to be given the apprentices under competent instructors. The committee shall arrange a definite schedule o f classes and courses of study in applied physics, chemistry, and such other subjects as the committee may deem essential to the proper technical education of the apprentice. Any apprentice habitually absenting himself from his classes, failing to show the proper interest or make the required grades in his studies shall be subject to discipline, suspension, or dismissal at the discretion of the join t apprenticeship committee. 111. Regular Rate Paid for Time Spent in School Instruction The hours of work for apprentices shall be paid for and conform to the stipu lations of the agreement between the company and the union, excepting, however, that hours spent in supplemental school instruction shall be paid for at the regular rate excluding overtime. 112. Paid School Time Not to Exceed 4 Hours Per Week Apprentices shall be paid at their straight hourly rate of pay for time actually spent attending school provided such pay shall not exceed 4 hours per week. 113. Allowance for Meal and Carfare on School Nights Apprentices shall be allowed one dollar ($1) for carfare and supper money on the nights they are required to attend classes, this amount to be paid by the firm giving them employment. Regulations Governing Work B y Apprentices Although provisions governing the type o f work performed by ap prentices are based in part on consideration of public safety, quality o f product, and job security o f the journeyman, the principal objective is to assure that the apprentice is trained in all aspects o f the work under a journeyman’s supervision. Some agreements permit the apprentice to do any work assigned to him by a journeyman or foreman. Others do not allow apprentices to perform juorneymen’s work except in emergencies; or apprentices may not be permitted to do any work for which a journeyman is re quired by law to assume responsibility. Other agreements do not allow the apprentice to do any work outside the shop unless accom panied by a journeyman, so as to insure direct training and super vision; still others do not permit the apprentice to work alone until his last, or next to last, year of training. A type o f restriction designed to insure an adequate amount o f work for journeymen stipulates that apprentices will not be permitted to work if journeymen are averaging less than a specified number o f hours per week. 114. Apprentice to Do Any Work Assigned by Journeyman or Foremen Any apprentice may do any work assigned to him by a mechanic or a foreman. APPRENTICES— ADMISSION TO JOURNEYMEN STATUS 25 115. Apprentice Not to Work Outside Shop Unless Accompanied by Journeyman No apprentice will be allowed to work outside the shop unless accompanied by a journeyman until the completion of his second year of apprenticeship. 116. Apprentice Not To Be Assigned Work for Which Journeyman Is Required to Assume Responsibility Apprentice mechanics may be assigned to productive work, but shall not be assigned to work for which there is a governmental requirement that such work be signed for by a mechanic, except when such assignment is under the super vision of a mechanic qualified to sign for such work. 117. Experienced Apprentices May Perform Journeyman's Work Only in Special Cases Apprentices shall not perform the work of a journeyman except in a special case and then only the most experienced apprentices shall be assigned to this, work. 118. Solo Work on Specified Job Limited to 4 Hours No apprentice shall work alone on any job except the fourth-year apprentices may work alone on repairs or maintenance, or they may make additions to existing installations not requiring more than four man-hours of labor. 119. Apprentices Not to Work in Any Department Wher e Journeymen Are Working Less Than 40 Hours a Week All journeymen in any department must be working not less than 40 hours per week before apprentices and helpers of same department will be permitted to work. 120. Apprentice Not To Be Assigned to Department Where His Presence Would Bring Average Workweek Below 24 Hours In the apprentice school, the students shall have various prearranged assign ments requiring them to spend a period of time in each of the various divisions of the crafts for which they are apprentices. In no case, however, shall any employee of the above groups be sent on a scheduled assignment into an operation in a department whereby such assign ment would cause the average work hours to be brought below twenty-four (24) per week. Admission to Journeyman Status In many eases agreements do not specify the procedure by which apprentices achieve journeyman status upon completion o f the term. Some agreements state that apprentices automatically become jour neymen at the end o f the training period. Others require the appren tice to pass an oral or written examination or to give a practical demonstration of his ability to perform the job. In some cases, ex perience with his other employers is considered in determining the apprentice’s qualifications for journeyman status. Agreements sometimes stipulate that completion o f apprenticeship does not guarantee a job as journeyman with the company. Other agreements, while they do not guarantee a job, grant qualified appren tices priority over outsiders for any journeyman vacancies which develop. Another method of dealing with the situation created by 26 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS the lack o f a journeyman vacancy when the apprentice completes his term is to grant him a leave o f absence and permit him to take other employment until a vacancy occurs. Some agreements provide for the relaxation o f qualifications for admission to journeyman status during periods o f national emergency. 121. Journeyman Status Automatically Given Upon Completion of Apprenticeship Apprentices having worked 4 years at the trade shall automatically become journeymen and be paid as such. 122. Practical Examination in Other Shops Prerequisite for Journeyman Status It is further understood that apprentices shall work at the trade at least three (3) years, and pass a practical examination in other shops than the one in which they work, before being transferred to a journeyman baker. 123. Allowance for Experience in Determining Admission to Journeyman Status Apprentice mechanics will be advanced to the classification of mechanic pro vided there is a vacancy in that classification upon meeting the qualifications re quired for the job to which they are to be assigned and upon meeting the approval o f the review board, consideration will be given to the employee’s experience both before and since employment by the company. 124. Certificate of Apprenticeship Granted Employees Completing the Program Upon the successful completion of the apprenticeship, under this program, and upon the recommendation of the company, the Federal Committee on Apprentice ship will furnish each apprentice with a certificate o f apprenticeship. The company will likewise furnish each successful apprentice a company certificate. No apprentice shall be granted such certificate until he has complied in all respects with the terms of the agreement. The apprentice will, upon such successful completion, be transferred to a class II toolmaker’s classification. 125. Completion of Apprenticeship Does Not Guarantee Employment as Journey man After satisfactory completion of a four (4) years’ course, and upon the fore man’s recommendation, an apprentice shall receive a certificate or letter to that effect and, if a vacancy exists, receive the classification of first-class mechanic with a group B seniority status. Nothing in this article shall be construed to mean that the company guarantees or promises that upon the satisfactory completion of his 4 year term an apprentice will be employed as a mechanic. 126. Outsiders Not to Fill Journeyman Vacancies If Qualified Apprentices Available No vacancy in the classification of mechanic shall be filled from outside of the company if an apprentice mechanic in the employ of the company is qualified to fill such vacancy. 127. Apprentice May Take Other Employment While on Leave of Absence if No Journeyman Vacancy Exists I f after 90 days from the date an apprentice mechanic becomes eligible for advancement to the position of mechanic and no position is available for him in the classification of mechanic, the apprentice mechanic to be reclassified may take a leave of absence from the company and engage in other employment. APPRENTICES— RATE OF PAY 27 128. Advancement to Journeyman Status During Periods of National Emergency During a period of national emergency, an apprentice may be advanced to the status of a skilled worker if the need is sufficiently great to warrant such ad vancement and if it is found by the committee that he has the ability to handle the work. A worker so advanced shall be required to attain proficiency at the earliest possible opportunity. The committee may require an apprentice awarded such advancement to continue his related instruction until its completion. The registration agency shall be advised of such advancements. Rate of Pay The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship recommends a progres sively increasing scale of wages for the apprentice. The principle of automatic wage progression plans for apprentices is recognized in most union agreements. Such wage progressions may be stated in terms of hourly rates, as a percentage o f the journeyman’s rate, or as a combina tion o f the two. W here an apprentice has previous experience an al lowance is sometimes made for such experience in determining the rate to which he is entitled under a wage progression plan. Occasionally, agreements specify that no wage increase will be given unless the apprentice’s progress is satisfactory. Some agreements state that any general wage increase affecting the regular working force is also applicable to apprentices’ rates. Such a clause is of course unnecessary where apprentices’ rates are expressed as a percentage of journeymen’s rates. Periodic union-management review o f apprentices’ rates are provided by some agreements. Occasionally the apprentice is given a cash bonus or a set o f the tools of his trade upon completion o f the term. 129. Automatic Wage Progression for Apprentices The apprentice rate of wages for the first six ( 6 ) months of apprenticeship shall be the company minimum hiring rate and shall be progressively increased each six ( 6 ) months in equal steps so that upon completion of the four ( 4 ) years' apprenticeship the rate shall be within eight ( 8 ) cents per hour of the maximum of the machinists’s rate range. Wage schedule under wage rates in effect May 1,1945: Per hour 1st 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________$0. 64 2d 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours________________________________ . 71 3d 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ .78 4th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ .85 5th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_____________________ 6th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ .99 7th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ 1.06 8th 6 months or approximately 1,000 hours_______________________________ 1.13 After completion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.19 The company will use its best efforts to give apprentices every reasonable oppor tunity to learn all branches of the trade, and shall not keep them on one machine or job for more than six ( 6 ) months. .92 28 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS Apprentices who are given credit for previous experience shall be paid, upon signing the apprenticeship agreement, the wage rate for the period to which such credit advances them. 130. Automatic Progression Based on Journeyman's Rate Apprentices shall be paid not less than the following percentages of the journey men machinists’ minimum wage rates: Percent 1st 6 months of employment_________________________________52.0 2d 6 months of employment_________________________________ 56. 5 3d 6 months of employment_________________________________60.0 4th 6 months of employment------------------------------------------------- 65.0 5th 6 months of employment_________________________________69.5 6th 6 months of employment_________________________________74.0 7th 6 months of employment--------------------------------------------------82.5 8th 6 months of employment_________________________________91.0 Thereafter journeyman’s rate of pay. 131. Apprentices' Rates Expressed as Percentage of Journeyman's Rate and as Hourly Rate A pprentice R ates : Computed on percentage basis of journeyman machinist’s rate as follows: Per hour 1st 928 hours, 52 percent------------------------------------------$0. 78 . 85 2d 928 hours, 56.5 percent-------------------------------------3d 928 hours, 60 percent___________________________ . 90 4th 928 hours, 65 percent__________________________ . 98 5th 928 hours, 69.5 percent________________________ 1.05 6th 928 hours, 74 percent---------------------------------------- 1.12 7th 928 hours, 82.5 percent------------------------------------- 1. 25 8th 928 hours, 91 percent__________________________ 1.37 132. No Wage Progression if Apprentice's Work Unsatisfactory Hates of pay for apprentices shall be as follows; provided, however, that no apprentice shall receive an increase in pay at the end of any six (6) months’ period unless his progress in shop work is satisfactory: Per hour 1st 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- $0.76 2d 6 months______________________________________ .86 3d 6 months_______________________________________ 1. C O 4th 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- 1.08 5th 6 months______________________________________ 1.13 6th 6 months--------------------------------------------------------- 1.18 7th 6 months______________________________________ 1.27 8th 6 months______________________________________ 1.35 First-class mechanic’s rate thereafter. 133. Allowance for Previous Experience in Determining Apprentice's Wage Rate Apprentices who are given credit for previous experience shall be paid, upon signing the apprenticeship agreement, the wage rate for the period to which such credit advances them. 134. Apprentices to Receive Not Less Than Minimum Common Labor Rate Trade apprentices in any plant of the company shall receive not less than the minimum common labor rate, applicable at that plant, for each hour worked during the first period of the trade apprentice training program. APPRENTICES— HOURS AND OVERTIME 29 135. Starting Rate Equal to Minimum Labor Rate but May Retain Present Rate if Higher The starting rate for apprentices shall be the minimum rate paid to laborers: Provided, however, That, if an employee is selected for apprenticeship who is receiving a higher rate of pay than the minimum labor rate, he may start at the rate he is receiving, if not higher than the metal pourers’ rate, and if he has been working in the plant for a sufficient length of time to have received under the apprentice schedule a rate of pay equal to that currently received under his present classification. Increases shall be granted to apprentices at the end of each 6-month period equal to one-eighth of the difference between his starting rate and the journeyman’s rate, said increases to continue until he has served the necessary term. 136. General Wage Raise Also Applicable to Apprentices All apprentices shall be entitled to any general raise applicable in their respective departments. 137. Rate of Pay to be Negotiated When Apprentice System Reinstated The company and the union agree that upon the reinstatement by the company of an apprentice system of training, the question of remuneration shall be the subject of negotiation between the company and the union. 138. Apprentices’ Rates Subject to Periodic Review by Union and Employer Apprentices’ wage rates are to be increased at least twenty percent (20% > every 6 months, and are to be reviewed every 6 months by the secretary-business manager of the union and the employer. 139. Cash Bonus Upon Completion of Apprenticeship Upon completion of a 4 years’ course (or its equivalent) an apprentice shall receive a certificate from the company to that effect and a bonus of $100. 140. Tools of the Trade Given Apprentice Upon Completion of Term The company will furnish the apprentice with a kit of tools applicable to the trade of toolmaker (list attached). Upon satisfactory completion of the term of apprenticeship, these tools will become the property of the apprentice. Hours and Overtime The workday and the workweek for apprentices are usually the same as for journeymen. However, apprentices are often prohibited from working overtime or on night shifts. Such prohibitions may be in tended to protect both the job security o f journeymen and the health o f young apprentices. A lso, the apprentice is likely to get better training on the regular day shift than on night shifts or during over time hours. Overtime is sometimes permitted in emergencies or in cases where journeymen also work overtime. 141. Hours and Overtime Provisions Same for Apprentices as for Journeymen Apprentices shall work the same hours and be subject to the same conditions regarding overtime as the skilled workers in their trade who are employed by the company. 142. Prohibition of Overtime Work Apprentices shall not be allowed on the night shift or in any branch where a journeyman is not employed. They shall not be permitted to work overtime. 30 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 143. No Overtime for Apprentices Unless Regular Employees Also Work Overtime No apprentice in his probationary period shall work when any regular employee in his department, if performing the same work, is laid off. No such apprentice shall work overtime in his department unless all of the regular employees in said department performing his work also work overtime. 144. No Overtime Except in Emergencies Apprentices shall not be permitted to work overtime, except in emergencies, and will not be assigned to night shifts except in furtherance of their training while they are training at a line service station, and at a maintenance base only when approved by the local joint apprenticeship committee. 145. No Overtime Unless Apprentice-Journeyman Ratio Maintained No apprentice shall be employed on overtime work in an office unless the number o f journeymen on the same shift equals ratio prescribed in the local scale; at no time shall any apprentice have charge of a department. 146. No Overtime by Apprentices Under 18; Ratio To Be Maintained In no instances shall an apprentice be allowed to work overtime unless he is 18 years of age and then only when one or more of the regular force other than the foreman shall be so employed. The ratio of one to eight shall be maintained for all overtime. 147. No Overtime Unless Journeymen in Department Approve and Apprentice Has Served 4 Nears An apprentice shall not work overtime except in an emergency, and then only with the approval of the journeymen in the department to which he is indentured, and further, such apprentice shall have served 4 years of his apprenticeship. 148. Apprentice to Work Only the Day Shift An apprentice shall work only the day shift so as to enable him to get the maximum training. Seniority Status One important problem is that of establishing the apprentice’s seniority in relation to journeymen, once he completes his term and becomes a full-fledged member o f the working force. Agreements handle the problem in various w a y s: In some cases full seniority credit as a journeyman is given for time spent in apprenticeship; in others, the apprentice receives partial seniority credit, usually equal to oneh alf the total apprenticeship period; and, in still others, no seniority credit is given for the apprenticeship period. Some agreements merely state that apprentices attaining journeyman status will have no seni ority rights over journeymen already on the seniority list. In some cases, separate seniority lists are kept for apprentices and, when journeyman vacancies occur, qualified apprentices may be pro moted on the basis o f seniority. Agreements sometimes outline special procedures to enable the apprentice to establish seniority rights if he graduates from appren ticeship when no journeyman vacancies exist. For example, he may be permitted to work one day as a journeyman in order to establish APPRENTICES— SENIORITY STATUS 31 seniority, so that if the company calls him to work at some future time, he receives seniority credit as a journeyman for the period o f lay-off. 149. Seniority Credit for Time Spent in Apprenticeship When apprentices are removed from the apprenticeship course for any reason, including graduation, and given other employment in the plant, they shall be given credit for the time they have spent in the apprenticeship course for seniority purposes. 150. Seniority Credit for Military Service Given Veteran Upon Completion of Apprenticeship A returned veteran apprentice shall, upon completion of apprenticeship, be given seniority as a journeyman of 2 years plus the length of his service in the armed forces. 151. Apprentice Given 2 Years' Seniority Credit on Graduation Upon completion of indenture, apprentices shall be given two (2) years of seniority and be classified within the grade covering their particular job. 152. Apprentice Given 1 Year's Seniority Credit on Graduation When an apprentice receives a completion certificate, upon satisfactory com pletion of the apprenticeship program, he shall be made a journeyman and given 1 year’s seniority in his craft. 153. No Accumulation of Seniority During Apprenticeship An apprentice does not accumulate any seniority while serving his time. 154. Seniority Rights Begin When Apprenticeship Ends At the end of the third such period, such apprentice technician shall become a regular technician, and his seniority rights shall commence with the end of his apprenticeship. 155. Separate Seniority List for Apprentices Seniority lists will be kept separate between regular tool room operators and machine repair operators and apprentices. 156. Apprentice Attaining Journeyman Status Has No Seniority Rights Over Present Journeymen Apprentices who are transferred to the journeyman classification shall retain no seniority rights over any journeyman listed on the seniority list at the time of such transfer. 157. Procedure for Establishing Seniority as a Journeyman When No Opening Exists Upon completion of apprenticeship, if no opening exists in the mechanic’s classi fication, he will be permitted to work one (1) day as a mechanic at the mechanic’s minimum rate of pay to establish his system seniority as a mechanic, and will then be furloughed and classified as “waiting.” Thereafter his bid for any vacancy that may be bulletined on the system will be given the same considera tion as any other bid from a mechanic and his first permanent assignment will establish his “point seniority.” 158. Promotions on Basis of Seniority When openings occur, mechanical helpers and mechanical apprentices will be promoted, if qualified, to more skilled jobs in the mechanical department on basis of seniority. 32 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS Continuous Employment; Lay-off and Reemployment The proper training of apprentices requires steady employment, and some agreements assure apprentices continuous employment dur ing their entire apprenticeship or for a stated portion thereof. Since steady employment is not always possible, many agreements have provisions governing the lay-off and recall of apprentices. The most common provision is the maintenance o f the ratio o f apprentices to journeymen in lay-offs and reemployment. Some agreements require that apprentices be laid off in order of seniority, while others require the consideration of both seniority and ratio in lay-offs. Some agree ments permit the abandonment of ratio requirements during periods o f lay-off, i. e., all apprentices are laid off before any journeymen. Rehires are usually in the reverse order of lay-offs, and some agree ments further stipulate that laid-off apprentices will be reliired before any new apprentices are employed. In a few cases, the State or Federal apprenticeship committee or other registration agency must be notified o f lay-offs and reinstate ments of apprentices. 159. Apprentice Furnished 52 Weeks1 Work Per Year It is mutually agreed and understood that the employer shall furnish work for the apprentice 52 weeks per year. In the case apprentice does not report for work the contractor is not obligated to pay him for the day he so absented himself. 160. Apprentice to Receive Continuous Employment During First 3 Years; 25 Percent of Wages Paid During Lay-offs The employer agrees to employ such apprentices continuously for the first 3 years. Apprentices may be laid off during dull periods, but in such cases apprentices shall receive 25 percent of their wages as per this agreement. 161. Employment Regularized by Granting Priority for Apprentice Vacancies in Other Shops Apprentices must be regularly employed. If an apprentice is laid off to reduce the force, or for other reasons beyond his control, he shall be given the oppor tunity to accept the next vacancy in any office party to the contract with such standing as may be determined by the joint apprenticeship committee. 162. Lay-off of Apprentices in Proportion to Lay-off of Journeymen When the number of class I and II toolmakers is reduced in employment, a corresponding ratio of apprentices shall also be reduced. 163. Lay-off and Recall Based on Seniority The company intends and expects to give the apprentice steady employment, but reserves the right to lay off or to curtail his working hours whenever business conditions make this course necessary. Apprentices with the least amount of service with the company will be laid off first, and rehires will be made in reverse order. 164. Both Seniority and Ratio Considered in Laying Off Apprentices Seniority for apprentices shall be as follow s: During his apprenticeship, that apprentice shall be laid off and rehired in accordance to ratio and his appren APPRENTICES— DISCHARGES AND QUITS 33 ticeship seniority. During his apprenticeship period, the apprentice shall retain his shop seniority in his former classification. After completion of his appren ticeship, the apprentices shall have the seniority to his credit earned as an apprentice. 165. Apprentices Laid Off Before Journeymen and Before Reduction of Workweek In the reduction of the working force, apprentices will be laid off before the regular tool room operators and machine repair operators on the seniority list and before any reduction of the hours of work. 166. No New Apprentices Employed Until Laid-Off Apprentices Reinstated No additional apprentices will be employed until those laid off have been re turned to work under this program. 167. Apprentices Exempt From Seniority Provisions All apprentices shall be exempt from the seniority provisions of this agree ment. The hiring, lay-off, and discharge of apprentices shall be within the discretion of the company. An apprentice, at the completion of his contract, shall Rave seniority in any group in which he has worked, based upon his company length of service. The designation of such group shall be at the direction of the company. 168. Apprentices May Not Replace Regular Employees During Lay-off Apprentices shall not be used to replace employees with seniority when re ductions in force are necessary. 169. Registration Agency Must Be Notified of Lay-offs and Reinstatements Whenever the number of skilled workers employed in the plant is reduced for any reason, there shall be a corresponding reduction in the number of ap prentices employed in the trade. The principle of seniority as stated in the “ agreement” shall be followed in making any such reduction. If any apprentice is temporarily laid off because of business conditions, he shall be reinstated before any additional apprentices are employed in the same trade. The registration agency shall be notified of such lay-offs and reinstatements. Discharges and Quits The first few months of the apprenticeship term are usually con sidered a probationary period during which the employer (or the joint apprenticeship committees) may determine the apprentice’s ability to learn the trade. Probationary periods o f 3 to 6 months are frequently specified by union agreements. In most cases, apprentices may be discharged during the probationary period without recourse to the grievance procedure. A fte r completing probation, however, apprentices are usually protected from summary discharge by the same rules tin t govern the discharge of journeymen. But when an apprentice fails to make satisfactory progress, the employer can terminate the apprenticeship, subject to the right o f the apprentice to appeal to the union or to the joint apprenticeship committee. Under the terms of some agreements, the employer forfeits the right to replace an apprentice discharged without the consent o f the joint apprenticeship committee. 34 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS Training apprentices represents an investment in time and money which is lost to the employer if the apprentice quits before com pleting his term. F or this reason, many agreements penalize the apprentice if he quits during the term of his apprenticeship. U sually, permission o f both employer and union must be obtained; and apprentices quitting without permission are often prohibited from completing their apprenticeship in any other shop under the juris diction of the union. However, in cases where the employer proves unable to provide proper training, the apprentice may be transferred to another employer. 170. Discharge During Prohationary Period Not Subject to Review The employment of an apprentice for the first four full consecutive weeks shall be deemed a trial period and therefore the lay-off or discharge of such apprentice during this period shall not be subject to review. At the end o f four full consecutive weeks, if such worker is retained for further employment, he or she shall join the union immediately and be entitled to all benefits and privileges of this agreement. 171. Joint Committee May Terminate Apprenticeship During Probationary Period The first 1,000 hours or approximately 6 months of employment for every apprentice, after signing an apprenticeship agreement, shall be a probationary period. During this probationary period the agreement may be canceled by the joint apprenticeship committee. After the probationary period the appren ticeship agreement may be canceled upon written request of both parties thereto or upon adequate cause being shown by either party and with the approval o f the joint apprenticeship committee. The registration agency shall be advised of all such cane dlations. 172. Apprentice or Employer May Terminate Apprenticeship During Proba tionary Period Should any apprentice during the first 6 months of his apprenticeship, in the opinion of the company, prove unfit for learning the proposed trade, he may be dismissed at any time during that period without previous notice and such dismissal shall not be questioned by the union. After the first 6-month period, he may only be dismissed from the company for just and proper cause. In the event that the apprentice, during the first 6 months of his employment, feels that he is unqualified for the work, and desires to be released, the company, upon written request, shall release him from his apprenticeship agreement and give him employment in such other classification as he may desire to work, pro vided the company then has a position open for him in that classification and provided, in the company’s opinion, he is qualified to perform such work. 173. Foreman or Department Head May Discharge Apprentice for Just Cause The foreman or head of department of any apprentice may discharge any apprentice for lack of skill, ill health, or lack of application and interest in his work and the work of the company, or any other just and proper cause. 174. Periodic Examinations to Determine Whether Apprenticeship Should B e Terminated An examination of apprentices shall be given by the coordinator of apprentices before each period of advancement or at such other times as may be determined. In these examinations, consideration shall be given to school attendance, progress in school and in the shop, and daily employment records of the apprentice. APPRENTICES— DISCHARGES AND QUITS 35 If the coordinator of apprentices finds that an apprentice shows a lack of interest or does not have the ability to become a competent mechanic, he may request that the apprentice be removed from the program. The Federal Com mittee on Apprenticeship will be advised on all terminations and the reason therefor. 175. No Discharge Without Investigation by Joint Committee Offices employing apprentices are not allowed to discharge an apprentice with out a full investigation and consideration by the joint standing committee. 176. Union To Be Notified Before Apprenticeship Terminated Such apprentices shall be on a trial period for three (3) months, during which time they may be discharged by the company, upon notice to the union, if found incompetent. 177. Restriction on Replacement of Apprentice Discharged Without Consent of Joint Committee Should an employer discharge an apprentice without the consent of the joint apprenticeship committee, he shall forfeit all rights to replace the discharged apprentice until after the expiration of the term of said apprentice. 178. No Lay-off or Quit Without Mutual Consent of Employer and Union After a probationary period of 500 hours, no apprentice shall be laid off or permitted to leave his employment except by mutual consent of the employer and the union. 179. Apprentice Quitting Without Permission May Not Complete Apprenticeship in Any Shop Under the Union's Jurisdiction Should an apprentice leave his position without the consent of the joint appren ticeship committee, he shall forfeit all rights to finish his apprenticeship in any foundry within the jurisdiction of the [union] until after his term has expired. 180. Apprentice Transferred if Employer Unable To Fulfill His Obligations If the company is unable to fulfill its obligations under the apprenticeship agreement, the company may transfer the apprentice to another employer. The registration agency shall be advised of all such transfers. 181. Apprentice Not To Transfer to Another Employer Without Permission of Union and Present Employer No apprentice shall be permitted to leave one shop to work in another during the term of his apprenticeship, except with the consent of the society and the employer. LEARNERS The term “learner” is generally used in occupations for which new and inexperienced workers are ordinarily trained directly upon hiring into the establishment. The term is usually applied to persons learn ing jobs which do not require form al apprenticeship training. Learners differ from apprentices in that their trade or occupation requires a lesser degree of skill and therefore a shorter period of train ing. Moreover, in the case o f learners, there is no apprenticeship agreement to bind the worker and no corresponding responsibility on the part of the employer or the union to provide training. Few union agreements refer to learners except with regard to length o f learning period and wage rates. The length o f the learning period depends on the complexity of the operation, and may vary from a few weeks to a year or more. In some cases, the learning period may be shortened if justified by the learner’s progress. During their training period, learners are usually paid at a rate lower than the minimum rate for the regular working force, although a few agreements prohibit wage differentials for learners. Graduated wage scales are sometimes provided, i. e., wage increases are given at specified intervals until the minimum or job rate for regular employees is reached. Learners employed in interstate commerce or producing goods for interstate commerce may not be paid at rates below the minimum rates established by the Fair Labor Standards A c t unless special permission is obtained from the W age and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor. 182. Necessity for Learners and Conditions of Employment Subject to Negotia tion (Arbitration invoked if parties unable to agree.) Before learners are employed, the matter shall be taken up by the employer with the union, and if the parties do not agree as to whether they are necessary and the conditions of their employment, the matter shall be arbitrated as above provided. 183. Learners Hired Only When No Trained Workers Available The company may employ learners or short-term apprentices on a basis mutually satisfactory to the company and the union. Learners may be employed only when no trained operators are available on the departmental seniority lists. 36 LEARNERS 37 184. Learning Period of 9 Months The term “learner,” as used in this agreement, constitutes one of the unskilled employees of the employer covered by the appropriate bargaining unit, who is engaged in learning a single operation not requiring knowledge of, nor skill in, other operations. A learner may become a regular employee after satisfactorily serving the employer as a learner for a period of not less than nine (9) months. 185. Foreman May Shorten the Learning Period The maximum learning period for beginners and learners in the job classifi cations of sewer, patcher, hemmer, blower, turner, sorter, and trimmer shall be 480 working hours, providing that the learning period may be shortened if the employee in the judgment of the foreman and other supervisory employees has learned the job sufficiently to be transferred to the particular job classification. The rates of pay for learners and beginners are as set forth in Schedule “A” attached hereto. 186. Graduated Wage Scale for Learners A learner is an employee who has worked less than two hundred forty hours or less than 6 weeks on the job. The rate per hour of a learner on employment shall be 60 cents which shall be increased after 2 weeks to 65 cents; after 4 weeks to 70 cents and after 6 weeks to 75 cents. 187. Time Limits on Progression From Hiring Rate to Basic Rate Beginners’ (or learners’ ) rates applicable to women’s jobs must comply with the following conditions: (a) The total period between the time of employment and the attainment of the basic rate of ninety and one-half (90y2) cents shall not exceed six (6) months. (b) The period of any step rate between the rate at time of employment and the basic rate of ninety and one-half (9 0 ^ ) cents shall not exceed two (2) months. (c) There shall not be over seven and one-half (7y2) cents spread between the hiring rate and the basic rate of ninety and one-half (9 0 ^ ) cents. 188. Starting and Minimum Rates Specified The starting rate for new inexperienced employees shall be fifty (50) cents per hour for the first six (6) weeks of employment, and fifty-five (55) cents per hour thereafter, as a minimum rate. 189. Learner to R °ceive Rate Provided by Law Learners are defined as those persons who have had no adequate previous experience. The learning period shall be four (4) weeks, and learners shall receive as their regular rate of compensation the rate provided by law. 190. No Wage Differential for Learners The company shall not permit anyone to work around the plant as learners or in any other capacity unless they receive the established rate of pay for the type of work they are performing. 191. Minimum Weekly Earnings for Learners Learners who have served an apprenticeship of less than 6 weeks shall re ceive earnings of not less than $26 per week of 40 hours. After 6 weeks, they shall receive at least the established minimum. 38 APPRENTICES AND LEARNERS 192. Minimum Hourly Rate for Learners on Piecework Occupations The minimum wages of learners for piecework operations based on a work week of 40 hours shall be as follow s: Hourly rate First 6 weeks of employment---------------------------------- $0. 50 Second 6 weeks of employment____________________ . 53 Thereafter _______________________________________ . 56 193. Piece-Rate Earnings or Learner Rate, Whichever is Greater Learners placed on piece or incentive rate jobs during the learning period shall be paid their piece or incentive rate earnings of the learner rate provided for in this section, whichever is greater. I ndex APPRENTICES Establishment and administration of apprenticeship program: Clause P age (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 I> 00 00 00 00 00 39 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I> Program to be established within specified period of time_____ Program to be established when conditions are favorable______ Program to be established on association-wide basis__________ Apprentice program at option of local management and union. Apprentice program to emphasize training of veterans________ Apprentice and refresher training program for veterans_______ Apprentice program incorporated in agreement by reference_ _ Apprentice program formulated by joint committee__________ Composition and jurisdiction of joint apprenticeship committee. Joint committee composed of two union representatives and one company representative.______________________________ (11) Federal Committee on Apprenticeship consulted in establishing program__________________________________________________ (12) Program to incorporate Federal apprenticeship standards_____ (13) Standards to conform with those of Federal Committee on Apprenticeship____________________________________________ (14) Union, State, and Federal apprenticeship standards incorpo rated in agreement_____________ (15) Apprenticeship rules adopted by employer must not conflict with union agreement_____________________________________ (16) Apprentice agreement not to violate terms of collective bargaining agreement_____________________________________ (17) Differences regarding program adjusted through grievance procedure_________________________________________________ (18) Grievances regarding apprentices decided by joint apprentice ship committee___________________________________________ (19) Grievances may be appealed to State apprenticeship agency_ _ (20) Modification of program may be negotiated at any time______ (21) Representatives of union and employers’ association to have access to apprentice records_______________________________ Apprenticeship indenture: (22) Definition and content of apprenticeship agreement__________ (23) Standards of apprenticeship incorporated by reference in indenture agreement______________________________________ (24) Indenture agreement and training to comply with Federal apprenticeship standards__________________________________ (25) Parent or guardian to sign indenture agreement if apprentice a minor___________________________________________________ (26) No apprentice hired unless covered by indenture agreem ent... (27) Apprentices indentured to both employer and union---------------(28) No alteration of agreement without consent of apprentice------- 40 INDEX Determining the number of apprentices: Clause (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) Length of (57) (58) (59) (60) (61) (62) (63) (64) Number of apprentices specified_____________________________ Ratio of one apprentice to three journeymen_________________ One for every 10 or major fraction thereof____________________ One apprentice for each five journeymen “ employed regularly” _____________________________________________________ Minimum of one apprentice, regardless of ratio_______________ Employment of apprentice compulsory provided three journey men employed____________________________________________ One-to-four ratio, with maximum specified___________________ One apprentice to each shift_________________________________ Minimum of one apprentice for each apprenticeable trade_____ Number of apprentices limited by average number of journey men employed____________________________________________ Variable ratio: Proportion of apprentices decreases as number of journeymen increases___________________________________ Variable ratio: Proportion of apprentices increases as number of journeymen increases___________________________________ More liberal ratio for smaller departments____________________ Ratio varies according to type of work_______________________ Apprentices banned in shops with less than three employees_ _ Change in ratio must be discussed with union________________ Ratio to be revised periodically______________________________ Ratio modified if union constitution liberalized on number of apprentices_______________________________________________ Ratio requirement waived in order to reemploy former ap prentices returning from military service___________________ Ra io waived for sons*of employer or journeymen____________ No apprentices indentured if journeymen unemployed________ Apprentices entering military service not replaced by new apprentices_______________________________________________ Employer not entitled to train apprentice unless he employs at least five men for 6 months in 1 year_ ___________________ Employer must have been in business at least 2 years before employing apprentices_____________________________________ Apprentice not to be employed where he has no fair oppor tunity to learn trade______________________________________ No apprentice indentured during life of contract______________ No apprentice indentured during life of contract except by union-employer agreement-------------------------------------------------New apprentices selected from unemployed apprentices sub ject to employer’s option to select from present employees . » apprenticeship period: Four-year apprenticeship____________________________________ Four-year term with minimum number of hours specified_____ Term stated in hours________________________________________ No credit given for any year in which apprentice fails to qualify for annual wage increase___________________________________ Employer may reduce the apprenticeship period______________ Joint apprenticeship committee may shorten training period__ Credit allowed for previous apprenticeship or work experience. Credit allowed for education and experience__________________ Page 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 INDEX 41 Length of apprenticeship period—Continued Clause P age (65) Credit allowance for previous experience equivalent to training under company program_ ___________________ ____________ _ (66) Maximum of 2 years’ credit for prior apprenticeship or ex perience__________________________________________________ Qualifications for entering apprenticeship: (67) Minimum age limit specified—________________________________ (68) Minimum age determined by State law---------------------------------(69) Minimum and maximum age limits specified__________________ (70) Age requirements waived for veterans_________ (71) Age requirements modified for veterans______________________ (72) Physical, educational, and citizenship requirements for ap prentices__________________________________________________ (73) Passing medical examination a requirement for apprenticeship. (74) Applicant for apprenticeship must pass technical examination. (75) Applicants given aptitude test by joint apprentice committee. (76) Present employees given preference for apprentice training._ _ (77) Sons of present employees given preference___________________ (78) Apprentices selected from employees having minimum of 3 months’ service in specified department____________________ (79) Veterans given preference in apprenticeship program_________ (80) Employer and union act jointly in selecting apprentices_______ (81) Apprentice must be approved by union______________________ Union membership requirements: (82) Apprentices must join union 30 days after employment*_______ (83) Apprentices to join union within 6 months___________________ (84) “ Semibenefieial” union membership for apprentices___________ (85) Apprenticeship card to be obtained from union_______________ (86) Union given names of apprentices____________________________ (87) Union not to have bargaining rights for apprentices__________ Training on the job: (88) Schedule of time to be spent on each process__________________ (89) Miscellaneous related work may be substituted for part of schedule__________________________________________________ (90) Operations to be studied in consecutive order_________________ (91) Apprentices periodically transferred to new operations________ (92) Time limit on period that apprentices may be assigned to any one type of work_____________________________________ (93) Apprentices under general supervision of joint committee and immediate supervision of department foreman______________ (94) Journeyman to supervise apprentices at all tim6s_____________ (95) Apprentices not to work together as partners_________________ (96) Union-management pledge of cooperation in training appren tices__________________________ (97) Apprenticeship terminated if employer fails to teach trade in proper manner____________________________________________ (98) Refusal to assist apprentices in learning trade subjects journey men to union discipline____________________________________ (99) Apprentice to receive annual report of his progress___________ (100) Immediate supervisor to make monthly report on apprentice’s progress__________________________________________________ 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 42 INDEX Training on the job— Continued Clause (101) Progress reports made by joint committee to management and union_____________________________________________________ (102) Examinations required annually_____________________________ Classroom instruction: (103) Minimum of 144 hours per year of classroom instruction______ (104) Statement of subjects to be covered in classroom instruction. _ (105) Apprentice to attend vocational school 2 nights a week________ (106) Apprentice to take correspondence course conducted by union. _ (107) Time spent in school credited as part of apprenticeship_______ (108) Failure to attend school may terminate apprenticeship________ (109) Monetary penalty or suspension for failure to attend school___ (110) Joint committee may discipline apprentices showing lack of interest or aptitude in schooling____________________________ (111) Regular rate paid for time spent in school instruction__________ (112) Paid school time not to exceed 4 hours per week______________ (113) Allowance for meal and carfare on school nights______________ Regulations governing work by apprentices: (114) Apprentice to do any work assigned by journeyman or foreman. (115) Apprentice not to work outside shop unless accompanied by jour neyman___________________________________________________ (116) Apprentice not to be assigned work for which journeyman is re quired to assume responsibility____________________________ (117) Experienced apprentices may perform journeyman’s work only in special cases____________________________________________ (118) Solo work on specified job limited to 4 hours-------------------------(119) Apprentices not to work in any department where journeymen are working less than 40 hours a week_____________________ (120) Apprentice not to be assigned to department where his presence would bring average workweek below 24 hours_____________ Admission to journeyman status: (121) Journeyman status automatically given upon completion of apprenticeship____________________________________________ (122) Practical examination in other shops prerequisite for journey man status________________________________________________ (123) Allowance for experience in determining admission to journey man status________________________________________________ (124) Certificate of apprenticeship granted employees completing the program______________________________________________ (125) Completion of apprenticeship does not guarantee employment as journeyman____________________________________________ (126) Outsiders not to fill journeyman vacancies if qualified appren tices available_____________________________________________ (127) Apprentice may take other employment while on leave of absence if no journeyman vacancy exists___________________ (128) Advancement to journeyman status during periods of national emergency________________________________________________ Rate of pay: (129) Automatic wage progression for apprentices__________________ (130) Automatic progression based onjourneyman’s rate____________ (131) Apprentices’ rates expressed as percentage of journeyman’s rate and as hourly rate_________________________________________ P age 21 21 22 22 26 23 23 23 26 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 26* 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 INDEX 43 Rate of pay—Continued Clause (132) No wage progression if apprentice's work unsatisfactory______ (133) Allowance for previous experience in determining apprentice's wage rate________________________________________________ (134) Apprentices to receive not less than minimum common labor rate______________________________________________________ (135) Starting rate equal to minimum labor rate but may retain present rate if higher______________________________________ (136) General wage raise also applicable to apprentices_____________ (137) Rate of pay to be negotiated when apprentice system rein stated_________ (138) Apprentices' rates subject to periodic review by union and employer_________________________________________________ (139) Cash bonus upon completion of apprenticeship_______________ (140) Tools of the trade given apprentice upon completion of term__ Hours and overtime: (141) Hours and overtime provisions same for apprentices as for j ourney men_______________________________________________ (142) Prohibition of overtime work________________________________ (143) No overtime for apprentices unless regular employees also work overtime--------------------------------------(144) No overtime except in emergencies___________________________ (145) No overtime unless apprentice-j ourney man ratio maintained-. (146) No overtime by apprentices under 18; ratio to be maintained-. (147) No overtime unless journeymen in department approve and apprentice has served 4 years______________________________ (148) Apprentice to work only the day shift-----------------------------------Seniority status: (149) Seniority credit for time spent in apprenticeship______________ (150) Seniority credit for military service given veteran upon com pletion of apprenticeship__________________________________ (151) Apprentice given 2 years' seniority credit on graduation______ (152) Apprentice given 1 year's seniority credit on graduation______ (153) No accumulation of seniority during apprenticeship___________ (154) Seniority rights begin when apprenticeship ends______________ (155) Separate seniority list for apprentices________________________ (156) Apprentice attaining journeyman status has no seniority rights over present journeymen__________________________________ (157) Procedure for establishing seniority as a journeyman when no opening exists_____________________________________________ (158) Promotions on basis of seniority_____________________________ Continuous employment; lay-off and reemployment: (159) Apprentice furnished 52 weeks' work per year________________ (160) Apprentice to receive continuous employment during first 3 years; 25 percent of wages paid during lay-offs_____________ (161) Employment regularized by granting priority for apprentice vacancies in other shops___________________________________ (162) Lay-off of apprentices in proportion to lay-off of journeymen. _ (163) Lay-off and recall based on seniority_________________________ (164) Both seniority and ratio considered in laying off apprentices_ _ (165) Apprentices laid off before journeymen and before reduction of workweek______________________________________________ Page 28 28 28 29s 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 38 Continuous employment; lay-off and reemployment— Continued Page Clause (166) No new apprentices employed until laid-off apprentices rein stated____________________________________________________ (167) Apprentices exempt from seniority provisions_________________ (168) Apprentices may not replace regular employees during lay-off, _ (169) Registration agency must be notified of lay-offs and reinstate ments____________________________________________________ Discharges and quits: (170) Discharge during probationary period not subject to review___ (171) Joint committee may terminate apprenticeship during proba tionary period____________________________________________ (172) Apprentice or employer may terminate apprenticeship during probationary period_______________________________________ (173) Foreman or department head may discharge apprentice for just cause______________________________________________ ^_____ (174) Periodic examinations to determine whether apprenticeship should be terminated______________________________________ (175) No discharge without investigation by joint committee_______ (176) Union to be notified before apprenticeship terminated________ (177) Restriction on replacement of apprentice discharged without consent of joint committee________________________________ (178) No lay-off or quit without mutual consent of employer and union_____________________________________________________ (179) Apprentice quitting without permission may not complete ap prenticeship in any shop under the unions jurisdiction_____ (180) Apprentice transferred if employer unable to fulfill his obliga tions______________________________________________________ (181) Apprentice not to transfer to another employer without per mission of union and present employer____________________ 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 LEARNERS Learners: (182) Necessity for learners and conditions of employment subject to negotiation_____________________________________________ (183) Learners hired only when no trained workers available________ (184) Learning period of 9 months_________________________________ (185) Foreman may shorten the learning period____________________ (186) Graduated wage scale for learners____________________________ (187) Time limits on progression from hiring rate to basic rate______ (188) Starting and minimum rates specified________________________ (189) Learner to receive rate provided by law______________________ (190) No wage differential for learners___________________________ (191) Minimum weekty earnings for learners________ (192) Minimum hourly rate for learners on piecework occupations., (193) Piece-rate earnings or learner rate, whichever is greater----------- V. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 4 8 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38